Science.gov

Sample records for cactus moth cactoblastis

  1. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF THE CACTUS MOTH, CACTOBLASTIS CACTORUM IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field populations of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum were surveyed weekly beginning in July 2006. We sampled the native cactus, Opuntia stricta visually to determine the densities and development of immature stages. Adult males were collected using a synthetic pheromone and a sticky wing trap...

  2. Ecology and control of an invasive pest, the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it ...

  3. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  4. Trail Marking by Larvae of the Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Terrence D.; Wolfin, Michael; Rossi, Frank; Carpenter, James E.; Pescador-Rubio, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to thermoregulate. The study reported here showed that when the caterpillars move en masse, they mark and follow trails that serve to keep the cohort together. Artificial trails prepared from hexane extracts of the caterpillar's paired mandibular glands were readily followed by the caterpillars. The glands are remarkably large, and their fluid contents, which constitute approximately 1% of the total wet mass of a caterpillar, are secreted onto the substrate as they move. Although the caterpillars also lay down copious quantities of silk, the material in itself neither elicits trail following nor is it a requisite component of pathways that elicit trail following. Previous analyses of the mandibular glands of other species of pyralid caterpillars showed that they contain a series of structurally distinct 2-acyl-1,3 cyclohexane diones. Chemical analysis indicates that the glands of C. cactorum contain structurally similar compounds, and bioassays indicate that trail following occurs in response to these chemicals. While the mandibular glands' fluids have been shown to act as semiochemicals, effecting both interspecific and intraspecific behavior in other species of pyralids, the present study is the first to report their use as a trail pheromone. PMID:25373211

  5. Revealing the elusive sex pheromone of the renowned cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae): A tribute to Robert Heath

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), became famous as a biocontrol agent during campaigns in Australia and South Africa to control exotic weedy Opuntia spp. During these campaigns, monitoring the impact and success of the cactus moth did not requir...

  6. Influence of radiation dose on the level of F1 sterility in the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined inherited sterility effects on the F1 and F2 generations of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), in order to identify the dose of gamma radiation that would fully sterilize F1-generation moths, which would result in no viable offspring when F1 males were inbred- or out-crossed ...

  7. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, O.G.; Myers, R.E.; Carpenter, J.E.; Styer, E.L.

    2007-03-15

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release.

  8. Trail marking by the larvae of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) spends most of its larval life feeding within the cladodes of Opuntia cactuses, but the gregarious caterpillars begin their life outside the plant, and in the later instars make intermittent excursions over plant surfaces to access new cladodes and to t...

  9. External morphology of the egg of the native (Melitara prodenialis) and exotic (Cactoblastis cactorum) cactus moths (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphology of the chorionic surface of two pyralids that feed on Opuntia cactus. The chorionic surface of Cactoblastis cactorum has a reticulate pattern due to the ridges on the surface and aeropyles. The surface has a granular appearance at low m...

  10. Extended geographical distribution and host range of the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera Pyralidae)in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field exploration was conducted to confirm the southernmost distribution of Cactoblastis cactorum in Argentina. The distribution of the moth was extended to the south (40° 10´S) and west (66° 56´W). The native Opuntia penicilligera was recorded as a host for the first time. These findings should ...

  11. Performance improvement through quality evaluations of sterile cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), mass-reared at two insectaries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bi-national program was established by Mexico and the United States to mitigate the threat of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an invasive herbivore from South America, to native Opuntia spp. biodiversity and Opuntia-based industries. Mass-rearing, sterilization, and transpo...

  12. 75 FR 41073 - South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 South American Cactus Moth Regulations; Quarantined Areas AGENCY: Animal... are amending the South American cactus moth regulations by adding the State of Louisiana to the list of areas quarantined because of South American cactus moth. As a result of this action,...

  13. Current management efforts against Cactoblastis cactorum as a pest of North American prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unintentional arrival of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to Florida changed the scope of this celebrated weed biological control agent from savior to pest. Based on this insects’ substantial control of non-native Opuntia spp. (prickly pear cactus) in Australia and other parts of ...

  14. Development of cell lines from the cactophagous insect: Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and their susceptibility to three baculoviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The unintentional introduction of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, a successful biological control agent formerly employed in the control of invasive prickly pear cactus species (Opuntia spp.) as a possible threat to native, endangered species of cactus in the southeastern United States as we...

  15. Low-oxygen atmospheric treatment improves the performance of irradiation-sterilized male cactus moths used in SIT.

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, Giancarlo; Carpenter, James E; Hight, Stephen D; Hahn, Daniel A

    2014-02-01

    As part of sterile insect technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target effects of irradiation on male performance while maintaining sterility can improve the feasibility and economy of SIT programs. Exposure to ionizing radiation induces the formation of damaging free radicals in biological systems that may reduce sterile male performance. Here, we test whether exposure to an anoxic environment for 1 h before and during irradiation improves male performance, while maintaining sterility in males of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg). We show that exposure to 1 h of anoxia increases the moth's antioxidant capacity and that irradiation in anoxia after 1 h of anoxic conditioning decreases irradiation-induced oxidative damage to the moth's lipids and proteins. Anoxia treatment that reduced oxidative damage after irradiation also produced moths with greater flight performance, mating success, and longevity, while maintaining F1 male sterility at acceptable levels for SIT. We conclude that anoxia pretreatment followed by irradiation in anoxia is an efficient way to improve the quality of irradiated moths and perhaps lower the number of moths needed for release SIT moth operations.

  16. Geographical range and laboratory studies on Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Argentina, a candidate for biological control of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a pest that threatens native Opuntia spp. in North America. Control tactics developed and implemented against this invasive pest successfully eradicated the moth in Mexico and on barrier islands in the United States. However,...

  17. Host specificity and risk assessment of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), a potential biological agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a non-native moth attacking prickly pear cactus, Opuntia spp., in southeastern U.S. The insect is also an important threat to ecological systems and to native and endangered Opuntia spp. in southwestern USA. The egg parasitoid Trichogramma f...

  18. Diversity in Control and Management Techniques for Cactoblastis cactorum and Its Response in its Adventive North American Range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is celebrated for its role as a biological control agent for weedy Opuntia spp. However, multiple unintentional arrivals of C. cactorum in North America represent an economical and ecological threat to native Opun...

  19. Artificial diets for classical weed biocontrol agents-it's been done. The Cactoblastis cactorum story in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is celebrated for its role as a biological control agent for weedy Opuntia spp., but its unintentional arrival in North America represents an economic and ecological threat to native Opuntia spp. in the U. S. and ...

  20. A character demonstrating the occurrence of mating in male Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, O.G.; Carpenter, J.E.

    2007-03-15

    The reproductive system of adult male Cactoblastis cactorum, the cactus moth, was examined to determine whether the mating status of males could be ascertained. In unmated males, the posterior portion of the primary ductus ejaculatorius simplex is opaque yellow in color and contains many small football-shaped hyaline granules 3-5 x 5-10 {mu}m in size. In mated males, the posterior simplex is clear and contains no granules. The presence or absence of these characters was found to be highly reliable and should be of value in determining mating status in marked-recaptured males of this species in a sterile insect release program directed against Cactoblastis. (author)

  1. Rearing a native cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), on artificial diet and Opuntia cladodes: Preliminary comparisons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared several biological parameters of native cactus moth, Melitara prodenialis, reared on an artificial versus the natural diet of Opuntia spp. cladodes. Results suggest that the current artificial diet developed for mass rearing C. cactorum can provide nutritional value for the rear...

  2. Phylogenetic origins of Lophocereus (Cactaceae) and the senita cactus-senita moth pollination mutualism.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Stefanie; Nason, John D; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2002-07-01

    Recent ecological research has revealed that the Sonoran Desert columnar cactus Lophocereus and the pyralid moth Upiga virescens form an obligate pollination mutualism, a rare but important case of coevolution. To investigate the phylogenetic origins of this unusual pollination system, we used molecular sequence data to reconstruct the phylogeny of the four taxa within the genus Lophocereus and to determine the phylogenetic position of Lophocereus within the North American columnar cacti (tribe Pachycereeae). Our analysis included Lophocereus, six Pachycereus species, Carnegiea gigantea, and Neobuxbaumia tetetzo within the subtribe Pachycereinae, and Stenocereus thurberi as an outgroup within the Stenocereinae. Extensive screening of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes failed to reveal sequence variation within Lophocereus. At a deeper phylogenetic level, however, we found strong support for the placement of Lophocereus within Pachycereus as sister group to the hummingbird-pollinated P. marginatus. We discuss possible hypotheses that may explain the transition from bat pollination (ancestral) to moth and hummingbird pollination in Lophocereus and P. marginatus, respectively. Additional phylogenetic analyses suggest that the genus Pachycereus should be expanded to include Lophocereus, Carnegiea, Neobuxbaumia, and perhaps other species, whereas P. hollianus may need to be excluded from this clade. Future study will be needed to test taxonomic distinctions within Lophocereus, to test for parallel cladogenesis between phylogroups within Lophocereus and Upiga, and to fully delineate the genus Pachycereus and relationships among genera in the Pachycereinae.

  3. Cactus

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, R.L.

    1983-03-01

    The CACTUS project (computer-aided control, tracking, and updating system) was initiated by the Bendix Kansas City Division to address specific work-in-process problems encountered in a cable department. Since then, the project has been expanded to additional electrical manufacturing departments because of potential productivity gains from the system. The philosophy of CACTUS is to add an element of distributed data proessing to the centralized data processing system currently in use for control of work in process. Under this system, the existing chain of communications between the host computer and the CRT terminals in a department is severed. A mini-computer established in the department communicates directly with the central system, and departmental communication is then established with the mini-computer. The advantages, disadvantages, operation performance, and economics of the system are discussed.

  4. Egg parasitoids attacking Cactoblastis Cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae) in north Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in the natural enemies of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) has increased since the moth was found in Florida in 1989. The way by which the moth first arrived in Florida is still uncertain. Previous surveys for natural enemies in Argentina identified egg parasitoids in the family Trichogrammat...

  5. Trail following response of larval Cactoblastis cactorum to 2-acyl-1,3 cyclohexane diones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The caterpillars of Cactoblastis cactorum secrete onto the surface of host cactuses droplets of an oily fluid that issues from the orifices of their paired mandibular glands. The fluid contains a series of 2-acyl-1,3 cyclohexane diones which, collectively, have been shown to elicit trail following ...

  6. Volatile organic compounds as signals in a plant-herbivore system: electrophysiological responses in olfactory sensilla of the moth Cactoblastis cactorum.

    PubMed

    Pophof, Blanka; Stange, Gert; Abrell, Leif

    2005-01-01

    The morphological sensillum types on the antennae of male and female Cactoblastis cactorum were visualized by scanning electron microscopy. Electrophysiological recordings were performed for the first time on single olfactory sensilla of C. cactorum. The male sensilla trichodea house a receptor cell responding to the putative pheromone component (9Z,12E)-tetradecadienyl acetate. The sensilla trichodea of the females were much shorter than those of the males and contained specialized receptor cells responding to certain terpenoids, the most frequent being the nerolidol-sensitive cell. The sensilla auricillica and sensilla basiconica of both sexes contained cells responding less specifically to terpenoid compounds as well as to green leaf volatiles. Cells of the sensilla coeloconica responded to aliphatic aldehydes and acids. Eight volatile organic compounds emitted by Opuntia stricta, a host plant of C. cactorum, were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, beta-caryophyllene being the major compound. Five compounds identified by gas chromatography in the headspace of O. stricta elicited responses in olfactory receptor cells of C. cactorum, nonanal being the most active compound and therefore a candidate attractant of C. cactorum.

  7. Anoxia-conditioning hormesis alters the relationship between irradiation doses for survival and sterility in the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the most important components of a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) program is appropriate irradiation dose. Knowing the organismal dose-response enables the selection of a dose that induces the highest level of sterility while preserving the sexual competitiveness and quality of the sterile in...

  8. Field host range of Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in Argentina, a potential biocontrol agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) was successfully used for biological control of Opuntia spp. (Cactaceae) in Australia and South Africa, where no native cacti occur. Since 1989, this South American moth has been invading the southeastern United States, threatening the unique ca...

  9. 75 FR 70897 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; South American Cactus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... Collection; South American Cactus Moth; Quarantine and Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... moth. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before January 18, 2011. ADDRESSES... American cactus moth, contact Dr. Robyn Rose, Program Manager, Emergency and Domestic Programs, PPQ,...

  10. Cactus: a medicinal food.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Anoop A; Rana, M K; Preetham, S P

    2012-10-01

    With excellent quality and flavour of fresh fruits, young leaves of cactus serve as nutritious vegetable and salad dish and the immature fruits for making mock-gherkins. Cactus, with high water use efficiency produce forage for animals, vegetables, and fruits with 14% glucose. Traditionally cactus used as a valuable health supporting nutrient and it also has applications in pharmaceutical industries. Cactus with number of uses has immense potential to be the food of future. PMID:24082263

  11. Cactus spine injuries.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, D; Lindsey, W E

    1988-07-01

    Cactus spines produce injuries whose clinical significance is loosely in inverse proportion to the dimensions of the spine. Long and medium spines of saguaro and barrel cacti seldom result in embedded fragments, but when they do they are difficult to locate and remove. Other medium spines, those of prickly pear and cholla, are a nuisance but they can be removed readily by traction, as can the smaller spines (glochids) of the prickly pear. The very small spines (also glochids) of the polka dot or bunny's ear cactus (Opuntia microdasys) and the beavertail cactus (Opuntia basilaris) offer the most frustrating problem of all, but can be peeled off with a dried film of a professional facial gel. PMID:3390256

  12. Betalains from Christmas cactus.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, N; Schmidt, J; Nimtz, M; Wray, V; Schliemann, W

    2000-06-01

    The presence of 14 betalain pigments have been detected by their characteristic spectral properties in flower petals of Christmas cactus (Schlumbergera x buckleyi). Along with the known vulgaxanthin I, betalamic acid, betanin and phyllocactin (6'-O-malonylbetanin), the structure of a new phyllocactin-derived betacyanin was elucidated by various spectroscopic techniques and carbohydrate analyses as betanidin 5-O-(2'-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-6'-O-malonyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosid e. Among the more complex betacyanins occurring in trace amounts, the presence of a new diacylated betacyanin ¿betanidin 5-O-[(5"-O-E-feruloyl)-2'-O-beta-D- apiofuranosyl-6'-O-malonyl)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside¿ has been ascertained. Furthermore, the accumulation of betalains during flower development and their pattern in different organs of the flower has been examined.

  13. Notes on the ovipositional behavior of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichogramma fuentesi Torre (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) is an arrhenotokous egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). The parasitoid was identified attacking C. cactorum eggs at several north Florida locations in 2010 (Paraiso et al. 2011). Low incidence of this...

  14. Cactus: HPC infrastructure and programming tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collaborative Effort

    2011-02-01

    Cactus provides computational scientists and engineers with a collaborative, modular and portable programming environment for parallel high performance computing. Cactus can make use of many other technologies for HPC, such as Samrai, HDF5, PETSc and PAPI, and several application domains such as numerical relativity, computational fluid dynamics and quantum gravity are developing open community toolkits for Cactus.

  15. Learning about Moths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Kay; Walsh, Katherine

    1996-01-01

    Describes an early childhood classroom project involving moths that teaches children about moths' development from egg to adult stage. Includes information about the moth's enemies, care, and feeding. Outlines reading, art, music and movement, science, and math activities centering around moths. (BGC)

  16. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  17. Laboratory biological parameters of Trichogramma fuentesi (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichogramma fuentesi Torre was identified attacking Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg), a serious pest of Opuntia spp. in North America, raising the possibility of using this egg parasitoid as an inundative biological control agent. Studies were conducted to assess the biological parameters of this para...

  18. Is post hoc development of risk management in weed biocontrol too late? Lessons learned from Cactoblastis cactorum.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum is renowned for its success as a biological control agent against exotic Opuntia spp. in many locations including Australia, South Africa and Hawaii. However, in 1957, its introduction into the Caribbean to control native Opuntia spp. ultimately resulted in its arrival to sout...

  19. "Is post hoc development of risk management in weed biocontrol too late? Lessons learned from Cactoblastis cactorum"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cactoblastis cactorum is renowned for its success as a biological control agent against exotic Opuntia spp. in many locations including Australia, South Africa and Hawaii. However, in 1957, its introduction into the Caribbean to control native Opuntia spp. ultimately resulted in its arrival to sout...

  20. Use of cactus in mortars and concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, S.; Eklund, L.; Villarreal, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    Natural polymers have been used in ancient times to improve the durability of lime-based mortars and concretes. The natural polymers used were locally available. In this work, cactus extract from Mexico has been tested in a Portland cement mortar. It is seen that cactus extract increases the plasticity of the mortar and improves water absorption and freeze-salt resistance. Calcium hydroxide produced by Portland cement hydration interacts with the components of cactus extract, polysaccharides or proteins, and forms complexes. It affects the crystallization process. Painting of the concrete with this extract has also shown improved water resistance.

  1. Mineral resources of Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas, La Paz County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Tosdal, R.M.; Eppinger, R.G.; Erdman, J.A.; Hanna, W.F.; Pitkin, J.A.; Blank, H.R. Jr.; O'Leary, R.M.; Watterson, J.R. ); Kreidler, T.J. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies in the Cactus Plain and East Cactus Plain Wilderness Study Areas outlined in areas with moderate to high potential for gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, barite, fluorite, manganese, and sand suitable for foundry, fracturing, and abrasive uses and low resource potential for beryllium, uranium and bentonitic clays.

  2. CACTUS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    1992-01-01

    Utilizes LOGO to teach the concept of inequalities by programing the turtle to take random walks in the coordinate plane restricted to predetermined regions defined by inequalities. The students task is to discover the inequalities that define the illegal areas into which the turtle must not move. Provides examples and corresponding computer…

  3. Cactus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of data from one part of a computer to another has always been a complex task in which speed is traded against accuracy and the time required for error correction. Much more complex therefore is the transfer of information from one machine to another of a different type. Difficulties arise when machines are updated, when file formats…

  4. The De Havilland "Moth"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    Officially designated D.H. 60, De Havilland's Moth is a small, simply made, 770 lb. aircraft. It has had it's fittings reduced in number to assist in this, seats 2 (including pilot) and uses a Cirrus 60 HP. engine.

  5. Kranc: Cactus modules from Mathematica equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husa, Sascha; Hinder, Ian; Lechner, Christiane; Schnetter, Erik; Wardell, Barry

    2016-09-01

    Kranc turns a tensorial description of a time dependent partial differential equation into a module for the Cactus Computational Toolkit (ascl:1102.013). This Mathematica application takes a simple continuum description of a problem and generates highly efficient and portable code, and can be used both for rapid prototyping of evolution systems and for high performance supercomputing.

  6. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Cactus Wren

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, Henry L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  7. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Cactus wren

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Short, Henry L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  8. Betacyanins from vine cactus Hylocereus polyrhizus.

    PubMed

    Wybraniec, S; Platzner, I; Geresh, S; Gottlieb, H E; Haimberg, M; Mogilnitzki, M; Mizrahi, Y

    2001-12-01

    The presence of betacyanin pigments and their isoforms has been detected in the fruit of Hylocereus polyrhizus, a vine cactus native to South America. Along with the known betanin and phyllocactin (6'-O-malonylbetanin), a new betacyanin was structurally elucidated as betanidin 5-O-[6'-O-(3"-hydroxy-3"-methyl-glutaryl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (proposed trivial name hylocerenin) by means of electrospray MS/MS, HPLC, and NMR techniques.

  9. Chemistry of Moth Repellents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    An effective way to teach chemistry is to examine the substances used in daily life from a pedagogical viewpoint, from the overlap of science, technology, and society (STS). A study aims to engage students in the topic of moth repellents and to encourage them to investigate the chemistry in this familiar product using a set of questions.

  10. Gypsy Moth Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Dennis R.

    The gypsy moth is probably the most sociologically if not biologically important insect pest of hardwoods (especially oak). Many people cannot recognize the insect. In addition, they do not understand how much damage it can do, how to control it, or how to stop it from invading new areas. This booklet provides teachers, parents, and leaders of…

  11. Tiger moth jams bat sonar.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Conner, William E

    2009-07-17

    In response to sonar-guided attacking bats, some tiger moths make ultrasonic clicks of their own. The lepidopteran sounds have previously been shown to alert bats to some moths' toxic chemistry and also to startle bats unaccustomed to sonic prey. The moth sounds could also interfere with, or "jam," bat sonar, but evidence for such jamming has been inconclusive. Using ultrasonic recording and high-speed infrared videography of bat-moth interactions, we show that the palatable tiger moth Bertholdia trigona defends against attacking big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) using ultrasonic clicks that jam bat sonar. Sonar jamming extends the defensive repertoire available to prey in the long-standing evolutionary arms race between bats and insects.

  12. DISPERSAL OF SEEDS AS NEST MATERIAL BY THE CACTUS WREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus) nests from the southern Chihuahuan Desert contained viable seeds of grasses, forbs, and shrubs. The most common plants used as construction material in these nests were Muhlenbergia porteri, Boerhavia spicata, and the alien grass Era...

  13. Population transcriptomics of cactus host shifts in Drosophila mojavensis.

    PubMed

    Matzkin, Luciano M

    2012-05-01

    In the presence of environmental change, natural selection can shape the transcriptome. Under a scenario of environmental change, genotypes that are better able to modulate gene expression to maximize fitness will tend to be favoured. Therefore, it is important to examine gene expression at the population level to distinguish random or neutral gene expression variation from the pattern produced by natural selection. This study investigates the natural variation in transcriptional response to a cactus host shift utilizing the mainland Sonora population of Drosophila mojavensis. Drosophila mojavensis is a cactophilic species composed of four cactus host populations endemic to the deserts of North America. Overall, the change in cactus host was associated with a significant reduction in larval viability as well as the differential expression of 21% of the genome (3109 genes). Among the genes identified were a set of genes previously known to be involved in xenobiotic metabolism, as well as genes involved in cellular energy production, oxidoreductase/carbohydrate metabolism, structural components and mRNA binding. Interestingly, of the 3109 genes whose expression was affected by host use, there was a significant overrepresentation of genes that lacked an orthologous call to the D. melanogaster genome, suggesting the possibility of an accelerated rate of evolution in these genes. Of the genes with a significant cactus effect, the majority, 2264 genes, did not exhibit a significant cactus-by-line interaction. This population-level approach facilitated the identification of genes involved in past cactus host shifts.

  14. 75 FR 81087 - South American Cactus Moth Quarantine; Addition of the State of Louisiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... are adopting as a final rule the interim rule published at 75 FR 41073-41074 on July 15, 2010. FOR... on July 15, 2010 (75 FR 41073-41074, Docket No. APHIS-2010- 0037), we amended the regulations by... amended 7 CFR part 301 and that was published at 75 FR 41073-41074 on July 15, 2010. Done in...

  15. 76 FR 9978 - South American Cactus Moth; Territorial and Import Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... and economic damage. In a final rule published in the Federal Register on June 8, 2009 (74 FR 27071... effective on July 15, 2010 (75 FR 41073-41074, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0037), we added Louisiana to the list... 318 Cotton, Cottonseeds, Fruits, Guam, Hawaii, Plant diseases and pests, Puerto Rico,...

  16. Annealing a magnetic cactus into phyllotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisoli, Cristiano; Gabor, Nathaniel M.; Lammert, Paul E.; Maynard, J. D.; Crespi, Vincent H.

    2010-04-01

    The appearance of mathematical regularities in the disposition of leaves on a stem, scales on a pine-cone, and spines on a cactus has puzzled scholars for millennia; similar so-called phyllotactic patterns are seen in self-organized growth, polypeptides, convection, magnetic flux lattices and ion beams. Levitov showed that a cylindrical lattice of repulsive particles can reproduce phyllotaxis under the (unproved) assumption that minimum of energy would be achieved by two-dimensional Bravais lattices. Here we provide experimental and numerical evidence that the Phyllotactic lattice is actually a ground state. When mechanically annealed, our experimental “magnetic cactus” precisely reproduces botanical phyllotaxis, along with domain boundaries (called transitions in Botany) between different phyllotactic patterns. We employ a structural genetic algorithm to explore the more general axially unconstrained case, which reveals multijugate (multiple spirals) as well as monojugate (single-spiral) phyllotaxis.

  17. Comparative cactus architecture and par interception

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, G.N.; Nobel, P.S. )

    1987-07-01

    Because CO{sup 2} uptake by cacti can be limited by low levels of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and because plant form affects PAR interception, various cactus forms were studied using a computer model, field measurements, and laboratory phototropic studies. Model predictions indicated that CO{sub 2} uptake by individual stems at an equinox was greatest when the stem were vertical, but at the summer and the winter solstice CO{sub 2} uptake was greatest for stems titled 30{degree} away from the equator. Stem tilting depended on form and taxonomic group. Not only can the shape of cacti be affected by PAR, but also shape influences PAR interception and hence CO{sub 2} uptake.

  18. Moth hearing and sound communication.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20-60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by "sensory exploitation". Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low-intensity ultrasounds "whispered" by males during courtship is not uncommon, contrary to the general notion of moths predominantly being silent. Sexual sound communication in moths may apply to many eared moths, perhaps even a majority. The low intensities and high frequencies explain that this was overlooked, revealing a bias towards what humans can sense, when studying (acoustic) communication in animals.

  19. Moth hearing and sound communication.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20-60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by "sensory exploitation". Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low-intensity ultrasounds "whispered" by males during courtship is not uncommon, contrary to the general notion of moths predominantly being silent. Sexual sound communication in moths may apply to many eared moths, perhaps even a majority. The low intensities and high frequencies explain that this was overlooked, revealing a bias towards what humans can sense, when studying (acoustic) communication in animals. PMID:25261361

  20. Moths smell with their antennae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Ballard, Matthew; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Moths are reported to smell each other from over 6 miles away, locating each other with just 200 airborne molecules. In this study, we investigate how the structure of the antennae influences particle capture. We measure the branching patterns of over 40 species of moths, across two orders of magnitude in weight. We find that moth antennae have 3 levels of hierarchy, with dimensions on each level scaling with body size. We perform lattice-Boltzman simulations to determine optimal flow patterns around antennae branches allowing for capture of small particles.

  1. Reproductive biology of Apanteles opuntiarum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), biological control agent of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Mexico and USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apanteles opuntiarum, a parasitoid of cactus-feeding lepidopteran larvae, was incorrectly identified as A. alexanderi during the last 50 years. The discovery of A. opuntiarum as a new and separate species was followed by studies of its native host range. These studies revealed that the host range o...

  2. Bacterial succession in necrotic tissue of agria cactus (Stenocereus gummosus).

    PubMed Central

    Foster, J L; Fogleman, J C

    1994-01-01

    The bacterial communities associated with the development of necroses in injured agria cactus tissue were examined in the field by using both human-induced injuries and cactus tissue inoculated with cactophilic bacteria. Whole-cell bacterial fatty acids were used to determine when and where each of 23 detected species occurred. This information was then used to describe successional patterns of bacterial colonization. Although the number of bacterial species in human-induced injuries reached a maximum on day 16, the Shannon-Weaver diversity index increased to a plateau, which reflects a stable bacterial community. The potential of the bacterial community to macerate the injured cactus tissue was also examined, and the results indicate that the bacteria initially colonizing the newly injured cactus tissue were more likely to contain pectinolytic, proteolytic, and lipolytic enzymes than were the bacteria entering the injuries once tissue maceration had already begun. The cactophilic fruit fly Drosophila mojavensis has been previously shown to carry bacteria to newly injured cactus tissue. In these studies, exclusion of these insects did not significantly affect bacterial succession or community structure. This supports our contention that bacteria colonize injured tissue primarily by passive transport, e.g., on wind-blown particles. PMID:8135520

  3. Measurement of the flow past a cactus-inspired cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oweis, Ghanem F.; El-Makdah, Adnan M.

    2012-11-01

    Desert cacti are tall cylindrical plants characterized by longitudinal u- or v-shaped grooves that run parallel to the plant axis, covering its surface area. We study the wake flow modifications resulting from the introduction of cactus-inspired surface grooves to a circular cylinder. Particle image velocimetry PIV is implemented in a wind tunnel to visualize and quantify the wake flow from a cactus cylinder in cross wind and an equivalent circular cylinder at Re O(1E5). The cactus wake exhibits superior behavior over its circular counterpart as seen from the mean and turbulent velocity profiles. The surface flow within the grooves is also probed to elucidate the origins of the wake alterations. Lastly, we use simple statistical analysis based only on the wake velocity fields, under the assumption of periodicity of the shedding, to recover the time varying flow from the randomly acquired PIV snapshots.

  4. Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the CAU No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, CAS No. RG-08-001-RG-CS. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches are located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) which is part of the Nellis Air Force Range, approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action.

  5. Theoretical Exploration of Barrel-Shaped Drops on Cactus Spines.

    PubMed

    Luo, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    To survive an arid environment, desert cacti are capable of harvesting water from fog by transporting condensed water drops using their spines. Cactus spines have a conical shape. In this work, on the basis of the difference of liquid pressure, a new theoretical model has been developed for a barrel-shaped liquid drop on a conical wire. This model is further simplified to interpret the effects of contact angles, conical angle, surface microgrooves, and gravity on the drop movement along a cactus spine.

  6. Theoretical Exploration of Barrel-Shaped Drops on Cactus Spines.

    PubMed

    Luo, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    To survive an arid environment, desert cacti are capable of harvesting water from fog by transporting condensed water drops using their spines. Cactus spines have a conical shape. In this work, on the basis of the difference of liquid pressure, a new theoretical model has been developed for a barrel-shaped liquid drop on a conical wire. This model is further simplified to interpret the effects of contact angles, conical angle, surface microgrooves, and gravity on the drop movement along a cactus spine. PMID:26473466

  7. Auditory system of noctuid moths.

    PubMed

    Roeder, K D

    1966-12-23

    Insect-eating bats find their aerial food by sonar, through emitting ultrasonic chirps and locating sources of echoes. Certain moths have ears sensitive to these chirps and can detect bats well beyond the range of the bats' sonar. On hearing a distant bat, many moths turn and fly directly away from the source of ultrasound. Only one sense cell in each ear of a moth provides the primary nervous information for this response. This article describes my initial attempts to find out how a moth's central nervous system processes the train of chirps reaching its two ears. The ear of a restrained moth is exposed to a sequence of artifically generated ultrasonic pulses that approximates the cries made by a bat. This stimulus can be varied with respect to ultrasonic frequency (pitch), pulse intensity, pulse duration, the interval between pulses, and pulse-train duration. The more sensitive acoustic sense cell responds to all frequencies between about 15,000 and 80,000 cycles per second, but the signal that it transmits to the moth's central nervous system contains no measure of frequency within this range. However, this nerve signal reports variations in the other parameters of the stimulus. The acoustic fiber connects, in the central nervous system, with various nerve cells that transform the signal farther. The signal from a pulse-marker neuron contains no measures of pulse intensity or pulse duration, reporting only changes in interpulse interval and pulse-train duration. A train-marker neuron reports only the duration of the pulse train. The stimulus parameters may be likened to keys, each of which is necessary to gain admittance through a given door but becomes superfluous once this door has been passed. This analogy suggests one of the ways in which a signal is transformed in its passage through the nervous system, and how its specificity is assured in eliciting a given response. In addition to undergoing this kind of transformation, neural signals generated in the two

  8. Response of tender cactus pads to Salmonella strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tender cactus pads (cladodes) or nopalitos (Opuntia ficus-indica L) are an important vegetable in Mexico. They are often pre-trimmed, cut and packaged, and while usually consumed cooked, they may also be eaten raw in salads. Salmonella is an enteropathogenic bacterium that can adapt to adverse envir...

  9. CACTUS: Command and Control Training Using Knowledge-Based Simulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, J. R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a computer simulation, CACTUS, that was developed in the United Kingdom to help police with command and control training for large crowd control incidents. Use of the simulation for pre-event planning and decision making is discussed, debriefing is described, and the role of the trainer is considered. (LRW)

  10. CACTUS: Command and Control Training Using Knowledge-Based Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Roger; Ravenscroft, Andrew; Williams, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    The CACTUS project was concerned with command and control training of large incidents where public order may be at risk, such as large demonstrations and marches. The training requirements and objectives of the project are first summarized justifying the use of knowledge-based computer methods to support and extend conventional training…

  11. Moth caterpillar solicits for homopteran honeydew.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Takashi; Itino, Takao

    2014-01-29

    A life-history in which an organism depends on ants is called myrmecophily. Among Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), many species of lycaenid butterflies are known to show myrmecophily at the larval stage. Descriptions of myrmecophily among moth species, however, are very few and fragmentary. Here, we report the ant-associated behaviour of the tiny Japanese arctiid moth, Nudina artaxidia. Field observations revealed that the moth larvae associate with the jet black ant, Lasius (Dendrolasius) spp. The larvae, which we observed only near ant trails, showed an ability to follow the trails. Further, they solicit honeydew from ant-attended scale insects, without suffering attacks by the ants protecting the scale insects. These suggest that N. artaxidia is a myrmecophilous moth wholly dependent on ants and ant-attended homopterans. Considering the overwhelmingly plant-feeding habits of moth caterpillars, this discovery ranks in novelty with the discovery of the Hawaiian carnivorous moth larvae that stalk snails.

  12. How do tiger moths jam bat sonar?

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Aaron J; Barber, Jesse R; Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

    2011-07-15

    The tiger moth Bertholdia trigona is the only animal in nature known to defend itself by jamming the sonar of its predators - bats. In this study we analyzed the three-dimensional flight paths and echolocation behavior of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) attacking B. trigona in a flight room over seven consecutive nights to determine the acoustic mechanism of the sonar-jamming defense. Three mechanisms have been proposed: (1) the phantom echo hypothesis, which states that bats misinterpret moth clicks as echoes; (2) the ranging interference hypothesis, which states that moth clicks degrade the bats' precision in determining target distance; and (3) the masking hypothesis, which states that moth clicks mask the moth echoes entirely, making the moth temporarily invisible. On nights one and two of the experiment, the bats appeared startled by the clicks; however, on nights three through seven, the bats frequently missed their prey by a distance predicted by the ranging interference hypothesis (∼15-20 cm). Three-dimensional simulations show that bats did not avoid phantom targets, and the bats' ability to track clicking prey contradicts the predictions of the masking hypothesis. The moth clicks also forced the bats to reverse their stereotyped pattern of echolocation emissions during attack, even while bats continued pursuit of the moths. This likely further hinders the bats' ability to track prey. These results have implications for the evolution of sonar jamming in tiger moths, and we suggest evolutionary pathways by which sonar jamming may have evolved from other tiger moth defense mechanisms.

  13. Extreme variation in floral characters and its consequences for pollinator attraction among populations of an Andean cactus

    PubMed Central

    Schlumpberger, Boris O.; Cocucci, Andrea A.; Moré, Marcela; Sérsic, Alicia N.; Raguso, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims A South American cactus species, Echinopsis ancistrophora (Cactaceae), with dramatic among-population variation in floral traits is presented. Methods Eleven populations of E. ancistrophora were studied in their habitats in northern Argentina, and comparisons were made of relevant floral traits such as depth, stigma position, nectar volume and sugar concentration, and anthesis time. Diurnal and nocturnal pollinator assemblages were evaluated for populations with different floral trait combinations. Key Results Remarkable geographical variations in floral traits were recorded among the 11 populations throughout the distribution range of E. ancistrophora, with flower lengths ranging from 4·5 to 24·1 cm. Other floral traits associated with pollinator attraction also varied in a population-specific manner, in concert with floral depth. Populations with the shortest flowers showed morning anthesis and those with the longest flowers opened at dusk, whereas those with flowers of intermediate length opened at unusual times (2300–0600 h). Nectar production varied non-linearly with floral length; it was absent to low (population means up to 15 µL) in short- to intermediate-length flowers, but was high (population means up to 170 µL) in the longest tubed flowers. Evidence from light-trapping of moths, pollen carriage on their bodies and moth scale deposition on stigmas suggests that sphingid pollination is prevalent only in the four populations with the longest flowers, in which floral morphological traits and nectar volumes match the classic expectations for the hawkmoth pollination syndrome. All other populations, with flowers 4·5–15 cm long, were pollinated exclusively by solitary bees. Conclusions The results suggest incipient differentiation at the population level and local adaptation to either bee or hawkmoth (potentially plus bee) pollination. PMID:19342397

  14. Optimal control of gypsy moth populations.

    PubMed

    Whittle, Andrew; Lenhart, Suzanne; White, K A J

    2008-02-01

    This study investigates an optimal strategy for the cost effective control of gypsy moth populations. Gypsy moth populations cycle between low sparse numbers to high outbreak levels and it is during the outbreak levels that the moths cause extensive damage to plant foliage which can lead to deforestation. Deforestation can result in significant economic damage to infested areas, and consequently, there have been many efforts to control moth populations. One effective method of control is the use of the biocontrol agent, Gypchek, but its production is costly. We develop a mathematical model which combines population dynamics and optimal control of the moth population to explore strategies by which the total cost of the gypsy moth problem (economic damage and cost of Gypchek) can be minimized.

  15. Direct numerical simulation of flow past cactus--shaped cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, Pradeep; Mahesh, Krishnan

    2006-11-01

    The Saguaro cacti are tall, have short root systems and can withstand high wind velocities (Bulk 1984, Talley et al. 2002). Their trunks are essentially cylindrical with V--shaped longitudinal cavities. The size and number of cavities on the Saguaro cacti vary so that they have a near--constant fraction cavity depth (l/D ratio of about 0.07, Geller & Nobel 1984). Direct numerical simulations is used to assess the aerodynamic effect of the grooves on the cactus. DNS is performed for cactus shaped cylinders with l/d ratio's of 0.07 and 0.105, and smooth cylinders (l/d=0) at the same Reynolds number. Presence of the V--shaped cavities is found to decrease the drag on the cylindrical trunk as well as affect the fluctuating lift forces. The talk will quantify these differences, and discuss the physical mechanisms by which V--shaped cavities on the surface influence the flow.

  16. Search for Dark Matter Annihilations in Draco with CACTUS

    SciTech Connect

    Chertok, M.; Afonso, P.; Lizarazo, J.; Marleau, P.; Maruyama, S.; Stilley, J.; Tripathi, S. M.

    2006-07-11

    CACTUS is a ground-based Air Cherenkov Telescope (ACT) at the Solar 2 facility located near Barstow, California, and operated by UC Davis. It uses an array of 160 large solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) and a camera with 80 photomultiplier tubes, which, in a multiplexed fashion provides an effective camera with about 300 channels. By incorporating novel techniques of time projection imaging and triggering, CACTUS improves upon the first generation sampling arrays of its kind. We have recently completed observations of Draco, a dwarf spheroidal galaxy that is known to be rich in dark matter content. Supersymmetry-inspired models for dark matter predict observable annihilation rates producing gamma rays. We present the first results from our Draco campaign.

  17. Kinks and Rotons in a Magnetic Cactus: Dynamical Phyllotaxis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisoli, Cristiano; Monroe Gabor, Nathaniel; Crespi, Vincent Henry; Decatur Maynard, Julian

    2004-03-01

    The disposition of the leaves on a stem, spines on a cactus, seeds in a sunflower and other self-organized arrangements of repeated units in plant morphology, are denoted as phyllotaxis. Phyllotactic patterns are also found in polypeptide chains, cells of Bernard convection, and flux lattices in layered superconductors. Here we describe a "magnetic cactus," a model of interacting magnetic dipoles disposed along a cylindrical stem, based on the mechanical theory of phyllotaxis proposed by S. L. Levitov (1991). While the appearance of phyllotactic patterns in the static properties is well predicted by current theory, the dynamics bring new physics beyond that possible in biological systems: we demonstrate the formation and propagation of domain walls between stable structures, the number-theoretical properties that regulate their vibrational spectra, and show the appearence of what to our knowledge is the first example of classical rotons.

  18. miRNA expression during prickly pear cactus fruit development.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Cárdenas, Flor de Fátima; Caballero-Pérez, Juan; Gutiérrez-Ramos, Ximena; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; de Folter, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. They are involved in the control of many developmental processes, including fruit development. The increasing amount of information on miRNAs, on their expression, abundance, and conservation between various species, provides a new opportunity to study the role of miRNAs in non-model plant species. In this work, we used a combination of Northern blot and tissue print hybridization analysis to identify conserved miRNAs expressed during prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit development. Comparative profiling detected the expression of 34 miRNAs, which were clustered in three different groups that were associated with the different phases of fruit development. Variation in the level of miRNA expression was observed. Gradual expression increase of several miRNAs was observed during fruit development, including miR164. miR164 was selected for stem-loop RT-PCR and for a detailed spatial-temporal expression analysis. At early floral stages, miR164 was mainly localized in meristematic tissues, boundaries and fusion zones, while it was more homogenously expressed in fruit tissues. Our results provide the first evidence of miRNA expression in the prickly pear cactus and provide the basis for future research on miRNAs in Opuntia. Moreover, our analyses suggest that miR164 plays different roles during prickly pear cactus fruit development.

  19. The flow past a cactus-inspired grooved cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Makdah, Adnan M.; Oweis, Ghanem F.

    2013-02-01

    The star-shaped cross section of giant cylindrical cactus plants is thought to be aerodynamically favorable for protection against toppling by strong winds. Particle image velocimetry is used to investigate the flow details within the surface grooves and in the immediate wake of a cactus-inspired model cylinder with eight longitudinal grooves, at biologically relevant Reynolds numbers between 50 × 103 and 170 × 103. The wake flow is analyzed and compared to a similarly sized circular cylinder. At the lowest Re tested, the wakes from the two geometries are similar. At higher Re, the cactus wake exhibits superior behavior as seen from the mean and turbulent velocities, suggesting that the flow mechanisms are Re dependent. The flow within the surface grooves reveals counter rotating rollers, while the geometrical ridges act as vortex generators known to help with the surface flow attachment. Lastly, a simplistic analysis is described to recover, qualitatively, certain time-dependent flow features from the randomly acquired PIV realizations.

  20. miRNA expression during prickly pear cactus fruit development.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Cárdenas, Flor de Fátima; Caballero-Pérez, Juan; Gutiérrez-Ramos, Ximena; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; de Folter, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. They are involved in the control of many developmental processes, including fruit development. The increasing amount of information on miRNAs, on their expression, abundance, and conservation between various species, provides a new opportunity to study the role of miRNAs in non-model plant species. In this work, we used a combination of Northern blot and tissue print hybridization analysis to identify conserved miRNAs expressed during prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit development. Comparative profiling detected the expression of 34 miRNAs, which were clustered in three different groups that were associated with the different phases of fruit development. Variation in the level of miRNA expression was observed. Gradual expression increase of several miRNAs was observed during fruit development, including miR164. miR164 was selected for stem-loop RT-PCR and for a detailed spatial-temporal expression analysis. At early floral stages, miR164 was mainly localized in meristematic tissues, boundaries and fusion zones, while it was more homogenously expressed in fruit tissues. Our results provide the first evidence of miRNA expression in the prickly pear cactus and provide the basis for future research on miRNAs in Opuntia. Moreover, our analyses suggest that miR164 plays different roles during prickly pear cactus fruit development. PMID:25366556

  1. Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the Corrective Action Unit No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, located at the Tonopah Test Range. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action. The scope of this investigation will include drilling and collecting subsurface samples from within and below the trenches. Sampling locations will be biased toward the areas most likely to be contaminated. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Site is identified as one of three potential locations for buried, radioactively contaminated materials from the Double Tracks Test. This test was the first of four storage-transportation tests conducted in 1963 as part of Operation Roller Coaster. The experiment involved the use of live animals to assess the inhalation intake of a plutonium aerosol.

  2. A plant factory for moth pheromone production.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-02-25

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste.

  3. A plant factory for moth pheromone production

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bao-Jian; Hofvander, Per; Wang, Hong-Lei; Durrett, Timothy P.; Stymne, Sten; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Moths depend on pheromone communication for mate finding and synthetic pheromones are used for monitoring or disruption of pheromone communication in pest insects. Here we produce moth sex pheromone, using Nicotiana benthamiana as a plant factory, by transient expression of up to four genes coding for consecutive biosynthetic steps. We specifically produce multicomponent sex pheromones for two species. The fatty alcohol fractions from the genetically modified plants are acetylated to mimic the respective sex pheromones of the small ermine moths Yponomeuta evonymella and Y. padella. These mixtures are very efficient and specific for trapping of male moths, matching the activity of conventionally produced pheromones. Our long-term vision is to design tailor-made production of any moth pheromone component in genetically modified plants. Such semisynthetic preparation of sex pheromones is a novel and cost-effective way of producing moderate to large quantities of pheromones with high purity and a minimum of hazardous waste. PMID:24569486

  4. Introduced and invasive cactus species: a global review.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J; Robertson, Mark P; Wilson, John R U; Richardson, David M

    2014-12-03

    Understanding which species are introduced and become invasive, and why, are central questions in invasion science. Comparative studies on model taxa have provided important insights, but much more needs to be done to unravel the context dependencies of these findings. The cactus family (Cactaceae), one of the most popular horticultural plant groups, is an interesting case study. Hundreds of cactus species have been introduced outside their native ranges; a few of them are among the most damaging invasive plant species in the world. We reviewed the drivers of introductions and invasions in the family and seek insights that can be used to minimize future risks. We compiled a list of species in the family and determined which have been recorded as invasive. We also mapped current global distributions and modelled the potential global distributions based on distribution data of known invasive taxa. Finally, we identified whether invasiveness is phylogenetically clustered for cacti and whether particular traits are correlated with invasiveness. Only 57 of the 1922 cactus species recognized in this treatment have been recorded as invasive. There are three invasion hotspots: South Africa (35 invasive species recorded), Australia (26 species) and Spain (24 species). However, there are large areas of the world with climates suitable for cacti that are at risk of future invasion-in particular, parts of China, eastern Asia and central Africa. The invasive taxa represent an interesting subset of the total species pool. There is a significant phylogenetic signal: invasive species occur in 2 of the 3 major phylogenetic clades and in 13 of the 130 genera. This phylogenetic signal is not driven by human preference, i.e. horticultural trade, but all invasive species are from 5 of the 12 cactus growth forms. Finally, invasive species tend to have significantly larger native ranges than non-invasive species, and none of the invasive species are of conservation concern in their

  5. Field Survey of Cactus Crater Storage Facility (Runit Dome)

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Miller, Terence Holland

    2008-10-31

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Health and Safety (DOE/HS-10), requested that National Security Technologies, LLC, Environmental Management directorate (NSTec/EM) perform a field survey of the Cactus Crater Storage Facility (Runit Dome), similar to past surveys conducted at their request. This field survey was conducted in conjunction with a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) mission on Runit Island in the Enewetak Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI). The survey was strictly a visual survey, backed up by digital photos and a written description of the current condition.

  6. Introduced and invasive cactus species: a global review

    PubMed Central

    Novoa, Ana; Le Roux, Johannes J.; Robertson, Mark P.; Wilson, John R.U.; Richardson, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding which species are introduced and become invasive, and why, are central questions in invasion science. Comparative studies on model taxa have provided important insights, but much more needs to be done to unravel the context dependencies of these findings. The cactus family (Cactaceae), one of the most popular horticultural plant groups, is an interesting case study. Hundreds of cactus species have been introduced outside their native ranges; a few of them are among the most damaging invasive plant species in the world. We reviewed the drivers of introductions and invasions in the family and seek insights that can be used to minimize future risks. We compiled a list of species in the family and determined which have been recorded as invasive. We also mapped current global distributions and modelled the potential global distributions based on distribution data of known invasive taxa. Finally, we identified whether invasiveness is phylogenetically clustered for cacti and whether particular traits are correlated with invasiveness. Only 57 of the 1922 cactus species recognized in this treatment have been recorded as invasive. There are three invasion hotspots: South Africa (35 invasive species recorded), Australia (26 species) and Spain (24 species). However, there are large areas of the world with climates suitable for cacti that are at risk of future invasion—in particular, parts of China, eastern Asia and central Africa. The invasive taxa represent an interesting subset of the total species pool. There is a significant phylogenetic signal: invasive species occur in 2 of the 3 major phylogenetic clades and in 13 of the 130 genera. This phylogenetic signal is not driven by human preference, i.e. horticultural trade, but all invasive species are from 5 of the 12 cactus growth forms. Finally, invasive species tend to have significantly larger native ranges than non-invasive species, and none of the invasive species are of conservation concern in their

  7. Betalain, Acid ascorbic, phenolic contents and antioxidant properties of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pears.

    PubMed

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R(2) = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R(2) = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•.

  8. Calpain A modulates Toll responses by limited Cactus/IκB proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Fontenele, Marcio; Lim, Bomyi; Oliveira, Danielle; Buffolo, Márcio; Perlman, David H.; Schupbach, Trudi; Araujo, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Calcium-dependent cysteine proteases of the calpain family are modulatory proteases that cleave their substrates in a limited manner. Among their substrates, calpains target vertebrate and invertebrate IκB proteins. Because proteolysis by calpains potentially generates novel protein functions, it is important to understand how this affects NFκB activity. We investigate the action of Calpain A (CalpA) on the Drosophila melanogaster IκB homologue Cactus in vivo. CalpA alters the absolute amounts of Cactus protein. Our data indicate, however, that CalpA uses additional mechanisms to regulate NFκB function. We provide evidence that CalpA interacts physically with Cactus, recognizing a Cactus pool that is not bound to Dorsal, a fly NFκB/Rel homologue. We show that proteolytic cleavage by CalpA generates Cactus fragments lacking an N-terminal region required for Toll responsiveness. These fragments are generated in vivo and display properties distinct from those of full-length Cactus. We propose that CalpA targets free Cactus, which is incorporated into and modulates Toll-responsive complexes in the embryo and immune system. PMID:23864715

  9. Betalain, Acid Ascorbic, Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Properties of Purple, Red, Yellow and White Cactus Pears

    PubMed Central

    Sumaya-Martínez, María Teresa; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; García-Paredes, Juan Diego; Cariño-Cortés, Raquel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Valadez-Vega, Carmen; Martinez-Cardenas, Leonardo; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Commercialization of cactus pears based on their antioxidant properties can generate competitive advantages, and these can turn into business opportunities and the development of new products and a high-value ingredient for the food industry. This work evaluated the antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, protection against oxidation of a β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, and iron (II) chelation), the content of total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, betacyanin, betaxanthin and the stability of betacyanin pigments in presence of Cu (II)-dependent hydroxyl radicals (OH•), in 18 cultivars of purple, red, yellow and white cactus pear from six Mexican states. Our results indicated that the antiradical activities from yellow and white cactus pear cultivars were not significantly different (p < 0.05) and were lower than the average antiradical activities in red and purple cultivars. The red cactus pear from the state of Zacatecas showed the highest antioxidant activity. The free radical scavenging activity for red cactus pears was significantly correlated (p < 0.05) to the concentration of total phenolic compounds (R2 = 0.90) and ascorbic acid (R2 = 0.86). All 18 cultivars of cactus pears studied showed significant chelating activity of ferrous ions. The red and purple cactus pears showed a great stability when exposed to OH•. PMID:22072899

  10. Examination of Gunnison River influences on Cactus Park Lake Beds using Heavy Mineral and Geochemical Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoepfer, S. D.; Benage, M. C.

    2008-12-01

    Unaweep Canyon is an enigmatic wind gap across the Uncompahgre Plateau in western Colorado. It is widely accepted that the ancestral Gunnison River once flowed through Unaweep Canyon and Cactus Park, a tributary to Unaweep Canyon. Newly discovered lake deposits in Cactus Park raise several important questions regarding the timing of events leading to the abandonment of Unaweep Canyon by the ancestral Gunnison River. Heavy minerals and trace elements of Cactus Park lake beds and ancestral Gunnison River sediments were compared to determine whether or not the ancestral Gunnison River was present at the time the Cactus Park Lake was filling with sediment. It is possible that the formation of this lake facilitated the eventual abandonment of Cactus Park and Unaweep Canyon by the ancestral Gunnison River. Alternatively, abandonment could have preceded the formation of the lake. In the latter scenario, the composition of the lake beds should differ significantly from modern or ancient Gunnison River deposits. Results of the analyses show that the Gunnison River and Cactus Park Lake samples form two distinct groups based on differences in elemental concentrations and heavy mineral percentages. Gunnison River sediments associated with volcanic terrains contain elevated copper and manganese concentrations with 7.5 times more manganese and 4.5 times more copper normalized to aluminum compared to samples of Mancos Shale. Mancos Shale is a likely source for the Cactus Park lake beds . These values would require the Cactus Park lake beds to be composed of 70-92 percent Mancos material,. The Gunnison River heavy mineral percentages are: total weathered grains (16.94-18.75), augite plus hornblende (21.43-32.26%), ZTR (31.45-32.14), hornblende (16.07-17.74%) and tourmaline (26.79-29.84%). Cactus Park lake bed samples have more weathered grains (26.56-46.83%), less augite plus hornblende (5.47-17.50), lower ZTR values (15.63-22.67), less hornblende (1.48-9.33%) and less tourmaline

  11. Cactus alkaloids. XXXVI. Mescaline and related compounds from Trichocereus peruvianus.

    PubMed

    Pardanani, J H; McLaughlin, J L; Kondrat, R W; Cooks, R G

    1977-01-01

    Agurell has previously detected (tlc, glc-ms) tyramine, 3-methoxytyramine, and two unknown alkaloids in the Peruvian cactus, Trichocereus peruvianus Br. and R. The presence of mescaline in other similar Trichocereus species prompted us to reinvestigate this species, which is commercially available in the United States. The nonphenolic alkaloid extracts yielded an abundance of crystalline mescaline hydrochloride (0.82% yield) and a trace of 3,4-dimethoxyphenethylamine (tlc-ms). Crystalline tyramine hydrochloride, 3-methoxytyramine hydrochloride, and 3,5 dimethoxy-4-hydroxphenethylamine hydrochloride were isolated from the phenolic alkaloid extracts; the last compound has not been previously crystallized from nature, although it is the immediate biosynthetic precursor of mescaline. Crystalline 2-chloromescaline hydrochloride was isolated drom the nonphenolic extracts; but, as determined by mass-analyzed ion kinetic energy spectrometry, this new compound is an extraction artifact. Both 2-chloromescaline and 2.6-dichloromescaline hydrochlorides were prepared synthetically from mescaline. This cactus species has a mescaline content equal or superior to peyote and should be legally controlled as an item of drug abuse.

  12. The population dynamics of an endemic collectible cactus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandujano, María C.; Bravo, Yolotzin; Verhulst, Johannes; Carrillo-Angeles, Israel; Golubov, Jordan

    2015-02-01

    Astrophytum is one of most collected genera in the cactus family. Around the world several species are maintained in collections and yearly, several plants are taken from their natural habitats. Populations of Astorphytum capricorne are found in the northern Chihuahuan desert, Mexico, and as many endemic cactus species, it has a highly restricted habitat. We conducted a demographic study from 2008 to 2010 of the northern populations found at Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We applied matrix population models, included simulations, life table response experiments and descriptions of the population dynamics to evaluate the current status of the species, and detect key life table stages and demographic processes. Population growth rate decreased in both years and only 4% individual mortality can be attributed to looting, and a massive effort is needed to increase seedling recruitment and reduce adult mortality. The fate of individuals differed between years even having the same annual rainfall mainly in accentuated stasis, retrogression and high mortality in all size classes, which coupled with low seed production, no recruitment and collection of plants are the causes contributing to population decline, and hence, increase the risk in which A. capricorne populations are found. Reintroduction of seedlings and lowering adult mortality are urgently needed to revert the alarming demographic condition of A. capricorne populations.

  13. Low-oxygen atmospheric treatment improves the performance of irradiation-sterilized male cactus moths used in SIT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programs, irradiation can effectively induce sterility in insects by damaging genomic DNA. However, irradiation also induces other off-target side effects that reduce the quality and performance of sterilized males. Thus, treatments that reduce off-target ef...

  14. Plant population and habitat characteristics of the endemic Sonoran Desert cactus Peniocereus striatus in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Greta; Rutman, Sue; Munson, Seth M.

    2010-01-01

    Peniocereus striatus (Brandegee) Buxb. (Cactaceae) is an endemic Sonoran Desert cactus that reaches its northern range limit in southwestern Arizona. One U.S. population occupies a small area of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument near the U.S./Mexico international boundary, which has been monitored since 1939. An extensive survey conducted in 2002, covering 177 ha, resulted in the discovery of 88 new plants, in addition to the relocation of 57 plants found in previous surveys. Despite potential increases in population size and spatial distribution, mean plant height and number of basal stems has not significantly changed in recent years. Bud scars revealed that a majority of the population was sexually mature. Peniocereus striatus occurrence increased with decreasing slope, spanned every slope aspect, and was highest on rocky soils, but was noticeably low on west and northwest slopes and areas where severe land degradation had previously occurred. Over half of P. striatus plants were nursed by shrubs and subshrubs, while 40% occurred under leguminous trees. A severe frost in January 2002 top-killed 19% of the population, with the greatest damage in drainage bottoms. However, long-term (1944–2002) climate records show that there has been an overall increase in the number of frost free days in the region, which, coupled with land use change, has implications for the future health of this population.

  15. Monitoring oriental fruit moth and codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) with combinations of pheromones and kairomoness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted in North and South America during 2012-2013 to evaluate the use of lure combinations of sex pheromones (PH), host plant volatiles (HPV), and food baits in traps to capture the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) and codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) in pome an...

  16. Identification and ecology of bacterial communities associated with necroses of three cactus species.

    PubMed

    Foster, J L; Fogleman, J C

    1993-01-01

    To compare the bacterial communities residing in necrotic tissues of columnar cacti of the Sonoran Desert, isolates from 39 organ pipe, 19 saguaro, and 16 senita cacti were obtained. The isolates were clustered into 28 conspecific groups on the basis of their fatty acid profiles. The distributions of the individual bacterial isolates varied among cactus species. Seven of the 28 species groups were unique to a particular cactus species, whereas 8 species groups were found in all three cacti. The effective number of bacterial species for each cactus species was positively correlated with both the chemical complexity and glucose concentration of the plant tissues. The effective number of bacterial species and bacterial distribution patterns were compared with those known for communities of cactophilic yeasts. The observed bacterial distribution patterns are most likely due to differences in the chemical compositions of the three cactus species. PMID:8439142

  17. Physicochemical characterization of cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Lorena Pérez; Flores, Fidel Tejera; Martín, Jacinto Darias; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics (weight, length, width, thickness, moisture, Brix degree, total fiber, protein, ash, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr) were determined in cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica. The physicochemical characteristics of both species were clearly different. There were important differences between the orange and green fruit pulp of O. ficus indica; the cactus pads of O. dillenii could be differentiated according to the region (North and South). Consumption of cactus pads contributes to the intake of dietary fiber, total phenolic compounds, K, Mg, Mn and Cr. Applying factor and/or discriminant analysis, the cactus pad samples were clearly differentiated according to the species, the fruit pulp color and production region. PMID:26041209

  18. Physicochemical characterization of cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Lorena Pérez; Flores, Fidel Tejera; Martín, Jacinto Darias; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics (weight, length, width, thickness, moisture, Brix degree, total fiber, protein, ash, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr) were determined in cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica. The physicochemical characteristics of both species were clearly different. There were important differences between the orange and green fruit pulp of O. ficus indica; the cactus pads of O. dillenii could be differentiated according to the region (North and South). Consumption of cactus pads contributes to the intake of dietary fiber, total phenolic compounds, K, Mg, Mn and Cr. Applying factor and/or discriminant analysis, the cactus pad samples were clearly differentiated according to the species, the fruit pulp color and production region.

  19. Effect of ultrasound on survival and growth of Escherichia coli in cactus pear juice during storage.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Cansino, Nelly Del Socorro; Reyes-Hernández, Isidro; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Jaramillo-Bustos, Diana Pamela; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasound as a conservation method for the inactivation of Escherichia coli inoculated into cactus pear juices (green and purple). Total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and the kinetics of E. coli in cactus pear juices treated by ultrasound (60%, 70%, 80% and 90% amplitude levels for 1, 3 and 5min) were evaluated over 5 days. Total inactivation was observed in both fruit juices after 5min of ultrasound treatment at most amplitude levels (with the exception of 60% and 80%). After one and two days of storage, the recovery of bacteria counts was observed in all cactus pear juices. Ultrasound treatment at 90% amplitude for 5min resulted in non-detectable levels of E. coli in cactus pear juice for 2 days. The parameters of pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids were unaffected.

  20. Effect of ultrasound on survival and growth of Escherichia coli in cactus pear juice during storage.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Cansino, Nelly Del Socorro; Reyes-Hernández, Isidro; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Jaramillo-Bustos, Diana Pamela; Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasound as a conservation method for the inactivation of Escherichia coli inoculated into cactus pear juices (green and purple). Total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, and the kinetics of E. coli in cactus pear juices treated by ultrasound (60%, 70%, 80% and 90% amplitude levels for 1, 3 and 5min) were evaluated over 5 days. Total inactivation was observed in both fruit juices after 5min of ultrasound treatment at most amplitude levels (with the exception of 60% and 80%). After one and two days of storage, the recovery of bacteria counts was observed in all cactus pear juices. Ultrasound treatment at 90% amplitude for 5min resulted in non-detectable levels of E. coli in cactus pear juice for 2 days. The parameters of pH, titratable acidity and soluble solids were unaffected. PMID:26991288

  1. Shock-induced effects in calcite from Cactus Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vizgirda, J.; Ahrens, T. J.; Tsay, F.-D.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses shock metamorphism of calcite from coralline limestone samples retrieved from a borehole drilled into rocks beneath Cactus Crater, a nuclear explosion crater at Eniwetok Atoll. The metamorphism was detected and quantified using electron spin resonance (ESR); the ESR spectra of Mn(+) present as a trace constituent in the coral samples, show a consistent decrease in hyperfine peak splitting with decreasing depth of sample. It is suggested that the decrease in hyperfine peak splitting reflects a decrease in crystal field splitting, and therefore, small increases on cation-anion distances produced by mechanical energy input during the shock process. Two alternative crater models suggested by the ESR results are a depiction of a steady decay of the shock wave, and a delineation of a breccia lens with a breccia-bedrock interface at 20 plus or minus 5 m.

  2. Occupational type I allergy to Christmas cactus (Schlumbergera).

    PubMed

    Paulsen, E; Skov, P S; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Voitenko, V; Poulsen, L K

    1997-06-01

    The study aimed to determine whether occupational contact urticaria and symptoms of mucous membranes, reported by five workers in a cactus nursery, were due to IgE-mediated allergy to Schlumbergera cacti. The five persons had positive skin prick tests to the plants as is and positive histamine-release tests, and in three of them specific IgE to the cacti could be demonstrated by Maxisorp RAST and immunoblotting. Four of the patients were atopic, and the fifth had a positive skin prick test to cat dander, indicating latent atopy. Skin prick tests with cacti were negative in most atopic volunteers, and all had negative histamine-release tests. The results suggest a true IgE-mediated allergy to the cacti, and both genetic predisposition and close contact with the plants at work seem to be important factors in the emergence of this new occupational allergy.

  3. A diversity of moths (Lepidoptera) trapped with two feeding attractants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding attractants for moths are useful as survey tools to assess moth species diversity, and for monitoring of the relative abundance of certain pest species. We assessed the relative breadth of attractiveness of two such lures to moths, at sites with varied habitats during 2006. Eighty-six of the...

  4. 77 FR 26000 - Cactus Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Cactus Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Cactus Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  5. The cactus webworm, Loxomorpha flavidissimalis (Grote, 1878) (Pyraloidea, Crambidae): its distribution and a potential pest in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report Loxomorpha flavidissimalis, the cactus webworm, for the first time from Tamaulipas, Mexico, as an herbivore of the cultivated cactus, Opuntia ficus-indica. We observed larvae over a four year period (2010-2014) during the months of March to November and found young cladode losses attributa...

  6. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.

    PubMed

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2013-09-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds.

  7. Phytochemicals, nutritionals and antioxidant properties of two prickly pear cactus cultivars (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) growing in Taif, KSA.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hameed, El-Sayed S; Nagaty, Mohamed A; Salman, Mahmood S; Bazaid, Salih A

    2014-10-01

    The antioxidant properties, some phytochemicals and nutritionals were characterized in two prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) cultivars; red and yellow; growing in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The antioxidant properties of red cactus cultivar were higher than the yellow cactus cultivar. Linear correlation appeared between the antioxidant properties and total phenolics. All samples nearly have the same quantity of iron, copper, sodium and potassium. Some phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC-UV analysis. HPLC-RI analysis of all samples revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose. According to the above results, this study gave a good indication about the nutritional and pharmaceutical potential of the two cactus cultivars that must be widespread cultivated in arid and semiarid regions as KSA accompanying with establishment of industries beside the cactus farms that used all parts of plants.

  8. Floral attractants for monitoring pest moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many species of moths, including pest species, are known to be attracted to volatile compounds emitted by flowers. Some of the flower species studied included glossy abelia, night-blooming jessamine, three species of Gaura, honeysuckle, lesser butterfly orchid, and Oregongrape. The volatiles relea...

  9. Moth pheromone receptors and deceitful parapheromones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insect’s olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this “lock-and-key” tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less ...

  10. Reed Watkins: A Passion for Plume Moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reed Watkins has curated the nationl Pterophordiae or plume moth collection at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for the past 13 years. He has decreased the number of specimens of unsorted and unidentified material and has expanded the collection from 3 to 6 cabinets....

  11. Soil compaction vulnerability at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Carmichael, Shinji; Esque, Todd C.

    2014-01-01

    Compaction vulnerability of different types of soils by hikers and vehicles is poorly known, particularly for soils of arid and semiarid regions. Engineering analyses have long shown that poorly sorted soils (for example, sandy loams) compact to high densities, whereas well-sorted soils (for example, eolian sand) do not compact, and high gravel content may reduce compaction. Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (ORPI) in southwestern Arizona, is affected greatly by illicit activities associated with the United States–Mexico border, and has many soils that resource managers consider to be highly vulnerable to compaction. Using geospatial soils data for ORPI, compaction vulnerability was estimated qualitatively based on the amount of gravel and the degree of sorting of sand and finer particles. To test this qualitative assessment, soil samples were collected from 48 sites across all soil map units, and undisturbed bulk densities were measured. A scoring system was used to create a vulnerability index for soils on the basis of particle-size sorting, soil properties derived from Proctor compaction analyses, and the field undisturbed bulk densities. The results of the laboratory analyses indicated that the qualitative assessments of soil compaction vulnerability underestimated the area of high vulnerability soils by 73 percent. The results showed that compaction vulnerability of desert soils, such as those at ORPI, can be quantified using laboratory tests and evaluated using geographic information system analyses, providing a management tool that managers potentially could use to inform decisions about activities that reduce this type of soil disruption in protected areas.

  12. Acoustic emissions correlated with hydration of Saguaro Cactus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardell, L. J.; Rowe, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    For some years it has been demonstrated that hardwood trees produce acoustic emissions during periods of drought, which arise from cavitation in the xylem as water is withdrawn. These emissions not only provide insights into the fluid transport behavior within these trees, but also the degree to which cavitation can proceed before inevitable tree mortality. Such studies can have significant impact on our understanding of forest die-off in the face of climate change. Plant mortality is not limited to woody trees, however, and it is not only the coniferous and deciduous forests whose response to climate and rainfall changes are important. In the desert Southwest we observe changes to survival rates of numerous species of flora. One of the most conspicuous of these plants is the iconic Saguaro Cactus (Carnegiea gigantean). These behemoths of the Sonoran Desert are very sensitive to small perturbations in their environment. Specifically, during the summer monsoon season when the cacti become well-hydrated, they can absorb hundreds of gallons of water within a very short time frame. We have obtained a juvenile saguaro on which we are conducting experiments to monitor acoustic emissions during hydration and dessication cycles. We will report on our observations obtained using piezoelectric ceramic accelerometers whose signals are digitized up to 44 Khz and recorded during hydration.

  13. Agglomerative percolation on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Huiseung; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Yup

    2013-08-01

    Agglomerative percolation (AP) on the Bethe lattice and the triangular cactus is studied to establish the exact mean-field theory for AP. Using the self-consistent simulation method based on the exact self-consistent equations, the order parameter P∞ and the average cluster size S are measured. From the measured P∞ and S, the critical exponents βk and γk for k = 2 and 3 are evaluated. Here, βk and γk are the critical exponents for P∞ and S when the growth of clusters spontaneously breaks the Zk symmetry of the k-partite graph. The obtained values are β2 = 1.79(3), γ2 = 0.88(1), β3 = 1.35(5) and γ3 = 0.94(2). By comparing these exponents with those for ordinary percolation (β∞ = 1 and γ∞ = 1), we also find β∞ < β3 < β2 and γ∞ > γ3 > γ2. These results quantitatively verify the conjecture that the AP model belongs to a new universality class if the Zk symmetry is broken spontaneously, and the new universality class depends on k.

  14. Acoustic emissions correlated with hydration of Saguaro Cactus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardell, L. J.; Rowe, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    For some years it has been demonstrated that hardwood trees produce acoustic emissions during periods of drought, which arise from cavitation in the xylem as water is withdrawn. These emissions not only provide insights into the fluid transport behavior within these trees, but also the degree to which cavitation can proceed before inevitable tree mortality. Such studies can have significant impact on our understanding of forest die-off in the face of climate change. Plant mortality is not limited to woody trees, however, and it is not only the coniferous and deciduous forests whose response to climate and rainfall changes are important. In the desert Southwest we observe changes to survival rates of numerous species of flora. One of the most conspicuous of these plants is the iconic Saguaro Cactus (Carnegiea gigantean). These behemoths of the Sonoran Desert are very sensitive to small perturbations in their environment. Specifically, during the summer monsoon season when the cacti become well-hydrated, they can absorb hundreds of gallons of water within a very short time frame. We have obtained a juvenile saguaro on which we are conducting experiments to monitor acoustic emissions during hydration and dessication cycles. We will report on our observations obtained using piezoelectric ceramic accelerometers whose signals are digitized up to 44 Khz and recorded during hydration.

  15. A multi-structural and multi-functional integrated fog collection system in cactus.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jie; Bai, Hao; Zheng, Yongmei; Zhao, Tianyi; Fang, Ruochen; Jiang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Multiple biological structures have demonstrated fog collection abilities, such as beetle backs with bumps and spider silks with periodic spindle-knots and joints. Many Cactaceae species live in arid environments and are extremely drought-tolerant. Here we report that one of the survival systems of the cactus Opuntia microdasys lies in its efficient fog collection system. This unique system is composed of well-distributed clusters of conical spines and trichomes on the cactus stem; each spine contains three integrated parts that have different roles in the fog collection process according to their surface structural features. The gradient of the Laplace pressure, the gradient of the surface-free energy and multi-function integration endow the cactus with an efficient fog collection system. Investigations of the structure-function relationship in this system may help us to design novel materials and devices to collect water from fog with high efficiencies.

  16. High duty cycle pulses suppress orientation flights of crambid moths.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    Bat-and-moth is a good model system for understanding predator-prey interactions resulting from interspecific coevolution. Night-flying insects have been under predation pressure from echolocating bats for 65Myr, pressuring vulnerable moths to evolve ultrasound detection and evasive maneuvers as counter tactics. Past studies of defensive behaviors against attacking bats have been biased toward noctuoid moth responses to short duration pulses of low-duty-cycle (LDC) bat calls. Depending on the region, however, moths have been exposed to predation pressure from high-duty-cycle (HDC) bats as well. Here, we reveal that long duration pulse of the sympatric HDC bat (e.g., greater horseshoe bat) is easily detected by the auditory nerve of Japanese crambid moths (yellow peach moth and Asian corn borer) and suppress both mate-finding flights of virgin males and host-finding flights of mated females. The hearing sensitivities for the duration of pulse stimuli significantly dropped non-linearly in both the two moth species as the pulse duration shortened. These hearing properties support the energy integrator model; however, the threshold reduction per doubling the duration has slightly larger than those of other moth species hitherto reported. And also, Asian corn borer showed a lower auditory sensitivity and a lower flight suppression to short duration pulse than yellow peach moth did. Therefore, flight disruption of moth might be more frequently achieved by the pulse structure of HDC calls. The combination of long pulses and inter-pulse intervals, which moths can readily continue detecting, will be useful for repelling moth pests.

  17. High duty cycle pulses suppress orientation flights of crambid moths.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    Bat-and-moth is a good model system for understanding predator-prey interactions resulting from interspecific coevolution. Night-flying insects have been under predation pressure from echolocating bats for 65Myr, pressuring vulnerable moths to evolve ultrasound detection and evasive maneuvers as counter tactics. Past studies of defensive behaviors against attacking bats have been biased toward noctuoid moth responses to short duration pulses of low-duty-cycle (LDC) bat calls. Depending on the region, however, moths have been exposed to predation pressure from high-duty-cycle (HDC) bats as well. Here, we reveal that long duration pulse of the sympatric HDC bat (e.g., greater horseshoe bat) is easily detected by the auditory nerve of Japanese crambid moths (yellow peach moth and Asian corn borer) and suppress both mate-finding flights of virgin males and host-finding flights of mated females. The hearing sensitivities for the duration of pulse stimuli significantly dropped non-linearly in both the two moth species as the pulse duration shortened. These hearing properties support the energy integrator model; however, the threshold reduction per doubling the duration has slightly larger than those of other moth species hitherto reported. And also, Asian corn borer showed a lower auditory sensitivity and a lower flight suppression to short duration pulse than yellow peach moth did. Therefore, flight disruption of moth might be more frequently achieved by the pulse structure of HDC calls. The combination of long pulses and inter-pulse intervals, which moths can readily continue detecting, will be useful for repelling moth pests. PMID:26549128

  18. Genome organization and gene expression of saguaro cactus carmovirus.

    PubMed

    Weng, Z; Xiong, Z

    1997-03-01

    The complete sequence of the single-stranded, (+)-sense RNA genome of saguaro cactus carmovirus (SCV) has been determined. The 3879 nucleotide genome contains five open reading frames (ORFs). The 5'-proximal ORF encodes a 26 kDa protein (p26) and terminates with an amber codon which is readthrough into an in-frame p57 ORF to generate an 86 kDa fusion protein (p86). Two small, centrally located ORFs encode a 6 kDa protein (p6) and a 9 kDa protein (p9), respectively. The 3'-proximal ORF encodes a 37 kDa (p37) capsid protein (CP). Analysis of the nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences supports the classification of SCV in the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. All predicted SCV proteins are expressed in an in vitro translation system. SCV p26 and the readthrough fusion protein p86 are synthesized from the genomic RNA while p6, p9 and p37 CP ORFs at the 3' half of the genome are expressed from two subgenomic (sg) RNAs. The 5' termini of both sg RNAs have been mapped. The large 1614 nucleotide sg RNA contains the p6 and p9 ORFs as the first and the second ORFs respectively from its 5' end. It directs the synthesis of abundant p6 but a small amount of p9. While a synthetic transcript with the p9 ORF at the 5' end is a more efficient messenger for p9, no corresponding sg RNA has been identified in vivo. The smaller 1396 nucleotide sg RNA contains only the p37 ORF and directs the synthesis of SCV CP. PMID:9049400

  19. Nocardioides opuntiae sp. nov., isolated from soil of a cactus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soon Dong; Seong, Chi Nam

    2014-06-01

    A novel high G+C actinobacterium, designated strain OS1-21(T), was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a cactus (Opuntia fiscus-indica var. sanboten) and the taxonomic status was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain OS1-21(T) were aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-endospore-forming, non-motile rods; colonies of the cells were circular, translucent, smooth and moderate yellow in colour. LL-Diaminopimelic acid was the diagnostic diamino acid in cell-wall peptidoglycan. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H4). The major fatty acids were iso-C(16 : 0), iso-C(16 : 0) 2-OH, 10-methyl C(17 : 0), 10-methyl C(18 : 0) and C(17 : 1)cis9. The polar lipids contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and two unknown phospholipids. The DNA G+C content was 73.7 mol%. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the closest phylogenetic neighbours were Nocardioides panacihumi Gsoil 616(T) (98.7% sequence similarity) and Nocardioides terrae VA15(T) (97.8%), followed by Nocardioides marinus CL-DD14(T) (97.1%). DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain OS1-21(T) with the type strains of the closest phylogenetic neighbours were low (<16.0%). Combined data of polyphasic taxonomic analyses revealed that the organism could be assigned to a novel species of the genus Nocardioides, for which the name Nocardioides opuntiae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is OS1-21(T) ( = KCTC 19804(T) = NBRC 107915(T)).

  20. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Nagoshi, R. N.; Meagher, R. L.; Fleischer, S. J.; Jairam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  1. Jumping mechanisms and strategies in moths (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Burrows, Malcolm; Dorosenko, Marina

    2015-06-01

    To test whether jumping launches moths into the air, take-off by 58 species, ranging in mass from 0.1 to 220 mg, was captured in videos at 1000 frames s(-1). Three strategies for jumping were identified. First, rapid movements of both middle and hind legs provided propulsion while the wings remained closed. Second, middle and hind legs again provided propulsion but the wings now opened and flapped after take-off. Third, wing and leg movements both began before take-off and led to an earlier transition to powered flight. The middle and hind legs were of similar lengths and were between 10 and 130% longer than the front legs. The rapid depression of the trochantera and extension of the middle tibiae began some 3 ms before similar movements of the hind legs, but their tarsi lost contact with the ground before take-off. Acceleration times ranged from 10 ms in the lightest moths to 25 ms in the heaviest ones. Peak take-off velocities varied from 0.6 to 0.9 m s(-1) in all moths, with the fastest jump achieving a velocity of 1.2 m s(-1). The energy required to generate the fastest jumps was 1.1 µJ in lighter moths but rose to 62.1 µJ in heavier ones. Mean accelerations ranged from 26 to 90 m s(-2) and a maximum force of 9 G: was experienced. The highest power output was within the capability of normal muscle so that jumps were powered by direct contractions of muscles without catapult mechanisms or energy storage.

  2. Multimodal Floral Signals and Moth Foraging Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Alarcón, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Background Combinations of floral traits – which operate as attractive signals to pollinators – act on multiple sensory modalities. For Manduca sexta hawkmoths, how learning modifies foraging decisions in response to those traits remains untested, and the contribution of visual and olfactory floral displays on behavior remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings Using M. sexta and the floral traits of two important nectar resources in southwestern USA, Datura wrightii and Agave palmeri, we examined the relative importance of olfactory and visual signals. Natural visual and olfactory cues from D. wrightii and A. palmeri flowers permits testing the cues at their native intensities and composition – a contrast to many studies that have used artificial stimuli (essential oils, single odorants) that are less ecologically relevant. Results from a series of two-choice assays where the olfactory and visual floral displays were manipulated showed that naïve hawkmoths preferred flowers displaying both olfactory and visual cues. Furthermore, experiments using A. palmeri flowers – a species that is not very attractive to hawkmoths – showed that the visual and olfactory displays did not have synergistic effects. The combination of olfactory and visual display of D. wrightii, however – a flower that is highly attractive to naïve hawkmoths – did influence the time moths spent feeding from the flowers. The importance of the olfactory and visual signals were further demonstrated in learning experiments in which experienced moths, when exposed to uncoupled floral displays, ultimately chose flowers based on the previously experienced olfactory, and not visual, signals. These moths, however, had significantly longer decision times than moths exposed to coupled floral displays. Conclusions/Significance These results highlight the importance of specific sensory modalities for foraging hawkmoths while also suggesting that they learn the floral displays as

  3. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, J K; Nagoshi, R N; Meagher, R L; Fleischer, S J; Jairam, S

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥ 10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  4. Phylogeographic analysis of Harrisia cactus mealybug, Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) populations: work in progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harrisia cactus mealybug (HCM), Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) Granara de Willink (1981) is infesting and killing cacti in the southern coast of Puerto Rico, covering an area of about 1,400 km2. The 13 species of cacti occurring in Puerto Rico are threatened by this new pest; three...

  5. [Effects of cactus, alove veral, momorcica charantia on reducing the blood glucose of diabetic mice].

    PubMed

    Lin, X; Shen, X; Long, Z; Yang, Q

    2001-07-01

    The effects of cactus, alove veral and momorcica charantia on reducing the blood glucose level of mice were observed. The diabetic model with no symptom in mice was established by injection of streptozotocin(STZ) 80 mg/kg BW into abdominal cavity for 11 days. The diabetic mice were randomly divided into 8 groups: STZ diabetic model, diet A, diet B, cactus, alove veral, momordica charantia and glyburide groups. Cactus (60 g/kg BW), alove veral (60 g/kg BW), and momordica charantia (30 g/kg BW) were administrated orally each day to the diabetic mice for another 21 days. Serum glucose of mice fasting for 12 hours and 2 hours after meal was determined with the method of glucose-oxidase at the 21th day of the experiment. The results showed that serum glucose levels of diabetic mice were significantly higher than the normal control group (P < 0.01). After giving diet A, cactus, alove veral and momorcica charantia juice for 21 days, the serum glucose concentration of these diabetic mice were significantly lower than STZ diabetic model group (P < 0.01) but still higher than the normal control group.

  6. How Nectar-Feeding Bats Localize their Food: Echolocation Behavior of Leptonycteris yerbabuenae Approaching Cactus Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Koblitz, Jens C.; Fleming, Theodore H.; Medellín, Rodrigo A.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich; Tschapka, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Nectar-feeding bats show morphological, physiological, and behavioral adaptations for feeding on nectar. How they find and localize flowers is still poorly understood. While scent cues alone allow no precise localization of a floral target, the spatial properties of flower echoes are very precise and could play a major role, particularly at close range. The aim of this study is to understand the role of echolocation for classification and localization of flowers. We compared the approach behavior of Leptonycteris yerbabuenae to flowers of a columnar cactus, Pachycereus pringlei, to that to an acrylic hollow hemisphere that is acoustically conspicuous to bats, but has different acoustic properties and, contrary to the cactus flower, present no scent. For recording the flight and echolocation behaviour we used two infrared video cameras under stroboscopic illumination synchronized with ultrasound recordings. During search flights all individuals identified both targets as a possible food source and initiated an approach flight; however, they visited only the cactus flower. In experiments with the acrylic hemisphere bats aborted the approach at ca. 40–50 cm. In the last instant before the flower visit the bats emitted a long terminal group of 10–20 calls. This is the first report of this behaviour for a nectar-feeding bat. Our findings suggest that L. yerbabuenae use echolocation for classification and localization of cactus flowers and that the echo-acoustic characteristics of the flower guide the bats directly to the flower opening. PMID:27684373

  7. Characterization of a male reproductive transcriptome for Peromyscus eremicus (Cactus mouse)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Rodents of the genus Peromyscus have become increasingly utilized models for investigations into adaptive biology. This genus is particularly powerful for research linking genetics with adaptive physiology or behaviors, and recent research has capitalized on the unique opportunities afforded by the ecological diversity of these rodents. Well characterized genomic and transcriptomic data is intrinsic to explorations of the genetic architecture responsible for ecological adaptations. Therefore, this study characterizes the transcriptome of three male reproductive tissues (testes, epididymis and vas deferens) of Peromyscus eremicus (Cactus mouse), a desert specialist. The transcriptome assembly process was optimized in order to produce a high quality and substantially complete annotated transcriptome. This composite transcriptome was generated to characterize the expressed transcripts in the male reproductive tract of P. eremicus, which will serve as a crucial resource for future research investigating our hypothesis that the male Cactus mouse possesses an adaptive reproductive phenotype to mitigate water-loss from ejaculate. This study reports genes under positive selection in the male Cactus mouse reproductive transcriptome relative to transcriptomes from Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) and Mus musculus. Thus, this study expands upon existing genetic research in this species, and we provide a high quality transcriptome to enable further explorations of our proposed hypothesis for male Cactus mouse reproductive adaptations to minimize seminal fluid loss. PMID:27812417

  8. Phytobezoar from the stem ("quiote") of the cactus Agave americana: report of case.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, R; Martinez, O; Berumen, U

    1985-11-01

    Agave americana is a cactus growing abundantly in Mexico. Its cooked stem ("quiote") yields by mastication a sweet juice which is swallowed, while the fibers ("bagazo") are spit out. That is the way Mexicans are taught to chew quiote since their early childhood, and it accounts for the rarity of bezoars from this origin. One of such cases is reported herein.

  9. Facilitation of tiger moths by outbreaking tussock moths that share the same host plants.

    PubMed

    Karban, Richard; Grof-Tisza, Patrick; Holyoak, Marcel

    2012-09-01

    1. Ecologists have argued about the commonness and strength of interspecific competition between insect herbivores, but facilitation between herbivores has received much less consideration. We previously found that when two species of folivorous caterpillars co-occurred on a shared host plant, feeding by early season tiger moth caterpillars reduced the growth and reproduction of later season tussock caterpillars. However, densities of tussock caterpillars in summer were positively correlated with densities of tiger moth caterpillars the following spring. 2. In this study, we experimentally manipulated numbers of feeding tussock caterpillars and found that they facilitated tiger moth caterpillars. 3. The depth of the litter layer beneath host lupine bushes was positively correlated with the number of tussock caterpillars feeding on each bush. Experimental additions of litter beneath lupine canopies during summer resulted in increased numbers of tiger moth caterpillars in the following spring, indicating a causal role of litter. Litter potentially provides food, habitat and protection from desiccation and predation. We failed to find evidence that tussock caterpillars facilitated tiger moth caterpillars by mechanisms independent of litter. 4. Our study demonstrates that facilitation may operate between insect herbivores, across life-stages through indirect interactions that are non-trophic. Facilitation operated by a novel mechanism, the accumulation of litter which was a by-product of feeding by one species was valuable to a second species. Facilitation persisted in time and space far beyond the creation of litter by tussock caterpillars which should be considered important ecosystem engineers from the point of view of tiger moths. Facilitations that involve habitat modification may generally connect species that do not interact directly or trophically, and have not previously been considered to affect one another.

  10. Auditory encoding during the last moment of a moth's life.

    PubMed

    Fullard, James H; Dawson, Jeff W; Jacobs, David S

    2003-01-01

    The simple auditory system of noctuoid moths has long been a model for anti-predator studies in neuroethology, although these ears have rarely been experimentally stimulated by the sounds they would encounter from naturally attacking bats. We exposed the ears of five noctuoid moth species to the pre-recorded echolocation calls of an attacking bat (Eptesicus fuscus) to observe the acoustic encoding of the receptors at this critical time in their defensive behaviour. The B cell is a non-tympanal receptor common to all moths that has been suggested to respond to sound, but we found no evidence of this and suggest that its acoustic responsiveness is an artifact arising from its proprioceptive function. The A1 cell, the most sensitive tympanal receptor in noctuid and arctiid moths and the only auditory receptor in notodontid moths, encodes the attack calls with a bursting firing pattern to a point approximately 150 ms from when the bat would have captured the moth. At this point, the firing of the A1 cell reduces to a non-bursting pattern with longer inter-spike periods, suggesting that the moth may no longer express the erratic flight used to escape very close bats. This may be simply due to the absence of selection pressure on moths for auditory tracking of bat echolocation calls beyond this point. Alternatively, the reduced firing may be due to the acoustic characteristics of attack calls in the terminal phase and an acoustic maneuver used by the bat to facilitate its capture of the moth. Although the role of less sensitive A2 cell remains uncertain in the evasive flight responses of moths it may act as a trigger in eliciting sound production, a close-range anti-bat behaviour in the tiger moth, Cycnia tenera.

  11. Life stage toxicity and residual activity of insecticides to codling moth and oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Magalhaes, Leonardo C; Walgenbach, James F

    2011-12-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck), are two key pests of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) in North Carolina. Growers extensively relied on organophosphate insecticides, primarily azinphosmethyl, for > 40 yr to manage these pests. Because of organophosphate resistance development and regulatory actions, growers are transitioning to management programs that use new, reduced-risk, and OP-replacement insecticides. This study evaluated the toxicity of a diversity of replacement insecticides to eggs, larvae, and adults, as well as an assessment of their residual activity, to codling moth and oriental fruit moth. Laboratory-susceptible strains of both species were used for all bioassays. Fresh field-harvested apples were used as a media for assessing the ovicidal activity of insecticides. For larval studies, insecticides were topically applied to the surface of lima bean-based diet, onto which neonates were placed. Toxicity was based on two measures of mortality; 5-d mortality and development to adult stage. Ovicidal bioassays showed that oriental fruit moth eggs were generally more tolerant than codling moth eggs to insecticides, with novaluron, acetamiprid, and azinphoshmethyl having the highest levels of toxicity to eggs of both species. In contrast, codling moth larvae generally were more tolerant than oriental fruit moth to most insecticides. Methoxyfenozide and pyriproxyfen were the only insecticides with lower LC50 values against codling moth than oriental fruit moth neonates. Moreover, a number of insecticides, particularly the IGRs methoxyfenozide and novaluron, the anthranilic diamide chlorantriliprole, and the spinosyn spinetoram, provided equal or longer residual activity against codling moth compared with azinphosmethyl in field studies. Results are discussed in relation to their use in devising field use patterns of insecticides and for insecticide resistance monitoring programs.

  12. Nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as a source of bioactive compounds for nutrition, health and disease.

    PubMed

    El-Mostafa, Karym; El Kharrassi, Youssef; Badreddine, Asmaa; Andreoletti, Pierre; Vamecq, Joseph; El Kebbaj, M'Hammed Saïd; Latruffe, Norbert; Lizard, Gérard; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids has been highlighted through the use of a large panel of extraction methods. The identified natural cactus compounds and derivatives were shown to be endowed with biologically relevant activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial and neuroprotective properties. The present review is aimed at stressing the major classes of cactus components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefit and therapeutic impacts. PMID:25232708

  13. Nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as a source of bioactive compounds for nutrition, health and disease.

    PubMed

    El-Mostafa, Karym; El Kharrassi, Youssef; Badreddine, Asmaa; Andreoletti, Pierre; Vamecq, Joseph; El Kebbaj, M'Hammed Saïd; Latruffe, Norbert; Lizard, Gérard; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

    2014-09-17

    Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids has been highlighted through the use of a large panel of extraction methods. The identified natural cactus compounds and derivatives were shown to be endowed with biologically relevant activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial and neuroprotective properties. The present review is aimed at stressing the major classes of cactus components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefit and therapeutic impacts.

  14. RNA Interference in Moths: Mechanisms, Applications, and Progress

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jin; Wang, Xia-Fei; Chen, Peng; Liu, Fang-Tao; Zheng, Shuai-Chao; Ye, Hui; Mo, Ming-He

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of lepidopterans, about 90%, are moths. Some moths, particularly their caterpillars, are major agricultural and forestry pests in many parts of the world. However, some other members of moths, such as the silkworm Bombyx mori, are famous for their economic value. Fire et al. in 1998 initially found that exogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can silence the homolog endogenous mRNA in organisms, which is called RNA interference (RNAi). Soon after, the RNAi technique proved to be very promising not only in gene function determination but also in pest control. However, later studies demonstrate that performing RNAi in moths is not as straightforward as shown in other insect taxa. Nevertheless, since 2007, especially after 2010, an increasing number of reports have been published that describe successful RNAi experiments in different moth species either on gene function analysis or on pest management exploration. So far, more than 100 peer-reviewed papers have reported successful RNAi experiments in moths, covering 10 families and 25 species. By using classic and novel dsRNA delivery methods, these studies effectively silence the expression of various target genes and determine their function in larval development, reproduction, immunology, resistance against chemicals, and other biological processes. In addition, a number of laboratory and field trials have demonstrated that RNAi is also a potential strategy for moth pest management. In this review, therefore, we summarize and discuss the mechanisms and applications of the RNAi technique in moths by focusing on recent progresses. PMID:27775569

  15. Moth tails divert bat attack: evolution of acoustic deflection.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jesse R; Leavell, Brian C; Keener, Adam L; Breinholt, Jesse W; Chadwell, Brad A; McClure, Christopher J W; Hill, Geena M; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-03-01

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼ 47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator-prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey.

  16. Don't Squash That Gypsy Moth . . . Yet!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershkowitz, Gerald

    1979-01-01

    Although the gypsy moth defoliates over 2 million trees annually, it can serve as an extremely valuable tool for promoting environmental awareness. The gypsy moth can illustrate insect life cycles, sexual dimorphism, scent attraction, many stimulus response experiments, evolution, natural controls, and pesticide uses and dangers. (SB)

  17. Monitoring and Managing Codling Moth Clearly and Precisely

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in two ‘Comice’ pear orchards treated with sex pheromone in southern Oregon to implement the use of site-specific management practices for codling moth. The density of monitoring traps was increased and insecticide sprays were applied based on moth catch thresholds. Only porti...

  18. Moth tails divert bat attack: Evolution of acoustic deflection

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jesse R.; Leavell, Brian C.; Keener, Adam L.; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Chadwell, Brad A.; McClure, Christopher J. W.; Hill, Geena M.; Kawahara, Akito Y.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptations to divert the attacks of visually guided predators have evolved repeatedly in animals. Using high-speed infrared videography, we show that luna moths (Actias luna) generate an acoustic diversion with spinning hindwing tails to deflect echolocating bat attacks away from their body and toward these nonessential appendages. We pit luna moths against big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) and demonstrate a survival advantage of ∼47% for moths with tails versus those that had their tails removed. The benefit of hindwing tails is equivalent to the advantage conferred to moths by bat-detecting ears. Moth tails lured bat attacks to these wing regions during 55% of interactions between bats and intact luna moths. We analyzed flight kinematics of moths with and without hindwing tails and suggest that tails have a minimal role in flight performance. Using a robust phylogeny, we find that long spatulate tails have independently evolved four times in saturniid moths, further supporting the selective advantage of this anti-bat strategy. Diversionary tactics are perhaps more common than appreciated in predator–prey interactions. Our finding suggests that focusing on the sensory ecologies of key predators will reveal such countermeasures in prey. PMID:25730869

  19. Effects of short photoperiod on codling moth diapause and survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential presence of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., in apples shipped to countries within the 30th latitudes has raised concerns that this pest could establish and spread in these countries. Previous research demonstrated that codling moth in apples handled under simulated commercial cold st...

  20. Attraction of the orange mint moth and false celery leaftier moth (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to floral chemical lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orange mint moths, Pyrausta orphisalis (Walker) (Crambidae) were initially trapped in a study of noctuid moth attraction to floral volatiles. A subsequent series of trapping experiments in commercial mint fields determined that phenylacetaldehyde and 4-oxoisophorone are attractive to P. orphisalis, ...

  1. Phylogeographic structure in the bogus yucca moth Prodoxus quinquepunctellus (Prodoxidae): comparisons with coexisting pollinator yucca moths.

    PubMed

    Althoff, D M; Groman, J D; Segraves, K A; Pellmyr, O

    2001-10-01

    The pollination mutualism between yucca moths and yuccas highlights the potential importance of host plant specificity in insect diversification. Historically, one pollinator moth species, Tegeticula yuccasella, was believed to pollinate most yuccas. Recent phylogenetic studies have revealed that it is a complex of at least 13 distinct species, eight of which are specific to one yucca species. Moths in the closely related genus Prodoxus also specialize on yuccas, but they do not pollinate and their larvae feed on different plant parts. Previous research demonstrated that the geographically widespread Prodoxus quinquepunctellus can rapidly specialize to its host plants and may harbor hidden species diversity. We examined the phylogeographic structure of P. quinquepunctellus across its range to compare patterns of diversification with six coexisting pollinator yucca moth species. Morphometric and mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I sequence data indicated that P. quinquepunctellus as currently described contains two species. There was a deep division between moth populations in the eastern and the western United States, with limited sympatry in central Texas; these clades are considered separate species and are redescribed as P. decipiens and P. quinquepunctellus (sensu stricto), respectively. Sequence data also showed a lesser division within P. quinquepunctellus s.s. between the western populations on the Colorado Plateau and those elsewhere. The divergence among the three emerging lineages corresponded with major biogeographic provinces, whereas AMOVA indicated that host plant specialization has been relatively unimportant in diversification. In comparison, the six pollinator species comprise three lineages, one eastern and two western. A pollinator species endemic to the Colorado Plateau has evolved in both of the western lineages. The east-west division and the separate evolution of two Colorado Plateau pollinator species suggest that similar biogeographic factors have

  2. 7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living... cactus moths are contained in part 330 of this chapter. (b) Cactus plants or parts thereof...

  3. 7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living... cactus moths are contained in part 330 of this chapter. (b) Cactus plants or parts thereof...

  4. 7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living... cactus moths are contained in part 330 of this chapter. (b) Cactus plants or parts thereof...

  5. 7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living... cactus moths are contained in part 330 of this chapter. (b) Cactus plants or parts thereof...

  6. 7 CFR 301.55-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) The South American cactus moth, in any living... cactus moths are contained in part 330 of this chapter. (b) Cactus plants or parts thereof...

  7. Moth Sex Pheromone Receptors and Deceitful Parapheromones

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pingxi; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Atungulu, Elizabeth; Syed, Zainulabeuddin; Choo, Young-Moo; Vidal, Diogo M.; Zitelli, Caio H. L.; Leal, Walter S.

    2012-01-01

    The insect's olfactory system is so selective that male moths, for example, can discriminate female-produced sex pheromones from compounds with minimal structural modifications. Yet, there is an exception for this “lock-and-key” tight selectivity. Formate analogs can be used as replacement for less chemically stable, long-chain aldehyde pheromones, because male moths respond physiologically and behaviorally to these parapheromones. However, it remained hitherto unknown how formate analogs interact with aldehyde-sensitive odorant receptors (ORs). Neuronal responses to semiochemicals were investigated with single sensillum recordings. Odorant receptors (ORs) were cloned using degenerate primers, and tested with the Xenopus oocyte expression system. Quality, relative quantity, and purity of samples were evaluated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in trichoid sensilla on the antennae of male navel orangeworm that responded equally to the main constituent of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadienal (Z11Z13-16Ald), and its formate analog, (9Z,11Z)-tetradecen-1-yl formate (Z9Z11-14OFor). We cloned an odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) and aldehyde-sensitive ORs from the navel orangeworm, one of which (AtraOR1) was expressed specifically in male antennae. AtraOR1•AtraOrco-expressing oocytes responded mainly to Z11Z13-16Ald, with moderate sensitivity to another component of the sex pheromone, (11Z,13Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol. Surprisingly, this receptor was more sensitive to the related formate than to the natural sex pheromone. A pheromone receptor from Heliothis virescens, HR13 ( = HvirOR13) showed a similar profile, with stronger responses elicited by a formate analog than to the natural sex pheromone, (11Z)-hexadecenal thus suggesting this might be a common feature of moth pheromone receptors. PMID:22911835

  8. DNA Barcoding of Gypsy Moths From China (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) Reveals New Haplotypes and Divergence Patterns Within Gypsy Moth Subspecies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Luo, Youqing; Keena, Melody A; Wu, Ying; Wu, Peng; Shi, Juan

    2016-02-01

    The gypsy moth from Asia (two subspecies) is considered a greater threat to North America than European gypsy moth, because of a broader host range and females being capable of flight. Variation within and among gypsy moths from China (nine locations), one of the native countries of Asian gypsy moth, were compared using DNA barcode sequences (658 bp of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 [COI] sequence), together with two restriction site mtDNA markers (NlaIII and BamHI in COI), which is the standard system used to distinguish European gypsy moths from Asian gypsy moths. Relatedness of these populations to gypsy moths from seven other world areas was also examined. The restriction site markers showed that two Chinese populations had both Asian and European haplotypes. DNA barcode sequence divergence between the Asian populations and the European populations was three times greater than the variation within each group. Using Bayesian and parsimonious network analyses, nine previously unknown barcode haplotypes were documented from China and a single haplotype was found to be shared by 55% of the Chinese and some Far Eastern Russian and Japanese individuals. Some gypsy moths from two Chinese populations showed genetic affinity with mtDNA haplotypes from Siberia, Russia, suggesting there could be a cryptic new subspecies in Lymantria dispar (L.) or human-aided movement of moths between these two locations at an earlier point in time. The previously unknown haplotype patterns may complicate efforts to identify Asian gypsy moth introductions and require changes in monitoring and exclusion programs.

  9. DNA Barcoding of Gypsy Moths From China (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) Reveals New Haplotypes and Divergence Patterns Within Gypsy Moth Subspecies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Luo, Youqing; Keena, Melody A; Wu, Ying; Wu, Peng; Shi, Juan

    2016-02-01

    The gypsy moth from Asia (two subspecies) is considered a greater threat to North America than European gypsy moth, because of a broader host range and females being capable of flight. Variation within and among gypsy moths from China (nine locations), one of the native countries of Asian gypsy moth, were compared using DNA barcode sequences (658 bp of mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 [COI] sequence), together with two restriction site mtDNA markers (NlaIII and BamHI in COI), which is the standard system used to distinguish European gypsy moths from Asian gypsy moths. Relatedness of these populations to gypsy moths from seven other world areas was also examined. The restriction site markers showed that two Chinese populations had both Asian and European haplotypes. DNA barcode sequence divergence between the Asian populations and the European populations was three times greater than the variation within each group. Using Bayesian and parsimonious network analyses, nine previously unknown barcode haplotypes were documented from China and a single haplotype was found to be shared by 55% of the Chinese and some Far Eastern Russian and Japanese individuals. Some gypsy moths from two Chinese populations showed genetic affinity with mtDNA haplotypes from Siberia, Russia, suggesting there could be a cryptic new subspecies in Lymantria dispar (L.) or human-aided movement of moths between these two locations at an earlier point in time. The previously unknown haplotype patterns may complicate efforts to identify Asian gypsy moth introductions and require changes in monitoring and exclusion programs. PMID:26371156

  10. Effects of short photoperiod on codling moth diapause and survival.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G

    2013-02-01

    The potential presence of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., in apples shipped to countries within the 30th latitudes has raised concerns that this pest could establish and spread in these countries. Previous research demonstrated that codling moth in apples handled under simulated commercial cold storage conditions and held under short day lengths could not break diapause and emerge in sufficient numbers to establish a minimum viable population. This study expands the in-fruit work by examining the ability of codling moth to establish a laboratory population under a short photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h, as compared with a long photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. Codling moth larvae were collected from field infested fruits in 2010 and 2011. Moths were collected from the infested fruits and separated into two groups representing the two daylength conditions. In total, 1,004 larvae were monitored for adult emergence and ability to generate a subsequent population. Larvae held under the photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h generated only one moth in the 2 yr period, whereas larvae held under the photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h generated 186 females and 179 males, that sustained subsequent generations on artificial diet under laboratory conditions. These results indicate that under controlled environmental conditions, codling moth cannot complete diapause and emerge in sufficient numbers to sustain a viable population when held under a short photoperiod.

  11. Multiple origins of the yucca-yucca moth association.

    PubMed Central

    Bogler, D J; Neff, J L; Simpson, B B

    1995-01-01

    The association of species of yucca and their pollinating moths is considered one of the two classic cases of obligate mutualism between floral hosts and their pollinators. The system involves the active collection of pollen by females of two prodoxid moth genera and the subsequent purposeful placement of the pollen on conspecific stigmas of species of Yucca. Yuccas essentially depend on the moths for pollination and the moths require Yucca ovaries for oviposition. Because of the specificity involved, it has been assumed that the association arose once, although it has been suggested that within the prodoxid moths as a whole, pollinators have arisen from seed predators more than once. We show, by using phylogenies generated from three molecular data sets, that the supposed restriction of the yucca moths and their allies to the Agavaceae is an artifact caused by an incorrect circumscription of this family. In addition we provide evidence that Yucca is not monophyletic, leading to the conclusion that the modern Yucca-yucca moth relationship developed independently more than once by colonization of a new host. PMID:7624333

  12. Spatial analysis of harmonic oscillation of gypsy moth outbreak intensity.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Kyle J; Liebhold, Andrew M; Johnson, Derek M

    2009-03-01

    Outbreaks of many forest-defoliating insects are synchronous over broad geographic areas and occur with a period of approximately 10 years. Within the range of the gypsy moth in North America, however, there is considerable geographic heterogeneity in strength of periodicity and the frequency of outbreaks. Furthermore, gypsy moth outbreaks exhibit two significant periodicities: a dominant period of 8-10 years and a subdominant period of 4-5 years. In this study, we used a simulation model and spatially referenced time series of outbreak intensity data from the Northeastern United States to show that the bimodal periodicity in the intensity of gypsy moth outbreaks is largely a result of harmonic oscillations in gypsy moth abundance at and above a 4 km(2) scale of resolution. We also used geographically weighted regression models to explore the effects of gypsy moth host-tree abundance on the periodicity of gypsy moths. We found that the strength of 5-year cycles increased relative to the strength of 10-year cycles with increasing host tree abundance. We suggest that this pattern emerges because high host-tree availability enhances the growth rates of gypsy moth populations.

  13. 'Un chant d'appel amoureux': acoustic communication in moths

    PubMed

    Conner

    1999-07-01

    Tympanal sound receptors in moths evolved in response to selective pressures provided by echolocating insectivorous bats. The presence of these ultrasound detectors also set the stage for the later evolution of ultrasonic courtship signals in the tympanate moth families. Male moths have repeatedly exploited the bat-detection mechanisms in females for the purpose of finding, identifying and obtaining mates. Ultrasonic courtship has been described in several members of the moth families Arctiidae, Noctuidae and Pyralidae, and ultrasound is predicted to play a significant role in the courtship of other tympanate moths including the Sphingidae, Lymantriidae, Notodontidae and Geometridae. Ultrasonic signals are involved in species recognition, in male-male competition for mates and in female mate-choice systems. Pre-existing motor systems, including those involved in bat defence, have also been exploited for the purpose of generating high-frequency courtship signals. Sound production mechanisms in moths include thoracic tymbals, tegular tymbals, alar castanets and genital stridulatory organs. Thus, in both their sensory and motor aspects, the weapons of bat/moth warfare have frequently evolved into components of courtship systems. PMID:10359675

  14. The effect of variety and location on cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit quality.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Maryna; Nel, Philip; Osthoff, Gernot; Labuschagne, Maryke T

    2010-06-01

    Little is known about the performance of South African cactus pear varieties in different agro-ecological regions. Effects of locality on internal quality parameters of available cactus pear varieties were examined. With only one exception, no significant differences among the mean replication values for the different parameters between the different locations were observed. The differences between mean values for most individual parameters at the three localities were highly significant. Highly significant differences between the mean values for the measured characteristics were observed, not only among the locations (except for the pulp glucose values), but also for the influences of genotype and interaction between locality and genotype. Significant variations existed between mean values of the different characteristics between localities. Genotype x environmental interactions were noted. It was concluded that Meyers is the most appropriate cultivar for economical purposes in South Africa.

  15. Fish and wildlife to determine endangered status of San Rafael Cactus

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service has proposed to determine the endangered status of the San Rafael Cactus. Although the only known occurrences of the species do not appear to fall within the boundaries of the San Rafael Swell Special Tar Sands Area, nearby combined hydrocarbon leasing could be impacted. There are two known populations of Pediocactus despainii, about 25 miles apart and each containing 2000 to 3000 individuals. Both occur in central Utah (Emery County), mainly in areas administered by the Bureau of Land Management. This rare species is being sought be cactus collectors, one population is heavily impacted by recreational off-road vehicles, and approximately one-half of each population is in areas covered by oil and gas leases and/or mining claims for gypsum. If the species is determined to be endangered, then the Fish and Wildlife Service could define a critical habitat for its preservation.

  16. Divergence in olfactory host plant preference in D. mojavensis in response to cactus host use.

    PubMed

    Date, Priya; Dweck, Hany K M; Stensmyr, Marcus C; Shann, Jodi; Hansson, Bill S; Rollmann, Stephanie M

    2013-01-01

    Divergence in host adaptive traits has been well studied from an ecological and evolutionary perspective, but identification of the proximate mechanisms underlying such divergence is less well understood. Behavioral preferences for host plants are often mediated by olfaction and shifts in preference may be accompanied by changes in the olfactory system. In this study, we examine the evolution of host plant preferences in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that feeds and breeds on different cacti throughout its range. We show divergence in electrophysiological responses and olfactory behavior among populations with host plant shifts. Specifically, significant divergence was observed in the Mojave Desert population that specializes on barrel cactus. Differences were observed in electrophysiological responses of the olfactory organs and in behavioral responses to barrel cactus volatiles. Together our results suggest that the peripheral nervous system has changed in response to different ecological environments and that these changes likely contribute to divergence among D. mojavensis populations.

  17. Divergence in Olfactory Host Plant Preference in D. mojavensis in Response to Cactus Host Use

    PubMed Central

    Stensmyr, Marcus C.; Shann, Jodi; Hansson, Bill S.; Rollmann, Stephanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Divergence in host adaptive traits has been well studied from an ecological and evolutionary perspective, but identification of the proximate mechanisms underlying such divergence is less well understood. Behavioral preferences for host plants are often mediated by olfaction and shifts in preference may be accompanied by changes in the olfactory system. In this study, we examine the evolution of host plant preferences in cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that feeds and breeds on different cacti throughout its range. We show divergence in electrophysiological responses and olfactory behavior among populations with host plant shifts. Specifically, significant divergence was observed in the Mojave Desert population that specializes on barrel cactus. Differences were observed in electrophysiological responses of the olfactory organs and in behavioral responses to barrel cactus volatiles. Together our results suggest that the peripheral nervous system has changed in response to different ecological environments and that these changes likely contribute to divergence among D. mojavensis populations. PMID:23936137

  18. [Thermal tolerance of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella].

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiang-Qian; Ma, Chun-Sen; Zhang, Shu; Lü, Liang

    2012-03-01

    Diamondback moth Plutella xylostella is a worldwide important pest on cruciferous vegetables. Critical thermal maximum (CTMax) is often used as an index for the thermal tolerance of insects. By the method of dynamic heating, this paper measured the CTMax of P. xylostella in a self-assembled device, and studied the effects of development stage, rearing temperature, generation, sex, and heat shock on the thermal tolerance of P. xylostella based on the CTMax values. Reared at 25 degrees C, the mean CTMax of the 4th larva (50.31 degrees C) was significantly higher than that of the 1st larva (43.03 degrees C), 2nd larva (46.39 degrees C), 3rd larva (49.67 degrees C), female adult (45.76 degrees C), and male adult (47.73 degrees C); reared at 20, 25, and 30 degrees C, the adults had no significant difference in their CTMax; reared at 30 degrees C for 1-, 3-, and 6 generations, the CTMax of the adults also had no significant difference. In all the treatments, the CTMax of the female and male adults had less difference. Heat shock with 40 degrees C for 45 minutes could make the CTMax of 5 day-old male moth increased from 45.51 degrees C to 46.49 degrees C.

  19. Analysis of core soil and water samples from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.L.; Noshkin, V.E.

    1981-02-18

    Core soil samples and water samples were collected from the Cactus Crater Disposal Site at Enewetak for analysis of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239 +240/Pu and /sup 241/Am by both gamma spectroscopy and, through a contractor laboratory, by wet chemistry procedures. The samples processing methods, the analytical methods and the analytical quality control are all procedures developed for the continuing Marshall Island radioecology and dose assessment work.

  20. Intestinal bioaccessibility of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of pulp and seeds of cactus pear.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Moreno, E; Hervert-Hernández, D; Sánchez-Mata, M C; Díez-Marqués, C; Goñi, I

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this work was to estimate the intestinal bioaccessibility of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of cactus pear using an in vitro gastrointestinal model. The amount of polyphenols released from the food matrix by the action of digestive enzymes was about 69-83% in pulp and 0-14% in seeds. The rest of polyphenols was associated with indigestible compounds conferring antioxidant capacity. The results suggest that these compounds could reach the colon and induce healthy effects.

  1. The moth as an allusion to (symbol of?) mother.

    PubMed

    Shengold, L

    1996-07-01

    The meanings of the image of the moth are examined. The use of the moth as both victim and predator, with allusive and symbolic reference to parent and child, is elucidated. My emphasis is on the equation of the moth by children with their intrapsychic registration of a destructive yet vulnerable parent (usually mother) whom the child both wants to destroy and feels it cannot live without. This simple thesis is made use of chiefly to explicate aspects of the life and works of the great American writer, Elizabeth Bishop.

  2. [MOTH FLIES (DIPTERA, PSYCHODIDAE) AS A NEW MEDICAL DISINSECTION OBJECT].

    PubMed

    Alekseev, M A

    2015-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to moth flies, a new medical disinsection object in our country. These insects are common in urban areas, generally in the premises with poor sanitary conditions. Moth fly larvae may cause accidental human urinary miasmata; imagoes, if many, become a worrisome factor; a source of allergy, and potential mechanical vectors of human diseases. In this connection, it is necessary to implement measures to control the number of the moth flies when the latter are detected on the objects particularly in therapeutic and preventive facilities and public catering esablishments.

  3. Bacteria Associated with Copestylum (Diptera, Syrphidae) Larvae and Their Cactus Host Isolatocereus dumortieri

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Falcón, Ana Paola; Durbán, Ana; Latorre, Amparo; Antón, Josefa; Marcos-García, María de los Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    We describe the gut bacterial diversity inhabiting two saprophagous syrphids and their breeding substrate (decayed tissues of the columnar cactus Isolatocereus dumortieri). We analyzed the gut microbiota of Copestylum latum (scooping larvae that feed on decayed cactus tissues) and Copestylum limbipenne (whose larvae can also feed on semiliquid tissues) using molecular techniques. DNA was extracted from larval guts and cactus tissues. The V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA genes was amplified and sequenced. A total of 31079 sequences were obtained. The main findings are: C. limbipenne is dominated by several Enterobacteriaceae, including putative nitrogen-fixing genera and pectinolitic species and some denitrifying species, whereas in C. latum unclassified Gammaproteobacteria predominate. Decayed tissues have a dominant lactic acid bacterial community. The bacterial communities were more similar between larval species than between each larva and its breeding substrate. The results suggest that the gut bacterial community in these insects is not strongly affected by diet and must be dependent on other factors, such as vertical transmission, evolutionary history and host innate immunity. PMID:22132101

  4. Transcriptional variation associated with cactus host plant adaptation in Drosophila mettleri populations.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Kim; Matzkin, Luciano M; Bono, Jeremy M

    2015-10-01

    Although the importance of host plant chemistry in plant-insect interactions is widely accepted, the genetic basis of adaptation to host plants is not well understood. Here, we investigate transcriptional changes associated with a host plant shift in Drosophila mettleri. While D. mettleri is distributed mainly throughout the Sonoran Desert where it specializes on columnar cacti (Carnegiea gigantea and Pachycereus pringleii), a population on Santa Catalina Island has shifted to chemically divergent coastal prickly pear cactus (Opuntia littoralis). We compared gene expression of larvae from the Sonoran Desert and Santa Catalina Island when reared on saguaro (C. gigantea), coastal prickly pear and laboratory food. Consistent with expectations based on the complexity and toxicity of cactus relative to laboratory food, within-population comparisons between larvae reared on these food sources revealed transcriptional differences in detoxification and other metabolic pathways. The majority of transcriptional differences between populations on the cactus hosts were independent of the rearing environment and included a disproportionate number of genes involved in processes relevant to host plant adaptation (e.g. detoxification, central metabolism and chemosensory pathways). Comparisons of transcriptional reaction norms between the two populations revealed extensive shared plasticity that likely allowed colonization of coastal prickly pear on Santa Catalina Island. We also found that while plasticity may have facilitated subsequent adaptive divergence in gene expression between populations, the majority of genes that differed in expression on the novel host were not transcriptionally plastic in the presumed ancestral state. PMID:26384860

  5. Habitat fragmentation in coastal southern California disrupts genetic connectivity in the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus).

    PubMed

    Barr, Kelly R; Kus, Barbara E; Preston, Kristine L; Howell, Scarlett; Perkins, Emily; Vandergast, Amy G

    2015-05-01

    Achieving long-term persistence of species in urbanized landscapes requires characterizing population genetic structure to understand and manage the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on connectivity. Urbanization over the past century in coastal southern California has caused both precipitous loss of coastal sage scrub habitat and declines in populations of the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Using 22 microsatellite loci, we found that remnant cactus wren aggregations in coastal southern California comprised 20 populations based on strict exact tests for population differentiation, and 12 genetic clusters with hierarchical Bayesian clustering analyses. Genetic structure patterns largely mirrored underlying habitat availability, with cluster and population boundaries coinciding with fragmentation caused primarily by urbanization. Using a habitat model we developed, we detected stronger associations between habitat-based distances and genetic distances than Euclidean geographic distance. Within populations, we detected a positive association between available local habitat and allelic richness and a negative association with relatedness. Isolation-by-distance patterns varied over the study area, which we attribute to temporal differences in anthropogenic landscape development. We also found that genetic bottleneck signals were associated with wildfire frequency. These results indicate that habitat fragmentation and alterations have reduced genetic connectivity and diversity of cactus wren populations in coastal southern California. Management efforts focused on improving connectivity among remaining populations may help to ensure population persistence.

  6. Protective effect of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladode extract upon nickel-induced toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Hfaiedh, Najla; Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Feki, Abdelfattah El; Zourgui, Lazhar; Croute, Françoise

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the protective effects of regular ingestion of juice from the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladodes against nickel chloride toxicity. Rats were given either normal tap water or water containing 25% of cactus juice for one month. Then, rats of each group were injected daily, for 10 days, with either NiCl(2) solution (4mg (30micromol)/kg body weight) or with the same volume of saline solution (300mM NaCl). Significant increases of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase activities and of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels were observed in blood of nickel-treated rats. In the liver, nickel chloride was found to induce an oxidative stress evidenced by an increase in lipid peroxidation and changes in antioxidant enzymes activities. Superoxide-dismutase (SOD) activity was found to be increased whereas glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were decreased. These changes did not occur in animals previously given cactus juice, demonstrating a protective effect of this vegetal extract.

  7. Transcriptional variation associated with cactus host plant adaptation in Drosophila mettleri populations.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Kim; Matzkin, Luciano M; Bono, Jeremy M

    2015-10-01

    Although the importance of host plant chemistry in plant-insect interactions is widely accepted, the genetic basis of adaptation to host plants is not well understood. Here, we investigate transcriptional changes associated with a host plant shift in Drosophila mettleri. While D. mettleri is distributed mainly throughout the Sonoran Desert where it specializes on columnar cacti (Carnegiea gigantea and Pachycereus pringleii), a population on Santa Catalina Island has shifted to chemically divergent coastal prickly pear cactus (Opuntia littoralis). We compared gene expression of larvae from the Sonoran Desert and Santa Catalina Island when reared on saguaro (C. gigantea), coastal prickly pear and laboratory food. Consistent with expectations based on the complexity and toxicity of cactus relative to laboratory food, within-population comparisons between larvae reared on these food sources revealed transcriptional differences in detoxification and other metabolic pathways. The majority of transcriptional differences between populations on the cactus hosts were independent of the rearing environment and included a disproportionate number of genes involved in processes relevant to host plant adaptation (e.g. detoxification, central metabolism and chemosensory pathways). Comparisons of transcriptional reaction norms between the two populations revealed extensive shared plasticity that likely allowed colonization of coastal prickly pear on Santa Catalina Island. We also found that while plasticity may have facilitated subsequent adaptive divergence in gene expression between populations, the majority of genes that differed in expression on the novel host were not transcriptionally plastic in the presumed ancestral state.

  8. Dark matter and gamma-rays from Draco: MAGIC, GLAST and CACTUS

    SciTech Connect

    Bergstrom, Lars; Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab

    2005-12-01

    The dwarf spheroidal galaxy Draco has long been considered likely to be one of the brightest point sources of gamma-rays generated through dark matter annihilations. Recent studies of this object have found that it remains largely intact from tidal striping, and may be more massive than previously thought. In this article, we revisit Draco as a source of dark matter annihilation radiation, with these new observational constraints in mind. We discuss the prospects for the experiments MAGIC and GLAST to detect dark matter in Draco, as well as constraints from the observations of EGRET. We also discuss the possibility that the CACTUS experiment has already detected gamma-rays from Draco. We find that it is difficult to generate the flux reported by CACTUS without resorting to non-thermally produced WIMPs and/or a density spike in Draco's dark matter distribution due to the presence of an intermediate mass black hole. We also find that for most annihilation modes, a positive detection of Draco by CACTUS would be inconsistent with the lack of events seen by EGRET.

  9. Dark matter and gamma rays from Draco: MAGIC, GLAST and CACTUS

    SciTech Connect

    Bergstroem, Lars; Hooper, Dan

    2006-03-15

    The dwarf spheroidal galaxy Draco has long been considered likely to be one of the brightest point sources of gamma rays generated through dark matter annihilations. Recent studies of this object have found that it remains largely intact from tidal striping, and may be more massive than previously thought. In this article, we revisit Draco as a source of dark matter annihilation radiation, with these new observational constraints in mind. We discuss the prospects for the experiments MAGIC and GLAST to detect dark matter in Draco, as well as constraints from the observations of EGRET. We also discuss the possibility that the CACTUS experiment has already detected gamma rays from Draco. We find that it is difficult to generate the flux reported by CACTUS without resorting to nonthermally produced WIMPs and/or a density spike in Draco's dark matter distribution due to the presence of an intermediate mass black hole. We also find that for most annihilation modes, a positive detection of Draco by CACTUS would be inconsistent with the lack of events seen by EGRET.

  10. Habitat fragmentation in coastal southern California disrupts genetic connectivity in the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, Kelly R.; Kus, Barbara E.; Preston, Kristine; Howell, Scarlett; Perkins, Emily; Vandergast, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Achieving long-term persistence of species in urbanized landscapes requires characterizing population genetic structure to understand and manage the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on connectivity. Urbanization over the past century in coastal southern California has caused both precipitous loss of coastal sage scrub habitat and declines in populations of the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Using 22 microsatellite loci, we found that remnant cactus wren aggregations in coastal southern California comprised 20 populations based on strict exact tests for population differentiation, and 12 genetic clusters with hierarchical Bayesian clustering analyses. Genetic structure patterns largely mirrored underlying habitat availability, with cluster and population boundaries coinciding with fragmentation caused primarily by urbanization. Using a habitat model we developed, we detected stronger associations between habitat-based distances and genetic distances than Euclidean geographic distance. Within populations, we detected a positive association between available local habitat and allelic richness and a negative association with relatedness. Isolation-by-distance patterns varied over the study area, which we attribute to temporal differences in anthropogenic landscape development. We also found that genetic bottleneck signals were associated with wildfire frequency. These results indicate that habitat fragmentation and alterations have reduced genetic connectivity and diversity of cactus wren populations in coastal southern California. Management efforts focused on improving connectivity among remaining populations may help to ensure population persistence.

  11. Protective effect of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladode extract upon nickel-induced toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Hfaiedh, Najla; Allagui, Mohamed Salah; Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Feki, Abdelfattah El; Zourgui, Lazhar; Croute, Françoise

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the protective effects of regular ingestion of juice from the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladodes against nickel chloride toxicity. Rats were given either normal tap water or water containing 25% of cactus juice for one month. Then, rats of each group were injected daily, for 10 days, with either NiCl(2) solution (4mg (30micromol)/kg body weight) or with the same volume of saline solution (300mM NaCl). Significant increases of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase activities and of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels were observed in blood of nickel-treated rats. In the liver, nickel chloride was found to induce an oxidative stress evidenced by an increase in lipid peroxidation and changes in antioxidant enzymes activities. Superoxide-dismutase (SOD) activity was found to be increased whereas glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were decreased. These changes did not occur in animals previously given cactus juice, demonstrating a protective effect of this vegetal extract. PMID:18950672

  12. Habitat fragmentation in coastal southern California disrupts genetic connectivity in the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus).

    PubMed

    Barr, Kelly R; Kus, Barbara E; Preston, Kristine L; Howell, Scarlett; Perkins, Emily; Vandergast, Amy G

    2015-05-01

    Achieving long-term persistence of species in urbanized landscapes requires characterizing population genetic structure to understand and manage the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on connectivity. Urbanization over the past century in coastal southern California has caused both precipitous loss of coastal sage scrub habitat and declines in populations of the cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus). Using 22 microsatellite loci, we found that remnant cactus wren aggregations in coastal southern California comprised 20 populations based on strict exact tests for population differentiation, and 12 genetic clusters with hierarchical Bayesian clustering analyses. Genetic structure patterns largely mirrored underlying habitat availability, with cluster and population boundaries coinciding with fragmentation caused primarily by urbanization. Using a habitat model we developed, we detected stronger associations between habitat-based distances and genetic distances than Euclidean geographic distance. Within populations, we detected a positive association between available local habitat and allelic richness and a negative association with relatedness. Isolation-by-distance patterns varied over the study area, which we attribute to temporal differences in anthropogenic landscape development. We also found that genetic bottleneck signals were associated with wildfire frequency. These results indicate that habitat fragmentation and alterations have reduced genetic connectivity and diversity of cactus wren populations in coastal southern California. Management efforts focused on improving connectivity among remaining populations may help to ensure population persistence. PMID:25819510

  13. Characterizing the interaction between the bogus yucca moth and yuccas: do bogus yucca moths impact yucca reproductive success?

    PubMed

    Althoff, David M; Segraves, Kari A; Sparks, Jed P

    2004-07-01

    Yucca moths are most well known for their obligate pollination mutualism with yuccas, where pollinator moths provide yuccas with pollen and, in exchange, the moth larvae feed on a subset of the developing yucca seeds. The pollinators, however, comprise only two of the three genera of yucca moths. Members of the third genus, Prodoxus, are the "bogus yucca moths" and are sister to the pollinator moths. Adult Prodoxus lack the specialized mouthparts used for pollination and the larvae feed on plant tissues other than seeds. Prodoxus larvae feed within the same plants as pollinator larvae and have the potential to influence yucca reproductive success directly by drawing resources away from flowers and fruit, or indirectly by modifying the costs of the mutualism with pollinators. We examined the interaction between the scape-feeding bogus yucca moth, Prodoxus decipiens, and one of its yucca hosts, Yucca filamentosa, by comparing female reproductive success of plants with and without moth larvae. We determined reproductive success by measuring a set of common reproductive traits such as flowering characteristics, seed set, and seed germination. In addition, we also quantified the percent total nitrogen in the seeds to determine whether the presence of larvae could potentially reduce seed quality. Flowering characteristics, seed set, and seed germination were not significantly different between plants with and without bogus yucca moth larvae. In contrast, the percent total nitrogen content of seeds was significantly lower in plants with P. decipiens larvae, and nitrogen content was negatively correlated with the number of larvae feeding within the inflorescence scape. Surveys of percent total nitrogen at three time periods during the flowering and fruiting of Y. filamentosa also showed that larval feeding decreased the amount of nitrogen in fruit tissue. Taken together, the results suggest that although P. decipiens influences nitrogen distribution in Y. filamentosa, this

  14. The Gypsy Moth as an Environmental Education Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, James

    1984-01-01

    Several ecological concepts--such as population dynamics, the impact of exotic species, integrated pest management, and predation--can be demonstrated utilizing the Gypsy Moth. Suggested materials and procedure for the lessons are provided. (ERB)

  15. Street lighting: sex-independent impacts on moth movement.

    PubMed

    Degen, Tobias; Mitesser, Oliver; Perkin, Elizabeth K; Weiß, Nina-Sophie; Oehlert, Martin; Mattig, Emily; Hölker, Franz

    2016-09-01

    Artificial lights have become an integral and welcome part of our urban and peri-urban environments. However, recent research has highlighted the potentially negative ecological consequences of ubiquitous artificial light. In particular, insects, especially moths, are expected to be negatively impacted by the presence of artificial lights. Previous research with light traps has shown a male-biased attraction to light in moths. In this study, we sought to determine whether street lights could limit moth dispersal and whether there was any sex bias in attraction to light. More specifically, we aimed to determine sex-specific attraction radii for moths to street lights. We tested these hypotheses by collecting moths for 2 years at an experimental set-up. To estimate the attraction radii, we developed a Markov model and related it to the acquired data. Utilizing multinomial statistics, we found that attraction rates to lights in the middle of the matrix were substantially lower than predicted by the null hypothesis of equal attraction level (0·44 times). With the Markov model, we estimated that a corner light was 2·77 times more attractive than a wing light with an equivalentre attraction radius of c. 23 m around each light. We found neither sexual differences in the attraction rate nor in the attraction radius of males and females. Since we captured three times more males than females, we conclude that sex ratios are representative of operational sex ratios or of different flight activities. These results provide evidence for street lights to limit moth dispersal, and that they seem to act equally on male and female moths. Consequently, public lighting might divide a suitable landscape into many small habitats. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume (i) that public lighting near hedges and bushes or field margins reduces the quality of these important habitat structures and (ii) that public lighting may affect moth movement between patches. PMID:27146262

  16. Street lighting: sex-independent impacts on moth movement.

    PubMed

    Degen, Tobias; Mitesser, Oliver; Perkin, Elizabeth K; Weiß, Nina-Sophie; Oehlert, Martin; Mattig, Emily; Hölker, Franz

    2016-09-01

    Artificial lights have become an integral and welcome part of our urban and peri-urban environments. However, recent research has highlighted the potentially negative ecological consequences of ubiquitous artificial light. In particular, insects, especially moths, are expected to be negatively impacted by the presence of artificial lights. Previous research with light traps has shown a male-biased attraction to light in moths. In this study, we sought to determine whether street lights could limit moth dispersal and whether there was any sex bias in attraction to light. More specifically, we aimed to determine sex-specific attraction radii for moths to street lights. We tested these hypotheses by collecting moths for 2 years at an experimental set-up. To estimate the attraction radii, we developed a Markov model and related it to the acquired data. Utilizing multinomial statistics, we found that attraction rates to lights in the middle of the matrix were substantially lower than predicted by the null hypothesis of equal attraction level (0·44 times). With the Markov model, we estimated that a corner light was 2·77 times more attractive than a wing light with an equivalentre attraction radius of c. 23 m around each light. We found neither sexual differences in the attraction rate nor in the attraction radius of males and females. Since we captured three times more males than females, we conclude that sex ratios are representative of operational sex ratios or of different flight activities. These results provide evidence for street lights to limit moth dispersal, and that they seem to act equally on male and female moths. Consequently, public lighting might divide a suitable landscape into many small habitats. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume (i) that public lighting near hedges and bushes or field margins reduces the quality of these important habitat structures and (ii) that public lighting may affect moth movement between patches.

  17. Review of samples of sediment, tailings, and waters adjacent to the Cactus Queen gold mine, Kern County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rytuba, James J.; Kim, Christopher S.; Goldstein, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    The Cactus Queen Mine is located in the western Mojave Desert in Kern County, California. The Cactus Queen gold-silver (Au-Ag) deposit is similar to other Au-Ag deposits hosted in Miocene volcanic rocks that consist of silicic domes and associated flows, pyroclastic rocks, and subvolcanic intrusions. The volcanic rocks were emplaced onto a basement of Mesozoic silicic intrusive rocks. A part of the Cactus Queen Mine is located on Federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Staff from the BLM initially sampled the mine area and documented elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in tailings and sediment. BLM then requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with Chapman University, measure and characterize As and other geochemical constituents in sediment, tailings, and waters on the part of the mine on Federal lands. This report is made in response to the request by the BLM, the lead agency mandated to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to the potential removal of As-contaminated mine waste from the Cactus Queen Mine as a means of reducing As release and exposure to humans and biota. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of sediments, mine tailings, and surface waters at the Cactus Queen Mine on January 27, 2008. Our results provide a preliminary assessment of the sources of As and associated chemical constituents that could potentially impact humans and biota.

  18. Synthesis of "cactus" top-decorated aligned carbon nanotubes and their third-order nonlinear optical properties.

    PubMed

    Li, P H; Qu, Y L; Xu, X J; Zhu, Y W; Yu, T; Chin, K C; Mi, J; Gao, X Y; Lim, C T; Shen, Z X; Wee, A T S; Ji, W; Sow, C H

    2006-04-01

    We report a new morphology of "cactus" top-decorated aligned carbon nanotubes grown by the PECVD method using pure C2H2 gas. Unlike most previous reports, no additional carrier gas is used for pretreatment. Carbon nanotubes can still grow and maintain the tubular structure underneath the "cactus" tops. It is proposed that the H atoms produced by the dissociation of C2H2 activate the catalyst nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the top "cactus" morphology is composed of a large quantity of small nanosheets. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals the amorphous carbon nature of these "cactus" structures. The formation of these "cactus" structures is possibly due to covalent absorption and reconstruction of carbon atoms on the broken graphite layers of nanotubes produced by the strong ion bombardment under plasma. The third-order optical nonlinearities and nonlinear dynamics are also investigated. The third-order nonlinear susceptibility magnitude /chi(3)/ is found to be 2.2 x 10(-11) esu, and the relaxation process takes place in about 1.8 ps. PMID:16736755

  19. Ancient diversification of Hyposmocoma moths in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Haines, William P; Schmitz, Patrick; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Island biogeography is fundamental to understanding colonization, speciation and extinction. Remote volcanic archipelagoes represent ideal natural laboratories to study biogeography because they offer a discrete temporal and spatial context for colonization and speciation. The moth genus Hyposmocoma is one of very few lineages that diversified across the entire Hawaiian Archipelago, giving rise to over 400 species, including many restricted to the remote northwestern atolls and pinnacles, remnants of extinct volcanoes. Here, we report that Hyposmocoma is ~15 million years old, in contrast with previous studies of the Hawaiian biota, which have suggested that most lineages colonized the archipelago after the emergence of the current high islands (~5 Myr ago). We show that Hyposmocoma has dispersed from the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands to the current high islands more than 20 times. The ecological requirements of extant groups of Hyposmocoma provide insights into vanished ecosystems on islands that have long since eroded. PMID:24651317

  20. Ancient diversification of Hyposmocoma moths in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Haines, William P; Schmitz, Patrick; Rubinoff, Daniel

    2014-03-20

    Island biogeography is fundamental to understanding colonization, speciation and extinction. Remote volcanic archipelagoes represent ideal natural laboratories to study biogeography because they offer a discrete temporal and spatial context for colonization and speciation. The moth genus Hyposmocoma is one of very few lineages that diversified across the entire Hawaiian Archipelago, giving rise to over 400 species, including many restricted to the remote northwestern atolls and pinnacles, remnants of extinct volcanoes. Here, we report that Hyposmocoma is ~15 million years old, in contrast with previous studies of the Hawaiian biota, which have suggested that most lineages colonized the archipelago after the emergence of the current high islands (~5 Myr ago). We show that Hyposmocoma has dispersed from the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands to the current high islands more than 20 times. The ecological requirements of extant groups of Hyposmocoma provide insights into vanished ecosystems on islands that have long since eroded.

  1. Moths Behaving like Butterflies. Evolutionary Loss of Long Range Attractant Pheromones in Castniid Moths: A Paysandisia archon Model

    PubMed Central

    Sarto i Monteys, Víctor; Acín, Patricia; Rosell, Glòria; Quero, Carmen; Jiménez, Miquel A.; Guerrero, Angel

    2012-01-01

    Background In the course of evolution butterflies and moths developed two different reproductive behaviors. Whereas butterflies rely on visual stimuli for mate location, moths use the ‘female calling plus male seduction’ system, in which females release long-range sex pheromones to attract conspecific males. There are few exceptions from this pattern but in all cases known female moths possess sex pheromone glands which apparently have been lost in female butterflies. In the day-flying moth family Castniidae (“butterfly-moths”), which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies, with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP) components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. Conclusions/Significance This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol. The outlined behavior, long thought to be unique to butterflies, is likely to be widespread in Castniidae implying a novel, unparalleled butterfly-like reproductive behavior in moths. This will also have practical implications in applied entomology since it signifies that the monitoring/control of castniid pests should not be based on the use of female-produced pheromones, as it is

  2. Microbial populations and activities in the rhizoplane of rock-weathering desert plants. II. Growth promotion of cactus seedlings.

    PubMed

    Puente, M E; Li, C Y; Bashan, Y

    2004-09-01

    Four bacterial species isolated from the rhizoplane of cacti growing in bare lava rocks were assessed for growth promotion of giant cardon cactus seedlings (Pachycereus pringlei). These bacteria fixed N(2), dissolved P, weathered extrusive igneous rock, marble, and limestone, and significantly mobilized useful minerals, such as P, K, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in rock minerals. Cardon cactus seeds inoculated with these bacteria were able to sprout and grow normally without added nutrients for at least 12 months in pulverized extrusive igneous rock (ancient lava flows) mixed with perlite. Cacti that were not inoculated grew less vigorously and some died. The amount of useful minerals (P, K, Fe, Mg) for plant growth extracted from the pulverized lava, measured after cultivation of inoculated plants, was significant. This study shows that rhizoplane bacteria isolated from rock-growing cacti promote growth of a cactus species, and can help supply essential minerals for a prolonged period of time.

  3. Microbial populations and activities in the rhizoplane of rock-weathering desert plants. II. Growth promotion of cactus seedlings.

    PubMed

    Puente, M E; Li, C Y; Bashan, Y

    2004-09-01

    Four bacterial species isolated from the rhizoplane of cacti growing in bare lava rocks were assessed for growth promotion of giant cardon cactus seedlings (Pachycereus pringlei). These bacteria fixed N(2), dissolved P, weathered extrusive igneous rock, marble, and limestone, and significantly mobilized useful minerals, such as P, K, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn in rock minerals. Cardon cactus seeds inoculated with these bacteria were able to sprout and grow normally without added nutrients for at least 12 months in pulverized extrusive igneous rock (ancient lava flows) mixed with perlite. Cacti that were not inoculated grew less vigorously and some died. The amount of useful minerals (P, K, Fe, Mg) for plant growth extracted from the pulverized lava, measured after cultivation of inoculated plants, was significant. This study shows that rhizoplane bacteria isolated from rock-growing cacti promote growth of a cactus species, and can help supply essential minerals for a prolonged period of time. PMID:15375736

  4. Validation of CME Detection Software (CACTus) by Means of Simulated Data, and Analysis of Projection Effects on CME Velocity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonte, K.; Jacobs, C.; Robbrecht, E.; de Groof, A.; Berghmans, D.; Poedts, S.

    2011-05-01

    In the context of space weather forecasting, an automated detection of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) becomes more and more important for efficiently handling a large data flow which is expected from recently-launched and future solar missions. In this paper we validate the detection software package "CACTus" by applying the program to synthetic data from our 3D time-dependent CME simulations instead of observational data. The main strength of this study is that we know in advance what should be detected. We describe the sensitivities and strengths of automated detection, more specific for the CACTus program, resulting in a better understanding of CME detection on one hand and the calibration of the CACTus software on the other hand, suggesting possible improvements of the package. In addition, the simulation is an ideal tool to investigate projection effects on CME velocity measurements.

  5. Dating Cactus: Annual and Sub-annual Variations of Oxygen-18, Carbon-13 and Radiocarbon in Spines of a Columnar Cactus, Carnegiea gigantea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettman, D. L.; English, N. B.; Sandquist, D. R.; Williams, D. G.

    2006-12-01

    We measured δ18O, δ13C and F14C of spines from a long-lived columnar cactus, Carnegiea gigantea (saguaro), to resolve a record of plant physiological responses to annual and sub-annual climate variation in the eastern Sonoran Desert. Spines grow from the apex of the cactus and are arranged serially along the side of the cactus oldest at the base, youngest at the apex. To establish the age of the spine series, we measured F14C of spines collected at 8 different heights from the apex (3.77 m) to the base of a naturally occurring saguaro. These spines yielded fractions of modern carbon (F14C) from 0.9679 and 1.5537, indicating the presence of carbon in spine tissue derived from atmospheric nuclear testing. We used the F14C of spine tissue to calculate the year of spine emergence for each of the 11 spines, assuming minimal re-allocation of stored carbon to growing spines. At the same 8 heights, we interpolated the date of spine emergence from observed height measurements made between 1964 and 2002. A very strong positive correlation (linear regression, r2 = 0.99, P < 0.0001) between the F14C age of spines and ages determined from direct height measurements was observed, with a two year offset suggesting incorporation of carbon from fossil fuel combustion sources in the Tucson basin. Additionally, spine tips from 97 spines collected serially from the top half of the same saguaro (between 1.77 and 3.50 m) and representing ~15 years of growth, yielded δ18O variations in spine bulk organic material from 38° to 50° (VSMOW) and in δ13C from ° to 11.5° (VPDB). The δ18O and δ13C values were positively correlated over the entire record (linear regression, r2 = 0.22, P < 0.0001). These variations occurred at or near an annual frequency. The most negative δ18O and δ13C values in bulk spine organic material from the naturally occurring cactus were observed in spines grown shortly following the 1983 and 1993 strong El Niño winter precipitation events in Tucson

  6. Microencapsulation of betalains obtained from cactus fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica) by spray drying using cactus cladode mucilage and maltodextrin as encapsulating agents.

    PubMed

    Otálora, María Carolina; Carriazo, José Gregorio; Iturriaga, Laura; Nazareno, Mónica Azucena; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-11-15

    The microencapsulation of betalains from cactus fruit by spray drying was evaluated as a stabilization strategy for these pigments. The betalains used as active agent were extracted from purple fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (BE) and encapsulated with maltodextrin and cladode mucilage MD-CM and only with MD. The microcapsulates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis (TGA-DSC), tristimulus colorimetry, as well as, their humidity, water activity and dietary fiber content were also determined. The active agent content was measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and its composition confirmed by HPLC-ESIMS. A pigment storage stability test was performed at 18 °C and different relative humidities. The addition of CM in the formulation increased the encapsulation efficiency, diminished the moisture content, and allowed to obtain more uniform size and spherical particles, with high dietary fiber content. These microencapsulates are promising functional additive to be used as natural colorant in the food industry. PMID:25977013

  7. Microencapsulation of betalains obtained from cactus fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica) by spray drying using cactus cladode mucilage and maltodextrin as encapsulating agents.

    PubMed

    Otálora, María Carolina; Carriazo, José Gregorio; Iturriaga, Laura; Nazareno, Mónica Azucena; Osorio, Coralia

    2015-11-15

    The microencapsulation of betalains from cactus fruit by spray drying was evaluated as a stabilization strategy for these pigments. The betalains used as active agent were extracted from purple fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica (BE) and encapsulated with maltodextrin and cladode mucilage MD-CM and only with MD. The microcapsulates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal analysis (TGA-DSC), tristimulus colorimetry, as well as, their humidity, water activity and dietary fiber content were also determined. The active agent content was measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and its composition confirmed by HPLC-ESIMS. A pigment storage stability test was performed at 18 °C and different relative humidities. The addition of CM in the formulation increased the encapsulation efficiency, diminished the moisture content, and allowed to obtain more uniform size and spherical particles, with high dietary fiber content. These microencapsulates are promising functional additive to be used as natural colorant in the food industry.

  8. The development of CACTUS : a wind and marine turbine performance simulation code.

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew Franklin; Murray, Jonathan

    2010-12-01

    CACTUS (Code for Axial and Cross-flow TUrbine Simulation) is a turbine performance simulation code, based on a free wake vortex method, under development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of a Department of Energy program to study marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. The current effort builds upon work previously done at SNL in the area of vertical axis wind turbine simulation, and aims to add models to handle generic device geometry and physical models specific to the marine environment. An overview of the current state of the project and validation effort is provided.

  9. Increased acidification in the rhizosphere of cactus seedlings induced by Azospirillum brasilense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, Angel; Li, Ching; Bashan, Yoav

    2002-08-01

    Acidification of the rhizosphere of cactus seedlings (giant cardon, Pachycereus pringlei) after inoculation with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense Cd, in the presence or absence of ammonium and nitrate, was studied to understand how to increase growth of cardon seedlings in poor desert soils. While ammonium enhanced rhizosphere and liquid culture acidification, inoculation with the bacteria enhanced it further. On the other hand, nitrate increased pH of the rhizosphere, but combined with the bacterial inoculation, increase in pH was significantly smaller. Bacterial inoculation with ammonium enhanced plant growth.

  10. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  11. 78 FR 24665 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Wisconsin AGENCY: Animal... are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas in Wisconsin to the list of generally infested areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this...

  12. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  13. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  14. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  15. 7 CFR 319.77-3 - Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. 319.77-3 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth Host Material from Canada § 319.77-3 Gypsy moth infested areas in Canada. The following areas in Canada are known to be...

  16. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  17. 76 FR 21613 - Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Gypsy Moth Generally Infested Areas; Additions in Indiana, Maine, Ohio...: Interim rule and request for comments. SUMMARY: We are amending the gypsy moth regulations by adding areas... areas based on the detection of infestations of gypsy moth in those areas. As a result of this...

  18. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  19. 7 CFR 301.45-10 - Movement of live gypsy moths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live gypsy moths. 301.45-10 Section 301.45... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth § 301.45-10 Movement of live gypsy moths. Regulations requiring a permit for, and otherwise governing the movement of,...

  20. Keeping up with bats: dynamic auditory tuning in a moth.

    PubMed

    Windmill, James Frederick Charles; Jackson, Joseph Curt; Tuck, Elizabeth Jane; Robert, Daniel

    2006-12-19

    Many night-flying insects evolved ultrasound sensitive ears in response to acoustic predation by echolocating bats . Noctuid moths are most sensitive to frequencies at 20-40 kHz , the lower range of bat ultrasound . This may disadvantage the moth because noctuid-hunting bats in particular echolocate at higher frequencies shortly before prey capture and thus improve their echolocation and reduce their acoustic conspicuousness . Yet, moth hearing is not simple; the ear's nonlinear dynamic response shifts its mechanical sensitivity up to high frequencies. Dependent on incident sound intensity, the moth's ear mechanically tunes up and anticipates the high frequencies used by hunting bats. Surprisingly, this tuning is hysteretic, keeping the ear tuned up for the bat's possible return. A mathematical model is constructed for predicting a linear relationship between the ear's mechanical stiffness and sound intensity. This nonlinear mechanical response is a parametric amplitude dependence that may constitute a feature common to other sensory systems. Adding another twist to the coevolutionary arms race between moths and bats, these results reveal unexpected sophistication in one of the simplest ears known and a novel perspective for interpreting bat echolocation calls.

  1. [Biosynthesis and endocrine regulation of sex pheromones in moth].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Lin, Xin-da; Du, Yong-jun

    2015-10-01

    The crucial importance of sex pheromones in driving mating behaviors in moths has been well demonstrated in the process of sexual communication between individuals that produce and recognize species specific pheromones. Sex-pheromone molecules from different moth species are chemically characteristic, showing different terminal functional groups, various carbon chain lengths, different position and configuration of double bond system. This review summarized information on the biosynthetic pathways and enzymes involved in producing pheromone molecules in different moths. Then we listed the components and their ratios in the sex pheromones of 15 moth species belonging to different subfamilies in Noctuidae. We also discussed the various viewpoints regarding how sex pheromones with specific ratios are produced. In the discussion we attempted to classify the pheromone molecules based on their producers, characteristics of their functional groups and carbon chain lengths. In particular, composition and ratio variations of pheromones in closely related species or within a species were compared, and the possible molecular mechanisms for these variations and their evolutionary significance were discussed. Finally, we reviewed the endocrine regulation and signal transduction pathways, in which the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) is involved. Comparing the biosynthetic pathways of sex pheromones among different species, this article aimed to reveal the common principles in pheromone biosynthesis among moth species and the characteristic features associated with the evolutionary course of individual species. Subsequently, some future research directions were proposed.

  2. The evolution and expression of the moth visual opsin family.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengjun; Lu, Bin; Xiao, Haijun; Fu, Xiaowei; Murphy, Robert W; Wu, Kongming

    2013-01-01

    Because visual genes likely evolved in response to their ambient photic environment, the dichotomy between closely related nocturnal moths and diurnal butterflies forms an ideal basis for investigating their evolution. To investigate whether the visual genes of moths are associated with nocturnal dim-light environments or not, we cloned long-wavelength (R), blue (B) and ultraviolet (UV) opsin genes from 12 species of wild-captured moths and examined their evolutionary functions. Strong purifying selection appeared to constrain the functions of the genes. Dark-treatment altered the levels of mRNA expression in Helicoverpa armigera such that R and UV opsins were up-regulated after dark-treatment, the latter faster than the former. In contrast, B opsins were not significantly up-regulated. Diel changes of opsin mRNA levels in both wild-captured and lab-reared individuals showed no significant fluctuation within the same group. However, the former group had significantly elevated levels of expression compared with the latter. Consequently, environmental conditions appeared to affect the patterns of expression. These findings and the proportional expression of opsins suggested that moths potentially possessed color vision and the visual system played a more important role in the ecology of moths than previously appreciated. This aspect did not differ much from that of diurnal butterflies.

  3. Resolving the Moth at Millimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricarte, Angelo; Moldvai, Noel; Hughes, A. Meredith; Duchêne, Gaspard; Williams, Jonathan P.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.

    2013-09-01

    HD 61005, also known as "The Moth," is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back "wings" thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.''9 that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution (SED). The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constraints on the disk geometry from scattered light imaging, and find suggestive evidence of wavelength-dependent structure. The millimeter-wavelength emission apparently originates predominantly from the thin ring component rather than tracing the "wings" observed in scattered light. The implied segregation of large dust grains in the ring is consistent with an ISM-driven origin for the scattered light wings.

  4. RESOLVING THE MOTH AT MILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Ricarte, Angelo; Moldvai, Noel; Hughes, A. Meredith; Duchene, Gaspard; Williams, Jonathan P.; Andrews, Sean M.; Wilner, David J.

    2013-09-01

    HD 61005, also known as ''The Moth'', is one of only a handful of debris disks that exhibit swept-back ''wings'' thought to be caused by interaction with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). We present 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array observations of the debris disk around HD 61005 at a spatial resolution of 1.''9 that resolve the emission from large grains for the first time. The disk exhibits a double-peaked morphology at millimeter wavelengths, consistent with an optically thin ring viewed close to edge-on. To investigate the disk structure and the properties of the dust grains we simultaneously model the spatially resolved 1.3 mm visibilities and the unresolved spectral energy distribution (SED). The temperatures indicated by the SED are consistent with expected temperatures for grains close to the blowout size located at radii commensurate with the millimeter and scattered light data. We also perform a visibility-domain analysis of the spatial distribution of millimeter-wavelength flux, incorporating constraints on the disk geometry from scattered light imaging, and find suggestive evidence of wavelength-dependent structure. The millimeter-wavelength emission apparently originates predominantly from the thin ring component rather than tracing the ''wings'' observed in scattered light. The implied segregation of large dust grains in the ring is consistent with an ISM-driven origin for the scattered light wings.

  5. Moth's eye anti-reflection gratings on germanium freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Meng; Shultz, Jason A.; Owen, Joseph D.; Davies, Matthew A.; Suleski, Thomas J.

    2014-09-01

    Germanium is commonly used for optical components in the infrared, but the high refractive index of germanium causes significant losses due to Fresnel reflections. Anti-reflection (AR) surfaces based on subwavelength "moth's eye" gratings provide one means to significantly increase optical transmission. As found in nature, these gratings are conformal to the curved surfaces of lenslets in the eye of the moth. Engineered optical systems inspired by biological examples offer possibilities for increased performance and system miniaturization, but also introduce significant challenges to both design and fabrication. In this paper, we consider the design and fabrication of conformal moth's eye AR structures on germanium freeform optical surfaces, including lens arrays and Alvarez lenses. Fabrication approaches and limitations based on both lithography and multi-axis diamond machining are considered. Rigorous simulations of grating performance and approaches for simulation of conformal, multi-scale optical systems are discussed.

  6. Effective directional self-gathering of drops on spine of cactus with splayed capillary arrays

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chengcheng; Xue, Yan; Chen, Yuan; Zheng, Yongmei

    2015-01-01

    We report that the fast droplet transport without additional energy expenditure can be achieved on the spine of cactus (Gymnocalycium baldianum) with the assistance of its special surface structure: the cactus spine exhibits a cone-like structure covered with tilted scales. A single scale and the spine surface under it cooperatively construct a splayed capillary tube. The arrays of capillary tube formed by the overlapping scales build up the out layer of the spine. The serial drops would be driven by the asymmetric structure resulted from tilt-up scales-by-scales on the cone-shaped spine, and move directionally toward the bottom from top of spine, by means of the Laplace pressure in differences. In addition, after the past of the first droplet, thin liquid film of drop is trapped in the splayed capillary micro-tube on the surface of spine, which greatly reduces the friction of subsequential droplet transport in efficiency. This finding provides a new biological model which could be used to transport droplet spontaneously and directionally. Also this work offers a way to reduce the surface adhesion by constructing liquid film on the surface, which has great significance in prompting droplet transport efficiency. PMID:26639758

  7. Phylogeography of the Cactophilic Drosophila and Other Arthropods Associated with Cactus Necroses in the Sonoran Desert

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiler, Edward; Markow, Therese A.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the population genetics, phylogenetic relationships, systematics and evolution of arthropods that inhabit necrotic tissue of cacti in the Sonoran Desert of North America are reviewed. These studies have focused upon several species of insects (orders Diptera and Coleoptera) and arachnids (order Pseudoscorpiones). For most taxa studied, little genetic structure and high dispersal ability are found in populations inhabiting the mainland and Baja California peninsula regions of the Sonoran Desert, consistent with the availability of the rotting cactus microhabitat which is patchily distributed and ephemeral. There is evidence, however, that the Gulf of California, which bisects the Sonoran Desert, has played a role in limiting gene flow and promoting speciation in several taxa, including histerid beetles, whereas other taxa, especially Drosophila nigrospiracula and D. mettleri, apparently are able to freely cross the Gulf, probably by taking advantage of the Midriff Islands in the northern Gulf as dispersal “stepping stones”. Genetic evidence has also been found for historical population expansions dating to the Pleistocene and late Pliocene in several taxa. Overall, these studies have provided important insights into how arthropods with different life history traits, but generally restricted to a necrotic cactus microhabitat, have evolved in an environmentally harsh and tectonically active region. In addition, they suggest some taxa for further, and more detailed, hypothesis driven studies of speciation. PMID:26467624

  8. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities in extracts of fully grown cladodes of 8 cultivars of cactus pear.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, E; Dávila-Aviña, J; Castillo, S L; Heredia, N; Vázquez-Alvarado, R; García, S

    2014-04-01

    The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of some cultivars of the nopal cactus have not been determined. In this study, 8 cultivars of nopal cacti from Mexico were assayed for phenolic content, antioxidant activities, and antimicrobial activities against Campylobacter Jejuni, Vibrio cholera, and Clostridium Perfringens. Plant material was washed, dried, and macerated in methanol. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined using the broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activities were quantitatively determined using spectrophotometric methods. The MCBs of the nopal cacti ranged from 1.1 to 12.5 mg/mL for c. jejuni, 4.4 to 30 mg/mL for V. cholera, and 0.8 to 16 mg/mL for C. perfringens in the cultivars Cardon Blanco, Real de Catorce, and Jalpa, respectively. High quantities of total phenols and total flavonoids were found in the Jalpa cacti (3.80 mg of gallic acid equivalent GAE/g dry weight [DW] and 36.64 mg of quercetin equivalents [QE]/g DW, respectively). 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities (RSA) were correlated to bioactive compound contents. The Villanueva cacti had the highest %RSA at 42.31%, and the lowest activity was recorded in Copena V1 at 19.98%. In conclusion, we found that some of the 8 cactus pear cultivars studied may be used for their antioxidant compounds or antimicrobials to control or prevent the contamination of foods. PMID:24621296

  9. Effective directional self-gathering of drops on spine of cactus with splayed capillary arrays.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengcheng; Xue, Yan; Chen, Yuan; Zheng, Yongmei

    2015-12-07

    We report that the fast droplet transport without additional energy expenditure can be achieved on the spine of cactus (Gymnocalycium baldianum) with the assistance of its special surface structure: the cactus spine exhibits a cone-like structure covered with tilted scales. A single scale and the spine surface under it cooperatively construct a splayed capillary tube. The arrays of capillary tube formed by the overlapping scales build up the out layer of the spine. The serial drops would be driven by the asymmetric structure resulted from tilt-up scales-by-scales on the cone-shaped spine, and move directionally toward the bottom from top of spine, by means of the Laplace pressure in differences. In addition, after the past of the first droplet, thin liquid film of drop is trapped in the splayed capillary micro-tube on the surface of spine, which greatly reduces the friction of subsequential droplet transport in efficiency. This finding provides a new biological model which could be used to transport droplet spontaneously and directionally. Also this work offers a way to reduce the surface adhesion by constructing liquid film on the surface, which has great significance in prompting droplet transport efficiency.

  10. Factors affecting establishment success of the endangered Caribbean cactus Harrisia portoricensis (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Rojas-Sandoval, Julissa; Meléndez-Ackerman, Elvia

    2012-06-01

    Early plant stages may be the most vulnerable within the life cycle of plants especially in arid ecosystems. Interference from exotic species may exacerbate this condition. We evaluated germination, seedling survival and growth in the endangered Caribbean cactus Harrisia portoricensis, as a function of sunlight exposure (i.e., growing under open and shaded areas), different shade providers (i.e., growing under two native shrubs and one exotic grass species), two levels of predation (i.e., exclusion and non-exclusion) and variable microenvironmental conditions (i.e., temperature, PAR, humidity). Field experiments demonstrated that suitable conditions for germination and establishment of H. portoricensis seedling are optimal in shaded areas beneath the canopy of established species, but experiments also demonstrated that the identity of the shade provider can have a significant influence on the outcome of these processes. Harrisia portoricensis seedlings had higher probabilities of survival and grew better (i.e., larger diameters) when they were transplanted beneath the canopy of native shrubs, than beneath the exotic grass species, where temperature and solar radiation values were on average much higher than those obtained under the canopies of native shrubs. We also detected that exclusion from potential predators did not increase seedling survival. Our combined results for H. portoricensis suggested that the modification of microenvironmental conditions by the exotic grass may lower the probability of recruitment and establishment of this endangered cactus species.

  11. The cactus worm : experiments with dynamic resource discovery and allocation in a grid environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, G.; Angulo, D.; Foster, I.; Lanfermann, G.; Liu, C.; Radke, T.; Seidel, E.; Shalf, J.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Albert-Einstein-Inst.; Univ. of Chicago; LBNL

    2001-01-01

    The ability to harness heterogeneous, dynamically available grid resources is attractive to typically resource-starved computational scientists and engineers, as in principle it can increase, by significant factors, the number of cycles that can be delivered to applications. However, new adaptive application structures and dynamic runtime system mechanisms are required if we are to operate effectively in grid environments. To explore some of these issues in a practical setting, the authors are developing an experimental framework, called Cactus, that incorporates both adaptive application structures for dealing with changing resource characteristics and adaptive resource selection mechanisms that allow applications to change their resource allocations (e.g., via migration) when performance falls outside specified limits. The authors describe the adaptive resource selection mechanisms and describe how they are used to achieve automatic application migration to 'better' resources following performance degradation. The results provide insights into the architectural structures required to support adaptive resource selection. In addition, the authors suggest that the Cactus Worm affords many opportunities for grid computing.

  12. Not all the infected develop the disease - A "Lotus and Cactus" model.

    PubMed

    Pitchappan, Ramasamy M

    2016-06-01

    The immunogenetic dictum "not all the infected develop the disease" can best be explained by a "Lotus and Cactus" model. Lotuses grow in ponds and cacti in deserts: analogously, we can say that tubercle patient's lung (genetic makeup) functions as an ideal 'broth' for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) germs to grow, but not the lungs of an endemic control. HLA association studies from Europe to Asia since 1983 till date, have shown a persistent HLA DR2 (15) association. Further, HLA DR2 and non-DR2 endemic controls showed disparate patterns of immune responses and gene expressions. The host and pathogen MHC diversities, Th1-Th2 paradigm and cytokine circuits all may play a crucial role in TB susceptibility. It is possible to decipher the protective immunity by controlling the known confounders - epidemiological, demographic, socio-biological and also host and pathogen diversities. This has become significant with our understanding on the 'out of Africa' migration and neolithic co-dispersal of M.tb with modern human. Divergence and expansion of various MHCs (eg HLA-DRB1*15, HLA-B*57) and non-MHC alleles in various continents might be responsible for the skewed transmission and distribution of the infectious diseases around the globe. The 'Lotus and Cactus' model proposed here exemplifies this. A holistic genetic epidemiology approach employing modern tools is the need of the hour to better understand infectious disease susceptibility.

  13. Population Genetic Structure of a Widespread Bat-Pollinated Columnar Cactus.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Enriquena; Búrquez, Alberto; Scheinvar, Enrique; Eguiarte, Luis Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Bats are the main pollinators and seed dispersers of Stenocereus thurberi, a xenogamous columnar cactus of northwestern Mexico and a good model to illustrate spatial dynamics of gene flow in long-lived species. Previous studies in this cactus showed differences among populations in the type and abundance of pollinators, and in the timing of flowering and fruiting. In this study we analyzed genetic variability and population differentiation among populations. We used three primers of ISSR to analyze within and among populations genetic variation from eight widely separated populations of S. thurberi in Sonora, Mexico. Sixty-six out of 99 of the ISSR bands (P = 66.7%) were polymorphic. Total heterozygosity for all populations sampled revealed high genetic diversity (Hsp = 0.207, HBT = 0.224). The AMOVA showed that most of the genetic variation was within populations (80.5%). At the species level, estimates of population differentiation, θ = 0.175 and θB = 0.194, indicated moderate gene flow among populations. The absence of a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances indicated little isolation by geographic distance. The large genetic variation and diversity found in S. thurberi is consistent with its open reproductive system and the high mobility of bats, a major pollinator. However, small changes in number or kind of pollinators and seed dispersal agents, in the directionality of migratory routes, and/or in the timing of flowering and fruiting among populations, can critically affect gene flow dynamics.

  14. Influence of abscisic acid and sucrose on somatic embryogenesis in Cactus Copiapoa tenuissima Ritt. forma mostruosa.

    PubMed

    Lema-Rumińska, J; Goncerzewicz, K; Gabriel, M

    2013-01-01

    Having produced the embryos of cactus Copiapoa tenuissima Ritt. forma monstruosa at the globular stage and callus, we investigated the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) in the following concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100  μ M on successive stages of direct (DSE) and indirect somatic embryogenesis (ISE). In the indirect somatic embryogenesis process we also investigated a combined effect of ABA (0, 0.1, 1  μ M) and sucrose (1, 3, 5%). The results showed that a low concentration of ABA (0-1  μ M) stimulates the elongation of embryos at the globular stage and the number of correct embryos in direct somatic embryogenesis, while a high ABA concentration (10-100  μ M) results in growth inhibition and turgor pressure loss of somatic embryos. The indirect somatic embryogenesis study in this cactus suggests that lower ABA concentrations enhance the increase in calli fresh weight, while a high concentration of 10  μ M ABA or more changes calli color and decreases its proliferation rate. However, in the case of indirect somatic embryogenesis, ABA had no effect on the number of somatic embryos and their maturation. Nevertheless, we found a positive effect of sucrose concentration for both the number of somatic embryos and the increase in calli fresh weight.

  15. Effective directional self-gathering of drops on spine of cactus with splayed capillary arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chengcheng; Xue, Yan; Chen, Yuan; Zheng, Yongmei

    2015-12-01

    We report that the fast droplet transport without additional energy expenditure can be achieved on the spine of cactus (Gymnocalycium baldianum) with the assistance of its special surface structure: the cactus spine exhibits a cone-like structure covered with tilted scales. A single scale and the spine surface under it cooperatively construct a splayed capillary tube. The arrays of capillary tube formed by the overlapping scales build up the out layer of the spine. The serial drops would be driven by the asymmetric structure resulted from tilt-up scales-by-scales on the cone-shaped spine, and move directionally toward the bottom from top of spine, by means of the Laplace pressure in differences. In addition, after the past of the first droplet, thin liquid film of drop is trapped in the splayed capillary micro-tube on the surface of spine, which greatly reduces the friction of subsequential droplet transport in efficiency. This finding provides a new biological model which could be used to transport droplet spontaneously and directionally. Also this work offers a way to reduce the surface adhesion by constructing liquid film on the surface, which has great significance in prompting droplet transport efficiency.

  16. Intake, performance, and carcass characteristics of lambs fed spineless cactus replacing wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Felix, Sabrina Carla Rodrigues; Pessoa, Ricardo Alexandre Silva; Ferreira, Marcelo de Andrade; Soares, Luciana Felizardo Pereira; Silva, Janaina de Lima; de Abreu, Karen Santos Felix; de Melo, Ana Caroline Cerqueira

    2016-02-01

    To assess the intake, digestibility of nutrients, ingestive behavior, performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs, 36 F1 Santa Ines × Dorper male lambs with an initial average weight of 19.5 ± 0.27 kg were fed with different levels of spineless cactus (0, 33, 66, and 100 %) as a replacement of the wheat bran. The replacement diets had no effect on the intake of dry matter (DM) or crude protein (CP), whose average values were 962 and 140 g/day, respectively. There was a quadratic effect on the intake of digestible organic matter (OM) and the digestibility of DM, CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC). The highest average daily gain (ADG) of 168 g/day was achieved at 58.7 % replacement level. The highest hot and cold carcass weights of 15.4 and 14.5 kg were achieved at 62.4 and 56.9 % replacement levels. For lambs in the feedlot, we recommend replacing wheat bran with up to 58.7 % spineless cactus.

  17. Population Genetic Structure of a Widespread Bat-Pollinated Columnar Cactus

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Enriquena; Búrquez, Alberto; Scheinvar, Enrique; Eguiarte, Luis Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Bats are the main pollinators and seed dispersers of Stenocereus thurberi, a xenogamous columnar cactus of northwestern Mexico and a good model to illustrate spatial dynamics of gene flow in long-lived species. Previous studies in this cactus showed differences among populations in the type and abundance of pollinators, and in the timing of flowering and fruiting. In this study we analyzed genetic variability and population differentiation among populations. We used three primers of ISSR to analyze within and among populations genetic variation from eight widely separated populations of S. thurberi in Sonora, Mexico. Sixty-six out of 99 of the ISSR bands (P = 66.7%) were polymorphic. Total heterozygosity for all populations sampled revealed high genetic diversity (Hsp = 0.207, HBT = 0.224). The AMOVA showed that most of the genetic variation was within populations (80.5%). At the species level, estimates of population differentiation, θ = 0.175 and θB = 0.194, indicated moderate gene flow among populations. The absence of a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances indicated little isolation by geographic distance. The large genetic variation and diversity found in S. thurberi is consistent with its open reproductive system and the high mobility of bats, a major pollinator. However, small changes in number or kind of pollinators and seed dispersal agents, in the directionality of migratory routes, and/or in the timing of flowering and fruiting among populations, can critically affect gene flow dynamics. PMID:27015281

  18. Are cactus growth forms related to germination responses to light? A test using Echinopsis species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Baes, Pablo; Aparicio-González, Mónica; Galíndez, Guadalupe; del Fueyo, Patricia; Sühring, Silvia; Rojas-Aréchiga, Mariana

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of light regimen (white light vs. darkness) on the germination of 12 species of the Echinopsis genus (tribe Trichocereeae, Cactaceae). This genus presents a variety of growth forms and relatively small and uniform seed size. These traits allowed us to test, within the same linage and removing seed mass effect, the hypothesis that the germination response to light (indifferent to light or positive photoblastic) is related to growth form. Our results reject this hypothesis since no seeds germinated in darkness, so all of the species can be classified as being positively photoblastic. The proportion of seed germination with white light was significantly different among cactus growth forms. Columnar cacti (arborescent, creeping and short) showed a greater proportion of seed germination than barrel and globose cacti. The germination rate differed among growth forms and species. At constant temperatures, creeping columnar cacti presented a significantly higher germination rate than the other growth forms. With alternating temperatures, columnar cacti showed higher germination rates than the other growth forms. The low proportion of seeds that germinated for some species indicates that they show seed dormancy. Our results suggest that germination responses to light in the cactus family could be related to seed mass and phylogenetic constraints.

  19. Not all the infected develop the disease - A "Lotus and Cactus" model.

    PubMed

    Pitchappan, Ramasamy M

    2016-06-01

    The immunogenetic dictum "not all the infected develop the disease" can best be explained by a "Lotus and Cactus" model. Lotuses grow in ponds and cacti in deserts: analogously, we can say that tubercle patient's lung (genetic makeup) functions as an ideal 'broth' for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) germs to grow, but not the lungs of an endemic control. HLA association studies from Europe to Asia since 1983 till date, have shown a persistent HLA DR2 (15) association. Further, HLA DR2 and non-DR2 endemic controls showed disparate patterns of immune responses and gene expressions. The host and pathogen MHC diversities, Th1-Th2 paradigm and cytokine circuits all may play a crucial role in TB susceptibility. It is possible to decipher the protective immunity by controlling the known confounders - epidemiological, demographic, socio-biological and also host and pathogen diversities. This has become significant with our understanding on the 'out of Africa' migration and neolithic co-dispersal of M.tb with modern human. Divergence and expansion of various MHCs (eg HLA-DRB1*15, HLA-B*57) and non-MHC alleles in various continents might be responsible for the skewed transmission and distribution of the infectious diseases around the globe. The 'Lotus and Cactus' model proposed here exemplifies this. A holistic genetic epidemiology approach employing modern tools is the need of the hour to better understand infectious disease susceptibility. PMID:26611827

  20. Population Genetic Structure of a Widespread Bat-Pollinated Columnar Cactus.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Enriquena; Búrquez, Alberto; Scheinvar, Enrique; Eguiarte, Luis Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Bats are the main pollinators and seed dispersers of Stenocereus thurberi, a xenogamous columnar cactus of northwestern Mexico and a good model to illustrate spatial dynamics of gene flow in long-lived species. Previous studies in this cactus showed differences among populations in the type and abundance of pollinators, and in the timing of flowering and fruiting. In this study we analyzed genetic variability and population differentiation among populations. We used three primers of ISSR to analyze within and among populations genetic variation from eight widely separated populations of S. thurberi in Sonora, Mexico. Sixty-six out of 99 of the ISSR bands (P = 66.7%) were polymorphic. Total heterozygosity for all populations sampled revealed high genetic diversity (Hsp = 0.207, HBT = 0.224). The AMOVA showed that most of the genetic variation was within populations (80.5%). At the species level, estimates of population differentiation, θ = 0.175 and θB = 0.194, indicated moderate gene flow among populations. The absence of a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances indicated little isolation by geographic distance. The large genetic variation and diversity found in S. thurberi is consistent with its open reproductive system and the high mobility of bats, a major pollinator. However, small changes in number or kind of pollinators and seed dispersal agents, in the directionality of migratory routes, and/or in the timing of flowering and fruiting among populations, can critically affect gene flow dynamics. PMID:27015281

  1. Effective directional self-gathering of drops on spine of cactus with splayed capillary arrays.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengcheng; Xue, Yan; Chen, Yuan; Zheng, Yongmei

    2015-01-01

    We report that the fast droplet transport without additional energy expenditure can be achieved on the spine of cactus (Gymnocalycium baldianum) with the assistance of its special surface structure: the cactus spine exhibits a cone-like structure covered with tilted scales. A single scale and the spine surface under it cooperatively construct a splayed capillary tube. The arrays of capillary tube formed by the overlapping scales build up the out layer of the spine. The serial drops would be driven by the asymmetric structure resulted from tilt-up scales-by-scales on the cone-shaped spine, and move directionally toward the bottom from top of spine, by means of the Laplace pressure in differences. In addition, after the past of the first droplet, thin liquid film of drop is trapped in the splayed capillary micro-tube on the surface of spine, which greatly reduces the friction of subsequential droplet transport in efficiency. This finding provides a new biological model which could be used to transport droplet spontaneously and directionally. Also this work offers a way to reduce the surface adhesion by constructing liquid film on the surface, which has great significance in prompting droplet transport efficiency. PMID:26639758

  2. Intake, performance, and carcass characteristics of lambs fed spineless cactus replacing wheat bran.

    PubMed

    Felix, Sabrina Carla Rodrigues; Pessoa, Ricardo Alexandre Silva; Ferreira, Marcelo de Andrade; Soares, Luciana Felizardo Pereira; Silva, Janaina de Lima; de Abreu, Karen Santos Felix; de Melo, Ana Caroline Cerqueira

    2016-02-01

    To assess the intake, digestibility of nutrients, ingestive behavior, performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs, 36 F1 Santa Ines × Dorper male lambs with an initial average weight of 19.5 ± 0.27 kg were fed with different levels of spineless cactus (0, 33, 66, and 100 %) as a replacement of the wheat bran. The replacement diets had no effect on the intake of dry matter (DM) or crude protein (CP), whose average values were 962 and 140 g/day, respectively. There was a quadratic effect on the intake of digestible organic matter (OM) and the digestibility of DM, CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC). The highest average daily gain (ADG) of 168 g/day was achieved at 58.7 % replacement level. The highest hot and cold carcass weights of 15.4 and 14.5 kg were achieved at 62.4 and 56.9 % replacement levels. For lambs in the feedlot, we recommend replacing wheat bran with up to 58.7 % spineless cactus. PMID:26676244

  3. Influence of Abscisic Acid and Sucrose on Somatic Embryogenesis in Cactus Copiapoa tenuissima Ritt. forma mostruosa

    PubMed Central

    Lema-Rumińska, J.; Goncerzewicz, K.; Gabriel, M.

    2013-01-01

    Having produced the embryos of cactus Copiapoa tenuissima Ritt. forma monstruosa at the globular stage and callus, we investigated the effect of abscisic acid (ABA) in the following concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μM on successive stages of direct (DSE) and indirect somatic embryogenesis (ISE). In the indirect somatic embryogenesis process we also investigated a combined effect of ABA (0, 0.1, 1 μM) and sucrose (1, 3, 5%). The results showed that a low concentration of ABA (0-1 μM) stimulates the elongation of embryos at the globular stage and the number of correct embryos in direct somatic embryogenesis, while a high ABA concentration (10–100 μM) results in growth inhibition and turgor pressure loss of somatic embryos. The indirect somatic embryogenesis study in this cactus suggests that lower ABA concentrations enhance the increase in calli fresh weight, while a high concentration of 10 μM ABA or more changes calli color and decreases its proliferation rate. However, in the case of indirect somatic embryogenesis, ABA had no effect on the number of somatic embryos and their maturation. Nevertheless, we found a positive effect of sucrose concentration for both the number of somatic embryos and the increase in calli fresh weight. PMID:23843737

  4. Marketability of ready-to-eat cactus pear as affected by temperature and modified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Cefola, Maria; Renna, Massimiliano; Pace, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase the diffusion of cactus pear fruits, in this study, the proper maturity index for peeling and processing them as ready-to-eat product was evaluated and characterized. Thereafter, the effects of different storage temperatures and modified atmosphere conditions on the marketability of ready-to-eat cactus pear were studied. The storage of ready-to-eat fruits at 4 °C in both passive (air) and semi-active (10 kPa O2 and 10 kPa CO2) modified atmosphere improved the marketability by 30%, whereas the storage at 8 °C caused a dangerous reduction in O2 partial pressure inside modified atmosphere packages, due to fruits' increased metabolic activity. A very low level of initial microbial growth was detected, while a severe increase in mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria was shown in control samples at both temperatures during storage; an inhibitory effect of modified atmosphere on microbial growth was also observed. In conclusion, modified atmosphere improved only the marketability of fruits stored at 4 °C; whereas the storage at 8 °C resulted in deleterious effects on the ready-to-eat fruits, whether stored in air or in modified atmosphere.

  5. Effect of extrusion cooking on bioactive compounds in encapsulated red cactus pear powder.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Martha G; Amaya-Guerra, Carlos A; Quintero-Ramos, Armando; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Ruiz-Anchondo, Teresita de J; Báez-González, Juan G; Meléndez-Pizarro, Carmen O

    2015-05-18

    Red cactus pear has significant antioxidant activity and potential as a colorant in food, due to the presence of betalains. However, the betalains are highly thermolabile, and their application in thermal process, as extrusion cooking, should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion conditions on the chemical components of red cactus pear encapsulated powder. Cornstarch and encapsulated powder (2.5% w/w) were mixed and processed by extrusion at different barrel temperatures (80, 100, 120, 140 °C) and screw speeds (225, 275, 325 rpm) using a twin-screw extruder. Mean residence time (trm), color (L*, a*, b*), antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betacyanin, and betaxanthin contents were determined on extrudates, and pigment degradation reaction rate constants (k) and activation energies (Ea) were calculated. Increases in barrel temperature and screw speed decreased the trm, and this was associated with better retentions of antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betalain contents. The betacyanins k values ranged the -0.0188 to -0.0206/s and for betaxanthins ranged of -0.0122 to -0.0167/s, while Ea values were 1.5888 to 6.1815 kJ/mol, respectively. The bioactive compounds retention suggests that encapsulated powder can be used as pigments and to provide antioxidant properties to extruded products.

  6. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers' health. PMID:26783704

  7. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-04-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers' health.

  8. Analysis of factors that affect the potential of star fruit (Averhoa Bilimbi) and cactus (Gymnocalycium Hossei) extracts as alternative battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmawati, Sitti; Agnesstacia

    2014-03-01

    This research analyzes the factors that affect the work of the battery from the star fruit extract and the cactus extract. The value voltage and current generated are measure the work of the battery. Voltage measurement based on the electrode distance function, and electrode surface area. Voltage as a surface area electrode function and electrode distance function determined the current density and the voltage generated. From the experimental results obtained that the battery voltage is large enough, it is about 1.8 V for the extract of star fruit, and 1.7 V for the extract of cactus, which means that the juice extract from star fruit and the juice extract of cactus can become an alternative as battery replacement. The measurements with different electrode surface area on the star fruit and cactus extract which has the depth of the electrode 0.5 cm to 4 cm causes a decrease in the electric current generated from 12.5 mA to 1.0 mA, but obtained the same voltage.

  9. Anonymous nuclear markers data supporting species tree phylogeny and divergence time estimates in a cactus species complex in South America.

    PubMed

    Perez, Manolo F; Carstens, Bryan C; Rodrigues, Gustavo L; Moraes, Evandro M

    2016-03-01

    Supportive data related to the article "Anonymous nuclear markers reveal taxonomic incongruence and long-term disjunction in a cactus species complex with continental-island distribution in South America" (Perez et al., 2016) [1]. Here, we present pyrosequencing results, primer sequences, a cpDNA phylogeny, and a species tree phylogeny. PMID:26900589

  10. Betalains, Phenols and Antioxidant Capacity in Cactus Pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] Fruits from Apulia (South Italy) Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Albano, Clara; Negro, Carmine; Tommasi, Noemi; Gerardi, Carmela; Mita, Giovanni; Miceli, Antonio; De Bellis, Luigi; Blando, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Betacyanin (betanin), total phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity (by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays) were investigated in two differently colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) genotypes, one with purple fruit and the other with orange fruit, from the Salento area, in Apulia (South Italy). In order to quantitate betanin in cactus pear fruit extracts (which is difficult by HPLC because of the presence of two isomers, betanin and isobetanin, and the lack of commercial standard with high purity), betanin was purified from Amaranthus retroflexus inflorescence, characterized by the presence of a single isomer. The purple cactus pear variety showed very high betanin content, with higher levels of phenolics, vitamin C, and antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than the orange variety. These findings confirm the potential for exploiting the autochthonous biodiversity of cactus pear fruits. In particular, the purple variety could be an interesting source of colored bioactive compounds which not only have coloring potential, but are also an excellent source of dietary antioxidant components which may have beneficial effects on consumers’ health. PMID:26783704

  11. Gypsy moths and American dog ticks: Space partners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, D. K.; Morgan, N. O.; Webb, R. E.; Goans, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment intended for the space shuttle and designed to investigate the effects of weightlessness and total darkness on gypsy moth eggs and engorged American dog ticks is described. The objectives are: (1) to reevaluate the effects of zero gravity on the termination of diapause/hibernation of embryonated gypsy moth eggs, (2) to determine the effect of zero gravity on the ovipositions and subsequent hatch from engorged female American dog ticks that have been induced to diapause in the laboratory, and (3) to determine whether morphological or biochemical changes occur in the insects under examination. Results will be compared with those from a similar experiment conducted on Skylab 4.

  12. Spatial population structure of a specialist leaf-mining moth.

    PubMed

    Gripenberg, Sofia; Ovaskainen, Otso; Morriën, Elly; Roslin, Tomas

    2008-07-01

    1. The spatial structure of natural populations may profoundly influence their dynamics. Depending on the frequency of movements among local populations and the consequent balance between local and regional population processes, earlier work has attempted to classify metapopulations into clear-cut categories, ranging from patchy populations to sets of remnant populations. In an alternative, dichotomous scheme, local populations have been classified as self-sustaining populations generating a surplus of individuals (sources) and those depending on immigration for persistence (sinks). 2. In this paper, we describe the spatial population structure of the leaf-mining moth Tischeria ekebladella, a specialist herbivore of the pedunculate oak Quercus robur. We relate moth dispersal to the distribution of oaks on Wattkast, a small island (5 km(2)) off the south-western coast of Finland. 3. We build a spatially realistic metapopulation model derived from assumptions concerning the behaviour of individual moths, and show that the model is able to explain part of the variation in observed patterns of occurrence and colonization. 4. While the species was always present on large trees, a considerable proportion of the local populations associated with small oaks showed extinction-recolonization dynamics. The vast majority of moth individuals occur on large trees. 5. According to model predictions, the dominance of local vs. regional processes in tree-specific moth dynamics varies drastically across the landscape. Most local populations may be defined broadly as 'sinks', as model simulations suggest that in the absence of immigration, only the largest oaks will sustain viable moth populations. Large trees in areas of high oak density will contribute most to the overall persistence of the metapopulation by acting as sources of moths colonizing other trees. 6. No single 'metapopulation type' will suffice to describe the oak-moth system. Instead, our study supports the notion that

  13. Temporal patterns in Saturnidae (silk moth) and Sphingidae (hawk moth) assemblages in protected forests of central Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Akite, Perpetra; Telford, Richard J; Waring, Paul; Akol, Anne M; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2015-01-01

    Forest-dependent biodiversity is threatened throughout the tropics by habitat loss and land-use intensification of the matrix habitats. We resampled historic data on two moth families, known to play central roles in many ecosystem processes, to evaluate temporal changes in species richness and community structure in three protected forests in central Uganda in a rapidly changing matrix. Our results show some significant declines in the moth species richness and the relative abundance and richness of forest-dependent species over the last 20–40 years. The observed changes in species richness and composition among different forests, ecological types, and moth groups highlight the need to repeatedly monitor biodiversity even within protected and relatively intact forests. PMID:25937916

  14. The distribution of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths in pivot-irrigated corn.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M

    2013-10-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management.

  15. The distribution of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths in pivot-irrigated corn.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M

    2013-10-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management. PMID:24224250

  16. Is the expansion of the pine processionary moth, due to global warming, impacting the endangered Spanish moon moth through an induced change in food quality?

    PubMed

    Imbert, Charles-Edouard; Goussard, Francis; Roques, Alain

    2012-06-01

    Recent climate change is known to affect the distribution of a number of insect species, resulting in a modification of their range boundaries. In newly colonized areas, novel interactions become apparent between expanding and endemic species sharing the same host. The pine processionary moth is a highly damaging pine defoliator, extending its range northwards and upwards in response to winter warming. Its expansion in the Alps has resulted in an invasion into the range of the Spanish moon moth, a red listed species developing on Scots pine. Pine processionary moth larvae develop during winter, preceding those of the moon moth, which hatch in late spring. Using pine trees planted in a clonal design, we experimentally tested the effect of previous winter defoliation by pine processionary moth larvae upon the survival and development of moon moth larvae. Feeding on foliage of heavily defoliated trees (>50%) resulted in a significant increase in the development time of moon moth larvae and a decrease in relative growth rate compared to feeding on foliage of undefoliated trees. Dry weight of pupae also decreased when larvae were fed with foliage of defoliated trees, and might, therefore, affect imago performances. However, lower defoliation degrees did not result in significant differences in larval performances compared to the control. Because a high degree of defoliation by pine processionary moth is to be expected during the colonization phase, its arrival in subalpine pine stands might affect the populations of the endangered moon moth.

  17. 7 CFR 301.55-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-1 Definitions... cactus moth and may be moved interstate to any destination. Compliance agreement. A written agreement... accordance with § 301.55-4(c). Infestation. The presence of the South American cactus moth or the...

  18. 7 CFR 301.55-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... American Cactus Moth § 301.55-5 Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits. (a) An... greenhouse and no other cactus moth host material exists on the premises outside of a shadehouse or... 3 to 5 days prior to shipment and inspected and found free of cactus moth egg sticks and...

  19. 7 CFR 301.55-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... American Cactus Moth § 301.55-5 Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits. (a) An... greenhouse and no other cactus moth host material exists on the premises outside of a shadehouse or... 3 to 5 days prior to shipment and inspected and found free of cactus moth egg sticks and...

  20. 76 FR 30089 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... number. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Title: South American Cactus Moth; Quarantine and... movement of South American cactus moth host material including nursery stock and plant pests for... South American cactus moth into non-infested areas of the United States. Need and Use of the...

  1. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3... which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector, in which the Administrator has reason to believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the Administrator...

  2. 7 CFR 301.55-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-4 Conditions governing the interstate... woven cloth) adequate to prevent access by South American cactus moths while moving through the... woven cloth) adequate to prevent access by South American cactus moths while within the quarantined...

  3. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3... which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector, in which the Administrator has reason to believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the Administrator...

  4. 7 CFR 301.55-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-1 Definitions... cactus moth and may be moved interstate to any destination. Compliance agreement. A written agreement... accordance with § 301.55-4(c). Infestation. The presence of the South American cactus moth or the...

  5. 7 CFR 301.55-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-4 Conditions governing the interstate... woven cloth) adequate to prevent access by South American cactus moths while moving through the... woven cloth) adequate to prevent access by South American cactus moths while within the quarantined...

  6. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3... which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector, in which the Administrator has reason to believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the Administrator...

  7. 7 CFR 301.55-5 - Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... American Cactus Moth § 301.55-5 Issuance and cancellation of certificates and limited permits. (a) An... greenhouse and no other cactus moth host material exists on the premises outside of a shadehouse or... 3 to 5 days prior to shipment and inspected and found free of cactus moth egg sticks and...

  8. 7 CFR 301.55-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-4 Conditions governing the interstate... woven cloth) adequate to prevent access by South American cactus moths while moving through the... woven cloth) adequate to prevent access by South American cactus moths while within the quarantined...

  9. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3... which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector, in which the Administrator has reason to believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the Administrator...

  10. 7 CFR 301.55-3 - Quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-3... which the South American cactus moth has been found by an inspector, in which the Administrator has reason to believe that the South American cactus moth is present, or that the Administrator...

  11. 7 CFR 301.55-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-1 Definitions... cactus moth and may be moved interstate to any destination. Compliance agreement. A written agreement... accordance with § 301.55-4(c). Infestation. The presence of the South American cactus moth or the...

  12. 7 CFR 301.55-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-1 Definitions... cactus moth and may be moved interstate to any destination. Compliance agreement. A written agreement... accordance with § 301.55-4(c). Infestation. The presence of the South American cactus moth or the...

  13. 7 CFR 301.55-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-4 Conditions governing the interstate... woven cloth) adequate to prevent access by South American cactus moths while moving through the... woven cloth) adequate to prevent access by South American cactus moths while within the quarantined...

  14. 7 CFR 301.55-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-4 Conditions governing the interstate... woven cloth) adequate to prevent access by South American cactus moths while moving through the... woven cloth) adequate to prevent access by South American cactus moths while within the quarantined...

  15. 7 CFR 301.55-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES South American Cactus Moth § 301.55-1 Definitions... cactus moth and may be moved interstate to any destination. Compliance agreement. A written agreement... accordance with § 301.55-4(c). Infestation. The presence of the South American cactus moth or the...

  16. The cactus effect: an alternative to the lupin effect for increasing ovulation rate in sheep reared in semi-arid regions?

    PubMed

    Rekik, M; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Lassoued, N; Ben Salem, H; Tounsi, A; Ben Salem, I

    2012-04-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of supplementation with cactus cladodes on follicular dynamics and ovulatory response of sheep reared in semi-arid areas. A total of 76 ewes were distributed into two equal groups supplemented with either concentrated feed or cactus cladodes. After 30 days of supplementation, no differences were found between feeding regimens on the final live weight (LW; 41.5 ± 0.6 and 42.1 ± 0.7 kg in the Concentrate and Cactus groups respectively) and body condition score (BCS; 1.8 ± 0.3 and 1.8 ± 0.4 for Concentrate and Cactus group respectively). Moreover, no differences were found between the initial and the final values of both LW and BCS; thus, there were no effects of supplementation on any of both parameters. Analysis of follicular population showed that, during the follicular phase induced by ram effect, the number of follicles reaching ovulatory size increased in both groups. However, the number was always higher in Cactus ewes and, at oestrus, Cactus ewes had 1.6 ± 0.2 and Concentrate sheep had 1.2 ± 0.2 large follicles (p < 0.05). Thereafter, ovulation rate was affected by duration of supplementation; being higher in sheep fed with cactus for 6-10 days (1.7 ± 0.1) than in ewes supplied with cactus for more than 11 days (1.3 ± 0.1; p < 0.05), in sheep fed with concentrate for 6-10 days (1.2 ± 0.1; p < 0.01) and even than in individuals subjected to classical flushing with concentrate (1.3 ± 0.1; p < 0.05).

  17. Response of light brown apple moth to oxygenated phosphine fumigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), poses a serious threat to California agriculture and is currently quarantined by several major trading partners. Fumigation is the only tool to assure pest-free postharvest vegetable and fruit products. However, current fumigants for ...

  18. Visual Neuroscience: How Do Moths See to Fly at Night?

    PubMed

    Ala-Laurila, Petri

    2016-03-21

    A new study shows that moth vision trades speed and resolution for contrast sensitivity at night. These remarkable neural adaptations take place in the higher-order neurons of the hawkmoth motion vision pathway and allow the insects to see during night flights.

  19. The De Havilland "Tiger Moth"a low wing monoplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1927-01-01

    With a speed of 186.5 M.P.H. and an operational altitude of 20,000 feet the De Havilland Tiger Moth has caused comment as it was introduced just before the King's Cup race of 1927. It is a single seater with unusual control configuration due to the cramped cockpit area.

  20. Young Scientists Explore Butterflies and Moths. Book 4 Primary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Linda

    Designed to present interesting facts about science and to heighten the curiosity of primary age students, this book contains activities about the natural world and numerous black and white illustrations. The activities focus on butterflies and moths and their stages of development. The first section contains exercises on recognizing insect body…

  1. Managing Codling Moth Clearly and Precisely with Semiochemicals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Site-specific management practices for codling moth were implemented in ‘Comice’ pear orchards treated with aerosol puffers releasing sex pheromone in southern Oregon during 2008 and 2009. The density of monitoring traps baited with sex pheromone and pear ester was increased and insecticide sprays w...

  2. Pheromone trap for the eastern tent caterpillar moth.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Kenneth F; McLaughlin, John; Stamper, Shelby; Rucker, Charlene; Webster, Francis X; Czokajlo, Darek; Kirsch, Philipp

    2007-10-01

    The discovery that the eastern tent caterpillar Malacosoma americanum (F.) causes mare reproductive loss syndrome (MRLS), and thus has the potential to continue to result in major economic losses to the equine industry of Kentucky, has resulted in an intensive effort to identify practical means to monitor and control this defoliator, including these experiments to optimize a sex pheromone trap for this pest. A pheromone-baited delta trap with a large opening, such as InterceptST Delta, was more effective than other tested traps. Orange delta traps caught more moths than other tested colors. ETC males are caught at all tested heights within the tree canopy. For monitoring flights, setting traps at 1.5 m would allow easy counting of moths. A 9:1 blend of (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienal (ETC-Ald) and (E,Z)-5,7-dodecadienol (ETC-OH) was most effective in capturing males. Increasing loading doses of a 3:1 blend (Ald:OH) resulted in the capture of increasing numbers of moths, but a 9:1 blend was more effective than 3:1 blend even at a nine-fold lower loading rate. Pheromone-impregnated white septa caught more moths than gray septa at the same loading dose. The advantages and limitations of using pheromone traps for monitoring M. americanum are discussed.

  3. Visual Neuroscience: How Do Moths See to Fly at Night?

    PubMed

    Ala-Laurila, Petri

    2016-03-21

    A new study shows that moth vision trades speed and resolution for contrast sensitivity at night. These remarkable neural adaptations take place in the higher-order neurons of the hawkmoth motion vision pathway and allow the insects to see during night flights. PMID:27003884

  4. Geographic and temporal variation in moth chemical communication.

    PubMed

    Groot, Astrid T; Inglis, Olive; Bowdridge, Scott; Santangelo, Richard G; Blanco, Carlos; López, Juan D; Vargas, Antonio Terán; Gould, Fred; Schal, Coby

    2009-08-01

    In moth pheromone communication signals, both quantitative and qualitative intraspecific differences have been found across geographic regions. Such variation has generally been hypothesized to be due to selection, but evidence of genetic control of these differences is largely lacking. To explore the patterns of variation in pheromone signals, we quantified variation in the female sex pheromone blend and male responses of two closely related noctuid moth species in five different geographic regions for 2-3 consecutive years. We found significant variation in the ratios of sex pheromone blend components as well as in male response, not only between geographic regions but also within a region between consecutive years. The temporal variation was of a similar magnitude as the geographic variation. As far as we know, this is the first study reporting such temporal variation in moth chemical communication systems. The geographic variation seems to at least partly be controlled by genetic factors, and to be correlated with the quality of the local chemical environment. However, the pattern of temporal variation within populations suggests that optimization of the pheromonal signal also may be driven by within-generation physiological adjustments by the moths in response to their experience of the local chemical environment.

  5. Trapping noctuid moths with synthetic floral volatile lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male and female noctuid moths were collected from plastic bucket traps that were baited with different synthetic floral chemicals and placed in peanut fields. Traps baited with phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and a blend of phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl acetate, and benzaldehyde collected more soyb...

  6. Monitoring Indianmeal moth in the presence of mating disruption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mating disruption with female sex pheromone offers a least-toxic, worker-friendly alternative to fumigation and fogging for control of the Indianmeal moth, an important postharvest pest. Commercial formulations are available for control of this pest with mating disruption, but loss of information fr...

  7. Combining Pear Ester with Codlemone Improves Management of Codling Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several management approaches utilizing pear ester combined with codlemone have been developed in the first 10 years after the discovery of this ripe pear fruit volatile’s kairomonal activity for larvae and both sexes of codling moth. These include a lure that consistently outperforms other high loa...

  8. Selenium-tolerant diamondback moth disarms hyperaccumulator plantdefense

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.L.; Quinn, C.F.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.; Pilon-Smits,E.A.H.

    2006-11-20

    Background Some plants hyperaccumulate the toxic element selenium (Se) to extreme levels, up to 1% of dry weight. The function of this intriguing phenomenon is obscure. Results Here, we show that the Se in the hyperaccumulator prince's plume (Stanleya pinnata) protects it from caterpillar herbivory because of deterrence and toxicity. In its natural habitat, however, a newly discovered variety of the invasive diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) has disarmed this elemental defense. It thrives on plants containing highly toxic Se levels and shows no oviposition or feeding deterrence, in contrast to related varieties. Interestingly, a Se-tolerant wasp (Diadegma insulare) was found to parasitize the tolerant moth. The insect's Se tolerance mechanism was revealed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and liquid chromatography--mass spectroscopy, which showed that the Se-tolerant moth and its parasite both accumulate methylselenocysteine, the same form found in the hyperaccumulator plant, whereas related sensitive moths accumulate selenocysteine. The latter is toxic because of its nonspecific incorporation into proteins. Indeed, the Se-tolerant diamondback moth incorporated less Se into protein. Additionally, the tolerant variety sequestered Se in distinct abdominal areas, potentially involved in detoxification and larval defense to predators. Conclusions Although Se hyperaccumulation protects plants from herbivory by some invertebrates, it can give rise to the evolution of unique Se-tolerant herbivores and thus provide a portal for Se into the local ecosystem. In a broader context, this study provides insight into the possible ecological implications of using Se-enriched crops as a source of anti-carcinogenic selenocompounds and for the remediation of Se-polluted environments.

  9. Estimating the Effect of Gypsy Moth Defloiation Using MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deBeurs, K. M.; Townsend, P. A.

    2008-01-01

    The area of North American forests affected by gypsy moth defoliation continues to expand despite efforts to slow the spread. With the increased area of infestation, ecological, environmental and economic concerns about gypsy moth disturbance remain significant, necessitating coordinated, repeatable and comprehensive monitoring of the areas affected. In this study, our primary objective was to estimate the magnitude of defoliation using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery for a gypsy moth outbreak that occurred in the US central Appalachian Mountains in 2000 and 2001. We focused on determining the appropriate spectral MODIS indices and temporal compositing method to best monitor the effects of gypsy moth defoliation. We tested MODIS-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), and two versions of the Normalized Difference Infrared index (NDIIb6 and NDIIb7, using the channels centered on 1640 nm and 2130 nm respectively) for their capacity to map defoliation as estimated by ground observations. In addition, we evaluated three temporal resolutions: daily, 8-day and 16-day data. We validated the results through quantitative comparison to Landsat based defoliation estimates and traditional sketch maps. Our MODIS based defoliation estimates based on NDIIb6 and NDIIb7 closely matched Landsat defoliation estimates derived from field data as well as sketch maps. We conclude that daily MODIS data can be used with confidence to monitor insect defoliation on an annual time scale, at least for larger patches (greater than 0.63 km2). Eight-day and 16-day MODIS composites may be of lesser use due to the ephemeral character of disturbance by the gypsy moth.

  10. Persistence of invading gypsy moth populations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Whitmire, Stefanie L; Tobin, Patrick C

    2006-03-01

    Exotic invasive species are a mounting threat to native biodiversity, and their effects are gaining more public attention as each new species is detected. Equally important are the dynamics of exotic invasives that are previously well established. While the literature reports many examples of the ability of a newly arrived exotic invader to persist prior to detection and population growth, we focused on the persistence dynamics of an established invader, the European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) in the United States. The spread of gypsy moth is largely thought to be the result of the growth and coalescence of isolated colonies in a transition zone ahead of the generally infested area. One important question is thus the ability of these isolated colonies to persist when subject to Allee effects and inimical stochastic events. We analyzed the US gypsy moth survey data and identified isolated colonies of gypsy moth using the local indicator of spatial autocorrelation. We then determined region-specific probabilities of colony persistence given the population abundance in the previous year and its relationship to a suite of ecological factors. We observed that colonies in Wisconsin, US, were significantly more likely to persist in the following year than in other geographic regions of the transition zone, and in all regions, the abundance of preferred host tree species and land use category did not appear to influence persistence. We propose that differences in region-specific rates of persistence may be attributed to Allee effects that are differentially expressed in space, and that the inclusion of geographically varying Allee effects into colony-invasion models may provide an improved paradigm for addressing the establishment and spread of gypsy moth and other invasive exotic species.

  11. Ultrastructure of turnip crinkle- and saguaro cactus virus-infected tissues.

    PubMed

    Russo, M; Martelli, G P

    1982-04-15

    An electron microscope study of different hosts infected with turnip crinkle (TCV) and saguaro cactus (SCV) viruses, two tentative members of the tombusvirus group, was carried out. Particles of both viruses were readily detected in cells of different tissues, in the cytoplasm of which they occurred in great numbers, though not in crystalline arrays. Cytological modifications of various types were also observed. The most striking of these was an extensive peripheral vesiculation of mitochondria in TCV-infected cells, which was accompanied by plastic activity of the organelles that often engulfed portions of ground cytoplasm and virus particles. Cytoplasmic inclusion bodies were not present. Likewise, none of the cytopathological features characterizing tombusvirus infections was observed. No indications were obtained to support the idea that TCV and SCV may continue to be considered members, even though tentative, of the tombusvirus group. PMID:18635129

  12. Cactus alkaloids. XLVII. N alpha-dimethylhistamine, a hypotensive component of Echinocereus triglochidiatus.

    PubMed

    Ferrigni, N R; Nichols, D E; McLaughlin, J L; Bye, R A

    1982-05-01

    Echinocereus triglochidiatus Engelm. var. neomexicanus (Standley) Standley ex W. T. Marshall is believed to cause psychotropic effects when consumed by the Mexican Tarahumara Indians. A phytochemical study was initiated with E. triglochidiatus Engelm. var. paucispinus Engelm. ex W. T. Marshall, which is more abundant in Texas. In the fractionated extracts three compounds, detected by thin-layer chromatography, were positive to Ehrlich's reagent, indicating the possible presence of indole alkaloids; however, a non-Erhlich positive alkaloid was crystallized as the dihydrochloride and subsequently identified (spectrometrically and via synthesis as N alpha, N alpha-dimethylhistamine dihydrochloride. The same compound was then detected chromatographically in the neomexicanus variety. This compound has peripheral hypotensive effects similar to histamine, and this action may help to explain the alleged psychotrophic effects of the cactus.

  13. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Monia; Ammar, Imene; Khemakhem, Bassem; Attia, Hamadi

    2014-08-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers have wide application in folk medicine. However, there are few reports focusing on their biological activity and were no reports on their chemical composition. The nutrient composition and hexane extracts of Opuntia flowers at 4 flowering stages and their antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated. The chemical composition showed considerable amounts of fiber, protein, and minerals. Potassium (K) was the predominant mineral followed by calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). The main compounds in the various hexane extracts were 9.12-octadecadienoic acid (29-44%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.6-32%). The antibacterial activity tests showed that O. inermis hexane extracts have high effectiveness against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, making this botanical source a potential contender as a food preservative or food control additive.

  14. A cactus-derived toxin-like cystine knot Peptide with selective antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Aboye, Teshome L; Strömstedt, Adam A; Gunasekera, Sunithi; Bruhn, Jan G; El-Seedi, Hesham; Rosengren, K Johan; Göransson, Ulf

    2015-05-01

    Naturally occurring cystine knot peptides show a wide range of biological activity, and as they have inherent stability they represent potential scaffolds for peptide-based drug design and biomolecular engineering. Here we report the discovery, sequencing, chemical synthesis, three-dimensional solution structure determination and bioactivity of the first cystine knot peptide from Cactaceae (cactus) family: Ep-AMP1 from Echinopsis pachanoi. The structure of Ep-AMP1 (35 amino acids) conforms to that of the inhibitor cystine knot (or knottin) family but represents a novel diverse sequence; its activity was more than 500 times higher against bacterial than against eukaryotic cells. Rapid bactericidal action and liposome leakage implicate membrane permeabilisation as the mechanism of action. Sequence homology places Ec-AMP1 in the plant C6-type of antimicrobial peptides, but the three dimensional structure is highly similar to that of a spider neurotoxin.

  15. The effects of cactus inspired spines on the aerodynamics of a cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Benjamin; Liu, Yingzheng

    2013-05-01

    The effect of cactus-like spines on the topology and the dynamics of the flow past a stationary or pivoted cylinder are experimentally studied. The experiments are performed either in a water channel or a wind tunnel at low to moderate Reynolds number (390-12 500). The instantaneous velocity field is recorded using TR-PIV and investigated for three different configurations: no spines, short spines (0.1D) and long spines (0.2D). The results show how the spines are able to slow the flow past the cylinder and then increase the recirculation area by up to 128% while the maximum fluctuating kinetic energy intensity is decreased by up to 35%. Moreover, the spines have a significant effect on the vortex shedding and the dynamic pressure at the surface of the cylinder, thus significantly reducing both the amplitude and the frequency at which a pivoted cylinder oscillates.

  16. Corrective action plan for CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) verbally requested approval for the schedule to be accelerated from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) in July 1997. Currently, field closure activities are anticipated to be completed by September 30, 1997. CAU 426 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS) comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test in 1963.

  17. Genetic variability of Dactylopius opuntiae (Hemiptera, Dactylopiidae) on forage cactus in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, D M P; do E S Mergulhão, A C; de Medeiros, L V; Figueiredo, M V B; Burity, H A

    2013-10-30

    The carmine cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae is a key pest in productive fields of forage cactus in Pernambuco, Brazil. Species identification by means of molecular markers assists in understanding the genetic profile, underpins morphological characterization, and supports the monitoring of populations in integrated management programs designed to control this pest. We evaluated the genetic variability of natural populations of D. opuntiae. Genetic variability was analyzed with ISSR and RAPD primers in 24 populations from 12 municipalities of Pernambuco State in Brazil. Morphological characterization confirmed that D. opuntiae was the only cochineal species present in all samples. Nine ISSR primers and six RAPD produced a total of 62 and 58 polymorphic fragments, respectively. Both types of markers showed an average genetic similarity of 80% regardless of the geographic origin of samples. The low genetic variability demonstrates a high degree of relatedness among these D. opuntiae populations.

  18. Genetic variability of Dactylopius opuntiae (Hemiptera, Dactylopiidae) on forage cactus in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, D M P; do E S Mergulhão, A C; de Medeiros, L V; Figueiredo, M V B; Burity, H A

    2013-01-01

    The carmine cochineal Dactylopius opuntiae is a key pest in productive fields of forage cactus in Pernambuco, Brazil. Species identification by means of molecular markers assists in understanding the genetic profile, underpins morphological characterization, and supports the monitoring of populations in integrated management programs designed to control this pest. We evaluated the genetic variability of natural populations of D. opuntiae. Genetic variability was analyzed with ISSR and RAPD primers in 24 populations from 12 municipalities of Pernambuco State in Brazil. Morphological characterization confirmed that D. opuntiae was the only cochineal species present in all samples. Nine ISSR primers and six RAPD produced a total of 62 and 58 polymorphic fragments, respectively. Both types of markers showed an average genetic similarity of 80% regardless of the geographic origin of samples. The low genetic variability demonstrates a high degree of relatedness among these D. opuntiae populations. PMID:24301784

  19. Cactus and Visapult: A case study of ultra-high performance distributed visualization using connectionless protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Shalf, John; Bethel, E. Wes

    2002-05-07

    This past decade has seen rapid growth in the size, resolution, and complexity of Grand Challenge simulation codes. Many such problems still require interactive visualization tools to make sense of multi-terabyte data stores. Visapult is a parallel volume rendering tool that employs distributed components, latency tolerant algorithms, and high performance network I/O for effective remote visualization of massive datasets. In this paper we discuss using connectionless protocols to accelerate Visapult network I/O and interfacing Visapult to the Cactus General Relativity code to enable scalable remote monitoring and steering capabilities. With these modifications, network utilization has moved from 25 percent of line-rate using tuned multi-streamed TCP to sustaining 88 percent of line rate using the new UDP-based transport protocol.

  20. Pollination system of the Pilosocereus leucocephalus columnar cactus (tribe Cereeae) in eastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Munguía-Rosas, M A; Sosa, V J; Jácome-Flores, M E

    2010-07-01

    It has been suggested that there is a geographic dichotomy in the pollination systems of chiropterophilous columnar cacti: in intra-tropical areas they are pollinated almost exclusively by bats, whereas in extratropical areas they are pollinated by bats, birds and bees. However, currently the studies are clumped both taxonomically (mainly Pachycereeae species) and geographically (mainly in the Tehuacan Valley and the Sonoran Desert). This clumping limits the possibility of generalising the pattern to other regions or cactus tribes. Only four of the 36 chiropterophilous cacti in Pilosocereus have been studied. Despite the tropical distribution of two Pilosocereus species, bees account for 40-100% of their fruit set. We examined how specialised is the pollination system of P. leucocephalus in eastern Mexico. As we studied tropical populations, we expected a bat-specialised pollination system. However, previous studies of Pilosocereus suggest that a generalised pollination system is also possible. We found that this cactus is mainly bat-pollinated (bats account for 33-65% of fruit set); although to a lesser degree, diurnal visitors also caused some fruit set (7-15%). Diurnal visitors were more effective in populations containing honeybee hives. P. leucocephalus is partially self-compatible (14-18% of fructification) but unable to set fruit without visitors. Despite the variation in pollination system, P. leucocephalus shows more affinity with other columnar cacti from tropical regions than with those from extratropical regions. Although we report here that a new species of tropical Pilosocereus is relatively bat-specialised, this Cereeae genus is more flexible in its pollination system than the Pachycereeae genera.

  1. Differences in tolerance to host cactus alkaloids in Drosophila koepferae and D. buzzatii.

    PubMed

    Soto, Ignacio M; Carreira, Valeria P; Corio, Cristian; Padró, Julián; Soto, Eduardo M; Hasson, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of cactophily in the genus Drosophila was a major ecological transition involving over a hundred species in the Americas that acquired the capacity to cope with a variety of toxic metabolites evolved as feeding deterrents in Cactaceae. D. buzzatii and D. koepferae are sibling cactophilic species in the D. repleta group. The former is mainly associated with the relatively toxic-free habitat offered by prickly pears (Opuntia sulphurea) and the latter has evolved the ability to use columnar cacti of the genera Trichocereus and Cereus that contain an array of alkaloid secondary compounds. We assessed the effects of cactus alkaloids on fitness-related traits and evaluated the ability of D. buzzatii and D. koepferae to exploit an artificial novel toxic host. Larvae of both species were raised in laboratory culture media to which we added increasing doses of an alkaloid fraction extracted from the columnar cactus T. terschekii. In addition, we evaluated performance on an artificial novel host by rearing larvae in a seminatural medium that combined the nutritional quality of O. sulphurea plus amounts of alkaloids found in fresh T. terschekii. Performance scores in each rearing treatment were calculated using an index that took into account viability, developmental time, and adult body size. Only D. buzzatii suffered the effects of increasing doses of alkaloids and the artificial host impaired viability in D. koepferae, but did not affect performance in D. buzzatii. These results provide the first direct evidence that alkaloids are key determinants of host plant use in these species. However, the results regarding the artificial novel host suggest that the effects of alkaloids on performance are not straightforward as D. koepferae was heavily affected. We discuss these results in the light of patterns of host plan evolution in the Drosophila repleta group.

  2. Differences in Tolerance to Host Cactus Alkaloids in Drosophila koepferae and D. buzzatii

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Ignacio M.; Carreira, Valeria P.; Corio, Cristian; Padró, Julián; Soto, Eduardo M.; Hasson, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of cactophily in the genus Drosophila was a major ecological transition involving over a hundred species in the Americas that acquired the capacity to cope with a variety of toxic metabolites evolved as feeding deterrents in Cactaceae. D. buzzatii and D. koepferae are sibling cactophilic species in the D. repleta group. The former is mainly associated with the relatively toxic-free habitat offered by prickly pears (Opuntia sulphurea) and the latter has evolved the ability to use columnar cacti of the genera Trichocereus and Cereus that contain an array of alkaloid secondary compounds. We assessed the effects of cactus alkaloids on fitness-related traits and evaluated the ability of D. buzzatii and D. koepferae to exploit an artificial novel toxic host. Larvae of both species were raised in laboratory culture media to which we added increasing doses of an alkaloid fraction extracted from the columnar cactus T. terschekii. In addition, we evaluated performance on an artificial novel host by rearing larvae in a seminatural medium that combined the nutritional quality of O. sulphurea plus amounts of alkaloids found in fresh T. terschekii. Performance scores in each rearing treatment were calculated using an index that took into account viability, developmental time, and adult body size. Only D. buzzatii suffered the effects of increasing doses of alkaloids and the artificial host impaired viability in D. koepferae, but did not affect performance in D. buzzatii. These results provide the first direct evidence that alkaloids are key determinants of host plant use in these species. However, the results regarding the artificial novel host suggest that the effects of alkaloids on performance are not straightforward as D. koepferae was heavily affected. We discuss these results in the light of patterns of host plan evolution in the Drosophila repleta group. PMID:24520377

  3. Characterization and Comparison of Serratia Marcescens Isolated from Edible Cactus and from Silkworm for Virulence Potential and Chitosan Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Yu, Rongrong; Liu, Baoping; Tang, Qiaomei; Zhang, Guoqing; Wang, Yanli; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2011-01-01

    Representative strains of Serratia marcescens from an edible cactus plant and silkworms were characterized and a comparison based on their cellular fatty acid composition, 16S rRNA and groE gene sequence analysis as well as silkworm virulence and chitosan susceptibility was carried out. Results from this study indicate that there are no significant differences between the phenotypic and molecular characterization, virulence and chitosan susceptibility of the S. marcescens strains from the cactus plant and silkworms. Silkworms inoculated with S. marcescens from either plant or silkworm resulted in nearly 100% mortality. Chitosan solution exhibited strong antibacterial activity against S. marcescens. This activity increased with the increase of chitosan concentration and incubation time regardless of the strain source. Also, the results indicate that the plant associated S. marcescens maybe plays a possible role in the contamination of humans and animals, in particular silkworms, while chitosan showed a potential to control the contamination caused by S. marcescens. PMID:24031610

  4. Characterization and comparison of serratia marcescens isolated from edible cactus and from silkworm for virulence potential and chitosan susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Yu, Rongrong; Liu, Baoping; Tang, Qiaomei; Zhang, Guoqing; Wang, Yanli; Xie, Guanlin; Sun, Guochang

    2011-01-01

    Representative strains of Serratia marcescens from an edible cactus plant and silkworms were characterized and a comparison based on their cellular fatty acid composition, 16S rRNA and groE gene sequence analysis as well as silkworm virulence and chitosan susceptibility was carried out. Results from this study indicate that there are no significant differences between the phenotypic and molecular characterization, virulence and chitosan susceptibility of the S. marcescens strains from the cactus plant and silkworms. Silkworms inoculated with S. marcescens from either plant or silkworm resulted in nearly 100% mortality. Chitosan solution exhibited strong antibacterial activity against S. marcescens. This activity increased with the increase of chitosan concentration and incubation time regardless of the strain source. Also, the results indicate that the plant associated S. marcescens maybe plays a possible role in the contamination of humans and animals, in particular silkworms, while chitosan showed a potential to control the contamination caused by S. marcescens.

  5. Shedding light on moths: shorter wavelengths attract noctuids more than geometrids.

    PubMed

    Somers-Yeates, Robin; Hodgson, David; McGregor, Peter K; Spalding, Adrian; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H

    2013-08-23

    With moth declines reported across Europe, and parallel changes in the amount and spectra of street lighting, it is important to understand exactly how artificial lights affect moth populations. We therefore compared the relative attractiveness of shorter wavelength (SW) and longer wavelength (LW) lighting to macromoths. SW light attracted significantly more individuals and species of moth, either when used alone or in competition with LW lighting. We also found striking differences in the relative attractiveness of different wavelengths to different moth groups. SW lighting attracted significantly more Noctuidae than LW, whereas both wavelengths were equally attractive to Geometridae. Understanding the extent to which different groups of moth are attracted to different wavelengths of light will be useful in determining the impact of artificial light on moth populations.

  6. Effects of Invasive Winter Moth Defoliation on Tree Radial Growth in Eastern Massachusetts, USA

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Michael J.; Lee, Thomas D.; Ducey, Mark J.; Elkinton, Joseph S.; Boettner, George H.; Dodds, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), has been defoliating hardwood trees in eastern Massachusetts since the 1990s. Native to Europe, winter moth has also been detected in Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Long Island (NY), New Hampshire, and Maine. Individual tree impacts of winter moth defoliation in New England are currently unknown. Using dendroecological techniques, this study related annual radial growth of individual host (Quercus spp. and Acer spp.) trees to detailed defoliation estimates. Winter moth defoliation was associated with up to a 47% reduction in annual radial growth of Quercus trees. Latewood production of Quercus was reduced by up to 67% in the same year as defoliation, while earlywood production was reduced by up to 24% in the year following defoliation. Winter moth defoliation was not a strong predictor of radial growth in Acer species. This study is the first to document impacts of novel invasions of winter moth into New England. PMID:26462685

  7. Effects of Invasive Winter Moth Defoliation on Tree Radial Growth in Eastern Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Michael J; Lee, Thomas D; Ducey, Mark J; Elkinton, Joseph S; Boettner, George H; Dodds, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), has been defoliating hardwood trees in eastern Massachusetts since the 1990s. Native to Europe, winter moth has also been detected in Rhode Island, Connecticut, eastern Long Island (NY), New Hampshire, and Maine. Individual tree impacts of winter moth defoliation in New England are currently unknown. Using dendroecological techniques, this study related annual radial growth of individual host (Quercus spp. and Acer spp.) trees to detailed defoliation estimates. Winter moth defoliation was associated with up to a 47% reduction in annual radial growth of Quercus trees. Latewood production of Quercus was reduced by up to 67% in the same year as defoliation, while earlywood production was reduced by up to 24% in the year following defoliation. Winter moth defoliation was not a strong predictor of radial growth in Acer species. This study is the first to document impacts of novel invasions of winter moth into New England. PMID:26462685

  8. Daily to decadal patterns of precipitation, humidity, and photosynthetic physiology recorded in the spines of the columnar cactus, Carnegiea gigantea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Nathan B.; Dettman, David L.; Sandquist, Darren R.; Williams, David G.

    2010-06-01

    Isotopic analyses of cactus spines grown serially from the apex of long-lived columnar cactuses may be useful for climatological and ecological studies if time series can be reliably determined from spines. To characterize the timescales over which spines may record this information, we measured spine growth in saguaro cactus over days, months, and years with time-lapse photography, periodic marking, and postbomb radiocarbon dating and then analyzed isotopic variability over these same timescales and compared these measurements to local climate. We used daily increments of growth, visible as transverse bands of light and dark tissue in spines, as chronometers to develop diurnally resolved δ13C and δ18O records from three spines grown in series over a 70 day period. We also constructed a 22 year record of δ13C variations from spine tips arranged in chronological sequence along the side of a 4 m tall, single-stemmed saguaro. We evaluated two mechanisms potentially responsible for daily, weekly, and annual variability in δ13C values of spines; both related to vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Our data suggest that stomatal conductance is unlikely to be the determinant of δ13C variation in spines. We suggest that either VPD-induced changes in the balance of nighttime- and daytime-assimilated CO2 or mesophyll-limited diffusion of CO2 at night are the most likely determinant of δ13C variation in spines. Intra-annual and interannual variability of δ18O in spine tissue appears to be controlled by the mass balance of 18O-depleted water taken up after rain events and evaporative enrichment of 18O in tissue water between rains. We were able to estimate the annual growth and areole generation rate of a saguaro cactus from its 22 yearlong isotopic record because VPD, rainfall, and evaporation exhibit strong annual cycles in the Sonoran Desert and these variations are recorded in the oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of spines.

  9. Corrrective action decision document for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit No. 426). Revision No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 426) has been prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project. This CADD has been developed to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996, stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. RG-08-001-RG-CS is included in CAU No. 426 (also referred to as the {open_quotes}trenches{close_quotes}); it has been identified as one of three potential locations for buried, radioactively contaminated materials from the Double Tracks Test. The trenches are located on the east flank of the Cactus Range in the eastern portion of the Cactus Spring Ranch at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nye County, Nevada, on the northern portion of Nellis Air Force Range. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The trenches were dug for the purpose of receiving waste generated during Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test. This test, conducted in 1963, involved the use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with non-nuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices (i.e., inhalation uptake of plutonium aerosol). The CAS consists of four trenches that received solid waste and had an overall impacted area of approximately 36 meters (m) (120 feet [ft]) long x 24 m (80 ft) wide x 3 to 4.5 m (10 to 15 ft) deep. The average depressions at the trenches are approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) below land surface.

  10. Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes prevent oxidative damage induced by the mycotoxin zearalenone in Balb/C mice.

    PubMed

    Zourgui, Lazhar; Golli, Emna El; Bouaziz, Chayma; Bacha, Hassen; Hassen, Wafa

    2008-05-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is one of the most widely distributed fusarial mycotoxins which is encountered at high incidence in many foodstuffs. ZEN was associated with different reproductive disorders in animals. Several in vivo studies have shown that ZEN is hepatotoxic, haematotoxic and causes several alterations of immunological parameters. Furthermore, evidence of its cytotoxicity and genotoxicity has recently emerged from several reports. The aim of the current study was (i) to find out whether oxidative stress could be relevant for ZEN induced toxicity in vivo using Balb/c mice and (ii) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cactus cladodes Opuntia ficus to prevent the deleterious effects of ZEN. To this end, the effect of a single dose of ZEN (40 mg/kg b.w.) alone and with extract of cactus cladodes (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg b.w.) on the induction of oxidative stress was monitored in kidney and liver by measuring the MDA level, the protein carbonyls generation, the catalase activity and the expression of the heat shock proteins (Hsp). Our results clearly showed that ZEN induced significant alterations in all tested oxidative stress markers. Oxidative damage seems to be a key determinant of ZEN induced toxicity in both liver and kidney of Balb/c mice. The combined treatment of ZEN with the lowest tested dose of cactus extracts (25 mg/kg b.w.) showed a total reduction of ZEN induced oxidative damage for all tested markers. It could be concluded that cactus cladodes extract was effective in the protection against ZEN hazards. This could be relevant, particularly with the emergent demand for natural products which may counteract the detrimental effects of oxidative stress and therefore prevent multiple human diseases. PMID:18313193

  11. Sex pheromone of the winter moth, a geometrid with unusually low temperature precopulatory responses.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, W L; Hill, A S; Linn, C E; Meinwald, J; Jain, S C; Herbert, H J; Smith, R F

    1982-08-13

    The sex pheromone for the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (L.), has been identified as the novel compound (Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene. The male moths respond to the pheromone at low temperatures (4 degrees to 15 degrees C) and exhibit an upper response limit that coincides with the lower response limit for other reported moth sex pheromone systems. The pheromone attracted two other geometrid species, O. bruceata (Bruce spanworm) and O. occidentalis. PMID:17817538

  12. Protective role of cactus cladodes extract on sodium dichromate-induced testicular injury and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Brahmi, Dalel; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2014-06-01

    Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) is a xerophyte plant that belongs to the Cactaceae family. The present study was designed to investigate the possible protective effects of cactus cladodes extract (CCE) on sodium dichromate-induced testis damage in adult male Wistar rats. For this purpose, CCE at a dose of 100 mg/kg was orally administrated, followed by 10 mg/kg sodium dichromate (intraperitoneal injection). After 40 days of treatment, the rats were sacrificed, and the testes were excised for histological, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and antioxidant enzyme analyses. Sodium dichromate treatment significantly (P<0.01) decreased the body, testis, and accessory sex organ weights, sperm count and motility, and serum testosterone level. In addition, histological analysis revealed pronounced morphological alterations with tubular necrosis and reduction in the number of gametes in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules of sodium dichromate-intoxicated rats. Furthermore, exposure to sodium dichromate significantly (P<0.01) increased LPO level and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in testis. Interestingly, pretreatment with CCE significantly (P<0.01) restored the serum testosterone level, sperm count, and motility to the levels of the control group. Moreover, CCE administration was capable of reducing the elevated level of LPO and significantly (P<0.01) increased SOD, CAT, and GPx activities in testis. Cactus cladodes supplementation minimized oxidative damage and reversed the impairment of spermatogenesis and testosterone production induced by sodium dichromate in the rat testis.

  13. Protective role of cactus cladodes extract on sodium dichromate-induced testicular injury and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Hfaiedh, Mbarka; Brahmi, Dalel; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2014-06-01

    Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) is a xerophyte plant that belongs to the Cactaceae family. The present study was designed to investigate the possible protective effects of cactus cladodes extract (CCE) on sodium dichromate-induced testis damage in adult male Wistar rats. For this purpose, CCE at a dose of 100 mg/kg was orally administrated, followed by 10 mg/kg sodium dichromate (intraperitoneal injection). After 40 days of treatment, the rats were sacrificed, and the testes were excised for histological, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and antioxidant enzyme analyses. Sodium dichromate treatment significantly (P<0.01) decreased the body, testis, and accessory sex organ weights, sperm count and motility, and serum testosterone level. In addition, histological analysis revealed pronounced morphological alterations with tubular necrosis and reduction in the number of gametes in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules of sodium dichromate-intoxicated rats. Furthermore, exposure to sodium dichromate significantly (P<0.01) increased LPO level and decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in testis. Interestingly, pretreatment with CCE significantly (P<0.01) restored the serum testosterone level, sperm count, and motility to the levels of the control group. Moreover, CCE administration was capable of reducing the elevated level of LPO and significantly (P<0.01) increased SOD, CAT, and GPx activities in testis. Cactus cladodes supplementation minimized oxidative damage and reversed the impairment of spermatogenesis and testosterone production induced by sodium dichromate in the rat testis. PMID:24752970

  14. Effects of Cactus Fiber on the Excretion of Dietary Fat in Healthy Subjects: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Clinical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Uebelhack, Ralf; Busch, Regina; Alt, Felix; Beah, Zhi-Ming; Chong, Pee-Win

    2014-01-01

    Background Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) fiber was shown to promote weight loss in a 3-month clinical investigation. As demonstrated by in vitro studies, cactus fiber binds to dietary fat and its use results in reduced absorption, which in turn leads to reduced energy absorption and ultimately the reduction of body weight. Objective The objective of our study was to elucidate the dietary fat binding capacity of cactus fiber through determination of fecal fat excretion in healthy volunteers. Subjects and Methods This clinical investigation was performed as a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in healthy subjects for a period of approximately 45 days. Twenty healthy volunteer subjects were randomized to receive cactus fiber or placebo, 2 tablets thrice daily with main meals. All subjects were provided with meals during the study period (except washout) according to a standardized meal plan, with 35% of daily energy need coming from fat. Two 24-hour feces samples were collected during both the baseline and treatment periods for analysis of the fat content. Results Cactus fiber showed an increased fecal fat excretion compared with placebo (mean [SD] = 15.79% [5.79%] vs 4.56% [3.09%]; P < 0.001). No adverse events were reported throughout the study period. Conclusions Cactus fiber has been shown to significantly promote fecal fat excretion in healthy adults. The results of our study support the hypothesis that cactus fiber helps in reducing body weight by binding to dietary fat and increasing its excretion, thus reducing dietary fat available for absorption. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01590667. PMID:25067985

  15. Performance of goats fed on low quality veld hay supplemented with fresh spiny cactus (Opuntia megacantha) mixed with browse legumes hay in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Gusha, Jacob; Halimani, Tinyiko Edward; Katsande, Simbarashe; Zvinorova, Plaxedis Ivy

    2014-10-01

    Nutrition is a major constraint in smallholder livestock production; hence, the use of alternative sources which are adaptive to long dry seasons is imperative. The study was conducted to establish options of improving nutrition and palatability and also to determine the performance of goats fed on cactus-browse hay as dry season supplements. Palatability and adequacy of nutrition was investigated using 32 castrated male goat kids. The kids were housed in individual metabolism cages for 84 days in a complete randomised design (CRD) with eight replicates for the four treatment diets. Daily experimental diet, basal diet and water intake were measured, and live mass was measured at weekly intervals. Daily diet intake was significantly different (P < 0.05) among treatments. Kids that were supplemented with cactus-Leucaena leucocephala meal (CLLM) consumed more than those on cactus-Acacia angustissima meal (CAAM), cactus-Gliricidia sepium meal (CGSM) and cactus-Pennisetum purpureum meal (CPPM) in that order. CGSM was not readily palatable as goat kids refused to take it when mixed with fresh cactus. Animals that were not supplemented with a source of nitrogen together with those that were supplemented with less palatable diet of CGSM lost weight significantly (P < 0.05) initially but gained weight slightly towards the end of the study. Significantly higher weight gains (P < 0.05) were observed in animals in CLLM and CAAM treatment. It was concluded that fresh cactus could be used to improve poor quality roughage intakes in goats, and therefore, there is need to promote its use in periods of feed deficit especially in smallholder sector. PMID:25023231

  16. Use of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis) for dairy goats and growing kids: impacts on milk production, kid's growth, and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Mahouachi, M; Atti, N; Hajji, H

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of spineless cactus incorporation in food of dairy goats and growing kids on milk production and composition and on kid's growth and meat characteristics. Two experiments were conducted on Tunisian local goats. In the first, 30 females were divided into two groups; goats of Control group were reared on grazing pasture receiving indoor 0.5 kg of hay and 0.4 kg of concentrate. Goats for the second group (Cac-FL) were kept in feedlot and fed cactus ad libitum more 0.5 kg of hay and 0.4 kg of concentrate. In the second experiment, 14 kids were divided into 2 groups receiving 600 g of hay. The Control group received ad libitum a concentrate containing 130 g crude protein (CP) per kg of dry matter. The second group received cactus ad-libitum plus the half concentrate quantity of control one with 260 g CP/kg DM (Cactus). The daily milk production averaged 485 ml for Control group and 407 ml for Cac-FL one. The milk fat content was significantly higher for Control than Cac-FL group. In the second experiment, animals in Control and Cactus groups had similar growth rate. Carcass fat was significantly lower in Cactus than in the Control group. Cactus in the diet was associated with more C18:2 and conjugated linoleic acid as well as a higher proportion of PUFA than Control ones.

  17. Performance of goats fed on low quality veld hay supplemented with fresh spiny cactus (Opuntia megacantha) mixed with browse legumes hay in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Gusha, Jacob; Halimani, Tinyiko Edward; Katsande, Simbarashe; Zvinorova, Plaxedis Ivy

    2014-10-01

    Nutrition is a major constraint in smallholder livestock production; hence, the use of alternative sources which are adaptive to long dry seasons is imperative. The study was conducted to establish options of improving nutrition and palatability and also to determine the performance of goats fed on cactus-browse hay as dry season supplements. Palatability and adequacy of nutrition was investigated using 32 castrated male goat kids. The kids were housed in individual metabolism cages for 84 days in a complete randomised design (CRD) with eight replicates for the four treatment diets. Daily experimental diet, basal diet and water intake were measured, and live mass was measured at weekly intervals. Daily diet intake was significantly different (P < 0.05) among treatments. Kids that were supplemented with cactus-Leucaena leucocephala meal (CLLM) consumed more than those on cactus-Acacia angustissima meal (CAAM), cactus-Gliricidia sepium meal (CGSM) and cactus-Pennisetum purpureum meal (CPPM) in that order. CGSM was not readily palatable as goat kids refused to take it when mixed with fresh cactus. Animals that were not supplemented with a source of nitrogen together with those that were supplemented with less palatable diet of CGSM lost weight significantly (P < 0.05) initially but gained weight slightly towards the end of the study. Significantly higher weight gains (P < 0.05) were observed in animals in CLLM and CAAM treatment. It was concluded that fresh cactus could be used to improve poor quality roughage intakes in goats, and therefore, there is need to promote its use in periods of feed deficit especially in smallholder sector.

  18. Evaluation of pheromone-baited traps for winter moth and Bruce spanworm (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Elkinton, Joseph S; Lance, David; Boettner, George; Khrimian, Ashot; Leva, Natalie

    2011-04-01

    We tested different pheromone-baited traps for surveying winter moth, Operophtera brumata (L.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), populations in eastern North America. We compared male catch at Pherocon 1C sticky traps with various large capacity traps and showed that Universal Moth traps with white bottoms caught more winter moths than any other trap type. We ran the experiment on Cape Cod, MA, where we caught only winter moth, and in western Massachusetts, where we caught only Bruce spanworm, Operophtera bruceata (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a congener of winter moth native to North America that uses the same pheromone compound [(Z,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene] and is difficult to distinguish from adult male winter moths. With Bruce spanworm, the Pherocon 1C sticky traps caught by far the most moths. We tested an isomer of the pheromone [(E,Z,Z)-1,3,6,9-nonadecatetraene] that previous work had suggested would inhibit captures of Bruce spanworm but not winter moths. We found that the different doses and placements of the isomer suppressed captures of both species to a similar degree. We are thus doubtful that we can use the isomer to trap winter moths without also catching Bruce spanworm. Pheromone-baited survey traps will catch both species.

  19. Predator Mimicry: Metalmark Moths Mimic Their Jumping Spider Predators

    PubMed Central

    Rota, Jadranka; Wagner, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Cases of mimicry provide many of the nature's most convincing examples of natural selection. Here we report evidence for a case of predator mimicry in which metalmark moths in the genus Brenthia mimic jumping spiders, one of their predators. In controlled trials, Brenthia had higher survival rates than other similarly sized moths in the presence of jumping spiders and jumping spiders responded to Brenthia with territorial displays, indicating that Brenthia were sometimes mistaken for jumping spiders, and not recognized as prey. Our experimental results and a review of wing patterns of other insects indicate that jumping spider mimicry is more widespread than heretofore appreciated, and that jumping spiders are probably an important selective pressure shaping the evolution of diurnal insects that perch on vegetation. PMID:17183674

  20. Processing of Pheromone Information in Related Species of Heliothine Moths

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Bente G.; Zhao, Xin-Cheng; Wang, Guirong

    2014-01-01

    In heliothine moths, the male-specific olfactory system is activated by a few odor molecules, each of which is associated with an easily identifiable glomerulus in the primary olfactory center of the brain. This arrangement is linked to two well-defined behavioral responses, one ensuring attraction and mating behavior by carrying information about pheromones released by conspecific females and the other inhibition of attraction via signal information emitted from heterospecifics. The chance of comparing the characteristic properties of pheromone receptor proteins, male-specific sensory neurons and macroglomerular complex (MGC)-units in closely-related species is especially intriguing. Here, we review studies on the male-specific olfactory system of heliothine moths with particular emphasis on five closely related species, i.e., Heliothis virescens, Heliothis subflexa, Helicoverpa zea, Helicoverpa assulta and Helicoverpa armigera. PMID:26462937

  1. New pheromone components of the grapevine moth Lobesia botrana.

    PubMed

    Witzgall, Peter; Tasin, Marco; Buser, Hans-Ruedi; Wegner-Kiss, Gertrud; Mancebón, Vicente S Marco; Ioriatti, Claudio; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Lehmann, Lutz; Francke, Wittko

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of extracts of sex pheromone glands of grapevine moth females Lobesia botrana showed three previously unidentified compounds, (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the (E,E)- and (Z,E)-isomers of 7,9,11-dodecatrienyl acetate. This is the first account of a triply unsaturated pheromone component in a tortricid moth. The monoenic acetate (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate and the trienic acetate (7Z,9E,11)-dodecatrienyl acetate significantly enhanced responses of males to the main pheromone compound, (7E,9Z)-7,9-dodecadienyl acetate, in the wind tunnel. The identification of sex pheromone synergists in L. botrana may be of practical importance for the development of integrated pest management systems. PMID:16365714

  2. Early quality assessment lessens pheromone specificity in a moth.

    PubMed

    Kárpáti, Zsolt; Tasin, Marco; Cardé, Ring T; Dekker, Teun

    2013-04-30

    Pheromone orientation in moths is an exemplar of olfactory acuity. To avoid heterospecific mating, males respond to female-produced blends with high specificity and temporal resolution. A finely tuned sensory to projection neuron network secures specificity, and this network is thought to assess pheromone quality continually during orientation. We tested whether male moths do indeed evaluate each pheromone encounter and surprisingly found that male European corn borer moths instead generalize across successive encounters. Although initially highly ratio specific, once "locked on" to the pheromone plume the acceptable ratio can vary widely, and even unattractive blends can become attractive. We further found that this "mental shortcut" may be a consequence of the fact that sensory neurons exposed to frequent encounters do not reliably encode blend ratios. Neurons tuned to either of the two pheromone components adapt differentially in plumes containing the preferred blend ratio (97:3) and cause the olfactory sensory signal to "evolve," even in narrowly tuned pheromonal circuits. However, apparently the brain interprets these shifting signals as invariant "gestalts." Generalization in pheromone perception may mitigate stabilizing selection and allow introgression between sympatric strains, such as in the European corn borer, that otherwise appear isolated by pheromonal differences. Generalization may also be important in responses to general odorants, as circuits underlying these display vast sensitivity differences, complex interactions, and temporal intricacies.

  3. Moths on the Flatbed Scanner: The Art of Joseph Scheer.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Stephen L

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade a few artists and even fewer entomologists discovered flatbed scanning technology, using extreme resolution graphical arts scanners for acquiring high magnification digital images of plants, animals and inanimate objects. They are not just for trip receipts anymore. The special attributes of certain scanners, to image thick objects is discussed along with the technical features of the scanners including magnification, color depth and shadow detail. The work of pioneering scanner artist, Joseph Scheer from New York's Alfred University is highlighted. Representative flatbed-scanned images of moths are illustrated along with techniques to produce them. Collecting and preparing moths, and other objects, for scanning are described. Highlights of the Fulbright sabbatical year of professor Scheer in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico are presented, along with comments on moths in science, folklore, art and pop culture. The use of flatbed scanners is offered as a relatively new method for visualizing small objects while acquiring large files for creating archival inkjet prints for display and sale. PMID:26467835

  4. Double meaning of courtship song in a moth

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to ‘cheat’ females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators. PMID:25009064

  5. Cold hardiness adaptations of codling moth, cydia pomonella

    PubMed

    Neven

    1999-02-01

    The cold hardiness adaptations of natural and laboratory reared populations of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, were examined. Hemolymph, gut, and whole body supercooling points (SCPs), 24-h LT50s, polyhydroxy alcohol concentrations, hemolymph freezing points, and hemolymph melting points were determined. Nondiapausing codling moth larvae do not have appreciable levels of ice nucleators in the hemolymph or gut. Whole body supercooling points were higher than hemolymph supercooling points. For nondiapausing larvae, LT50s were significantly higher than both the whole body and the hemolymph supercooling points, indicating the presence of chill sensitivity. As the larvae left the food source and spun a cocoon, both hemolymph and whole body SCPs decreased. Diapause destined larvae had significantly lower hemolymph SCPs than nondiapausing larvae, but whole body SCPs were not significantly different from nondiapausing larvae of the same age. The LT50s of diapause destined and diapausing larvae were significantly lower than that of nondiapausing larvae. Codling moths are freezing intolerant, with LT50s close to the average whole body supercooling point in diapause destined and diapausing larvae. The overwintering, diapausing larvae effectively supercool to avoid lethal freezing by removal of ice nucleators from the gut and body without appreciable increase of antifreeze agents such as polyols or antifreeze proteins.

  6. Essential host plant cues in the grapevine moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasin, Marco; Bäckman, Anna-Carin; Bengtsson, Marie; Ioriatti, Claudio; Witzgall, Peter

    2006-03-01

    Host plant odours attract gravid insect females for oviposition. The identification of these plant volatile compounds is essential for our understanding of plant insect relationships and contributes to plant breeding for improved resistance against insects. Chemical analysis of grape headspace and subsequent behavioural studies in the wind tunnel show that host finding in grapevine moth Lobesia botrana is encoded by a ratio-specific blend of three ubiquitous plant volatiles. The odour signal that attracts mated females to grape consists of the terpenoids ( E)-β-caryophyllene, ( E)-β-farnesene and ( E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene. These compounds represent only a fraction of the volatiles released by grapes, and they are widespread compounds known throughout the plant kingdom. Specificity may be achieved by the blend ratio, which was 100:78:9 in grape headspace. This blend elicited anemotactic behaviour in moths at remarkably small amounts. Females were attracted at release rates of only a few nanograms per minute, at levels nearly as low as those known for the attraction of male moths to the female sex pheromones.

  7. Double meaning of courtship song in a moth.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2014-08-22

    Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to 'cheat' females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators.

  8. Early quality assessment lessens pheromone specificity in a moth

    PubMed Central

    Kárpáti, Zsolt; Tasin, Marco; Cardé, Ring T.; Dekker, Teun

    2013-01-01

    Pheromone orientation in moths is an exemplar of olfactory acuity. To avoid heterospecific mating, males respond to female-produced blends with high specificity and temporal resolution. A finely tuned sensory to projection neuron network secures specificity, and this network is thought to assess pheromone quality continually during orientation. We tested whether male moths do indeed evaluate each pheromone encounter and surprisingly found that male European corn borer moths instead generalize across successive encounters. Although initially highly ratio specific, once “locked on” to the pheromone plume the acceptable ratio can vary widely, and even unattractive blends can become attractive. We further found that this “mental shortcut” may be a consequence of the fact that sensory neurons exposed to frequent encounters do not reliably encode blend ratios. Neurons tuned to either of the two pheromone components adapt differentially in plumes containing the preferred blend ratio (97:3) and cause the olfactory sensory signal to “evolve,” even in narrowly tuned pheromonal circuits. However, apparently the brain interprets these shifting signals as invariant “gestalts.” Generalization in pheromone perception may mitigate stabilizing selection and allow introgression between sympatric strains, such as in the European corn borer, that otherwise appear isolated by pheromonal differences. Generalization may also be important in responses to general odorants, as circuits underlying these display vast sensitivity differences, complex interactions, and temporal intricacies. PMID:23589889

  9. Space travel shortens diapause in gypsy moth eggs.

    PubMed

    Hayes, D K; Morgan, N O; Webb, R E; Bell, R A

    1991-02-01

    Field-collected and laboratory-reared gypsy moth eggs were exposed to microgravity, cosmic radiation, sub-freezing temperatures, unusual vibrations, and other extraterrestrial phenomena while they were sealed for 6 days, in January, in a Get-Away-Special (GAS) canister in the open bay of a NASA earth-orbiting spacecraft, the Columbia. Insects were not exposed to light after preparation for and during space flight. Under field conditions, out-of-doors, the eggs should have hatched in April, after 3-4 months of chilling temperatures and should not have hatched after the 6 days of chilling to -11 degrees C during flight in the Columbia spacecraft. However by April 1, more than 4000 larvae had hatched from eggs that had travelled in space, as opposed to approximately 350 from a similar number of control, earthbound eggs. These results indicate that the period of a circannual rhythm in field- and lab-reared insects had been shortened, presumably as result of exposure to microgravity, other factors associated with space flight, and/or conditions of outer space. These results suggest that it may be possible to develop methods for rearing the gypsy moth year round, without the necessity of three months chilling interspersed in the development process. This, in turn, would facilitate production of large numbers of insects for sterile male release or for use as a rearing medium for parasites, predators and pathogens of the gypsy moth.

  10. Moths on the Flatbed Scanner: The Art of Joseph Scheer

    PubMed Central

    Buchmann, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade a few artists and even fewer entomologists discovered flatbed scanning technology, using extreme resolution graphical arts scanners for acquiring high magnification digital images of plants, animals and inanimate objects. They are not just for trip receipts anymore. The special attributes of certain scanners, to image thick objects is discussed along with the technical features of the scanners including magnification, color depth and shadow detail. The work of pioneering scanner artist, Joseph Scheer from New York's Alfred University is highlighted. Representative flatbed-scanned images of moths are illustrated along with techniques to produce them. Collecting and preparing moths, and other objects, for scanning are described. Highlights of the Fulbright sabbatical year of professor Scheer in Arizona and Sonora, Mexico are presented, along with comments on moths in science, folklore, art and pop culture. The use of flatbed scanners is offered as a relatively new method for visualizing small objects while acquiring large files for creating archival inkjet prints for display and sale. PMID:26467835

  11. Double meaning of courtship song in a moth.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Ryo; Ihara, Fumio; Mishiro, Koji; Toyama, Masatoshi; Toda, Satoshi

    2014-08-22

    Males use courtship signals to inform a conspecific female of their presence and/or quality, or, alternatively, to 'cheat' females by imitating the cues of a prey or predator. These signals have the single function of advertising for mating. Here, we show the dual functions of the courtship song in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, whose males generate a series of short pulses and a subsequent long pulse in a song bout. Repulsive short pulses mimic the echolocation calls of sympatric horseshoe bats and disrupt the approach of male rivals to a female. The attractive long pulse does not mimic bat calls and specifically induces mate acceptance in the female, who raises her wings to facilitate copulation. These results demonstrate that moths can evolve both attractive acoustic signals and repulsive ones from cues that were originally used to identify predators and non-predators, because the bat-like sounds disrupt rivals, and also support a hypothesis of signal evolution via receiver bias in moth acoustic communication that was driven by the initial evolution of hearing to perceive echolocating bat predators. PMID:25009064

  12. Acoustic feature recognition in the dogbane tiger moth, Cycnia tenera.

    PubMed

    Fullard, James H; Ratcliffe, John M; Christie, Christopher G

    2007-07-01

    Certain tiger moths (Arctiidae) defend themselves against bats by phonoresponding to their echolocation calls with trains of ultrasonic clicks. The dogbane tiger moth, Cycnia tenera, preferentially phonoresponds to the calls produced by attacking versus searching bats, suggesting that it either recognizes some acoustic feature of this phase of the bat's echolocation calls or that it simply reacts to their increased power as the bat closes. Here, we used a habituation/generalization paradigm to demonstrate that C. tenera responds neither to the shift in echolocation call frequencies nor to the change in pulse duration that is exhibited during the bat's attack phase unless these changes are accompanied by either an increase in duty cycle or a decrease in pulse period. To separate these features, we measured the moth's phonoresponse thresholds to pulsed stimuli with variable versus constant duty cycles and demonstrate that C. tenera is most sensitive to echolocation call periods expressed by an attacking bat. We suggest that, under natural conditions, C. tenera identifies an attacking bat by recognizing the pulse period of its echolocation calls but that this feature recognition is influenced by acoustic power and can be overridden by unnaturally intense sounds.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE GLYCOSYLATED ECDYSTEROIDS IN THE HEMOLYMPH OF BACULOVIRUS-INFECTED GYPSY MOTH LARVAE AND CELLS IN CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourth-instar gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar; Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) larvae, infected with the gypsy moth baculovirus (LdNPV), show an elevated and prolonged extension of the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer peak associated with molting. The ecdysteroid immunoreactivity associated w...

  14. Past climate changes and ecophysiological responses recorded in the isotope ratios of saguaro cactus spines.

    PubMed

    English, Nathan B; Dettman, David L; Sandquist, Darren R; Williams, David G

    2007-11-01

    The stable isotope composition of spines produced serially from the apex of columnar cacti has the potential to be used as a record of changes in climate and physiology. To investigate this potential, we measured the delta(18)O, delta(13)C and F(14)C values of spines from a long-lived columnar cactus, saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea). To determine plant age, we collected spines at 11 different heights along one rib from the stem apex (3.77 m height) to the base of a naturally occurring saguaro. Fractions of modern carbon (F(14)C) ranged from 0.9679 to 1.5537, which is consistent with ages between 1950 and 2004. We observed a very strong positive correlation (r = 0.997) between the F(14)C age of spines and the age of spines determined from direct and repeated height measurements taken on this individual over the past 37 years. A series of 96 spines collected from this individual had delta(18)O values ranging from 38 per thousand to 50 per thousand [Vienna standard mean ocean water (VSMOW)] and delta(13)C values from -11.5 per thousand to -8.5 per thousand [Vienna Peedee belemnite (VPDB)]. The delta(18)O and delta(13)C values of spines were positively correlated (r = 0.45, P < 0.0001) and showed near-annual oscillations over the approximately 15-year record. This pattern suggests that seasonal periods of reduced evaporative demand or greater precipitation input may correspond to increased daytime CO(2) uptake. The lowest delta(18)O and delta(13)C values of spines observed occurred during the 1983 and 1993 El Niño years, suggesting that the stable isotope composition recorded in spine tissue may serve as a proxy for these climate events. We compared empirical models and data from potted experimental cacti to validate these observations and test our hypotheses. The isotopic records presented here are the first ever reported from a chronosequence of cactus spines and demonstrate that tissues of columnar cacti, and potentially other long-lived succulents, may contain a

  15. Past climate changes and ecophysiological responses recorded in the isotope ratios of saguaro cactus spines.

    PubMed

    English, Nathan B; Dettman, David L; Sandquist, Darren R; Williams, David G

    2007-11-01

    The stable isotope composition of spines produced serially from the apex of columnar cacti has the potential to be used as a record of changes in climate and physiology. To investigate this potential, we measured the delta(18)O, delta(13)C and F(14)C values of spines from a long-lived columnar cactus, saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea). To determine plant age, we collected spines at 11 different heights along one rib from the stem apex (3.77 m height) to the base of a naturally occurring saguaro. Fractions of modern carbon (F(14)C) ranged from 0.9679 to 1.5537, which is consistent with ages between 1950 and 2004. We observed a very strong positive correlation (r = 0.997) between the F(14)C age of spines and the age of spines determined from direct and repeated height measurements taken on this individual over the past 37 years. A series of 96 spines collected from this individual had delta(18)O values ranging from 38 per thousand to 50 per thousand [Vienna standard mean ocean water (VSMOW)] and delta(13)C values from -11.5 per thousand to -8.5 per thousand [Vienna Peedee belemnite (VPDB)]. The delta(18)O and delta(13)C values of spines were positively correlated (r = 0.45, P < 0.0001) and showed near-annual oscillations over the approximately 15-year record. This pattern suggests that seasonal periods of reduced evaporative demand or greater precipitation input may correspond to increased daytime CO(2) uptake. The lowest delta(18)O and delta(13)C values of spines observed occurred during the 1983 and 1993 El Niño years, suggesting that the stable isotope composition recorded in spine tissue may serve as a proxy for these climate events. We compared empirical models and data from potted experimental cacti to validate these observations and test our hypotheses. The isotopic records presented here are the first ever reported from a chronosequence of cactus spines and demonstrate that tissues of columnar cacti, and potentially other long-lived succulents, may contain a

  16. Population Explosions of Tiger Moth Lead to Lepidopterism Mimicking Infectious Fever Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Wills, Pallara Janardhanan; Anjana, Mohan; Nitin, Mohan; Varun, Raghuveeran; Sachidanandan, Parayil; Jacob, Tharaniyil Mani; Lilly, Madhavan; Thampan, Raghava Varman; Karthikeya Varma, Koyikkal

    2016-01-01

    Lepidopterism is a disease caused by the urticating scales and toxic fluids of adult moths, butterflies or its caterpillars. The resulting cutaneous eruptions and systemic problems progress to clinical complications sometimes leading to death. High incidence of fever epidemics were associated with massive outbreaks of tiger moth Asota caricae adult populations during monsoon in Kerala, India. A significant number of monsoon related fever characteristic to lepidopterism was erroneously treated as infectious fevers due to lookalike symptoms. To diagnose tiger moth lepidopterism, we conducted immunoblots for tiger moth specific IgE in fever patients' sera. We selected a cohort of patients (n = 155) with hallmark symptoms of infectious fevers but were tested negative to infectious fevers. In these cases, the total IgE was elevated and was detected positive (78.6%) for tiger moth specific IgE allergens. Chemical characterization of caterpillar and adult moth fluids was performed by HPLC and GC-MS analysis and structural identification of moth scales was performed by SEM analysis. The body fluids and chitinous scales were found to be highly toxic and inflammatory in nature. To replicate the disease in experimental model, wistar rats were exposed to live tiger moths in a dose dependant manner and observed similar clinico-pathological complications reported during the fever epidemics. Further, to link larval abundance and fever epidemics we conducted cointegration test for the period 2009 to 2012 and physical presence of the tiger moths were found to be cointegrated with fever epidemics. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate that inhalation of aerosols containing tiger moth fluids, scales and hairs cause systemic reactions that can be fatal to human. All these evidences points to the possible involvement of tiger moth disease as a major cause to the massive and fatal fever epidemics observed in Kerala. PMID:27073878

  17. The simple ears of noctuoid moths are tuned to the calls of their sympatric bat community.

    PubMed

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Ratcliffe, John M; Holderied, Marc W; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-11-01

    Insects with bat-detecting ears are ideal animals for investigating sensory system adaptations to predator cues. Noctuid moths have two auditory receptors (A1 and A2) sensitive to the ultrasonic echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Larger moths are detected at greater distances by bats than smaller moths. Larger moths also have lower A1 best thresholds, allowing them to detect bats at greater distances and possibly compensating for their increased conspicuousness. Interestingly, the sound frequency at the lowest threshold is lower in larger than in smaller moths, suggesting that the relationship between threshold and size might vary across frequencies used by different bat species. Here, we demonstrate that the relationships between threshold and size in moths were only significant at some frequencies, and these frequencies differed between three locations (UK, Canada and Denmark). The relationships were more likely to be significant at call frequencies used by proportionately more bat species in the moths' specific bat community, suggesting an association between the tuning of moth ears and the cues provided by sympatric predators. Additionally, we found that the best threshold and best frequency of the less sensitive A2 receptor are also related to size, and that these relationships hold when controlling for evolutionary relationships. The slopes of best threshold versus size differ, however, such that the difference in threshold between A1 and A2 is greater for larger than for smaller moths. The shorter time from A1 to A2 excitation in smaller than in larger moths could potentially compensate for shorter absolute detection distances in smaller moths. PMID:23913945

  18. The simple ears of noctuoid moths are tuned to the calls of their sympatric bat community.

    PubMed

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Ratcliffe, John M; Holderied, Marc W; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2013-11-01

    Insects with bat-detecting ears are ideal animals for investigating sensory system adaptations to predator cues. Noctuid moths have two auditory receptors (A1 and A2) sensitive to the ultrasonic echolocation calls of insectivorous bats. Larger moths are detected at greater distances by bats than smaller moths. Larger moths also have lower A1 best thresholds, allowing them to detect bats at greater distances and possibly compensating for their increased conspicuousness. Interestingly, the sound frequency at the lowest threshold is lower in larger than in smaller moths, suggesting that the relationship between threshold and size might vary across frequencies used by different bat species. Here, we demonstrate that the relationships between threshold and size in moths were only significant at some frequencies, and these frequencies differed between three locations (UK, Canada and Denmark). The relationships were more likely to be significant at call frequencies used by proportionately more bat species in the moths' specific bat community, suggesting an association between the tuning of moth ears and the cues provided by sympatric predators. Additionally, we found that the best threshold and best frequency of the less sensitive A2 receptor are also related to size, and that these relationships hold when controlling for evolutionary relationships. The slopes of best threshold versus size differ, however, such that the difference in threshold between A1 and A2 is greater for larger than for smaller moths. The shorter time from A1 to A2 excitation in smaller than in larger moths could potentially compensate for shorter absolute detection distances in smaller moths.

  19. Population Explosions of Tiger Moth Lead to Lepidopterism Mimicking Infectious Fever Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Wills, Pallara Janardhanan; Anjana, Mohan; Nitin, Mohan; Varun, Raghuveeran; Sachidanandan, Parayil; Jacob, Tharaniyil Mani; Lilly, Madhavan; Thampan, Raghava Varman; Karthikeya Varma, Koyikkal

    2016-01-01

    Lepidopterism is a disease caused by the urticating scales and toxic fluids of adult moths, butterflies or its caterpillars. The resulting cutaneous eruptions and systemic problems progress to clinical complications sometimes leading to death. High incidence of fever epidemics were associated with massive outbreaks of tiger moth Asota caricae adult populations during monsoon in Kerala, India. A significant number of monsoon related fever characteristic to lepidopterism was erroneously treated as infectious fevers due to lookalike symptoms. To diagnose tiger moth lepidopterism, we conducted immunoblots for tiger moth specific IgE in fever patients' sera. We selected a cohort of patients (n = 155) with hallmark symptoms of infectious fevers but were tested negative to infectious fevers. In these cases, the total IgE was elevated and was detected positive (78.6%) for tiger moth specific IgE allergens. Chemical characterization of caterpillar and adult moth fluids was performed by HPLC and GC-MS analysis and structural identification of moth scales was performed by SEM analysis. The body fluids and chitinous scales were found to be highly toxic and inflammatory in nature. To replicate the disease in experimental model, wistar rats were exposed to live tiger moths in a dose dependant manner and observed similar clinico-pathological complications reported during the fever epidemics. Further, to link larval abundance and fever epidemics we conducted cointegration test for the period 2009 to 2012 and physical presence of the tiger moths were found to be cointegrated with fever epidemics. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate that inhalation of aerosols containing tiger moth fluids, scales and hairs cause systemic reactions that can be fatal to human. All these evidences points to the possible involvement of tiger moth disease as a major cause to the massive and fatal fever epidemics observed in Kerala.

  20. Population Explosions of Tiger Moth Lead to Lepidopterism Mimicking Infectious Fever Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Pallara Janardhanan; Anjana, Mohan; Nitin, Mohan; Varun, Raghuveeran; Sachidanandan, Parayil; Jacob, Tharaniyil Mani; Lilly, Madhavan; Thampan, Raghava Varman; Karthikeya Varma, Koyikkal

    2016-01-01

    Lepidopterism is a disease caused by the urticating scales and toxic fluids of adult moths, butterflies or its caterpillars. The resulting cutaneous eruptions and systemic problems progress to clinical complications sometimes leading to death. High incidence of fever epidemics were associated with massive outbreaks of tiger moth Asota caricae adult populations during monsoon in Kerala, India. A significant number of monsoon related fever characteristic to lepidopterism was erroneously treated as infectious fevers due to lookalike symptoms. To diagnose tiger moth lepidopterism, we conducted immunoblots for tiger moth specific IgE in fever patients’ sera. We selected a cohort of patients (n = 155) with hallmark symptoms of infectious fevers but were tested negative to infectious fevers. In these cases, the total IgE was elevated and was detected positive (78.6%) for tiger moth specific IgE allergens. Chemical characterization of caterpillar and adult moth fluids was performed by HPLC and GC-MS analysis and structural identification of moth scales was performed by SEM analysis. The body fluids and chitinous scales were found to be highly toxic and inflammatory in nature. To replicate the disease in experimental model, wistar rats were exposed to live tiger moths in a dose dependant manner and observed similar clinico-pathological complications reported during the fever epidemics. Further, to link larval abundance and fever epidemics we conducted cointegration test for the period 2009 to 2012 and physical presence of the tiger moths were found to be cointegrated with fever epidemics. In conclusion, our experiments demonstrate that inhalation of aerosols containing tiger moth fluids, scales and hairs cause systemic reactions that can be fatal to human. All these evidences points to the possible involvement of tiger moth disease as a major cause to the massive and fatal fever epidemics observed in Kerala. PMID:27073878

  1. Tiger moth responses to a simulated bat attack: timing and duty cycle.

    PubMed

    Barber, J R; Conner, W E

    2006-07-01

    Many night-flying insects perform complex, aerobatic escape maneuvers when echolocating bats initiate attack. Tiger moths couple this kinematic defense with an acoustic reply to a bat's biosonar-guided assault. The jamming hypothesis for the function of these moth sounds assumes that tiger moth clicks presented at high densities, temporally locked to the terminal phase of the bat attack will produce the greatest jamming efficacy. Concomitantly, this hypothesis argues that moths warning bats of bad tasting chemicals sequestered in their tissues should call early to give the bat time to process the meaning of the warning signal and that moths calling at low duty cycles are more likely to employ such an aposematic strategy. We report here the first investigation of a tiger moth assemblage's response to playback of a bat echolocation attack sequence. This assemblage of arctiid moths first answered the echolocation attack sequence 960+/-547 ms (mean +/- s.d.) from the end of the bat attack. The assemblage reached a half-maximum response shortly after the first response, at 763+/-479 ms from the end of the terminal buzz. Tiger moth response reached a maximum at 475+/-344 ms from the end of the sequence; during the approach phase, well before the onset of the terminal buzz. In short, much of tiger moth response to bat attack occurs outside of the jamming hypotheses' predictions. Furthermore, no relationship exists between the duty cycle of a tiger moth's call (and thus the call's probability of jamming the bat) and its temporal response to bat attack. These data call into doubt the assumptions behind the jamming hypothesis as currently stated but do not directly test the functionality of arctiid sounds in disrupting echolocation in bat-moth aerial battles.

  2. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  6. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang-Ku; Moon, Jong-Yeol; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G

    2013-01-01

    Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i) whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii) what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log) and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature). We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel) to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual). This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

  7. 40 CFR 180.1218 - Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1218 Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus; exemption from... residues of the microbial pesticide Indian Meal Moth Granulosis Virus when used in or on all...

  8. Odorants of the Flowers of Butterfly Bush, Buddleia davidii as Possible Attractants of Pest Species of Moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowers of the butterfly bush, Buddleia davidii Franch., are visited by butterflies and moths, as well as other insects. Moths captured in traps over flowers were 21 species of Geometridae, Noctuidae, Pyralidae, and Tortricidae. The most abundant moths trapped at these flowers were the cabbage loop...

  9. Parasitoid complex of the bird cherry ermine moth, Yponomeuta evonymellus, in Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid complex of Yponomeuta evonymellus L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), the bird cherry ermine moth, was sought in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) with the goal of identifying potential biological controls of the moth. 13 primary and two secondary parasitoids were found. Diadegma armil...

  10. “This is not an apple”–yeast mutualism in codling moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes lar...

  11. A computer model for simulating population development of the Indianmeal Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in stored corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a common pest of stored corn, Zea mays L. We developed a computer model to simulate population development of the Indianmeal moth in stored corn using previously published data describing immature development times and ...

  12. Interaction of acetic acid and phenylacetaldehyde as attractants for trapping pest species of moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenylacetaldehyde is a flower volatile and attractant for many nectar-seeking moths. Acetic acid is a microbial fermentation product that is present in insect sweet baits. It is weakly attractive to some moths and other insects, but can be additive or synergistic with other compounds to make more p...

  13. An aerial-hawking bat uses stealth echolocation to counter moth hearing.

    PubMed

    Goerlitz, Holger R; ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Zeale, Matt R K; Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W

    2010-09-14

    Ears evolved in many nocturnal insects, including some moths, to detect bat echolocation calls and evade capture [1, 2]. Although there is evidence that some bats emit echolocation calls that are inconspicuous to eared moths, it is difficult to determine whether this was an adaptation to moth hearing or originally evolved for a different purpose [2, 3]. Aerial-hawking bats generally emit high-amplitude echolocation calls to maximize detection range [4, 5]. Here we present the first example of an echolocation counterstrategy to overcome prey hearing at the cost of reduced detection distance. We combined comparative bat flight-path tracking and moth neurophysiology with fecal DNA analysis to show that the barbastelle, Barbastella barbastellus, emits calls that are 10 to 100 times lower in amplitude than those of other aerial-hawking bats, remains undetected by moths until close, and captures mainly eared moths. Model calculations demonstrate that only bats emitting such low-amplitude calls hear moth echoes before their calls are conspicuous to moths. This stealth echolocation allows the barbastelle to exploit food resources that are difficult to catch for other aerial-hawking bats emitting calls of greater amplitude. PMID:20727755

  14. Geographic isolation trumps coevolution as a driver of yucca and yucca moth diversification.

    PubMed

    Althoff, David M; Segraves, Kari A; Smith, Christopher I; Leebens-Mack, James; Pellmyr, Olle

    2012-03-01

    Coevolution is thought to be especially important in diversification of obligate mutualistic interactions such as the one between yuccas and pollinating yucca moths. We took a three-step approach to examine if plant and pollinator speciation events were likely driven by coevolution. First, we tested whether there has been co-speciation between yuccas and pollinator yucca moths in the genus Tegeticula (Prodoxidae). Second, we tested whether co-speciation also occurred between yuccas and commensalistic yucca moths in the genus Prodoxus (Prodoxidae) in which reciprocal evolutionary change is unlikely. Finally, we examined the current range distributions of yuccas in relationship to pollinator speciation events to determine if plant and moth speciation events likely occurred in sympatry or allopatry. Co-speciation analyses of yuccas with their coexisting Tegeticula pollinator and commensalistic Prodoxus lineages demonstrated phylogenetic congruence between both groups of moths and yuccas, even though moth lineages differ in the type of interaction with yuccas. Furthermore, Yucca species within a lineage occur primarily in allopatry rather than sympatry. We conclude that biogeographic factors are the overriding force in plant and pollinator moth speciation and significant phylogenetic congruence between the moth and plant lineages is likely due to shared biogeography rather than coevolution.

  15. Silvicultural guidelines for forest stands threatened by the Gypsy moth. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschalk, K.W.

    1993-02-02

    The ecological and silvicultural information on the interaction of gypsy moth and its host forest types is incorporated into silvicultural guidelines for minimizing the impacts of gypsy moth on forest stands threatened by the insect. Decision charts are used to match stand and insect conditions to the proper prescription that includes instructions for implementing it.

  16. Recapture of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) males: influence of lure type and pheromone background.

    PubMed

    Grieshop, Matthew J; Brunner, Jay F; Jones, Vincent P; Bello, Nora M

    2010-08-01

    Recapture of marked male codling moths, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), released four distances from traps was measured in experiments comparing either lure type or mating disruption. Experiment 1 assessed recapture by 0.1, 1, and 10 mg of codlemone lures. Experiments 2 and 3 assessed moth recapture in orchard plots with 0, 500, or 1,000 Isomate C Plus dispensers per ha. Moths were released 1, 3, 10, and 30 m downwind of the trap in experiments 1 and 2, and 3, 10, 30, and 45 m in experiment 3. Lure type did not affect recapture, however, significantly more moths were recaptured at 3 m compared with 10 or 30 m. Most moths recaptured < or = 10 m of the trap were recaptured by day 3, whereas most of the moths recaptured > or = 10 m were recaptured after day 3. Thus, 0.1-, 1-, and 10-mg lures, have an attractive range of between 10 and 30 m in orchards lacking mating disruption. Both mating disruption rates greatly reduced moth recapture, and moths recaptured under a 1,000 dispenser per ha rate were recaptured from < or = 10 m and within the first 2 d after release. Similar results were observed when release points were expanded to 45 m. Thus, results suggest that pheromone dispenser technologies and placement strategies that maximize disruption of males that arise within 10 m of a female are needed to markedly improve mating disruption.

  17. Identification of the sex pheromone of the diurnal hawk moth, Hemaris affinis.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Takuya; Naka, Hideshi; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ando, Tetsu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Sex pheromones of nocturnal hawk moths have been identified previously, but not those of diurnal hawk moths. Here, we report laboratory analyses and field testing of the sex pheromone of the diurnal hawk moth, Hemaris affinis (Bremer 1861) (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Sex pheromone glands were removed and extracted in hexane during peak calling activity of virgin female moths. Analysis of gland extracts by gas chromatography (GC) with electroantennographic detection revealed three components that elicited responses from male moth antennae. These components were identified, based on their mass spectra and retention indices on two GC columns, as (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (10E, 12Z)- and (10E,12E)-10,12-hexadecadienals with a ratio of 45:20:35. In a field experiment, traps baited with the three-component synthetic blend, but none of the single- or two-component blends, caught male moths. All three pheromone components have been identified previously in pheromones of other Lepidoptera, including Sphingid moths, and thus the ternary blend is probably responsible for the species specificity of the pheromone of this moth.

  18. Attraction of the gypsy moth to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of damaged Dahurian larch.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Valimaki, Sanna; Shi, Juan; Zong, Shixiang; Luo, Youqing; Heliovaara, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Olfactory responses of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), a major defoliator of deciduous trees, were examined in Inner Mongolia, China. We studied whether the gypsy moth adults are attracted by the major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of damaged Larix gmelinii (Dahurian larch) foliage and compared the attractiveness of the plant volatiles with that of the synthetic sex pheromone. Our results indicated that the VOCs of the Dahurian larch were effective in attracting gypsy moth males especially during the peak flight period. The VOCs also attracted moths significantly better than the sex pheromone of the moth. Our study is the first trial to show the responses of adult gypsy moths to volatile compounds emitted from a host plant. Electroantennogram responses of L. gmelinii volatiles on gypsy moths supported our field observations. A synergistic effect between host plant volatiles and sex pheromone was also obvious, and both can be jointly applied as a new attractant method or population management strategy of the gypsy moth.

  19. Good News? Codling Moth Exhibits Negative Cross Resistance Between Guthion and Rimon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The responses of adult codling moth from several field-collected populations and a laboratory-reared colony to residues of Rimon were evaluated in plastic cup adult bioassays. Both fecundity and successful egg hatch varied among populations. Populations of codling moth that exhibited the highest LC5...

  20. Revisiting an old question: Is the natural blend best for disruption of pheromone communication in moths?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-lived microlepidoptera must, by force, be very good at finding their mate and reproducing. Insects are very good at this and moths, in particular, are highly evolved to use volatile signals (pheromones) to communicate and locate conspecifics. The chemical structures of many pheromones of moths...

  1. Codling moth resistance and associated pytochemical variation in fruit of Malus tschonoskii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Work is ongoing to evaluate the potential for host plant resistance to codling moth and other apple pests among the diverse Malus germplasm housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PRGU) in Geneva, NY. Significant resistance to larval feeding from codling moth has been observed in fruit fro...

  2. Forty million years of mutualism: Evidence for Eocene origin of the yucca-yucca moth association

    PubMed Central

    Pellmyr, Olle; Leebens-Mack, James

    1999-01-01

    The obligate mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths is a major model system for the study of coevolving species interactions. Exploration of the processes that have generated current diversity and associations within this mutualism requires robust phylogenies and timelines for both moths and yuccas. Here we establish a molecular clock for the moths based on mtDNA and use it to estimate the time of major life history events within the yucca moths. Colonization of yuccas had occurred by 41.5 ± 9.8 million years ago (Mya), with rapid life history diversification and the emergence of pollinators within 0–6 My after yucca colonization. A subsequent burst of diversification 3.2 ± 1.8 Mya coincided with evolution of arid habitats in western North America. Derived nonpollinating cheater yucca moths evolved 1.26 ± 0.96 Mya. The estimated age of the moths far predates the host fossil record, but is consistent with suggested host age based on paleobotanical, climatological, biogeographical, and geological data, and a tentative estimation from an rbcL-based molecular clock for yuccas. The moth data are used to establish three alternative scenarios of how the moths and plants have coevolved. They yield specific predictions that can be tested once a robust plant phylogeny becomes available. PMID:10430916

  3. Attractiveness of binary blends of floral odorant compounds to moths in Florida, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of combinations of flower odor compounds in the field revealed several chemicals that were attractive or co-attractive with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) to pest noctuid and pyralid moths. A number of moth species responded positively to PAA. The floral odorants cis-jasmone, linalool, benzyl...

  4. Attractiveness of floral compounds to male and female moths in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of combinations of flower odor compounds in the field revealed several chemicals that were attractive or co-attractive with phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) to pest noctuid and pyralid moths. A number of moth species responded positively to PAA. The floral odorants cis-jasmone, linalool, benzyl a...

  5. Moth Wing Scales Slightly Increase the Absorbance of Bat Echolocation Calls

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jinyao; Xiang, Ning; Jiang, Lei; Jones, Gareth; Zheng, Yongmei; Liu, Bingwan; Zhang, Shuyi

    2011-01-01

    Coevolutionary arms races between predators and prey can lead to a diverse range of foraging and defense strategies, such as countermeasures between nocturnal insects and echolocating bats. Here, we show how the fine structure of wing scales may help moths by slightly increasing sound absorbance at frequencies typically used in bat echolocation. Using four widespread species of moths and butterflies, we found that moth scales are composed of honeycomb-like hollows similar to sound-absorbing material, but these were absent from butterfly scales. Micro-reverberation chamber experiments revealed that moth wings were more absorbent at the frequencies emitted by many echolocating bats (40–60 kHz) than butterfly wings. Furthermore, moth wings lost absorbance at these frequencies when scales were removed, which suggests that some moths have evolved stealth tactics to reduce their conspicuousness to echolocating bats. Although the benefits to moths are relatively small in terms of reducing their target strengths, scales may nonetheless confer survival advantages by reducing the detection distances of moths by bats by 5–6%. PMID:22096534

  6. The chemosensory receptors of codling moth Cydia pomonella – expression in larvae and adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is a worldwide key pest of apple and pear. Behavior-modifying semiochemicals are successfully used and are being further developed for environmentally safe control of codling moth. The chemical senses, olfaction and gustation, play critically important role...

  7. Cavity and end effects on flow past cactus-shaped cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talley, Sharon; Mungal, Godfrey

    2002-11-01

    Motivation for this study is the saguaro cactus, which is a leafless cylindrical tree that grows in the Sonaron Desert of the United States. Saguaros have an average diameter of 0.5 m, and at the highest wind velocities in their natural habitat, they experience flows up to a Re of 10^6. These giant trees have longitudinal cavities that span the length of the trunk. Typical cavity depths have a cavity depth ratio (l/d - cavity depth divided by diameter of the stem) of 0.07. Experimental measurements of pressure distribution, unsteady drag and lift, and vortex shedding are performed in a low speed wind tunnel over a over a range of Reynolds numbers from 1 × 10^4 to 2 × 10^5. We compare cylinders that differ in their surface geometry: a smooth cylinder, sandpaper roughened cylinders (k_s/d = 1.74 × 10-3 and 8.41 × 10-3), and cylinders with different cavity depths (l/d of 0.035, 0.07, and 0.105). For each of the test cylinders, we examine the effects of flat and hemispherical ends on a free end while the other end is attached. The benefits of cavity depth and hemispherical ends will be discussed.

  8. Removing heavy metals in water: the interaction of cactus mucilage and arsenate (As (V)).

    PubMed

    Fox, Dawn I; Pichler, Thomas; Yeh, Daniel H; Alcantar, Norma A

    2012-04-17

    High concentrations of arsenic in groundwater continue to present health threats to millions of consumers worldwide. Particularly, affected communities in the developing world need accessible technologies for arsenic removal from drinking water. We explore the application of cactus mucilage, pectic polysaccharide extracts from Opuntia ficus-indica for arsenic removal. Synthetic arsenate (As (V)) solutions were treated with two extracts, a gelling extract (GE) and a nongelling extract (NE) in batch trials. The arsenic concentration at the air-water interface was measured after equilibration. The GE and NE treated solutions showed on average 14% and 9% increases in arsenic concentration at the air-water interface respectively indicating that the mucilage bonded and transported the arsenic to the air-water interface. FTIR studies showed that the -CO groups (carboxyl and carbonyl groups) and -OH (hydroxyl) functional groups of the mucilage were involved in the interaction with the arsenate. Mucilage activity was greater in weakly basic (pH 9) and weakly acidic (pH 5.5) pH. This interaction can be optimized and harnessed for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. This work breaks the ground for the application of natural pectic materials to the removal of anionic metallic species from water. PMID:22401577

  9. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dave Madsen

    1998-08-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers northwest of Las Vegas, NV. CAU 426 consists of one corrective action site (CAS) which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primary the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the nonnuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP)which proposed ''capping'' methodology. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved CAP and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the area of the trenches, constructing/planting a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan.

  10. Cactus pear extracts induce reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Feugang, Jean M; Ye, Fei; Zhang, David Y; Yu, Yanhong; Zhong, Mei; Zhang, Sui; Zou, Changping

    2010-01-01

    The protective effect of natural products such as fruits and vegetables against cancer has attracted great attention because of their fewer side effects and therefore, potentially greater safety. We have previously reported that cactus pear mixture aqueous extract (CME) reduces gynecologic cancer cells growth by inducting apoptosis. This study aimed to elucidate the cellular pathway(s) triggered by CME in cancer cells. Normal, immortalized ovarian and ovarian cancer cells (OVCA420, SKOV3) were treated with 5 and 10% CME. After 2 days of treatment, immortalized cells treated with 10% CME accumulated more ROS than untreated cells, whereas cancer cells cultured with 5% and 10% CME exhibited a dramatic increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Greater levels of DNA fragmentation, together with a perturbed expression of apoptotic-related (Bax, Bad, caspase 3, Bcl2, p53, and p21) and ROS-sensitive (NF-kappaB, c-jun/c-fos) genes were observed in the treated cancer cells. After three days of treatment, the NF-kappaB and p-/SAPK/JNK expressions were decreased, whereas p-AKT was upregulated. The CME significantly induced apoptosis in cancer cells. The results suggest an inhibitory effect of Arizona CME on cancer cell growth through the accumulation of intracellular ROS, which may activate a cascade of reactions leading to the apoptosis. PMID:20574930

  11. Micromorphology of cactus-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill) cladodes based on scanning microscopies.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem-Fnayou, Asma; Zemni, Hassène; Nefzaoui, Ali; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed

    2014-01-01

    Cladode ultrastructural features of two prickly and two spineless Opuntia ficus-indica cultivars were examined using environmental scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. Observations focused on cladode as well as spine and glochid surface micromorphologies. Prickly cultivars were characterized by abundant cracked epicuticular wax deposits covering the cladode surface, with an amorphous structure as observed by AFM, while less abundant waxy plates were observed by ESEM on spineless cultivar cladodes. Further AFM observations allowed a rough granular and crystalloid epicuticular wax structure to be distinguished in spineless cultivars. Regarding spine micromorphology, prickly cultivars had strong persistent spines, observed by ESEM as a compact arrangement of oblong epidermal cells with a rough granular structure. However, deciduous spines in spineless cultivars had a broken transversely fissured epidermis covering a parallel arrangement of fibres. Through AFM, the deciduous spine surface presented an irregular hilly and smooth microrelief while persistent spines exhibited rough helical filamentous prints. ESEM and AFM studies of cladode surfaces from prickly and spineless cactus pear cultivars revealed valuable micro-morphological details that ought to be extended to a large number of O. ficus-indica cultivars.

  12. Genetic and chemical diversity in seeds of cactus mandacaru (Cereus sp.) from two edaphoclimatic regions contrasting.

    PubMed

    Bevilaqua, Maycon R R; Santana Filho, Arquimedes P; Mangolin, Claudete A; Oliveira, Arildo J B; Machado, Maria De Fátima P S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical, physiological and genetic differences in seeds of cactus of the Cereus genus (mandacaru) cultivated in the Northeast (Picos, State of Piauí) and Southern (Maringá, State of Paraná) regions of Brazil. Over a period of eight days, temperatures of 25°C and 30°C were equally efficient for the germination of all the seeds. Oleic acid (C18:1) was the most common fatty acid found in the seeds collected in the Southern (41%) and Northeast (45.5%) regions. The analysis of lipases indicated that seeds from Maringá have high mean observed and expected heterozygosities and that seeds from Picos have a higher number of alleles per loci. Therefore, the seeds of mandacaru from the semiarid region of Northeast as well as the seeds from the South (the two contrasting regions of Brazil) are promising with regards to the preservation of the biodiversity in the genome of mandacaru. The low genetic identity between mandacaru seeds from Maringá and Picos at Lipase-5 locus analysis (I = 0.77) suggests that the mandacaru plants from Maringá and Picos may correspond to two species: C. peruvianus and C. jamacaru, respectively.

  13. Semiochemicals from ex situ abiotically stressed cactus tissue: a contributing role of fungal spores?

    PubMed

    Beck, John J; Baig, Nausheena; Cook, Daniel; Mahoney, Noreen E; Marsico, Travis D

    2014-12-24

    Semiochemicals play a central role in communication between plants and insects, such as signaling the location of a suitable host. Fungi on host plants can also play an influential role in communicating certain plant vulnerabilities to an insect. The spiroketal conophthorin is an important semiochemical produced by developing fungal spores. Spiroketals are also used as signals for scolytid communication. Plants and fungi are known to emit varying volatile profiles under biotic and abiotic stress. This paper reports distinctive temporal-volatile profiles from three abiotic treatments, room temperature (control), -15 °C (cold), and -15 °C to room temperature (shock), of cactus tissue plugs. Volatiles from the three treatments included monoterpenes from control plugs, compounds of varying classes and origin at later stages for cold plugs, and known semiochemicals, including spiroketals, at later stages for shock plugs. The results highlight several important findings: a unique tissue source of the spiroketals; abiotic cold-shock stress is indicated as the cause of spiroketal production; and, given previous findings of spirogenesis, fungal spore involvement is a probable biosynthetic origin of the spiroketals. These findings suggest an important role of fungal volatiles as signaling plant vulnerability to insects.

  14. Hierarchical structures of cactus spines that aid in the directional movement of dew droplets.

    PubMed

    Malik, F T; Clement, R M; Gethin, D T; Kiernan, M; Goral, T; Griffiths, P; Beynon, D; Parker, A R

    2016-08-01

    Three species of cactus whose spines act as dew harvesters were chosen for this study: Copiapoa cinerea var. haseltoniana, Mammillaria columbiana subsp. yucatanensis and Parodia mammulosa and compared with Ferocactus wislizenii whose spines do not perform as dew harvesters. Time-lapse snapshots of C. cinerea showed movement of dew droplets from spine tips to their base, even against gravity. Spines emanating from one of the areoles of C. cinerea were submerged in water laced with fluorescent nanoparticles and this particular areole with its spines and a small area of stem was removed and imaged. These images clearly showed that fluorescent water had moved into the stem of the plant. Lines of vascular bundles radiating inwards from the surface areoles (from where the spines emanate) to the core of the stem were detected using magnetic resonance imaging, with the exception of F. wislizenii that does not harvest dew on its spines. Spine microstructures were examined using SEM images and surface roughness measurements (Ra and Rz) taken of the spines of C. cinerea It was found that a roughness gradient created by tapered microgrooves existed that could potentially direct surface water from a spine tip to its base.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'.

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dave D. Madsen

    1998-08-08

    This closure report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range,approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 426 consists of one Corrective Action Site which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved the use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the non-nuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices (i.e., inhalation uptake of plutonium aerosol) (DOE, 1996). The remedial alternative proposed Nevada Division of Environmental Protection proposed the capping method. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the ar ea of the trenches, constructing/planning a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a post-closure monitoring plan. Closure activities for CAU 426 have been completed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan as documented in this Closure Report.

  16. Resolving a Prickly Situation: Involving Stakeholders in Invasive Cactus Management in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Ana; Kaplan, Haylee; Wilson, John R U; Richardson, David M

    2016-05-01

    The regulation and management of alien species can be contentious, particularly when the stakeholders who benefit from alien species are different from those who suffer the costs. We propose a consultative process involving relevant stakeholders in invasive species management decisions. The process involves (1) the identification of relevant stakeholders, (2) assessing their perceptions, (3) enhancing interaction between stakeholders, (4) assessing changes in stakeholders' perceptions following interactions with other stakeholders, and (5) developing management recommendations in collaboration with stakeholders. We demonstrate the application of the process using the family Cactaceae ('cacti') in South Africa. Many species of cacti have been introduced to the country over the past two centuries, mostly for horticulture, food and fodder, and hundreds of other species have been introduced in the past few decades (or are likely to be introduced soon) for horticulture. Using the proposed process enabled the negotiation and participation of all stakeholders in decision making and helped minimize contentious situations by clarifying stakeholder's beliefs and exploring consensus solutions. Consequently, management objectives were broadly supported by all stakeholders. These results will be included in a national cactus management strategy for South Africa.

  17. Polymorphic microsatellite markers for the rare and endangered cactus Uebelmannia pectinifera (Cactaceae) and its congeneric species.

    PubMed

    Moraes, E M; Cidade, F W; Silva, G A R; Machado, M C

    2014-12-04

    The cactus genus Uebelmannia includes 3 narrow endemic species associated with rocky savanna habitats in eastern South America. Because of their rarity and illegal over-collection, all of these species are endangered. Taxonomic uncertainties resulting from dramatic local variation in morphology within Uebelmannia species preclude effective conservation efforts, such as the reintroduction or translocation of plants, to restore declining populations. In this study, we developed and characterized 18 perfect, dinucleotide simple-sequence repeat markers for U. pectinifera, the most widely distributed species in the genus, and tested the cross-amplification of these markers in the remaining congeneric species and subspecies. All markers were polymorphic in a sample from 2 U. pectinifera populations. The effective number of alleles ranged from 1.6 to 8.7, with an average per population of 3.3 (SE ± 0.30) and 4.5 (SE ± 0.50). Expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.375 to 0.847 and 8-10 loci showed departures from Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium in the analyzed populations. Based on the observed polymorphism level of each marker, as well as the analysis of null allele presence and evidence of amplification of duplicate loci, a subset of 12 loci can be used as reliable markers to investigate the genetic structure, diversity, and species limits of the Uebelmannia genus.

  18. Genetic and chemical diversity in seeds of cactus mandacaru (Cereus sp.) from two edaphoclimatic regions contrasting.

    PubMed

    Bevilaqua, Maycon R R; Santana Filho, Arquimedes P; Mangolin, Claudete A; Oliveira, Arildo J B; Machado, Maria De Fátima P S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the chemical, physiological and genetic differences in seeds of cactus of the Cereus genus (mandacaru) cultivated in the Northeast (Picos, State of Piauí) and Southern (Maringá, State of Paraná) regions of Brazil. Over a period of eight days, temperatures of 25°C and 30°C were equally efficient for the germination of all the seeds. Oleic acid (C18:1) was the most common fatty acid found in the seeds collected in the Southern (41%) and Northeast (45.5%) regions. The analysis of lipases indicated that seeds from Maringá have high mean observed and expected heterozygosities and that seeds from Picos have a higher number of alleles per loci. Therefore, the seeds of mandacaru from the semiarid region of Northeast as well as the seeds from the South (the two contrasting regions of Brazil) are promising with regards to the preservation of the biodiversity in the genome of mandacaru. The low genetic identity between mandacaru seeds from Maringá and Picos at Lipase-5 locus analysis (I = 0.77) suggests that the mandacaru plants from Maringá and Picos may correspond to two species: C. peruvianus and C. jamacaru, respectively. PMID:26131634

  19. Combining Ferric Salt and Cactus Mucilage for Arsenic Removal from Water.

    PubMed

    Fox, Dawn I; Stebbins, Daniela M; Alcantar, Norma A

    2016-03-01

    New methods to remediate arsenic-contaminated water continue to be studied, particularly to fill the need for accessible methods that can significantly impact developing communities. A combination of cactus mucilage and ferric (Fe(III)) salt was investigated as a flocculation-coagulation system to remove arsenic (As) from water. As(V) solutions, ferric nitrate, and mucilage suspensions were mixed and left to stand for various periods of time. Visual and SEM observations confirmed the flocculation action of the mucilage as visible flocs formed and settled to the bottom of the tubes within 3 min. The colloidal suspensions without mucilage were stable for up to 1 week. Sample aliquots were tested for dissolved and total arsenic by ICP-MS and HGAFS. Mucilage treatment improved As removal (over Fe(III)-only treatment); the system removed 75-96% As in 30 min. At neutral pH, removal was dependent on Fe(III) and mucilage concentration and the age of the Fe(III) solution. The process is fast, achieving maximum removal in 30 min, with the majority of As removed in 10-15 min. Standard jar tests with 1000 μg/L As(III) showed that arsenic removal and settling rates were pH-dependent; As removal was between 52% (high pH) and 66% (low pH). PMID:26824141

  20. Resolving a Prickly Situation: Involving Stakeholders in Invasive Cactus Management in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Ana; Kaplan, Haylee; Wilson, John R U; Richardson, David M

    2016-05-01

    The regulation and management of alien species can be contentious, particularly when the stakeholders who benefit from alien species are different from those who suffer the costs. We propose a consultative process involving relevant stakeholders in invasive species management decisions. The process involves (1) the identification of relevant stakeholders, (2) assessing their perceptions, (3) enhancing interaction between stakeholders, (4) assessing changes in stakeholders' perceptions following interactions with other stakeholders, and (5) developing management recommendations in collaboration with stakeholders. We demonstrate the application of the process using the family Cactaceae ('cacti') in South Africa. Many species of cacti have been introduced to the country over the past two centuries, mostly for horticulture, food and fodder, and hundreds of other species have been introduced in the past few decades (or are likely to be introduced soon) for horticulture. Using the proposed process enabled the negotiation and participation of all stakeholders in decision making and helped minimize contentious situations by clarifying stakeholder's beliefs and exploring consensus solutions. Consequently, management objectives were broadly supported by all stakeholders. These results will be included in a national cactus management strategy for South Africa. PMID:26935429

  1. Hierarchical structures of cactus spines that aid in the directional movement of dew droplets.

    PubMed

    Malik, F T; Clement, R M; Gethin, D T; Kiernan, M; Goral, T; Griffiths, P; Beynon, D; Parker, A R

    2016-08-01

    Three species of cactus whose spines act as dew harvesters were chosen for this study: Copiapoa cinerea var. haseltoniana, Mammillaria columbiana subsp. yucatanensis and Parodia mammulosa and compared with Ferocactus wislizenii whose spines do not perform as dew harvesters. Time-lapse snapshots of C. cinerea showed movement of dew droplets from spine tips to their base, even against gravity. Spines emanating from one of the areoles of C. cinerea were submerged in water laced with fluorescent nanoparticles and this particular areole with its spines and a small area of stem was removed and imaged. These images clearly showed that fluorescent water had moved into the stem of the plant. Lines of vascular bundles radiating inwards from the surface areoles (from where the spines emanate) to the core of the stem were detected using magnetic resonance imaging, with the exception of F. wislizenii that does not harvest dew on its spines. Spine microstructures were examined using SEM images and surface roughness measurements (Ra and Rz) taken of the spines of C. cinerea It was found that a roughness gradient created by tapered microgrooves existed that could potentially direct surface water from a spine tip to its base.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bioinspired hierarchically structured surfaces for green science'. PMID:27354735

  2. Resolving a Prickly Situation: Involving Stakeholders in Invasive Cactus Management in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoa, Ana; Kaplan, Haylee; Wilson, John R. U.; Richardson, David M.

    2016-05-01

    The regulation and management of alien species can be contentious, particularly when the stakeholders who benefit from alien species are different from those who suffer the costs. We propose a consultative process involving relevant stakeholders in invasive species management decisions. The process involves (1) the identification of relevant stakeholders, (2) assessing their perceptions, (3) enhancing interaction between stakeholders, (4) assessing changes in stakeholders' perceptions following interactions with other stakeholders, and (5) developing management recommendations in collaboration with stakeholders. We demonstrate the application of the process using the family Cactaceae (`cacti') in South Africa. Many species of cacti have been introduced to the country over the past two centuries, mostly for horticulture, food and fodder, and hundreds of other species have been introduced in the past few decades (or are likely to be introduced soon) for horticulture. Using the proposed process enabled the negotiation and participation of all stakeholders in decision making and helped minimize contentious situations by clarifying stakeholder's beliefs and exploring consensus solutions. Consequently, management objectives were broadly supported by all stakeholders. These results will be included in a national cactus management strategy for South Africa.

  3. Disruption rates for one vulnerable soil in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Sturm, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Rates of soil disruption from hikers and vehicle traffic are poorly known, particularly for arid landscapes. We conducted an experiment in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (ORPI) in western Arizona, USA, on an air-dry very fine sandy loam that is considered to be vulnerable to disruption. We created variable-pass tracks using hikers, an all-terrain vehicle (ATV), and a four-wheel drive vehicle (4WD) and measured changes in cross-track topography, penetration depth, and bulk density. Hikers (one pass = 5 hikers) increased bulk density and altered penetration depth but caused minimal surface disruption up to 100 passes; a minimum of 10 passes were required to overcome surface strength of this dry soil. Both ATV and 4WD traffic significantly disrupted the soil with one pass, creating deep ruts with increasing passes that rendered the 4WD trail impassable after 20 passes. Despite considerable soil loosening (dilation), bulk density increased in the vehicle trails, and lateral displacement created berms of loosened soil. This soil type, when dry, can sustain up to 10 passes of hikers but only one vehicle pass before significant soil disruption occurs; greater disruption is expected when soils are wet. Bulk density increased logarithmically with applied pressure from hikers, ATV, and 4WD.

  4. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Powell, Brian F.; Halvorson, William L.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary We summarized inventory and monitoring efforts for plants and vertebrates at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (NM) in Arizona. We used data from previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. There have been 1,031 species of plants and vertebrates observed at the monument. Most of the species on the list are documented by voucher specimens. There are 59 non-native species established in the monument: one mammal, three birds, and 55 non-native plants. Most non-native plant species were first recorded along roads. In each taxon-specific chapter, we highlight areas that contribute disproportionately to species richness or that have unique species for the monument. Of particular importance are Quitobaquito Springs and Pond, which are responsible for the monument having one of the highest number of bird species in the Sonoran Desert Network of parks. Quitobaquito also contains the only fish in the monument, the endangered Quitobaquito pupfish (Cyprinodon eremus). Other important resources for the plants and vertebrates include the xeroriparian washes (e.g., Alamo Canyon) and the Ajo Mountains. Based on the review of past studies, we believe the inventories of vascular plants and vertebrates are nearly complete and that the monument has one of the most complete inventories of any unit in the Sonoran Desert Network.

  5. The moth Hylesia metabus and French Guiana lepidopterism: centenary of a public health concern

    PubMed Central

    Jourdain, F.; Girod, R.; Vassal, J.M.; Chandre, F.; Lagneau, C.; Fouque, F.; Guiral, D.; Raude, J.; Robert, V.

    2012-01-01

    The females of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro-arrows and causing a puriginous dermatitis to humans known as “papillonite” in French Guiana and also called yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual variations depending on mechanisms mostly unknown. When H. metabus infestations occur, numerous cases of dermatologic manifestations are reported from people living near the mangrove swamps where the moths are developing. One hundred years after the first “papillonite” epidemic reported from French Guiana in 1912, the data presented herein summarize the actual state of knowledge on H. metabus biology and ecology and on the lepidopterism. Some recommendations are proposed for the surveillance and warning systems of H. metabus infestations and to avoid contact with the moths. Research priorities are suggested to improve the control against this problem emerging between nuisance and public health. PMID:22550622

  6. Caterpillars and moths: Part I. Dermatologic manifestations of encounters with Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Hossler, Eric W

    2010-01-01

    Caterpillars are the larval forms of moths and butterflies and belong to the order Lepidoptera. Caterpillars, and occasionally moths, have evolved defense mechanisms, including irritating hairs, spines, venoms, and toxins that may cause human disease. The pathologic mechanisms underlying reactions to Lepidoptera are poorly understood. Lepidoptera are uncommonly recognized causes of localized stings, eczematous or papular dermatitis, and urticaria. Part I of this two-part series on caterpillars and moths reviews Lepidopteran life cycles, terminology, and the epidemiology of caterpillar and moth envenomation. It also reviews the known pathomechanisms of disease caused by Lepidopteran exposures and how they relate to diagnosis and management. Part II discusses the specific clinical patterns caused by Lepidopteran exposures, with particular emphasis on groups of caterpillars and moths that cause a similar pattern of disease. It also discusses current therapeutic options regarding each pattern of disease.

  7. The moth Hylesia metabus and French Guiana lepidopterism: centenary of a public health concern.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, F; Girod, R; Vassal, J M; Chandre, F; Lagneau, C; Fouque, F; Guiral, D; Raude, J; Robert, V

    2012-05-01

    The females of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro-arrows and causing a puriginous dermatitis to humans known as "papillonite" in French Guiana and also called yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual variations depending on mechanisms mostly unknown. When H. metabus infestations occur, numerous cases of dermatologic manifestations are reported from people living near the mangrove swamps where the moths are developing. One hundred years after the first "papillonite" epidemic reported from French Guiana in 1912, the data presented herein summarize the actual state of knowledge on H. metabus biology and ecology and on the lepidopterism. Some recommendations are proposed for the surveillance and warning systems of H. metabus infestations and to avoid contact with the moths. Research priorities are suggested to improve the control against this problem emerging between nuisance and public health.

  8. Olfactory cues from different plant species in host selection by female pea moths.

    PubMed

    Thöming, Gunda; Norli, Hans Ragnar

    2015-03-01

    In herbivorous insects specialized on few plant species, attraction to host odor may be mediated by volatiles common to all host species, by specific compounds, or combinations of both. The pea moth Cydia nigricana is an important pest of the pea. Volatile signatures of four host plant species were studied to identify compounds involved in pea moth host selection and to improve previously reported attractive volatile blends. P. sativum and alternative Fabaceae host species were compared regarding female attraction, oviposition, and larval performance. Pea moth females were strongly attracted to the sweet pea Lathyrus odoratus, but larval performance on that species was moderate. Chemical analyses of sweet pea odor and electrophysiological responses of moth antennae led to identification of seven sweet-pea-specific compounds and ten compounds common to all tested host species. Blends of these specific and common cues were highly attractive to mated pea moth females in wind tunnel and field experiments.

  9. Fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon by direct six-beam laser interference lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jia; Wang, Zuobin; Zhang, Ziang; Wang, Dapeng; Weng, Zhankun

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for the generation of cross-scale laser interference patterns and the fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon. In the method, moth-eye structures were produced on a surface of silicon wafer using direct six-beam laser interference lithography to improve the antireflection performance of the material surface. The periodic dot arrays of the moth-eye structures were formed due to the ablation of the irradiance distribution of interference patterns on the wafer surface. The shape, size, and distribution of the moth-eye structures can be adjusted by controlling the wavelength, incidence angles, and exposure doses in a direct six-beam laser interference lithography setup. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that direct six-beam laser interference lithography can provide a way to fabricate cross-scale moth-eye structures for antireflection applications.

  10. Grizzly bear use of army cutworm moths in the Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, Steven P.; French, Marilynn G.; Knight, Richard R.

    1994-01-01

    The ecology of alpine aggregations of army cutworm moths (Euxoa auxiliaris) and the feeding behavior of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) at these areas were studied in the Yellowstone ecosystem from 1988 to 1991. Army cutworm moths migrate to mountain regions each summer to feed at night on the nectar of alpine and subalpine flowers, and during the day they seek shelter under various rock formations. Grizzly bears were observed feeding almost exclusively on moths up to 3 months each summer at the 10 moth-aggregation areas we identified. Fifty-one different grizzly bears were observed feeding at 4 of these areas during a single day in August 1991. Army cutworm moths are a preferred source of nutrition for many grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem and represent a high quality food that is available during hyperphagia.

  11. Fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon by direct six-beam laser interference lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jia; Zhang, Ziang; Weng, Zhankun; Wang, Zuobin Wang, Dapeng

    2014-05-28

    This paper presents a new method for the generation of cross-scale laser interference patterns and the fabrication of moth-eye structures on silicon. In the method, moth-eye structures were produced on a surface of silicon wafer using direct six-beam laser interference lithography to improve the antireflection performance of the material surface. The periodic dot arrays of the moth-eye structures were formed due to the ablation of the irradiance distribution of interference patterns on the wafer surface. The shape, size, and distribution of the moth-eye structures can be adjusted by controlling the wavelength, incidence angles, and exposure doses in a direct six-beam laser interference lithography setup. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that direct six-beam laser interference lithography can provide a way to fabricate cross-scale moth-eye structures for antireflection applications.

  12. The antigenotoxic activities of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes against the mycotoxin zearalenone in Balb/c mice: prevention of micronuclei, chromosome aberrations and DNA fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Zorgui, Lazhar; Ayed-Boussema, Imen; Ayed, Yosra; Bacha, Hassen; Hassen, Wafa

    2009-03-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a potent estrogenic metabolite. Evidence of its cytotoxicity and genotoxicity has recently emerged from several reports. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes to protect Balb/c mice against ZEN induced genotoxicity. To this end, the effect of a single dose of ZEN (40 mg/kg b.w.) alone and with extract of cactus cladodes (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg b.w.) was monitored by measuring: (i) micronuclei induction in bone marrow cells, (ii) chromosome aberrations mainly breaks and gaps in bone marrow cells also and finally and (iii) DNA fragmentation in liver and kidney. Our results clearly show that ZEN is genotoxic to Balb/c mice. It induces DNA damage as indicated by DNA fragmentation, micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. It is of note that cactus cladodes extract assayed alone at high dose (100 mg/kg b.w.) was found completely safe and did not induce any genotoxic effects. The simultaneous administration of cactus cladodes extract with ZEN resulted in an efficient prevention of micronuclei (the number of PCE MN decreased from 71.3+/-6.1 for animals treated with Zen to 32.6+/-15.5 for animals treated with cactus cladodes), chromosomal aberrations frequency (the % of chromosomal aberrations decreased from 38.3+/-3.0 to 18.6+/-1.1) in bone marrow cells and of DNA fragmentation compared to the group treated with ZEN alone. It could be concluded that cactus cladodes extract was effective in the protection against ZEN genotoxicity. This could be relevant, particularly with the emergent demand for natural products which may neutralize the genotoxic effects of the multiple food contaminants.

  13. The antigenotoxic activities of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes against the mycotoxin zearalenone in Balb/c mice: prevention of micronuclei, chromosome aberrations and DNA fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Zorgui, Lazhar; Ayed-Boussema, Imen; Ayed, Yosra; Bacha, Hassen; Hassen, Wafa

    2009-03-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a potent estrogenic metabolite. Evidence of its cytotoxicity and genotoxicity has recently emerged from several reports. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes to protect Balb/c mice against ZEN induced genotoxicity. To this end, the effect of a single dose of ZEN (40 mg/kg b.w.) alone and with extract of cactus cladodes (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg b.w.) was monitored by measuring: (i) micronuclei induction in bone marrow cells, (ii) chromosome aberrations mainly breaks and gaps in bone marrow cells also and finally and (iii) DNA fragmentation in liver and kidney. Our results clearly show that ZEN is genotoxic to Balb/c mice. It induces DNA damage as indicated by DNA fragmentation, micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. It is of note that cactus cladodes extract assayed alone at high dose (100 mg/kg b.w.) was found completely safe and did not induce any genotoxic effects. The simultaneous administration of cactus cladodes extract with ZEN resulted in an efficient prevention of micronuclei (the number of PCE MN decreased from 71.3+/-6.1 for animals treated with Zen to 32.6+/-15.5 for animals treated with cactus cladodes), chromosomal aberrations frequency (the % of chromosomal aberrations decreased from 38.3+/-3.0 to 18.6+/-1.1) in bone marrow cells and of DNA fragmentation compared to the group treated with ZEN alone. It could be concluded that cactus cladodes extract was effective in the protection against ZEN genotoxicity. This could be relevant, particularly with the emergent demand for natural products which may neutralize the genotoxic effects of the multiple food contaminants. PMID:19152824

  14. Current temporal trends in moth abundance are counter to predicted effects of climate change in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Mark D; Kozlov, Mikhail V; Itämies, Juhani; Pulliainen, Erkki; Bäck, Jaana; Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Niemelä, Pekka

    2014-06-01

    Changes in climate are influencing the distribution and abundance of the world's biota, with significant consequences for biological diversity and ecosystem processes. Recent work has raised concern that populations of moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) may be particularly susceptible to population declines under environmental change. Moreover, effects of climate change may be especially pronounced in high latitude ecosystems. Here, we examine population dynamics in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths in Finnish Lapland to assess current trajectories of population change. Moth counts were made continuously over a period of 32 years using light traps. From 456 species recorded, 80 were sufficiently abundant for detailed analyses of their population dynamics. Climate records indicated rapid increases in temperature and winter precipitation at our study site during the sampling period. However, 90% of moth populations were stable (57%) or increasing (33%) over the same period of study. Nonetheless, current population trends do not appear to reflect positive responses to climate change. Rather, time-series models illustrated that the per capita rates of change of moth species were more frequently associated negatively than positively with climate change variables, even as their populations were increasing. For example, the per capita rates of change of 35% of microlepidoptera were associated negatively with climate change variables. Moth life-history traits were not generally strong predictors of current population change or associations with climate change variables. However, 60% of moth species that fed as larvae on resources other than living vascular plants (e.g. litter, lichen, mosses) were associated negatively with climate change variables in time-series models, suggesting that such species may be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Overall, populations of subarctic forest moths in Finland are performing better than expected, and their populations

  15. Current temporal trends in moth abundance are counter to predicted effects of climate change in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Mark D; Kozlov, Mikhail V; Itämies, Juhani; Pulliainen, Erkki; Bäck, Jaana; Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Niemelä, Pekka

    2014-06-01

    Changes in climate are influencing the distribution and abundance of the world's biota, with significant consequences for biological diversity and ecosystem processes. Recent work has raised concern that populations of moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) may be particularly susceptible to population declines under environmental change. Moreover, effects of climate change may be especially pronounced in high latitude ecosystems. Here, we examine population dynamics in an assemblage of subarctic forest moths in Finnish Lapland to assess current trajectories of population change. Moth counts were made continuously over a period of 32 years using light traps. From 456 species recorded, 80 were sufficiently abundant for detailed analyses of their population dynamics. Climate records indicated rapid increases in temperature and winter precipitation at our study site during the sampling period. However, 90% of moth populations were stable (57%) or increasing (33%) over the same period of study. Nonetheless, current population trends do not appear to reflect positive responses to climate change. Rather, time-series models illustrated that the per capita rates of change of moth species were more frequently associated negatively than positively with climate change variables, even as their populations were increasing. For example, the per capita rates of change of 35% of microlepidoptera were associated negatively with climate change variables. Moth life-history traits were not generally strong predictors of current population change or associations with climate change variables. However, 60% of moth species that fed as larvae on resources other than living vascular plants (e.g. litter, lichen, mosses) were associated negatively with climate change variables in time-series models, suggesting that such species may be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Overall, populations of subarctic forest moths in Finland are performing better than expected, and their populations

  16. Attraction of pea moth Cydia nigricana to pea flower volatiles.

    PubMed

    Thöming, Gunda; Knudsen, Geir K

    2014-04-01

    The pea moth Cydia nigricana causes major crop losses in pea (Pisum sativum) production. We investigated attraction of C. nigricana females to synthetic pea flower volatiles in a wind tunnel and in the field. We performed electroantennogram analysis on 27 previously identified pea plant volatiles, which confirmed antennal responses to nine of the compounds identified in pea flowers. A dose-dependent response was found to eight of the compounds. Various blends of the nine pea flower volatiles eliciting antennal responses were subsequently studied in a wind tunnel. A four-compound blend comprising hexan-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-β-ocimene was equally attractive to mated C. nigricana females as the full pea flower mimic blend. We conducted wind-tunnel tests on different blends of these four pea flower compounds mixed with a headspace sample of non-flowering pea plants. By considering the effects of such green leaf background odour, we were able to identify (Z)- and (E)-β-ocimene as fundamental for host location by the pea moths, and hexan-1-ol and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol as being of secondary importance in that context. In the field, the two isomers of β-ocimene resulted in trap catches similar to those obtained with the full pea flower mimic and the four-compound blend, which clearly demonstrated the prime significance of the β-ocimenes as attractants of C. nigricana. The high level of the trap catches of female C. nigricana noted in this first field experiment gives a first indication of the potential use of such artificial kairomones in pea moth control.

  17. Thermal Energy Exchange Model and Water Loss of a Barrel Cactus, Ferocactus acanthodes1

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Donald A.; Nobel, Park S.

    1977-01-01

    The influences of various diurnal stomatal opening patterns, spines, and ribs on the stem surface temperature and water economy of a CAM succulent, the barrel cactus Ferocactus acanthodes, were examined using an energy budget model. To incorporate energy exchanges by shortwave and longwave irradiation, latent heat, conduction, and convection as well as the heat storage in the massive stem, the plant was subdivided into over 100 internal and external regions in the model. This enabled the average surface temperature to be predicted within 1 C of the measured temperature for both winter and summer days. Reducing the stem water vapor conductance from the values observed in the field to zero caused the average daily stem surface temperature to increase only 0.7 C for a winter day and 0.3 C for a summer day. Thus, latent heat loss does not substantially reduce stem temperature. Although the surface temperatures averaged 18 C warmer for the summer day than for the winter day for a plant 41 cm tall, the temperature dependence of stomatal opening caused the simulated nighttime water loss rates to be about the same for the 2 days. Spines moderated the amplitude of the diurnal temperature changes of the stem surface, since the daily variation was 17 C for the winter day and 25 C for the summer day with spines compared with 23 C and 41 C, respectively, in their simulated absence. Ribs reduced the daytime temperature rise by providing 54% more area for convective heat loss than for a smooth circumscribing surface. In a simulation where both spines and ribs were eliminated, the daytime average surface temperature rose by 5 C. PMID:16660148

  18. Sun/shade conditions affect recruitment and local adaptation of a columnar cactus in dry forests

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Jácome, Antonio; Montaña, Carlos; Fornoni, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Facilitation among plants in water-limited environments (i.e. where evapotranspiration overcomes the availability of water during the growing season) has been considered a local adaptation to water and light conditions. Among cacti, early life-history stages can benefit from the facilitative effects of nurse plants that reduce solar radiation and water stress. However, whether light condition itself acts as an agent of selection through facilitation remains untested. The aim of this study was to determine (1) whether light conditions affect seedling recruitment, (2) whether the positive effect of shade on seedling recruitment is more intense under more stressful conditions and (3) whether shade condition (facilitation) reduces the magnitude of local adaptation on seedling recruitment relative to full sunlight conditions. Methods A reciprocal transplant experiment, coupled with the artificial manipulation of sun/shade conditions, was performed to test for the effects of local adaptation on germination, seedling survival and growth, using two demes of the columnar cactus Pilosocereus leucocephalus, representing different intensities of stressful conditions. Key Results Full sunlight conditions reduced recruitment success and supported the expectation of lower recruitment in more stressful environments. Significant local adaptation was mainly detected under full sunlight conditions, indicating that this environmental factor acts as an agent of selection at both sites. Conclusions The results supported the expectation that the magnitude of local adaptation, driven by the effects of facilitative nurse plants, is less intense under reduced stressful conditions. This study is the first to demonstrate that sun/shade conditions act as a selective agent accounting for local adaptation in water-limited environments, and that facilitation provided by nurse plants in these environments can attenuate the patterns of local adaptation among plants benefiting

  19. Diamondback moth in Ukraine: current status and potential for use biological control agents.

    PubMed

    Likar, Y; Stefanovska, T

    2009-01-01

    The Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xillostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is the insect pest damaging cabbage in Ukraine, especially in the Southern region. Biology, damage, population dynamics of diamondback moth and effect of natural enemies on the level of infestation of this pest by parasitoids and pathogens were studied in 2004-2007 in the laboratory and field conditions. Obtained results show that in general the pest has 2-3 generations, although up to 5-6 can evolve in the South. Fecundity and life longevity of Diamondback were studied on white cabbage, red cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower and two basic weeds: shepherd's purse and wild mustard. The host plant affects fecundity and life span of the diamondback moth. Fecundity differs significantly and is highest with white cabbage. Fauna of Diamondback moth parasitoids is quite rich. All stages are affected by numerous parasitoids and predators. Around 22 parasitoid species were recorded during the study. Overall parasitism ranged from 18% to 60% varying essentially between the areas. Apanteles (Cotesia) sp., Diadegma sp., Trichogramma sp. were most common in all areas. Steinernema sp., entomopathogenic nematodes are found to be natural enemies of diamondback moth. The range of natural enemies contributes significantly to the control of Diamondback moth. Conservation and augmentation of natural enemies should be used in IPM systems in order to control diamondback moth on cabbage. Entomopathogenic nematodes are prominent biocontrol agents.

  20. Tympanal mechanics and neural responses in the ears of a noctuid moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Hofstede, Hannah M.; Goerlitz, Holger R.; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Robert, Daniel; Holderied, Marc W.

    2011-12-01

    Ears evolved in many groups of moths to detect the echolocation calls of predatory bats. Although the neurophysiology of bat detection has been intensively studied in moths for decades, the relationship between sound-induced movement of the noctuid tympanic membrane and action potentials in the auditory sensory cells (A1 and A2) has received little attention. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we measured the velocity and displacement of the tympanum in response to pure tone pulses for moths that were intact or prepared for neural recording. When recording from the auditory nerve, the displacement of the tympanum at the neural threshold remained constant across frequencies, whereas velocity varied with frequency. This suggests that the key biophysical parameter for triggering action potentials in the sensory cells of noctuid moths is tympanum displacement, not velocity. The validity of studies on the neurophysiology of moth hearing rests on the assumption that the dissection and recording procedures do not affect the biomechanics of the ear. There were no consistent differences in tympanal velocity or displacement when moths were intact or prepared for neural recordings for sound levels close to neural threshold, indicating that this and other neurophysiological studies provide good estimates of what intact moths hear at threshold.

  1. Tympanal mechanics and neural responses in the ears of a noctuid moth.

    PubMed

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Robert, Daniel; Holderied, Marc W

    2011-12-01

    Ears evolved in many groups of moths to detect the echolocation calls of predatory bats. Although the neurophysiology of bat detection has been intensively studied in moths for decades, the relationship between sound-induced movement of the noctuid tympanic membrane and action potentials in the auditory sensory cells (A1 and A2) has received little attention. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we measured the velocity and displacement of the tympanum in response to pure tone pulses for moths that were intact or prepared for neural recording. When recording from the auditory nerve, the displacement of the tympanum at the neural threshold remained constant across frequencies, whereas velocity varied with frequency. This suggests that the key biophysical parameter for triggering action potentials in the sensory cells of noctuid moths is tympanum displacement, not velocity. The validity of studies on the neurophysiology of moth hearing rests on the assumption that the dissection and recording procedures do not affect the biomechanics of the ear. There were no consistent differences in tympanal velocity or displacement when moths were intact or prepared for neural recordings for sound levels close to neural threshold, indicating that this and other neurophysiological studies provide good estimates of what intact moths hear at threshold. PMID:21989514

  2. Tympanal mechanics and neural responses in the ears of a noctuid moth.

    PubMed

    ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Goerlitz, Holger R; Montealegre-Z, Fernando; Robert, Daniel; Holderied, Marc W

    2011-12-01

    Ears evolved in many groups of moths to detect the echolocation calls of predatory bats. Although the neurophysiology of bat detection has been intensively studied in moths for decades, the relationship between sound-induced movement of the noctuid tympanic membrane and action potentials in the auditory sensory cells (A1 and A2) has received little attention. Using laser Doppler vibrometry, we measured the velocity and displacement of the tympanum in response to pure tone pulses for moths that were intact or prepared for neural recording. When recording from the auditory nerve, the displacement of the tympanum at the neural threshold remained constant across frequencies, whereas velocity varied with frequency. This suggests that the key biophysical parameter for triggering action potentials in the sensory cells of noctuid moths is tympanum displacement, not velocity. The validity of studies on the neurophysiology of moth hearing rests on the assumption that the dissection and recording procedures do not affect the biomechanics of the ear. There were no consistent differences in tympanal velocity or displacement when moths were intact or prepared for neural recordings for sound levels close to neural threshold, indicating that this and other neurophysiological studies provide good estimates of what intact moths hear at threshold.

  3. Can sunspot activity and ultraviolet-B radiation explain cyclic outbreaks of forest moth pest species?

    PubMed

    Selås, Vidar; Hogstad, Olav; Kobro, Sverre; Rafoss, Trond

    2004-09-22

    Cyclic outbreaks of forest moth pest species have long remained a puzzle for foresters and ecologists. This paper presents time-series exhibiting a strong negative relationship between sunspot numbers and population indices of autumnal and winter moths, both in a mountain birch forest in central Norway and in a mixed lowland forest in southern Norway. In the latter area, also the population level of a moth species feeding entirely on lichens was negatively related to sunspot numbers. Low sunspot activity leads to a thinner ozone layer and thus higher surface ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation. As winter moth larvae prefer leaves subjected to enhanced UV-B radiation, we suggest that the causal relationship between sunspots and moths is that the metabolic costs of producing UV-B-protective pigments during periods of low sunspot activity reduce trees' and lichens' resistance to herbivores, and thus increase the survival of moth larvae. Higher peak densities of moth cycles in mountain forests could be explained by the general higher UV-B radiation at higher altitudes.

  4. Sound strategy: acoustic aposematism in the bat-tiger moth arms race.

    PubMed

    Hristov, Nickolay I; Conner, William E

    2005-04-01

    The night sky is the venue for an ancient arms race. Insectivorous bats with their ultrasonic sonar exert an enormous selective pressure on nocturnal insects. In response insects have evolved the ability to hear bat cries, to evade their hunting maneuvers, and some, the tiger moths (Arctiidae), to utter an ultrasonic reply. We here determine what it is that tiger moths "say" to bats. We chose four species of arctiid moths, Cycnia tenera, Euchaetes egle, Utetheisa ornatrix, and Apantesis nais, that naturally differ in their levels of unpalatability and their ability to produce sound. Moths were tethered and offered to free-flying naive big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus. The ability of the bats to capture each species was compared to their ability to capture noctuid, geometrid, and wax moth controls over a learning period of 7 days. We repeated the experiment using the single arctiid species E. egle that through diet manipulation and simple surgery could be rendered palatable or unpalatable and sound producing or mute. We again compared the capture rates of these categories of E. egle to control moths. Using both novel learning approaches we have found that the bats only respond to the sounds of arctiids when they are paired with defensive chemistry. The sounds are in essence a warning to the bats that the moth is unpalatable-an aposematic signal.

  5. Naïve bats discriminate arctiid moth warning sounds but generalize their aposematic meaning.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jesse R; Chadwell, Brad A; Garrett, Nick; Schmidt-French, Barbara; Conner, William E

    2009-07-01

    Naïve red (Lasiurus borealis Müller) and big brown (Eptesicus fuscus Beauvois) bats quickly learn to avoid noxious sound-producing tiger moths. After this experience with a model tiger moth, bats generalize the meaning of these prey-generated sounds to a second tiger moth species producing a different call. Here we describe the three-dimensional kinematic and bioacoustic details of this behaviour, first, as naïve bats learn to deal with an unpalatable model tiger moth and subsequently, as they avoid acoustic mimics. The tiger moths' first clicks influenced the bats' echolocation behaviour and the percentage of interactions that included terminal buzzes was associated with capture and investigatory behaviour. When the mimic was introduced, the bats decreased both their minimum distance to the tiger moth and the time at which they broke off their attack compared with their exposure to the model on the night before. These kinematic signatures closely match the bats' behaviour on their first night of experience with the model. Minimum distances and time of pursuit cessation increased again by the last night of the mimic's presentation. These kinematic and bioacoustic results show that although naïve bats generalize the meaning of aposematic tiger moth calls, they discriminate the prey-generated signals as different and investigate. Extrapolating to experienced bats, these results suggest that acoustic predators probably exert potent and fine-scaled selective forces on acoustic mimicry complexes.

  6. Sound strategy: acoustic aposematism in the bat-tiger moth arms race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, Nickolay I.; Conner, William E.

    2005-04-01

    The night sky is the venue for an ancient arms race. Insectivorous bats with their ultrasonic sonar exert an enormous selective pressure on nocturnal insects. In response insects have evolved the ability to hear bat cries, to evade their hunting maneuvers, and some, the tiger moths (Arctiidae), to utter an ultrasonic reply. We here determine what it is that tiger moths "say" to bats. We chose four species of arctiid moths, Cycnia tenera, Euchaetes egle, Utetheisa ornatrix, and Apantesis nais, that naturally differ in their levels of unpalatability and their ability to produce sound. Moths were tethered and offered to free-flying naïve big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus. The ability of the bats to capture each species was compared to their ability to capture noctuid, geometrid, and wax moth controls over a learning period of 7 days. We repeated the experiment using the single arctiid species E. egle that through diet manipulation and simple surgery could be rendered palatable or unpalatable and sound producing or mute. We again compared the capture rates of these categories of E. egle to control moths. Using both novel learning approaches we have found that the bats only respond to the sounds of arctiids when they are paired with defensive chemistry. The sounds are in essence a warning to the bats that the moth is unpalatable—an aposematic signal.

  7. Utilization of pheromones in the population management of moth pests.

    PubMed Central

    Cardé, R T

    1976-01-01

    Pheromones are substances emitted by one individual of a species and eliciting a specific response in a second individual of the same species. In moths (Lepidoptera) generally females lure males for mating by emission of a sex attractant pheromone comprised of either one or more components. Since 1966 the identification of the pheromone blends of many moth pests has allowed investigations into the use of these messengers for population manipulation. Pheromone-baited traps may be used both to detect pest presence and to estimate population density, so that conventional control tactics can be employed only as required and timed precisely for maximum effectiveness. Attractant traps also can be utilized for direct population suppression when the traps are deployed at a density effective in reducing mating success sufficiently to achieve control. A third use pattern of pheromones and related compounds is disruption of pheromone communication via atmospheric permeation with synthetic disruptants. The behavioral modifications involved in disruption of communication may include habituation of the normal response sequence (alteration of the pheromone response threshold) and "confusion" (inability of the organism to perceive and orient to the naturally emitted lure). Disruption of communication employing the natural pheromone components as the disruptant has been most successful, although nonattractant behavioral modifiers structurally similar to the pheromone components also may prove useful. Possible future resistance to direct pheromone manipulation may be expected to involve the evolution of behavioral and sensory changes that minimize the informational overlap between the natural pheromone system and the pheromone control technique. PMID:789060

  8. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Akito Y.; Breinholt, Jesse W.

    2014-01-01

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly–moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. PMID:24966318

  9. Unexpected plant odor responses in a moth pheromone system

    PubMed Central

    Rouyar, Angéla; Deisig, Nina; Dupuy, Fabienne; Limousin, Denis; Wycke, Marie-Anne; Renou, Michel; Anton, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Male moths rely on olfactory cues to find females for reproduction. Males also use volatile plant compounds (VPCs) to find food sources and might use host-plant odor cues to identify the habitat of calling females. Both the sex pheromone released by conspecific females and VPCs trigger well-described oriented flight behavior toward the odor source. Whereas detection and central processing of pheromones and VPCs have been thought for a long time to be highly separated from each other, recent studies have shown that interactions of both types of odors occur already early at the periphery of the olfactory pathway. Here we show that detection and early processing of VPCs and pheromone can overlap between the two sub-systems. Using complementary approaches, i.e., single-sensillum recording of olfactory receptor neurons, in vivo calcium imaging in the antennal lobe, intracellular recordings of neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) and flight tracking in a wind tunnel, we show that some plant odorants alone, such as heptanal, activate the pheromone-specific pathway in male Agrotis ipsilon at peripheral and central levels. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plant odorant with no chemical similarity to the molecular structure of the pheromone, acting as a partial agonist of a moth sex pheromone. PMID:26029117

  10. Two fatty acyl reductases involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Binu; Ding, Bao-Jian; Moto, Ken’Ichi; Aldosari, Saleh A.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acyl reductases (FARs) constitute an evolutionarily conserved gene family found in all kingdoms of life. Members of the FAR gene family play diverse roles, including seed oil synthesis, insect pheromone biosynthesis, and mammalian wax biosynthesis. In insects, FAR genes dedicated to sex pheromone biosynthesis (pheromone-gland-specific fatty acyl reductase, pgFAR) form a unique clade that exhibits substantial modifications in gene structure and possesses unique specificity and selectivity for fatty acyl substrates. Highly selective and semi-selective ‘single pgFARs’ produce single and multicomponent pheromone signals in bombycid, pyralid, yponomeutid and noctuid moths. An intriguing question is how a ‘single reductase’ can direct the synthesis of several fatty alcohols of various chain lengths and isomeric forms. Here, we report two active pgFARs in the pheromone gland of Spodoptera, namely a semi-selective, C14:acyl-specific pgFAR and a highly selective, C16:acyl-specific pgFAR, and demonstrate that these pgFARs play a pivotal role in the formation of species-specific signals, a finding that is strongly supported by functional gene expression data. The study envisages a new area of research for disclosing evolutionary changes associated with C14- and C16-specific FARs in moth pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:27427355

  11. Two fatty acyl reductases involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Antony, Binu; Ding, Bao-Jian; Moto, Ken'Ichi; Aldosari, Saleh A; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acyl reductases (FARs) constitute an evolutionarily conserved gene family found in all kingdoms of life. Members of the FAR gene family play diverse roles, including seed oil synthesis, insect pheromone biosynthesis, and mammalian wax biosynthesis. In insects, FAR genes dedicated to sex pheromone biosynthesis (pheromone-gland-specific fatty acyl reductase, pgFAR) form a unique clade that exhibits substantial modifications in gene structure and possesses unique specificity and selectivity for fatty acyl substrates. Highly selective and semi-selective 'single pgFARs' produce single and multicomponent pheromone signals in bombycid, pyralid, yponomeutid and noctuid moths. An intriguing question is how a 'single reductase' can direct the synthesis of several fatty alcohols of various chain lengths and isomeric forms. Here, we report two active pgFARs in the pheromone gland of Spodoptera, namely a semi-selective, C14:acyl-specific pgFAR and a highly selective, C16:acyl-specific pgFAR, and demonstrate that these pgFARs play a pivotal role in the formation of species-specific signals, a finding that is strongly supported by functional gene expression data. The study envisages a new area of research for disclosing evolutionary changes associated with C14- and C16-specific FARs in moth pheromone biosynthesis. PMID:27427355

  12. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-01

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order.

  13. A recombination suppressor contributes to ecological speciation in OSTRINIA moths.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, C B; Li, X; Dopman, E B

    2015-06-01

    Despite unparalleled access to species' genomes in our post-genomic age, we often lack adequate biological explanations for a major hallmark of the speciation process-genetic divergence. In the presence of gene flow, chromosomal rearrangements such as inversions are thought to promote divergence and facilitate speciation by suppressing recombination. Using a combination of genetic crosses, phenotyping of a trait underlying ecological isolation, and population genetic analysis of wild populations, we set out to determine whether evidence supports a role for recombination suppressors during speciation between the Z and E strains of European corn borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis). Our results are consistent with the presence of an inversion that has contributed to accumulation of ecologically adaptive alleles and genetic differentiation across roughly 20% of the Ostrinia sex chromosome (~4 Mb). Patterns in Ostrinia suggest that chromosomal divergence may involve two separate phases-one driving its transient origin through local adaptation and one determining its stable persistence through differential introgression. As the evolutionary rate of rearrangements in lepidopteran genomes appears to be one of the fastest among eukaryotes, structural mutations may have had a disproportionate role during adaptive divergence and speciation in Ostrinia and in other moths and butterflies. PMID:25626887

  14. Cardenolide sequestration by the dogbane tiger moth (Cycnia tenera; Arctiidae).

    PubMed

    Cohen, J A; Brower, L P

    1983-04-01

    Cycnia tenera adults, reared as larvae onAsclepias humistrata, had 10 times higher cardenolide concentrations, and contained 15 times more total cardenolide, than did moths reared onA. tuberosa. Thin-layer chromatography confirmed that each individual cardenolide visualized in the adult moths reared on the former host plant corresponds to one present in the plant, thus demonstrating that the insects' cardenolides are indeed derived from the larval food. Adult weights were significantly greater when the larvae had been fed upon the higher cardenolide plant species,A. humistrata. Similar results for other milkweed-feeding insects have been interpreted by some authors as evidence against a metabolic cost of handling cardenolides. However, such interpretations confound cardenolide differences among milkweed species with other differences in plant primary and secondary chemistry that affect insect growth and development. While the cooccurrence inC. tenera of other noxious chemicals (e.g., alkaloids) is not precluded, cardenolides sequestered from larval host plants have probably contributed to the evolution of visual and auditory aposematism in this species. As the eggs are laid in large clutches and larvae are gregarious, such aposematism may have evolved via kin selection.

  15. Sex pheromone components of Indian gypsy moth, Lymantria obfuscata.

    PubMed

    Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W; Hahn, Roger; Khaskin, Grigori; Ramaseshiah, Gujjandadu; Singh, Balbir; Hehar, Gagandeep K; Gries, Gerhard

    2007-09-01

    The Indian gypsy moth, Lymantria obfuscata (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae), has been recognized as a distinct species since 1865 but closely resembles a diminutive form of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. We tested the hypothesis that the sex pheromones of L. obfuscata and L. dispar are similar. In laboratory mate acceptance studies, very few male L. dispar made copulatory attempts when paired with female L. obfuscata, suggesting that female L. obfuscata emit one or more pheromone components antagonistic to male L. dispar. In coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analyses of pheromone gland extract of female L. obfuscata, (Z)-2-methyloctadec-7-ene (2Me-7Z-18Hy) and (7R,8S)-cis-7,8-epoxy-2-methyloctadecane [(+)-disparlure] were most abundant and elicited the strongest responses from male L. obfuscata antennae. In field experiments near Solan (Himachal Pradesh, India), 2Me-7Z-18Hy and (+)-disparlure in combination attracted more male L. obfuscata than did either component alone. This two-component sex pheromone contrasts with the single-component sex pheromone [(+)-disparlure] of L. dispar. The contrasting composition of the lymantriid communities inhabited by L. obfuscata and L. dispar may explain why 2Me-7Z-18Hy is a pheromone component in L. obfuscata and a pheromone antagonist in L. dispar and why (-)-disparlure reduces pheromonal attraction of male L. dispar but not male L. obfuscata.

  16. Sex Pheromone Components of Pink Gypsy Moth, Lymantria mathura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gries, Gerhard; Gries, Regine; Schaefer, Paul W.; Gotoh, Tadao; Higashiura, Yasutomo

    Pheromone extract of female pink gypsy moth, Lymantria mathura, was analyzed by coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and coupled GC-mass spectrometry (MS), employing fused silica columns coated with DB-5, DB-210, or DB-23 and a custom-made GC column that separated enantiomers of unsaturated epoxides. These analyses revealed (9R,10S)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (+)-mathuralure] and (9S,10R)-cis-9,10-epoxy-Z3,Z6-nonadecadiene [termed here (-)-mathuralure] at a 1 : 4 ratio as major candidate pheromone components. In field experiments in northern Japan (Morioka, Iwate Prefecture and Bibai, Hokkaido Prefecture), (+)- and (-)-mathuralure at a ratio of 1 : 4, but not 1 : 1 or singly, were attractive to male L. mathura. This is the first demonstration that attraction of male moths required the very same ratio of pheromone enantiomers as produced by conspecific females. Whether L. mathura employ different blend ratios in different geographic areas, and the role of five additional candidate pheromone components identified in this study remains to be investigated.

  17. Allee effects and pulsed invasion by the gypsy moth.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Derek M; Liebhold, Andrew M; Tobin, Patrick C; Bjørnstad, Ottar N

    2006-11-16

    Biological invasions pose considerable threats to the world's ecosystems and cause substantial economic losses. A prime example is the invasion of the gypsy moth in the United States, for which more than $194 million was spent on management and monitoring between 1985 and 2004 alone. The spread of the gypsy moth across eastern North America is, perhaps, the most thoroughly studied biological invasion in the world, providing a unique opportunity to explore spatiotemporal variability in rates of spread. Here we describe evidence for periodic pulsed invasions, defined as regularly punctuated range expansions interspersed among periods of range stasis. We use a theoretical model with parameter values estimated from long-term monitoring data to show how an interaction between strong Allee effects (negative population growth at low densities) and stratified diffusion (most individuals disperse locally, but a few seed new colonies by long-range movement) can explain the invasion pulses. Our results indicate that suppressing population peaks along range borders might greatly slow invasion.

  18. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September), Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m). In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they "hibernate" over the summer months (referred to as "estivation"). Towards the end of the summer (February and March), the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear that the Bogong

  19. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September), Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m). In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they "hibernate" over the summer months (referred to as "estivation"). Towards the end of the summer (February and March), the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear that the Bogong

  20. The Australian Bogong Moth Agrotis infusa: A Long-Distance Nocturnal Navigator

    PubMed Central

    Warrant, Eric; Frost, Barrie; Green, Ken; Mouritsen, Henrik; Dreyer, David; Adden, Andrea; Brauburger, Kristina; Heinze, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    The nocturnal Bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is an iconic and well-known Australian insect that is also a remarkable nocturnal navigator. Like the Monarch butterflies of North America, Bogong moths make a yearly migration over enormous distances, from southern Queensland, western and northwestern New South Wales (NSW) and western Victoria, to the alpine regions of NSW and Victoria. After emerging from their pupae in early spring, adult Bogong moths embark on a long nocturnal journey towards the Australian Alps, a journey that can take many days or even weeks and cover over 1000 km. Once in the Alps (from the end of September), Bogong moths seek out the shelter of selected and isolated high ridge-top caves and rock crevices (typically at elevations above 1800 m). In hundreds of thousands, moths line the interior walls of these cool alpine caves where they “hibernate” over the summer months (referred to as “estivation”). Towards the end of the summer (February and March), the same individuals that arrived months earlier leave the caves and begin their long return trip to their breeding grounds. Once there, moths mate, lay eggs and die. The moths that hatch in the following spring then repeat the migratory cycle afresh. Despite having had no previous experience of the migratory route, these moths find their way to the Alps and locate their estivation caves that are dotted along the high alpine ridges of southeastern Australia. How naïve moths manage this remarkable migratory feat still remains a mystery, although there are many potential sensory cues along the migratory route that moths might rely on during their journey, including visual, olfactory, mechanical and magnetic cues. Here we review our current knowledge of the Bogong moth, including its natural history, its ecology, its cultural importance to the Australian Aborigines and what we understand about the sensory basis of its long-distance nocturnal migration. From this analysis it becomes clear that

  1. [Gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L. in the South Urals: Patterns in population dynamics and modelling].

    PubMed

    Soukhovolsky, V G; Ponomarev, V I; Sokolov, G I; Tarasova, O V; Krasnoperova, P A

    2015-01-01

    The analysis is conducted on population dynamics of gypsy moth from different habitats of the South Urals. The pattern of cyclic changes in population density is examined, the assessment of temporal conjugation in time series of gypsy moth population dynamics from separate habitats of the South Urals is carried out, the relationships between population density and weather conditions are studied. Based on the results obtained, a statistical model of gypsy moth population dynamics in the South Urals is designed, and estimations are given of regulatory and modifying factors effects on the population dynamics. PMID:26201216

  2. [Gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L. in the South Urals: Patterns in population dynamics and modelling].

    PubMed

    Soukhovolsky, V G; Ponomarev, V I; Sokolov, G I; Tarasova, O V; Krasnoperova, P A

    2015-01-01

    The analysis is conducted on population dynamics of gypsy moth from different habitats of the South Urals. The pattern of cyclic changes in population density is examined, the assessment of temporal conjugation in time series of gypsy moth population dynamics from separate habitats of the South Urals is carried out, the relationships between population density and weather conditions are studied. Based on the results obtained, a statistical model of gypsy moth population dynamics in the South Urals is designed, and estimations are given of regulatory and modifying factors effects on the population dynamics.

  3. Bacterial community structure in the rhizosphere of three cactus species from semi-arid highlands in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Garrido, J Félix; Montiel-Lugo, Daniel; Hernández-Rodríguez, César; Torres-Cortes, Gloria; Millán, Vicenta; Toro, Nicolás; Martínez-Abarca, Francisco; Ramírez-Saad, Hugo C

    2012-05-01

    The nature reserve of Tehuacan-Cuicatlan in central Mexico is known for its diversity and endemism mainly in cactus plants. Although the xerophytic flora is reasonably documented, the bacterial communities associated with these species have been largely neglected. We assessed the diversity and composition of bacterial communities in bulk (non-rhizospheric) soil and the rhizosphere of three cactus plant species: Mammillaria carnea, Opuntia pilifera and Stenocereus stellatus, approached using cultivation and molecular techniques, considering the possible effect of dry and rainy seasons. Cultivation-dependent methods were focused on putative N(2)-fixers and heterotrophic aerobic bacteria, in the two media tested the values obtained for dry season samples grouped together regardless of the sample type (rhizospheric or non-rhizospheric), these groups also included the non-rhizospheric sample for rainy season, on each medium. These CFU values were smaller and significantly different from those obtained on rhizospheric samples from rainy season. Genera composition among isolates of the rhizospheric samples was very similar for each season, the most abundant taxa being α-Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Interestingly, the genus Ochrobactrum was highly represented among rhizospheric samples, when cultured in N-free medium. The structure of the bacterial communities was approached with molecular techniques targeting partial 16S rRNA sequences such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and serial analysis of ribosomal sequence tags. Under these approaches, the most represented bacterial phyla were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria. The first two were also highly represented when using isolation techniques.

  4. The Presence of Nuclear Cactus in the Early Drosophila Embryo May Extend the Dynamic Range of the Dorsal Gradient

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Michael D.; Reeves, Gregory T.

    2015-01-01

    In a developing embryo, the spatial distribution of a signaling molecule, or a morphogen gradient, has been hypothesized to carry positional information to pattern tissues. Recent measurements of morphogen distribution have allowed us to subject this hypothesis to rigorous physical testing. In the early Drosophila embryo, measurements of the morphogen Dorsal, which is a transcription factor responsible for initiating the earliest zygotic patterns along the dorsal-ventral axis, have revealed a gradient that is too narrow to pattern the entire axis. In this study, we use a mathematical model of Dorsal dynamics, fit to experimental data, to determine the ability of the Dorsal gradient to regulate gene expression across the entire dorsal-ventral axis. We found that two assumptions are required for the model to match experimental data in both Dorsal distribution and gene expression patterns. First, we assume that Cactus, an inhibitor that binds to Dorsal and prevents it from entering the nuclei, must itself be present in the nuclei. And second, we assume that fluorescence measurements of Dorsal reflect both free Dorsal and Cactus-bound Dorsal. Our model explains the dynamic behavior of the Dorsal gradient at lateral and dorsal positions of the embryo, the ability of Dorsal to regulate gene expression across the entire dorsal-ventral axis, and the robustness of gene expression to stochastic effects. Our results have a general implication for interpreting fluorescence-based measurements of signaling molecules. PMID:25879657

  5. Asynchronous ripening behavior of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) cultivars with respect to physicochemical and physiological attributes.

    PubMed

    Kyriacou, M C; Emmanouilidou, M G; Soteriou, G A

    2016-11-15

    Physicochemical and physiological ripening events in cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit of cultivars 'Ntopia' and 'Hercules' were profiled against skin coloration from mature-green (S1) to over-mature (S5). Fructose and glucose accumulation were linear in 'Ntopia' but peaked near S3 in 'Hercules' synchronously to the appearance of sucrose. Betalains increased steadily in 'Ntopia' (103.2mg/l) but peaked before full skin coloration in 'Hercules' (49.7mg/l); whereas phenolic content remained invariable and ascorbate content peaked near S5 in both 'Ntopia' (108.6μg/g) and 'Hercules' (163.1μg/g). Cell wall material diminished with maturity though textural changes with ripening appeared not related to pectin solubilization but to weakening of glycan bonding and loss of neutral sugars. Fruit firmness rather was correlated to seed weight (r=0.89) and seed-to-pulp ratio (r=0.73). Cultivar differences highlighted in the chronology of ripening events are critical for defining optimum harvest maturity and postharvest handling protocols for premium quality cactus pear fruit.

  6. A new fission-fragment detector to complement the CACTUS-SiRi setup at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornyi, T. G.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Siem, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Csige, L.

    2014-02-01

    An array of Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPAC) for the detection of heavy ions has been developed. The new device, NIFF (Nuclear Instrument for Fission Fragments), consists of four individual detectors and covers 60% of 2π. It was designed to be used in conjunction with the SiRi array of ΔE-E silicon telescopes for light charged particles and fits into the CACTUS array of 28 large-volume NaI scintillation detectors at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-pressure gas-filled PPACs are sensitive for the detection of fission fragments, but are insensitive to scattered beam particles of light ions or light-ion ejectiles. The PPAC detectors of NIFF have good time resolution and can be used either to select or to veto fission events in in-beam experiments with light-ion beams and actinide targets. The powerful combination of SiRi, CACTUS, and NIFF provides new research opportunities for the study of nuclear structure and nuclear reactions in the actinide region. The new setup is particularly well suited to study the competition of fission and γ decay as a function of excitation energy.

  7. The Dorsal/miR-1959/Cactus feedback loop facilitates the infection of WSSV in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaopeng; Yuan, Jia; Yang, Linwei; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Zuo, Hongliang

    2016-09-01

    miR-1959, a novel microRNA identified from Litopenaeus vannamei, mediates a positive feedback loop between Dorsal and Cactus that can continuously maintain the activation of the NF-κB pathway. It has been known that miR-1959 is involved in antibacterial immunity in shrimp, but its function in antiviral responses is still unknown. In this study, we focused on the role of miR-1959 in infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the major viral pathogen in shrimp worldwide. The expression of miR-1959 in shrimp hemocytes, gill, and hepatopancreas was significantly up-regulated upon WSSV infection. Dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-1959 could enhance the activity of the promoter of WSSV immediate early gene ie1. In vivo experiments also showed that inhibition of miR-1959 led to decrease of the mortality of WSSV-infected shrimp and the genome copies of WSSV in tissues, meanwhile the expression of WSSV ie1 and VP28 genes was down-regulated. In contrast, increase of the miR-1959 level in shrimp by injection of miR-1959 mimics produced opposite results. These suggested that the Dorsal/miR-1959/Cactus feedback loop could favor the infection of WSSV in shrimp. Thus, our study helps further reveal the interaction between WSSV and shrimp immune system.

  8. Asynchronous ripening behavior of cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) cultivars with respect to physicochemical and physiological attributes.

    PubMed

    Kyriacou, M C; Emmanouilidou, M G; Soteriou, G A

    2016-11-15

    Physicochemical and physiological ripening events in cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit of cultivars 'Ntopia' and 'Hercules' were profiled against skin coloration from mature-green (S1) to over-mature (S5). Fructose and glucose accumulation were linear in 'Ntopia' but peaked near S3 in 'Hercules' synchronously to the appearance of sucrose. Betalains increased steadily in 'Ntopia' (103.2mg/l) but peaked before full skin coloration in 'Hercules' (49.7mg/l); whereas phenolic content remained invariable and ascorbate content peaked near S5 in both 'Ntopia' (108.6μg/g) and 'Hercules' (163.1μg/g). Cell wall material diminished with maturity though textural changes with ripening appeared not related to pectin solubilization but to weakening of glycan bonding and loss of neutral sugars. Fruit firmness rather was correlated to seed weight (r=0.89) and seed-to-pulp ratio (r=0.73). Cultivar differences highlighted in the chronology of ripening events are critical for defining optimum harvest maturity and postharvest handling protocols for premium quality cactus pear fruit. PMID:27283673

  9. The Dorsal/miR-1959/Cactus feedback loop facilitates the infection of WSSV in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaopeng; Yuan, Jia; Yang, Linwei; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Zuo, Hongliang

    2016-09-01

    miR-1959, a novel microRNA identified from Litopenaeus vannamei, mediates a positive feedback loop between Dorsal and Cactus that can continuously maintain the activation of the NF-κB pathway. It has been known that miR-1959 is involved in antibacterial immunity in shrimp, but its function in antiviral responses is still unknown. In this study, we focused on the role of miR-1959 in infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the major viral pathogen in shrimp worldwide. The expression of miR-1959 in shrimp hemocytes, gill, and hepatopancreas was significantly up-regulated upon WSSV infection. Dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that miR-1959 could enhance the activity of the promoter of WSSV immediate early gene ie1. In vivo experiments also showed that inhibition of miR-1959 led to decrease of the mortality of WSSV-infected shrimp and the genome copies of WSSV in tissues, meanwhile the expression of WSSV ie1 and VP28 genes was down-regulated. In contrast, increase of the miR-1959 level in shrimp by injection of miR-1959 mimics produced opposite results. These suggested that the Dorsal/miR-1959/Cactus feedback loop could favor the infection of WSSV in shrimp. Thus, our study helps further reveal the interaction between WSSV and shrimp immune system. PMID:27492121

  10. Characterization of the nutritional components in fruit and cladode of selenium-enriched nutraceutical cactus pear fruit varieties grown on agricultural sediment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different accessions of different colored cactus pear (Opuntia ficus Indica) were grown in soils high in salts, boron and selenium (Se) located in the Westside of central California. The changes in the nutritional status and biological transformation of the absorbed inorganic Se from the soils into ...

  11. Selenium accumulation, distribution and speciation in spineless prickly pear cactus: a salt, boron, and drought tolerant, selenium-enriched nutraceutical fruit crop.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prickly pear cactus (Opuntia) may be an alternative crop to grow in drainage-impacted regions of the westside of California, where high levels of salinity, selenium (Se), and boron (B) are present. Preliminary trials have demonstrated that Opuntia can tolerate the adverse soil conditions, while accu...

  12. Diversity and antifungal activity of the endophytic fungi associated with the native medicinal cactus Opuntia humifusa (Cactaceae) from the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the native cactus Opuntia humifusa in the United States was investigated and its potential for providing antifungal compounds. A total of 108 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and identified by molecular methods into 17 different taxa of the gen...

  13. Mapping and recombination analysis of two moth colour mutations, Black moth and Wild wing spot, in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Katsuma, S; Kuwazaki, S; Jouraku, A; Fujimoto, T; Sahara, K; Yasukochi, Y; Yamamoto, K; Tabunoki, H; Yokoyama, T; Kadono-Okuda, K; Shimada, T

    2016-01-01

    Many lepidopteran insects exhibit body colour variations, where the high phenotypic diversity observed in the wings and bodies of adults provides opportunities for studying adaptive morphological evolution. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, two genes responsible for moth colour mutation, Bm and Ws, have been mapped to 0.0 and 14.7 cM of the B. mori genetic linkage group 17; however, these genes have not been identified at the molecular level. We performed positional cloning of both genes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie the moth wing- and body-colour patterns in B. mori. We successfully narrowed down Bm and Ws to ~2-Mb-long and 100-kb-long regions on the same scaffold Bm_scaf33. Gene prediction analysis of this region identified 77 candidate genes in the Bm region, whereas there were no candidate genes in the Ws region. Fluorescence in-situ hybridisation analysis in Bm mutant detected chromosome inversion, which explains why there are no recombination in the corresponding region. The comparative genomic analysis demonstrated that the candidate regions of both genes shared synteny with a region associated with wing- and body-colour variations in other lepidopteran species including Biston betularia and Heliconius butterflies. These results suggest that the genes responsible for wing and body colour in B. mori may be associated with similar genes in other Lepidoptera.

  14. Desaturases from the spotted fireworm moth (Choristoneura parallela) shed light on the evolutionary origins of novel moth sex pheromone desaturases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weitian; Rooney, Alejandro P; Xue, Bingye; Roelofs, Wendell L

    2004-11-24

    Six acyl-CoA desaturase-encoding cDNAs from mRNA isolated from the spotted fireworm moth, Choristoneura parallela (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were characterized and assayed for functionality. The expression levels of these cDNAs were determined in the pheromone gland and fat body by real-time PCR and the resulting patterns are in line with results from published studies on other moth sex pheromone desaturases. The cDNAs were found to correspond to six genes. Using both biochemical and phylogenetic analyses, four of these were found to belong to previously characterized desaturase functional groups [the Delta 10,11, the Delta 9 (16>18) and the Delta 9 (18>16) groups]. A desaturase highly expressed in the pheromone gland was a novel E11 desaturase that was specific to 14-carbon precursor acids. The fifth gene [CpaZ9(14-26)] was found to display a novel Z9 activity indicating that it belongs to a new Delta 9 functional group, whereas the sixth gene was determined to be nonfunctional with respect to desaturase activity. In accordance with previous studies, we find that desaturases of the Delta 10,11 and Delta 14 groups, which are the fastest evolving desaturases and possess the novel pheromone biosynthetic function, are expressed primarily in the pheromone gland whereas all other desaturases, which do not possess the novel reproductive function, evolve more slowly and display the ancestral metabolic function and pattern of gene expression.

  15. Mapping and recombination analysis of two moth colour mutations, Black moth and Wild wing spot, in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Katsuma, S; Kuwazaki, S; Jouraku, A; Fujimoto, T; Sahara, K; Yasukochi, Y; Yamamoto, K; Tabunoki, H; Yokoyama, T; Kadono-Okuda, K; Shimada, T

    2016-01-01

    Many lepidopteran insects exhibit body colour variations, where the high phenotypic diversity observed in the wings and bodies of adults provides opportunities for studying adaptive morphological evolution. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, two genes responsible for moth colour mutation, Bm and Ws, have been mapped to 0.0 and 14.7 cM of the B. mori genetic linkage group 17; however, these genes have not been identified at the molecular level. We performed positional cloning of both genes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie the moth wing- and body-colour patterns in B. mori. We successfully narrowed down Bm and Ws to ~2-Mb-long and 100-kb-long regions on the same scaffold Bm_scaf33. Gene prediction analysis of this region identified 77 candidate genes in the Bm region, whereas there were no candidate genes in the Ws region. Fluorescence in-situ hybridisation analysis in Bm mutant detected chromosome inversion, which explains why there are no recombination in the corresponding region. The comparative genomic analysis demonstrated that the candidate regions of both genes shared synteny with a region associated with wing- and body-colour variations in other lepidopteran species including Biston betularia and Heliconius butterflies. These results suggest that the genes responsible for wing and body colour in B. mori may be associated with similar genes in other Lepidoptera. PMID:26219230

  16. Preliminary Assessment for CAU 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and DU Site CAS No. TA-39-001-TAGR: Soil Contamination, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit 485, Corrective Action Site TA-39-001-TAGR, the Cactus Spring Ranch Soil Contamination Area, is located approximately six miles southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the eastern mouth of Sleeping Column Canyon in the Cactus Range on the Tonopah Test Range. This site was used in conjunction with animal studies involving the biological effects of radionuclides (specifically plutonium) associated with Operation Roofer Coaster. The location had been used as a ranch by private citizens prior to government control of the area. According to historical records, Operation Roofer Coaster activities involved assessing the inhalation uptake of plutonium in animals from the nonnuclear detonation of nuclear weapons. Operation Roofer Coaster consisted of four nonnuclear destruction tests of a nuclear device. The four tests all took place during May and June 1963 and consisted of Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1, 11, and 111. Eighty-four dogs, 84 burros, and 136 sheep were used for the Double Tracks test, and ten sheep and ten dogs were used for Clean Slate 11. These animals were housed at Cactus Spring Ranch. Before detonation, all animals were placed in cages and transported to the field. After the shot, they were taken to the decontamination area where some may have been sacrificed immediately. All animals, including those sacrificed, were returned to Cactus Spring Ranch at this point to have autopsies performed or to await being sacrificed at a later date. A description of the Cactus Spring Ranch activities found in project files indicates the ranch was used solely for the purpose of the Roofer Coaster tests and bioaccumulation studies and was never used for any other project. No decontamination or cleanup had been conducted at Cactus Spring Ranch prior to the start of the project. When the project was complete, the pits at Cactus Spring Ranch were filled with soil, and trailers where dogs were housed and animal autopsies had been performed were removed

  17. Influence of within-orchard trap placement on catch of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in sex pheromone-treated orchards.

    PubMed

    Knight, A L

    2007-04-01

    The influence of trap placement on catches of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., was examined in a series of studies conducted in orchards treated with Isomate-C Plus sex pheromone dispensers. Mark-recapture tests with sterilized moths released along the interface of pairs of treated and untreated apple and pear plots found that significantly more male but not female moths were recaptured on interception traps placed in the treated plots. In a second test, significantly higher numbers of wild male and female moths were caught on interception traps placed in treated versus untreated plots within a heavily infested orchard. The highest numbers of male moths were caught on traps placed along the interior edge of the treated plots. Trap position had no influence on the captures of female moths. In a third test, north-south transects of sex pheromone-baited traps were placed through adjacent treated and untreated plots that received a uniform release of sterilized moths. Traps on the upwind edge of the treated plots caught similar numbers of moths as traps upwind from the treated plots. Moth catch was significantly reduced at all other locations inside versus outside of the treated plots, including traps placed on the downwind edge of the treated plot. In a fourth test, five apple orchards were monitored with groups of sex pheromone-baited traps placed either on the border or at three distances inside the orchards. The highest moth counts were in traps placed at the border, and the lowest moth counts were in traps placed 30 and 50 m from the border. In a fifth test, the proportion of traps failing to catch any moths despite the occurrence of local fruit injury was significantly higher in traps placed 50 versus 25 m from the border. The implications provided by these data for designing an effective monitoring program for codling moth in sex pheromone-treated orchards are discussed.

  18. Ionizing irradiation of adults of Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to prevent reproduction, and implications for a generic irradiation treatment for insects.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Phillips, Thomas W

    2008-08-01

    Ionizing irradiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests. A generic treatment of 400 Gy has been approved for commodities entering the United States against all insects except pupae and adults of Lepidoptera because some literature citations indicate that a few insects, namely, the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are not completely controlled at that dose. Radiotolerance in insects increases as the insects develop, so the minimum absorbed dose to prevent F1 egg hatch for these two species when irradiated as adults was examined. Also, because hypoxia is known to increase radiotolerance in insects, Angoumois grain moth radiotolerance was tested in a hypoxic atmosphere. A dose range of 336-388 Gy prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 22,083 adult Indianmeal moths. Dose ranges of 443-505 and 590-674 Gy, respectively, prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 15,264 and 13,677 adult Angoumois grain moths irradiated in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres. A generic dose of 600 Gy for all insects in ambient atmospheres might be efficacious, although many fresh commodities may not tolerate it when applied on a commercial scale.

  19. Mitogenomic analysis of Montipora cactus and Anacropora matthai (cnidaria; scleractinia; acroporidae) indicates an unequal rate of mitochondrial evolution among Acroporidae corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Ching-Chih; Wallace, Carden C.; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2005-11-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome was determined for specimens of the coral species Montipora cactus (Bernard 1897) and Anacropora matthai (Pillai 1973), representing two morphologically distinct genera of the family Acroporidae. These sequences were compared with the published mt genome sequence for the confamilial species, Acropora tenuis (Dana 1846). The size of the mt genome was 17,887 bp and 17,888 bp for M. cactus and A. matthai. Gene content and organization was found to be very similar among the three Acroporidae mt genomes with a group I intron occurring in the NADH dehyrogenase 5 ( nad5) gene. The intergenic regions were also similar in length among the three corals. The control region located between the small ribosomal RNA ( ms) and the cytochrome oxidase 3 ( cox3) gene was significantly smaller in M. cactus and A. matthai (both 627 bp) than in A. tenuis (1086 bp). Only one set of repeated sequences was identified at the 3'-end of the control regions in M. cactus and A. matthai. A lack of the abundant repetitive elements which have been reported for A. tenuis, accounts for the relatively short control regions in M. cactus and A. matthai. Pairwise distances and relative rate analyses of 13 protein coding genes, the group I intron and the largest intergenic region, igr3, revealed significant differences in the rate of molecular evolution of the mt genome among the three species, with an extremely slow rate being seen between Montipora and Anacropora. It is concluded that rapid mt genome evolution is taking place in genus Acropora relative to the confamilial genera Montipora and Anacropora although all are within the relatively slow range thought to be typical of Anthozoa.

  20. Sex pheromone biosynthetic pathways are conserved between moths and the butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    PubMed Central

    Liénard, Marjorie A; Wang, Hong-Lei; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Although phylogenetically nested within the moths, butterflies have diverged extensively in a number of life history traits. Whereas moths rely greatly on chemical signals, visual advertisement is the hallmark of mate finding in butterflies. In the context of courtship, however, male chemical signals are widespread in both groups although they likely have multiple evolutionary origins. Here, we report that in males of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, courtship scents are produced de novo via biosynthetic pathways shared with females of many moth species. We show that two of the pheromone components that play a major role in mate choice, namely the (Z)-9-tetradecenol and hexadecanal, are produced through the activity of a fatty acyl Δ11-desaturase and two specialized alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases. Our study provides the first evidence of conservation and sharing of ancestral genetic modules for the production of FA-derived pheromones over a long evolutionary timeframe thereby reconciling mate communication in moths and butterflies. PMID:24862548

  1. Organochlorine pesticide residues in moths from the Baltimore, MD-Washington, DC area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Kaiser, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Moths were collected with a light trap from 15 sites in the Baltimore, Maryland - Washington, D.C. area and analyzed for organochlorine pesticide residues. On the average, the species sampled contained 0.33 ppm heptachlor-chlordane compounds, 0.25 ppm DDE, and 0.11 ppm dieldrin. There were large differences in the concentrations detected in different species. Concentrations were especially high in moths whose larvae were cutworms, and were virtually absent from moths whose larvae fed on tree leaves. It was concluded that at least some species sampled could be an important source of insecticides to insectivorous wildlife. In some instances moths may be useful indicators of environmental contamination, especially when insectivorous wildlife species cannot be collected. However, the differences in residues observed among species means that only similar species should be compared, and this limits their potential for monitoring.

  2. Moth eye antireflection coated GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aho, Arto; Tommila, Juha; Tukiainen, Antti; Polojärvi, Ville; Niemi, Tapio; Guina, Mircea

    2014-09-01

    The performance of a GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs solar cell incorporating AlInP moth eye antireflection coating is reported and compared with the performance of a similar cell comprising TiO2/SiO2 antireflection coating. The moth eye coating exhibits an average reflectance of only 2% within the spectral range from 400 nm to 1600 nm. EQE measurements revealed absorption-related losses in the AlInP moth eye coating at wavelengths below 510 nm. Short wavelength absorption decreases the current generation in the top GaInP junction by 10%. Despite the absorption losses, the moth eye patterned GaInP/GaAs/GaInNAs solar cell exhibited higher current generation under AM1.5G real sun illumination.

  3. INSECT FLIGHT. Luminance-dependent visual processing enables moth flight in low light.

    PubMed

    Sponberg, Simon; Dyhr, Jonathan P; Hall, Robert W; Daniel, Thomas L

    2015-06-12

    Animals must operate under an enormous range of light intensities. Nocturnal and twilight flying insects are hypothesized to compensate for dim conditions by integrating light over longer times. This slowing of visual processing would increase light sensitivity but should also reduce movement response times. Using freely hovering moths tracking robotic moving flowers, we showed that the moth's visual processing does slow in dim light. These longer response times are consistent with models of how visual neurons enhance sensitivity at low light intensities, but they could pose a challenge for moths feeding from swaying flowers. Dusk-foraging moths avoid this sensorimotor tradeoff; their nervous systems slow down but not so much as to interfere with their ability to track the movements of real wind-blown flowers.

  4. Cracking complex taxonomy of Costa Rican moths: Anacrusis Zeller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remarkably similar forewing patterns, striking sexual dimorphism, and rampant sympatry all combine to present a taxonomically and morphologically bewildering complex of five species of Anacrusis tortricid moths in Central America: Anacrusis turrialbae Razowski, Anacrusis piriferana (Zeller), Anacrus...

  5. Chemopreventive effect of cactus Opuntia ficus indica on oxidative stress and genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic agent. In aflatoxicosis, oxidative stress is a common mechanism contributing to initiation and progression of hepatic damage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of cactus cladode extract (CCE) on aflatoxin B1-induced liver damage in mice by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) level, the protein carbonyls generation and the heat shock proteins Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 expressions in liver. We also looked for an eventual protective effect against AFB1-induced genotoxicity as determined by chromosome aberrations test, SOS Chromotest and DNA fragmentation assay. We further evaluated the modulation of p53, bax and bcl2 protein expressions in liver. Methods Adult, healthy balbC (20-25 g) male mice were pre-treated by intraperitonial administration of CCE (50 mg/Kg.b.w) for 2 weeks. Control animals were treated 3 days a week for 4 weeks by intraperitonial administration of 250 μg/Kg.b.w AFB1. Animals treated by AFB1 and CCE were divided into two groups: the first group was administrated CCE 2 hours before each treatment with AFB1 3 days a week for 4 weeks. The second group was administrated without pre-treatment with CCE but this extract was administrated 24 hours after each treatment with AFB1 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Results Our results clearly showed that AFB1 induced significant alterations in oxidative stress markers. In addition, it has a genotoxic potential and it increased the expression of pro apoptotic proteins p53 and bax and decreased the expression of bcl2. The treatment of CCE before or after treatment with AFB1, showed (i) a total reduction of AFB1 induced oxidative damage markers, (ii) an anti-genotoxic effect resulting in an efficient prevention of chromosomal aberrations and DNA fragmentation compared to the group treated with AFB1 alone (iii) restriction of the effect of AFB1 by differential modulation of the expression of p53 which decreased as well as its

  6. Gypsy moth in the United States: An atlas. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Liebhold, A.M.; Gottschalk, K.W.; Luzader, E.R.; Mason, D.A.; Bush, R.

    1997-02-01

    This atlas includes 52 maps that doucment the historical spread of gypsy moth from 1900 to the present, historical forest defoliation in the Northeast from 1984 to the present, and the distribution of susceptible forests in the conterminous United States. These maps should be useful for planning activities to limit the spread of gypsy moth and mitigate the effects of this forest insect pest in areas that have not yet been invaded.

  7. q-deformations and the dynamics of the larch bud-moth population cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyengar, Sudharsana V.; Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    The concept of q-deformation of numbers is applied here to improve and modify a tritrophic population dynamics model to understand defoliation of the coniferous larch trees due to outbreaks of the larch bud-moth insect population. The results are in qualitative agreement with observed behavior, with the larch needle lengths, bud-moth population and parasitoid populations all showing 9-period cycles which are mutually synchronized.

  8. Effects of gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment on development of codling moth larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Burditt, A.K. Jr.; Moffitt, H.R.; Hungate, F.P.

    1985-03-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae were exposed to gamma radiation at doses upto 160 Gy. Following irradiation the larvae were permited further development, pupation and adult emergence. The number of adults emerging, mature larvae and pupae present were determined. Data from these studies will be used to predict doses of gamma irradiation required as a quarantine treatment to prevent emergence of codling moth adults from fruit infested by larvae. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  9. Communication disruption of guava moth (Coscinoptycha improbana) using a pheromone analog based on chain length.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Dymock, J J; Park, K C; Wakelin, R H; Jamieson, L E

    2013-09-01

    The guava moth, Coscinoptycha improbana, an Australian species that infests fruit crops in commercial and home orchards, was first detected in New Zealand in 1997. A four-component pheromone blend was identified but is not yet commercially available. Using single sensillum recordings from male antennae, we established that the same olfactory receptor neurons responded to two guava moth sex pheromone components, (Z)-11-octadecen-8-one and (Z)-12-nonadecen-9-one, and to a chain length analog, (Z)-13-eicosen-10-one, the sex pheromone of the related peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. We then field tested whether this non-specificity of the olfactory neurons might enable disruption of sexual communication by the commercially available analog, using male catch to synthetic lures in traps in single-tree, nine-tree and 2-ha plots. A disruptive pheromone analog, based on chain length, is reported for the first time. Trap catches for guava moth were disrupted by three polyethylene tubing dispensers releasing the analog in single-tree plots (86% disruption of control catches) and in a plots of nine trees (99% disruption). Where peach fruit moth pheromone dispensers were deployed at a density of 1000/ha in two 2-ha areas, pheromone traps for guava moth were completely disrupted for an extended period (up to 470 days in peri-urban gardens in Mangonui and 422 days in macadamia nut orchards in Kerikeri). In contrast, traps in untreated areas over 100 m away caught 302.8 ± 128.1 moths/trap in Mangonui and 327.5 ± 78.5 moths/ trap in Kerikeri. The longer chain length in the pheromone analog has greater longevity than the natural pheromone due to its lower volatility. Chain length analogs may warrant further investigation for mating disruption in Lepidoptera, and screening using single-sensillum recording is recommended.

  10. Gypsy moths: Geographic distribution and control. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the forest pest, Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth). The occurrence, population dynamics, reproduction, environmental impact, and controls of gypsy moths are considered. Methods of control include use of insecticide, natural predators, introduced diseases, and local trapping. Economic impacts as well as environmental disruption due to major infestation in hardwood forests by this introduced pest are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 209 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Warning coloration can be disruptive: aposematic marginal wing patterning in the wood tiger moth.

    PubMed

    Honma, Atsushi; Mappes, Johanna; Valkonen, Janne K

    2015-11-01

    Warning (aposematic) and cryptic colorations appear to be mutually incompatible because the primary function of the former is to increase detectability, whereas the function of the latter is to decrease it. Disruptive coloration is a type of crypsis in which the color pattern breaks up the outline of the prey, thus hindering its detection. This delusion can work even when the prey's pattern elements are highly contrasting; thus, it is possible for an animal's coloration to combine both warning and disruptive functions. The coloration of the wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis) is such that the moth is conspicuous when it rests on vegetation, but when it feigns death and drops to the grass- and litter-covered ground, it is hard to detect. This death-feigning behavior therefore immediately switches the function of its coloration from signaling to camouflage. We experimentally tested whether the forewing patterning of wood tiger moths could function as disruptive coloration against certain backgrounds. Using actual forewing patterns of wood tiger moths, we crafted artificial paper moths and placed them on a background image resembling a natural litter and grass background. We manipulated the disruptiveness of the wing pattern so that all (marginal pattern) or none (nonmarginal pattern) of the markings extended to the edge of the wing. Paper moths, each with a hidden palatable food item, were offered to great tits (Parus major) in a large aviary where the birds could search for and attack the "moths" according to their detectability. The results showed that prey items with the disruptive marginal pattern were attacked less often than prey without it. However, the disruptive function was apparent only when the prey was brighter than the background. These results suggest that warning coloration and disruptive coloration can work in concert and that the moth, by feigning death, can switch the function of its coloration from warning to disruptive. PMID:26640666

  12. Warning coloration can be disruptive: aposematic marginal wing patterning in the wood tiger moth.

    PubMed

    Honma, Atsushi; Mappes, Johanna; Valkonen, Janne K

    2015-11-01

    Warning (aposematic) and cryptic colorations appear to be mutually incompatible because the primary function of the former is to increase detectability, whereas the function of the latter is to decrease it. Disruptive coloration is a type of crypsis in which the color pattern breaks up the outline of the prey, thus hindering its detection. This delusion can work even when the prey's pattern elements are highly contrasting; thus, it is possible for an animal's coloration to combine both warning and disruptive functions. The coloration of the wood tiger moth (Parasemia plantaginis) is such that the moth is conspicuous when it rests on vegetation, but when it feigns death and drops to the grass- and litter-covered ground, it is hard to detect. This death-feigning behavior therefore immediately switches the function of its coloration from signaling to camouflage. We experimentally tested whether the forewing patterning of wood tiger moths could function as disruptive coloration against certain backgrounds. Using actual forewing patterns of wood tiger moths, we crafted artificial paper moths and placed them on a background image resembling a natural litter and grass background. We manipulated the disruptiveness of the wing pattern so that all (marginal pattern) or none (nonmarginal pattern) of the markings extended to the edge of the wing. Paper moths, each with a hidden palatable food item, were offered to great tits (Parus major) in a large aviary where the birds could search for and attack the "moths" according to their detectability. The results showed that prey items with the disruptive marginal pattern were attacked less often than prey without it. However, the disruptive function was apparent only when the prey was brighter than the background. These results suggest that warning coloration and disruptive coloration can work in concert and that the moth, by feigning death, can switch the function of its coloration from warning to disruptive.

  13. Communication disruption of guava moth (Coscinoptycha improbana) using a pheromone analog based on chain length.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Dymock, J J; Park, K C; Wakelin, R H; Jamieson, L E

    2013-09-01

    The guava moth, Coscinoptycha improbana, an Australian species that infests fruit crops in commercial and home orchards, was first detected in New Zealand in 1997. A four-component pheromone blend was identified but is not yet commercially available. Using single sensillum recordings from male antennae, we established that the same olfactory receptor neurons responded to two guava moth sex pheromone components, (Z)-11-octadecen-8-one and (Z)-12-nonadecen-9-one, and to a chain length analog, (Z)-13-eicosen-10-one, the sex pheromone of the related peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii. We then field tested whether this non-specificity of the olfactory neurons might enable disruption of sexual communication by the commercially available analog, using male catch to synthetic lures in traps in single-tree, nine-tree and 2-ha plots. A disruptive pheromone analog, based on chain length, is reported for the first time. Trap catches for guava moth were disrupted by three polyethylene tubing dispensers releasing the analog in single-tree plots (86% disruption of control catches) and in a plots of nine trees (99% disruption). Where peach fruit moth pheromone dispensers were deployed at a density of 1000/ha in two 2-ha areas, pheromone traps for guava moth were completely disrupted for an extended period (up to 470 days in peri-urban gardens in Mangonui and 422 days in macadamia nut orchards in Kerikeri). In contrast, traps in untreated areas over 100 m away caught 302.8 ± 128.1 moths/trap in Mangonui and 327.5 ± 78.5 moths/ trap in Kerikeri. The longer chain length in the pheromone analog has greater longevity than the natural pheromone due to its lower volatility. Chain length analogs may warrant further investigation for mating disruption in Lepidoptera, and screening using single-sensillum recording is recommended. PMID:24026215

  14. Sexually transmitted chemical defense in a moth (Utetheisa ornatrix)

    PubMed Central

    González, Andrés; Rossini, Carmen; Eisner, Maria; Eisner, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The arctiid moth Utetheisa ornatrix is protected against predation by pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) that it sequesters as a larva from its food plant. Earlier work had shown that males transmit PA to the female with the sperm package and that the female bestows part of this gift on the eggs, protecting these against predation as a result. We now show that the female herself derives protection from the gift. Females deficient in PA are vulnerable to predation from spiders (Lycosa ceratiola and Nephila clavipes). If mated with a PA-laden male, the females become unacceptable as prey. The effect takes hold promptly and endures; females are unacceptable to spiders virtually from the moment they uncouple from the male and remain unacceptable as they age. Chemical data showed that the female allocates the received PA quickly to all body parts. We predict that other instances will be found of female insects being rendered invulnerable by receipt of sexually transmitted chemicals. PMID:10318925

  15. Antennal lobe organization and pheromone usage in bombycid moths

    PubMed Central

    Namiki, Shigehiro; Daimon, Takaaki; Iwatsuki, Chika; Shimada, Toru; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the neuroanatomy of the macroglomerular complex (MGC), which is involved in sex pheromone processing, in five species in the subfamily Bombycinae, including Ernolatia moorei, Trilocha varians, Rondotia menciana, Bombyx mandarina and Bombyx mori. The glomerulus located at the dorsal-most part of the olfactory centre shows the largest volume in moth species examined to date. Such normal glomerular organization has been observed in E. moorei and T. varians, which use a two-component mixture and includes the compound bombykal as a mating signal. By contrast, the other three species, which use another component as a single attractant, exhibited a modified arrangement of the MGC. This correlation between pheromone usage and neural organization may be useful for understanding the process of speciation. PMID:24759369

  16. 50 years of studying the scarlet tiger moth.

    PubMed

    Jones, D A

    1989-10-01

    A growing number of long-term studies in plant and animal ecological genetics is now rewarding the patience, perseverance and perspicacity of those involved. A handful have involved work spanning 30 years and more, with an initial major impact on the way the study of population biology has developed. It is 50 years since investigation of the medionigra form of the scarlet tiger moth began, and in spite of very low allele frequencies and population numbers the medionigra allele persists in the original population. It is only by such long-term studies that we will be able to obtain more than just a cursory understanding of what really happens in natural populations of plants and animals.

  17. Wave trains in a model of gypsy moth population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilder, J. W.; Vasquez, D. A.; Christie, I.; Colbert, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    A recent model of gypsy moth [Lymantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae)] populations led to the observation of traveling waves in a one-dimensional spatial model. In this work, these waves are studied in more detail and their nature investigated. It was observed that when there are no spatial effects the model behaves chaotically under certain conditions. Under the same conditions, when diffusion is allowed, traveling waves develop. The biomass densities involved in the model, when examined at one point in the spatial domain, are found to correspond to a limit cycle lying on the surface of the chaotic attractor of the spatially homogeneous model. Also observed are wave trains that have modulating maxima, and which when examined at one point in the spatial domain show a quasiperiodic temporal behavior. This complex behavior is determined to be due to the interaction of the traveling wave and the chaotic background dynamics.

  18. Ejaculate economics: an experimental test in a moth.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin; Wang, Qiao

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that spermatogenesis is costly. As a consequence, males should optimize the use of their sperm to maximize their reproductive outputs in their lifetime. However, experimental evidence on this prediction is largely lacking. Here, we examine how a male moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) responds to the presence of rivals or additional mates and how such response influences his lifetime reproductive fitness. We show that when rival males are present around a copulating pair, the male ejaculates more sperm to win a sperm competition battle but in such an environment he inseminates fewer females, sires fewer offspring and lives shorter. The opposite is the case when additional females are present during copulation. These findings reveal that elevated reproductive expenditure owing to sperm competition intensity is made at the expense of longevity and future reproduction.

  19. Development of the larval ovary in the moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Beckemeyer, E F; Shirk, P D

    2004-11-01

    The morphogenesis of ovaries and the organization of germ cells within them were visualized during the larval stages of the moth, Plodia interpunctella. The germ cells were observed by utilizing confocal microscopy coupled with immuno-fluorescent staining for the alpha-crystallin protein 25 (alphaCP25). The alphaCP25 was previously shown to be specific to germ cells of pupae and adults, and this study shows that alphaCP25 is present in larval germ cells as well. A cluster of 28 germ cells that stain for alphaCP25 was found in the gonads of newly hatched first instar larvae. The founding germ cells became segregated into four clusters, most likely by somatic cell intrusion, around the beginning of the second instar. Division of the primary germ cells began by the end of the second instar and the formation of all cystoblasts appeared to be completed within the four ovarioles by the end of the third instar. Within the ovarioles of third instar larvae, the germ cells were organized with a distal cap of seven germ cells which was segregated from the majority of the germ cells. The main body of germ cells was arranged around a central germ cell-free core as a spiral. Divisions of the cystoblasts to form cystocyte clusters were nearly completed during the fourth (last) larval instar. These features suggest that the strategy to produce follicles in moths is fundamentally different from the fruitfly, Drosophila. It appears that during the initial stages of ovary development in P. interpunctella, the primary germ cells undergo stage-complete divisions that are completed prior to the onset of the next set of divisions, which results in a complete complement of follicles available by the time of adult eclosion, while in Drosophila the primary germ cell divisions are initiated in the adult stage, and follicles are produced individually as resources are available.

  20. Evolutionary escalation: the bat-moth arms race.

    PubMed

    Ter Hofstede, Hannah M; Ratcliffe, John M

    2016-06-01

    Echolocation in bats and high-frequency hearing in their insect prey make bats and insects an ideal system for studying the sensory ecology and neuroethology of predator-prey interactions. Here, we review the evolutionary history of bats and eared insects, focusing on the insect order Lepidoptera, and consider the evidence for antipredator adaptations and predator counter-adaptations. Ears evolved in a remarkable number of body locations across insects, with the original selection pressure for ears differing between groups. Although cause and effect are difficult to determine, correlations between hearing and life history strategies in moths provide evidence for how these two variables influence each other. We consider life history variables such as size, sex, circadian and seasonal activity patterns, geographic range and the composition of sympatric bat communities. We also review hypotheses on the neural basis for anti-predator behaviours (such as evasive flight and sound production) in moths. It is assumed that these prey adaptations would select for counter-adaptations in predatory bats. We suggest two levels of support for classifying bat traits as counter-adaptations: traits that allow bats to eat more eared prey than expected based on their availability in the environment provide a low level of support for counter-adaptations, whereas traits that have no other plausible explanation for their origination and maintenance than capturing defended prey constitute a high level of support. Specific predator counter-adaptations include calling at frequencies outside the sensitivity range of most eared prey, changing the pattern and frequency of echolocation calls during prey pursuit, and quiet, or 'stealth', echolocation. PMID:27252453

  1. Chromosomal Evolution in Tortricid Moths: Conserved Karyotypes with Diverged Features

    PubMed Central

    Šíchová, Jindra; Nguyen, Petr; Dalíková, Martina; Marec, František

    2013-01-01

    Moths of the family Tortricidae constitute one of the major microlepidopteran groups in terms of species richness and economic importance. Yet, despite their overall significance, our knowledge of their genome organization is very limited. In order to understand karyotype evolution in the family Tortricidae, we performed detailed cytogenetic analysis of Grapholita molesta, G. funebrana, Lobesia botrana, and Eupoecilia ambiguella, representatives of two main tortricid subfamilies, Olethreutinae and Tortricinae. Besides standard cytogenetic methods, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization for mapping of major rRNA and histone gene clusters and comparative genomic hybridization to determine the level of molecular differentiation of the W and Z sex chromosomes. Our results in combination with available data in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, and other tortricids allow us a comprehensive reconstruction of chromosomal evolution across the family Tortricidae. The emerging picture is that the karyotype of a common ancestor of Tortricinae and Olethreutinae differentiated from the ancestral lepidopteran chromosome print of n = 31 by a sex chromosome-autosome fusion. This rearrangement resulted in a large neo-sex chromosome pair and a karyotype with n = 30 conserved in most Tortricinae species, which was further reduced to n = 28 observed in Olethreutinae. Comparison of the tortricid neo-W chromosomes showed differences in their structure and composition presumably reflecting stochasticity of molecular degeneration of the autosomal part of the neo-W chromosome. Our analysis also revealed conservative pattern of the histone distribution, which is in contrast with high rDNA mobility. Despite the dynamic evolution of rDNA, we can infer a single NOR-chromosome pair as an ancestral state not only in tortricids but probably in all Lepidoptera. The results greatly expand our knowledge of the genome architecture in tortricids, but also contribute to the

  2. Immunochemical quantitation, size distribution, and cross-reactivity of lepidoptera (moth) aeroallergens in southeastern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Wynn, S.R.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Penny, N.D.; Showers, W.B.; Smith, J.M.

    1988-07-01

    With an immunochemical method, we analyzed outdoor air samples during a 3-year period for concentrations of the predominant local species of moth, Pseudaletia unipuncta (Haworth). Airborne particulates were collected on fiberglass filter sheets with an Accu-Vol sampler located 1.5 m above ground on the southeastern Minnesota prairie. Filter eluates analyzed by RIA inhibition contained concentrations of moth protein peaking in June and August to September of each year, with levels comparable to reported immunochemically measured levels of pollen and mold allergens. These peaks also corresponded with total numbers of moths captured in light traps. Moth-allergen activity was distributed in particle sizes ranging from 0.8 to greater than 4.1 micron when sized samples were obtained by use of an Andersen cascade impaction head. By RIA inhibition, there was cross-reactivity between P. unipuncta and insects of different genera, families, and orders, but not with pollens or molds. Forty-five percent of 257 patients with immediate positive skin tests to common aeroallergens had positive skin tests to one or more commercially available whole body insect extracts. Of 120 patients with allergic rhinitis believed to be primarily caused by ragweed sensitivity, 5% also had elevated specific IgE to moths. We conclude that airborne concentrations of Lepidoptera can be measured immunochemically and that moths may be a seasonal allergen in the United States.

  3. Germline transformation of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., using the piggyBac transposable element.

    PubMed

    Martins, S; Naish, N; Walker, A S; Morrison, N I; Scaife, S; Fu, G; Dafa'alla, T; Alphey, L

    2012-08-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, is one of the most economically important agricultural pests. The larvae of this moth cause damage by feeding on the foliage of cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower and rapeseed. Control generally comprises chemical treatment; however, the diamondback moth is renowned for rapid development of resistance to pesticides. Other methods, such as biological control, have not been able to provide adequate protection. Germline transformation of pest insects has become available in recent years as an enabling technology for new genetics-based control methods, such as the Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL(®) ). In the present study, we report the first transformation of the diamondback moth, using the piggyBac transposable element, by embryo microinjection. In generating transgenic strains using four different constructs, the function of three regulatory sequences in this moth was demonstrated in driving expression of fluorescent proteins. The transformation rates achieved, 0.48-0.68%, are relatively low compared with those described in other Lepidoptera, but not prohibitive, and are likely to increase with experience. We anticipate that germline transformation of the diamondback moth will permit the development of RIDL strains for use against this pest and facilitate the wider use of this species as a model organism for basic studies.

  4. Unexpected dynamic up-tuning of auditory organs in day-flying moths.

    PubMed

    Mora, Emanuel C; Cobo-Cuan, Ariadna; Macías-Escrivá, Frank; Kössl, Manfred

    2015-07-01

    In certain nocturnal moth species the frequency range of best hearing shifts to higher frequencies during repeated sound stimulation. This could provide the moths with a mechanism to better detect approaching echolocating bats. However, such a dynamic up-tuning would be of little value for day-flying moths that use intra-specific acoustic communication. Here we examined if the ears of day-flying moths provide stable tuning during longer sound stimulation. Contrary to our expectations, dynamic up-tuning was found in the ear of the day-flying species Urania boisduvalii and Empyreuma pugione. Audiograms were measured with distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). The level of the dominant distortion product (i.e. 2f1-f2) varied as a function of time by as much as 45 dB during ongoing acoustic stimulation, showing a systematic decrease at low frequencies and an increase at high frequencies. As a consequence, within about 2 s of acoustic stimulation, the DPOAEs audiogram shifted from low to high frequencies. Despite the up-tuning, the range of best audition still fell within the frequency band of the species-specific communication signals, suggesting that intra-specific communication should not be affected adversely. Up-tuning could be an ancestral condition in moth ears that in day-flying moths does not underlie larger selection pressure.

  5. The brain organization of the lichen moth Eilema japonica, which secretes an alkenyl sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Namiki, Shigehiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Yukio; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2012-10-01

    The neuroanatomy of the brain is important for the functional analysis of sex pheromone recognition in moths. Most moths use either of two types of compounds, aliphatic or alkenyl compounds, as sex pheromones. As previous studies on the neuroanatomy of moths have mostly been carried out using moths that use aliphatic compounds, information on the brain of moths that use alkenyl compounds is scarce. Here, we describe the brain anatomy of the male lichen-feeding moth Eilema japonica (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), which uses a mixture of alkenyl compounds as a sex pheromone. We reconstructed the major neuropils in the midbrain of E. japonica and compared them with those of the silkmoth, which uses an aliphatic derivative as a sex pheromone. The brain organization of the two species was basically similar, except for the size of the macroglomerular complex, where pheromone information is processed. The macroglomerular complex in E. japonica consisted of four large glomeruli, which were positioned along dorsoventral and anterior-posterior axes. The glomerulus at the site of entry of the antennal nerve was shown to have the largest volume. The number of glomeruli was equal to the number of pheromone components that are crucial for orientation behavior in E. japonica.

  6. "This is not an apple"-yeast mutualism in codling moth.

    PubMed

    Witzgall, Peter; Proffit, Magali; Rozpedowska, Elzbieta; Becher, Paul G; Andreadis, Stefanos; Coracini, Miryan; Lindblom, Tobias U T; Ream, Lee J; Hagman, Arne; Bengtsson, Marie; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Piskur, Jure; Knight, Alan

    2012-08-01

    The larva of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Tortricidae, Lepidoptera) is known as the worm in the apple, mining the fruit for food. We here show that codling moth larvae are closely associated with yeasts of the genus Metschnikowia. Yeast is an essential part of the larval diet and further promotes larval survival by reducing the incidence of fungal infestations in the apple. Larval feeding, on the other hand, enables yeast proliferation on unripe fruit. Chemical, physiological and behavioral analyses demonstrate that codling moth senses and responds to yeast aroma. Female moths are attracted to fermenting yeast and lay more eggs on yeast-inoculated than on yeast-free apples. An olfactory response to yeast volatiles strongly suggests a contributing role of yeast in host finding, in addition to plant volatiles. Codling moth is a widely studied insect of worldwide economic importance, and it is noteworthy that its association with yeasts has gone unnoticed. Tripartite relationships between moths, plants, and microorganisms may, accordingly, be more widespread than previously thought. It, therefore, is important to study the impact of microorganisms on host plant ecology and their contribution to the signals that mediate host plant finding and recognition. A better comprehension of host volatile signatures also will facilitate further development of semiochemicals for sustainable insect control.

  7. Importance of Habitat Heterogeneity in Richness and Diversity of Moths (Lepidoptera) in Brazilian Savanna.

    PubMed

    Braga, Laura; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-06-01

    Moths exhibit different levels of fidelity to habitat, and some taxa are considered as bioindicators for conservation because they respond to habitat quality, environmental change, and vegetation types. In this study, we verified the effect of two phytophysiognomies of the Cerrado, savanna and forest, on the diversity distribution of moths of Erebidae (Arctiinae), Saturniidae, and Sphingidae families by using a hierarchical additive partitioning analysis. This analysis was based on two metrics: species richness and Shannon diversity index. The following questions were addressed: 1) Does the beta diversity of moths between phytophysiognomies add more species to the regional diversity than the beta diversity between sampling units and between sites? 2) Does the distribution of moth diversity differ among taxa? Alpha and beta diversities were compared with null models. The additive partitioning of species richness for the set of three Lepidoptera families identified beta diversity between phytophysiognomies as the component that contributed most to regional diversity, whereas the Shannon index identified alpha diversity as the major contributor. According to both species richness and the Shannon index, beta diversity between phytophysiognomies was significantly higher than expected by chance. Therefore, phytophysiognomies are the most important component in determining the richness and composition of the community. Additive partitioning also indicated that individual families of moths respond differently to the effect of habitat heterogeneity. The integrity of the Cerrado mosaic of phytophysiognomies plays a crucial role in maintaining moth biodiversity in the region.

  8. Importance of Habitat Heterogeneity in Richness and Diversity of Moths (Lepidoptera) in Brazilian Savanna.

    PubMed

    Braga, Laura; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-06-01

    Moths exhibit different levels of fidelity to habitat, and some taxa are considered as bioindicators for conservation because they respond to habitat quality, environmental change, and vegetation types. In this study, we verified the effect of two phytophysiognomies of the Cerrado, savanna and forest, on the diversity distribution of moths of Erebidae (Arctiinae), Saturniidae, and Sphingidae families by using a hierarchical additive partitioning analysis. This analysis was based on two metrics: species richness and Shannon diversity index. The following questions were addressed: 1) Does the beta diversity of moths between phytophysiognomies add more species to the regional diversity than the beta diversity between sampling units and between sites? 2) Does the distribution of moth diversity differ among taxa? Alpha and beta diversities were compared with null models. The additive partitioning of species richness for the set of three Lepidoptera families identified beta diversity between phytophysiognomies as the component that contributed most to regional diversity, whereas the Shannon index identified alpha diversity as the major contributor. According to both species richness and the Shannon index, beta diversity between phytophysiognomies was significantly higher than expected by chance. Therefore, phytophysiognomies are the most important component in determining the richness and composition of the community. Additive partitioning also indicated that individual families of moths respond differently to the effect of habitat heterogeneity. The integrity of the Cerrado mosaic of phytophysiognomies plays a crucial role in maintaining moth biodiversity in the region. PMID:26313955

  9. Weather-driven dynamics in a dual-migrant system: moths and bats.

    PubMed

    Krauel, Jennifer J; Westbrook, John K; McCracken, Gary F

    2015-05-01

    Animal migrations generate large spatial and temporal fluctuations in biomass that provide a resource base for many predator-prey interactions. These interactions are often driven by continent-scale weather patterns and are difficult to study. Few studies have included migratory animals on more than a single trophic level or for periods spanning multiple entire seasons. We tracked migrations of three species of agricultural pest noctuid moths over the 2010-2012 autumn seasons as the moths travelled past a large colony of migratory Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) in Texas. Increases in moth abundance, mass of bats and duration of bat activity outside of the cave were correlated with passage of cold fronts over the study area and related increases in northerly wind. Moth responses to weather patterns varied among species and seasons, but overall moth abundances were low in late summer and spiked after one or more cold front passages in September and October. Changes in bat mass and behaviour appear to be consequences of bat migration, as cave use transitioned from summer maternity roost to autumn migratory stopover sites. Weather-driven migration is at considerable risk from climate change, and bat and moth responses to that change may have marked impacts on agricultural systems and bat ecosystem services.

  10. Geographic variation in diapause induction: the grape berry moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Timer, Jody; Tobin, Patrick C; Saunders, Michael C

    2010-12-01

    Diapause in insects occurs in response to environmental cues, such as changes in photoperiod, and it is a major adaptation by which insects synchronize their activity with biotic resources and environmental constraints. For multivoltine agricultural insect pests, diapause initiation is an important consideration in management decisions, particularly toward the end of the growing season. The grape berry moth, Paralobesia viteana (Clemens), is the main insect pest affecting viticulture, and this insect responds to postsummer solstice photoperiods to initiate diapause. Because the range of grape berry moth extends from southern Canada to the southern United States, different populations are exposed to different photoperiodic regimes. We quantified the diapause response in grape berry moth populations from Arkansas, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia, and observed latitudinal variation in diapause initiation. Populations from Michigan, New York, and Pennsylvania responded significantly different than those from Arkansas, Texas, and Virginia. We also observed, as a consequence of our experiments, that the timing of our laboratory studies influenced grape berry moth's response to photoperiod, ceteris paribus. Experiments that were conducted when grape berry moth would be naturally in diapause resulted in a significant higher proportion of diapausing pupae at photoperiods (i.e., >15 h) that generally do not induce diapause, suggesting that attention should be paid to the timing of behavioral and physiological experiments on insects. This relationship between photoperiod and diapause induction in grape berry moth across geographic regions will provide applicable knowledge to improve pest management decisions. PMID:22182539

  11. Forecasting outbreaks of the douglas-fir tussock moth from lower crown cocoon samples. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.R.; Scott, D.W.; Paul, H.G.

    1993-03-01

    A predictive technique using a simple linear regression was developed to forecast the midcrown density of small tussock moth larvae from estimates of cocoon density in the previous generation. The regression estimator was derived from field samples of cocoons and larvae taken from a wide range of nonoutbreak tussock moth populations. The accuracy of the predictions was demonstrated on an operational basis in an independent tussock moth outbreak.

  12. Fabrication of silica moth-eye structures by photo-nanoimprinting using ordered anodic porous alumina molds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagishita, Takashi; Endo, Takahide; Nishio, Kazuyuki; Masuda, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Moth-eye structures composed of an ordered array of tapered SiO2 pillars were fabricated by photo-nanoimprinting using anodic porous alumina as a mold. The formation of SiO2 moth-eye structures was carried out using a photosensitive polysilane solution as a precursor of silica. The SiO2 moth-eye structures formed on the surface of a glass plate effectively suppressed the reflection of incident light.

  13. Chemical composition of sex pheromone of oriental fruit moth and rates of release by individual female moths.

    PubMed

    Lacey, M J; Sanders, C J

    1992-08-01

    The sex pheromone emitted by individual calling females of the oriental fruit moth,Grapholita molesta, was trapped within glass capillaries, and the composition and release rates were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aerial release of (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate ranged up to 25.3 ng/hr, while the mean release rate was 8.48 ± 7.26 ng/hr (±SD). The proportion of (E)-8-dodecenyl acetate to (Z)-8-dodecenyl acetate was remarkably constant (4.20 ± 0.60%). Significant amounts of dodecyl acetate were also recovered but, contrary to previous reports, only trace quantities of (Z)-8-dodecenol were detected in the effluvium.

  14. N-Butyl sulfide as an attractant and coattractant for male and female codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Landolt, Peter J; Ohler, Bonnie; Lo, Peter; Cha, Dong; Davis, Thomas S; Suckling, David M; Brunner, Jay

    2014-04-01

    Research to discover and develop attractants for the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L., has involved identification of the chemicals eliciting moth orientation to conspecific female moths, host fruits, fermented baits, and species of microbes. Pear ester, acetic acid, and N-butyl sulfide are among those chemicals reported to attract or enhance attractiveness to codling moth. We evaluated the trapping of codling moth with N-butyl sulfide alone and in combination with acetic acid and pear ester in apple orchards. Acetic acid was attractive in two tests and N-butyl sulfide was attractive in one of two tests. N-Butyl sulfide increased catches of codling moth when used with acetic acid to bait traps. N-Butyl sulfide also increased catches of codling moth when added to traps baited with the combination of acetic acid and pear ester. Male and female codling moth both responded to these chemicals and chemical combinations. These results provide a new three-component lure comprising N-butyl sulfide, acetic acid, and pear ester that is stronger for luring codling moth females than other attractants tested.

  15. The dependence of behavioral auditory thresholds on the delay of echo-like signals in noctuid moths (lepidoptera, noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Lapshin, D N; Vorontsov, D D

    2009-03-01

    The auditory system of noctuoid moths capable to respond to ultrasounds has long been a model for anti-predator studies in neuroethology. Many moths avoid hunting bats by listening for their echolocation calls and taking evasive manoeuvres to escape predation. Besides these flight defences, certain tiger moths (Arctiidae) emit high-frequency clicks to jam the echolocator of an attacking bat. Another suggested function for ultrasonic audition in moths along with their capability to emit loud ultrasonic clicks was pulse echolocation. However, it seemed difficult to arrange sufficient temporal resolution in a simple invertebrate auditory system. Here we present an evidence of moth's capability to perceive an echo following its own click with a very short delay. The behavioral responses of moths to the acoustic pulses imitating echoes of their own clicks were investigated under conditions of tethered flight. It has been found that such echo-like stimulation evokes an increase in average emission rate of own acoustic signals in moths. Auditory thresholds were measured in two noctuid species (Enargia paleacea Esp. and Blepharita satura Schiff.) at stimulus delays 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1 ms in relation to the respective moth clicks. Our findings reveal the ability of these moths to perceive echoes of their own signals, thus demonstrating potential possibility for use of pulse echolocation.

  16. Effects of weather factors on the abundance and diversity of moths in a temperate deciduous mixed forest of Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sei-Woong

    2008-01-01

    Three-year (2004-2006) monitoring results of macrolepidoptera using light traps in a temperate deciduous mixed forest were analyzed to investigate the relationship between moth diversity and nine weather variables. Results of stepwise regression analyses showed that mean daily temperature was the main predictor for moth diversity. The present study also revealed that each moth family was affected by a set of different weather factors (rainfall, relative humidity, or duration of sunshine) probably due to different life-history strategies. The impacts of recent climate change on insect populations may be evidenced in the close relationship between moth abundance and mean temperature.

  17. Apple volatiles synergize the response of codling moth to pear ester.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Cole, Lyn; Revell, John; Manning, Lee-Anne; Twidle, Andrew; Knight, Alan L; Bus, Vincent G M; Suckling, David M

    2013-05-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major cosmopolitan pest of apple and other pome fruits. Ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) has been identified as a host-derived kairomone for female and male codling moths. However, pear ester has not performed similarly in different fruit production areas in terms of the relative magnitude of moth catch, especially the proportion of females caught. Our work was undertaken to identify host volatiles from apples, and to investigate whether these volatiles can be used to enhance the efficacy of host kairomone pear ester for monitoring female and male codling moths. Volatiles from immature apple trees were collected in the field using dynamic headspace sampling during the active period of codling moth flight. Using gas chromatography-electroantennogram detector (GC/EAD) analysis, six compounds elicited responses from antennae of females. These compounds were identified by GC/mass spectrometry (MS) and comparisons to authentic standards as nonanal, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, (Z,E)-α-farnesene, and (E,E)-α-farnesene. When the EAD-active compounds were tested individually in the field, no codling moths were caught except for a single male with decanal. However, addition of (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, decanal, or (E,E)-α-farnesene to pear ester in a binary mixture enhanced the efficacy of pear ester for attracting female codling moths compared to pear ester alone. Addition of the 6-component blend to the pear ester resulted in a significant increase in the number of males attracted, and enhanced the females captured compared to pear ester alone; the number of males and females caught was similar to that with the pear ester plus acetic acid combination lure. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to synergize the response of codling moth to host kairomone by using other host volatiles. The new apple-pear ester host kairomone blend

  18. Growth and development of the arborescent cactus Stenocereus queretaroensis in a subtropical semiarid environment, including effects of gibberellic acid.

    PubMed

    Pimienta, Eulogio; Hernandez, Gerardo; Domingues, Alejandro; Nobel, Park S.

    1998-01-01

    In Stenocereus queretaroensis (Weber) Buxbaum, an arborescent cactus cultivated in Jalisco, Mexico, for its fruits but studied here in wild populations, stem extension occurred in the autumn at the beginning of the dry season, flowering and fruiting occurred in the spring at the end of the dry season, and new roots grew in the summer during the wet season. The asynchrony of vegetative and reproductive growth reduces competitive sink effects, which may be advantageous for wild populations growing in infertile rocky soils. Seasonal patterns of sugars in the roots and especially the stems of S. queretaroensis were closely related to the main phenological stages, becoming lower in concentration during periods of major stem extension. Cessation of stem extension occurred in 100-year-old plants for which injection of GA(3) reinitiated such growth. Isolated chlorenchyma cylinders had maximum extension in a bathing solution containing 0.1 &mgr;M gibberellic acid.

  19. Genetic variability of an unusual apomictic triploid cactus--Haageocereus tenuis Ritter--from the Coast of Central Peru.

    PubMed

    Arakaki, Mónica; Speranza, Pablo; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2013-01-01

    Haageocereus tenuis is a prostrate cactus restricted to a small area of 2 km(2) near the city of Lima, Peru. The species is triploid and propagates mainly through stem fragmentation. In addition, propagation via agamospermy is documented and adventitious embryony is also inferred as a mechanism. Although seedling recruitment has not been observed in nature, we have shown that asexually produced seeds are viable. About 45 adult individuals, plus 9 individuals obtained from seeds, were sampled and 5 microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic variability. Microsatellite analysis confirms that individuals from the only existing population are genetically identical and that the population likely represents a single clone. The absence of mutations in any individual, even in highly variable microsatellite loci, may indicate that the species is also of recent origin. Other prostrate species of Haageocereus are suspected to be occasional apomicts. This phenomenon has significant implications for the evolutionary biology and ecology of Haageocereus and other clonal Cactaceae.

  20. Floral visitation by the Argentine ant reduces pollinator visitation and seed set in the coast barrel cactus, Ferocactus viridescens.

    PubMed

    LeVan, Katherine E; Hung, Keng-Lou James; McCann, Kyle R; Ludka, John T; Holway, David A

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that trade-offs between plant defense and reproduction arise not only from resource allocation but also from interactions among mutualists. Indirect costs of plant defense by ants, for example, can outweigh benefits if ants deter pollinators. Plants can dissuade ants from occupying flowers, but such arrangements may break down when novel ant partners infiltrate mutualisms. Here, we examine how floral visitation by ants affects pollination services when the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) replaces a native ant species in a food-for-protection mutualism with the coast barrel cactus (Ferocactus viridescens), which, like certain other barrel cacti, produces extrafloral nectar. We compared the effects of floral visitation by the Argentine ant with those of the most prevalent native ant species (Crematogaster californica). Compared to C. californica, the Argentine ant was present in higher numbers in flowers. Cactus bees (Diadasia spp.), the key pollinators in this system, spent less time in flowers when cacti were occupied by the Argentine ant compared to when cacti were occupied by C. californica. Presumably as a consequence of decreased duration of floral visits by Diadasia, cacti occupied by L. humile set fewer seeds per fruit and produced fewer seeds overall compared to cacti occupied by C. californica. These data illustrate the importance of mutualist identity in cases where plants balance multiple mutualisms. Moreover, as habitats become increasingly infiltrated by introduced species, the loss of native mutualists and their replacement by non-native species may alter the shape of trade-offs between plant defense and reproduction.

  1. Species-specific effects of herbivory on the oviposition behavior of the moth Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Reisenman, Carolina E; Riffell, Jeffrey A; Duffy, Kristin; Pesque, Adrien; Mikles, David; Goodwin, Brenna

    2013-01-01

    In Southwestern USA, the jimsonweed Datura wrightii and the nocturnal sphinx moth Manduca sexta form a pollinator-plant and herbivore-plant association. While certain plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) attract moths for oviposition, it is likely that other host-derived olfactory cues, such as herbivore-induced VOCs, repel moths for oviposition. Here, we studied the oviposition preference of female M. sexta towards intact and damaged host plants of three species: D. wrightii, D. discolor (a less preferred feeding resource but also used by females for oviposition), and Solanum lycopersicum-tomato-(used by moths as an oviposition resource only). Damage was inflicted to the plants either by larval feeding or artificial damage. Mated females were exposed to an intact plant and a damaged plant and allowed to lay eggs for 10 min. Oviposition preferences of females were highly heterogeneous in all cases, but a larger proportion of moths laid significantly fewer eggs on feeding-damaged and artificially damaged plants of S. lycopersicum. Many females also avoided feeding-damaged D. discolor and D. wrightii plants induced by treatment with methyl jasmonate. Chemical analyses showed a significant increase in the total amount of VOCs released by vegetative tissues of feeding-damaged plants, as well as species-specific increases in emission of certain VOCs. In particular, feeding-damaged S. lycopersicum plants emitted (-)-linalool, an odorant that repels moths for oviposition. Finally, the emission of D. wrightii floral VOCs, which are important in mediating feeding by adult moths (and hence pollination), did not change in plants damaged by larval feeding. We propose that the observed differential effects of herbivory on oviposition choice are due to different characteristics (i.e., mutually beneficial or parasitic) of the insect-plant interaction. PMID:23274850

  2. Changes in Species Richness and Composition of Tiger Moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae) among Three Neotropical Ecoregions

    PubMed Central

    Beccacece, Hernán Mario; Zeballos, Sebastián Rodolfo; Zapata, Adriana Inés

    2016-01-01

    Paraná, Yungas and Chaco Serrano ecoregions are among the most species-rich terrestrial habitats at higher latitude. However, the information for tiger moths, one of the most speciose groups of moths, is unknown in these ecoregions. In this study, we assess their species richness and composition in all three of these ecoregions. Also we investigated whether the species composition of tiger moths is influenced by climatic factors and altitude. Tiger moth species were obtained with samples from 71 sites using standardized protocols (21 sites were in Yungas, 19 in Paraná and 31 in Chaco Serrano). Rarefaction-extrapolation curves, non-parametric estimators for incidence and sample coverage indices were performed to assess species richness in the ecoregions studied. Non metric multidimensional scaling and adonis tests were performed to compare the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions. Permutest analysis and Pearson correlation were used to evaluate the relationship among species composition and annual mean temperature, annual temperature range, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and altitude. Among ecoregions Paraná was the richest with 125 species, followed by Yungas with 63 species and Chaco Serrano with 24 species. Species composition differed among these ecoregions, although Yungas and Chaco Serrano were more similar than Paraná. Species composition was significantly influenced by climatic factors and altitude. This study showed that species richness and species composition of tiger moths differed among the three ecoregions assessed. Furthermore, not only climatic factors and altitude influence the species composition of tiger moths among ecoregions, but also climatic seasonality at higher latitude in Neotropical South America becomes an important factor. PMID:27681478

  3. Quantitative analysis of the effects of ultrasound from an odor sprayer on moth flight behavior.

    PubMed

    Skals, Niels; Plepys, Dainius; El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Löfstedt, Christer; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2003-01-01

    A piezoelectric sprayer was recently developed for precision release of odor stimuli in olfactory research. The device replaces conventional dispensers used to release semiochemicals in studies of moth flight toward sources. However, the device generates high-frequency sounds in the range that some moths can hear. Ultrasound from the standard set-up sprayer had a considerable impact on flight behavior of the silver Y moth, Autographa gamma, tested in a flight tunnel. It was affected at all behavioral stages when the dispenser was driven at 120 kHz. Only 5% of the moths reached the source when exposed to 120-kHz sound from the dispenser compared to 65% in the control group without sound. The proportion taking flight was also reduced. Hearing threshold curves obtained electrophysiologically revealed that moths were sensitive to the frequency range at which the sprayer was operated and that sound intensity from the sprayer was up to 40 dB above the moths' electrophysiological hearing threshold. The audiogram for A. gamma was similar to audiograms obtained for other noctuids. Hearing sensitivity was highest at around 15 kHz, where the threshold was 35 dB SPL (sound pressure level). The threshold increased with frequency up to 94 dB SPL at 160 kHz. We improved the sprayer to operate at 300 kHz, which is beyond the hearing ability of most insects with ears. At this high frequency, the moths' sensitivity to ulrasound is reduced considerably, and we did not observe any effect on flight behavior compared to a control group without sound. Accordingly, this new piezoelectric sprayer can be used with ultrasound-sensitive insects and insensitive insects alike. PMID:12647854

  4. The adaptive function of tiger moth clicks against echolocating bats: an experimental and synthetic approach.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, John M; Fullard, James H

    2005-12-01

    We studied the efficiency and effects of the multiple sensory cues of tiger moths on echolocating bats. We used the northern long-eared bat, Myotis septentrionalis, a purported moth specialist that takes surface-bound prey (gleaning) and airborne prey (aerial hawking), and the dogbane tiger moth, Cycnia tenera, an eared species unpalatable to bats that possesses conspicuous colouration and sound-producing organs (tymbals). This is the first study to investigate the interaction of tiger moths and wild-caught bats under conditions mimicking those found in nature and to demand the use of both aerial hawking and gleaning strategies by bats. Further, it is the first to report spectrograms of the sounds produced by tiger moths while under aerial attack by echolocating bats. During both aerial hawking and gleaning trials, all muted C. tenera and perched intact C. tenera were attacked by M. septentrionalis, indicating that M. septentrionalis did not discriminate C. tenera from palatable moths based on potential echoic and/or non-auditory cues. Intact C. tenera were attacked significantly less often than muted C. tenera during aerial hawking attacks: tymbal clicks were therefore an effective deterrent in an aerial hawking context. During gleaning attacks, intact and muted C. tenera were always attacked and suffered similar mortality rates, suggesting that while handling prey this bat uses primarily chemical signals. Our results also show that C. tenera temporally matches the onset of click production to the ;approach phase' echolocation calls produced by aerial hawking attacking bats and that clicks themselves influence the echolocation behaviour of attacking bats. In the context of past research, these findings support the hypotheses that the clicks of arctiid moths are both an active defence (through echolocation disruption) and a reliable indicator of chemical defence against aerial-hawking bats. We suggest these signals are specialized for an aerial context.

  5. Technological characteristics and selected bioactive compounds of Opuntia dillenii cactus fruit juice following the impact of pulsed electric field pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Moussa-Ayoub, Tamer E; Jaeger, Henry; Youssef, Khaled; Knorr, Dietrich; El-Samahy, Salah; Kroh, Lothar W; Rohn, Sascha

    2016-11-01

    Selected technological characteristics and bioactive compounds of juice pressed directly from the mash of whole Opuntia dillenii cactus fruits have been investigated. The impact of pulsed electric fields (PEF) for a non-thermal disintegration on the important juice characteristics has been evaluated in comparison to microwave heating and use of pectinases. Results showed that the cactus juice exhibited desirable technological characteristics. Besides, it also contained a high amount of phenolic compounds being the major contributors to the overall antioxidant activity of juice. HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n) measurements in the fruits' peel and pulp showed that isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside was determined as the single flavonol found only in the fruit's peel. Treating fruit mash with a moderate electric field strength increased juice yield and improved juice characteristics. Promisingly, the highest release of isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside from fruit's peel into juice was maximally achieved by PEF. PMID:27211645

  6. Technological characteristics and selected bioactive compounds of Opuntia dillenii cactus fruit juice following the impact of pulsed electric field pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Moussa-Ayoub, Tamer E; Jaeger, Henry; Youssef, Khaled; Knorr, Dietrich; El-Samahy, Salah; Kroh, Lothar W; Rohn, Sascha

    2016-11-01

    Selected technological characteristics and bioactive compounds of juice pressed directly from the mash of whole Opuntia dillenii cactus fruits have been investigated. The impact of pulsed electric fields (PEF) for a non-thermal disintegration on the important juice characteristics has been evaluated in comparison to microwave heating and use of pectinases. Results showed that the cactus juice exhibited desirable technological characteristics. Besides, it also contained a high amount of phenolic compounds being the major contributors to the overall antioxidant activity of juice. HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n) measurements in the fruits' peel and pulp showed that isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside was determined as the single flavonol found only in the fruit's peel. Treating fruit mash with a moderate electric field strength increased juice yield and improved juice characteristics. Promisingly, the highest release of isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside from fruit's peel into juice was maximally achieved by PEF.

  7. Trapping hop looper moths, Hypena humuli Harris (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), in hop yards in Washington State with acetic acid and 3-methyl-1-butanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hop looper moths, Hypena humuli Harris, in commercial hop yards (Humulus lupulus L.) were captured in traps baited with a combination of acetic acid plus 3-methyl-1-butanol (AAMB). The two chemicals were synergistic in attracting hop looper moths; in a comparison of the lure chemicals, most moths we...

  8. Assessment of commercially available pheromone lures for monitoring diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola.

    PubMed

    Evenden, M L; Gries, R

    2010-06-01

    Sex pheromone monitoring lures from five different commercial sources were compared for their attractiveness to male diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola, Brassica napus L., fields in western Canada. Lures that had the highest pheromone release rate, as determined by aeration analyses in the laboratory, were the least attractive in field tests. Lures from all the commercial sources tested released more (Z)-11-hexadecenal than (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and the most attractive lures released a significantly higher aldehyde to acetate ratio than less attractive lures. Traps baited with sex pheromone lures from APTIV Inc. (Portland, OR) and ConTech Enterprises Inc. (Delta, BC, Canada) consistently captured more male diamondback moths than traps baited with lures from the other sources tested. In two different lure longevity field trapping experiments, older lures were more attractive to male diamondback moths than fresh lures. Pheromone release from aged lures was constant at very low release rates. The most attractive commercially available sex pheromone lures tested attracted fewer diamondback moth males than calling virgin female moths suggesting that research on the development of a more attractive synthetic sex pheromone lure is warranted.

  9. High phylogenetic diversity is preserved in species-poor high-elevation temperate moth assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Hausmann, Axel; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the diversity and composition of species assemblages and identifying underlying biotic and abiotic determinants represent great ecological challenges. Addressing some of these issues, we investigated the α-diversity and phylogenetic composition of species-rich geometrid moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) assemblages in the mature temperate forest on Changbai Mountain. A total of 9285 geometrid moths representing 131 species were collected, with many species displaying wide elevational distribution ranges. Moth α-diversity decreased monotonously, while the standardized effect size of mean pairwise phylogenetic distances (MPD) and phylogenetic diversity (PD) increased significantly with increasing elevation. At high elevations, the insect assemblages consisted largely of habitat generalists that were individually more phylogenetically distinct from co-occurring species than species in assemblages at lower altitudes. This could hint at higher speciation rates in more favourable low-elevation environments generating a species-rich geometrid assemblage, while exclusion of phylogenetically closely related species becomes increasingly important in shaping moth assemblages at higher elevations. Overall, it appears likely that high-elevation temperate moth assemblages are strongly resilient to environmental change, and that they contain a much larger proportion of the genetic diversity encountered at low-elevation assemblages in comparison to tropical geometrid communities. PMID:26979402

  10. Toxicity of Six Insecticides on Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Effect on Expression of Detoxification Genes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Wu, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Barros-Parada, Wilson

    2016-02-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a key worldwide fruit pest that has evolved high levels of resistance to almost all classes of conventional insecticides. Neonicotinoids, a new reduced-risk biorational insecticide class, have remained an effective control approach. In this study, the toxicity and sublethal effect of conventional and reduced-risk biorational insecticides on transcripts abundance of three detoxification genes in codling moth were determined. Bioassays on a codling moth laboratory strain suggested that acetamiprid had the highest oral toxicity against the third-instar larvae compared with the other five pesticides. Results also indicated that acetamiprid exhibits long-term efficacy against codling moth even at 120 h post feeding. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the detoxification genes CYP9A61, CpGST1, and CpCE-1 were differentially induced or suppressed by deltamethrin, cypermethrin, methomyl, carbaryl, and imidacloprid, depending on the type of insecticides; in contrast, no significant difference in CYP9A61, CpGST1, and CpCE-1 expressions were observed after acetamiprid exposure, when compared with the control. These results suggest that the reduced-risk biorational insecticide acetamiprid is an effective insecticide with no induction of detoxification genes and can be integrated into the management of codling moth. PMID:26487743

  11. The Genome of Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata) Provides a Genomic Perspective on Sexual Dimorphism and Phenology

    PubMed Central

    Derks, Martijn F.L.; Smit, Sandra; Salis, Lucia; Schijlen, Elio; Bossers, Alex; Mateman, Christa; Pijl, Agata S.; de Ridder, Dick; Groenen, Martien A.M.; Visser, Marcel E.; Megens, Hendrik-Jan

    2015-01-01

    The winter moth (Operophtera brumata) belongs to one of the most species-rich families in Lepidoptera, the Geometridae (approximately 23,000 species). This family is of great economic importance as most species are herbivorous and capable of defoliating trees. Genome assembly of the winter moth allows the study of genes and gene families, such as the cytochrome P450 gene family, which is known to be vital in plant secondary metabolite detoxification and host-plant selection. It also enables exploration of the genomic basis for female brachyptery (wing reduction), a feature of sexual dimorphism in winter moth, and for seasonal timing, a trait extensively studied in this species. Here we present a reference genome for the winter moth, the first geometrid and largest sequenced Lepidopteran genome to date (638 Mb) including a set of 16,912 predicted protein-coding genes. This allowed us to assess the dynamics of evolution on a genome-wide scale using the P450 gene family. We also identified an expanded gene family potentially linked to female brachyptery, and annotated the genes involved in the circadian clock mechanism as main candidates for involvement in seasonal timing. The genome will contribute to Lepidopteran genomic resources and comparative genomics. In addition, the genome enhances our ability to understand the genetic and molecular basis of insect seasonal timing and thereby provides a reference for future evolutionary and population studies on the winter moth. PMID:26227816

  12. Contrasting Patterns of Host Adaptation in Two Egg Parasitoids of the Pine Processionary Moth (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae).

    PubMed

    Ruschioni, Sara; Riolo, Paola; Isidoro, Nunzio; Romani, Roberto; Petrucco-Toffolo, Edoardo; Zovi, Daniel; Battisti, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Adaptation of parasitoids to their phytophagous host is often mediated by environmental conditions and by the food plant of the phytophagous host. Therefore, the host food plant can indirectly affect the survival and fitness of parasitoids that also attack quiescent host stages, such as eggs, in which the resources available to the immature parasitoid stages are limited. Our aim was to investigate how two egg parasitoid species of the pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Denis & Schiffermüller), respond to variations in egg traits at the extremes of a west-to-east geographic gradient in northern Italy. We considered one specialist [Baryscapus servadeii (Domenichini)] and one generalist [Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Mercet)] parasitoid, which reproduce mainly by thelytokous parthenogenesis and are common throughout the whole range of this pest. The size and shell structure of the pine processionary moth eggs were studied under light microscopy and tested experimentally under controlled conditions. We can conclude that 1) the pine processionary moth egg shell thickness is inversely proportional to the parasitism performance; 2) the larger eggs from the pine processionary moth eastern population produce parasitoid females of a larger size, which have greater realized fecundity; 3) the generalist parasitoid performs successfully with either the "home" or "away" (i.e., from both extremes of the geographic gradient) pine processionary moth eggs, which is not the case for the specialist parasitoid. The implications of these responses in the regulation of phytophagous populations are numerous and should be considered in population dynamics studies and pest management programs.

  13. The Genome of Winter Moth (Operophtera brumata) Provides a Genomic Perspective on Sexual Dimorphism and Phenology.

    PubMed

    Derks, Martijn F L; Smit, Sandra; Salis, Lucia; Schijlen, Elio; Bossers, Alex; Mateman, Christa; Pijl, Agata S; de Ridder, Dick; Groenen, Martien A M; Visser, Marcel E; Megens, Hendrik-Jan

    2015-07-29

    The winter moth (Operophtera brumata) belongs to one of the most species-rich families in Lepidoptera, the Geometridae (approximately 23,000 species). This family is of great economic importance as most species are herbivorous and capable of defoliating trees. Genome assembly of the winter moth allows the study of genes and gene families, such as the cytochrome P450 gene family, which is known to be vital in plant secondary metabolite detoxification and host-plant selection. It also enables exploration of the genomic basis for female brachyptery (wing reduction), a feature of sexual dimorphism in winter moth, and for seasonal timing, a trait extensively studied in this species. Here we present a reference genome for the winter moth, the first geometrid and largest sequenced Lepidopteran genome to date (638 Mb) including a set of 16,912 predicted protein-coding genes. This allowed us to assess the dynamics of evolution on a genome-wide scale using the P450 gene family. We also identified an expanded gene family potentially linked to female brachyptery, and annotated the genes involved in the circadian clock mechanism as main candidates for involvement in seasonal timing. The genome will contribute to Lepidopteran genomic resources and comparative genomics. In addition, the genome enhances our ability to understand the genetic and molecular basis of insect seasonal timing and thereby provides a reference for future evolutionary and population studies on the winter moth.

  14. Toxicity of Six Insecticides on Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Effect on Expression of Detoxification Genes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Wu, Zheng-Wei; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Barros-Parada, Wilson

    2016-02-01

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a key worldwide fruit pest that has evolved high levels of resistance to almost all classes of conventional insecticides. Neonicotinoids, a new reduced-risk biorational insecticide class, have remained an effective control approach. In this study, the toxicity and sublethal effect of conventional and reduced-risk biorational insecticides on transcripts abundance of three detoxification genes in codling moth were determined. Bioassays on a codling moth laboratory strain suggested that acetamiprid had the highest oral toxicity against the third-instar larvae compared with the other five pesticides. Results also indicated that acetamiprid exhibits long-term efficacy against codling moth even at 120 h post feeding. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the detoxification genes CYP9A61, CpGST1, and CpCE-1 were differentially induced or suppressed by deltamethrin, cypermethrin, methomyl, carbaryl, and imidacloprid, depending on the type of insecticides; in contrast, no significant difference in CYP9A61, CpGST1, and CpCE-1 expressions were observed after acetamiprid exposure, when compared with the control. These results suggest that the reduced-risk biorational insecticide acetamiprid is an effective insecticide with no induction of detoxification genes and can be integrated into the management of codling moth.

  15. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies.

  16. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies. PMID:26314018

  17. Assessment of commercially available pheromone lures for monitoring diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola.

    PubMed

    Evenden, M L; Gries, R

    2010-06-01

    Sex pheromone monitoring lures from five different commercial sources were compared for their attractiveness to male diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in canola, Brassica napus L., fields in western Canada. Lures that had the highest pheromone release rate, as determined by aeration analyses in the laboratory, were the least attractive in field tests. Lures from all the commercial sources tested released more (Z)-11-hexadecenal than (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate and the most attractive lures released a significantly higher aldehyde to acetate ratio than less attractive lures. Traps baited with sex pheromone lures from APTIV Inc. (Portland, OR) and ConTech Enterprises Inc. (Delta, BC, Canada) consistently captured more male diamondback moths than traps baited with lures from the other sources tested. In two different lure longevity field trapping experiments, older lures were more attractive to male diamondback moths than fresh lures. Pheromone release from aged lures was constant at very low release rates. The most attractive commercially available sex pheromone lures tested attracted fewer diamondback moth males than calling virgin female moths suggesting that research on the development of a more attractive synthetic sex pheromone lure is warranted. PMID:20568610

  18. Limiting the costs of mutalism: multiple modes of interaction between yuccas and yucca moths

    PubMed Central

    Addicott, J. F.; Bao, T.

    1999-01-01

    In pollination–seed predation mutualisms between yuccas and yucca moths, conflicts of interest exist for yuccas, because benefits of increased pollination may be outweighed by increased seed consumption. These conflicts raise the problem of what limits seed consumption, and ultimately what limits or regulates moth populations. Although the current hypothesis is that yuccas should selectively abscise flowers with high numbers of yucca-moth eggs, within-inflorescence selective abscission occurs in only one of the three moth–yucca systems that we studied. It occurs only when oviposition directly damages developing ovules, and does not, therefore, provide a general explanation for the resolution of moth–yucca conflicts. Within-locule egg mortality provides an alternative and stronger mechanism for limiting seed damage, and generating density-dependent mortality for yucca-moth populations. However, the most important feature of moth–yucca systems is that they are diverse, encompassing multiple modes of interaction, each with different consequences for limiting and regulating yucca moths.

  19. High phylogenetic diversity is preserved in species-poor high-elevation temperate moth assemblages.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Hausmann, Axel; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the diversity and composition of species assemblages and identifying underlying biotic and abiotic determinants represent great ecological challenges. Addressing some of these issues, we investigated the α-diversity and phylogenetic composition of species-rich geometrid moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) assemblages in the mature temperate forest on Changbai Mountain. A total of 9285 geometrid moths representing 131 species were collected, with many species displaying wide elevational distribution ranges. Moth α-diversity decreased monotonously, while the standardized effect size of mean pairwise phylogenetic distances (MPD) and phylogenetic diversity (PD) increased significantly with increasing elevation. At high elevations, the insect assemblages consisted largely of habitat generalists that were individually more phylogenetically distinct from co-occurring species than species in assemblages at lower altitudes. This could hint at higher speciation rates in more favourable low-elevation environments generating a species-rich geometrid assemblage, while exclusion of phylogenetically closely related species becomes increasingly important in shaping moth assemblages at higher elevations. Overall, it appears likely that high-elevation temperate moth assemblages are strongly resilient to environmental change, and that they contain a much larger proportion of the genetic diversity encountered at low-elevation assemblages in comparison to tropical geometrid communities. PMID:26979402

  20. Risk assessment of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L), in New Zealand based on phenology modelling.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Joel Peter William; Régnière, Jacques; Worner, Sue

    2007-03-01

    The gypsy moth is a global pest that has not yet established in New Zealand despite individual moths having been discovered near ports. A climate-driven phenology model previously used in North America was applied to New Zealand. Weather and elevation data were used as inputs to predict where sustainable populations could potentially exist and predict the timing of hatch and oviposition in different regions. Results for New Zealand were compared with those in the Canadian Maritimes (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island) where the gypsy moth has long been established. Model results agree with the current distribution of the gypsy moth in the Canadian Maritimes and predict that the majority of New Zealand's North Island and the northern coastal regions of the South Island have a suitable climate to allow stable seasonality of the gypsy moth. New Zealand's climate appears more forgiving than that of the Canadian Maritimes, as the model predicts a wider range of oviposition dates leading to stable seasonality. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of climate change on the predicted potential distribution for New Zealand. Climate change scenarios show an increase in probability of establishment throughout New Zealand, most noticeably in the South Island.

  1. Risk assessment of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L), in New Zealand based on phenology modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitt, Joel Peter William; Régnière, Jacques; Worner, Sue

    2007-03-01

    The gypsy moth is a global pest that has not yet established in New Zealand despite individual moths having been discovered near ports. A climate-driven phenology model previously used in North America was applied to New Zealand. Weather and elevation data were used as inputs to predict where sustainable populations could potentially exist and predict the timing of hatch and oviposition in different regions. Results for New Zealand were compared with those in the Canadian Maritimes (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island) where the gypsy moth has long been established. Model results agree with the current distribution of the gypsy moth in the Canadian Maritimes and predict that the majority of New Zealand’s North Island and the northern coastal regions of the South Island have a suitable climate to allow stable seasonality of the gypsy moth. New Zealand’s climate appears more forgiving than that of the Canadian Maritimes, as the model predicts a wider range of oviposition dates leading to stable seasonality. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of climate change on the predicted potential distribution for New Zealand. Climate change scenarios show an increase in probability of establishment throughout New Zealand, most noticeably in the South Island.

  2. The influence of larval diet on adult feeding behaviour in the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Raguso, Robert A; Ojeda-Avila, Tamairé; Desai, Sheetal; Jurkiewicz, Melissa A; Woods, H Arthur

    2007-09-01

    Lab-reared sphingid and noctuid moths appear to feed less than wild moths, and often are starved to enhance responsiveness in feeding assays. To measure the impact of larval nutrition on adult feeding, we raised a model sphingid species, Manduca sexta, on control or modified diets (reduced sugar, protein or water, supplemented beta-carotene) or cut tobacco leaves, then conducted feeding assays with artificial flowers. Behaviour was scored and analysed in a double-blind manner. Larval diet affected adult eclosion time, size and fat content, the latter of which was inversely proportional to moth approaches to the floral array in a flight cage. In contrast, behaviours refractory to feeding (sitting, escaping) were associated with sex and barometric pressure, but not with diet or fat content. Frequency of floral approaches and probing was not associated with any variable. However, moths reared on beta-carotene-supplemented diet were 2-3 times more likely to feed, and significantly less likely to sit or show "escape" behaviour than were moths from most other treatments. Our results suggest that decreased visual sensitivity, rather than increased fat content, accounts for reduced adult feeding by lab-reared M. sexta.

  3. Biological activities of Schottenol and Spinasterol, two natural phytosterols present in argan oil and in cactus pear seed oil, on murine miroglial BV2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    El Kharrassi, Youssef; Samadi, Mohammad; Lopez, Tatiana; Nury, Thomas; El Kebbaj, Riad; Andreoletti, Pierre; El Hajj, Hammam I.; Vamecq, Joseph; Moustaid, Khadija; Latruffe, Norbert; El Kebbaj, M’Hammed Saïd; Masson, David; and others

    2014-04-11

    Highlights: • Sterol composition in argan oil and in cactus seed oil. • Chemical synthesis of two sterols: Schottenol and Spinasterol. • Sterols from argan oil or from cactus seed oil show no toxicity on BV2 cells. • Schottenol and Spinasterol modulate the activation and the expression of two nuclear receptors, LXRα and LXRβ. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological activities of the major phytosterols present in argan oil (AO) and in cactus seed oil (CSO) in BV2 microglial cells. Accordingly, we first determined the sterol composition of AO and CSO, showing the presence of Schottenol and Spinasterol as major sterols in AO. While in CSO, in addition to these two sterols, we found mainly another sterol, the Sitosterol. The chemical synthesis of Schottenol and Spinasterol was performed. Our results showed that these two phytosterols, as well as sterol extracts from AO or CSO, are not toxic to microglial BV2 cells. However, treatments by these phytosterols impact the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, both Schottenol and Spinasterol can modulate the gene expression of two nuclear receptors, liver X receptor (LXR)-α and LXRβ, their target genes ABCA1 and ABCG1. Nonetheless, only Schottenol exhibited a differential activation vis-à-vis the nuclear receptor LXRβ. Thus Schottenol and Spinasterol can be considered as new LXR agonists, which may play protective roles by the modulation of cholesterol metabolism.

  4. Replacement of wheat bran with spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill cv Gigante) and urea in the diets of Holstein x Gyr heifers.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo Monteiro, Carolina Corrêa; Silva de Melo, Airon Aparecido; Ferreira, Marcelo Andrade; de Souza Campos, José Mauricio; Rodrigues Souza, Julyana Sena; Dos Santos Silva, Evannielly Thuanny; de Paula Xavier de Andrade, Rafael; da Silva, Emmanuelle Cordeiro

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the replacement effect of wheat bran with spineless cactus and urea in heifers. Twenty-four heifers with an average initial weight of 185 ± 13 kg were used in this experiment. Four levels of spineless cactus corrected with urea and ammonium sulfate (9:1) were studied: 0, 33, 66, and 100 % replacement with wheat bran. Samples of feed, orts, and feces were analyzed to estimate the intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Indigestible neutral detergent fiber was used as an internal marker. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design. Dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrient intake demonstrated a quadratic effect (P < 0.05). Rumen degradable protein intake increased linearly (P < 0.05). The maximum DM digestibility was estimated to be 0.67 with a 43 % replacement. Crude protein and NDF digestibility increased linearly (P < 0.05). The total body weight gain and average daily gain decreased linearly with the replacement. Thus, it is practical to replace wheat bran with spineless cactus containing urea and ammonium sulfate up to 66 % in sugar cane-based diets.

  5. Crassulacean acid metabolism photosynthesis in columnar cactus seedlings during ontogeny: the effect of light on nocturnal acidity accumulation and chlorophyll fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Hernández-González, Olivia; Villarreal, Oscar Briones

    2007-08-01

    Columnar cacti have been traditionally classified as crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, though recent research indicates some cactus seedlings employ the C(3) pathway. To verify this last result, we measured acidity fluctuations for five columnar and one globular cactus species in seedlings from 1 to 48 d old after experimental exposure to 60% and 30% full sunlight, and in adult plants in the field. Using light-response curves of chlorophyll fluorescence, we determined photosynthetic efficiency (ΔF/Fm'), maximum electron transport rate (ETR(max)) and saturating photosynthetically active photon flux density (PPFD(sat)). All seedlings used the CAM pathway from their first day of development, and increases in nocturnal acidity depended on species, light treatment, and age. The CAM pathway was also found in adult plants. Cactus seedlings were able to acclimatize to light conditions by making photochemical adjustments, mainly by modifying the level of light at which photosystem II is saturated (PPFD(sat)). The presence of CAM in the seedlings of columnar cacti increases water-use efficiency and reduces the risk of photoinhibition. This could favor survival in the highly variable light levels characteristic of the desert environments of columnar cacti.

  6. Ag Nanoparticles Decorated Cactus-Like Ag Dendrites/Si Nanoneedles as Highly Efficient 3D Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates toward Sensitive Sensing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Ma, Dayan; Chen, Feng; Bai, Min; Xu, Kewei; Zhao, Yongxi

    2015-10-20

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been considered as a promising sensing technique to detect low-level analytes. However, its practical application was hindered owing to the lack of uniform SERS substrates for ultrasensitive and reproducible assay. Herein, inspired by the natural cactus structure, we developed a cactus-like 3D nanostructure with uniform and high-density hotspots for highly efficient SERS sensing by both grafting the silicon nanoneedles onto Ag dendrites and subsequent decoration with Ag nanoparticles. The hierarchical scaffolds and high-density hotspots throughout the whole substrate result in great amplification of SERS signal. A high Raman enhancement factor of crystal violet up to 6.6 × 10(7) was achieved. Using malachite green (MG) as a model target, the fabricated SERS substrates exhibited good reproducibility (RSD ∼ 9.3%) and pushed the detection limit down to 10(-13) M with a wide linear range of 10(-12) M to 10(-7) M. Excellent selectivity was also demonstrated by facilely distinguishing MG from its derivative, some organics, and coexistent metal ions. Finally, the practicality and reliability of the 3D SERS substrates were confirmed by the quantitative analysis of spiked MG in environmental water with high recoveries (91.2% to 109.6%). By virtue of the excellent performance (good reproducibility, high sensitivity, and selectivity), the cactus-like 3D SERS substrate has great potential to become a versatile sensing platform in environmental monitoring, food safety, and medical diagnostics. PMID:26406111

  7. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of the Rice Moth, Corcyra cephalonica

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Peng; Li, Jie; Zhao, Jin-Liang; Su, Tian-Juan; Luo, A-Rong; Fan, Ren-Jun; Chen, Ming-Chang; Wu, Chun-Sheng; Zhu, Chao-Dong

    2012-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of the rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica Stainton (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was determined as a circular molecular of 15,273 bp in size. The mitogenome composition (37 genes) and gene order are the same as the other lepidopterans. Nucleotide composition of the C. cephalonica mitogenome is highly A+T biased (80.43%) like other insects. Twelve protein-coding genes start with a typical ATN codon, with the exception of coxl gene, which uses CGA as the initial codon. Nine protein-coding genes have the common stop codon TAA, and the nad2, cox1, cox2, and nad4 have single T as the incomplete stop codon. 22 tRNA genes demonstrated cloverleaf secondary structure. The mitogenome has several large intergenic spacer regions, the spacer1 between trnQ gene and nad2 gene, which is common in Lepidoptera. The spacer 3 between trnE and trnF includes microsatellite-like repeat regions (AT)18 and (TTAT)3. The spacer 4 (16 bp) between trnS2 gene and nad1 gene has a motif ATACTAT; another species, Sesamia inferens encodes ATCATAT at the same position, while other lepidopteran insects encode a similar ATACTAA motif. The spacer 6 is A+T rich region, include motif ATAGA and a 20-bp poly(T) stretch and two microsatellite (AT)9, (AT)8 elements. PMID:23413968

  8. Floral to green: mating switches moth olfactory coding and preference.

    PubMed

    Saveer, Ahmed M; Kromann, Sophie H; Birgersson, Göran; Bengtsson, Marie; Lindblom, Tobias; Balkenius, Anna; Hansson, Bill S; Witzgall, Peter; Becher, Paul G; Ignell, Rickard

    2012-06-22

    Mating induces profound physiological changes in a wide range of insects, leading to behavioural adjustments to match the internal state of the animal. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a noctuid moth switches its olfactory response from food to egg-laying cues following mating. Unmated females of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) are strongly attracted to lilac flowers (Syringa vulgaris). After mating, attraction to floral odour is abolished and the females fly instead to green-leaf odour of the larval host plant cotton, Gossypium hirsutum. This behavioural switch is owing to a marked change in the olfactory representation of floral and green odours in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL). Calcium imaging, using authentic and synthetic odours, shows that the ensemble of AL glomeruli dedicated to either lilac or cotton odour is selectively up- and downregulated in response to mating. A clear-cut behavioural modulation as a function of mating is a useful substrate for studies of the neural mechanisms underlying behavioural decisions. Modulation of odour-driven behaviour through concerted regulation of odour maps contributes to our understanding of state-dependent choice and host shifts in insect herbivores.

  9. Moth-Eye TiO2 Layer for Improving Light Harvesting Efficiency in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seong Min; Jang, Segeun; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Yoon, Jungjin; Yoo, Dong-Eun; Lee, Jin-Wook; Choi, Mansoo; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2016-05-01

    A moth-eye nanostructured mp-TiO2 film using conventional lithography, nano-imprinting and polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) stamping methods is demonstrated for the first time. Power conversion efficiency of the moth-eye patterned perovskite solar cell is improved by ≈11%, which mainly results from increasing light harvesting efficiency by structural optical property.

  10. Monitoring Oriental Fruit Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Peach Twig Borer (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) with Clear Delta-shaped Traps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies evaluated the relative performance of a clear versus several colored delta traps baited with sex pheromone or a food bait for two key moth pests of stone fruits: oriental fruit moth, Graphollita molesta (Busck); and peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella Zeller. Preliminary studies found...

  11. Effect of rearing strategy and gamma radiation on fecundity and fertility of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), is a serious pest of pome fruit worldwide. In an effort to reduce the use of pesticides to control this pest, the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is being used or considered as an integrated pest control tactic. Rearing codling moths through diapause has been...

  12. Unraveling the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide (PBAN) signal transduction cascade that regulates sex pheromone production in moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies over the past three decades have demonstrated that female moths usually produce sex pheromones as multi-component blends in which the ratios of the individual components are precisely controlled, making it possible to generate species-specific pheromone blends. Most moth pheromone component...

  13. Optical effects of highly curved multilayer structure found in the scale of structurally colored moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Shinya; Kinoshita, Shuichi

    2009-08-01

    Multilayer interference phenomenon has been widely applied to various optical components that have highly wavelength-selective properties in reflection and transmission. In nature, some animals also take advantage of a similar mechanism for the coloration of their brilliant bodies. However, natural examples of multilayer thin-film structure are often modified in some structural aspects, and the modifications have been found to cause interesting optical effects. Recently, we found such an example, highly curved multilayer structure, in the wing scale of the Madagascan sunset moth. In this paper, we report the extended study of this subject. First, we will review the structural characteristics and various optical phenomena that occur on the wing of the moth. Second, inspired by the coloration mechanism of the moth wing, we newly consider multilayer designs for the color plates that change their colors depending on the analyzing direction of polarization.

  14. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) Seeds and Their Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neha; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhagyawant, Sameer S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3–10 in a molecular weight range of 11–170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6–8. PMID:27239343

  15. The characteristic analysis of spectral image for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li-bo; Li, Hong-ning; Cao, Peng-fei; Qin, Feng; Yang, Shu-ming; Feng, Jie

    2015-02-01

    Cabbage growth and health diagnosis are important parts for cabbage fine planting, spectral imaging technology with the advantages of obtaining spectrum and space information of the target at the same time, which has become a research hotspot at home and abroad. The experiment measures the reflection spectrum at different stages using liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) and monochromatic CMOS camera composed of spectral imaging system for cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests, and analyzes its feature bands and the change of spectral parameters. The study shows that the feature bands of cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests have a tendency to blue light direction, the red edge towards blue shift, and red valley raising in spectral characteristic parameters, which have a good indication in diagnosing the extent of cabbage damaged by pests. Therefore, it has a unique advantage of monitoring the cabbage leaves damaged by diamondback moth pests by combinating feature bands and spectral characteristic parameters in spectral imaging technology.

  16. Synemon ignita sp. nov., a new sun moth species from southern Australia (Lepidoptera, Castniidae).

    PubMed

    Kallies, Axel; Edwards, Ted; Young, Andy; Douglas, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Sun moths (Castniidae) constitute a family of day-flying moths that due to their slim bodies, broad and often richly coloured wings and clubbed antennae closely resemble butterflies. However, despite this superficial similarity, sun moths are not related to butterflies but belong to the diverse cossoid assemblage of lepidopterous families (Edwards et al. 1998). Until recently, Castniidae were assigned to the superfamily Sesioidea (Minet 1991). A molecular study by Mutanen et al. (2010), however, failed to find support for a close relationship of Sesiidae and Castniidae, resulting in the inclusion of both families in a larger concept of Cossoidea (Nieukerken et al. 2011). In contrast, Heikkil et al. (2015) who added considerable morphological data to DNA, recovered Sesioidea as monophyletic, with Sesiidae, Castniidae and Brachodidae as constituent families, yet with low support values. Thus, although the monophyly of Castniidae is well supported, the systematic position of this family is unresolved. PMID:27394467

  17. Where to find a mate? Resource-based sexual communication of webbing clothes moth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, Stephen; Gries, Gerhard; Gries, Regine

    2002-02-01

    Mate location in moths typically entails long-range attraction of males to female-produced pheromone. Here, we show that male and female webbing clothes moths, Tineola bisselliella, seek larval habitats (dry carrion, animal lairs, etc) to encounter mates. With males seeking, and arriving at, larval habitat earlier at night than females, male-produced pheromonal and sonic signals enhance the habitat's attractiveness to females. This resource-based mating strategy of T. bisselliella differs from that known for most other moths. It may have evolved in response to larval habitats that are patchy and temporary, but that disseminate attractive semiochemicals so abundantly that T. bisselliella encounter them more readily than their own pheromones.

  18. Effects of polymorphic melanism and larval diet on life history traits of Malacosoma disstria moths.

    PubMed

    Ethier, Jessica; Despland, Emma

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigated the presence and possible genetic basis of polymorphic melanism in the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) moth. Adult moths were classified into pattern-based phenotypes and wing darkness was measured to quantify the degree of melanization. We found that two distinct phenotypes, melanic and simple, are present in these moths. Although the full melanic phenotype is sex-limited to males, it is partially expressed in females. We also provide support for the theory that the melanic allele is autosomal and dominant. The effects of larval diet quality on the survival, development and wing melanization of each phenotype were studied by rearing larvae on the foliage of either a primary or secondary host. Diet quality did not differentially affect the two phenotypes; however, melanic males were found to be smaller than simple males regardless of larval diet. Such inherent developmental differences between the two phenotypes could have important consequences for the frequencies of the two morphs.

  19. Metabolic differentiation of diamondback moth ( Plutella xylostella (L.)) resistance in cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. capitata).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Kwang; Choi, Su Ryun; Lee, Jeongyeo; Park, Soo-Yun; Song, Seung Yeub; Na, Jonghyun; Kim, Suk Weon; Kim, Sun-Ju; Nou, Ill-Sup; Lee, Yong Han; Park, Sang Un; Kim, Hyeran

    2013-11-20

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a major pest responsible for destroying cabbage and other Brassica vegetable crops. A diamondback moth-resistant cabbage line was studied by comparing its metabolite profiles with those of a susceptible cabbage. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that carbohydrates, aromatic compounds, and amides were the major factors that distinguished the resistant and susceptible genotypes. Gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry profiled 46 metabolites, including 19 amino acids, 15 organic acids, 8 sugars, 3 sugar alcohols, and 1 amine in two genotypes and F1 hybrid cabbages. The levels of glycolic acid, quinic acid, inositol, fumaric acid, glyceric acid, trehalose, shikimic acid, and aspartic acid were found to be very significantly different between the resistant and susceptible genotypes with a P value of <0.0001. These results will provide a foundation for further studies on diamondback moth resistance in cabbage breeding and for the development of other herbivore-resistant crops.

  20. Optimal moth eye nanostructure array on transparent glass towards broadband antireflection.

    PubMed

    Ji, Seungmuk; Song, Kyungjun; Nguyen, Thanh Binh; Kim, Namsoo; Lim, Hyuneui

    2013-11-13

    Broadband antireflection (AR) is essential for improving the photocurrent generation of photovoltaic modules or the enhancement of visibility in optical devices. Beyond conventional AR coating methods, moth eye mimicking nanostructures give new directions to enhance broadband antireflection through the selection of geometrical parameters, such as height, periodic distance, shape, and arrangement. This study numerically and experimentally investigates the behavior of light on complex nanostructures designed to mimic the surface of the moth eye with mixed shapes and various arrangements. To obtain broadband AR, we rigorously study the design parameters, such as height, periodic distance, shape, and arrangement, on a transparent quartz substrate. Several kinds of nanopillar arrays are elaborately fabricated including mixed nanostructures comprising pointy and round shapes in ordered and random arrangements via colloidal lithography. The optimal morphology of moth eye nanostructure arrays for broadband antireflection is suggested in view of reflectance and average weight transmittance.