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Sample records for cadmium copper iron

  1. Effect of dietary phytic acid and cadmium on the availability of cadmium, zinc, copper, iron, and manganese to rats

    SciTech Connect

    Turecki, T.; Ewan, R.C.; Stahr, H.M.

    1995-05-01

    The main route of cadmium intake for general population, both human and animal, is via ingestion. The intestinal absorption of cadmium is relatively low, 6% of a single oral dose for humans and less than 2% for various animal species. However, due to poor excretion, accumulation of cadmium occurs, primarily in kidney. The chronic exposure even to low levels of dietary cadmium can lead to the development of renal disturbances. Fox (1988) suggests that phytic acid might be a dietary component capable to influence the intestinal absorption of cadmium. Phytic acid naturally occurs as the major phosphorus storage constituent of most cereals, legumes, and oilseeds. At physiological pH, phytic acid is ionized and has a strong affinity for divalent cations. The potential of phytic acid to decrease the availability of Zn has been for long time of concern for nutritionists. Phytic acid has also been reported to decrease the availability of other trace metals. For nonessential elements, reduced availability of lead has been observed. The experimental data concerning the effect of dietary phytic acid on the availability of dietary cadmium are limited to the work of Rose and Quarterman (1984). The objective of this experiment was to examine: (1) the effect of dietary phytic acid on the availability of cadmium under conditions of chronic dietary exposure of rats to cadmium, and (2) the effect of dietary phytic acid and of chronic dietary exposure to cadmium on the availability of zinc, copper, iron, and manganese to rats. 19 refs., 4 tabs.

  2. The effect of dietary cadmium on zinc, copper and iron levels in the bone of rats.

    PubMed

    Bonner, F W; King, L J; Parke, D V

    1980-02-01

    The effect of continuous oral administration of cadium (Cd) (75 ppm) on the concentrations of zinc (ZN), Copper (CU) and iron (Fe) in the bone of rats was investigated. Accumulation of Cd in the femur was low but increased with time. After 8 weeks of Cd exposure, femur Zn and Fe levels were significantly decreased and remained low throughout the period of cadmium treatment. After 48 weeks, Cd exposed animals had Zn and Fe concentrations in the femur of 63% and 51% of controls, respectively. The femur Cu concentration was unchanged at 36 weeks but at 48 weeks it was 76% of control animals.

  3. Assimilation of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, and iron by the spider Dysdera crocata, a predator of woodlice

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkin, S.P.; Martin, M.H.

    1985-02-01

    In this paper, an experiment is described on the assimilation of zinc, cadmium, lead, copper and iron by Dysdera crocata collected from a site in central Bristol. The spiders were fed on woodlice from their own site, and on woodlice from a site contaminated by a smelting works which contained much higher levels of zinc, cadmium and lead than the spiders would have been used to in their normal diet.

  4. Correlations between lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in frozen tuna fish

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo, L.; Hardisson, A.; Montelongo, F.G.

    1986-04-01

    The presence of metallic pollutants in marine ecosystems has promoted wide research plans in order to evaluate pollution levels in marine organisms. However, little is known concerning environmental and physiological processes that regulate the concentration of trace metals in marine organisms. Even though the toxicity of lead and cadmium is well established, copper, zinc and iron are considered as essential elements for mammals. Little is known about heavy metals, other than mercury, concentrations in fresh and frozen tuna fish. Fifty samples obtained at the entrance of a canning factory in Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands), were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results were treated by applying the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences compiled and linked in the software of a Digital VAX/VMS 11/780 computer.

  5. [Interactive relations between copper, iron, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead in the liver in sheep after experimental poisoning with copper oxide].

    PubMed

    Bíres, J

    1989-11-01

    The interactions between copper, iron, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead were studied in the livers of 12 ewes of the Improved Wallachian breed after experimentally induced intoxication with cuprous oxide from industrial emission. The highest correlation coefficient was recorded between the concentrations of copper and zinc in the livers of the experimental ewes (r = 0.916) and its value was at a significance level of p less than 0.05. The interaction between copper and arsenic in the liver of the experimental animals corresponded to a correlation coefficient of r = 0.359 and that between copper and cadmium corresponded to r = 0.129. The lowest correlation coefficient in the livers of the experimental animals was recorded between copper and lead (r = 0.073). As to the relationships between the remaining elements, the highest correlation coefficient (r = 0.667) was obtained between the contents of zinc and cadmium in the livers of the experimental ewes. The interaction of copper with the other risky metals after experimental intoxication was limited by the concentration of the studied elements in the industrial emission as well as by the course of the disease itself.

  6. Iron and copper accumulation in the brain of coxsackievirus-infected mice exposed to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Ilbaeck, N.-G. . E-mail: nils-gunnar.ilback@slv.se; Lindh, U.; Minqin, R.; Friman, G.; Watt, F.

    2006-11-15

    Cadmium (Cd) is a potentially toxic metal widely distributed in the environment and known to cause adverse health effects in humans. During coxsackievirus infection, the concentrations of essential and nonessential trace elements (e.g., iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and Cd) change in different target organs of the infection. Fe and Cu are recognized cofactors in host defence reactions, and Fe is known to be associated with certain pathological conditions of the brain. However, whether nonessential trace elements could influence the balance of essential trace elements in the brain is unknown. In this study the brain Fe, Cu, and Cd contents were measured through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and their distributions determined by nuclear microscopy in the early phase (day 3) of coxsackievirus B3 (CB3) infection in nonexposed and in Cd-exposed female Balb/c mice. In CB3 infection the brain is a well-known target that has not been studied with regard to trace element balance. The brain concentration of Cu compared with that of noninfected control mice was increased by 9% (P<0.05) in infected mice not exposed to Cd and by 10% (not significant) in infected Cd-exposed mice. A similar response was seen for Fe, which in infected Cd-exposed mice, compared to noninfected control mice, tended to increase by 16%. Cu showed an even tissue distribution, whereas Fe was distributed in focal deposits. Changes in Cd concentration in the brain of infected mice were less consistent but evenly distributed. Further studies are needed to define whether the accumulation and distribution of trace elements in the brain have an impact on brain function.

  7. Iron and copper accumulation in the brain of coxsackievirus-infected mice exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Ilbäck, N-G; Lindh, U; Minqin, R; Friman, G; Watt, F

    2006-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a potentially toxic metal widely distributed in the environment and known to cause adverse health effects in humans. During coxsackievirus infection, the concentrations of essential and nonessential trace elements (e.g., iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and Cd) change in different target organs of the infection. Fe and Cu are recognized cofactors in host defence reactions, and Fe is known to be associated with certain pathological conditions of the brain. However, whether nonessential trace elements could influence the balance of essential trace elements in the brain is unknown. In this study the brain Fe, Cu, and Cd contents were measured through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and their distributions determined by nuclear microscopy in the early phase (day 3) of coxsackievirus B3 (CB3) infection in nonexposed and in Cd-exposed female Balb/c mice. In CB3 infection the brain is a well-known target that has not been studied with regard to trace element balance. The brain concentration of Cu compared with that of noninfected control mice was increased by 9% (P < 0.05) in infected mice not exposed to Cd and by 10% (not significant) in infected Cd-exposed mice. A similar response was seen for Fe, which in infected Cd-exposed mice, compared to noninfected control mice, tended to increase by 16%. Cu showed an even tissue distribution, whereas Fe was distributed in focal deposits. Changes in Cd concentration in the brain of infected mice were less consistent but evenly distributed. Further studies are needed to define whether the accumulation and distribution of trace elements in the brain have an impact on brain function.

  8. Effect of chronic cadmium administration on liver and kidney concentrations of zinc, copper, iron, manganese, and chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Friel, J.K.; Borgman, R.F.; Chandra, R.K.

    1987-04-01

    Chronic Cd exposure in animals brings about significant morphological and functional changes in both liver and kidney. Most studies of cadmium effects on essential metal tissue distribution involve large concentrations of either Cd or essential metals added to the diet. The effect of Cd ingestion on trace metal metabolism of animals consuming usual diets may be marked, as elements whose physical and chemical properties are enough alike...will act antagonistically to each other biologically. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to observe the effects of a chronic low dose of Cd added to an otherwise normal diet on the liver and kidney accumulation of zinc, copper, iron, manganese and chromium in the mouse at different times after the cessation of cadmium ingestion.

  9. Inductively coupled plasma atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination of cadmium, copper, iron, lead, manganese and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanzolone, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    An inductively coupled plasma atomic fluorescence spectrometric method is described for the determination of six elements in a variety of geological materials. Sixteen reference materials are analysed by this technique to demonstrate its use in geochemical exploration. Samples are decomposed with nitric, hydrofluoric and hydrochloric acids, and the residue dissolved in hydrochloric acid and diluted to volume. The elements are determined in two groups based on compatibility of instrument operating conditions and consideration of crustal abundance levels. Cadmium, Cu, Pb and Zn are determined as a group in the 50-ml sample solution under one set of instrument conditions with the use of scatter correction. Limitations of the scatter correction technique used with the fluorescence instrument are discussed. Iron and Mn are determined together using another set of instrumental conditions on a 1-50 dilution of the sample solution without the use of scatter correction. The ranges of concentration (??g g-1) of these elements in the sample that can be determined are: Cd, 0.3-500; Cu, 0.4-500; Fe, 85-250 000; Mn, 45-100 000; Pb, 5-10 000; and Zn, 0.4-300. The precision of the method is usually less than 5% relative standard deviation (RSD) over a wide concentration range and acceptable accuracy is shown by the agreement between values obtained and those recommended for the reference materials.

  10. Influence of copper and iron on subacute cadmium intoxication in protein-malnourished rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, P.C.; Kachru, D.N.; Tandon, S.K.

    1986-10-01

    Male albino rats maintained on low-protein (9%) diets were dosed intraperitoneally with 0.75 mg Cd/kg, as cadmium chloride, for 20 days. Groups of these animals were provided with diets supplemented with 40 ppm Cu, 400 ppm Fe or a combination of both during the exposure period. Hepatic and renal distribution of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Fe along with activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases and ribonuclease and glutathione content were studied. Uptake of Cd both in liver and in kidney was significant and was accompanied by increased Zn and depletion of Fe concentration. The Cu level remained unaltered. Dietary supplementation of Cu or Fe interacted effectively and influenced the metal distribution. Acid and alkaline phosphatases in both liver and kidney were inhibited by Cd exposure. However, Cu and/or Fe supplements could to a varying degree offset the Cd-induced inhibition. Cadmium exposure did not, however, elicit any effect on hepatic and renal ribonuclease activity of low-protein-fed animals. The glutathione concentration registered profound increase on Cd exposure, possibly to act as a defense mechanism.

  11. Detection of copper, lead, cadmium and iron in wine using electronic tongue sensor system.

    PubMed

    Simões da Costa, A M; Delgadillo, I; Rudnitskaya, A

    2014-11-01

    An array of 10 potentiometric chemical sensors has been applied to the detection of total Fe, Cu, Pb and Cd content in digested wine. As digestion of organic matter of wine is necessary prior to the trace metal detection using potentiometric sensors, sample preparation procedures have been optimized. Different variants of wet and microwave digestion and dry ashing, 14 conditions in total, have been tested. Decomposition of organic matter was assessed using Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy and total phenolic content. Dry ashing was found to be the most effective method of wine digestion. Measurements with sensors in individual solutions of Fe(III), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) prepared on different backgrounds have shown that their detection limits were below typical concentration levels of these metals in wines and, in the case of Cu, Pb and Cd below maximum allowed concentrations. Detection of Fe in digested wine samples was possible using discrete iron-sensitive sensors with chalcogenide glass membranes with RMSEP of 0.05 mmol L(-1) in the concentration range from 0.0786 to 0.472 mmol L(-1). Low concentration levels of Cu, Pb and Cd in wine and cross-sensitivity of respective sensors resulted in the non-linearity of their responses, requiring back-propagation neural network for the calibration. Calibration models have been calculated using measurements in the model mixed solutions containing all three metals and a set of digested wine sample. RMSEP values for Cu, Pb and Cd were 3.9, 39 and 1.2 μmol L(-1) in model solutions and 2, 150 and 1 μmol L(-1) in digested wine samples.

  12. Simultaneous coprecipitation of lead, cobalt, copper, cadmium, iron and nickel in food samples with zirconium(IV) hydroxide prior to their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination.

    PubMed

    Citak, Demirhan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-09-01

    A simple and new coprecipitation procedure is developed for the determination of trace quantities of heavy metals (lead, cobalt, copper, cadmium, iron and nickel) in natural water and food samples. Analyte ions were coprecipitated by using zirconium(IV) hydroxide. The determination of metal levels was performed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The influences of analytical parameters including pH, amount of zirconium(IV), sample volume, etc. were investigated on the recoveries of analyte ions. The effects of possible matrix ions were also examined. The recoveries of the analyte ions were in the range of 95-100%. Preconcentration factor was calculated as 25. The detection limits for the analyte ions based on 3 sigma (n=21) were in the range of 0.27-2.50 microgL(-1). Relative standard deviation was found to be lower than 8%. The validation of the presented coprecipitation procedure was performed by the analysis certified reference materials (GBW 07605 Tea and LGC 6010 Hard drinking water). The procedure was successfully applied to natural waters and food samples like coffee, fish, tobacco, black and green tea. PMID:19539005

  13. Cadmium-induced alterations in ocular trace elements. Influence of dietary selenium and copper.

    PubMed

    Jamall, I S; Roque, H

    The present report demonstrates, for the first time, that feeding rats 50 ppm cadmium for just 7 wk results in detectable levels of cadmium in the eye of rats. Furthermore, these ocular cadmium concentrations affect significant alterations in the levels of the essential trace elements selenium, calcium, iron, and copper in the eye. Rats were fed a low-selenium (less than 0.02 ppm selenium), high-copper basal diet (50 ppm copper) supplemented with 0, 0.1, and 0.5 ppm selenium. The animals were either untreated or treated with 50 ppm cadmium admixed with their feed. Cadmium treatment resulted in significant reductions (up to 50%) in ocular selenium. Furthermore, rats fed the basal diet and given 100 ppm cadmium via their feed for 6 wk exhibited a 69% reduction in the activity of the selenoenzyme, glutathione peroxidase, in the eye. Cadmium treatment also resulted in reductions of up to 50% in ocular calcium, irrespective of dietary selenium supplementation. Iron levels were increased by 30% in rats fed the low-selenium diet and decreased by as much as 40% in rats fed the selenium-supplemented diets, compared to animals fed identical levels of selenium without cadmium. Ocular copper levels were significantly increased only in rats fed the low-selenium diet and treated with cadmium. Ocular zinc levels were not significantly affected by dietary cadmium or selenium. PMID:2484426

  14. Cloud point extraction of copper, lead, cadmium, and iron using 2,6-diamino-4-phenyl-1,3,5-triazine and nonionic surfactant, and their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination in water and canned food samples.

    PubMed

    Citak, Demirhan; Tuzen, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    A cloud point extraction procedure was optimized for the separation and preconcentration of lead(II), cadmium(II), copper(II), and iron(III) ions in various water and canned food samples. The metal ions formed complexes with 2,6-diamino-4-phenyl-1,3,5-triazine that were extracted by surfactant-rich phases in the nonionic surfactant Triton X-114. The surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 1 M HNO3 in methanol prior to its analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the proposed method, such as sample pH, complexing agent concentration, surfactant concentration, temperature, and incubation time, were optimized. LOD values based on three times the SD of the blank (3Sb) were 0.38, 0.48, 1.33, and 1.85 microg/L for cadmium(II), copper(II), lead(II), and iron(III) ions, respectively. The precision (RSD) of the method was in the 1.86-3.06% range (n=7). Validation of the procedure was carried out by analysis of National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (NIST-SRM) 1568a Rice Flour and GBW 07605 Tea. The method was applied to water and canned food samples for determination of metal ions.

  15. Cadmium and copper metallothioneins in the American lobster, Homarus americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, D.W.; Brouwer, M.

    1986-03-01

    Lobsters were fed cadmium-rich oysters for 28 days, and the induction of cadmium metallothionein and its relation to concentrations of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the digestive gland and gills was determined. A portion of the tissues also was retained for determining the cytosolic distribution of these metals by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The digestive gland contained a majority of the cadmium, copper, and zinc, and both cadmium and zinc were actively accumulated from the oysters. Gel chromatography of the digestive gland cytosol showed that initially only copper was bound to a protein with a molecular weight in the range of metallothionein (i.e., 10,000-7000). However, after feeding on cadmium-laden oysters for 28 days, both cadmium and copper were bound to the metallothioneinlike protein. Further purification of the cadmium/copper protein by ion-exchange chromatography showed that a large portion of the copper and all of the cadmium did not bind to DEAE-Sephacel. The induction of cadmium metallothionein in the digestive gland is correlated with tissue cadmium concentration. Coincident with the induction of the cadmium metallothionein was a cytosolic redistribution of copper. The distribution of zinc was not affected.

  16. Cadmium regulates copper homoeostasis by inhibiting the activity of Mac1, a transcriptional activator of the copper regulon, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Heo, Dong-Hyuk; Baek, In-Joon; Kang, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Chang, Miwha; Jeong, Mi-Young; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Choi, Il-Dong; Yun, Cheol-Won

    2010-10-15

    Cadmium is a toxic metal and the mechanism of its toxicity has been studied in various model systems from bacteria to mammals. We employed Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system to study cadmium toxicity at the molecular level because it has been used to identify the molecular mechanisms of toxicity found in higher organisms. cDNA microarray and Northern blot analyses revealed that cadmium salts inhibited the expression of genes related to copper metabolism. Western blotting, Northern blotting and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that CTR1 expression was inhibited at the transcriptional level through direct inhibition of the Mac1 transcriptional activator. The decreased expression of CTR1 results in cellular copper deficiency and inhibition of Fet3 activity, which eventually impairs iron uptake. In this way, cadmium exhibits a negative effect on both iron and copper homoeostasis.

  17. Seasonal variability in cadmium, lead, copper, zinc and iron concentrations in the three major fish species, Oreochromis niloticus, Lates niloticus and Rastrineobola argentea in Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria: impact of wash-off into the lake.

    PubMed

    Ongeri, David M K; Lalah, Joseph O; Wandiga, Shem O; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Michalke, Bernard

    2012-02-01

    Trace metals Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) and Iron (Fe) were analyzed in edible portions of three main finfish species namely Lates niloticus, Oreochromis niloticus and Rastrineobola argentea sampled from various beaches of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria, Kenya, in order to determine any seasonal and site variations and the results showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn and Fe during the wet season compared to the dry season for all the three species indicating the impact of wash-off into the lake during the rainy periods. The overall mean concentrations of the heavy metals (in μg/g dry weight) in all combined samples ranged from 0.17-0.40 (Cd), 0.47-2.53 (Pb), 2.13-8.74 (Cu), 28.9-409.3 (Zn) and 31.4-208.1 (Fe), respectively. It was found that consumption of Rastrineobola argentea can be a significant source of heavy metals especially Zn, to humans, compared with Lates niloticus and Oreochromis niloticus, if only the muscle parts of the latter two are consumed.

  18. Copper, silver, gold and zinc, cadmium, mercury oxides and hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkse, T.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides a compilation of solubility data published up to 1984, including evaluations of the data. Data are presented on the following: copper (I) oxide; copper (II) oxide and hydroxide; silver (I) oxide; silver (II) oxide; gold (III) hydroxide; zinc oxide and hydroxide; cadmium oxide and hydroxide; and mercury (II) oxide.

  19. Effects of time, soil organic matter, and iron oxides on the relative retention and redistribution of lead, cadmium, and copper on soils.

    PubMed

    Diagboya, Paul N; Olu-Owolabi, Bamidele I; Adebowale, Kayode O

    2015-07-01

    In order to predict the bioavailability of toxic metals in soils undergoing degradation of organic matter (OM) and iron oxides (IOs), it is vital to understand the roles of these soil components in relation to metal retention and redistribution with time. In this present work, batch competitive sorptions of Pb(II), Cu(II), and Cd(II) were investigated between 1 and 90 days. Results showed that competition affected Cd(II) sorption more than Cu(II) and Pb(II). The sorption followed the trend Pb(II) > > Cu(II) > Cd(II), irrespective of aging, and this high preference for Pb(II) ions in soils reduced with time. Removal of OM led to reduction in distribution coefficient (K d) values of ≈33% for all cations within the first day. However, K d increased nearly 100% after 7 days and over 1000% after 90-day period. The enhanced K d values indicated that sorptions occurred on the long run on surfaces which were masked by OM. Removal of IO caused selective increases in the K d values, but this was dependent on the dominant soil constituent(s) in the absence of IO. The K d values of the IO-degraded samples nearly remained constant irrespective of aging indicating that sorptions on soil components other than the IO are nearly instantaneous while iron oxides played greater role than other constituents with time. Hence, in the soils studied, organic matter content determines the immediate relative metal retention while iron oxides determine the redistribution of metals with time.

  20. Desorption of copper and cadmium from soils enhanced by organic acids.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Songhu; Xi, Zhimin; Jiang, Yi; Wan, Jinzhong; Wu, Chan; Zheng, Zhonghua; Lu, Xiaohua

    2007-07-01

    The adsorption/desorption behavior of copper and cadmium on soils was investigated in this study. The adsorption isotherm of copper and cadmium conformed to Langmuir equation better than Freundlich equation. The effect of ionic strength, pH, and organic acid, including ethylenediamine tetraacetic disodium acid salt (EDTA), citric acid, oxalic acid and tartaric acid, on the desorption of copper and cadmium was studied. The desorption of copper and cadmium increased with the increase of ionic strength, while the desorption decreased with the rise of pH. The desorption of copper and cadmium enhanced by organic acids was influenced by pH. EDTA showed excellent enhancement on the desorption of both copper and cadmium; citric acid demonstrated great enhancement on the desorption of copper but negligible enhancement on the desorption of cadmium; oxalic acid enhanced the desorption of copper only at pH around 6.4 and enhanced the desorption of cadmium in the pH range from 6.4 to 10.7; tartaric acid slightly enhanced the desorption of copper but negligibly enhanced the desorption of cadmium. The desorption mechanism in the presence of organic acids were explained as the competition of complexation, adsorption and precipitation. The net effect determined the desorption efficiency. This study provided guidance for the selection of organic acids to enhance the electrokinetic (EK) remediation of copper and cadmium from contaminated soils. PMID:17349675

  1. Follow up of Treatment of Cadmium and Copper Toxicity in Clarias Gariepinus Using Laser Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaghloul, Khalid H.; Ali, Maha F.; El-Bary, Manal G. Abd; Abd El-Harith, Mohamed

    2010-04-01

    Two purified diets were formulated and fed to seven groups of the Nile catfish; Clarias gariepinus for 12 weeks. The formulated diets contained 50 or 500 mg/kg diet of an ascorbic acid equivalent, supplied by L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate (Mg salt). Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIDS) technique has been used to characterize the bioaccumulation of cadmium, copper and iron in some selected organs (Gills, liver, kidney and muscles) and disturbance in the distribution of sodium, calcium and magnesium in gills and muscles of fish fed the minimum requirement of vitamin C (50 mg/kg diet) and exposed to cadmium (0.165 mg/l) and copper (0.35 mg/l) individually or in combination. Heavy metals bioaccumulation affect histological structure of gills, liver and kidney and consequently, fish exhibited the lowest growth rate and meat quality with a progressive fall in RBCs count, Hb content and haematocrite value. These effects were concomitant with significant increase in the WBCs count, serum glucose, total protein, AST, ALT, creatinine and uric acid. On the contrary, serum total lipids and liver glycogen revealed a significant decrease. However, fish fed 500 mg vitamin C/kg diet and exposed to the same concentrations of cadmium and copper either individually or in mixture showed an improvement in the growth rate and meat quality and a tendency to exhibit close to the control values for most of the other studied physiological, biochemical and histopathological investigations.

  2. Defective copper transport in the copt5 mutant affects cadmium tolerance.

    PubMed

    Carrió-Seguí, Angela; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Sanz, Amparo; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2015-03-01

    Cadmium toxicity interferes with essential metal homeostasis, which is a problem for both plant nutrition and the consumption of healthy food by humans. Copper uptake is performed by the members of the Arabidopsis high affinity copper transporter (COPT) family. One of the members, COPT5, is involved in copper recycling from the vacuole toward the cytosolic compartment. We show herein that copt5 mutants are more sensitive to cadmium stress than wild-type plants, as indicated by reduced growth. Exacerbated cadmium toxicity in copt5 mutants is due specifically to altered copper traffic through the COPT5 transporter. Three different processes which have been shown to affect cadmium tolerance are altered in copt5 mutants. First, ethylene biosynthesis diminishes under copper deficiency and, in the presence of cadmium, ethylene production diminishes further. Copper deficiency responses are also attenuated under cadmium treatment. Remarkably, while copt5 roots present higher oxidative stress toxicity symptoms than controls, aerial copt5 parts display lower oxidative stress, as seen by reduced cadmium delivery to shoots. Taken together, these results demonstrate that copper transport plays a key role in cadmium resistance, and suggest that oxidative stress triggers an NADPH oxidase-mediated signaling pathway, which contributes to cadmium translocation and basal plant resistance. The slightly lower cadmium levels that reach aerial parts in the copt5 mutants, irrespective of the copper content in the media, suggest a new biotechnological approach to minimize toxic cadmium entry into food chains.

  3. Cadmium, chromium, copper, and zinc in rice and rice field soil from southern Catalonia, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Schuhmacher, M.; Llobet, J.M. ); Domingo, J.L. Univ. of Barcelona ); Corbella, J. )

    1994-07-01

    Metals are ubiquitous in the modem industrialized environment. Some metals have no beneficial effects in humans. In contrast, other metals such as chromium, copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt or iron are essential for man. However, these essential trace elements can also be dangerous at high levels. Many metals are natural constituents of soils, whereas soils may also be contaminated by a number of elements as the results of less-than-ideal disposal practices from past industrial processes. Vegetables absorb metals from the soil. Thus, soil properties affecting mineral elements availability are the first determinants of the transfer of elements to higher trophic levels in the soil-plant-animal/human system. Rice plants are annual emergent aquatic macrophytes which are economically important as a cereal crop in Spain. Macrophytes may absorb metals through both roots and shoots, while aerial deposition may also be an additional source in emergent species. Cadmium rich soils generally produce cadmium rich foods. On the other hand, in recent decades it has been demonstrated that a number of metals such as chromium, copper and zinc, which play an important role in many fields of modern industry, have a notorious role in various biochemical processes. The beneficial or the toxic effect of an element depends on its concentration in the organism. Although there are many reports in the world on environmental metals, to date no data about the metal contents in Spanish rice have been available. The purpose of this study was to examine the concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper and zinc in rice from the Delta of Ebro river (Tarragona, Spain). These particular metals were chosen because of current interest in either toxicity or potential deficiency in humans. The metal contents in rice were related to rice variety, locality, and soil type. The dietary intake of cadmium, chromium, copper and zinc from rice was also determined.

  4. Simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in fertilizers by microwave acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry detection: single-laboratory validation of a modification and extension of AOAC 2006.03.

    PubMed

    Webb, Sharon; Bartos, James; Boles, Rhonda; Hasty, Elaine; Thuotte, Ethel; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation study was conducted for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, cadmium, calcium, cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc in all major types of commercial fertilizer products by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy analysis. This validation study proposes an extension and modification of AOAC 2006.03. The extension is the inclusion of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, and the modification is incorporation of hydrochloric acid in the digestion system. This dual acid digestion utilizes both hydrochloric and nitric acids in a 3 to 9 mL volume ratio/100 mL. In addition to 15 of the 30 original validation materials used in the 2006.03 collaborative study, National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material 695 and Magruder 2009-06 were incorporated as accuracy materials. The main benefits of this proposed method are a significant increase in laboratory efficiency when compared to the use of both AOAC Methods 965.09 and 2006.03 to achieve the same objective and an enhanced recovery of several metals.

  5. Evaluation of the effect of divalent metal transporter 1 gene polymorphism on blood iron, lead and cadmium levels

    SciTech Connect

    Kayaaltı, Zeliha Akyüzlü, Dilek Kaya; Söylemezoğlu, Tülin

    2015-02-15

    Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), a member of the proton-coupled metal ion transporter family, mediates transport of ferrous iron from the lumen of the intestine into the enterocyte and export of iron from endocytic vesicles. It has an affinity not only for iron but also for other divalent cations including manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, lead, copper, and zinc. DMT1 is encoded by the SLC11a2 gene that is located on chromosome 12q13 in humans and express four major mammalian isoforms (1A/+IRE, 1A/-IRE, 2/+IRE and 2/-IRE). Mutations or polymorphisms of DMT1 gene may have an impact on human health by disturbing metal trafficking. To study the possible association of DMT1 gene with the blood levels of some divalent cations such as iron, lead and cadmium, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (IVS4+44C/A) in DMT1 gene was investigated in 486 unrelated and healthy individuals in a Turkish population by method of polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). The genotype frequencies were found as 49.8% homozygote typical (CC), 38.3% heterozygote (CA) and 11.9% homozygote atypical (AA). Metal levels were analyzed by dual atomic absorption spectrometer system and the average levels of iron, lead and cadmium in the blood samples were 446.01±81.87 ppm, 35.59±17.72 ppb and 1.25±0.87 ppb, respectively. Individuals with the CC genotype had higher blood iron, lead and cadmium levels than those with AA and CA genotypes. Highly statistically significant associations were detected between IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism in the DMT1 gene and iron and lead levels (p=0.001 and p=0.036, respectively), but no association was found with cadmium level (p=0.344). This study suggested that DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, lead and cadmium levels. - Highlights: • DMT1 IVS4+44 C/A polymorphism is associated with inter-individual variations in blood iron, cadmium and lead levels.

  6. Cadmium, copper and zinc in tissues of deceased copper smelter workers.

    PubMed

    Gerhardsson, Lars; Englyst, Vagn; Lundström, Nils-Göran; Sandberg, Susanne; Nordberg, Gunnar

    2002-01-01

    Workers at a copper and lead smelter in northern Sweden have a multifactorial exposure to a number of heavy metals. The concentrations of cadmium, copper and zinc in liver, lung, kidney and brain tissues have been determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in 32 deceased long-term exposed male lead smelter workers, and compared with those of 10 male controls. Furthermore, copper and zinc levels in hair and nails were determined by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The highest cadmium concentrations among both workers and controls were observed in kidney, followed in order by liver, lung and brain. The levels in kidney, liver and lung were all significantly higher in the workers than in the controls (p < 0.03). Among the workers relatively strong positive correlations (p < 0.03) were observed between cadmium concentrations in liver and lung, liver and kidney, liver and brain, and lung and brain. In the exposed workers a positive correlation was observed between cadmium and zinc concentrations in the kidney (rs = 0.38; p = 0.034). This is probably mainly due to the protein metallothionein, which is stored in the kidney, binding equimolar amounts of these two metals. The highest concentrations of copper were found in hair and nails among both workers and controls, followed in order by liver, brain, kidney and lung. The tissue concentrations of copper in brain, lung and kidney were all significantly higher among the smelter workers than in the controls (p < 0.036). Copper levels in lung and age at time of death were positively correlated among the exposed workers (rs = 0.39; p = 0.029). In the same group, positive correlations between copper and zinc concentrations in kidney (rs = 0.45; p = 0.009) and nails (rs = 0.68; p < 0.001) were also observed, reflecting possible biological interactions between these two metals. Among both workers and controls, the highest zinc concentrations were found in hair, followed in order by nails, liver, kidney, brain and lung

  7. Distribution of Cadmium, Iron, and Zinc in Millstreams of Hard Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Guttieri, Mary J; Seabourn, Bradford W; Liu, Caixia; Baenziger, P Stephen; Waters, Brian M

    2015-12-16

    Hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop in the Great Plains of the United States, and our previous work demonstrated that wheat genotypes vary for grain cadmium accumulation with some exceeding the CODEX standard (0.2 mg kg(-1)). Previous reports of cadmium distribution in flour milling fractions have not included high cadmium grain. This study measured the distribution of cadmium, zinc, and iron in flour and bran streams from high cadmium (0.352 mg kg(-1)) grain on a pilot mill that produced 12 flour and four bran streams. Recovery in flour was substantially greater for cadmium (50%) than for zinc (31%) or iron (22%). Cadmium, zinc, and iron in the lowest mineral concentration flour stream, representing the purest endosperm fraction, were 52, 22, and 11%, respectively, of initial grain concentration. Our results indicate that, relative to zinc and iron, a greater proportion of cadmium is stored in the endosperm, the source of white flour.

  8. Distribution of Cadmium, Iron, and Zinc in Millstreams of Hard Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Guttieri, Mary J; Seabourn, Bradford W; Liu, Caixia; Baenziger, P Stephen; Waters, Brian M

    2015-12-16

    Hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop in the Great Plains of the United States, and our previous work demonstrated that wheat genotypes vary for grain cadmium accumulation with some exceeding the CODEX standard (0.2 mg kg(-1)). Previous reports of cadmium distribution in flour milling fractions have not included high cadmium grain. This study measured the distribution of cadmium, zinc, and iron in flour and bran streams from high cadmium (0.352 mg kg(-1)) grain on a pilot mill that produced 12 flour and four bran streams. Recovery in flour was substantially greater for cadmium (50%) than for zinc (31%) or iron (22%). Cadmium, zinc, and iron in the lowest mineral concentration flour stream, representing the purest endosperm fraction, were 52, 22, and 11%, respectively, of initial grain concentration. Our results indicate that, relative to zinc and iron, a greater proportion of cadmium is stored in the endosperm, the source of white flour. PMID:26568286

  9. Iron and copper release in drinking-water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Shi, Baoyou; Taylor, James S

    2007-09-01

    A large-scale pilot study was carried out to evaluate the impacts of changes in water source and treatment process on iron and copper release in water distribution systems. Finished surface waters, groundwaters, and desalinated waters were produced with seven different treatment systems and supplied to 18 pipe distribution systems (PDSs). The major water treatment processes included lime softening, ferric sulfate coagulation, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and integrated membrane systems. PDSs were constructed from PVC, lined cast iron, unlined cast iron, and galvanized pipes. Copper pipe loops were set up for corrosion monitoring. Results showed that surface water after ferric sulfate coagulation had low alkalinity and high sulfates, and consequently caused the highest iron release. Finished groundwater treated by conventional method produced the lowest iron release but the highest copper release. The iron release of desalinated water was relatively high because of the water's high chloride level and low alkalinity. Both iron and copper release behaviors were influenced by temperature.

  10. Iron versus Copper II. Principles and Applications in Bioinorganic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the differences between iron and copper. Describes various aspects of the behaviors of these two elements, including those of biological and environmental significance. Addresses the evolution of the atmosphere and sedimentary ore formation, the phylogeny of iron and copper, and some anthropological notes regarding the use of the metals.…

  11. Cadmium, zinc, and copper in horse liver and in horse liver metallothionein: comparisons with kidney cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Elinder, C.G.; Nordberg, M.; Palm, B.; Piscator, M.

    1981-10-01

    Cadmium, zinc, and copper were determined in liver and in kidney cortex samples obtained from 33 normal Swedish horses. Cadmium concentrations in liver ranged from 0.002 to 0.165 mmole/kg and in kidney from 0.01 to 2.15 mmole/kg. There was a significant correlation between liver and kidney concentrations of cadmium. The average kidney concentration of cadmium was about 15 times that of liver. Zinc concentrations increased with increasing cadmium concentrations in both liver and kidney. The relative increase of zinc with cadmium was more pronounced in liver than in kidney. However, the absolute increase of zinc was larger in kidney due to the much higher concentration of cadmium in kidney compared to liver. Any significant correlation between copper and cadmium, or copper and zinc, could not be revealed. Sephadex gel filtration was performed on supernatants from homogenates of kidney and liver from 19 of the horses. In both organs the major part of cadmium was recovered in protein fractions corresponding to metallothionein (MT), in which the increase of zinc also took place. The molar ratio between zinc and cadmium was higher in MT fractions obtained from liver than in MT fractions obtained from kidney.

  12. Comparative studies on the toxicity of mercury, cadmium, and copper toward the isolated perfused rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Strubelt, O.; Kremer, J.; Tilse, A.; Keogh, J.; Pentz, K.R.; Younes, M.

    1996-02-01

    The toxic effects of cadmium, mercury, and copper were compared over the range 0.01, 0.03, and 0.1 mM using the isolated perfused rat liver preparation. All metals caused similar changes in various parameters used to describe general toxicity. Reductions in oxygen consumption, perfusion flow, and biliary secretion were found, while lactate dehydrogenase release , as well as liver weight, increased in a dose-dependent fashion. Each metal caused similar magnitudes of changes and exerted similar potency. Measurement of other parameters revealed a number of differences. Although all metals reduced hepatic ATP concentration, mercury and cadmium were more potent than copper. Cadmium was the most potent at decreasing reduced glutathione levels. Mercury was most effective at increasing tissue calcium content, while copper was less so, and cadmium ineffective. Only copper significantly increased tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) content, while all metals increased its release into perfusate, cadmium seemed the most potent metal in increasing MDA release, but it was least efficacious, while copper was the most. Antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and Trolox C only reduced cadmium`s influence on MDA in perfusate; but did not affect cadmium`s ability to alter most other parameters of vitality. Albumin reversed the toxic effects of copper and mercury, but not cadmium. While metal-induced reductions in perfusion flow accounted for some of the toxic effects of the metals, the results as a whole supported the suggestion that all metals exerted toxicity at the mitochondria, since ATP levels were reduced in a manner that could not be reproduced by perfusion flow reduction alone. Lipid peroxidation appears to play little role in determining toxicity induced by any of these metals. Furthermore, albumin may play an important physiological role in preventing hepatic injury that might otherwise be induced through acute metal intoxication. 40 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Copper, iron and the organic ligands that bind them - updates from San Francisco Bay and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, K. N.; Bundy, R.; Biller, D.; Bruland, K. W.; Barbeau, K.

    2015-12-01

    Building on more than 30 years of measurements in San Francisco Bay by Russ Flegal and others, the concentrations of dissolved manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead were determined from a suite of water quality monitoring program stations in North, Central and South Bay using inductively coupled plasma- mass spectrometry following preconcentration on a Nobias-chelate PA1 resin. Given the importance of organic ligands in governing iron solubility and copper bioavailability in natural waters, the organic complexation of dissolved iron and copper in these samples was determined from multiple analytical windows applied to competitive ligand exchange- adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry. This study constitutes the first dataset of iron speciation in San Francisco Bay and expands upon prior work evaluating the potential for copper toxicity in this urbanized estuary. Recent advances in voltammetric techniques emerging from a Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) working group on metal-binding ligands in the marine environment, and insights gained from high-resolution ligand measurements from the U.S. GEOTRACES program, highlight how metal-binding ligands in San Francisco Bay compare with those of the coastal and open ocean.

  14. Baseline toxicity data for freshwater bryozoa exposed to copper, cadmium, chromium, and zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Pardue, W.J.; Wood, T.S.

    1980-01-01

    Four heavy metals - copper, cadmium, chromium, and zinc - were used to determine baseline toxicity data for three species of phylactolaemate bryozoa. Techniques used in germinating test organisms are described, and baseline toxicity data are presented. Minimal interspecific variation in toxicity was noted for each heavy metal. In general, copper was most toxic, followed by cadmium, chromium, and zinc. Available data indicate that bryozoans are more sensitive to these metals than many other invertebrates and fish.

  15. Removal of copper and cadmium from aqueous solution using switchgrass biochar produced via hydrothermal carbonization process.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Pusker; Garcia Moscoso, Jose Luis; Kumar, Sandeep; Cao, Xiaoyan; Mao, Jingdong; Schafran, Gary

    2012-10-30

    Biochar produced from switchgrass via hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) was used as a sorbent for the removal of copper and cadmium from aqueous solution. The cold activation process using KOH at room temperature was developed to enhance the porous structure and sorption properties of the HTC biochar. The sorption efficiency of HTC biochar and alkali activated HTC biochar (HTCB) for removing copper and cadmium from aqueous solution were compared with commercially available powdered activated carbon (PAC). The present batch adsorption study describes the effects of solution pH, biochar dose, and contact time on copper and cadmium removal efficiency from single metal ion aqueous solutions. The activated HTCB exhibited a higher adsorption potential for copper and cadmium than HTC biochar and PAC. Experiments conducted with an initial metal concentration of 40 mg/L at pH 5.0 and contact time of 24 h resulted in close to 100% copper and cadmium removal by activated HTCB at 2 g/L, far greater than what was observed for HTC biochar (16% and 5.6%) and PAC (4% and 7.7%). The adsorption capacities of activated HTCB for cadmium removal were 34 mg/g (0.313 mmol/g) and copper removal was 31 mg/g (0.503 mmol/g). PMID:22687632

  16. Iron monosulfide as a scavenger for dissolved hexavalent chromium and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Jo, S; Lee, J Y; Kong, S H; Choi, J; Park, J W

    2008-09-01

    Iron sulfide minerals are common components of soil/sedimentary environments. Reactions near the surfaces of iron sulfides play important roles in metal retention, mobility, and bioavailability. A series of batch experiments was conducted to study the removal of aqueous chromium and cadmium by iron monosulfide. Hexavalent chromium was reduced to Cr(III) by iron monosulfide with simultaneous precipitation of chromium and iron oxyhydroxide. In contrast to chromium, the primary retention mechanism of cadmium by iron monosulfide was lattice exchange. Surface adsorption to iron monosulfide and precipitation with sulfide on the iron monosulfide surface also contributed to the removal of aqueous cadmium. New phases of both chromium and cadmium were confirmed with transmission electron microscopy. The solution pH was an important factor in this research; it can change particle surface charge and metal species, hence affecting the removal of chromium, but not cadmium. Ferrous ions without FeS exhibited less Cr(VI) removal than with FeS, which might be owing to sulfides from FeS and the existence of the solid phase. Iron monosulfide exhibited higher removal efficiency for chromium and cadmium than zero valent iron and other iron oxide minerals, and the synergistic effect of ferrous iron and sulfide appeared to cause this result.

  17. Spectroelectrochemical sensing based on attenuated total internal reflectance stripping voltammetry. 3. Determination of cadmium and copper.

    PubMed

    Shtoyko, Tanya; Conklin, Sean; Maghasi, Anne T; Richardson, John N; Piruska, Aigars; Seliskar, Carl J; Heineman, William R

    2004-03-01

    The optical and electrochemical properties of metallic films on ITO surfaces resulting from deposition of copper and cadmium were monitored by stripping voltammetry-attenuated internal reflectance spectroscopy. The voltammetric or optical responses of both metals were examined with respect to solution conditions such as pH and presence of dissolved oxygen. The morphologies of these films were also examined using environmental scanning electron microscopy, and the microscopic electrodeposition patterns were found to influence the optical response. The wavelength dependence of the optical response of deposited copper was determined and compared with calculations; optimal performance was at 400 nm for copper. A linear calibration curve was obtained over a range of 1 x 10(-7)-1 x 10(-4) M for copper and compared with that of cadmium. The simultaneous determination of cadmium and copper was demonstrated, and the mechanism of co-deposition is discussed.

  18. Influence of iron and zinc status on cadmium accumulation in Bangladeshi women

    SciTech Connect

    Kippler, Maria; Ekstroem, Eva-Charlotte; Loennerdal, Bo; Goessler, Walter; Akesson, Agneta; El Arifeen, Shams; Persson, Lars-Ake; Vahter, Marie . E-mail: Marie.Vahter@ki.se

    2007-07-15

    Cadmium is a widespread environmental contaminant present in food. The absorption in the intestine increases in individuals with low iron stores, but the effect of zinc deficiency is not clear. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of iron and zinc status on cadmium accumulation in pregnant Bangladeshi women. We measured cadmium in urine from 890 women using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Further, we also measured ferritin and zinc in plasma. The median cadmium concentration in urine was 0.59 {mu}g/L (adjusted to mean specific gravity of 1.012 g/mL). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that urinary cadmium was associated with plasma ferritin and plasma zinc via a significant interaction between dichotomized plasma ferritin and plasma zinc. The analysis was adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women with low iron stores and adequate zinc status had significantly higher urinary cadmium compared to women with both adequate iron stores and zinc status. There was no difference in urinary cadmium between women with both low iron stores and zinc status compared to those with both adequate iron stores and zinc status. In conclusion, low iron stores were associated with increased cadmium accumulation, but only at adequate zinc status.

  19. Reduction of copper sulphate with elemental iron for preparation of copper nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazim, Muhammad

    Reduction of copper sulphate with elemental iron also known as cementation is a well known process used for the recovery of copper for a long time. In this study, the kinetics of the reaction of copper sulphate with iron wire and iron powder has been investigated. The reaction kinetics was studied as a function of different process parameters such as initial concentration, temperature and pH. In this research work, the effects of the above three parameters were studied for both types of iron substrates. It was found that with the iron wire the reaction obeys first order kinetics with respect to copper concentration whereas with the iron powder the order was found to be 1.5. The initial concentration was found to have considerable effect on the reaction kinetics of copper sulphate with elemental iron. The rate of reaction increases with an increase in the initial copper concentration up to a certain level and then decreases for the case of iron wire. However, for the reaction of copper sulphate with iron powder, the reaction rate decreases with an increase in the initial copper concentration. The effect of temperature on the reaction rate of copper sulphate for both types iron substrates (iron wire and iron powder) has also been studied in the temperature range of 23-54ºC. In both the cases, the reaction rate increases with an increase in temperature according to Arrhenius law. The activation energy for the reactions of copper sulphate with iron wire and iron powder was found to be 25.36 kJ/mol and 26.32 kJ/mol, respectively. The copper cementation reaction was found to be suitable to operate at a pH of 2.5-3 for iron wire and a pH of 3-4 for iron powder considering possible inhibition by copper hydroxyl complex formation at higher pH and the possible excess iron consumption by hydrogen reduction at lower pH. The copper particles were produced by the reduction of copper sulphate with elemental iron. The produced copper particles were obtained in the micro to nano

  20. Ecological risk assessment of copper and cadmium in surface waters of Chesapeake Bay watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.W. Jr.; Scott, M.C.; Killen, W.D.

    1998-06-01

    This ecological risk assessment was designed to characterize risk of copper and cadmium exposure in the Chesapeake Bay watershed by comparing the probability distributions of environmental exposure concentrations with the probability distributions of species response data determined from laboratory studies. The overlap of these distributions was a measure of risk to aquatic life. Dissolved copper and cadmium exposure data were available from six primary data sources covering 102 stations in 18 basins in the Chesapeake Bay watershed from 1985 through 1996. Highest environmental concentrations of copper (based on 90th percentiles) were reported in the Chesapeake and Delaware (C and D) Canal, Choptank River, Middle River, and Potomac River; the lowest concentrations of copper were reported in the lower and middle mainstem Chesapeake Bay and Nanticoke River. Based on the calculation of 90th percentiles, cadmium concentrations were highest in the C and D Canal, Potomac River, Upper Chesapeake Bay, and West Chesapeake watershed. Lowest environmental concentrations of cadmium were reported in the lower and middle mainstem Chesapeake Bay and Susquehanna River. The ecological effects data used for this risk assessment were derived primarily from acute copper and cadmium laboratory toxicity tests conducted in both fresh water and salt water; chronic data were much more limited. The 10th percentile (concentration protecting 90% of the species) for all species derived from the freshwater acute copper toxicity database was 8.3 {micro}g/L. For acute saltwater copper data, the 10th percentile for all species was 6.3 {micro}g/L copper. The acute 10th percentile for all saltwater species was 31.7 {micro}g/L cadmium. Highest potential ecological risk from copper exposures was reported in the C and D Canal area of the northern Chesapeake Bay watershed.

  1. Influence of clay on the adsorption of heavy metals like copper and cadmium on chitosan.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Nagan; Latha, Srinivasan; Sudha, Persu N; Renganathan, N Gopalan

    2013-02-01

    The influence of clay on the adsorption of heavy metals like copper and cadmium on chitosan from simulated industrial wastewater is evaluated. Chitosan-clay blend with ratio of (1:1), (1:2), and (2:1) have been prepared, and these were used as membranes to remove copper and cadmium ions from synthetic industrial wastewater. The chemical parameters for quantities of adsorption of heavy metal contamination have been done, and the kinetics of adsorption has also been carried out. Clay provides enough absorbable sites to overcome mass transfer limitations. The number of absorbable sites for cadmium is more compared to copper, and thus the rate of recovery of cadmium is faster than copper, and the percentage removal of cadmium is more than copper at all times on clay over nylon 6. This difference indicates the influence of clay in the adsorption of heavy metals in comparison to synthetic polymer nylon 6. Rate constant for first-order kinetics of adsorption, k (1), for copper and cadmium is less than that of clay, which clearly indicates that clay, which is a natural polymer, is more kinetically favored compared to synthetic polymer. The difference in the intraparticle diffusion in both the natural and synthetic polymer is not much, and it suggests that the particle diffusion mechanism is the same in both cases. Copper and cadmium recovery is parallel at all times. The percentage of removal of copper increased with an increase in pH from 3 to 5. In the case of cadmium containing wastewater, the maximum removal of metal occurred at pH 5. The uptake amount of Cu(2+) ions on chitosan increased rapidly with increasing the contact time from 0 to 360 min and then reaches equilibrium after 360 min, and the equilibrium constant for copper and cadmium ions are more or less the same for the adsorption reaction. There are more adsorption sites for cadmium in the presence of clay and mass transfer limitation is avoided without resorting to rotation, which is the highlight of the

  2. Toxicodynamics of copper and cadmium in Folsomia candida exposed to simulated soil solutions.

    PubMed

    Ardestani, Masoud M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2013-12-01

    To improve our understanding of metal bioavailability to soil-living invertebrates, the effect of porewater composition on the toxicodynamics of copper and cadmium in Folsomia candida (Collembola) was investigated. Assuming that porewater is the main exposure route, F. candida was exposed to simulated soil solutions of different composition. Toxicity of copper was slightly lower in a calcium-only solution than in a multication solution. With increasing copper concentrations from 0.005 mM to 1.37 mM, internal copper concentrations similarly increased in both exposure solutions, suggesting that a single cation nutrient solution is suitable for testing F. candida. In the second experiment, animals were exposed for 7 d to copper and cadmium in simplified soil solutions with different calcium (0.2 mM, 0.8 mM, 3.2 mM, 12.8 mM) and pH (5.0, 6.0, 7.0) levels. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values decreased with time in both the calcium and pH series. A hormetic-type effect was observed for copper in the second test, as well as in the calcium-only solution in the first experiment. Because of stronger hormesis, LC50s for copper were higher at lower calcium concentrations. For cadmium, LC50 values were higher at higher calcium concentrations, suggesting competition of calcium with the free cadmium ion. Toxicity of cadmium increased with decreasing pH, while copper was more toxic at intermediate pH. The results show that a toxicodynamics approach can help to improve the interpretation of metal toxicity to soil invertebrates, taking into account soil solution properties. PMID:23955663

  3. Toxicodynamics of copper and cadmium in Folsomia candida exposed to simulated soil solutions.

    PubMed

    Ardestani, Masoud M; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2013-12-01

    To improve our understanding of metal bioavailability to soil-living invertebrates, the effect of porewater composition on the toxicodynamics of copper and cadmium in Folsomia candida (Collembola) was investigated. Assuming that porewater is the main exposure route, F. candida was exposed to simulated soil solutions of different composition. Toxicity of copper was slightly lower in a calcium-only solution than in a multication solution. With increasing copper concentrations from 0.005 mM to 1.37 mM, internal copper concentrations similarly increased in both exposure solutions, suggesting that a single cation nutrient solution is suitable for testing F. candida. In the second experiment, animals were exposed for 7 d to copper and cadmium in simplified soil solutions with different calcium (0.2 mM, 0.8 mM, 3.2 mM, 12.8 mM) and pH (5.0, 6.0, 7.0) levels. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values decreased with time in both the calcium and pH series. A hormetic-type effect was observed for copper in the second test, as well as in the calcium-only solution in the first experiment. Because of stronger hormesis, LC50s for copper were higher at lower calcium concentrations. For cadmium, LC50 values were higher at higher calcium concentrations, suggesting competition of calcium with the free cadmium ion. Toxicity of cadmium increased with decreasing pH, while copper was more toxic at intermediate pH. The results show that a toxicodynamics approach can help to improve the interpretation of metal toxicity to soil invertebrates, taking into account soil solution properties.

  4. The role of microRNAs in copper and cadmium homeostasis

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Yan-Fei; Zhu, Cheng

    2009-08-14

    Essential heavy metals (e.g., copper) and non-essential metals (e.g., cadmium) are both toxic to plants at high concentrations. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important modulators of plants adaptive response to heavy metal stress. Plant miRNAs negatively regulate target mRNAs by post-transcriptional cleavage. miR398 regulates copper homeostasis via down-regulating the expression of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (CSD), a scavenger of superoxide radicals. miR393 and miR171 play an important role in cadmium stress mediation. This review focuses on the recent advance in the involvement of miRNAs in copper and cadmium stress regulatory networks in plants.

  5. Effect of age on sensitivity of daphnia magna to cadmium, copper and cyanazine

    SciTech Connect

    Nebeker, A.V.; Cairns, M.A.; Onjukka, S.T.; Titus, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Daphnia magna were exposed to cadmium, copper, and cyanazine to determine the relative sensitivities of several age groups: less than 4 h, less than 24 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 4 d, 5 d, and 6 d old. Mean cadmium 48-h EC50 values for each age group ranged from 23 to 164 micrograms/L. Mean copper EC50 values ranged from 6 to 18 micrograms/L. Cyanazine EC50 values ranged from 53 to 106 micrograms/L. The 1-d-old Daphnia mean EC50s were 48 and 49 micrograms/L for cadmium, 10 and 10 micrograms/L for copper and 84 and 86 microgram/L for cyanazine, respectively. These similar sensitivities indicate that older animals can be used in tests equally as well as younger animals, thus simplifying the recovery of daphnids in acute sediment toxicity tests.

  6. Canadian soil quality criteria for lead, copper, arsenic, cadmium and mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudet, C.; Milne, D.; Teed, S.; Lin, J.; Raju, G.S.; Ouellet, S.

    1995-12-31

    National soil quality criteria for the protection of ecological receptors, including livestock and wildlife, are currently under development in Canada. Based on an evaluation of direct soil contact and soil and food ingestion pathways for sensitive species, soil quality criteria for lead, copper, arsenic, cadmium and mercury for three land use categories have been derived. The draft values, in mg/kg soil, for agricultural, residential/parkland, commercial/industrial land uses are: mercury, 4, 4, 30; copper, 62, 62, 100; cadmium, 10, 10, 27; lead, 70, 250, 400; arsenic, 17, 17, 26. Critical data requirements in developing soil quality criteria are also reviewed.

  7. Maternal Cadmium, Iron and Zinc Levels, DNA Methylation and Birth Weight

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND:Cadmium (Cd) is a ubiquitous and environmentally persistent toxic metal that has been implicated in neurotoxicity, carcinogenesis and obesity and essential metals including zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) may alter these outcomes. However mechanisms underlying these relationsh...

  8. Effect of excess iron and copper on physiology of aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid.

    PubMed

    Xing, Wei; Huang, Wenmin; Liu, Guihua

    2010-04-01

    To elucidate effect of chemical reagents addition on growth of aquatic plants in restoration of aquatic ecosystem, Spirodela polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid was used to evaluate its physiological responses to excess iron (Fe(3+)) and copper (Cu(2+)) in the study. Results showed that accumulation of iron and copper both reached maximum at 100 mg L(-1) iron or copper after 24 h short-term stress, but excess iron and copper caused plants necrosis or death and colonies disintegration as well as roots abscission at excess metal concentrations except for 1 mg L(-1) iron. Significant differences in chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) were observed at 1-100 mg L(-1) iron or copper. The synthesis of chlorophyll and protein as well as carbohydrate and the uptake of phosphate and nitrogen were inhibited seriously by excess iron and copper. Proline content decreased with increasing iron or copper concentration, however, MDA content increased with increasing iron or copper concentration.

  9. The effect of copper on iron reduction and its application to the determination of total iron content in iron and copper ores by potassium dichromate titration.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hanjun; Tang, Yang; Ying, Haisong; Wang, Minghai; Wan, Pingyu; Jin Yang, X

    2014-07-01

    The International Standard Organization (ISO) specifies two titrimetric methods for the determination of total iron content in iron ores using potassium dichromate as titrant after reduction of the iron(III) by tin(II) chloride and/or titanium(III) chloride. These two ISO methods (ISO2597-1 and ISO2597-2) require nearly boiling-point temperature for iron(III) reduction and suffer from copper interference and/or mercury pollution. In this study, potassium borohydride was used for reduction of iron(III) catalyzed by copper ions at ambient temperatures. In the absence of copper, iron(III) reduction by potassium borohydride was sluggish while a trace amount of copper significantly accelerated the reduction and reduced potassium borohydride consumption. The catalytic mechanism of iron(III) reduction in sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid was investigated. Potassium borohydride in sodium hydroxide solution was stable without a significant degradation within 24h at ambient conditions and the use of potassium borohydride prepared in sodium hydroxide solution was safe and convenient in routine applications. The applicability of potassium borohydride reduction for the determination of total iron content by potassium dichromate titration was demonstrated by comparing with the ISO standard method using iron and copper ore reference materials and iron ore samples. PMID:24840467

  10. The effect of copper on iron reduction and its application to the determination of total iron content in iron and copper ores by potassium dichromate titration.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hanjun; Tang, Yang; Ying, Haisong; Wang, Minghai; Wan, Pingyu; Jin Yang, X

    2014-07-01

    The International Standard Organization (ISO) specifies two titrimetric methods for the determination of total iron content in iron ores using potassium dichromate as titrant after reduction of the iron(III) by tin(II) chloride and/or titanium(III) chloride. These two ISO methods (ISO2597-1 and ISO2597-2) require nearly boiling-point temperature for iron(III) reduction and suffer from copper interference and/or mercury pollution. In this study, potassium borohydride was used for reduction of iron(III) catalyzed by copper ions at ambient temperatures. In the absence of copper, iron(III) reduction by potassium borohydride was sluggish while a trace amount of copper significantly accelerated the reduction and reduced potassium borohydride consumption. The catalytic mechanism of iron(III) reduction in sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid was investigated. Potassium borohydride in sodium hydroxide solution was stable without a significant degradation within 24h at ambient conditions and the use of potassium borohydride prepared in sodium hydroxide solution was safe and convenient in routine applications. The applicability of potassium borohydride reduction for the determination of total iron content by potassium dichromate titration was demonstrated by comparing with the ISO standard method using iron and copper ore reference materials and iron ore samples.

  11. The influence of iron stores on cadmium body burden in a Thai population.

    PubMed

    Apinan, Roongnapa; Satarug, Soisunwan; Ruengweerayut, Ronnatrai; Mahavorasirikul, Wiratchanee; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2010-06-01

    Cadmium is a toxin of increasing public health concern due to its presence in most human foodstuffs and in cigarette smoke. Exposure to cadmium leads to tissue bioaccumulation and, in particular, has nephrotoxic effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between cadmium body burden and iron stores in a Thai population. A total of 182 healthy adult Thai subjects of both genders (89 males, 93 females) aged between 18 and 57 years and weighing 40-95 kg were included in this study. The total amounts of cadmium excreted in urine over 2 h (microg/g creatinine) were used as an index of long-term cadmium exposure. Quantitation of cadmium was performed using electrothermal (graphite furnace) atomic absorption spectrometry. The urinary cadmium excreted displayed a normal frequency distribution. The average urinary cadmium level did not exceed the WHO maximum tolerable internal dose for the non-exposed population (2 microg/g creatinine). Body iron stores reflected by serum ferritin levels did not show any correlation with cadmium burden in both males and females, although a relatively stronger influence of body iron store status on cadmium burden was shown in females. When the levels of serum ferritin were stratified into five levels (<20, 20-100, 101-200, 201-300, and >300 microg/l), a significant difference in total cadmium body burden was observed between females and males only in the group with a low level of serum ferritin of <20 microg/l. The cadmium body burden in females was about twice that in males in this group.

  12. Improvement of acute cadmium toxicity by pretreatment with copper salt

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Katakura, M.; Sugawara, N.

    1995-06-01

    The toxicity of Cd compounds has been thoroughly reviewed. Furthermore, modification of the toxicity by other metals is well known. For example, pre-treatment with Zn significantly decreases the lethality of Cd. Testicular injuries induced by Cd are improved by simultaneous injection of Zn or Se. Thus, such preventive action might be expected as a result of prior or simultaneous injection of Cu salts. Hill et al (1963) reported that supplementation of the basal diet (1 ppm Cu) with 40 ppm copper sulphate markedly reduced Cd-induced lethality. Gunn and Gould (1970) reported that Cu affords protection against testicular injuries caused by Cd. Recently, Kaji et al (1992) found that Cu could prevent Cd cytotoxicity in cultured vascular endothelial cells. On the other hand, Irons and Smith (1976) reported previously that injection of Cu along with Cd decreases the binding of Cd to hepatic metallothionein (MT) and increases the toxicity of the Cd. An interactive increase in toxicity caused by a similar mechanism was observed in embryonic chick bone treated with both Cd and Cu in a culture system. Accordingly, we should accumulate further data to understand the preventive effect of Cu against Cd toxicity. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Cu pretreatment on the acute toxicity of Cd in mice. We focused on two organs, the liver and testis. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. Effect of oxygen, methyl mercaptan, and methyl chloride on friction behavior of copper-iron contacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with an iron rider on a copper disk and a copper rider on an iron disk. The sputter cleaned iron and copper disk surfaces were saturated with oxygen, methyl mercaptan, and methyl chloride at atmospheric pressure. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to monitor the surfaces. Lower friction was obtained in all experiments with the copper rider sliding on the iron disk than when the couple was reversed. For both iron and copper disks, methyl mercaptan gave the best surface coverage and was most effective in reducing friction. For both iron and copper disks, methyl chloride was the least effective in reducing friction. With sliding, copper transferred to iron and iron to copper.

  14. Copper and zinc levels in serum and urine of cadmium-exposed people with special reference to renal tubular damage

    SciTech Connect

    Nogawa, K.; Yamada, Y.; Honda, R.; Tsuritani, I.; Kobayashi, E.; Ishizaki, M.

    1984-02-01

    Urinary copper and zinc concentrations and their serum levels were determined in women environmentally exposed to cadmium, including itai-itai disease patients and suspected patients, for evaluating the effect of cadmium exposure on metabolism of such essential metals as copper and zinc in human beings. Copper concentrations in the urine of cadmium-exposed women, especially itai-itai patients and suspected patients, were much higher than those on nonexposed women. Zinc concentrations in the urine of cadmium-exposed women, however, were not different from those of nonexposed women. Zinc levels in the serum of the itai-itai patients were somewhat lower than those of the nonexposed women. On the other hand, serum copper was almost equal in the cadmium-exposed and the nonexposed women. The correlation coefficient between ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin amounts and copper concentrations in the urine of all women examined was as high as 0.95. It is concluded that exposure to cadmium will cause an increase in the excretion of copper in urine, which is attributable to renal tubular damage due to the cadmium exposure, and that urinary zinc excretion is not increased by cadmium exposure, even in the patients who suffer from severe renal tubular damage.

  15. Effects of Copper, Cadmium, Lead, and Arsenic in a Live Diet on Juvenile Fish Growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of dietborne copper, cadmium, lead, and arsenic on juvenile fish were evaluated using a live diet consisting of the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. In 30-d exposures, no effects on growth and survival of rainbow trout, fathead minnow, and channel catfish were obs...

  16. Dysregulation of iron and copper homeostasis in nonalcoholic fatty liver

    PubMed Central

    Aigner, Elmar; Weiss, Günter; Datz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Elevated iron stores as indicated by hyperferritinemia with normal or mildly elevated transferrin saturation and mostly mild hepatic iron deposition are a characteristic finding in subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Excess iron is observed in approximately one third of NAFLD patients and is commonly referred to as the “dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome”. Clinical evidence suggests that elevated body iron stores aggravate the clinical course of NAFLD with regard to liver-related and extrahepatic disease complications which relates to the fact that excess iron catalyses the formation of toxic hydroxyl-radicals subsequently resulting in cellular damage. Iron removal improves insulin sensitivity, delays the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, improves pathologic liver function tests and likewise ameliorates NAFLD histology. Several mechanisms contribute to pathologic iron accumulation in NAFLD. These include impaired iron export from hepatocytes and mesenchymal Kupffer cells as a consequence of imbalances in the concentrations of iron regulatory factors, such as hepcidin, cytokines, copper or other dietary factors. This review summarizes the knowledge about iron homeostasis in NAFLD and the rationale for its therapeutic implications. PMID:25729473

  17. Mechanism of Mineral Phase Reconstruction for Improving the Beneficiation of Copper and Iron from Copper Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhengqi; Zhu, Deqing; Pan, Jan; Zhang, Feng

    2016-08-01

    To maximize the recovery of iron and copper from copper slag, the modification process by adding a compound additive (a mixture of hematite, pyrite and manganous oxide) and optimizing the cooling of the slag was studied. The phase reconstruction mechanism of the slag modification process was revealed by thermodynamic calculations, x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the synergy between the burnt lime and the compound additive promotes the generation of target minerals, such as magnetite and copper matte. In addition, the multifunctional compound additive is able to improve the fluidity of the molten slag, which facilitates the coalescence and growth of fine particles of the target minerals. As a result, the percentage of iron distributed in the form of magnetite increased from 32.9% to 65.1%, and that of the copper exiting in the form of metallic copper and copper sulfide simultaneously increased from 80.0% to 90.3%. Meanwhile, the grains of the target minerals in the modified slag grew markedly to a mean size of over 50 μm after slow cooling. Ultimately, the beneficiation efficiency of copper and iron was improved because of the ease with which the target minerals could be liberated.

  18. Mechanism of Mineral Phase Reconstruction for Improving the Beneficiation of Copper and Iron from Copper Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhengqi; Zhu, Deqing; Pan, Jan; Zhang, Feng

    2016-09-01

    To maximize the recovery of iron and copper from copper slag, the modification process by adding a compound additive (a mixture of hematite, pyrite and manganous oxide) and optimizing the cooling of the slag was studied. The phase reconstruction mechanism of the slag modification process was revealed by thermodynamic calculations, x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the synergy between the burnt lime and the compound additive promotes the generation of target minerals, such as magnetite and copper matte. In addition, the multifunctional compound additive is able to improve the fluidity of the molten slag, which facilitates the coalescence and growth of fine particles of the target minerals. As a result, the percentage of iron distributed in the form of magnetite increased from 32.9% to 65.1%, and that of the copper exiting in the form of metallic copper and copper sulfide simultaneously increased from 80.0% to 90.3%. Meanwhile, the grains of the target minerals in the modified slag grew markedly to a mean size of over 50 μm after slow cooling. Ultimately, the beneficiation efficiency of copper and iron was improved because of the ease with which the target minerals could be liberated.

  19. Iron may play a role in pancreatic atrophy in copper deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, M.; Lewis, C.G.; Lure, M.D. Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD Univ. of Maryland, College Park )

    1991-03-15

    The present study was undertaken to determine if pancreatic atrophy in copper deficient rats fed fructose is associated with excessive iron deposition. Weanling male and female rats were fed a copper deficient or copper adequate diet containing 62% carbohydrate as either fructose or starch. Another group of weanling rats consumed a copper deficient diet containing fructose that was low in iron. After consuming their respective diets for five weeks, the highest pancreatic iron concentration was seen in male rats consuming the copper deficient diet containing fructose. These animals also exhibited pancreatic atrophy. In contrast, neither copper deficient female rats fed fructose nor males fed starch exhibited pancreatic atrophy and their pancreata did not contain high levels of iron. In addition, reducing the availability of dietary iron in copper deficient rats fed fructose decreased pancreatic iron concentration and ameliorated the pathology. The data suggest that pancreatic atrophy in copper deficiency may be related to iron deposition in that tissue.

  20. Cadmium--copper antagonism in seaweeds inhabiting coastal areas affected by copper mine waste disposals.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Santiago; Medina, Matías H; Moffett, James W; Correa, Juan A

    2006-07-15

    Cadmium and copper accumulation by macroalgae was studied in a coastal area exposed to upwelling events and high levels of Cu, the latter resulting from mine disposals. Eight species were studied, and all had very high concentrations of Cd outside of the Cu-contaminated area. Cu in algal tissues was much higher in contaminated than in reference sites. High Cu appeared to suppress Cd bioaccumulation; Cd in algal tissues was much lower in the Cu-contaminated area than in the reference sites. Transplant experiments with Lessonia nigrescens revealed a depuration of Cd in individuals transplanted to areas with high Cu. However, Cd depuration occurs more slowly than Cu uptake. These differences suggest that while Cd and Cu are linked mechanistically, itis nota simple substitution. Overall, the work confirms that macroalgae are useful indicators of metal contamination and may be used as in situ biomonitors for labile forms of metals, like free Cu2+. However, antagonistic relationships between metals must be clearly understood in order to properly interpret their concentrations in macroalgae.

  1. Chronic toxicity of mixtures of copper, cadmium and zinc to Daphnia pulex

    SciTech Connect

    Flickinger, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Daphnia pulex (de Greer) were exposed to single and bimetal mixtures of copper, cadmium and zinc in reconstituted waters of different hardness/alkalinity and humic acid concentrations. The effect of single and bimetal exposure to these metals was evaluated by survivorship and reproductive indices of brood size, percent aborted eggs/brood, age at reproductive maturity, age at first reproduction and the instantaneous rate of population growth. Accumulation by 7-day-old Daphnia magna of metals in these mixtures was also assessed in medium water containing 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L. The addition of 0.75 mg humic acid/L decreased the acute toxicity of copper and zinc but increased the acute toxicity of cadmium. Survival was the best index of a single or bimetal chronic stress since it was equally or more sensitive than any reproductive index. The interaction between copper and zinc was variable in soft water which contained 0.15 mg humic acid/L, but largely independent in medium water which contained 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L. Zinc and humic acid had no effect on the accumulation of copper in medium water. Copper and cadmium were synergistic in their interaction on daphniid survival in medium water which contained 0.0 and 0.75 mg humic acid/L.

  2. Copper, cadmium, and nickel accumulation in crayfish populations near copper-nickel smelters at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Bagatto, G.; Aikhan, M.A.

    1987-03-01

    The Sudbury basin, an elliptical 646 square mile depression containing a number of freshwater reservoirs, has been subjected to extreme ecological disturbances from logging, mining and smelting activities. The purpose of the present study was to compare tissue concentration of copper, cadmium and nickel in freshwater crayfish at selected distances of the habitat from the emission source. Various tissue concentrations in crayfish from the sites were also examined to determine if particular body tissues were specific sites for metal accumulation.

  3. Cadmium exposure affects iron acquisition in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Astolfi, Stefania; Ortolani, Maria R; Catarcione, Giulio; Paolacci, Anna R; Cesco, Stefano; Pinton, Roberto; Ciaffi, Mario

    2014-12-01

    This study addresses the question of the interference between iron (Fe) nutrition and cadmium (Cd) toxicity at the level of growth performance, phytosiderophores (PS) release, micronutrient accumulation and expression of genes involved in Fe homeostasis in barley seedlings, a plant with strategy II-based response to Fe shortage. Cd exposure induced responses similar to those of genuine Fe deficiency also in Fe-sufficient plants. Most genes involved in PS biosynthesis and secretion (HvNAS3, HvNAS4, HvNAS6, HvNAS7, HvNAAT-A, HvDMAS1 and HvTOM1) induced by Fe deprivation were also significantly upregulated in the presence of Cd under Fe sufficient conditions. Accordingly, the enhanced expression of these genes in roots under Cd exposure was accompanied by an increase of PS release. However, induced expression of HvIRO2 and the downregulation of HvIDEF1 and HvIRT1, after Cd exposure, suggested the presence of a pathway that induces HvIRO2-mediated PS biosynthesis under Cd stress, which probably is not simply caused by Fe deficiency. The downregulation of HvIRT1 and HvNramp5 may represent a protective mechanism at transcriptional level against further Cd uptake by these transporters. These results likely indicate that Cd itself may be able to activate Fe acquisition mechanism in an Fe-independent manner.

  4. Synthesis of phase pure praseodymium barium copper iron oxide.

    PubMed

    Konne, Joshua L; Davis, Sean A; Glatzel, Stefan; Hall, Simon R

    2013-06-18

    The control of crystallization of praseodymium barium copper iron oxide, an intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell cathode material, has been demonstrated for the first time using a biotemplated sol-gel synthesis technique. The results obtained showed significant improvement in purity, synthesis time, surface area and simplicity over that previously reported.

  5. Microstructure and properties of pure iron/copper composite cladding layers on carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Long; Huang, Yong-xian; Lü, Shi-xiong; Huang, Ti-fang; Lü, Zong-liang

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, pure iron/copper composite metal cladding was deposited onto carbon steel by tungsten inert gas welding. The study focused on interfacial morphological, microstructural, and mechanical analyses of the composite cladding layers. Iron liquid-solid-phase zones were formed at copper/steel and iron interfaces because of the melting of the steel substrate and iron. Iron concentrated in the copper cladding layer was observed to exhibit belt, globule, and dendrite morphologies. The appearance of iron-rich globules indicated the occurrence of liquid phase separation (LPS) prior to solidification, and iron-rich dendrites crystallized without the occurrence of LPS. The maximum microhardness of the iron/steel interface was lower than that of the copper/steel interface because of the diffusion of elemental carbon. All samples fractured in the cladding layers. Because of a relatively lower strength of the copper layer, a short plateau region appeared when shear movement was from copper to iron.

  6. OPT3 is a phloem-specific iron transporter that is essential for systemic iron signaling and redistribution of iron and cadmium in arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iron is essential for both plant growth and human health and nutrition. Cadmium, on the other hand, is a non-essential and highly toxic element that competes with iron for uptake and partitioning in plant tissues, posing a threat to crop productivity and human health. Knowledge of signaling mechanis...

  7. Regional Distribution of Copper, Zinc and Iron in Brain of Wistar Rat Model for Non-Wilsonian Brain Copper Toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Pal, Amit; Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    In previous studies, we have reported first in vivo evidence of copper deposition in the choroid plexus, cognitive impairments, astrocytes swelling (Alzheimer type II cells) and astrogliosis (increase in number of astrocytes), and degenerated neurons coupled with significant increase in the hippocampus copper and zinc content in copper-intoxicated Wistar rats. Nonetheless, hippocampus iron levels were not affected by chronic copper-intoxication. Notwithstanding information on distribution of copper, zinc and iron status in different regions of brain due to chronic copper exposure remains fragmentary. In continuation with our previous study, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intraperitoneally injected copper lactate (0.15 mg Cu/100 g body weight) daily for 90 days on copper, zinc and iron levels in different regions of the brain using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Copper-intoxicated group showed significantly increased cortex, cerebellum and striatum copper content (76, 46.8 and 80.7 % increase, respectively) compared to control group. However, non-significant changes were observed for the zinc and iron content in cortex, cerebellum and striatum due to chronic copper exposure. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates that chronic copper toxicity causes differential copper buildup in cortex, cerebellum and striatum region of central nervous system of male Wistar rats; signifying the critical requirement to discretely evaluate the effect of copper neurotoxicity in different brain regions, and ensuing neuropathological and cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:26855494

  8. Determination of urinary trace elements (arsenic, copper, cadmium, manganese, lead, zinc, selenium) in patients with Blackfoot disease.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jin-Lian; Horng, Pin-Hua; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Hsu, John W; Horng, Ching-Jyi

    2004-12-01

    To determine the relationship of arsenic, copper, cadmium, manganese, lead, zinc and selenium to Blackfoot disease (BFD, a peripheral vascular disorder endemic to areas of Taiwan, which has been linked to arsenic in drinking water) the authors measured the amount of these substances in urine from BFD patients, using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results indicate significantly higher amounts of urinary arsenic, copper, cadmium, manganese, and lead for BFD patients than for normal controls, also significantly lower urinary zinc and selenium.

  9. Determination of cadmium, copper, zinc, and lead human renal calculi in both cadmium polluted and non-polluted areas

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, I.; Itoh, M.; Tsukada, S.

    1987-08-01

    A number of investigators have reported about heavy metal contents in food, blood, urine, and animal tissues, including bone, hair, feather, and tooth. However, few data concerning calculi are reported as yet. Heavy metal contents in the calculi might reflect the level of metals absorbed from respiratory tract, skin and intestine. When absorbed metals from respiration are distributed in blood, a part of cadmium is accumulated in liver and kidney, and of lead is in bone, annular vessel and kidney. The remainder is excreted in the urine through the urinary tracts. From intestine, they are distributed by the blood to the liver, and excreted in the urine in the same manner of respiration. It is well known that renal calculi are produced in the urinary tract. The present study is focused on the contents of cadmium, copper, zinc and lead in human renal calculi, samples collected from Hokuriku which is one of the most cadmium polluted areas and from Chugoku which is recognized as a non-polluted one in Japan.

  10. Zinc, iron, manganese, and magnesium accumulation in crayfish populations near copper-nickel smelters at Sudbury, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Bagatto, G.; Alikhan, M.A.

    1987-06-01

    The Sudbury basin has been subjected to extreme ecological disturbances from logging, mining and smelting activities. Elevated concentrations of copper, cadmium, and nickel have been reported in crayfish populations close to the Sudbury smelting works. The present study compares concentrations of zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) in freshwater crayfish at selected distances of the habitat from the emission source. These metals were selected since they are known to be emitted in moderately high quantities into the Sudbury environment as byproduct of the smelting process. Various tissue concentrations in crayfish were also examined to determined specific tissue sites for these accumulations.

  11. Lead, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, and copper in chicken feathers from Tuskegee, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.; Love, M.J.; Booker, T.; Mielke, H.W.

    1994-12-31

    The feather has been widely used as a indicator tissue of metal exposure in birds. The feathers were collected from Tuskegee University poultry farm (TUPF) and Harrison Poultry farm (HPF) chicken and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy for lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, and copper contaminations. The mean levels of lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, and copper in TUPF chicken were 3.67, 0.13, 12.23, 0.22, and 7.71 ppm, respectively, and in HPF chicken were 5.32, 0.096, 11.03, 0.15, and 8.06 ppm, respectively. The mean levels of these metals did not show any significant difference between TUPF and HPF chicken.

  12. Analysis of cadmium and copper in cyanide plating solutions by the inductively coupled argon plasma spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Osbourn, G.R.

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop spectrometric methods for the analysis of copper and cadmium in cyanide plating solutions. If the methods were faster and/or more accurate than the classical volumetric methods being used, spectrometric methods could replace volumetric methods for routine production support. Spectrometric methods were developed on an inductively coupled argon plasma spectrometer. The spectrometric method developed for copper analysis proved as accurate as the classical chemical method, and faster, 20 minutes compared to two or three hours. Because of this significant savings, along with the reliability, the new method has replaced the classical method for routine production support. In contrast, the spectrometric method for cadmium proved to be slower, 30 minutes compared to 10 minutes, than the classical method. The spectrometric method is, however, accurate and reliable and will be retained as an alternate back-up method. 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Biosorption of cadmium, lead and copper with calcium alginate xerogels and immobilized Fucus vesiculosus.

    PubMed

    Mata, Y N; Blázquez, M L; Ballester, A; González, F; Muñoz, J A

    2009-04-30

    This paper determines the effect of immobilized brown alga Fucus vesiculosus in the biosorption of heavy metals with alginate xerogels. Immobilization increased the kinetic uptakes and intraparticle diffusion rates of the three metals. The Langmuir maximum biosorption capacity increased twofold for cadmium, 10 times for lead, and decreased by half for copper. According to this model, the affinity of the metals for the biomass was as follows: Cu>Pb>Cd without alga and Pb>Cu>Cd with alga. FITR confirmed that carboxyl groups were the main groups involved in the metal uptake. Calcium in the gels was displaced by heavy metals from solution according to the "egg-box" model. The restructured gel matrix became more uniform and organized as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization. F. vesiculosus immobilized in alginate xerogels constitutes an excellent biosorbent for cadmium, lead and copper, sometimes surpassing the biosorption performance of alginate alone and even the free alga.

  14. Localization and toxic effects of cadmium, copper, and uranium in Azolla

    SciTech Connect

    Sela, M.; Tel-Or, E.; Fritz, E.; Huttermann, A.

    1988-09-01

    The storage and distribution of copper, cadmium, and uranium and their effects on ionic contents in roots and shoots of Azolla filiculoides has been studied by x-ray microanalysis. The relative content of copper was eightfold higher in the root than in the shoot, suggesting low mobility of this metal in Azolla plant. Cadmium relative content in the shoot was similar to its content in the root, hence its mobility was relatively high. The absence of significant uranium quantities in the shoot and its relative high content in the root suggest the immobility of this metal from Azolla root. Cadmium formed precipitates with phosphate and calcium in xylem cells of the shoot bundle and caused a two- to threefold increase in the content of phosphate in the root. Uranium in roots and cadmium in shoots were associated with calcium. All three treatments caused losses of potassium, chloride, and magnesium from Azolla roots. Accumulation of heavy metals in Azolla and their mobility from the root to the shoot can be correlated with damage caused by the loss of essential nutrients.

  15. Cadmium Toxicity Induced Alterations in the Root Proteome of Green Gram in Contrasting Response towards Iron Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Muneer, Sowbiya; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman; Mohamed, Rozi; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium signifies a severe threat to crop productivity and green gram is a notably iron sensitive plant which shows considerable variation towards cadmium stress. A gel-based proteomics analysis was performed with the roots of green gram exposed to iron and cadmium combined treatments. The resulting data show that twenty three proteins were down-regulated in iron-deprived roots either in the absence (−Fe/−Cd) or presence (−Fe/+Cd) of cadmium. These down-regulated proteins were however well expressed in roots under iron sufficient conditions, even in the presence of cadmium (+Fe/+Cd). The functional classification of these proteins determined that 21% of the proteins are associated with nutrient metabolism. The other proteins in higher quantities are involved in either transcription or translation regulation, and the rest are involved in biosynthesis metabolism, antioxidant pathways, molecular chaperones and stress response. On the other hand, several protein spots were also absent in roots in response to iron deprivation either in absence (−Fe/−Cd) or presence (−Fe/+Cd) of cadmium but were well expressed in the presence of iron (+Fe/+Cd). Results suggest that green gram plants exposed to cadmium stress are able to change the nutrient metabolic balance in roots, but in the mean time regulate cadmium toxicity through iron supplements. PMID:24739807

  16. Methods for making a supported iron-copper catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, Paul N.; Pierantozzi, Ronald

    1986-01-01

    A catalyst is described for the synthesis of hydrocarbons from CO+H.sub.2 utilizing a porous Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 support impregnated with iron and copper and optionally promoted with an alkali metal. The use of an Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 support results in the suppression of heavy waxes (C.sub.26 + hydrocarbons), particularly in slurry phase operation, when compared to unsupported or co-precipitated catalysts.

  17. Genes involved in cysteine metabolism of Chironomus tepperi are regulated differently by copper and by cadmium.

    PubMed

    Jeppe, Katherine J; Carew, Melissa E; Long, Sara M; Lee, Siu F; Pettigrove, Vincent; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2014-05-01

    Freshwater invertebrates are often exposed to metal contamination, and changes in gene expression patterns can help understand mechanisms underlying toxicity and act as pollutant-specific biomarkers. In this study the expressions of genes involved in cysteine metabolism are characterized in the midge Chironomus tepperi during exposures to sublethal concentrations of cadmium and copper. These metals altered gene expression of the cysteine metabolism differently. Both metals decreased S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase expression and did not change the expression of S-adenosylmethionine synthetase. Cadmium exposure likely increased cystathionine production by up-regulating cystathionine-β-synthase (CβS) expression, while maintaining control level cysteine production via cystathionine-γ-lyase (CγL) expression. Conversely, copper down-regulated CβS expression and up-regulated CγL expression, which in turn could diminish cystathionine to favor cysteine production. Both metals up-regulated glutathione related expression (γ-glutamylcysteine synthase and glutathione synthetase). Only cadmium up-regulated metallothionein expression and glutathione S-transferase d1 expression was up-regulated only by copper exposure. These different transcription responses of genes involved in cysteine metabolism in C. tepperi point to metal-specific detoxification pathways and suggest that the transsulfuration pathway could provide biomarkers for identifying specific metals.

  18. Different responses of tonoplast proton pumps in cucumber roots to cadmium and copper.

    PubMed

    Kabała, Katarzyna; Janicka-Russak, Małgorzata; Kłobus, Grazyna

    2010-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) effects on the two tonoplast proton pumps were compared in cucumber roots. Different alterations of vacuolar H+ transporting ATPase (V-ATPase) (EC 3.6.3.14) and vacuolar H+ transporting pyrophosphatase (V-PPase) (EC 3.6.1.1) activities under heavy metal stress were investigated. ATP-dependent proton transport and ATP hydrolysis increased after exposure of seedlings to Cu, whereas both decreased in plants stressed with Cd. PP(i) hydrolysis was relatively insensitive to both heavy metals. However, cadmium, but not copper, clearly inhibited PP(i)-driven H+ transport. Changes in enzyme activities were not due to the metal action on the expression of CsVHA-A, CsVHA-c and CsVP genes encoding V-ATPase subunit A and c, and V-PPase, respectively, in cucumber roots. Moreover, immunoblot analysis using specific antibodies against V-ATPase holoenzyme, phosphoserine and phosphothreonine suggested that the phosphorylation at Ser residue in regulatory subunit B of cucumber V-ATPase was not regulated by metals. Oxidative alterations of membrane lipids were measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) content. Cu ions, in contrast to Cd, visibly enhanced the lipid peroxidation in the root tonoplast fractions. Because ATP and PP(i) are absolutely required by V-ATPase and V-PPase, respectively, for proton transport, their contents were determined in the control roots and roots treated with cadmium and copper. Both ATP and pyrophosphate amounts decreased under heavy metal stress.

  19. Iron and copper catalysis of PCDD/F formation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Junhong; Buekens, Alfons; Olie, Kees; Yang, Jie; Chen, Tong; Li, Xiaodong

    2016-02-01

    The formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) was explored during de novo tests designed to compare the catalytic activity of copper (II) chloride (CuCl2) with that of iron (III) oxide (Fe2O3) and to test some synergistic effect between these two catalytic compounds. Both copper chloride (CuCl2) and iron oxide (Fe2O3) were earlier proposed as catalysts to explain the PCDD/F emissions from, e.g. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). In addition, haematite (Fe2O3) is the main iron ore and could be responsible for the typical iron ore sintering plant fingerprint. A total of nine model fly ash (MFA) samples were prepared by mixing and grinding of sodium chloride (NaCl), activated carbon and a powder matrix of silica (SiO2) with the selected metal compound(s). The conditions of these de novo tests were 1 h in duration, 350 °C in a flow of synthetic combustion gas (10 vol.% oxygen in nitrogen). The effect of Fe-Cu catalyst concentration on yield and distribution pattern of PCDD/F was systematically explored; three strongly differing ratios of [Fe]:[Cu] were considered (1:1, 10:1 and 100:1) to study the potential interactions of Fe2O3 and CuCl2 suggested earlier. The results show some slight rise of PCDD/F formed with raising iron concentration from 0 to 10.1 wt% (no Cu added; 0.1 wt% Cu), as well as strong surging of both amount and average chlorination level of PCDD/F when rising amounts of copper (0 to 1.1 wt%) are introduced. The resulting fingerprints are compared with those from sintering and from MSWI. PMID:26416123

  20. OPT3 Is a Phloem-Specific Iron Transporter That Is Essential for Systemic Iron Signaling and Redistribution of Iron and Cadmium in Arabidopsis[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Zhiyang; Gayomba, Sheena R.; Jung, Ha-il; Vimalakumari, Nanditha K.; Piñeros, Miguel; Craft, Eric; Rutzke, Michael A.; Danku, John; Lahner, Brett; Punshon, Tracy; Guerinot, Mary Lou; Salt, David E.; Kochian, Leon V.; Vatamaniuk, Olena K.

    2014-01-01

    Iron is essential for both plant growth and human health and nutrition. Knowledge of the signaling mechanisms that communicate iron demand from shoots to roots to regulate iron uptake as well as the transport systems mediating iron partitioning into edible plant tissues is critical for the development of crop biofortification strategies. Here, we report that OPT3, previously classified as an oligopeptide transporter, is a plasma membrane transporter capable of transporting transition ions in vitro. Studies in Arabidopsis thaliana show that OPT3 loads iron into the phloem, facilitates iron recirculation from the xylem to the phloem, and regulates both shoot-to-root iron signaling and iron redistribution from mature to developing tissues. We also uncovered an aspect of crosstalk between iron homeostasis and cadmium partitioning that is mediated by OPT3. Together, these discoveries provide promising avenues for targeted strategies directed at increasing iron while decreasing cadmium density in the edible portions of crops and improving agricultural productivity in iron deficient soils. PMID:24867923

  1. Biosorption of copper and cadmium in packed bed columns with live immobilized fungal biomass of Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Pakshirajan, K; Swaminathan, T

    2009-05-01

    Biosorption of copper (II) and cadmium (II) by live Phanerochaete chrysosporium immobilized by growing onto polyurethane foam material in individual packed bed columns over two successive cycles of sorption-desorption were investigated in this study. Initial pH and concentrations of the metals in their respective solutions were set optimum to each of those: 4.6 and 35 mg x l(-1) in case of copper and 5.3 and 11 mg x l(-1) for cadmium. The breakthrough curves obtained for the two metals during sorption in both the cycles exhibited a constant pattern at various bed depths in the columns. The maximum yield of the columns in removing these metals were found to be, respectively, 57% and 43% for copper and cadmium indicating that copper biosorption by the immobilized fungus in its column was better than for cadmium. Recovery values of the sorbed copper and cadmium metals from the respective loaded columns by using 0.1 N HCl as eluant was observed to be quite high at more than 65% and 75%, respectively, at the end of desorption in both the cycles. Breakthrough models of bed-depth service time, Adams-Bohart, Wolborska, and Clark were fitted to the experimental data on sorption of copper and cadmium in the columns, and only the Clark model could fit the sorption performance of the columns well over the entire range of ratios of concentrations of effluent to influent, i.e., C/C0 for both copper and cadmium biosorption. The kinetic coefficients of mass transfer and other suitable parameters in the system were determined by applying the experimental data at C/C0 ratios lower than 0.5 to the other three models. PMID:18551254

  2. Influences of water treatment process on iron and copper release in distribution system.

    PubMed

    Shi, Baoyou; Xiao, Weizhong; Taylor, James S

    2006-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to assess the effect of water quality changes on iron and copper release in distribution systems. Three finished waters were prepared from groundwater source by conventional treatment, lime softening and reverse osmosis (RO). To mimic desalinated seawater, sea salts were added to RO treated water. Both lime softening and RO treatment significantly decreased the calcium concentration and alkalinity of groundwater. During a yearlong investigation, the impact of seasonal changes on iron and copper release was also evaluated. The results showed that groundwater after lime softening slightly increased iron release potential but significantly decreased copper release. Desalination water caused much higher iron release but lower copper release than conventionally treated groundwater. Blended water with conventional groundwater and desalination water resulted in intermediate iron release but much high copper release. Both iron and copper release could be accelerated by temperature increase.

  3. Interactions of manganese, iron, and copper in healthy human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Paohwa.

    1989-01-01

    In study I, plasma levels of manganese and iron were measured after an oral load was ingested. Four hourly samples of plasma were collected postdose. The ingestion of a dose of 40 mg Mn alone produced a typical response in plasma manganese, which peaked at either the first or second hour postdose. When a combined dose of 40 mg inorganic Fe plus 40 mg Mn was given, the plasma uptake of manganese was substantially inhibited when compared to a dose of 40 mg Mn alone. When the same quantity of heme Fe was substituted for the inorganic Fe in the load of inorganic Fe plus Mn, no depression in plasma manganese was observed. In study II, eight healthy female subjects were fed a baseline Mn-adequate diet of conventional foods for 18 days, followed by a Mn-deficient semi-purified diet for 41 days. Dietary levels of iron and copper averaged 17.7 mg and 4.3 mg/day, respectively, for both diets. Mean iron balance increased significantly from initial levels of 2.20 {plus minus} 1.07 mg/d to 5.02 {plus minus} 1.14 mg/d at the end of the Mn-deficient period. Parameters of iron status were not influenced by the variations of dietary manganese. In contrast, mean copper balance decreased from 2.61 {plus minus} 0.1 mg/d to 0.91 {plus minus} 0.4 mg/d at the end of the Mn-deficient period. Correspondingly, plasma copper and serum ceruloplasmin decreased from 18.57 {plus minus} 1.1 {mu}mol/L to 15.27 {plus minus} 0.94 {mu}mol/L and 269.1 {plus minus} 14.6 mg/L to 205.6 {plus minus} 17.8 mg/L., respectively.

  4. Promotion of atherogenesis by copper or iron-Which is more likely?

    SciTech Connect

    Rajendran, Reshmi; Ren, Minqin; Ning, Pan; Tan Kwong Huat, Benny; Halliwell, Barry . E-mail: bchbh@nus.edu.sg; Watt, Frank

    2007-02-02

    Iron levels increase in atherosclerotic lesions in cholesterol fed-rabbits and play a role in atherosclerosis. We investigated whether copper also rises. Male New Zealand White rabbits were fed high-cholesterol diets for 8 weeks. After sacrifice, lesion sizes were determined, and elemental analyses of the lesion and unaffected artery wall performed using nuclear microscopy. Unlike iron, lesion copper is decreased by about half compared with the unaffected artery wall, and much less copper than iron is present. Our data suggest that iron may be more likely to play a role in the promotion of atherosclerosis than copper.

  5. Protective value of dietary copper and iron against some toxic effects of lead in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Klauder, D S; Petering, H G

    1975-01-01

    Both dietary iron and copper were inversely related to lead absorption as indicated by erythrocyte and kidney lead levels, dietary iron having the greatest effect. Kidney copper values were depressed when dietary iron was low, a condition which was worsened by lead. Lead tended to lower heart cytochrome c oxidase especially when dietary copper was low, but also when dietary copper and zinc were high. Lead interfered with hematopoiesis when dietary copper and/or iron were low, the effect being expecially severe when both essential nutrients were low. These results show the importance of copper and iron nutriture and metabolism as factors which reduce lead toxicity, and emphasize the necessity of considering nutritional status in evaluating lead toxicity. PMID:179804

  6. Isoflavones Reduce Copper with Minimal Impact on Iron In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Karlíčková, Jana; Macáková, Kateřina; Říha, Michal; Pinheiro, Liliane Maria Teixeira; Filipský, Tomáš; Horňasová, Veronika; Hrdina, Radomír; Mladěnka, Přemysl

    2015-01-01

    Isoflavones are commonly consumed in many Asian countries and have potentially positive effects on human being. Only a few and rather controversial data on their interactions with copper and iron are available to date. 13 structurally related isoflavones were tested in the competitive manner for their Cu/Fe-chelating/reducing properties. Notwithstanding the 5-hydroxy-4-keto chelation site was associated with ferric, ferrous, and cupric chelation, the chelation potential of isoflavones was low and no cuprous chelation was observed. None of isoflavones was able to substantially reduce ferric ions, but the vast majority reduced cupric ions. The most important feature for cupric reduction was the presence of an unsubstituted 4′-hydroxyl; contrarily the presence of a free 5-hydroxyl decreased or abolished the reduction due to chelation of cupric ions. The results from this study may enable additional experiments which might clarify the effects of isoflavones on human being and/or mechanisms of copper absorption. PMID:26273421

  7. Copper changes the yield and cadmium/zinc accumulation and cellular distribution in the cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhu; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2013-10-15

    Non-accumulated metals in mixed metal contaminated soils may affect hyperaccumulator growth and metal accumulation and thus remediation efficiency. Two hydroponics experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of copper (Cu) on cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) accumulation by the Cd/Zn hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola, Cu toxicity and plant detoxification using chemical sequential extraction of metals, sub-cellular separation, micro synchrotron radiation based X-ray fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. Compared with the control (0.31 μM Cu), 5-50 μM Cu had no significant effect on Cd/Zn accumulation, but Cu at 200 μM induced root cell plasmolysis and disordered chloroplast structure. The plants held Cu in the roots and cell walls and complexed Cu in insoluble forms as their main detoxification mechanisms. Exposure to 200 μM Cu for 4 days inhibited plant Cd uptake and translocation but did not affect Zn concentrations in roots and stems. Moreover, unloading of Cd and Zn from stem to leaf was restrained compared to control plants, perhaps due to Cu accumulation in leaf veins. Copper may thus interfere with root Cd uptake and restrain Cd/Zn unloading to the leaves. Further investigation of how Cu affects plant metal uptake may help elucidate the Cd/Zn hyper-accumulating mechanisms of S. plumbizincicola. PMID:23959253

  8. Loading estimates of lead, copper, cadmium, and zinc in urban runoff from specific sources.

    PubMed

    Davis, A P; Shokouhian, M; Ni, S

    2001-08-01

    Urban stormwater runoff is being recognized as a substantial source of pollutants to receiving waters. A number of investigators have found significant levels of metals in runoff from urban areas, especially in highway runoff. As an initiatory study, this work estimates lead, copper, cadmium, and zinc loadings from various sources in a developed area utilizing information available in the literature, in conjunction with controlled experimental and sampling investigations. Specific sources examined include building siding and roofs; automobile brakes, tires, and oil leakage; and wet and dry atmospheric deposition. Important sources identified are building siding for all four metals, vehicle brake emissions for copper and tire wear for zinc. Atmospheric deposition is an important source for cadmium, copper, and lead. Loadings and source distributions depend on building and automobile density assumptions and the type of materials present in the area examined. Identified important sources are targeted for future comprehensive mechanistic studies. Improved information on the metal release and distributions from the specific sources, along with detailed characterization of watershed areas will allow refinements in the predictions. PMID:11513434

  9. Cadmium and copper uptake and translocation in five willow (Salix L.) species.

    PubMed

    Kuzovkina, Yulia A; Knee, Michael; Quigley, Martin F

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy for phytoremediation of five willow species was tested by experimental copper and cadmium uptake in a greenhouse hydroponic system. Five treatments included two concentrations (5 and 25 microM for each metal) and a control. Metal concentrations in solution as well as solution uptake were monitored. Metal resistance was assessed through effects on the dry weight of roots and shoots. The willow species tested were generally resistant of increased Cu and Cd content. Metal accumulation was found in all plant organs of all species. Growth and transpiration were not decreased by 5 microM of copper and 25 microM of cadmium in the solution for most species. 25 microM copper caused injury and reduced the dry weight for all species after 21 d. Salix nigra was highly resistant of both Cu and Cd and accumulated more metals than other species. Future field study should be conducted to confirm the findings and feasibility of the phytoremediation technology using those species.

  10. Radiation induced chemical activity at iron and copper oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, Sarah C.

    The radiolysis of three iron oxides, two copper oxides, and aluminum oxide with varying amounts of water were performed using gamma-rays and 5 MeV 4He ions. The adsorbed water on the surfaces was characterized using temperature programmed desorption and diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy, which indicated that all of the oxides had chemisorbed water on the surface. Physisorbed water was observed on the Fe2O 3 and Al2O3 surfaces as well. Molecular hydrogen was produced from adsorbed water only on Fe2O3 and Al 2O3, while the other compounds did not show any hydrogen production due to the low amounts of water on the surfaces. Slurries of varying amounts of water were also examined for hydrogen production, and they showed yields that were greater than the yield for bulk water. However, the yields of hydrogen from the copper compounds were much lower than those of the iron suggesting that the copper oxides are relatively inert to radiation induced damage to nearby water. X-ray diffraction measurements did not show any indication of changes to the bulk crystal structure due to radiolysis for any of the oxides. The surfaces of the oxides were analyzed using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). For the iron samples, FeO and Fe3O4, Raman spectroscopy revealed areas of Fe2O3 had formed following irradiation with He ions. XPS indicated the formation of a new oxygen species on the iron oxide surfaces. Raman spectroscopy of the copper oxides did not reveal any changes in the surface composition, however, XPS measurements showed a decrease in the amount of OH groups on the surface of Cu2O, while for the CuO samples the amount of OH groups were found to increase following radiolysis. Pristine Al2O3 showed the presence of a surface oxyhydroxide layer which was observed to decrease following radiolysis, consistent with the formation of molecular hydrogen.

  11. Effect of cadmium on prenatal development and on tissue cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Baranski, B.

    1987-02-01

    Administration of 60 and 180 ppm Cd in the drinking water of female rats from Day 1 to Day 20 of gestation resulted in a pronounced accumulation of Cd in all organs examined with the highest increase in the intestinal wall. The copper concentration was decreased in the liver and in the intestine of females from both groups in a dose-dependent manner and in the blood of females given Cd (180 ppm). The zinc concentration was decreased only in the kidney and the intestine of females from the higher level group. The serum glucose level, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were not affected in maternal blood, but the hematocrit was reduced in fetal blood in the 60-ppm Cd group. The fetal body weight and length were decreased in both groups though litter size was not affected. The fetal growth retardation was not concomitant with an increase of Cd concentration or with a decrease of copper and zinc concentration in fetal organs. Cd concentration was not changed in the fetal brain, liver, and kidney and increased only in the gastrointestinal tract of fetuses from the 180-ppm Cd group. The zinc concentration was decreased in fetal liver in the 180-ppm group and in brain of fetuses from the 60-ppm Cd group. The copper concentration was decreased in the gastrointestinal tract and increased in kidney of fetuses from the higher level group.

  12. Diffusive gradient in thin films technique for assessment of cadmium and copper bioaccessibility to radish (Raphanus sativus).

    PubMed

    Dočekalová, Hana; Škarpa, Petr; Dočekal, Bohumil

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cadmium and copper uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus) and to test the capability of the diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique to predict bioaccessibility of the metals for this plant. Radish plants were grown in pots filled with uncontaminated control and artificially contaminated soils differing in cadmium and copper contents. Metal concentrations in plants were compared with free ion metal concentrations in soil solution, and concentrations measured by DGT. Significant correlation was found between metal fluxes to plant and metal fluxes into DGT. Pearson correlation coefficient for cadmium was 0.994 and for copper 0.998. The obtained results showed that DGT offers the possibility of simple test procedure for soils and can be used as a physical surrogate for plant uptake.

  13. Phycoremediation and adsorption isotherms of cadmium and copper ions by Merismopedia tenuissima and their effect on growth and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fawzy, Mustafa A

    2016-09-01

    The current study tends to investigate the removal of cadmium and copper ions by Merismopedia tenuissima, grown in different concentrations of cadmium and copper ions, as well to investigate their effects on growth and metabolism. Sorption isotherms of Langmuir and Freundlich were obtained for the quantitative description of cadmium and copper uptake by M. tenuissima. Langmuir model adequately to describe the data of biosorption for these metals. However, the Freundlich model could work well in case of Cu(2+) only. M. tenuissima appears to be more efficient for removing Cd(2+) ions than Cu(2+). However, the affinity constant of Cu(2+) on the biomass of M. tenuissima was higher than Cd(2+) indicating that M. tenuissima is more tolerant to Cd(2+) phytotoxicity than Cu(2+). FTIR analysis of algae with and without biosorption revealed the presence of carboxyl, amino, amide and hydroxyl groups, which were responsible for biosorption of Cd(+2) and Cu(+2) ions. PMID:27458699

  14. Intestinal absorption of dietary cadmium in women depends on body iron stores and fiber intake.

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, M; Akesson, A; Nermell, B; Vahter, M

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of intake and uptake of cadmium in relation to diet composition were carried out in 57 nonsmoking women, 20-50 years of age. A vegetarian/high-fiber diet and a mixed-diet group were constructed based on results from a food frequency questionnaire. Duplicate diets and the corresponding feces were collected during 4 consecutive days in parallel with dietary recording of type and amount of food ingested for determination of the dietary intake of cadmium and various nutrients. Blood and 24-hr urine samples were collected for determination of cadmium, hemoglobin, ferritin, and zinc. There were no differences in the intake of nutrients between the mixed-diet and the high-fiber diet groups, except for a significantly higher intake of fiber (p < 0.001) and cadmium (p < 0.002) in the high-fiber group. Fecal cadmium corresponded to 98% in the mixed-diet group and 100% in the high-fiber diet group. No differences in blood cadmium (BCd) or urinary cadmium (UCd) between groups could be detected. There was a tendency toward higher BCd and UCd concentrations with increasing fiber intake; however, the concentrations were not statistically significant at the 5% level, indicating an inhibitory effect of fiber on the gastrointestinal absorption of cadmium. Sixty-seven percent of the women had serum ferritin < 30 micrograms/l, indicating reduced body iron stores, which were highly associated with higher BCd (irrespective of fiber intake). BCd was mainly correlated with UCd, serum ferritin, age, anf fibre intake. UCd and serum ferritin explained almost 60% of the variation in BCd.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:7713018

  15. VAPOR PHASE MERCURY SORPTION BY ORGANIC-SULFIDE COATED BIMETALLIC IRON-COPPER NANOPARTICLE AGGREGATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tetra sulfide silane coated iron-copper nano-particle aggregates are found to be potentially very high capacity sorbents for vapor phase mercury capture. High equilibrium capacities were obtained for the silane coated iron copper nano-aggregate sorbent at 70 oC and 120 oC. Even a...

  16. Copper Accumulates in Hemosiderins in Livers of Patients with Iron Overload Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yukiya; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Wakusawa, Shinya; Hayashi, Hisao; Kumagai, Kotaro; Morotomi, Natsuko; Yamashita, Tetsuji; Kawanaka, Miwa; Watanabe, Minemori; Ozawa, Hiroaki; Tai, Mayumi; Miyajima, Hiroaki; Yoshioka, Kentarou; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Goto, Hidemi

    2015-06-28

    In biology, redox reactions are essential and sometimes harmful, and therefore, iron metabolism is tightly regulated by cuproproteins. Since the state of copper in iron overload syndromes remains unclear, we investigated whether copper metabolism is altered in these syndromes. Eleven patients with iron overload syndromes participated in this study. The clinical diagnoses were aceruloplasminemia (n=2), hemochromatosis (n=5), ferroportin disease (n=2), and receiving excess intravenous iron supplementation (n=2). Liver specimens were analyzed using a light microscope and transmission electron microscope equipped with an X-ray analyzer. In addition to a large amount of iron associated with oxygen and phosphorus, the iron-rich hemosiderins of hepatocytes and Kupffer cells contained small amounts of copper and sulfur, regardless of disease etiology. Two-dimensional imaging clearly showed that cuproproteins were distributed homogenously with iron complexes within hemosiderins. Copper stasis was unlikely in noncirrhotic patients. The enhanced induction of cuproproteins by excess iron may contribute to copper accumulation in hemosiderins. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that copper accumulates in hemosiderins in iron overload conditions, perhaps due to alterations in copper metabolism. PMID:26356991

  17. Interface driven magnetic interactions in nanostructured thin films of iron nanocrystallites embedded in a copper matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Desautels, R. D. Lierop, J. van; Shueh, C.; Lin, K.-W.; Freeland, J. W.

    2015-05-07

    We have fabricated thin films of iron nanocrystallites embedded in a copper matrix using a dual ion beam assisted deposition technique. A secondary End-Hall ion beam bombarded the iron atoms during deposition altering significantly the morphology of the films and allowing for control of the intermixing between iron and copper components. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and x-ray reflectometry experiments indicated that the morphology of the films was that of iron nanocrystallites embedded in a copper matrix. Rietveld refinements of the diffraction pattern identified fcc-copper and amorphous iron. An increased amount of disorder was observed with a reduction in the amount of deposited iron from a 1:1 Fe:Cu ratio to 0.25:0.75 Fe:Cu ratio. Interfacial copper-iron alloys were identified by DC susceptibility experiments through their reduced T{sub C,Alloy} (370, 310, and 280 K) compared with that of bulk iron (∼1000 K). Element specific x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments were performed to identify the contributions to the magnetism from the iron and the copper-iron alloy.

  18. [Content of iron, copper and zinc in plasma of women with leiomyoma of the uterus].

    PubMed

    Tantchev, L; Tantchev, S; Mutaftchiev, K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the plasma iron, copper and zinc concentration in group of 22 women with leiomyoma of the uterus (group A) and control group of 25 women (group B). The plasma iron and copper concentrations were significantly decreased in group A compared to the group B. No significantly difference was observed between plasma copper concentration of the groups A and B.

  19. 77 FR 36980 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot as Nontoxic for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... of Copper-Clad Iron Shot as Nontoxic for Waterfowl Hunting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... composed of copper and iron as nontoxic for waterfowl hunting in the United States. The shot contains a maximum of 44.1 percent copper by weight, with iron composing the rest of the shot. We have...

  20. Response of plasma copper, ceruloplasmin, iron and ions in carp, Cyprinus carpio to waterborne copper ion and nanoparticle exposure.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Aliakbar; Hoseini, Seyyed Morteza; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Cyprinus carpio was exposed to 0.25mgL(-1) copper as either copper sulfate (CuSO4) or copper oxide nanoparticles (nano-Cu), and 25mgL(-1) copper as nano-Cu for 14days. CuSO4 and high concentration of nano-Cu led to a significant increase in plasma total copper levels. Plasma free copper levels increased significantly in all copper-exposed treatments. Except for low concentration of nano-Cu after 7 and 14days, copper exposure generally led to a significant decrease in plasma ceruloplasmin levels. Plasma iron levels increased significantly in CuSO4 (all times) and nano-Cu (7th and 14th days) treatments. A significant elevation in plasma total iron binding capacity (TIBC) was observed after 3days in the fish exposed to low concentration nano-Cu, and after 14days in all copper-exposed treatments. Transferrin saturation (TSA) ratio showed significant increase in CuSO4 (3rd and 7th days) and the high concentration nano-Cu (7th day) treatments. Decrease in plasma chloride (7th and 14th days) and sodium (14th days) was observed in CuSO4 treatment. In conclusion, the results suggest that ionic copper is mainly absorbed via fish gill, whereas, nano-copper are more likely absorbed via gut. Also, data suggest that ionic copper has more adverse effects on the examined plasma biochemical characteristics compared to the equivalent nano-copper concentration, which may be due to the lower copper absorption by fish in the nano-copper suspension. PMID:26408942

  1. Response of plasma copper, ceruloplasmin, iron and ions in carp, Cyprinus carpio to waterborne copper ion and nanoparticle exposure.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Aliakbar; Hoseini, Seyyed Morteza; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Cyprinus carpio was exposed to 0.25mgL(-1) copper as either copper sulfate (CuSO4) or copper oxide nanoparticles (nano-Cu), and 25mgL(-1) copper as nano-Cu for 14days. CuSO4 and high concentration of nano-Cu led to a significant increase in plasma total copper levels. Plasma free copper levels increased significantly in all copper-exposed treatments. Except for low concentration of nano-Cu after 7 and 14days, copper exposure generally led to a significant decrease in plasma ceruloplasmin levels. Plasma iron levels increased significantly in CuSO4 (all times) and nano-Cu (7th and 14th days) treatments. A significant elevation in plasma total iron binding capacity (TIBC) was observed after 3days in the fish exposed to low concentration nano-Cu, and after 14days in all copper-exposed treatments. Transferrin saturation (TSA) ratio showed significant increase in CuSO4 (3rd and 7th days) and the high concentration nano-Cu (7th day) treatments. Decrease in plasma chloride (7th and 14th days) and sodium (14th days) was observed in CuSO4 treatment. In conclusion, the results suggest that ionic copper is mainly absorbed via fish gill, whereas, nano-copper are more likely absorbed via gut. Also, data suggest that ionic copper has more adverse effects on the examined plasma biochemical characteristics compared to the equivalent nano-copper concentration, which may be due to the lower copper absorption by fish in the nano-copper suspension.

  2. Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in aquatic food chains from the Upper Sacramento River (California) and selected tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, M.K.; Castleberry, D. T.; May, T. W.; Martin, B.A.; Bullard, F. N.

    1995-01-01

    Metals enter the Upper Sacramento River above Redding, California, primarily through Spring Creek, a tributary that receives acid-mine drainage from a US EPA Superfund site known locally as Iron Mountain Mine. Waterweed (Elodea canadensis) and aquatic insects (midge larvae, Chironomidae; and mayfly nymphs, Ephemeroptera) from the Sacramento River downstream from Spring Creek contained much higher concentrations of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) than did similar taxa from nearby reference tributaries not exposed to acid-mine drainage. Aquatic insects from the Sacramento River contained especially high maximum concentrations of Cu (200 mg/kg dry weight in midge larvae), Cd (23 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs), and Zn (1,700 mg/kg dry weight in mayfly nymphs). Although not always statistically significant, whole-body concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn in fishes (threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus; Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis; Sacramento squawfish, Ptychocheilus grandis; and chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytasch) from the Sacramento River were generally higher than in fishes from the reference tributaries.

  3. Derived reference doses for three compounds used in the photovoltaics industry: Copper indium diselenide, copper gallium diselenide, and cadmium telluride

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Bernholc, N.; DePhillips, M.P.; Viren, J.

    1995-07-06

    Polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic modules made from copper indium diselenide (CIS), copper gallium diselenide (CGS), and cadmium telluride (CdTe) arc nearing commercial development. A wide range of issues are being examined as these materials move from the laboratory to large-scale production facilities to ensure their commercial success. Issues of traditional interest include module efficiency, stability and cost. More recently, there is increased focus given to environmental, health and safety issues surrounding the commercialization of these same devices. An examination of the toxicological properties of these materials, and their chemical parents is fundamental to this discussion. Chemicals that can present large hazards to human health or the environment are regulated often more strictly than those that are less hazardous. Stricter control over how these materials are handled and disposed can increase the costs associated with the production and use of these modules dramatically. Similarly, public perception can be strongly influenced by the inherent biological hazard that these materials possess. Thus, this report: presents a brief background tutorial on how toxicological data are developed and used; overviews the toxicological data available for CIS, CGS and CdTe; develops ``reference doses`` for each of these compounds; compares the reference doses for these compounds with those of their parents; discusses the implications of these findings to photovoltaics industry.

  4. In Absence of the Cellular Prion Protein, Alterations in Copper Metabolism and Copper-Dependent Oxidase Activity Affect Iron Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Gasperini, Lisa; Meneghetti, Elisa; Legname, Giuseppe; Benetti, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Essential elements as copper and iron modulate a wide range of physiological functions. Their metabolism is strictly regulated by cellular pathways, since dysregulation of metal homeostasis is responsible for many detrimental effects. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and prion diseases are characterized by alterations of metal ions. These neurodegenerative maladies involve proteins that bind metals and mediate their metabolism through not well-defined mechanisms. Prion protein, for instance, interacts with divalent cations via multiple metal-binding sites and it modulates several metal-dependent physiological functions, such as S-nitrosylation of NMDA receptors. In this work we focused on the effect of prion protein absence on copper and iron metabolism during development and adulthood. In particular, we investigated copper and iron functional values in serum and several organs such as liver, spleen, total brain and isolated hippocampus. Our results show that iron content is diminished in prion protein-null mouse serum, while it accumulates in liver and spleen. Our data suggest that these alterations can be due to impairments in copper-dependent cerulopalsmin activity which is known to affect iron mobilization. In prion protein-null mouse total brain and hippocampus, metal ion content shows a fluctuating trend, suggesting the presence of homeostatic compensatory mechanisms. However, copper and iron functional values are likely altered also in these two organs, as indicated by the modulation of metal-binding protein expression levels. Altogether, these results reveal that the absence of the cellular prion protein impairs copper metabolism and copper-dependent oxidase activity, with ensuing alteration of iron mobilization from cellular storage compartments. PMID:27729845

  5. [Effects of heavy metal (copper and cadmium) coupled with Ulca pertusa on marine inorganic carbon system in simulated experiments].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guo-xia; Song, Jin-ming; Dai, Ji-cui

    2006-12-01

    Simulated experiments coupled with ocean biota dynamics were performed in laboratory. In these experiments, effects of heavy metal (copper and cadmium) coupled with Ulca pertusa on marine inorganic carbon system and CO2 fluxes were investigated. The results indicated that concentration changes (delta) of components in carbon dioxide system with time scale were correlated with the concentrations and kinds of heavy metal. In copper groups and cadmium groups (0.1 micromol x L(-1) and 1 micromol x L(-1)), DIC HCO3- and PCO2 significantly decreased comparing to the control experiment data( p = 0.01). However, when the heavy metal infusions were higher than the "critical concentration", the above mentioned parameters increased with time scale and their increments followed the uptrend with increasing heavy metal concentrations. The "critical concentration" in copper groups was much lower than that in cadmium groups, which attributed to the tolerance diversity of Ulca pertusa to copper and cadmium. Furthermore, CO2 fluxes under the influences of heavy metal were also regularly changed with time. Sea waters with low infusions of heavy metal represented as sinks to the atmosphere CO2. These sinks would probably convert into CO2 sources after a period of time. Sea waters with comparatively high amount of heavy metal were always to be CO2 sources, and their release fluxes of CO2 augmented along with the increasing infusions of heavy metal.

  6. Binary adsorption of copper(II) and cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by biomass of marine alga Durvillaea potatorum

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Q.; Kaewsarn, P.

    1999-06-01

    Much work on the biosorption of heavy metals by low-cost, natural biomass has been on the uptake of single metals. In practice, wastewaters often contain multiple heavy metal ions. In this paper the binary adsorption of copper(II) and cadmium(II) by a pretreated biomass of the marine alga Durvillaea potatorum from aqueous solutions was studied. The results showed that the uptake capacities for each heavy metal of the binary system were lower when compared with the single metal biosorption for copper and cadmium, respectively, but the total capacities for the binary system were similar to those obtained for single metal biosorption. The uptake capacities for copper and cadmium increased as the equilibrium pH increased and reached a plateau at a pH around 5.0. The uptake process was relatively fast, with 90% of the adsorption completed within 10 minutes for copper and 30 minutes for cadmium, and equilibrium reached after about 60 minutes of stirring. The biosorption isotherms of binary systems were not significantly affected by equilibrium temperature. The presence of light metal ions in solution also did not affect adsorption significantly. The binary adsorption was successfully predicted by the extended Langmuir model, using parameters and capacities obtained from single component systems.

  7. Simultaneous Determination of Copper, Lead, and Cadmium at Hexagonal Mesoporous Silica Immobilized Quercetin Modified Carbon Paste Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Fangquan; Zhang, Xin; Zhou, Changli; Sun, Danzi; Dong, Yanmin; Liu, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    A new method was developed for simultaneous determination of copper, lead, and cadmium, based on their voltammetric response at a carbon paste electrode modified with hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) immobilized quercetin (HMS-Qu/CPE). Compared with quercetin modified carbon paste electrode (Qu/CPE) and quercetin ionic liquid modified carbon paste electrode (Qu-IL/CPE), the HMS-Qu/CPE exhibited improved selectivity and high sensitivity toward the detection of copper, lead, and cadmium. The properties of the HMS-Qu/CPE in 0.1 M HCOONa-HCl buffer solution (pH4.7) were investigated by adsorptive stripping voltammetry (ASV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behavior of copper, lead, and cadmium at the modified electrodes and factors affecting the preconcentration procedures were also investigated. Detection limits of 5.0, 0.8, 1.0 nM for copper, lead, and cadmium were obtained, respectively. The method is simple, fast, sensitive, and selective, and is successfully applied to soil sample. PMID:20445747

  8. Enzyme activity alteration by cadmium administration to rats: the possibility of iron involvement in lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Casalino, E; Sblano, C; Landriscina, C

    1997-10-15

    The specific activities of D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) are reduced in the liver and kidney of rats intoxicated with 2.5 mg Cd/kg body wt and sacrificed after 24 h; conversely ketone-body concentration is strongly increased in both of these organs and blood. In the same animals a great stimulation of antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase occurs. The prooxidant state induced by cadmium in liver mitochondria and microsomes is unaffected by superoxide dismutase, catalase, or mannitol, whereas it is completely blocked by vitamin E thus excluding the involvement of reactive oxygen species in this process. The mechanism by which cadmium induces lipid peroxidation has been investigated by measuring the effect of this metal on liposomes. Ninety-minute treatment of liposomes with CdCl2 does not induce any lipid peroxidation. In contrast, Fe2+ ions under the same conditions cause strong liposome peroxidation. It has also been observed that cadmium promotes a time-dependent iron release from biological membranes. When lipid peroxidation is induced by a low concentration (5 microM) of FeCl2, in place of CdCl2, the characteristics of this process and the sensitivity to the various antioxidants used are similar to those observed with Cd. From these results we conclude that the prooxidative effect of cadmium is an indirect one since it is mediated by iron. With regard to the inhibitory effect on BDH and GDH following cadmium intoxication, it does not appear to be imputable to lipid peroxidation since in vitro investigations indicate that the presence of vitamin E does not remove the inhibition at all. PMID:9343363

  9. Removal of copper from carbon-saturated steel with an aluminum sulfide/iron sulfide slag

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.; Blander, M.

    1995-12-01

    Scrap iron and steel has long been considered a resource in the steel-making industry, and its value is largely determined by its impurity content. As the mini-mills, the major consumers of scrap iron and steel, expand into producing flat-rolled sheet, the demand for high-quality scrap will increase. Of the impurities present in scrap, copper is particularly troublesome because of its role in causing hot shortness. Therefore, the copper content of scrap should be kept below {approx} 0.1 wt%. A method for removing copper from steel could be used to improve the quality of scrap and make it more available for use by mini-mills. To determine the effectiveness of a binary slag consisting of aluminum sulfide and iron sulfide on the removal of copper from steel and iron, the distribution coefficient of copper between the slag and a carbon-saturated iron melt was investigated at 1,365 C. The composition of the slag was varied from nearly pure aluminum sulfide to pure iron sulfide. A maximum distribution coefficient of 30 was found, and the copper level in the iron melt was reduced to as low as 0.07 wt.% with a 4:1 ratio of iron to slag.

  10. Cadmium inhalation and male reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ragan, H A; Mast, T J

    1990-01-01

    Cadmium is a highly toxic element that is cumulative and has a long biological half-life in mammals. The severe toxicity of cadmium in man has been known for more than 100 years. Despite the knowledge that cadmium is toxic, only 20 human cases of poisoning via ingestion were recorded prior to 1941, whereas in the ensuing five-year period more than 680 cases of cadmium poisonings from accidental oral ingestion of this metal were documented. Some of the recorded effects of exposure to cadmium in laboratory animals include renal tubular damage, placental and testicular necrosis, structural and functional liver damage, osteomalacia, testicular tumors, teratogenic malformations, anemia, hypertension, pulmonary edema, chronic pulmonary emphysema, and induced deficiencies of iron, copper, and zinc. Some of these effects have also been observed in human after accidental exposures to cadmium oxide fumes and are characteristic of the syndrome described in Japan as Itai Itai disease in which ingestion of cadmium is the inciting chemical.

  11. Hereditary iron and copper deposition: diagnostics, pathogenesis and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Aaseth, Jan; Flaten, Trond Peder; Andersen, Ole

    2007-06-01

    Hereditary deposition of iron (primary haemochromatosis) or copper (Wilson's disease) are autosomal recessive metabolic disease characterized by progressive liver pathology and subsequent involvement of various other organs. The prevalence of primary haemochromatosis is approximately 0.5%, about 200 times higher than the prevalence of Wilson's disease. The two diseases are characterized by homozygous occurrences of mutations in the HFE gene on chromosome 6 (primary haemochromatosis) and the ATP7B gene on chromosome 13 (Wilson's disease). Unlike most other inherited conditions, these diseases can be successfully treated, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis. Serum ferritin values, transferrin saturation and genetic analysis are used when diagnosing haemochromatosis. The diagnostics of Wilson's disease depends on the use of urinary copper values, serum ceruloplasmin and liver biopsy. If untreated, both of these genetic diseases result in rapidly progressing multiorgan damage and early death. The key treatment for haemochromatosis is phlebotomy, for Wilson's disease chelation or Zn treatment. Although the present treatments considerably improve the prognosis of patients, they may be inadequate in patients diagnosed so late that extensive body deposits of metal have been developed. The main research needs in this field are to further clarify molecular mechanisms of disease progression and to develop new chelators that are more effective and less toxic than those presently available.

  12. The commercialization of the FENIX iron control system for purifying copper electrowinning electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, D. R.; Dreisinger, D. B.; Lancaster, T.; Richmond, G. D.; Tomlinson, M.

    2004-07-01

    The FENIX Hydromet Iron Control System was installed at Western Metals Copper Ltd.’s Mt. Gordon Operations in Queensland, Australia. The system uses a novel and patented ion-exchange resin to selectively remove iron from copper electrolyte at the solvent extraction/electrowinning plant. At Mt. Gordon, the system delivered significant savings in reagent consumption (acid and cobalt sulfate for electrowinning and lime for neutralization of the raffinate bleed) and has the potential to deliver higher current efficiencies in copper electrowinning, leading to increased copper production.

  13. Mercury and cadmium trigger expression of the copper importer Ctr1B, which enables Drosophila to thrive on heavy metal-loaded food.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Kuppusamy; Hua, Haiqing; Georgiev, Oleg; Schaffner, Walter

    2009-02-01

    Organisms from insects to mammals respond to heavy metal load (copper, zinc, cadmium, and mercury) by activating the metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1). MTF-1 binds to short DNA sequence motifs, termed metal response elements, and boosts transcription of a number of genes, notably those for metallothioneins. In Drosophila, MTF-1 somewhat counter-intuitively also activates transcription of a copper importer gene (Ctr1B) in response to copper starvation. Here, we report that mutant flies lacking Ctr1B are extremely sensitive to cadmium and mercury treatment, but can be rescued by excess copper in the food. We thus propose that copper, by competing for binding sites on cellular proteins, alleviates the toxic effects of mercury and cadmium. Such a scenario also explains a seemingly fortuitous metal response, namely, that cadmium and mercury strongly induce the expression of a Ctr1B reporter gene. Thus, the transcription enhancer/promoter region of the Ctr1B copper importer gene is subject to three modes of regulation. All of them depend on MTF-1 and all make biological sense, namely, (i) induction by copper starvation, (ii) repression by copper abundance, and (iii), as shown here, induction by cadmium or mercury at normal copper supply.

  14. The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2011-07-15

    Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood

  15. High-Iron Consumption Impairs Growth and Causes Copper-Deficiency Anemia in Weanling Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jung-Heun; Doguer, Caglar; Wang, Xiaoyu; Flores, Shireen R; Collins, James F

    2016-01-01

    Iron-copper interactions were described decades ago; however, molecular mechanisms linking the two essential minerals remain largely undefined. Investigations in humans and other mammals noted that copper levels increase in the intestinal mucosa, liver and blood during iron deficiency, tissues all important for iron homeostasis. The current study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that dietary copper influences iron homeostasis during iron deficiency and iron overload. We thus fed weanling, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6-11/group) AIN-93G-based diets containing high (~8800 ppm), adequate (~80) or low (~11) iron in combination with high (~183), adequate (~8) or low (~0.9) copper for 5 weeks. Subsequently, the iron- and copper-related phenotype of the rats was assessed. Rats fed the low-iron diets grew slower than controls, with changes in dietary copper not further influencing growth. Unexpectedly, however, high-iron (HFe) feeding also impaired growth. Furthermore, consumption of the HFe diet caused cardiac hypertrophy, anemia, low serum and tissue copper levels and decreased circulating ceruloplasmin activity. Intriguingly, these physiologic perturbations were prevented by adding extra copper to the HFe diet. Furthermore, higher copper levels in the HFe diet increased serum nonheme iron concentration and transferrin saturation, exacerbated hepatic nonheme iron loading and attenuated splenic nonheme iron accumulation. Moreover, serum erythropoietin levels, and splenic erythroferrone and hepatic hepcidin mRNA levels were altered by the dietary treatments in unanticipated ways, providing insight into how iron and copper influence expression of these hormones. We conclude that high-iron feeding of weanling rats causes systemic copper deficiency, and further, that copper influences the iron-overload phenotype. PMID:27537180

  16. High-Iron Consumption Impairs Growth and Causes Copper-Deficiency Anemia in Weanling Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jung-Heun; Doguer, Caglar; Wang, Xiaoyu; Flores, Shireen R.; Collins, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Iron-copper interactions were described decades ago; however, molecular mechanisms linking the two essential minerals remain largely undefined. Investigations in humans and other mammals noted that copper levels increase in the intestinal mucosa, liver and blood during iron deficiency, tissues all important for iron homeostasis. The current study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that dietary copper influences iron homeostasis during iron deficiency and iron overload. We thus fed weanling, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6-11/group) AIN-93G-based diets containing high (~8800 ppm), adequate (~80) or low (~11) iron in combination with high (~183), adequate (~8) or low (~0.9) copper for 5 weeks. Subsequently, the iron- and copper-related phenotype of the rats was assessed. Rats fed the low-iron diets grew slower than controls, with changes in dietary copper not further influencing growth. Unexpectedly, however, high-iron (HFe) feeding also impaired growth. Furthermore, consumption of the HFe diet caused cardiac hypertrophy, anemia, low serum and tissue copper levels and decreased circulating ceruloplasmin activity. Intriguingly, these physiologic perturbations were prevented by adding extra copper to the HFe diet. Furthermore, higher copper levels in the HFe diet increased serum nonheme iron concentration and transferrin saturation, exacerbated hepatic nonheme iron loading and attenuated splenic nonheme iron accumulation. Moreover, serum erythropoietin levels, and splenic erythroferrone and hepatic hepcidin mRNA levels were altered by the dietary treatments in unanticipated ways, providing insight into how iron and copper influence expression of these hormones. We conclude that high-iron feeding of weanling rats causes systemic copper deficiency, and further, that copper influences the iron-overload phenotype. PMID:27537180

  17. Effects of cadmium and copper on chemotaxis of marine and freshwater ciliates

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, S.G.; Gunderson, J.H.; Derk, L.A.

    1985-06-01

    Recommendations of a workshop on biological screening requested the inclusion of behavior studies to reveal subtle, dysfunctional effects of pollutants on organisms and suggestions for additional research in development of behavioral tests incorporated into testing protocols were made at the ASTM Symposium on Aquatic Toxicology. The present study addresses these research needs by examining a rapid behavioral bioassay using protozoa, microfauna with important roles in microbial-based food chains, regeneration of nutrients, and regulation of bacterial populations in aquatic environments. In this study, ciliated protozoa from both marine and freshwater environments were examined with respect to their response to an attractant in the presence of a variety of concentrations of cadmium and copper.

  18. Field screening of chromium, cadmium, zinc, copper, and lead in sediments by stripping analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.B. ); Wang, J.; Setladji, R.; Lu, J. )

    1994-11-01

    Stripping analysis (SA) was successfully employed for field verification of metals contaminants in soils and sediments at hazardous waste sites. Microwave digestion procedures were tailored to meet the needs of field activities and electrochemical measurements. An adsorptive stripping voltammetric (AdSV) scheme was used for monitoring total chromium and for chromium speciation, while conventional anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) were used for measuring cadmium, zinc, copper, and lead. The results demonstrate that SA is capable of on-site identification of contaminated layers in soils and sediments. Concentration values measured by SA correlated well with those obtained by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved atomic or mass spectroscopy methods. The remarkable sensitivity, portability, low-power need, and low cost of SA make it an attractive choice for on-site analysis of selected metals during site characterization and remediation activities. 12 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Overlap of copper and iron uptake systems in mitochondria in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Vest, Katherine E; Wang, Jing; Gammon, Micah G; Maynard, Margaret K; White, Olivia L; Cobine, Jai A; Mahone, Wilkerson K; Cobine, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mitochondrial carrier family protein Pic2 imports copper into the matrix. Deletion of PIC2 causes defects in mitochondrial copper uptake and copper-dependent growth phenotypes owing to decreased cytochrome c oxidase activity. However, copper import is not completely eliminated in this mutant, so alternative transport systems must exist. Deletion of MRS3, a component of the iron import machinery, also causes a copper-dependent growth defect on non-fermentable carbon. Deletion of both PIC2 and MRS3 led to a more severe respiratory growth defect than either individual mutant. In addition, MRS3 expressed from a high copy number vector was able to suppress the oxygen consumption and copper uptake defects of a strain lacking PIC2. When expressed in Lactococcus lactis, Mrs3 mediated copper and iron import. Finally, a PIC2 and MRS3 double mutant prevented the copper-dependent activation of a heterologously expressed copper sensor in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Taken together, these data support a role for the iron transporter Mrs3 in copper import into the mitochondrial matrix.

  20. Overlap of copper and iron uptake systems in mitochondria in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Gammon, Micah G.; Maynard, Margaret K.; White, Olivia L.; Cobine, Jai A.; Mahone, Wilkerson K.

    2016-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mitochondrial carrier family protein Pic2 imports copper into the matrix. Deletion of PIC2 causes defects in mitochondrial copper uptake and copper-dependent growth phenotypes owing to decreased cytochrome c oxidase activity. However, copper import is not completely eliminated in this mutant, so alternative transport systems must exist. Deletion of MRS3, a component of the iron import machinery, also causes a copper-dependent growth defect on non-fermentable carbon. Deletion of both PIC2 and MRS3 led to a more severe respiratory growth defect than either individual mutant. In addition, MRS3 expressed from a high copy number vector was able to suppress the oxygen consumption and copper uptake defects of a strain lacking PIC2. When expressed in Lactococcus lactis, Mrs3 mediated copper and iron import. Finally, a PIC2 and MRS3 double mutant prevented the copper-dependent activation of a heterologously expressed copper sensor in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Taken together, these data support a role for the iron transporter Mrs3 in copper import into the mitochondrial matrix. PMID:26763345

  1. Simultaneous Measurement of Zinc, Copper, Lead and Cadmium in Baby Weaning Food and Powder Milk by DPASV.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abdolazim; Behzad, Masoomeh; Norouzi, Narges; Oveisi, Morvarid; Jannat, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Apart from the breast milk, infant formula and baby weaning food have a special role in infant diet. Infants and young children are very susceptible to amount of trace elements. Copper and zinc are two elements that add in infant food. Lead and cadmium are heavy metals that enter to food chain unavoidably. DPASV is a benefit and applicable method for measurement of trace elements in food products. In this study, concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in four brands of baby food (rice and wheat based) and powder milk was analyzed with DPASV and polarograph set. Total Mean ± SE of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in baby foods (n = 240) were 11.86 ± 1.474 mg/100g, 508.197 ± 83.154 μg/100g, 0.445 ± 0.006, 0.050 ± 0.005 mg/Kg respectively. Also these amount in powder milk (n = 240) were 3.621± 0.529 mg/100g, 403.822 ± 133.953 μg/100g, 0.007 ± 0.003, 0.060 ± 0.040 mg/Kg respectively. Zinc level in baby food type I was higher than lablled value (P = 0.030), but in other brands was not difference. Concentration of copper in all of samples was in labeled range (P > 0.05). In each four products, level of lead and cadmium were lower than the standard limit (P < 0.05). Amount of zinc and lead in baby food I, had difference versus other products. Concentration of zinc, camium in baby food type I, was higher than type II (P = 0.043, 0.001 respectively). Concentration of lead and cadmium in baby food type II, was higher than infant formulas, but are in standard limit.

  2. [The serum copper/serum iron ratio in malignant tumors of the female genitalia].

    PubMed

    Maas, D H; Hinckers, H J

    1975-08-01

    Copper and iron in blood of 83 women with maligne tumors of the genitalia were regulary controled before, during and till 69 weeks after therapy. The relation between the copper/iron-ratio and the expansion and histology of the tumors, the success of the therapy and the incidence of a recurrence was checked for any significancy. Our results show the improtance of the ratio in the diagnosis and differentialdiagnosis of the ovarian-cancer and the corpus-uteri-cancer, and in the success-controll during tumor-therapy. In the group of the patients with collum-uteri-cancer we found a significant difference in the copper/iron-ratio of the patients with and without a recurrence during the controllperiod after therapy, which emphasizes the importance of this copper/iron-ratio.

  3. Environmental Exposure to Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium in People Living near Janghang Copper Smelter in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Dae; Eom, Sang-Yong; Yim, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, In-Soo; Won, Hee-Kwan; Park, Choong-Hee; Kim, Guen-Bae; Yu, Seung-Do; Choi, Byung-Sun; Park, Jung-Duck; Kim, Heon

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals exceed safety thresholds in the soil near Janghang Copper Refinery, a smelter in Korea that operated from 1936 to 1989. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of exposure to toxic metals and the potential effect on health in people living near the smelter. The study included 572 adults living within 4 km of the smelter and compared them with 413 controls group of people living similar lifestyles in a rural area approximately 15 km from the smelter. Urinary arsenic (As) level did not decrease according to the distance from the smelter, regardless of gender and working history in smelters and mines. However, in subjects who had no occupational exposure to toxic metals, blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and urinary Cd decreased according to the distance from the smelter, both in men and women. Additionally, the distance from the smelter was a determinant factor for a decrease of As, Pb, and Cd in multiple regression models, respectively. On the other hands, urinary Cd was a risk factor for renal tubular dysfunction in populations living near the smelter. These results suggest that Janghang copper smelter was a main contamination source of As, Pb, and Cd, and populations living near the smelter suffered some adverse health effects as a consequence. The local population should be advised to make efforts to reduce exposure to environmental contaminants, in order to minimize potential health effects, and to pay close attention to any health problems possibly related to toxic metal exposure. PMID:27051230

  4. Environmental Exposure to Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium in People Living near Janghang Copper Smelter in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals exceed safety thresholds in the soil near Janghang Copper Refinery, a smelter in Korea that operated from 1936 to 1989. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of exposure to toxic metals and the potential effect on health in people living near the smelter. The study included 572 adults living within 4 km of the smelter and compared them with 413 controls group of people living similar lifestyles in a rural area approximately 15 km from the smelter. Urinary arsenic (As) level did not decrease according to the distance from the smelter, regardless of gender and working history in smelters and mines. However, in subjects who had no occupational exposure to toxic metals, blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and urinary Cd decreased according to the distance from the smelter, both in men and women. Additionally, the distance from the smelter was a determinant factor for a decrease of As, Pb, and Cd in multiple regression models, respectively. On the other hands, urinary Cd was a risk factor for renal tubular dysfunction in populations living near the smelter. These results suggest that Janghang copper smelter was a main contamination source of As, Pb, and Cd, and populations living near the smelter suffered some adverse health effects as a consequence. The local population should be advised to make efforts to reduce exposure to environmental contaminants, in order to minimize potential health effects, and to pay close attention to any health problems possibly related to toxic metal exposure. PMID:27051230

  5. OPT3 Is a Component of the Iron-Signaling Network between Leaves and Roots and Misregulation of OPT3 Leads to an Over-Accumulation of Cadmium in Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Cózatl, David G.; Xie, Qingqing; Akmakjian, Garo Z.; Jobe, Timothy O.; Patel, Ami; Stacey, Minviluz G.; Song, Lihui; Demoin, Dustin Wayne; Jurisson, Silvia S.; Stacey, Gary; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2014-01-01

    Plants and seeds are the main dietary sources of zinc, iron, manganese, and copper, but are also the main entry point for toxic elements such as cadmium into the food chain. We report here that an Arabidopsis oligopeptide transporter mutant, opt3-2, over-accumulates cadmium (Cd) in seeds and roots but, unexpectedly, under-accumulates Cd in leaves. The cadmium distribution in opt3-2 differs from iron, zinc, and manganese, suggesting a metal-specific mechanism for metal partitioning within the plant. The opt3-2 mutant constitutively up-regulates the Fe/Zn/Cd transporter IRT1 and FRO2 in roots, indicative of an iron-deficiency response. No genetic mutants that impair the shoot-to-root signaling of iron status in leaves have been identified. Interestingly, shoot-specific expression of OPT3 rescues the Cd sensitivity and complements the aberrant expression of IRT1 in opt3-2 roots, suggesting that OPT3 is required to relay the iron status from leaves to roots. OPT3 expression was found in the vasculature with preferential expression in the phloem at the plasma membrane. Using radioisotope experiments, we found that mobilization of Fe from leaves is severely affected in opt3-2, suggesting that Fe mobilization out of leaves is required for proper trace-metal homeostasis. When expressed in yeast, OPT3 does not localize to the plasma membrane, precluding the identification of the OPT3 substrate. Our in planta results show that OPT3 is important for leaf phloem-loading of iron and plays a key role regulating Fe, Zn, and Cd distribution within the plant. Furthermore, ferric chelate reductase activity analyses provide evidence that iron is not the sole signal transferred from leaves to roots in leaf iron status signaling. PMID:24880337

  6. Iron, Manganese and Copper Release from Synthetic Hydroxyapatite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Hossner, L. R.; Ming, Douglas W.

    1999-01-01

    Kinetic stir-flow dissolution experiments were performed on iron- (Fe-SHA), manganese- (Mn-SHA), and copper- (Cu-SHA) containing synthetic hydroxyapatites. Solution treatments consisted of de-ionized water, citric acid and DTPA. Initially, Mn concentrations were higher than Cu concentrations and Fe concentrations were the lowest in all treatments. At later times Mn and Cu concentrations dropped in the DTPA treatment while Fe rose to the concentration similar to Mn and Cu. At all times, metal release concentrations in the water and citric acid treatments followed the trend of Mn>Cu>Fe. Rietveld analysis of x-ray diffraction data and ^31P NMR indicated that the metals substituted for Ca in the SHA structure. However, EPR data suggested that a metal (hydr)oxide phase existed either on the SHA surface or between the SHA crystallites. The metal concentration trend of Mn>Cu>Fe suggested that the initial solution metal concentrations are dependent on the dissolution of (hydr)oxides from SHA surfaces or between SHA crystallites. Similar metal concentrations at later times in the DTPA experiments suggests that metal concentrations were controlled by the release of Mn, Cu, or Fe from the SHA structure.

  7. Methane monooxygenase: functionalizing methane at iron and copper.

    PubMed

    Sazinsky, Matthew H; Lippard, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Methane monooxygenases (MMOs) catalyze the conversion of methane to methanol as the first committed step in the assimilation of this hydrocarbon into biomass and energy by methanotrophs, thus playing a significant role in the biogeochemistry of this potent greenhouse gas. Two distinct enzymes, a copper-dependent membrane protein, particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO), and an iron-dependent cytosolic protein, soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO), carry out this transformation using large protein scaffolds that help to facilitate the timely transport of hydrocarbon, O₂, proton, and electron substrates to buried dimetallic active sites. For both enzymes, reaction of the reduced metal centers with O₂leads to intermediates that activate the relatively inert C-H bonds of hydrocarbons to yield oxidized products. Among synthetic and biological catalysts, MMOs are unique because they are the only ones known to hydroxylate methane at ambient temperatures. As a need for new industrial catalysts and green chemical transformations increases, understanding how the different MMO metal centers efficiently accomplish this challenging chemistry has become the focus of intense study. This chapter examines current understanding of the sMMO and pMMO protein structures, their methods for substrate channeling, and mechanisms for the dimetallic activation of O₂and C-H bonds. PMID:25707469

  8. Daily intake of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc from drinking water: the Seattle study of trace metal exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Sharrett, A.R.; Carter, A.P.; Orheim, R.M.; Feinleib, M.

    1982-08-01

    The daily intake of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc from drinking water is estimated for men, women, and children living in Seattle based on their reported water consumption and the metal concentrations in water from their homes. Metal concentrations were closely associated with the type of plumbing in the home, which was found to be accurately reported by the subjects. Residents of homes with copper plumbing consumed a substantial proportion of their daily required copper from their drinking water, an important finding in view of the possible suboptimal copper levels in American diets. Lead intake levels from water in new homes was comparable to estimated U.S. dietary intakes, but was low relative to levels thought to be toxic. The results suggest practical methods for assessing the associations of chronic diseases with long-term, low-level exposures to these metals.

  9. Biochemical Evolution of Iron and Copper Proteins, Substances Vital to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieden, Earl

    1974-01-01

    Summarizes studies in the area of biochemical evolution of iron, copper, and heme proteins to provide an historical outline. Included are lists of major kinds of proteins and enzymes and charts illustrating electron flow in a cytochrome electron transport system and interconversion of jerrous to ferric ion in iron metabolism. (CC)

  10. The diverse roles of FRO family metalloreductases in iron and copper homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anshika; Wilson, Grandon T.; Connolly, Erin L.

    2014-01-01

    Iron and copper are essential for plants and are important for the function of a number of protein complexes involved in photosynthesis and respiration. As the molecular mechanisms that control uptake, trafficking and storage of these nutrients emerge, the importance of metalloreductase-catalyzed reactions in iron and copper metabolism has become clear. This review focuses on the ferric reductase oxidase (FRO) family of metalloreductases in plants and highlights new insights into the roles of FRO family members in metal homeostasis. Arabidopsis FRO2 was first identified as the ferric chelate reductase that reduces ferric iron-chelates at the root surface-rhizosphere interface. The resulting ferrous iron is subsequently transported across the plasma membrane of root epidermal cells by the ferrous iron transporter, IRT1. Recent work has shown that two other members of the FRO family (FRO4 and FRO5) function redundantly to reduce copper to facilitate its uptake from the soil. In addition, FROs appear to play important roles in subcellular compartmentalization of iron as FRO7 is known to contribute to delivery of iron to chloroplasts while mitochondrial family members FRO3 and FRO8 are hypothesized to influence mitochondrial metal ion homeostasis. Finally, recent studies have underscored the importance of plasma membrane-localized ferric reductase activity in leaves for photosynthetic efficiency. Taken together, these studies highlight a number of diverse roles for FROs in both iron and copper metabolism in plants. PMID:24711810

  11. Determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in geologic materials by atomic absorption spectrometry with tricaprylylmethylammonium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viets, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Interferences commonly encountered in the determination of silver, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc at crustal abundance levels are effectively eliminated using a rapid, sensitive, organic extraction technique. A potassium chlorate-hydrochloric acid digestion solubilizes the metals not tightly bound in the silicate lattice of rocks, soils, and stream sediments. The six metals are selectively extracted into a 10% Aliquat 336-MIBK organic phase in the presence of ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. Metals in the organic extract are determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry to the 0.02-ppm level for silver, cadmium, copper, and zinc and to the 0.2-ppm level for bismuth and lead with a maximum relative standard deviation of 18.8% for known reference samples. An additional hydrofluoric acid digestion may be used to determine metals substituted in the silicate lattice.

  12. Evolution of Texture and Microstructure in Deformed and Annealed Copper-Iron Multilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, K. S.; Rollett, A. D.; Suwas, Satyam

    2016-02-01

    The effect of multiple phases on the evolution of texture during cold rolling and annealing of a copper-iron multilayer, fabricated by accumulative roll bonding, has been studied. The presence of an iron layer affects the deformation texture of the copper layer only at very large strains. On the other hand, a strong effect of copper on iron is observed at both small and large strains. At smaller strains, the larger deformation carried by the copper suppresses the texture development in the iron, whereas, at higher strains, selection of specific orientation relationship at the interface influences the texture of the iron layer. Shear banding and continuous dynamic recrystallization were found to influence the evolution of texture in the copper layer. The influence of large plastic deformation on the recrystallization behavior of copper is demonstrated with the suppression of typical fcc annealing texture components, described as constrained recrystallization. Evolution of typical annealing texture component is suppressed because of the multilayer microstructure. The plane of the interface formed during deformation is determined by a combination of the rolling texture of individual phases, constrained annealing, and the tendency to form a low-energy interface between the two phases during annealing.

  13. Effects of chronic exposure to lead, copper, zinc, and cadmium on biomarkers of the European eel, Anguilla anguilla.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Bruno; Capela, Ricardo Campinho; Sérgio, Tânia; Caldeira, Carina; Gonçalves, Fernando; Correia, Alberto Teodorico

    2014-04-01

    Exposure to specific metallic compounds can cause severe deleterious modifications in organisms. Fishes are particularly prone to toxic effects from exposure to metallic compounds via their environment. Species that inhabit estuaries or freshwater environments can be chronically affected by persistent exposure to a large number of metallic compounds, particularly those released by industrial activities. In this study, we exposed yellow eels (European eel, Anguilla anguilla) for 28 days to environmentally relevant concentrations of four specific metals; lead (300, 600, and 1,200 μg/l), copper (40, 120, and 360 μg/l), zinc (30, 60, and 120 μg/l) and cadmium (50, 150, and 450 μg/l). The selected endpoints to assess the toxicological effects were neurotransmission (cholinesterasic activity in nervous tissue), antioxidant defense, and phase II metabolism (glutathione-S-transferase [GST] activity, in both gills and liver tissues), and peroxidative damage. The results showed an overall lack of effects on acetylcholinesterase for all tested metals. Lead, copper, and cadmium exposure caused a significant, dose-dependent, increase in GST activity in gill tissue. However, liver GST only significantly increased following zinc exposure. No statistically significant effects were observed for the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay, indicating the absence of peroxidative damage. These findings suggest that, despite the occurrence of an oxidative-based response after exposure to lead, copper, and cadmium, this had no consequence in terms of peroxidative membrane damage; furthermore, cholinergic neurotoxicity caused by lead, copper, and cadmium did not occur. The implications of these results are further discussed.

  14. A low-cost iron-cadmium redox flow battery for large-scale energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; Zhou, X. L.; Wei, L.; Jiang, H. R.

    2016-10-01

    The redox flow battery (RFB) is one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies that offer a potential solution to the intermittency of renewable sources such as wind and solar. The prerequisite for widespread utilization of RFBs is low capital cost. In this work, an iron-cadmium redox flow battery (Fe/Cd RFB) with a premixed iron and cadmium solution is developed and tested. It is demonstrated that the coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency of the Fe/Cd RFB reach 98.7% and 80.2% at 120 mA cm-2, respectively. The Fe/Cd RFB exhibits stable efficiencies with capacity retention of 99.87% per cycle during the cycle test. Moreover, the Fe/Cd RFB is estimated to have a low capital cost of 108 kWh-1 for 8-h energy storage. Intrinsically low-cost active materials, high cell performance and excellent capacity retention equip the Fe/Cd RFB to be a promising solution for large-scale energy storage systems.

  15. A thermodynamic study of silica-saturated iron silicate slags in equilibrium with liquid copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Toshio; Kamuo, Morinori; Ono, Katsutoshi; Moriyama, Joichiro

    1983-03-01

    The thermodynamic properties of silica-saturated iron silicate slags in equilibrium with liquid copper have been studied from oxygen partial pressure measurements in the temperature range from 1490 to 1580 K by means of a solid electrolyte galvanic cell. The following cells were used: Pt, Ni-NiO/O=/slag-Cu(l), Cr2O3, Pt; Pt, Fe-FeO/O=/slag-Cu(Fe sat.), Fe. A strong correlation was found between oxygen pressure and the copper content of the slag; the copper content increased from less than 1 pct near iron saturation to about 4 pct at an oxygen partial pressure of 7.2 x 10-3 Pa. A similar correlation was found between the ferric iron/total iron ratio and the oxygen pressure. The oxygen content in liquid copper decreased with increasing iron content in liquid copper and increased slightly near iron saturation. This behavior could be explained qualitatively by using the standard free energy of formation of FeO and the activities of components.

  16. Total body burdens and tissue concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and ash in 55 human cadavers

    SciTech Connect

    Saltzman, B.E.; Gross, S.B.; Yeager, D.W.; Meiners, B.G.; Gartside, P.S. )

    1990-08-01

    Trace metal contents of human tissues and total body burdens are useful for studies of nutrition and certain diseases. Data are summarized and analyzed for individuals exposed to the normal Cincinnati environment, for 29 tissues from 55 cadavers for lead and ash concentrations, and from 26 cadavers for cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations. Total body burdens also were calculated and correlated against each other and age. The distributions for ash, copper, and zinc were close to normal, but those for lead and cadmium were closer to lognormal. Bone lead increased with age, whereas soft tissue lead did not. The calculated mean percentage of total body lead in the bones ranged from 78% at age 20 to 96% at age 80. Correlations of blood concentrations with total body burdens were negligible for cadmium and zinc. For copper the correlation coefficient was a poor 0.54. For lead in blood vs soft tissue burden it was a very poor 0.37, and vs total body lead it was negligible. Thus the use of blood samples as a convenient clinical measure of body burdens for these metals may be of limited value. These and other findings provide a useful bank of information for health studies.

  17. Copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms from the Java Sea and estuarine and coastal areas around East Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everaarts, J. M.; Boon, J. P.; Kastoro, W.; Fischer, C. V.; Razak, H.; Sumanta, I.

    A study was made of the concentrations of copper, zinc and cadmium in benthic organisms, representing the phyla Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Pisces, from the riverine and estuarine areas of the rivers Brantas and Solo (East Java) and the adjacent coastal area. Moreover, an assessment was made of the contamination of the benthic biota with these elements in the Java Sea and Bali Sea. Benthic organisms show a species-specific uptake pattern for each element. Compared to the same type of animals from estuaries and coastal areas in temperate regions of western Europe, the concentrations of cadmium are considerably higher, while copper and zinc concentrations are somewhat lower. There is no general trend in concentration levels of the metals in specimens from rivers, estuaries, coastal zone and open sea. In some groups of organisms ( e.g. shrimp, starfish) the concentrations of copper and zinc are highest in specimens from rivers and estuaries. In contrast, cadmium concentration levels in e.g. crab, shrimp and squid are lowest in riverine and estuarine areas. Significant differences in metal concentrations in these organisms were found between the dry monsoon period (July, August) and the beginning of the wet monsoon (November, December). No relationship existed between the metal concentration of the organisms and the silt fraction of the sediment (grain size < 63 μm) or the bulk sediment.

  18. Cadmium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cadmium ; CASRN 7440 - 43 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  19. Influence of indigenous and added iron on copper extraction from soil.

    PubMed

    Di Palma, Luca

    2009-10-15

    Experimental tests of copper leaching from a low permeability soil are presented and discussed. The objective of the experiments was to investigate the influence of indigenous and added iron in the soil towards copper mobilization. Metals' leaching was performed by flushing (column tests) or washing (batch tests) the soil with an aqueous solution of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA. An excess of EDTA was used in flushing tests (up to a EDTA:Cu molar ratio of about 26.2:1), while, in washing tests, the investigated EDTA vs. copper molar ratios were in the range between 1 (equimolar tests) and 8. Copper extraction yield in flushing tests (up to about 85%) was found to depend upon contact time between the soil and the leaching solution and the characteristics of the conditioning solution. The saturation of the soil with a NaNO(3) solution before the treatment, favoured the flushing process reducing the time of percolation, but resulted in a lower metal extraction during the following percolation of EDTA. The indigenous iron was competitive with copper to form EDTA complexes only when it was present in the organic and oxides-hydroxides fractions. Artificial iron addition to the soil resulted in an increase of both the exchangeable iron and the iron bonded to the organic fraction of the soil, thus increasing the overall amount of iron available to extraction. In both batch and continuous tests, the mechanism of copper extraction was found to involve the former dissolution of metal salts, that lead to an initial high concentration of both copper and selected competitive cations (essentially Ca(2+)), and the following EDTA exchange reaction between calcium and copper complexes. The initial metal salts dissolution was found to be pH-dependant.

  20. Differential effects of copper and cadmium exposure on toxicity endpoints and gene expression in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Stoiber, Tasha L; Shafer, Martin M; Armstrong, David E

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity of cadmium to aquatic organisms is well known, but the mechanisms of toxicity are not as clearly understood. In the present study, Cd bioassay experiments incorporating both traditional endpoints and novel thiol-based endpoints were conducted with Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The results were compared with results from previous bioassay experiments to probe the apparent contrasting biochemical mechanisms of toxicity of copper and cadmium as expressed in cellular glutathione and the glutathione cycle. Total glutathione and reduced to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) measurements were remarkably different in Cd- compared with Cu-exposed cells. Whereas total glutathione in cells decreased with increasing Cu concentration, Cd caused dramatic increases. Total glutathione increased by 4.5-fold with 80 nM Cd treatment over concentrations in Cd-free controls. Glutathione reductase (GR) enzyme activity was positively correlated (r(2) (Cu) = 0.96, r(2) (Cd) = 0.85) with glutathione concentrations for both metals. Measurements of mRNA for GR were increased 2-fold in response to Cd exposure (80 nM) and correlated well with GR enzyme activity. Glutathione concentrations and GR enzyme activity are useful endpoints for both Cu and Cd toxicity in algae, even though the metals elicit opposing responses. We conclude that Cu decreases glutathione concentrations by inhibiting GR enzyme activity. In contrast, Cd stimulates GR enzyme activity and increases glutathione concentrations as cells respond to Cd-induced stress by producing increased antioxidant capacity. The present study demonstrates that determining the glutathione response in cells is important for understanding the metal-specific mechanisms of toxicity and that these associated novel endpoints may be useful metrics for accurately predicting toxicity.

  1. Recovery of iron from copper slag by deep reduction and magnetic beneficiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke-qing; Ping, Shuo; Wang, Hong-yu; Ni, Wen

    2013-11-01

    Aiming at recovering iron from high-iron-content copper slag, this article introduced a combination technology of deep reduction and magnetic beneficiation, investigated the iron recovery efficiency and optimized the technical conditions. When coke powder with 86wt% fixed carbon was used as a reductant, iron was successfully extracted from the copper slag. Under the optimized condition of the coke powder content of 14wt%, the calcium-to-silicon mass ratio (Ca/Si) of 0.2, the roasting temperature of 1300°C, the roasting time of 3 h, the grinding time of 20 min, and the magnetic field intensity of 61 kA·m-1, the iron recovery rate of the copper slag can reach 91.82%, and the extracted iron powder has an iron grade of 96.21%. With the characteristics of high iron grade and low impurity content, the extracted iron powder can be used as high-quality raw materials of weathering steel.

  2. Direct determination of cadmium and copper in seawater using a transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer with Zeeman-effect background corrector.

    PubMed

    Chan, M S; Huang, S D

    2000-02-01

    Methods for the direct determination of copper and cadmium in seawater were described using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS) equipped with a transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA) and a longitudinal Zeeman effect background corrector. Ammonium nitrate was used as the chemical modifier to determine copper. The mixture of di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate and ammonium nitrate was used as the chemical modifier to determine cadmium. The matrix interference was removed completely so that a simple calibration curve method could be applied. This work is the first one with the capability of determining cadmium in unpolluted seawater directly with GFAAS using calibration curve based on simple aqueous standards. The accuracy of the methods was confirmed by analysis of three kinds of certified reference saline waters. The detection limits (LODs), with injection of a 20-mul aliquot of seawater sample, were 0.06 mug l(-1) for copper and 0.005 mug l(-1) for cadmium.

  3. Evidence that intrinsic iron but not intrinsic copper determines S-nitrosocysteine decomposition in buffer solution.

    PubMed

    Vanin, Anatoly F; Muller, Bernard; Alencar, Jacicarlos L; Lobysheva, Irina I; Nepveu, Françoise; Stoclet, Jean-Claude

    2002-11-01

    The present experiments were designed to analyze the influence of copper and iron ions on the process of decomposition of S-nitrosocysteine (cysNO), the most labile species among S-nitrosothiols (RSNO). CysNO fate in buffer solution was evaluated by optical and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and the consequences on its vasorelaxant effect were studied on noradrenaline-precontracted rat aortic rings. The main results are the following: (i) copper or iron ions, especially in the presence of the reducing agent ascorbate, accelerated the decomposition of cysNO and markedly attenuated the amplitude and duration of the relaxant effect of cysNO; (ii) by contrast, the iron and copper chelators bathophenantroline disulfonic acid (BPDS) and bathocuproine disulfonic acid (BCS) exerted a stabilizing effect on cysNO, prolonged its vasorelaxant effect, and abolished the influence of ascorbate; (iii) in the presence of ascorbate, BPDS displayed a selective inhibitory effect toward the influence of iron ions (but not toward copper ions) on cysNO decomposition and vasorelaxant effect, while BCS prevented the effects of both copper and iron ions; (iv) L-cysteine enhanced stability and prolonged the relaxant effect of cysNO; (v) the process of iron-induced decomposition of cysNO was associated with the formation of EPR-detectable dinitrosyl-iron complexes (DNIC) either with non-thiol- or thiol-containing ligands (depending on the presence of L-cysteine), both of which exhibiting vasorelaxant properties. From these data, it is concluded that the amount of intrinsic copper was probably too low to produce a destabilizing effect even on the most labile RSNO, cysNO, and that only intrinsic iron, through the formation of DNIC, was responsible for the process of cysNO decomposition and thus influenced its vasorelaxant properties. PMID:12381416

  4. Iron, copper and zinc isotopic fractionation up mammal trophic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaouen, Klervia; Pons, Marie-Laure; Balter, Vincent

    2013-07-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that some non-traditional elements exhibit stable isotope compositions that are distinct in botanical and animal products, providing potential new tracers for diet reconstructions. Here, we present data for iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) stable isotope compositions in plants and bones of herbivores and carnivores. The samples come from trophic chains located in the Western Cape area and in the Kruger National Park in South Africa. The Fe, Cu and Zn isotope systematics are similar in both parks. However, local Cu, and possibly Zn, isotopic values of soils influence that of plants and of higher trophic levels. Between plants and bones of herbivores, the Zn isotope compositions are 66Zn-enriched by about 0.8‰ whereas no significant trophic enrichment is observed for Fe and Cu. Between bones of herbivores and bones of carnivores, the Fe isotope compositions are 56Fe-depleted by about 0.6‰, the Cu isotope compositions are 65Cu-enriched by about 1.0‰, and the Zn isotope compositions are slightly 66Zn-depleted by about 0.2‰. The isotopic distributions of the metals in the body partly explain the observed trophic isotopic systematics. However, it is also necessary to invoke differential intestinal metal absorption between herbivores and carnivores to account for the observed results. Further studies are necessary to fully understand how the Fe, Cu and Zn isotope values are regulated within the ecosystem's trophic levels, but the data already suggests significant potential as new paleodietary and paleoecological proxies.

  5. Low iron stores are related to higher blood concentrations of manganese, cobalt and cadmium in non-smoking, Norwegian women in the HUNT 2 study

    SciTech Connect

    Margrete Meltzer, Helle; Lise Brantsaeter, Anne; Borch-Iohnsen, Berit; Ellingsen, Dag G.; Alexander, Jan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Stigum, Hein; Ydersbond, Trond A.

    2010-07-15

    Low iron (Fe) stores may influence absorption or transport of divalent metals in blood. To obtain more knowledge about such associations, the divalent metal ions cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) and parameters of Fe metabolism (serum ferritin, haemoglobin (Hb) and transferrin) were investigated in 448 healthy, menstruating non-smoking women, age 20-55 years (mean 38 years), participating in the Norwegian HUNT 2 study. The study population was stratified for serum ferritin: 257 were iron-depleted (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L) and 84 had iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin <12 {mu}g/L and Hb<120 g/L). The low ferritin group had increased blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd but normal concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb. In multiple regression models, ferritin emerged as the main determinant of Mn, Co and Cd (p<0.001), while no significant associations with Cu, Zn and Pb were found. Adjusted r{sup 2} for the models were 0.28, 0.48 and 0.34, respectively. Strong positive associations between blood concentrations of Mn, Co and Cd were observed, also when controlled for their common association with ferritin. Apart from these associations, the models showed no significant interactions between the six divalent metals studied. Very mild anaemia (110{<=}Hb<120 g/L) did not seem to have any effect independent of low ferritin. Approximately 26% of the women with iron deficiency anaemia had high concentrations of all of Mn, Co and Cd as opposed to 2.3% of iron-replete subjects. The results confirm that low serum ferritin may have an impact on body kinetics of certain divalent metal ions, but not all. Only a fraction of women with low iron status exhibited an increased blood concentration of divalent metals, providing indication of complexities in the body's handling of these metals.

  6. Evolution of Microstructures During Austempering of Ductile Irons Alloyed with Manganese and Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Ranjan Kumar; Mondal, Dipak Kumar; Chakrabarti, Ajit Kumar

    2013-03-01

    The influences of relatively high manganese (0.45 through 1.0 wt pct) and copper (0.56 through 1.13 wt pct) contents on microstructure development and phase transformation in three austempered ductile irons have been studied. The experimental ductile irons alloyed with copper and manganese are found to be practically free from intercellular manganese segregation. This suggests that the positive segregation of manganese is largely neutralized by the negative segregation of copper when these alloying elements are added in appropriate proportions. The drop in unreacted austenite volume (UAV) with increasing austempering temperature and time is quite significant in irons alloyed with copper and manganese. The ausferrite morphology also undergoes a transition from lenticular to feathery appearance of increasing coarseness with the increasing austempering temperature and time. SEM micrographs of the austempered samples from the base alloy containing manganese only, as well as copper plus manganese-alloyed irons, clearly reveal the presence of some martensite along with retained austenite and ferrite. X-ray diffraction analysis also confirms the presence of these phases. SEM examination further reveals the presence of twinned martensite in the copper plus manganese-alloyed samples. The possibility of strain-induced transformation of austenite to martensite during austempering heat treatment is suggested.

  7. The iron-sulfur clusters of dehydratases are primary intracellular targets of copper toxicity.

    PubMed

    Macomber, Lee; Imlay, James A

    2009-05-19

    Excess copper is poisonous to all forms of life, and copper overloading is responsible for several human pathologic processes. The primary mechanisms of toxicity are unknown. In this study, mutants of Escherichia coli that lack copper homeostatic systems (copA cueO cus) were used to identify intracellular targets and to test the hypothesis that toxicity involves the action of reactive oxygen species. Low micromolar levels of copper were sufficient to inhibit the growth of both WT and mutant strains. The addition of branched-chain amino acids restored growth, indicating that copper blocks their biosynthesis. Indeed, copper treatment rapidly inactivated isopropylmalate dehydratase, an iron-sulfur cluster enzyme in this pathway. Other enzymes in this iron-sulfur dehydratase family were similarly affected. Inactivation did not require oxygen, in vivo or with purified enzyme. Damage occurred concomitant with the displacement of iron atoms from the solvent-exposed cluster, suggesting that Cu(I) damages these proteins by liganding to the coordinating sulfur atoms. Copper efflux by dedicated export systems, chelation by glutathione, and cluster repair by assembly systems all enhance the resistance of cells to this metal. PMID:19416816

  8. Cadmium, Chromium, and Copper Concentration plus Semen-Quality in Environmental Pollution Site, China

    PubMed Central

    LI, Yan; GAO, Qiaoyan; LI, Mingcai; LI, Mengyang; GAO, Xueming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The environmental pollution is one of the factors contributing to the decrease of sperm quality for human beings. The aim of this study was to assess cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu) concentration of man in environmental pollution site, and explore relationships between men exposure to Cd, Cr, and Cu and semen-quality parameters in environmental pollution site. Methods Ninety five men were recruited through pollution area and controls in 2011. We measured semen quality using Computer-aided Semen Quality Analysis, and Cd, Cr, and Cu levels in seminal plasma using Graphite Gurnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between Cd, Cr and Cu concentration in seminal plasma and semen quality. Results The mean of seminal plasma Cd, Cr, and Cu values in pollution area was higher than the controls. Seminal plasma Cr values displayed a significant negative correlation with total motility and normomorph sperm rate. Seminal plasma Cu values also displayed a negative correlation with normomorph sperm rate. Conclusions Male reproductive health may be threatened by environmental pollution, and it may be influence local population diathesis. PMID:26060677

  9. Zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead concentrations in water, sediment, and Anadara senilis in a tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Bakary, Inza; Yao, Koffi Marcellin; Etchian, Olivier Assoi; Soro, Metongo Bernard; Trokourey, Albert; Bokra, Yobou

    2015-12-01

    Spatial and seasonal contaminations of zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead were assessed simultaneously in water, sediment, and in the bivalve Arca senilis from the Milliardaires Bay (Cote d'Ivoire) between February and October 2008. The metal load in sediments doubled from the dry season to the rainy season. On the contrary, metal concentrations in waters decreased significantly from the dry season to the rainy season. Zn and Pb concentrations in A. senilis showed similar seasonal variation with sediments. On the other hand, A. senilis regulated Cu concentrations by eliminating about twelve times the concentration accumulated during the dry season. Apparent Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb concentration gradients were observed, but no significant differences between stations for sediment, water, and A. senilis. Concentrations in sediment increased from stations close to Abidjan Harbor towards farther stations, while concentrations in A. senilis showed a reverse gradient. The distribution gradient of A. senilis indicates pollution from local sources, but a transplant experiment is needed to better understand the observed spatial trend. Zn and Cu concentrations may pose little risk to human health and the environment, but they are the highest on the regional scale. On the contrary, Cd and Pb concentrations in A. senilis exceeded the maximum allowable limits set by the European Commission. Complementary studies including chemical speciation should be considered to provide a more accurate assessment of the risk of heavy metals to the environment. PMID:26581608

  10. [Biochemical changes associated with cadmium and copper stress in germinating pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.)].

    PubMed

    Mihoub, Asma; Chaoui, Abdelilah; El Ferjani, Ezzedine

    2005-01-01

    Seeds of pea (Pisum sativum L.) were germinated for four days over two sheets of filter paper moistened with H2O (control) and 5 mM Cd(NO3)2 or CuSO4 (treated). The relationship between heavy-metal stress and breakdown of storage compounds was studied. Germination rate and growth of radicle decreased, while the water content in stressed seeds remained around the control values. Cotyledons changed their biochemical constituents: disorders in the contents of micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn), free amino acids and soluble sugars were found. Decline of alpha-amylase activity as well as acid phosphatase were also observed, whereas beta-amylase and alkaline phosphatase ones were not modified by heavy-metal treatments. These results suggest that the inhibition of seed germinations after exposure to cadmium or copper is not the consequence of starvation in water uptake by seed tissues, but may be due to a failure in the reserve mobilization process from cotyledons.

  11. Competitive biosorption of lead, cadmium, copper, and arsenic ions using algae.

    PubMed

    Sulaymon, Abbas H; Mohammed, Ahmed A; Al-Musawi, Tariq J

    2013-05-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the competitive biosorption of lead, cadmium, copper, and arsenic ions by using native algae. A series of experiments were carried out in a batch reactor to obtain equilibrium data for adsorption of single, binary, ternary, and quaternary metal solutions. The biosorption of these metals is based on ion exchange mechanism accompanied by the release of light metals such as calcium, magnesium, and sodium. Experimental parameters such as pH, initial metal concentrations, and temperature were studied. The optimum pH found for removal were 5 for Cd(2+) and As(3+) and 3 and 4 for Pb(2+) and Cu(2+), respectively. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy analysis was used to find the effects of functional groups of algae in biosorption process. The results showed that Pb(2+) made a greater change in the functional groups of algal biomass due to high affinity to this metal. An ion exchange model was found suitable for describing the biosorption process. The affinity constants sequence calculated for single system was K Pb > K Cu > K Cd > K As; these values reduced in binary, ternary, and quaternary systems. In addition, the experimental data showed that the biosorption of the four metals fitted well the pseudo-second-order kinetics model.

  12. Effects of organic acids on cadmium and copper sorption and desorption by two calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Sarvenaz; Jalali, Mohsen

    2015-09-01

    Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) present in soil alter equilibrium pH of soil, and consequently, affect heavy metal sorption and desorption on soil constitutes. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0.1, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 30, 40, 50, 70, and 100 mM) of citric, malic, and oxalic acids on sorption and desorption of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in two calcareous soils. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs decreased the equilibrium pH of soil solutions. The results indicated that increase in organic acids concentrations generally reduced Cd and Cu sorption in soils. Increase concentrations of LMWOAs generally promoted Cd and Cu desorption from soils. A valley-like curve was observed for desorption of Cu after the citric acid concentration increment in soil 2. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs caused a marked decrease in Kd(sorp) values of Cd and Cu in soils. In general, citric acid was the most effective organic acid in reducing sorption and increasing desorption of both metals, and oxalic acid had the minimal impact. The results indicated that LMWOAs had a greater impact on Cu sorption and desorption than Cd, which can be attributed to higher stability constants of organic acids complexes with Cu compared to Cd. It can be concluded that by selecting suitable type and concentration of LMWOAs, mobility, and hence, bioavailability of heavy metals can be changed. So, environmental implications concerning heavy metals mobility might be derived from these findings.

  13. Use of atomic absorption spectrometry in assessment of biomonitor plants for lead, cadmium and copper pollution.

    PubMed

    Gokce, Kaya; Mehmet, Yaman

    2012-01-01

    Eleven plant species were collected from the vicinity of lead-battery plant in the city of Gaziantep, Turkey. Lead, cadmium and copper concentrations in the soil and leaves of plants were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead, Cd and Cu concentrations in the soil samples taken from battery area were found to be in the ranges of 304-602, 0.4-0.44 and 31-37 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Significantly increased lead concentration up to 2 750 mg x kg(-1) was found in the leaves of Eleagnus angustifolia L. plant. The lead concentrations in the other plant leaves taken from 50 m around battery factory followed the order Ailanthus altissima > Morus sp. > Juglans regia L. > Ficus carica L. > Cydonia oblonga Miller > Prunus x domestica L. The plants, Populus nigra L. , Eleagnus angustifolia L. and Salix sp. were found useful for Cd, and the plant, Eleagnus angusti folia L. for Pb, to be considered as potential biomonitor. Especially, leaves of trees and plants taken from the distance of 50 m from battery plant have relatively higher Pb concentrations. Therefore, people who and animals which live in this area and benefit from these soil and plants have vital risks.

  14. Arabidopsis copper transport protein COPT2 participates in the cross talk between iron deficiency responses and low-phosphate signaling.

    PubMed

    Perea-García, Ana; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Andrés-Colás, Nuria; Vera-Sirera, Francisco; Pérez-Amador, Miguel A; Puig, Sergi; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2013-05-01

    Copper and iron are essential micronutrients for most living organisms because they participate as cofactors in biological processes, including respiration, photosynthesis, and oxidative stress protection. In many eukaryotic organisms, including yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mammals, copper and iron homeostases are highly interconnected; yet, such interdependence is not well established in higher plants. Here, we propose that COPT2, a high-affinity copper transport protein, functions under copper and iron deficiencies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). COPT2 is a plasma membrane protein that functions in copper acquisition and distribution. Characterization of the COPT2 expression pattern indicates a synergic response to copper and iron limitation in roots. We characterized a knockout of COPT2, copt2-1, that leads to increased resistance to simultaneous copper and iron deficiencies, measured as reduced leaf chlorosis and improved maintenance of the photosynthetic apparatus. We propose that COPT2 could play a dual role under iron deficiency. First, COPT2 participates in the attenuation of copper deficiency responses driven by iron limitation, possibly to minimize further iron consumption. Second, global expression analyses of copt2-1 versus wild-type Arabidopsis plants indicate that low-phosphate responses increase in the mutant. These results open up new biotechnological approaches to fight iron deficiency in crops.

  15. Models for Copper Dynamic Behavior in Doped Cadmium dl-Histidine Crystals: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance and Crystallographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Colaneri, Michael J; Teat, Simon J; Vitali, Jacqueline

    2015-11-12

    Electron paramagnetic resonance and crystallographic studies of copper-doped cadmium dl-histidine, abbreviated as CdDLHis, were undertaken to gain further understanding on the relationship between site structure and dynamic behavior in biological model complexes. X-ray diffraction measurements determined the crystal structure of CdDLHis at 100 and 298 K. CdDLHis crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with two cadmium complexes per asymmetric unit. In each complex, the Cd is hexacoordinated to two histidine molecules. Both histidines are l in one complex and d in the other. Additionally, each complex contains multiple waters of varying disorder. Single crystal EPR spectroscopic splitting (g) and copper hyperfine (A(Cu)) tensors at room temperature (principal values: g = 2.249, 2.089, 2.050; A(Cu) = -453, -30.5, -0.08 MHz) were determined from rotational experiments. Alignments of the tensor directions with the host structure were used to position the copper unpaired dx(2)-y(2) orbital in an approximate plane made by four proposed ligand atoms: the N-imidazole and N-amino of one histidine, and the N-amino and O-carboxyl of the other. Each complex has two such planes related by noncrystallographic symmetry, which make an angle of 65° and have a 1.56 Å distance between their midpoints. These findings are consistent with three interpretations that can adequately explain previous temperature-dependent EPR powder spectra of this system: (1) a local structural distortion (static strain) at the copper site has a temperature dependence significant enough to affect the EPR pattern, (2) the copper can hop between the two sites in each complex at high temperature, and (3) there exists a dynamic Jahn-Teller effect involving the copper ligands. PMID:26501364

  16. Herbal infusions as a source of calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and copper in human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Kaczmarek, Karolina

    2012-03-01

    The study material consisted of five herbs: chamomile (flowers), mint (leaves), St John's wort (flowers and leaves), sage (leaves) and nettle (leaves), sourced from three producers. The calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and copper contents were determined for both dried herb samples and prepared infusions, and the extraction rates were calculated. Mineral components were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. Analysis showed that the contents of individual elements in herbs and infusions depended on the type of raw material, as well as on its origin. Moreover, it was found that iron penetrated the herbal infusions to the lowest degree (4.4-12.4%), while copper did so to the highest (26.7-50.7%). It is felt that in average consumption the herbal infusions are not important as calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc and copper sources in human nutrition. PMID:21916535

  17. [Serum iron and serum copper balance in the early diagnosis of metastases of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Wöllgens, P; Kuhne-Velte, H J; Franke-Lompa, C

    1980-02-01

    In a study made in the follow-up clinic on 684 patients with mammary carcinoma it was found that there were 64 cases of local recurrence and 244 cases of distant metastases. In both groups the serum iron and the serum copper balance in blood tests, in relation to the clinical proof of local recurrence and/or distant metastases, was investigated. It was found that there were 43.7% pathological serum iron and serum copper findings with local recurrences and 62.7% with distant metastases. The drift apart tendency of the blood serum values in patients with distant metastases could be proved in 78.7% of the cases and in 77.5% of the cases before any clinical proof. Thus, these observations allow the statement that the blood serum iron and serum copper imbalance in blood tests is of very real value in the early diagnosis of distant metastases.

  18. Chronic administration of iron and copper potentiates adipogenic effect of high fat diet in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Polyakova, Valentina S; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2013-06-01

    The primary objective of this research project is explore a possible adipogenic effect of iron and/or copper in albino Wistar rats kept on standard (STD) and high-fat (HFD) diets. The female Wistar rats in the study were divided into eight experimental groups (n = 6). Rats maintained on STD and HFD received 3 mg/l FeSO₄∙7H₂O, 4.88 mg/l CuSO₄ and a combination of 1.5 mg/l FeSO₄∙7H₂O and 2.44 mg/l CuSO₄ with drinking water. Control groups were kept on STD and HFD and received pure water without metal salts. Consumption of iron and copper in the groups of rats maintained on an STD did not produce a significant increase in weight, adipose tissue content or body mass index. However, the adipocyte size and infiltration were increased in the adipose tissue of STD-fed rats receiving a mixture of iron and copper with drinking water. The rats fed iron and copper and, especially, their combination on a HFD background had a significantly higher weight gain, adipose tissue content, morphometric parameters values and adipocyte size compared to STD- and HFD-fed controls. Iron and copper consumption produced their accumulation in the rats' adipose tissue. Moreover, the studied metals reduced adipose tissue concentration of chromium and vanadium. The lipoprotein profile and serum oxidative stress biomarkers were affected in the rats receiving the metals and STD. Hyperglycemia was observed in the rats receiving the studied metals on HFD-background. Based on the analysis of the test subjects, the study suggests that iron and copper administration, especially combined, may potentiate adipogenic effect of HFD.

  19. Complexation and Toxicity of Copper in Higher Plants. II. Different Mechanisms for Copper versus Cadmium Detoxification in the Copper-Sensitive Cadmium/Zinc Hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges Ecotype)1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Mijovilovich, Ana; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kroneck, Peter M.H.; Götz, Birgit; Küpper, Hendrik

    2009-01-01

    The cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens is sensitive toward copper (Cu) toxicity, which is a problem for phytoremediation of soils with mixed contamination. Cu levels in T. caerulescens grown with 10 μm Cu2+ remained in the nonaccumulator range (<50 ppm), and most individuals were as sensitive toward Cu as the related nonaccumulator Thlaspi fendleri. Obviously, hyperaccumulation and metal resistance are highly metal specific. Cu-induced inhibition of photosynthesis followed the “sun reaction” type of damage, with inhibition of the photosystem II reaction center charge separation and the water-splitting complex. A few individuals of T. caerulescens were more Cu resistant. Compared with Cu-sensitive individuals, they recovered faster from inhibition, at least partially by enhanced repair of chlorophyll-protein complexes but not by exclusion, since the content of Cu in their shoots was increased by about 25%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on frozen-hydrated leaf samples revealed that a large proportion of Cu in T. caerulescens is bound by sulfur ligands. This is in contrast to the known binding environment of cadmium and zinc in the same species, which is dominated by oxygen ligands. Clearly, hyperaccumulators detoxify hyperaccumulated metals differently compared with nonaccumulated metals. Furthermore, strong features in the Cu-EXAFS spectra ascribed to metal-metal contributions were found, in particular in the Cu-resistant specimens. Some of these features may be due to Cu binding to metallothioneins, but a larger proportion seems to result from biomineralization, most likely Cu(II) oxalate and Cu(II) oxides. Additional contributions in the EXAFS spectra indicate complexation of Cu(II) by the nonproteogenic amino acid nicotianamine, which has a very high affinity for Cu(II) as further characterized here. PMID:19692532

  20. Complexation and toxicity of copper in higher plants. II. Different mechanisms for copper versus cadmium detoxification in the copper-sensitive cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges Ecotype).

    PubMed

    Mijovilovich, Ana; Leitenmaier, Barbara; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kroneck, Peter M H; Götz, Birgit; Küpper, Hendrik

    2009-10-01

    The cadmium/zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens is sensitive toward copper (Cu) toxicity, which is a problem for phytoremediation of soils with mixed contamination. Cu levels in T. caerulescens grown with 10 microm Cu(2+) remained in the nonaccumulator range (<50 ppm), and most individuals were as sensitive toward Cu as the related nonaccumulator Thlaspi fendleri. Obviously, hyperaccumulation and metal resistance are highly metal specific. Cu-induced inhibition of photosynthesis followed the "sun reaction" type of damage, with inhibition of the photosystem II reaction center charge separation and the water-splitting complex. A few individuals of T. caerulescens were more Cu resistant. Compared with Cu-sensitive individuals, they recovered faster from inhibition, at least partially by enhanced repair of chlorophyll-protein complexes but not by exclusion, since the content of Cu in their shoots was increased by about 25%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements on frozen-hydrated leaf samples revealed that a large proportion of Cu in T. caerulescens is bound by sulfur ligands. This is in contrast to the known binding environment of cadmium and zinc in the same species, which is dominated by oxygen ligands. Clearly, hyperaccumulators detoxify hyperaccumulated metals differently compared with nonaccumulated metals. Furthermore, strong features in the Cu-EXAFS spectra ascribed to metal-metal contributions were found, in particular in the Cu-resistant specimens. Some of these features may be due to Cu binding to metallothioneins, but a larger proportion seems to result from biomineralization, most likely Cu(II) oxalate and Cu(II) oxides. Additional contributions in the EXAFS spectra indicate complexation of Cu(II) by the nonproteogenic amino acid nicotianamine, which has a very high affinity for Cu(II) as further characterized here. PMID:19692532

  1. Some new chromogens for iron, cobalt, and copper Substituted hydrazidines and 1,2,4-triazines containing the ferroin group.

    PubMed

    Schilt, A A

    1966-07-01

    The spectral characteristics and solution conditions requisite for formation of the iron(II), cobalt(II), and copper(I) complexes of some newly synthesised compounds containing the ferroin functional grouping have been determined. These properties are useful for evaluation of the possible analytical effectiveness of the compounds as spectrophotometric reagents for the determination of iron, cobalt, and copper. PMID:18959951

  2. Some new chromogens for iron, cobalt, and copper Substituted hydrazidines and 1,2,4-triazines containing the ferroin group.

    PubMed

    Schilt, A A

    1966-07-01

    The spectral characteristics and solution conditions requisite for formation of the iron(II), cobalt(II), and copper(I) complexes of some newly synthesised compounds containing the ferroin functional grouping have been determined. These properties are useful for evaluation of the possible analytical effectiveness of the compounds as spectrophotometric reagents for the determination of iron, cobalt, and copper.

  3. Iron and copper in male reproduction: a double-edged sword.

    PubMed

    Tvrda, Eva; Peer, Rohan; Sikka, Suresh C; Agarwal, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Iron and copper are essential trace nutrients playing important roles in general health and fertility. However, both elements are highly toxic when accumulating in large quantities. Their direct or indirect impact on the structure and function of male gonads and gametes is not completely understood yet. Excess or deficiency of either element may lead to defective spermatogenesis, reduced libido, and oxidative damage to the testicular tissue and spermatozoa, ultimately leading to fertility impairment. This review will detail the complex information currently available on the dual roles iron and copper play in male reproduction.

  4. The dietary significance of adventitious iron, zinc, copper and lead in domestically prepared food.

    PubMed

    Reilly, C

    1985-01-01

    The uptake of iron, zinc, copper and lead by food cooked under domestic conditions in utensils made of different metals (cast iron, aluminium, plain and tinned copper) was investigated. It was found that the metal content of the food was generally related to the metal in immediate contact with the food during cooking. Daily dietary intake could vary from 11 to 6 mg of iron, 11 to 9 mg of zinc, 2 to 1 mg of copper and 0.4 to 0.1 mg of lead, depending on the cooking utensils used. Dietary intake of the metals was also related to sources and domestic practices regarding water supply. Consistent use of municipal water from a domestic hot water system could contribute a daily intake of 32 mg iron, 29 mg zinc and 12 mg copper. Rainwater stored in a galvanized iron tank could provide 23 mg of zinc per day when used for domestic purposes. The nutritional and toxicological significance of such adventitious sources of metals in the diet are discussed. The need to consider them when investigating the metal intake of individuals is stressed.

  5. Distribution of copper, nickel, and cadmium in the surface waters of the North Atlantic and North Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, E.A.; Huested, S.S.; Jones, S.P.

    1981-09-20

    Concentrations of copper, nickel, and cadmium have been determined for about 250 surface water samples. Nonupwelling open-ocean concentrations of these metals are Cu, 0.5-1.4 nmol/kg: Ni, 1-2 nmol/kg; and Cd, less than 10 pmol/kg. In the equatorial Pacific upwelling zone, concentrations of Ni (3 nmol/kg) and Cd (80 pmol/kg) are higher than in the open ocean, but Cu (0.9 nmol/kg) is not significantly enriched. Metal concentrations are higher in cool, nutrient-rich eastern boundary currents: Cu, 1.5 nmol/kg: Ni, 3.5 nmol/kg and Cd, 30-50 pmol/kg. Copper is distinctly higher in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Panama (3--4 nmol/kg) and also higher in the shelf waters north of the Gulf Stream (2.5 nmol/kg): these copper enrichments may be caused by copper remobilized from mildly reducing shelf sediments and maintained by a coastal nutrient trap. In the open ocean, events of high-Cu water (1.5--3.5 nmol/kg) are seen on scales up to 60 km; presumably, these are due to the advection of coastal water into the ocean interior. The lowest copper concentrations in the North Pacific central gyre (0.5 nmol/kg: (Bruland, 1980) are lower than in the Sargasso Sea (1.3 nmol/kg), while for nickel the lowest concentrations are 2 nmol/kg in both the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. Nickel and cadmium, while generally correlated with the nutrients in surface waters, show distinct regional changes in their element-nutrient correlations. The residual concentrations of trace metals in the surface waters of the ocean can be explained if biological discrimination against trace metals relative to phosphorus increases as productivity decreases.

  6. The interactive toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to Ceriodaphnia dubia and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Naddy, Rami B; Cohen, Adam S; Stubblefield, William A

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, aquatic toxicity studies examine the toxicity of a single chemical to an organism. Organisms in nature, however, may be exposed to multiple toxicants. Given this is a more realistic exposure scenario in situ, the authors sought to understand the interactive toxicity of multiple metals to aquatic organisms. The authors performed a series of studies using equitoxic mixtures of cadmium, copper, and zinc to 2 aquatic organisms, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the waterflea, Ceriodaphnia dubia. Single metal toxicity tests were conducted to determine the acute median lethal concentration (LC50) values for O. mykiss and short-term, chronic median effective concentration (EC50) values for C. dubia. All 3 metals were then combined in equitoxic concentrations for subsequent mixture studies using a toxic unit (TU) approach (i.e., 1 TU = EC50 or LC50). For C. dubia, the mixture study showed greater-than-additive effects in hard water (TU-based EC50 = 0.74 TU), but less-than-additive effects in soft water (TU-based EC50 = 1.93 TU). The mixture effects for O. mykiss showed less-than-additive effects in both hard and soft waters, with TU-based LC50 values of 2.33 total TU and 2.22 total TU, respectively. These data are useful in helping understand metal mixture toxicity in aquatic systems and indicate that although in most situations the assumption of additivity of metal mixture toxicity is valid, under certain conditions it may not be sufficiently protective.

  7. Investigating the distribution of dissolved copper, zinc, silver and cadmium in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, D. J.; Cullen, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    A stated goal of the GEOTRACES program is to better understand the large-scale distribution of trace metals in the marine environment. A characteristic feature of the soft Lewis acid metals like copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), silver (Ag) and cadmium (Cd) is their correlation with the major algal nutrients. These correlations imply that the proximate control on the distribution of these metals is microbial uptake at the ocean surface, sinking associated with particulate organic matter and subsequent remineralization in the ocean interior. Combined with sedimentary records of past metal concentrations such correlations can provide much needed information on water mass circulation and nutrient cycling in the paleo-ocean. Today, as trace nutrients and/or toxins these metals help shape microbial community composition and influence productivity. Here we present depth profiles through the low dissolved oxygen waters of the north Pacific which show decoupling of trace metal-macronutrient relationships driven by depletion anomalies of trace metal concentrations in the broad, low oxygen layer. Similar anomalies have been previously reported in permanently anoxic layers (e.g. fjords) or in waters in contact with suboxic sediments and attributed to sulfidic removal of soft trace metals. The observed trace metal behavior and trace metal-macronutrient relationships in the oxygen minimum layer in the northeastern Pacific is consistent with the possibility of sulfidic scavenging of soft metals and the formation of insoluble metal sulfides in the water column. Implications of this influence on the basin scale distribution of soft metals like Cu, Zn, Ag, Cd through scavenging in the spreading low oxygen layer in the northeastern Pacific are discussed.

  8. Toxicity and removal of heavy metals (cadmium, copper, and zinc) by Lemna gibba.

    PubMed

    Megateli, Smain; Semsari, Saida; Couderchet, Michel

    2009-09-01

    Effects of cadmium, copper, and zinc on the aquatic plant Lemna gibba were determined under controlled conditions; in parallel their removal from the growth medium was followed. The results showed that the three heavy metals affected growth, a physiological stress index defined as the ratio of Chlorophyll to phaeophytin (D665/D665a), and the contents of proline. After 4 days, 10(-3)-10(-1)mg/L Cd inhibited growth by 25-100%, reduced D665/D665a by 35-89%, and increased proline content by 44-567%. Under the same conditions, 10(-4)-10(-1) microg/L Cu inhibited growth by 36-75%, reduced D665/D665a by 19-81%, and increased proline content by 67-288%. Comparable concentrations of Zn had little effect. However, higher concentrations (4, 30, and 50mg/L) inhibited growth by 50-79%. Also, 0.1 and 30 mg/L induced a small reduction of D665/D665a (-3.8% and -22%) and an increase in proline contents (+144% and +177%). When it was observed, proline accumulation was always transient and the maximum was reached after 4 days. Monitoring metal concentration in the medium showed that L. gibba was able to remove metals from the medium. Zn and Cu removal was biphasic, it was rapid during the first 2 days (> 60% reduction) and slow (10-20%) during the following 8 days. For Cd, removal was linear and depended on the initial concentration. It reached approximately 90% after 6 or 8 days for initial concentrations of 10(-1) and 10(-3)mg/L, respectively. PMID:19505721

  9. Effects of glucose concentrations on cadmium, copper, mercury, and zinc toxicity to a Klebsiella sp

    SciTech Connect

    Brynhildsen, L.; Lundgren, B.V.; Allard, B.; Rosswall, T.

    1988-07-01

    The influence of glucose concentration on Cd, CU, Hg, and Zn toxicity to a Klebsiella sp. was studied by following the degradation of /sup 14/C-labeled glucose at pH 6.0. Uptake of /sup 14/C into the cells was also determined. The carbon concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 40 mg liter/sup -1/, which are equivalent to soluble C concentrations in natural environments. The toxicity of Cu, Cd, and Zn to a Klebsiella sp. was affected considerably by the C concentration. Copper at 10/sup -5/ M was toxic when the carbon concentration was 10 or 40 mg liter/sup -1/, while at 0.01 to 1.0 mg liter/sup -1/ no toxicity was observed. Cadmium and zinc were toxic at 10/sup -2/ M in media containing 0.01 to 1.0 mg of C liter/sup -1/. At C concentrations greater than 1.0 mg liter/sup -1/, the inhibition of glucose degradation and carbon assimilation was observed at 10/sup -3/ M Cd and Zn. The toxicity of mercury seemed to be independent of the C concentration. Results of this study showed that the nutritional state of an organism may have a profound effect on its sensitivity to metals. Metals taken up by energy-driven transport system may be less toxic under conditions of C starvation. The C concentration should be taken into account when evaluating results from toxicity studies, especially as most microorganisms in nature live under energy-limited conditions.

  10. Effects of organic acids on cadmium and copper sorption and desorption by two calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Sarvenaz; Jalali, Mohsen

    2015-09-01

    Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) present in soil alter equilibrium pH of soil, and consequently, affect heavy metal sorption and desorption on soil constitutes. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0.1, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 30, 40, 50, 70, and 100 mM) of citric, malic, and oxalic acids on sorption and desorption of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in two calcareous soils. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs decreased the equilibrium pH of soil solutions. The results indicated that increase in organic acids concentrations generally reduced Cd and Cu sorption in soils. Increase concentrations of LMWOAs generally promoted Cd and Cu desorption from soils. A valley-like curve was observed for desorption of Cu after the citric acid concentration increment in soil 2. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs caused a marked decrease in Kd(sorp) values of Cd and Cu in soils. In general, citric acid was the most effective organic acid in reducing sorption and increasing desorption of both metals, and oxalic acid had the minimal impact. The results indicated that LMWOAs had a greater impact on Cu sorption and desorption than Cd, which can be attributed to higher stability constants of organic acids complexes with Cu compared to Cd. It can be concluded that by selecting suitable type and concentration of LMWOAs, mobility, and hence, bioavailability of heavy metals can be changed. So, environmental implications concerning heavy metals mobility might be derived from these findings. PMID:26298186

  11. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long-Lian; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang; Xu, Da-Yong; Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12-60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17-30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46-60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80-25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541-1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349-9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs.

  12. Baseline Blood Levels of Manganese, Lead, Cadmium, Copper, and Zinc in Residents of Beijing Suburb

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Long-Lian; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang; Xu, Da-Yong; Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 μg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μ/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μ/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μ/L; for blood Pb, <100 μ/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μ/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. PMID:25836720

  13. Iron uptake system mediates nitrate-facilitated cadmium accumulation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bing Fang; Du, Shao Ting; Lu, Kai Xing; Liu, Wen Jing; Lin, Xian Yong; Jin, Chong Wei

    2012-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) management is a promising agronomic strategy to minimize cadmium (Cd) contamination in crops. However, it is unclear how N affects Cd uptake by plants. Wild-type and iron uptake-inefficient tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant (T3238fer) plants were grown in pH-buffered hydroponic culture to investigate the direct effect of N-form on Cd uptake. Wild-type plants fed NO₃⁻ accumulated more Cd than plants fed NH₄⁺. Iron uptake and LeIRT1 expression in roots were also greater in plants fed NO₃⁻. However, in mutant T3238fer which loses FER function, LeIRT1 expression in roots was almost completely terminated, and the difference between NO₃⁻ and NH₄⁺ treatments vanished. As a result, the N-form had no effect on Cd uptake in this mutant. Furthermore, suppression of LeIRT1 expression by NO synthesis inhibition with either tungstate or L-NAME, also substantially inhibited Cd uptake in roots, and the difference between N-form treatments was diminished. Considering all of these findings, it was concluded that the up-regulation of the Fe uptake system was responsible for NO₃⁻-facilitated Cd accumulation in plants.

  14. Microelectrodes Based investigation of the Impacts of Water Chemistry on Copper and Iron Corrosion

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of bulk drinking water quality on copper and iron pipe corrosion has been extensively studied. Despite past research, many have argued that bulk water quality does not necessarily reflect water quality near the water-metal interface and that such knowledge is necessary...

  15. VAPOR PHASE MERCURY SORPTION BY ORGANIC SULFIDE MODIFIED BIMETALLIC IRON-COPPER NANOPARTICLE AGGREGATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Novel organic sulfide modified bimetallic iron-copper nanoparticle aggregate sorbent materials have been synthesized for removing elemental mercury from vapor streams at elevated temperatures (120-140 °C). Silane based (disulfide silane and tetrasulfide silane) and alkyl sulfide ...

  16. A 1500-year record of lead, copper, arsenic, cadmium, zinc level in Antarctic seal hairs and sediments.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xuebin; Liu, Xiaodong; Sun, Liguang; Zhu, Renbin; Xie, Zhouqing; Wang, Yuhong

    2006-12-01

    To reconstruct the profiles of heavy metal levels in the South Ocean ecosystem of Antarctica, the concentrations of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in seal hairs and lake sediments spanning the past 1500 years from Fildes Peninsula of King George Island and in weathering lake sediments from Nelson Island of West Antarctica were determined. The lead contents in the seal hairs and the weathering sediments show a sharp increase since the late 1800s, very likely due to anthropogenic contamination from modern industries. After the 1980s, the Pb content in seal hairs dropped by one-third, apparently due to the reduced usage of leaded gasoline in the Southern Hemisphere. Copper arises mainly from the weathering process, and its level may be substantially affected by climatic conditions. The concentrations of Cd, As, and Zn do not show any clear temporal trends.

  17. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Kunz, James L.; Hardesty, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th–82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  18. Chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Dorman, Rebecca A; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A; Kunz, James L; Hardesty, Doug K

    2014-10-01

    Chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated in water-only exposures started with newly hatched larvae or approximately 1-mo-old juveniles. The 20% effect concentration (EC20) for cadmium from the sturgeon tests was higher than the EC20 from the trout tests, whereas the EC20 for copper, lead, or zinc for the sturgeon were lower than those EC20s for the trout. When the EC20s from the present study were included in compiled toxicity databases for all freshwater species, species mean chronic value for white sturgeon was in a relatively low percentile of the species sensitivity distribution for copper (9th percentile) and in the middle percentile for cadmium (55th percentile), zinc (40th percentile), or lead (50th percentile). However, the species mean chronic value for rainbow trout was in a high percentile for copper, lead, and zinc (∼68th-82nd percentile), but in a low percentile for cadmium (23rd percentile). The trout EC20s for each of the 4 metals and the sturgeon EC20s for cadmium or lead were above US Environmental Protection Agency chronic ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) or Washington State chronic water quality standards (WQS), whereas the sturgeon EC20s for copper or zinc were approximately equal to or below the chronic AWQC and WQS. In addition, acute 50% effect concentrations (EC50s) for copper obtained in the first 4 d of the chronic sturgeon test were below the final acute value used to derive acute AWQC and below acute WQS for copper.

  19. The Structure and Properties of Cast Iron Alloyed with Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razumakov, A. A.; Stepanova, N. V.; Bataev, I. A.; Lenivtseva, O. G.; Riapolova, Iu Iu; Emurlaev, K. I.

    2016-04-01

    Cast iron with 3 wt. % Cu was prepared by induction melting and casting in sand molds. The structure of the samples was studied using light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The addition of Cu promoted formation of pearlite and slightiy decreased the volume fraction of graphite. No Cu inclusions were found by LM and SEM. The nanoprecipitations of ε-Cu in lamellar pearlite were observed by TEM. The properties of the Cu-alloyed cast iron were compared with the properties of cast iron not alloyed with Cu. The hardness of cast iron after alloying with Cu increased and the friction coefficient decreased in comparison with the reference sample.

  20. Iron-copper metallization for flexible solar/cell arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavendel, H. W.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of a copper-base metallization for shallow-junction cells applied in flexible solar arrays in space is discussed. This type of metallization will reduce usage of precious metals (such as silver), increase case of bonding (by welding or by soldering) and eliminate heavy high Z interconnects (such as molybdenum). The main points of concern are stability against thermally induced diffusion of copper into silicon which causes degradation of shallow cell junctions, and low series resistance of the contact with semiconductor which promotes cell efficiency.

  1. MD description of damage production in displacement cascades in copper and α-iron.

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, David J; Osetskiy, Yury N; Stoller, Roger E; Voskoboinikov, Roman E

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics computer simulation was applied for an extensive study of primary damage creation in displacement cascades in copper and {alpha}-iron. Primary knock-on atom energy, E{sub p}, of up to 25 keV in copper and 100 keV in iron was considered for irradiation temperatures in the range 100-900 K. Special attention was paid to comprehensive statistical treatment of the number and type of defects created in cascades by conducting multiple simulations for each value of energy and temperature. The total number of point defects per cascade is significantly lower than that predicted by the NRT model and rather similar in the two metals. The fraction of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and vacancies that agglomerate in clusters in the cascade process was analysed in detail. The clustered fraction of SIAs increases with temperature increase and is larger in copper than iron. SIA clusters have a variety of forms in both metals and, although most are glissile clusters of parallel crowdions, a significant fraction are sessile. The latter include Frank dislocation loops in copper. Tightly packed arrangements of vacancies do not form in iron, and so the fraction of clustered vacancies depends strongly on the range within which point defects are defined to be near-neighbours. Arrangements of vacancies in first-neighbour sites are common in copper. Most are irregular stacking fault tetrahedra (SFTs). In 53 simulations of cascades with E{sub p} = 25 keV at 100 K, the largest cluster formed contained 89 vacancies. The size spectrum of SFT-like clusters is similar to that found experimentally in neutron-irradiated copper, suggesting that the SFTs observed in experiment are formed directly in the cascade process.

  2. Effects of Copper and Austempering on Corrosion Behavior of Ductile Iron in 3.5 Pct Sodium Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hsun; Lin, Kuan-Ting

    2013-10-01

    Although alloying and heat treatments are common industrial practices to obtain ductile irons with desired mechanical properties, related information on how the two practices affect corrosion behavior is scarce. In this study, two ductile irons—with and without 1 wt pct copper addition—were austempered to obtain austempered ductile irons (ADIs). Polarization tests and salt spray tests were conducted to explore how both copper-alloying and austempering heat treatments influenced the corrosion behavior of ductile irons. The results showed that the corrosion resistance of 1 wt pct copper-alloyed ductile iron was better than that of the unalloyed one, while ADI had improved corrosion resistance compared with the as-cast. In particular, the ductile iron combined with the copper-alloying and austempering treatments increased the corrosion inhibition efficiency up to 84 pct as tested in 3.5 wt pct NaCl solution.

  3. Zinc pyrithione inhibits yeast growth through copper influx and inactivation of iron-sulfur proteins.

    PubMed

    Reeder, Nancy L; Kaplan, Jerry; Xu, Jun; Youngquist, R Scott; Wallace, Jared; Hu, Ping; Juhlin, Kenton D; Schwartz, James R; Grant, Raymond A; Fieno, Angela; Nemeth, Suzanne; Reichling, Tim; Tiesman, Jay P; Mills, Tim; Steinke, Mark; Wang, Shuo L; Saunders, Charles W

    2011-12-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZPT) is an antimicrobial material with widespread use in antidandruff shampoos and antifouling paints. Despite decades of commercial use, there is little understanding of its antimicrobial mechanism of action. We used a combination of genome-wide approaches (yeast deletion mutants and microarrays) and traditional methods (gene constructs and atomic emission) to characterize the activity of ZPT against a model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ZPT acts through an increase in cellular copper levels that leads to loss of activity of iron-sulfur cluster-containing proteins. ZPT was also found to mediate growth inhibition through an increase in copper in the scalp fungus Malassezia globosa. A model is presented in which pyrithione acts as a copper ionophore, enabling copper to enter cells and distribute across intracellular membranes. This is the first report of a metal-ligand complex that inhibits fungal growth by increasing the cellular level of a different metal. PMID:21947398

  4. Effects of pH on the toxicities of cadmium, copper, and zinc to steelhead trout (salmo gairdneri) (journal version)

    SciTech Connect

    Cusimano, R.F.; Brakke, D.F.; Chapman, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Increased metal concentrations have been associated with freshwater acidification. Continuous-flow acute toxicity tests were conducted in soft water to determine the effect of pH on the toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to small (1-6 g) steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). LC50 values were calculated for 96- and 168-h exposure periods in waters of pH 4.7, 5.7, and 7.0. Test fish were significantly more tolerant of the metals at the lowest pH value than at higher pHs. The 96-h LC50 values at pH 4.7, 5.7, and 7.0 were 671, 97, and 66 micrograms/L for zinc, 66.0, 4.2 and 2.8 micrograms/L for copper, and 28.0, 0.7 and less than 0.5 micrograms/L for cadmium, respectively. The 168-h results were similar to the 96-h values. The results indicate that for the metals tested, toxicity is ameliorated in depressed pH waters over short exposure periods, such as may occur during snowmelt runoff. The possibility of hydrogen-ion interference with metal uptake is postulated.

  5. Bioabsorption of cadmium, copper and lead by the red macroalga Gelidium floridanum: physiological responses and ultrastructure features.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Rodrigo W; Schmidt, Éder C; de L Felix, Marthiellen R; Polo, Luz K; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Debora T; Costa, Giulia B; Simioni, Carmen; Chow, Fungyi; Ramlov, Fernanda; Maraschin, Marcelo; Bouzon, Zenilda L

    2014-07-01

    Heavy metals, such as lead, copper, cadmium, zinc, and nickel, are among the most common pollutants found in both industrial and urban effluents. High concentrations of these metals cause severe toxic effects, especially to organisms living in the aquatic ecosystem. Cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) are the heavy metals most frequently implicated as environmental contaminants, and they have been shown to affect development, growth, photosynthesis and respiration, and morphological cell organization in seaweeds. This paper aimed to evaluate the effects of 50μM and 100μM of Cd, Pb and Cu on growth rates, photosynthetic pigments, biochemical parameters and ultrastructure in Gelidium floridanum. To accomplish this, apical segments of G. floridanum were individually exposed to the respective heavy metals over a period of 7 days. Plants exposed to Cd, Cu and Pb showed discoloration of thallus pigmentation, chloroplast alteration, especially degeneration of thylakoids, and decrease in photosynthetic pigments, such as chlorophyll a and phycobiliproteins, in samples treated with Cd and Cu. Moreover, cell wall thickness and the volume of plastoglobuli increased. X-ray microanalysis detected Cd, Cu and Pb absorption in the cell wall. The results indicate that Cd, Pb and Cu negatively affect metabolic performance and cell ultrastructure in G. floridanum and that Cu was more toxic than either Pb or Cd.

  6. Effects of copper and cadmium on development and superoxide dismutase levels in horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) embryos.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Mary G; Esposito, Christopher; Malin, Mia; Cusumano, Lucas R; Botton, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Pollution by metals may adversely affect organisms through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we examined the sublethal effects of two metals, copper and cadmium, on horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) embryos. Exposure to copper or cadmium at concentrations of 0.01-10 mg/L for periods of 4, 8, 16 and 24 h had minimal effect on embryo survival except at 100 mg/L Cu. However, metal-exposed embryos took significantly longer to hatch into first instar ("trilobite") larvae than seawater controls. Levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), believed to be important in the response to oxidative stress, were determined by Western blotting. Both the Cu/Zn and Mn cofactor forms of SOD tended to be somewhat elevated in metal-exposed embryos, but the increases were neither dose nor time-dependent. Likewise, SOD enzymatic activity showed no significant differences comparing embryos exposed to metals with seawater controls. We conclude that the protective role of SOD's against ROS produced in response to metal exposure appears to be limited in horseshoe crab embryos, at least under our experimental conditions. PMID:26405624

  7. Cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc concentrations in human infant tissues: their relationship to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was any evidence of an excess of the toxic elements, cadmium and lead, or a deficiency of any of the essential elements, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc, in the tissues of infants who died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) as compared to those of infants who died of other causes. The literature was reviewed for SIDS, mineral metabolism, and mineral interactions. Lung, liver, kidney, and rib specimens were obtained at autopsy from 130 infants who died suddenly and unexpectedly. There were 85 SIDS cases ranging in age from 2 to 64 weeks and 45, aged 1 to 92 weeks, who died of other causes. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, calcium, magnesium, copper, and zinc in each tissue were determined by electrothermal and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Statistical analysis of the data showed that liver and rib lead concentrations and liver magnesium concentrations were significantly higher in SIDS tissues in the 4 to 26 week age group than in non-SIDS tissues in the same age group. There was no evidence of a deficiency of the essential minerals measured.

  8. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Long-Lian; Lu, Ling; Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang; Xu, Da-Yong; Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Wei

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  9. Adsorption edge study about cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc adsorption by variable charge soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Mouta, E. R.; Soares, M. R.

    2009-04-01

    The improper discharge of industrial and urban residues and the inadvertent use of fertilizers and pesticides can result in soil and water pollution and improve the potential of trace metals to enter in the human food chain. Adsorption reactions occur at the solid/liquid interface and are the most important mechanisms for controlling the activity of metal ions in soil solution. In a complex system with amphoteric behavior, the comprehension of the mobility, availability and fate of pollutants in the soil system is crucial for the prediction of the environmental consequences and for development of prevention/remediation strategies. A comparative study of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) adsorption by highly weathered soils was carried out. Surface (0-0.2m) and subsoil (B horizon) samples were taken from a Rhodic Kandiudalf (RH), an Anionic "Xanthic" Acrudox (XA) and an Anionic "Rhodic" Acrudox (RA), located in brazilian humid tropical area. As the pH and the ionic strength are important environmental factors influencing the solution chemistry of heavy metals in variable charge systems, adsorption envelopes, in a batch adsorption experiment, were elaborated by reacting, for 24 h, soil samples with individual 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 aqueous solutions containing nitrate salts of the adsorptive heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) at the initial concentration of 5 mg L-1, with an increasing pH value from 3.0 to 8.0. pH50-100%, the difference between the pH of 100 and 50 percent metal adsorption was determined. A sharp increase of adsorption density (adsorption edge) was observed within a very narrow pH range, usually less than two pH units. Commonly, the relative affinity of a soil for a metal cation increases with the tendency of the cation to form inner-sphere surface complexes. This may be caused by differences in extent of hydrolysis of Cu ions and in affinity of adsorption sites for Cu. In general, subsurface samples showed low pH50

  10. Simultaneous determination of cadmium, iron and tin in canned foods using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Leao, Danilo J; Junior, Mario M S; Brandao, Geovani C; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2016-06-01

    A method was established to simultaneously determine cadmium, iron and tin in canned-food samples using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF AAS). The quantification step has been performed using the primary line (228.802nm) for cadmium and the adjacent secondary lines (228.725nm and 228.668nm) for iron and tin, respectively. The selected chemical modifier was an acid solution that contained a mixture of 0.1% (w/v) Pd and 0.05% (w/v) Mg. The absorbance signals were measured based on the peak area using 3 pixels for cadmium and 5 pixels for iron and tin. Under these conditions, cadmium, iron and tin have been determined in canned-food samples using the external calibration technique based on aqueous standards, where the limits of quantification were 2.10ngg(-1) for cadmium, 1.95mgkg(-1) for iron and 3.00mgkg(-1) for tin, and the characteristic masses were 1.0pg for cadmium, 0.9ng for iron and 1.1ng for tin. The precision was evaluated using two solutions of each metal ion, and the results, which were expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD%), were 3.4-6.8%. The method accuracy for cadmium and iron was confirmed by analyzing a certified reference material of apple leaves (NIST 1515), which was supplied by NIST. However, for tin, the accuracy was confirmed by comparing the results of the proposed method and another analytical technique (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry). The proposed procedure was applied to determine cadmium, iron and tin in canned samples of peeled tomato and sardine. Eleven samples were analyzed, and the analyte concentrations were 3.57-62.9ngg(-1), 2.68-31.48mgkg(-1) and 4.06-122.0mgkg(-1) for cadmium, iron and tin, respectively. In all analyzed samples, the cadmium and tin contents were lower than the permissible maximum levels for these metals in canned foods in the Brazilian legislation.

  11. Simultaneous determination of cadmium, iron and tin in canned foods using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Leao, Danilo J; Junior, Mario M S; Brandao, Geovani C; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2016-06-01

    A method was established to simultaneously determine cadmium, iron and tin in canned-food samples using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF AAS). The quantification step has been performed using the primary line (228.802nm) for cadmium and the adjacent secondary lines (228.725nm and 228.668nm) for iron and tin, respectively. The selected chemical modifier was an acid solution that contained a mixture of 0.1% (w/v) Pd and 0.05% (w/v) Mg. The absorbance signals were measured based on the peak area using 3 pixels for cadmium and 5 pixels for iron and tin. Under these conditions, cadmium, iron and tin have been determined in canned-food samples using the external calibration technique based on aqueous standards, where the limits of quantification were 2.10ngg(-1) for cadmium, 1.95mgkg(-1) for iron and 3.00mgkg(-1) for tin, and the characteristic masses were 1.0pg for cadmium, 0.9ng for iron and 1.1ng for tin. The precision was evaluated using two solutions of each metal ion, and the results, which were expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD%), were 3.4-6.8%. The method accuracy for cadmium and iron was confirmed by analyzing a certified reference material of apple leaves (NIST 1515), which was supplied by NIST. However, for tin, the accuracy was confirmed by comparing the results of the proposed method and another analytical technique (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry). The proposed procedure was applied to determine cadmium, iron and tin in canned samples of peeled tomato and sardine. Eleven samples were analyzed, and the analyte concentrations were 3.57-62.9ngg(-1), 2.68-31.48mgkg(-1) and 4.06-122.0mgkg(-1) for cadmium, iron and tin, respectively. In all analyzed samples, the cadmium and tin contents were lower than the permissible maximum levels for these metals in canned foods in the Brazilian legislation. PMID:27130088

  12. Regulation of copper and iron homeostasis by metal chelators: a possible chemotherapy for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Robert, Anne; Liu, Yan; Nguyen, Michel; Meunier, Bernard

    2015-05-19

    With the increase of life expectancy of humans in more than two-thirds of the countries in the World, aging diseases are becoming the frontline health problems. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is now one of the major challenges in drug discovery, since, with the exception of memantine in 2003, all clinical trials with drug candidates failed over the past decade. If we consider that the loss of neurons is due to a high level of oxidative stress produced by nonregulated redox active metal ions like copper linked to amyloids of different sizes, regulation of metal homeostasis is a key target. The difficulty for large copper-carrier proteins to directly extract copper ions from metalated amyloids might be considered as being at the origin of the rupture of the copper homeostasis regulation in AD brains. So, there is an urgent need for new specific metal chelators that should be able to regulate the homeostasis of metal ions, specially copper and iron, in AD brains. As a consequence of that concept, chelators promoting metal excretion from brain are not desired. One should favor ligands able to extract copper ions from sinks (amyloids being the major one) and to transfer these redox-active metal ions to copper-carrier proteins or copper-containing enzymes. Obviously, the affinity of these chelators for the metal ion should not be a sufficient criterion, but the metal specificity and the ability of the chelators to release the metal under specific biological conditions should be considered. Such an approach is still largely unexplored. The requirements for the chelators are very high (ability to cross the brain-blood barrier, lack of toxicity, etc.), few chemical series were proposed, and, among them, biochemical or biological data are scarce. As a matter of fact, the bioinorganic pharmacology of AD represents less than 1% of all articles dedicated to AD drug research. The major part of these articles deals with an old and rather toxic drug, clioquinol and related analogs, that

  13. Splicing factor SR34b mutation reduces cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis by regulating iron-regulated transporter 1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wentao; Du, Bojing; Liu, Di; Qi, Xiaoting

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Arabidopsis splicing factor SR34b gene is cadmium-inducible. • SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant is sensitive to cadmium due to high cadmium uptake. • SR34b is a regulator of cadmium transporter IRT1 at the posttranscription level. • These results highlight the roles of splicing factors in cadmium tolerance of plant. - Abstract: Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are important splicing factors. However, the biological functions of plant SR proteins remain unclear especially in abiotic stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential element that negatively affects plant growth and development. In this study, we provided clear evidence for SR gene involved in Cd tolerance in planta. Systemic expression analysis of 17 Arabidopsis SR genes revealed that SR34b is the only SR gene upregulated by Cd, suggesting its potential roles in Arabidopsis Cd tolerance. Consistent with this, a SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant (sr34b) was moderately sensitive to Cd, which had higher Cd{sup 2+} uptake rate and accumulated Cd in greater amounts than wild-type. This was due to the altered expression of iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) gene in sr34b mutant. Under normal growth conditions, IRT1 mRNAs highly accumulated in sr34b mutant, which was a result of increased stability of IRT1 mRNA. Under Cd stress, however, sr34b mutant plants had a splicing defect in IRT1 gene, thus reducing the IRT1 mRNA accumulation. Despite of this, sr34b mutant plants still constitutively expressed IRT1 proteins under Cd stress, thereby resulting in Cd stress-sensitive phenotype. We therefore propose the essential roles of SR34b in posttranscriptional regulation of IRT1 expression and identify it as a regulator of Arabidopsis Cd tolerance.

  14. Iron transport in the kidney: implications for physiology and cadmium nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Thévenod, Frank; Wolff, Natascha A

    2016-01-01

    The kidney has recently emerged as an organ with a significant role in systemic iron (Fe) homeostasis. Substantial amounts of Fe are filtered by the kidney, which have to be reabsorbed to prevent Fe deficiency. Accordingly Fe transporters and receptors for protein-bound Fe are expressed in the nephron that may also function as entry pathways for toxic metals, such as cadmium (Cd), by way of "ionic and molecular mimicry". Similarities, but also differences in handling of Cd by these transport routes offer rationales for the propensity of the kidney to develop Cd toxicity. This critical review provides a comprehensive update on Fe transport by the kidney and its relevance for physiology and Cd nephrotoxicity. Based on quantitative considerations, we have also estimated the in vivo relevance of the described transport pathways for physiology and toxicology. Under physiological conditions all segments of the kidney tubules are likely to utilize Fe for cellular Fe requiring processes for metabolic purposes and also to contribute to reabsorption of free and bound forms of Fe into the circulation. But Cd entering tubule cells disrupts metabolic pathways and is unable to exit. Furthermore, our quantitative analyses contest established models linking chronic Cd nephrotoxicity to proximal tubular uptake of metallothionein-bound Cd. Hence, Fe transport by the kidney may be beneficial by preventing losses from the body. But increased uptake of Fe or Cd that cannot exit tubule cells may lead to kidney injury, and Fe deficiency may facilitate renal Cd uptake.

  15. Effects of iron and copper overload on the human liver: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Fanni, D; Fanos, V; Gerosa, C; Piras, M; Dessi, A; Atzei, A; Van, Eyken P; Gibo, Y; Faa, G

    2014-01-01

    Iron and copper ions play important roles in many physiological functions of our body, even though the exact mechanisms regulating their absorption, distribution and excretion are not fully understood. Metal-related human pathology may be observed in two different clinical settings: deficiency or overload. The overload in liver cells of both trace elements leads to multiple cellular lesions. Here we report the main pathological changes observed at transmission electron microscopy in the liver of subjects affected by Beta-thalassemia and by Wilson's disease. The hepatic iron overload in beta-thalassemia patients is associated with haemosiderin storage both in Kupffer cells and in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Haemosiderin granules are grouped inside voluminous lysosomes, also called siderosomes. Other ultrastructural changes are fat droplets, proliferation of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and fibrosis. Apoptosis of hepatocytes and infiltration of sinusoids by polymorphonucleates is also detected in beta-thalassemia. Ultrastructural changes in liver biopsies from Wilson's disease patients are characterized by severe mitochondrial changes, associated with an increased number of perossisomes, cytoplasmic lipid droplets and the presence of lipolysosomes, characteristic cytoplasmic bodies formed by lipid vacuoles surrounded by electron-dense lysosomes. In patients affected by Wilson's disease, nuclei are frequently involved, with disorganization of the nucleoplasm and with glycogen inclusions. On the contrary, no significant changes are detected in Kupffer cells. Our data show that iron and copper, even though are both transition metals, are responsible of different pathological changes at ultrastructural level. In particular, copper overload is associated with mitochondrial damage, whereas iron overload only rarely may cause severe mitochondrial changes. These differences underlay the need for further studies in which biochemical analyses should be associated with

  16. Alaskan malamute chondrodysplasia IV. Concentrations of zinc, copper and iron in various tissues.

    PubMed

    Brown, R G; Hoag, G N; Smart, M E; Boechner, G; Subden, R E

    1977-09-01

    Trace mineral concentrations in various tissues of the chondrodysplastic (dwarf) Alaskan Malamute are remarkably different as compared to normal. The zinc level in heart tissue was depressed in dwarf animals (26 weeks). Copper concentration in the liver is elevated two to four fold in 26 week old dwarf animals and iron levels are significantly elevated in kidney, liver and pancreas of these animals. These observations suggest that the dwarf Alaskan Malamutes suffer from a genetic defect in trace mineral metabolism. If this is the case, then many of the skeletal lesions reported for these animals may be attributed to disorders in either zinc or copper metabolism.

  17. Copper, nickel, and iron in plumage of three upland gamebird species from non-contaminated environments

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, G.H.

    1985-12-01

    High levels of atmospheric contamination and particulate fallout characterizing the Industrial Basin of the copper-nickel smelting operations at Sudbury, Ontario, were shown to be reflected in the feather chemistry of resident ruffed grouse populations. Of considerable concern, however, is the paucity of information on background concentrations of elemental metals that could be considered normal for non-contaminated environments. The present report examines concentrations of copper, nickel and iron in the plumage of three tetraonid species collected from remote and undisturbed areas in Northern Ontario and Quebec.

  18. Iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: We present data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2009 on the distribution of blood cadmium levels and their association with iron deficiency in a representative sample of the adult Korean population. Methods: Serum ferritin was categorized into three levels: low (serum ferritin <15.0 {mu}g/L), low normal (15.0-30.0 {mu}g/L for women and 15.0-50.0 for men), and normal ({>=}30.0 {mu}g/L for women and {>=}50.0 for men), and its association with blood cadmium level was assessed after adjustment for various demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Geometric means of blood cadmium in the low serum ferritin group in women, men, and all participants were significantly higher than in the normal group. Additionally, multiple regression analysis after adjusting for various covariates showed that blood cadmium was significantly higher in the low-ferritin group in women, men, and all participants compared with the normal group. We also found an association between serum ferritin and blood cadmium among never-smoking participants. Discussion: We found, similar to other recent population-based studies, an association between iron deficiency and increased blood cadmium in men and women, independent of smoking status. The results of the present study show that iron deficiency is associated with increased levels of blood cadmium in the general population.

  19. Nanostructures design by plasma afterglow-assisted oxidation of iron-copper thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imam, A.; Boileau, A.; Gries, T.; Ghanbaja, J.; Mangin, D.; Hussein, K.; Sezen, H.; Amati, M.; Belmonte, T.

    2016-05-01

    Oxidizing thin films made of Fe-Cu alloy with an Ar-O2 micro-afterglow operated at atmospheric pressure shows remarkable growth processes. The presence of iron in copper up to about 50% leads to the synthesis of CuO nanostructures (nanowalls, nanotowers and nanowires). Nanotowers show the presence of an amorphous phase trapped between crystalline domains. Beyond 50%, Fe2O3 iron nanoblades are also found. CuO nanowires as small as 5 nm in diameter can be synthesized. Thanks to the presence of patterned domains induced by buckling, it was possible to show that the stress level decreases when the iron content in the alloy increases. Iron blades grow from the inner Fe2O3 layer through the overlying CuO if it is thin enough.

  20. Direct Functionalization of (Un)protected Tetrahydroisoquinoline and Isochroman under Iron and Copper Catalysis: Two Metals, Two Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A highly facile, straightforward synthesis of 1-(3-indolyl)-tetrahydroisoquinolines was developed using either simple copper or iron catalysts. N-protected and unprotected tetrahydroisoquinolines (THIQ) could be used as starting materials. Extension of the substrate scope of the pronucleophile from indoles to pyrroles and electron-rich arenes was realized. Additionally, methoxyphenylation is not limited to THIQ but can be carried out on isochroman as well, again employing iron and copper catalysis. PMID:21902275

  1. Content of total iron, copper and manganese in liver of animals during hypokinesia, muscle activity and process of recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapovich, G. M.; Taneyeva, G. V.; Uteshev, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the content of total iron, copper and manganese in the liver of animals is altered depending on the intensity and duration of their swimming. Hypodynamia for 7 days does not alter the concentration of iron, but sufficiently increases the content of copper and manganese. The barometric factor effectively influences the maintenance of constancy in the content of microelements accumulated in the liver after intensive muscle activity.

  2. Serum ceruloplasmin protein expression and activity increases in iron-deficient rats and is further enhanced by higher dietary copper intake

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, Perungavur N.; Lu, Yan; Jiang, Lingli; Kim, Changae

    2011-01-01

    Increases in serum and liver copper content are noted during iron deficiency in mammals, suggesting that copper-dependent processes participate during iron deprivation. One point of intersection between the 2 metals is the liver-derived, multicopper ferroxidase ceruloplasmin (Cp) that is important for iron release from certain tissues. The current study sought to explore Cp expression and activity during physiologic states in which hepatic copper loading occurs (eg, iron deficiency). Weanling rats were fed control or low iron diets containing low, normal, or high copper for ∼ 5 weeks, and parameters of iron homeostasis were measured. Liver copper increased in control and iron-deficient rats fed extra copper. Hepatic Cp mRNA levels did not change; however, serum Cp protein was higher during iron deprivation and with higher copper consumption. In-gel and spectrophotometric ferroxidase and amine oxidase assays demonstrated that Cp activity was enhanced when hepatic copper loading occurred. Interestingly, liver copper levels strongly correlated with Cp protein expression and activity. These observations support the possibility that liver copper loading increases metallation of the Cp protein, leading to increased production of the holo enzyme. Moreover, this phenomenon may play an important role in the compensatory response to maintain iron homeostasis during iron deficiency. PMID:21768302

  3. Generation of oxidant response to copper and iron nanoparticles and salts: Stimulation by ascorbate

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Robert H.; Vidrio, Edgar A.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Qin, Qin; Willits, Neil H.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Anastasio, Cort

    2009-01-01

    The present work describes a two-stage approach to analyzing combustion-generated samples for their potential to produce oxidant stress. This approach is illustrated with the two commonly encountered transition metals, copper and iron. First, their abilities to generate hydroxyl radical were measured in a cell-free, phosphate-buffered saline solution containing ascorbate and/or citrate. Second, their abilities to induce heme oxygenase-1 in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes were assessed in cell culture. Combustion-generated copper oxide nanoparticles were active in both assays and were found to be soluble in culture medium. Depletion of glutathione in the cells or loading the cells with ascorbate greatly increased heme oxygenase-1 induction in the presence of copper. By contrast, iron oxide nanoparticles were active in the phosphate buffered saline but not in cell culture, and they aggregated in culture medium. Soluble salts of copper and iron exhibited the same contrast in activities as the respective combustion-generated particles. The results suggest that the capability of combustion-generated environmental samples to produce oxidant stress can be screened effectively in a two step process, first in phosphate buffered saline with ascorbate and subsequently in epithelial cell culture for those exhibiting activity initially. The results also point to an unanticipated interaction in cells of oxidant stress-generating metals with an anti-oxidant (ascorbate) that is usually missing in culture medium formulations. Thus, ascorbate supplementation of cultured human cells is likely to improve their ability to model the in vivo effects of particulate matter containing copper and other redox-active metals. PMID:19683516

  4. Copper and iron are mobilized following myocardial ischemia: possible predictive criteria for tissue injury.

    PubMed Central

    Chevion, M; Jiang, Y; Har-El, R; Berenshtein, E; Uretzky, G; Kitrossky, N

    1993-01-01

    Direct evidence for substantial mobilization of copper in the coronary flow immediately following prolonged, but not short, cardiac ischemia is presented. In the first coronary flow fraction (CFF) of reperfusion (0.15 ml), after 35 min of ischemia, the level of copper (as well as of iron) was 8- to 9-fold higher than the preischemic value. The levels in subsequent CFFs decreased and reached the preischemic value, indicating that both metals appear in a burst at the resumption of coronary flow. When the first CFF was used in a reaction mixture containing ascorbate and salicylate, the latter underwent chemical hydroxylation and was converted to its dihydroxybenzoate derivatives. Likewise, this CFF promoted the ascorbate-driven DNA degradation. Subsequent 150 CFFs were serially collected and demonstrated low activities. Following 18 min of ischemia, the copper level in the first CFF of reperfusion was only 15% over the preischemic value. In contrast, the mobilization of iron into coronary flow was significant but markedly lower than after 35 min. The levels of copper and the redox activity of the first CFF correlated well with the degree of loss of cardiac function, after 18 and 35 min of ischemia, respectively. After 18 min of ischemia, cardiac function was about 50% and the damage is considered reversible, whereas after 35 min the functional loss exceeded 80% and is considered irreversible. These results are in accord with the causative role that copper and iron can play in heart injury following ischemia, by virtue of their capacity to catalyze the production of hydroxyl radicals, and could lead to the development of new modalities for intervention in tissue injury. Images PMID:8430081

  5. Toxicological characterization of bio-active drugs on basis of Iron Fe, Co, and Copper Cu nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polishuk, S.; Nazarova, A.; Stepanova, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article presents investigations of toxicological parameters (acute and chronic toxicity, cumulative coefficient) of iron, cobalt, copper and copper oxide nanoparticles with white rats in labs. We have estimated the optimal concentrations of the above mentioned substances with rabbits. We have also studied morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters of the animals when adding the optimal doses to the diet for a long term.

  6. Presence of acute phase changes in zinc, iron, and copper metabolism in turkey embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Klasing, K.C.; Richards, M.P.; Darcey, S.E.; Laurin, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Acute phase changes in trace mineral metabolism were examined in turkey embryos. An endotoxin injection resulted in increased concentrations of serum copper and liver zinc and decreased concentrations of serum zinc in embryos incubated either in ovo or ex ovo. Changes in zinc and copper metabolism occurred when endotoxin either was injected intramuscularly, into the amnionic fluid, or administered onto the chorioallantoic membrane. Unlike poults, embryos did not respond to an inflammatory challenge with decreased serum iron concentrations. Acute phase changes in embryo serum zinc and copper as well as liver zinc concentrations were similar to those in poults. Increased liver zinc concentrations were associated with increased zinc in metallothionein (MT). An injection of a crude interleukin 1 preparation into embryos resulted in similar increases in hepatic zinc and MT concentrations as an endotoxin injection, suggesting a role for this cytokine in mediating the acute phase changes in embryonic zinc metabolism.

  7. Blood concentrations of selenium, zinc, iron, copper and calcium in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chin-Thin, Wang; Wei-Tun, Chang; Tzu-Ming, Pan; Ren-Tse, Wang

    2002-11-01

    We used an atomic absorption spectrophotometric method to determine the concentration of selenium, zinc, iron, copper and calcium in the whole blood of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The results demonstrate that these patients have a lower concentration of selenium (0.18 +/- 0.02 microg/ml vs. 0.28 +/- 0.06 microg/ml) and zinc (11.2 +/- 2.75 microg/ml vs. 18.2 +/- 7.33 microg/ml) than healthy controls (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the hepatocellular carcinoma patients have higher mean concentrations of iron (651.9+/-66.2 microg/ml vs.473.0 +/- 88.0 microg/ml; p < 0.05), copper (1.43 +/- 0.33 microg/ml vs. 0.95 +/- 0.19 microg/ml; p < 0.05) and calcium (75.0 +/- 13.1 microg/ml vs. 39.9 +/- 12.3 microg/ml; p < 0.01) than healthy controls. Thus, hepatocellular carcinoma seems to be associated with the changes in the whole blood concentrations of selenium, zinc, iron, copper and calcium.

  8. Influence of orange juice in the levels and in the genotoxicity of iron and copper.

    PubMed

    Franke, Silvia Isabel Rech; Prá, Daniel; Giulian, Raquel; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; Yoneama, Maria Lúcia; da Silva, Juliana; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

    2006-03-01

    World consumption of natural juices is increasing as a consequence of the human search for a healthier life. The juice production industry, especially for orange juice, is expanding in several countries and particularly in Brazil. Despite scientific data reporting beneficial properties derived from juice consumption, some components of juices have been identified as mutagenic or carcinogenic. Carcinogenic or genotoxic effects may be mediated by the interaction of juice components with transition metals or by sub-products of juice auto-oxidation. In this study, the mutagenic potential of orange juice and two metallic agents used in dietary supplementation, FeSO(4) and CuSO(4), were investigated using the comet assay in mouse blood cells (in vivo). Both metal compounds were genotoxic for eukaryotic cells after 24h treatment at the doses used. Significant damage repair was observed after 48h of treatment with the same compounds. Orange juice had a modulating effect on the action of metallic sulfates. In the case of iron treatment, the presence of the orange juice had a preventive, but not restorative, effect. On the other hand, in the case of copper treatment, the effects were both preventive and restorative. PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) analysis indicated a positive correlation between DNA damage and the hepatic levels of iron and a negative correlation between whole blood copper and DNA damage. A negative correlation between hepatic iron and whole blood copper content was also seen in the treatment with both ferrous and cupric sulfates. PMID:16263202

  9. Retronasal perception and flavour thresholds of iron and copper in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Omur-Ozbek, Pinar; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2011-03-01

    Drinking water flavour has a strong role in water quality perception, service satisfaction, willingness to pay and selection of water sources. Metallic flavours are often caused by the dissolved iron and copper, commonly found in groundwater or introduced to tap water by corroding infrastructure. Taste thresholds of iron and copper have been investigated by several studies; however, reported results and test methods vary considerably. This study determined the taste thresholds of ferrous and cuprous ions in room temperature reagent water by using the one-of-five test with multi-nation panellists in the United States. For ferrous and cuprous ions, individual thresholds ranged from 0.003 to >5 mg l(-1) and 0.035 to >5 mg l(-1), respectively. Population thresholds were determined by logistic regression and geometric mean methods as 0.031 and 0.05 mg l(-1) for ferrous ion, and 0.61 mg l(-1) for cuprous ion by both methods. The components of metallic sensation were investigated by use of nose-clips while panellists ingested iron and copper solutions. Results showed that metallic sensation has a significant odour component and should be treated as a flavour instead of a taste. Ferrous, cuprous and cupric ions also produced weak bitter and salty tastes as well as astringent mouthfeel. In comparison, ferric ion produced no sensation.

  10. Effects of Copper and Malleablizing Time on Mechanical Properties of Austempered Malleable Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hsun; Lu, Jung-Kai; Chen, Fan-Shiong

    2007-10-01

    In this study, both the unalloyed and 1 wt pct copper alloyed white irons were successively treated with a duplex heating process consisting of malleablizing and austempering, and then the effects of copper and processing variables on microstructure and mechanical properties of the austempered malleable iron (AMI) were investigated. The results showed that AMI could effectively shorten malleablizing time to obtain the constituents of irregular graphite, acicular ferrite, and retained austenite in the microstructure. Moreover, 1 pct Cu-AMI had a higher retained austenite content than unalloyed AMI. This is because copper is an austenite stabilizer and acts to delay the start of the transformation into ausferrite. In the case of mechanical properties, AMI increased tensile strength (1083 to 1190 MPa) and impact toughness (16 to 22 J) by 2 to 3 times after 930 °C 20 hours malleablizing treatment as compared to as-cast (572 to 580 MPa and 5 to 6 J). In particular, 1 pct Cu-AMI had better performance than unalloyed AMI except for hardness. In comparison with conventional malleable irons, AMI was found to possess better tensile and impact properties.

  11. Environmental, health, safety, and regulatory review of selected photovoltaic options: Copper sulfide/cadmium sulfide and polycrystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, K.; Morgan, S.; Schaller, D.; Wilczak, T.

    1981-06-01

    Emissions, effluents and solid wastes from the fabrication of both polycrystalline silicon and front-wall copper sulfide/cadmium sulfide photovoltaic cells are summarized. Environmental, health, and safety characteristics of cell fabrication material inputs and by products are listed. Candidate waste stream treatment methods and resultant effluents are reviewed. Environmental, health, and safety effects of photovoltaic cell/module/array installation, operation, maintenance, and decommission are summarized. Federal legislation is addressed and future regulatory trends under these laws as they may affect each cell process are discussed. Water quality, solid waste disposal, and occupational health and safety regulations will likely be those most applicable to commercial scale PV production. Currently available control technology appears sufficient to treat cell fabrication wastes.

  12. Determination of arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc in geological materials by atomic-absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viets, J.G.; O'Leary, R. M.; Clark, Robert J.

    1984-01-01

    Arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, copper, lead, molybdenum, silver and zinc are very useful elements in geochemical exploration. In the proposed method, geological samples are fused with potassium pyrosulphate and the fusate is dissolved in a solution of hydrochloric acid, ascorbic acid and potassium iodide. When this solution is shaken with a 10% V/V Aliquat 336 - isobutyl methyl ketone organic phase, the nine elements of interest are selectively partitioned in the organic phase. All nine elements can then be determined in the organic phase using flame atomic-absorption spectrometry. The method is rapid and allows the determination of Ag and Cd at levels down to 0.1 p.p.m., Cu, Mo, and Zn down to 0.5 p.p.m., Pb, Bi and Sb down to 1 p.p.m. and As down to 5 p.p.m. in geological materials.

  13. Effects of iron on Vitamin C/copper-induced hydroxyl radical generation in bicarbonate-rich water.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Patric J; Del Castillo, Urko; Lindqvist, Christer; Nordström, Tommy

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether iron, like copper, could support Vitamin C mediated hydroxyl radical formation in bicarbonate-rich water. By using the hydroxyl radical indicator coumarin-3-carboxylic acid, we found that iron, in contrast to copper, was not capable to support Vitamin C induced hydroxyl radical formation. However, when 0.2 mg/l iron and 0.1 mg/l copper were both added to bicarbonate supplemented Milli-Q water, the Vitamin C induced formation of 7-hydroxycoumarin, as measured by HPLC analysis, was inhibited by 47.5%. The inhibition of hydroxyl radical formation by iron was also evident in the experiments performed on copper contaminated bicarbonate-rich household drinking water samples. In the presence of 0.2 mg/l of ferric iron the ascorbic acid induced hydroxyl radical formation was inhibited by 36.0-44.6%. This inhibition was even more significant, 47.0-59.2%, when 0.8 mg/l of ferric iron was present. None of the other redox-active metals, e.g. manganese, nickel or cobalt, could support ascorbic acid induced hydroxyl radical formation and did not have any impact on the ascorbic acid/copper-induced hydroxyl radical generation. Our results show, that iron cannot by itself produce hydroxyl radicals in bicarbonate rich water but can significantly reduce Vitamin C/copper-induced hydroxyl radical formation. These findings might partly explain the mechanism for the iron-induced protective effect on various copper related degenerative disorders that earlier has been observed in animal model systems. PMID:16036332

  14. Distribution of cadmium, iron and zinc in millstreams of hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop in the Great Plains of the United 14 States, and our previous work demonstrated that wheat genotypes vary for grain cadmium 15 accumulation, with some exceeding the CODEX standard (0.2 mg kg-1). Previous reports of 16 cadmium distribution in ...

  15. In situ laser Raman spectra of iron phthalocyanine adsorbed on copper and gold electrodes. [Electronic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Melendres, C.A.; Rios, C.B.; Feng, X.; McMasters, R.

    1983-01-01

    Raman spectra of iron phthalocyanine (FePc) and its tetrasulfonated derivative (FeTSPc) adsorbed on copper and gold electrodes have been observed in situ in 0.05 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solution. Results confirm the authors previous finding on the coordination of FePc to water molecules to solution. Evidence suggests that the iron phthalocyanines are probably oriented with their planes parallel to the electrode surface even in immersed electrodes. A decrease in intensity and broadening of some vibrational bands are observed on increasing cathodic polarization; these are attributed to a lifting of the degeneracy of the vibrational modes due to a change in symmetry of the adsorbed molecules brought about by polarization induced by the double-layer field. The effect of carbon on the Raman spectra is discussed. The iron phthalocyanines appear to be stable at potentials close to hydrogen evolution in the absence of oxygen. 18 references, 8 figures.

  16. In situ laser Raman spectra of iron phthalocyanine adsorbed on copper and gold electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Melendres, C.A.; Rios, C.B.; Feng, X.; McMasters, R.

    1983-09-01

    Raman spectra of iron phthalocyanine (FePc) and its tetrasulfonated derivative (FeTSPc) adsorbed on copper and gold electrodes have been observed in situ in 0.05 M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ solution. Results confirm our previous finding on the coordination of FePc to water molecules to solution. Evidence suggests that the iron phthalocyanines are probably oriented with their planes parallel to the electrode surface even in immersed electrodes. A decrease in intensity and broadening of some vibrational bands are observed on increasing cathodic polarization; these are attributed to a lifting of the degeneracy of the vibrational modes due to a change in symmetry of the adsorbed molecules brought about by polarization induced by the double-layer field. The effect of carbon on the Raman spectra is discussed. The iron phthalocyanines appear to be stable at potentials close to hydrogen evolution in the absence of oxygen. 8 figures.

  17. Tensile properties of copper alloyed austempered ductile iron: Effect of austempering parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, U.; Ray, S.; Prabhakar, S. R.

    2004-10-01

    A ductile iron containing 0.6% copper as the main alloying element was austenitized at 850 °C for 120 min and was subsequently austempered for 60 min at austempering temperatures of 270, 330, and 380 °C. The samples were also austempered at 330 °C for austempering times of 30 150 min. The structural parameters for the austempered alloy austenite (X γ ), average carbon content (C γ ), the product X γ C γ , and the size of the bainitic ferrite needle (d α ) were determined using x-ray diffraction. The effect of austempering temperature and time has been studied with respect to tensile properties such as 0.2% proof stress, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), percentage of elongation, and quality index. These properties have been correlated with the structural parameters of the austempered ductile iron microstructure. Fracture studies have been carried out on the tensile fracture surfaces of the austempered ductile iron (ADI).

  18. Nitric Oxide Contributes to Cadmium Toxicity in Arabidopsis by Promoting Cadmium Accumulation in Roots and by Up-Regulating Genes Related to Iron Uptake1[W

    PubMed Central

    Besson-Bard, Angélique; Gravot, Antoine; Richaud, Pierre; Auroy, Pascaline; Duc, Céline; Gaymard, Frédéric; Taconnat, Ludivine; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Pugin, Alain; Wendehenne, David

    2009-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) functions as a cell-signaling molecule in plants. In particular, a role for NO in the regulation of iron homeostasis and in the plant response to toxic metals has been proposed. Here, we investigated the synthesis and the role of NO in plants exposed to cadmium (Cd2+), a nonessential and toxic metal. We demonstrate that Cd2+ induces NO synthesis in roots and leaves of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings. This production, which is sensitive to NO synthase inhibitors, does not involve nitrate reductase and AtNOA1 but requires IRT1, encoding a major plasma membrane transporter for iron but also Cd2+. By analyzing the incidence of NO scavenging or inhibition of its synthesis during Cd2+ treatment, we demonstrated that NO contributes to Cd2+-triggered inhibition of root growth. To understand the mechanisms underlying this process, a microarray analysis was performed in order to identify NO-modulated root genes up- and down-regulated during Cd2+ treatment. Forty-three genes were identified encoding proteins related to iron homeostasis, proteolysis, nitrogen assimilation/metabolism, and root growth. These genes include IRT1. Investigation of the metal and ion contents in Cd2+-treated roots in which NO synthesis was impaired indicates that IRT1 up-regulation by NO was consistently correlated to NO's ability to promote Cd2+ accumulation in roots. This analysis also highlights that NO is responsible for Cd2+-induced inhibition of root Ca2+ accumulation. Taken together, our results suggest that NO contributes to Cd2+ toxicity by favoring Cd2+ versus Ca2+ uptake and by initiating a cellular pathway resembling those activated upon iron deprivation. PMID:19168643

  19. Influence of diet on iron, copper, and zinc status in children under 24 months of age.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew; Redworth, Edward Wallis; Morgan, Jane B

    2004-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether iron and micronutrient status is improved with an increased amount of meat in the diet. To this end, a longitudinal prospective study with infants recruited at 4 mo and followed until 24 mo of age was undertaken. One hundred ninety-eight infants formed the original study cohort; 48 withdrew before the end of the study. Subjects were classified as nonmeat eaters or as mixed (red and white)-meat eaters subgrouped into tertiles depending on the meat content reported in diet diaries. Seven-day weighed food records were recorded at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 mo. Blood samples taken at 4, 12, and 24 mo were analyzed for parameters of iron and micronutrient status. Iron intake increased during the first year, thereafter remaining constant. The percentages of subjects with hemoglobin values below 110 g/L were 34.1, 23.1, and 13.4 at 4, 12, and 24 mo, respectively. For parameters of iron status, the number of results below the reference range was determined for each diet group and a significant negative relationship between serum iron and meat intake at 12 mo of age was seen (p<0.023). There was a trend for hemoglobin concentrations to be inversely related to the meat intake, at the same age (p<0.068). No effects on zinc or copper status were seen. We conclude that a weak association between dietary meat and iron/Hb suggests a positive role for red meat. There was no disadvantage to the nonmeat-eating infants with respect to zinc or copper.

  20. Identification of high levels of phytochelatins, glutathione and cadmium in the phloem sap of Brassica napus. A role for thiol-peptides in the long-distance transport of cadmium and the effect of cadmium on iron translocation.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Butko, Emerald; Springer, Franziska; Torpey, Justin W; Komives, Elizabeth A; Kehr, Julia; Schroeder, Julian I

    2008-04-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are glutathione-derived peptides that function in heavy metal detoxification in plants and certain fungi. Recent research in Arabidopsis has shown that PCs undergo long-distance transport between roots and shoots. However, it remains unknown which tissues or vascular systems, xylem or phloem, mediate PC translocation and whether PC transport contributes to physiologically relevant long-distance transport of cadmium (Cd) between shoots and roots. To address these questions, xylem and phloem sap were obtained from Brassica napus to quantitatively analyze which thiol species are present in response to Cd exposure. High levels of PCs were identified in the phloem sap within 24 h of Cd exposure using combined mass spectrometry and fluorescence HPLC analyses. Unexpectedly, the concentration of Cd was more than four-fold higher in phloem sap compared to xylem sap. Cadmium exposure dramatically decreased iron levels in xylem and phloem sap whereas other essential heavy metals such as zinc and manganese remained unchanged. Data suggest that Cd inhibits vascular loading of iron but not nicotianamine. The high ratios [PCs]/[Cd] and [glutathione]/[Cd] in the phloem sap suggest that PCs and glutathione (GSH) can function as long-distance carriers of Cd. In contrast, only traces of PCs were detected in xylem sap. Our results suggest that, in addition to directional xylem Cd transport, the phloem is a major vascular system for long-distance source to sink transport of Cd as PC-Cd and glutathione-Cd complexes. PMID:18208526

  1. Identification of high levels of phytochelatins, glutathione and cadmium in the phloem sap of Brassica napus. A role for thiol-peptides in the long-distance transport of cadmium and the effect of cadmium on iron translocation.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Cózatl, David G; Butko, Emerald; Springer, Franziska; Torpey, Justin W; Komives, Elizabeth A; Kehr, Julia; Schroeder, Julian I

    2008-04-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are glutathione-derived peptides that function in heavy metal detoxification in plants and certain fungi. Recent research in Arabidopsis has shown that PCs undergo long-distance transport between roots and shoots. However, it remains unknown which tissues or vascular systems, xylem or phloem, mediate PC translocation and whether PC transport contributes to physiologically relevant long-distance transport of cadmium (Cd) between shoots and roots. To address these questions, xylem and phloem sap were obtained from Brassica napus to quantitatively analyze which thiol species are present in response to Cd exposure. High levels of PCs were identified in the phloem sap within 24 h of Cd exposure using combined mass spectrometry and fluorescence HPLC analyses. Unexpectedly, the concentration of Cd was more than four-fold higher in phloem sap compared to xylem sap. Cadmium exposure dramatically decreased iron levels in xylem and phloem sap whereas other essential heavy metals such as zinc and manganese remained unchanged. Data suggest that Cd inhibits vascular loading of iron but not nicotianamine. The high ratios [PCs]/[Cd] and [glutathione]/[Cd] in the phloem sap suggest that PCs and glutathione (GSH) can function as long-distance carriers of Cd. In contrast, only traces of PCs were detected in xylem sap. Our results suggest that, in addition to directional xylem Cd transport, the phloem is a major vascular system for long-distance source to sink transport of Cd as PC-Cd and glutathione-Cd complexes.

  2. Identification of high levels of phytochelatins, glutathione and cadmium in the phloem sap of Brassica napus. A role for thiol-peptides in the long-distance transport of cadmium and the effect of cadmium on iron translocation

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Cózatl, David G.; Butko, Emerald; Springer, Franziska; Torpey, Justin W.; Komives, Elizabeth A.; Kehr, Julia; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Phytochelatins (PCs) are glutathione-derived peptides that function in heavy metal detoxification in plants and certain fungi. Recent research in Arabidopsis has shown that PCs undergo long-distance transport between roots and shoots. However, it remains unknown which tissues or vascular systems, xylem or phloem, mediate PC translocation and whether PC transport contributes to physiologically relevant long-distance transport of cadmium (Cd) between shoots and roots. To address these questions, xylem and phloem sap were obtained from Brassica napus to quantitatively analyze which thiol species are present in response to Cd exposure. High levels of PCs were identified in the phloem sap within 24 h of Cd exposure using combined mass spectrometry and fluorescence HPLC analyses. Unexpectedly, the concentration of Cd was more than four-fold higher in phloem sap compared to xylem sap. Cadmium exposure dramatically decreased iron levels in xylem and phloem sap whereas other essential heavy metals such as zinc and manganese remained unchanged. Data suggest that Cd inhibits vascular loading of iron but not nicotianamine. The high ratios [PCs]/[Cd] and [glutathione]/[Cd] in the phloem sap suggest that PCs and glutathione (GSH) can function as long-distance carriers of Cd. In contrast, only traces of PCs were detected in xylem sap. Our results suggest that, in addition to directional xylem Cd transport, the phloem is a major vascular system for long-distance source to sink transport of Cd as PC–Cd and glutathione–Cd complexes. PMID:18208526

  3. Assessing of plasma levels of iron, zinc and copper in Iranian Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Meamar, Rokhsareh; Nikyar, Hamidreza; Dehghani, Leila; Basiri, Keivan; Ghazvini, Mohammad Reza Aghaye

    2016-01-01

    Background: Trace elements have long been suspected to be involved in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis, but their exact roles have been remained controversial. In this study, we assessed the levels of copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in different stage of PD patients. Materials and Methods: Serum concentrations of iron, copper and zinc were measured in 109 patients with PD by colorimetric methods. Staging of the disease was evaluated according to Hoehn and Yahr (H and Y) and Unified PD Rating Scale III (UPDRS). Results: Severity values of PD measured by UPRDSIII and HY stages with mean ± SD were 22.9 ± 1.81 and 1.8 ± 1.1, respectively. Mean ± SD values of iron, zinc and copper are 100.7 ± 289.2, 68.3 ± 5.32, and 196.8 ± 162.1 μg/dl, respectively. Serum iron level in most of the patients was normal (76.6%). Whereas zinc concentration in most participants was below the normal range (64.5%) and serum Cu in the majority of patients had a high normal concentration (42.7%) and did not significantly differ among various PD stages. Conclusion: The result of this study does not confirm strong correlation between PD stages and serum levels of tested trace elements. The actual correlations between these elements and PD and whether modulating of these agents levels could be an effective approach in the treatment of this disease remain to be elucidated. PMID:27099844

  4. Survival and hepatic metallothionein in developing rainbow trout exposed to a mixture of zinc, copper, and cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Roch, M.; McCarter, J.A.

    1986-02-01

    Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in Buttle Lake on Vancouver Island, B.C. are exposed to metal contamination originating from a copper and zinc mining operation at Myra Falls near the head of the lake. In order to properly assess the risk to a population of rainbow trout in Buttle Lake, the authors initiated a long-term exposure of rainbow trout from hatch including the swim-up stage. Copper, zinc or cadmium are known to induce metallothionein in mammals and as a mixture of metals, induce hepatic metallothionein in rainbow trout. Investigation of hepatic metallothionein concentrations in wild rainbow trout from Buttle Lake and in lakes of the Campbell River downstream showed a correlation with metal concentrations in the water. Rainbow trout held in situ for 4 weeks showed the same correlation. In this report they determined whether or not the degree of contamination was correlated with concentrations of metallothionein in the livers of rainbow trout exposed to the mixture of metals during the early life stages.

  5. Copper and cadmium in bottom sediments dredged from Wyścigi Pond, Warsaw, Poland--contamination and bioaccumulation study.

    PubMed

    Wojtkowska, Małgorzata; Karwowska, Ewa; Chmielewska, Iwona; Bekenova, Kundyz; Wanot, Ewa

    2015-12-01

    This research covered an evaluation of the copper and cadmium concentrations in bottom sediments dredged from one of the ponds in Warsaw. The samples of sediments, soil, and plants were analyzed in terms of Cu and Cd content. The research concerned the heap of dredged bottom sediments from Wyścigi Pond, Warsaw, Poland. Two boreholes were made to obtain sediment cores with depths of A 162.5 cm and B 190.0 cm. The cores were divided into 10 sub-samples with a thickness of about 15-20 cm. A control sample of soil was taken from the horse racecourse several hundred meters away from the heap. The vegetation was sampled directly from the heap. The predominating plants were tested: Urtica dioica, Glechoma hederacea, Euonymus verrucosus, and Drepanocladus aduncus. A control sample of U. dioica taken outside of the heap was also tested. The commercial PHYTOTOXKIT microbiotest was applied to evaluate the influence of heavy metal-contaminated sediments (used as soil) on germination and growth of the chosen test plants. The analyses of cadmium and copper concentrations revealed that the metal concentration in sediments was diverse at different depths of sampling, probably reflecting their concentration in stored layers of sediments. Moreover, the metal content in core A was four to five times lower than that in core B, which reveals heterogeneity of the sediments in the tested heap. In core A, the copper concentration ranged from 4.7 to 13.4 mg/kg d.w. (average 8.06 ± 0.71 mg/kg d.w.), while in core B, it ranged from 9.2 to 82.1 mg/kg d.w. (average 38.56 ± 2.6 mg/kg d.w.). One of the results of the heavy metal presence in soils is their bioaccumulation in plants. Comparing plant growth, more intensive growth of roots was observed in the case of plants growing on the control (reference) soil than those growing on sediments. The intensive development of both primary and lateral roots was noticed. During this early growth, metal accumulation in plants occurred

  6. Biomedical responses of rats to chronic exposure to dietary cadmium fed in ad libitum and equalized regimes.

    PubMed

    Cousins, R J; Squibb, K S; Feldman, S L; de Bari, A; Silbon, B L

    1977-03-01

    Forty 100 g male rats were fed, in groups of eight, either 0, 5, or 25 ppm cadmium in a purified diet for 14 wk. Three groups were fed each of the levels of cadmium on an ad libitum basis. Two other groups were fed either 0 or 5 ppm cadmium in amounts that were equalized to that consumed by the 25 ppm group fed ad libitum. Cadmium ingestion decreased daily diet consumption, weight gain, and terminal body weight. These parameters were not significantly different in rats whose diet consumption was equalized. Packed cell volume and serum iron as well as serum zinc were decreased in the rats fed 25 ppm cadmium. These effects were not related to diet intake. No major differences were observed in serum ceruloplasmin, glucose, protein, leucine aminopeptidase activity, or copper in any of the groups. Blood urea nitrogen and renal leucine aminopeptidase activity were decreased by cadmium ingestion in the rats fed ad libitum only. In contrast, serum alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated by cadmium in the equalized-intake groups only. Cadmium and zinc concentrations were elevated and the iron concentration was decreased in the kidney, liver, and intestinal mucosa of the cadmium-fed rats irrespective of level of diet consumption. The increased uptake of cadmium in these tissues was coincident with the increased content of the cadmium-binding protein, metallothionein, in the cytosol fraction. The results indicate that some parameters of chronic cadmium toxicity are associated with diet consumption whereas others are not.

  7. An Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Study of Copper Hopping in Doped Bis(L-histidinato)cadmium Dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Colaneri, Michael J.; Vitali, Jacqueline; Kirschbaum, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to study Cu(II) dynamic behavior in a doped biological model crystal; bis(L-histidinato)cadmium dihydrate, in order to gain better insight into copper site stability in metalloproteins. Temperature dependent changes in the low temperature X-band EPR spectra became visible around 100 K and continued up to room temperature. The measured 298 K g-tensor (principal values: 2.17, 2.16, 2.07) and copper hyperfine coupling tensor (principal values: −260, − 190, −37 MHz) were similar to the average of the 77 K tensor values pertaining to two neighboring histidine binding sites. The observed temperature dependence was interpreted using Anderson’s theory of motional narrowing, where the magnetic parameters for the different states are averaged as the copper rapidly hops between sites. The EPR pattern was also found to undergo a sharp sigmoidal-shaped, temperature dependent conversion between two species with a critical temperature Tc ≈ 160 K. The species below Tc hops between the two low temperature site patterns, and the one above Tc represents an average of the molecular spin Hamiltonian coupling tensors of the two 77 K sites. In addition, the low and high temperature species hop between one another, contributing to the dynamic averaging. Spectral simulations using this 4-state model determined a hop rate between the two low temperature sites νh4 = 4.5 × 108 s−1 and between the low and high temperature states νh2 = 1.7 × 108 s−1 at 160 K. An Arrhenius relationship of hop rate and temperature gave energy barriers of ΔE4 = 389 cm−1 and ΔE2 = 656 cm−1 between the two low temperature sites, and between the low and high temperature states, respectively. PMID:23530765

  8. Electrodeposition of iron-cobalt-nickel-copper quaternary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qiang

    Electrodeposition is a cost-effective method to produce thin film materials, which have been used widely in the microelectronic industry, and is advantageous to fabricate metal deposits into recessed and curved areas. In this dissertation, a FeCoNiCu quaternary alloy system was investigated, both experimentally and theoretically, for fabrication of multilayers, grating structures, and nanowires. Multilayer structures are composed of alternating ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic nanometric layers, and are of interest due to the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) property it possesses, a change in electric resistance in the presence of an external magnetic field. In addition, the compositional modulation, or the composition contrast, in multilayer structures can be used to develop a grating structured mold for the development of a novel nanoimprinting process. FeCoNiCu was investigated as a more general alloy system containing iron-group metals and a nonmagnetic element, Cu, which can be simplified and adapted to any binary or ternary systems. With a dilute tartrate sulfate bath nanometric multilayers were successfully fabricated with pulse plating and GMR value was reported for this electrodeposited system for the first time. A value of -6% was achieved on rotating disk electrode (RDE) and this maximum occurred when the structure had no preferred crystal phase. Over 40% GMR has been achieved when the multilayer was plated onto a polycrystalline Cu foil. A mathematical model was developed to tailor the deposition process on RDE, and both steady state and nonsteady state cases were simulated. A compositional gradient, which is inherent to a nonsteady state deposition process when the layer size is of nanometer scale was predicted. The quaternary system was explored for other applications. Selective etching of electrodeposited multilayer structures was investigated for different etching solutions. A diluted K2Cr2O 7/H2SO4 solution was successfully developed to produce grating

  9. Picosecond X-Ray Diffraction from Laser-Shocked Copper and Iron

    SciTech Connect

    Wark, J. S.; Hawreliak, J.; Higginbotham, A.; Rosolankova, K.; Sheppard, J.; Belak, J. F.; Collins, G. W.; Colvin, J. D.; Duchaineau, M.; Eggert, J. H.; Kalantar, D. H.; Lorenzana, H. E.; Remington, B. A.; Rudd, R. E.; Stolken, J. S.; Davies, H. M.; Germann, T. C.; Holian, B. L.; Kadau, K.; Lomdahl, P. S.

    2006-07-28

    In situ X-ray diffraction allows the determination of the structure of transient states of matter. We have used laser-plasma generated X-rays to study how single crystals of metals (copper and iron) react to uniaxial shock compression. We find that copper, as a face-centred-cubic material, allows rapid generation and motion of dislocations, allowing close to hydrostatic conditions to be achieved on sub-nanosecond timescales. Detailed molecular dynamics calculations provide novel information about the process, and point towards methods whereby the dislocation density might be measured during the passage of the shock wave itself. We also report on recent experiments where we have obtained diffraction images from shock-compressed single-crystal iron. The single crystal sample transforms to the hcp phase above a critical pressure, below which it appears to be uniaxially compressed bcc, with no evidence of plasticity. Above the transition threshold, clear evidence for the hcp phase can be seen in the diffraction images, and via a mechanism that is also consistent with recent multi- million atom molecular dynamics simulations that use the Voter- Chen potential. We believe these data to be of import, in that they constitute the first conclusive in situ evidence of the transformed structure of iron during the passage of a shock wave.

  10. The copper-iron connection in biology: Structure of the metallo-oxidase Fet3p

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A. B.; Stoj, C. S.; Ziegler, L.; Kosman, D. J.; Hart, P. J.

    2005-10-17

    Fet3p is a multicopper-containing glycoprotein localized to the yeast plasma membrane that catalyzes the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III). This ferrous iron oxidation is coupled to the reduction of O2 to H2O and is termed the ferroxidase reaction. Fet3p-produced Fe(III) is transferred to the permease Ftr1p for import into the cytosol. The posttranslational insertion of four copper ions into Fet3p is essential for its activity, thus linking copper and iron homeostasis. The mammalian ferroxidases ceruloplasmin and hephaestin are homologs of Fet3p. Loss of the Fe(II) oxidation catalyzed by these proteins results in a spectrum of pathological states, including death. Here, we present the structure of the Fet3p extracellular ferroxidase domain and compare it with that of human ceruloplasmin and other multicopper oxidases that are devoid of ferroxidase activity. The Fet3p structure delineates features that underlie the unique reactivity of this and homologous multicopper oxidases that support the essential trafficking of iron in diverse eukaryotic organisms. The findings are correlated with biochemical and physiological data to cross-validate the elements of Fet3p that define it as both a ferroxidase and cuprous oxidase.

  11. Zebrafish in the sea of mineral (iron, zinc, and copper) metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lu; Xia, Zhidan; Wang, Fudi

    2014-01-01

    Iron, copper, zinc, and eight other minerals are classified as essential trace elements because they present in minute in vivo quantities and are essential for life. Because either excess or insufficient levels of trace elements can be detrimental to life (causing human diseases such as iron-deficiency anemia, hemochromatosis, Menkes syndrome and Wilson's disease), the endogenous levels of trace minerals must be tightly regulated. Many studies have demonstrated the existence of systems that maintain trace element homeostasis, and these systems are highly conserved in multiple species ranging from yeast to mice. As a model for studying trace mineral metabolism, the zebrafish is indispensable to researchers. Several large-scale mutagenesis screens have been performed in zebrafish, and these screens led to the identification of a series of metal transporters and the generation of several mutagenesis lines, providing an in-depth functional analysis at the system level. Moreover, because of their developmental advantages, zebrafish have also been used in mineral metabolism-related chemical screens and toxicology studies. Here, we systematically review the major findings of trace element homeostasis studies using the zebrafish model, with a focus on iron, zinc, copper, selenium, manganese, and iodine. We also provide a homology analysis of trace mineral transporters in fish, mice and humans. Finally, we discuss the evidence that zebrafish is an ideal experimental tool for uncovering novel mechanisms of trace mineral metabolism and for improving approaches to treat mineral imbalance-related diseases. PMID:24639652

  12. Molecular evidence and physiological characterization of iron absorption in isolated enterocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): implications for dietary cadmium and lead absorption.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Raymond W M; Andrés, Jose A; Niyogi, Som

    2010-09-01

    Recent studies suggested the probable involvement of an apical iron (Fe(2+)) transporter, the divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1), in the uptake of several divalent metals in fish. The present study examined the gastrointestinal expression of the DMT1 gene, and investigated the kinetics of Fe(2+) uptake and its interactions with cadmium and lead in isolated enterocytes of freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The expressions of two DMT1 isoforms (Nramp-beta and -gamma) were recorded along the entire gastrointestinal tract of fish as well as in the enterocytes. Fe(2+) uptake in isolated enterocytes was saturable and sensitive to the proton gradient and membrane potential, suggesting DMT1-mediated transport. Both cadmium and lead inhibited Fe(2+) uptake in isolated enterocytes in a concentration-dependent manner, and lead appeared to be a stronger inhibitor than cadmium. The kinetic characterization of Fe(2+) uptake revealed that the apparent affinity of uptake was significantly decreased (increased K(m)) in the presence of either cadmium or lead, whereas the maximum uptake rate (J(max)) remained unchanged-indicating that the interaction between Fe(2+) and cadmium or lead is competitive in nature. Overall, our study suggests that the uptake of dietary cadmium and lead may occur via the iron-transporting pathway in fish.

  13. Repression of the Low Affinity Iron Transporter Gene FET4: A NOVEL MECHANISM AGAINST CADMIUM TOXICITY ORCHESTRATED BY YAP1 VIA ROX1.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Soraia M; Menezes, Regina; Amaral, Catarina; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina; Pimentel, Catarina

    2015-07-24

    Cadmium is a well known mutagenic metal that can enter cells via nonspecific metal transporters, causing several cellular damages and eventually leading to death. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcription factor Yap1 plays a key role in the regulation of several genes involved in metal stress response. We have previously shown that Yap1 represses the expression of FET4, a gene encoding a low affinity iron transporter able to transport metals other than iron. Here, we have studied the relevance of this repression in cell tolerance to cadmium. Our results indicate that genomic deletion of Yap1 increases FET4 transcript and protein levels. In addition, the cadmium toxicity exhibited by this strain is completely reversed by co-deletion of FET4 gene. These data correlate well with the increased intracellular levels of cadmium observed in the mutant yap1. Rox1, a well known aerobic repressor of hypoxic genes, conveys the Yap1-mediated repression of FET4. We further show that, in a scenario where the activity of Yap1 or Rox1 is compromised, cells activate post-transcriptional mechanisms, involving the exoribonuclease Xrn1, to compensate the derepression of FET4. Our data thus reveal a novel protection mechanism against cadmium toxicity mediated by Yap1 that relies on the aerobic repression of FET4 and results in the impairment of cadmium uptake.

  14. Determination of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, and iron group elements in lunar surface materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlenko, L. I.; Simonova, L. V.; Karyakin, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    Distribution regularities of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, and iron group elements were investigated in basaltoid rocks of lunar and terrestrial origin. Samples of various regolith zones taken in the area of the Sea of Fertility were analyzed, along with samples of basic and ultrabasic rocks of the East African Rift for their content of the trace admixtures listed. Data obtained on the abundance of copper, scandium, molybdenum, tin, lead, cobalt, nickel, chromium, and vanadium in Luna 16 lunar surface material were compared with the abundance of these elements in samples of lunar rocks returned by Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 14, with the exception of scandium; its content in the latter samples was considerably higher.

  15. Osmotically induced changes in copper and iron concentrations in three euryhaline crustacean species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaargaren, D. H.

    Marine crustaceans strongly accumulate copper and iron. Internal concentrations of both elements are usually found to be very variable; in whole animal homogenates of Palaemon serratus and Penaeus japonicus high levels were found at moderate salinities and high temperature; towards extreme salinities and at a lower temperatures the concentrations of Cu and Fe fall. Blood concentrations of Cu and Fe in Carcinus maenas show a reversed pattern. This suggest mobilization from tissue stores ( e.g. the hepatopancreas) but increased copper levels in the blood under salinity stress are accompanied by reduced blood Fe levels, suggesting increased uptake of Fe by the tissues ( e.g. by ceruloplasmin). The results show that Cu and Fe distribution is closely related to osmotic conditions.

  16. Synergistic interaction between oxides of copper and iron for production of fatty alcohols from fatty acids

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kandel, Kapil; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas C.; Slowing, Igor I.

    2015-10-08

    In this study, the selective hydrogenation of fatty acids to fatty alcohols can be achieved under moderate conditions (180 °C, 30 bar H2) by simultaneously supporting copper and iron oxides on mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The activity of the cosupported oxides is significantly higher than that of each supported metal oxide and of a physical mixture of both individually supported metal oxides. A strong interaction between both metal oxides is evident from dispersion, XRD, TPR, and acetic acid TPD measurements, which is likely responsible for the synergistic behavior of the catalyst. Copper oxide is reduced in situ to its metallic formmore » and thereby activates hydrogen.« less

  17. Synergistic interaction between oxides of copper and iron for production of fatty alcohols from fatty acids

    SciTech Connect

    Kandel, Kapil; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas C.; Slowing, Igor I.

    2015-10-08

    In this study, the selective hydrogenation of fatty acids to fatty alcohols can be achieved under moderate conditions (180 °C, 30 bar H2) by simultaneously supporting copper and iron oxides on mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The activity of the cosupported oxides is significantly higher than that of each supported metal oxide and of a physical mixture of both individually supported metal oxides. A strong interaction between both metal oxides is evident from dispersion, XRD, TPR, and acetic acid TPD measurements, which is likely responsible for the synergistic behavior of the catalyst. Copper oxide is reduced in situ to its metallic form and thereby activates hydrogen.

  18. Corrosion of iron, aluminum and copper-base alloys in glycols under simulated solar collector conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Diegle, R.B.

    1981-10-01

    The corrosion behavior of iron, aluminum and copperbase alloys was studied in uninhibited glycol solutions under conditions that simulate those found in non-concentrating solar collectors. It was found that only Type 444 stainless steel exhibited adequate corrosion resistance; there was no evidence of pitting, crevice corrosion, or galvanic attack, and general corrosion rates were low. The general corrosion rate of CDA 122 copper was high (greater than 200 ..mu..m/y) under some test conditions, but copper was resistant to pitting and crevice attack. General corrosion rates of the aluminum alloys (1100, 3003 and 6061) were low, but these alloys were susceptible to pitting and crevice attack. The propensity for pitting was greatest in the presence of chlorides but it also was severe in the absence of chlorides following long exposures. The onset of pitting of the aluminum alloys in chloride-free solutions was attributed to degradation of the glycols.

  19. Cadmium inhalation and male reproductive toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, H.A.; Mast, T.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Cadmium is a highly toxic element that is cumulative and has a long biological half-life in mammals. The severe toxicity of cadmium in man has been known for more than 100 years. Despite the knowledge that cadmium is toxic, only 20 human cases of poisoning via ingestion were recorded prior to 1941, whereas in the ensuing five-year period more than 680 cases of cadmium poisonings from accidental oral ingestion of this metal were documented. Some of the recorded effects of exposure to cadmium in laboratory animals include renal tubular damage, placental and testicular necrosis, structural and functional liver damage, osteomalacia, testicular tumors, teratogenic malformations, anemia, hypertension, pulmonary edema, chronic pulmonary emphysema, and induced deficiencies of iron, copper, and zinc. Some of these effects have also been observed in human after accidental exposures to cadmium oxide fumes and are characteristic of the syndrome described in Japan as Itai Itai disease in which ingestion of cadmium is the inciting chemical.134 references.

  20. Iron and Copper Act Synergistically To Delay Anaerobic Growth of Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Lina J.; Coleman, Maureen L.

    2013-01-01

    Transition metals are known to cause toxic effects through their interaction with oxygen, but toxicity under anoxic conditions is poorly understood. Here we investigated the effects of iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) on the anaerobic growth and gene expression of the purple phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1. We found that Fe(II) and Cu(II) act synergistically to delay anaerobic growth at environmentally relevant metal concentrations. Cu(I) and Cu(II) had similar effects both alone and in the presence of ascorbate, a Cu(II) reductant, indicating that reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) by Fe(II) is not sufficient to explain the growth inhibition. Addition of Cu(II) increased the toxicity of Co(II) and Ni(II); in contrast, Ni(II) toxicity was diminished in the presence of Fe(II). The synergistic anaerobic toxicity of Fe(II) and Cu(II) was also observed for Escherichia coli MG1655, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and Rhodobacter capsulatus SB1003. Gene expression analyses for R. palustris identified three regulatory genes that respond to Cu(II) and not to Fe(II): homologs of cueR and cusR, two known proteobacterial copper homeostasis regulators, and csoR, a copper regulator recently identified in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Two P-type ATPase efflux pumps, along with an FoF1 ATP synthase, were also upregulated by Cu(II) but not by Fe(II). An Escherichia coli mutant deficient in copA, cus, and cueO showed a smaller synergistic effect, indicating that iron might interfere with one or more of the copper homeostasis systems. Our results suggest that interactive effects of transition metals on microbial physiology may be widespread under anoxic conditions, although the molecular mechanisms remain to be more fully elucidated. PMID:23563938

  1. Micro solid phase spectrophotometry in a sequential injection lab-on-valve platform for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-09-01

    This work describes the development of a solid phase spectrophotometry method in a μSI-LOV system for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters. NTA (Nitrilotriacetic acid) beads with 60-160 μm diameter were packed in the flow cell of the LOV for a μSPE column of 1 cm length. The spectrophotometric determination is based on the colourimetric reaction between dithizone and the target metals, previously retained on NTA resin. The absorbance of the coloured product formed is measured, at 550 nm, on the surface of the NTA resin beads in a solid phase spectrophotometry approach. The developed method presented preconcentration factors in the range of 11-21 for the metal ions. A LOD of 0.23 μg L(-1) for cadmium, 2.39 μg L(-1) for zinc, and 0.11 μg L(-1) for copper and a sampling rate of 12, 13, and 15 h(-1) for cadmium, zinc, and copper were obtained, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to freshwater samples. PMID:26388376

  2. Micro solid phase spectrophotometry in a sequential injection lab-on-valve platform for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-09-01

    This work describes the development of a solid phase spectrophotometry method in a μSI-LOV system for cadmium, zinc, and copper determination in freshwaters. NTA (Nitrilotriacetic acid) beads with 60-160 μm diameter were packed in the flow cell of the LOV for a μSPE column of 1 cm length. The spectrophotometric determination is based on the colourimetric reaction between dithizone and the target metals, previously retained on NTA resin. The absorbance of the coloured product formed is measured, at 550 nm, on the surface of the NTA resin beads in a solid phase spectrophotometry approach. The developed method presented preconcentration factors in the range of 11-21 for the metal ions. A LOD of 0.23 μg L(-1) for cadmium, 2.39 μg L(-1) for zinc, and 0.11 μg L(-1) for copper and a sampling rate of 12, 13, and 15 h(-1) for cadmium, zinc, and copper were obtained, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to freshwater samples.

  3. Relationship between Paratuberculosis and the microelements Copper, Zinc, Iron, Selenium and Molybdenum in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Paolicchi, F.; Perea, J.; Cseh, S.; Morsella, C.

    2013-01-01

    To study the deficiency of minerals and its relationship with Paratuberculosis, blood, serum, and fecal samples were obtained from 75 adult bovines without clinical symptoms of the disease and from two bovines with clinical symptoms of the disease, from two beef herds with a previous history of Paratuberculosis in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Serum samples were processed by ELISA and feces were cultured in Herrolds medium. Copper, zinc and iron in serum were quantified by spectrophotometry and selenium was measured by the activity of glutathione peroxidase. We also determined copper, zinc, iron and molybdenum concentrations in pastures and the concentration of sulfate in water. Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (Map) was isolated from 17.3% of fecal samples of asymptomatic animals and from the fecal samples from the two animals with clinical symptoms. All the Map-positive animals were also ELISA-positive or suspect, and among them, 84.6% presented low or marginal values of selenium and 69.2% presented low or marginal values of copper. The two animals with clinical symptoms, and isolation of Map from feces and organs were selenium-deficient and had the lowest activity of glutathione peroxidase of all the animals from both herds. All the animals negative to Map in feces and negative to ELISA had normal values of Se, while 13.8% of animals with positive ELISA or suspect and culture negative presented low levels of Se. Half of the animals that were negative both for ELISA and culture in feces were deficient in copper but none of them presented low values of selenium. The content of molybdenum and iron in pasture was high, 2.5 ppm and 1.13 ppm in one herd and 2.5 ppm and 2.02 ppm in the other, respectively, whereas the copper:molybdenum ratio was 1.5 and 5.2, respectively. These results do not confirm an interaction between imbalances of the micronutrients and clinical Paratuberculosis, but show evidence of the relationship between selenium

  4. Cadmium Sulphide-Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Photoelectrode-Based Photoelectrochemical Sensing Platform for Copper(II) Ions

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, I; Lim, H. N; Huang, N. M; Pandikumar, A

    2016-01-01

    A photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor with excellent sensitivity and detection toward copper (II) ions (Cu2+) was developed using a cadmium sulphide-reduced graphene oxide (CdS-rGO) nanocomposite on an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface, with triethanolamine (TEA) used as the sacrificial electron donor. The CdS nanoparticles were initially synthesized via the aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) method using cadmium acetate and thiourea as the precursors to Cd2+ and S2-, respectively. Graphene oxide (GO) was then dip-coated onto the CdS electrode and sintered under an argon gas flow (50 mL/min) for the reduction process. The nanostructured CdS was adhered securely to the ITO by a continuous network of rGO that also acted as an avenue to intensify the transfer of electrons from the conduction band of CdS. The photoelectrochemical results indicated that the ITO/CdS-rGO photoelectrode could facilitate broad UV-visible light absorption, which would lead to a higher and steady-state photocurrent response in the presence of TEA in 0.1 M KCl. The photocurrent decreased with an increase in the concentration of Cu2+ ions. The photoelectrode response for Cu2+ ion detection had a linear range of 0.5–120 μM, with a limit of detection (LoD) of 16 nM. The proposed PEC sensor displayed ultra-sensitivity and good selectivity toward Cu2+ ion detection. PMID:27176635

  5. Cadmium Sulphide-Reduced Graphene Oxide-Modified Photoelectrode-Based Photoelectrochemical Sensing Platform for Copper(II) Ions.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, I; Lim, H N; Huang, N M; Pandikumar, A

    2016-01-01

    A photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor with excellent sensitivity and detection toward copper (II) ions (Cu2+) was developed using a cadmium sulphide-reduced graphene oxide (CdS-rGO) nanocomposite on an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface, with triethanolamine (TEA) used as the sacrificial electron donor. The CdS nanoparticles were initially synthesized via the aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) method using cadmium acetate and thiourea as the precursors to Cd2+ and S2-, respectively. Graphene oxide (GO) was then dip-coated onto the CdS electrode and sintered under an argon gas flow (50 mL/min) for the reduction process. The nanostructured CdS was adhered securely to the ITO by a continuous network of rGO that also acted as an avenue to intensify the transfer of electrons from the conduction band of CdS. The photoelectrochemical results indicated that the ITO/CdS-rGO photoelectrode could facilitate broad UV-visible light absorption, which would lead to a higher and steady-state photocurrent response in the presence of TEA in 0.1 M KCl. The photocurrent decreased with an increase in the concentration of Cu2+ ions. The photoelectrode response for Cu2+ ion detection had a linear range of 0.5-120 μM, with a limit of detection (LoD) of 16 nM. The proposed PEC sensor displayed ultra-sensitivity and good selectivity toward Cu2+ ion detection. PMID:27176635

  6. Effects of different warming patterns on the translocations of cadmium and copper in a soil-rice seedling system.

    PubMed

    Ge, Liqiang; Cang, Long; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Dongmei

    2015-10-01

    Heavy-metal-polluted rice poses potential threats to food security and has received great attention in recent years, while how elevated temperature affects the translocation of heavy metals in soil-rice system is unclear. In this study, potting experiments were conducted in plant growth chambers for 24 days to evaluate the effects of different warming patterns on cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) migrations in soil-rice seedling system. Rice seedlings were cultivated under four different day/night temperature patterns: 25/18 °C (CK), 25/23 °C (N5), 30/18 °C (D5), and 30/23 °C (DN5), respectively. Non-contaminated soil (CS), Cd/Cu lightly polluted soil (LS), and highly polluted soil (HS) were chosen for experiments. The results showed that different warming patterns decreased soil pH and elevated available soil Cd/Cu concentrations. The shoot and root biomass were increased by 39.0-320 and 28.6-348 %, respectively. Warming induced significant (p < 0.05) increase of Cd/Cu uptake and translocation in rice seedlings, especially for the Cd concentration in shoot. The Cd concentrations of shoot increased by 5-12 times and up to 8 times for LS and HS, respectively. Meanwhile, the Cd concentration of shoot increased with warming while that of root kept unchanged, indicating that warming promoted cadmium translocation from root to shoot (about -four to nine times of CK), while warming changed the Cu concentration of shoot similarly to that of root and had no significant effects on Cu translocations in rice seedlings. Our study may provide improved understanding for Cd/Cu fates in soil-rice system by warming and imply that heavy metals had the higher environmental risk under the future global warming.

  7. Inducibility of metallothionein biosynthesis in the whole soft tissue of zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha exposed to cadmium, copper, and pentachlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Ivanković, Dusica; Pavicić, Jasenka; Beatović, Vanja; Klobucar, Roberta Sauerborn; Klobucar, Göran Igor Vinko

    2010-04-01

    Freshwater mussels Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) were exposed to the elevated concentrations of Cd (10, 50, 100, and 500 microg/L), Cu (10, 30, 50, and 80 microg/L), and an organochlorinated pesticide, pentachlorophenol (PCP) (1, 10, and 100 microg/L). Induced synthesis of biomarker metallothionein (MT) and changes in concentrations of cytosolic Cd, Cu, and Zn in the whole soft tissue of mussels were monitored after a 7-day laboratory exposure to the contaminants. A clear dose-dependent elevation in the MT concentration was observed after exposure to Cd at doses of 10-100 microg/L, and this increase of MT content was accompanied with a linear increase of cytosolic Cd. Cd concentration of 500 microg/L caused no additional increase of MT and Cd in mussel cytosol, suggesting possible toxic effects due to exceeding cellular inducible/defense capacity. Cu exposure resulted with variable changes in MT concentrations, with no clear linear relationship between MT and Cu concentrations in water, although a progressive dose-dependent accumulation of Cu in the soluble fraction of mussel tissues was recorded. A decrease of cytosolic Zn was evident at higher exposure concentrations of both metals used. PCP in concentrations applied was unable to induce MT synthesis, but the higher concentrations of PCP influenced the cytosolic metal concentrations. In conclusion, the results obtained confirm the specificity of MT induction in D. polymorpha as an biological response on metal stimulation, especially by cadmium, being more closely correlated to MT than copper within the ecologically relevant concentration range. The strong induction potential of cadmium as well as an absence of MT induction following exposure to PCP as an organic chemical contaminant are supporting evidences for usage of zebra mussel MT as a specific biomarker of Cd exposure in biomonitoring programs.

  8. Properties of iron sulphides from a copper mine in southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussel, Wagner N.; Murad, Enver; Magalhães, Natalie C.; Abrahão, Walter A. P.; Mello, Jaime W. V.; Fabris, José D.

    2010-03-01

    Chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy showed two iron sulphide samples from a copper mine in Camaquã, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to consist of essentially pure pyrite and chalcopyrite associated with a minor amount of pyrite and possibly some cubanite. While the pyrite was well crystallized and of simple mineralogy, Mössbauer data indicated the chalcopyrite contained in the second sample to consist of coexisting tetragonal and (remnant) cubic modifications, as has been previously described for another sample from this locality.

  9. Contact Killing of Bacteria on Copper Is Suppressed if Bacterial-Metal Contact Is Prevented and Is Induced on Iron by Copper Ions

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Salima; Hans, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria are rapidly killed on copper surfaces, and copper ions released from the surface have been proposed to play a major role in the killing process. However, it has remained unclear whether contact of the bacteria with the copper surface is also an important factor. Using laser interference lithography, we engineered copper surfaces which were covered with a grid of an inert polymer which prevented contact of the bacteria with the surface. Using Enterococcus hirae as a model organism, we showed that the release of ionic copper from these modified surfaces was not significantly reduced. In contrast, killing of bacteria was strongly attenuated. When E. hirae cells were exposed to a solid iron surface, the loss of cell viability was the same as on glass. However, exposing cells to iron in the presence of 4 mM CuSO4 led to complete killing in 100 min. These experiments suggest that contact killing proceeds by a mechanism whereby the metal-bacterial contact damages the cell envelope, which, in turn, makes the cells susceptible to further damage by copper ions. PMID:23396344

  10. Effect of adsorbed chlorine and oxygen on shear strength of iron and copper junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Static friction experiments were performed in ultrahigh vacuum at room temperature on copper, iron, and steel contacts selectively contaminated with oxygen and chlorine in submonolayer amounts. The concentration of the adsorbates was determined with Auger electron spectroscopy and was measured relative to the saturation concentration of oxygen on iron (concentration 1.0). The coefficient of static friction decreased with increasing adsorbate concentration. It was independent of the metal and the adsorbate. The results compared satisfactorily with an extension of the junction growth theory to heterogeneous interfaces. The reduction in interfacial shear strength was measured by the ratio sub a/sub m where sub a is the shear strength of the interface with an adsorbate concentration of 1.0, and sub m is the strength of the clean metal interface. This ratio was 0.835 + or - 0.012 for all the systems tested.

  11. Effect of adsorbed chlorine and oxygen on the shear strength of iron and copper junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    Static-friction experiments were performed in ultrahigh vacuum at room temperature on copper, iron, and steel contacts selectively contaminated with oxygen and chlorine in submonolayer amounts. The concentration of the adsorbates was determined with Auger electron spectroscopy and was measured relative to the saturation concentration of oxygen on iron (concentration, 1.0). The coefficient of static friction decreased with increasing adsorbate concentration; however, it was independent of the type of metal and the adsorbate species. The results compared satisfactorily with an extension of the junction growth theory to heterogeneous interfaces. The reduction in interfacial shear strength was measured by the ratio of the shear strength of the interface with an adsorbate concentration of 1.0 and the strength of the clean metal interface. This ratio was about 0.835 for all the systems tested.

  12. Association of Maternal Diet With Zinc, Copper, and Iron Concentrations in Transitional Human Milk Produced by Korean Mothers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun Kyung; Kim, Ji-Myung; Lee, Ji-Eun; Cho, Mi Sook; Kang, Bong Soo; Choi, Hyeon; Kim, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the transitory milk of Korean lactating mothers and to investigate the relationship between these concentrations and maternal diet. Human milk samples were collected between 5 and 15 days postpartum from 96 healthy, lactating mothers in postpartum care centers in Seoul, Korea. Dietary intake during lactation was determined based on a 3-day dietary record. The mean zinc, copper, and iron concentrations in the human milk samples collected were 3.88 ± 1.74 mg/L, 0.69 ± 0.25 mg/L, and 5.85 ± 8.53 mg/L, respectively. The mothers who consumed alcoholic beverages during pregnancy had tended to have lower concentrations of zinc and copper, as well as significantly lower concentrations of iron, in their milk (p < 0.047). In contrast, the mothers who took daily supplements had much higher iron concentrations in their milk (p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of zinc, copper, and iron during lactation did not affect the concentrations of zinc, copper, and iron in the milk samples analyzed. Intakes of vitamin C, selenium, and iodine were associated with the concentration of copper in the milk samples analyzed, and consumption of food categorized as 'meat and meat products' was positively associated with the concentration of zinc. Consumption of rice was the top contributor to the concentrations of all three minerals. In conclusion, associations between maternal diet and nutrient concentrations in transitory human milk can provide useful information, particularly in regard to infant growth. PMID:26839873

  13. Iron as a possible aggravating factor for osteopathy in itai-itai disease, a disease associated with chronic cadmium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, M.; Yasuda, M.; Kitagawa, M. )

    1991-03-01

    Itai-itai disease is thought to be the result of chronic cadmium (Cd) intoxication. We examined 23 autopsy cases of itai-itai disease and 18 cases of sudden death as controls. Urine and blood samples from 10 patients were collected before they died and revealed the presence of severe anemia and renal tubular injuries. Undecalcified sections of iliac bone were stained with Aluminon reagent, and ammonium salt of aurintricarboxylic acid, and Prussian blue reagent in all cases of itai-itai disease. These two reagents reacted at the same mineralization fronts. X-ray microanalysis revealed the presence of iron at mineralization fronts in itai-itai disease. Five patients showed evidence of hemosiderosis in the liver, spleen, and pancreas, probably as a result of post transfusion iron overload. Renal calculi and calcified aortic walls were also stained with Prussian blue reagent in several patients. Neither ferritin nor transferrin were visualized at mineralization fronts in itai-itai disease by immunohistochemical staining. These results suggest that iron is bound to calcium or to calcium phosphate by a physicochemical reaction. A marked osteomalacia was observed in 10 cases of itai-itai disease by histomorphometry. Regression analyses of data from cases of itai-itai disease suggested that an Aluminon-positive metal inhibited mineralization and that renal tubules were injured. Since bone Cd levels were increased in itai-itai disease, it is likely that renal tubules were injured by exposure to Cd. Therefore, stainable bone iron is another possible aggravating factor for osteopathy in itai-itai disease, and a synergistic effect between iron and Cd on mineralization is proposed.

  14. Wet oxidation process concentration of iron and copper steam generator cleaning solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, P.N. Jr.; Nakashima, T.

    1995-11-01

    The use of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) metal cleaning formulations is broadly based. Usually the form of the EDTA used is the tetra ammonium salt. These formulations were developed by the power industry for specific use in maintaining steam generators. When these powerful cleaning solutions are used, they attract not only the key metals of interest, iron and copper, but also can and do remove small levels of other available metals such as chrome. A reduction in the volume of these cleaners is required in order to meet waste management and disposal standards. This paper deals with one method of volume reduction, concentration through evaporation. Once volume reduced, the waste can then be further treated through the use of Wet Oxidation. The effect of this process on the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) contained in the copper as well as the iron spent cleaning solutions is reviewed, including regression analysis of selected data. A regressive comparison is made between the EDTA and the TOC analyzed in the Wet Oxidation batch residuals.

  15. Tissue concentrations as the dose metric to assess potential toxic effects of metals in field-collected fish: Copper and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Meador, James P

    2015-06-01

    The present study examined the available literature linking whole-body tissue concentrations with toxic effects in fish species for copper and cadmium. The variability in effect concentration for both copper and cadmium among species occurred within an order of magnitude for all responses, whereas the range for lethal toxicity based on water exposure spanned approximately 4 to 5 orders of magnitude. Fish tissue concentrations causing adverse effects were just above background concentrations, occurring between 1 μg/g and 10 μg/g for copper and 0.1 μg/g to 4 μg/g for cadmium. The results also show that salmonids are especially sensitive to cadmium, which appears to be a function of chemical potency. No studies were found that indicated adverse effects without increases in whole-body concentration of these metals. This narrow range for dose-response implies that a toxicological spillover point occurs when the detoxification capacity of various tissues within the animal are exceeded, and this likely occurs at a similar whole-body concentration for all naïvely exposed fish species. Elevated whole-body concentrations in fish from the field may be indicative of possible acclimation to metals that may or may not result in effects for target species. Acclimation concentrations may be useful in that they signal excessive metal concentrations in water, sediment, or prey species for a given site and indicate likely toxic effects for species unable to acclimate to excess metal exposure. Using tissue residues as the dose metric for these metals provides another line of evidence for assessing impaired ecosystems and greater confidence that hazard concentrations are protective for all fish species.

  16. Synergetic effects of mixed copper-iron oxides oxygen carriers in chemical looping combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Tian, Hanjing; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-06-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an emerging technology for clean energy production from fuels. CLC produces sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}-streams without a significant energy penalty. Development of efficient oxygen carriers is essential to successfully operate a CLC system. Copper and iron oxides are promising candidates for CLC. Copper oxide possesses high reactivity but it has issues with particle agglomeration due to its low melting point. Even though iron oxide is an inexpensive oxygen carrier it has a slower reactivity. In this study, mixed metal oxide carriers containing iron and copper oxides were evaluated for coal and methane CLC. The components of CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were optimized to obtain good reactivity while maintaining physical and chemical stability during cyclic reactions for methane-CLC and solid-fuel CLC. Compared with single metal oxygen carriers, the optimized Cu–Fe mixed oxide oxygen carriers demonstrated high reaction rate, better combustion conversion, greater oxygen usage and improved physical stability. Thermodynamic calculations, XRD, TGA, flow reactor studies and TPR experiments suggested that there is a strong interaction between CuO and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contributing to a synergistic effect during CLC reactions. The amount of oxygen release of the mixed oxide carrier in the absence of a fuel was similar to that of the single metal oxides. However, in the presence of fuels, the oxygen consumption and the reaction profiles of the mixed oxide carriers were significantly better than that of the single metal oxides. The nature of the fuel not only influenced the reactivity, but also the final reduction status of the oxygen carriers during chemical looping combustion. Cu oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced metallic copper with both coal and methane. Fe oxide of the mixed oxide was fully reduced Fe metal with methane but it was reduced to only FeO with coal. Possible mechanisms of how the presence of CuO enhances the

  17. Friction and transfer of copper, silver, and gold to iron in the presence of various adsorbed surface films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with the noble metals copper, silver, and gold and two binary alloys of these metals contacting iron in the presence of various adsorbates including, oxygen, methyl mercaptan, and methyl chloride. A pin on disk specimen configuration was used with a load of 100 grams, sliding velocity of 60 mm/min; at 25 C with the surfaces saturated with the adsorbates. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to monitor surface films. Results of the experiments indicate that friction and transfer characteristics are highly specific with respect to both the noble metal and surface film present. With all three metals and films transfer of the noble metal to iron occurred very rapidly. With all metals and films transfer of the noble metal to iron continuously increased with repeated passes except for silver and copper sliding on iron sulfide.

  18. The oxidative stress response of the filamentous yeast Trichosporon cutaneum R57 to copper, cadmium and chromium exposure

    PubMed Central

    Lazarova, Nevena; Krumova, Ekaterina; Stefanova, Tsvetanka; Georgieva, Nelly; Angelova, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Despite the intensive research in the past decade on the microbial bioaccumulation of heavy metals, the significance of redox state for oxidative stress induction is not completely clarified. In the present study, we examined the effect of redox-active (copper and chromium) and redox-inactive (cadmium) metals on the changes in levels of oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant enzyme defence in Trichosporon cutaneum R57 cells. This filamentous yeast strain showed significant tolerance and bioaccumulation capability of heavy metals. Our findings indicated that the treatment by both redox-active and redox-inactive heavy metal induced oxidative stress events. Enhanced concentrations of Cu2+, Cr6+ and Cd2+ caused acceleration in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increase in the level of oxidatively damaged proteins and accumulation of reserve carbohydrates (glycogen and trehalose). Cell response against heavy metal exposure also includes elevation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, which are key enzymes for directly scavenging of ROS. Despite the mentioned changes in the stress biomarkers, T. cutaneum did not show a significant growth diminution. Probably, activated antioxidant defence contributes to the yeast survival under conditions of heavy metal stress. PMID:26019570

  19. Anti-oxidative feedback and biomarkers in the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica induced by exposure to copper, lead and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haiying; Sun, Tao; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Xiaomei

    2016-08-15

    To investigate the potential influences of anthropogenic pollutants, we evaluated the responses of the intertidal seagrass Zostera japonica to three heavy metals: copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). Z. japonica was exposed to various concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Cd (0, 0.5, 5, 50μM) over seven days. The effects were then analyzed using the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and lipid peroxidation measured using malondialdehyde (MDA) as proxy. Metal accumulation in the above-ground tissues and phenotypic changes were also investigated. Our results revealed that heavy metal concentration increased in seagrass exposed to high levels of metals. Z. japonica has great potential for metal accumulation and a suitable candidate for the decontamination of moderately Cu contaminated bodies of water and can also potentially enhanced efforts of environmental decontamination, either through phytoextraction abilities or by functioning as an indicator for monitoring programs that use SOD, CAT, GPX, POD and MDA as biomarkers. PMID:27287861

  20. Determination of copper, zinc, selenium, lead and cadmium in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) using potentiometric stripping methods.

    PubMed

    Dugo, G; La Pera, L; Lo Turco, V; Giuffrida, D; Restuccia, S

    2004-07-01

    Potentiometric stripping analysis was used to determine simultaneously the content of zinc(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and copper(II) in potatoes, whereas the concentration of selenium was determined by cathodic stripping potentiometric analysis. Metal cations were extracted from potatoes by hydrogen peroxide/hydrochloric acid treatments. The relative standard deviation of the methods ranged from 2.3 to 4.1% and the detection limits were lower than 2.5 microg kg(-1). The results obtained with the proposed methods were compared with those obtained with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy, a common method for determining metals. The results of the two methods agreed to within 6.1%. Twelve samples of yellow flesh potatoes from different cultivars were analysed. Of all the metals determined, Cu and Zn were the most abundant with concentrations between 0.5 and 4.6 mg kg(-1). Selenium was only found in three samples in very low amounts (<0.1 mg kg(-1)), whilst Pb and Cd concentrations were in the range 0.01-0.27 mg kg(-1).

  1. Specific mechanisms of tolerance to copper and cadmium are compromised by a limited concentration of glutathione in alfalfa plants.

    PubMed

    Flores-Cáceres, María Laura; Hattab, Sabrine; Hattab, Sarra; Boussetta, Hamadi; Banni, Mohammed; Hernández, Luis E

    2015-04-01

    The induction of oxidative stress is a characteristic symptom of metal phytotoxicity and is counteracted by antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH) or homoglutathione (hGSH). The depletion of GSH│hGSH in fifteen-day-old alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants pre-incubated with 1mM buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) affected antioxidant responses in a metal-specific manner under exposure to copper (Cu; 0, 6, 30 and 100μM) or cadmium (Cd; 0, 6 and 30μM) for 7 days. The phytotoxic symptoms observed with excess Cu were accompanied by an inhibition of root glutathione reductase (GR) activity, a response that was augmented in Cd-treated plants but reverted when combined with BSO. The synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs) was induced by Cd, whereas the biothiol concentration decreased in Cu-treated plants, which did not accumulate PCs. The depletion of GSH│hGSH by BSO also produced a strong induction of oxidative stress under excess Cu stress, primarily due to impaired GSH│hGSH-dependent redox homeostasis. In addition, the synthesis of PCs was required for Cd detoxification, apparently also determining the distribution of Cd in plants, as less metal was translocated to the shoots in BSO-incubated plants. Therefore, specific GSH│hGSH-associated mechanisms of tolerance were triggered by stress due to each metal.

  2. Assessing the Mobility of Lead, Copper and Cadmium in a Calcareous Soil of Port-au-Prince, Haiti †

    PubMed Central

    Fifi, Urbain; Winiarski, Thierry; Emmanuel, Evens

    2013-01-01

    The presence of heavy metals in the environment constitutes a potential source of both soil and groundwater pollution. This study has focused on the reactivity of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and Cadmium (Cd) during their transfer in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince (Haiti). Kinetic, monometal and competitive batch tests were carried out at pH 6.0. Two simplified models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data from kinetics adsorption batch tests. A good fit of these data was found with pseudo-second-order kinetic model which indicates the applicability of this model to describe the adsorption rates of these metals on the soil. Monometal batch tests indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich models allowed a good fit for experimental data. On the basis of the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax), the order affinity of Pb, Cu and Cd for the studied soil was Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+. Competitive sorption has proved that the competition between two or several cations on soils for the same active sites can decrease their qmax. These results show that, at high metal concentrations, Cd may pose more threat in soils and groundwater of Port-au-Prince than Pb and Cu. PMID:24192791

  3. Assessing the mobility of lead, copper and cadmium in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Fifi, Urbain; Winiarski, Thierry; Emmanuel, Evens

    2013-11-01

    The presence of heavy metals in the environment constitutes a potential source of both soil and groundwater pollution. This study has focused on the reactivity of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and Cadmium (Cd) during their transfer in a calcareous soil of Port-au-Prince (Haiti). Kinetic, monometal and competitive batch tests were carried out at pH 6.0. Two simplified models including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order were used to fit the experimental data from kinetics adsorption batch tests. A good fit of these data was found with pseudo-second-order kinetic model which indicates the applicability of this model to describe the adsorption rates of these metals on the soil. Monometal batch tests indicated that both Langmuir and Freundlich models allowed a good fit for experimental data. On the basis of the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax), the order affinity of Pb, Cu and Cd for the studied soil was Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+. Competitive sorption has proved that the competition between two or several cations on soils for the same active sites can decrease their qmax. These results show that, at high metal concentrations, Cd may pose more threat in soils and groundwater of Port-au-Prince than Pb and Cu.

  4. A comparative analysis of fatty acid composition of root and shoot lipids in Zea mays under copper and cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Chaffai, R; Seybou, T N; Marzouk, B; El Ferjani, E

    2009-03-01

    A comparative analysis of fatty acid composition was conducted in maize (Zea mays L.) under copper and cadmium stress. The unsaturation level (double-bond index) of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) was increased in response to both metal treatments, whereas the phosphatidylinositol (PI), the phosphatidylcholine (PC) showed no significant changes. The Cu-treated roots showed a marked increase (about 2-fold) in the phospholipid (PL) content, while the Cd-treated roots showed a slight but insignificant increase. The steryl lipid SL/PL ratio was markedly decreased in response to Cu stress, and therefore, may indicate an activated phospholipid biosynthesis and turnover, in response to damage caused by Cu stress. The double bond indices of chloroplastic lipids: phosphatidylglycerol (PG), monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) revealed a similar but not identical pattern of change. The PG and MGDG contents in shoots were markedly decreased under Cu (by 53 and 48%) and Cd (by 78 and 65%) stress. The increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in roots induced by both metals indicates lipid peroxidation. Generally, in the presence of Cu fatty acid composition was markedly modulated but to lesser extent under Cd stress. These results suggest that changes in the fatty acid composition under Cu and Cd stress conditions are metal-specific and may therefore result in differential metal tolerance. PMID:19378928

  5. Joint toxicity of tetracycline with copper(II) and cadmium(II) to Vibrio fischeri: effect of complexation reaction.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fei; Zhao, Yanping; Gu, Xueyuan; Gu, Cheng; Lee, Charles C C

    2015-03-01

    Co-contamination of antibiotic and heavy metals commonly occurs in the environment. Tetracycline (TC), a common antibiotic, can behave as an efficient organic ligand to complex with cations. In this paper, the joint toxicity of TC with two commonly existing metals, copper(II) and cadmium(II), towards a luminescent bacteria, Vibrio fischeri, are investigated. Results showed that coexistence of TC and Cu(II) showed a significant antagonistic effect, while TC and Cd(II) showed a synergistic effect. The aqueous speciation of TC with two metal cations was calculated using a chemical equilibrium software Visual MINTEQ and results indicated that a strong complexation exist between TC and Cu(II), while much weaker interaction between TC and Cd(II). Traditional joint toxicity prediction model based on independent action failed to predict the combined toxicity of TC with metals. A new method based on speciation calculation was used to evaluate the joint toxicity of ligands and cations. It is assumed that the metal-ligand complexes are non-toxic to V. fischeri and the joint toxicity is determined by the sum of toxic unit of free metal-ions and free organic ligands. It explained the joint toxicity of the mixed systems reasonably well. Meanwhile, citric acid (CA) and fulvic acid (FA) were also introduced in this study to provide a benchmark comparison with TC. Results showed it is also valid for mixed systems of CA and FA with metals except for the Cd-CA mixture.

  6. Specific mechanisms of tolerance to copper and cadmium are compromised by a limited concentration of glutathione in alfalfa plants.

    PubMed

    Flores-Cáceres, María Laura; Hattab, Sabrine; Hattab, Sarra; Boussetta, Hamadi; Banni, Mohammed; Hernández, Luis E

    2015-04-01

    The induction of oxidative stress is a characteristic symptom of metal phytotoxicity and is counteracted by antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH) or homoglutathione (hGSH). The depletion of GSH│hGSH in fifteen-day-old alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants pre-incubated with 1mM buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) affected antioxidant responses in a metal-specific manner under exposure to copper (Cu; 0, 6, 30 and 100μM) or cadmium (Cd; 0, 6 and 30μM) for 7 days. The phytotoxic symptoms observed with excess Cu were accompanied by an inhibition of root glutathione reductase (GR) activity, a response that was augmented in Cd-treated plants but reverted when combined with BSO. The synthesis of phytochelatins (PCs) was induced by Cd, whereas the biothiol concentration decreased in Cu-treated plants, which did not accumulate PCs. The depletion of GSH│hGSH by BSO also produced a strong induction of oxidative stress under excess Cu stress, primarily due to impaired GSH│hGSH-dependent redox homeostasis. In addition, the synthesis of PCs was required for Cd detoxification, apparently also determining the distribution of Cd in plants, as less metal was translocated to the shoots in BSO-incubated plants. Therefore, specific GSH│hGSH-associated mechanisms of tolerance were triggered by stress due to each metal. PMID:25711824

  7. Copper and cadmium complexation by high molecular weight materials of dominant microalgae and of water from a eutrophic reservoir.

    PubMed

    Gouvêa, S P; Vieira, A A H; Lombardi, A T

    2005-09-01

    High molecular weight materials (HMWM, >12000-14000 Da) excreted by the two cyanophyte species (Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena spiroides) and a diatom (Aulacoseira granulata) which are dominant phytoplankton species in a eutrophic reservoir, Barra Bonita, Brazil were investigated as copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) complexation agents and their monosaccharide and elemental analysis of C, H, N and S determined. Also, HMWM obtained from the reservoir water as well as from a mixture of the three algae materials were studied. The HMWM of the cyanophytes and the mixture of the three algae materials complexed Cu and Cd, whereas the HMWM of the diatom and that from the reservoir water complexed only Cu. Two classes of ligands of intermediate to weak binding strength were obtained after Scatchard plot analysis of the titration data. The cyanophytes and the mixture HMWM presented higher conditional stability constants for Cu class-1 ligands (logK1' = 9.2-9.5) than the HMWM derived from the diatom and the reservoir water (logK1' = 8.6-8.8). Higher proportions of acidic monosaccharides corresponded to higher K1' of Cu and Cd complexation, yet no relation was observed among complexation parameters and elemental analysis. This study points out Cu ligands of intermediate to weak binding strength in the excreted HMWM of dominant microalgae and in the HMWM of the reservoir water, while Cd was solely complexed by ligands isolated from the cyanophyte HMWM. PMID:16018905

  8. Vitamin E attenuates liver injury induced by exposure to lead, mercury, cadmium and copper in albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Atef M.

    2011-01-01

    Water pollution is the contamination of water resources by harmful wastes or toxins. Both community and private sources of drinking water are susceptible to a myriad of chemical contaminants. Heavy metals pollution of surface water can create health risks. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin E supplementation on male mice exposed to a mixture of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium and copper) in their drinking water for seven weeks. Significant increases of blood alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were detected in heavy metals-treated mice. Histopathologically, the liver sections from heavy metals-treated mice showed severe changes including disarrangement of hepatic strands, rupture in hepatocytes, advanced hepatocellular necrosis, dilation and congestion of blood vessels with hemorrhage, dense lymphocytic infiltration round the central vein and dark stained hepatocytic nuclei indicating cell pycnosis. Administration of vitamin E at a dose of 50 IU/kg body weight, five times weekly improved the observed biochemical and histopathological changes induced by these heavy metals intoxication. Hence, the results of this study suggest that vitamin E protects against these heavy metals-induced liver injury and the attenuating effect of vitamin E may be due to its antioxidant activity. PMID:23961152

  9. Vitamin E attenuates liver injury induced by exposure to lead, mercury, cadmium and copper in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Attar, Atef M

    2011-10-01

    Water pollution is the contamination of water resources by harmful wastes or toxins. Both community and private sources of drinking water are susceptible to a myriad of chemical contaminants. Heavy metals pollution of surface water can create health risks. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin E supplementation on male mice exposed to a mixture of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium and copper) in their drinking water for seven weeks. Significant increases of blood alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were detected in heavy metals-treated mice. Histopathologically, the liver sections from heavy metals-treated mice showed severe changes including disarrangement of hepatic strands, rupture in hepatocytes, advanced hepatocellular necrosis, dilation and congestion of blood vessels with hemorrhage, dense lymphocytic infiltration round the central vein and dark stained hepatocytic nuclei indicating cell pycnosis. Administration of vitamin E at a dose of 50 IU/kg body weight, five times weekly improved the observed biochemical and histopathological changes induced by these heavy metals intoxication. Hence, the results of this study suggest that vitamin E protects against these heavy metals-induced liver injury and the attenuating effect of vitamin E may be due to its antioxidant activity. PMID:23961152

  10. Deriving freshwater quality criteria for copper, cadmium, aluminum and manganese for protection of aquatic life in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Shuhaimi-Othman, M; Nadzifah, Y; Nur-Amalina, R; Umirah, N S

    2013-03-01

    Freshwater quality criteria for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), aluminum (Al), and manganese (Mn) were developed with particular reference to aquatic biota in Malaysia, and based on USEPA's guidelines. Acute toxicity tests were performed on eight different freshwater domestic species in Malaysia, which were Macrobrachiumlanchesteri (prawn), two fish -Poeciliareticulata and Rasborasumatrana, Melanoidestuberculata (snail), Stenocyprismajor (ostracod), Chironomusjavanus (midge larvae), Naiselinguis (annelid), and Duttaphrynusmelanostictus (tadpole), to determine 96-h LC50 values for Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn. The final acute values (FAVs) for Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn were 2.5, 3.0, 977.8, and 78.3 μgL(-1), respectively. Using an estimated acute-to-chronic ratio (ACR) of 8.3, the value for final chronic value (FCV) was derived. Based on FAV and FCV, a Criterion Maximum Concentration (CMC) and a criterion Continuous Concentration (CCC) for Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn of 1.3, 1.5, 488.9, and 39.1 μgL(-1) and 0.3, 0.36, 117.8, and 9.4 μgL(-1), respectively, were derived. The results of this study provide useful data for deriving national or local water quality criteria for Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn based on aquatic biota in Malaysia. Based on LC50 values, this study indicated that R.sumatrana, M.lanchesteri, C.javanus, and N.elinguis were the most sensitive to Cu, Cd, Al, and Mn, respectively.

  11. The effect of high dose oral manganese exposure on copper, iron and zinc levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Courtney J; Herrera, Carolina; Pettiglio, Michael A; Foster, Melanie L; Johnson, Laura C; Dorman, David C; Bartnikas, Thomas B

    2016-06-01

    Manganese is an essential dietary nutrient and trace element with important roles in mammalian development, metabolism, and antioxidant defense. In healthy individuals, gastrointestinal absorption and hepatobiliary excretion are tightly regulated to maintain systemic manganese concentrations at physiologic levels. Interactions of manganese with other essential metals following high dose ingestion are incompletely understood. We previously reported that gavage manganese exposure in rats resulted in higher tissue manganese concentrations when compared with equivalent dietary or drinking water manganese exposures. In this study, we performed follow-up evaluations to determine whether oral manganese exposure perturbs iron, copper, or zinc tissue concentrations. Rats were exposed to a control diet with 10 ppm manganese or dietary, drinking water, or gavage exposure to approximately 11.1 mg manganese/kg body weight/day for 7 or 61 exposure days. While manganese exposure affected levels of all metals, particularly in the frontal cortex and liver, copper levels were most prominently affected. This result suggests an under-appreciated effect of manganese exposure on copper homeostasis which may contribute to our understanding of the pathophysiology of manganese toxicity. PMID:26988220

  12. Acute Copper and Ascorbic Acid Supplementation Inhibits Non-heme Iron Absorption in Humans.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Manuel; Figueroa, Constanza; Pizarro, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the study is to determine the effect of copper (Cu) plus the reducing agent ascorbic acid (AA) on the absorption of non-heme iron (Fe). Experimental study with block design in which each subject was his own control. After signing an informed consent, 14 adult women using an effective method of contraception and negative pregnancy test received 0.5 mg Fe, as ferrous sulfate, alone or with Cu, as copper sulfate, plus ascorbic acid (AA/Cu 2/1 molar ratio) at 4/1; 6/1 and 8/1 Cu/Fe molar ratios as an aqueous solution on days 1, 2, 14, and 15 of the study. Fe absorption was assessed by erythrocyte incorporation of iron radioisotopes (55)Fe and (59)Fe. Geometric mean (range ± SD) absorption of Fe at 4/1 and 6/1 Cu/Fe molar ratios (and AA/Cu 2/1 molar ratio) and Fe alone was 57.4 % (35.7-92.1 %), 64.2 % (45.8-89.9 %), and 38.8 % (20.4-73.8 %), respectively (ANOVA for repeated measures p < 0.001; post hoc test Scheffé, p < 0.05). This is attributable to the enhancing effect of AA on non-heme Fe absorption; however, Fe absorption at Cu/Fe 8/1 molar ratio was 47.3 % (27.7-80.8) (p = NS compared with Fe alone). It was expected that Fe absorption would have been equal or greater than at 4/1 and 6/1 molar ratios. Copper in the presence of ascorbic acid inhibits non-heme Fe absorption at Cu/Fe 8/1 molar ratio.

  13. Adsorption/desorption properties of copper ions on the surface of iron-coated sand using BET and EDAX analyses.

    PubMed

    Lai, C H; Lo, S L; Chiang, H L

    2000-10-01

    This study was conducted to develop a heating process for coating hydrated iron oxide on the sand surface to utilise the adsorbent properties of the coating and the filtration properties of the sand. BET and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses were used to investigate the surface properties of the coated layer. An energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) technique of analysis was used for characterising metal adsorption sites on the iron-coated sand surface. The results indicated that the iron-coated sand had more micropores and higher specific surface area because of the attachment of iron oxide. Copper ions could penetrate into the micropores and mesopores of iron oxide on sand surface, and the regeneration of the iron-coated sand could be achieved by soaking with pH = 3.0 acid solution. Besides, the results of EDAX analysis showed that copper ions were chemisorbed on the surface of iron-coated sand. Results of the study developed an innovative technology for coating iron oxide on sand surface for the treatment of heavy metal in water.

  14. Micronutrient Status in Female University Students: Iron, Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Vitamin B12 and Folate

    PubMed Central

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Young women are at an increased risk of micronutrient deficiencies, particularly due to higher micronutrient requirements during childbearing years and multiple food group avoidances. The objective of this study was to investigate biomarkers of particular micronutrients in apparently healthy young women. Female students (n = 308; age range 18–35 year; Body Mass Index 21.5 ± 2.8 kg/m2; mean ± SD) were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional study. Blood samples were obtained from participants in the fasted state and analysed for biomarkers of iron status, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine, selenium, zinc, and copper. The results show iron deficiency anaemia, unspecified anaemia, and hypoferritinemia in 3%, 7% and 33.9% of participants, respectively. Low vitamin B12 concentrations (<120 pmol/L) were found in 11.3% of participants, while 4.7% showed sub-clinical deficiency based on serum methylmalonic acid concentrations >0.34 μmol/L. Folate concentrations below the reference range were observed in 1.7% (serum) or 1% (erythrocytes) of participants, and 99.7% of the participant had erythrocyte-folate concentrations >300 nmol/L. Serum zinc concentrations <10.7 μmol/L were observed in 2% of participants. Serum copper and selenium concentrations were below the reference range in 23% and 11% of participants, respectively. Micronutrient deficiencies including iron and vitamin B12, and apparent excess of folate are present in educated Australian female students of childbearing age, including those studying nutrition. The effects of dietary behaviours and food choices on markers of micronutrient status require further investigation. PMID:25401503

  15. Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, John M.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Mount, David R.; Ivey, Chris D.; Kunz, James L.; Greer, I. Eugene; May, Thomas W.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 μg/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 μg/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 μg/L (Missouri) and 1.9 μg/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 μg/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 μg/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested.

  16. Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Mebane, C.A.; Mount, D.R.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; Greer, I.E.; May, T.W.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 ??g/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 ??g/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 ??g/L (Missouri) and 1.9 ??g/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 ??g/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 ??g/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  17. Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc.

    PubMed

    Besser, John M; Mebane, Christopher A; Mount, David R; Ivey, Chris D; Kunz, James L; Greer, I Eugene; May, Thomas W; Ingersoll, Christopher G

    2007-08-01

    Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 microg/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 microg/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 microg/L (Missouri) and 1.9 microg/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 microg/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 microg/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested.

  18. Prevalence and Relationships of Iron Deficiency Anemia with Blood Cadmium and Vitamin D Levels in Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Suh, Young Ju; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Dae Hyung; Yi, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Moon Hee; Kim, Chul Soo; Nah, Jeung Weon; Kim, Soon Ki

    2016-01-01

    Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are common disorders. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA in Korean females. We examined the associations between IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level and nutritional intakes. The study was performed using on data collected from 10,169 women (aged ≥ 10 yr), including 1,232 with anemia, 2,030 with ID, and 690 with IDA during the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V; 2010-2012). Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and path analysis was performed to identify a multivariate regression model incorporating IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level, and nutritional intakes. The overall prevalence of anemia, ID and IDA was 12.4%, 23.11%, and 7.7%, respectively. ID and IDA were more prevalent among adolescents (aged 15-18 yr; 36.5% for ID; 10.7% for IDA) and women aged 19-49 yr (32.7% for ID; 11.3% for IDA). The proposed path model showed that IDA was associated with an elevated cadmium level after adjusting for age and body mass index (β=0.46, P<0.001). Vitamin D levels were found to affect IDA negatively (β=-0.002, P<0.001). This study shows that the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA are relatively high in late adolescents and women of reproductive age. Path analysis showed that depressed vitamin D levels increase the risk of IDA, and that IDA increases cadmium concentrations in blood. Our findings indicate that systematic health surveillance systems including educational campaigns and well-balanced nutrition are needed to control anemia, ID, and IDA.

  19. Prevalence and Relationships of Iron Deficiency Anemia with Blood Cadmium and Vitamin D Levels in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are common disorders. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA in Korean females. We examined the associations between IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level and nutritional intakes. The study was performed using on data collected from 10,169 women (aged ≥10 yr), including 1,232 with anemia, 2,030 with ID, and 690 with IDA during the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V; 2010-2012). Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and path analysis was performed to identify a multivariate regression model incorporating IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level, and nutritional intakes. The overall prevalence of anemia, ID and IDA was 12.4%, 23.11%, and 7.7%, respectively. ID and IDA were more prevalent among adolescents (aged 15-18 yr; 36.5% for ID; 10.7% for IDA) and women aged 19-49 yr (32.7% for ID; 11.3% for IDA). The proposed path model showed that IDA was associated with an elevated cadmium level after adjusting for age and body mass index (β=0.46, P<0.001). Vitamin D levels were found to affect IDA negatively (β=-0.002, P<0.001). This study shows that the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA are relatively high in late adolescents and women of reproductive age. Path analysis showed that depressed vitamin D levels increase the risk of IDA, and that IDA increases cadmium concentrations in blood. Our findings indicate that systematic health surveillance systems including educational campaigns and well-balanced nutrition are needed to control anemia, ID, and IDA. PMID:26770034

  20. Prevalence and Relationships of Iron Deficiency Anemia with Blood Cadmium and Vitamin D Levels in Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Suh, Young Ju; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Dae Hyung; Yi, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Moon Hee; Kim, Chul Soo; Nah, Jeung Weon; Kim, Soon Ki

    2016-01-01

    Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are common disorders. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA in Korean females. We examined the associations between IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level and nutritional intakes. The study was performed using on data collected from 10,169 women (aged ≥ 10 yr), including 1,232 with anemia, 2,030 with ID, and 690 with IDA during the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V; 2010-2012). Prevalence and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and path analysis was performed to identify a multivariate regression model incorporating IDA, heavy metals in blood, vitamin D level, and nutritional intakes. The overall prevalence of anemia, ID and IDA was 12.4%, 23.11%, and 7.7%, respectively. ID and IDA were more prevalent among adolescents (aged 15-18 yr; 36.5% for ID; 10.7% for IDA) and women aged 19-49 yr (32.7% for ID; 11.3% for IDA). The proposed path model showed that IDA was associated with an elevated cadmium level after adjusting for age and body mass index (β=0.46, P<0.001). Vitamin D levels were found to affect IDA negatively (β=-0.002, P<0.001). This study shows that the prevalence of anemia, ID, and IDA are relatively high in late adolescents and women of reproductive age. Path analysis showed that depressed vitamin D levels increase the risk of IDA, and that IDA increases cadmium concentrations in blood. Our findings indicate that systematic health surveillance systems including educational campaigns and well-balanced nutrition are needed to control anemia, ID, and IDA. PMID:26770034

  1. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  2. Bioaccumulation of iron, zinc, cadmium and chromium by juvenile snail Limicolaria aurora J., fed edible mushroom Pleurotus spp from Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ebenso, I E; Solomon, I P; Akoje, C C; Akpan, I P; Eko, P M; Akpan, E A; Omole, A J

    2013-03-01

    The effects of uptake of metals (iron, zinc, cadmium and chromium) by juvenile snail Limicolaria aurora fed edible mushroom Pleurotus spp from 3 contaminated farm sites and a laboratory grown species (control) respectively were investigated. The 120 snails were fed in plastic snaileries for 4 weeks in the laboratory. Control site was risk free. Metal uptake was low and bioaccumulation in L. aurora tissue was below FAO/WHO standard of 1 mg/kg for chromium and cadmium. Snails were considered safe for consumption. PMID:23229305

  3. 77 FR 59158 - Migratory Bird Hunting; Application for Approval of Copper-Clad Iron Shot and Fluoropolymer Shot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... approval for copper-clad iron shot in the Federal Register on June 20, 2012 (77 FR 36980), and one for the fluoropolymer shot coatings on July 6, 2012 (77 FR 39983). Having completed our review of the application..., 1994, ``Government-to-Government Relations with Native American Tribal Governments'' (59 FR 22951),...

  4. Derivative potentiometric stripping analysis (dPSA) used for the determination of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in Sicilian olive oils.

    PubMed

    La Pera, Lara; Lo Curto, Simona; Visco, Alessandro; La Torre, Loredana; Dugo, Giacomo

    2002-05-22

    Derivative potentiometric stripping analysis (dPSA) was utilized to evaluate the Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) content in olive oil samples produced in Sicily in the crop year 2000-2001. The repeatability of the method was attested at 86.36% for cadmium, at 94.94% for copper, at 99.00% for lead, and at 98.92% for zinc. Recovery tests were carried out, both on cleanup procedures and on extraction steps, on olive oil spiked at different levels; obtained recoveries were 84.52 +/- 9.86 for cadmium, 97.34 +/- 2.72 for copper, 100.68 +/- 0.67 for lead and 83.35 +/- 1.72 for zinc. Theoretic detection limits were 1.2 ng g(-1) for Cd, 3.6 ng g(-1) for Cu, 5.9 ng g(-1) for Pb, and 14.3 ng g(-1) for Zn. Found concentrations range were 15.94-58.51 ng g(-1) for Cu, 32.64-156.48 ng g(-1) for Pb, and 157.00-385.22 ng g(-1) for Zn. Copper, lead, and zinc were found in all samples. The main advantage of this determination consists of a not too aggressive metals extraction procedure using hydrochloric acid, which avoids losses of elements typical of sample calcinations methods.

  5. Derivative potentiometric stripping analysis (dPSA) used for the determination of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in Sicilian olive oils.

    PubMed

    La Pera, Lara; Lo Curto, Simona; Visco, Alessandro; La Torre, Loredana; Dugo, Giacomo

    2002-05-22

    Derivative potentiometric stripping analysis (dPSA) was utilized to evaluate the Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) content in olive oil samples produced in Sicily in the crop year 2000-2001. The repeatability of the method was attested at 86.36% for cadmium, at 94.94% for copper, at 99.00% for lead, and at 98.92% for zinc. Recovery tests were carried out, both on cleanup procedures and on extraction steps, on olive oil spiked at different levels; obtained recoveries were 84.52 +/- 9.86 for cadmium, 97.34 +/- 2.72 for copper, 100.68 +/- 0.67 for lead and 83.35 +/- 1.72 for zinc. Theoretic detection limits were 1.2 ng g(-1) for Cd, 3.6 ng g(-1) for Cu, 5.9 ng g(-1) for Pb, and 14.3 ng g(-1) for Zn. Found concentrations range were 15.94-58.51 ng g(-1) for Cu, 32.64-156.48 ng g(-1) for Pb, and 157.00-385.22 ng g(-1) for Zn. Copper, lead, and zinc were found in all samples. The main advantage of this determination consists of a not too aggressive metals extraction procedure using hydrochloric acid, which avoids losses of elements typical of sample calcinations methods. PMID:12009967

  6. A Holistic Model That Physicochemically Links Iron Oxide - Apatite and Iron Oxide - Copper - Gold Deposits to Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A. C.; Reich, M.; Knipping, J.; Bilenker, L.; Barra, F.; Deditius, A.; Lundstrom, C.; Bindeman, I. N.

    2015-12-01

    Iron oxide-apatite (IOA) and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits (IOCG) are important sources of their namesake metals and increasingly for rare earth metals in apatite. Studies of natural systems document that IOA and IOCG deposits are often spatially and temporally related with one another and coeval magmatism. However, a genetic model that accounts for observations of natural systems remains elusive, with few observational data able to distinguish among working hypotheses that invoke meteoric fluid, magmatic-hydrothermal fluid, and immiscible melts. Here, we use Fe and O isotope data and high-resolution trace element (e.g., Ti, V, Mn, Al) data of individual magnetite grains from the world-class Los Colorados (LC) IOA deposit in the Chilean Iron Belt to elucidate the origin of IOA and IOCG deposits. Values of d56Fe range from 0.08‰ to 0.26‰, which are within the global range of ~0.06‰ to 0.5‰ for magnetite formed at magmatic conditions. Values of δ18O for magnetite and actinolite are 2.04‰ and 6.08‰, respectively, consistent with magmatic values. Ti, V, Al, and Mn are enriched in magnetite cores and decrease systematically from core to rim. Plotting [Al + Mn] vs. [Ti + V] indicates that magnetite cores are consistent with magmatic and/or magmatic-hydrothermal (i.e., porphyry) magnetites. Decreasing Al, Mn, Ti, V is consistent with a cooling trend from porphyry to Kiruna to IOCG systems. The data from LC are consistent with the following new genetic model for IOA and IOCG systems: 1) magnetite cores crystallize from silicate melt; 2) these magnetite crystals are nucleation sites for aqueous fluid that exsolves and scavenges inter alia Fe, P, S, Cu, Au from silicate melt; 3) the magnetite-fluid suspension is less dense that the surrounding magma, allowing ascent; 4) as the suspension ascends, magnetite grows in equilibrium with the fluid and takes on a magmatic-hydrothermal character (i.e., lower Al, Mn, Ti, V); 5) during ascent, magnetite, apatite and

  7. An in vitro assessment of the interaction of cadmium selenide quantum dots with DNA, iron, and blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Dunpall, Rekha; Nejo, Adeola Ayodeji; Pullabhotla, Viswanadha Srirama Rajasekhar; Opoku, Andy R; Revaprasadu, Neerish; Shonhai, Addmore

    2012-12-01

    Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots have gained increased attention for their potential use in biomedical applications. This has raised interest in assessing their toxicity. In this study, water-soluble, cysteine-capped CdSe nanocrystals with an average size of 15 nm were prepared through a one-pot solution-based method. The CdSe nanoparticles were synthesized in batches in which the concentration of the capping agent was varied with the aim of stabilizing the quantum dot core. The effects of the CdSe quantum dots on DNA stability, aggregation of blood platelets, and reducing activity of iron were evaluated in vitro . DNA damage was observed at a concentration of 200 μg/mL of CdSe quantum dots. Furthermore, the CdSe nanocrystals exhibited high reducing power and chelating activity, suggesting that they may impair the function of haemoglobin by interacting with iron. In addition, the CdSe quantum dots promoted aggregation of blood platelets in a dose dependent manner.

  8. ESR of copper and iron complexes with antitumor and cytotoxic properties.

    PubMed

    Antholine, W E; Kalyanaraman, B; Petering, D H

    1985-12-01

    The relatively few iron and copper metal complexes which have been examined in cells and tissues for their redox properties, radical generation properties, and antitumor activity are discussed for studies which utilized electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). A common property of a number of metal complexes, which include bleomycin, adriamycin, and thiosemicarbazones described in this review, is that they are readily reduced by thiol compounds and oxidized by oxygen or reduced species of oxygen to produce radicals. Structural features of these reactions are identified by ESR spectroscopy in model systems and often in cells. Furthermore, ESR spectroscopy has been most useful to probe the environment of the complexes in cells and to measure the rate of reduction of their oxidized forms. As a result of these studies, it is anticipated that more attention will be given to the exploration of redox-active metal complexes as drugs.

  9. Photometric and spectrochemical determination of gold in iron pyrites, copper and lead concentrates.

    PubMed

    Jordanov, N; Mareva, S; Krasnobaeva, N; Nedyalkova, N

    1968-09-01

    A photometric and a spectrochemical method have been developed for determining gold in iron pyrites, copper and lead concentrates. In both, the sample is dissolved and gold is extracted from 1M hydrochloric add solution with a mixture of ethyl methyl ketone and chloroform (1:1). Gold was determined photometrically with N,N'-tetramethyl-o-tolidine. Conditions have been found for satisfactorily sensitive and reproducible spectral determination of gold. For this purpose the effect of various collectors and buffers on the evaporation curves of gold has been studied, as well as excitation conditions, form of the electrodes, optimum slit-width, and photographic variables. The sensitivity and precision of both methods have been evaluated. PMID:18960389

  10. Three-dimensional atlas of iron, copper, and zinc in the mouse cerebrum and brainstem.

    PubMed

    Hare, Dominic J; Lee, Jason K; Beavis, Alison D; van Gramberg, Amanda; George, Jessica; Adlard, Paul A; Finkelstein, David I; Doble, Philip A

    2012-05-01

    Atlases depicting molecular and functional features of the brain are becoming an integral part of modern neuroscience. In this study we used laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) to quantitatively measure iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) levels in a serially sectioned C57BL/6 mouse brain (cerebrum and brainstem). Forty-six sections were analyzed in a single experiment of approximately 158 h in duration. We constructed a 46-plate reference atlas by aligning quantified images of metal distribution with corresponding coronal sections from the Allen Mouse Brain Reference Atlas. The 46 plates were also used to construct three-dimensional models of Fe, Cu, and Zn distribution. This atlas represents the first reconstruction of quantitative trace metal distribution through the brain by LA-ICPMS and will facilitate the study of trace metals in the brain and help to elucidate their role in neurobiology.

  11. Photometric and spectrochemical determination of gold in iron pyrites, copper and lead concentrates.

    PubMed

    Jordanov, N; Mareva, S; Krasnobaeva, N; Nedyalkova, N

    1968-09-01

    A photometric and a spectrochemical method have been developed for determining gold in iron pyrites, copper and lead concentrates. In both, the sample is dissolved and gold is extracted from 1M hydrochloric add solution with a mixture of ethyl methyl ketone and chloroform (1:1). Gold was determined photometrically with N,N'-tetramethyl-o-tolidine. Conditions have been found for satisfactorily sensitive and reproducible spectral determination of gold. For this purpose the effect of various collectors and buffers on the evaporation curves of gold has been studied, as well as excitation conditions, form of the electrodes, optimum slit-width, and photographic variables. The sensitivity and precision of both methods have been evaluated.

  12. Selective nucleation of iron phthalocyanine crystals on micro-structured copper iodide.

    PubMed

    Rochford, Luke A; Ramadan, Alexandra J; Heutz, Sandrine; Jones, Tim S

    2014-12-14

    Morphological and structural control of organic semiconductors through structural templating is an efficient route by which to tune their physical properties. The preparation and characterisation of iron phthalocyanine (FePc)-copper iodide (CuI) bilayers at elevated substrate temperatures is presented. Thin CuI(111) layers are prepared which are composed of isolated islands rather than continuous films previously employed in device structures. Nucleation in the early stages of FePc growth is observed at the edges of islands rather than on the top (111) faces with the use of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Structural measurements show two distinct polymorphs of FePc, with CuI islands edges nucleating high aspect ratio FePc crystallites with modified intermolecular spacing. By combining high substrate temperature growth and micro-structuring of the templating CuI(111) layer structural and morphological control of the organic film is demonstrated. PMID:25340949

  13. Hot gas desulfurization with sorbents containing oxides of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper

    SciTech Connect

    Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the desulfurization performance of novel sorbents consisting of different combinations of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper oxides; and to develop a sorbent which can reduce H{sub 2}S levels to less than 1 ppmv, which can stabilize zinc, making operations above 650{degrees}C possible, and which can produce economically recoverable amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration. This objective will be accomplished by evaluating the sorbent performance using fixed-bed and TGA experiments supported by sorbent characterization at various reaction extents. In the seventh quarter, the screening of the promoted sorbents in the packed bed reactor was continued. The results of this work were presented at the 1992 University Coal Research Contractors, Review Conference at Pittsburgh, PA.

  14. Iron, copper, and zinc absorption and turnover; the use of stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Aggett, P J

    1997-08-01

    This overview demonstrates the increasing use of low natural abundance stable isotopes in the investigation of mineral metabolism. There are many practical problems associated with their use and analysis and their expense has limited their application in some areas such as studies in adults. Undoubtedly we will have to assess our ideas and protocols as the practical problems and their metabolic implications become better appreciated but none the less, the use of such isotopes will certainly refine our understanding of the way the body uses elements such as zinc, copper, iron and selenium and other essential elements and will enable us to determine our dietary requirements for these nutrients and to find ways of detecting more efficiently early deficiency and toxicity states.

  15. ESR of copper and iron complexes with antitumor and cytotoxic properties.

    PubMed Central

    Antholine, W E; Kalyanaraman, B; Petering, D H

    1985-01-01

    The relatively few iron and copper metal complexes which have been examined in cells and tissues for their redox properties, radical generation properties, and antitumor activity are discussed for studies which utilized electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR). A common property of a number of metal complexes, which include bleomycin, adriamycin, and thiosemicarbazones described in this review, is that they are readily reduced by thiol compounds and oxidized by oxygen or reduced species of oxygen to produce radicals. Structural features of these reactions are identified by ESR spectroscopy in model systems and often in cells. Furthermore, ESR spectroscopy has been most useful to probe the environment of the complexes in cells and to measure the rate of reduction of their oxidized forms. As a result of these studies, it is anticipated that more attention will be given to the exploration of redox-active metal complexes as drugs. PMID:2420582

  16. Selenium, copper and iron in veterinary medicine-From clinical implications to scientific models.

    PubMed

    Humann-Ziehank, Esther

    2016-09-01

    Diseases related to copper, selenium or iron overload or deficiency are common and well-described in large animal veterinary medicine. Some of them certainly have the potential to serve as useful animal models for ongoing research in the field of trace elements. Obvious advantages of large animal models compared to laboratory animal models like rats and mice are the option of long-term, consecutive examinations of progressive deficient or toxic stages and the opportunity to collect various, high volume samples for repeated measurements. Nevertheless, close cooperation between scientific disciplines is necessary as scientists using high sophisticated analytical methods and equipment are not regularly in touch with scientists working with large animal diseases. This review will give an introduction into some typical animal diseases related to trace elements and will present approaches where the animal diseases were used already as a model for interdisciplinary research.

  17. Analytical electron microscopy and focused ion beam: complementary tool for the imaging of copper sorption onto iron oxide aggregates.

    PubMed

    Mavrocordatos, D; Steiner, M; Boller, M

    2003-04-01

    Nanometre-scale electron spectroscopic imaging has been applied to characterize the operation of a copper filtration plant in environmental science. Copper washed off from roofs and roads is considered to be a major contributor to diffuse copper pollution of urban environments. A special adsorber system has been suggested to control the diffusion of copper fluxes by retaining Cu with a granulated iron hydroxide. The adsorber was tested over an 18-month period on facade runoff. The concentrations range of Cu in the runoff water was measured between 10 and 1000 p.p.m. and could be reduced by between 96% and 99% in the adsorption ditch. Before the analysis of the adsorber, the suspended material from the inflow was ultracentrifuged onto TEM grids and analysed by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM). Copper was found either as small precipitates 5-20 nm in size or adsorbed onto organic and inorganic particles. This Cu represents approximately 30% of the total dissolved Cu, measured by atomic emission spectrometry. To locate where the copper sorption takes place within the adsorber, the granulated iron oxide was analysed by analytical electron microscopy after exposure to the roof run-off water. A section of the granulated iron hydroxide was prepared by focused ion beam milling. The thickness of the lamina was reduced to 100 nm and analysed by EFTEM. The combination of these two techniques allowed us to observe the diffusion of Cu into the aggregate of Fe. Elemental maps of Fe and Cu revealed that copper was not only present at the surface of the granules but was also sorbed onto the fine particles inside the adsorber.

  18. Effect of complexing ligands on the surface adsorption, internalization, and bioresponse of copper and cadmium in a soil bacterium, Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    McLean, Joan E; Pabst, Mindy W; Miller, Charles D; Dimkpa, Christian O; Anderson, Anne J

    2013-04-01

    Environmental quality criteria for metals toxic to soil and water organisms, using the free ion activity model or the biotic ligand model, are based on the concept that the major form of the metal available to the organism is the free metal ion, yet various metal complexes are bioavailable to a variety of soil and water organisms. We test here whether neutral copper or cadmium sulfates, negatively-charged copper or cadmium citrates and positively-charged copper acetate and cadmium chloride are bioavailable to a soil bacterium, Pseudomonas putida. Adsorption onto the cell surface and uptake into the periplasm and cytoplasm of this Gram-negative root colonizing bacterium was studied by adding a single concentration of Cu or Cd and varying the concentration of the ligands to complex 10-100% of the metal. Metal association from the complexes on and within the cell was defined using selective extraction procedures and compared with free ion controls using the Langmuir isotherm. Cellular responses also were assessed using a P. putida biosensor. Both uptake and bioresponse methodologies showed that P. putida was sensitive to the metal complexes. In particular, the bioresponse to Cu and Cd supplied as a citrate complex occurred with activities of free metal ions two orders of magnitude lower than for the control. We concluded that the tested metal complexes for Cu and Cd are taken up into the cell, where they trigger a bioresponse. We also discuss the implications of these findings on interactions between soil and water organisms and nanoparticles that release metal ions.

  19. Three histidine residues of amyloid-beta peptide control the redox activity of copper and iron.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, M; Shishido, N; Nunomura, Akihiko; Smith, Mark A; Perry, George; Hayashi, Y; Nakayama, K; Hayashi, T

    2007-11-01

    Zinc, iron and copper are concentrated in senile plaques of Alzheimer disease. Copper and iron catalyze the Fenton-Haber-Weiss reaction, which likely contributes to oxidative stress in neuronal cells. In this study, we found that ascorbate oxidase activity and the intensity of ascorbate radicals measured using ESR spectroscopy, generated by free Cu(II), was decreased in the presence of amyloid-beta (Abeta), the major component of senile plaques. Specifically, the ascorbate oxidase activity was strongly inhibited (85% decrease) in the presence of Abeta1-16 or Abeta1-42, whereas it was only slightly inhibited in the presence of Abeta1-12 or Abeta25-35 (<20% inhibition). Ascorbate-dependent hydroxyl radical generation by free Cu(II) decreased in the presence of Abeta in the identical order of Abeta1-42, Abeta1-16 > Abeta1-12 and was abolished in the presence of 2-fold molar excess glycylhystidyllysine (GHK). Ascorbate oxidase activity and ascorbate-dependent hydroxyl radical generation by free Fe(III) were inhibited by Abeta1-42, Abeta1-16, and Abeta1-12. Although Cu(II)-Abeta shows a significant SOD-like activity, the rate constant for the reaction of superoxide with Cu(II)-Abeta was much slower than that with SOD. Overall, our results suggest that His6, His13, and His14 residues of Abeta1-42 control the redox activity of transition metals present in senile plaques. PMID:17929832

  20. Aluminum, copper, iron and zinc differentially alter amyloid-Aβ(1-42) aggregation and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bolognin, Silvia; Messori, Luigi; Drago, Denise; Gabbiani, Chiara; Cendron, Laura; Zatta, Paolo

    2011-06-01

    Amyloid-β(1-42) (Aβ) is believed to play a crucial role in the ethiopathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). In particular, its interactions with biologically relevant metal ions may lead to the formation of highly neurotoxic complexes. Here we describe the species that are formed upon reacting Aβ with several biometals, namely copper, zinc, iron, and with non-physiological aluminum to assess whether different metal ions are able to differently drive Aβ aggregation. The nature of the resulting Aβ-metal complexes and of the respective aggregates was ascertained through a number of biophysical techniques, including electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, dynamic light scattering, fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy and by the use of conformation-sensitive antibodies (OC, αAPF). Metal binding to Aβ is shown to confer highly different chemical properties to the resulting complexes; accordingly, their overall aggregation behaviour was deeply modified. Both aluminum(III) and iron(III) ions were found to induce peculiar aggregation properties, ultimately leading to the formation of annular protofibrils and of fibrillar oligomers. Notably, only Aβ-aluminum was characterized by the presence of a relevant percentage of aggregates with a mean radius slightly smaller than 30 nm. In contrast, both zinc(II) and copper(II) ions completely prevented the formation of soluble fibrillary aggregates. The biological effects of the various Aβ-metal complexes were studied in neuroblastoma cell cultures: Aβ-aluminum turned out to be the only species capable of triggering amyloid precursor and tau181 protein overproduction. Our results point out that Al can effectively interact with Aβ, forming "structured" aggregates with peculiar biophysical properties which are associated with a high neurotoxicity.

  1. Serum and plasma zinc, copper and iron concentrations in Aboriginal communities of North Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Holt, A B; Spargo, R M; Iveson, J B; Faulkner, G S; Cheek, D B

    1980-01-01

    Two aboriginal communities situated in the tropical north-west of the Australian continent have been investigated in regard to trace metal status (zinc, copper, and iron) and other laboratory and epidemiological information. A total of 364 persons, ranging in age from 5 to 77 years were studied. The incidence of hypozincemia (serum or plasma zinc concentration less than 0.71 micrograms/ml) of the two communities when combined was 24.4%, while hypercupremia (defined as serum or plasma copper levels greater than 1.38 micrograms/ml) was 47.9%. Depressed serum iron levels were demonstrated in more than 50% of the Aborigines studied. Hypozincemia was most prevalent (incidence 31 to 67%) in children at the time of the important pre- and postadolescent growth period (10 to 15 years) and in women beyond 60 years of age (incidence 33 to 64%). Serum total protein and vitamin B12 levels tended to be increased. Mild anemia was seen in approximately one in five persons aged less than 20 years. Intestinal parasites and pathogenic enterobacteria were frequently isolated in fecal specimens. In one community, half of the persons examined had positive isolates of enteric pathogens. Intestinal parasites predominated and were more frequently isolated from persons aged less than 20 years. Ancylostoma duodenale accounted for 32% of the pathogens isolated. Evidence is presented that suggests that both communities are exposed to numerous bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections. The diet consumed in these communities is predominately white flour and refined sugar. Geophagia is practiced in this area of Australia. It is emphasied that all the etiological prerequisites and many of the laboratory findings ascribed to the zinc deficiency syndrome appear to be operating in the two Aboriginal communities studied.

  2. Predicting copper-, iron-, and zinc-binding proteins in pathogenic species of the Paracoccidioides genus

    PubMed Central

    Tristão, Gabriel B.; Assunção, Leandro do Prado; dos Santos, Luiz Paulo A.; Borges, Clayton L.; Silva-Bailão, Mirelle Garcia; Soares, Célia M. de Almeida; Cavallaro, Gabriele; Bailão, Alexandre M.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately one-third of all proteins have been estimated to contain at least one metal cofactor, and these proteins are referred to as metalloproteins. These represent one of the most diverse classes of proteins, containing metal ions that bind to specific sites to perform catalytic, regulatory and structural functions. Bioinformatic tools have been developed to predict metalloproteins encoded by an organism based only on its genome sequence. Its function and the type of metal binder can also be predicted via a bioinformatics approach. Paracoccidioides complex includes termodimorphic pathogenic fungi that are found as saprobic mycelia in the environment and as yeast, the parasitic form, in host tissues. They are the etiologic agents of Paracoccidioidomycosis, a prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America. Many metalloproteins are important for the virulence of several pathogenic microorganisms. Accordingly, the present work aimed to predict the copper, iron and zinc proteins encoded by the genomes of three phylogenetic species of Paracoccidioides (Pb01, Pb03, and Pb18). The metalloproteins were identified using bioinformatics approaches based on structure, annotation and domains. Cu-, Fe-, and Zn-binding proteins represent 7% of the total proteins encoded by Paracoccidioides spp. genomes. Zinc proteins were the most abundant metalloproteins, representing 5.7% of the fungus proteome, whereas copper and iron proteins represent 0.3 and 1.2%, respectively. Functional classification revealed that metalloproteins are related to many cellular processes. Furthermore, it was observed that many of these metalloproteins serve as virulence factors in the biology of the fungus. Thus, it is concluded that the Cu, Fe, and Zn metalloproteomes of the Paracoccidioides spp. are of the utmost importance for the biology and virulence of these particular human pathogens. PMID:25620964

  3. Distribution and fractionation of cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc in a calcareous sandy soil receiving municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Mohsen; Arfania, Hamed

    2011-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the degree of mobility and fractionation of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) after the addition of municipal solid sewage sludge (MSS) in a sandy calcareous soil. Treatments were (1) soil application of MSS, (2) soil application of enriched municipal solid waste compost (EMSS), and (3) control soil. The MSS application represented a dose of 200 Mg dry weight per hectare. Soil columns were incubated at room temperature for 15 days and irrigated daily with deionized water to make a total of 505 mm. At the end of leaching experiments, soil samples from each column were divided into 14 layers, each being 1 cm down to 10 and 2.5 cm below that and analyzed for diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn. The fractionation of the heavy metals in the top five layers of the surface soil samples was investigated by the sequential extraction method. All soil layers of the columns receiving MSS and EMSS had significantly higher concentrations of DTPA-extractable heavy metals than control soil. The maximum concentration of heavy metals in treated soil was in the surface layer and declined significantly with depth. Sequential extraction results showed that in the treated soil, a major proportion of Cd, Pb, and Ni was associated with organic matter (OM) and exchangeable (EXCH) fractions, and a major proportion of Cu and Zn was associated with residual (RES) and OM fractions. Based on relative percent, Pb, Cd, and Ni in the EXCH fraction was higher than Cu and Zn in soil leached with MSS and EMSS, suggesting that application of this MSS to a sandy calcareous soil, at the loading rate used here, may pose a risk in terms of groundwater contamination with Pb, Cd, and Ni.

  4. Redistribution of fractions of zinc, cadmium, nickel, copper, and lead in contaminated calcareous soils treated with EDTA.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Mohsen; Khanlari, Zahra V

    2007-11-01

    Effect of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the fractionation of zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in contaminated calcareous soils was investigated. Soil samples containing variable levels of contamination, from 105.9 to 5803 mg/kg Zn, from 2.2 to 1361 mg/kg Cd, from 31 to 64.0 mg/kg Ni, from 24 to 84 mg/kg Cu, and from 109 to 24,850 mg/kg Pb, were subjected to EDTA treatment at different dosages of 0, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg. Metals in the incubated soils were fractionated after 5 months by a sequential extraction procedure, in which the metal fractions were experimentally defined as exchangeable (EXCH), carbonate (CARB), Mn oxide (MNO), Fe oxide (FEO), organic matter (OM), and residual (RES) fractions. In contaminated soils without EDTA addition, Zn, Ni, Cu, and Pb were predominately present in the RES fraction, up to 60.0%, 32.3%, 41.1%, and 36.8%, respectively. In general, with the EDTA addition, the EXCH and CARB fractions of these metals increased dramatically while the OM fraction decreased. The Zn, Ni, Cu, and Pb were distributed mostly in RES, OM, FEO, and CARB fractions in contaminated soils, but Cd was found predominately in the CARB, MNO, and RES fractions. The OM fraction decreased with increasing amounts of EDTA. In the contaminated soils, EDTA removed some Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni from MNO, FEO, and OM fractions and redistributed them into CARB and EXCH fractions. Based on the relative percent in the EXCH and CARB fractions, the order of solubility was Cd > Pb > Ni > Cu > Zn for contaminated soils, before adding of EDTA, and after adding of EDTA, the order of solubility was Pb > Cd > Zn > Ni > Cu. The risk of groundwater contamination will increase after applying EDTA and it needed to be used very carefully.

  5. Liver and kidney concentrations of strontium, barium, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, chromium, antimony, selenium and lead in cats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to provide new knowledge on the storage of strontium (Sr), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se) and lead (Pb) in the feline organism, we measured the concentrations of these elements in the liver, renal cortex and renal medulla, evaluating also the impact of age, sex or the occurrence of a chronic kidney disease (CKD). The element concentrations in the tissues of 47 cats (22 male; 25 female; aged between 2 months and 18 years) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results Cu, Zn and Mn were the highest in the liver, followed by the renal cortex and the renal medulla. The Cd concentrations were lower in the renal medulla compared to the renal cortex and the liver, and Sr was higher in the renal medulla compared to the liver. The Se concentrations in the cortex of the kidneys were higher than in the medulla of the kidneys and in the liver. Higher Cd concentrations were measured in the renal cortex of female cats, while no further gender-related differences were observed. Except for Cr, Sb and Se, age-dependencies were detected for the storage of all elements. The occurrence of a CKD also affected the storage of the elements, with lower concentrations of Ba (renal medulla), Zn (renal cortex; renal medulla) and Mn (liver; renal medulla), but higher Cd concentrations (liver; renal cortex) in diseased cats. Conclusions In conclusion, the present results provide new information on the accumulation of specific elements in the feline liver and kidneys, demonstrating a dependency on age and an impaired kidney function, but not on the sex of the animals. PMID:25030305

  6. Effects of organic amendments on the toxicity and bioavailability of cadmium and copper in spiked formulated sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; May, T.W.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the partitioning and toxicity of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) spiked into formulated sediments containing two types of organic matter (OM), i.e., cellulose and humus. Amendments of cellulose up to 12.5% total organic carbon (TOC) did not affect partitioning of Cd or Cu between sediment and pore water and did not significantly affect the toxicity of spiked sediments in acute toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca. In contrast, amendments of natural humus shifted the partitioning of both Cd and Cu toward greater concentrations in sediment and lesser concentrations in pore water and significantly reduced toxic effects of both metals. Thresholds for toxicity, based on measured metal concentrations in whole sediment, were greater for both Cd and Cu in sediments amended with a low level of humus (2.9% TOC) than in sediments without added OM. Amendments with a high level of humus (8.9% TOC) eliminated toxicity at the highest spike concentrations of both metals (sediment concentrations of 12.4 ??g Cd/g and 493 ??g Cu/g). Concentrations of Cd in pore water associated with acute toxicity were similar between sediments with and without humus amendments, suggesting that toxicity of Cd was reduced primarily by sorption to sediment OM. However, toxic effects of Cu in humus treatments were associated with greater pore-water concentrations than in controls, suggesting that toxicity of Cu was reduced both by sorption and by complexation with soluble ligands. Both sorption and complexation by OM tend to make proposed sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) based on total metal concentrations more protective for high-OM sediments. Our results suggest that the predictive ability of SQGs could be improved by models of metal interactions with natural OM in sediment and pore water.

  7. Zinc Pyrithione Inhibits Yeast Growth through Copper Influx and Inactivation of Iron-Sulfur Proteins▿†

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Nancy L.; Kaplan, Jerry; Xu, Jun; Youngquist, R. Scott; Wallace, Jared; Hu, Ping; Juhlin, Kenton D.; Schwartz, James R.; Grant, Raymond A.; Fieno, Angela; Nemeth, Suzanne; Reichling, Tim; Tiesman, Jay P.; Mills, Tim; Steinke, Mark; Wang, Shuo L.; Saunders, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    Zinc pyrithione (ZPT) is an antimicrobial material with widespread use in antidandruff shampoos and antifouling paints. Despite decades of commercial use, there is little understanding of its antimicrobial mechanism of action. We used a combination of genome-wide approaches (yeast deletion mutants and microarrays) and traditional methods (gene constructs and atomic emission) to characterize the activity of ZPT against a model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ZPT acts through an increase in cellular copper levels that leads to loss of activity of iron-sulfur cluster-containing proteins. ZPT was also found to mediate growth inhibition through an increase in copper in the scalp fungus Malassezia globosa. A model is presented in which pyrithione acts as a copper ionophore, enabling copper to enter cells and distribute across intracellular membranes. This is the first report of a metal-ligand complex that inhibits fungal growth by increasing the cellular level of a different metal. PMID:21947398

  8. Bioremediation of copper-containing wastewater by sulfate reducing bacteria coupled with iron.

    PubMed

    Bai, He; Kang, Yong; Quan, Hongen; Han, Yang; Sun, Jiao; Feng, Ying

    2013-11-15

    In order to treat copper-containing wastewater effectively using sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), iron (Fe(0)) was added to enhance the activity of SRB. The SRB system and the SRB + Fe(0) system were operated under continuous operation. The sulfate reduction efficiency of the SRB + Fe(0) system was twice as much as that of the SRB system with the sulfate loading rate at 125  mg L(-1) h(-1). The effect of COD/SO4(2-) on sulfate reduction indicates an enhanced activity of SRB by adding Fe(0). 99% of total sulfate was deducted in both systems at pH 4.0-7.0, and temperature slightly influenced the removal of sulfate in the SRB + Fe(0) system. In the copper-containing wastewater treatment, the SRB + Fe(0) system shows a better performance since sulfate removal in this system was higher than the SRB system, and the removal ratio of Cu(2+) was held above 95% in SRB + Fe(0) system at all influent Cu(2+) concentrations.

  9. Cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in cultured oysters under two contrasting climatic conditions in coastal lagoons from SE Gulf of California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Osuna-Martínez, Carmen C; Páez-Osuna, Federico; Alonso-Rodríguez, Rosalba

    2011-09-01

    In order to determine the metal concentrations in cultured oysters from four coastal lagoons from SE Gulf of California, several individuals of Crassostrea gigas and C. corteziensis were collected and their cadmium, copper, lead and zinc levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry after acid digestion. The concentration of metals in oyster soft tissue was Zn > Cu > Cd > Pb. In two lagoons, Cd concentrations (10.1-13.5 μg g(-1) dw) exceeded the maximum level allowed according to the Official Mexican Standard (NOM-031-SSA1-1993), which is equivalent to the WHO recommended Cd levels in organisms used for human consumption.

  10. Effect of short term oral cadmium exposure in rats fed low zinc and low copper diets

    SciTech Connect

    Panemangalore, M.; Lee, C.J.; Wilson, K.

    1986-03-05

    The effects of 0, 0.15 and 5.0 ppm Cd in drinking water was determined in 10 week old F-344 rats fed either control - C (30 ppm Zn + 5 ppm Cu), low Zn - LZn (5 ppm Zn), low copper - LCu (0.5 ppm Cu) and low Zn + low Cu - LZn + LCu (5 ppm Zn + 0.5 ppm Cu) diets for 8 weeks. All groups gained about 9 g/wk and neither the decrease in dietary Zn and Cu levels or Cd exposure altered wt gain or food intake (14 g/day). Liver Zn levels averaged about 19 mg/g in all groups and were unaffected by either diet or Cd exposure; but metallothionein (MT) concentration increased from 19..mu..g/g to 40 ..mu..g/g in groups exposed to 5.0 ppm Cd and was lower in rats given LZn and LZn + LCu diet (pless than or equal to0.05). In contrast, kidney Zn levels declined in groups fed LZn + LCu diets, but exposure to Cd maintained Zn levels. Kidney MT concentration fell in response to LZn, LCu and LZn + LCu diets, while exposure to 5.0 ppm Cd elevated MT concentration almost 3 fold, however, LZn and LCu diets decreased the extent of MT induction (pless than or equal to0.05). Kidney Zn levels appear to be more susceptible to modulation by dietary Zn and Cu levels, and oral Cd exposure.

  11. Assessing toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium levels relevant to discharge limits of industrial effluents into inland surface waters using common onion, Allium cepa bioassay.

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2015-02-01

    Toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium relevant to established tolerance limits for the discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters was evaluated by Allium cepa bioassay. The roots of A. cepa bulbs exposed to Cu(2+) (3 mg L(-1)) individually or in mixtures with Cd(2+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) or/and Cr(6+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) exhibited the highest growth inhibition, mitotic index depression and nuclear abnormalities. Root tip cells exposed to Cr(6+) or Cd(2+) alone or in mixture displayed significant chromosomal aberrations in comparison to the controls. EC50s for root growth inhibition followed the order Cu(2+) < Cd(2+) < Cr(6+) indicating greater toxicity of copper. The results show that the industrial effluent discharge regulatory limits for these metals need to be reviewed considering potential cyto-genotoxicity to biological systems.

  12. High cadmium residues observed during a pilot study in shorebirds and their prey downstream from the El Salvador copper mine, Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeer, K. ); Castilla, J.C. )

    1991-02-01

    Untreated mining wastes, at the rate of 39,000 tons per day, are discharged through a semi-artificial canal directly to the marine shore from the El Salvador copper mine in northern Chile. The tailings were deposited on a sandy beach near Chanaral between 1938 and 1974 and since 1975 at Caleta Palito, 8 km north of Chanaral. Since no chemical analyses of marine organisms have been conducted along the 20 km beach area contaminated with tailings, a pilot study was initiated in the last weeks of November 1981 and March 1982 to determine cadmium and copper residues in discharged mine tailings on the beach deposits, algae, marine invertebrates, shorebirds and prey from their stomachs. The results of the analyses are presented here.

  13. Development of copper sulfide/cadmium sulfide thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Szedon, J.R.; Biter, W.J.; Abel, J.A.; Dickey, H.C.; Shirland, F.A.

    1981-02-27

    The purpose of this work has been to identify aspects of cell fabrication and treatment which are critical for achieving high efficiency Cu/sub 2/S/CdS solar cells. In approaching the problem several comparisons were made of the effects of specific steps in two methods of cell fabrication. These methods had previously given cells of about 6% and a maximum of 9% efficiency. Three areas requiring special attention and specific means to achieve acceptable results were identified. (1) The Cu/sub 2/S/CdS heterojunction area must be minimized. If single source evaporations of CdS are made on substrates whose temperatures (approx. 220/sup 0/C) are monitored and controlled using welded thermocouples, the CdS films will have adequately large grains (grain diameter greater than or equal to 2 ..mu..m) and will not develop significant etch pits during texturing in a mild etchant solution. (2) The termination of the wet barrier processing steps must be done carefully. An acceptable termination involves minimizing the amount of cuprous chloride retained on the cell surface during transfer to a rinsing stage while providing adequate exclusion of air from the space above the surface of the cuprous chloride solution. (3) Once formed, the Cu/sub 2/S layer should not be exposed to high temperatures (>100/sup 0/C) for long periods of time (> 5 min) if surface adsorbed moisture or oxygen are present. Heat treatments in ampoules under flowing hydrogen atmospheres should be preceded and followed by periods of at least 30 minutes at room temperature in the reducing ambient. If all these precautions are taken, wet chemical barrier processing of thermally evaporated CdS films on zinc-plated copper foil substrates yields cells of nearly 8% conversion efficiency without AR coating.

  14. Development of copper sulfide/cadmium sulfide thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Szedon, J. R.; Biter, W. J.; Dickey, H. C.

    1982-03-08

    The most important accomplishments during this period were to demonstrate and to elucidate further the complex effects that occur during the aging of Cu/sub 2/S/CdS thin-film solar cells in flowing wet oxygen. There are two distinct effects. At constant illumination, the short-circuit current of cells aged at room temperature consistently decreases with time. The second effect, related to diode opposing current, is more involved and may result from several competing mechanisms. Over the short term (approx. 4 to 5 hours), the magnitude of diode opposing current decreases. After approx. 20 hours of aging, opposing current generally returns to the level achieved after hydrogen annealing which immediately preceded the aging sequence. Optical measurements of the spectral transmission of the Cu/sub 2/S layers in a cell content have been made using a silicon detector epoxied to the back of a CdS cell after the copper foil substrate was removed. There is no significant change in Cu/sub 2/S transmission behavior for wavelengths ranging from 525 to 1000 nm during wet-oxygen aging for periods of 2 to 36 hours. This suggests that the decrease in J/sub SC/ at constant illumination, for the aging experiments in a flowing wet-oxygen ambient, arises because of changes in minority-carrier transport properties of the Cu/sub 2/S. Before developing a method for using an epoxied silicon detector to measure optical behavior of the Cu/sub 2/S layer, we explored the possibility of using a junction-containing wafer of silicon as a substrate for deposited CdS films. Some monolithic structures were successfully fabricated. Comparisons were made of CdS grain structure details in the junction detector area and in an adjacent metallized area.

  15. Influence of copper depletion on iron uptake mediated by SFT, a stimulator of Fe transport.

    PubMed

    Yu, J; Wessling-Resnick, M

    1998-03-20

    We recently identified a novel factor involved in cellular iron assimilation called SFT or Stimulator of Fe Transport (Gutierrez, J. A., Yu, J., Rivera, S., and Wessling-Resnick, M. (1997) J. Cell Biol. 149, 895-905). When stably expressed in HeLa cells, SFT was found to stimulate the uptake of both transferrin- and nontransferrin-bound Fe (iron). Assimilation of nontransferrin-bound Fe by HeLa cells stably expressing SFT was time- and temperature-dependent; both the rate and extent of uptake was enhanced relative to the activity of control nontransfected cells. Although the apparent Km for Fe uptake was unaffected by expression of SFT (5.6 versus 5.1 microM measured for control), the Vmax of transport was increased from 7.0 to 14.7 pmol/min/mg protein. Transport mediated by SFT was inhibitable by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and ferrozine, Fe3+- and Fe2+-specific chelators. Because cellular copper status is known to influence Fe assimilation, we investigated the effects of Cu (copper) depletion on SFT function. After 4 days of culture in Cu-deficient media, HeLa cell Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase activity was reduced by more than 60%. Both control cells and cells stably expressing SFT displayed reduced Fe uptake as well; levels of transferrin-mediated import fell by approximately 80%, whereas levels of nontransferrin-bound Fe uptake were approximately 50% that of Cu-replete cells. The failure of SFT expression to stimulate Fe uptake above basal levels in Cu-depleted cells suggests a critical role for Cu in SFT function. A current model for both transferrin- and nontransferrin-bound Fe uptake involves the function of a ferrireductase that acts to reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+, with subsequent transport of the divalent cation across the membrane bilayer. SFT expression did not enhance levels of HeLa cell surface reductase activity; however, Cu depletion was found to reduce endogenous activity by 60%, suggesting impaired ferrireductase function may account for the influence

  16. Brain burdens of aluminum, iron, and copper and their relationships with amyloid-β pathology in 60 human brains.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher; House, Emily; Polwart, Anthony; Esiri, Margaret M

    2012-01-01

    The deposition in the brain of amyloid-β as beta sheet conformers associated with senile plaques and vasculature is frequently observed in Alzheimer’s disease. While metals, primarily aluminum, iron, zinc, and copper, have been implicated in amyloid-β deposition in vivo, there are few data specifically relating brain metal burden with extent of amyloid pathologies in human brains. Herein brain tissue content of aluminum, iron, and copper are compared with burdens of amyloid-β, as senile plaques and as congophilic amyloid angiopathy, in 60 aged human brains. Significant observations were strong negative correlations between brain copper burden and the degree of severity of both senile plaque and congophilic amyloid angiopathy pathologies with the relationship with the former reaching statistical significance. While we did not have access to the dementia status of the majority of the 60 brain donors, this knowledge for just 4 donors allowed us to speculate that diagnosis of dementia might be predicted by a combination of amyloid pathology and a ratio of the brain burden of copper to the brain burden of aluminum. Taking into account only those donor brains with either senile plaque scores ≥4 and/or congophilic amyloid angiopathy scores ≥12, a Cu:Al ratio of <20 would predict that at least 39 of the 60 donors would have been diagnosed as suffering from dementia. Future research should test the hypothesis that, in individuals with moderate to severe amyloid pathology, low brain copper is a predisposition to developing dementia.

  17. Cadmium, copper, and lead accumulation and bioconcentration in the vegetative and reproductive organs of Raphanus sativus: implications for plant performance and pollination.

    PubMed

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Trumble, John T

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have found high levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in honey bee hives located near urbanized or industrial areas. Insect herbivores and pollinators may come in contact with environmental contaminants in the leaves and flowers they forage upon in these areas. Our study quantified which of these metals are accumulated in the tissues of a common weedy plant that can serve as a route of exposure for insects. We grew Raphanus sativus (crop radish) in semi-hydroponic sand culture in the greenhouse. Plants were irrigated with nutrient solutions containing Cd, Cu, or Pb at four concentrations (control, low, medium, high). Plant performance, floral traits, and metal accumulation were measured in various vegetative and reproductive plant organs. Floral traits and flower number were unaffected by all metal treatments. Copper accumulated at the highest concentrations in flowers compared to the other two metals. Copper and Cd had the highest translocation indices, as well as higher bioconcentration factors compared to Pb, which was mostly immobile in the plant. Copper posed the highest risk due to its high mobility within the plant. In particular, accumulation of metals in leaves and flowers suggests that herbivores and pollinators visiting and foraging on these tissues may be exposed to these potentially toxic compounds.

  18. Cadmium, copper, and lead accumulation and bioconcentration in the vegetative and reproductive organs of Raphanus sativus: implications for plant performance and pollination.

    PubMed

    Hladun, Kristen R; Parker, David R; Trumble, John T

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have found high levels of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) in honey bee hives located near urbanized or industrial areas. Insect herbivores and pollinators may come in contact with environmental contaminants in the leaves and flowers they forage upon in these areas. Our study quantified which of these metals are accumulated in the tissues of a common weedy plant that can serve as a route of exposure for insects. We grew Raphanus sativus (crop radish) in semi-hydroponic sand culture in the greenhouse. Plants were irrigated with nutrient solutions containing Cd, Cu, or Pb at four concentrations (control, low, medium, high). Plant performance, floral traits, and metal accumulation were measured in various vegetative and reproductive plant organs. Floral traits and flower number were unaffected by all metal treatments. Copper accumulated at the highest concentrations in flowers compared to the other two metals. Copper and Cd had the highest translocation indices, as well as higher bioconcentration factors compared to Pb, which was mostly immobile in the plant. Copper posed the highest risk due to its high mobility within the plant. In particular, accumulation of metals in leaves and flowers suggests that herbivores and pollinators visiting and foraging on these tissues may be exposed to these potentially toxic compounds. PMID:25845355

  19. Cadmium removal from wastewater by sponge iron sphere prepared by charcoal direct reduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Junguo; Li, Jun; Li, Yungang

    2009-01-01

    Sponge iron sphere (SIS), made of concentrated iron powder and possessed high activity and intension, was prepared through the process of palletizing, roasting and direct reduction by charcoal. The sponge iron sphere could remove most of Cd(2+) from wastewater. The results showed the Cd(2+) removal followed the first order reaction. Initial pH value played an important role in Cd(2+) removal. With original initial pH, Cd(2+) removal decreased to the minimum and then increased slightly with the rising of original concentration. The removal rate constant was -0.1263 and -0.0711 h(-1), respectively, under the Cd(2+) concentration of 50 and 200 mg/L. When the initial pH was adjusted to 3.0, the removal rate constant could increase to -9.896 and -4.351 h(-1), respectively. The removal percentage almost reached to 100% when Cd(2+) concentration was below 100 mg/L. While Cd(2+) concentration was above 100 mg/L, Cd(2+) removal percentage decreased slightly. In dynamic experiments, the column filled with sponge iron sphere exhibited favorable permeability. There was no sphere pulverization and conglutination between spheres. In contrast to the static state experiments, the Cd(2+) removal percentage in dynamic state experiment was lower, and the removal Cd(2+) quantity was 1.749 mg/g. PMID:25084434

  20. Doping effect on the Janus-like structure of a copper-iron bimetallic nanocluster and its solid-liquid phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taherkhani, Farid; Seresht, Pegah Freshteh

    2015-04-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation with a new-application potential model has been explored for melting temperature, radial distribution of iron-copper bimetallic nanoclusters, and their bulk for the first time. At low copper weight percentages, the melting temperature changes a little for the bulk structures; however, for nanostructures, the variation of melting temperature is significant. At medium copper-doping values, there is a melting-temperature plateau in bimetallic nanoclusters. For many catalysis applications, Janus-like structures are considered, which occur at around 53% iron weight in copper at room temperature, when copper-iron bimetallic nanoclusters clearly consist of two distinct faces. Our result for the melting temperature of the bulk alloy confirms the experimental result.

  1. Kinetic and equilibrium studies for the adsorption process of cadmium(II) and copper(II) onto Pseudomonas aeruginosa using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry method.

    PubMed

    Kong, Bo; Tang, Biyu; Liu, Xiaoying; Zeng, Xiandong; Duan, Haiyan; Luo, Shenglian; Wei, Wanzhi

    2009-08-15

    A novel method for the simultaneous determination of cadmium(II) and copper(II) during the adsorption process onto Pseudomonas aeruginosa was developed. The concentration of the free metal ions was successfully detected by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) on the mercaptoethane sulfonate (MES) modified gold electrode, while the P. aeruginosa was efficiently avoided approaching to the electrode surface by the MES monolayer. And the anodic stripping peaks of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) appear at -0.13 and 0.34V respectively, at the concentration range of 5-50 microM, the peak currents of SWASV present linear relationships with the concentrations of cadmium and copper respectively. As the determination of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) was in real time and without pretreatment, the kinetic characteristics of the adsorption process were studied and all the corresponding regression parameters were obtained by fitting the electrochemical experimental data to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Moreover, Langmuir and Freundlich models well described the biosorption isotherms. And there were some differences in the amount of metal ion adsorbed at equilibrium (q(e)) and other kinetics parameters when the two ions coexisted were compared with the unaccompanied condition, which were also discussed in this paper. The proposed electrode system provides excellent platform for the simultaneous determination of trace metals in complex biosorption process.

  2. Determination of copper, nickel, cobalt, silver, lead, cadmium, and mercury ions in water by solid-phase extraction and the RP-HPLC with UV-Vis detection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiufen; Yang, Guangyu; Zhao, Yiyun; Yin, Jiayuan

    2003-03-01

    A new method for the simultaneous determination of seven heavy metal ions in water by solid-phase extraction and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed. The copper, nickel, cobalt, silver, lead, cadmium, and mercury ions were pre-column derivatized with tetra( m-aminophenyl)porphyrin (T m-APP) to form colored chelates. The metal-T m-APP chelates in 100 mL of sample were preconcentrated to 1 mL by solid-phase extraction with a C(18 )cartridge; an enrichment factor of 100 was achieved. The chelates were separated on a Waters Xterra()RP(18) column by gradient elution with methanol (containing 0.05 mol L(-1) pyrrolidine-acetic acid buffer salt, pH 10.0) and acetone (containing 0.05 mol L(-1) pyrrolidine-acetic acid buffer salt, pH 10.0) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) and detected with a photodiode array detector. The detection limits of copper, cobalt, nickel, silver, lead, cadmium, and mercury are 2, 2, 3, 4, 3, 3, and 3 ng L(-1), respectively, in the original sample. The method was also applied to the determination of these metals in water with good results. PMID:12664186

  3. L-Ornithine Schiff base-copper and -cadmium complexes as new proteasome inhibitors and apoptosis inducers in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongyu; Bi, Caifeng; Fan, Yuhua; Zhang, Nan; Deshmukh, Rahul; Yan, Xingchen; Lv, Xiuwen; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Xia; Dou, Q Ping

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a crucial role in many cellular processes such as cell cycle, proliferation and apoptosis. Aberrant activation of UPS may result in cellular transformation or other altered pathological conditions. Previous studies have shown that metal-based complexes could inhibit proteasome activity and induce apoptosis in certain human cancer cells. In the current study, we report that the cadmium and copper complexes with heterocycle-ornithine Schiff base are potent inhibitors of proteasomal chymotrypsin-like (CT-like) activity, leading to induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. Two novel copper-containing complexes and two novel cadmium-containing complexes with different heterocycle-ornithine Schiff base structures as ligands were synthesized and characterized. We found that complexes Cu1, Cd1 and Cd2 show proteasome-inhibitory activities in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and human prostate cancer LNCaP cells, resulting in the accumulation of p27, a natural proteasome substrate and other ubiquitinated proteins, followed by the induction of apoptosis. Our results suggest that metal complexes with heterocycle-ornithine Schiff base have proteasome-inhibitory capabilities and have the potential to be developed into novel anticancer drugs.

  4. Transcription patterns of genes encoding four metallothionein homologs in Daphnia pulex exposed to copper and cadmium are time- and homolog- dependent

    PubMed Central

    Asselman, Jana; Shaw, Joseph R.; Glaholt, Stephen P.; Colbourne, John K.; De Schamphelaere, Karel AC.

    2013-01-01

    Metallothioneins are proteins that play an essential role in metal homeostasis and detoxification in nearly all organisms studied to date. Yet discrepancies between outcomes of chronic and acute exposure experiments hamper the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of their isoforms following metal exposure. Here, we investigated transcriptional differences among four identified homologs (mt1–mt4) in Daphnia pulex exposed across time to copper and cadmium relative to a control. Transcriptional upregulation of mt1 and mt3 was detected on day four following exposure to cadmium, whereas that of mt2 and mt4 was detected on day two and day eight following exposure to copper. These results confirm temporal and metal-specific differences in the transcriptional induction of genes encoding metallothionein homologs upon metal exposure which should be considered in ecotoxicological monitoring programs of metal-contaminated water bodies. Indeed, the mRNA expression patterns observed here illustrate the complex regulatory system associated with metallothioneins, as these patterns are not only dependent on the metal, but also on exposure time and the homolog studied. Further phylogenetic analysis and analysis of regulatory elements in upstream promoter regions revealed a high degree of similarity between metallothionein genes of Daphnia pulex and Daphnia magna, a species belonging to the same genus. These findings, combined with a limited amount of available expression data for D. magna metallothionein genes, tentatively suggest a potential generalization of the metallothionein response system between these Daphnia species. PMID:24113165

  5. Evaluating the Metal Source(s) of Iron Oxide-Copper-Gold (IOCG) Deposits (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A. C.; Bilenker, L.; Lundstrom, C.; Reich, M.; Barra, F.; Hanchar, J. M.; Westhues, A.

    2013-12-01

    Iron oxide - copper - gold deposits (IOCG) are characterized by high modal abundances of magnetite and/or hematite, ubiquitous and variable grades of Cu and Au, and, often, economic grades of other metals including REE, U, Ag, Mo and Zn. The largest deposits contain >1 billion tonnes of iron. There seems to be a general consensus that metals in IOCG deposits were transported by, and precipitated from, aqueous fluids. However, there is a lack of agreement for the source of the metal-bearing aqueous fluid(s) as well as the source of iron and other metals (i.e., magmatic or hydrothermal, or some combination of the two). Published fluid inclusion data indicate that metal-bearing aqueous fluids were trapped over a wide range of temperatures, with homogenization temperatures between 500 and 600 °C for inclusions associated with the precipitation of iron-oxide minerals, and between 300 and 500 °C for inclusions associated with main-stage sulfides (e.g., chalcopyrite, pyrite). The high trapping temperatures for fluid inclusions and the observation that some IOCG deposits appear to be related temporally and spatially to igneous intrusions, characteristics similar to those observed for porphyry-type ore deposits, have led some authors to propose that magmatic-hydrothermal aqueous fluids are responsible for IOCG formation. Others, however, favor a genetic model that invokes large-scale circulation of basinal brines, which are heated by magmatic intrusions and subsequently leach Fe and other metals from the crust. Evidence cited for this model includes the pervasive alkali metasomatism associated with some IOCG deposits, and the depletion of Fe, Cu and Au in some deposit wall rocks. Stable isotope evidence thus far is inconclusive. Published d34S values for IOCG deposits range from -30 to +30, but generally cluster around zero per mil. d18O ranges from ~0 to +10 per mil. Chlorine isotope values for fluids in inclusions liberated from quartz, calcite and apatite are

  6. Diffusion bonding of iron aluminide Fe{sub 72}Al{sub 28} using a copper interlayer

    SciTech Connect

    Torun, O.; Celikyuerek, I.; Guerler, R.

    2008-07-15

    An Fe{sub 72}Al{sub 28} alloy was diffusion-bonded using a copper interlayer under vacuum at 1075 deg. C for 1 h, 2 h, 4 h and 6 h durations at 3.2 MPa applied pressure. The bond microstructure was found to be composed of the copper rich interlayer, copper rich precipitates and the base metal. SEM-EDS studies indicated major diffusion of aluminium and iron atoms from Fe{sub 72}Al{sub 28} into the copper interlayer and copper atoms from the copper interlayer into the Fe{sub 72}Al{sub 28} matrix. SEM observations of fractured surfaces of the diffusion-bonded samples showed some plastic deformation and signs of good bonding. Cu{sub 3}Al and B{sub 2}-FeAl-based phases were identified by SEM-EDS and X-ray diffraction studies at the bond and on the fracture surfaces of all samples investigated. Good bonding was achieved with a maximum shear strength of 298 MPa which is 65% of the parent material shear strength for a sample diffusion-bonded for 6 h.

  7. Semen quality and reproductive endocrine function in relation to biomarkers of lead, cadmium, zinc, and copper in men.

    PubMed Central

    Telisman, S; Cvitković, P; Jurasović, J; Pizent, A; Gavella, M; Rocić, B

    2000-01-01

    Blood lead (BPb), activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP), blood cadmium (BCd), serum zinc (SZn), seminal fluid zinc (SfZn), serum copper (SCu), and parameters of semen quality and of reproductive endocrine function were measured in 149 healthy male industrial workers 20-43 years of age. The group contained 98 subjects with slight to moderate occupational exposure to Pb and 51 reference subjects. All of the subjects lived in Zagreb, Croatia. Significant (p < 0.05) correlations of BPb, ALAD, and/or EP with reproductive parameters indicated a Pb-related decrease in sperm density, in counts of total, motile, and viable sperm, in the percentage and count of progressively motile sperm, in parameters of prostate secretory function (SfZn, acid phosphatase, and citric acid in seminal fluid), and an increase in abnormal sperm head morphology, serum testosterone, and estradiol. These associations were confirmed by results of multiple regression, which also showed significant (p < 0. 05) influence of BCd, SZn, SCu, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, or age on certain reproductive parameters. These effects were mainly of lower rank and intensity as compared to Pb-related reproductive effects, whereas BCd contributed to a decrease in sperm motility and an increase in abnormal sperm morphology and serum testosterone. No significant Pb- or Cd-related influence was found on levels of the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme LDH-C(4) and fructose in seminal fluid or on follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin in serum. The seminal fluid concentrations of Pb (SfPb) and Cd (SfCd) were measured in 118 of the 149 subjects, and a highly significant (p < 0.0001) correlation was found between BPb and SfPb levels (r = 0.571) and between BCd and SfCd levels (r = 0.490). The overall study results indicate that even moderate exposures to Pb (BPb < 400 microg/L) and Cd (BCd < 10 microg/L) can significantly reduce human

  8. Role of the copper-oxygen defect in cadmium telluride solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corwine, Caroline R.

    Thin-film CdTe is one of the leading materials used in photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. One way to improve device performance and stability is through understanding how various device processing steps alter defect states in the CdTe layer. Photoluminescence (PL) studies can be used to examine radiative defects in materials. This study uses low-temperature PL to probe the defects present in thin-film CdTe deposited for solar cells. One key defect seen in the thin-film CdTe was reproduced in single-crystal (sX) CdTe by systematic incorporation of known impurities in the thin-film growth process, hence demonstrating that both copper and oxygen were necessary for its formation. Polycrystalline (pX) thin-film glass/SnO2:F/CdS/CdTe structures were examined. The CdTe layer was grown via close-spaced sublimation (CSS), vapor transport deposition (VTD), and physical vapor deposition (PVD). After CdTe deposition, followed by a standard CdC12 treatment and a ZnTe:Cu back contact, a PL peak was seen at ˜1.46 eV from the free back surface of all samples (1.456 eV for CSS and PVD, 1.460-1.463 eV for VTD). However, before the Cu-containing contact was added, this peak was not seen from the front of the CdTe (the CdS/CdTe junction region) in any device with CdTe thickness greater than 4 mum. The CdCl2 treatment commonly used to increase CdTe grain size did not enhance or reduce the peak at ˜1.46 eV relative to the rest of the PL spectrum. When the Cu-containing contact was applied, the PL spectra from both the front and back of the CdTe exhibited the peak at 1.456 eV. The PL peak at ˜1.46 eV was present in thin-film CdTe after deposition, when the dominant impurities are expected to be both Cu from the CdTe source material and O introduced in the chamber during growth to assist in CdTe film density. Since Cu and/or O appeared to be involved in this defect, PL studies were done with sX CdTe to distinguish between the separate effects of Cu or O and the combined effect of Cu and O

  9. Expression profiling reveals functionally redundant multiple-copy genes related to zinc, iron and cadmium responses in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Li, Jimeng; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Feng; Wang, Xiaowu; Aarts, Mark G M; Wu, Jian

    2014-07-01

    Genes underlying environmental adaptability tend to be over-retained in polyploid plant species. Zinc deficiency (ZnD) and iron deficiency (FeD), excess Zn (ZnE) and cadmium exposure (CdE) are major environmental problems for crop cultivation, but little is known about the differential expression of duplicated genes upon these stress conditions. Applying Tag-Seq technology to leaves of Brassica rapa grown under FeD, ZnD, ZnE or CdE conditions, with normal conditions as a control, we examined global gene expression changes and compared the expression patterns of multiple paralogs. We identified 812, 543, 331 and 447 differentially expressed genes under FeD, ZnD, ZnE and CdE conditions, respectively, in B. rapa leaves. Genes involved in regulatory networks centered on the transcription factors bHLH038 or bHLH100 were differentially expressed under (ZnE-induced) FeD. Further analysis revealed that genes associated with Zn, Fe and Cd responses tended to be over-retained in the B. rapa genome. Most of these multiple-copy genes showed the same direction of expression change under stress conditions. We conclude that the duplicated genes involved in trace element responses in B. rapa are functionally redundant, making the regulatory network more complex in B. rapa than in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  10. Tribological behaviour and statistical experimental design of sintered iron-copper based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Ileana Nicoleta; Ghiţă, Constantin; Bratu, Vasile; Palacios Navarro, Guillermo

    2013-11-01

    The sintered iron-copper based composites for automotive brake pads have a complex composite composition and should have good physical, mechanical and tribological characteristics. In this paper, we obtained frictional composites by Powder Metallurgy (P/M) technique and we have characterized them by microstructural and tribological point of view. The morphology of raw powders was determined by SEM and the surfaces of obtained sintered friction materials were analyzed by ESEM, EDS elemental and compo-images analyses. One lot of samples were tested on a "pin-on-disc" type wear machine under dry sliding conditions, at applied load between 3.5 and 11.5 × 10-1 MPa and 12.5 and 16.9 m/s relative speed in braking point at constant temperature. The other lot of samples were tested on an inertial test stand according to a methodology simulating the real conditions of dry friction, at a contact pressure of 2.5-3 MPa, at 300-1200 rpm. The most important characteristics required for sintered friction materials are high and stable friction coefficient during breaking and also, for high durability in service, must have: low wear, high corrosion resistance, high thermal conductivity, mechanical resistance and thermal stability at elevated temperature. Because of the tribological characteristics importance (wear rate and friction coefficient) of sintered iron-copper based composites, we predicted the tribological behaviour through statistical analysis. For the first lot of samples, the response variables Yi (represented by the wear rate and friction coefficient) have been correlated with x1 and x2 (the code value of applied load and relative speed in braking points, respectively) using a linear factorial design approach. We obtained brake friction materials with improved wear resistance characteristics and high and stable friction coefficients. It has been shown, through experimental data and obtained linear regression equations, that the sintered composites wear rate increases

  11. Aluminium, iron and copper in human brain tissues donated to the Medical Research Council's Cognitive Function and Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    House, Emily; Esiri, Margaret; Forster, Gill; Ince, Paul G; Exley, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium, iron and copper are all implicated in the aetiology of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. However, there are very few large cohort studies of the content of these metals in aged human brains. We have used microwave digestion and TH GFAAS to measure aluminium, iron and copper in the temporal, frontal, occipital and parietal lobes of 60 brains donated to the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. Every precaution was taken to reduce contamination of samples and acid digests to a minimum. Actual contamination was estimated by preparing a large number of (170+) method blanks which were interspersed within the full set of 700+ tissue digests. Subtraction of method blank values (MBV) from tissue digest values resulted in metal contents in all tissues in the range, MBV to 33 μg g(-1) dry wt. for aluminium, 112 to 8305 μg g(-1) dry wt. for iron and MBV to 384 μg g(-1) dry wt. for copper. While the median aluminium content for all tissues was 1.02 μg g(-1) dry wt. it was informative that 41 brains out of 60 included at least one tissue with an aluminium content which could be considered as potentially pathological (> 3.50 μg g(-1) dry wt.). The median content for iron was 286.16 μg g(-1) dry wt. and overall tissue iron contents were generally high which possibly reflected increased brain iron in ageing and in neurodegenerative disease. The median content for copper was 17.41 μg g(-1) dry wt. and overall tissue copper contents were lower than expected for aged brains but they were commensurate with aged brains showing signs of neurodegenerative disease. In this study we have shown, in particular, the value of carrying out significant numbers of method blanks to identify unknown sources of contamination. When these values are subtracted from tissue digest values the absolute metal contents could be considered as conservative and yet they may still reflect aspects of ageing and neurodegenerative disease in individual brains.

  12. Acyloxylation of 1,4-Dioxanes and 1,4-Dithianes Catalyzed by a Copper-Iron Mixed Oxide.

    PubMed

    García-Cabeza, Ana Leticia; Marín-Barrios, Rubén; Moreno-Dorado, F Javier; Ortega, María J; Vidal, Hilario; Gatica, José M; Massanet, Guillermo M; Guerra, Francisco M

    2015-07-01

    The use of a copper-iron mixed oxide as a heterogeneous catalyst for the efficient synthesis of α-acyloxy-1,4-dioxanes and 1,4-dithianes employing t-butyl peroxyesters is reported. The preparation and characterization of the catalyst are described. The effect of the heteroatoms and a plausible mechanism are discussed. The method is operationally simple and involves low-cost starting materials affording products in good to excellent yields.

  13. Curcumin interaction with copper and iron suggests one possible mechanism of action in Alzheimer's disease animal models.

    PubMed

    Baum, Larry; Ng, Alex

    2004-08-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenolic diketone from turmeric. Because of its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, it was tested in animal models of Alzheimer's disease, reducing levels of amyloid and oxidized proteins and preventing cognitive deficits. An alternative mechanism of these effects is metal chelation, which may reduce amyloid aggregation or oxidative neurotoxicity. Metals can induce Abeta aggregation and toxicity, and are concentrated in AD brain. Chelators desferrioxamine and clioquinol have exhibited anti-AD effects. Using spectrophotometry, we quantified curcumin affinity for copper, zinc, and iron ions. Zn2+ showed little binding, but each Cu2+ or Fe2+ ion appeared to bind at least two curcumin molecules. The interaction of curcumin with copper reached half-maximum at approximately 3-12 microM copper and exhibited positive cooperativity, with Kd1 approximately 10-60 microM and Kd2 approximately 1.3 microM (for binding of the first and second curcumin molecules, respectively). Curcumin-iron interaction reached half-maximum at approximately 2.5-5 microM iron and exhibited negative cooperativity, with Kd1 approximately 0.5-1.6 microM and Kd2 approximately 50-100 microM. Curcumin and its metabolites can attain these levels in vivo, suggesting physiological relevance. Since curcumin more readily binds the redox-active metals iron and copper than redox-inactive zinc, curcumin might exert a net protective effect against Abeta toxicity or might suppress inflammatory damage by preventing metal induction of NF-kappaB.

  14. Assessing the effects of model Maillard compound intake on iron, copper and zinc retention and tissue delivery in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Pastoriza, Silvia; Navarro, M Pilar; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of dietary Maillard reaction compounds (MRP) as metal chelating polymers can alter mineral absorption and/or retention. Our aim in this study was to analyse the long-term effects of the consumption of model MRP from glucose-lysine heated for 90 min at 150 °C (GL) on iron, copper and zinc whole-body retention and tissue delivery. For 88 days, weaning rats were fed a Control diet or one containing 3% GL, until reaching the adult stage. During the experimental period a mineral balance was conducted to investigate the mineral retention. At day 88, the animals were sacrificed, blood was drawn for haemoglobin determination and some organs were removed. Copper and zinc balances were unaffected (Cu: 450 vs. 375 μg; Zn: 6.7 vs. 6.2 mg for Control and GL groups, respectively) and no change was observed in whole-body delivery. Iron retention, too, was unaltered (11.2 mg for Control and GL groups) but due to the tendency toward decreased body weight in the GL group (248 vs. 233 g for the Control and GL groups), whole-body iron concentration was 13% higher in the GL group than in the Control group. Absorbed iron accumulated particularly in the liver (144 vs. 190 μg g(-1) for the Control and GL groups), thus reducing haemoglobin levels. The long-term intake of MRP induced iron accumulation in the body but this did not result in enhanced iron functionality, since the haemoglobin concentration declined. Taking into account the findings of our research group's studies of young and adult rats, we now corroborate the hypothesis that the negative effect of GL MRP consumption on iron functionality takes place regardless of the animals' stage of life.

  15. The Variations of Glycolysis and TCA Cycle Intermediate Levels Grown in Iron and Copper Mediums of Trichoderma harzianum.

    PubMed

    Tavsan, Zehra; Ayar Kayali, Hulya

    2015-05-01

    The efficiency of optimal metabolic function by microorganism depends on various parameters, especially essential metal supplementation. In the present study, the effects of iron and copper metals on metabolism were investigated by determination of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites' levels with respect to the metal concentrations and incubation period in Trichoderma harzianum. The pyruvate and citrate levels of T. harzianum increased up to 15 mg/L of copper via redirection of carbon flux though glycolysis by suppression of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). However, the α-ketoglutarate levels decreased at concentration higher than 5 mg/L of copper to overcome damage of oxidative stress. The fumarate levels correlated with the α-ketoglutarate levels because of substrate limitation. Besides, in T. harzianum cells grown in various concentrations of iron-containing medium, the intracellular pyruvate, citrate, and α-ketoglutarate levels showed positive correlation with iron concentration due to modifying of expression of glycolysis and TCA cycle enzymes via a mechanism involving cofactor or allosteric regulation. However, as a result of consuming of prior substrates required for fumarate production, its levels rose up to 10 mg/L. PMID:25805013

  16. Iron, copper, and nickel behavior in buffered, neutral aluminum chloride:1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride molten salt

    SciTech Connect

    Pye, S.; Winnick, J.; Kohl, P.A.

    1997-06-01

    Iron, copper, and nickel electrodes were examined as possible metal/metal(II) chloride cathodes for the room temperature sodium/metal chloride battery in a molten salt composed of sodium chloride (NaCl), aluminum chloride (AlCl{sub 3}), and 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (MEIC). The iron electrode was investigated in basic, neutral-like, and acidic MEIC:AlCl{sub 3} melts. The solubility and the kinetics of the reduction of Fe(II) was a function of acidity. In the basic melt, the FeCl{sub 2} was soluble; however, its reduction was not observed due to slow kinetics. In the neutral-like and acidic melts, the quasi-reversible reduction of Fe(II) to Fe(0) was observed. The redox potential of copper was approximately 1 V more positive of iron; however, the oxidized copper was soluble in the neutral-like melt, making it unacceptable without a separator. The oxidized and reduced forms of nickel were insoluble and the redox potential was 2.5 V positive of Na/Na{sup +}. The nickel electrode supported a charge density of 3.5 mC/cm{sup 2} at room temperature, suggesting that a high-surface-area electrode would be needed in a practical device.

  17. The Variations of Glycolysis and TCA Cycle Intermediate Levels Grown in Iron and Copper Mediums of Trichoderma harzianum.

    PubMed

    Tavsan, Zehra; Ayar Kayali, Hulya

    2015-05-01

    The efficiency of optimal metabolic function by microorganism depends on various parameters, especially essential metal supplementation. In the present study, the effects of iron and copper metals on metabolism were investigated by determination of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites' levels with respect to the metal concentrations and incubation period in Trichoderma harzianum. The pyruvate and citrate levels of T. harzianum increased up to 15 mg/L of copper via redirection of carbon flux though glycolysis by suppression of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). However, the α-ketoglutarate levels decreased at concentration higher than 5 mg/L of copper to overcome damage of oxidative stress. The fumarate levels correlated with the α-ketoglutarate levels because of substrate limitation. Besides, in T. harzianum cells grown in various concentrations of iron-containing medium, the intracellular pyruvate, citrate, and α-ketoglutarate levels showed positive correlation with iron concentration due to modifying of expression of glycolysis and TCA cycle enzymes via a mechanism involving cofactor or allosteric regulation. However, as a result of consuming of prior substrates required for fumarate production, its levels rose up to 10 mg/L.

  18. Purity-enhanced bulk synthesis of thin single-wall carbon nanotubes using iron-copper catalysts.

    PubMed

    Lim, H E; Miyata, Y; Nakayama, T; Chen, S; Kitaura, R; Shinohara, H

    2011-09-30

    We report high purity and high yield synthesis of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) of narrow diameter from iron-copper bimetal catalysts. The SWCNTs with diameter of 0.8-1.2 nm are synthesized using the zeolite-supported alcohol chemical vapour deposition method. Single metal and bimetal catalysts are systematically investigated to achieve both the enhancement of SWCNT yield and the suppression of the undesired formation of graphitic impurities. The relative yield and purity of SWCNTs are quantified using optical absorption spectroscopy with an ultracentrifuge-based purification technique. For the single metal catalyst, iron shows the highest catalytic activity compared with the other metals such as cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, copper, and platinum. It has been found that the addition of copper to iron results in the suppression of carbonaceous impurity formation without decreasing the SWCNT yield. The purity-enhanced SWCNT shows fairly low sheet resistance due to the improvement of inter-nanotube contacts. This scalable design of SWCNT synthesis with enhanced purity is therefore a promising tool for shaping future high performance devices. PMID:21891846

  19. Purity-enhanced bulk synthesis of thin single-wall carbon nanotubes using iron-copper catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H. E.; Miyata, Y.; Nakayama, T.; Chen, S.; Kitaura, R.; Shinohara, H.

    2011-09-01

    We report high purity and high yield synthesis of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) of narrow diameter from iron-copper bimetal catalysts. The SWCNTs with diameter of 0.8-1.2 nm are synthesized using the zeolite-supported alcohol chemical vapour deposition method. Single metal and bimetal catalysts are systematically investigated to achieve both the enhancement of SWCNT yield and the suppression of the undesired formation of graphitic impurities. The relative yield and purity of SWCNTs are quantified using optical absorption spectroscopy with an ultracentrifuge-based purification technique. For the single metal catalyst, iron shows the highest catalytic activity compared with the other metals such as cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, copper, and platinum. It has been found that the addition of copper to iron results in the suppression of carbonaceous impurity formation without decreasing the SWCNT yield. The purity-enhanced SWCNT shows fairly low sheet resistance due to the improvement of inter-nanotube contacts. This scalable design of SWCNT synthesis with enhanced purity is therefore a promising tool for shaping future high performance devices.

  20. The influence of diet on comparative trace metal cadmium, copper and zinc accumulation in Thais clavigera (Gastropoda: Muricidae) preying on intertidal barnacles or mussels.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Graham; Morton, Brian

    2002-09-01

    The influence of diet on comparative metal accumulation was investigated using a predatory muricid gastropod Thais clavigera. Individuals were fed for up to 56 days on either barnacles, i.e., Tetraclita squamosa, or mussels, i.e., Perna viridis, collected from metal-contaminated and clean sites. Barnacles and mussels have contrasting metal handling strategies and, therefore, different body concentrations, intracellular distributions and detoxification systems. Field collection of prey items that accumulated body metal concentrations over a lifetime of exposure allowed bioavailability to the predator, T. clavigera, to be assessed naturally, which may not be the case for prey exposed to metals for a short time in the laboratory. T. clavigera that was fed cadmium- and copper-contaminated barnacles or mussels ingested significantly greater amounts compared to those fed conspecifics collected from clean locations. T. clavigera body cadmium and copper concentrations were not, however, significantly different between individuals fed either contaminated or clean prey. Amount of zinc ingested was similar in mussels collected from clean and contaminated environments but much less when compared to the barnacle prey. The body concentrations of zinc in T. clavigera fed mussels collected from both sites fell. In contrast, the amount of zinc ingested from barnacle prey was significantly greater from those collected from the metal-contaminated site as compared to the clean one. This was reflected as significantly greater body zinc concentrations in T. clavigera fed contaminated barnacles compared to those fed clean individuals. Copper and zinc accumulation from prey was, therefore, complex. It varied between metal and between prey type, but appeared to be related to the amount ingested and the metal handling strategy of the prey.

  1. Novel erm(T)-carrying multiresistance plasmids from porcine and human isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 that also harbor cadmium and copper resistance determinants.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sanz, Elena; Kadlec, Kristina; Feßler, Andrea T; Zarazaga, Myriam; Torres, Carmen; Schwarz, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    This study describes three novel erm(T)-carrying multiresistance plasmids that also harbor cadmium and copper resistance determinants. The plasmids, designated pUR1902, pUR2940, and pUR2941, were obtained from porcine and human methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) of the clonal lineage ST398. In addition to the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) resistance gene erm(T), all three plasmids also carry the tetracycline resistance gene tet(L). Furthermore, plasmid pUR2940 harbors the trimethoprim resistance gene dfrK and the MLSB resistance gene erm(C), while plasmids pUR1902 and pUR2941 possess the kanamycin/neomycin resistance gene aadD. Sequence analysis of approximately 18.1 kb of the erm(T)-flanking region from pUR1902, 20.0 kb from pUR2940, and 20.8 kb from pUR2941 revealed the presence of several copies of the recently described insertion sequence ISSau10, which is probably involved in the evolution of the respective plasmids. All plasmids carried a functional cadmium resistance operon with the genes cadD and cadX, in addition to the multicopper oxidase gene mco and the ATPase copper transport gene copA, which are involved in copper resistance. The comparative analysis of S. aureus RN4220 and the three S. aureus RN4220 transformants carrying plasmid pUR1902, pUR2940, or pUR2941 revealed an 8-fold increase in CdSO4 and a 2-fold increase in CuSO4 MICs. The emergence of multidrug resistance plasmids that also carry heavy metal resistance genes is alarming and requires further surveillance. The colocalization of antimicrobial resistance genes and genes that confer resistance to heavy metals may facilitate their persistence, coselection, and dissemination.

  2. The effect of occupational lead exposure on blood levels of zinc, iron, copper, selenium and related proteins.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Prokopowicz, Adam; Dobrakowski, Michał; Pawlas, Natalia; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2012-12-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of occupational lead exposure on blood concentrations of zinc, iron, copper, selenium and proteins related to them, such as transferrin, caeruloplasmin and haptoglobin. The examined group consisted of 192 healthy male employees of zinc-lead works. By the degree of lead exposure, the exposed group was subdivided into three subgroups. The control group was composed of 73 healthy male administrative workers. The markers of lead exposure (blood levels of lead and zinc protoporphyrin) were significantly elevated in the exposed group compared with the control group. Additionally, concentrations of copper and caeruloplasmin were raised. The significant increase in haptoglobin level was observed only in the low exposure group. Selenium levels were significantly decreased, whereas iron, zinc and transferrin levels were unchanged in the exposed group compared with the control group. There were positive correlations between the lead toxicity parameters and the copper and caeruloplasmin levels. In conclusion, the effect of occupational exposure to lead on the metabolism of trace metals appears to be limited. However, significant associations between lead exposure and levels of copper and selenium were shown. Changed levels of positive acute-phase proteins, such as caeruloplasmin and haptoglobin, were also observed.

  3. Three-dimensional electric field predictions of an iron-copper galvanic couple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, Rolf G.

    1987-02-01

    Based on completed experimental electric field scans and the corresponding finite element field predictions, it appears that the finite element numerical technique presents a strong analytical tool in calculating the nearfield electric intensity distributions about active microcells. These calculations were analytically achieved with the new double membrane finite element configuration representing nonlinear polarization and with a local tangent slope (impedance) definition dependent on the local potential difference. The experimental determination of the multidimensional current density structure was realized with a newly developed scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET). The finite element model developed in this paper uses a priori measured uncoupled polarization curves for pure iron and pure copper. The current densities and the electric field intensities were calculated in the X, Y, and Z directions within specific regions of the electrolyte and on its boundaries. Results appear to indicate that first-order anodic mass loss can be predicated using (1) numerically predicted current density distributions on the anodic surface and (2) Faraday's law. The electric field correlation established in this work for the three-dimensional current density components provides the confidence to proceed in the evaluation of time-dependent effects of electric fields and multipolarized surfaces associated with pitting and crevice corrosion.

  4. [Reduction Kinetics of Cr (VI) in Chromium Contaminated Soil by Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron-copper Bimetallic].

    PubMed

    Ma, Shao-yun; Zhu, Fang; Shang, Zhi-feng

    2016-05-15

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron-copper bimetallic (nZVI/Cu) was produced by liquid-phase reduction and characterized by SEM and XRD. The remediation of Cr (VI) contaminated soil was conducted with nZVI/Cu, and the affecting factors and reduction kinetics were investigated. The results indicated that nZVI/Cu was effective in the degradation of Cr(VI) in soil at an initial pH of 7 at 30'C.After 10 min of reaction, Cr(VI) in the soil was completely degraded when the. concentration of nZVI/Cu was 2 g · L⁻' and the concentration of Cr(VI) in contaminated soil was 88 mg · kg⁻¹. nZVI/Cu amount, pH value, reaction temperature, and the concentration of humic acid affected the degradation of Cr(VI). The removal efficiency of Cr(VI)--increased with increasing reaction temperature and decreased with increasing initial pH value. Humic acid had a certain impact on the degradation of Cr(W) in soil. The removal of Cr (VI) followed the pseudo first order reduction kinetics model, and the relationship between the reduction rate and the reaction temperature accorded with Arrhenius law, and the reaction activation energy (Ea) was 104.26 kJ · mol⁻¹.

  5. [Reduction Kinetics of Cr (VI) in Chromium Contaminated Soil by Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron-copper Bimetallic].

    PubMed

    Ma, Shao-yun; Zhu, Fang; Shang, Zhi-feng

    2016-05-15

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron-copper bimetallic (nZVI/Cu) was produced by liquid-phase reduction and characterized by SEM and XRD. The remediation of Cr (VI) contaminated soil was conducted with nZVI/Cu, and the affecting factors and reduction kinetics were investigated. The results indicated that nZVI/Cu was effective in the degradation of Cr(VI) in soil at an initial pH of 7 at 30'C.After 10 min of reaction, Cr(VI) in the soil was completely degraded when the. concentration of nZVI/Cu was 2 g · L⁻' and the concentration of Cr(VI) in contaminated soil was 88 mg · kg⁻¹. nZVI/Cu amount, pH value, reaction temperature, and the concentration of humic acid affected the degradation of Cr(VI). The removal efficiency of Cr(VI)--increased with increasing reaction temperature and decreased with increasing initial pH value. Humic acid had a certain impact on the degradation of Cr(W) in soil. The removal of Cr (VI) followed the pseudo first order reduction kinetics model, and the relationship between the reduction rate and the reaction temperature accorded with Arrhenius law, and the reaction activation energy (Ea) was 104.26 kJ · mol⁻¹. PMID:27506053

  6. Phase diagram, thermal stability, and high temperature oxidation of the ternary copper-nickel-iron system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallino, Isabella

    Due to the aluminum industry demands, a large effort has recently been devoted to the development of special alloys to be used as inert anodes for a newly designed aluminum reduction cell. The implementation of this new technology aims at the replacement of the graphite anodes that have been used for over 100 years in aluminum smelting, which would reduce fossil carbon consumption, and eliminate the emission of carbon dioxide and of perfluorocarbons. Ternary alloys containing copper, nickel, and iron have been the subject of the research activities. The present research focused on the stability of the Cu-Ni-Fe alloys at high temperatures in oxidizing and fluoridating environments. The experimental methods included thermodynamic calculations of the phase diagram (Thermocalc), optical microscopy and microprobe microstructural and chemical investigations (EMPA), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and air-oxidation studies. The results have led to the optimization of the Cu-Ni-Fe ternary phase diagram and to an extensive study of the thermodynamics and kinetics of the spinodal decomposition and discontinuous reactions occurring during ageing as a function of alloy composition. The oxidizing reactions occurring in air at high temperatures at the surface of the alloys have been also discussed in terms of thermodynamic and kinetic laws. The phase formation in a fluorine containing environment as encountered in an aluminum electrolytic cell is predicted using principles of physical chemistry.

  7. [Prevalence of deficiency and dietary intake of iron, zinc and copper in Chilean childbearing age women].

    PubMed

    Mujica-Coopman, María F; Borja, Angélica; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate anemia, the biochemical status and dietary adequacy of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), in Chilean childbearing age women. We studied a convenience sample of 86 women aged 18 to 48 years from Santiago, Chile. We determined anemia and the micronutrient status through hemoglobin (Hb) mean corpuscular volume, transferrin saturation, zinc protoporphyrin, serum ferritin (SF), serum Zn and Cu. Dietary adequacy was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Of all women, 4.7% had Fe deficiency (ID) anemia, 21 % ID without anemia, 26 % depleted Fe stores and 48.3% normal Fe status. Obese women had higher SF (p<0.01) compared with those classified as having normal BMI. Also, showed higher Hb (p<0.05) concentrations compared with overweight and normal weight women. Partidipants showed 3.5 % and 2.3 % of Zn and Cu deficiency, respectively. Also, 95 %, 94 % and 99 % had adequate intake of Fe, Zn and Cu respectively, according to EAR cut points. There were no significant differences in micronutrients intake across different nutritional status. There was a low prevalence of anemia, Fe, Zn and Cu deficiency. A high percentage of women reached micronutrient adequacy. However, 47% of women had ID without anemia and Fe depleted stores.

  8. Influence of Copper Addition and Temperature on the Kinetics of Austempering in Ductile Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amran, Yogev; Katsman, Alexander; Schaaf, Peter; Bamberger, Menachem

    2010-10-01

    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) is a material that exhibits excellent mechanical properties because of its special microstructure, combining ferrite and austenite supersaturated with carbon. Two ADI alloys, Fe-3.5 pct C-2.5 pct Si and Fe-3.6 pct C-2.7 pct Si-0.7 pct Cu, austempered for various times at 623 K (350 °C) and 673 K (400 °C) followed by water quenching, were investigated. The first ferrite needles nucleate mainly at the graphite/austenite interface. The austenite and ferrite weight fractions increase with the austempering time until stabilization is reached. The increase in the lattice parameter of the austenite during austempering corresponds to an increase of carbon content in the austenite. The increase in the ferrite weight fraction is associated with a decrease in microhardness. As the austempering temperature increases, the ferrite weight fraction decreases, the high carbon austenite weight fraction increases, but the carbon content in the latter decreases. Copper addition increases the high carbon austenite weight fraction. The results are discussed based on the phases composing the Fe-2Si-C system.

  9. Iron, copper, and zinc concentrations in normal skin and in various nonmalignant and malignant lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Gorodetsky, R.; Sheskin, J.; Weinreb, A.

    1986-09-01

    The concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) in the skin have been noninvasively determined in vivo by diagnostic x-ray spectrometry. The skin of healthy controls was divided into two major groups based upon the distribution of the concentrations of these elements. In the face and upper neck, the following wet weight concentrations were recorded: Fe, 14.2 +/- 3.3 ppm; Cu, 1.3 +/- 0.3 ppm; and Zn, 6.7 +/- 1.1 ppm. In the chest, abdomen, arm, axilla, and lower neck, the concentrations of these elements were as follows: Fe, 10.2 +/- 2.5 ppm; Cu, 0.8 +/- 0.3 ppm; and Zn, 4.5 +/- 1.7 ppm. In most lesions of solar dermatitis, solar keratosis, basal and squamous cell carcinomas, variable elevations of Zn and Fe (up to significant levels) were recorded in most of the contralateral, apparently uninvolved skin. In the majority of pigmented nevi and malignant melanomas, the levels of Fe and Zn were elevated. In some of these, the Cu concentration also was increased.

  10. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures

    PubMed Central

    Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E; Puglis, Holly J; Scott, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model–normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2259–2272. © 2014. The Authors. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published byWiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This is an open access article

  11. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calfee, Robin D.; Little, Edward E.; Puglis, Holly J.; Scott, Erinn L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model–normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution.

  12. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures.

    PubMed

    Calfee, Robin D; Little, Edward E; Puglis, Holly J; Scott, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G; Mebane, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model-normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution.

  13. Timing of multiple hydrothermal events in the iron oxide-copper-gold deposits of the Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreto, Carolina P. N.; Monteiro, Lena V. S.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Creaser, Robert A.; DuFrane, S. Andrew; Melo, Gustavo H. C.; Delinardo da Silva, Marco A.; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Sato, Kei

    2015-06-01

    The Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil, hosts several iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits, including Sossego, Cristalino, Alvo 118, Bacuri, Bacaba, Castanha, and Visconde. Mapping and U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) IIe zircon geochronology allowed the characterization of the host rocks, situated within regional WNW-ESE shear zones. They encompass Mesoarchean (3.08-2.85 Ga) TTG orthogneiss, granites, and remains of greenstone belts, Neoarchean (ca. 2.74 Ga) granite, shallow-emplaced porphyries, and granophyric granite coeval with gabbro, and Paleoproterozoic (1.88 Ga) porphyry dykes. Extensive hydrothermal zones include albite-scapolite, biotite-scapolite-tourmaline-magnetite alteration, and proximal potassium feldspar, chlorite-epidote and chalcopyrite formation. U-Pb laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) analysis of ore-related monazite and Re-Os NTIMS analysis of molybdenite suggest multiple Neoarchean (2.76 and 2.72-2.68 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.06 Ga) hydrothermal events at the Bacaba and Bacuri deposits. These results, combined with available geochronological data from the literature, indicate recurrence of hydrothermal systems in the Southern Copper Belt, including 1.90-1.88-Ga ore formation in the Sossego-Curral ore bodies and the Alvo 118 deposit. Although early hydrothermal evolution at 2.76 Ga points to fluid migration coeval with the Carajás Basin formation, the main episode of IOCG genesis (2.72-2.68 Ga) is related to basin inversion coupled with Neoarchean (ca. 2.7 Ga) felsic magmatism. The data suggest that the IOCG deposits in the Southern Copper Belt and those in the Northern Copper Belt (2.57-Ga Salobo and Igarapé Bahia-Alemão deposits) do not share a common metallogenic evolution. Therefore, the association of all IOCG deposits of the Carajás Province with a single extensive hydrothermal system is precluded.

  14. Biaxially textured copper and copper iron alloy substrates for use in YBa2Cu3O7-x coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varanasi, Chakrapani V.; Barnes, Paul N.; Yust, Nicholas A.

    2006-01-01

    Copper and Cu-Fe (Fe ~2.35 wt%) alloy substrates were thermo-mechanically processed and the biaxial texture development, magnetic properties, yield strength, and electrical resistivity were studied and compared to determine their suitability as substrates for high-temperature superconducting coated conductor applications. Average full width half maximum (FWHM) of 5.5° in Phi scans (in-plane alignment), and 6.6° in omega scans (out-of-plane alignment) was obtained in copper samples. Cu-Fe samples showed 5.9° FWHM in Phi scans and 5.9° in omega scans. Even with the presence of 2.35% Fe in the Cu-alloy, the saturation magnetization (Msat) value was found to be 4.27 emu g-1 at 5 K, which is less than in Ni samples by an order of magnitude and comparable to that of Ni-9 at.% W substrates. The yield strength of the annealed Cu-Fe alloy substrate was found to be at least two times higher than that of similarly annealed copper substrates. The electrical resistivity of Cu-Fe alloy was found to be an order of magnitude higher than that of pure copper at 77 K.

  15. Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc determination in precipitation: A comparison of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomization atomic absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.; Benefiel, M.A.; Claassen, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Selected trace element analysis for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in precipitation samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission Spectrometry (ICP) and by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization (AAGF) have been evaluated. This task was conducted in conjunction with a longterm study of precipitation chemistry at high altitude sites located in remote areas of the southwestern United States. Coefficients of variation and recovery values were determined for a standard reference water sample for all metals examined for both techniques. At concentration levels less than 10 micrograms per liter AAGF analyses exhibited better precision and accuracy than ICP. Both methods appear to offer the potential for cost-effective analysis of trace metal ions in precipitation. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Expression of a Vacuole-Localized BURP-Domain Protein from Soybean (SALI3-2) Enhances Tolerance to Cadmium and Copper Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yulin; Cao, Yan; Qiu, Jianbin; Gao, Zhan; Ou, Zhonghua; Wang, Yajing; Zheng, Yizhi

    2014-01-01

    The plant-specific BURP family proteins play diverse roles in plant development and stress responses, but the function mechanism of these proteins is still poorly understood. Proteins in this family are characterized by a highly conserved BURP domain with four conserved Cys-His repeats and two other Cys, indicating that these proteins potentially interacts with metal ions. In this paper, an immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) assay showed that the soybean BURP protein SALI3-2 could bind soft transition metal ions (Cd2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+) but not hard metal ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+) in vitro. A subcellular localization analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the SALI3-2-GFP fusion protein was localized to the vacuoles. Physiological indexes assay showed that Sali3-2-transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were more tolerant to Cu2+ or Cd2+ stresses than the wild type. An inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) analysis illustrated that, compared to the wild type seedlings the Sali3-2-transgenic seedlings accumulated more cadmium or copper in the roots but less in the upper ground tissues when the seedlings were exposed to excessive CuCl2 or CdCl2 stress. Therefore, our findings suggest that the SALI3-2 protein may confer cadmium (Cd2+) and copper (Cu2+) tolerance to plants by helping plants to sequester Cd2+ or Cu2+ in the root and reduce the amount of heavy metals transported to the shoots. PMID:24901737

  17. Fractionation of fulvic acid by iron and aluminum oxides: influence on copper toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kathleen S.; James F. Ranville,; Emily K. Lesher,; Daniel J. Diedrich,; Diane M. McKnight,; Ruth M. Sofield,

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect on aquatic copper toxicity of the chemical fractionation of fulvic acid (FA) that results from its association with iron and aluminum oxyhydroxide precipitates. Fractionated and unfractionated FAs obtained from streamwater and suspended sediment were utilized in acute Cu toxicity tests on ,i>Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity test results with equal FA concentrations (6 mg FA/L) show that the fractionated dissolved FA was 3 times less effective at reducing Cu toxicity (EC50 13 ± 0.6 μg Cu/L) than were the unfractionated dissolved FAs (EC50 39 ± 0.4 and 41 ± 1.2 μg Cu/L). The fractionation is a consequence of preferential sorption of molecules having strong metal-binding (more aromatic) moieties to precipitating Fe- and Al-rich oxyhydroxides, causing the remaining dissolved FA to be depleted in these functional groups. As a result, there is more bioavailable dissolved Cu in the water and hence greater potential for Cu toxicity to aquatic organisms. In predicting Cu toxicity, biotic ligand models (BLMs) take into account dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration; however, unless DOC characteristics are accounted for, model predictions can underestimate acute Cu toxicity for water containing fractionated dissolved FA. This may have implications for water-quality criteria in systems containing Fe- and Al-rich sediment, and in mined and mineralized areas in particular. Optical measurements, such as specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254), show promise for use as spectral indicators of DOC chemical fractionation and inferred increased Cu toxicity.

  18. Perinatal Iron and Copper Deficiencies Alter Neonatal Rat Circulating and Brain Thyroid Hormone Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, Thomas W.; Prohaska, Joseph R.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Anderson, Grant W.

    2010-01-01

    Copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and iodine/thyroid hormone (TH) deficiencies lead to similar defects in late brain development, suggesting that these micronutrient deficiencies share a common mechanism contributing to the observed derangements. Previous studies in rodents (postweanling and adult) and humans (adolescent and adult) indicate that Cu and Fe deficiencies affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, leading to altered TH status. Importantly, however, relationships between Fe and Cu deficiencies and thyroidal status have not been assessed in the most vulnerable population, the developing fetus/neonate. We hypothesized that Cu and Fe deficiencies reduce circulating and brain TH levels during development, contributing to the defects in brain development associated with these deficiencies. To test this hypothesis, pregnant rat dams were rendered Cu deficient (CuD), FeD, or TH deficient from early gestation through weaning. Serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), and brain T3 levels, were subsequently measured in postnatal d 12 (P12) pups. Cu deficiency reduced serum total T3 by 48%, serum total T4 by 21%, and whole-brain T3 by 10% at P12. Fe deficiency reduced serum total T3 by 43%, serum total T4 by 67%, and whole-brain T3 by 25% at P12. Brain mRNA analysis revealed that expression of several TH-responsive genes were altered in CuD or FeD neonates, suggesting that reduced TH concentrations were sensed by the FeD and CuD neonatal brain. These results indicate that at least some of the brain defects associated with neonatal Fe and Cu deficiencies are mediated through reductions in circulating and brain TH levels. PMID:20573724

  19. Absorption spectroscopy of mid and neighboring Z plasmas: Iron, nickel,copper and germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loisel, G.; Arnault, P.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Blenski, T.; Caillaud, T.; Fariaut, J.; Fölsner, W.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J.-C.; Poirier, M.; Reverdin, C.; Silvert, V.; Thais, F.; Turck-Chièze, S.; Villette, B.

    2009-09-01

    Opacities of four medium Z element plasmas (iron, nickel, copper and germanium) have been measured at the LULI-2000 facility in similar conditions: temperatures between 15 and 25 eV and densities between 2 and 10 mg/cm 3, in a wavelength range (8-18 Å) including the strong 2p-3d structures. Two laser beams from the LULI facility were used in the nanosecond-picosecond configuration. The NANO-2000 beam (at λ = 0.53 μm) heated a gold hohlraum with an energy between 30 and 150 J with a duration of 0.6 ns. Samples covering half a hohlraum hole were thus radiatively heated. The picosecond pulse PICO-2000 beam (at λ = 1.053 μm) has been used to produce a short (about 10 ps) X-ray backlighter in order to reduce time variations of temperatures and densities during the measurement. A crystal high-resolution spectrometer was used as the main diagnostic to record at the same time the non-absorbed and the absorbed backlighter spectra. Radiation temperatures were measured using a broadband spectrometer. 1D and 2D simulations have been performed in order to estimate hydrodynamic plasmas parameters. The measured spectra have been compared with theoretical ones obtained using either the superconfiguration code SCO or the detailed term accounting code HULLAC. These comparisons allow us to check the modeling of the statistical broadening and of the spin-orbit splitting of the 2p-3d transitions and related effects such as the interaction between relativistic subconfigurations belonging to the same non-relativistic configuration.

  20. Influence of cadmium on the distribution of Cu, Zn, and Fe in different regions of central and peripheral nervous system of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, D.K.; Murthy, R.C.; Jain, V.K.; Chandra, S.V.

    1986-03-01

    Growing and adult rats were exposed to cadmium (100 ppm through drinking water) daily for 120 days to investigate the distribution of cadmium, zinc, copper and iron in various parts of central and peripheral nervous regions. The study indicates marked cadmium accumulation in growing rats as compared to the adults. Besides, decrease in Cu and Zn and increase in Fe contents of various nervous regions was observed which was more marked in cerebral cortex and cerebellar regions of the rats exposed since 21 days of age than in adulthood.

  1. Atomistic study on mixed-mode fracture mechanisms of ferrite iron interacting with coherent copper and nickel nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Motasem, Ahmed Tamer; Mai, Nghia Trong; Choi, Seung Tae; Posselt, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    The effect of copper and/or nickel nanoclusters, generally formed by neutron irradiation, on fracture mechanisms of ferrite iron was investigated by using molecular statics simulation. The equilibrium configuration of nanoclusters was obtained by using a combination of an on-lattice annealing based on Metropolis Monte Carlo method and an off-lattice relaxation by molecular dynamics simulation. Residual stress distributions near the nanoclusters were also calculated, since compressive or tensile residual stresses may retard or accelerate, respectively, the propagation of a crack running into a nanocluster. One of the nanoclusters was located in front of a straight crack in ferrite iron with a body-centered cubic crystal structure. Two crystallographic directions, of which the crack plane and crack front direction are (010)[001] and (111) [ 1 bar 10 ] , were considered, representing cleavage and non-cleavage orientations in ferrite iron, respectively. Displacements corresponding to pure opening-mode and mixed-mode loadings were imposed on the boundary region and the energy minimization was performed. It was observed that the fracture mechanisms of ferrite iron under the pure opening-mode loading are strongly influenced by the presence of nanoclusters, while under the mixed-mode loading the nanoclusters have no significant effect on the crack propagation behavior of ferrite iron.

  2. Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenicity in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Bishak, Yaser Khaje; Payahoo, Laleh; Osatdrahimi, Alireza; Nourazarian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Cancer, a serious public health problem in worldwide, results from an excessive and uncontrolled proliferation of the body cells without obvious physiological demands of organs. The gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach and intestine, is a unique organ system. It has the highest cancer incidence and cancer- related mortality in the body and is influenceed by both genetic and environmental factors. Among the various chemical elements recognized in the nature, some of them including zinc, iron, cobalt, and copper have essential roles in the various biochemical and physiological processes, but only at low levels and others such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and nickel are considered as threats for human health especially with chronic exposure at high levels. Cadmium, an environment contaminant, cannot be destroyed in nature. Through impairment of vitamin D metabolism in the kidney it causes nephrotoxicity and subsequently bone metabolism impairment and fragility. The major mechanisms involved in cadmium carcinogenesis could be related to the suppression of gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, inhibition of apoptosis, and induction of oxidative stress. In addition, cadmium may act through aberrant DNA methylation. Cadmium affects multiple cellular processes, including signal transduction pathways, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Down-regulation of methyltransferases enzymes and reduction of DNA methylation have been stated as epigenetic effects of cadmium. Furthermore, increasing intracellular free calcium ion levels induces neuronal apoptosis in addition to other deleterious influence on the stability of the genome. PMID:25640397

  3. Mechanisms of cadmium carcinogenicity in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Bishak, Yaser Khaje; Payahoo, Laleh; Osatdrahimi, Alireza; Nourazarian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Cancer, a serious public health problem in worldwide, results from an excessive and uncontrolled proliferation of the body cells without obvious physiological demands of organs. The gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach and intestine, is a unique organ system. It has the highest cancer incidence and cancer- related mortality in the body and is influenceed by both genetic and environmental factors. Among the various chemical elements recognized in the nature, some of them including zinc, iron, cobalt, and copper have essential roles in the various biochemical and physiological processes, but only at low levels and others such as cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and nickel are considered as threats for human health especially with chronic exposure at high levels. Cadmium, an environment contaminant, cannot be destroyed in nature. Through impairment of vitamin D metabolism in the kidney it causes nephrotoxicity and subsequently bone metabolism impairment and fragility. The major mechanisms involved in cadmium carcinogenesis could be related to the suppression of gene expression, inhibition of DNA damage repair, inhibition of apoptosis, and induction of oxidative stress. In addition, cadmium may act through aberrant DNA methylation. Cadmium affects multiple cellular processes, including signal transduction pathways, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Down-regulation of methyltransferases enzymes and reduction of DNA methylation have been stated as epigenetic effects of cadmium. Furthermore, increasing intracellular free calcium ion levels induces neuronal apoptosis in addition to other deleterious influence on the stability of the genome.

  4. Determination of copper, iron and zinc in spirituous beverages by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capote, T.; Marcó, L. M.; Alvarado, J.; Greaves, E. D.

    1999-10-01

    The concentration of copper in traditional homemade alcoholic distillates produced in Venezuela (Cocuy de Penca) were determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) using vanadium as internal standard. The results were compared to those obtained by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Three preparative methods of addition of vanadium were compared: classical internal standard addition, 'layer on layer' internal standard addition and in situ addition of internal standard. The TXRF procedures were accurate and the precision was comparable to that obtained by the FAAS technique. Copper levels were above the maximum allowed limits for similar beverages. Zinc and iron in commercial and homemade distilled beverages were also analyzed by TXRF with in situ addition of internal standard demonstrating the usefulness of this technique for trace metal determination in distillates.

  5. Observed transitions in n = 2 ground configurations of copper, nickel, iron, chromium and germanium in tokamak discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Hinnov, E.; Suckewer, S.; Cohen, S.; Sato, K.

    1981-11-01

    A number of spectrum lines of highly ionized copper, nickel, iron, chromium, and germanium have been observed and the corresponding transitions identified. The element under study is introduced into the discharge of the PLT Tokamak by means of rapid ablation by a laser pulse. The ionization state is generally distinguishable from the time behavior of the emitted light. New identifications of transitions are based on predicted wavelengths (from isoelectronic extrapolation and other data) and on approximate expected intensities. All the transitions pertain to the ground configurations of the respective ions, which are the only states strongly populated at tokamak plasma conditions. These lines are expected to be useful for spectroscopic plasma diagnostics in the 1-3 keV temperature range, and they provide direct measurement of intersystem energy separations from chromium through copper in the oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon isoelectronic sequences.

  6. Copper

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Copper ; CASRN 7440 - 50 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  7. Intestinal DMT1 is critical for iron absorption in the mouse but is not required for the absorption of copper or manganese.

    PubMed

    Shawki, Ali; Anthony, Sarah R; Nose, Yasuhiro; Engevik, Melinda A; Niespodzany, Eric J; Barrientos, Tomasa; Öhrvik, Helena; Worrell, Roger T; Thiele, Dennis J; Mackenzie, Bryan

    2015-10-15

    Divalent metal-ion transporter-1 (DMT1) is a widely expressed iron-preferring membrane-transport protein that serves a critical role in erythroid iron utilization. We have investigated its role in intestinal metal absorption by studying a mouse model lacking intestinal DMT1 (i.e., DMT1(int/int)). DMT1(int/int) mice exhibited a profound hypochromic-microcytic anemia, splenomegaly, and cardiomegaly. That the anemia was due to iron deficiency was demonstrated by the following observations in DMT1(int/int) mice: 1) blood iron and tissue nonheme-iron stores were depleted; 2) mRNA expression of liver hepcidin (Hamp1) was depressed; and 3) intraperitoneal iron injection corrected the anemia, and reversed the changes in blood iron, nonheme-iron stores, and hepcidin expression levels. We observed decreased total iron content in multiple tissues from DMT1(int/int) mice compared with DMT1(+/+) mice but no meaningful change in copper, manganese, or zinc. DMT1(int/int) mice absorbed (64)Cu and (54)Mn from an intragastric dose to the same extent as did DMT1(+/+) mice but the absorption of (59)Fe was virtually abolished in DMT1(int/int) mice. This study reveals a critical function for DMT1 in intestinal nonheme-iron absorption for normal growth and development. Further, this work demonstrates that intestinal DMT1 is not required for the intestinal transport of copper, manganese, or zinc.

  8. Intestinal DMT1 is critical for iron absorption in the mouse but is not required for the absorption of copper or manganese

    PubMed Central

    Shawki, Ali; Anthony, Sarah R.; Nose, Yasuhiro; Engevik, Melinda A.; Niespodzany, Eric J.; Barrientos, Tomasa; Öhrvik, Helena; Worrell, Roger T.; Thiele, Dennis J.

    2015-01-01

    Divalent metal-ion transporter-1 (DMT1) is a widely expressed iron-preferring membrane-transport protein that serves a critical role in erythroid iron utilization. We have investigated its role in intestinal metal absorption by studying a mouse model lacking intestinal DMT1 (i.e., DMT1int/int). DMT1int/int mice exhibited a profound hypochromic-microcytic anemia, splenomegaly, and cardiomegaly. That the anemia was due to iron deficiency was demonstrated by the following observations in DMT1int/int mice: 1) blood iron and tissue nonheme-iron stores were depleted; 2) mRNA expression of liver hepcidin (Hamp1) was depressed; and 3) intraperitoneal iron injection corrected the anemia, and reversed the changes in blood iron, nonheme-iron stores, and hepcidin expression levels. We observed decreased total iron content in multiple tissues from DMT1int/int mice compared with DMT1+/+ mice but no meaningful change in copper, manganese, or zinc. DMT1int/int mice absorbed 64Cu and 54Mn from an intragastric dose to the same extent as did DMT1+/+ mice but the absorption of 59Fe was virtually abolished in DMT1int/int mice. This study reveals a critical function for DMT1 in intestinal nonheme-iron absorption for normal growth and development. Further, this work demonstrates that intestinal DMT1 is not required for the intestinal transport of copper, manganese, or zinc. PMID:26294671

  9. In vitro toxicological assessment of iron oxide, aluminium oxide and copper nanoparticles in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Rakhshinda; Khan, Qaiser Mahmood; Mobeen, Ameena; Hashmat, Amer Jamal

    2015-04-01

    Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have a variety of applications in different industries including pharmaceutical industry where these NPs are used mainly for image analysis and drug delivery. The increasing interest in nanotechnology is largely associated with undefined risks to the human health and to the environment. Therefore, in the present study cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of iron oxide, aluminium oxide and copper nanoparticles were evaluated using most commonly used assays i.e. Ames assay, in vitro cytotoxicity assay, micronucleus assay and comet assay. Cytotoxicity to bacterial cells was assessed in terms of colony forming units by using Escherichia coli (gram negative) and Bacillus subtilis (gram positive). Ames assay was carried out using two bacterial strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. Genotoxicity of these NPs was evaluated following exposure to monkey kidney cell line, CHS-20. No cytotoxic and genotoxic effects were observed for iron oxide, and aluminium oxide NPs. Copper NPs were found mutagenic in TA98 and in TA100 and also found cytotoxic in dose dependent manner. Copper NPs induced significant (p < 0.01) increase in number of binucleated cells with micronuclei (96.6 ± 5.40) at the highest concentration (25 µg/mL). Copper NPs also induced DNA strand breaks at 10 µg/mL and oxidative DNA damage at 5 and 10 µg/mL. We consider these findings very useful in evaluating the genotoxic potential of NPs especially because of their increasing applications in human health and environment with limited knowledge of their toxicity and genotoxicity.

  10. Laboratory bioassays on the impact of cadmium, copper and lead on the development and survival of honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) larvae and foragers.

    PubMed

    Di, Ning; Hladun, Kristen R; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Tong-Xian; Trumble, John T

    2016-06-01

    Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) have been widely distributed around the world to serve as pollinators for agriculture. They can encounter metal pollutants through various routes of exposure, including foraging on contaminated plant resources. Chronic and acute toxicity tests were conducted on larvae using artificial diets and on foragers using solutions of 50% sucrose, which contained cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb). We found that mortality increased in both larvae and foragers in a dose-dependent manner. Control larvae had higher relative growth indices (RGI) from day 6 to day 10 compared to all metal treatments, demonstrating substantial negative effects of metals on development. Copper was the least toxic to larvae with an LC50 of 6.97 mg L(-1). For foragers, Pb had the highest LC50, which was 345 mg L(-1). Foragers and larvae accumulated substantial quantities of all metals, and subsequent sucrose consumption decreased after dosing. Overall, honeybee larvae and foragers suffered detrimental effects when they were exposed to ecologically-relevant concentrations of Cd, Cu and Pb. PMID:27011322

  11. The release of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium from the mineral tissue of teeth under the influence of soft drinks and sour-tasting food.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Ružica; Kaličanin, Biljana; Krstić, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out with the aim of identifying the effects of consuming sour-tasting food and refreshing drinks on the bone tissue of teeth among teenagers. The cumulative effect of a year-long exposure of teeth to the erosive effects of a model system of acidic media (citric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, apple vinegar, lemonade, the soft drink Sprite, mineral water) was studied. The effects were registered based on the amount of released biometal ions, of zinc and copper, and toxic lead, during a period of 24 hr at room temperature, using the potentiometric stripping analysis. In the given time span, amounts ranging from 75 to 750 ppm of zinc, from 0.1 to 1.0 ppm of copper, and up to 1.5 ppm of lead were released from the dental matrix, while the release of cadmium was below the level of detection. The changes to the mineral structure of the bone tissue were monitored by the Fourier's transformation infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy technique. These studies have shown that under the influence of an acidic medium significant erosion to the tooth enamel ensues and that the eroded surfaces had a radius of 1-5 μm. PMID:22141735

  12. The release of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium from the mineral tissue of teeth under the influence of soft drinks and sour-tasting food.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Ružica; Kaličanin, Biljana; Krstić, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out with the aim of identifying the effects of consuming sour-tasting food and refreshing drinks on the bone tissue of teeth among teenagers. The cumulative effect of a year-long exposure of teeth to the erosive effects of a model system of acidic media (citric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, apple vinegar, lemonade, the soft drink Sprite, mineral water) was studied. The effects were registered based on the amount of released biometal ions, of zinc and copper, and toxic lead, during a period of 24 hr at room temperature, using the potentiometric stripping analysis. In the given time span, amounts ranging from 75 to 750 ppm of zinc, from 0.1 to 1.0 ppm of copper, and up to 1.5 ppm of lead were released from the dental matrix, while the release of cadmium was below the level of detection. The changes to the mineral structure of the bone tissue were monitored by the Fourier's transformation infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy technique. These studies have shown that under the influence of an acidic medium significant erosion to the tooth enamel ensues and that the eroded surfaces had a radius of 1-5 μm.

  13. Effects of sulfur, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and boron applications on sunflower yield and plant nutrient concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, B.R.; Zubriski, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Sulfur, zinc, iron, copper, manganese, and boron application did not affect the seed yield or oil percentage of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on both dryland and irrigated soils in North Dakota in 1981. Field averages indicated significant Zn, Mn, and B uptake by sunflower at the 12-leaf stage as a result of fertilization with these elements. Increased Zn uptake was also observed in the uppermost mature leaf at anthesis from zinc fertilization. Although sunflower yield from boron fertilization was not significantly different from the check, a trend was observed in which boron fertilization seemed to decrease sunflower yield. Sunflower yields from the boron treatment were the lowest out of seven treatments in three out of four fields. Also, sunflower yield from the boron treatment was significantly lower than both iron and sulfur treatments when all fields were combined.

  14. Auger electron spectroscopy study of surface segregation in the binary alloys copper-1 atomic percent indium, copper-2 atomic percent tin, and iron-6.55 atomic percent silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.

    1973-01-01

    Auger electron spectroscopy was used to examine surface segregation in the binary alloys copper-1 at. % indium, copper-2 at. % tin and iron-6.55 at. % silicon. The copper-tin and copper-indium alloys were single crystals oriented with the /111/ direction normal to the surface. An iron-6.5 at. % silicon alloy was studied (a single crystal oriented in the /100/ direction for study of a (100) surface). It was found that surface segregation occurred following sputtering in all cases. Only the iron-silicon single crystal alloy exhibited equilibrium segregation (i.e., reversibility of surface concentration with temperature) for which at present we have no explanation. McLean's analysis for equilibrium segregation at grain boundaries did not apply to the present results, despite the successful application to dilute copper-aluminum alloys. The relation of solute atomic size and solubility to surface segregation is discussed. Estimates of the depth of segregation in the copper-tin alloy indicate that it is of the order of a monolayer surface film.

  15. The CTR/COPT-dependent copper uptake and SPL7-dependent copper deficiency responses are required for basal cadmium tolerance in A. thaliana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants is maintained by at least two mechanisms: 1) the miRNA-dependent reallocation of intracellular Cu among major Cu-enzymes and important energy-related functions; 2) the regulation of the expression of Cu transporters including members of the CTR/COPT family. These ev...

  16. Dissolution of copper, tin, and iron from sintered tungsten-bronze spheres in a simulated avian gizzard, and an assessment of their potential toxicity to birds.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Vernon G; McGill, Ian R

    2008-05-15

    The rates of dissolution of copper, tin, and iron from sintered tungsten-bronze spheres (51.1%W, 44.4%Cu, 3.9%Sn, 0.6%Fe, by mass) were measured in an in vitro simulated avian gizzard at pH 2.0, and 42C. Most of the spheres had disintegrated completely to a fine powder by day 14. Dissolution of copper, tin, and iron from the spheres was linear over time; all r>0.974; all P<0.001. The mean rate of release of copper, tin, and iron was 30.4 mg, 2.74 mg, and 0.38 mg per g tungsten-bronze per day, respectively. These rates of metal release were compared to those in published studies to determine whether the simultaneous ingestion of eight spheres of 3.48 mm diameter would pose a toxic risk to birds. The potential absorption rates of iron and tin (0.54 mg Fe/day, and 3.89 mg Sn/day) from eight tungsten-bronze spheres of total mass 1.42 g would not prove toxic, based on empirical studies of tin and iron ingestion in waterfowl. The release of 43.17 mg copper/day from eight tungsten-bronze spheres, while exceeding the daily copper requirements of domesticated birds, is far below the levels of copper known to cause copper toxicosis in birds. We conclude that sintered tungsten-bronze material made into gunshot, fishing weights, or wheel balance weights, would not pose a toxic risk to wild birds when ingested.

  17. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    ... cereals and breads. White beans, lentils, spinach, kidney beans, and peas. Nuts and some dried fruits, such as raisins. Iron in food comes in two forms: heme iron and nonheme iron. Nonheme iron is found in plant foods and iron-fortified food products. Meat, seafood, ...

  18. Comparison of the mineralogy of the Boss-Bixby, Missouri copper-iron deposit, and the Olympic Dam copper-uranium-gold deposit, South Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Brandom, R.T.; Hagni, R.D.; Allen, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    An ore microscopic examination of 80 polished sections prepared from selected drill core specimens from the Boss-Bixby, Missouri copper-iron deposit has shown that its mineral assemblage is similar to that of the Olympic Dam (Roxby Downs) copper-uranium-gold deposit in South Australia. A comparison with the mineralogy reported for Olympic Dam shows that both deposits contain: 1) the principal minerals, magnetite, hematite, chalcopyrite, and bornite, 2) the cobalt-bearing phases, carrollite and cobaltian pyrite, 3) the titanium oxides, rutile and anatase, 4) smaller amounts of martite, covellite, and electrum, 5) fluorite and carbonates, and 6) some alteration minerals. The deposits also are similar with regard to the sequence of mineral deposition: 1) early oxides, 2) then sulfide minerals, and 3) a final oxide generation. The deposits, however, are dissimilar with regard to their host rock lithologies and structural settings. The Boss-Bixby ores occupy breccia zones within a hydrothermally altered basic intrusive and intruded silicic volcanics, whereas the Olympic Dam ores are contained in sedimentary breccias in a graben or trough. Also, some minerals have been found thus far to occur at only one of the deposits. The similarity of mineralogy in these deposits suggests that they were formed from ore fluids that had some similarities in character and that the St. Francois terrane of Missouri is an important region for further exploration for deposits with this mineral assemblage.

  19. Prevention of iron- and copper-mediated DNA damage by catecholamine and amino acid neurotransmitters, L-DOPA, and curcumin: metal binding as a general antioxidant mechanism.

    PubMed

    García, Carla R; Angelé-Martínez, Carlos; Wilkes, Jenna A; Wang, Hsiao C; Battin, Erin E; Brumaghim, Julia L

    2012-06-01

    Concentrations of labile iron and copper are elevated in patients with neurological disorders, causing interest in metal-neurotransmitter interactions. Catecholamine (dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) and amino acid (glycine, glutamate, and 4-aminobutyrate) neurotransmitters are antioxidants also known to bind metal ions. To investigate the role of metal binding as an antioxidant mechanism for these neurotransmitters, L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), and curcumin, their abilities to prevent iron- and copper-mediated DNA damage were quantified, cyclic voltammetry was used to determine the relationship between their redox potentials and DNA damage prevention, and UV-vis studies were conducted to determine iron and copper binding as well as iron oxidation rates. In contrast to amino acid neurotransmitters, catecholamine neurotransmitters, L-DOPA, and curcumin prevent significant iron-mediated DNA damage (IC(50) values of 3.2 to 18 μM) and are electrochemically active. However, glycine and glutamate are more effective at preventing copper-mediated DNA damage (IC(50) values of 35 and 12.9 μM, respectively) than L-DOPA, the only catecholamine to prevent this damage (IC(50) = 73 μM). This metal-mediated DNA damage prevention is directly related to the metal-binding behaviour of these compounds. When bound to iron or copper, the catecholamines, amino acids, and curcumin significantly shift iron oxidation potentials and stabilize Fe(3+) over Fe(2+) and Cu(2+) over Cu(+), a factor that may prevent metal redox cycling in vivo. These results highlight the disparate antioxidant activities of neurotransmitters, drugs, and supplements and highlight the importance of considering metal binding when identifying antioxidants to treat and prevent neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22450660

  20. Enhanced bioremediation of heavy metal from effluent by sulfate-reducing bacteria with copper-iron bimetallic particles support.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Chen, Yongzhe; Yang, Ming; Li, Wenkai; Deng, Le

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of copper-iron bimetallic particles supported sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in enhancing the reduction of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) in effluent. The results showed that the copper-iron bimetallic particles can enhance Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) removal and the resistance of the sulfate-reducing bacteria towards metals toxicity, the inhibiting concentration of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) for SRB was significantly increased (from 100 to 200 mg/L for Cu(2+) and 300 to 400 mg/L for Zn(2+)). The removal efficiencies of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) (initial concentration 100 mg/L) were 98.17% and 99.67% in SRB-Cu/Fe system after 48 h, while only 29.83% Cu(2+), 90.88% Zn(2+) and 63.81% Cu(2+), 72.63% Zn(2+) were removed in the SRB and Cu/Fe system at the same condition.

  1. Iron-copper cooperative catalysis in the reactions of alkyl Grignard reagents: exchange reaction with alkenes and carbometalation of alkynes.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Eiji; Ikeda, Daiji; Masui, Seiji; Yoshida, Masatoshi; Hayashi, Tamio

    2012-01-11

    Iron-copper cooperative catalysis is shown to be effective for an alkene-Grignard exchange reaction and alkylmagnesiation of alkynes. The Grignard exchange between terminal alkenes (RCH═CH(2)) and cyclopentylmagnesium bromide was catalyzed by FeCl(3) (2.5 mol %) and CuBr (5 mol %) in combination with PBu(3) (10 mol %) to give RCH(2)CH(2)MgBr in high yields. 1-Alkyl Grignard reagents add to alkynes in the presence of a catalyst system consisting of Fe(acac)(3), CuBr, PBu(3), and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine to give β-alkylvinyl Grignard reagents. The exchange reaction and carbometalation take place on iron, whereas copper assists with the exchange of organic groups between organoiron and organomagnesium species through transmetalation with these species. Sequential reactions consisting of the alkene-Grignard exchange and the alkylmagnesiation of alkynes were successfully conducted by adding an alkyne to a mixture of the first reaction. Isomerization of Grignard reagents from 2-alkyl to 1-alkyl catalyzed by Fe-Cu also is applicable as the first 1-alkyl Grignard formation step. PMID:22128888

  2. Separation of copper ions from iron ions using PVA-g-(acrylic acid/N-vinyl imidazole) membranes prepared by radiation-induced grafting.

    PubMed

    Ajji, Zaki; Ali, Ali M

    2010-01-15

    Acrylic acid (AAc), N-vinyl imidazole (Azol) and their binary mixtures were graft copolymerized onto poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes using gamma irradiation. The ability of the grafted membranes to separate Cu ions from Fe ions was investigated with respect to the grafting yield and the pH of the feed solution. The data showed that the diffusion of copper ions from the feed compartment to the receiver compartment depends on the grafting yield of the membranes and the pH of the feed solution. To the contrary, iron ions did not diffuse through the membranes of all grafting yields. However, a limited amount of iron ions diffused in strong acidic medium. This study shows that the prepared membranes could be considered for the separation of copper ions from iron ions. The temperature of thermal decomposition of pure PVA-g-AAc/Azol membrane, PVA-g-AAc/Azol membrane containing copper ions, and PVA-g-AAc/Azol membrane containing iron ions were determined using TGA analyzer. It was shown that the presence of Cu and Fe ions increases the decomposition temperature, and the membranes bonded with iron ions are more stable than those containing copper ions. PMID:19836882

  3. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    Iron is a mineral that our bodies need for many functions. For example, iron is part of hemoglobin, a protein which carries ... It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Iron is also part of many other proteins and ...

  4. Assessment of the possible role of iron and copper in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Goudie, J; Chandra, M; Lawrence, G D; Williams, P

    1994-01-01

    Nephrotoxic lesions induced by cisplatin in rats are characterized by acute tubular necrosis in the outer stripe of the medulla. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential role of changes in metal binding proteins, and iron and copper content in urine and renal tissue in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Cisplatin was administered intravenously to groups of 20 rats at single doses of 0, 1, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg and rats were sacrificed at 1, 2, 3 and 6 days after treatment. Increased serum BUN and creatinine were observed at a dose of 5 mg/kg cisplatin on day 2 through day 6. Increased urinary copper excretion coincided with necrosis and increased BUN and creatinine on day 3 in the high-dose group. Evidence of renal injury was apparent histologically as karyomegaly at all dose levels as early as 48 hours after injection of cisplatin, prior to increases in urinary copper levels. No change in the distribution of metal binding proteins (transferrin, ferritin, ceruloplasmin, and metallothionein) evaluated by immunohistochemical staining, was seen. Based upon these results, it is unlikely that changes in metal excretion play a primary role in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity however, changes in nuclear function indicated by karyomegaly may be involved in early renal injury.

  5. Cadmium(II) and Copper(II) coordination polymers based on 5-(Pyrazinyl) tetrazolate ligand: Structure, photoluminescence, theoretical calculations and magnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hui-Fen; Yang, Wen-Bin; Lin, Lang; Guo, Xiang-Guang; Dui, Xue-jing; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Lu, Can-Zhong; Zhang, Cui-Juan

    2013-05-01

    Two μ₂-tetrazolyl bridged metal complexes, ([CdI(PTZ)(H₂O)]·H₂O)ₙ1 and ([Cu(PTZ)₂]·H₂O)ₙ2 (HPTZ=5-(pyrazinyl) tetrazolate), were hydrothermally synthesized and fully characterized by X-ray crystallography, elemental analyses and spectrum techniques. In 1, cadmium ions are bridged by tridentate μ₂-κ²N2,N5:κ¹N1 chelating PTZ⁻ ligand and halide linkers into an infinite 1D chain, while in 2 copper ions are connected by tridentate μ₂-κ²N7,N12:κ¹N8 and bidentate μ₂-κ¹N1:κ¹N2 chelating-bridging PTZ⁻ ligands to form a 1D castellated chain structure. Compound 1 displays phosphorescence with a lifetime of ~7.74 ms in the visible region, and the origin of the luminescent emission is primary assigned to the combination of ligand-centered emission, metal-to-ligand charge transfer and ligand-to-ligand charge transfer, which has been probed by the density of states (DOS) calculations. Magnetic measurement reveals that compound 2 displays an anti-ferromagnetic ordering. - Graphical abstract: Two new complexes based on 5-(pyrazinyl) tertrazolate, namely ([CdI(PTZ)(H2O)]·H2O)n and ([Cu(PTZ)2]·H2O)n have been synthesized and characterized. Compound 1 exhibits interesting green luminescence. Compound 2 displays an anti-ferromagnetic ordering. Highlights: • We report two novel 1D μ₂-tetrazolyl bridged Cd(II) and Cu(II) compounds. • The cadmium(II) compound exhibits a green luminescence. • Theoretical calculations were conducted to elucidate the green luminescence. • The Cu(II) compound exhibits an anti-ferromagnetic ordering.

  6. Copper and iron isotope fractionation during weathering and pedogenesis: Insights from saprolite profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sheng-Ao; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Li, Shuguang; Wei, Gang-Jian; Ma, Jing-Long; Li, Dandan

    2014-12-01

    Iron and copper isotopes are useful tools to track redox transformation and biogeochemical cycling in natural environment. To study the relationships of stable Fe and Cu isotopic variations with redox regime and biological processes during weathering and pedogenesis, we carried out Fe and Cu isotope analyses for two sets of basalt weathering profiles (South Carolina, USA and Hainan Island, China), which formed under different climatic conditions (subtropical vs. tropical). Unaltered parent rocks from both profiles have uniform δ56Fe and δ65Cu values close to the average of global basalts. In the South Carolina profile, δ56Fe values of saprolites vary from -0.01‰ to 0.92‰ in the lower (reduced) part and positively correlate with Fe3+/ΣFe (R2 = 0.90), whereas δ65Cu values are almost constant. By contrast, δ56Fe values are less variable and negatively correlate with Fe3+/ΣFe (R2 = 0.88) in the upper (oxidized) part, where large (4.85‰) δ65Cu variation is observed with most samples enriched in heavy isotopes. In the Hainan profile formed by extreme weathering under oxidized condition, δ56Fe values vary little (0.05-0.14‰), whereas δ65Cu values successively decrease from 0.32‰ to -0.12‰ with depth below 3 m and increase from -0.17‰ to 0.02‰ with depth above 3 m. Throughout the whole profile, δ65Cu positively correlate with Cu concentration and negatively correlate with the content of total organic carbon (TOC). Overall, the contrasting Fe isotopic patterns under different redox conditions suggest redox states play the key controls on Fe mobility and isotope fractionation. The negative correlation between δ56Fe and Fe3+/ΣFe in the oxidized part of the South Carolina profile may reflect addition of isotopically light Fe. This is demonstrated by leaching experiments, which show that Fe mineral pools extracted by 0.5 N HCl, representing poorly-crystalline Fe (hydr)-oxides, are enriched in light Fe isotopes. The systematic Cu isotopic variation

  7. Photochemical aerobic detoxification of aqueous phenol and chlorophenol solutions promoted by iron salts and iron, vanadium, and copper oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Nizova, G.V.; Bochkova, M.M.; Kozlova, N.B.; Shul`pin, G.B.

    1995-09-10

    Phenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol in air in the presence of soluble iron salts or insoluble V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and CuO decompose in aqueous solution when irradiated by a luminescent lamp. The degree and the rate of decomposition are strongly influenced by the nature of the substrate and metal-containing promoter. As a result of decomposition, toxicity of solutions containing 2,4,5-trichlorophenol with respect to two types of living organisms - Protozoa (Tetrahymena pyriformis) and bacteria (Beneckea harveyi) - decreases significantly.

  8. Preconcentration and determination of iron and copper in spice samples by cloud point extraction and flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Ciğdem Arpa; Tokgöz, Ilknur; Bektaş, Sema

    2010-09-15

    A flow injection (FI) cloud point extraction (CPE) method for the determination of iron and copper by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS) has been improved. The analytes were complexed with 3-amino-7-dimethylamino-2-methylphenazine (Neutral Red, NR) and octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114)wasadded as a surfactant. The micellar solutionwasheated above 50 degrees C and loaded through a column packed with cotton for phase separation. Then the surfactant-rich phase was eluted using 0.05 mol L(-1) H2SO4 and the analytes were determined by FAAS. Chemical and flow variables influencing the instrumental and extraction conditions were optimized. Under optimized conditions for 25 mL of preconcentrated solution, the enrichment factors were 98 and 69, the limits of detection (3s) were 0.7 and 0.3 ng mL(-1), the limits of quantification (10s) were 2.2 and 1.0 ng mL(-1) for iron and copper, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for ten replicate measurements of 10 ng mL(-1) iron and copper were 2.1% and 1.8%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to determination of iron and copper in spice samples.

  9. Geology of the Fishtie deposit, Central Province, Zambia: iron oxide and copper mineralization in Nguba Group metasedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickson, Michael D.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Wood, David; Humphrey, John D.; Wendlandt, Richard F.

    2015-08-01

    The Fishtie copper deposit, located in the Central Province of Zambia, contains approximately 55 Mt of 1.04 % Cu at a 0.5 % Cu cut-off in oxide, sulfide, and mixed oxide-sulfide ores. The deposit is hosted in Neoproterozoic diamictites and siltstones of the Grand Conglomérat Formation and overlying Kakontwe Limestone Formation of the lower Nguba Group. The Grand Conglomérat Formation at Fishtie directly overlies basement schists and quartzites. Mineralized zones are located adjacent to high-angle normal faults that appear to control thickness variations in the Grand Conglomérat Formation suggesting synsedimentary fault movement. Iron-rich rocks consisting of nearly monomineralic bands of magnetite and ankerite occur within the Grand Conglomérat Formation. The absence of magnetite-rich clasts in overlying diamictites and the presence of disseminated magnetite, ankerite, and apatite in adjacent diamictites suggest this iron-rich rock formed by replacement of siltstone beds. These magnetite-rich rocks thicken towards normal faults suggesting the faults formed conduits for oxidized hydrothermal solutions. The magnetite-ankerite-quartz rock was overprinted by later hydrothermal alteration and sulfide mineralization. Copper sulfide precipitation was associated with growth of both muscovite and chlorite, together with weak silicification. Sulfides are zoned relative to normal faults with bornite more common in proximity to faults and ore stage pyrite most common in an outer zone with chalcopyrite. Copper sulfides display generally heavy sulfur isotopic values, suggesting sulfide derivation from thermochemical reduction of Neoproterozoic seawater sulfate. Copper mineralized zones in the Grand Conglomérat at Fishtie are megascopically similar to those observed in the newly discovered Kamoa deposit in the southern Democratic Republic of Congo. Alteration and mineralization at Fishtie display lateral zoning relative to normal faults unlike the broad vertical zonation

  10. Amelioration Effect of Zinc and Iron Supplementation on Selected Oxidative Stress Enzymes in Liver and Kidney of Cadmium-Treated Male Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Jamakala, Obaiah; Rani, Usha A.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic, nonessential heavy metal with many industrial uses that can contribute to a well-defined spectrum of diseases in animals as well as in humans. The present study examines the effect of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) supplementation on oxidative stress enzymes in Cd-treated rats. Wistar strain male albino rats were treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 1/10th LD50/48 h, that is, 22.5 mg/kg body weight for 7, 15, and 30 days (d) time intervals. The 15d Cd-treated rats were divided into three groups. The first group received Zn (12 mg/kg), second group Fe (40 mg/kg) alone, and third group supplemented with both Zn and Fe and observed for 7, 15, and 30d. After the specific time intervals, rats were decapitated and oxidative stress enzymes like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were assayed in liver and kidney. Simultaneously lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were also measured. A significant elevation in LPO levels with decreased activity levels of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST were observed during Cd intoxication. With Zn and/or Fe supplementation, a significant reversal in the oxidative stress enzymes was observed. Our study reveals that combination of Zn and Fe supplementation is effective in detoxifying the Cd body burden from the test tissues. PMID:26862254

  11. Amelioration Effect of Zinc and Iron Supplementation on Selected Oxidative Stress Enzymes in Liver and Kidney of Cadmium-Treated Male Albino Rat.

    PubMed

    Jamakala, Obaiah; Rani, Usha A

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic, nonessential heavy metal with many industrial uses that can contribute to a well-defined spectrum of diseases in animals as well as in humans. The present study examines the effect of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) supplementation on oxidative stress enzymes in Cd-treated rats. Wistar strain male albino rats were treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 1/10(th) LD50/48 h, that is, 22.5 mg/kg body weight for 7, 15, and 30 days (d) time intervals. The 15d Cd-treated rats were divided into three groups. The first group received Zn (12 mg/kg), second group Fe (40 mg/kg) alone, and third group supplemented with both Zn and Fe and observed for 7, 15, and 30d. After the specific time intervals, rats were decapitated and oxidative stress enzymes like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were assayed in liver and kidney. Simultaneously lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were also measured. A significant elevation in LPO levels with decreased activity levels of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST were observed during Cd intoxication. With Zn and/or Fe supplementation, a significant reversal in the oxidative stress enzymes was observed. Our study reveals that combination of Zn and Fe supplementation is effective in detoxifying the Cd body burden from the test tissues.

  12. Amelioration Effect of Zinc and Iron Supplementation on Selected Oxidative Stress Enzymes in Liver and Kidney of Cadmium-Treated Male Albino Rat.

    PubMed

    Jamakala, Obaiah; Rani, Usha A

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic, nonessential heavy metal with many industrial uses that can contribute to a well-defined spectrum of diseases in animals as well as in humans. The present study examines the effect of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) supplementation on oxidative stress enzymes in Cd-treated rats. Wistar strain male albino rats were treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 1/10(th) LD50/48 h, that is, 22.5 mg/kg body weight for 7, 15, and 30 days (d) time intervals. The 15d Cd-treated rats were divided into three groups. The first group received Zn (12 mg/kg), second group Fe (40 mg/kg) alone, and third group supplemented with both Zn and Fe and observed for 7, 15, and 30d. After the specific time intervals, rats were decapitated and oxidative stress enzymes like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were assayed in liver and kidney. Simultaneously lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were also measured. A significant elevation in LPO levels with decreased activity levels of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST were observed during Cd intoxication. With Zn and/or Fe supplementation, a significant reversal in the oxidative stress enzymes was observed. Our study reveals that combination of Zn and Fe supplementation is effective in detoxifying the Cd body burden from the test tissues. PMID:26862254

  13. Simultaneous real-time assay of copper and cadmium ions by infrared photo diode electrode implanted in the muscle of live fish.

    PubMed

    Young Ly, Suw; Keun Kim, Jong

    2009-01-01

    The electrical circuit of an infrared photodiode electrode (IPE) was used in the simultaneous assay of copper and cadmium ions. The electrode's cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry and square-wave (SW) stripping voltammetric optimum conditions were examined. Results for 0-160 mg L(-1) and 50-400 microg L(-1) SW Cu(II) Cd(II), the relative standard deviation of 0.158 Cu(II), 0.077 Cd(II) (n = 15) using 20.0 mg L(-1) have been obtained at optimum conditions. The low detection limit (S/N) was attained to be at 14.71 microg L(-1)(2.31 x 10(-7) mol L(-1)) Cu(II) and 18.42 microg L(-1)(1.63 x 10(-7) mol L(-1)) Cd(II). The handmade electrode was implanted deep in the muscle of live fish and interfaced with an electrochemical workstation. Real-time analytical application was performed on the online assay of living tissue as the specimen was moving. The methods are deemed useful in interfaced assay for physiological control, nanodiode fabrication, and in the production of laboratory on a biochip.

  14. Potential risks of copper, zinc, and cadmium pollution due to pig manure application in a soil-rice system under intensive farming: a case study of Nanhu, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiachun; Yu, Xiulin; Zhang, Mingkui; Lu, Shenggao; Wu, Weihong; Wu, Jianjun; Xu, Jianming

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal (copper [Cu], zinc [Zn], and cadmium [Cd]) pollution of soils from pig manures in soil-rice ( L.) systems under intensive farming was investigated, taking Nanhu, China, as the case study area. Two hundred pig manures and 154 rice straws, brown rice samples, and corresponding surface soil (0-15 cm) samples were collected in paddy fields from 150 farms in 16 major villages within the study area. The mean Cu and Zn concentrations in pig manures consistently exceeded the related standard. About 44 and 60% of soil samples exceed the Chinese Soil Cu and Cd Environmental Quality Standards, respectively. The concentration of Cu, Zn, and Cd in brown rice did not exceed the Chinese Food Hygiene Standard. There was a significant positive correlation between total Cu and Zn contents in soil and application rate of pig manures. Strong correlation was observed between the extractable Cu, Zn, and Cd in soil and the Cu, Zn, and Cd contents in the brown rice. The spatial distribution maps of Cu and Zn concentrations in brown rice, straw, and extractable soil Cu and Zn concentration also showed similar geographical trends. Further analyses on heavy metals loading flux and accumulation rates from pig manure applied suggested that Cu and Cd contents in soil currently have already exceeded the maximum permissible limit, and Zn, if still at current manure application rates, will reach the ceiling concentration limits in 9 yr. This study assists in understanding the risk of heavy metals accumulating from pig manure applications to agricultural soils.

  15. Season changes of cadmium and copper levels in stem-boring larvae of Agapanthia villosoviridescens (coleoptera) on salt marshes of the Westerschelde estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Hemminga, M.A.; Nieuwenhuize, J.; Poley-Vos, C.H.; van Soelen, J. )

    1989-11-01

    Analyses of heavy metals in insects, including their developmental stages, have been widely used to monitor the penetration of these pollutants in various ecosystems. There are few reports dealing with seasonal changes in heavy metal content of insects. The seasonal pattern found in one herbivorous insect closely followed seasonal trends in metal contamination levels in the local vegetation. No data are available on season changes in insect larvae. To obtain more detailed information on seasonal changes of heavy metal levels in insects and their relation with the seasonally changing conditions in the habitat, the authors studied the time course of cadmium and copper concentrations in larvae of the longhorn beetle Agapanthia villosoviridescens. These live as stem-borers in the salt marsh halophyte Aster tripolium. The authors collected larvae from three salt marshes along the Westerschelde estuary. This estuary is severely polluted by heavy metals originating mainly from upstream sources; a large fraction of these metals is retained within the estuary. The fringing salt marsh soils, which are a sink for trace metals, show a gradient in pollution, with levels of heavy metals generally increasing in upstream direction. Salt marsh halophytes growing on these marshes show uptake of metals from the soil. Further transfers of heavy metals through the natural food chains on these salt marshes have not been investigated sofar.

  16. Selective transport of copper(I, II), cadmium(II), and zinc(II) ions through a supported liquid membrane containing bathocuproine, neocuproine, or bathophenanthroline

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Takashi )

    1994-06-01

    Some selective transport systems for heavy metallic ions through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) containing a 2,2[prime]-dipyridyl derivative ligand, 4,7-diphenyl-2,9-dimethyl-1, 10-phenanthroline (bathocuproine), 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocuproine), or 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (bathophenanthroline), were investigated. The transport of copper(I, II), cadmium(II), zinc(II), lead(II), and cobalt(II) ions was accomplished with a halogen ion such as chloride, bromide, or iodide ion as a pairing ion species for any SLM. The ranking of the permeability of the metallic ions was Cu[sup +,2+], Zn[sup 2+], Cd[sup 2+] [much gt] Pb[sup 2+], Co[sup 2+]. When the oxidation-reduction potential gradient was used as a driving force for metallic ions, the transport of Cu[sup +] ions was higher than those of Cd[sup 2+] and Zn[sup 2+] ions for any SLM containing bathocuproine, neocuproine, or bathophenanthroline. On the other hand, in the transport system which used the concentration gradient of pairing ion species, the permeability of the Cu[sup 2+] ion decreased whereas that of the Cd[sup 2+] ion increased. Moreover, it was found that the different selectivity for the transport of metallic ions is produced by using various pairing ion species. 18 refs., 9 figs.

  17. Linking Oxidative Stress and Magnitude of Compensatory Responses with Life-Stage Specific Differences in Sensitivity of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to Copper or Cadmium.

    PubMed

    Tang, Song; Doering, Jon A; Sun, Jianxian; Beitel, Shawn C; Shekh, Kamran; Patterson, Sarah; Crawford, Sarah; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve B; Hecker, Markus

    2016-09-01

    Sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd) has been shown to significantly differ as a function of life-stage. This study investigated oxidative stress, metal homeostasis, and associated compensatory responses as potential mechanisms of this sensitivity pattern in three early life-stages. Sturgeon were most sensitive to Cu at 15 days post hatch (dph), which was accompanied by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO). Genes involved with amelioration of oxidative stress were significantly less inducible at this stage than in older, less sensitive fry. At 48 dph, acute lethality of sturgeon exposed to Cd was greatest and body LPO was significantly induced by 3.5-fold at 5 μg Cd/L. Moreover, there was a small but significant increase in antioxidative responses. At 139 dph, sturgeon were most tolerant to Cu and Cd and accumulation of these metals was least. Also, expression of metallothionein (MT) and apoptotic genes were greatest while expression of metal transporters was reduced and concentration of LPO was not different from controls. Our results suggest that life-stage specific sensitivity of white sturgeon to metals is complex, encompassing differences in the ability to mount compensatory responses important for metal homeostasis and combating oxidative stress and concomitant damages. PMID:27509013

  18. Sub-lethal effects of cadmium and copper on RNA/DNA ratio and energy reserves in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Jamius W Y; Zhou, Guang-Jie; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to test if RNA/DNA ratio and various energy reserve parameters (i.e., glycogen, lipid, protein content and total energy reserves) are sensitive biomarkers for indicating stresses induced by metal contaminants in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis, a common organism for biomonitoring in Southeast Asia. This study was, therefore, designed to examine the effects of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) on these potential biomarkers in two major energy storage tissues, adductor muscle (AM) and hepatopancreas (HP), of P. viridis after sub-lethal exposure to either metal for 10 days. The results showed that neither Cd nor Cu treatments affected the RNA/DNA ratio, glycogen and protein contents in AM and HP. As the most sensitive biomarker in P. viridis, the total lipid content in both AM and HP was significantly decreased in the treatment of 5μg Cu/L and 0.01-0.1μgCd/L, respectively. However, soft-tissue body burdens of Cu or Cd did not significantly correlate with each of the four biomarkers regardless of the tissue type. In addition, AM generally stored more glycogen than HP, whereas HP stored more lipids than AM. We proposed that multiple biomarkers may be employed as an integrated diagnostic tool for monitoring the health condition of the mussels.

  19. Linking Oxidative Stress and Magnitude of Compensatory Responses with Life-Stage Specific Differences in Sensitivity of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to Copper or Cadmium.

    PubMed

    Tang, Song; Doering, Jon A; Sun, Jianxian; Beitel, Shawn C; Shekh, Kamran; Patterson, Sarah; Crawford, Sarah; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve B; Hecker, Markus

    2016-09-01

    Sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) to copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd) has been shown to significantly differ as a function of life-stage. This study investigated oxidative stress, metal homeostasis, and associated compensatory responses as potential mechanisms of this sensitivity pattern in three early life-stages. Sturgeon were most sensitive to Cu at 15 days post hatch (dph), which was accompanied by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO). Genes involved with amelioration of oxidative stress were significantly less inducible at this stage than in older, less sensitive fry. At 48 dph, acute lethality of sturgeon exposed to Cd was greatest and body LPO was significantly induced by 3.5-fold at 5 μg Cd/L. Moreover, there was a small but significant increase in antioxidative responses. At 139 dph, sturgeon were most tolerant to Cu and Cd and accumulation of these metals was least. Also, expression of metallothionein (MT) and apoptotic genes were greatest while expression of metal transporters was reduced and concentration of LPO was not different from controls. Our results suggest that life-stage specific sensitivity of white sturgeon to metals is complex, encompassing differences in the ability to mount compensatory responses important for metal homeostasis and combating oxidative stress and concomitant damages.

  20. Elevated CO2 levels affects the concentrations of copper and cadmium in crops grown in soil contaminated with heavy metals under fully open-air field conditions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongyan; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhou, Hui; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yin, Ying; Pei, Daping; Ji, Rong; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Xiaorong

    2011-08-15

    Elevated CO(2) levels and the increase in heavy metals in soils through pollution are serious problems worldwide. Whether elevated CO(2) levels will affect plants grown in heavy-metal-polluted soil and thereby influence food quality and safety is not clear. Using a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) system, we investigated the impacts of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on the concentrations of copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd) in rice and wheat grown in soil with different concentrations of the metals in the soil. In the two-year study, elevated CO(2) levels led to lower Cu concentrations and higher Cd concentrations in shoots and grain of both rice and wheat grown in the respective contaminated soil. Elevated CO(2) levels slightly but significantly lowered the pH of the soil and led to changes in Cu and Cd fractionation in the soil. Our study indicates that elevated CO(2) alters the distribution of contaminant elements in soil and plants, thereby probably affecting food quality and safety.

  1. Insight into Bio-metal Interface Formation in vacuo: Interplay of S-layer Protein with Copper and Iron

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, Anna A.; Grachova, Elena V.; Neudachina, Vera S.; Yashina, Lada V.; Blüher, Anja; Molodtsov, Serguei L.; Mertig, Michael; Ehrlich, Hermann; Adamchuk, Vera K.; Laubschat, Clemens; Vyalikh, Denis V.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of interaction between inorganic matter and biomolecules, as well as properties of resulting hybrids, are receiving growing interest due to the rapidly developing field of bionanotechnology. The majority of potential applications for metal-biohybrid structures require stability of these systems under vacuum conditions, where their chemistry is elusive, and may differ dramatically from the interaction between biomolecules and metal ions in vivo. Here we report for the first time a photoemission and X-ray absorption study of the formation of a hybrid metal-protein system, tracing step-by-step the chemical interactions between the protein and metals (Cu and Fe) in vacuo. Our experiments reveal stabilization of the enol form of peptide bonds as the result of protein-metal interactions for both metals. The resulting complex with copper appears to be rather stable. In contrast, the system with iron decomposes to form inorganic species like oxide, carbide, nitride, and cyanide. PMID:25736576

  2. Hot gas desulfurization with sorbents containing oxides of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Akyurtlu, A.; Akyurtlu, J.F.

    1992-09-01

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the desulfurization performance of novel sorbents consisting of different combinations of zinc, iron, vanadium and copper oxides; and to develop a sorbent which can reduce H{sub 2}S levels to less than 1 ppmv, which can stabilize zinc, making operations above 650{degrees}C possible, and which can produce economically recoverable amounts of elemental sulfur during regeneration. This objective will be accomplished by evaluating the sorbent performance using fixed-bed and TGA experiments supported by sorbent characterization at various reaction extents. In the seventh quarter, the screening of the promoted sorbents in the packed bed reactor was continued. The results of this work were presented at the 1992 University Coal Research Contractors, Review Conference at Pittsburgh, PA.

  3. Albedo factors of 123, 320, 511, 662 and 1115 keV gamma photons in carbon, aluminium, iron and copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiran, K. U.; Ravindraswami, K.; Eshwarappa, K. M.; Somashekarappa, H. M.

    2016-04-01

    Experimental measurements to study the variation of albedo factors in carbon, aluminium, iron and copper are carried out using gamma photons obtained from 57Co, 133Ba, 22Na, 137Cs and 65Zn. The back-scattered photons from the samples are detected by a 3^''× 3^'' NaI(Tl) scintillation detector placed at a backscattering angle of 180°. The variation of number albedo ( AN), energy albedo ( AE) and dose albedo ( AD) as a function of source energy and atomic number ( Z) is studied. The experimentally obtained, response corrected variation of multiple scattered photons as a function of target thickness is compared with the Monte Carlo simulation using MCNP code and are in good agreement.

  4. Insight into Bio-metal Interface Formation in vacuo: Interplay of S-layer Protein with Copper and Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarova, Anna A.; Grachova, Elena V.; Neudachina, Vera S.; Yashina, Lada V.; Blüher, Anja; Molodtsov, Serguei L.; Mertig, Michael; Ehrlich, Hermann; Adamchuk, Vera K.; Laubschat, Clemens; Vyalikh, Denis V.

    2015-03-01

    The mechanisms of interaction between inorganic matter and biomolecules, as well as properties of resulting hybrids, are receiving growing interest due to the rapidly developing field of bionanotechnology. The majority of potential applications for metal-biohybrid structures require stability of these systems under vacuum conditions, where their chemistry is elusive, and may differ dramatically from the interaction between biomolecules and metal ions in vivo. Here we report for the first time a photoemission and X-ray absorption study of the formation of a hybrid metal-protein system, tracing step-by-step the chemical interactions between the protein and metals (Cu and Fe) in vacuo. Our experiments reveal stabilization of the enol form of peptide bonds as the result of protein-metal interactions for both metals. The resulting complex with copper appears to be rather stable. In contrast, the system with iron decomposes to form inorganic species like oxide, carbide, nitride, and cyanide.

  5. Removal of copper and iron by polyurethane foam column in FIA system for the determination of nickel in pierced ring.

    PubMed

    Vongboot, Monnapat; Suesoonthon, Monrudee

    2015-01-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) mini-column was used to eliminate copper and iron for the determination of nickel in pierced rings. The PUF mini-column was connected to FIA system for on-line sorption of copper and iron in complexes form of CuSCN(+) and FeSCN(2+). For this season, the acid solution containing a mixture of Ni(II), Fe(III), Cu(II) and SCN(-) ions was firstly flew into the PUF column. Then, the percolated solution which Fe(III) and Cu(II) ions is separated from analysis was injected into FIA system to react with 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR) reagent in basic condition which this method is called pH gradient technique. The Ni-PAR complexes obtained were measured theirs absorbance at 500 nm by UV visible spectrophotometer. In this study, it was found that Cu(II) and Fe(III) were completely to form complexes with 400 mmol/L KSCN and entirely to eliminate in acidic condition at pH 3.0. In the optimum condition of these experiments, the method provided the linear relationship between absorbance and the concentration of Ni(II) in the range from 5.00 to 30.00 mg/L. Linear equation is y=0.0134x+0.0033 (R(2)=0.9948). Precision, assessed in the term of the relative standard deviation, RSD, and accuracy for multiple determinations obtained in values of 0.77-1.73% and 97.4%, respectively. The level of an average amount of Ni(II) in six piercing rings was evaluated to be 14.78 mg/g.

  6. Iron, copper, and manganese complexes with in vitro superoxide dismutase and/or catalase activities that keep Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells alive under severe oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Thales P; Fernandes, Christiane; Melo, Karen V; Ferreira, Sarah S; Lessa, Josane A; Franco, Roberto W A; Schenk, Gerhard; Pereira, Marcos D; Horn, Adolfo

    2015-03-01

    Due to their aerobic lifestyle, eukaryotic organisms have evolved different strategies to overcome oxidative stress. The recruitment of some specific metalloenzymes such as superoxide dismutases (SODs) and catalases (CATs) is of great importance for eliminating harmful reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion). Using the ligand HPClNOL {1-[bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino]-3-chloropropan-2-ol}, we have synthesized three coordination compounds containing iron(III), copper(II), and manganese(II) ions, which are also present in the active site of the above-noted metalloenzymes. These compounds were evaluated as SOD and CAT mimetics. The manganese and iron compounds showed both SOD and CAT activities, while copper showed only SOD activity. The copper and manganese in vitro SOD activities are very similar (IC50~0.4 μmol dm(-3)) and about 70-fold higher than those of iron. The manganese compound showed CAT activity higher than that of the iron species. Analyzing their capacity to protect Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells against oxidative stress (H2O2 and the O2(•-) radical), we observed that all compounds act as antioxidants, increasing the resistance of yeast cells mainly due to a reduction of lipid oxidation. Especially for the iron compound, the data indicate complete protection when wild-type cells were exposed to H2O2 or O2(•-) species. Interestingly, these compounds also compensate for both superoxide dismutase and catalase deficiencies; their antioxidant activity is metal ion dependent, in the order iron(III)>copper(II)>manganese(II). The protection mechanism employed by the complexes proved to be independent of the activation of transcription factors (such as Yap1, Hsf1, Msn2/Msn4) and protein synthesis. There is no direct relation between the in vitro and the in vivo antioxidant activities. PMID:25511255

  7. Effect of cadmium intoxication on collagen and elastin content in tissues of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kucharz, E.J.

    1988-02-01

    Cadmium produces a variety of pathological effects in various organs in experimental animals or in accidentally intoxicated humans. The mechanism of these phenomena has been the subject of numerous investigations. Many of the observed toxic effects are thought to be the results of secondary deficiencies in such essential trace elements as zinc, copper and iron. Metabolism of the fibrous components of connective tissue, i.e. collagen and elastin, requires the presence of so me trace elements. It is also believed that elastin biosynthesis depends on the presence of some trace metals. Copper deficiency produces significant decrease in elastic tissue resistance, caused by diminished cross-link formation. Experimental studies showed that cadmium treatment of rats produced an increase in the urinary excretion of collagen catabolites. It was also shown that cadmium intoxication influenced bone structure and fetal growth. These two effects on connective tissue were probably accompanied by disturbances in collagen metabolism. Moreover, it is known that fungal collagenase activity was affected by cadmium. In the present paper a decrease in collagen and elastin content, and impaired extracellular maturation of the collagen fibers in some tissues of rats intoxicated with cadmium were described.

  8. Photocatalytic Activities of Copper Doped Cadmium Sulfide Microspheres Prepared by a Facile Ultrasonic Spray-Pyrolysis Method.

    PubMed

    Su, Jinzhan; Zhang, Tao; Li, Yufeng; Chen, Yubin; Liu, Maochang

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic spray pyrolysis is a superior method for preparing and synthesizing spherical particles of metal oxide or sulfide semiconductors. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) photocatalysts with different sizes and doped-CdS with different dopants and doping levels have been synthesized to study their properties of photocatalytic hydrogen production from water. The CdS photocatalysts were characterized with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence-spectrometry (XRF), UV-Vis absorption spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study their morphological and optical properties. The sizes of the prepared CdS particles were found to be proportional to the concentration of the metal nitrates in the solution. The CdS photocatalyst with smaller size showed a better photocatalytic activity. In addition, Cu doped CdS were also deposited and their photocatalytic activities were also investigated. Decreased bandgaps of CdS synthesized with this method were found and could be due to high density surface defects originated from Cd vacancies. Incorporating the Cu elements increased the bandgap by taking the position of Cd vacancies and reducing the surface defect states. The optimal Cu-doped level was found to be 0.5 mol % toward hydrogen evolution from aqueous media in the presence of sacrificial electron donors (Na₂S and Na₂SO₃) at a pH of 13.2. This study demonstrated that ultrasonic spray pyrolysis is a feasible approach for large-scale photocatalyst synthesis and corresponding doping modification. PMID:27314320

  9. Structure, insertion electrochemistry, and magnetic properties of a new type of substitutional solid solutions of copper, nickel, and iron hexacyanoferrates/hexacyanocobaltates.

    PubMed

    Widmann, Antje; Kahlert, Heike; Petrovic-Prelevic, Irena; Wulff, Harm; Yakhmi, J V; Bagkar, Nitin; Scholz, Fritz

    2002-11-01

    Substitutional solid solutions of metal hexacyanometalates in which low-spin iron(III) and cobalt(III) ions populate the carbon-coordinated sites were synthesized and studied by powder diffraction including Rietveld refinement, cyclic voltammetry of immobilized microparticles, diffuse reflection vis-spectrometry, and magnetization techniques. The continuous solid solution series of potassium copper(II), potassium nickel(II), and iron(III) [(hexacyanoferrate(III))(1-x)(hexacyanocobaltate(III))(x)] show that the substitution of low-spin iron(III) by cobalt(III) in the hexacyanometalate units more strongly affects the formal potentials of the nitrogen-coordinated copper(II) and high-spin iron(III) ions than those of the remaining low-spin iron(III) ions. In the case of copper(II) and iron(III) [(hexacyanoferrate(III))(1-x)(hexacyanocobaltate(III))(x)] the peak currents decrease much more than can be explained by stoichiometry, indicating that the charge propagation is slowed by the substitution of low-spin iron(III) by cobalt(III). The Rietveld refinement of all compounds confirmed the structure initially proposed by Keggin for Prussian blue and contradicts the structure described later by Ludi. The dependencies of lattice parameters on composition exhibit in all series of solid solutions studied similar, although small, deviations from ideality, which correlate with the electrochemical behavior. Finally, a series of solid solutions of the composition KNi(0.5)(II)Cu(0.5)(II)[Fe(III)(CN)(6)](1-x)[Co(III)(CN)(6)](x), where both the nitrogen- and carbon-coordinated metal ions are mixed populated and were synthesized and characterized. These are the first examples of solid solutions of metal hexacyanometalates with four different metal ions, where both the nitrogen- and the carbon-coordinated sites possess a mixed population. PMID:12401075

  10. The determination of aluminum, copper, iron, and lead in glycol formulations by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Initial screening tests and the results obtained in developing procedures to determine Al, Cu, Fe, and Pb in glycol formulations are described. Atomic absorption completion was selected for Cu, Fe and Pb, and after comparison with emission spectroscopy, was selected for Al also. Before completion, carbon, iron, and lead are extracted with diethyl dithio carbamate (DDC) into methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Aluminum was also extracted into MIBK using 8-hydroxyquinoline as a chelating agent. As little as 0.02 mg/l carbon and 0.06 mg/l lead or iron may be determined in glycol formulations. As little as 0.3 mg/l aluminum may be determined.

  11. Accumulation and distribution of iron, cadmium, lead and nickel in cucumber plants grown in hydroponics containing two different chelated iron supplies.

    PubMed

    Csog, Árpád; Mihucz, Victor G; Tatár, Eniko; Fodor, Ferenc; Virág, István; Majdik, Cornelia; Záray, Gyula

    2011-07-01

    Cucumber plants grown in hydroponics containing 10 μM Cd(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II), and iron supplied as Fe(III) EDTA or Fe(III) citrate in identical concentrations, were investigated by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with special emphasis on the determination of iron accumulation and distribution within the different plant compartments (root, stem, cotyledon and leaves). The extent of Cd, Ni and Pb accumulation and distribution were also determined. Generally, iron and heavy-metal contaminant accumulation was higher when Fe(III) citrate was used. The accumulation of nickel and lead was higher by about 20% and 100%, respectively, if the iron supply was Fe(III) citrate. The accumulation of Cd was similar. In the case of Fe(III) citrate, the total amounts of Fe taken up were similar in the control and heavy-metal-treated plants (27-31 μmol/plant). Further, the amounts of iron transported from the root towards the shoot of the control, lead- and nickel-contaminated plants were independent of the iron(III) form. Although Fe mobility could be characterized as being low, its distribution within the shoot was not significantly affected by the heavy metals investigated.

  12. Direct Synthesis of Novel and Reactive Sulfide-modified Nano Iron through Nanoparticle Seeding for Improved Cadmium-Contaminated Water Treatment.

    PubMed

    Su, Yiming; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Huang, Yuxiong; Zhou, Xuefei; Keller, Arturo A; Zhang, Yalei

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic sulfide-modified nanoscale zerovalent iron (S-nZVI) is of great technical and scientific interest because of its promising application in groundwater remediation, although its synthesis is still a challenge. We develop a new nanoparticle seeding method to obtain a novel and reactive nanohybrid, which contains an Fe(0) core covered by a highly sulfidized layer under high extent of sulfidation. Syntheses monitoring experiments show that seeding accelerates the reduction rate from Fe(2+) to Fe(0) by 19%. X-ray adsorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analyses demonstrate the hexahedral Fe-Fe bond (2.45 and 2.83 Å) formation through breaking down of the 1.99 Å Fe-O bond both in crystalline and amorphous iron oxide. The XANES analysis also shows 24.2% (wt%) of FeS with bond length of 2.4 Å in final nanohybrid. Both X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer analyses further confirm that increased nanoparticle seeding results in formation of more Fe(0) crystals. Nano-SiO2 seeding brings down the size of single Fe(0) grain from 32.4 nm to 18.7 nm, enhances final Fe(0) content from 5.9% to 55.6%, and increases magnetization from 4.7 to 65.5 emu/g. The synthesized nanohybrid has high cadmium removal capacity and holds promising prospects for treatment of metal-contaminated water.

  13. Laser-initiated combustion studies of selected aluminum, copper, iron, and nickel alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bransford, J. W.; Clark, A. F.

    1981-01-01

    The results of combustion studies at atmospheric pressure on ten metal alloys are presented. The alloys studied were aluminum alloys 1100, 2219, 6061, and tensile-50; 304, 347 and 21-6-9 stainless steel; inconel 600; beryllium copper and a bronze. It was found that once ignition was achieved all alloys would generally burn to completion. The overall combustion process appears to obey a first order rate process. Preliminary conclusions are presented along with recommendations for future work.

  14. Recovering iron, manganese, copper, cobalt, and high-purity nickel from sea nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohga, Tetsuyoshi; Imamura, Masaki; Takahashi, Junichi; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Nishizawa, Tokuo

    1995-12-01

    Many studies have investigated methods of recovering valuable metals from sea nodules. Recently, a research group in Japan developed a smelting and chlorine process after investigating a variety of existing processes and comparing their respective efficiencies with the same nodules. The best results were obtained by combining pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical treatments, which enabled the efficient recovery of manganese, nickel, copper, and cobalt. High-purity nickel can be also produced through further solvent extraction.

  15. Synthesis, structure and antifungal activity of thiophene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde bis(thiosemicarbazone) and nickel(II), copper(II) and cadmium(II) complexes: unsymmetrical coordination mode of nickel complex.

    PubMed

    Alomar, Kusaï; Landreau, Anne; Allain, Magali; Bouet, Gilles; Larcher, Gérald

    2013-09-01

    The reaction of nickel(II), copper(II) chlorides and cadmium(II) chloride and bromide with thiophene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde bis(thiosemicarbazone) (2,3BTSTCH2) leads to a series of new complexes: [Ni(2,3BTSTCH)]Cl, [Cu(2,3BTSTC)], [CdCl2(2,3BTSTCH2)] and [CdBr2(2,3BTSTCH2)]. The crystal structures of the ligand and of [Ni(2,3BTSTCH)]Cl complex have been determined. In this case, we remark an unusual non-symmetrical coordination mode for the two functional groups: one acting as a thione and the second as a deprotonated thiolate. All compounds have been tested for their antifungal activity against human pathogenic fungi: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Aspergillus fumigatus, the cadmium complexes exhibit the highest antifungal activity. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using two biological methods: human MRC5 cultured cells and brine shrimp Artemia salina bioassay.

  16. Cadmium sulfide-copper sulfide heterojunction cell research. Quarterly progress report, December 1, 1979-February 29, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    Attempts have been continued to increase the short circuit current in cells of enhanced open circuit voltage. Both deposition of copper on the surface of the Cu/sub 2/S layer and hydrogen plasma treatments have been attempted. To date, no significant increase in ultimate current has been achieved. Various changes in cell production procedure have been made with significant improvements in reproducibility. Improvements in the structure of (CdZn)S layers and resulting cell properties have been achieved using modified substrates based on NiFe. Improvement have been made to the capacitance measuring systems with a consequent gain in resolution, accuracy and reproducibility. Structural studies of the electron beam deposited glass have revealed the presence of cracking and experiments have been carried out to determine the optimum deposition conditions for producing defect-free coatings.

  17. Syntheses and structures of discrete copper(II) and cadmium(II) supramolecular complexes based on 1,4-diacylthiosemicarbazone ligands.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Chen; Zhang, Si-Si; Li, Zuo-Yin; Liu, Jian-Jun; Lin, Mei-Jin; Huang, Chang-Cang

    2016-02-01

    Thiosemicarbazides and their metal complexes have attracted considerable interest because of their biological activities and their flexibility, which allows the ligands to bend and rotate freely to accommodate the coordination geometries of various metal centres. Discrete copper(II) and cadmium(II) complexes have been prepared by crystallization of N-[2-(2-hydroxybenzoyl)hydrazinecarbonothioyl]propanamide (H3L) with Cu(CH3COO)2 or Cd(NO3)2 in a dimethylformamide/methanol mixed-solvent system at room temperature, affording the complexes di-μ-acetato-bis{μ4-1-[(2-oxidophenyl)carbonyl]-2-(propanamidomethanethioyl)hydrazine-1,2-diido}tetracopper(II) dimethylformamide disolvate, [Cu4(C11H10N3O3S)2(C2H3O2)2]·2C3H7NO, (I), and bis{μ2-[(2-hydroxyphenyl)formamido](propanamidomethanethioyl)azanido}bis[(4,4'-bipyridine)nitratocadmium(II)] dihydrate, [Cd2(C11H12N3O3S)2(NO3)2(C10H8N2)2]·2H2O, (II). Complex (I) consists of four Cu(II) cations, two μ4-bridging trianionic ligands and two μ2-bridging acetate ligands, while complex (II) is composed of two Cd(II) cations, two μ2-bridging monoanionic ligands, two nitrate ligands and two 4,4'-bipyridine ligands. These discrete complexes are connected by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions to form a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture. Compared with (I), the phenolic hydroxy group and hydrazide N atom of the thiosemicarbazide ligand of (II) are not involved in coordination and lead to a binuclear Cd(II) complex. This different coordination mode may be attributed to the larger ionic radius of the Cd(II) ion compared with the Cu(II) ion. PMID:26846495

  18. Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in juvenile Chinook salmon and selected fish-forage organisms (aquatic insects) in the upper Sacramento River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; Thompson, Larry D.; Walsh, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed the downstream extent andseverity of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn)contamination from acid mine drainage on juvenile chinook salmon(Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and aquatic insects over aroughly 270-km reach of the Sacramento River below KeswickReservoir. During April–May 1998, salmon were collected fromfour sites in the river and from a fish hatchery that receiveswater from Battle Creek. Salmon from river sites were examinedfor gut contents to document their consumption of variousinvertebrate taxa, whereas salmon from river sites and thehatchery were used for metal determinations. Midge(Chironomidae) and caddisfly (Trichoptera) larvae and mayfly(Ephemeroptera) nymphs were collected for metal determinationsduring April–June from river sites and from Battle and Buttecreeks. The fish hatchery and Battle and Butte creeks served asreference sites because they had no history of receiving minedrainage. Salmon consumed mostly midge larvae and pupae (44.0%,damp-dry biomass), caddisfly larvae (18.9%), Cladocera (5.8%),and mayfly nymphs (5.7%). These results demonstrated thatinsects selected for metal determinations were important as fishforage. Dry-weight concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Zn weregenerally far higher in salmon and insects from the river thanfrom reference sites. Within the river, high metalconcentrations persisted as far downstream as South Meridian (thelowermost sampling site). Maximum concentrations of Cd (30.7 μg g-1) and Zn (1230 μg g-1),but not Cu (87.4 μg g-1), in insects exceeded amounts that other investigators reported as toxic when fed for prolonged periods to juvenile salmonids.

  19. Leaching of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc from two slag dumps with different environmental exposure periods under dynamic acidic condition.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhisheng; Liu, Taoze; Yang, Yuangen; Jackson, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few decades, zinc smelting activities in Guizhou, China have produced numerous slag dumps, which are often dispersed on roadsides and hill slopes throughout the region. During periods of acid rain, these exposed slags release heavy metals into surface water bodies. A column leaching study was designed to test the potential release of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) under simulated acid rain events. Two slags with varying environmental exposure periods were packed in columns and subjected to leaching solutions of pH 3.5, 5.5, or DI H2O at intervals of 1, 7, 14, 28, 56d. Pulse concentrations of Cd in leachate were found above 5μg/L, Cr, Pb, and Zn >10μg/L, whereas, Cu reached 10μg/L. After five leaching events, the leachability (percentage of cumulative heavy metal leached after five leaching events as in its respective total concentration in slags) of Cd was 0.05 percent and 0.035 percent from the old and young slag, respectively. Cr (0.035 percent and 0.05 percent) was greater than Cu (0.002 percent and 0.005 percent) and Zn (0.006 percent and 0.003 percent), while the lowest leachability was observed for Pb (0.0005 percent and 0.0002 percent) from the old and young slags, respectively. Reaction rates (release amount of heavy metals in certain period of leaching) of heavy metals in the leachates demonstrated the sequence of Zn>Cr>Cd, Cu>Pb. Leaching release of heavy metals was jointly affected by the pH of leaching solution and mineral composition of slags (including chemical forms of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). Environmental exposure period of slags, resulting in the alteration of minerals, could affect the release process of heavy metals in leaching as well. PMID:24632122

  20. Effects of copper and cadmium on ion transport and gill metal binding in the Amazonian teleost tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) in extremely soft water.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Aline Y O; Wood, Chris M; Val, Adalberto L

    2005-09-30

    Metal toxicity in fish is expected to be most severe in soft waters because of the low availability of cations (particularly Ca(2+)) to out-compete the metal forms for binding sites on the gills. Natural waters in the Amazon basin are typically soft due to regional geochemistry, but few studies have focused on metal toxicity in fish native to the basin. We assessed the ionoregulatory effects of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) in extremely soft water (10 micromoll(-1) Ca(2+)). Tambaqui had a very high tolerance to Cu (50-400 microgl(-1)), as indicated by a complete lack of inhibition of Na(+) uptake and an ability to gradually recover over 6h from elevated diffusive Na(+) losses caused by Cu. The insensitivity of active Na(+) influx to Cu further supports the notion that Amazonian fish may have a unique Na(+) transport system. Addition of 5-10 mgCl(-1) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) did not prevent initial (0-3h) negative Na(+) balance in tambaqui exposed to Cu. Exposure to 40 mgCl(-1) DOM prevented Na(+) losses in tambaqui even at 400 microgl(-1) Cu, probably because most Cu was complexed to DOM. Tambaqui exposed to waterborne Cd (10-80 microgl(-1)) experienced an average of 42% inhibition in whole body Ca(2+) uptake relative to controls within 3h of exposure to the metal. Inhibition of Ca(2+) uptake increased over time and, at 24h, Ca(2+) uptake was suppressed by 51% and 91% in fish exposed to 10 and 80 microgl(-1) Cd, respectively. Previous acclimation of fish to either elevated [Ca(2+)] or elevated [DOM] proved to be very effective in protecting against acute short-term metal accumulation at the gills of tambaqui in soft water (in the absence of the protective agent during metal exposure), suggesting a conditioning effect on gill metal binding physiology. PMID:16051381

  1. Functional characterization of a csoR-cueA divergon in Bradyrhizobium liaoningense CCNWSX0360, involved in copper, zinc and cadmium cotolerance

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Mingzhe; Lu, Mingmei; Li, Zhefei; Shen, Xihui; Chou, Minxia; Wei, Gehong

    2016-01-01

    Random mutagenesis in a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium liaoningense CCNWSX0360 (Bln0360) using Tn5 identified five copper (Cu) resistance-related genes. They were functionally sorted into three groups: transmembrane transport (cueA and tolC); oxidation (copA); and protection of the membrane barrier (lptE and ctpA). The gene cueA, together with the upstream csoR (Cu-sensitive operon repressor), constituted a csoR-cueA divergon which plays a crucial role in Cu homeostasis. Deletion of cueA decreased the Cu tolerance of cells, and complementation of this mutant restored comparable Cu resistance to that of the wild-type. Transcriptional and fusion expression analysis demonstrated that csoR-cueA divergon was up-regulated by both the monovalent Cu+ and divalent Zn2+/Cd2+, and negatively regulated by transcriptional repressor CsoR, via a bidirectional promoter. Deletion of csoR renders the cell hyper-resistant to Cu, Zn and Cd. Although predicted to encode a Cu transporting P-type ATPase (CueA), cueA also conferred resistance to zinc and cadmium; two putative N-MBDs (N-terminal metal binding domains) of CueA were required for the Cu/Zn/Cd tolerance. Moreover, cueA is needed for nodulation competitiveness of B. liaoningense in Cu rich conditions. Together, the results demonstrated a crucial role for the csoR-cueA divergon as a component of the multiple-metal resistance machinery in B. liaoningense. PMID:27725778

  2. Uptake of Cadmium, Copper, Lead, and Zinc from Sediments by an Aquatic Macrophyte and by Terrestrial Arthropods in a Freshwater Wetland Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung-Tae; Kim, Jae Geun

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate trace-metal [cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn)] biotransference and biomagnification in terrestrial biota at different trophic levels (primary producer-top predator) of a wetland ecosystem. We investigated whether metal concentrations in the sediment are reflected in terrestrial arthropods and aquatic plants. We sampled the floating-leaved plant Trapa japonica; its species-specific primary consumer, the leaf beetle Galerucella nipponensis; and two predatory arthropods (the water strider Gerris sp. and the wolf spider Arctosa sp.) from three wetlands with different sedimentary metal concentrations. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N signatures in the trophic link between the plants and the leaf beetles supported the specificity of their feeding relationship. The stable isotope signatures indicate that the leaf beetle could be an important link in the trophic transfer of the metals. Transference factors (TFs) were <1 for Pb in all trophic links, and concentrations in the organisms were negatively correlated with the trophic levels. There was no evidence of Pb biomagnification in the food chain. Cu and Zn had TF >1 for all biota, and the concentrations were positively correlated with the trophic levels. Thus, there may be Cu and Zn biomagnification in the arthropods. We noted TF <1 for Cd between the plants and the leaf beetles, but TF was >1 among the arthropods. Therefore, Cd is probably not biomagnified between T. japonica and G. nipponensis, but it might be biomagnified in the arthropods. The metal burden in terrestrial arthropods may also be influenced by uptake from the sediment by aquatic plants.

  3. Interactive effects of chronic waterborne copper and cadmium exposure on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Driessnack, Melissa K; Matthews, Amber L; Raine, Jason C; Niyogi, Som

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the interactive effects of chronic waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Trios (1 male: 2 female; n=5) of fish were exposed for 21days to: (i) control (no added Cu or Cd), (ii) waterborne Cu (75μg/L), (iii) waterborne Cd (5μg/L), and (iv) Cu and Cd mixture (75 and 5μg/L, respectively). Reproductive output (cumulative egg production) was significantly reduced by Cu but not by Cd. Interestingly however, no spawning occurred in fish exposed to the mixture of waterborne Cu and Cd. In general, both Cu and Cd accumulation in target tissues (gill, liver, gonad and carcass) increased significantly in fish exposed to Cu and Cd mixture, and no interaction between Cu and Cd accumulation was observed in any tissues, except in the liver where Cu accumulation was significantly reduced by Cd. The expression of female hepatic estrogen receptor genes (ER-α and ER-β) was most significantly elevated in fish exposed to Cu and Cd mixture, whereas vitellogenin gene expression was reduced maximally in the same exposure. Similarly, the hepatic expression of the metallothionein gene was most significantly upregulated in fish exposed to Cu and Cd mixture. Moreover, the circulating estradiol level in females was significantly decreased only during the co-exposure of waterborne Cu and Cd. Overall, the present study indicates that the interaction of chronic waterborne Cu and Cd exposure may elicit greater than additive effect on reproductive output in fish. PMID:26498072

  4. Ultramicro analysis for copper, cadmium, and zinc in human liver tissue by use of atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the heated graphite tube atomizer.

    PubMed

    Evenson, M A; Anderson, C T

    1975-04-01

    We describe a method of analysis for copper, cadmium, and zinc in a 15-mg (wet weight) sample of human liver by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The sample is digested with nitric acid (1.0 mol/liter), evaporated, and dilute HNO3 (10 mmol/liter) added. The reconstituted acid mixture is injected into the graphite tube atomizer for analysis of Cu and Cd and aspirated into the air--acetylene flame for measurement of Zn. The absorbance for each metal is suppressed with increasing pH. NaNO3, KNO3, KCl, and NaCl (e.g.) quench the Cd absorbance in acid solutions that contain no protein, but not in the presence of protein. Metal ions added to the predigestion human liver sample at 10 percent and 100 percent of the intrinsic metal concentrations were, respectively, 93 percent and 90 percent accounted for analytically in the case of Cu, 98 percent and 102 percent for Zn, and 101 percent and 93 percent for Cd. Analysis of a National Bureau of Standards' Bovine Liver Standard Reference Material yielded results corresponding to 99 percent (Cu), 112 percent (Zn), and 91 percent (Cd) of the mean expected concentrations of these metals. The between-run coefficient of variation for the bovine liver material was 6 percent for Cu, 9 percent for Zn, and 10 percent for Cd. For 16 histologically normal samples of human liver, the mean values were: Cu, 26; Zn, 293; and Cd, 6.0 nanograms of metal per milligram dry weight, in agreement with values published previously. The method can be easily and reliably applied to small samples of liver obtained by closed-needle biopsy.

  5. Leaching of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc from two slag dumps with different environmental exposure periods under dynamic acidic condition.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhisheng; Liu, Taoze; Yang, Yuangen; Jackson, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few decades, zinc smelting activities in Guizhou, China have produced numerous slag dumps, which are often dispersed on roadsides and hill slopes throughout the region. During periods of acid rain, these exposed slags release heavy metals into surface water bodies. A column leaching study was designed to test the potential release of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) under simulated acid rain events. Two slags with varying environmental exposure periods were packed in columns and subjected to leaching solutions of pH 3.5, 5.5, or DI H2O at intervals of 1, 7, 14, 28, 56d. Pulse concentrations of Cd in leachate were found above 5μg/L, Cr, Pb, and Zn >10μg/L, whereas, Cu reached 10μg/L. After five leaching events, the leachability (percentage of cumulative heavy metal leached after five leaching events as in its respective total concentration in slags) of Cd was 0.05 percent and 0.035 percent from the old and young slag, respectively. Cr (0.035 percent and 0.05 percent) was greater than Cu (0.002 percent and 0.005 percent) and Zn (0.006 percent and 0.003 percent), while the lowest leachability was observed for Pb (0.0005 percent and 0.0002 percent) from the old and young slags, respectively. Reaction rates (release amount of heavy metals in certain period of leaching) of heavy metals in the leachates demonstrated the sequence of Zn>Cr>Cd, Cu>Pb. Leaching release of heavy metals was jointly affected by the pH of leaching solution and mineral composition of slags (including chemical forms of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn). Environmental exposure period of slags, resulting in the alteration of minerals, could affect the release process of heavy metals in leaching as well.

  6. Uptake of Cadmium, Copper, Lead, and Zinc from Sediments by an Aquatic Macrophyte and by Terrestrial Arthropods in a Freshwater Wetland Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung-Tae; Kim, Jae Geun

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate trace-metal [cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn)] biotransference and biomagnification in terrestrial biota at different trophic levels (primary producer-top predator) of a wetland ecosystem. We investigated whether metal concentrations in the sediment are reflected in terrestrial arthropods and aquatic plants. We sampled the floating-leaved plant Trapa japonica; its species-specific primary consumer, the leaf beetle Galerucella nipponensis; and two predatory arthropods (the water strider Gerris sp. and the wolf spider Arctosa sp.) from three wetlands with different sedimentary metal concentrations. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N signatures in the trophic link between the plants and the leaf beetles supported the specificity of their feeding relationship. The stable isotope signatures indicate that the leaf beetle could be an important link in the trophic transfer of the metals. Transference factors (TFs) were <1 for Pb in all trophic links, and concentrations in the organisms were negatively correlated with the trophic levels. There was no evidence of Pb biomagnification in the food chain. Cu and Zn had TF >1 for all biota, and the concentrations were positively correlated with the trophic levels. Thus, there may be Cu and Zn biomagnification in the arthropods. We noted TF <1 for Cd between the plants and the leaf beetles, but TF was >1 among the arthropods. Therefore, Cd is probably not biomagnified between T. japonica and G. nipponensis, but it might be biomagnified in the arthropods. The metal burden in terrestrial arthropods may also be influenced by uptake from the sediment by aquatic plants. PMID:27306449

  7. Development of a water-effect ratio for copper, cadmium, and lead for the Great Works River in Maine using Ceriodaphnia dubia and Salvelinus fontinalis

    SciTech Connect

    Jop, K.M.; Askew, A.M.; Foster, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    The control of chemicals discharged to suface waters of the United States is an important objective of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) as specified by the Clean Water Act. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommends a combination of chemical-specific and whole-effluent toxicity limits in NPDES permits to accomplish this objective. The requirements for toxicity testing and whole effluent toxicity limitations in NPDES permits are based on the narrative toxicity water quality standards, and, in some cases, numerical toxicity standards present in EPA regulations. Because national water quality criteria were developed to protect the biological integrity of all surface waters in the US, they may require modification for site-specific applications. As an alternative to national criteria, site-specific criteria can be tailored specifically to the local ecosystem. Site-specific factors like chemical quality of receiving water, flow, temperature and species composition play a major role in developing alternative discharge limits. The hazard posed by a chemical when released to wastewater and consequently to a receiving system is a function of concentration, bioavailability and influence of site conditions. The site-specific evaluation of toxicity of a chemical combines a knowledge of the properties which influence the behavior of a chemical such as partitioning, chelation, speciation, adsorption to solids, and interaction with other chemicals present in the matrix and an understanding of the toxicity of the chemical and its potential for bioaccumulation. The primary objective of this study was to develop water effect-ratios for cadmium, copper and lead which can be used to derive site-specific water quality criteria for process water discharged from a metal finishing plant. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Interactive effects of chronic waterborne copper and cadmium exposure on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Driessnack, Melissa K; Matthews, Amber L; Raine, Jason C; Niyogi, Som

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the interactive effects of chronic waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproduction in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Trios (1 male: 2 female; n=5) of fish were exposed for 21days to: (i) control (no added Cu or Cd), (ii) waterborne Cu (75μg/L), (iii) waterborne Cd (5μg/L), and (iv) Cu and Cd mixture (75 and 5μg/L, respectively). Reproductive output (cumulative egg production) was significantly reduced by Cu but not by Cd. Interestingly however, no spawning occurred in fish exposed to the mixture of waterborne Cu and Cd. In general, both Cu and Cd accumulation in target tissues (gill, liver, gonad and carcass) increased significantly in fish exposed to Cu and Cd mixture, and no interaction between Cu and Cd accumulation was observed in any tissues, except in the liver where Cu accumulation was significantly reduced by Cd. The expression of female hepatic estrogen receptor genes (ER-α and ER-β) was most significantly elevated in fish exposed to Cu and Cd mixture, whereas vitellogenin gene expression was reduced maximally in the same exposure. Similarly, the hepatic expression of the metallothionein gene was most significantly upregulated in fish exposed to Cu and Cd mixture. Moreover, the circulating estradiol level in females was significantly decreased only during the co-exposure of waterborne Cu and Cd. Overall, the present study indicates that the interaction of chronic waterborne Cu and Cd exposure may elicit greater than additive effect on reproductive output in fish.

  9. Bioaccumulation and Tissue Distribution of Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper and Zinc in Crassostrea virginica Grown at Two Different Depths in Jamaica Bay, New York.

    PubMed

    Rodney, Eric; Herrera, Pedro; Luxama, Juan; Boykin, Mark; Crawford, Alisa; Carroll, Margaret A; Catapane, Edward J

    2007-01-01

    Historically, Jamaica Bay was a site of extensive oyster beds and shellfish culture leases that supported a significant oyster fishery in the New York area. The industrial and urban expansion of the early 1900's led to over-harvesting and a deterioration in water and bay sediment quality that coincided with shellfish decline and the ultimate disappearance of oysters from the bay. Over the past 50 years, efforts to arrest and reverse the pollution problems of Jamaica Bay have been undertaken but the area still contains metals and other pollutants at levels higher than NYS Water Quality Standards. Previous we showed that Crassostrea virginica seed transplanted to the bay had excellent growth and survival despite the bay's pollution problems. In this study we measured the one-year bioaccumulation and tissue distribution of four metals in C. virginica seed that were transplanted to the bay at two different depths: one foot from the surface and one foot above the sediment. Tissues of C. virginica were dissected, dried and digested in nitric acid. Arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc levels were measured using electrothermal vaporization with deuterium lamp background correction in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer fitted with a THGA graphite furnace. Metals were distributed in the various tissues in μg/g dry weight amounts, which correlate well with published values for whole oysters grown in other polluted areas. Metal distributions were not homogeneous throughout the animals and in most of the tissues tested, oysters grown near the surface accumulated more metal than those positioned near bay sediment. PMID:21841973

  10. Bioaccumulation and Tissue Distribution of Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper and Zinc in Crassostrea virginica Grown at Two Different Depths in Jamaica Bay, New York

    PubMed Central

    Rodney, Eric; Herrera, Pedro; Luxama, Juan; Boykin, Mark; Crawford, Alisa; Carroll, Margaret A.; Catapane, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, Jamaica Bay was a site of extensive oyster beds and shellfish culture leases that supported a significant oyster fishery in the New York area. The industrial and urban expansion of the early 1900’s led to over-harvesting and a deterioration in water and bay sediment quality that coincided with shellfish decline and the ultimate disappearance of oysters from the bay. Over the past 50 years, efforts to arrest and reverse the pollution problems of Jamaica Bay have been undertaken but the area still contains metals and other pollutants at levels higher than NYS Water Quality Standards. Previous we showed that Crassostrea virginica seed transplanted to the bay had excellent growth and survival despite the bay’s pollution problems. In this study we measured the one-year bioaccumulation and tissue distribution of four metals in C. virginica seed that were transplanted to the bay at two different depths: one foot from the surface and one foot above the sediment. Tissues of C. virginica were dissected, dried and digested in nitric acid. Arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc levels were measured using electrothermal vaporization with deuterium lamp background correction in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer fitted with a THGA graphite furnace. Metals were distributed in the various tissues in μg/g dry weight amounts, which correlate well with published values for whole oysters grown in other polluted areas. Metal distributions were not homogeneous throughout the animals and in most of the tissues tested, oysters grown near the surface accumulated more metal than those positioned near bay sediment. PMID:21841973

  11. Acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3 prime -dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol to juvenile grass shrimp and killifish

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.T.; Fisher, D.J. )

    1990-05-01

    The acute toxicity of several compounds was investigated while performing a toxicity evaluation of a complex chemical effluent. The tests were conducted for one or more of the following reasons: (1) data were not available for the chemical; (2) data were not available for the species; or (3) data were not available for the juvenile life stage of the species. Forty-eight hour acute toxicity tests were run on juvenile grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) and juvenile killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to the following compounds: cadmium, copper, zinc, ammonia, 3,3{prime}-dichlorobenzidine, 2,6-dichloro-4-nitroaniline, methylene chloride (dichloromethane) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

  12. Silencing the Menkes Copper-Transporting ATPase (Atp7a) Gene in Rat Intestinal Epithelial (IEC-6) Cells Increases Iron Flux via Transcriptional Induction of Ferroportin 1 (Fpn1)123

    PubMed Central

    Gulec, Sukru; Collins, James F.

    2014-01-01

    The Menkes copper-transporting ATPase (Atp7a) gene is induced in rat duodenum during iron deficiency, consistent with copper accumulation in the intestinal mucosa and liver. To test the hypothesis that ATP7A influences intestinal iron metabolism, the Atp7a gene was silenced in rat intestinal epithelial (IEC-6) cells using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) technology. Perturbations in intracellular copper homeostasis were noted in knockdown cells, consistent with the dual roles of ATP7A in pumping copper into the trans-Golgi (for cuproenzyme synthesis) and exporting copper from cells. Intracellular iron concentrations were unaffected by Atp7a knockdown. Unexpectedly, however, vectorial iron (59Fe) transport increased (∼33%) in knockdown cells grown in bicameral inserts and increased further (∼70%) by iron deprivation (compared with negative control shRNA-transfected cells). Additional experiments were designed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of increased transepithelial iron flux. Enhanced iron uptake by knockdown cells was associated with increased expression of a ferrireductase (duodenal cytochrome b) and activity of a cell-surface ferrireductase. Increased iron efflux from knockdown cells was likely mediated via transcriptional activation of the ferroportin 1 gene (by an unknown mechanism). Moreover, Atp7a knockdown significantly attenuated expression of an iron oxidase [hephaestin (HEPH); by ∼80%] and membrane ferroxidase activity (by ∼50%). Cytosolic ferroxidase activity, however, was retained in knockdown cells (75% of control cells), perhaps compensating for diminished HEPH activity. This investigation has thus documented alterations in iron homeostasis associated with Atp7a knockdown in enterocyte-like cells. Alterations in copper transport, trafficking, or distribution may underlie the increase in transepithelial iron flux noted when ATP7A activity is diminished. PMID:24174620

  13. Correlation of erythrocyte and plasma levels of zinc, copper, and iron with evidence of metastatic spread in cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Gorodetsky, R.; Fuks, Z.; Sulkes, A.; Ginsburg, H.; Weshler, Z.

    1985-02-15

    The level of plasma copper (Cu-Pl) and zinc (Zn-Pl) and the level of erythrocyte iron (Fe-RBC), copper (Cu-RBC), and zinc (Zn-RBC) were determined in the blood of 70 normal donors and 138 patients with various solid tumors by diagnostic x-ray spectrometry (DXS), a technique based on x-ray fluorescence spectrometry analysis. There were no significant changes in the mean values of Zn-Pl, Fe-RBC, and Cu-RBC in the patients when compared with those of normal donors. The mean level of Cu-Pl in the normal donors was 1.34 +/- 0.37 micrograms/ml; it was significantly increased in the patients, ranging between 1.47 +/- 0.34 micrograms/ml for patients without evidence of active cancer (NED) and 1.91 +/- 0.76 micrograms/ml for patients with hepatic metastases. The most significant change observed was an increase in the Zn-RBC found in the patients with clinical evidence of metastatic spread. Whereas the Zn-RBC level in the normal donors was 9.85 +/- 1.47 micrograms/g wet weight, and not significantly elevated in the NED patients, it was elevated to values of 11.37 +/- 1.55 micrograms/g (P less than 0.004) for patients with soft tissue and hepatic metastases and was 12.34 +/- 1.65 micrograms/g (P less than 0.001) for patients with bone metastases. The data suggest a clear correlation between Zn-RBC and metastatic spread in nonlymphomatous human cancer.

  14. Correlation of erythrocyte and plasma levels of zinc, copper, and iron with evidence of metastatic spread in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gorodetsky, R; Fuks, Z; Sulkes, A; Ginsburg, H; Weshler, Z

    1985-02-15

    The level of plasma copper (Cu-Pl) and zinc (Zn-Pl) and the level of erythrocyte iron (Fe-RBC), copper (Cu-RBC), and zinc (Zn-RBC) were determined in the blood of 70 normal donors and 138 patients with various solid tumors by diagnostic x-ray spectrometry (DXS), a technique based on x-ray fluorescence spectrometry analysis. There were no significant changes in the mean values of Zn-Pl, Fe-RBC, and Cu-RBC in the patients when compared with those of normal donors. The mean level of Cu-Pl in the normal donors was 1.34 +/- 0.37 micrograms/ml; it was significantly increased in the patients, ranging between 1.47 +/- 0.34 micrograms/ml for patients without evidence of active cancer (NED) and 1.91 +/- 0.76 micrograms/ml for patients with hepatic metastases. The most significant change observed was an increase in the Zn-RBC found in the patients with clinical evidence of metastatic spread. Whereas the Zn-RBC level in the normal donors was 9.85 +/- 1.47 micrograms/g wet weight, and not significantly elevated in the NED patients, it was elevated to values of 11.37 +/- 1.55 micrograms/g (P less than 0.004) for patients with soft tissue and hepatic metastases and was 12.34 +/- 1.65 micrograms/g (P less than 0.001) for patients with bone metastases. The data suggest a clear correlation between Zn-RBC and metastatic spread in nonlymphomatous human cancer.

  15. Distribution of Precious Metals (Ag, Au, Pd, Pt, and Rh) Between Copper Matte and Iron Silicate Slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avarmaa, Katri; Johto, Hannu; Taskinen, Pekka

    2016-02-01

    The distributions of precious metals (Ag, Au, Pd, Pt, and Rh) between copper matte and silica-saturated iron silicate slag were determined at 1523 K to 1623 K (1250 °C to 1350 °C), in controlled CO-CO2-SO2-Ar gas mixtures. The experiments were done in silica crucibles and a fixed partial pressure of sulfur dioxide for matte grades of 55, 65, and 75 wt pct Cu. High-temperature equilibration/quenching/electron probe X-ray microanalysis technique was used to obtain compositions of the equilibrated matte and slag. The technique was applied for the first time to the distributions of precious metals in simulated flash smelting conditions. The resolution of electron probe microanalysis became critical as the detection limits were insufficient to measure reliably the precious metals concentrations (except silver) in the slag. The distribution coefficient of silver, L m/s[Ag] = [wt pctAg in matte]/(wt pctAg in slag), was found to be between 200 and 300, which agrees well with the latest studies in the literature. For other precious metals, the minimum values of distribution coefficients were determined according to the detection limits in the slag. The values obtained were for gold and platinum >250, for palladium >1000, and for rhodium >900. The distribution coefficients of palladium, although locating above distribution coefficient of the detection limit, formed a clear dependency with a good repeatability as a function of the matte grade. It increased along with matte grade and was approximately 1000 at 50 pct Cu and 2000 to 3000 at 70 pct Cu. The precious metals replace metal in the matte structure and they are present as sulfides in the copper matte.

  16. Copper stable isotopes as tracers of metal-sulphide segregation and fractional crystallisation processes on iron meteorite parent bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Helen M.; Archer, Corey

    2011-06-01

    We report high precision Cu isotope data coupled with Cu concentration measurements for metal, troilite and silicate fractions separated from magmatic and non-magmatic iron meteorites, analysed for Fe isotopes (δ 57Fe; permil deviation in 57Fe/ 54Fe relative to the pure iron standard IRMM-014) in an earlier study ( Williams et al., 2006). The Cu isotope compositions (δ 65Cu; permil deviation in 65Cu/ 63Cu relative to the pure copper standard NIST 976) of both metals (δ 65Cu M) and sulphides (δ 65Cu FeS) span much wider ranges (-9.30 to 0.99‰ and -8.90 to 0.63‰, respectively) than reported previously. Metal-troilite fractionation factors (Δ 65Cu M-FeS = δ 65Cu M - δ 65Cu FeS) are variable, ranging from -0.07 to 5.28‰, and cannot be explained by equilibrium stable isotope fractionation coupled with either mixing or reservoir effects, i.e. differences in the relative proportions of metal and sulphide in the meteorites. Strong negative correlations exist between troilite Cu and Fe (δ 57Fe FeS) isotope compositions and between metal-troilite Cu and Fe (Δ 57Fe M-FeS) isotope fractionation factors, for both magmatic and non-magmatic irons, which suggests that similar processes control isotopic variations in both systems. Clear linear arrays between δ 65Cu FeS and δ 57Fe FeS and calculated Cu metal-sulphide partition coefficients (D Cu = [Cu] metal/[Cu] FeS) are also present. A strong negative correlation exists between Δ 57Fe M-FeS and D Cu; a more diffuse positive array is defined by Δ 65Cu M-FeS and D Cu. The value of D Cu can be used to approximate the degree of Cu concentration equilibrium as experimental studies constrain the range of D Cu between Fe metal and FeS at equilibrium to be in the range of 0.05-0.2; D Cu values for the magmatic and non-magmatic irons studied here range from 0.34 to 1.11 and from 0.04 to 0.87, respectively. The irons with low D Cu values (closer to Cu concentration equilibrium) display the largest Δ 57Fe M-FeS and the

  17. Estimating historical respirable crystalline silica exposures for Chinese pottery workers and iron/copper, tin, and tungsten miners.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Z; Hearl, F J; Odencrantz, J; Chen, W; Chen, B T; Chen, J Q; McCawley, M A; Gao, P; Soderholm, S C

    2001-11-01

    Collaborative studies of Chinese workers, using over four decades of dust monitoring data, are being conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Tongji Medical University in China. The goal of these projects is to establish exposure-response relationships for the development of diseases such as silicosis or lung cancer in cohorts of pottery and mine workers. It is necessary to convert Chinese dust measurements to respirable silica measurements in order to make results from the Chinese data comparable to other results in the literature. This article describes the development of conversion factors and estimates of historical respirable crystalline silica exposure for Chinese workers. Ambient total dust concentrations (n>17000) and crystalline silica concentrations (n=347) in bulk dust were first gathered from historical industrial hygiene records. Analysis of the silica content in historical bulk samples revealed no trend from 1950 up to the present. During 1988-1989, side-by-side airborne dust samples (n=143 pairs) were collected using nylon cyclones and traditional Chinese samplers in 20 metal mines and nine pottery factories in China. These data were used to establish conversion factors between respirable crystalline silica concentrations and Chinese total dust concentrations. Based on the analysis of the available evidence, conversion factors derived from the 1988-1989 sampling campaign are assumed to apply to other time periods in this paper. The conversion factors were estimated to be 0.0143 for iron/copper, 0.0355 for pottery factories, 0.0429 for tin mines, and 0.0861 for tungsten mines. Conversion factors for individual facilities within each industry were also calculated. Analysis of variance revealed that mean conversion factors are significantly different among facilities within the iron/copper industry and within the pottery industry. The relative merits of using facility-specific conversion factors, industry

  18. Zinc, cadmium, and copper mobility and accumulation in reeds (Phragmites australis) in urban sediments from two stormwater infiltration basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedell, J.-P.; Saulais, S.; Delolme, C.

    2012-04-01

    organic matter and metals than "Minerve". For example, Zn contents are equal to 400 mg/kgDW in "Grézieu" whereas it is equal to 80 mg/kgDW in "Minerve". In the most contaminated basin "Grézieu", metals mobility is mainly controlled by their association with carbonates and organic matter. Thus, copper associated with organic matter may represent almost 70% of the total copper content. In the "Minerve" sediment, the metals are distributed on the different sediment components, with very stable associations on the different mineral phases. The reed accumulates more metal in the context of the most contaminated basin (Grézieu), but without any differences in bioconcentration factors. The high metal contents in "Grézieu" sediments limited also the growth of reed. Moreover, for "Grézieu" sediment, characteristics evolve with the seasons. Thus, texture decreases from June to December in parallel with an increase in organic matter and metals in the sediment deposit.

  19. Environmental hazard of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in metal-contaminated soils remediated by sulfosuccinamate formulation.

    PubMed

    del Carmen Hernández-Soriano, Maria; Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, M Dolores

    2011-10-01

    Accumulation of metals in soil at elevated concentrations causes risks to the environmental quality and human health for more than one hundred million people globally. The rate of metal release and the alteration of metal distribution in soil phases after soil washing with a sulfosuccinamate surfactant solution (Aerosol 22) were evaluated for four contaminated soils. Furthermore, a sequential extraction scheme was carried out using selective extractants (HAcO, NH(2)OH·HCl, H(2)O(2) + NH(4)AcO) to evaluate which metal species are extracted by A22 and the alteration in metal distribution upon surfactant-washing. Efficiency of A22 to remove metals varied among soils. The washing treatment released up to 50% of Cd, 40% of Cu, 20% of Pb and 12% of Zn, mainly from the soluble and reducible soil fractions, therefore, greatly reducing the fraction of metals readily available in soil. Metal speciation analysis for the solutions collected upon soil washing with Aerosol 22 further confirmed these results. Copper and lead in solution were mostly present as soluble complexes, while Cd and Zn were present as free ions. Besides, redistribution of metals in soil was observed upon washing. The ratios of Zn strongly retained in the soil matrix and Cd complexed with organic ligands increased. Lead was mobilized to more weakly retained forms, which indicates a high bioavailability of the remaining Pb in soil after washing. Comprehensive knowledge on chemical forms of metals present in soil allows a feasible assessment of the environmental impact of metals for a given scenario, as well as possible alteration of environmental conditions, and a valuable prediction for potential leaching and groundwater contamination.

  20. Ascorbic acid in human seminal plasma is protected from iron-mediated oxidation, but is potentially exposed to copper-induced damage.

    PubMed

    Menditto, A; Pietraforte, D; Minetti, M

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the interaction of endogenous ascorbate with iron and copper ions in aerobic seminal plasma. The rate of ascorbate consumption was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and by the concentration of its primary oxidation product, ascorbyl radical (Asc.-) detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The modification in the levels of Asc.- was used to investigate non-invasively and in real time whether metal ions, either present in this fluid or exogenously added, were catalytically active. The Asc.- was detected in seminal plasma as well as in whole semen of all subjects and was unaffected by superoxide dismutase, catalase or metal chelators. These findings and the rapid decrease of Asc.- under nitrogen suggest that Asc.- is probably a result of non-metal-catalysed air auto-oxidation, a reaction generating low levels of reactive oxygen species. Loading of seminal plasma with either Fe2+ or Fe3+ up to a concentration of 50 microM did not increase, or increased only slightly, the rate of ascorbate oxidation. Taking into consideration the concentrations of iron-binding proteins in this fluid, these results suggest that seminal plasma possesses a 'physiological ligand(s)' able to maintain iron ions in a catalytically inactive form. Our results indicate that citrate, which is present in seminal plasma at very high concentrations (10-25 mM), is responsible for the inhibition of iron-dependent catalysis. On the contrary, the loss of ascorbate and the levels of Asc.- were significantly increased by the addition of physiologically relevant concentrations (1 microM) of copper ions (Cu2+ but especially Cu+). We suggest that seminal plasma is potentially exposed to copper-mediated oxidation, a finding that could be of importance in situations of increased copper-loading such as in some pathological conditions or in smoking subjects.

  1. Specific Inhibition of NEIL-initiated repair of oxidized base damage in human genome by copper and iron: potential etiological linkage to neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Muralidhar L; Hegde, Pavana M; Holthauzen, Luis M F; Hazra, Tapas K; Rao, K S Jagannatha; Mitra, Sankar

    2010-09-10

    Dyshomeostasis of transition metals iron and copper as well as accumulation of oxidative DNA damage have been implicated in multitude of human neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease. These metals oxidize DNA bases by generating reactive oxygen species. Most oxidized bases in mammalian genomes are repaired via the base excision repair pathway, initiated with one of four major DNA glycosylases: NTH1 or OGG1 (of the Nth family) or NEIL1 or NEIL2 (of the Nei family). Here we show that Fe(II/III) and Cu(II) at physiological levels bind to NEIL1 and NEIL2 to alter their secondary structure and strongly inhibit repair of mutagenic 5-hydroxyuracil, a common cytosine oxidation product, both in vitro and in neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell extract by affecting the base excision and AP lyase activities of NEILs. The specificity of iron/copper inhibition of NEILs is indicated by a lack of similar inhibition of OGG1, which also indicated that the inhibition is due to metal binding to the enzymes and not DNA. Fluorescence and surface plasmon resonance studies show submicromolar binding of copper/iron to NEILs but not OGG1. Furthermore, Fe(II) inhibits the interaction of NEIL1 with downstream base excision repair proteins DNA polymerase beta and flap endonuclease-1 by 4-6-fold. These results indicate that iron/copper overload in the neurodegenerative diseases could act as a double-edged sword by both increasing oxidative genome damage and preventing their repair. Interestingly, specific chelators, including the natural chemopreventive compound curcumin, reverse the inhibition of NEILs both in vitro and in cells, suggesting their therapeutic potential. PMID:20622253

  2. Nickel-cobalt-iron-copper sulfides and arsenides in solution-collapse breccia pipes, northwestern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Wenrich, K.J. ); Hlava, P.F. )

    1993-04-01

    An extensive suite of Ni-Co-Fe-Cu sulfides and arsenides lies within the matrix of solution-collapse breccias buried deep within the plateaus of the Grand Canyon region. Ceilings over large caverns in the Redwall collapsed, brecciating the overlying sandstone and forming cylindrical breccia pipes up to 300 ft in diameter that extend vertically as much as 3,000 ft. These highly permeable breccias served as a host for the precipitation of a suite of over 100 minerals, including uraninite, sphalerite, galena and various copper phases, in addition to the Ni-Co-bearing-phase discussed here. Intricately zoned crystals of small (<1 mm), euhedral Ni-Co-Fe-As-S minerals were the first to form during the second major episode of mineralization in these pipes. Several of these phases replace minerals, such as barite and anhydrite, from the first episode. Extensive microprobe work has been done on samples from two breccia pipe mines, the Hack 2 and Orphan, which are about 50 miles apart. Mineral compositions are similar except that no copper is found in the Ni-Co-Fe phases from the Hack 2 mine, while pyrites containing 1 wt % Cu are common from the Orphan, which was mined for copper. In some of these pyrites', Cu is dominant and the mineral is actually villamaninite. Pyrites from both mines characteristically contain 0.5 to 3 wt % As. Metal contents in zones pyrite-bravoite-vaesite (M[sub 1]S[sub 2]) crystals at the Hack 2 mine range from Fe[sub 1] to Fe[sub .12], Ni[sub 0] to Ni[sub .86], and Co[sub 0] to Co[sub .10]. The metal content for polydymite-siegenite-violarite averages about (Ni[sub 2.33]Co[sub .39]Fe[sub .23])(S[sub 3.9]As[sub .1]). Orphan mine pyrite-bravoite-vaesite-villamaninite ranges in composition from pure FeS[sub 2] to (Ni[sub .6]Fe[sub .21]Co[sub .17])S[sub 2], and (Cu[sub .46]Ni[sub .27]Fe[sub .21]Co[sub .13])S[sub 2]. Of all the sulfides or arsenides found in these breccia pipes, only nickeline consistently occurs as the pure end member.

  3. Reaction Mechanisms of Metals with Hydrogen Sulfide and Thiols in Model Wine. Part 2: Iron- and Copper-Catalyzed Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kreitman, Gal Y; Danilewicz, John C; Jeffery, David W; Elias, Ryan J

    2016-05-25

    Sulfidic off-odors arising during wine production are frequently removed by Cu(II) fining. In part 1 of this study ( 10.1021/acs.jafc.6b00641 ), the reaction of H2S and thiols with Cu(II) was examined; however, the interaction of iron and copper is also known to play an important synergistic role in mediating non-enzymatic wine oxidation. The interaction of these two metals in the oxidation of H2S and thiols (cysteine, 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, and 6-sulfanylhexan-1-ol) was therefore examined under wine-like conditions. H2S and thiols (300 μM) were reacted with Fe(III) (100 or 200 μM) alone and in combination with Cu(II) (25 or 50 μM), and concentrations of H2S and thiols, oxygen, and acetaldehyde were monitored over time. H2S and thiols were shown to be slowly oxidized in the presence of Fe(III) alone and were not bound to Fe(III) under model wine conditions. However, Cu(II) added to model wine containing Fe(III) was quickly reduced by H2S and thiols to form Cu(I) complexes, which then rapidly reduced Fe(III) to Fe(II). Oxidation of Fe(II) in the presence of oxygen regenerated Fe(III) and completed the iron redox cycle. In addition, sulfur-derived oxidation products were observed, and the formation of organic polysulfanes was demonstrated. PMID:27133088

  4. Mineral commodity profiles: Cadmium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butterman, W.C.; Plachy, Jozef

    2004-01-01

    Overview -- Cadmium is a soft, low-melting-point metal that has many uses. It is similar in abundance to antimony and bismuth and is the 63d element in order of crustal abundance. Cadmium is associated in nature with zinc (and, less closely, with lead and copper) and is extracted mainly as a byproduct of the mining and processing of zinc. In 2000, it was refined in 27 countries, of which the 8 largest accounted for two-thirds of world production. The United States was the third largest refiner after Japan and China. World production in 2000 was 19,700 metric tons (t) and U.S. production was 1,890 t. In the United States, one company in Illinois and another in Tennessee refined primary cadmium. A Pennsylvania company recovered cadmium from scrap, mainly spent nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries. The supply of cadmium in the world and in the United States appears to be adequate to meet future industrial needs; the United States has about 23 percent of the world reserve base.

  5. Fast ultrasound-assisted extraction of copper, iron, manganese and zinc from human hair samples prior to flow injection flame atomic absorption spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Yebra-Biurrun, M C; Cespón-Romero, R M

    2007-06-01

    A dynamic ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure utilizing diluted nitric acid was developed for the determination of copper, iron, manganese and zinc in human hair taken from workers in permanent contact with a polluted environment. The extraction unit of the dynamic ultrasound-assisted extraction system contains a minicolumn into which a specified amount of hair (5-50 mg) is placed. Once inserted into the continuous manifold, trace metals were extracted at 3 mL min(-1) with 3 mol L(-1) nitric acid under the action of ultrasound for 2 min for zinc and 3 min for copper, iron and manganese determination, and using an ultrasonic water-bath temperature of 70 degrees C for zinc and 80 degrees C for copper, iron and manganese determination. The system permits the direct analysis of hair and yields concentrations with relative standard deviations of <3% (n = 11). The applicability of the procedure was verified by analysing human hair samples from workers exposed to welding fumes, and its accuracy was assessed through comparison with a conventional sample dissolution procedure and the use of a certified reference material (BCR 397, human hair).

  6. Direct Synthesis of Novel and Reactive Sulfide-modified Nano Iron through Nanoparticle Seeding for Improved Cadmium-Contaminated Water Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yiming; Adeleye, Adeyemi S.; Huang, Yuxiong; Zhou, Xuefei; Keller, Arturo A.; Zhang, Yalei

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic sulfide-modified nanoscale zerovalent iron (S-nZVI) is of great technical and scientific interest because of its promising application in groundwater remediation, although its synthesis is still a challenge. We develop a new nanoparticle seeding method to obtain a novel and reactive nanohybrid, which contains an Fe(0) core covered by a highly sulfidized layer under high extent of sulfidation. Syntheses monitoring experiments show that seeding accelerates the reduction rate from Fe2+ to Fe0 by 19%. X-ray adsorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analyses demonstrate the hexahedral Fe-Fe bond (2.45 and 2.83 Å) formation through breaking down of the 1.99 Å Fe-O bond both in crystalline and amorphous iron oxide. The XANES analysis also shows 24.2% (wt%) of FeS with bond length of 2.4 Å in final nanohybrid. Both X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer analyses further confirm that increased nanoparticle seeding results in formation of more Fe0 crystals. Nano-SiO2 seeding brings down the size of single Fe0 grain from 32.4 nm to 18.7 nm, enhances final Fe0 content from 5.9% to 55.6%, and increases magnetization from 4.7 to 65.5 emu/g. The synthesized nanohybrid has high cadmium removal capacity and holds promising prospects for treatment of metal-contaminated water.

  7. Direct Synthesis of Novel and Reactive Sulfide-modified Nano Iron through Nanoparticle Seeding for Improved Cadmium-Contaminated Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yiming; Adeleye, Adeyemi S.; Huang, Yuxiong; Zhou, Xuefei; Keller, Arturo A.; Zhang, Yalei

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic sulfide-modified nanoscale zerovalent iron (S-nZVI) is of great technical and scientific interest because of its promising application in groundwater remediation, although its synthesis is still a challenge. We develop a new nanoparticle seeding method to obtain a novel and reactive nanohybrid, which contains an Fe(0) core covered by a highly sulfidized layer under high extent of sulfidation. Syntheses monitoring experiments show that seeding accelerates the reduction rate from Fe2+ to Fe0 by 19%. X-ray adsorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analyses demonstrate the hexahedral Fe-Fe bond (2.45 and 2.83 Å) formation through breaking down of the 1.99 Å Fe-O bond both in crystalline and amorphous iron oxide. The XANES analysis also shows 24.2% (wt%) of FeS with bond length of 2.4 Å in final nanohybrid. Both X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer analyses further confirm that increased nanoparticle seeding results in formation of more Fe0 crystals. Nano-SiO2 seeding brings down the size of single Fe0 grain from 32.4 nm to 18.7 nm, enhances final Fe0 content from 5.9% to 55.6%, and increases magnetization from 4.7 to 65.5 emu/g. The synthesized nanohybrid has high cadmium removal capacity and holds promising prospects for treatment of metal-contaminated water. PMID:27095387

  8. Direct Synthesis of Novel and Reactive Sulfide-modified Nano Iron through Nanoparticle Seeding for Improved Cadmium-Contaminated Water Treatment.

    PubMed

    Su, Yiming; Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Huang, Yuxiong; Zhou, Xuefei; Keller, Arturo A; Zhang, Yalei

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic sulfide-modified nanoscale zerovalent iron (S-nZVI) is of great technical and scientific interest because of its promising application in groundwater remediation, although its synthesis is still a challenge. We develop a new nanoparticle seeding method to obtain a novel and reactive nanohybrid, which contains an Fe(0) core covered by a highly sulfidized layer under high extent of sulfidation. Syntheses monitoring experiments show that seeding accelerates the reduction rate from Fe(2+) to Fe(0) by 19%. X-ray adsorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analyses demonstrate the hexahedral Fe-Fe bond (2.45 and 2.83 Å) formation through breaking down of the 1.99 Å Fe-O bond both in crystalline and amorphous iron oxide. The XANES analysis also shows 24.2% (wt%) of FeS with bond length of 2.4 Å in final nanohybrid. Both X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer analyses further confirm that increased nanoparticle seeding results in formation of more Fe(0) crystals. Nano-SiO2 seeding brings down the size of single Fe(0) grain from 32.4 nm to 18.7 nm, enhances final Fe(0) content from 5.9% to 55.6%, and increases magnetization from 4.7 to 65.5 emu/g. The synthesized nanohybrid has high cadmium removal capacity and holds promising prospects for treatment of metal-contaminated water. PMID:27095387

  9. Preparation and characterization of iron-copper binary oxide and its effective removal of antimony(III) from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongchao; Geng, Bing; Hu, Xiaoxian; Ren, Bozhi; Hursthouse, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    An Fe-Cu binary oxide was fabricated through a simple co-precipitation process, and was used to remove Sb(III) from aqueous solution. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements demonstrated that the Fe-Cu binary oxide consisted of poorly ordered ferrihydrite and CuO, and its specific surface area was higher than both iron oxide and copper oxide. A comparative test indicated that Fe/Cu molar ratio of prepared binary oxide greatly influenced Sb(III) removal and the optimum Fe/Cu molar ratio was about 3/1. Moreover, a maximum adsorption capacity of 209.23 mg Sb(III)/g Fe-Cu binary oxide at pH 5.0 was obtained. The removal of Sb(III) by Fe-Cu binary oxide followed the Freundlich adsorption isotherm and the pseudo-second-order kinetics in the batch study. The removal of Sb(III) was not sensitive to solution pH. In addition, the release of Fe and Cu ions to water was very low when the pH was greater than 6.0. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the Sb(III) adsorbed on the surface was not oxidized to Sb(V). PMID:27438244

  10. High Levels of Copper, Zinc, Iron and Magnesium, but not Calcium, in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Fahr's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hozumi, Isao; Kohmura, Akihiro; Kimura, Akio; Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Honda, Akiko; Hayashi, Yuichi; Hashimoto, Kazunori; Yamada, Megumi; Sakurai, Takeo; Tanaka, Yuji; Satoh, Masahiko; Inuzuka, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Patients with marked calcification of the basal ganglia and cerebellum have traditionally been referred to as having Fahr's disease, but the nomenclature has been criticized for including heterogeneous etiology. We describe 3 patients with idiopathic bilateral striatopallidodentate calcinosis (IBSPDC). The patients were a 24-year-old man with mental deterioration, a 57-year-old man with parkinsonism and dementia, and a 76-year-old woman with dementia and mild parkinsonism. The former 2 patients showed severe calcification of the basal ganglia and cerebellum, and the latter patient showed severe calcification of the cerebellum. We found significantly increased levels of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and magnesium (Mg), using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the CSF of all these 3 patients. The increased levels of Cu, Zn, Fe and Mg reflect the involvement of metabolism of several metals and/or metal-binding proteins during the progression of IBSPDC. More numerous patients with IBSPDC should be examined in other races to clarify the common mechanism of the disease and to investigate the specific treatment. PMID:20671856

  11. Abundance and Significance of Iron, Zinc, Copper, and Calcium in the Hearts of Patients With Friedreich Ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Pamela C.; Yang, Karl X.; Parsons, Patrick J.; Becker, Alyssa B.; Feustel, Paul J.; Koeppen, Arnulf H.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a frequent cause of death in patients with Friedreich ataxia (FA), and a characteristic pathological feature is the focal accumulation of iron (Fe) in cardiomyocytes. This restricted localization of the metal contrasts with the diffuse cardiac Fe overload in hemochromatosis and transfusion siderosis. Nevertheless, heart Fe in FA contributes to cardiomyocyte necrosis, inflammation, and scarring as the disease progresses. A putative mechanism of cardiomyopathy in FA is Fe-mediated oxidative damage. Two other transition metals zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), are diffusely distributed throughout normal hearts and the hearts of patients with FA. The myocardium in FA is also prone to deposits of calcium in the form of scattered concretions. In this study, heart tissues (left and right ventricular walls and ventricular septum) of 23 patients with genetically confirmed FA and 8 normal controls were obtained at autopsy and analyzed for Fe, Zn, Cu, and calcium. The principal assay methods were inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and plasma mass spectrometry. Total levels of Fe in bulk extracts were not significantly higher than normal, and the concentrations of Zn also remained in the normal range. Cu levels, however, were significantly lower in FA. In conclusion, the decrease of Cu may be important in consideration of the potential benefit of Cu supplements in FA cardiomyopathy. PMID:27189813

  12. Preparation and characterization of iron-copper binary oxide and its effective removal of antimony(III) from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongchao; Geng, Bing; Hu, Xiaoxian; Ren, Bozhi; Hursthouse, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    An Fe-Cu binary oxide was fabricated through a simple co-precipitation process, and was used to remove Sb(III) from aqueous solution. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements demonstrated that the Fe-Cu binary oxide consisted of poorly ordered ferrihydrite and CuO, and its specific surface area was higher than both iron oxide and copper oxide. A comparative test indicated that Fe/Cu molar ratio of prepared binary oxide greatly influenced Sb(III) removal and the optimum Fe/Cu molar ratio was about 3/1. Moreover, a maximum adsorption capacity of 209.23 mg Sb(III)/g Fe-Cu binary oxide at pH 5.0 was obtained. The removal of Sb(III) by Fe-Cu binary oxide followed the Freundlich adsorption isotherm and the pseudo-second-order kinetics in the batch study. The removal of Sb(III) was not sensitive to solution pH. In addition, the release of Fe and Cu ions to water was very low when the pH was greater than 6.0. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the Sb(III) adsorbed on the surface was not oxidized to Sb(V).

  13. Redox-activity and self-organization of iron-porphyrin monolayers at a copper/electrolyte interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Thanh Hai; Wandelt, Klaus

    2015-03-01

    The electrochemical behaviour and molecular structure of a layer of water-soluble 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis-(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)-porphyrin-Fe(III) pentatosylate, abbreviated as FeTMPyP, on a chloride modified Cu(100) electrode surface were investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and in-situ electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy. Voltammetric results of HOPG in an electrolyte containing FeTMPyP molecules indicate three distinguishable redox steps involving both the central iron metal and the π-conjugated ring system. However, only the first two reduction steps are observable within the narrow potential window of CVs of Cu(100) measured in the same electrolyte. In the potential range below the first reduction peak, at which the [FeIIITMPyP]5+ molecules are reduced to the corresponding [FeIITMPyP]4+ species, in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images revealed, for the first time, a highly ordered adlayer of this reduced porphyrin species on the chloride terminated Cu(100) surface. The ordered adlayer exhibits a (quasi)square unit cell with the lattice vectors |a → 2| = |b → 2| = 1 . 53 ± 0 . 1 nm and an angle of 93° ± 2° between them. A model is proposed based on the STM observation illustrating the arrangement of the [FeIITMPyP]4+ molecules at the electrolyte/copper interface.

  14. Interference of nickel with copper and iron homeostasis contributes to metal toxicity symptoms in the nickel hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum inflatum.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Rasoul; Ghaderian, S Majid; Krämer, Ute

    2009-11-01

    The divalent cations of several transition metal elements have similar chemical properties and, when present in excess, one metal can interfere with the homeostasis of another. To better understand the role of interactions between transition metals in the development of metal toxicity symptoms in plants, the effects of exposure to excess nickel (Ni) on copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) homeostasis in the Ni hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum inflatum were examined. Alyssum inflatum was hypertolerant to Ni, but not to Cu. Exposure to elevated subtoxic Ni concentrations increased Cu sensitivity, associated with enhanced Cu accumulation and enhanced root surface Cu(II)-specific reductase activity. Exposure to elevated Ni concentrations resulted in an inhibition of root-to-shoot translocation of Fe and concentration-dependent progressive Fe accumulation in root pericycle, endodermis and cortex cells of the differentiation zone. Shoot Fe concentrations, chlorophyll concentrations and Fe-dependent antioxidant enzyme activities were decreased in Ni-exposed plants when compared with unexposed controls. Foliar Fe spraying or increased Fe supply to roots ameliorated the chlorosis observed under exposure to high Ni concentrations. These results suggest that Ni interferes with Cu regulation and that the disruption of root-to-shoot Fe translocation is a major cause of nickel toxicity symptoms in A. inflatum. PMID:19691676

  15. Solid phase extraction of trace amounts of silver, cadmium, copper, mercury, and lead in various food samples based on ethylene glycol bis-mercaptoacetate modified 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-1-propanethiol coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mashhadizadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Amoli-Diva, Mitra; Shapouri, Mahmoud Reza; Afruzi, Hossein

    2014-05-15

    Extraction, pre-concentration, and determination of trace amounts of silver, cadmium, copper, mercury, and lead from some food samples were investigated by magnetic solid phase extraction using Fe3O4 nanoparticles coated with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-1-propanethiol and modified with ethylene glycol bis-mercaptoacetate as a new adsorbent. SEM, X-ray diffraction, and FT-IR were used to characterise the adsorbent. Metal ions were measured using ICP-OES, except for mercury, which was determined by CV-AAS method. Various factors affecting the extraction and desorption of target metal ions were investigated. 1 mL of 1 mol/L HCl and 5% thiourea was used as eluent. The detection limits of 0.07, 0.06, 0.09, 0.01, and 0.08 ng/mL were obtained for silver, cadmium, copper, mercury, and lead with enrichment factors of 240, 294, 297, 291, and 236, respectively. The method was used for determination of target metal ions in rice, canned tuna fish, and tea leaves. PMID:24423536

  16. Comparison on cellular mechanisms of iron and cadmium accumulation in rice: prospects for cultivating Fe-rich but Cd-free rice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Chang, Jiadong; Chen, Ruijie; Li, Hubo; Lu, Hongfei; Tao, Longxing; Xiong, Jie

    2016-12-01

    Iron (Fe) is essential for rice growth and humans consuming as their staple food but is often deficient because of insoluble Fe(III) in soil for rice growth and limited assimilation for human bodies, while cadmium (Cd) is non-essential and toxic for rice growth and humans if accumulating at high levels. Over-accumulated Cd can cause damage to human bodies. Selecting and breeding Fe-rich but Cd-free rice cultivars are ambitious, challenging and meaningful tasks for researchers. Although evidences show that the mechanisms of Fe/Cd uptake and accumulation in rice are common to some extent as a result of similar entry routes within rice, an increasing number of researchers have discovered distinct mechanisms between Fe/Cd uptake and accumulation in rice. This comprehensive review systematically elaborates and compares cellular mechanisms of Fe/Cd uptake and accumulation in rice, respectively. Mechanisms for maintaining Fe homeostasis and Cd detoxicification are also elucidated. Then, effects of different fertilizer management on Fe/Cd accumulation in rice are discussed. Finally, this review enumerates various approaches for reducing grain Cd accumulation and enhancing Fe content in rice. In summary, understanding of discrepant cellular mechanisms of Fe/Cd accumulation in rice provides guidance for cultivating Fe-fortified rice and has paved the way to develop rice that are tolerant to Cd stress, aiming at breeding Fe-rich but Cd-free rice.

  17. Possible Relationship between Chronic Telogen Effluvium and Changes in Lead, Cadmium, Zinc, and Iron Total Blood Levels in Females: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Aziz, Abeer M; Sh Hamed, Sameera; Gaballah, Mohammad A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Hair loss is a common and distressing problem that can affect both males and females of all ages. Chronic telogen effluvium (CTE) is idiopathic diffuse scalp hair shedding of at least 6 months duration. Hair loss can be one of the symptoms of metal toxicity. Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are highly toxic metals that can cause acute and chronic health problems in human. The aim of the present study is to determine if there is a relationship between these metals and CTE in women and if CTE is also associated with changes in zinc (Zn) or iron (Fe) blood levels. Materials and Methods: Pb, Cd, Fe and Zn total blood levels were determined in 40 female patients fulfilling the criteria of CTH and compared with total blood levels of same elements in 30 well-matched healthy women. Results: Quantitative analysis of total blood Fe, Zn, Pb and Cd revealed that there were no significant differences between patients and controls regarding Fe, Zn, and Pb. Yet, Cd level was significantly higher in patients than controls. In addition, Cd level showed significant positive correlation with the patient's body weight. Conclusion: Estimation of blood Pb and Cd levels can be important in cases of CTE as Cd toxicity can be the underlying hidden cause of such idiopathic condition. PMID:26622152

  18. Comparison on cellular mechanisms of iron and cadmium accumulation in rice: prospects for cultivating Fe-rich but Cd-free rice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Chang, Jiadong; Chen, Ruijie; Li, Hubo; Lu, Hongfei; Tao, Longxing; Xiong, Jie

    2016-12-01

    Iron (Fe) is essential for rice growth and humans consuming as their staple food but is often deficient because of insoluble Fe(III) in soil for rice growth and limited assimilation for human bodies, while cadmium (Cd) is non-essential and toxic for rice growth and humans if accumulating at high levels. Over-accumulated Cd can cause damage to human bodies. Selecting and breeding Fe-rich but Cd-free rice cultivars are ambitious, challenging and meaningful tasks for researchers. Although evidences show that the mechanisms of Fe/Cd uptake and accumulation in rice are common to some extent as a result of similar entry routes within rice, an increasing number of researchers have discovered distinct mechanisms between Fe/Cd uptake and accumulation in rice. This comprehensive review systematically elaborates and compares cellular mechanisms of Fe/Cd uptake and accumulation in rice, respectively. Mechanisms for maintaining Fe homeostasis and Cd detoxicification are also elucidated. Then, effects of different fertilizer management on Fe/Cd accumulation in rice are discussed. Finally, this review enumerates various approaches for reducing grain Cd accumulation and enhancing Fe content in rice. In summary, understanding of discrepant cellular mechanisms of Fe/Cd accumulation in rice provides guidance for cultivating Fe-fortified rice and has paved the way to develop rice that are tolerant to Cd stress, aiming at breeding Fe-rich but Cd-free rice. PMID:27502932

  19. Dietary Deficiency of Calcium and/or Iron, an Age-Related Risk Factor for Renal Accumulation of Cadmium in Mice.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyong-Son; Sano, Erika; Ueda, Hidenori; Sakazaki, Fumitoshi; Yamada, Keita; Takano, Masaoki; Tanaka, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    The major route of cadmium (Cd) intake by non-smokers is through food ingestion. Cd is a non-essential metal absorbed through one or more transporters of essential metal ions. Expression of these transporters is affected by nutritional status. To investigate the risk factors for Cd toxicity, the effects of deficiency of essential metals on hepatic and renal accumulation of Cd were studied in mice of different ages. Mice were administered a control diet or one of the essential metal-deficient diets, administered Cd by gavage for 6 weeks, and killed; then, Cd accumulation was evaluated. Iron deficiency (FeDF) or calcium deficiency (CaDF) resulted in remarkable increases in hepatic and renal Cd accumulation compared with control-diet mice and other essential metal-deficient mice. Cd accumulation in hepatic and renal tissue was increased significantly at all ages tested in FeDF and CaDF mice. Renal Cd concentrations were higher in 4-week-old mice than in 8- and 25-week-old mice. Increase in intestinal mRNA expression of calcium transporter (CaT)1, divalent metal ion transporter-1, and metallothionein (MT)1 was also higher in 4-week-old mice than in other mice. Renal accumulation of Cd showed strong correlation with intestinal mRNA expression of CaT1 and MT1. These data suggest that CaDF and FeDF at younger ages can be a risk factor for Cd toxicity.

  20. Eichrom`s Diphonix{reg_sign} resin: Production-scale applications in radioactive waste treatment and iron control in copper electrowinning

    SciTech Connect

    Gula, M.J.; Chang, F.; Dreisinger, D.B.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1997-12-31

    Eichrom`s Diphonix{reg_sign} resin has been phased through synthetic scale-up, pilot testing, and production installation in radioactive waste treatment and hydrometallurgical applications. The geminal diphosphonic acid groups of Diphonix resin allow selective retention by cation-exchange and/or chelation. The resin is effective at low pH where sulfonic and carboxylic acid resins are ineffective. Diphonix resin has been used in nuclear facilities to reduce actinide concentrations in radioactive waste effluents and to reduce waste volumes. The high retention of iron(III) by Diphonix resin in acidic sulfate media has led to an installation capable of removing one ton of iron per day from a copper electrowinning stream. This iron control process diminishes cobalt losses in the electrowinning circuit and significantly reduces operating costs. The authors will discuss the development of these Diphonix resin applications.

  1. Canadian House Dust Study: population-based concentrations, loads and loading rates of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc inside urban homes.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Pat E; Levesque, Christine; Chénier, Marc; Gardner, H David; Jones-Otazo, Heather; Petrovic, Sanya

    2013-01-15

    The Canadian House Dust Study was designed to obtain nationally representative urban house dust metal concentrations (μg g(-1)) and metal loadings (μg m(-2)) for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Consistent sampling of active dust of known age and provenance (area sampled) also permitted the calculation of indoor loading rates (mg m(-2) day(-1) for dust and μg m(-2) day(-1) for metals) for the winter season (from 2007 to 2010) when houses are most tightly sealed. Geomean/median indoor dust loading rates in homes located more than 2 km away from industry of any kind (9.6/9.1 mg m(-2) day(-1); n=580) were significantly lower (p<.001) than geomean (median) dust loading rates in homes located within 2 km of industry (13.5/13.4 mg m(-2) day(-1); n=421). Proximity to industry was characterized by higher indoor metal loading rates (p<.003), but no difference in dust metal concentrations (.29≥p≤.97). Comparisons of non-smokers' and smokers' homes in non-industrial zones showed higher metal loading rates (.005≥p≤.038) in smokers' homes, but no difference in dust metal concentrations (.15≥p≤.97). Relationships between house age and dust metal concentrations were significant for Pb, Cd and Zn (p<.001) but not for the other four metals (.14≥p≤.87). All seven metals, however, displayed a significant increase in metal loading rates with house age (p<.001) due to the influence of higher dust loading rates in older homes (p<.001). Relationships between three measures of metals in house dust - concentration, load, and loading rate - in the context of house age, smoking behavior and urban setting consistently show that concentration data is a useful indicator of the presence of metal sources in the home, whereas dust mass is the overriding influence on metal loadings and loading rates.

  2. Bioavailability of cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, and zinc in subtropical coastal lagoons from the southeast Gulf of California using mangrove oysters (Crassostrea corteziensis and Crassostrea palmula).

    PubMed

    Páez-Osuna, Federico; Osuna-Martínez, Carmen C

    2015-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) were assessed in the edible tissues of Crassrotrea corteziensis oysters collected during the rainy and dry seasons in 27 sites from 8 coastal lagoons of the southeast Gulf of California. In addition, C. palmula oysters were sampled at 9 sites from the same mangrove roots where C. corteziensis oysters were collected. Metal analyses were performed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Cd, Cu, and Zn), graphite furnace (Pb), and cold vapor detection (Hg). The obtained mean levels were (µg g(-1) dry weight) as follows: Cd 6.05 ± 2.77, Cu 60.0 ± 33.4, Hg 0.38 ± 0.17, Pb 1.11 ± 0.63, and Zn 777 ± 528 µg g(-1). For all metals except Hg, the concentrations were greater during dry season than during rainy seasons. The high levels, particularly that for Cd, were related to upwelling along the eastern Gulf of California. High Hg levels in the rainy season were associated with the transport of materials from the watershed to the lagoon. Shrimp farming, agriculture, and other sources were considered as potential sources to explain the differences in metal bioavailability in the 8 lagoons. The mean concentrations of Cd (Santa María-La Reforma lagoon), Cu [San Ignacio-Navachiste-El Macapule (SINM), Urías (URI), and Altata-Ensenada del Pabellón lagoons], and zinc (Zn) (URI, Santa María-Ohuira-Topolobampo, El Colorado, and SINM lagoons) during the dry season were greater than the maximum permissible limits. C. palmula collected in 8 sites where they were present simultaneously with C. corteziensis had consistently greater metal levels than C. corteziensis, but correlation analyses showed a high and significant (P < 0.05) correlation between metal concentrations in both species. The correlation equations obtained are useful where the same species is not distributed and is necessary to compare results from distinct regions.

  3. Effect of Copper and Nickel on the Transformation Kinetics of Austempered Ductile Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górny, Marcin; Tyrała, Edward; Lopez, Hugo

    2014-10-01

    The kinetics of reaction occurring during the austempering treatment of ductile iron (DI) containing different additions of Cu and Ni was investigated in this work. DI bars were heat treated in an instrumented dilatometer in order to follow the exhibited transformation kinetics. The dilatometric results indicated that the addition of Cu alone did not have a significant effect on the incubation times for the austempering transformation. Also, the addition of both, Cu and Ni resulted in a significant effect on reducing the transformation rates. It was found that the austempering process is characterized by two clearly distinguished transformation stages. In the initial stage, the addition of Cu, and to a greater extent, additions of both Cu and Ni led to reductions in the transformation rates shifting the maximum transformation rate values toward longer times. The outcome of this work indicates that during the first stage of austempering, nucleation of the ferrite plates occurs via a diffusionless mechanism while their growth is diffusion controlled. Moreover, after the maximum in the transformation rate has been reached, the growth of ferrite plates becomes dominant with the rate-limiting step becoming the diffusion of C into the surrounding austenite. A qualitative model for the austempering transformation is proposed in this work to account for the experimental observations.

  4. Solid state 31phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance of iron-, manganese-, and copper-containing synthetic hydroxyapatites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutter, B.; Taylor, R. E.; Hossner, L. R.; Ming, D. W.

    2002-01-01

    The incorporation of micronutrients into synthetic hydroxyapatite (SHA) is proposed for slow release of these nutrients to crops in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Advanced Life Support (ALS) program for Lunar or Martian outposts. Solid state 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was utilized to examine the paramagnetic effects of Fe3+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ to determine if they were incorporated into the SHA structure. Separate Fe3+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ containing SHA materials along with a transition metal free SHA (pure-SHA) were synthesized using a precipitation method. The proximity (<1 nm) of the transition metals to the 31P nuclei of SHA were apparent when comparing the integrated 31P signal intensities of the pure-SHA (87 arbitrary units g-1) with the Fe-, Mn-, and Cu-SHA materials (37-71 arbitrary units g-1). The lower integrated 31P signal intensities of the Fe-, Mn-, and Cu-SHA materials relative to the pure-SHA suggested that Fe3+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ were incorporated in the SHA structure. Further support for Fe3+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ incorporation was demonstrated by the reduced spin-lattice relaxation constants of the Fe-, Mn-, and Cu-SHA materials (T'=0.075-0.434s) relative to pure-SHA (T1=58.4s). Inversion recovery spectra indicated that Fe3+, Mn2+, and Cu2+ were not homogeneously distributed about the 31P nuclei in the SHA structure. Extraction with diethylene-triamine-penta-acetic acid (DTPA) suggested that between 50 and 80% of the total starting metal concentrations were incorporated in the SHA structure. Iron-, Mn-, and Cu-containing SHA are potential slow release sources of Fe, Mn, and Cu in the ALS cropping system.

  5. Quantitative separation of zinc traces from cadmium matrices by solid-phase extraction with polyurethane foam.

    PubMed

    Santiago de Jesus, D; Souza de Carvalho, M; Spínola Costa, A C; Costa Ferreira, S L

    1998-08-01

    A system for separation of zinc traces from large amounts of cadmium is proposed in this paper. It is based on the solid-phase extraction of the zinc in the form of thiocyanate complexes by the polyurethane foam. The following parameters were studied: effect of pH and of the thiocyanate concentration on the zinc extraction, shaking time required for quantitative extraction, amount of PU foam necessary for complete extraction, conditions for the separation of zinc from cadmium, influence of other cations and anions on the zinc sorption by PU foam, and required conditions for back extraction of zinc from the PU foam. The results show that zinc traces can be separated from large amounts of cadmium at pH 3.0+/-0.50, with the range of thiocyanate concentration from 0.15 to 0.20 mol l(-1), and the shaking time of 5 min. The back extraction of zinc can be done by shaking it with water for 10 min. Calcium, barium, strontium, magnesium, aluminum, nickel and iron(II) are efficiently separated. Iron(III), copper(II) and cobalt(II) are extracted simultaneously with zinc, but the iron reduction with ascorbic acid and the use of citrate to mask copper(II) and cobalt(II) increase the selectivity of the zinc extraction. The anions nitrate, chloride, sulfate, acetate, thiosulphate, tartarate, oxalate, fluoride, citrate, and carbonate do not affect the zinc extraction. Phosphate and EDTA must be absent. The method proposed was applied to determine zinc in cadmium salts using 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) as a spectrophotometric reagent. The result achieved did not show significant difference in the accuracy and precision (95% confidence level) with those obtained by ICP-AES analysis. PMID:18967283

  6. [Zinc, copper, iron, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium content of maternal milk during the first 3 weeks of lactation].

    PubMed

    Itriago, A; Carrión, N; Fernández, A; Puig, M; Dini, E

    1997-03-01

    Zinc, Copper, Iron. Calcium Phosphorous and Magnesium contents were determined in early milk samples in 72 mothers from Caracas city. The samples were collected during three different lactation stages: calostro (3 days), transitional (7 days) and mature milk (21 days). The more significant changes in the concentration of the studied elements were observed during the first two weeks, them they stabilize during the third week. The Zn, Cu, Fe, Ca, P and Mg average concentration found in calostro samples were 7.1 +/- 2.5 micrograms/ml; 0.52 +/- 0.15 microgram/ml; 0.49 +/- 0.14 microgram/ml; 214 +/- 62 micrograms/ml, 107 +/- 27 micrograms/ml and 33.3 +/- 7.5 micrograms/ml. respectively. For the transitional milk samples the average concentration found for the studied elements were: 4.0 +/- 1.0 micrograms/ml; 0.50 +/- 0.10 microgram/ml; 0.38 +/- 0.08 microgram/ml, 292 +/- 62 micrograms/ml; 213 +/- 36 micrograms/ml and 30.4 +/- 5.2 micrograms/ml. For the mature milk samples the results were: 2.8 +/- 2.7 micrograms/ml; 0.47 +/- 0.08 microgram/ml; 0.36 +/- 0.09 microgram/ml; 244 +/- 49 micrograms/ml; 175 +/-35 micrograms/ml and 25.2 +/- 3.3 micrograms/ml. The concentration range for all trace elements studied (Cu, Fe and Zn) can be considered normal. For the major elements (Ca, P and Mg) the results obtained in our work are similar to those reported for other countries. These facts allows to conclude that the nutritional state of this mother population is adequate to satisfy the lactate's requirements during their first live stage.

  7. [Zinc, copper, iron, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium content of maternal milk during the first 3 weeks of lactation].

    PubMed

    Itriago, A; Carrión, N; Fernández, A; Puig, M; Dini, E

    1997-03-01

    Zinc, Copper, Iron. Calcium Phosphorous and Magnesium contents were determined in early milk samples in 72 mothers from Caracas city. The samples were collected during three different lactation stages: calostro (3 days), transitional (7 days) and mature milk (21 days). The more significant changes in the concentration of the studied elements were observed during the first two weeks, them they stabilize during the third week. The Zn, Cu, Fe, Ca, P and Mg average concentration found in calostro samples were 7.1 +/- 2.5 micrograms/ml; 0.52 +/- 0.15 microgram/ml; 0.49 +/- 0.14 microgram/ml; 214 +/- 62 micrograms/ml, 107 +/- 27 micrograms/ml and 33.3 +/- 7.5 micrograms/ml. respectively. For the transitional milk samples the average concentration found for the studied elements were: 4.0 +/- 1.0 micrograms/ml; 0.50 +/- 0.10 microgram/ml; 0.38 +/- 0.08 microgram/ml, 292 +/- 62 micrograms/ml; 213 +/- 36 micrograms/ml and 30.4 +/- 5.2 micrograms/ml. For the mature milk samples the results were: 2.8 +/- 2.7 micrograms/ml; 0.47 +/- 0.08 microgram/ml; 0.36 +/- 0.09 microgram/ml; 244 +/- 49 micrograms/ml; 175 +/-35 micrograms/ml and 25.2 +/- 3.3 micrograms/ml. The concentration range for all trace elements studied (Cu, Fe and Zn) can be considered normal. For the major elements (Ca, P and Mg) the results obtained in our work are similar to those reported for other countries. These facts allows to conclude that the nutritional state of this mother population is adequate to satisfy the lactate's requirements during their first live stage. PMID:9429635

  8. Fractionation of fulvic acid by iron and aluminum oxides--influence on copper toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kathleen S; Ranville, James F; Lesher, Emily K; Diedrich, Daniel J; McKnight, Diane M; Sofield, Ruth M

    2014-10-21

    This study examines the effect on aquatic copper toxicity of the chemical fractionation of fulvic acid (FA) that results from its association with iron and aluminum oxyhydroxide precipitates. Fractionated and unfractionated FAs obtained from streamwater and suspended sediment were utilized in acute Cu toxicity tests on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Toxicity test results with equal FA concentrations (6 mg FA/L) show that the fractionated dissolved FA was 3 times less effective at reducing Cu toxicity (EC50 13 ± 0.6 μg Cu/L) than were the unfractionated dissolved FAs (EC50 39 ± 0.4 and 41 ± 1.2 μg Cu/L). The fractionation is a consequence of preferential sorption of molecules having strong metal-binding (more aromatic) moieties to precipitating Fe- and Al-rich oxyhydroxides, causing the remaining dissolved FA to be depleted in these functional groups. As a result, there is more bioavailable dissolved Cu in the water and hence greater potential for Cu toxicity to aquatic organisms. In predicting Cu toxicity, biotic ligand models (BLMs) take into account dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration; however, unless DOC characteristics are accounted for, model predictions can underestimate acute Cu toxicity for water containing fractionated dissolved FA. This may have implications for water-quality criteria in systems containing Fe- and Al-rich sediment, and in mined and mineralized areas in particular. Optical measurements, such as specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254), show promise for use as spectral indicators of DOC chemical fractionation and inferred increased Cu toxicity.

  9. Physicochemical study of floranol, its copper(II) and iron(III) complexes, and their inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation.

    PubMed

    Botelho, Françoise V; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I; Lemos, Virginia S; Pimenta, Adriano M C; Calado, Hállen D R; Matencio, Tulio; Miranda, Cristiano T; Pereira-Maia, Elene C

    2007-06-01

    The antioxidant activity of floranol (3,5,7,2'-tetrahydroxy-6-methoxy-8-prenylflavanone), a new flavonoid isolated from the roots of Dioclea grandiflora, was evaluated by the inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. Floranol increased its oxidation lag-phase significantly in a dose-dependent manner. As the antioxidant mechanism may involve metal coordination, we have undertaken a detailed study of floranol interactions with Cu(II) and Fe(III) by combination of UV-visible (UV-Vis) and mass spectrometries and cyclic voltammetry. The acidity constants of the ligand as well as the stability constants of the metal complexes were calculated. The pKa values of 6.58, 11.97 and 13.87 were determined and the following acidity order is proposed 7-OH>5-OH>2'-OH. The best fit between experimental and calculated spectra was obtained assuming the formation of two Cu(II) complexes: [CuL] logbeta=19.34+/-0.05 and [CuL(2)](2-) logbeta=26.4+/-0.10 and three Fe(III) complexes: [FeL(3)](3-) logbeta=44.72+/-0.09, [FeL(2)](-) logbeta=35.32+/-0.08 and [FeL](+) logbeta=19.51+/-0.04. In addition, copper and iron reduction is less favorable in the presence of floranol. These results indicate that floranol can efficiently bind Cu(II) and Fe(III) ions thus preventing their effect on LDL oxidation. PMID:17462741

  10. New evidence on iron, copper accumulation and zinc depletion and its correlation with DNA integrity in aging human brain regions

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevaraju, P.; Bharathi; T, Jyothsna; Shamasundar, N. M.; Subba Rao, K.; Balaraj, B. M.; KSJ, Rao; T.S, Sathyanarayana Rao

    2010-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) conformation and stability play an important role in brain function. Earlier studies reported alterations in DNA integrity in the brain regions of neurological disorders like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. However, there are only limited studies on DNA stability in an aging brain and the factors responsible for genomic instability are still not clear. In this study, we assess the levels of Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe) and Zinc (Zn) in three age groups (Group I: below 40 years), Group II: between 41-60 years) and Group III: above 61 years) in hippocampus and frontal cortex regions of normal brains. The number of samples in each group was eight. Genomic DNA was isolated and DNA integrity was studied by nick translation studies and presented as single and double strand breaks. The number of single strand breaks correspondingly increased with aging compared to double strand breaks. The strand breaks were more in frontal cortex compared to hippocampus. We observed that the levels of Cu and Fe are significantly elevated while Zn is significantly depleted as one progresses from Group I to Group III, indicating changes with aging in frontal cortex and hippocampus. But the elevation of metals was more in frontal cortical region compared to hippocampal region. There was a clear correlation between Cu and Fe levels versus strand breaks in aging brain regions. This indicates that genomic instability is progressive with aging and this will alter the gene expressions. To our knowledge, this is a new comprehensive database to date, looking at the levels of redox metals and corresponding strand breaks in DNA in two brain regions of the aging brain. The biological significance of these findings with relevance to mental health will be discussed. PMID:20838501

  11. Effects of copper, iron and fluoride co-crystallized with sugar on caries development and acid formation in deslivated rats.

    PubMed

    Rosalen, P L; Pearson, S K; Bowen, W H

    1996-11-01

    The purpose was to explore the effects of combinations of copper, iron and fluoride (Cu, Fe and F) incorporated in sucrose by co-crystallization on caries development in the deslivated rat model and to examine acid formation by bacteria in the rat mouth. Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats were infected with Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 and desalivated when aged 26 days. Eight groups were placed in a König-Höfer programmed feeder and received 17 meals daily at hourly intervals, and essential nutrition (NCP No. 2) by gavage twice daily for 21 days. The groups received (1) plain sucrose, (2) F (8 parts/10(6)) co-crystallized with sucrose, (3) Fe (88 parts/10(6)) sucrose, (4) Cu (75 parts/10(6)) sucrose, (5) Cu + F sucrose, (6) Cu + L Fe sucrose, (7) F + Fe sucrose, and (8) Cu + Fe + F sucrose. At death the jaws were removed and sonicated in 0.9% saline solution for microbial assessment. In addition, organic acid assays were performed for each animal. Keyes smooth-surface and sulcal caries scores were lowest in the Cu + Fe + F sucrose group, but not statistically significantly different from those of the other Cu groups. The numbers of Strep. sobrinus found in the groups that received Cu, Cu + Fe, Cu + F, F + Fe and Cu + Fe + F sugar were lower than in the control group. Lactic acid was found in lower concentrations in Fe, Cu, Cu + F, Cu + Fe and F + Fe groups than in the other groups. It appears that combinations of Cu; Fe and F co-crystallized with sugar may have an additive effect in reducing the cariogenic potential of sugar by affecting lactic acid formation and reducing bacterial colonization.

  12. Effect of gradual accumulation of iron, molybdenum and sulfur, slow depletion of zinc and copper, ethanol or fructose ingestion and phlebotomy in gout.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S

    1999-11-01

    Gout affects mostly males over 40 years old and, occasionally, postmenopausal women. This pattern coincides with the pattern of iron accumulation. On the other hand, menstruating women are seldom afflicted by gout, because the monthly blood loss causes them to accumulate iron to a much lesser degree. Gout involves seven aspects: (1) uric acid overproduction from increased purines in the diet; (2) uric acid overproduction from ATP degradation; (3) uric acid overproduction from increased de novo synthesis of purines; (4) uric acid overproduction from increased DNA breakdown from cell damage; (5) decreased uric acid elimination, caused by molybdenum and sulfur binding to copper in the kidneys; (6) precipitation of sodium urate-iron crystals in the joints due to high ferritin and saturated transferrin and low CuZn-SOD and Cu-thionein in the joint; (7) development of inflammation, triggered by tyrosine bonding to the sodium-urate-iron crystals and being transformed by tyrosine kinase. Alcohol and iron greatly affect most of these aspects. Therefore, phlebotomy is suggested as therapy for gout patients, in order to eliminate the accumulated Fe. Furthermore, yearly blood donation is recommended for males with a family history of gout, so as to prevent Fe accumulation and avoid gout.

  13. Iron oxide nanostructured electrodes for detection of copper(II) ions.

    PubMed

    Santos, J G M; Souza, J R; Letti, C J; Soler, M A G; Morais, P C; Pereira-da-Silva, M A; Paterno, L G

    2014-09-01

    Iron oxide nanostructured (ION) electrodes were assembled layer-by-layer onto ITO-coated glass substrates and their structure, morphology, and electrochemical properties were investigated, the latter aiming at the development of a chemical sensor for Cu2+. The electrodes were built by immersing the substrate alternately into an aqueous colloidal suspension of positively charged magnetite nanoparticles (np-Fe3O4, 8 nm) and an aqueous solution of anionic sodium sulfonated polystyrene (PSS). The adsorbed amount of both materials was monitored ex-situ by UV-vis spectroscopy and it was found to increase linearly with the number of deposition cycles. The resulting films feature a densely-packed structure of magnetite nanoparticles, as suggested by AFM and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. Cyclic voltammograms of electrodes immersed in acetate buffer (pH 4.6) displayed three electrochemical events that were tentatively ascribed to the reduction of Fe(III) oxy-hydroxide to magnetite, reduction of maghemite to magnetite, and finally oxidation of magnetite to maghemite. The effect of np-Fe3O4/PSS bilayers on the ION electrode performance was to increase the anodic and cathodic currents produced during electrochemical oxidation-reduction of the Fe(CN)(3-/4-) redox couple. With more bilayers, the ION electrode provided higher anodic/cathodic currents. Moreover, the redox couple exhibited a quasi-reversible behavior at the ION electrode as already observed with other working electrode systems. Fitting of voltammetry data provided the apparent electron transfer constants, which were found to be higher in ION electrodes for both redox couples (Fe(CN)(3-/4-) and Cu(2+/0)). By means of differential pulsed anodic stripping voltammetry, the ION electrodes were found to respond linearly to the presence of Cu2+ in aqueous samples in the range between 1.0 and 8.0 x 10(-6) mol x L(-1) and displayed a limit of detection of 0.3 x 10(-8) mol x L(-1). The sensitivity was - 0.6μA/μmol x L

  14. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a halophytic Cd-hyperaccumulator, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum.

    PubMed

    Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Andrades-Moreno, Luis

    2010-12-15

    The potential of the extreme halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum was examined to determine its tolerance and ability to accumulate cadmium for phytoremediation purposes. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the effect of cadmium from 0 to 1.35 mmol l(-1) on the growth and the photosynthetic apparatus of A. macrostachyum by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. We also determined ash, cadmium, calcium, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, phosphorous, sodium, and zinc concentrations, and C/N ratio. A. macrostachyum demonstrated hypertolerance to cadmium stress; it did not show phytotoxicity at shoot concentration as high as 70 mg kg(-1). The bioaccumulator factors exceeded the critical value (1.0) for all Cd treatments, and the transport factors indicated that this species has higher ability to transfer Cd from roots to shoots at lower Cd concentrations. At 1.35 mmol l(-1) Cd A. macrostachyum showed 25% biomass reduction after a month of treatment. Long-term effects of cadmium on the growth were mainly determined by variations in net photosynthetic rate (P(N)). Reductions in P(N) could be accounted by higher dark respiration and lower pigment concentrations. Finally, A. macrostachyum has the basic characteristics of a Cd-hyperaccumulator and may be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated sites. PMID:20832167

  15. The effect of administration of copper nanoparticles to chickens in drinking water on estimated intestinal absorption of iron, zinc, and calcium.

    PubMed

    Ognik, Katarzyna; Stępniowska, Anna; Cholewińska, Ewelina; Kozłowski, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    Copper nanoparticles used as a dietary supplement for poultry could affect the absorption of mineral elements. Hence the aim of the study was to determine the effect of administration of copper nanoparticles to chickens in drinking water on intestinal absorption of iron, zinc, and calcium. The experiment was carried out on 126 chicks assigned to seven experimental groups of 18 birds each (3 replications of 6 individuals each). The control group (G-C) did not receive copper nanoparticles. Groups: Cu-5(7), Cu-10(7), and Cu-15(7) received gold nanoparticles in their drinking water in the amounts of 5 mg/L for group Cu-5(7), 10 mg/L for group Cu-10(7), and 15 mg/L for group Cu-15(7) during 8 to 14, 22 to 28, and 36 of 42 days of the life of the chicks. The birds in groups Cu-5(3), Cu-10(3), and Cu-15(3) received copper nanoparticles in the same amounts, but only during 8 to 10, 22 to 24, and 36 to 38 days of life. Blood for analysis was collected from the wing vein of all chicks at the age of 42 days. After the rearing period (day 42), six birds from each experimental group with body weight similar to the group average were slaughtered. The carcasses were dissected and samples of the jejunum were collected for analysis of absorption of selected minerals. Mineral absorption was tested using the in vitro gastrointestinal sac technique. Oral administration of copper nanoparticles to chickens in the amount of 5, 10, and 15 mg/L led to accumulation of this element in the intestinal walls. The highest level of copper nanoparticles applied increased Cu content in the blood plasma of the birds. The in vitro study suggests that copper accumulated in the intestines reduces absorption of calcium and zinc, but does not affect iron absorption. PMID:27307476

  16. Impact of two iron(III) chelators on the iron, cadmium, lead and nickel accumulation in poplar grown under heavy metal stress in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Mihucz, Victor G; Csog, Árpád; Fodor, Ferenc; Tatár, Enikő; Szoboszlai, Norbert; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Luminiţa; Záray, Gyula

    2012-04-15

    Poplar (Populus jacquemontiana var. glauca cv. Kopeczkii) was grown in hydroponics containing 10 μM Cd(II), Ni(II) or Pb(II), and Fe as Fe(III) EDTA or Fe(III) citrate in identical concentrations. The present study was designed to compare the accumulation and distribution of Fe, Cd, Ni and Pb within the different plant compartments. Generally, Fe and heavy-metal accumulation were higher by factor 2-7 and 1.6-3.3, respectively, when Fe(III) citrate was used. Iron transport towards the shoot depended on the Fe(III) chelate and, generally, on the heavy metal used. Lead was accumulated only in the root. The amounts of Fe and heavy metals accumulated by poplar were very similar to those of cucumber grown in an identical way, indicating strong Fe uptake regulation of these two Strategy I plants: a cultivar and a woody plant. The Strategy I Fe uptake mechanism (i.e. reducing Fe(III) followed by Fe(II) uptake), together with the Fe(III) chelate form in the nutrient solution had significant effects on Fe and heavy metal uptake. Poplar appears to show phytoremediation potential for Cd and Ni, as their transport towards the shoot was characterized by 51-54% and 26-48% depending on the Fe(III) supply in the nutrient solution.

  17. Cadmium in blood and urine--impact of sex, age, dietary intake, iron status, and former smoking--association of renal effects.

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Ing-Marie; Bensryd, Inger; Lundh, Thomas; Ottosson, Helena; Skerfving, Staffan; Oskarsson, Agneta

    2002-01-01

    We studied determinants of cadmium status and kidney function in nonsmoking men and women living on farms in southern Sweden. Median blood Cd (BCd) was 1.8 nmol/L (range, 0.38-18) and median urinary Cd (UCd) was 0.23 nmol/mmol creatinine (range, 0.065-0.99). The intake of Cd per kilogram body weight did not significantly differ between sexes and did not correlate with BCd or UCd, which may be explained by a low and varying bioavailibility of Cd from food items. However, when a subgroup of the study population, couples of never-smoking men and women, were compared, a lower intake per kilogram body weight was found in the women, but the women had a 1.8 times higher BCd and a 1.4 times higher UCd. The higher female BCd and UCd may be explained by higher absorption due to low iron status. BCd and UCd both increased with age and were higher in the ex-smokers, who had stopped smoking more than 5 years before the study, compared to never-smokers. The contribution of locally produced food to the total Cd intake was relatively low and varied. Males living in areas with low soil Cd had lower UCd than the others. However, Cd levels in kidneys from pigs, fed locally produced cereals, did not predict BCd or UCd in humans at the same farms. The kidney function parameter ss2-microglobulin-creatinine clearance was related to UCd, whereas urinary protein-HC, N-acetyl-ss-glucoseaminidase or albumin-creatinine clearance was not when age was accounted for. Hence, even at the low exposure levels in this study population, there was an indication of effect on biochemical markers of renal function. PMID:12460796

  18. Cadmium availability in rice paddy fields from a mining area: The effects of soil properties highlighting iron fractions and pH value.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huan-Yun; Liu, Chuanping; Zhu, Jishu; Li, Fangbai; Deng, Dong-Mei; Wang, Qi; Liu, Chengshuai

    2016-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) availability can be significantly affected by soil properties. The effect of pH value on Cd availability has been confirmed. Paddy soils in South China generally contain high contents of iron (Fe). Thus, it is hypothesized that Fe fractions, in addition to pH value, may play an important role in the Cd bioavailability in paddy soil and this requires further investigation. In this study, 73 paired soil and rice plant samples were collected from paddy fields those were contaminated by acid mine drainage containing Cd. The contents of Fe in the amorphous and DCB-extractable Fe oxides were significantly and negatively correlated with the Cd content in rice grain or straw (excluding DCB-extractable Fe vs Cd in straw). In addition, the concentration of HCl-extractable Fe(II) derived from Fe(III) reduction was positively correlated with the Cd content in rice grain or straw. These results suggest that soil Fe redox could affect the availability of Cd in rice plant. Contribution assessment of soil properties to Cd accumulation in rice grain based on random forest (RF) and stochastic gradient boosting (SGB) showed that pH value should be the most important factor and the content of Fe in the amorphous Fe oxides should be the second most important factor in affecting Cd content in rice grain. Overall, compared with the studies from temperate regions, such as Europe and northern China, Fe oxide exhibited its unique role in the bioavailability of Cd in the reddish paddy soil from our study area. The exploration of practical remediati