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Sample records for caesarean scar pregnancy

  1. Does the presence of a Caesarean section scar affect implantation site and early pregnancy outcome in women attending an early pregnancy assessment unit?

    PubMed

    Naji, O; Wynants, L; Smith, A; Abdallah, Y; Saso, S; Stalder, C; Van Huffel, S; Ghaem-Maghami, S; Van Calster, B; Timmerman, D; Bourne, T

    2013-06-01

    Are there any differences in the location and distance to the internal cervical ostium of the implantation site of the intrauterine gestation sacs, early pregnancy symptoms and pregnancy outcome at 12 weeks gestation between women with and without a previous Caesarean section (CS)? The presence of a CS scar affects the site of implantation, and the distance between implantation site and the scar is related to the risk of spontaneous abortion. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY?: Little is known about the impact of a CS scar on implantation other than the risk of Caesarean scar pregnancy (CSP). Furthermore, there is a paucity of information on how the proximity of implantation to the scar impacts on pregnancy outcome in the first trimester. A prospective cohort study conducted over 15 months in the early pregnancy unit of a London Teaching Hospital. Three hundred and eighty women underwent a transvaginal scan at 6-11 weeks of gestation. A total of 170 women had undergone ≥1 CS, and 210 women had no history of CS. The 380 women were recruited as consecutive non-selected cases. The relationship between the implanted sac and the CS scar was assessed by quantifiable measures and by subjective impression. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influence of the presence of a CS scar on pregnancy outcome. The final outcome of the study was the viability of the pregnancy at 12 weeks. Implantation was most frequently posterior (53%) in the CS group and fundal in the non-CS group (42%). Gestation sac implantation was 8.7 mm lower in the CS group (95% confidence interval (CI) 6.7-10.7, P < 0.0001). Presenting complaints differed in women with and without a previous CS (P = 0.0009). More frequent vaginal bleeding [73 versus 55%, difference -18, 95% CI (-27 to -8%] yet no clearly increased spontaneous abortion rates were noted in the CS group compared with the non-CS group (adjusted odds ratio = 1.1, 95% CI 0.6-1.9, P = 0.74). Subjective impression showed that in eight

  2. Caesarean section greatly increases risk of scar endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Nominato, Nilo Sérgio; Prates, Luis Felipe Victor Spyer; Lauar, Isabela; Morais, Jaqueline; Maia, Laura; Geber, Selmo

    2010-09-01

    To estimate the incidence of scar endometriosis after different surgical procedures. A retrospective study of 72 patients diagnosed with scar endometriosis between 1978 and 2003 was performed. Patient age, site of endometriosis, previous operations, time-gap between last surgery and onset of symptoms, nodule characteristics, and recurrence were evaluated. Age ranged from 16 to 48 years. Location varied according to the previous surgery: 46 caesarean section, one hysterectomy, one in abdominal surgery, 19 episiotomy, one was a relapse and two pelvic floor procedures, two women with no previous surgery. The incidence of scar endometriosis after caesarean section was significantly higher than after episiotomy (0.2 and 0.06%, respectively: p<0.00001) with a relative risk of 3.3. Pain was the most frequent symptom. The mean time between surgery and onset of symptoms was 3.7 years. Our findings confirm that scar endometriosis is a rare condition and indicate, probably for the first time, that caesarean section greatly increases the risk of developing scar endometriosis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficacy of caesarean scar defect repair in improving postmenstrual bleeding and factors associated with poor effect.

    PubMed

    Xu, He-Yang; Yang, Meng-Yi; Zhang, Xuyin; Wang, Qing; Yi, Xiao-Fang; Ding, Jing-Xin; Hua, Ke-Qin

    2017-11-01

    Caesarean scar defect (CSD) can cause postmenstrual bleeding. Defect repair is an effective technique to improve this symptom, but there are still a few patients getting little improvement. This retrospective study evaluates the efficacy of scar repair and explores the factors associated with poor effect. In total, 123 patients were involved in the final analysis. All of them complained about menstruation period >7 days due to postmenstrual bleeding. Before surgery, 87.8% of patients had a menstruation period more than 10 days and 20.3% had a period more than 15 days. After surgery, a normal menstruation period (< =7 days) was achieved in 46.3% (95%CI 37.3%-55.6%) of patients and a menstruation period lasting no more than 10 days was achieved in 74.8% (95%CI 66.2%-82.2%). Through multivariate logistic analysis, four factors were found dependently associated with poor effect (defined as menstruation period >10 days after surgery): repeated caesarean section (OR 9.75, 95%CI 2.30-41.36, 0.002) was a risk factor, while defect volume >600 mm 3 (OR 0.14, 95%CI 0.03-0.56, 0.006), interval from caesarean section to symptom emerging >3 months (OR 0.25, 95%CI 0.07-0.94, 0.041) and straight or retroflexed uterus (OR 0.19, 95%CI 0.05-0.79, 0.022) were protective factors. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? Caesarean scar defect can cause postmenstrual bleeding. Defect repair can improve this symptom, but there are still a few patients getting little improvement after surgery. What do the results of this study add? Defect volume >600 mm 3 , interval from caesarean section to symptom emerging >3 months and straight or retroflexed uterus are protective factors of poor effect (defined as menstruation period >10 days after surgery), and repeated caesarean section is a risk factor. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? These findings may help in counselling the patients and in medical

  4. Why do niches develop in Caesarean uterine scars? Hypotheses on the aetiology of niche development

    PubMed Central

    Vervoort, A.J.M.W.; Uittenbogaard, L.B.; Hehenkamp, W.J.K.; Brölmann, H.A.M.; Mol, B.W.J.; Huirne, J.A.F.

    2015-01-01

    Caesarean section (CS) results in the occurrence of the phenomenon ‘niche’. A ‘niche’ describes the presence of a hypoechoic area within the myometrium of the lower uterine segment, reflecting a discontinuation of the myometrium at the site of a previous CS. Using gel or saline instillation sonohysterography, a niche is identified in the scar in more than half of the women who had had a CS, most with the uterus closed in one single layer, without closure of the peritoneum. An incompletely healed scar is a long-term complication of the CS and is associated with more gynaecological symptoms than is commonly acknowledged. Approximately 30% of women with a niche report spotting at 6–12 months after their CS. Other reported symptoms in women with a niche are dysmenorrhoea, chronic pelvic pain and dyspareunia. Given the association between a niche and gynaecological symptoms, obstetric complications and potentially with subfertility, it is important to elucidate the aetiology of niche development after CS in order to develop preventive strategies. Based on current published data and our observations during sonographic, hysteroscopic and laparoscopic evaluations of niches we postulate some hypotheses on niche development. Possible factors that could play a role in niche development include a very low incision through cervical tissue, inadequate suturing technique during closure of the uterine scar, surgical interventions that increase adhesion formation or patient-related factors that impair wound healing or increase inflammation or adhesion formation. PMID:26409016

  5. Minimally invasive therapy for gynaecological symptoms related to a niche in the caesarean scar: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van der Voet, L F; Vervoort, A J; Veersema, S; BijdeVaate, A J; Brölmann, H A M; Huirne, J A F

    2014-01-01

    Various therapies are currently used to treat symptoms related to the niche (an anechoic area) in the caesarean scar, in particular to treat abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). To systematically review the available literature reporting on the effect of various therapies on niche-related symptoms. A systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, trial registers and congress abstracts from AAGL and ESGE was performed. Articles reporting on the effectiveness of therapies other than hysterectomy in women with niche-related symptoms were included. Studies were included if they reported one of the following outcomes: effect on AUB, pain relief, sexual function, quality of life (QOL), and surgical, anatomic, fertility, or pregnancy outcome. Two authors independently selected the articles to be included. The Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines were followed. A standardised checklist was used to score the methodological quality of the included studies. Twelve studies were included, reporting on hysteroscopic niche resection (eight studies, 384 patients), laparoscopic repair (one study, 13 patients), (laparoscopic assisted) vaginal repair (two studies, 47 patients), and oral contraceptives (OCs) (one study, 11 patients). Reported AUB improved in the vast majority of the patients after these interventions, ranging from 87 to 100%. The rate of complications was low. Pregnancies were reported after therapy; however, sample sizes and follow-up were insufficient to study fertility or pregnancy outcome. The methodological quality of the selected papers was considered to be moderate to poor, and was therefore insufficient to make solid conclusions. More evidence is needed before (surgical) niche interventions are implemented in daily practice. © 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Why do niches develop in Caesarean uterine scars? Hypotheses on the aetiology of niche development.

    PubMed

    Vervoort, A J M W; Uittenbogaard, L B; Hehenkamp, W J K; Brölmann, H A M; Mol, B W J; Huirne, J A F

    2015-12-01

    Caesarean section (CS) results in the occurrence of the phenomenon 'niche'. A 'niche' describes the presence of a hypoechoic area within the myometrium of the lower uterine segment, reflecting a discontinuation of the myometrium at the site of a previous CS. Using gel or saline instillation sonohysterography, a niche is identified in the scar in more than half of the women who had had a CS, most with the uterus closed in one single layer, without closure of the peritoneum. An incompletely healed scar is a long-term complication of the CS and is associated with more gynaecological symptoms than is commonly acknowledged. Approximately 30% of women with a niche report spotting at 6-12 months after their CS. Other reported symptoms in women with a niche are dysmenorrhoea, chronic pelvic pain and dyspareunia. Given the association between a niche and gynaecological symptoms, obstetric complications and potentially with subfertility, it is important to elucidate the aetiology of niche development after CS in order to develop preventive strategies. Based on current published data and our observations during sonographic, hysteroscopic and laparoscopic evaluations of niches we postulate some hypotheses on niche development. Possible factors that could play a role in niche development include a very low incision through cervical tissue, inadequate suturing technique during closure of the uterine scar, surgical interventions that increase adhesion formation or patient-related factors that impair wound healing or increase inflammation or adhesion formation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

  7. Hysteroscopic resection of a uterine caesarean scar defect (niche) in women with postmenstrual spotting: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vervoort, Ajmw; van der Voet, L F; Hehenkamp, Wjk; Thurkow, A L; van Kesteren, Pjm; Quartero, H; Kuchenbecker, W; Bongers, M; Geomini, P; de Vleeschouwer, Lhm; van Hooff, Mha; van Vliet, H; Veersema, S; Renes, W B; Oude Rengerink, K; Zwolsman, S E; Brölmann, Ham; Mol, Bwj; Huirne, Jaf

    2018-02-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a hysteroscopic niche resection versus no treatment in women with postmenstrual spotting and a uterine caesarean scar defect. Multicentre randomised controlled trial. Eleven hospitals collaborating in a consortium for women's health research in the Netherlands. Women reporting postmenstrual spotting after a caesarean section who had a niche with a residual myometrium of ≥3 mm, measured during sonohysterography. Women were randomly allocated to hysteroscopic niche resection or expectant management for 6 months. The primary outcome was the number of days of postmenstrual spotting 6 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes were spotting at the end of menstruation, intermenstrual spotting, dysuria, sonographic niche measurements, surgical parameters, quality of life, women's satisfaction, sexual function, and additional therapy. Outcomes were measured at 3 months and, except for niche measurements, also at 6 months after randomisation. We randomised 52 women to hysteroscopic niche resection and 51 women to expectant management. The median number of days of postmenstrual spotting at baseline was 8 days in both groups. At 6 months after randomisation, the median number of days of postmenstrual spotting was 4 days (interquartile range, IQR 2-7 days) in the intervention group and 7 days (IQR 3-10 days) in the control group (P = 0.04); on a scale of 0-10, discomfort as a result of spotting had a median score of 2 (IQR 0-7) in the intervention group, compared with 7 (IQR 0-8) in the control group (P = 0.02). In women with a niche with a residual myometrium of ≥3 mm, hysteroscopic niche resection reduced postmenstrual spotting and spotting-related discomfort. A hysteroscopic niche resection is an effective treatment to reduce niche-related spotting. © 2017 The Authors. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. Cesarean scar pregnancy and early placenta accreta share common histology.

    PubMed

    Timor-Tritsch, I E; Monteagudo, A; Cali, G; Palacios-Jaraquemada, J M; Maymon, R; Arslan, A A; Patil, N; Popiolek, D; Mittal, K R

    2014-04-01

    To determine, by evaluation of histological slides, images and descriptions of early (second-trimester) placenta accreta (EPA) and placental implantation in cases of Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP), whether these are pathologically indistinguishable and whether they both represent different stages in the disease continuum leading to morbidly adherent placenta in the third trimester. The database of a previously published review of CSP and EPA was used to identify articles with histopathological descriptions and electronic images for pathological review. When possible, microscopic slides and/or paraffin blocks were obtained from the original researchers. We also included from our own institutions cases of CSP and EPA for which pathology specimens were available. Two pathologists examined all the material independently and, blinded to each other's findings, provided a pathological diagnosis based on microscopic appearance. Interobserver agreement in diagnosis was determined. Forty articles were identified, which included 31 cases of CSP and 13 cases of EPA containing histopathological descriptions and/or images of the pathology. We additionally included six cases of CSP and eight cases of EPA from our own institutions, giving a total of 58 cases available for histological evaluation (37 CSP and 21 EPA) containing clear definitions of morbidly adherent placenta. In the 29 cases for which images/slides were available for histopathological evaluation, both pathologists attested to the various degrees of myometrial and/or scar tissue invasion by placental villi with scant or no intervening decidua, consistent with the classic definition of morbidly adherent placenta. Based on the reviewed material, cases with a diagnosis of EPA and those with a diagnosis of CSP showed identical histopathological features. Interobserver correlation was high (kappa = 0.93). EPA and placental implantation in CSP are histopathologically indistinguishable and may represent different stages in

  9. Cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy in a patient with multiple prior cesarean sections: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kiley, Jessica; Shulman, Lee P

    2009-04-01

    Cesarean scar pregnancy, an abnormal gestation implanted in the hysterotomy site of a previous cesarean section, is a unique type of ectopic pregnancy. Once uncommon, these life-threatening gestations are increasing in frequency. Outcomes depend on a high index of suspicion and early diagnosis. A 39-year-old, gravida 9, para 5-0-3-5, with a history of 5 cesarean deliveries, presented with vaginal bleeding secondary to cesarean scar pregnancy at 8 weeks' gestation. The patient, who desired future fertillty, was successfully treated conservatively with methotrexate and uterine artery embolization. Reports of cesarean scar pregnancies are rising in the literature, and we describe a scar pregnancy in a woman with multiple prior cesareans. Although the relationship between cesarean scar pregnancy and the number of previous cesarean deliveries is unclear, rising cesarean section rates worldwide will further increase overall incidence. The optimal treatment modality remains uncertain, but conservative management is appropriate when desired by the patient and administered under close observation.

  10. Caesarean delivery and subsequent pregnancy interval: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Caesarean delivery has increased worldwide, however, the effects on fertility are largely unknown. This systematic review aims to compare subsequent sub-fertility (time to next pregnancy or birth) among women with a Caesarean delivery to women with a vaginal delivery. Methods Systematic review of the literature including seven databases: CINAHL; the Cochrane Library; Embase; Medline; PubMed; SCOPUS and Web of Knowledge (1945 - October 2012), using detailed search-strategies and reference list cross-checking. Cohort, case–control and cross-sectional studies were included. Two assessors reviewed titles, abstracts, and full articles using standardised data abstraction forms and assessed study quality. Results 11 articles were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review, of these five articles which adjusted for confounders were combined in a meta-analysis, totalling 750,407 women using fixed-effect models. Previous Caesarean delivery was associated with an increased risk of sub-fertility [pooled odds ratio (OR) 0.90; 95% CI 0.86, 0.93]. Subgroup analyses by parity [primiparous women: OR 0.91; 95% CI 0.87, 0.96; not limited to primiparous women: OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.73, 0.90]; by publication date (pre-2000: OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68, 0.94; post-2000: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.86, 0.94); by length of follow-up (<10 years: OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.73, 0.90; >10 years: OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.87, 0.96); by indication for mode of delivery (specified: 0.92, 95% CI 0.88, 0.97; not specified: OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.73, 0.90); by cohort size (<35,000: OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.67, 0.92; >35,000: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.87, 0.95), by definition of sub-fertility used divided into (birth interval [BI]: OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.84, 0.94; inter-pregnancy interval [IPI]: OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85, 0.97; and categorical measures: OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.73, 0.90); continuous measures: OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.87, 0.96) were performed. Results of the six studies not included in the meta-analysis (which did not adjust for confounders) are

  11. Fears related to pregnancy and childbirth among primigravidae who requested caesarean versus vaginal delivery in Iran.

    PubMed

    Matinnia, Nasrin; Faisal, Ibrahim; Hanafiah Juni, Muhamad; Herjar, Abdul Rahman; Moeini, Babak; Osman, Zubaidah Jamil

    2015-05-01

    Pregnancy- and childbirth-related fears are common psychological concerns and the primary reasons for requesting caesarean section (CS). We aimed to examine the content of maternal fear and the associated demographic factors in a sample of Iranian primigravidae. A randomly selected sample of primigravidae (n = 342) was recruited in four health care centres in Iran. Data were collected using a 30-item questionnaire. Principal components factor analysis was applied to identify the main factors of pregnancy- and childbirth-related fears. All primigravidae reported some degree of fear, 48.2 % presented severe fear, and 62.6 % requested a CS because of childbirth-related fear. Most of the employed primigravidae with higher education level, higher family income, and unplanned pregnancy requested CS. The items constructed to measure maternal fear were subjected to exploratory factor analysis. Six categories were identified, including 'process of labour and childbirth', 'life and well-being of the baby', 'competence and behaviour of maternity ward personnel', 'own capabilities and reactions', 'becoming a parent and family life after delivery' and 'general fear in pregnancy' that cumulatively explained 55.3 % of the variance. The most common factor was 'life and well-being of the baby'. Severe fear was found in 70.6 % of those who chose CS, while 10.9 % of those who chose vaginal delivery reported severe fear. The between-group differences for mean scores and levels of fear were statistically significant. Pregnancy- and childbirth-related fears were frequently experienced by all low-risk primigravidae. Better strategies to address women's psychological needs during pregnancy are necessary.

  12. The battle scars of pregnancy: can they be prevented?

    PubMed

    Razi, Emma

    2012-05-01

    I have feared developing stretch marks since my first pregnancy. Getting to grips with my changing shape was a big challenge, but I was safe in the knowledge that post-pregnancy I could work towards losing the weight. But stretch marks are permanent, and to me-disfiguring. I researched how stretch marks can be prevented and after finding little evidence for a particular cream or lotion: I scanned forums and asked friends what worked for them. Many people claimed that by keeping skin hydrated and supple, the dreaded stretch marks can be kept at bay or at least to a minimum. So I opted for regularly massaging oil across vulnerable areas and maintaining a balanced diet, including drinking lots of water. I was lucky the first time round; time will tell if my skincare routine will work for my second pregnancy.

  13. Evaluation of the efficacy of laparoscopic resection for the management of exogenous cesarean scar pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangwei; Liu, Xiaofei; Bi, Fangfang; Yin, Lili; Sa, Rina; Wang, Dandan; Yang, Qing

    2014-05-01

    To retrospectively analyze the clinical data of 71 patients with exogenous cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) treated in our hospital in the past 2 years, to compare the outcomes of exogenous CSP treated with different methods, and to evaluate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic resection of exogenous CSP. Comparative observational study. Tertiary medical centers. 71 women with exogenous cesarean scar pregnancy. Hysteroscopic resection of CSP, and laparoscopic resection of CSP. Operation time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative drainage of the uterine cavity, postoperative days in hospital, time for β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) to return to normal levels, absorption time of the mass. For the laparoscopic group, the time for serum β-hCG to return normal levels and the postoperative drainage of the uterine cavity were significantly lower than in the patients who had undergone hysteroscopic resection. We found no statistically significant difference in the intraoperative blood loss and postoperative days in hospital between the two groups, but the operation time was longer in laparoscopic group. Laparoscopic surgery for a cesarean scar pregnancy has the advantages of a high success rate, fewer complications, and a shorter time for β-hCG levels to normalize. This procedure is especially suitable for the treatment of exogenous CSP. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. The HysNiche trial: hysteroscopic resection of uterine caesarean scar defect (niche) in patients with abnormal bleeding, a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vervoort, A J M W; Van der Voet, L F; Witmer, M; Thurkow, A L; Radder, C M; van Kesteren, P J M; Quartero, H W P; Kuchenbecker, W K H; Bongers, M Y; Geomini, P M A J; de Vleeschouwer, L H M; van Hooff, M H A; van Vliet, H A A M; Veersema, S; Renes, W B; van Meurs, H S; Bosmans, J; Oude Rengerink, K; Brölmann, H A M; Mol, B W J; Huirne, J A F

    2015-11-12

    A caesarean section (CS) can cause a defect or disruption of the myometrium at the site of the uterine scar, called a niche. In recent years, an association between a niche and postmenstrual spotting after a CS has been demonstrated. Hysteroscopic resection of these niches is thought to reduce spotting and menstrual pain. However, there are no randomised trials assessing the effectiveness of a hysteroscopic niche resection. We planned a multicentre randomised trial comparing hysteroscopic niche resection to no intervention. We study women with postmenstrual spotting after a CS and a niche with a residual myometrium of at least 3 mm during sonohysterography. After informed consent is obtained, eligible women will be randomly allocated to hysteroscopic resection of the niche or expectant management for 6 months. The primary outcome is the number of days with postmenstrual spotting during one menstrual cycle 6 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes are menstrual characteristics, menstruation related pain and experienced discomfort due to spotting or menstrual pain, quality of life, patient satisfaction, sexual function, urological symptoms, medical consultations, medication use, complications, lost productivity and medical costs. Measurements will be performed at baseline and at 3 and 6 months after randomisation. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed from a societal perspective at 6 months after randomisation. This trial will provide insight in the (cost)effectiveness of hysteroscopic resection of a niche versus expectant management in women who have postmenstrual spotting and a niche with sufficient residual myometrium to perform a hysteroscopic niche resection. Dutch Trial Register NTR3269 . Registered 1 February 2012. ZonMw Grant number 80-82305-97-12030.

  15. Risk of maternal and neonatal complications in subsequent pregnancy after planned caesarean section in a first birth, compared with emergency caesarean section: a nationwide comparative cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kok, N; Ruiter, L; Hof, M; Ravelli, A; Mol, B W; Pajkrt, E; Kazemier, B

    2014-01-01

    To compare the difference in risks of neonatal and maternal complications, including uterine rupture, in a second birth following a planned caesarean section versus emergency caesarean section in the first birth. Prospective cohort study. Population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Linked data set of outcomes for term caesarean section in a first birth followed by a consecutive delivery. We conducted a prospective cohort analysis using data from the Dutch Perinatal Registry. We included primiparous women who gave birth to term singleton infants through planned or emergency caesarean from January 2000 through December 2007, and who had a second singleton delivery during the same period (n = 41,109). Odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios were calculated. Maternal and neonatal complications, specifically uterine rupture, in second births associated with planned and emergency caesareans in the first birth. Women with a history of a planned caesarean section in the first birth (n = 11,445) had a 0.24% risk for uterine rupture, compared with a 0.16% risk for women with a history of emergency caesarean section (n = 29,664; aOR 1.4, 95% CI 0.8-2.4). In multivariate logistic regression, women with planned caesareans in a first birth had a significantly increased risk of stillbirth (aOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.2) and postpartum haemorrhage (aOR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.2) in second births, compared with women with emergency caesareans in the first birth. We found a moderately increased risk of postpartum haemorrhage and a small to moderately increased risk of uterine rupture and stillbirth as a long-term effect of prior planned caesarean delivery on second births. © 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. [Comparison of pregnancy outcomes Caesarean techniques: modified Misgav-Ladach, Pfannenstiel-Kerr and Kerr-half infraumbilical].

    PubMed

    Cardona-Osuna, M E; Avila-Vergara, M A; Peraza-Garay, F; Meneses-Valderrama, V; Flores-Pompa, E; Corrales-López, A

    2016-08-01

    In Mexico, the prevalence of caesarean section is 40.9% in the health sector, the techniques used are the traditional Pfannenstiel-Kerr and Kerr-half infraumbilical and little experience with this new technique Misgav-Ladach modified. To compare pregnancy outcomes (surgical and fetal extraction time, bleeding, postoperative pain, surgical wound infection, maternal and fetal death) caesarean section techniques modified Misgav-Ladach, Pfannenstiel-Kerr and infraumbilical. Clinical trial in primiparous women with term pregnancy treated at the Medical Unit of High Specialty 23 of the Mexican Social Security Institute, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. Misgav-Ladach caesarean Caesarean modified and Kerr, the latter subdivided into two groups: infraumbilical Pfannenstiel incision and incision half-Kerr two groups patients were randomized. 137 gilts were studied, with term pregnancy and BMI between 19 and 24.9 kg / m2. Caesarean modified Misgav-Ladach 68 patients and 69 classical Kerr (35 Pfannenstiel-Kerr and 34 infraumbilical) was performed. The surgical time in minutes was lower with modified Misgav-Ladach: 27.8 ± 8.0, Pfannenstiel-Kerr recorded 51.7 ± 12.1 and 12.0 ± infraumbilical media48.3 (p = 0.000). The time in seconds fetal extraction was lower in modified Misgav-Ladach: 96.2 ± 68.3, 474.9 ± Pfannenstiel-Kerr 294.1 and 423.2 ± 398.6 infraumbilical (p = 0.000). The trasoperatory milliliters bleeding was lower with modified Misgav-Ladach: 298.5 ± 57.3, 354.3 ± Pfannenstiel-Kerr 98.0 and 355.9 ± 110.6 infraumbilical (p = 0.001). Postoperative pain assessed with the visual analog scale in the first 24 hours was lower with modified Misgav-Ladach: 4.4 ± 1.9, 5.7 ± Pfannenstiel-Kerr and IK 2.1 6.1 ± 2.0 (p = 0.000). The start of the oral route and ambulation Nwas soon comparing modified Misgav-Ladach against Pfannenstiel-Kerr and Kerr-infraumbilical (p = 0.000). The prevalence of fever was 5.9% with modified Misgav-Ladach, 5.9% Pfannenstiel-Kerr and 32

  17. Easy sonographic differential diagnosis between intrauterine pregnancy and cesarean delivery scar pregnancy in the early first trimester.

    PubMed

    Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E; Monteagudo, Ana; Cali, Giuseppe; El Refaey, Hazem; Kaelin Agten, Andrea; Arslan, Alan A

    2016-08-01

    Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) is a serious complication of pregnancy, which consists of implantation of the gestational sac in the hysterotomy scar. This condition is increasing in frequency and often poses a diagnostic challenge. Its diagnosis is dependent on visual assessment of the uterus on the longitudinal sagittal ultrasound plane. Misdiagnosing a low intrauterine chorionic sac as a CSP, or a true scar pregnancy as an intrauterine pregnancy (IUP), may lead to adverse outcomes including hysterectomy. The objective of the study is to describe a sonographic method for the differential diagnosis of CSP vs IUP in early gestation. The current study tests the hypothesis that on a first-trimester ultrasound performed between 5-10 weeks of gestation, the relative location of the center of gestational sac to the midpoint of the uterus along a longitudinal line between the external cervical os and the fundus can be used for early detection of CSPs. This is a retrospective review of electronically archived ultrasound images of IUP and CSP between 5-10 weeks of gestation. A total of 242 ultrasound images were analyzed: 185 cases of normal IUPs (including 128 in anteverted uteri, 31 in retroverted uteri, and 26 IUPs with history of cesarean delivery) and 57 cases of CSPs diagnosed from 2004 through 2015 in a single institution. The following measurements were made for each case: distance from the external cervical os to the uterine fundus, the midpoint axis of the uterus, the distance from the external cervical os to the center of gestational sacs, and the distance from the external cervical os to the most distant edge of the gestational sacs from the cervix. The location of the center of the gestational sac relative to the midpoint axis of the uterus between 5-10 weeks of gestation differentiated between IUP and CSP (mean 17.8 vs -10.6 mm, respectively, P = .0001), indicating that most CSPs are located proximally to the midpoint axis of the uterus whereas most normal

  18. Caesarean Section in Peru: Analysis of Trends Using the Robson Classification System

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cesarean section rates continue to increase worldwide while the reasons appear to be multiple, complex and, in many cases, country specific. Over the last decades, several classification systems for caesarean section have been created and proposed to monitor and compare caesarean section rates in a standardized, reliable, consistent and action-oriented manner with the aim to understand the drivers and contributors of this trend. The aims of the present study were to conduct an analysis in the three Peruvian geographical regions to assess levels and trends of delivery by caesarean section using the Robson classification for caesarean section, identify the groups of women with highest caesarean section rates and assess variation of maternal and perinatal outcomes according to caesarean section levels in each group over time. Material and Methods Data from 549,681 pregnant women included in the Peruvian Perinatal Information System database from 43 maternal facilities in three Peruvian geographical regions from 2000 and 2010 were studied. The data were analyzed using the Robson classification and women were studied in the ten groups in the classification. Cochran-Armitage test was used to evaluate time trends in the rates of caesarean section rates and; logistic regression was used to evaluate risk for each classification. Results The caesarean section rate was 27% and a yearly increase in the overall caesarean section rates from 2000 to 2010 from 23.5% to 30% (time trend p<0.001) was observed. Robson groups 1, 3 (nulliparous and multiparas, respectively, with a single cephalic term pregnancy in spontaneous labour), 5 (multiparas with a previous uterine scar with a single, cephalic, term pregnancy) and 7 (multiparas with a single breech pregnancy with or without previous scars) showed an increase in the caesarean section rates over time. Robson groups 1 and 3 were significantly associated with stillbirths (OR 1.43, CI95% 1.17–1.72; OR 3.53, CI95% 2.95

  19. Placenta previa with early opening of the uterine isthmus is associated with high risk of bleeding during pregnancy, and massive haemorrhage during caesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Goto, M; Hasegawa, J; Arakaki, T; Takita, H; Oba, T; Nakamura, M; Sekizawa, A

    2016-06-01

    To demonstrate the relationship between the timing of opening of the uterine isthmus and bleeding during pregnancy and caesarean section in patients with placenta previa. A prospective observational study was conducted at a single perinatal centre. All patients with placenta previa, diagnosed between 20 and 22 weeks of gestation, who were followed up at the study hospital and underwent caesarean section were enrolled. The condition of the uterine isthmus was examined every 2 weeks. The timing (in gestational weeks) of complete opening of the uterine isthmus was determined. Patients were divided into two groups: patients in whom the uterine isthmus opened before 25 weeks of gestation (EO-previa), and patients in whom the uterine isthmus opened after 25 weeks of gestation (LO-previa). The frequency of bleeding during pregnancy and the amount of intra-operative bleeding were compared between the two groups. Forty-four cases of EO-previa and 55 cases of LO-previa were analysed. Complete placenta previa at delivery was observed more frequently in the EO-previa group than in the LO-previa group (88.6% vs 47.3%, p<0.001). An emergency caesarean section due to active bleeding was performed more frequently in the EO-previa group (48%) than in the LO-previa group (25%) (p=0.021). The frequency of massive haemorrage (>2500ml) during caesarean section was higher in the EO-previa group than in the LO-previa group (25% vs 9%, p=0.033). Placenta previa was associated with a high risk of bleeding leading to emergency caesarean section during pregnancy, and massive haemorrhage during caesarean section in patients in whom the uterine isthmus opened before 25 weeks of gestation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Intrathecal Midazolam as an Adjuvant in Pregnancy-Induced Hypertensive Patients Undergoing an Elective Caesarean Section: A Clinical Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Dodawad, Ravichandra; G. B., Sumalatha; Pandarpurkar, Sandeep; Jajee, Parashuram

    2016-01-01

    Background A pain-free postoperative period is essential following a caesarean section so new mothers may care for and bond with their neonates. Intrathecal adjuvants are often administered during this procedure to provide significant analgesia, but they may also have bothersome side effects. Intrathecal midazolam produces effective postoperative analgesia with no significant side effects. Objectives This prospective, randomized, double-blind study was designed to compare the analgesic efficacy and safety of intrathecal midazolam vs. plain bupivacaine as an adjunct to bupivacaine in pregnancy-induced hypertension patients scheduled for elective caesarean section. Methods Sixty patients diagnosed with pregnancy-induced hypertension on regular treatment who were scheduled for a caesarean section were randomly allocated into two groups: a control group (Group BC, n = 30) and a midazolam group (Group BM, n = 30). Both groups received 10 mg (2 mL) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine. Group BC received 0.4 mL of distilled water, while group BM received 0.4 mL (2 mg) of midazolam intrathecally. The duration of postoperative analgesia, analgesic requirements during the first 24 hours after surgery, onset times and durations of sensory and motor blocks, incidence of hypotension, vasopressor requirements, and side effects were recorded. Results Postoperative analgesia was significantly longer in the midazolam group compared to the control group (201.5 minutes vs. 357.6 minutes). The mean onset times of the sensory and motor blocks were significantly faster (P < 0.01) in the midazolam group compared to the control group. The mean times to attain the maximum sensory level and motor blocks were also significantly faster in the midazolam group compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The incidence of hypotension was 6.6% in the midazolam group and 36.6% in the control group, which was highly significant. In addition, the number of patients with side effects was significantly lower

  1. High weight gain during pregnancy increases the risk for emergency caesarean section - Population-based data from the Swedish Maternal Health Care Register 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Nilses, Carin; Persson, Margareta; Lindkvist, Marie; Petersson, Kerstin; Mogren, Ingrid

    2017-03-01

    The aim was to investigate maternal background factors' significance in relation to risk of elective and emergency caesarean sections (CS) in Sweden. Population-based, retrospective, cross-sectional study. The Swedish Maternal Health Care Register (MHCR) is a national quality register that collects data on pregnancy, delivery and postpartum period. All women registered in MHCR 2011 to 2012 were included in the study sample (N = 178,716). The risk of elective and emergency caesarean section in relation to age, parity, education, country of origin, weight in early pregnancy and weight gain during pregnancy was calculated in logistic regression models. Multiparous women demonstrated a doubled risk of elective CS compared to primiparous women, but their risk for emergency CS was halved. Overweight and obesity at enrolment in antenatal care increased the risk for emergency CS, irrespective of parity. Weight gain above recommended international levels (Institute of Medicine, IOM) during pregnancy increased the risk for emergency CS for women with normal weight, overweight or obesity. There is a need of national guidelines on recommended weight gain during pregnancy in Sweden. We suggest that the usefulness of the IOM guidelines for weight gain during pregnancy should be evaluated in the Swedish context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Techniques for caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Hofmeyr, G J; Mathai, M; Shah, A; Novikova, N

    2008-01-23

    Rates of caesarean section (CS) have been rising globally. It is important to use the most effective and safe technique. To compare the effects of complete methods of caesarean section; and to summarise the findings of reviews of individual aspects of caesarean section technique. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (August 2007), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 3) and reference lists of identified papers. Randomised controlled trials of intention to perform caesarean section using different techniques. Two review authors independently assessed studies and extracted data. 'Joel-Cohen based' compared with Pfannenstiel CS was associated with: less blood loss, (five trials, 481 women; weighted mean difference (WMD) -64.45 ml; 95% confidence interval (CI) -91.34 to -37.56 ml); shorter operating time (five trials, 581 women; WMD -18.65; 95% CI -24.84 to -12.45 minutes); postoperatively, reduced time to oral intake (five trials, 481 women; WMD -3.92; 95% CI -7.13 to -0.71 hours); less fever (eight trials, 1412 women; relative risk (RR) 0.47; 95% CI 0.28 to 0.81); shorter duration of postoperative pain (two comparisons from one trial, 172 women; WMD -14.18 hours; 95% CI -18.31 to -10.04 hours); fewer analgesic injections (two trials, 151 women; WMD -0.92; 95% CI -1.20 to -0.63); and shorter time from skin incision to birth of the baby (five trials, 575 women; WMD -3.84 minutes; 95% CI -5.41 to -2.27 minutes). Serious complications and blood transfusions were too few for analysis.Misgav-Ladach compared with the traditional method (lower midline abdominal incision) was associated with reduced: blood loss (339 women; WMD -93.00; 95% CI -132.72 to -53.28 ml); operating time (339 women; WMD-7.30; 95% CI -8.32 to -6.28 minutes); time to mobilisation (339 women; WMD -16.06; 95% CI -18.22 to -13.90 hours); and length of postoperative stay for the mother (339 women; WMD -0.82; 95% CI -1.08 to

  3. Conservative management of cesarean scar pregnancies: a prospective randomized controlled trial at a single center.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingyi; Yang, Zhiling; Li, Yunming; Chen, Biliang; Wang, Jian; Ma, Xiangdong; Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    To assess clinical outcomes related to conservative management of women with cesarean scar pregnancies (CSPs), specifically through uterine artery embolization (UAE) with local and systemic methotrexate (MTX) treatment (UAE-MTX), or ultrasound-guided local and systemic MTX treatment (USG-MTX). Forty-five patients with CSP were randomly allocated to receive UAE-MTX (n = 24) or USG-MTX (n = 21). Participants' clinical outcomes were compared, and clinical characteristics of failed cases were evaluated relative to successful cases. The 2 groups were similar in clinical characteristics, success rate (83.3% cf. 80.9%), time to normalization of serum beta (β) human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG), and percentage of patients receiving multiple doses of systemic MTX. However, within the failed cases, the percentages of patients with gestational sac > 5 cm (87.5%), or type II CSP (75.0%) was significantly higher than in the successful cases (13.5% and 18.9%, respectively; P < 0.001, both), without regard to treatment group. According to the logistic regression model, a gestational sac diameter > 5 cm or type II CSP were independent risk factors for failed CSP management (gestational sac > 5 cm: OR 51.87, 95% CI 3.48-775.91, P < 0.01; type II CSP: OR 15.54, 95% CI 1.25-193.36, P < 0.05). The conservative treatments UAE-MTX and USG-MTX were similarly effective in treating CSP patients. Either treatment was likely to fail for CSP patients with gestational sac > 5 cm or type II CSP.

  4. Treating non-tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chetty, Maya; Elson, Janine

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the current state of knowledge regarding the treatment of non-tubal ectopic pregnancies. This review looks at the management of cervical, caesarean scar, ovarian, interstitial, cornual and abdominal pregnancies. Traditionally these pregnancies have been diagnosed late and managed by open surgery. Earlier diagnosis has led to the use of minimal access techniques, medical and conservative management for all types of non-tubal pregnancies. Increased awareness and the experience of specialised centres have led to an improved understanding of the best way to manage non-tubal ectopic pregnancies and the development of new techniques.

  5. [Risk factors of pregnancy termination at second and third trimester in women with scarred uterus and placenta previa].

    PubMed

    Tian, Ji-shun; Pan, Fei-xia; He, Sai-nan; Hu, Wen-sheng

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the risk factors of pregnancy termination at second and third trimester in women with scarred uterus and placenta previa. Clinical data of 24 pregnant women of second and third trimester with a scarred uterus and placenta previa,who requested termination in Women's Hospital Zhejiang University School of Medicine from July 2009 to June 2014, were retrospectively analyzed. The method of mifepristone combined with ethacridine lactate was adopted for all cases. Mifepristone combined with ethacridine lactate and uterine artery embolization were routinely given for patients with complete placenta previa. Cesarean section was performed for patients who failed to delivery or underwent massive vaginal bleeding before delivery. Age, gestational weeks, gravidity and parity, times of previous cesarean section, the interval from previous operation, the position and the type of placenta previa, placenta accretet, the indication and method of termination, postpartum hemorrhage, successful rate of labor induction, placental retention ratio and uterus rupture were documented. The successful rate of labor induction was 83.3%. The analysis showed that age, gestational weeks, gravidity and parity and times of previous cesarean section were not risk factors for failed labor induction, however the interval time from previous operation was related to induction failure (P<0.05). Patients with previous cesarean section ≥ 13 years were more likely to require cesarean section than those <13 years (P<0.05). The placenta adhered to the antetheca of the uterus or placenta accrete increased risk to have cesarean section. There were no significant differences in postpartum hemorrhage, the successful rate of labor induction, placental retention ratio and the rate of uterine rupture between patients with uterine artery embolization and those without. The labor induction would be feasible for women with a scarred uterus and placenta previa in second and third-trimester pregnancy

  6. Research on the expression of integrin β3 and leukaemia inhibitory factor in the decidua of women with cesarean scar pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhi-Da; Weng, Yue; Wang, Chun-Fen; Huang, Li-Li; Zhu, Xiao-Ming

    2017-03-11

    Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) is a late serious complication of cesarean section. There has been an increase in the incidence of CSP worldwide in recent years. It's a life-threatening condition because of the high risk of uncontrolled hemorrhage and uterine rupture. The mechanism of CSP is still unclear. The endometrial receptivity might be different in the cesarean scar between CSP and normal pregnancies. Endometrial expression of integrin β3 and LIF positively correlates with endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation. The purpose of the study is to explore the mechanism of CSP. The EnVision two-step immunohistochemical staining technique was used to detect the expression of integrin β3 and LIF in the decidua of women with CSP (20 cases) and normal pregnancies (20 cases). The distribution and staining intensity of integrin β3 and LIF in the two groups were observed. Observation of the staining were done using microscope within five randomly selected high-power fields (HPF, 10 × 40). All data analyses were conducted with SPSS 17.0 and the statistical significance was set at P <0.05. The decidua in the different parts of both two groups that stained with the anti-integrin β3 and anti-LIF antibody: most of the integrin β3 and LIF positive cells were located in glandular epithelium. The expression intensity of integrin β3 in the cesarean scar in CSP group was significant higher than the uterine cavity in CSP group and the cesarean scar in normal pregnancy group. It's similar with the uterine cavity in normal pregnancy group. The expression intensity of LIF in the cesarean scar in CSP group was significant higher than the uterine cavity in CSP group and the cesarean scar in normal pregnancy group. It's significant lower than the uterine cavity in normal pregnancy group. The decidual integrin β3 and LIF might play an important role in the mechanism of CSP. The increase expression of integrin β3 and LIF in the cesarean scar decidua might be associated

  7. Outcome of Pregnancies After Balloon Occlusion of the Infrarenal Abdominal Aorta During Caesarean in 230 Patients With Placenta Praevia Accreta

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Qinghua, E-mail: qh-wu77@163.com; Liu, Zhuan, E-mail: liuchuan2015ck@163.com; Zhao, Xianlan, E-mail: zxl121292014@163.com

    PurposeTo explore the efficacy and safety of prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta during caesarean for the management of patients with placenta praevia accreta.MethodsTwo hundred and sixty-eight cases of placenta praevia accreta from January 2012 to June 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Group A included two hundred and thirty patients who underwent prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion of infrarenal abdominal aorta followed by caesarean section. Group B included thirty-eight patients who underwent caesarean without endovascular intervention. The parameters including operating room time, estimated blood loss, blood transfusion volume, PT (prothrombin time) during operation, days in the intensive care unit,more » and total hospital days were compared between the two groups.ResultsThe operating room time, estimated blood loss, PT, the incidence of hysterectomy, blood transfusion volume, postpartum haemorrhage, and days in intensive care unit were lower in group A than in group B, with statistical significance (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the Apgar scores of the neonates and the incidences of thrombosis in lower limbs between the two groups (P > 0.05). No patient in the group with prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion of the infrarenal abdominal aorta was performed hysterectomy, while three patients in group B were performed hysterectomy because of uncontrollable haemorrhage.ConclusionsThe results indicate that prophylactic temporary balloon occlusion of infrarenal abdominal aorta followed by caesarean section is safe and effective to control intraoperative blood loss and greatly decreases the risk of hysterectomy in patients with placenta praevia accreta.« less

  8. Scar management.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jacky

    Scarring has major psychological and physical repercussions--for example, scarring on the face and visible regions of the body can be very distressing for the patient, whether it is simple acne scars or large, raised surgical or traumatic scars. This article discusses the process of scar formation, the differences between scars and proposes a number of ways in which the nurse can manage scars.

  9. Caesarean section and its impact on fertility and time to a subsequent pregnancy in Germany: a database analysis in gynecological practices.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Louis; Weber, Katherina; Sechet, Ingeborg; Macharey, Georg; Kostev, Karel; Ziller, Volker

    2016-11-01

    To analyze the impact of caesarean section (CS) on fertility and time to pregnancy in German gynecological practices. Women initially diagnosed for the first time with a vaginal delivery (VD) or CS between 2000 and 2013 were identified by 227 gynecologists in the IMS Disease Analyzer database. They were included if they were aged between 16 and 40 years, and were not previously diagnosed with female sterility. The two main outcomes were the first-time diagnosis of female sterility and the time between the first delivery and the next pregnancy within 10 years. A multivariate Cox regression model was used to predict these outcomes on the basis of patient characteristics. 6483 patients were included in the CS group and 6483 in the VD group. Mean age was 30.6 years and the proportion of individuals with private health insurance amounted to 9.0 %. Within 10 years of the index date, 19.5 % of women who delivered by CS and 18.3 % of women who delivered vaginally were diagnosed with sterility (p value = 0.0148). CS and polycystic ovary syndrome significantly increased the risk of sterility. Within 10 years of the index date, 57.9 % of women who underwent a CS and 64.0 % of women who delivered vaginally were pregnant for the second time (p value <0.001). CS, polycystic ovary syndrome, and the deterioration of menstrual cycle significantly decreased the chance of becoming pregnant a second time. CS is associated with an increased risk of sterility and a decreased number of subsequent pregnancies in Germany.

  10. New Technique for Caesarean Section

    PubMed Central

    Vejnović, T. R.; Costa, S. D.; Ignatov, A.

    2012-01-01

    Caesarean section is one of the most common operations worldwide and more than 30 % of procedures in perinatal centres in Germany are caesarean sections. In the last few years the technique used for caesarean sections has been simplified, resulting in a lower postoperative morbidity. But persistent problems associated with all caesarean section techniques include high intraoperative loss of blood, the risk of injury to the child during uterotomy and postoperative wound dehiscence of the uterine scar. We present here a modification of the most common Misgav-Ladach method. The initial skin incision is done along the natural skin folds and is extended intraoperatively depending on the circumference of the babyʼs head. After blunt expansion of the uterine incision using an anatomical forceps, the distal uterine wall is pushed behind the babyʼs head. The babyʼs head is rotated into the occipito-anterior or posterior position and delivery occurs through the application of gentle pressure on the uterine fundus. Closure of the uterotomy is done using 2 continuous sutures, which are then knotted together resulting in a short double-layer closure. The two ends of the skin suture are left open to allow for natural drainage. Our experience at the University Gynaecological Hospitals in Novi Sad and Magdeburg has shown that this modification is associated with shorter operating times, minimal blood loss and shorter in-hospital stay of patients as well as high rates of patient satisfaction. PMID:25328165

  11. New Technique for Caesarean Section.

    PubMed

    Vejnović, T R; Costa, S D; Ignatov, A

    2012-09-01

    Caesarean section is one of the most common operations worldwide and more than 30 % of procedures in perinatal centres in Germany are caesarean sections. In the last few years the technique used for caesarean sections has been simplified, resulting in a lower postoperative morbidity. But persistent problems associated with all caesarean section techniques include high intraoperative loss of blood, the risk of injury to the child during uterotomy and postoperative wound dehiscence of the uterine scar. We present here a modification of the most common Misgav-Ladach method. The initial skin incision is done along the natural skin folds and is extended intraoperatively depending on the circumference of the baby's head. After blunt expansion of the uterine incision using an anatomical forceps, the distal uterine wall is pushed behind the baby's head. The baby's head is rotated into the occipito-anterior or posterior position and delivery occurs through the application of gentle pressure on the uterine fundus. Closure of the uterotomy is done using 2 continuous sutures, which are then knotted together resulting in a short double-layer closure. The two ends of the skin suture are left open to allow for natural drainage. Our experience at the University Gynaecological Hospitals in Novi Sad and Magdeburg has shown that this modification is associated with shorter operating times, minimal blood loss and shorter in-hospital stay of patients as well as high rates of patient satisfaction.

  12. Maternal mortality following caesarean sections.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, K; Kundu, S; Mandal, G S

    1979-08-01

    A study of 26 maternal deaths following 3647 caesarean sections was conducted in Eden Hospital from 1974-1977. During the time period there were 35,544 births and 308 total maternal deaths (8.74/1000). Indications for Caesarean sections included: 1) abnormal presentation; 2) cephalopelvic disproportion; 3) toxemia; 4) prolonged labor; 5) fetal distress; and 6) post-caesarean pregnancies. Highest mortality rates were among cephalopelvic disproportion, toxemia, and prolonged labor patients. 38.4% of the patients died due to septicaemia and peritonitis, but other deaths were due to preclampsia, shock, and hemorrhage. Proper antenatal care may have prevented anemia and preclampsia and treated other pre-existing or superimposed diseases.

  13. Uterine Artery Embolization Combined with Local Methotrexate and Systemic Methotrexate for Treatment of Cesarean Scar Pregnancy with Different Ultrasonographic Pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Lian Fan; Wang Yu, E-mail: wyfishking@hotmail.com; Chen Wei

    Purpose: This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of systemic methotrexate (MTX) with uterine artery embolization (UAE) combined with local MTX for the treatment of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) with different ultrasonographic pattern, and to indicate the preferable therapy in CSP patients. Methods: The results of 21 CSP cases were reviewed. All subjects were initially administrated with systemic MTX (50 mg/m{sup 2} body surface area). UAE combined with local MTX was added to the patients who had failed systemic MTX. The transvaginal ultrasonography data were retrospectively assessed, and two different ultrasonographic patterns were found: surface implantation and deep implantationmore » of amniotic sac. The management and its effectiveness for patients with the two ultrasonographic patterns were studied retrospectively. Ultrasound scan and serum {beta}-hCG were monitored during follow-up. Data were analyzed with the Student's t test. Results: Nine patients were successfully treated with systemic MTX. The remaining 12 cases were successfully treated with additional UAE combined with local MTX. According to the classification by Vial et al. of CSP on ultrasonography, most surface implanted CSPs (8/11, 72.7%) could be successfully treated with systemic MTX, whereas most deeply implanted CSPs (9/10, 90%) had failed systemic MTX but still could be successfully treated with additional UAE combined with local MTX. All patients recovered without severe side effects. Most patients with a future desire for reproduction achieved subsequent pregnancy. Conclusions: For CSP patients suitable for nonsurgical treatment, UAE combined with local MTX would be the superior option compared with systemic MTX in the cases with deep implantation of amniotic sac.« less

  14. Local Methotrexate Injection as the First-line Treatment for Cesarean Scar Pregnancy: Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Vincent Y T

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the outcome of using ultrasound-guided local methotrexate injection as the first-line treatment of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP). A literature review was performed on all eligible reports using this modality as the first-line treatment of CSP. Relevant publications were obtained from the PubMed electronic database from inception to December 2014. Ninety-six cases from 95 women reported in 17 articles were reviewed. The success rate was 73.9% after a single local methotrexate injection. An accumulated success rate of 88.5% could be achieved after additional local or intramuscular methotrexate administration. Eleven cases (11.5%) failed methotrexate treatment and required surgical interventions. Except for women with serum human chorionic gonadotropin levels higher than 100 000 IU/L, ultrasound-guided local methotrexate injection could be considered as a first-line treatment modality for CSP. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Laparoscopic temporary bilateral uterine artery occlusion with silicone tubing to prevent hemorrhage during vacuum aspiration of cesarean scar pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; Sun, Lingbin; Wang, Lijun; Chen, Huifang; Ouyang, Xue; Qiu, Huiling

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and effects of temporary bilateral uterine artery occlusion with silicone tubing on blood loss during vacuum aspiration of cesarean scar pregnancies (CSP). Six patients with CSP underwent removal of gestational masses via vacuum aspiration. At the beginning of the procedure, all patients underwent laparoscopic temporary bilateral uterine artery occlusion with tubing. The main measurements were the operating time, operative blood loss, Doppler examination of the uterine arteries, and complications of procedure. The median operation time was 99 min, the median time needed to put the tubing in place (the time from the opening of the retroperitoneum to positioning of the tubing) was 45.5 min and the median time of bilateral uterine artery occlusion with tubing was 32.5 min. The median blood loss was 97.5 mL, and none of the patients required blood transfusion. Doppler examination showed no difference in the pre- and postoperative resistance or pulsatility indices of the uterine vessels. There were no conspicuous complications. The serum ß-human chorionic gonadotrophin level decreased to normal within 14-27 days after the operation. Laparoscopic temporary bilateral uterine artery occlusion with silicone tubing is an effective, minimally invasive procedure for reducing blood loss during vacuum aspiration in patients with CSP. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Elective repeat caesarean section versus induction of labour for women with a previous caesarean birth.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Jodie M; Crowther, Caroline A; Grivell, Rosalie M; Deussen, Andrea R

    2014-12-19

    When a woman has had a previous caesarean birth and requires induction of labour in a subsequent pregnancy there are two options for her care, an elective repeat caesarean or planned induction of labour. While there are risks and benefits for both elective repeat caesarean birth and planned induction of labour, current sources of information are limited to non-randomised cohort studies. Studies designed in this way have significant potential for bias and consequently any conclusions based on these results are limited in their reliability and should be interpreted with caution. To assess, using the best available evidence, the benefits and harms of elective repeat caesarean section and planned induction of labour for women with a previous caesarean birth, who require induction of labour in a subsequent pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (31 October 2014). Randomised controlled trials with reported data that compared outcomes in mothers and babies for women who planned an elective repeat caesarean section with outcomes in women who planned induction of labour, where a previous birth had been by caesarean. There was no data extraction performed. There were no randomised controlled trials identified. Both planned elective repeat caesarean section and planned induction of labour for women with a prior caesarean birth are associated with benefits and harms. Evidence for these care practices is drawn from non-randomised studies that are associated with potential bias. Any results and conclusions must therefore be interpreted with caution. Randomised controlled trials are required to provide the most reliable evidence regarding the benefits and harms of both planned elective repeat caesarean section and planned induction of labour for women with a previous caesarean birth.

  17. [Clinical analysis on hysteroscopic surgery for the treatment of type Ⅱ cesarean scar pregnancy in the first trimester].

    PubMed

    Chen, Z Y; Li, X Y; Zhao, D; Zhou, M; Xu, P; Huang, X F; Zhang, X M

    2017-10-25

    Objective: To investigate the safety and efficacy of hysterosopic management of type Ⅱ cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) and the value of prophylactic uterine artery embolization (UAE). Methods: Totally 104 patients with type Ⅱ CSP treated with hysteroscopic surgery at the Women ' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, during Jan. 2009 to Jun. 2016 were analyzed retrospectively, 67 patients combined with UAE (UAE group) and 37 patients without combined with UAE (non-UAE group). Laparoscopy or sonography guidance was conducted simultaneously. The following clinical parameters were compared, including: primary cure rate, uterine packing rate, uterine perforation rate, hemoglobin level change, the time for the mass absorption and the return of β-hCG to normal, complications, hospital days and hospital stay cost. Results: Median gestational age, size of mass, thickness of the anterior myometrium and β-hCG level in UAE group versus non-UAE group were 47 versus 47 days, 30 versus 30 mm,2 versus 2 mm, 36 524 versus 32 226 U/L (all P> 0.05). Out of 104, 100 patients were managed successfully with hysteroscopic surgery, and 4 patients transformed to laparoscopic or laparotomy surgery. Hysteroscopic surgery was effective in 63 out of 67 patients (94%) in UAE group and 34 out of 37 patients (92%) in non-UAE group ( P> 0.05). There was no significant differences regarding uterine perforation rate, uterine packing rate, hemoglobin change and recovery time between UAE group and non-UAE group (all P> 0.05). The median hospital day was 7 days in UAE group versus 5 days in non-UAE group ( P< 0.01). The median hospital stay cost was 13 654 yuan in UAE group versus 9 108 yuan in non-UAE group ( P< 0.01). Serious complication occurred in 4 patients (6%, 4/67) in UAE group and 2 patients (5%, 2/67) in non-UAE group ( P= 0.906). Conclusions: Hysteroscopic surgery is effective and safe for patients with type Ⅱ CSP in the first trimester with size ≤30 mm in diameter

  18. Scar revision

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mohit; Wakure, Abhijeet

    2013-01-01

    Most surgical patients end up with a scar and most of these would want at least some improvement in the appearance of the scar. Using sound techniques for wound closure surgeons can, to a certain extent, prevent suboptimal scars. This article reviews the principles of prevention and treatment of suboptimal scars. Surgical techniques of scar revision, i.e., Z plasty, W plasty, and geometrical broken line closure are described. Post-operative care and other adjuvant therapies of scars are described. A short description of dermabrasion and lasers for management of scars is given. It is hoped that this review helps the surgeon to formulate a comprehensive plan for management of scars of these patients. PMID:24516292

  19. [Burn scars].

    PubMed

    Roques, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Burns often result in extensive scars which can change the body aesthetically and/ or functionally. Rapid scarring is a sign of a good prognosis. Preventative actions such as hydration, compression, massage, posture and splints help to prevent or contain the negative evolution of pathological scars.

  20. Maternal obesity, caesarean delivery and caesarean delivery on maternal request: a cohort analysis from China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yubo; Blustein, Jan; Li, Hongtian; Ye, Rongwei; Zhu, Liping; Liu, Jianmeng

    2015-05-01

    To quantify the association between maternal obesity and caesarean delivery, particularly caesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR), a fast-growing component of caesarean delivery in many nations. We followed 1,019,576 nulliparous women registered in the Perinatal Healthcare Surveillance System during 1993-2010. Maternal body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2) ), before pregnancy or during early pregnancy, was classified as underweight (<18.5), normal (18.5 to <23; reference), overweight (23 to <27.5), or obese (≥27.5), consistent with World Health Organization guidelines for Asian people. The association between maternal obesity and overall caesarean and its subtypes was modelled using log-binomial regression. During the 18-year period, 404,971 (39.7%) caesareans and 93,927 (9.2%) CDMRs were identified. Maternal obesity was positively associated with overall caesarean and CDMR. Adjusted risk ratios for overall caesarean in the four ascending BMI categories were 0.96 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94, 0.97], 1.00 (Reference), 1.16 [95% CI 1.14, 1.18], 1.39 [95% CI 1.43, 1.54], and for CDMR were 0.95 [95% CI 0.94, 0.96], 1.00 (Reference), 1.20 [95% CI 1.18, 1.22], 1.48 [95% CI 1.433, 1.54]. Positive associations were consistently found in women residing in southern and northern provinces and in subgroups stratified by year of delivery, urban or rural residence, maternal age, education, level of delivering hospital, and birthweight. In a large Chinese cohort study, maternal obesity was associated with an increased risk of caesarean delivery and its subtypes, including CDMR. Given the rising global prevalence of obesity, and in view of the growth of CDMR, it seems likely that caesarean births will increase, unless there are changes in obstetrical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Comparison of systemic and local methotrexate treatments in cesarean scar pregnancies: time to change conventional treatment and follow-up protocols.

    PubMed

    Uludag, Semih Z; Kutuk, Mehmet S; Ak, Mehmet; Ozgun, Mahmut T; Dolanbay, Mehmet; Aygen, Ercan M; Sahin, Yılmaz

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the use of systemic and local methotrexate in the treatment of cesarean scar pregnancy. In this retrospective cohort study, we collected the data of 44 patients with cesarean scar pregnancy. The patients were grouped according to treatment modality: Group 1, local methotrexate injection (n=17) and Group 2, systemic methotrexate (n=27). The groups were compared with respect to side effects, recovery time, reproductive outcome, and treatment cost. The mean gestational age at diagnosis (6.4±0.93 vs. 5.4±0.80 weeks, p=0.001), pretreatment serum β-human chorionic gonadotrophin level [27,970 (11,010-39,421) vs. 7606 (4725-16,996) mIU/mL, p=0.001], and lesion size (2.74±1.36 and 1.28±0.55cm, p=0.001) were higher in Group 1. All patients were cured by primary therapy without additional surgery. The mean times for β-human chorionic gonadotrophin normalization, the uterine-mass disappearance, were significantly shorter in Group 1 than in Group 2 (6.17±1.55 vs. 8.11±2.0 weeks, p=0.001 and 10.47±4.14 vs. 13.40±4.44 weeks, p=0.002, respectively). The cost of treatment was similar between groups (281.133±112.123$ vs. 551.134±131.792$, p=0.76). The total pregnancy rates were not different between groups (5/16, 31.4% vs. 6/11, 54.6%, p=0.301). One recurrent cesarean scar pregnancy occurred after systemic methotrexate. Oral ulcers, the most common side effect, were seen in seven patients in Group 2. Even though treatment success and reproductive outcomes are similar, local methotrexate is superior to systemic methotrexate with regard to recovery time, side effects, and treatment costs, even in patients with unfavorable pretreatment prognostic predictors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Frequency of placenta previa in previously scarred and non scarred uterus.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Tayyaba; Waheed, Fatima; Mahmood, Zahid; Saba, Kanwal; Mahmood, Hamis; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequency of placenta Previa in patients coming to a tertiary care unit with previously scarred and non-scarred uterus. A descriptive cross sectional study was carried on 114 cases who underwent caesarean sections (37 cases out of 645 cases with non scarred uterus and 77 cases from 721 cases with scarred uterus) in the department of obstetrics and gynecology Lady Willingdon Hospital from January 2008- December 2011. Most patients (47.36%) were between 26-30 years age group, presented with gestational age between 36-40 weeks (70.17%), were mostly G2-4, while frequency of placenta Previa in non-scarred uterus was 32.45% (37 cases), and frequency in previously scarred uterus was 67.54% (77 cases). Major degree Previa was found in 88 cases (77.19%). There were 5.70% cases of placenta Previa from non-scarred uteruses and 10.67% cases of placenta Previa (10.67%) from already scarred uteruses. Stratification revealed a higher trend of the morbidity with the increase in number of previous caesarean sections. A significantly higher frequency of placenta Previa was found among patients coming to a tertiary care hospital with previously scarred uterus.

  3. Frequency of placenta previa in previously scarred and non scarred uterus

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Tayyaba; Waheed, Fatima; Mahmood, Zahid; Saba, Kanwal; Mahmood, Hamis; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of placenta Previa in patients coming to a tertiary care unit with previously scarred and non-scarred uterus. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried on 114 cases who underwent caesarean sections (37 cases out of 645 cases with non scarred uterus and 77 cases from 721 cases with scarred uterus) in the department of obstetrics and gynecology Lady Willingdon Hospital from January 2008– December 2011. Results: Most patients (47.36%) were between 26-30 years age group, presented with gestational age between 36-40 weeks (70.17%), were mostly G2-4, while frequency of placenta Previa in non-scarred uterus was 32.45% (37 cases), and frequency in previously scarred uterus was 67.54% (77 cases). Major degree Previa was found in 88 cases (77.19%). There were 5.70% cases of placenta Previa from non-scarred uteruses and 10.67% cases of placenta Previa (10.67%) from already scarred uteruses. Stratification revealed a higher trend of the morbidity with the increase in number of previous caesarean sections. Conclusion: A significantly higher frequency of placenta Previa was found among patients coming to a tertiary care hospital with previously scarred uterus. PMID:26101491

  4. Preeclampsia: is it because of the asymptomatic, unrecognized renal scars caused by urinary tract infections in childhood that become symptomatic with pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Ozlü, Tülay; Alçelik, Aytekin; Calişkan, Billur; Dönmez, Melahat Emine

    2012-11-01

    Preeclampsia is an important disease of pregnancy whose exact etiology is still unknown despite continuing developments in medicine. Although most commonly it is believed to be caused by a defective placentation, in this paper, we hypothesize that the primary underlying problem in the development of preeclampsia can be in kidneys in a greater proportion of cases than it is believed today. The increased intravascular volume and the increased work load of kidneys together with the resulting glomerular hypertrophy may precipitate nephrotic syndrome, which in this case is called "preeclampsia" in a previously affected kidney. Urinary tract infections in childhood leaving silent, unrecognized small scars in the kidneys may be the underlying renal cause which disrupts its silence with an increased work load of kidneys prominently occurring after the midtrimester. The histopathologic finding in kidneys with renal scars after childhood urinary tract infections and in preeclampsia is focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in the majority of cases and this similarity strengthens our hypothesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. VAGINAL BIRTH AFTER A PREVIOUS CAESAREAN SECTION: CURRENT TRENDS AND OUTLOOK IN GHANA.

    PubMed

    Seffah, J D; Adu-Bonsaffoh, K

    2014-01-01

    The optimal mode of subsequent delivery of women with prior caesarean birth remains a subject of intense research and debate in contemporary obstetric practice especially in low resource settings like West Africa where there are obvious systemic and management-related challenges associated with trial of scar. However, there is evidence that vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC) is safe in appropriately selected women in addition to adequate intrapartum monitoring and ready access to theatre when emergency CS is indicated. The primary objective of the study was to determine the current trends and performance of VBAC in Ghana after decades of practice of trial of labour after caesarean section (TOLAC) in the mist of inherent challenges in deciding the optimal mode of childbirth for women with a previous caesarean birth. The secondary objective was to relate evidence based practice of TOLAC to obstetric practice in low resource settings like Ghana and provide recommendations for improving maternal and newborn health among women with prior caesarean birth. This was a retrospective study of the records of patients who had had a prior caesarean delivery and who then proceeded to deliver the next babies at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) between Jan 2010 and Dec 2014. The data on demography, antenatal care, labour and delivery and outcomes were collected from the Labour and Recovery wards and the Biostatistics unit of the Maternity unit of the Hospital. Excluded were women with a previous CS who had multiple pregnancies and those with incomplete notes as well as those whose delivery plans were not predetermined antenatally.. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. There were 53,581 deliveries during the study period. Vaginal delivery was obtained in 31,870 (59.5%) pregnancies and 21,711(40.5%) had CS. Also, 6261 (11.7%) had had a prior CS and 2472 (39.5%) of these were selected for TOLAC while 2119 (33.8) were scheduled for planned repeat CS. There was

  6. Women's involvement in the decision to be delivered by caesarean section in Sub Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Nnaji, G A; Okafor, C; Muoghalu, K; Onyejimbe, U N; Umeononihu, O S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the degree and nature of women's involvement in the decision to deliver by Caesarean section. A cross sectional descriptive multi-centre study on post partum women who were delivered by Caesarean section in the three study centres. The five most common indicators for Caesarean section include cephalo-pelvic disproportion, prolonged labour, malpresentation, pregnancy induced hypertension and ante partum haemorrhage, which accounted for 70% of the indications for Caesarean section. The commonest influence on respondents' decision to have Caesarean section was physician factors, followed by religious and cultural factors. Husbands influenced majority of the respondents during decision for Caesarean section. The respondents' agreement with decision for Caesarean section varied significantly as the number of previous Caesarean section, being highest among women with 4 previous Caesarean section. In conclusion, the majority of women were found to be involved in the decision to have Caesarean section, and the most influential factors on them during the decision process were physician factors and husband's presence. In this environment, the greater the number of previous Caesarean section a woman has had in the past the more likely would she accept Caesarean section in subsequent deliveries as a better option. There is need for further studies to determine the effect of socio-demographic factors on decision to have caesarean section as well as satisfaction of the outcome.

  7. Appropriateness of elective caesarean deliveries in a perinatal network: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The overall caesarean rate in France has increased from 14.3% in 1994–1996 to 21.0% in 2010. This increased rate is a concern in all developed countries: delivery by caesarean induces both short- and long-term maternal complications, and its use requires careful reflection. The principal objective of this work was to describe the global appropriateness of indications for caesareans among a selected sample of planned caesareans performed within the Auvergne perinatal health network. The secondary objectives were to describe the inappropriate planned caesarean risk according to the maternity unit level and the impact of this medical assessment on the global caesarean rate in this network. Methods This audit among maternity units belonging to the Auvergne perinatal network in France included women who had a planned caesarean at term, were nulliparous or primiparous, and had a singleton pregnancy in cephalic presentation or a twin pregnancy with twin 1 in cephalic presentation. We used the French guidelines issued from 1998 through 2010 as our benchmark for appropriateness. Result We analysed 192 cases (100% of the records eligible for the audit). The rate of appropriate caesareans among these planned caesareans was 65.6%. Among the inappropriate caesareans, the rate of “maternal-preference” caesareans was 12.0% and the rate of “provider-preference” caesareans 22.4%. The risk of an inappropriate caesarean did not differ statistically between the level I and level II maternity wards, each compared to the level III hospital. The overall caesarean rate in our entire network decreased from 20.5% to 18.5% (p < 0.001) in the year after the audit. It also decreased in 8 of the network’s 10 maternity units, although the difference was statistically significant only in 2. Conclusions About one third of planned caesareans were inappropriate in our sample and our audit appeared to have some effect on medical practice in the short run. PMID:24716672

  8. International migration as a determinant of emergency caesarean.

    PubMed

    Merry, Lisa; Semenic, Sonia; Gyorkos, Theresa W; Fraser, William; Small, Rhonda; Gagnon, Anita J

    2016-10-01

    High caesarean rates are of concern given associated risks. International migrant women (women born abroad) represent a substantial proportion of women giving birth in high-income countries (HICs) and face social conditions that may exacerbate childbearing health risks. Among migrant women, emergency rather than planned caesareans, tend to be more prevalent. This method of delivery can be stressful, physically harmful and result in an overall negative birth experience. Research establishing evidence of risk factors for emergency caesareans in migrants is insufficient. (1) Describe potential pathways (with a focus on modifiable factors) by which migration, using internationally recommended migration indicators: country of birth, length of time in country, fluency in receiving-country language, migration classification and ethnicity, may lead to emergency caesarean; and (2) propose a framework to guide future research for understanding "potentially preventable" emergency caesareans in migrant women living in HICs. "Potentially preventable" emergency caesareans in migrant women are likely due to several modifiable, interrelated factors pre-pregnancy, during pregnancy and during labour. Migration itself is a determinant and also shapes other determinants. Complications and ineffective labour progress and/or foetal distress and ultimately the decision to perform an emergency caesarean may be the result of poor health (i.e., physiological effects), lack of support and disempowerment (i.e., psychological effects) and sub-optimal care. Understanding the direct and indirect effects of migration on emergency caesarean is crucial so that targeted strategies can be developed and implemented for reducing unnecessary caesareans in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health in Latin America: classifying caesarean sections

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Caesarean section rates continue to increase worldwide with uncertain medical consequences. Auditing and analysing caesarean section rates and other perinatal outcomes in a reliable and continuous manner is critical for understanding reasons caesarean section changes over time. Methods We analyzed data on 97,095 women delivering in 120 facilities in 8 countries, collected as part of the 2004-2005 Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health in Latin America. The objective of this analysis was to test if the "10-group" or "Robson" classification could help identify which groups of women are contributing most to the high caesarean section rates in Latin America, and if it could provide information useful for health care providers in monitoring and planning effective actions to reduce these rates. Results The overall rate of caesarean section was 35.4%. Women with single cephalic pregnancy at term without previous caesarean section who entered into labour spontaneously (groups 1 and 3) represented 60% of the total obstetric population. Although women with a term singleton cephalic pregnancy with a previous caesarean section (group 5) represented only 11.4% of the obstetric population, this group was the largest contributor to the overall caesarean section rate (26.7% of all the caesarean sections). The second and third largest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate were nulliparous women with single cephalic pregnancy at term either in spontaneous labour (group 1) or induced or delivered by caesarean section before labour (group 2), which were responsible for 18.3% and 15.3% of all caesarean deliveries, respectively. Conclusion The 10-group classification could be easily applied to a multicountry dataset without problems of inconsistencies or misclassification. Specific groups of women were clearly identified as the main contributors to the overall caesarean section rate. This classification could help health care providers to plan practical

  10. [Scar prophylaxis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Hammer-Hansen, Niels; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg; Rødgaard, Jes Christian

    2015-10-12

    Scarring is an expected result of trauma to the skin. Scars are a heterogenic group varying from small white non elevated scars to hypertrophic scars and keloids. Many different algorithms for scar prophylaxis and treatment have been presented in the literature. We discuss different types of scar formation and recently published evidence-based guidelines in regards to prophylaxis and treatment of scars written by 24 experts on scar management.

  11. Fetal lacerations at caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Wiener, J J; Westwood, J

    2002-01-01

    Fetal lacerations occurred in 1.5% of caesarean sections carried out in our institution. The incidence was independent of type of caesarean section, fetal presentation, cervical dilatation, presence of intact membranes or operator grade. We advocate that this complication should be included in the preoperative counselling of all patients undergoing caesarean sections.

  12. Planned caesarean section for term breech delivery.

    PubMed

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Hannah, Mary; Lawrie, Theresa A

    2015-07-21

    Poor outcomes after breech birth might be the result of underlying conditions causing breech presentation or due to factors associated with the delivery. To assess the effects of planned caesarean section for singleton breech presentation at term on measures of pregnancy outcome. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2015). Randomised trials comparing planned caesarean section for singleton breech presentation at term with planned vaginal birth. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Three trials (2396 participants) were included in the review. Caesarean delivery occurred in 550/1227 (45%) of those women allocated to a vaginal delivery protocol and 1060/1169 (91%) of those women allocated to planned caesarean section (average risk ratio (RR) random-effects, 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.60 to 2.20; three studies, 2396 women, evidence graded low quality). Perinatal or neonatal death (excluding fatal anomalies) or severe neonatal morbidity was reduced with a policy of planned caesarean section in settings with a low national perinatal mortality rate (RR 0.07, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.29, one study, 1025 women, evidence graded moderate quality), but not in settings with a high national perinatal mortality rate (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.24, one study, 1053 women, evidence graded low quality). The difference between subgroups was significant (Test for subgroup differences: Chi² = 8.01, df = 1 (P = 0.005), I² = 87.5%). Due to this significant heterogeneity, a random-effects analysis was performed. The average overall effect was not statistically significant (RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.02 to 2.44, one study, 2078 infants). Perinatal or neonatal death (excluding fatal anomalies) was reduced with planned caesarean section (RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.86, three studies, 2388 women). The proportional reductions were similar for countries with low and

  13. Achondroplasia: anaesthetic challenges for caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Dubiel, L; Scott, G A; Agaram, R; McGrady, E; Duncan, A; Litchfield, K N

    2014-08-01

    Pregnancy in women with achondroplasia presents major challenges for anaesthetists and obstetricians. We report the case of a woman with achondroplasia who underwent general anaesthesia for an elective caesarean section. She was 99cm in height and her condition was further complicated by severe kyphoscoliosis and previous back surgery. She was reviewed in the first trimester at the anaesthetic high-risk clinic. A multidisciplinary team was convened to plan her peripartum care. Because of increasing dyspnoea caesarean section was performed at 32weeks of gestation. She received a general anaesthetic using a modified rapid-sequence technique with remifentanil and rocuronium. The intraoperative period was complicated by desaturation and high airway pressures. The woman's postoperative care was complicated by respiratory compromise requiring high dependency care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Elective caesarean: impact of evolution neonatal respiration].

    PubMed

    Jonguitud Aguilar, Adriana

    2011-04-01

    The number of Caesarean births has increased worldwide. Respiratory distress syndrome is associated with caesarean delivery, especially in the absence of labor. During the latter stages of pregnancy physiologic changes occur that are accelerated with the onset of labor, which is accompanied by changes in hormones and mediators in the mother and fetus. An acceleration in the evacuation of lung liquid is held in this period, largely dependent sodium channels sensitive to amiloride than are found in the alveolar epithelium. The failure of these mechanisms can lead to newborn severe respiratory difficulty and require intensive care, mechanical ventilation and surfactant. We need to develop preventive and therapeutic strategies to improve outcomes in this vulnerable population.

  15. Back to "once a caesarean: always a caesarean"? A trend analysis in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Christmann-Schmid, Corina; Raio, Luigi; Scheibner, Katrin; Müller, Martin; Surbek, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Caesarean sections (CS) have significantly increased worldwide and a previous CS is nowadays an important and increasingly reported indication to perform a repeat CS. There is a paucity of information in Switzerland on the incidence of repeat CS after previous CS and relationship between the rates of vaginal birth after CS (VBAC). The aim of this study was to analyse the actual trend in VBAC in Switzerland. We performed a retrospective cohort study to analyse the proportion of VBAC among all pregnant women with previous sections which give birth during two time periods (group 1:1998/1999 vs. group 2:2004/2005) in our tertiary care referral hospital and in the annual statistics of Swiss Women's Hospitals (ASF-Statistics). In addition, the proportion of induction of labour after a previous caesarean and its success was analysed. In both cohorts studied, we found a significant decrease of vaginal births (p < 0.05) and a significant increase of primary elective repeat caesarean section (p < 0.05) from the first to the second time period, while there was a decrease of secondary repeat caesarean sections. The prevalence of labour induction did not decrease. Our study shows that vaginal birth after a prior caesarean section has decreased over time in Switzerland. There was no significant change in labour induction during the study period. While this trend might reflect an increasing demand for safety in pregnancy and childbirth, it concomitantly increases maternal risks of further pregnancies, and women need to be appropriately informed about long-term risks.

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Epee-Bekima, Mathias; Overton, Caroline

    2013-03-01

    The most common site of localisation of an ectopic pregnancy is the fallopian tube. Rarely an ectopic pregnancy can be found in the ovary, a caesarean section scar, the abdomen or the cervix. Risk factors are previous ectopic pregnancy, PID, endometriosis, previous pelvic surgery, the presence of a coil and infertility. However, a third of women with an ectopic pregnancy have no known risk factors. NICE recommends a low threshold for offering a pregnancy test to women of childbearing age when they attend the surgery. Symptoms and signs appear when the tube starts to tear. When the tube ruptures, the woman will quickly become unwell and haemodynamically unstable because of rapid intra-abdominal blood loss. The most common symptoms of ectopic pregnancy are pelvic or abdominal pain, amenorrhoea, missed period or abnormal period and vaginal bleeding. A positive diagnosis of a urinary tract infection or gastroenteritis does not exclude an ectopic pregnancy. Signs of suspected ectopic pregnancy include pelvic, abdominal, adnexal or cervical motion tenderness, rebound tenderness and abdominal distension. Women who are haemodynamically unstable, or in whom there is significant concern about the degree of pain or bleeding, should be referred directly to A&E, irrespective of the result of the pregnancy test. Stable patients with bleeding who have pain or a pregnancy of six weeks gestation or more or a pregnancy of uncertain gestation should be referred immediately to an early pregnancy assessment (EPA) service, or out-of-hours gynaecology service if the EPA service is not available. Diagnosis is confirmed by transvaginal ultrasound scan to identify the location of the pregnancy.

  17. Anaesthesia for Caesarean section in a patient with diastrophic dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Porter, M; Mendonca, C

    2007-04-01

    Diastrophic dwarfism is a rare disease in which pregnancy is uncommon. In this report we present a woman with diastrophic dwarfism who underwent caesarean section under epidural anaesthesia. Her care was successfully managed with multidisciplinary team planning. The total dose of local anaesthetic needed for epidural block was greater than the doses reported for achondroplastic dwarfism.

  18. Relaxation of the one child policy and trends in caesarean section rates and birth outcomes in China between 2012 and 2016: observational study of nearly seven million health facility births

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Juan; Mu, Yi; Li, Xiaohong; Tang, Wen; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Zheng; Huang, Xiaona; Scherpbier, Robert W; Guo, Sufang; Li, Mingrong; Dai, Li; Deng, Kui; Deng, Changfei; Li, Qi; Kang, Leni; Zhu, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine how the relaxation of the one child policy and policies to reduce caesarean section rates might have affected trends over time in caesarean section rates and perinatal and pregnancy related mortality in China. Design Observational study. Setting China’s National Maternal Near Miss Surveillance System (NMNMSS). Participants 6 838 582 births at 28 completed weeks or more of gestation or birth weight ≥1000 g in 438 hospitals in the NMNMSS between 2012 and 2016. Main outcome measures Obstetric risk was defined using a modified Robson classification. The main outcome measures were changes in parity and age distributions and relative frequency of each Robson group, crude and adjusted trends over time in caesarean section rates within each risk category (using Poisson regression with a robust variance estimator), and trends in perinatal and pregnancy related mortality over time. Results Caesarean section rates declined steadily between 2012 and 2016 (crude relative risk 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.89 to 0.93), reaching an overall hospital based rate of 41.1% in 2016. The relaxation of the one child policy was associated with an increase in the proportion of multiparous births (from 34.1% in 2012 to 46.7% in 2016), and births in women with a uterine scar nearly doubled (from 9.8% to 17.7% of all births). Taking account of these changes, the decline in caesarean sections was amplified over time (adjusted relative risk 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.84). Caesarean sections declined noticeably in nulliparous women (0.75, 0.73 to 0.77) but also declined in multiparous women without a uterine scar (0.65, 0.62 to 0.77). The decrease in caesarean section rates was most pronounced in hospitals with the highest rates in 2012, consistent with the government’s policy of targeting hospitals with the highest rates. Perinatal mortality declined from 10.1 to 7.2 per 1000 births over the same period (0.87, 0.83 to 0.91), and there was

  19. Relaxation of the one child policy and trends in caesarean section rates and birth outcomes in China between 2012 and 2016: observational study of nearly seven million health facility births.

    PubMed

    Liang, Juan; Mu, Yi; Li, Xiaohong; Tang, Wen; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Zheng; Huang, Xiaona; Scherpbier, Robert W; Guo, Sufang; Li, Mingrong; Dai, Li; Deng, Kui; Deng, Changfei; Li, Qi; Kang, Leni; Zhu, Jun; Ronsmans, Carine

    2018-03-05

    To examine how the relaxation of the one child policy and policies to reduce caesarean section rates might have affected trends over time in caesarean section rates and perinatal and pregnancy related mortality in China. Observational study. China's National Maternal Near Miss Surveillance System (NMNMSS). 6 838 582 births at 28 completed weeks or more of gestation or birth weight ≥1000 g in 438 hospitals in the NMNMSS between 2012 and 2016. Obstetric risk was defined using a modified Robson classification. The main outcome measures were changes in parity and age distributions and relative frequency of each Robson group, crude and adjusted trends over time in caesarean section rates within each risk category (using Poisson regression with a robust variance estimator), and trends in perinatal and pregnancy related mortality over time. Caesarean section rates declined steadily between 2012 and 2016 (crude relative risk 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.89 to 0.93), reaching an overall hospital based rate of 41.1% in 2016. The relaxation of the one child policy was associated with an increase in the proportion of multiparous births (from 34.1% in 2012 to 46.7% in 2016), and births in women with a uterine scar nearly doubled (from 9.8% to 17.7% of all births). Taking account of these changes, the decline in caesarean sections was amplified over time (adjusted relative risk 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.84). Caesarean sections declined noticeably in nulliparous women (0.75, 0.73 to 0.77) but also declined in multiparous women without a uterine scar (0.65, 0.62 to 0.77). The decrease in caesarean section rates was most pronounced in hospitals with the highest rates in 2012, consistent with the government's policy of targeting hospitals with the highest rates. Perinatal mortality declined from 10.1 to 7.2 per 1000 births over the same period (0.87, 0.83 to 0.91), and there was no change in pregnancy related mortality over time. China is the only country that

  20. Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Trust your face to a facial plastic surgeon Facial Scar Revision Understanding Facial Scar Treatment ... face like the eyes or lips. A facial plastic surgeon has many options for treating and improving ...

  1. Is the caesarean section rate a performance indicator of an obstetric unit?

    PubMed

    Singh, Ruchi; Nath Trivedi, Amarendra

    2011-02-01

    The indications of caesarean section are increasing. The need to respect maternal desire in the decision making has been supported by law and ethics. Some of the other contributors to the increasing caesarean section rate are breech with failed external cephalic version, decreasing rate of trial of scar, increasing induction rate and electronic fetal heart rate monitoring and changing demography. Despite the adverse effects of caesarean section, the incidence of severe morbidity and mortality is low. The strategies put forward to reduce the caesarean section rate (CSR) have not been effective and in no country or province, the CSR has come down. CSR should not be looked at in isolation or as high or low. It is the product of changing obstetric practice and societal norms and demographics. CSR not reflect the performance of a maternity unit.

  2. Role of fine needle aspiration cytology and cell block in diagnosis of scar endometriosis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Sashibhusan; Panda, Sasmita; Rout, Niranjan; Samantaray, Sagarika

    2015-01-01

    Presence of endometrial glands and stroma in places other than the uterus is called endometriosis. It can be pelvic or extra-pelvic. Abdominal scar endometriosis is an extra-pelvic endometriosis that can occur after surgery involving the uterus. Post-caesarean section, scar endometriosis is a rare event. The diagnosis is frequently made only after excision of disease tissue. We present a case of post-caesarean section abdominal scar endometriosis presenting as a tumor on the abdominal wall, which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology and confirmed by cell block preparation. PMID:25948955

  3. An unanticipated cardiac arrest and unusual post-resuscitation psycho-behavioural phenomena/near death experience in a patient with pregnancy induced hypertension and twin pregnancy undergoing elective lower segment caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Panditrao, Mridul M; Singh, Chanchal; Panditrao, Minnu M

    2010-09-01

    A case report of a primigravida, who was admitted with severe pregnancy induced hypertension (BP 160/122 mmHg) and twin pregnancy, is presented here. Antihypertensive therapy was initiated. Elective LSCS under general anaesthesia was planned. After the birth of both the babies, intramyometrial injections of Carboprost and Pitocin were administered. Immediately, she suffered cardiac arrest. Cardio pulmonary resucitation (CPR) was started and within 3 minutes, she was successfully resuscitated. The patient initially showed peculiar psychological changes and with passage of time, certain psycho-behavioural patterns emerged which could be attributed to near death experiences, as described in this case report.

  4. Caesarean section: an historical riddle.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, S K

    2001-01-01

    Etymologically, the word 'Caesar' originates from the Latin word 'Caedaere' meaning - 'to cut'. So cutting remains the core point, but little is known about the real origin of the history of Caesarean Section. There is evidence that, the ancient Hindus excelled in surgery and many operations were performed, including caesarean section. This operation was mentioned several times in the Mishnah of Rabbi Judah, the first large commentary on the Hebrew Bible. There are also several mythological anecdotes in Hindu, Buddhist and Greek mythologies. The myth of caesarean section did not even escape the keen eyes of William Skakespeare. The landmarks, treatises and the advancement in this operative procedure are presented in this article.

  5. California Burn Scars

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Burn Scars Across Southern California     ... California between October 21 and November 18, 2003. Burn scars and vegetation changes wrought by the fires are illustrated in these ... and Nov 18, 2003 Images:  California Burn Scars location:  United States region:  ...

  6. Post-burn scars and scar contractures

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Arun; Shrivastava, Prabhat

    2010-01-01

    The mortality and morbidity from burns have diminished tremendously over the last six to seven decades. However, these do not truly reflect whether the victim could go back to society as a useful person or not and lead a normal life because of the inevitable post-burn scars, contractures and other deformities which collectively have aesthetic and functional considerations. This article gives an overview of the post-burn scars and scar contractures, especially their prevention, minimisation and principles of management. PMID:21321660

  7. Patterns and Associated Factors of Caesarean Delivery Intention among Expectant Mothers in China: Implications from the Implementation of China’s New National Two-Child Policy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lianlian; Xu, Xianglong; Baker, Philip; Tong, Chao; Zhang, Lei; Qi, Hongbo; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study explores the basic demographic characteristics of expectant mothers in the context of their intentions regarding mode of delivery, in particular, the preference for caesarean delivery, and analyzes the social and psychological factors that influence delivery preference. Method: A cross-sectional survey of pregnant women was conducted during June to August in 2015. This study adopted a stratified sampling method, and 16 representative hospitals in five provinces of China were included. Results: 1755 and 590 of expectant mothers in their first and second pregnancies, respectively, were enrolled in this study. 354 (15.10%) intended to deliver by caesarean section and 585 (24.95%) participants were uncertain prior to delivery. 156 (8.89%) of expectant mothers in their first pregnancy and 198 (33.56%) expectant mothers in their second pregnancy intended to deliver by caesarean section. Ordinal logistic regression analysis found that nationality, parity, trimester of pregnancy, and advanced maternal age were factors associated with intention to deliver by caesarean (ordered logistic regression/three-level caesarean delivery intention criterion; odds ratios p < 0.05). Conclusions: 8.89% of first pregnancy expectant mothers and 33.56% of second pregnancy expectant mothers intended to deliver by caesarean section. Any intervention program to reduce the rate of Caesarean delivery should focus on the Han population, older pregnant women, and expectant mothers in their second pregnancy, at an early gestation. PMID:27399752

  8. Exploring full cervical dilatation caesarean sections-A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Corry, Edward M A; Ramphul, Meenakshi; Rowan, Ann M; Segurado, Ricardo; Mahony, Rhona M; Keane, Declan P

    2018-05-01

    The rate of caesarean sections at full cervical dilatation with their high risk of morbidity continues to rise mirroring the overall increase in caesarean section rates internationally. The objectives of this study were to determine the rate of full dilatation caesarean section in a tertiary referral unit and evaluate key labour, maternal and fetal factors potentially linked to those deliveries. We also assessed maternal and fetal morbidity at full dilatation sections. Where possible, these were compared with successful operative vaginal deliveries carried out in theatre to determine key differences. Retrospective cohort study. We reviewed the rate of full dilatation caesarean section over a 10-year period. We analysed deliveries (caesarean sections or operative vaginal deliveries) in single cephalic pregnancies ≥34 weeks with contemporaneously collected data from our unit's electronic database for 2015. The rate of full dilatation caesarean section increased by over a third in the ten-year period (56/6947 (0.80%) vs 92/7378 (1.24%), p = 0.01). Of 84 full dilatation caesarean sections who met the inclusion criteria, 63 (75%) were nulliparous and the mean maternal age was 33 (±5) years. Oxytocin was used in the second stage in less than half of second stage caesarean sections (22 out of a recorded 57, 38.6%). There were more fetal head malposition (occipito-posterior, or occipito-transverse) at full dilatation caesarean section compared to successful operative vaginal deliveries (41/46 (89.1%) vs 2/21 (9.5), p < 0.001). The rate of significant postpartum haemorrhage (defined as estimated blood loss ≥1000 ml) was similar in both full dilatation caesarean section and operative vaginal deliveries. There was no difference in the mean birthweight at full dilatation caesarean sections compared to operative vaginal delivery (3.88 kg (2.80-5.33 kg) vs 3.48 kg (1.53-4.40 kg)). There was no difference in neonatal morbidity. Fetal head malposition is

  9. Maternal obesity and Caesarean delivery in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, Jenny A; Campbell, Oona M R; De Silva, Mary J; Slaymaker, Emma; Filippi, Veronique

    2016-07-01

    To quantify maternal obesity as a risk factor for Caesarean delivery in sub-Saharan Africa. Multivariable logistic regression analysis using 31 nationally representative cross-sectional data sets from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). Maternal obesity was a risk factor for Caesarean delivery in sub-Saharan Africa; a clear dose-response relationship (where the magnitude of the association increased with increasing BMI) was observable. Compared to women of optimal weight, overweight women (BMI 25-29 kg/m(2) ) were significantly more likely to deliver by Caesarean (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.33, 1.78), as were obese women (30-34.9 kg/m(2) (OR: 2.39; 95%CI: 1.96-2.90); 35-39.9 kg/m(2) (OR: 2.47 95%CI: 1.78-3.43)) and morbidly obese women (BMI ≥40 kg/m(2) OR: 3.85; 95% CI: 2.46-6.00). BMI is projected to rise substantially in sub-Saharan Africa over the next few decades and demand for Caesarean sections already exceeds available capacity. Overweight women should be advised to lose weight prior to pregnancy. Furthermore, culturally appropriate prevention strategies to discourage further population-level rises in BMI need to be designed and implemented. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Caesarean section and anal incontinence].

    PubMed

    Kalis, V; Stipán, J; Chaloupka, P; Karbanová, J; Rokyta, Z

    2008-04-01

    Summary of the impact of Caesarean section on anal incontinence. Review. Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Charles University and University Hospital Plzen. Review of the current international literature. Currently, Caesarean section is not considered to reduce symptoms of anal incontinence. If there is any reduction of symptoms, that remains only for a short term (40% in 3 months after the delivery in the largest trial). In a long term, virtually in no trial has been observed any difference, and others, non-obstetrical factors (particularly aging) prevail. Current knowledge does not allow to assess sufficiently pros and cons of Caesarean compared to vaginal delivery. High risk groups, that would profit from elective Ceasarean, have not been clearly identified yet.

  11. Anaesthesia for Caesarean section in a patient with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ward, V D

    2018-05-01

    Parkinson's disease is prevalent worldwide but mainly affects the elderly and is rarely seen in women of child-bearing age. The clinical signs and symptoms, the physiological changes of pregnancy, and drug interactions, pose unique challenges for the anaesthetic management of patients with Parkinson's disease who present for delivery. A 36-year-old primigravid woman at 36 weeks' gestation, with Parkinson's disease, presented for pre-anaesthesia assessment prior to elective caesarean section. Her Parkinson's disease had been diagnosed four years previously and was treated with Sinemet (levodopa/carbidopa) and pramipexole. Despite maximum allowable drug doses in pregnancy, she reported disease progression, with right-sided weakness in the upper and lower limbs and an altered gait. Spinal anaesthesia for elective Caesarean section was performed in the sitting position, using 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine, morphine 150 µg and fentanyl 25 µg. The anaesthesia and Caesarean section were uneventful. She was discharged home with a healthy baby on the fourth postoperative day. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Caesarean delivery before 39 weeks associated with selecting an auspicious time for birth in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chu, Kuei-Hui; Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Tai, Chen-Jei; Lin, Yu-Hung; Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Chien, Li-Yin

    2015-09-01

    Caesarean delivery before 39 weeks of gestation increases the risk of morbidity among infants. Taiwan has one of the highest caesarean rates in the world, but little attention has been paid to this issue. This study aimed to describe the rate of caesarean delivery before 39 weeks gestation among women who did not have labour signs and had a non-emergency caesarean delivery in Taiwan and to examine whether the phenomenon was associated with the Chinese cultural practice of selecting an auspicious time for birth. We recruited women at 15-28 weeks of pregnancy at 5 hospitals in northern Taiwan and followed them at 4 or 5 weeks after delivery using structured questionnaires. This analysis included 150 primiparous mothers with a singleton pregnancy who had a non-emergency caesarean delivery without the presence of labour signs. Ninety-three of these women (62.0%) had caesarean deliveries before 39 weeks of gestation. Logistic regression analysis showed that women who had selected an auspicious time for delivery (OR=2.82, 95% CI: 1.15-6.95) and delivered in medical centres (OR=5.26, 95% CI: 2.25-12.26) were more likely to deliver before 39 weeks of gestation. Non-emergency caesarean delivery before 39 weeks of gestation was common among the study women, and was related to the Chinese cultural practice of selecting an auspicious time for birth. Further studies are needed to examine the risks and benefits associated with timing of caesarean delivery in Taiwan in order to generate a consensus among obstetricians and give pregnant women appropriate information. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The efficacy and safety of external cephalic version after a previous caesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Weill, Yishay; Pollack, Raphael N

    2017-06-01

    External cephalic version (ECV) in the presence of a uterine scar is still considered a relative contraindication despite encouraging studies of the efficacy and safety of this procedure. We present our experience with this patient population, which is the largest cohort published to date. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ECV in the setting of a prior caesarean delivery. A total of 158 patients with a fetus presenting as breech, who had an unscarred uterus, had an ECV performed. Similarly, 158 patients with a fetus presenting as breech, and who had undergone a prior caesarean delivery also underwent an ECV. Outcomes were compared. ECV was successfully performed in 136/158 (86.1%) patients in the control group. Of these patients, 6/136 (4.4%) delivered by caesarean delivery. In the study group, 117/158 (74.1%) patients had a successful ECV performed. Of these patients, 12/117 (10.3%) delivered by caesarean delivery. There were no significant complications in either of the groups. ECV may be successfully performed in patients with a previous caesarean delivery. It is associated with a high success rate, and is not associated with an increase in complications. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. Improving posttraumatic facial scars.

    PubMed

    Ardeshirpour, Farhad; Shaye, David A; Hilger, Peter A

    2013-10-01

    Posttraumatic soft-tissue injuries of the face are often the most lasting sequelae of facial trauma. The disfigurement of posttraumatic scarring lies in both their physical deformity and psychosocial ramifications. This review outlines a variety of techniques to improve facial scars and limit their lasting effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Physical therapy for scars].

    PubMed

    Masanovic, Marguerite Guillot

    2013-01-01

    Physical therapy consists notably of hand or mechanical massages, pressure therapy using various fabrics or splints, cryotherapy, laser therapy, etc. It forms part of the range of therapies used to treat pathological scars, including medical and surgical treatment. While the results are often satisfactory for hypertrophic scars, they remain uncertain for major keloids.

  16. Scar revision - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... scar can be removed completely. The degree of improvement will depend on variables such as the direction and size of the scar, the age of the person, skin type and color, and hereditary factors that may precondition the extent of the healing process.

  17. [Thinking about the evolution of caesarean section rate at University Teaching Hospital of Dakar between 1992 and 2001].

    PubMed

    Cissé, C-T; Ngom, P-M; Guissé, A; Faye, E-O; Moreau, J-C

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study is to answer the question: have we not been doing a lot of caesarean sections at University Teaching Hospital of Dakar? This is an analytic study about caesarean section in 1992, 1996 and 2001; it was a prospective and longitudinal data collection from the epidemiological survey program carried through in Senegal about its obstetrical and surgical cover. For each year concerned, we have analysed caesarean section rate, maternal mortality rate and perinatal mortality rate. To eliminate the random part in observed variation, we used the comparison of proportions observed as a statistical test with a significant threshold less or equal to 5%. Caesarean section has gone from 12% in 1992 to 17.5 in 1996 and 25.2% in 2001. Operative indications are dominated by foeto-pelvic disproportion with an average of 31% and foetal suffering with an average of 25%. The increasing trend has been statistically significant for information's such as foeto-pelvic disproportion and maternal pathologies. The falling trend was statistically significant for indications in relation on relation to foetal suffering and scarred uterus. Gathering information has shown a stabilisation of "obligatory" caesarean rate around 41%, a decrease in "caution" caesarean rate from 50 to 37.2% and an increase in caesarean by "necessity" from 8.6 to 22.4%. The maternal mortality rate among women delivered has fallen from 1.4% to 0.8%, but postoperative surgery morbidity rate was still high around 10%, essentially due to infections. Reading of caesarean section rate has not a significant impact in perinatal prognosis. Today there is an inflation of caesarean section at University Teaching Hospital of Dakar, without any significant loss of the maternal and perinatal mortality rate. The high level of complications due to surgery incite to reverse trends in order to get reasonable rate around 10 to 15% of childbirths.

  18. Maternal and neonatal individual risks and benefits associated with caesarean delivery: multicentre prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Carroli, Guillermo; Zavaleta, Nelly; Donner, Allan; Wojdyla, Daniel; Faundes, Anibal; Velazco, Alejandro; Bataglia, Vicente; Langer, Ana; Narváez, Alberto; Valladares, Eliette; Shah, Archana; Campodónico, Liana; Romero, Mariana; Reynoso, Sofia; de Pádua, Karla Simônia; Giordano, Daniel; Kublickas, Marius; Acosta, Arnaldo

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess the risks and benefits associated with caesarean delivery compared with vaginal delivery. Design Prospective cohort study within the 2005 WHO global survey on maternal and perinatal health. Setting 410 health facilities in 24 areas in eight randomly selected Latin American countries; 123 were randomly selected and 120 participated and provided data Participants 106 546 deliveries reported during the three month study period, with data available for 97 095 (91% coverage). Main outcome measures Maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with intrapartum or elective caesarean delivery, adjusted for clinical, demographic, pregnancy, and institutional characteristics. Results Women undergoing caesarean delivery had an increased risk of severe maternal morbidity compared with women undergoing vaginal delivery (odds ratio 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 2.5) for intrapartum caesarean and 2.3 (1.7 to 3.1) for elective caesarean). The risk of antibiotic treatment after delivery for women having either type of caesarean was five times that of women having vaginal deliveries. With cephalic presentation, there was a trend towards a reduced odds ratio for fetal death with elective caesarean, after adjustment for possible confounding variables and gestational age (0.7, 0.4 to 1.0). With breech presentation, caesarean delivery had a large protective effect for fetal death. With cephalic presentation, however, independent of possible confounding variables and gestational age, intrapartum and elective caesarean increased the risk for a stay of seven or more days in neonatal intensive care (2.1 (1.8 to 2.6) and 1.9 (1.6 to 2.3), respectively) and the risk of neonatal mortality up to hospital discharge (1.7 (1.3 to 2.2) and 1.9 (1.5 to 2.6), respectively), which remained higher even after exclusion of all caesarean deliveries for fetal distress. Such increased risk was not seen for breech presentation. Lack of labour was a risk factor

  19. Optimal Timing of Delivery among Low-Risk Women with Prior Caesarean Section: A Secondary Analysis of the WHO Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health.

    PubMed

    Ganchimeg, Togoobaatar; Nagata, Chie; Vogel, Joshua P; Morisaki, Naho; Pileggi-Castro, Cynthia; Ortiz-Panozo, Eduardo; Jayaratne, Kapila; Mittal, Suneeta; Ota, Erika; Souza, João Paulo; Mori, Rintaro

    2016-01-01

    To investigate optimal timing of elective repeat caesarean section among low-risk pregnant women with prior caesarean section in a multicountry sample from largely low- and middle-income countries. Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study. Twenty-nine countries from the World Health Organization Multicountry Survey on Maternal and Newborn Health. 29,647 women with prior caesarean section and no pregnancy complications in their current pregnancy who delivered a term singleton (live birth and stillbirth) at gestational age 37-41 weeks by pre-labour caesarean section, intra-partum caesarean section, or vaginal birth following spontaneous onset of labour. We compared the rate of short-term adverse maternal and newborn outcomes following pre-labour caesarean section at a given gestational age, to those following ongoing pregnancies beyond that gestational age. Severe maternal outcomes, neonatal morbidity, and intra-hospital early neonatal mortality. Odds of neonatal morbidity and intra-hospital early neonatal mortality were 0.48 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39-0.60) and 0.31 (95% CI 0.16-0.58) times lower for ongoing pregnancies compared to pre-labour caesarean section at 37 weeks. We did not find any significant change in the risk of severe maternal outcomes between pre-labour caesarean section at a given gestational age and ongoing pregnancies beyond that gestational age. Elective repeat caesarean section at 37 weeks had higher risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality compared to ongoing pregnancy, however risks at later gestational ages did not differ between groups.

  20. An experience with trial of scar in 66 Ethiopian women.

    PubMed

    Sebhatu, B

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the circumstances in which trial of scar is conducted in the obstetric unit of Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and evaluate the safety of the undertaking in terms of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Between 11 September, 1991 to 10 September, 1992, 66 women with previous caesarean section were given a trial of scar. The main pre-requests to allow a trial of scar were: only one previous lower uterine segment section, a cephalic presentation with no disproportion in the current labour and, the presence of a functional operating theatre. Labour was being monitored by checking the uterine contractions by fundal palpation and counting the Foetal heart rate (FHR) using the Pinnard Stethoscope. Compatible blood was prior prepared in only 7 (10.6%) labours. Forty seven (71.2%) parturients delivered vaginally. In 19 (28.2%) an emergency repeat section was done for failure of progress in labour. In one (1.5%) patient, a uterine scar dehiscence was detected. The 5th minute APGAR score was 7/10 or more in 64 (94.1%) and 6/10 in 3 (4.5%) of 68 neonates. There was one prepartum intra-uterine foetal death and one neonatal death of a preterm baby making the perinatal mortality rate (PNMR) of 29.4 per thousand. There was no maternal death. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that a trial of scar was a safe procedure.

  1. Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the skin both skin cells and connective tissue cells (fibroblasts) begin multiplying to repair the damage. A scar is made up of 'connective tissue', gristle-like fibers deposited in the skin by ...

  2. A population-based cohort study of the effect of Caesarean section on subsequent fertility.

    PubMed

    Gurol-Urganci, I; Cromwell, D A; Mahmood, T A; van der Meulen, J H; Templeton, A

    2014-06-01

    Is there an association between Caesarean section and subsequent fertility? There is no or only a slight effect of Caesarean section on future fertility. Previous studies have reported that delivery by a Caesarean section is associated with fewer subsequent pregnancies and longer inter-pregnancy intervals. The interpretation of these findings is difficult because of significant weaknesses in study designs and analytical methods, notably the potential effect of the indication for Caesarean section on subsequent delivery. Retrospective cohort study of 1 047 644 first births to low-risk women using routinely collected, national administrative data of deliveries in English maternity units between 1 April 2000 and 31 March 2012. Primiparous women aged 15-40 years who had a singleton, term, live birth in the English National Health Service were included. Women with high-risk pregnancies involving placenta praevia, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia (gestational or pre-existing), hypertension or diabetes were excluded from the main analysis. Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the effect of mode of delivery on time to subsequent birth, adjusted for age, ethnicity, socio-economic deprivation and year of index delivery. Among low-risk primiparous women, 224 024 (21.4%) were delivered by Caesarean section. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the subsequent birth rate at 10 years for the cohort was 74.7%. Compared with vaginal delivery, subsequent birth rates were marginally lower after elective Caesarean for breech (adjusted hazard ratio, HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.98). Larger effects were observed after elective Caesarean for other indications (adjusted HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.78-0.83), and emergency Caesarean (adjusted HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.90-0.93). The effect was smallest for elective Caesarean for breech, and this was not statistically significant in women younger than 30 years of age (adjusted HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.01). We used birth cohorts from maternity

  3. Determinants of caesarean section in Lebanon: geographical differences.

    PubMed

    Carayol, Marion; Zein, Ali; Ghosn, Nada; Du Mazaubrun, Christiane; Breart, Gérard

    2008-03-01

    This study, based on the Lebanese National Perinatal Survey which included 5231 women, examined the relations between the caesarean section (CS) rate and the characteristics of mothers, children, antenatal care and maternity units in two geographical zones of Lebanon (Beirut-Mount Lebanon and the rest of the country) and then looked at geographical variations. This analysis concerned 3846 women with singleton pregnancies and livebirths at low risk of CS, after exclusion of women with a previous CS, non-cephalic fetal presentations, or delivery before 37 weeks' gestation. The principal end point was caesarean delivery. The relations between the factors studied and CS were estimated by odds ratios (OR), both crude and adjusted, using logistic regression. The rate of CS was higher in the Beirut-Mount Lebanon zone than elsewhere (13.4% vs. 7.6%). After adjustment, several factors remained associated with caesarean delivery in each zone. Common factors were primiparity, gestational age > or = 41 weeks and antenatal hospitalisation. Factors identified only in the Beirut-Mount Lebanon zone were obstetric history and insurance coverage, whereas for the other zones we only found major risk factors for obstetric disease: maternal age > or = 35 years, number of antenatal consultations > or = 4 and birthweight < or = 2500 g. The multivariable analysis of the overall population, adjusting for zone of delivery and other variables, shows that zone was one of the principal factors associated with the risk of caesarean delivery in Lebanon (OR = 1.80 [95% CI 1.09, 2.95]). In conclusion, the CS rates in Lebanon were high, with geographical differences that were associated with access to care and with obstetric practices.

  4. Introduction of the Misgav Ladach caesarean section at an African tertiary centre: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Björklund, K; Kimaro, M; Urassa, E; Lindmark, G

    2000-02-01

    To determine whether the Misgav Ladach caesarean section technique can offer benefits compared with conventional caesarean section technique in the prevailing conditions of a busy African tertiary centre. A randomised controlled trial. A tertiary African obstetric unit with 18,000 deliveries annually. Three hundred and thirty-nine women undergoing caesarean section. Eight residents and registrars were instructed in the Misgav Ladach technique for caesarean section during one week, after which the study commenced. The course participants instructed their colleagues; in total, 16 doctors participated. Women requiring caesarean section were randomised to Misgav Ladach or to the conventional lower midline incision procedure, excluding those with a previous scar. During 11 weeks 339 randomised procedures (328 of which were emergency procedures) were carried out. Mean operating time was 25 x 3 minutes for Misgav Ladach and 32 x 6 minutes for the lower midline incision procedure (95% CI -8 x 3; -6 x 3). Mean blood loss was 354 mL and 447 mL (-133; -53), and the number of sutures 3 x 1 and 6 x 1 (-3 x 1; -2 x 9), respectively. No significant difference was found in Apgar scores. Mobilisation was earlier with the Misgav Ladach procedure. No difference was found in overall post-operative infection rates i.e. wound infection or febrile illness, but the combination of wound infection and fever was more common in the Misgav Ladach group. The Misgav Ladach caesarean section confers benefits such as reduced blood loss, conservation of time and suture material, and rapid mobilisation, but more studies are needed to explore modifications aimed at reducing post-operative infections in settings with limited resources.

  5. Suture repair of umbilical hernia during caesarean section: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Steinemann, D C; Limani, P; Ochsenbein, N; Krähenmann, F; Clavien, P-A; Zimmermann, R; Hahnloser, D

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the additional burdens in terms of pain, prolongation of surgery and morbidity which is added to elective caesarean section if umbilical hernia suture repair is performed simultaneously. Secondly, patient's satisfaction and hernia recurrence rate were assessed. Consecutive women with symptomatic umbilical hernia undergoing internal or external suture repair during elective caesarean were included in this retrospective cohort-control study. Data on post-operative pain, duration of surgery and morbidity of a combined procedure were collected. These patients were matched 1:10 to women undergoing caesarean section only. Additionally, two subgroups were assessed separately: external and internal suture hernia repair. These subgroups were compared for patient's satisfaction, cosmesis, body image and recurrence rate. Fourteen patients with a mean age of 37 years were analysed. Internal suture repair (n = 7) prolonged caesarean section by 20 min (p = 0.001) and external suture repair (n = 7) by 34 min (p < 0.0001). Suture repair did not increase morphine use (0.38 ± 0.2 vs. 0.4 ± 02 mg/kg body weight), had no procedure-related morbidity and prolonged hospitalization by 0.5 days (p = 0.01). At a median follow-up of 37 (5-125) months, two recurrences in each surgical technique, internal and external suture repair, occurred (28 %). Body image and cosmesis score showed a higher level of functioning in internal suture repair (p = 0.02; p = 0.04). Despite a high recurrence rate, internal suture repair of a symptomatic umbilical hernia during elective caesarean section should be offered to women if requested. No additional morbidity or scar is added to caesarean section. Internal repair is faster, and cosmetic results are better, additional skin or fascia dissection is avoided, and it seems to be as effective as an external approach. Yet, women must be informed on the high recurrence rate.

  6. Anaesthetic management of severe hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy with bronchial asthma for emergency caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Rajesh, M C; Varma, Ravi; Lima, P; Ramdas, E K

    2012-10-01

    A 39-year-old primi and a known case of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy presented for emergency lower segment caesarean section. She was also an asthmatic with a recent exacerbation. She underwent uneventful lower segment caesarean section under general anaesthesia with lumbar epidural analgesia for postoperative pain relief. Anaesthetic agents and techniques were selected to suit the haemodynamic profile of severe hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy in pregnancy. The case has been reported because of successful outcome in an emergency scenario with such high intraventricular gradients and omissions in the case so that it will be of benefit to readers who may happen to land up in similar situations.

  7. Massage in hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Patiño, O; Novick, C; Merlo, A; Benaim, F

    1999-01-01

    Various attempts have been made to intervene with the formation of hypertrophic scarring (HTS) or to ameliorate it once it has developed, but none have yet proved effective. Massage therapy is routinely used by therapists for the treatment of various conditions, and there have been reports of increased scar pliability and decreased scar banding with the use of massage. This study examines the use of friction massage over a 3-month period in a group of 30 pediatric patients with HTS. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either therapeutic massage sessions of 10 minutes per day in combination with treatment with pressure garments or they were treated with pressure garments alone. A modified Vancouver Burn Scar Assessment Scale was used to measure the characteristics of the identified scars (10 cm by 10 cm) before and after the implementation of massage therapy. The study failed to demonstrate any appreciable effects of massage therapy on the vascularity, pliability, and height of the HTS studied, although there were reports of a decrease in pruritus in some patients. Further studies, with prolonged treatment intervals, are necessary to conclusively demonstrate the ineffectiveness of this therapy for HTS.

  8. Outcomes of Induction of Labour in Women with Previous Caesarean Delivery: A Retrospective Cohort Study Using a Population Database

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Sarah J.; Ferguson, Evelyn; Duffy, Andrew; Ford, Ian; Chalmers, James; Norman, Jane E.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is evidence that induction of labour (IOL) around term reduces perinatal mortality and caesarean delivery rates when compared to expectant management of pregnancy (allowing the pregnancy to continue to await spontaneous labour or definitive indication for delivery). However, it is not clear whether IOL in women with a previous caesarean section confers the same benefits. The aim of this study was to describe outcomes of IOL at 39–41 weeks in women with one previous caesarean delivery and to compare outcomes of IOL or planned caesarean delivery to those of expectant management. Methods and Findings We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of singleton births greater than 39 weeks gestation, in women with one previous caesarean delivery, in Scotland, UK 1981–2007 (n = 46,176). Outcomes included mode of delivery, perinatal mortality, neonatal unit admission, postpartum hemorrhage and uterine rupture. 40.1% (2,969/7,401) of women who underwent IOL 39–41 weeks were ultimately delivered by caesarean. When compared to expectant management IOL was associated with lower odds of caesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] after IOL at 39 weeks of 0.81 [95% CI 0.71–0.91]). There was no significant effect on the odds of perinatal mortality but greater odds of neonatal unit admission (AOR after IOL at 39 weeks of 1.29 [95% CI 1.08–1.55]). In contrast, when compared with expectant management, elective repeat caesarean delivery was associated with lower perinatal mortality (AOR after planned caesarean at 39 weeks of 0.23 [95% CI 0.07–0.75]) and, depending on gestation, the same or lower neonatal unit admission (AOR after planned caesarean at 39 weeks of 0.98 [0.90–1.07] at 40 weeks of 1.08 [0.94–1.23] and at 41 weeks of 0.77 [0.60–1.00]). Conclusions A more liberal policy of IOL in women with previous caesarean delivery may reduce repeat caesarean delivery, but increases the risks of neonatal complications. PMID:23565242

  9. Clinical management of scar tissue.

    PubMed

    Kasch, M C

    1988-01-01

    This paper will review the physiology of scar formation including the properties of wound healing and scar remodeling. A clinical scar management program that includes evaluation of scar adhesions and use of a variety of therapy interventions to minimize the formation of scar will be described. Use of compression, massage, splints and functional activities is included in this program. The information is applicable for the general occupational therapist who sees patients with hand dysfunction as well as a therapist specializing in hand rehabilitation. Every therapist who treats hand trauma must be familiar with the sequence and the properties of scar formation in order to reestablish tendon gliding and facilitate early remodeling of scar tissue. Many treatment techniques can be directed toward scar adhesions and no one method is totally effective when used alone; used together, these techniques can positively influence scar formation and restore maximal hand function.

  10. Scar massage for hypertrophic burns scarring-A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ault, P; Plaza, A; Paratz, J

    2018-02-01

    Scar massage is used in burn units globally to improve functional and cosmetic outcomes of hypertrophic scarring following a burn, however, the evidence to support this therapy is unknown. To review the literature and assess the efficacy of scar massage in hypertrophic burn scars. MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were searched using the key words "burn", "burn injury", "thermal injury" and "scar", "hypertrophic scar" and "massage", "manipulation", "soft tissue mobilisation", "soft tissue manipulation". The articles were scored by the assessors using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale and outcome measures on range of motion (ROM), cosmesis (vascularity, pliability, height), pain scores, pruritus, and psychological measures of depression and anxiety were extracted. Eight publications were included in the review with 258 human participants and 15 animal subjects who received scar massage following a thermal injury resulting in hypertrophic scarring. Outcome measures that demonstrated that scar massage was effective included scar thickness as measured with ultrasonography (p=0.001; g=-0.512); depression (Centre for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression [CES-D]) (p=0.031; g=-0.555); pain as measured with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) (p=0.000; g=-1.133) and scar characteristics including vascularity (p=0.000; g=-1.837), pliability (p=0.000; g=-1.270) and scar height (p=0.000; g=-2.054). Outcome measures that trended towards significance included a decrease in pruritus (p=0.095; g=-1.157). It appears that there is preliminary evidence to suggest that scar massage may be effective to decrease scar height, vascularity, pliability, pain, pruritus and depression in hypertrophic burns scaring. This review reflects the poor quality of evidence and lack of consistent and valid scar assessment tools. Controlled, clinical trials are needed to develop evidence-based guidelines for scar massage in hypertrophic burns scarring. Copyright © 2017

  11. Fear of childbirth and elective caesarean section: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Størksen, Hege Therese; Garthus-Niegel, Susan; Adams, Samantha S; Vangen, Siri; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2015-09-17

    This population-based cohort study aimed to investigate the demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with fear of childbirth and the relative importance of such fear as a predictor of elective caesarean section. A sample of 1789 women from the Akershus Birth Cohort in Norway provided data collected by three self-administered questionnaires at 17 and 32 weeks of pregnancy and 8 weeks postpartum. Information about the participants' childbirths was obtained from the hospital records. Eight percent of the women reported fear of delivery, defined as a score of ≥85 on the Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire. Using multivariable logistic regression models, a previous negative overall birth experience exerted the strongest impact on fear of childbirth, followed by impaired mental health and poor social support. Fear of childbirth was strongly associated with a preference for elective caesarean section (aOR 4.6, 95% CI 2.9-7.3) whereas the association of fear with performance of caesarean delivery was weaker (aOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.9). The vast majority (87%) of women with fear of childbirth did not, however, receive a caesarean section. By contrast, a previous negative overall birth experience was highly predictive of elective caesarean section (aOR 8.1, 95% CI 3.9-16.7) and few women without such experiences did request caesarean section. Results suggest that women with fear of childbirth may have identifiable vulnerability characteristics, such as poor mental health and poor social support. Results also emphasize the need to focus on the subjective experience of the birth to prevent fear of childbirth and elective caesarean sections on maternal request. Regarding the relationship with social support, causality has to be interpreted cautiously, as social support was measured at 8 weeks postpartum only.

  12. Surgical Scar Revision: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Shilpa; Dahiya, Naveen; Gupta, Somesh

    2014-01-01

    Scar formation is an inevitable consequence of wound healing from either a traumatic or a surgical intervention. The aesthetic appearance of a scar is the most important criteria to judge the surgical outcome. An understanding of the anatomy and wound healing along with experience, meticulous planning and technique can reduce complications and improve the surgical outcome. Scar revision does not erase a scar but helps to make it less noticeable and more acceptable. Both surgical and non-surgical techniques, used either alone or in combination can be used for revising a scar. In planning a scar revision surgeon should decide on when to act and the type of technique to use for scar revision to get an aesthetically pleasing outcome. This review article provides overview of methods applied for facial scar revision. This predominantly covers surgical methods. PMID:24761092

  13. [Scars, physiology, classification and assessment].

    PubMed

    Roques, Claude

    2013-01-01

    A skin scar is the sign of tissue repair following damage to the skin. Once formed, it follows a process of maturation which, after several months, results in a mature scar. This can be pathological with functional and/or aesthetic consequences. It is important to assess the scar as it matures in order to adapt the treatment to its evolution.

  14. Morbidity and chronic pain following different techniques of caesarean section: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Belci, D; Di Renzo, G C; Stark, M; Đurić, J; Zoričić, D; Belci, M; Peteh, L L

    2015-01-01

    Research examining long-term outcomes after childbirth performed with different techniques of caesarean section have been limited and do not provide information on morbidity and neuropathic pain. The study compares two groups of patients submitted to the 'Traditional' method using Pfannenstiel incision and patients submitted to the 'Misgav Ladach' method ≥ 5 years after the operation. We find better long-term postoperative results in the patients that were treated with the Misgav Ladach method compared with the Traditional method. The results were statistically better regarding the intensity of pain, presence of neuropathic and chronic pain and the level of satisfaction about cosmetic appearance of the scar.

  15. The Misgav Ladach method: a step forward in the operative technique of caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Poonam; Banerjee, B; Singh, S N; Raina, A

    2006-01-01

    Caesarean delivery remains the most common intraperitoneal surgical procedure in obstetric and gynaecologic practice. Since time immemorial there have been countless efforts to improve the technique of caesarean section. One such innovative breakthrough technique is the Misgav Ladach method of caesarean of section. The objective of this trial was to compare the intraoperative and short-term postoperative outcomes between the conventional and the Misgav-Ladach technique for caesarean section. The randomized prospective comparative study was carried out in the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, B.P Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan Nepal. Four hundred patients were randomized to either Misgav Ladach or the Conventional method of caesarean section. Only term pregnancies with singleton foetuses' were included whereas pregnancies with previous caesarean section were excluded from the study. The study period was from September 2001 to September 2004. There was not much difference in the demographic variables between the two groups. The age of the patients ranged between 18-40 years. The mean age of patients in Misgav Ladach and conventional group was 24.5 and 23.6 years respectively. Foetal distress was the commonest indication for caesarean section followed by non progress of labour. The mean incision to delivery interval, operating time and blood loss in the Misgav Ladach group was 1 minute 30 seconds, 16 minutes and 35 0ml as compared to 3 minutes, 28 minutes and 600 ml in the conventional group respectively. 3.5%of patients in the Misgav Ladach group showed febrile morbidity as compared to 7% in the conventional group. 19% from conventional group and only 4%from Misgav Ladach group required added analgesia. Almost equal number of patients (10-12) in each group experienced significant headache.).0.1%in the Misgav group and 5% in the Conventional group required post operative blood transfusion. Four patients from the conventional group had their wound

  16. Vaginal birth after one previous caesarean section in a tertiary institution in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aisien, A O; Oronsaye, A U

    2004-11-01

    Vaginal birth after one previous lower segment caesarean section represents one of the most significant and challenging issues in obstetric practice. A 5-year retrospective study was carried out at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital between January 1999 and December 2003, to determine the incidence, the maternal and fetal outcome following vaginal delivery after one previous caesarean section with a view to evaluating its safety and efficacy. There were 5234 deliveries, with 395 cases of one previous caesarean section, giving an incidence of 7.5%. The incidences of emergency caesarean section, elective caesarean section and spontaneous vaginal delivery following trial of vaginal delivery were 34.7%, 9.4% and 48.1%, respectively. During the study period there were 1317 cases of caesarean section, giving an incidence of 25.2% caesarean section rate. The incidence of one previous section among all caesarean section births was 30%. The major morbidity following vaginal delivery was uterine rupture with an incidence of 1.5% and hysterectomy of 0.8%. Three of the uterine ruptures occurred before admission because the patients laboured at home. One maternal death occurred as a result of uterine rupture and postpartum haemorrhage, giving a maternal mortality ratio of 19/100,000 and a case fatality rate of 0.3%. The corrected perinatal mortality rate was 15.2/1000, mainly from obstructed labour, abruptio placenta and fetal distress. Both maternal and fetal mortalities from vaginal birth after one previous section were significantly less than the respective overall maternal and fetal mortality from the institution. The 1-minute apgar score of babies delivered by elective section was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than the apgar score of babies delivered by emergency section and vaginally. There was only one patient with wound dehiscence at elective section without associated perinatal death. Vaginal delivery following caesarean section is relatively safe. However

  17. Emerging Therapies for Scar Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Block, Lisa; Gosain, Ankush; King, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: There are ∼12 million traumatic lacerations treated in the United States emergency rooms each year, 250 million surgical incisions created worldwide every year, and 11 million burns severe enough to warrant medical treatment worldwide. In the United States, over $20 billion dollars per year are spent on the treatment and management of scars. Recent Advances: Investigations into the management of scar therapies over the last decade have advanced our understanding related to the care of cutaneous scars. Scar treatment methods are presented including topical, intralesional, and mechanical therapies in addition to cryotherapy, radiotherapy, and laser therapy. Critical Issues: Current treatment options for scars have significant limitations. This review presents the current and emerging therapies available for scar management and the scientific evidence for scar management is discussed. Future Directions: Based upon our new understanding of scar formation, innovative scar therapies are being developed. Additional research on the basic science of scar formation will lead to additional advances and novel therapies for the treatment of cutaneous scars. PMID:26487979

  18. Update on hypertrophic scar treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rabello, Felipe Bettini; Souza, Cleyton Dias; Júnior, Jayme Adriano Farina

    2014-01-01

    Scar formation is a consequence of the wound healing process that occurs when body tissues are damaged by a physical injury. Hypertrophic scars and keloids are pathological scars resulting from abnormal responses to trauma and can be itchy and painful, causing serious functional and cosmetic disability. The current review will focus on the definition of hypertrophic scars, distinguishing them from keloids and on the various methods for treating hypertrophic scarring that have been described in the literature, including treatments with clearly proven efficiency and therapies with doubtful benefits. Numerous methods have been described for the treatment of abnormal scars, but to date, the optimal treatment method has not been established. This review will explore the differences between different types of nonsurgical management of hypertrophic scars, focusing on the indications, uses, mechanisms of action, associations and efficacies of the following therapies: silicone, pressure garments, onion extract, intralesional corticoid injections and bleomycin. PMID:25141117

  19. Determination of Isthmocele Using a Foley Catheter During Laparoscopic Repair of Cesarean Scar Defect.

    PubMed

    Akdemir, Ali; Sahin, Cagdas; Ari, Sabahattin Anil; Ergenoglu, Mete; Ulukus, Murat; Karadadas, Nedim

    2018-01-01

    To demonstrate a new technique of isthmocele repair via laparoscopic surgery. Case report (Canadian Task Force classification III). The local Ethics Committee waived the requirement for approval. Isthmocele localized at a low uterine segment is a defect of a previous caesarean scar due to poor myometrial healing after surgery [1]. This pouch accumulates menstrual bleeding, which can cause various disturbances and irregularities, including abnormal uterine bleeding, infertility, pelvic pain, and scar pregnancy [2-6]. Given the absence of a clearly defined surgical method in the literature, choosing the proper approach to treating isthmocele can be arduous. Laparoscopy provides a minimally invasive procedure in women with previous caesarean scar defects. A 28-year-old woman, gravida 2 para 2, presented with a complaint of prolonged postmenstrual bleeding for 5 years. She had undergone 2 cesarean deliveries. Transvaginal ultrasonography revealed a hypoechogenic area with menstrual blood in the anterior lower uterine segment. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an isthmocele localized at the anterior left lateral side of the uterus, with an estimated volume of approximately 12 cm 3 . After patient preparation, laparoscopy was performed. To repair the defect, the uterovesical peritoneal fold was incised and the bladder was mobilized from the lower uterine segment. During this surgery, differentiating the isthmocele from the abdomen can be challenging. Here we used a Foley catheter to identify the isthmocele. To do this, after mobilizing the bladder from the lower uterine segment, we inserted a Foley catheter into the uterine cavity through the cervical canal. We then filled the balloon of the catheter at the lower uterine segment under laparoscopic view, which allowed clear identification of the isthmocele pouch. The uterine defect was then incised. The isthmocele cavity was accessed, the margins of the pouch were debrided, and the edges were surgically reapproximated

  20. Anaesthesia for caesarean section in patients with cardiac disease.

    PubMed

    Chohan, Ursula; Afshan, Gauhar; Mone, Abdul

    2006-01-01

    This review contains material sourced from Med-Line and Pub-Med, search year 2002-2004. Material selected was pertaining to common cardiac ailments in pregnancy. Congenital cardiac problems i.e. Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), Atrial Septal Defect (ASD), Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD), Eisenmengers syndrome, valvular heart disease, i.e. mitral stenosis, mitral regurgitation, aortic stensois and aortic regurgitation are discussed. Other cardiac conditions associated with pregnancy are pulmonary hypertension and peri-partum cardiomyopathy. Arrhythmias during pregnancy, vary from isolated premature to supra-ventricular and ventricular tachycardia, management is similar to non-pregnant patients. This review summarizes the current management of a parturient with cardiac disease requiring surgical delivery. Regional anaesthesia techniques are preferred as reflected in the current literature for patient with cardiac disease with minor alterations such as slow establishment of epidural for caesarean section or continuous spinal anaesthesia with very small incremental doses of local anaesthesia, maintaining the patient's SVR with vasopressors and fluid, monitoring of the fluid regimen with CVP and in some cardiac function with Swan Ganz catheter. Patients with Eisenmenger syndrome, pulmonary hypertension, should be advised to avoid pregnancy. In conclusion with vast advancements in obsterics care, improvements in cardiac surgery, many patients with cardiac disease can now be safely delivered surgically by skillful anaesthesiologists who are aware of the common potential intra-operative problems and the ability to respond to undesired events immediately.

  1. Two decision aids for mode of delivery among women with previous caesarean section: randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Alan A; Emmett, Clare L; Fahey, Tom; Jones, Claire; Ricketts, Ian; Patel, Roshni R; Peters, Tim J; Murphy, Deirdre J

    2007-06-23

    To determine the effects of two computer based decision aids on decisional conflict and mode of delivery among pregnant women with a previous caesarean section. Randomised trial, conducted from May 2004 to August 2006. Four maternity units in south west England, and Scotland. 742 pregnant women with one previous lower segment caesarean section and delivery expected at >or=37 weeks. Non-English speakers were excluded. Usual care: standard care given by obstetric and midwifery staff. Information programme: women navigated through descriptions and probabilities of clinical outcomes for mother and baby associated with planned vaginal birth, elective caesarean section, and emergency caesarean section. Decision analysis: mode of delivery was recommended based on utility assessments performed by the woman combined with probabilities of clinical outcomes within a concealed decision tree. Both interventions were delivered via a laptop computer after brief instructions from a researcher. Total score on decisional conflict scale, and mode of delivery. Women in the information programme (adjusted difference -6.2, 95% confidence interval -8.7 to -3.7) and the decision analysis (-4.0, -6.5 to -1.5) groups had reduced decisional conflict compared with women in the usual care group. The rate of vaginal birth was higher for women in the decision analysis group compared with the usual care group (37% v 30%, adjusted odds ratio 1.42, 0.94 to 2.14), but the rates were similar in the information programme and usual care groups. Decision aids can help women who have had a previous caesarean section to decide on mode of delivery in a subsequent pregnancy. The decision analysis approach might substantially affect national rates of caesarean section. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN84367722.

  2. Manual displacement of the uterus during Caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Kundra, P; Khanna, S; Habeebullah, S; Ravishankar, M

    2007-05-01

    Ninety ASA 1 and 2 pregnant women with term singleton pregnancies and no maternal and fetal complications, scheduled for elective or emergency Caesarean section, were randomly allocated to group LT (15 degrees left lateral table tilt, n = 45) and group MD (leftward manual displacement, n = 45). Subarachnoid block was established with a 25-gauge spinal needle at the L3-L4 interspace using 1.5 ml of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine. A median sensory level of T6 was observed in both groups but the incidence of hypotension was markedly lower in group MD when compared to group LT (4.4% vs 40%; p < 0.001) with a significant reduction in mean (SD) ephedrine requirement (6 (0) vs 11.3 (4.9) mg; p < 0.001). The mean (SD) fall in systolic blood pressure was 28.8 (7.3) mmHg in group LT and 20 (12.7) mmHg in group MD. The time to maximum fall in systolic blood pressure was similar in both groups (4.5 min). We conclude that manual displacement of the uterus effectively reduces the incidence of hypotension and ephedrine requirements when compared to 15 degrees left lateral table tilt in parturients undergoing Caesarean section.

  3. Cutaneous Scar Prevention and Management

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Al-Bulushi, Taimoor

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous scarring is common after trauma, surgery and infection and occurs when normal skin tissue is replaced by fibroblastic tissue during the healing process. The pathophysiology of scar formation is not yet fully understood, although the degree of tension across the wound edges and the speed of cell growth are believed to play central roles. Prevention of scars is essential and can be achieved by attention to surgical techniques and the use of measures to reduce cell growth. Grading and classifying scars is important to determine available treatment strategies. This article presents an overview of the current therapies available for the prevention and treatment of scars. It is intended to be a practical guide for surgeons and other health professionals involved with and interested in scar management. PMID:26909210

  4. Update on Postsurgical Scar Management

    PubMed Central

    Commander, Sarah Jane; Chamata, Edward; Cox, Joshua; Dickey, Ryan M.; Lee, Edward I.

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative scar appearance is often a significant concern among patients, with many seeking advice from their surgeons regarding scar minimization. Numerous products are available that claim to decrease postoperative scar formation and improve wound healing. These products attempt to create an ideal environment for wound healing by targeting the three phases of wound healing: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. With that said, preoperative interventions, such as lifestyle modifications and optimization of medical comorbidities, and intraoperative interventions, such as adherence to meticulous operative techniques, are equally important for ideal scarring. In this article, the authors review the available options in postoperative scar management, addressing the benefits of multimodal perioperative intervention. Although numerous treatments exist, no single modality has been proven superior over others. Therefore, each patient should receive a personalized treatment regimen to optimize scar management. PMID:27478420

  5. Techniques for assisting difficult delivery at caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Waterfall, Heather; Grivell, Rosalie M; Dodd, Jodie M

    2016-01-31

    Caesarean section involves making an incision in the woman's abdomen and cutting through the uterine muscle. The baby is then delivered through that incision. Difficult caesarean birth may result in injury for the infant or complications for the mother. Methods to assist with delivery include vacuum or forceps extraction or manual delivery utilising fundal pressure. Medication that relaxes the uterus (tocolytic medication) may facilitate the birth of the baby at caesarean section. Delivery of the impacted head after prolonged obstructed labour can be associated with significant maternal and neonatal complication; to facilitate delivery of the head the surgeon may utilise either reverse breech extraction or head pushing. To compare the use of tocolysis (routine or selective use) with no use of tocolysis or placebo and to compare different extraction methods at the time of caesarean section for outcomes of infant birth trauma, maternal complications (particularly postpartum haemorrhage requiring blood transfusion), and long-term measures of infant and childhood morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. All published, unpublished, and ongoing randomised controlled trials comparing the use of tocolytic agents (routine or selective) at caesarean section versus no use of tocolytic or placebo at caesarean section to facilitate the birth of the baby. Use of instrument versus manual delivery to facilitate birth of the baby. Reverse breech extraction versus head pushing to facilitate delivery of the deeply impacted fetal head. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Seven randomised controlled trials, involving 582 women undergoing caesarean section were included in this review. The risk of bias of included trials was variable, with some trials not adequately describing allocation or

  6. The value of routine haemoglobin concentration measurement before caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Vashisht, A; Yentis, S

    2005-02-01

    Women undergoing caesarean section routinely have a haemoglobin concentration check before delivery. We compared the haemoglobin concentration of 311 women taken at their 32-?34 week antenatal visit with their preoperative level. A significant rise from 11.04 g/dL to 11.51 g/dL was seen (mean (95% CI) 0.47 (0.37-0.57 g/dL)). This increase was most marked in the 201 women having emergency procedures, and there was a significant negative correlation between the 32 and 34 weeks level and the net change in haemoglobin concentration (r=-0.366 (P<0.001)). From our results we suggest that in women with an otherwise uncomplicated pregnancy, and a satisfactory haemoglobin concentration at 32-34 weeks, a repeat estimation of the blood count is unnecessary before operative delivery.

  7. Periorbital Scar Correction.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Christopher B; Moe, Kristen S

    2017-02-01

    Periorbital scarring with eyelid retraction can have serious visual effects and can lead to loss of vision or even loss of the eye. Understanding of eyelid anatomy and the delicate balance of its structural supports is critical for the identification of the eyelid disorder responsible for the cicatrix and helps to guide treatment. The 2-finger test and lateral distraction of the lid can also be of significant help in proper diagnosis of the underlying disorder. Proper reconstruction with respect to the anterior and posterior lamellae helps to ensure a favorable outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Developments in caesarean section techniques: a review.

    PubMed

    Uzoigwe, S A; Jeremiah, I

    2006-01-01

    Caesarean section is the most common surgical procedure performed on women world-wide. It is recommended when vaginal delivery might pose a risk to the mother or baby. This review examines the history and developments in caesarean section techniques over the years as well as the difficulties that may be encountered in each stage in our environment. A review of relevant literature was conducted using Pubmed and e-medicine websites for computer search. The following keywords were used: history, development, techniques and caesarean section. Relevant review articles, Cochrane database and chapters in text books were also used to extract information. Though practiced since ancient times, the history of caesarean section remains shrouded in myths as no document describing its indication and techniques is still available. Ancient medical writers like Galen, Hippocrates and Soranus made no mention of the procedure. However, the evidence that it was performed arose from legal texts. The development in its technique was gradual over many years. The development of caesarean section technique occurred with the withdrawal of surgeries from the stronghold of religion in Renaissance time. Operative techniques vary and this has continued to improve through many years of trial and error.

  9. Music during caesarean section under regional anaesthesia for improving maternal and infant outcomes.

    PubMed

    Laopaiboon, Malinee; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Vatanasapt, Patravoot; Somjaivong, Busaba

    2009-04-15

    Evidence on the benefits of music during caesarean section under regional anaesthesia to improve clinical and psychological outcomes for mothers and infants has not been established. To evaluate the effectiveness of music during caesarean section under regional anaesthesia for improving clinical and psychological outcomes for mothers and infants. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2008). We included randomised controlled trials comparing music added to standard care during caesarean section under regional anaesthesia to standard care alone. Two review authors, Malinee Laopaiboon and Ruth Martis, independently assessed eligibility, risk of bias in included trials and extracted data. We analysed continuous outcomes using a mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). One trial involving 76 women who planned to have their babies delivered by caesarean section met the inclusion criteria, but data were available for only 64 women. This trial was of low quality with unclear allocation concealment and only a few main clinical outcomes reported for the women. The trial did not report any infant outcomes. It appears that music added to standard care during caesarean section under regional anaesthesia had some impact on pulse rate at the end of maternal contact with the neonate in the intra-operative period (MD -7.50 fewer beats per minute, 95% CI -14.08 to -0.92) and after completion of skin suture for the caesarean section (MD -7.37 fewer beats per minute, 95% CI -13.37 to -1.37). There was also an improvement in the birth satisfaction score (maximum possible score of 35) (MD of 3.38, 95%CI 1.59 to 5.17). Effects on other outcomes were either not significant or not reported in the one included trial. The findings indicate that music during planned caesarean section under regional anaesthesia may improve pulse rate and birth satisfaction score. However, the magnitude of these benefits is small and the

  10. The Impact of Caesarean Delivery on Paracetamol and Ketorolac Pharmacokinetics: A Paired Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kulo, Aida; van Calsteren, Kristel; Verbesselt, Rene; Smits, Anne; Devlieger, Roland; de Hoon, Jan; Allegaert, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacokinetics is a first, but essential step to improve population-tailored postoperative analgesia, also after Caesarean delivery. We therefore aimed to quantify the impact of caesarean delivery on the pharmacokinetics of intravenous (iv) paracetamol (2 g, single dose) and iv ketorolac tromethamine (30 mg, single dose) in 2 cohorts eachof 8 women at caesarean delivery and to compare these findings with postpartum to quantify intrapatient changes. We documented a higher median paracetamol clearance at delivery when compared to 10–15 weeks postpartum (11.7 to 6.4 L/h·m2, P < 0.01), even after correction for weight-related changes. Similar conclusions were drawn for ketorolac: median clearance was higher at delivery with a subsequent decrease (2.03 to 1.43 L/h·m2, P < 0.05) in postpartum (17–23 weeks). These differences likely reflect pregnancy- and caesarean-delivery-related changes in drug disposition. Moreover, postpartum paracetamol clearance was significantly lower when compared to estimates published in healthy young volunteers (6.4  versus  9.6 L/h·m2), while this was not the case for ketorolac (1.43  versus  1.48 L/h·m2). This suggests that postpartum is another specific status in young women that merits focused, compound-specific pharmacokinetic evaluation. PMID:22675252

  11. Appendectomy for asymptomatic appendicitis during caesarean section - an interesting case report.

    PubMed

    Panteleris, N; Daniilidis, A; Stamkopoulou, A; Kogeorgos, S; Chatzis, P; Assimakopoulos, E

    2016-01-01

    The authors present an interesting case report of an appendectomy during caesarean section in an asymptomatic pregnant woman, which highlights the need of peritoneal cavity check during every caesarean section. A 32-year-old para 0 woman at 34 weeks of gestation attended to the present clinic because of a feeling of reduced fetal movements in the last 24 hours. She underwent a non-stress test (NST), that was non-reassuring and no contractions were recorded. The woman underwent a caesarean section, which revealed a large phlegmonic appendix. Appendectomy was decided after the closure of the uterine cavity. The woman was treated with appendectomy. Histology came back as an appendicitis three days later. Acute appendicitis during pregnancy may be associated with serious maternal and fetal complications. It is also associated with a high risk of premature delivery. In the absence of lower abdominal pain and inflammatory changes, the incidence of acute appendicitis is low, but exists. In every caesarean section at any week of gestation, we should check the peritoneal cavity and especially the appendix, as appendicitis is the most pregnant woman who mentions preterm contractions or/and reduced fetal movements.

  12. [Hematologic malignancies in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Doubek, R; Petrovová, D; Kalvodová, J; Doubek, M

    2009-04-01

    To summarize available data concerning hematologic malignancies in pregnancy. Review article. Department of Obstetrics and Gynekology, Fakulty of Medicine, Masaryk University and University Hospital Brno. Compilation of published data from scientific literature. Cancer complicating pregnancy is a rare coexistence. The incidence is approximately 1 in 1,000 pregnancies. The most frequent hematologic malignant tumor is Hodgkin's lymphoma, leukemia is less frequent and myeloproliferative diseases complicating pregnancy are sporadic coexistence. Symptoms of these deseases are often nonspecific and disguised in pregnancy, then the diagnosis can be late. It is imperative that a multidisciplinary team involving hematooncologist and obstetrician (pediatric specialist) care for patient with hematologic malignancies. Cleary, every patient have to know whole prognosis and all risk factors of treatment. Optimum timing of delivery is after 36th week of pregnancy (when chemotherapy is ended more than two weeks ago). We prefer vaginal delivery to caesarean section.

  13. [Results of the Misgav Ladach caesarean section].

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, W; Borgmann, U

    2001-11-01

    At the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Allgemeines Krankenhaus Celle, 224 caesarean sections according to the Misgav Ladach technique were performed from 01. 05. 1998 to 30. 04. 1999. Anamnestic findings, intraoperative conditions, and postoperative course were compared to 125 conventionel caesarean deliveries. The Misgav Ladach technique resulted in notably shorter operative time, fewer complications of wound healing and reduced hospital stay. No further significant differences were observed in both groups. - The question of postoperative adhesions still remains to be answered. According to our experience the Misgav Ladach operation shows some advantages as compared to the usual method.

  14. Can Acne Scars Be Removed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Can Acne Scars Be Removed? KidsHealth / For Teens / Can Acne ... eliminar las cicatrices del acné? Different Types of Acne Scars from acne can seem like double punishment — ...

  15. Caesarean section rates in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Long, Qian; Kempas, Taina; Madede, Tavares; Klemetti, Reija; Hemminki, Elina

    2015-10-12

    The Caesarean section (C-section) rate is used as an indicator for availability and utilization of life-saving obstetric services. The purpose of the present study was to explore changes in C-section rates between 1995 and 2011 by area, place of delivery and maternal socioeconomic factors in Mozambique. Cross-sectional data from the Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Mozambique in 1997, 2003 and 2011 were used, including women having a live birth within 3 years prior to the survey. Descriptive statistics and logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with having a C-section. The C-section rate decreased slightly from 2.5% in 1995-1997 to 2.1% in 2001-2003 and then increased to 4.7% in 2009-2011. In 2009-2011, C-section rates ranged in urban areas from 4.6% in the northern region to 12.2% in the southern region and in rural areas from 1.6% in the northern region to 3.9% in the southern region. 12.3% of the richest women had had a C-section, compared to 1.7% of the poorest women. C-sections were the most common at public hospitals (12.6% in 2009-2011), but C-sections at health centers increased from the second to the third period. The likelihood of having a C-section was associated with living in urban areas and in the southern region, having a formal education and living in a rich household, even adjusting for age and parity (and study periods). The strongest relationship was for the richest household wealth quintile [OR (95% CI): 9.8 (6.3-15.3)]. The highest rate (20.6%) was found among the richest women giving birth at public hospitals in the southern region in 2009-2011. In Mozambique, underuse of C-section was likely among the poor and in rural areas, but overuse in the most advantaged groups seemed to be emerging.

  16. Cutaneous Scarring: A Clinical Review

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Richard; Urso-Baiarda, Fulvio; Linge, Claire; Grobbelaar, Adriaan

    2009-01-01

    Cutaneous scarring can cause patients symptoms ranging from the psychological to physical pain. Although the process of normal scarring is well described the ultimate cause of pathological scarring remains unknown. Similarly, exactly how early gestation fetuses can heal scarlessly remains unsolved. These questions are crucial in the search for a preventative or curative antiscarring agent. Such a discovery would be of enormous medical and commercial importance, not least because it may have application in other tissues. In the clinical context the assessment of scars is becoming more sophisticated and new physical, medical and surgical therapies are being introduced. This review aims to summarise some of the recent developments in scarring research for non-specialists and specialists alike. PMID:20585482

  17. Factors associated to Caesarean delivery in public and private health care systems.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rosana Rosseto de; Melo, Emiliana Cristina; Novaes, Elisiane Soares; Ferracioli, Patrícia Louise Rodrigues Varela; Mathias, Thais Aidar de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors associated to Caesarean sections among the residents of Maringá-PR, according to the financing source for delivery. A cross-sectional study with data from 920 postpartum women interviewed between October 2013 and February 2014. Association analysis was performed by logistic regression. Caesarean section rates were 55.5% in the Unified Healthcare System (SUS) and 93.8% in the private system. Factors associated with Caesarean section in the SUS were: previous Caesarean section (OR=8.9; CI=4.6-16.9), desire for Caesarean section early in pregnancy (OR=2.0; CI=1.1-3.6), pregestational overweight/obesity (OR=1.8; CI=1.1-2.8), and per capita family income higher than one minimum wage (OR=2.1; CI=1.3-3.4). In the private system, desire for Caesarean section early in pregnancy (OR=25.3) and a previous Caesarean section (OR=11.3) were strongly associated to its performance. It is necessary to properly orientate all pregnant women who desire a Caesarean delivery, from both the SUS and the private system, about the inherent risks of the surgical procedure without indication. In the public health sector, guidelines should be focused on pregnant women with previous Caesarean delivery, with a per capita income higher than one minimum wage and those who are overweight or obese, as these women are more likely to have a Caesarean section. Identificar fatores associados à cesárea entre residentes de Maringá-PR, segundo a fonte de financiamento do parto. Estudo transversal com dados de 920 puérperas entrevistadas entre outubro de 2013 e fevereiro de 2014. A análise de associação foi feita por regressão logística. A taxa de cesariana foi de 55,5% e 93,8% no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e no sistema privado, respectivamente. Associou-se à cesárea no SUS: realização de cesárea anterior (OR=8,9; IC=4,6-16,9), desejo pela cesárea no início da gestação (OR=2,0; IC=1,1-3,6), sobrepeso/obesidade pré-gestacional (OR=1,8; IC=1,1-2,8), e renda familiar

  18. Differences in rates and odds for emergency caesarean section in six Palestinian hospitals: a population-based birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zimmo, Mohammed; Laine, Katariina; Hassan, Sahar; Fosse, Erik; Lieng, Marit; Ali-Masri, Hadil; Zimmo, Kaled; Anti, Marit; Bottcher, Bettina; Sørum Falk, Ragnhild; Vikanes, Åse

    2018-03-02

    To assess the differences in rates and odds for emergency caesarean section among singleton pregnancies in six governmental Palestinian hospitals. A prospective population-based birth cohort study. Obstetric departments in six governmental Palestinian hospitals. 32 321 women scheduled to deliver vaginally from 1 March 2015 until 29 February 2016. To assess differences in sociodemographic and antenatal obstetric characteristics by hospital, χ 2 test, analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test were applied. Logistic regression was used to estimate differences in odds for emergency caesarean section, and ORs with 95% CIs were assessed. The primary outcome was the adjusted ORs of emergency caesarean section among singleton pregnancies for five Palestinian hospitals as compared with the reference (Hospital 1). The prevalence of emergency caesarean section varied across hospitals, ranging from 5.8% to 22.6% among primiparous women and between 4.8% and 13.1% among parous women. Compared with the reference hospital, the ORs for emergency caesarean section were increased in all other hospitals, crude ORs ranging from 1.95 (95% CI 1.42 to 2.67) to 4.75 (95% CI 3.49 to 6.46) among primiparous women. For parous women, these differences were less pronounced, crude ORs ranging from 1.37 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.67) to 2.99 (95% CI 2.44 to 3.65). After adjustment for potential confounders, the ORs were reduced but still statistically significant, except for one hospital among parous women. Substantial differences in odds for emergency caesarean section between the six Palestinian governmental hospitals were observed. These could not be explained by the studied sociodemographic or antenatal obstetric characteristics. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Caesarean Birth is Associated with Both Maternal and Paternal Origin in Immigrants in Sweden: a Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Sol P; Small, Rhonda; Hjern, Anders; Schytt, Erica

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the association between maternal country of birth and father's origin and unplanned and planned caesarean birth in Sweden. Population-based register study including all singleton births in Sweden between 1999 and 2012 (n = 1 311 885). Multinomial regression was conducted to estimate odds ratios (OR) for unplanned and planned caesarean with 95% confidence intervals for migrant compared with Swedish-born women. Analyses were stratified by parity. Women from Ethiopia, India, South Korea, Chile, Thailand, Iran, and Finland had statistically significantly higher odds of experiencing unplanned (primiparous OR 1.10-2.19; multiparous OR 1.13-2.02) and planned caesarean (primiparous OR 1.18-2.25; multiparous OR 1.13-2.46). Only women from Syria, the former Yugoslavia and Germany had consistently lower risk than Swedish-born mothers (unplanned: primiparous OR 0.76-0.86; multiparous OR 0.74-0.86. Planned; primiparous OR 0.75-0.82; multiparous OR 0.60-0.94). Women from Iraq and Turkey had higher odds of an unplanned caesarean but lower odds of a planned one (among multiparous). In most cases, these results remained after adjustment for available social characteristics, maternal health factors, and pregnancy complications. Both parents being foreign-born increased the odds of unplanned and planned caesarean in primiparous and multiparous women. Unplanned and planned caesarean birth varied by women's country of birth, with both higher and lower rates compared with Swedish-born women, and the father's origin was also of importance. These variations were not explained by a wide range of social, health, or pregnancy factors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Differences in rates and odds for emergency caesarean section in six Palestinian hospitals: a population-based birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Laine, Katariina; Hassan, Sahar; Fosse, Erik; Lieng, Marit; Zimmo, Kaled; Anti, Marit; Sørum Falk, Ragnhild; Vikanes, Åse

    2018-01-01

    Objective To assess the differences in rates and odds for emergency caesarean section among singleton pregnancies in six governmental Palestinian hospitals. Design A prospective population-based birth cohort study. Setting Obstetric departments in six governmental Palestinian hospitals. Participants 32 321 women scheduled to deliver vaginally from 1 March 2015 until 29 February 2016. Methods To assess differences in sociodemographic and antenatal obstetric characteristics by hospital, χ2 test, analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test were applied. Logistic regression was used to estimate differences in odds for emergency caesarean section, and ORs with 95% CIs were assessed. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the adjusted ORs of emergency caesarean section among singleton pregnancies for five Palestinian hospitals as compared with the reference (Hospital 1). Results The prevalence of emergency caesarean section varied across hospitals, ranging from 5.8% to 22.6% among primiparous women and between 4.8% and 13.1% among parous women. Compared with the reference hospital, the ORs for emergency caesarean section were increased in all other hospitals, crude ORs ranging from 1.95 (95% CI 1.42 to 2.67) to 4.75 (95% CI 3.49 to 6.46) among primiparous women. For parous women, these differences were less pronounced, crude ORs ranging from 1.37 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.67) to 2.99 (95% CI 2.44 to 3.65). After adjustment for potential confounders, the ORs were reduced but still statistically significant, except for one hospital among parous women. Conclusion Substantial differences in odds for emergency caesarean section between the six Palestinian governmental hospitals were observed. These could not be explained by the studied sociodemographic or antenatal obstetric characteristics. PMID:29500211

  1. An anthropological analysis of the perspectives of Somali women in the West and their obstetric care providers on caesarean birth.

    PubMed

    Essén, Birgitta; Binder, Pauline; Johnsdotter, Sara

    2011-03-01

    We explored the perceptions of 39 Somali women and 62 obstetric care providers in London in relation to caesarean birth, as borne out of a paradox we recognised from evidence-based information about the Somali group. Socio-cultural factors potentially leading to adverse obstetric outcome were identified using in-depth and focus group interviews with semi-structured, open-ended questions. A cultural anthropology model, the emic/etic model, was used for analysis. Somali women expressed fear and anxiety throughout the pregnancy and identified strategies to avoid caesarean section (CS). There was widespread, yet anecdotal, awareness among obstetric care providers about negative Somali attitudes. Caesarean avoidance and refusal were expressed as being highly stressful among providers, but also as being the responsibility of the women and families. For women, avoiding or refusing caesarean was based on a rational choice to avoid death and coping with adverse outcome relied on fatalistic attitudes. Motivation for the development of preventive actions among both groups was not described, which lends weight to the vast distinction and lack of correspondence in identified perspectives between Somali women and UK obstetric providers. Early booking and identification of women likely to avoid caesarean is proposed, as is the development of preventive strategies to address CS avoidance.

  2. Cause of vocal fold scar.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jacqui

    2010-12-01

    The prolonged debilitation, loss of income, and decrement in quality of life caused by vocal fold scar is exacerbated by our inability to successfully treat this difficult problem. As technology focuses on developing innovative treatments, we need to fully appreciate and understand the mechanisms giving rise to glottal scar, on both a macroscopic and microscopic level. This review examines recent literature pertaining to the gross and molecular mechanisms which give rise to vocal fold scar. Mechanisms of vocal fold scar production have been examined in both macroscopic and microscopic detail. Trauma and injury involving any aspect of the lamina propria, particularly the deeper layers, may result in epithelial tethering and scar formation. At the molecular level, early inflammatory cytokines activate and recruit fibroblasts which then drive the fibrotic cascade. Transforming growth factor-β enhances fibrosis and is balanced by tissue matrix metalloproteinases and hepatocyte growth factor activity. Molecular signaling offers novel opportunities to intervene in scar formation. New work investigating the cause of vocal fold scar identifies complex molecular processes leading to fibrosis in the lamina propria. Improved mechanistic understanding offers insight into prevention strategies and possible targets for antifibrotic therapies that may help prevent or treat this debilitating condition.

  3. [Caesarean section in conflict with the patient's right to self-determination?].

    PubMed

    Blondeau, Marie-José C E; Koorengevel, Kathelijne M; Schneider, A J Tom; van der Knijff-van Dortmont, A L M J Anouk; Dondorp, Wybo J

    2015-01-01

    Competent patients have the right to refuse treatment and healthcare workers should acknowledge their wishes. In the Netherlands there are conflicting (constitutional) rights of the foetus and of mentally ill patients. This paper describes the legal and ethical problems in the case of a mentally ill patient at 37 weeks of pregnancy who refused an obstetric examination. The patient refused to cooperate and have her physical condition and mental status examined. Her refusal endangered the life of the foetus. The obstetrician decided to perform a caesarean section, even if this would be in conflict with the patient's right to self-determination. In these cases no legal framework exists for providing the best medical care. New legislation should be drawn up to prevent similar cases occurring in the future. If a caesarean section is in conflict with a patient's right to self-determination, it should always be performed as a last resort.

  4. [THE PECULIARITIES OF UTERINE STRUCTURE AFTER DELIVERY IN RATS WITH THE MYOMETRIAL SCAR].

    PubMed

    Maiborodin, I V; Pekarev, O G; Yakimova, N V; Pekareva, Ye O; Maiborodina, V I; Perminova, Ye I

    2015-01-01

    The uterine tissues of female rats (n=30) with a scarred myometrium were examined by methods of light microscopy after the delivery. 1.5-2 months after the delivery no significant differences in the parameters of blood and lymph flow in the deep layers of the endometrium, myometrium and the myometrial scar tissue were found between the intact rats, nulliparous rats with a scarred uterus, rats that gave birth after laparotomy only and those that gave birth under the conditions of myometrial scar. In the course of pregnancy and labor activity, the damage of the tissues was observed not in the uterine scar proper, but at its borders with the myometrium. This is supported by the old hemorrhages and lymphostasis phenomena, greater number of lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages and erythrocytes. In determining the indications and contraindications to vaginal childbirth in women with scarred uterus it is necessary to examine not only the scar proper, but also its border with the myometrium. The myometrial scar by itself, is not an absolute contraindication to vaginal delivery, the natural delivery is feasible in the absence of cavities with liquid and hemorrhages in the tissues of the uterine scar and at its border with myometrium.

  5. Burn Scars Across Southern California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-11-26

    Brush fires consumed nearly 750,000 acres across Southern California between October 21 and November 18, 2003. Burn scars and vegetation changes wrought by the fires are illustrated in these false-color images from NASA Terra spacecraft.

  6. Caesarean section in Ancient Greek mythology.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The narrative of caesarean birth appears on several occasions in Greek mythology: in the birth of Dionysus is the God of the grape harvest and winemaking and wine; in the birth of Asclepius the God of medicine and healing; and in the birth of Adonis the God of beauty and desire. It is possible, however not obligatory, that it was not solely a fantasy but also reflected a contemporary medical practice.

  7. Should Cesarean Scar Defect Be Treated Laparoscopically? A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Api, Murat; Boza, Aysen; Gorgen, Husnu; Api, Olus

    2015-01-01

    Several obstetric complications due to inappropriately healed cesarean scar such as placenta accreta, scar dehiscence, and ectopic scar pregnancy are increasingly reported along with rising cesarean rates. Furthermore, many gynecologic conditions, including abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pain and infertility, are imputed to deficient cesarean scar healing. Hysteroscopy is the most commonly reported approach for the revision of cesarean scar defects (CSDs). Nevertheless, existing evidence is inadequate to conclude that either hysteroscopy or laparoscopy is effective or superior to each other. Although several management options have been suggested recently, the laparoscopic approach has not been thoroughly scrutinized. We present a case and reviewed the data related to the laparoscopic repair of CSDs and compared the hysteroscopic and laparoscopic management options based on the data from previously published articles. As a result of our analyses, the laparoscopic approach increases uterine wall thickness when compared with the hysteroscopic approach, and both surgical techniques seem to be effective for the resolution of gynecologic symptoms. Hysteroscopic treatment most likely corrects the scar defect but does not strengthen the uterine wall; thus, the potential risk of dehiscence or rupture in subsequent pregnancies does not seem to be improved. Because large uterine defects are known risk factors for scar dehiscence, the repair of the defect to reinforce the myometrial endurance seems to be an appropriate method of treatment. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk of retained placenta in women previously delivered by caesarean section: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Belachew, J; Cnattingius, S; Mulic-Lutvica, A; Eurenius, K; Axelsson, O; Wikström, A K

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether women with a caesarean section at their first delivery have an increased risk of retained placenta at their second delivery. Population-based cohort study. Sweden. All women with their first and second singleton deliveries in Sweden during the years 1994-2006 (n = 258,608). Women with caesarean section or placental abruption in their second pregnancy were not included in the study population. The risk of retained placenta at second delivery was estimated for women with a first delivery by caesarean section (n = 19,458), using women with a first vaginal delivery as reference (n = 239,150). Risks were calculated as odds ratios by unconditional logistic regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals (95%) after adjustments for maternal, delivery, and infant characteristics. Retained placenta with normal (≤1000 ml) and heavy (>1000 ml) bleeding. The overall rate of retained placenta was 2.07%. In women with a previous caesarean section and in women with previous vaginal delivery, the corresponding rates were 3.44% and 1.96%, respectively. Compared with women with a previous vaginal delivery, women with a previous caesarean section had an increased risk of retained placenta (adjusted OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.32-1.59), and the association was more pronounced for retained placenta with heavy bleeding (adjusted OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.44-1.79). Our report shows an increased risk for retained placenta in women previously delivered by caesarean section, a finding that should be considered in discussions of mode of delivery. © 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. Successful vaginal birth after caesarean section in patient with Ehler-Danlos syndrome type 2.

    PubMed

    Maraj, Hemant; Mohajer, Michelle; Bhattacharjee, Deepannita

    2011-12-01

    We present the case of a 31-year-old woman with Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type 2. She had a previous caesarean section and went on to have an uncomplicated vaginal birth in her last pregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a successful vaginal birth after caesarean section in a patient with EDS. EDS is a multisystem disorder involving a genetic defect in collagen and connective-tissue synthesis and structure. It is a heterogeneous group of 11 different inherited disorders. Obstetric complications in these patients include miscarriages, stillbirths, premature rupture of the membranes, preterm labour, uterine prolapse, uterine rupture and severe postpartum haemorrhage. There has been much controversy over the appropriate mode of delivery. Abdominal deliveries are complicated by delayed wound healing and increased perioperative blood loss. Vaginal deliveries may be complicated by tissue friability causing extensive perineal tears, pelvic floor and bladder lesions. Our case highlights that in specific, controlled situations it is possible to have a vaginal delivery even after previous caesarean section in patients with EDS.

  10. Successful vaginal birth after caesarean section in patient with Ehler-Danlos syndrome type 2

    PubMed Central

    Maraj, Hemant; Mohajer, Michelle; Bhattacharjee, Deepannita

    2011-01-01

    We present the case of a 31-year-old woman with Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type 2. She had a previous caesarean section and went on to have an uncomplicated vaginal birth in her last pregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a successful vaginal birth after caesarean section in a patient with EDS. EDS is a multisystem disorder involving a genetic defect in collagen and connective-tissue synthesis and structure. It is a heterogeneous group of 11 different inherited disorders. Obstetric complications in these patients include miscarriages, stillbirths, premature rupture of the membranes, preterm labour, uterine prolapse, uterine rupture and severe postpartum haemorrhage. There has been much controversy over the appropriate mode of delivery. Abdominal deliveries are complicated by delayed wound healing and increased perioperative blood loss. Vaginal deliveries may be complicated by tissue friability causing extensive perineal tears, pelvic floor and bladder lesions. Our case highlights that in specific, controlled situations it is possible to have a vaginal delivery even after previous caesarean section in patients with EDS. PMID:27579117

  11. Scar remodeling after strabismus surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, I H

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients with overcorrected strabismus (and several patients with undercorrection after extraocular muscle resection) underwent exploration of previously operated muscles, with the intention of advancing their tendons to prevent the need for surgery on additional muscles. Unexpectedly, it was found that, in many cases, an elongated scar segment of variable length was interposed between the muscle and its insertion site on the sclera. Laboratory investigations were carried out to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s) and to create an animal model of the disorder. METHODS: Lengthened scars were repaired on 198 muscles during 134 procedures performed on 123 patients. The scars consisted of amorphous connective tissue interposed between the globe and normal tendon. Repair was accomplished by excision of the scar and reattachment of the muscle to sclera, using absorbable sutures in 64 cases and nonabsorbable sutures in 70 cases. Histopathologic examination was performed on 82 clinical specimens, and tissue culture studies were performed on 7 specimens. To develop an animal model, 10 New Zealand white rabbits underwent bilateral superior rectus resection. Half of the eyes received sub-Tenon's injections of collagenase over the operative site during weeks 2, 3, 5, and 6 postoperatively; the other half received saline solution injections on the same schedule. At 10 weeks, half the sites were studied histologically, and the other half underwent collagen creep analysis. In a second study, the use of absorbable versus nonabsorbable sutures was compared in the rabbit model. RESULTS: In the clinical cases, the mean length of the elongated scar segments was 4.2 mm. A total of 105 of the 134 repair procedures were judged successful. Thirty-one procedures resulted in recurrence of the original overcorrection; 7 of these had documented restretches. Factors that distinguished patients with stretched scars from patients with classic slipped muscles included minimal or no

  12. Spinal anaesthesia for a caesarean section in a patient with paraneoplastic cerebellar ataxia

    PubMed Central

    Tuna, Ayca Tas; Sahin, Fatih; Kotan, Dilcan; Erdem, Ali Fuat; Baykara, Meltem; Duzcan, Tuba

    2017-01-01

    Paraneoplastic cerebellar ataxia (PCA) is most frequently observed in gynaecological cancers, small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma, cancer testis or malignant thymoma. In the literature, there is no data related to the effects of PCA during pregnancy or reports on the effects of anaesthesia in patients with PCA. We present management of a pregnant woman with PCA who was suddenly unable to walk with PCA and for whom effective spinal anaesthesia was performed for an elective caesarean section with no complications. PMID:28515524

  13. Anaesthesia for caesarean section in a patient with acute generalised pustular psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Samieh-Tucker, A; Rupasinghe, M

    2007-10-01

    We describe a 30-year-old parturient with acute generalised pustular psoriasis who presented for urgent caesarean section. A multidisciplinary team was involved and general anaesthesia was used successfully. Management of this condition is discussed and the literature reviewed. While generalised pustular psoriasis or impetigo herpetiformis is well recognised in pregnancy, it has not hitherto been reported in obstetric anaesthesia literature. The purpose of this article is to delineate the clinical picture of this disease, its treatment, and the effect on the mother and the fetus.

  14. Pregnancy in women with Fowler's syndrome treated with sacral neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Khunda, Azar; Karmarkar, Roopali; Abtahi, Bahareh; Gonzales, Gwen; Elneil, Sohier

    2013-07-01

    Our aim was to determine the impact of pregnancy on sacral neuromodulation (SNM) and vice versa in patients with Fowler's syndrome (FS), which is typified by chronic urinary retention (CUR). We performed a retrospective study of pregnancy in patients with FS who underwent a two-stage SNM implantation. Data were obtained using a standard questionnaire and clinical interview. There were a total of ten patients with 13 pregnancies. The SNM was switched off in ten of the 13 pregnancies, with CUR recurring in nine of the ten pregnancies and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) occurring in four of these pregnancies (more than three UTI in the pregnancy). Those in whom the device was left on continued to void normally. One woman had a first trimester miscarriage, eight pregnancies went to term, and four deliveries were premature. Caesarean section was performed in eight pregnancies for obstetric reasons. Four pregnancies resulted in a vaginal delivery. There were no congenital anomalies reported. Following delivery, four of nine women experienced dysfunction of their SNM device when it was switched back on. Turing off the SNM during pregnancy results in recurrence of CUR, with an increased risk of recurrent UTI associated with preterm delivery. This did not impact foetal well-being. The option of keeping the SNM on during pregnancy should therefore be considered, and as caesarean section affects the SNM device, we advise that caesarean section should only be performed for obstetric reasons.

  15. Scars of the Wigner Function.

    PubMed

    Toscano; de Aguiar MA; Ozorio De Almeida AM

    2001-01-01

    We propose a picture of Wigner function scars as a sequence of concentric rings along a two-dimensional surface inside a periodic orbit. This is verified for a two-dimensional plane that contains a classical hyperbolic orbit of a Hamiltonian system with 2 degrees of freedom. The stationary wave functions are the familiar mixture of scarred and random waves, but the spectral average of the Wigner functions in part of the plane is nearly that of a harmonic oscillator and individual states are also remarkably regular. These results are interpreted in terms of the semiclassical picture of chords and centers.

  16. Estimation of blood haemoglobin concentration using the HemoCue during caesarean section: the effect of sampling site.

    PubMed

    Richards, N A; Boyce, H; Yentis, S M

    2010-01-01

    Haemoglobin concentration measured using the HemoCue is accurate for capillary and venous/arterial blood, provided the recommended sampling method is strictly observed. Analysis of blood, particularly of capillary samples, using the HemoCue is useful during caesarean section. The toe might be preferred to the thumb since it is numb during neuraxial anaesthesia, but whether sampling at either site is accurate in this situation, given the cardiovascular effects of anaesthesia and pregnancy, is not known. We aimed to compare haemoglobin values measured in venous and capillary samples (toe and thumb) during caesarean section under neuraxial anaesthesia. Fifty healthy women having caesarean section under spinal or combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia were included. At the end of surgery, the great toe and thumb (non-i.v. fluid side) were lanced as recommended for a HemoCue reading. A venous blood sample (non-i.v. fluid side) was also taken and sent for formal laboratory measurement and tested with the HemoCue. Bland-Altman analysis was applied to the haemoglobin values. Bias (mean difference) and precision +/- 2 SD were respectively 0.2 +/-1.6 for laboratory vs. toe, 0.1 +/-1.8 for laboratory vs. thumb, and 0.2 +/-1.6 laboratory vs. venous. Our results suggest that in terms of accuracy, the two sites are equally suitable for use during caesarean section under neuraxial anaesthesia. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. "Pregnancy and Landry Gullian Barre syndrome".

    PubMed

    Iloabachie, G C

    1994-01-01

    Landry Gullian Barre Syndrome is rare in pregnancy. The case described occurred in a 30 year old woman at a gestational age of 33 weeks. This is probably the 30th case described in the Literature. Unlike in some previous reports remarkable improvement occurred with caesarean section.

  18. Readmissions for surgical site infections following caesarean section.

    PubMed

    El-Achi, Vanessa; Wan, King Man; Brown, James; Marshall, Drew; McGee, Therese

    2018-03-05

    This retrospective study was conducted to identify the incidence and characteristics associated with readmissions for surgical site infections following caesarean section in a tertiary hospital from 2012 to 2015. Of 6334 patients who underwent caesarean section, 165 (2.6%) were readmitted, most commonly for surgical site infection (25.5%, n = 42). Thirty-seven of these patients (88%) had an emergency caesarean compared to five (12%) following an elective caesarean section. Of the women with surgical site infections, 69% were overweight and 14% had diabetes. Emergency caesarean sections were responsible for the majority of readmissions, particularly in women with co-morbidities that predisposed them to infection. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  19. Midcervical scar satisfaction in thyroidectomy patients.

    PubMed

    Best, Amy R; Shipchandler, Taha Z; Cordes, Susan R

    2017-05-01

    Assess long-term patient satisfaction with conventional thyroidectomy scars and the impact of thyroidectomy scars on patient quality of life. Validated survey administration and retrospective review of clinical and demographic data. Patients who underwent conventional thyroidectomy through years 2000 to 2010 were identified and administered the validated Patient Scar Assessment Questionnaire. Mean satisfaction, appearance and scar-consciousness scores were determined. Thirty-seven patients also measured the length of their current scar. Patient demographic and operative data were collected retrospectively from the medical record. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and independent samples t testing. Sixty of 69 patients perceived the appearance of their scar to be "good" or "excellent." Sixty-three patients (91.3%) were satisfied with all scar outcomes; 67 (97.1%) were satisfied with the overall appearance of their scar. Mean total satisfaction score was 17.3 (<26 indicates a high level of satisfaction). Fifty-six (81.2%) were "not at all" self-conscious of their scar; 65 (94.2%) reported no attempt to hide their scar. Seven patients (10.1%) indicated any likelihood of pursuing scar revision. Females had significantly higher total satisfaction scores, consciousness scores, and satisfaction with appearance scores. The effect of perceived scar length was significant for scar-consciousness, not patient satisfaction. The majority of patients were satisfied with their thyroidectomy scar appearance. Few patients reported a desire to hide the scar or pursue revision. Women were more likely to be dissatisfied than men. Length may play a role in scar consciousness. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:1247-1252, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Qualitative website analysis of information on birth after caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Peddie, Valerie L; Whitelaw, Natalie; Cumming, Grant P; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Black, Mairead

    2015-08-19

    The United Kingdom (UK) caesarean section (CS) rate is largely determined by reluctance to augment trial of labour and vaginal birth. Choice between repeat CS and attempting vaginal birth after CS (VBAC) in the next pregnancy is challenging, with neither offering clear safety advantages. Women may access online information during the decision-making process. Such information is known to vary in its support for either mode of birth when assessed quantitatively. Therefore, we sought to explore qualitatively, the content and presentation of web-based health care information on birth after caesarean section (CS) in order to identify the dominant messages being conveyed. The search engine Google™ was used to conduct an internet search using terms relating to birth after CS. The ten most frequently returned websites meeting relevant purposive sampling criteria were analysed. Sampling criteria were based upon funding source, authorship and intended audience. Images and written textual content together with presence of links to additional media or external web content were analysed using descriptive and thematic analyses respectively. Ten websites were analysed: five funded by Government bodies or professional membership; one via charitable donations, and four funded commercially. All sites compared the advantages and disadvantages of both repeat CS and VBAC. Commercially funded websites favoured a question and answer format alongside images, 'pop-ups', social media forum links and hyperlinks to third-party sites. The relationship between the parent sites and those being linked to may not be readily apparent to users, risking perception of endorsement of either VBAC or repeat CS whether intended or otherwise. Websites affiliated with Government or health services presented referenced clinical information in a factual manner with podcasts of real life experiences. Many imply greater support for VBAC than repeat CS although this was predominantly conveyed through subtle

  1. Techniques for Optimizing Surgical Scars, Part 2: Hypertrophic Scars and Keloids.

    PubMed

    Potter, Kathryn; Konda, Sailesh; Ren, Vicky Zhen; Wang, Apphia Lihan; Srinivasan, Aditya; Chilukuri, Suneel

    2017-01-01

    Surgical management of benign or malignant cutaneous tumors may result in noticeable scars that are of great concern to patients, regardless of sex, age, or ethnicity. Techniques to optimize surgical scars are discussed in this three-part review. Part 2 focuses on scar revision for hypertrophic and keloids scars. Scar revision options for hypertrophic and keloid scars include corticosteroids, bleomycin, fluorouracil, verapamil, avotermin, hydrogel scaffold, nonablative fractional lasers, ablative and fractional ablative lasers, pulsed dye laser (PDL), flurandrenolide tape, imiquimod, onion extract, silicone, and scar massage.

  2. Association between Caesarean Delivery and Isolated Doses of Formula Feeding in Cow Milk Allergy.

    PubMed

    Gil, Francisco; Amezqueta, Ana; Martinez, Diana; Aznal, Elena; Etayo, Veronica; Durá, Teodoro; Sánchez-Valverde, Félix

    2017-01-01

    Cow milk allergy (CMA) is the most common food allergy in breastfed infants. The aim of this study is to verify whether certain perinatal factors may influence the development of CMA immunoglobulin E (IgE)+. A retrospective, observational study of case and control groups was carried out. Information was collected of patients with CMA IgE+ from our department during the years 1990-2013. Patients of the same age and sex were recruited for the control group. Information on the following variables was collected: sex, age, pregnancy tolerance, duration of pregnancy, type of delivery, isolated doses of formula feeding in hospital (FFH), duration of breastfeeding, and family history of allergy (defined as ≥1 first-degree family member with allergic disease). Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate logistic regression techniques. A total of 211 cases were included in this study. Multivariate analysis showed an influence of duration of breastfeeding, FFH to be a risk factor (OR 4.94; 95% CI 2.68-9.08), especially in caesarean delivery (OR 11.82; 95% CI 2.64-47.50), and prematurity (OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.09-0.92) to be a protective factor. Perinatal factors play a key role in the development of CMA IgE+, with an influence of breastfeeding duration, FFH and caesarean delivery as risk factors and prematurity as a protective factor. While family history had no important role, environmental factors were more decisive. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Prevalence and determinants of caesarean section in private and public health facilities in underserved South Asian communities: cross-sectional analysis of data from Bangladesh, India and Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Melissa; Alcock, Glyn; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Osrin, David; More, Neena Shah; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Sikorski, Catherine; Saville, Naomi; Sen, Aman; Colbourn, Tim; Houweling, Tanja A J; Seward, Nadine; Manandhar, Dharma S; Shrestha, Bhim P; Costello, Anthony; Prost, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence and determinants of births by caesarean section in private and public health facilities in underserved communities in South Asia. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting 81 community-based geographical clusters in four locations in Bangladesh, India and Nepal (three rural, one urban). Participants 45 327 births occurring in the study areas between 2005 and 2012. Outcome measures Proportion of caesarean section deliveries by location and type of facility; determinants of caesarean section delivery by location. Results Institutional delivery rates varied widely between settings, from 21% in rural India to 90% in urban India. The proportion of private and charitable facility births delivered by caesarean section was 73% in Bangladesh, 30% in rural Nepal, 18% in urban India and 5% in rural India. The odds of caesarean section were greater in private and charitable health facilities than in public facilities in three of four study locations, even when adjusted for pregnancy and delivery characteristics, maternal characteristics and year of delivery (Bangladesh: adjusted OR (AOR) 5.91, 95% CI 5.15 to 6.78; Nepal: AOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.62 to 3.44; urban India: AOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.38). We found that highly educated women were particularly likely to deliver by caesarean in private facilities in urban India (AOR 2.10; 95% CI 1.61 to 2.75) and also in rural Bangladesh (AOR 11.09, 95% CI 6.28 to 19.57). Conclusions Our results lend support to the hypothesis that increased caesarean section rates in these South Asian countries may be driven in part by the private sector. They also suggest that preferences for caesarean delivery may be higher among highly educated women, and that individual-level and provider-level factors interact in driving caesarean rates higher. Rates of caesarean section in the private sector, and their maternal and neonatal health outcomes, require close monitoring. PMID:25550293

  4. Epicanthal Restoration Surgery with Scar Excision in Severe Epicanthal Scar.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yoon Jae; Koo, Mun Geun; Lee, Soo Hyang

    2018-06-01

    Medial epicanthoplasty is a common aesthetic surgery in Asia to remove the epicanthal fold. With increasing use of this surgery, unsatisfactory results have grown. Several methods have been developed to correct it. However, there are limitations in restoration if the patient has a severe scar or does not have enough skin for reconstruction. By aggressively removing scar tissue, the authors present a better reverse redraping epicanthoplasty. The procedure was performed on 512 patients who had complications of medial epicanthoplasty from May 2011 to October 2015. The mean age was 31.3 years. Those who had already undergone reconstruction were 15.4% (n = 79). Of these, 68 patients received a V-Y flap and the rest had V-Y modification surgery. After the design, the skin-muscle flap was dissected and elevated. The upper and lower eyelid skin was pulled medially. The previous scar tissue was widely excised while removing skin excess, and the new epicanthal fold was created without a rectangular shape. The mean interepicanthal distance has been increased from 32.8 to 36.6 mm. The mean lengthening effect is 3.8 mm. Lacrimal lake exposure, fierce and narrow appearance, and incomplete medial eyelid closure were improved. Medial epicanthoplasty is a common cosmetic surgery in the Asian population. A demand for an effective reconstructive method has grown in association with higher complication rates. The authors have better results to make a natural epicanthal fold through aggressive scar removal in the reverse redraping epicanthoplasty. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  5. Forensic analysis of rockfall scars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vilder, Saskia J.; Rosser, Nick J.; Brain, Matthew J.

    2017-10-01

    We characterise and analyse the detachment (scar) surfaces of rockfalls to understand the mechanisms that underpin their failure. Rockfall scars are variously weathered and comprised of both discontinuity release surfaces and surfaces indicative of fracturing through zones of previously intact rock, known as rock bridges. The presence of rock bridges and pre-existing discontinuities is challenging to quantify due to the difficulty in determining discontinuity persistence below the surface of a rock slope. Rock bridges form an important control in holding blocks onto rockslopes, with their frequency, extent and location commonly modelled from the surface exposure of daylighting discontinuities. We explore an alternative approach to assessing their role, by characterising failure scars. We analyse a database of multiple rockfall scar surfaces detailing the areal extent, shape, and location of broken rock bridges and weathered surfaces. Terrestrial laser scanning and gigapixel imagery were combined to record the detailed texture and surface morphology. From this, scar surfaces were mapped via automated classification based on RGB pixel values. Our analysis of the resulting data from scars on the North Yorkshire coast (UK) indicates a wide variation in both weathering and rock bridge properties, controlled by lithology and associated rock mass structure. Importantly, the proportion of rock bridges in a rockfall failure surface does not increase with failure size. Rather larger failures display fracturing through multiple rock bridges, and in contrast smaller failures fracture occurs only through a single critical rock bridge. This holds implications for how failure mechanisms change with rockfall size and shape. Additionally, the location of rock bridges with respect to the geometry of an incipient rockfall is shown to determine failure mode. Weathering can occur both along discontinuity surfaces and previously broken rock bridges, indicating the sequential stages of

  6. Perfusion index derived from a pulse oximeter can predict the incidence of hypotension during spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Toyama, S; Kakumoto, M; Morioka, M; Matsuoka, K; Omatsu, H; Tagaito, Y; Numai, T; Shimoyama, M

    2013-08-01

    Hypotension during spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean delivery is a result of decreased vascular resistance due to sympathetic blockade and decreased cardiac output due to blood pooling in blocked areas of the body. Change in baseline peripheral vascular tone due to pregnancy may affect the degree of such hypotension. The perfusion index (PI) derived from a pulse oximeter has been used for assessing peripheral perfusion dynamics due to changes in peripheral vascular tone. The aim of this study was to examine whether baseline PI could predict the incidence of spinal anaesthesia-induced hypotension during Caesarean delivery. Parturients undergoing elective Caesarean delivery under spinal anaesthesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine 10 mg and fentanyl 20 μg were enrolled in this prospective study. The correlation between baseline PI and the degree of hypotension during spinal anaesthesia and also the predictability of spinal anaesthesia-induced hypotension during Caesarean delivery by PI were investigated. Baseline PI correlated with the degree of decreases in systolic and mean arterial pressure (r=0.664, P<0.0001 and r=0.491, P=0.0029, respectively). The cut-off PI value of 3.5 identified parturients at risk for spinal anaesthesia-induced hypotension with a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 86% (P<0.001). The change of PI in parturients with baseline PI ≤ 3.5 was not significant during the observational period, while PI in parturients with baseline PI>3.5 demonstrated marked decreases after spinal injection. We demonstrated that higher baseline PI was associated with profound hypotension and that baseline PI could predict the incidence of spinal anaesthesia-induced hypotension during Caesarean delivery.

  7. Association of caesarean delivery with child adiposity from age 6 weeks to 15 years.

    PubMed

    Blustein, J; Attina, T; Liu, M; Ryan, A M; Cox, L M; Blaser, M J; Trasande, L

    2013-07-01

    o assess associations of caesarean section with body mass from birth through adolescence. ongitudinal birth cohort study, following subjects up to 15 years of age. Children born in 1991-1992 in Avon, UK who participated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (n=10 219). standardized measures of body mass (weight-for length z-scores at 6 weeks, 10 and 20 months; and body mass index (BMI) z-scores at 38 months, 7, 9, 11 and 15 years). Secondary outcome: categorical overweight or obese (BMI: 85th percentile) for age and gender, at 38 months, 7, 9, 11 and 15 years. Of the 10 219 children, 926 (9.06%) were delivered by caesarean section. Those born by caesarean had lower-birth weights than those born vaginally (-46.1 g, 95% confidence interval(CI): 14.6-77.6 g; P=0.004). In mixed multivariable models adjusting for birth weight, gender, parental body mass, family sociodemographics, gestational factors and infant feeding patterns, caesarean delivery was consistently associated with increased adiposity, starting at 6 weeks (+0.11 s.d. units, 95% CI: 0.03-0.18; P=0.005), through age 15 (BMI z-score increment+0.10 s.d. units, 95% CI: 0.001-0.198; P=0.042). By age 11 caesarean-delivered children had 1.83 times the odds of overweight or obesity (95% CI: 1.24-2.70; P=0.002). When the sample was stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy weight, the association among children born of overweight/obese mothers was strong and long-lasting. In contrast, evidence of an association among children born of normal-weight mothers was weak. Cesarean delivery is associated with increased body mass in childhood and adolescence. Research is needed to further characterize the association in children of normal weight women. Additional work is also needed to understand the mechanism underlying the association, which may involve relatively enduring changes in the intestinal microbiome.

  8. Physiological Implications of Myocardial Scar Structure

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, WJ; Clarke, SA; Quinn, TA; Holmes, JW

    2016-01-01

    Once myocardium dies during a heart attack, it is replaced by scar tissue over the course of several weeks. The size, location, composition, structure and mechanical properties of the healing scar are all critical determinants of the fate of patients who survive the initial infarction. While the central importance of scar structure in determining pump function and remodeling has long been recognized, it has proven remarkably difficult to design therapies that improve heart function or limit remodeling by modifying scar structure. Many exciting new therapies are under development, but predicting their long-term effects requires a detailed understanding of how infarct scar forms, how its properties impact left ventricular function and remodeling, and how changes in scar structure and properties feed back to affect not only heart mechanics but also electrical conduction, reflex hemodynamic compensations, and the ongoing process of scar formation itself. In this article, we outline the scar formation process following an MI, discuss interpretation of standard measures of heart function in the setting of a healing infarct, then present implications of infarct scar geometry and structure for both mechanical and electrical function of the heart and summarize experiences to date with therapeutic interventions that aim to modify scar geometry and structure. One important conclusion that emerges from the studies reviewed here is that computational modeling is an essential tool for integrating the wealth of information required to understand this complex system and predict the impact of novel therapies on scar healing, heart function, and remodeling following myocardial infarction. PMID:26426470

  9. [Caesarean sections in Mexico: tendencies, levels and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Puentes-Rosas, Esteban; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Garrido-Latorre, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    To describe the rate of caesarean sections in Mexico in the last 10 years and evaluate its relationship with several socioeconomic variables, type of health care services, and specialists' availability. The Ministry of Health's register of births was used as source of information. The dependent variable was the type of delivery (vaginal or caesarean). The independent variables were: gross domestic product, human development index, illiteracy percentage among women, social exclusion index and, gynecology and obstetrics specialists supply. Correlations between variables were evaluated using Pearson's parametric test and Spearman range test. A lineal multiple regression was used to model the national caesarean data of 1999. National caesarean percentage increased in the last 10 years at an annual rate of 1%. It was considerably higher in social security institutions and the private sector. Caesareans percentages in 1999 were slightly above 35%. The highest values were those of the private sector with 53%, followed by social security institutions, with 38.2%. The variables more strongly associated with C sections were GDP, specialists' availability and human development index. It seems reasonable to advocate for a widespread descent in caesarean sections in Mexico. Important declines in certain contexts have been witnessed by implementing measures such as a second opinion before any C-section, a precise definition of the reasons for using it, and the monitoring of individual caesarean percentage among hospital obstetricians.

  10. Endometriosis-associated malignant transformation in abdominal surgical scar

    PubMed Central

    Mihailovici, Anca; Rottenstreich, Misgav; Kovel, Svetlana; Wassermann, Ilan; Smorgick, Noam; Vaknin, Zvi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Endometriosis-associated malignant transformation in abdominal surgical scar (EAMTAS) is a very rare and aggressive phenomenon. Our current article aims to provide a clinical overview, focusing on risk factors affecting survival. Methods: We performed a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-compliant systematic review based on prior reviews and case reports regarding the phenomenon published as abstracts in English, from January 1980 to November 2016. Overall, we identified 47 cases, and we included another case from our institution. We further contacted previous investigators to receive updated follow-up regarding their patients. We analyzed the data, focusing on risk factors that might affect overall survival. Results: All the patients reported in the literature had a uterine surgery, mainly caesarean section. The median time-lag from first surgery to the diagnosis of cancer was about 19 years. Clear-cell carcinoma (CCC) was the most prevalent histology (67%), followed by endometrioid adenocarcinoma (15%). Most of the patients were treated by extensive surgery and chemotherapy and/or radiation. Overall 5 years survival was about 40%. Median overall survival was 42 months (95% confidence interval of [18.7, 65.3]). Although our review is currently the largest in the literature, we cannot draw any statistical significant results due to the limited number of patients reported. According to univariate Cox-regression models, a tendency toward worse prognosis was shown for 3-year disease-free survival clear cell histologic-type (P = .169), and tumor diameter ≥8 cm in nonclear-cell histology, 18 months postdiagnosis (P = .06). Conclusion: EAMTAS is a rare and aggressive disease. It is mostly related to cesarean section scars and is diagnosed many years postsurgery. Clear-cell histology tends to endure from the worse prognosis. The treatment is mainly extensive surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy and

  11. Interventions for supporting pregnant women's decision-making about mode of birth after a caesarean.

    PubMed

    Horey, Dell; Kealy, Michelle; Davey, Mary-Ann; Small, Rhonda; Crowther, Caroline A

    2013-07-30

    Pregnant women who have previously had a caesarean birth and who have no contraindication for vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) may need to decide whether to choose between a repeat caesarean birth or to commence labour with the intention of achieving a VBAC. Women need information about their options and interventions designed to support decision-making may be helpful. Decision support interventions can be implemented independently, or shared with health professionals during clinical encounters or used in mediated social encounters with others, such as telephone decision coaching services. Decision support interventions can include decision aids, one-on-one counselling, group information or support sessions and decision protocols or algorithms. This review considers any decision support intervention for pregnant women making birth choices after a previous caesarean birth. To examine the effectiveness of interventions to support decision-making about vaginal birth after a caesarean birth.Secondary objectives are to identify issues related to the acceptability of any interventions to parents and the feasibility of their implementation. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 June 2013), Current Controlled Trials (22 July 2013), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal (ICTRP) (22 July 2013) and reference lists of retrieved articles. We also conducted citation searches of included studies to identify possible concurrent qualitative studies. All published, unpublished, and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials with reported data of any intervention designed to support pregnant women who have previously had a caesarean birth make decisions about their options for birth. Studies using a cluster-randomised design were eligible for inclusion but none were identified. Studies using a cross-over design were not eligible for inclusion. Studies published in abstract form

  12. An Examination of Women Experiencing Obstetric Complications Requiring Emergency Care: Perceptions and Sociocultural Consequences of Caesarean Sections in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Rasheda; Sultana, Marzia; Bilkis, Sayeda; Koblinsky, Marge

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the physical and socioeconomic postpartum consequences of women who experience obstetric complications and require emergency obstetric care (EmOC), particularly in resource-poor countries such as Bangladesh where historically there has been a strong cultural preference for births at home. Recent increases in the use of skilled birth attendants show socioeconomic disparities in access to emergency obstetric services, highlighting the need to examine birthing preparation and perceptions of EmOC, including caesarean sections. Twenty women who delivered at a hospital and were identified by physicians as having severe obstetric complications during delivery or immediately thereafter were selected to participate in this qualitative study. Purposive sampling was used for selecting the women. The study was carried out in Matlab, Bangladesh, during March 2008–August 2009. Data-collection methods included in-depth interviews with women and, whenever possible, their family members. The results showed that the women were poorly informed before delivery about pregnancy-related complications and medical indications for emergency care. Barriers to care-seeking at emergency obstetric facilities and acceptance of lifesaving care were related to apprehensions about the physical consequences and social stigma, resulting from hospital procedures and financial concerns. The respondents held many misconceptions about caesarean sections and distrust regarding the reason for recommending the procedure by the healthcare providers. Women who had caesarean sections incurred high costs that led to economic burdens on family members, and the blame was attributed to the woman. The postpartum health consequences reported by the women were generally left untreated. The data underscore the importance of educating women and their families about pregnancy-related complications and preparing families for the possibility of caesarean section. At the same time, the health

  13. Caesarean section audit to improve quality of care in a rural referral hospital in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Luuk; Houtzager, Tessa; Kilume, Omary; Horogo, John; van Roosmalen, Jos; Nyamtema, Angelo Sadock

    2018-05-15

    Caesarean section (CS) is often a life-saving procedure, but can also lead to serious complications, even more so in low-resource settings. Therefore unnecessary CS should be avoided and optimal circumstances for vaginal delivery should be created. In this study, we aim to audit indications for Caesarean sections and improve decision-making and obstetric management. Audit of all cases of CS performed from January to August 2013 was performed in a rural referral hospital in Tanzania. The study period was divided in three audit blocks; retrospective (before auditing), prospective 1 and prospective 2. A local audit panel (LP) and an external auditor (EA) judged if obstetric management was adequate and indications were appropriate or if CS could have been prevented and yet retain good pregnancy outcome. Furthermore, changes in modes of deliveries, overall pregnancy outcome and decision-to-delivery interval were monitored. During the study period there were 1868 deliveries. Of these, 403 (21.6%) were Caesarean sections. The proportions of unjustified CS prior to introduction of audit were as high as 34 and 75%, according to the respective judgments of LP and EA. Following introduction of audit, the proportions of unjustified CS decreased to 23% (p = 0.29) and 52% (p = 0.01) according to LP and EA respectively. However, CS rate did not change (20.2 to 21.7%), assisted vacuum delivery rate did not increase (3.9 to 1.8%) and median decision-to-delivery interval was 83 min (range 10 - 390 min). Although this is a single center study, these findings suggest that unnecessary Caesarean sections exist at an alarming rate even in referral hospitals and suggest that a vast number can be averted by introducing a focused CS audit system. Our findings indicate that CS audit is a useful tool and, if well implemented, can enhance rational use of resources, improve decision-making and harmonise practice among care providers.

  14. [Pregnancy and delivery in patients with a personal history of cesarean section in Dakar: epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic and prognostic aspects].

    PubMed

    Koulimaya-Gombet, Cyr Espérance; Diouf, Abdoul Aziz; Diallo, Moussa; Dia, Anna; Sène, Codou; Moreau, Jean Charles; Diouf, Alassane

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine hospitalization rate for vaginal birth after cesarean section in Pikine, to evaluate the quality of the management of pregnant women with previous cesarean section and to determine prognostic factors of the outcome of a trial of scar. We conducted a retrospective study based on medical records and operational protocols of patients who underwent vaginal birth after cesarean section over the period 1 January 2010 - 31 December 2011. We analyzed socio-demographic data, pregnancy follow-up, therapeutic modalities and prognosis. Data were collected and analyzed using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 software and SPSS software 17.0. The frequency of vaginal births after cesarean section was 9.6%. The average age of our patients was 29.4 years. Primiparous women accounted for 54%. Short spacing interval between births was found in 52.6% of cases. Based on the number of cesarean sections, the breakdown was as follows: patients with a history of one previous cesarean section (79.8%), patients with a history of two previous caesarean sections (17.9%) and patients with a history of three previous caesarean sections (2.3%). The number of antenatal consultations performed was greater than or equal to 3 in 79.8% of cases. Patients undergoing evacuation accounted for 54.2% and they were already in labor at the time of admission in 81.7% of cases. Trial of scar was authorized in 177 patients (34.3%) and, at the end of this test, 147 patients (83%) had vaginal birth, of whom 21.7% by vacuum extraction. Cesarean section was performed in 71.4% of cases with 245 emergency cesarean sections and 93 scheduled cesarean sections. A history of vaginal birth was a determining factor in normal delivery (p = 0.0001). There was also a significant relationship between mode of admission and decision to perform a cesarean section (p = 0.0001). Maternal mortality was 0.4%. Perinatal mortality rate was 28.2‰ of live births. We are witnessing a dramatic increase of

  15. Mode of anaesthesia for preterm Caesarean delivery: secondary analysis from the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network Caesarean Registry.

    PubMed

    Butwick, A J; El-Sayed, Y Y; Blumenfeld, Y J; Osmundson, S S; Weiniger, C F

    2015-08-01

    Preterm delivery is often performed by Caesarean section. We investigated modes of anaesthesia and risk factors for general anaesthesia among women undergoing preterm Caesarean delivery. Women undergoing Caesarean delivery between 24(+0) and 36(+6) weeks' gestation were identified from a multicentre US registry. The mode of anaesthesia was classified as neuraxial anaesthesia (spinal, epidural, or combined spinal and epidural) or general anaesthesia. Logistic regression was used to identify patient characteristic, obstetric, and peripartum risk factors associated with general anaesthesia. Within the study cohort, 11 539 women had preterm Caesarean delivery; 9510 (82.4%) underwent neuraxial anaesthesia and 2029 (17.6%) general anaesthesia. In our multivariate model, African-American race [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.7-2.2], Hispanic ethnicity (aOR=1.5; 95% CI=1.2-1.8), other race (aOR=1.4; 95% CI=1.1-1.9), and haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome or eclampsia (aOR=2.8; 95% CI=2.2-3.5) were independently associated with receiving general anaesthesia for preterm Caesarean delivery. Women with an emergency Caesarean delivery indication had the highest odds for general anaesthesia (aOR=3.5; 95% CI=3.1-3.9). For every 1 week decrease in gestational age at delivery, the adjusted odds of general anaesthesia increased by 13%. In our study cohort, nearly one in five women received general anaesthesia for preterm Caesarean delivery. Although potential confounding by unmeasured factors cannot be excluded, our findings suggest that early gestational age at delivery, emergent Caesarean delivery indications, hypertensive disease, and non-Caucasian race or ethnicity are associated with general anaesthesia for preterm Caesarean delivery. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Lasers and ancillary treatments for scar management Part 2: Keloid, hypertrophic, pigmented and acne scars

    PubMed Central

    McGoldrick, Rory Boyd; Theodorakopoulou, Evgenia; Azzopardi, Ernest Anthony; Murison, Maxwell

    2017-01-01

    The formation of a wide range of excessive scars following various skin injuries is a natural consequence of healing. Scars resulting from surgery or trauma affect approximately 100 million people per annum in the developed world and can have profound physical, aesthetic, psychological and social consequences. Thus, scar treatment is a priority for patient and physician alike. Laser treatment plays an important role in scar management with additional support from ancillary modalities. Subsequent to part 1: Burns scars, part 2 focuses on our strategies and literature review of treatment of keloid, hypertrophic, pigmented and acne scars where lasers are used in conjunction with other measures, and illustrated with case studies. PMID:29799579

  17. Maternal request for caesarean section: an ethical consideration.

    PubMed

    Selinger, Hannah

    2014-12-01

    Caesarean section (CS) is a method of delivering a baby through a surgical incision into the abdominal wall. Until recently in the UK, it was preserved as a procedure which was only carried out in certain circumstances. These included if the fetus lay in a breech position or was showing signs of distress leading to a requirement for rapid delivery. CS is perceived as a safe method of delivery due to the recommendation by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in these situations. As a result, the opportunity for maternal request for CS arose, whereby the mother requests the operation despite no medical indication. There are risks associated with CS, as with all surgery, however, these risks in current and future pregnancies may not be fully understood by the mother. The ethics of exposing mothers to these risks, as well as performing surgery on what is otherwise a healthy patient, become entangled with the demand for patient choice, as well as the increasing financial strain on our healthcare system. The main question to be examined in this essay is whether it is ethical to allow women to choose a CS in the absence of obstetric indication, taking into account the increased risk to the mother and her future offspring in order to potentially decrease the risk to the current baby. Alongside a case report, this analysis will apply Beauchamp and Childress' four principles of biomedical ethics and an exploration of the scientific literature. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Cutaneous scarring: Pathophysiology, molecular mechanisms, and scar reduction therapeutics Part II. Strategies to reduce scar formation after dermatologic procedures.

    PubMed

    Tziotzios, Christos; Profyris, Christos; Sterling, Jane

    2012-01-01

    The evidence base underpinning most traditional scar reduction approaches is limited, but some of the novel strategies are promising and accumulating. We review a number of commonly adopted strategies for scar reduction. The outlined novel agents are paradigmatic of the value of translational medical research and are likely to change the scenery in the much neglected but recently revived field of scar reduction therapeutics. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigating histological aspects of scars in children.

    PubMed

    Westra, I; Verhaegen, P D H M; Ibrahim Korkmaz, H; Braam, K I; Kaspers, G J L; Niessen, H W M; Niessen, F B

    2017-05-02

    Very little is known about histological aspects of paediatric scars and the possible role of the immune system during their formation. In this study, the histology thoracic scars caused by the placement of an implantable central venous access device in children who underwent treatment for cancer was assessed. The amount and type of collagen, the collagen orientation, the type of elastic fibres, the vascularsation, and the count of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes were analysed. The severity of scarring was assessed using the Vancouver scar scale (VSS). To evaluate the role of the immune system on scar severity and histology, the scars of children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) were compared with the scars of children suffering from other types of childhood cancer. Our results showed an extremely random orientation of the collagen fibres of the paediatric scars with a mean collagen orientation index of 0.22 (standard deviation (SD) 0.10, zero indicating a perfectly random orientation and a perfectly parallel orientation). A lower collagen orientation index was seen in scars with a lower VSS score (VSS score <3: 0.19 versus VSS score ≥3 0.29, p=0.037). A higher total VSS score, resembling a worse scar, was assessed to the scars in the non-ALL group compared with the children with ALL (mean ALL: 0.91 (0-3) versus mean non-ALL: 2.50 (0-6), p=0.037). To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating a wide array of histological aspects in paediatric scars. Compared with adult scars, an extremely random collagen orientation was found (0.22 in children versus 0.41 and 0.46 adult normotrophic and hypertrophic scars, respectively). A lower collagen orientation index was found in scars with a lower VSS score. In addition, less severe scarring was measured in children suffering from ALL compared with children suffering from other types of childhood cancer. This suggests that the immune system could play a role in the development of

  20. Epidural analgesia in labour and risk of caesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Ford, Jane B; Morris, Jonathan M; Roberts, Christine L

    2014-09-01

    A Cochrane Systematic Review of randomised controlled trials of epidural analgesia compared with other or no analgesia in labour reported no overall increased risk of caesarean delivery. However, many trials were affected by substantial non-compliance, and there are concerns about the external validity of some trials for contemporary maternity populations. We aimed to explore the association between epidural analgesia in labour and caesarean delivery in clinical practice and compare with findings from randomised controlled trials. Population-based cohort of pregnant women (n = 210 708) without major obstetrical complications who delivered a singleton live infant in hospitals in New South Wales, Australia, 2007-10. Data were obtained from linked, validated population-based data collections. Propensity score matching was used to examine the association between epidural analgesia in labour and caesarean delivery. Epidural analgesia in labour was used by a third (31.5%, n = 66 317) of the women, and 9.8% (n = 20 531) had a caesarean delivery. Epidural analgesia in labour was associated with increased risk of caesarean delivery {risk ratio [RR] 2.5, [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5, 2.6]}. The association with epidural analgesia in labour was higher for caesarean delivery for failure to progress {RR 3.0, [95% CI 2.9, 3.0]} than for caesarean delivery for fetal distress {RR 1.9, [95% CI 1.8, 2.0]}. Epidural analgesia in labour is associated with caesarean delivery in a large maternity population. Population-based studies contribute important data about obstetrical care, when research settings and participants may not represent the clinical settings or broader population in which obstetrical interventions in labour are applied. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Proportion of litters of purebred dogs born by caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Evans, Katy M; Adams, Vicki J

    2010-02-01

    To describe the frequency of caesarean sections in a large sample of pedigree dogs in the UK. Data on the numbers of litters born in the previous 10 years were available from a cross-sectional study of dogs belonging to breed club members (2004 Kennel Club/BSAVA Scientific Committee Purebred Dog Health Survey). In this survey 151 breeds were represented with data for households that had reported on at least 10 litters (range 10-14,15): this represented 13,141 bitches which had whelped 22,005 litters. The frequency of caesarean sections was estimated as the percentage of litters that were reported to be born by caesarean section (caesarean rates) and are reported by breed. The dogs were categorised into brachycephalic, mesocephalic and dolicocephalic breeds. The 10 breeds with the highest caesarean rates were the Boston terrier, bulldog, French bulldog, mastiff, Scottish terrier, miniature bull terrier, German wirehaired pointer, Clumber spaniel, Pekingese and Dandie Dinmont terrier. In the Boston terrier, bulldog and French bulldog, the rate was > 80%. These data provide evidence for the need to monitor caesarean rates in certain breeds of dog.

  2. [Caesarean section with vacuum extraction of the head].

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, A; Pavlova, E; Krŭsteva, K; Nikolov, A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the benefits and the limits in using the soft cup vacuum extractor on the fetal scalp during the caesarean section. The prospective study includes 19 cases of caesarean sections (group A), with vacuum assisted delivery using the soft cup vacuum extractor on the fetal scalp (diameter 6 cm) and 25 cases (group B) of caesarean sections with usual, manual extraction of the head assisted by fundal compression. All of the patients had undergone a planned caesarean section on term in absence of uterine activity and preserved amniotic membranes. Our results doesn't show differences in the Apgar score on the first and 5-th minute in the newborns of the two groups. The duration of the scalp traction was significantly shorter (30 +/- 4 sec) in comparison to the classical manual extraction (53 +/- 21 sec). The mean duration for applying the vacuum cup was 10 sec and 25 sec for tractions. The total blood loose and total duration of the caesarean sections were shorter than in the control group. The applied traction with the vacuum cup was sufficient for head extraction and there was no need for additional fundal compression. In conclusion we consider that the extraction of the fetal head in high position in caesarean section with vacuum extractor is an easy, non traumatic and rapid method which can put away the need of rough and prolonged fundal compression and its consequences.

  3. Oxytocin for labour and caesarean delivery: implications for the anaesthesiologist.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Robert A; Butwick, Alexander J; Carvalho, Brendan

    2011-06-01

    The implications of the obstetric use of oxytocin for obstetric anaesthesia practice are summarised. The review focuses on recent research on the uterotonic effects of oxytocin for prophylaxis and management of uterine atony during caesarean delivery. Oxytocin remains the first-line agent in the prevention and management of uterine atony. In-vitro and in-vivo studies show that prior exposure to oxytocin induces uterine muscle oxytocin receptor desensitization. This may influence oxytocin dosing for adequate uterine tone following delivery. Oxytocin has important cardiovascular side-effects (hypotension, tachycardia and myocardial ischaemia). Recent studies suggest that the effective dose of oxytocin for prophylaxis against uterine atony during caesarean delivery is significantly lower than the 5-10 IU historically used by anaesthesiologists. Slow administration of small bolus doses of oxytocin minimises maternal haemodynamic disturbance. Continuous oxytocin infusions are recommended for maintaining uterine tone after bolus administration, although ideal infusion rates are still to be established. The efficacy of the long-acting oxytocin analogue carbetocin requires further investigation. Recommendations are presented for oxytocin dosing during caesarean delivery. Oxytocin remains the first-line uterotonic after vaginal and caesarean delivery. Recent research elucidates the therapeutic range of oxytocin during caesarean delivery, as well as receptor desensitization. Evidenced-based protocols for the prevention and treatment of uterine atony during caesarean delivery are recommended.

  4. Three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound diagnosis and laparoscopic management of a pregancy in a previous cesarean scar.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chin-Jung; Yuen, Leung-To; Yen, Chih-Feng; Lee, Chyi-Long; Soong, Yung-Kuei

    2004-12-01

    An ectopic pregnancy developing in a previous Cesarean section scar is a rare event, and there is still a lack of information concerning the adequacy of management strategies. So far, no modality can guarantee the integrity of the uterus. We report the case of a 29-year-old woman with three Cesarean deliveries who was transferred to our hospital with a diagnosis of cervical pregnancy. Transvaginal three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound revealed a well-encapsulated bulging mass displacing anteriorly over the lower anterior uterine wall sounding with an irregular course and branching vessels. The diagnosis of pregnancy in a previous Cesarean scar was made. Laparoscopic ligation of bilateral uterine arteries followed by excision of the ectopic pregnant mass was undertaken, and the patient's uterus was successfully preserved. Conservative management with the laparoscopic approach may be a safe and effective alternative to hysterectomy in patients with a pregnacy in a previous Cesarean scar.

  5. Biological agents for controlling excessive scarring.

    PubMed

    Berman, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The potential of various biological agents to reduce or prevent excessive scar formation has now been evaluated in numerous in-vitro studies, experimental animal models and preliminary clinical trials, in some cases with particularly promising results. Perhaps prominent among this group of biological agents, and, to some degree, possibly representing marketed compounds already being used 'off label' to manage excessive scarring, are the tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist etanercept, and immune-response modifiers such as IFNalpha2b and imiquimod. Additional assessment of these novel agents is now justified with a view to reducing or preventing hypertrophic scars, keloid scars and the recurrence of post-excision keloid lesions.

  6. [Keloid scars of the head and neck].

    PubMed

    Beogo, R; Guiébré, Y M C; Sérémé, M; Ouoba, K; Zwetyenga, N

    2012-06-01

    A keloid scar is a benign proliferative lesion of dermic collagen. It is predominant in black skin patients. It is most commonly located on the head and neck. Skin trauma and a genetic predisposition may be responsible for the keloid scar. Nevertheless, the pathogenesis of keloid scar is still unclear, and no currently available treatment is 100% effective. The authors had for aim to review the current data on keloid scar pathogenesis and treatment for an optimal management of this condition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving scar quality: a prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Ioannovich, John; Al-Amm, Christian A; El-Musa, Kusai A; Dham, Ruwayda

    2002-01-01

    Following traumatic or surgical injury to the skin, wounds do not heal by tissue regeneration but rather by scar formation. Though healing is definitely a welcomed event, the resultant scar, very often, is not aesthetically pleasing, and not infrequently, may be pathologic causing serious deformities and contractures. Management of problematic scars continues to be a frustrating endeavor with less than optimal results. Prophylactic methods of wound management to minimize serious scarring are being developed. In a previously published study, we have demonstrated improved healing of split thickness skin graft donor sites following treatment with Moist Exposed Burn Ointment (MEBO, Julphar Gulf Pharmaceutical Industries, Ras Al-Khaimah, UAE). At present, we are reporting the results of a comparative clinical prospective study evaluating scar quality following primary healing of elective surgical and traumatic facial wounds with prophylactic MEBO application, topical antibiotic ointment application, and no topical therapy at all. Scars were evaluated according to the Visual Analogue Scale for scar assessment. Statistical analysis of scar assessment scores demonstrated marked prevention of unfavorable scars with improved cosmetic results following MEBO prophylactic therapy.

  8. Scar Management of the Burned Hand

    PubMed Central

    Sorkin, Michael; Cholok, David; Levi, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Unimpaired hand function is critical in almost all activities of daily living. Burn injury can result in hypertrophic scar formation that can lead to debilitating functional deficits and poor aesthetic outcomes. Initial algorithms of acute burn management involve early debridement and skin grafting and early mobilization to prevent formation of hypertrophic scarring and ultimately digit contractures. While non-operative modalities in the early phase of scar maturation are critical to minimize hypertrophic scar formation, surgical management is often indicated in order to restore hand function. The essential tenant of operative scar management is release of tension, which can often be achieved through local tissue rearrangement. Laser therapy has emerged as a central pillar of subsequent scar rehabilitation with several modalities that address scar texture, color, pruritis and thickness. These can be utilized in conjunction with local corticosteroid treatment and other emerging modalities to modulate the scar and achieve optimal hand function. These treatment tools provide an effective resource for the reconstructive surgeon to treat hypertrophic hand scars. PMID:28363297

  9. Prevalence of scars and "mini-scars", and their impact on quality of life in Japanese patients with acne.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Nobukazu; Miyachi, Yoshiki; Kawashima, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    There have been very few studies on the prevalence and severity of acne scars in Japanese patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of acne scars and their impact on the quality of life (QOL) in Japanese acne patients. Acne scars were classified as mini-scars (atrophic scars of ≥0.5 and <2 mm in diameter) atrophic scars (≥2 mm in diameter), and hypertrophic scars. The severity of acne and acne scars were evaluated. The background of patients and their QOL in relation to acne were assessed. Of 240 subjects, 218 (90.8%) had scars. All patients with scars had mini-scars; 61.2% and 14.2% of 240 had atrophic scars and hypertrophic scars, respectively. Severe scarring was found in patients who had experienced severe acne symptoms, although 15.0% of patients with scars had experienced only mild acne symptoms. The total Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significantly higher in patients with scars than in patients without scars (5.9 ± 4.4 vs 4.2 ± 4.1). Almost all the patients had small atrophic scars with a diameter of 0.5 or more and less than 2 mm, which we have termed "mini-scars". Acne scars had a negative impact on patient QOL. Early initiation of treatment is recommended to avoid acne scars. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  10. Neonatal outcomes following a trial of labor after Caesarean delivery: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Litwin, Charles Edward; Czuzoj-Shulman, Nicholas; Zakhari, Andrew; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2018-08-01

    To evaluate the neonatal effects of trial of labor after Caesarean (TOLAC) births. We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using the CDC's Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Public Use File (2011-2013) on women with a live singleton pregnancy and prior Caesarean delivery. Multivariate logistic regression compared neonatal outcomes between women who underwent a TOLAC with women who did not. Secondary analysis compared outcomes of birth with uterine rupture to those without. A total of 1,036,554 births met inclusion criteria, of which 17.5% underwent TOLAC. Women who had a TOLAC were more likely to deliver infants requiring neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission (odds ratios (OR) 1.12, 95%CI 1.09-1.16) and assisted ventilation (OR 1.07, 95%CI 1.03-1.12). Among women with TOLAC, 0.18% of births were in context of a uterine rupture and those neonates had an increased risk of NICU admissions (OR 5.95, 95%CI 4.56-7.76), assisted ventilation (OR 8.89, 95%CI 6.73-11.75), seizures (OR 91.66, 95%CI 42.23-198.93), and death (OR 16.28, 95%CI 5.09-52.08). Neonatal morbidity appears slightly increased among women with a TOLAC. However, morbidity and mortality are considerably increased in cases of uterine rupture. Appropriate selection and counseling of women for TOLAC should be undertaken as to minimize uterine rupture risk.

  11. Effectiveness of Autologous Fat Grafting in Adherent Scars: Results Obtained by a Comprehensive Scar Evaluation Protocol.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Mariëlle E H; Brouwer, Katrien M; van Trier, Antoine J M; Groot, Marloes L; Middelkoop, Esther; van Zuijlen, Paul P M

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, patients normally survive severe traumas such as burn injuries and necrotizing fasciitis. Large skin defects can be closed but the scars remain. Scars may become adherent to underlying structures when the subcutical fat layer is damaged. Autologous fat grafting provides the possibility of reconstructing a functional sliding layer underneath the scar. Autologous fat grafting is becoming increasingly popular for scar treatment, although large studies using validated evaluation tools are lacking. The authors therefore objectified the effectiveness of single-treatment autologous fat grafting on scar pliability using validated scar measurement tools. Forty patients with adherent scars receiving single-treatment autologous fat grafting were measured preoperatively and at 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome parameter was scar pliability, measured using the Cutometer. Scar quality was also evaluated by the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale and the DSM II ColorMeter. To prevent selection bias, measurements were performed following a standardized algorithm. The Cutometer parameters elasticity and maximal extension improved 22.5 percent (p < 0.001) and 15.6 percent (p = 0.001), respectively. Total Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale scores improved from 3.6 to 2.9 on the observer scale, and from 5.1 to 3.8 on the patient scale (both p < 0.001). Color differences between the scar and normal skin remained unaltered. For the first time, the effect of autologous fat grafting on functional scar parameters was ascertained using a comprehensive scar evaluation protocol. The improved scar pliability supports the authors' hypothesis that the function of the subcutis can be restored to a certain extent by single-treatment autologous fat grafting. Therapeutic, IV.

  12. Caesarean Section: Could Different Transverse Abdominal Incision Techniques Influence Postpartum Pain and Subsequent Quality of Life? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Andrisani, Alessandra; Noventa, Marco; Di Gangi, Stefania; Quaranta, Michela; Cosmi, Erich; D’Antona, Donato; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista; Ambrosini, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The choice of the type of abdominal incision performed in caesarean delivery is made chiefly on the basis of the individual surgeon’s experience and preference. A general consensus on the most appropriate surgical technique has not yet been reached. The aim of this systematic review of the literature is to compare the two most commonly used transverse abdominal incisions for caesarean delivery, the Pfannenstiel incision and the modified Joel-Cohen incision, in terms of acute and chronic post-surgical pain and their subsequent influence in terms of quality of life. Electronic database searches formed the basis of the literature search and the following databases were searched in the time frame between January 1997 and December 2013: MEDLINE, EMBASE Sciencedirect and the Cochrane Library. Key search terms included: “acute pain”, “chronic pain”, “Pfannenstiel incision”, “Misgav-Ladach”, “Joel Cohen incision”, in combination with “Caesarean Section”, “abdominal incision”, “numbness”, “neuropathic pain” and “nerve entrapment”. Data on 4771 patients who underwent caesarean section (CS) was collected with regards to the relation between surgical techniques and postoperative outcomes defined as acute or chronic pain and future pregnancy desire. The Misgav-Ladach incision was associated with a significant advantage in terms of reduction of post-surgical acute and chronic pain. It was indicated as the optimal technique in view of its characteristic of reducing lower pelvic discomfort and pain, thus improving quality of life and future fertility desire. Further studies which are not subject to important bias like pre-existing chronic pain, non-standardized analgesia administration, variable length of skin incision and previous abdominal surgery are required. PMID:25646621

  13. Caesarean section: could different transverse abdominal incision techniques influence postpartum pain and subsequent quality of life? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Andrisani, Alessandra; Noventa, Marco; Di Gangi, Stefania; Quaranta, Michela; Cosmi, Erich; D'Antona, Donato; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista; Ambrosini, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The choice of the type of abdominal incision performed in caesarean delivery is made chiefly on the basis of the individual surgeon's experience and preference. A general consensus on the most appropriate surgical technique has not yet been reached. The aim of this systematic review of the literature is to compare the two most commonly used transverse abdominal incisions for caesarean delivery, the Pfannenstiel incision and the modified Joel-Cohen incision, in terms of acute and chronic post-surgical pain and their subsequent influence in terms of quality of life. Electronic database searches formed the basis of the literature search and the following databases were searched in the time frame between January 1997 and December 2013: MEDLINE, EMBASE Sciencedirect and the Cochrane Library. Key search terms included: "acute pain", "chronic pain", "Pfannenstiel incision", "Misgav-Ladach", "Joel Cohen incision", in combination with "Caesarean Section", "abdominal incision", "numbness", "neuropathic pain" and "nerve entrapment". Data on 4771 patients who underwent caesarean section (CS) was collected with regards to the relation between surgical techniques and postoperative outcomes defined as acute or chronic pain and future pregnancy desire. The Misgav-Ladach incision was associated with a significant advantage in terms of reduction of post-surgical acute and chronic pain. It was indicated as the optimal technique in view of its characteristic of reducing lower pelvic discomfort and pain, thus improving quality of life and future fertility desire. Further studies which are not subject to important bias like pre-existing chronic pain, non-standardized analgesia administration, variable length of skin incision and previous abdominal surgery are required.

  14. Strong quantum scarring by local impurities

    PubMed Central

    Luukko, Perttu J. J.; Drury, Byron; Klales, Anna; Kaplan, Lev; Heller, Eric J.; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-01-01

    We discover and characterise strong quantum scars, or quantum eigenstates resembling classical periodic orbits, in two-dimensional quantum wells perturbed by local impurities. These scars are not explained by ordinary scar theory, which would require the existence of short, moderately unstable periodic orbits in the perturbed system. Instead, they are supported by classical resonances in the unperturbed system and the resulting quantum near-degeneracy. Even in the case of a large number of randomly scattered impurities, the scars prefer distinct orientations that extremise the overlap with the impurities. We demonstrate that these preferred orientations can be used for highly efficient transport of quantum wave packets across the perturbed potential landscape. Assisted by the scars, wave-packet recurrences are significantly stronger than in the unperturbed system. Together with the controllability of the preferred orientations, this property may be very useful for quantum transport applications. PMID:27892510

  15. SCAR/WAVE: A complex issue.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Andrew J; Insall, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    The SCAR/WAVE complex drives the actin polymerisation that underlies protrusion of the front of the cell and thus drives migration. However, it is not understood how the activity of SCAR/WAVE is regulated to generate the infinite range of cellular shape changes observed during cell motility. What are the relative roles of the subunits of the SCAR/WAVE complex? What signaling molecules do they interact with? And how does the complex integrate all this information in order to control the temporal and spatial polymerisation of actin during protrusion formation? Unfortunately, the interdependence of SCAR complex members has made genetic dissection hard. In our recent paper,(1) we describe stabilization of the Dictyostelium SCAR complex by a small fragment of Abi. Here we summarize the main findings and discuss how this approach can help reveal the inner workings of this impenetrable complex.

  16. Strong quantum scarring by local impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luukko, Perttu J. J.; Drury, Byron; Klales, Anna; Kaplan, Lev; Heller, Eric J.; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-11-01

    We discover and characterise strong quantum scars, or quantum eigenstates resembling classical periodic orbits, in two-dimensional quantum wells perturbed by local impurities. These scars are not explained by ordinary scar theory, which would require the existence of short, moderately unstable periodic orbits in the perturbed system. Instead, they are supported by classical resonances in the unperturbed system and the resulting quantum near-degeneracy. Even in the case of a large number of randomly scattered impurities, the scars prefer distinct orientations that extremise the overlap with the impurities. We demonstrate that these preferred orientations can be used for highly efficient transport of quantum wave packets across the perturbed potential landscape. Assisted by the scars, wave-packet recurrences are significantly stronger than in the unperturbed system. Together with the controllability of the preferred orientations, this property may be very useful for quantum transport applications.

  17. Strong quantum scarring by local impurities.

    PubMed

    Luukko, Perttu J J; Drury, Byron; Klales, Anna; Kaplan, Lev; Heller, Eric J; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-11-28

    We discover and characterise strong quantum scars, or quantum eigenstates resembling classical periodic orbits, in two-dimensional quantum wells perturbed by local impurities. These scars are not explained by ordinary scar theory, which would require the existence of short, moderately unstable periodic orbits in the perturbed system. Instead, they are supported by classical resonances in the unperturbed system and the resulting quantum near-degeneracy. Even in the case of a large number of randomly scattered impurities, the scars prefer distinct orientations that extremise the overlap with the impurities. We demonstrate that these preferred orientations can be used for highly efficient transport of quantum wave packets across the perturbed potential landscape. Assisted by the scars, wave-packet recurrences are significantly stronger than in the unperturbed system. Together with the controllability of the preferred orientations, this property may be very useful for quantum transport applications.

  18. Successful use of sugammadex for caesarean section in a patient with myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Soyoral, Lokman; Goktas, Ugur; Cegin, Muhammed Bilal; Baydi, Volkan

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder that is characterized by muscle weakness that fluctuates, worsening with exertion, and improving with rest. Diagnosis of myasthenia gravis is made following clinical and physical examination and is confirmed by serum immunoassays to measure autoantibody levels. Myasthenia gravis especially when associated with pregnancy is a high-risk disease, and its course is unpredictable. We described the second report about use of sugammadex after rocuronium for a caesarean delivery with myasthenia gravis, but, unlike our case that formerly was diagnosed with myasthenia gravis, the patient was extubated on postoperative successfully and we did not encounter any respiratory problems. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. [Successful use of sugammadex for caesarean section in a patient with myasthenia gravis].

    PubMed

    Soyoral, Lokman; Goktas, Ugur; Cegin, Muhammed Bilal; Baydi, Volkan

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder that is characterized by muscle weakness that fluctuates, worsening with exertion, and improving with rest. Diagnosis of myasthenia gravis is made following clinical and physical examination and is confirmed by serum immunoassays to measure autoantibody levels. Myasthenia gravis especially when associated with pregnancy is a high-risk disease, and its course is unpredictable. We described the second report about use of sugammadex after rocuronium for a caesarean delivery with myasthenia gravis, but, unlike our case that formerly was diagnosed with myasthenia gravis, the patient was extubated on postoperative successfully and we did not encounter any respiratory problems. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Atelectasis observed by computerized tomography after Caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Meira, M N C; Carvalho, C R R; Galizia, M S; Borges, J B; Kondo, M M; Zugaib, M; Vieira, J E

    2010-06-01

    Atelectasis after either vaginal or Caesarean delivery has not been adequately quantified. This study addresses the hypothesis that atelectasis may be worse in women who undergo Caesarean section when compared with vaginal delivery under regional anaesthesia. Twenty healthy non-smoking women submitted to a chest computed tomography (CT) 2 h after delivery in a University Hospital, who had experienced vaginal delivery (n=10) under combined spinal-epidural analgesia or a Caesarean section (n=10) under spinal anaesthesia, were evaluated. The percentage cross-sectional area of atelectasis in dependent lung regions were measured from the CT images obtained at cross-section of the xiphoid process and the top of the diaphragm. The percentage cross-sectional area of atelectasis was 3.95% in the vaginal delivery group and 14.1% in the Caesarean group (P<0.001, Mann-Whitney rank sum test). These results suggested that pulmonary atelectasis is greater after Caesarean section delivery under spinal anaesthesia than after vaginal delivery with combined spinal-epidural analgesia.

  1. The obstetrical history in patients with Pfannenstiel scar endometriomas--an analysis of 81 patients.

    PubMed

    Wicherek, Lukasz; Klimek, Marek; Skret-Magierlo, Joanna; Czekierdowski, Artur; Banas, Tomasz; Popiela, Tadeusz J; Kraczkowski, Janusz; Sikora, Jerzy; Oplawski, Marcin; Nowak, Agata; Skret, Andrzej; Basta, Antoni

    2007-01-01

    The participation of immune tolerance during pregnancy was suggested to be an important factor predisposing to the implantation of decidual cells after cesarean section in Pfannenstiel scar. Delivery at term is related to the termination of immune tolerance to fetal antigens that is maintained throughout pregnancy. Substantial proportion of cesarean section deliveries is performed before the onset of true term labor. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical symptoms of spontaneous beginning of labor in pregnant women in whom cesarean sections were performed and in whom Pfannenstiel scar endometriomas were observed during follow-up. We have retrospectively analyzed 81 patients following the surgical removal of scar endometrioma after cesarean section. Obstetrical histories of cesarean sections in the number of 5,370 preceding the occurrence of the scar endometrioma were analyzed. These data were collected in six different Gynecological and Obstetrical wards in Malopolska Province in Poland. Analysis of data was started by the retrospective evaluation of regular uterine contractions, uterine cervix ripening before cesarean section and the indications for surgery. In 67 women from the group of 81 patients cesarean sections were performed with unripe uterine cervix and without the presence of regular uterine contractions. Elective indications for cesarean sections were predominant in this group of women. The relative risk of scar endometriomas occurrence following cesarean sections performed before onset of labor in comparison to cesarean sections following spontaneous onset of labor was statistically significantly higher [RR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.21-3.83; OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.22-3.89]. Cesarean section performed before spontaneous onset of labor may increase substantially the risk of occurrence of scar endometriomas.

  2. First birth Caesarean section and subsequent fertility: a population-based study in the USA, 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Kjerulff, K H; Zhu, J; Weisman, C S; Ananth, C V

    2013-12-01

    Is first birth Caesarean delivery associated with a lower likelihood of subsequent childbearing when compared with first birth vaginal delivery? In this study of US women whose first delivery was in 2000, those who had a Caesarean delivery were less likely to have a subsequent live birth than those who delivered vaginally. Some studies have reported lower birth rates subsequent to Caesarean delivery in comparison with vaginal delivery, while other studies have reported no difference. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 52 498 women who had a first singleton live birth in the State of Pennsylvania, USA in 2000 and were followed to the end of 2008 via Pennsylvania birth certificate records to identify subsequent live births during the 8- to 9-year follow-up period. Birth certificate records of first singleton births were linked to the hospital discharge data for each mother and newborn, and linked to all birth certificate records for each mother's subsequent deliveries which occurred in 2000 to the end of 2008. Poisson regression models were used to evaluate the association between first birth factors and whether or not there was a subsequent live birth during the follow-up period. Over an average of 8.5 years of follow-up, 40.2% of women with a Caesarean first birth did not have a subsequent live birth, compared with 33.1% of women with a vaginal first birth (risk ratio (RR): 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-1.25). Adjustment for the demographic confounders of maternal age, race, education, marital status and health insurance coverage attenuated the RR to 1.16 (95% CI: 1.13-1.19). Specific pregnancy and childbirth-related complications associated with not having a subsequent live birth included diabetes-related disorders, abnormalities of organs and soft tissues of the pelvis, fetal abnormalities, premature or prolonged rupture of membranes, hypertensive disorders, amnionitis, fetal distress and other maternal health problems. However, adjustment

  3. Effects of silicone gel on burn scars.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Mahnoush; Hafezi, Farhad; Rahbar, Hossein; Karimi, Hamid

    2009-02-01

    To study the efficacy of silicone gel applied to hypertrophic burn scars, in reducing scar interference with normal function and improving cosmesis. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 38 people with hypertrophic burn scars. Each scar was divided into two segments; silicone gel sheet was applied randomly to one of the two and placebo to the other. Participants were seen again after 1 and 4 months. Their data and wound characteristics were collected using the Vancouver scar scale. The median age of participants was 22 years (1.5-60 years) and 16 were male; 4 did not attend follow-up and were excluded from the study. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics. Although after 1 month all scar scale measures were lower in treated areas, only the vascularity scale was significantly different between the two areas. After 4 months, all scale measures were significantly lower in the silicone gel group than in the control group, except for the pain score. Silicone gel is an effective treatment for hypertrophic burn scars.

  4. A Quantitative Approach to Scar Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Khorasani, Hooman; Zheng, Zhong; Nguyen, Calvin; Zara, Janette; Zhang, Xinli; Wang, Joyce; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of collagen architecture is essential to wound healing research. However, to date no consistent methodologies exist for quantitatively assessing dermal collagen architecture in scars. In this study, we developed a standardized approach for quantitative analysis of scar collagen morphology by confocal microscopy using fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis. Full-thickness wounds were created on adult mice, closed by primary intention, and harvested at 14 days after wounding for morphometrics and standard Fourier transform-based scar analysis as well as fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis. In addition, transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate collagen ultrastructure. We demonstrated that fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis were superior to Fourier transform analysis in discriminating scar versus unwounded tissue in a wild-type mouse model. To fully test the robustness of this scar analysis approach, a fibromodulin-null mouse model that heals with increased scar was also used. Fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis effectively discriminated unwounded fibromodulin-null versus wild-type skin as well as healing fibromodulin-null versus wild-type wounds, whereas Fourier transform analysis failed to do so. Furthermore, fractal dimension and lacunarity data also correlated well with transmission electron microscopy collagen ultrastructure analysis, adding to their validity. These results demonstrate that fractal dimension and lacunarity are more sensitive than Fourier transform analysis for quantification of scar morphology. PMID:21281794

  5. Values of a Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale to Evaluate the Facial Skin Graft Scar.

    PubMed

    Chae, Jin Kyung; Kim, Jeong Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Park, Kun

    2016-10-01

    The patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS) recently emerged as a promising method, reflecting both observer's and patient's opinions in evaluating scar. This tool was shown to be consistent and reliable in burn scar assessment, but it has not been tested in the setting of skin graft scar in skin cancer patients. To evaluate facial skin graft scar applied to POSAS and to compare with objective scar assessment tools. Twenty three patients, who diagnosed with facial cutaneous malignancy and transplanted skin after Mohs micrographic surgery, were recruited. Observer assessment was performed by three independent rates using the observer component of the POSAS and Vancouver scar scale (VSS). Patient self-assessment was performed using the patient component of the POSAS. To quantify scar color and scar thickness more objectively, spectrophotometer and ultrasonography was applied. Inter-observer reliability was substantial with both VSS and the observer component of the POSAS (average measure intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.76 and 0.80, respectively). The observer component consistently showed significant correlations with patients' ratings for the parameters of the POSAS (all p -values<0.05). The correlation between subjective assessment using POSAS and objective assessment using spectrophotometer and ultrasonography showed low relationship. In facial skin graft scar assessment in skin cancer patients, the POSAS showed acceptable inter-observer reliability. This tool was more comprehensive and had higher correlation with patient's opinion.

  6. Values of a Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale to Evaluate the Facial Skin Graft Scar

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Jin Kyung; Kim, Eun Jung; Park, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Background The patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS) recently emerged as a promising method, reflecting both observer's and patient's opinions in evaluating scar. This tool was shown to be consistent and reliable in burn scar assessment, but it has not been tested in the setting of skin graft scar in skin cancer patients. Objective To evaluate facial skin graft scar applied to POSAS and to compare with objective scar assessment tools. Methods Twenty three patients, who diagnosed with facial cutaneous malignancy and transplanted skin after Mohs micrographic surgery, were recruited. Observer assessment was performed by three independent rates using the observer component of the POSAS and Vancouver scar scale (VSS). Patient self-assessment was performed using the patient component of the POSAS. To quantify scar color and scar thickness more objectively, spectrophotometer and ultrasonography was applied. Results Inter-observer reliability was substantial with both VSS and the observer component of the POSAS (average measure intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.76 and 0.80, respectively). The observer component consistently showed significant correlations with patients' ratings for the parameters of the POSAS (all p-values<0.05). The correlation between subjective assessment using POSAS and objective assessment using spectrophotometer and ultrasonography showed low relationship. Conclusion In facial skin graft scar assessment in skin cancer patients, the POSAS showed acceptable inter-observer reliability. This tool was more comprehensive and had higher correlation with patient's opinion. PMID:27746642

  7. Analysis of Frequency of Use of Different Scar Assessment Scales Based on the Scar Condition and Treatment Method

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Seong Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of scars in various conditions is essential, but no consensus had been reached on the scar assessment scale to select for a given condition. We reviewed papers to determine the scar assessment scale selected depending on the scar condition and treatment method. We searched PubMed for articles published since 2000 with the contents of the scar evaluation using a scar assessment scale with a Journal Citation Report impact factor >0.5. Among them, 96 articles that conducted a scar evaluation using a scar assessment scale were reviewed and analyzed. The scar assessment scales were identified and organized by various criteria. Among the types of scar assessment scales, the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) was found to be the most frequently used scale. As for the assessment of newly developed operative scars, the POSAS was most used. Meanwhile, for categories depending on the treatment methods for preexisting scars, the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) was used in 6 studies following a laser treatment, the POSAS was used in 7 studies following surgical treatment, and the POSAS was used in 7 studies following a conservative treatment. Within the 12 categories of scar status, the VSS showed the highest frequency in 6 categories and the POSAS showed the highest frequency in the other 6 categories. According to our reviews, the POSAS and VSS are the most frequently used scar assessment scales. In the future, an optimal, universal scar scoring system is needed in order to better evaluate and treat pathologic scarring. PMID:24665417

  8. Facial laceration at caesarean section: experience with tissue adhesive.

    PubMed

    Saraf, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    The fetal laceration is one of the most commonly identified injuries at the caesarean delivery. The incidence in the literature has been reported to be as high as 3%. The management of such injuries has remained a perplexing problem for both the physician and the parents. We present a case of a newborn who accidentally sustained laceration over the face during a caesarean delivery. A review of the literature and management of lacerations with tissue adhesives has been presented. The laceration was successfully managed with tissue adhesive alone with good aesthetic outcome. Topical 2-octylcyanoacrylate tissue adhesives can be an effective alternative therapy for traditional devices for closing simple low-tension lacerations.

  9. Antenatal management of at-risk pregnancies from a distance.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Tesa L; Hughes, Dawn; Dajani, Nafisa K; Magann, Everett F

    2015-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether antenatal care can be achieved in women with at-risk pregnancies residing in rural areas with limited access to antenatal care and maternal fetal medicine (MFM) specialists. Over a period of 15 months, 156 women with high-risk pregnancies (diabetes, hypertensive disorders, suspected fetal anomalies, prior caesarean complications) from six different healthcare units had 350 visits managed by telemedicine. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. [Twin pregnancy in a unicornuate uterus with a rudimentary horn].

    PubMed

    Ejnès, L; Desprez, B; Bongain, A; Gillet, J Y

    2003-01-01

    We describe the case of a rudimentary horn pregnancy coexistent with an intrauterine pregnancy. This situation is usually associated with rupture of the rudimentary horn and death of the correspondent twin. This is the first report on a multiple gestation with the two siblings successfully delivered by caesarean section in the two horns of a unicornuate uterus with rudimentary horn before any complication. Since the maternal mortality is higher in this situation, early ultrasound diagnosis is important to make the right decisions.

  11. Prevention and therapy of postburn scars.

    PubMed

    Bláha, J; Pondĕlicek, I

    1997-01-01

    The cosmetic and functional result in postburn scar deformities is influenced by following factors: 1. The type of patient's central nervous system and his response to burn injury. 2. Depth and site of burn areas. 3. Early excision and grafting. 4. Infection complications, their severity and location. 5. Fixation of dressings should be done using elastic materials and applied for so long until stabilisation of scars is completed. Elastic materials should be combined with rigid pressure and pressure massage. 6. Congenital predisposition of the patient to hypertrophic scarring.

  12. Methods of term labour induction for women with a previous caesarean section.

    PubMed

    West, Helen M; Jozwiak, Marta; Dodd, Jodie M

    2017-06-09

    Women with a prior caesarean delivery have an increased risk of uterine rupture and for women subsequently requiring induction of labour it is unclear which method is preferable to avoid adverse outcomes. This is an update of a review that was published in 2013. To assess the benefits and harms associated with different methods used to induce labour in women who have had a previous caesarean birth. We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (31 August 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing any method of third trimester cervical ripening or labour induction, with placebo/no treatment or other methods in women with prior caesarean section requiring labour induction in a subsequent pregnancy. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and trial quality, extracted data, and checked them for accuracy. Eight studies (data from 707 women and babies) are included in this updated review. Meta-analysis was not possible because studies compared different methods of labour induction. All included studies had at least one design limitation (i.e. lack of blinding, sample attrition, other bias, or reporting bias). One study stopped prematurely due to safety concerns. Vaginal PGE2 versus intravenous oxytocin (one trial, 42 women): no clear differences for caesarean section (risk ratio (RR) 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22 to 2.03, evidence graded low), serious neonatal morbidity or perinatal death (RR 3.00, 95% CI 0.13 to 69.70, evidence graded low), serious maternal morbidity or death (RR 3.00, 95% CI 0.13 to 69.70, evidence graded low). Also no clear differences between groups for the reported secondary outcomes. The GRADE outcomes vaginal delivery not achieved within 24 hours, and uterine hyperstimulation with fetal heart rate changes were not reported. Vaginal misoprostol versus intravenous oxytocin (one trial, 38 women): this trial stopped early because one woman who

  13. Rare successful pregnancy in a patient with Swyer Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Jyoti; Ogutu, David; Ah-Moye, Michael

    2016-10-01

    To report a rare successful pregnancy after fertility treatment in a patient with Swyer syndrome. Case report. Herts & Essex Fertility Centre, Cheshunt, UK. A 36-year-old patient with 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis. 31 year old husband with normal sperm analysis. Chromosomal analysis, Saline infusion sonography, Pipelle endometrial scratch, ICSI using donor eggs, Embryo Transfer, and Caesarean delivery. Successful pregnancy and live birth. Successful treatment with donor eggs, pregnancy, and delivery. A patient with 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis in a specially tailored fertility program, can maintain a normal pregnancy and delivery.

  14. The evidence for natural therapeutics as potential anti-scarring agents in burn-related scarring.

    PubMed

    Mehta, M; Branford, O A; Rolfe, K J

    2016-01-01

    Though survival rate following severe thermal injuries has improved, the incidence and treatment of scarring have not improved at the same speed. This review discusses the formation of scars and in particular the formation of hypertrophic scars. Further, though there is as yet no gold standard treatment for the prevention or treatment of scarring, a brief overview is included. A number of natural therapeutics have shown beneficial effects both in vivo and in vitro with the potential of becoming clinical therapeutics in the future. These natural therapeutics include both plant-based products such as resveratrol, quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate as examples and includes the non-plant-based therapeutic honey. The review also includes potential mechanism of action for the therapeutics, any recorded adverse events and current administration of the therapeutics used. This review discusses a number of potential 'treatments' that may reduce or even prevent scarring particularly hypertrophic scarring, which is associated with thermal injuries without compromising wound repair.

  15. Columellar Scar Perception in Open Rhinoplasty. Interplay of Scar Awareness, Body Cathexis and Patient Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Yağmur, Çağlayan; Ak, Sertaç; Engin, Murat Sinan; Evin, Nuh; Kelahmetoğlu, Osman; Akbaş, Hayati; Demir, Ahmet

    2017-02-01

    Open and closed approaches for rhinoplasty have individual advantages and disadvantages; however, the resultant columellar scar of the open approach is directly considered as a disadvantage. This study focuses on the columellar scar awareness and its implications on overall satisfaction of the patients after open rhinoplasty. A total of 91 patients who have undergone open rhinoplasty were included in this study. A written questionnaire algorithm consisting of 4 sequential questions was applied. Except for the first question [Do you have any scar(s) caused by any trauma, operation or any other reason on your face?], every question was answered on a scale from 1 to 5. The respondents were given the 25-question "Modified Body Cathexis Scale (MBCS)"and their scars graded using the "Columellar Scar Assessment Scale" (CSAS). The data were statistically interpreted. Of the 91 open rhinoplasty patients, 12 of them responded with a "yes" to the first question reporting their columellar scars. There was no significant difference with regards to patient satisfaction regarding these patients (p > 0.05). However, those who reported the scar yielded a significantly lower MBCS scores. 9 patients declared that they exerted effort to conceal their scars. Those who concealed their scars and those who did not yielded a significant difference in patient satisfaction. The CSAS scores of those who reported the columellar scar were significantly higher than those who did not. Our study suggests that MBSC can be a valuable tool for determining the impact of outcomes from the patient's standpoint, and awareness of the columellar scar is not related to patient satisfaction but with bodily perception. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  16. Medical makeup for concealing facial scars.

    PubMed

    Mee, Donna; Wong, Brian J F

    2012-10-01

    Surgical, laser, and pharmacological therapies are all used to correct scars and surgical incisions, though have limits with respect to how well facial skin can be restored or enhanced. The use of cosmetics has long been a relevant adjunct to all scar treatment modalities. In recent years, technical advancements in the chemistry and composition of cosmetic products have provided the patient with a broader range of products to employ for concealing scars. This review will provide an overview of contemporary methods for concealing facial scars, birthmarks, and pigmentary changes without the use of traditional/dated, heavy appearing camouflage products. Additionally, general guidelines and information will be provided with respect to identifying competent makeup artists for care of the medical patient. The article by no means is meant to be a tutorial, but rather serves as a starting point in this allied field of medicine. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Oxygen consumption of keloids and hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Ichioka, Shigeru; Ando, Taichi; Shibata, Masahiro; Sekiya, Naomi; Nakatsuka, Takashi

    2008-02-01

    The oxygen consumption of keloids and hypertrophic scars has never been quantitatively presented, although abnormal metabolic conditions must be associated with their pathophysiology. We invented an original measurement system equipped with a Clark oxygen electrode for ex vivo samples. The measurement of a mouse wound-healing model revealed immature repairing tissues consumed more oxygen than mature tissues. This finding is in accord with the current thinking and supported the validity of our measurement system. The analysis of fresh human samples clearly demonstrated the high oxygen consumption rate of keloid hypertrophic scars and the comparatively low consumption of mature scars. A high oxygen consuming potential, as well as insufficient oxygen diffusion, may possibly contribute to the pathophysiology of keloids and hypertrophic scars.

  18. Proceedings of the SCAR Conference, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR) team analyzed six major topics: (1) aerodynamics, (2) stability and control, (3) propulsion, (4) environmental factor, (5) airframe structures and materials, and (6) design integration.

  19. Answers to Common Questions about Scars

    MedlinePlus

    ... 18 months to fully mature. Will applications of vitamin E to the scar help? Many people believe that there are special healing qualities to vitamin E, aloe vera, or cocoa butter. In fact, there ...

  20. Pregnancy Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... tool Subscribe To receive Pregnancy email updates Submit Pregnancy loss Pregnancy loss is a harsh reality faced ... have successful pregnancies. Expand all | Collapse all Why pregnancy loss happens As many as 10 to 15 ...

  1. Outcome after burns: an observational study on burn scar maturation and predictors for severe scarring.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, Martijn B A; Vloemans, Jos F P M; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; van de Ven, Peter; van Unen, Ella; van Zuijlen, Paul P M; Middelkoop, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Long-term outcome of burn scars as well as the relation with clinically relevant parameters has not been studied quantitatively. Therefore, we conducted a detailed analysis on the clinical changes of burn scars in a longitudinal setup. In addition, we focused on the differences in scar quality in relation to the depth, etiology of the burn wound and age of the patient. Burn scars of 474 patients were subjected to a scar assessment protocol 3, 6, and 12 months postburn. Three different age groups were defined (≤5, 5-18, and ≥18 years). The observer part of the patient and observer scar assessment scale revealed a significant (p < 0.001) improvement in scar quality at 12 months compared with the 3- and 6-month data. Predictors for severe scarring are depth of the wound (p < 0.001) and total body surface area burned (p < 0.001). Etiology (p = 0.753) and age (p > 0.230) have no significant influence on scar quality when corrected for sex, total body surface area burned, time, and age or etiology, respectively. © 2012 by the Wound Healing Society.

  2. Near-miss maternal morbidity from severe haemorrhage at caesarean section: A process and structure audit of system deficiencies in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Maswime, T S; Buchmann, E

    2017-10-31

    A rising caesarean section rate and substandard peri-operative care are believed to be the main reasons for recent increases in maternal deaths from bleeding during and after caesarean section (BDACS) in South Africa (SA). The Donabedian model assumes that clinical outcomes are influenced by healthcare workers and the healthcare system. To evaluate near-miss cases from BDACS with regard to health system structure (resources and facilities) and process (patient care). A cross-sectional prospective study was conducted in greater Johannesburg, SA. Data of women who had near-miss-related BDACS were collected by means of ongoing surveillance at 13 public hospitals. The World Health Organization intervention criteria were used to identify near-miss cases. A comparison of structure and process between the healthcare facilities was conducted. Of 20 527 caesarean sections , there were 93 near misses and 7 maternal deaths from BDACS. Dominant risk factors for near misses were previous caesarean section (43.9%), anaemia (25.3%) and pregnancy-induced hypertension (28.6%). Eighteen women were transferred to higher levels of care, and 8 (44.4%) experienced transport delays of >1 hour. The caesarean section decision-to-incision interval (DII) was ≥60 minutes in 77 of 86 women, with an average interval of 4 hours. Structural deficiencies were frequently present in district hospitals, and there were serious delays in ambulance transfer and DIIs at all levels of care. The majority of the women had risk factors for BDACS. There were major ambulance delays and lack of facilities, mostly in district hospitals. All women required life-saving interventions, but could not access appropriate care timeously. Prevention and management of BDACS require a fully functional health system.

  3. Different classes of antibiotics given to women routinely for preventing infection at caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Gyte, Gillian M I; Dou, Lixia; Vazquez, Juan C

    2014-11-17

    Caesarean section increases the risk of postpartum infection for women and prophylactic antibiotics have been shown to reduce the incidence; however, there are adverse effects. It is important to identify the most effective class of antibiotics to use and those with the least adverse effects. To determine, from the best available evidence, the balance of benefits and harms between different classes of antibiotic given prophylactically to women undergoing caesarean section. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 September 2014) and reference lists of retrieved papers. We included randomised controlled trials comparing different classes of prophylactic antibiotics given to women undergoing caesarean section. We excluded trials that compared drugs with placebo or drugs within a specific class; these are assessed in other Cochrane reviews. Two review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. We included 35 studies of which 31 provided data on 7697 women. For the main comparison between cephalosporins versus penicillins, there were 30 studies of which 27 provided data on 7299 women. There was a lack of good quality data and important outcomes often included only small numbers of women.For the comparison of a single cephalosporin versus a single penicillin (Comparison 1 subgroup 1), we found no significant difference between these classes of antibiotics for our chosen most important seven outcomes namely: maternal sepsis - there were no women with sepsis in the two studies involving 346 women; maternal endometritis (risk ratio (RR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81 to 1.52, nine studies, 3130 women, random effects, moderate quality of the evidence); maternal wound infection (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.81, nine studies, 1497 women, random effects, low quality of the evidence), maternal urinary tract infection (RR 1.48, 95% CI 0.89 to 2.48, seven studies, 1120

  4. [How to optimize scarring in dermatologic surgery?

    PubMed

    Amici, J M; Chaussade, V

    2016-12-01

    Scarring is the response elicited by the skin surface to injury and loss of tissue material. Wound healing takes place through a complex natural repair system consisting of vascular, inflammatory and proliferative phenomena, followed by a remodelling and cell apoptosis phase. This incredible repair system is inevitable, but sometimes unpredictable due to individual differences based on multiple factors. The scar is the objective criterion of a skin surgery, both for the patient and the dermsurgeon. It is therefore crucial to establish with the patient during the preoperative consultation, the size and positioning of the expected scar, taking into account the oncologic, anatomic and surgical constraints. Scars can ideally blend into normal skin, but may also give rise to various abnormalities. We can manage and prevent these abnormalities by mastering initial inflammation, that may induce hyperpigmentation and hypertrophy. Early massage using cortocosteroid topic or anti-inflammatory moisturizers may be effective. Random individual scarring may be minimized by a dynamic personalized accompanying scarring. © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.

  5. Overview of surgical scar prevention and management.

    PubMed

    Son, Daegu; Harijan, Aram

    2014-06-01

    Management of incisional scar is intimately connected to stages of wound healing. The management of an elective surgery patient begins with a thorough informed consent process in which the patient is made aware of personal and clinical circumstances that cannot be modified, such as age, ethnicity, and previous history of hypertrophic scars. In scar prevention, the single most important modifiable factor is wound tension during the proliferative and remodeling phases, and this is determined by the choice of incision design. Traditional incisions most often follow relaxed skin tension lines, but no such lines exist in high surface tension areas. If such incisions are unavoidable, the patient must be informed of this ahead of time. The management of a surgical incision does not end when the sutures are removed. Surgical scar care should be continued for one year. Patient participation is paramount in obtaining the optimal outcome. Postoperative visits should screen for signs of scar hypertrophy and has a dual purpose of continued patient education and reinforcement of proper care. Early intervention is a key to control hyperplastic response. Hypertrophic scars that do not improve by 6 months are keloids and should be managed aggressively with intralesional steroid injections and alternate modalities.

  6. Laser in the management of burn scars.

    PubMed

    Willows, Brooke M; Ilyas, Muneeb; Sharma, Amit

    2017-11-01

    Burn scars are associated with significant morbidity ranging from contractures, pruritus, and disfigurement to psychosocial impairment. Traditional therapies include silicone gel, compression garments, corticosteroid injections, massage therapy, and surgical procedures, however, newer and advanced therapies for the treatment of burn scars have been developed. Lasers, specifically ablative fractional lasers, show potential for the treatment of burn scars. Both MeSH and keyword searches of the PubMed, Medline and Embase databases were performed and relevant articles were read in full for the compilation of this review. Fifty-one relevant observational studies, clinical trials, and systematic reviews published in English from 2006 to 2016 were reviewed and summarized. Laser therapy is effective for the treatment of burn scar appearance, including measures such as pigmentation, vascularity, pliability, and thickness. Ablative fractional laser therapy, in particular, shows significant potential for the release of contractures allowing for improved range of motion of affected joints. Patients may benefit from the use of lasers in the treatment of burn scars, and the safety profile of lasers allows the benefits of treatment to outweigh the risks. Laser therapy should be included in burn scar treatment protocols as an adjuvant therapy to traditional interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Scar modification. Techniques for revision and camouflage.

    PubMed

    Horswell, B B

    1998-09-01

    The surgery and management of scars is a protracted and staged process that includes preparation of the skin through hygienic measures, scar softening (if indicated) with steroids, massage and pressure dressings, skilled execution of the surgical plan, and thorough postoperative wound care. This process generally covers a 1-year period for the various stages mentioned. Many general host and local skin factors will directly affect the final revision result. The two most important indirect factors that the surgeon must endeavor to control are optimal patient preparation and cutaneous health, and patient compliance with, and an ability to carry out, those wound care measures that the surgeon prescribes. Keloid and burn contracture scars represent two entities that are complicated and challenging to treat owing to their abnormal morphophysiologic features. Management of these scars is prolonged, and the patient must understand that the ultimate result will usually be a compromise. New grafting techniques, such as cultured autodermal grafts, offer improved initial management of burn wounds that may subsequently optimize scar revision in these patients. Keloids, and to a lesser extent hypertrophic scars, require steroid injections, pressure treatment, careful surgery, and protracted wound support and pressure treatment (exceeding 6 months) after surgery.

  8. Current treatment of vocal fold scarring.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Shigeru

    2005-06-01

    Vocal fold scarring still remains a therapeutic challenge, with the most problematic issue being the histologic changes that are primarily responsible for altering the viscoelasticity of the vocal fold mucosa. Optimal treatment for vocal fold scarring has not yet been established. To restore or regenerate damaged vocal folds, it is important to investigate the changes to the layer structure of the lamina propria. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine may provide new strategies for the prevention and treatment of vocal fold scarring. Recent developments in this field are reviewed in the present article. Histologic studies have revealed that hyaluronic acid, fibronectin, decorin, and various other extracellular matrix components, as well as collagen, may contribute to determining the vibratory properties of the vocal fold mucosa. Changes of these molecules are thought to affect the viscoelasticity of the scarred vocal folds. Based on such histologic findings, innovative approaches have been developed, including administration of hyaluronic acid into injured or scarred vocal folds. Other strategies that have recently shown advances include growth factor therapy and cell therapy using stem cells or mature fibroblasts. The effects of these new treatments have not fully been confirmed clinically, but there seems to be great therapeutic potential in such regenerative medical strategies. Recent research has revealed the detailed histologic and rheologic changes related to vocal fold scarring. Based on these findings, various new therapeutic strategies have been developed in animal models using tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, no clinical trials have been performed, and more studies are necessary to establish the optimum modality.

  9. Caesarean of Lion (Panthera leo) at Dulahajra Safari Park, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Khan, S.A.; Hassan, M.M.; Uddin, M.B.; Rahman, Z.M.M.; Yasin, G.; Epstein, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    A six years eight months pregnant lioness at the Dulahajara Safari Park, Chakoria, Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh, was presented with dystocia. This paper described the pre-, intra- and postoperative procedures including anesthetic protocol carried out and performing a caesarean section to remove dead fetuses and the successful recovery of the lioness without complications. PMID:26623273

  10. Rising rates, changing relationships: caesarean section and its correlates in South Korea, 1988-2000.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Il; Khang, Young-Ho; Yun, Sungcheol; Jo, Min-Woo

    2005-06-01

    To examine the trends in the relationship between caesarean section rates in South Korea and its correlates. Five rounds (1988, 1991, 1994, 1997 and 2000) of population-based National Fertility and Family Health Survey of South Korea. South Korea. Sample Mothers (N= 9184) aged 15-44 years. Caesarean rates were calculated according to correlates and then directly adjusted to five-year age and parity groups. Distribution of all samples (9184 mothers) was standard, producing age- and parity-adjusted caesarean rates. Linear trends of correlates with caesarean rates were examined for ordinal variables such as education, income, urbanisation level (area of residence) and level of prenatal visits. Age- and parity-adjusted caesarean section rates. As caesarean rates rose by year, the relationship of caesarean section with education, occupation and area of residence has been reversed. Associations between caesarean rates, income level, place of delivery and level of prenatal visit were found in 1988 but disappeared by 2000. In 2000, relatively low caesarean rates were found in variables that will be more prevalent in the future, such as higher maternal education, higher maternal occupation and residence in big cities. Caesarean rates may have reached a plateau in South Korea. No maternal or health service factors were detected to further increase the proportion of caesarean deliveries.

  11. Uncomplicated Caesarean section: is prolonged hospital stay necessary?

    PubMed

    Fasubaa, O B; Ogunniyi, S O; Dare, F O; Isawumi, A I; Ezechi, O C; Orji, E O

    2000-08-01

    Caesarean section among the Yoruba of western Nigerian is surrounded by a lot of fears, miseries, aversion, guilt and misconceptions for reasons varying from the desire by women to have a natural vaginal birth, fear of surgery, morbidity and deaths from the operation and prolonged hospital stay. To examine issues of reduced hospital stay following Caesarean section with a view of making the operation more acceptable and proffering solution to some of the problems faced by women when Caesarean section is indicated. A prospective case control study. Wesley Guild Hospital, Ilesha, Nigeria from 1st July, 1997 to 30th June, 1998. One hundred consecutive patients who had uncomplicated Caesarean section, randomised into two groups of short (three days) and prolonged (seven to eight days) hospital stay respectively. Observations of patients in both groups were made by an independent observer on day seven post-operation and the main outcomes measured included: wound infection rates, ability to maintain erect posture, mood changes, neonatal sepsis rate, immunisation rate of the neonates and average hospital bills. The findings revealed that wound infection rates of six per cent and ten per cent among the short and prolonged hospitalised patients respectively are not significantly different. Patients with short stay have better erect posture, lower incidence of depressive mood, lower neonatal sepsis rate, lower hospital bill and are more satisfied with early home discharge. Embracing the concept of early home discharge after Caesarean section in uncomplicated cases may remove some of the psychological upsets and economical impediments associated with the operation and make the operation more acceptable.

  12. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of fetal scalp blood lactate measurement to reduce caesarean sections during labour: the Flamingo trial [ACTRN12611000172909].

    PubMed

    East, Christine E; Kane, Stefan C; Davey, Mary-Ann; Kamlin, C Omar; Brennecke, Shaun P

    2015-11-03

    scalp blood lactate measurement on rates of caesarean section. Preventing unnecessary caesarean sections will reduce the health and financial burdens associated with this operation, both in the index and any future pregnancies. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000172909.

  13. An overview of the health economic implications of elective caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Stavros; Khan, Kamran

    2013-12-01

    The caesarean section rate has continued to increase in most industrialised countries, which raises a number of economic concerns. This review provides an overview of the health economic implications of elective caesarean section. It provides a succinct summary of the health consequences associated with elective caesarean section for both the infant and the mother over the perinatal period and beyond. It highlights factors that complicate our understanding of the health consequences of elective caesarean section, including inconsistencies in definitions and coding of the procedure, failure to adopt an intention-to-treat principle when drawing comparisons, and the widespread reliance on observational data. The paper then summarises the economic costs associated with elective caesarean section. Evidence is presented to suggest that planned caesarean section may be less costly than planned vaginal birth in some clinical contexts, for example where the singleton fetus lies in a breech position at term. In contrast, elective caesarean section (or caesarean section as a whole) appears to be more costly than vaginal delivery (either spontaneous or instrumented) in low-risk or unselected populations. The paper proceeds with an overview of economic evaluations associated with elective caesarean section. All are currently based on decision-analytic models. Evidence is presented to suggest that planned trial of labour (attempted vaginal birth) following a previous caesarean section appears to be a more cost-effective option than elective caesarean section, although its cost effectiveness is dependent upon the probability of successful vaginal delivery. There is conflicting evidence on the cost effectiveness of maternal request caesareans when compared with trial of labour. The paucity of evidence on the value pregnant women, clinicians and other groups in society place on the option of elective caesarean section is highlighted. Techniques that might be used to elicit

  14. Addison's disease and pregnancy: case report.

    PubMed

    Cosimo, Caterina; Franco, Ciro

    2009-10-01

    Addisonian crises, a rare but life-threatening event in pregnant women, may accompany stressful conditions such as labor, puerperium, infection, hyperemesis gravidarum or surgery. A 36-year-old woman, primigravida, with Addison's disease, diagnosed when she was 10 year-old and treated with cortisone and fludrocortisone. The therapy was regulated to avoid adrenal crisis during pregnancy. The woman underwent to caesarean section at 38th week and gave birth to a normal baby. The successful management of pregnant women with Addison's disease, regarding her state and that of the foetus, reassures those women that nowadays Addison's disease and pregnancy are not incompatible when proper monitoring and management is provided.

  15. Routes of administration of antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing infection after caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Nabhan, Ashraf F; Allam, Nahed E; Hamed Abdel-Aziz Salama, Mohamed

    2016-06-17

    Post-caesarean section infection is a cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Administration of antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for preventing infection after caesarean delivery. The route of administration of antibiotic prophylaxis should be effective, safe and convenient. Currently, there is a lack of synthesised evidence regarding the benefits and harms of different routes of antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing infection after caesarean section. The aim of this review was to assess the benefits and harms of different routes of prophylactic antibiotics given for preventing infectious morbidity in women undergoing caesarean section. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 January 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (6 January 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing at least two alternative routes of antibiotic prophylaxis for caesarean section (both elective and emergency). Cross-over trials and quasi-RCTs were not eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias and extracted data from the included studies. These steps were checked by a third review author. We included 10 studies (1354 women). The risk of bias was unclear or high in most of the included studies.All of the included trials involved women undergoing caesarean section whether elective or non-elective. Intravenous antibiotics versus antibiotic irrigation (nine studies, 1274 women) Nine studies (1274 women) compared the administration of intravenous antibiotics with antibiotic irrigation. There were no clear differences between groups in terms of this review's maternal primary outcomes: endometritis (risk ratio (RR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70 to 1.29; eight studies (966 women) (low-quality evidence)); wound infection (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.43; seven

  16. The role of massage in scar management: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Shin, Thuzar M; Bordeaux, Jeremy S

    2012-03-01

    Many surgeons recommend postoperative scar massage to improve aesthetic outcome, although scar massage regimens vary greatly. To review the regimens and efficacy of scar massage. PubMed was searched using the following key words: "massage" in combination with "scar," or "linear," "hypertrophic," "keloid," "diasta*," "atrophic." Information on study type, scar type, number of patients, scar location, time to onset of massage therapy, treatment protocol, treatment duration, outcomes measured, and response to treatment was tabulated. Ten publications including 144 patients who received scar massage were examined in this review. Time to treatment onset ranged from after suture removal to longer than 2 years. Treatment protocols ranged from 10 minutes twice daily to 30 minutes twice weekly. Treatment duration varied from one treatment to 6 months. Overall, 65 patients (45.7%) experienced clinical improvement based on Patient Observer Scar Assessment Scale score, Vancouver Scar Scale score, range of motion, pruritus, pain, mood, depression, or anxiety. Of 30 surgical scars treated with massage, 27 (90%) had improved appearance or Patient Observer Scar Assessment Scale score. The evidence for the use of scar massage is weak, regimens used are varied, and outcomes measured are neither standardized nor reliably objective, although its efficacy appears to be greater in postsurgical scars than traumatic or postburn scars. Although scar massage is anecdotally effective, there is scarce scientific data in the literature to support it. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Criteria-based audit of caesarean section in a referral hospital in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Heemelaar, S; Nelissen, E; Mdoe, P; Kidanto, H; van Roosmalen, J; Stekelenburg, J

    2016-04-01

    WHO uses the Caesarean section (CS) rate to monitor implementation of emergency obstetric care (EmOC). Although CS rates are rising in sub-Saharan Africa, maternal outcome has not improved. We audited indications for CS and related complications among women with severe maternal morbidity and mortality in a referral hospital in rural Tanzania. Cross-sectional study was from November 2009 to November 2011. Women with severe maternal morbidity and mortality were identified and those with CS were included in this audit. Audit criteria were developed based on the literature review and (inter)national guidelines. Tanzanian and Dutch doctors reviewed hospital notes. The main outcome measured was prevalence of substandard quality of care leading to unnecessary CS and delay in performing interventions to prevent CS. A total of 216 maternal near misses and 32 pregnancy-related deaths were identified, of which 82 (33.1%) had a CS. Indication for CS was in accordance with audit criteria for 36 of 82 (44.0%) cases without delay. In 20 of 82 (24.4%) cases, the indication was correct; however, there was significant delay in providing standard obstetric care. In 16 of 82 (19.5%) cases, the indication for CS was not in accordance with audit criteria. During office hours, CS was more often correctly indicated than outside office hours (60.0% vs. 36.0%, P < 0.05). Caesarean section rate is not an useful indicator to monitor quality of EmOC as a high rate of unnecessary and potentially preventable CS was identified in this audit. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. 'Groping through the fog': a metasynthesis of women's experiences on VBAC (Vaginal birth after Caesarean section).

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Ingela; Begley, Cecily; Gross, Mechthild M; Bondas, Terese

    2012-08-21

    Vaginal birth after Caesarean section (VBAC) is a relevant question for a large number of women due to the internationally rising Caesarean section (CS) rate. There is a great deal of research based on quantitative studies but few qualitative studies about women's experiences. A metasynthesis based on the interpretative meta ethnography method was conducted. The inclusion criterion was peer-review qualitative articles from different disciplines about women's experiences of VBAC. Eleven articles were checked for quality, and eight articles were included in the synthesis. The included studies were from Australia (four), UK (three), and US (one), and studied women's experience in relation to different aspects of VBAC; decision-making whether to give birth vaginally, the influence of health professionals on decision-making, reason for trying a vaginal birth, experiences when choosing VBAC, experiences of giving birth vaginally, and giving birth with CS when preferring VBAC. The main results are presented with the metaphor groping through the fog; for the women the issue of VBAC is like being in a fog, where decision-making and information from the health care system and professionals, both during pregnancy and the birth, is unclear and contrasting. The results are further presented with four themes: 'to be involved in decision about mode of delivery is difficult but important,' 'vaginal birth has several positive aspects mainly described by women,' 'vaginal birth after CS is a risky project,' and 'own strong responsibility for giving birth vaginally'. In order to promote VBAC, more studies are needed from different maternity settings and countries about women's experiences. Women need evidence-based information not only about the risks involved but also positive aspects of VBAC.

  19. Ultrasound pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Pregnancy sonogram; Obstetric ultrasonography; Obstetric sonogram; Ultrasound - pregnancy; IUGR - ultrasound; Intrauterine growth - ultrasound; Polyhydramnios - ultrasound; Oligohydramnios - ultrasound; Placenta previa - ultrasound; Multiple pregnancy - ultrasound; ...

  20. [Burn scars: rehabilitation and skin care].

    PubMed

    Rochet, Jean-Michel; Zaoui, Affif

    2002-12-15

    Burn rehabilitation main goal is to minimize the consequences of hypertrophic scars and concomitant contractures. The treatment principles rely on the association of joint posture, continuous pressure completed with range of motion to prevent joint fusion (which happens to adults but not to children). Throughout the different treatment phases and wound evolution, reassessment is necessary to review rehabilitation goals and activities. During the acute phase the alternance of positioning is prioritized in order to keep the affected extremities in antideformity position using splint or other devices. At the rehabilitation phase, treatment is focussed on active/passive range of motion (skin posture) strengthening exercises and use of dynamic splint is introduced to correct contractures. After their discharge home, patients benefit from outpatient rehab until scar maturation (approximately 18 months). The treatment consists mainly on active/passive range of motion, scar massage, strengthening exercise and endurance retraining. Also modalities (such as thermal bath and high pressure water spray) are used to address itching problems and for scar softening. Finally, reconstructive surgery can be performed to correct excessive scarring or joint contracture for better functional or cosmetic outcome.

  1. The Subunit Principle in Scar Face Revision.

    PubMed

    Elshahat, Ahmed; Lashin, Riham

    2017-06-01

    Facial scaring is considered one of the most difficult cosmetic problems for any plastic surgeon to solve. The condition is more difficult if the direction of the scar is not parallel to relaxed skin tension lines. Attempts to manage this difficult situation included revisions using geometric designs, Z plasties or W plasties to camouflage the straight line visible scaring. The use of long-lasting resorbable sutures was tried too. Recently, the use of botulinum toxin during revision improved the results. Fractional CO2 lasers, microfat grafts, and platelet-rich plasma were added to the armamentarium. The scar is least visible if placed in the junction between the facial subunits. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of the subunit principle to improve the results of scar revision. Four patients were included in this study. Tissue expansion of the intact part of the subunit allowed shifting the scar to the junction between the affected subunit and the adjacent one. Tissue expansion, delivery of the expanders, and advancement of the flaps were successful in all patients. The fact that this is a 2-stage procedure and sacrifices some of the intact skin from the affected facial subunit, makes this technique reserved to patients with ugly facial scars who are ambitious to improve their appearance.

  2. Association of gestational weight gain and pre-pregnancy body mass index with adverse pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Munim, Shama; Maheen, Humaira

    2012-11-01

    To determine the association between gestation weight gain (GWG) and adverse pregnancy outcome in a Pakistani population. Analytical study. The Aga Khan University, Karachi, from February 2003 to 2007. This study used secondary data of 4,735 women from a large cohort study on fetal growth. Pre-pregnancy BMI was categorized according to the recommendations from the institute of medicine (IOM, 2009) and gestation weight gain (GWG) was noted. Chi-square test was used to find the association of GWG and pre-pregnancy BMI with low birth weight (LBW), preterm delivery, large for gestational age (LGA), and caesarean section. Logistic regression analysis was performed to control for confounders like age, parity, working status and ethnicity. The prevalence of LBW decreased with increasing BMI. GWG of the population was noted as 8.5 kg. LBW was observed to have an inverse relationship with GWG. Women below the age of 19 were twice more likely to have LBW than above 35 years of age. Weight gain above the recommended range were twice more likely to have large for dates.Overweight women were 1.5 times more likely to deliver preterm whereas obese women were 1.4 times more likely to undergo caesarean section than women with normal BMI. The optimal weight gain was estimated to be 8.5 kg to prevent low birth weight in our population. Obese women are more likely to have LGA, caesarean sections and pre-term deliveries.

  3. Deciding on the mode of birth after a previous caesarean section - An online survey investigating women's preferences in Western Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Bonzon, Magali; Gross, Mechthild M; Karch, André; Grylka-Baeschlin, Susanne

    2017-07-01

    promoting vaginal births after caesarean section (VBAC) for eligible women and increasing rates of successful VBACs are the best strategies to reduce the number of repeat caesarean sections (CS). Knowledge of factors that are associated with women's decision-making around mode of birth after CS is important when developing strategies to promote VBAC. This study assessed which factors are associated with women's preferences for VBAC versus elective repeat caesarean section (ERCS) in a new pregnancy after one previous caesarean in Switzerland. cross-sectional web-survey. Western Switzerland. French-speaking women living in Western Switzerland, with one previous CS who gave birth subsequently to a child after a complication-free pregnancy were eligible to participate in the survey. Of 393 women who started the survey in November/December 2014, 349 were included: 227 who planned a VBAC and 122 who planned an ERCS at term. univariable and multivariable analyses were conducted to describe and compare women who had planned a VBAC with women who had planned an ERCS in a pregnancy following a CS. Logistic regression modelling was used to investigate predictors that were associated with a preference for a VBAC at term. Analyses were performed with SPSS 22 and Stata 13. of the women planning a VBAC, 62.6% VBAC gave birth vaginally. Predictors which were significantly associated with increased odds of women choosing a VBAC: duration since previous birth in years (OR=1.11 95% CI [1.03-1.20], p=0.010), having had midwifery care during pregnancy (OR=2.09, 95% CI [1.08-4.05], p=0.029), being advised by their healthcare provider to attempt a VBAC (OR=4.20, 95% CI [1.75-10.09], p=0.001), preference for VBAC during the third trimester of their pregnancy (OR=3.98, 95% CI [1.77-8.93], p=0.001), and wishing to let the child choose the moment of birth (OR=1.46, 95% CI[1.22-1.74], p<0.001). The importance of safety for the mother decreased the odds of women preferring a VBAC (OR=0.74, 95

  4. Fraxelated radiofrequency device for acne scars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Babar K.; Khokher, Sairah

    2012-09-01

    Acne scars can be improved with various treatments such as topical creams, chemical peels, dermal fillers, microdermabrasion, laser, and radiofrequency devices. Some of these treatments especially lasers and deep chemical peels can have significant side effects such as post inflammatory hyperpigmentation in darker skin types. Fraxelated RF Laser devices have been reported to have lower incidence of side effects in all skin phototypes. Nine patients between ages 18 and 35 of various skin phototypes were selected from a private practice and treated with a RF fraxelated device (E-matrix) for acne scars. Outcomes were measured by physician observation, subjective feedback received by patients, and comparison of before and after photographs. In this small group of patients with various skin phototypes, fraxelated radiofrequency device improved acne scars with minimal side effects and downtime.

  5. Current Therapeutic Approach to Hypertrophic Scars

    PubMed Central

    Mokos, Zrinka Bukvić; Jović, Anamaria; Grgurević, Lovorka; Dumić-Čule, Ivo; Kostović, Krešimir; Čeović, Romana; Marinović, Branka

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal scarring and its accompanying esthetic, functional, and psychological sequelae still pose significant challe nges. To date, there is no satisfactory prevention or treatment option for hypertrophic scars (HSs), which is mostly due to not completely comprehending the mechanisms underlying their formation. That is why the apprehension of regular and controlled physiological processes of scar formation is of utmost importance when facing hypertrophic scarring, its pathophysiology, prevention, and therapeutic approach. When treating HSs and choosing the best treatment and prevention modality, physicians can choose from a plethora of therapeutic options and many commercially available products, among which currently there is no efficient option that can successfully overcome impaired skin healing. This article reviews current therapeutic approach and emerging therapeutic strategies for the management of HSs, which should be individualized, based on an evaluation of the scar itself, patients’ expectations, and practical, evidence-based guidelines. Clinicians are encouraged to combine various prevention and treatment modalities where combination therapy that includes steroid injections, 5-fluorouracil, and pulsed-dye laser seems to be the most effective. On the other hand, the current therapeutic options are usually empirical and their results are unreliable and unpredictable. Therefore, there is an unmet need for an effective, targeted therapy and prevention, which would be based on an action or a modulation of a particular factor with clarified mechanism of action that has a beneficial effect on wound healing. As the extracellular matrix has a crucial role in cellular and extracellular events that lead to pathological scarring, targeting its components mostly by regulating bone morphogenetic proteins may throw up new therapeutic approach for reduction or prevention of HSs with functionally and cosmetically acceptable outcome. PMID:28676850

  6. Differential attentional responding in caesarean versus vaginally delivered infants.

    PubMed

    Adler, Scott A; Wong-Kee-You, Audrey M B

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the role that the birth experience plays in brain and cognitive development. Recent research has suggested that birth experience influences the development of the somatosensory cortex, an area involved in spatial attention to sensory information. In this study, we explored whether differences in spatial attention would occur in infants who had different birth experiences, as occurs for caesarean versus vaginal delivery. Three-month-old infants performed either a spatial cueing task or a visual expectation task. We showed that caesarean-delivered infants' stimulus-driven, reflexive attention was slowed relative to vaginally delivered infants', whereas their cognitively driven, voluntary attention was unaffected. Thus, types of birth experience influence at least one form of infants' attention, and possibly any cognitive process that relies on spatial attention. This study also suggests that birth experience influences the initial state of brain functioning and, consequently, should be considered in our understanding of brain development.

  7. Facial Laceration at Caesarean Section: Experience With Tissue Adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Background: The fetal laceration is one of the most commonly identified injuries at the caesarean delivery. The incidence in the literature has been reported to be as high as 3%. The management of such injuries has remained a perplexing problem for both the physician and the parents. Materials and Methods: We present a case of a newborn who accidentally sustained laceration over the face during a caesarean delivery. A review of the literature and management of lacerations with tissue adhesives has been presented. Results: The laceration was successfully managed with tissue adhesive alone with good aesthetic outcome. Conclusion: Topical 2-octylcyanoacrylate tissue adhesives can be an effective alternative therapy for traditional devices for closing simple low-tension lacerations. PMID:19198643

  8. Tubercular uterocutaneous fistula after caesarean section: A case report.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Aditi; Chaudhary, Himanshu; Thakur, Monika

    2018-01-01

    A 29-year-old patient had undergone an elective lower-segment caesarean section (LSCS) five months previously at a district hospital. The operation and the immediate postoperative period were uneventful. After five months she presented back with a fistulous opening. A fistulogram revealed a connection between the uterus and the skin. Fistulous tract excision was planned. Intraoperatively there was communication between the skin and the uterine cavity, with extensive necrosis of the uterine wall. The patient gave her informed consent for excision of the fistulous tract and/or total abdominal hysterectomy. During surgery, it was deemed that there was no scope for excision, so the decision was made for a total abdominal hysterectomy. Histopathological examination confirmed tuberculosis and the patient responded well to anti-tubercular drugs. This case report describes a rare presentation of tubercular uterocutaneous fistula after caesarean section.

  9. Ectopic pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Tubal pregnancy; Cervical pregnancy; Tubal ligation - ectopic pregnancy ... In most pregnancies, the fertilized egg travels through the fallopian tube to the womb (uterus). If the movement of the egg ...

  10. Ectopic Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Ectopic Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Ectopic Pregnancy What's in this ... loss) lower back pain What Causes an Ectopic Pregnancy? An ectopic pregnancy usually happens because a fertilized ...

  11. Pregnancy Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... care provider will likely test your urine in early pregnancy to see if this is the case and ... and body-mass index before pregnancy or in early pregnancy and found that obesity during pregnancy is associated ...

  12. Closure versus non-closure of the peritoneum at caesarean section: short- and long-term outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bamigboye, Anthony A; Hofmeyr, G Justus

    2014-01-01

    Background Caesarean section is a very common surgical procedure worldwide. Suturing the peritoneal layers at caesarean section may or may not confer benefit, hence the need to evaluate whether this step should be omitted or routinely performed. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of non-closure as an alternative to closure of the peritoneum at caesarean section on intraoperative and immediate- and long-term postoperative outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (1 November 2013). Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing leaving the visceral or parietal peritoneum, or both, unsutured at caesarean section with a technique which involves suturing the peritoneum in women undergoing elective or emergency caesarean section. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked it for accuracy. Main results A total of 29 trials were included in this review and 21 trials (17,276 women) provided data that could be included in an analysis. The quality of the trials was variable. 1. Non-closure of visceral and parietal peritoneum versus closure of both parietal layers Sixteen trials involving 15,480 women, were included and analysed, when both parietal peritoneum was left unclosed versus when both peritoneal surfaces were closed. Postoperative adhesion formation was assessed in only four trials with 282 women, and no difference was found between groups (risk ratio (RR) 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76 to 1.29). There was significant reduction in the operative time (mean difference (MD) -5.81 minutes, 95% CI -7.68 to -3.93). The duration of hospital stay in a total of 13 trials involving 14,906 women, was also reduced (MD -0.26, 95% CI -0.47 to -0.05) days. In a trial involving 112 women, reduced chronic pelvic pain was found in the peritoneal non-closure group. 2. Non-closure of

  13. Epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section in pituitary dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongbo; Li, Ruihua; Lang, Bao

    2017-04-01

    We describe the anaesthetic management for caesarean section in a 32-year-old patient with pituitary dwarfism. In addition to supportive treatment, we offered a postoperative epidural analgesia pump. The patient recovered well without any complications. Copyright © 2016 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Defining a reference range for vital signs in healthy term pregnant women undergoing caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Dennis, A; Hardy, L

    2016-11-01

    Early warning systems (EWS), used to identify deteriorating hospitalised patients, are based on measurement of vital signs. When the patients are pregnant, most EWS still use non-pregnant reference ranges of vital signs to determine trigger thresholds. There are no published reference ranges for all vital signs in pregnancy. We aimed to define vital signs reference ranges for term pregnancy in the preoperative period, and to determine the appropriateness of EWS trigger criteria in pregnancy. We conducted a one-year retrospective study in a tertiary referral obstetric hospital. The study sample was healthy term women undergoing planned caesarean section (CS). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) and temperature were all measured automatically and data was extracted from the medical record. Two hundred and fifty-eight women met inclusion criteria. Results were (mean ± SD [standard deviation]) SBP 118 ± 11.2 mmHg, DBP 75 ± 10.3 mmHg, HR 84 ± 10.2 /minute, respiratory rate 18 ± 1.5 /minute, SpO 2 99%  ± 1.0% and temperature 36.4°C ± 0.43°C. The reference ranges (mean ± 2SD) determined were SBP 96-140 mmHg, DBP 54-96 mmHg, HR 64-104/minute, RR 15-21 /minute, SpO 2 97%-100% and temperature 35.5°C-37.3°C. This study defined a reference range for vital signs in healthy term pregnant women undergoing CS. Study findings suggest that currently used criteria for EWS triggers, based on non-pregnant values, may be too extreme for timely detection of deteriorating pregnant patients. Further research examining the modified HR triggers of ≤50 and ≥110 /minute in pregnant women and their relationship to clinical outcomes is required.

  15. Obesity in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Davies, Gregory A L; Maxwell, Cynthia; McLeod, Lynne

    2010-02-01

    encouraged to enter pregnancy with a BMI < 30 kg/m(2), and ideally < 25 kg/m(2). (III-B). 2. BMI should be calculated from pre-pregnancy height and weight. Those with a pre-pregnancy BMI > 30 kg/m(2) are considered obese. This information can be helpful in counselling women about pregnancy risks associated with obesity. (II-2B). 3. Obese pregnant women should receive counselling about weight gain, nutrition, and food choices. (II-2B). 4. Obese women should be advised that they are at risk for medical complications such as cardiac disease, pulmonary disease, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, and obstructive sleep apnea. Regular exercise during pregnancy may help to reduce some of these risks. (II-2B). 5. Obese women should be advised that their fetus is at an increased risk of congenital abnormalities, and appropriate screening should be done. (II-2B). 6. Obstetric care providers should take BMI into consideration when arranging for fetal anatomic assessment in the second trimester. Anatomic assessment at 20 to 22 weeks may be a better choice for the obese pregnant patient. (II-2B). 7. Obese pregnant women have an increased risk of Caesarean section, and the success of vaginal birth after Caesarean section is decreased. (II-2B). 8. Antenatal consultation with an anaesthesiologist should be considered to review analgesic options and to ensure a plan is in place should a regional anaesthetic be chosen. (III-B). 9. The risk of venous thromboembolism for each obese woman should be evaluated. In some clinical situations, consideration for thromboprophylaxis should be individualized. (III-B).

  16. Postoperative Foot Massage for Patients after Caesarean Delivery.

    PubMed

    Xue, M; Fan, L; Ge, L N; Zhang, Y; Ge, J L; Gu, J; Wang, Y; Chen, Y

    2016-08-01

    Little evidence is available on complementary therapies for anxiety and pain relief after caesarean delivery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of foot massage post-operatively in patients after caesarean delivery. 70 patients were divided to the study or control group after cesarean delivery. Patients in the study group had foot massages for 20 min after surgery. All patients underwent heart rate variability analysis (HRV) and scored their anxiety; pain intensity was evaluated using an 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS). In the study group the HRV, as measured by the low frequency power (LF) value and the LF-to-high frequency power (LF/HF) ratio during Holter assessment, was significantly less after foot massage intervention, but was not changed in the control group. Moreover, the HF value significantly increased and the anxiety score significantly decreased after foot massage intervention, but not in the control group. The pain intensity score obtained 60 min after the massage was significantly lower in the study group than the control group, as were the vital signs (respiratory rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure). Post-operative massage intervention can reduce anxiety and pain in patients after caesarean delivery. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Ethnic disparities in repeat caesarean rates at Auckland Hospital.

    PubMed

    Wise, Michelle R; Anderson, Ngaire H; Sadler, Lynn

    2013-10-01

    New Zealand guidelines recommend that information regarding childbirth choices be given to women with previous caesarean, so they can make informed decisions about their care. We hypothesised that rates of trial of labour (TOL) and vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) would vary by women's ethnicity. To estimate the association of ethnicity with TOL and VBAC rates. Clinical data were used to identify women who gave birth at Auckland Hospital in 2006-2009 with history of previous caesarean eligible for TOL. Multivariable models were used to estimate the association of women's characteristics (ethnicity, age, socio-economic status (SES), height, body mass index, lead maternity carer, diabetes, hypertension, haemorrhage, labour induction, gestational age) with rates of TOL and VBAC. In the study cohort of 2400 women, the TOL rate was 39.5%; the VBAC rate was 57.4%. Pacific women were twice as likely to have TOL, while Asian and non-New Zealand European women were half as likely to have VBAC, compared with New Zealand European women. Women in more deprived areas were more likely to have TOL, but SES was not associated with VBAC rates. Women under the care of private obstetricians were least likely to have TOL or VBAC. There are ethnic disparities in TOL and VBAC rates at our hospital. Strategies need to be developed to ensure that women of all ethnicities have access to both options for mode of delivery. © 2013 The Authors ANZJOG © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  18. The Efficacy of a Silicone Sheet in Postoperative Scar Management.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Sam; Hong, Joon Pio; Choi, Jong Woo; Seo, Dong Kyo; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Ho Seong

    2016-09-01

    Silicone gel sheeting has been introduced to prevent scarring, but objective evidence for its usefulness in scar healing is limited. Therefore, the authors' objective was to examine the effectiveness of silicone gel sheeting by randomly applying it to only unilateral scars from a bilateral hallux valgus surgery with symmetrical closure. In a prospective randomized, blinded, intraindividual comparison study, the silicone gel sheeting was applied to 1 foot of a hallux valgus incision scar (an experiment group) for 12 weeks upon removal of the stitches, whereas the symmetrical scar from the other foot was left untreated (a control group). The scars were evaluated at 4 and 12 weeks after the silicon sheet application. The Vancouver Scar Scale was used to measure the vascularity, pigmentation, pliability, height, and length of the scars. Adverse effects were also evaluated, and they included pain, itchiness, rash, erythema, and skin softening. At weeks 4 and 12, the experiment group scored significantly better on the Vancouver Scar Scale in all items, except length (P < .05 for all except the length of scar), compared with the control group. In all items, adverse effects of the experiment group were significantly lower than those of the control group at week 12, suggesting that direct attachment of the silicone sheet does not cause adverse effects (P < .05). To the authors' knowledge, this is one of the first models to minimize bias related to scar evaluation by using symmetrical scars. The early silicone sheet application did show a significant improvement in prevention of postoperative scarring.

  19. A practical and objective approach to scar colour assessment.

    PubMed

    Hallam, M J; McNaught, K; Thomas, A N; Nduka, C

    2013-10-01

    Scarring is a significant clinical problem following dermal injury. However, scars are not a single describable entity and huge phenotypic variability is evident. Quantitative, reproducible inter-observer scar assessment is essential to monitor wound healing and the effect of scar treatments. Scar colour, reflecting the biological processes occurring within a scar, is integral to any assessment. The objective of this study was to analyse scar colour using the non-invasive Eykona® Wound Measurement System (the System) as compared against the Manchester Scar Scale (MSS). Three dimensional images of 43 surgical scars were acquired post-operatively from 35 patients at 3-6 months and the colour difference between the scar and surrounding skin was calculated (giving ΔLab values). The colourimetric results were then compared against subjective MSS gradings. A significant difference in ΔLab values between MSS gradings of "slight mismatch" and "obvious mismatch" (p<0.025) and between "obvious mismatch" and "gross mismatch" (p<0.05) were noted. The System creates objective, reproducible data, without the need for any specialist expertise and compares favourably with the MSS. Greater scar numbers are required to further clinically validate this device--however, with this potential to calculate scar length, width, volume and other characteristics, it could provide a complete, objective, quantitative record of scarring throughout the wound-healing process. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A cluster-randomized trial to reduce caesarean delivery rates in Quebec: cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Johri, Mira; Ng, Edmond S W; Bermudez-Tamayo, Clara; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Ducruet, Thierry; Chaillet, Nils

    2017-05-22

    Widespread increases in caesarean section (CS) rates have sparked concerns about risks to mothers and infants and rising healthcare costs. A multicentre, two-arm, cluster-randomized trial in Quebec, Canada assessed whether an audit and feedback intervention targeting health professionals would reduce CS rates for pregnant women compared to usual care, and concluded that it reduced CS rates without adverse effects on maternal or neonatal health. The effect was statistically significant but clinically small. We assessed cost-effectiveness to inform scale-up decisions. A prospective economic evaluation was undertaken using individual patient data from the Quality of Care, Obstetrics Risk Management, and Mode of Delivery (QUARISMA) trial (April 2008 to October 2011). Analyses took a healthcare payer perspective. The time horizon captured hospital-based costs and clinical events for mothers and neonates from labour onset to 3 months postpartum. Resource use was identified and measured from patient charts and valued using standardized government sources. We estimated the changes in CS rates and costs for the intervention group (versus controls) between the baseline and post-intervention periods. We examined heterogeneity between clinical subgroups of high-risk versus low-risk pregnancies and estimated the joint uncertainty in cost-effectiveness over 20,000 trial simulations. We decomposed costs to identify drivers of change. The intervention group experienced per-patient reductions of 0.005 CS (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.015 to 0.004, P = 0.09) and $180 (95% CI: -$277 to - $83, P < 0.001). Women with low-risk pregnancies experienced statistically significant reductions in CS rates and costs; changes for the high-risk subgroup were not significant. The intervention was "dominant" (effective in reducing CS and less costly than usual care) in 86.08% of simulations. It reduced costs in 99.99% of simulations. Cost reductions were driven by lower rates of

  1. Portrayal of caesarean section in Brazilian women's magazines: 20 year review.

    PubMed

    Torloni, Maria Regina; Daher, Silvia; Betrán, Ana Pilar; Widmer, Mariana; Montilla, Pilar; Souza, Joao Paulo; Merialdi, Mario

    2011-01-25

    To assess the quality and comprehensiveness of the information on caesarean section provided in Brazilian women's magazines. Review of articles published during 1988-2008 in top selling women's magazines. Brazil, one of the countries with the highest caesarean section rates in the world. Women's magazines with the largest distribution during the study period, identified through the official national media indexing organisations. Articles with objective scientific information or advice, comments, opinions, or the experience of ordinary women or celebrities on delivery by caesarean section. Sources of information mentioned by the author of the article, the accuracy and completeness of data presented on caesarean section, and alleged reasons why women would prefer to deliver though caesarean section. 118 articles were included. The main cited sources of information were health professionals (78% (n=92) of the articles). 71% (n=84) of the articles reported at least one benefit of caesarean section, and 82% (n=97) reported at least one short term maternal risk of caesarean section. The benefits most often attributed to delivery by caesarean section were reduction of pain and convenience for family or health professionals. The most frequently reported short term maternal risks of caesarean section were increased time to recover and that it is a less natural way of giving birth. Only one third of the articles mentioned any long term maternal risks or perinatal complications associated with caesarean section. Fear of pain was the main reported reason why women would prefer to deliver by caesarean section. Most of the articles published in Brazilian women's magazines do not use optimal sources of information. The portrayal of caesarean section is mostly balanced, not explicitly in favour of one or another route of delivery, but incomplete and may be leading women to underestimate the maternal/perinatal risks associated with this route of delivery.

  2. Portrayal of caesarean section in Brazilian women’s magazines: 20 year review

    PubMed Central

    Daher, Silvia; Betrán, Ana Pilar; Widmer, Mariana; Montilla, Pilar; Souza, Joao Paulo; Merialdi, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the quality and comprehensiveness of the information on caesarean section provided in Brazilian women’s magazines. Design Review of articles published during 1988-2008 in top selling women’s magazines. Setting Brazil, one of the countries with the highest caesarean section rates in the world. Data sources Women’s magazines with the largest distribution during the study period, identified through the official national media indexing organisations. Selection criteria Articles with objective scientific information or advice, comments, opinions, or the experience of ordinary women or celebrities on delivery by caesarean section. Main outcome measures Sources of information mentioned by the author of the article, the accuracy and completeness of data presented on caesarean section, and alleged reasons why women would prefer to deliver though caesarean section. Results 118 articles were included. The main cited sources of information were health professionals (78% (n=92) of the articles). 71% (n=84) of the articles reported at least one benefit of caesarean section, and 82% (n=97) reported at least one short term maternal risk of caesarean section. The benefits most often attributed to delivery by caesarean section were reduction of pain and convenience for family or health professionals. The most frequently reported short term maternal risks of caesarean section were increased time to recover and that it is a less natural way of giving birth. Only one third of the articles mentioned any long term maternal risks or perinatal complications associated with caesarean section. Fear of pain was the main reported reason why women would prefer to deliver by caesarean section. Conclusions Most of the articles published in Brazilian women’s magazines do not use optimal sources of information. The portrayal of caesarean section is mostly balanced, not explicitly in favour of one or another route of delivery, but incomplete and may be leading women to

  3. Clinical follow-up of pregnancy in myasthenia gravis patients.

    PubMed

    Ducci, Renata D; Lorenzoni, Paulo J; Kay, Claudia S K; Werneck, Lineu C; Scola, Rosana H

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to analyze the outcome and impact of pregnancy in women with myasthenia gravis (MG). Obstetric and clinical data were retrospectively analyzed before, during and after pregnancy. Predictors of outcome were studied. We included 35 pregnancies from 21 MG patients. In the course of MG symptoms in 30 pregnancies with live births, 50% deteriorated (mainly during the second trimester, p = 0.028), 30% improved, and 20% remained unchanged. The deterioration group had more frequent abnormal repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) (p = 0.028) and lower myasthenia gravis composite (MGC) scores (p = 0.045) before pregnancy. The improvement group was associated with higher MGC scores (p = 0.012) before pregnancy. The no-change group was associated with longer duration of MG (p = 0.026) and normal RNS (p = 0.008) before pregnancy. The course of MG in the second pregnancy was different from that in the previous pregnancy in 65.3% of cases. Obstetric complications were reported in 20 pregnancies; the most common was preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) (25.8%), and the most severe were abortion (11.4%) and fetal death (2.9%). Most of the patients delivered via caesarean section (66.7%). Spinal anesthesia was performed in 73.3%. Transient neonatal myasthenia gravis occurred in 12.9% of live-born infants, and no predictors were found. In conclusion, severity and duration of MG, RNS and treatment influence MG and pregnancy. Pregnant MG patients have greater rates of PPROM and caesarean delivery. Our data suggest that duration of MG, MGC and RNS before pregnancy may be useful in helping to predict the course of MG during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental phase-space-based optical amplification of scar modes.

    PubMed

    Michel, C; Tascu, S; Doya, V; Aschiéri, P; Blanc, W; Legrand, O; Mortessagne, F

    2012-04-01

    Wave billiards which are chaotic in the geometrical limit are known to support nongeneric spatially localized modes called scar modes. The interaction of the scar modes with gain has been recently investigated in optics in microcavity lasers and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. Exploiting the localization properties of scar modes in their wave-analogous phase-space representation, we report experimental results of scar mode selection by gain in a doped D-shaped optical fiber.

  5. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  6. Fire-scar formation and compartmentalization in oak

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith; Elaine Kennedy. Sutherland

    1999-01-01

    Fire scars result from the death of the vascular cambium resulting from excessive heating, which exposes sapwood to infection and initiates the wood decay process. In southeastern Ohio, prescribed fires in April 1995 and 1997 scarred Quercus prinus L. and Q. velutina Lam. Low-intensity fires scorched bark and produced scars, primarily on the downslope side of the stem...

  7. Fire scars reveal variability and dynamics of eastern fire regimes

    Treesearch

    Richard P. Guyette; Daniel C. Dey; Michael C. Stambaugh; Rose-Marie Muzika

    2006-01-01

    Fire scar evidence in eastern North America is sparse and complex but shows promise in defining the dynamics of these fire regimes and their influence on ecosystems. We review fire scar data, methods, and limitations, and use this information to identify and examine the factors influencing fire regimes. Fire scar data from studies at more than 40 sites in Eastern North...

  8. Mode of anaesthesia for preterm Caesarean delivery: secondary analysis from the Maternal–Fetal Medicine Units Network Caesarean Registry†‡

    PubMed Central

    Butwick, A. J.; El-Sayed, Y. Y.; Blumenfeld, Y. J.; Osmundson, S. S.; Weiniger, C. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm delivery is often performed by Caesarean section. We investigated modes of anaesthesia and risk factors for general anaesthesia among women undergoing preterm Caesarean delivery. Methods Women undergoing Caesarean delivery between 24+0 and 36+6 weeks' gestation were identified from a multicentre US registry. The mode of anaesthesia was classified as neuraxial anaesthesia (spinal, epidural, or combined spinal and epidural) or general anaesthesia. Logistic regression was used to identify patient characteristic, obstetric, and peripartum risk factors associated with general anaesthesia. Results Within the study cohort, 11 539 women had preterm Caesarean delivery; 9510 (82.4%) underwent neuraxial anaesthesia and 2029 (17.6%) general anaesthesia. In our multivariate model, African-American race [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.7–2.2], Hispanic ethnicity (aOR=1.5; 95% CI=1.2–1.8), other race (aOR=1.4; 95% CI=1.1–1.9), and haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome or eclampsia (aOR=2.8; 95% CI=2.2–3.5) were independently associated with receiving general anaesthesia for preterm Caesarean delivery. Women with an emergency Caesarean delivery indication had the highest odds for general anaesthesia (aOR=3.5; 95% CI=3.1–3.9). For every 1 week decrease in gestational age at delivery, the adjusted odds of general anaesthesia increased by 13%. Conclusions In our study cohort, nearly one in five women received general anaesthesia for preterm Caesarean delivery. Although potential confounding by unmeasured factors cannot be excluded, our findings suggest that early gestational age at delivery, emergent Caesarean delivery indications, hypertensive disease, and non-Caucasian race or ethnicity are associated with general anaesthesia for preterm Caesarean delivery. PMID:25956901

  9. An analysis of variations of indications and maternal-fetal prognosis for caesarean section in a tertiary hospital of Beijing: A population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yajun; Wang, Xin; Zou, Liying; Ruan, Yan; Zhang, Weiyuan

    2017-02-01

    In recent decades, we have observed a remarkable increase in the rate of caesarean section (CS) in both developed and developing countries, especially in China. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) systematic review, if the increase in CS rate was between 10% and 15%, the maternal and neonatal mortality was decreased. However, above this level, increasing the rate of CS is no longer associated with reduced mortality. To date, no consensus has been reached on the main factors driving the cesarean epidemic. To reduce the progressively increasing rate of CS, we should find indications for the increasing CS rate. The aim of our study was to estimate the change of CS rate of Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital and to find the variation of the indications.From January 1995 to December 2014, the CS rate of Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital was analyzed. For our analysis, we selected 14,642 and 16,335 deliveries respectively that occurred during the year 2011 and 2014, to analyze the difference of indications, excluding incomplete data and miscarriages or termination of pregnancy before 28 weeks of gestation because of fatal malformations, intrauterine death, or other reasons.The average CS rate during the past 20 years was 51.15%. The highest caesarean delivery rate was 60.69% in 2002; however, the caesarean delivery rate declined to 34.53% in 2014. The obviously different indications were caesarean delivery on maternal request and previous CS delivery. The rate of CS due to maternal request in 2014 was decreased by 8.16% compared with the year 2011. However, the percentage of pregnancy women with a previous CS delivery increased from 9.61% to 20.42% in 3 years. Along with the decline of CS rate, the perinatal mortality and the rate of neonatal asphyxia decreased in 2014 compared with that in 2011.After a series of measures, the CS rate declined indeed. Compared with 2011, the perinatal mortality and the rate of neonatal asphyxia decreased in

  10. Differences between native and immigrant women in Taiwan in factors associated with caesarean section: A prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Weng, Shiue-Shan; Lin, Chen-Li; Tai, Chen-Jei; Chien, Li-Yin

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association of social support, social factors, and maternal complications with caesarean deliveries in native and immigrant women, and to explore the association between acculturation and caesarean deliveries in immigrant women in Taiwan. This prospective panel study was conducted from August 2012 through April 2014 and included 222 native and 147 immigrant pregnant women in Taiwan. Caesarean rates did not differ significantly between native and immigrant women, including the overall caesarean rate (28.8%, 32.0%), medically indicated caesarean (22.5%, 24.5%), and caesarean without medical indications (6.3%, 7.5%). Results of multiple logistic regression models revealed that maternal complications and household activity support were positively associated with caesarean deliveries. Both native and immigrant women with high levels of informational support were less likely to receive caesareans. Immigrant women who were older than 35 years, had a middle level socioeconomic status, and perceived a high level of acceptance of caesarean in Taiwan were more likely to have caesarean deliveries. Informational support was a protective factor for caesarean delivery, whereas household activity support offered by the family was positively associated with caesarean delivery. Perceived acceptance level in mainstream society could affect immigrant women's use of caesarean delivery.

  11. 'What about the mother?' Women's and caregivers' perspectives on caesarean birth in a low-resource setting with rising caesarean section rates.

    PubMed

    Litorp, Helena; Mgaya, Andrew; Kidanto, Hussein L; Johnsdotter, Sara; Essén, Birgitta

    2015-07-01

    in light of the rising caesarean section rates in many developing countries, we sought to explore women's and caregivers' experiences, perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs in relation to caesarean section. qualitative study using semi-structured individual in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and participant observations. The study relied on a framework of naturalistic inquiry and data were analysed using thematic analysis. a public university hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. we conducted a total of 29 individual interviews, 13 with women and 16 with caregivers, and two focus group discussions comprising five to six caregivers each. Women had undergone a caesarean section within two months preceding the interview and were interviewed in their homes. Caregivers were consultants, specialists, residents, and midwives. both women and caregivers preferred vaginal birth, but caregivers also had a favourable attitude towards caesarean section. While caregivers emphasised their efforts to counsel women on caesarean section, women had often reacted with fear and shock to the caesarean section decision and perceived that there was a lack of indications. Although caesarean section was perceived as involving higher maternal risks than vaginal birth, both women and caregivers justified these risks by the need to 'secure' a healthy baby. Religious beliefs and community members seemed to influence women's caesarean section attitudes, which often made caregivers frustrated as it diminished their role as decision-makers. Undergoing caesarean section had negative socio-economic consequences for women and their families; however, caregivers seldom took these factors into account when making decisions. we raise a concern that women and caregivers might overlook maternal risks with caesarean section for the benefit of the baby, a shift in focus that can have serious consequences on women's health in low-resource settings. Caregivers need to reflect on how they counsel women

  12. Is neonatal head circumference related to caesarean section for failure to progress?

    PubMed

    de Vries, Bradley; Bryce, Bianca; Zandanova, Tatiana; Ting, Jason; Kelly, Patrick; Phipps, Hala; Hyett, Jon A

    2016-12-01

    There is global concern about rising caesarean section rates. Identification of risk factors could lead to preventative measures. To describe the association between neonatal head circumference and (i) caesarean section for failure to progress, (ii) intrapartum caesarean section overall. This was a retrospective cohort study of 11 687 singleton live births with cephalic presentation, attempted vaginal birth and at least 37 completed weeks gestation from January 2005 to June 2009. Neonatal head circumference was grouped into quartiles and multiple logistic regressions performed. The rates of caesarean section for failure to progress were 4.1, 6.4, 8.8 and 14.3% in successive head circumference quartiles. Rates of intrapartum caesarean section overall were 8.7, 12.1, 15.8 and 21.5%. The odds ratios for caesarean section for failure to progress were: 1.00, 1.33 (95% CI 1.02- 1.73), 1.54 (1.18-2.02) and 1.93 (1.44-2.57) for successive head circumference quartiles after adjusting for multiple demographic and clinical factors. The adjusted odds ratios for intrapartum caesarean section for any indication were: 1.00, 1.52 (95% CI 1.24-1.87), 1.99 (1.62-2.46) and 2.38 (1.89-3.00), respectively. There is a strong positive relationship between head circumference quartile and both caesarean section for failure to progress and caesarean for any indication. If this finding is confirmed using ultrasound measurements, there is potential for head circumference to be incorporated into predictive models for intrapartum caesarean section with a view to offering interventions to reduce the risk of caesarean section. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Adhesion formation after previous caesarean section-a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shi, Z; Ma, L; Yang, Y; Wang, H; Schreiber, A; Li, X; Tai, S; Zhao, X; Teng, J; Zhang, L; Lu, W; An, Y; Alla, N R; Cui, T

    2011-03-01

    The optimal technique for performing caesarean section with respect to minimising postoperative adhesions has not been determined. To evaluate adhesion formation for three common caesarean section techniques in women undergoing repeat caesarean section surgeries. A database was constructed from Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, National Science Digital Library, China Biological Medicine Database and through contact with experts in this field from January 1990 to May 2010. Studies were included if they examined adhesion formation in repeat caesarean sections as a primary objective, delineated a clear study design, specified an adhesion scoring system, and had sufficient patient exclusion criteria. We abstracted data regarding adhesion formation. The Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model was employed for all analyses using odds ratio or inverse variance, along with 95% CI. Thirty-three qualified studies including 4423 women were analysed. There were 406 adhesions among 571 women and 238 adhesions among 596 women in the Stark's caesarean section (also known as Misgav-Ladach method) group and modified Stark's caesarean section group, respectively, with pooled OR 4.69 (95% CI 3.32-6.62; P < 0.01, 12 studies); 1173 adhesions among 1555 women and 1179 adhesions among 1625 women in Stark's caesarean section group and classic lower-segment caesarean section group, respectively, with pooled odds ratio 1.28 (95% CI 0.97-1.68; P = 0.08, 21 studies); and 29 adhesions from 102 women and 115 adhesions from 193 women in modified Stark's caesarean section group and classic lower-segment caesarean section group, respectively, with pooled odds ratio 0.28 (95% CI 0.10-0.82; P = 0.02, two studies). Closure of the peritoneum in modified Stark's caesarean section resulted in less adhesion formation and should be recommended. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © RCOG 2010 BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.

  14. Adaptation, postpartum concerns, and learning needs in the first two weeks after caesarean birth.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Marianne; Fawcett, Jacqueline; Aber, Cynthia

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this Roy Adaptation Model-based study was to describe women's physical, emotional, functional and social adaptation; postpartum concerns; and learning needs during the first two weeks following caesarean birth and identify relevant nursing interventions. Studies of caesarean-delivered women indicated a trend toward normalisation of the caesarean birth experience. Escalating caesarean birth rates mandate continued study of contemporary caesarean-delivered women. Mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative) descriptive research design. Nursing students collected data from 233 culturally diverse caesarean-delivered women in urban areas of the Midwestern and Northeastern USA between 2002-2004. The focal stimulus was the planned or unplanned caesarean birth; contextual stimuli were cultural identity and parity. Adaptation was measured by open-ended interview questions, fixed choice questionnaires about postpartum concerns and learning needs and nurse assessment of post-discharge problems. Potential interventions were identified using the Omaha System Intervention Scheme. More positive than negative responses were reported for functional and social adaptation than for physical and emotional adaptation. Women with unplanned caesarean births and primiparous women reported less favourable adaptation than planned caesarean mothers and multiparas. Black women reported lower social adaptation, Hispanic women had more role function concerns and Black and Hispanic women had more learning needs than White women. Post-discharge nursing assessments revealed that actual problems accounted for 40% of identified actual or potential problems or needs. Health teaching was the most commonly recommended postpartum intervention strategy followed by case management, treatment and surveillance interventions. Caesarean-delivered women continue to experience some problems with adapting to childbirth. Recommended intervention strategies reflect the importance of health teaching

  15. Increasing the availability and quality of caesarean section in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nyamtema, A; Mwakatundu, N; Dominico, S; Mohamed, H; Shayo, A; Rumanyika, R; Kairuki, C; Nzabuhakwa, C; Issa, O; Lyimo, C; Kasiga, I; van Roosmalen, J

    2016-09-01

    To describe the results of increasing availability and quality of caesarean deliveries and anaesthesia in rural Tanzania. Before-after intervention study design. Rural Tanzania. Ten health centres located in rural areas were upgraded to provide comprehensive emergency obstetric care (CEmOC) and the four related district hospitals were supported. Upgrading entailed constructing and equipping maternity blocks, operation rooms and laboratories; installing solar systems, backup generators and water supply systems. Associate clinicians were trained in anaesthesia and in CEmOC. Mentoring and audit of reasons for caesarean section (CS) and maternal deaths were carried out. Measures of interest were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical tests. Trends in CS rates, proportion of unjustified CS, use of spinal anaesthesia, and the risk of death from complications related to CS and anaesthesia. During the audit period (2012-2014), 5868 of 58 751 deliveries were by CS (10%). The proportion of CS considered to be unjustified decreased from 30 to 17% in health centres (P = 0.02) and from 37 to 20% in hospitals (P < 0.001). Practice of spinal anaesthesia for CS increased from 10% to 64% in hospitals (P < 0.001). Of 110 maternal deaths, 18 (16.4%) were associated with complications of CS, giving a risk of 3.1 per 1000 CS; three (2.7%) were judged to be anaesthetic-associated deaths with a risk of 0.5 per 1000 caesarean deliveries. Increasing availability and quality of CS by improving infrastructure, training and audit of reasons for CS is feasible, acceptable and required in low resource settings. Increasing availability and quality of CS in rural Africa is feasible. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. Suppressed inflammatory gene expression during human hypertrophic scar compared to normotrophic scar formation.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Lenie J; van der Veer, Willem M; de Jong, Etty H; Gibbs, Susan; Niessen, Frank B

    2015-08-01

    Hypertrophic scar formation is a result of adverse cutaneous wound healing. The pathogenesis of hypertrophic scar formation is still poorly understood. A problem next to the lack of suitable animal models is that often normal skin is compared to hypertrophic scar (HTscar) and not to normotrophic scar (NTscar) tissue. Another drawback is that often only one time period after wounding is studied, while scar formation is a dynamic process over a period of several months. In this study, we compared the expression of genes involved in inflammation, angiogenesis and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation and also macrophage infiltration in biopsies obtained before and up to 52 weeks after standard surgery in five patients who developed HTscar and six patients who developed NTscar. It was found that HTscar formation coincided with a prolonged decreased expression of inflammatory genes (TNFα, IL-1α, IL-1RN, CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2, CXCR2, C3 and IL-10) and an extended increased expression of ECM-related genes (PLAU, Col3A1, TGFβ3). This coincided with a delayed but prolonged infiltration of macrophages (type 2) in HTscar tissue compared to NTscar tissue. These findings were supported by immunohistochemical localization of proteins coding for select genes named above. Our study emphasizes that human cutaneous wound healing is a dynamic process that is needed to be studied over a period of time rather than a single point of time. Taken together, our results suggest innate immune stimulatory therapies may be a better option for improving scar quality than the currently used anti-inflammatory scar therapies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Current options for the treatment of pathological scarring.

    PubMed

    Poetschke, Julian; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2016-05-01

    Scarring is the consequence of surgery, trauma or different skin diseases. Apart from fresh, immature scars,that transform into mature scars over the course of would healing and that do not require further treatment,linear hypertrophic scars, widespread hypertrophic scars, keloids and atrophic scars exist. Symptoms like pruritusand pain, stigmatization as well as functional and aesthetic impairments that are very disturbing for the affected patients can bethe basis for the desire for treatment. Today, a multitude of options for the treatment and prevention of scars exists. Topical agents based on silicone or onion extract, intralesional injections of cristalline glucocorticoids (oftentimes in combinationwith cryotherapy) or 5-Fluorouracil as well as ablative and nonablative laser treatment are used. Current guidelines summarize the multitude of available treatment options and the currently available datafor the treating physicians, allowing them to make clear therapy recommendations for every single scar type. Relieving patients of their discomfort and doing their aesthetic demands justice is thus possible. Apart from scar prevention becoming more and more important, the increased use of modernlaser treatment options constitutes a key point in clinical scar treatment. At the same time the attention is turned to evaluating current therapeutic options with the help of contemporary study designs so as to graduallyimprove the level of evidence in scar treatment. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. What do popular Spanish women's magazines say about caesarean section? A 21-year survey.

    PubMed

    Torloni, M R; Campos Mansilla, B; Merialdi, M; Betrán, A P

    2014-04-01

    Caesarean section (CS) rates are increasing worldwide and maternal request is cited as one of the main reasons for this trend. Women's preferences for route of delivery are influenced by popular media, including magazines. We assessed the information on CS presented in Spanish women's magazines. Systematic review. Women's magazines printed from 1989 to 2009 with the largest national distribution. Articles with any information on CS. Articles were selected, read and abstracted in duplicate. Sources of information, scientific accuracy, comprehensiveness and women's testimonials were objectively extracted using a content analysis form designed for this study. Accuracy, comprehensiveness and sources of information. Most (67%) of the 1223 selected articles presented exclusively personal opinion/birth stories, 12% reported the potential benefits of CS, 26% mentioned the short-term and 10% mentioned the long-term maternal risks, and 6% highlighted the perinatal risks of CS. The most frequent short-term risks were the increased time for maternal recovery (n = 86), frustration/feelings of failure (n = 83) and increased post-surgical pain (n = 71). The most frequently cited long-term risks were uterine rupture (n = 57) and the need for another CS in any subsequent pregnancy (n = 42). Less than 5% of the selected articles reported that CS could increase the risks of infection (n = 53), haemorrhage (n = 31) or placenta praevia/accreta in future pregnancies (n = 6). The sources of information were not reported by 68% of the articles. The portrayal of CS in Spanish women's magazines is not sufficiently comprehensive and does not provide adequate important information to help the readership to understand the real benefits and risks of this route of delivery. © 2014 The Authors. BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  19. What do popular Spanish women's magazines say about caesarean section? A 21-year survey

    PubMed Central

    Torloni, MR; Campos Mansilla, B; Merialdi, M; Betrán, AP

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Caesarean section (CS) rates are increasing worldwide and maternal request is cited as one of the main reasons for this trend. Women's preferences for route of delivery are influenced by popular media, including magazines. We assessed the information on CS presented in Spanish women's magazines. Design Systematic review. Setting Women's magazines printed from 1989 to 2009 with the largest national distribution. Sample Articles with any information on CS. Methods Articles were selected, read and abstracted in duplicate. Sources of information, scientific accuracy, comprehensiveness and women's testimonials were objectively extracted using a content analysis form designed for this study. Main outcome measures Accuracy, comprehensiveness and sources of information. Results Most (67%) of the 1223 selected articles presented exclusively personal opinion/birth stories, 12% reported the potential benefits of CS, 26% mentioned the short-term and 10% mentioned the long-term maternal risks, and 6% highlighted the perinatal risks of CS. The most frequent short-term risks were the increased time for maternal recovery (n = 86), frustration/feelings of failure (n = 83) and increased post-surgical pain (n = 71). The most frequently cited long-term risks were uterine rupture (n = 57) and the need for another CS in any subsequent pregnancy (n = 42). Less than 5% of the selected articles reported that CS could increase the risks of infection (n = 53), haemorrhage (n = 31) or placenta praevia/accreta in future pregnancies (n = 6). The sources of information were not reported by 68% of the articles. Conclusions The portrayal of CS in Spanish women's magazines is not sufficiently comprehensive and does not provide adequate important information to help the readership to understand the real benefits and risks of this route of delivery. PMID:24467797

  20. [Uterine rupture plugged by omentum in a rudimentary horn pregnancy: About a rare case].

    PubMed

    Le Mitouard, M; Huissoud, C; Fichez, A; Roumieu, F; Allias, F; Rudigoz, R C; Caloone, J

    2016-05-01

    Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn of a pseudo-horned uterus is a rare obstetrical situation, for which, maternal-fetal prognosis is altered by the risk of uterine rupture. We report a rare case of pregnancy in a rudimentary horn with birth of a living child at 28 weeks of amenorrhea. During caesarean, uterine rupture plugged by the omentum was observed. We discuss from this case obstetric management of this pathology. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Comparable risk of childhood asthma after vaginal delivery and emergency caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Brix, Nis; Stokholm, Lonny; Jonsdottir, Fjola; Kristensen, Kim; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Caesarean section is thought to be a risk factor for childhood asthma, but this association may be caused by confounding from, for instance, familial factors. To address this problem, we used twin pairs to assess the risk of childhood asthma after emergency caesarean section. The study was a register-based nation-wide matched cohort study using twin pairs to minimise residual confounding. Included were twin pairs in which the first twin was delivered vaginally and the second by emergency caesarean section during the study period from January 1997 through December 2012. In total, 464 twin pairs (928 twins) were included. In 30 pairs, the first twin (vaginal delivery) was diagnosed with asthma, but the second twin (emergency caesarean section) was not. In 20 pairs, the second twin (emergency caesarean section) was diagnosed with asthma, but the first twin (vaginal delivery) was not. In 11 pairs, both twins developed asthma. In the unadjusted analysis, emergency caesarean section did not affect the risk of asthma (odds ratio = 0.67 (95% confidence interval: 0.38-1.17); p = 0.16). After adjusting for birth weight, gender, umbilical cord pH, Apgar score at 5 min. and neonatal respiratory morbidity, the risk of childhood asthma following emergency caesarean section remained unchanged. Emergency caesarean section was not associated with childhood asthma. none. not relevant.

  2. Umbilical scarring in hatchling American alligators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiebe, J.J.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Buckland, J.E.; Anderson, S.R.; Gross, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    Umbilical scarring is the presence of excess scar tissue deposited between abdominal dermal layers at the site of yolk sac absorption in hatchling American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). The presence of this dermal condition plays a key evaluatory role in the overall quality and subsequent value for various commercial leather products. Despite the prevalent nature of this condition, currently the industry has no standardized protocols for its quantification. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between hatchling weight and age and incidence of umbilical scarring and to develop a quantifiable and reproducible technique to measure this dermal condition in hatchling American alligators. Thirty eggs from each of nine clutches were incubated in two separate incubators at different facilities and hatchling umbilical scarring was measured at 2 and 10 days of age using digital calipers. Umbilical area was calculated by multiplying umbilical length times umbilical width. There was a significant effect of both age and clutch on umbilical area (overall decline of 64%) by 10 days post-hatch. However, only five of the nine clutches utilized expressed a noticeable decline in the size of this dermal condition (range 67-74%). We had hypothesized that larger hatchlings would have larger umbilical areas and a slower rate of improvement in this condition during the first few days post-hatch. The differences in umbilical area and percent decline with age across clutches, however, were not associated with differences in initial hatchling weights. Within clutches and time periods, hatchling weight had no significant effect on the size and/or rate of decline of this condition. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Translation into Brazilian Portuguese and validation of the "Quantitative Global Scarring Grading System for Post-acne Scarring" *

    PubMed Central

    Cachafeiro, Thais Hofmann; Escobar, Gabriela Fortes; Maldonado, Gabriela; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The "Quantitative Global Scarring Grading System for Postacne Scarring" was developed in English for acne scar grading, based on the number and severity of each type of scar. The aims of this study were to translate this scale into Brazilian Portuguese and verify its reliability and validity. The study followed five steps: Translation, Expert Panel, Back Translation, Approval of authors and Validation. The translated scale showed high internal consistency and high test-retest reliability, confirming its reproducibility. Therefore, it has been validated for our population and can be recommended as a reliable instrument to assess acne scarring. PMID:25184939

  4. Implementation of a burn scar assessment system by ultrasound techniques.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi-Chun; Lin, Chih-Ming; Chen, Yung-Fu; Chen, Chung-Lin; Chen, Tainsong

    2006-01-01

    Tissue injury and its ensuing healing process cause scar formation. In addition to physical disability, the subsequent disfigurements from burns often bring negative psychological impacts on the survivors. Scar hypertrophy and contracture limit the joint motion and body function of the patient. With fast development of the current available technologies regarding the scar therapies, not only the process of wound healing has to be focused, but also the cosmetic and functional outcomes need to be emphasized. Therefore, proper evaluation and assessment of the healing process to nil scar status is highly recommended. However, the currently employed tools for scar evaluation are mostly subjective. For example, Vancouver General Hospital (VGH) scar index uses color, pigmentation, vascularity, pliability, and depth of the scar as dependent variables for scar evaluation. These parameters only estimate the superficial surface of the scar, but they can not evaluate the deeper tissue within dermis. Ultrasound is a safe, inexpensive, and multifunctional technique for probing tissue characteristics. In addition, its resolution is not inferior to other measurement techniques. Although 3D-ultrasound is available in clinical application, it's still not widely used in scar evaluation because of its high cost. In this study, we proposed a system for scar assessment using B-mode ultrasonic technique. By utilizing the reconstruction methods to search the scar border, many characteristic parameters, including depth, area and volume, can be estimated. The proposed method is useful in assisting the clinician to evaluate the treatment effect and to plan further therapeutic strategy more objectively. In this report, the quantitative assessment system was used to evaluate the scar of a seriously burned patient. In order to verify the reliability of systematic reconstruction method, we constructed a phantom to imitate the scar tissue. The results show that it can achieve more than 90% in

  5. Teenage pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Prenatal care - teenage pregnancy ... the baby. If you decide to continue the pregnancy, it is important to have good prenatal care. ... trimester is the first 3 months of your pregnancy. During this time, you will have a prenatal ...

  6. Molar Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... including a rare form of cancer — and requires early treatment. Symptoms A molar pregnancy may seem like a normal pregnancy at first, but most molar pregnancies cause specific signs and symptoms, including: Dark brown to bright red ...

  7. Pregnancy Registries

    MedlinePlus

    ... is compared with women who have not taken medicine during pregnancy. Enrolling in a pregnancy exposure registry can help ... help. Pregnant Women Health Professionals Find a Registry Medicine and Pregnancy More in Women's Health Research OWH Research and ...

  8. Combination laser treatment for immediate post-surgical scars: a retrospective analysis of 33 immature scars.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yongsoo; Kim, Wooram

    2017-07-01

    The application of laser treatments beginning on the day of stitch removal has been demonstrated to improve scar quality. However, there are few guidelines for the treatment of immature scars (ISs), which are defined as "scars whose features are not yet expressed." The purpose of this study was to extract information about early combination laser treatment (CLT) beyond what is currently known by analyzing 33 pairs of pre-treatment and post-treatment photographs of ISs. Two hundred fifty medical records of patients with scars were reviewed, and 33 scars were included in the study. The included scars were treated with vascular lasers (585 or 532 nm) followed by 1550-nm fractional lasers from May 2014 to July 2015 (fewer than 52 days after stitch removal, Fitzpatrick's skin types III-IV, mean age = 16.0 years). Blinded evaluators (one plastic surgeon and two dermatologists) evaluated the pre-treatment and post-treatment photographs. The pre-treatment photographs were scored on a spectrum from "0," when no difference with the surrounding unaffected skin was observed, to "100," when the worst scarring was present. The pre-treatment and post-treatment photographs were compared, and the results were graded on a spectrum from 0, when no difference between the pre-treatment and post-treatment photographs was observed, to 100, when no difference was observed between the post-treatment skin and the surrounding unaffected skin. Statistical analyses were performed with PASW 17.0, SPSS Korea, Seoul, Korea (p < 0.05). The improvement scores (ImS) and weighted scores (Wtd: i.e., weighted according to the pre-treatment scores) were used as dependent variables. The average improvement score was 87.98 (median = 90). Seventeen cases were scored as 100-point improvements. The facial and non-facial scars exhibited differences in the ImS and Wtd scores. The Wtd scores were negatively correlated with the temporal gap (in days) between stitch removal and the beginning of CLT. No

  9. At What Price? A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Comparing Trial of Labour after Previous Caesarean versus Elective Repeat Caesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Fawsitt, Christopher G.; Bourke, Jane; Greene, Richard A.; Everard, Claire M.; Murphy, Aileen; Lutomski, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Elective repeat caesarean delivery (ERCD) rates have been increasing worldwide, thus prompting obstetric discourse on the risks and benefits for the mother and infant. Yet, these increasing rates also have major economic implications for the health care system. Given the dearth of information on the cost-effectiveness related to mode of delivery, the aim of this paper was to perform an economic evaluation on the costs and short-term maternal health consequences associated with a trial of labour after one previous caesarean delivery compared with ERCD for low risk women in Ireland. Methods Using a decision analytic model, a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) was performed where the measure of health gain was quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) over a six-week time horizon. A review of international literature was conducted to derive representative estimates of adverse maternal health outcomes following a trial of labour after caesarean (TOLAC) and ERCD. Delivery/procedure costs derived from primary data collection and combined both “bottom-up” and “top-down” costing estimations. Results Maternal morbidities emerged in twice as many cases in the TOLAC group than the ERCD group. However, a TOLAC was found to be the most-effective method of delivery because it was substantially less expensive than ERCD (€1,835.06 versus €4,039.87 per women, respectively), and QALYs were modestly higher (0.84 versus 0.70). Our findings were supported by probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Conclusions Clinicians need to be well informed of the benefits and risks of TOLAC among low risk women. Ideally, clinician-patient discourse would address differences in length of hospital stay and postpartum recovery time. While it is premature advocate a policy of TOLAC across maternity units, the results of the study prompt further analysis and repeat iterations, encouraging future studies to synthesis previous research and new and relevant evidence under a single

  10. Impact on caesarean section rates following injections of sterile water (ICARIS): a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nigel; Mårtensson, Lena B; Homer, Caroline; Webster, Joan; Gibbons, Kristen; Stapleton, Helen; Dos Santos, Natalie; Beckmann, Michael; Gao, Yu; Kildea, Sue

    2013-05-03

    Sterile water injections have been used as an effective intervention for the management of back pain during labour. The objective of the current research is to determine if sterile water injections, as an intervention for back pain in labour, will reduce the intrapartum caesarean section rate. A double blind randomised placebo controlled trialSetting: Maternity hospitals in AustraliaParticipants: 1866 women in labour, ≥18 years of age who have a singleton pregnancy with a fetus in a cephalic presentation at term (between 37 + 0 and 41 + 6 weeks gestation), who assess their back pain as equal to or greater than seven on a visual analogue scale when requesting analgesia and able to provide informed consent. Participants will be randomised to receive either 0.1 to 0.3 millilitres of sterile water or a normal saline placebo via four intradermal injections into four anatomical points surrounding the Michaelis' rhomboid over the sacral area. Two injections will be administered over the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) and the remaining two at two centimetres posterior, and one centimetre medial to the PSIS respectively. Proportion of women who have a caesarean section in labour.Randomisation: Permuted blocks stratified by research site.Blinding (masking):Double-blind trial in which participants, clinicians and research staff blinded to group assignment. Funded by the National Health and Medical Research CouncilTrial registration:Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (No ACTRN12611000221954). Sterile water injections, which may have a positive effect on reducing the CS rate, have been shown to be a safe and simple analgesic suitable for most maternity settings. A procedure that could reduce intervention rates without adversely affecting safety for mother and baby would benefit Australian families and taxpayers and would reduce requirements for maternal operating theatre time. Results will have external validity, as the technique may be easily applied to

  11. Inter-hospital variations in caesarean sections. A risk adjusted comparison in the Valencia public hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Librero, J.; Peiro, S.; Calderon, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The aim of this study was to describe the variability in caesarean rates in the public hospitals in the Valencia Region, Spain, and to analyse the association between caesarean sections and clinical and extra-clinical factors.
METHODS—Analysis of data contained in the Minimum Basic Data Set (MBDS) compiled for all births in 11 public hospitals in Valencia during 1994-1995 (n=36 819). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the association between caesarean section rates and specific risk factors. The multivariate model was used to construct predictions about caesarean rates for each hospital, for comparison with rates observed.
RESULTS—Caesarean rates were 17.6% (inter-hospital range: 14.7% to 25.0%), with ample variability between hospitals in the diagnosis of maternal-fetal risk factors (particularly dystocia and fetal distress), and the indication for caesarean in the presence of these factors. Multivariate analysis showed that maternal-fetal risk factors correlated strongly with caesarean section, although extra-clinical factors, such as the day of the week, also correlated positively. After adjusting for the risk factors, the inter-hospital variation in caesarean rates persisted.
CONCLUSIONS—Although certain limitations (imprecision of some diagnoses and information biases in the MBDS) make it impossible to establish unequivocal conclusions, results show a high degree of variability among hospitals when opting for caesarean section. This variability cannot be justified by differences in obstetric risks.


Keywords: hospital utilisation; medical practice variation; caesarean section; administrative databases PMID:10890876

  12. Caesarean in mare by Marcenac incision under local anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ninu, A R; Saxena, A C; Sivanarayanan, T B; Remya, V; Binsila, B K; Maiti, S K; Zama, M M S

    2015-01-01

    A nulliparous non-descript mare was presented with a complaint of dystocia. The mare was recumbent and physical examination revealed that the animal was in shock. There was no straining and foetal forelimbs were visible outside the vulva. The foetus was dead as there was no pedal reflex. Vaginal examination revealed anterior presentation with dorso-sacral position and rigid lateral head deviation. Pre-operatively, the mare was given 5 ml Tetanus toxoid and 3 g Ceftriaxone as intramuscular injection, and 5 ml Dexamethasone in 15 L of 5% Dextrose Normal Saline (DNS) as intravenous (i/v) infusion. As pelvic space was inadequate and the mal posture was not correctable, manual correction or foetotomy could not be attempted and therefore caesarean section was planned. Condition of the animal warranted the use of local anaesthetic infiltration instead of general anesthesia. Post-operative care included intravenous fluids, anti-inflammatory/analgesics and daily antiseptic dressing. The owner reported uneventful recovery. The authors would like to conclude the case as a rare emergency caesarean in equine where the surgery was done with animal in lateral recumbency employing a Marcenac incision under local anaesthesia.

  13. Optimal placement of a brachioplasty scar: a survey evaluation.

    PubMed

    Samra, Salem; Samra, Fares; Liu, Yuen-Jong; Sawh-Martinez, Rajendra; Persing, John

    2013-10-01

    Brachioplasty has become a popular procedure to rejuvenate the upper arm, with its frequency increasing proportionately to the popularity of surgical weight loss procedures. The major complication of the procedure is undesirable, visible scarring. An ongoing, unresolved debate in the brachioplasty literature is the optimal placement of the brachioplasty scar. Some authors advocate a medially based incision along the bicipital groove, whereas others prefer to leave the scar posteriorly in the brachial sulcus. In addition, some advocate a sinusoidal scar over a straight-line closure. This study attempts to resolve the question of where and how to place the scar based on population surveys. Photographs were taken of a model with her arm progressively abducted at the shoulder to a level of 90 degrees, with the elbow progressively flexed to 90 degrees and the arm externally rotated. Anterior and posterior views were included. Using Photoshop, a brachioplasty scar was digitally created and placed on the arm first medially in the bicipital groove, then posteriorly in the brachial sulcus. Straight-line scars and sinusoidal scars were also compared in each position. Before creating a computer-generated image of the scars, the scar lines were marked with a marking pen to ensure they could be followed with movement of the model's arm. An online survey was then created and distributed and included multiple variables: position of the scar, length of scar vs residual deformity, and acceptability based on phase of scar in time (early vs late result). The scale was numerical from 1 to 5, with 1 being a very objectionable scar and 5 being a very acceptable scar. The survey was disseminated among the general public, plastic surgeons, and patients in the Yale Cosmetic Surgery Resident Clinic who were either seen in consultation for brachioplasty or who underwent the procedure. Electronic surveys were distributed to and completed by the general public (n = 117), local plastic surgery

  14. A systematic review of objective burn scar measurements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Chear; Dretzke, Janine; Grover, Liam; Logan, Ann; Moiemen, Naiem

    2016-01-01

    Problematic scarring remains a challenging aspect to address in the treatment of burns and can significantly affect the quality of life of the burn survivor. At present, there are few treatments available in the clinic to control adverse scarring, but experimental pharmacological anti-scarring strategies are now beginning to emerge. Their comparative success must be based on objective measurements of scarring, yet currently the clinical assessment of scars is not carried out systematically and is mostly based on subjective review of patients. However, several techniques and devices are being introduced that allow objective analysis of the burn scar. The aim of this article is to evaluate various objective measurement tools currently available and recommend a useful panel that is suitable for use in clinical trials of anti-scarring therapies. A systematic literature search was done using the Web of Science, PubMed and Cochrane databases. The identified devices were then classified and grouped according to the parameters they measured. The tools were then compared and assessed in terms of inter- and intra-rater reproducibility, ease of use and cost. After duplicates were removed, 5062 articles were obtained in the search. After further screening, 157 articles which utilised objective burn scar measurement systems or tools were obtained. The scar measurement devices can be broadly classified into those measuring colour, metric variables, texture, biomechanical properties and pathophysiological disturbances. Objective scar measurement tools allow the accurate and reproducible evaluation of scars, which is important for both clinical and scientific use. However, studies to evaluate their relative performance and merits of these tools are scarce, and there remain factors, such as itch and pain, which cannot be measured objectively. On reviewing the available evidence, a panel of devices for objective scar measurement is recommended consisting of the 3D cameras (Eykona

  15. Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain on Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Liu, Enqing; Guo, Jia; Pan, Lei; Li, Baojuan; Wang, Ping; Liu, Jin; Wang, Yue; Liu, Gongshu; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Hou, Lifang; Hu, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to evaluate the single and joint associations of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) with pregnancy outcomes in Tianjin, China. Methods Between June 2009 and May 2011, health care records of 33,973 pregnant women were collected and their children were measured for birth weight and birth length. The independent and joint associations of prepregnancy BMI and GWG based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines with the risks of pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were examined by using Logistic Regression. Results After adjustment for all confounding factors, maternal prepregnancy BMI was positively associated with risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, preterm delivery, large-for-gestational age infant (LGA), and macrosomia, and inversely associated with risks of small-for-gestational age infant (SGA) and low birth weight. Maternal excessive GWG was associated with increased risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, LGA, and macrosomia, and decreased risks of preterm delivery, SGA, and low birth weight. Maternal inadequate GWG was associated with increased risks of preterm delivery and SGA, and decreased risks of LGA and macrosomia, compared with maternal adequate GWG. Women with both prepregnancy obesity and excessive GWG had 2.2–5.9 folds higher risks of GDM, pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, LGA, and macrosomia compared with women with normal prepregnancy BMI and adequate GWG. Conclusions Maternal prepregnancy obesity and excessive GWG were associated with greater risks of pregnancy-induced hypertension, caesarean delivery, and greater infant size at birth. Health care providers should inform women to start the pregnancy with a BMI in the normal weight category and limit their GWG to the range specified for their prepregnancy BMI. PMID:24376527

  16. Cesarean scar defects: an underrecognized cause of abnormal uterine bleeding and other gynecologic complications.

    PubMed

    Tower, Amanda M; Frishman, Gary N

    2013-01-01

    The gynecologic sequelae due to deficient uterine scar healing after cesarean section are only recently being identified and described. These include conditions such as abnormal bleeding, pelvic pain, infertility, and cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy, as well as a potentially higher risk of complications and difficulties during gynecologic procedures such as uterine evacuation, hysterectomy, endometrial ablation, and insertion of an intrauterine device. The proposed mechanism of abnormal uterine bleeding is a pouch or "isthmocele" in the lower uterine segment that causes delayed menstrual bleeding. The prevalence of symptomatic or clinically relevant cesarean scar defects (CSDs) ranges from 19.4% to 88%. Possible risk factors for CSD include number of cesarean sections, uterine position, labor before cesarean section, and surgical technique used to close the uterine incision. There are no accepted guidelines for the diagnostic criteria of CSD. We propose that a CSD be defined on transvaginal ultrasound or saline infusion sonohysterography as a triangular hypoechoic defect in the myometrium at the site of the previous hysterotomy. We also propose a classification system to aid in standardized classification for future research. Surgical techniques for repair of CSD include laparoscopic excision, resectoscopic treatment, vaginal revision, and endometrial ablation. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of continuity of care by a primary midwife (caseload midwifery) on caesarean section rates in women of low obstetric risk: the COSMOS randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, H L; Forster, D A; Davey, M A; Farrell, T; Gold, L; Biro, M A; Albers, L; Flood, M; Oats, J; Waldenström, U

    2012-11-01

    To determine whether primary midwife care (caseload midwifery) decreases the caesarean section rate compared with standard maternity care. Randomised controlled trial. Tertiary-care women's hospital in Melbourne, Australia. A total of 2314 low-risk pregnant women. Women randomised to caseload received antenatal, intrapartum and postpartum care from a primary midwife with some care by 'back-up' midwives. Women randomised to standard care received either midwifery or obstetric-trainee care with varying levels of continuity, or community-based general practitioner care. caesarean birth. Secondary outcomes included instrumental vaginal births, analgesia, perineal trauma, induction of labour, infant admission to special/neonatal intensive care, gestational age, Apgar scores and birthweight. In total 2314 women were randomised-1156 to caseload and 1158 to standard care. Women allocated to caseload were less likely to have a caesarean section (19.4% versus 24.9%; risk ratio [RR] 0.78; 95% CI 0.67-0.91; P = 0.001); more likely to have a spontaneous vaginal birth (63.0% versus 55.7%; RR 1.13; 95% CI 1.06-1.21; P < 0.001); less likely to have epidural analgesia (30.5% versus 34.6%; RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.79-0.996; P = 0.04) and less likely to have an episiotomy (23.1% versus 29.4%; RR 0.79; 95% CI 0.67-0.92; P = 0.003). Infants of women allocated to caseload were less likely to be admitted to special or neonatal intensive care (4.0% versus 6.4%; RR 0.63; 95% CI 0.44-0.90; P = 0.01). No infant outcomes favoured standard care. In settings with a relatively high baseline caesarean section rate, caseload midwifery for women at low obstetric risk in early pregnancy shows promise for reducing caesarean births. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  18. Interventions for preventing nausea and vomiting in women undergoing regional anaesthesia for caesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, James D; Gyte, Gillian ML; Paranjothy, Shantini; Brown, Heather C; Broughton, Hannah K; Thomas, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Background Nausea and vomiting are distressing symptoms which are experienced commonly during caesarean section under regional anaesthesia and can also occur in the period following the procedure. Objectives To assess the efficacy of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions given prophylactically to prevent nausea and vomiting in women undergoing regional anaesthesia for caesarean section. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (27 February 2012) and reference lists of identified studies. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and excluded quasi-RCTs and cross-over studies. Data collection and analysis Review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and carried out data extraction. Data entry was checked. Main results Fifty-two studies met the inclusion criteria but only 41 studies, involving 5046 women, provided useable data for the review involving women having caesareans under regional anaesthesia. The majority of the studies involved women undergoing elective caesarean section. Only two studies included emergency surgery, however, they did not stratify data according to type of surgery. The studies covered numerous comparisons, but the majority of studies involved 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, dopamine receptor antagonists, corticosteroids or acupressure. Studies were mainly small and of unclear quality. Three classes of intervention were found to be effective in at least three out of four of our primary outcomes (intraoperative nausea, intraoperative vomiting, postoperative nausea and postoperative vomiting). These interventions were 5-HT3 antagonists, dopamine antagonists and sedatives. Other classes of intervention were effective for fewer than three of our primary outcomes. With 5-HT antagonists, we found a reduction in intraoperative nausea (average risk ratio (RR) 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 0.88, eight studies

  19. Ectopic Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you have risk factors for an ectopic pregnancy Causes A tubal pregnancy — the most common type of ectopic pregnancy — happens ... smoke, the greater the risk. Complications An ectopic pregnancy can cause your fallopian tube to burst open. Without treatment, ...

  20. Thirty years of the World Health Organization's target caesarean section rate: time to move on.

    PubMed

    Robson, Stephen J; de Costa, Caroline M

    2017-03-06

    It has been 30 years since the World Health Organization first recommended a "maximum" caesarean section (CS) rate of 15%. There are demographic differences across the 194 WHO member countries; recent analyses suggest the optimal global CS rate is almost 20%. Attempts to reduce CS rates in developed countries have not worked. The strongest predictor of caesarean delivery for the first birth of "low risk" women appears to be maternal age; a factor that continues to increase. Most women whose first baby is born by caesarean delivery will have all subsequent children by caesarean delivery. Outcomes that informed the WHO recommendation primarily relate to maternal and perinatal mortality, which are easy to measure. Longer term outcomes, such as pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence, are closely related to mode of birth, and up to 20% of women will undergo surgery for these conditions. Pelvic floor surgery is typically undertaken for older women who are less fit for surgery. Serious complications such as placenta accreta occur with repeat caesarean deliveries, but the odds only reach statistical significance at the third or subsequent caesarean delivery. However, in Australia, parity is falling, and only 20% of women will have more than two births. We should aim to provide CS to women in need and to continue including women in the conversation about the benefits and disadvantages, both short and long term, of birth by caesarean delivery.

  1. [An analysis of caesarean sections in Uruguay by type of hospital].

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Rafael; Antón, José-Ignacio; Triunfo, Patricia

    2018-04-20

    To analyse on a comparative basis the incidence of caesarean sections among the different health care systems in Uruguay and with respect to the World Health Organization's (WHO) standards, taking into account the medical-obstetric characteristics of the births, particularly, the Robson classification. We examine 190,847 births registered by the Perinatal Information System in Uruguay between 2009 and 2014 by type of health care system. Using logit models, we analyse the probability of caesarean section taking into account the Robson classification, other risk factors and the mothers' characteristics. We compared the caesarean rates predicted by the different subsystems for a common population. Furthermore, we contrast the caesarean rates observed in each subsystem with the rates that resulted if the Uruguayan hospitals followed the guidelines of the sample of WHO reference hospitals. Private health systems in Uruguay exhibit a much higher incidence of caesarean sections than public ones, even after considering the medical-obstetric characteristics of the births. Caesarean rates are more than 75% higher than those observed if the WHO standards are applied. Uruguay has a very high incidence of caesarean sections with respect to WHO standards, particularly, in the private sector. This fact is unrelated to the clinical characteristics of the births. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of chronic vocal fold scarring in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Bernard; Hirano, Shigeru; Chan, Roger W; Welham, Nathan V; Thibeault, Susan L; Ford, Charles N; Bless, Diane M

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the histologic and rheologic properties of the scarred vocal fold lamina propria during a chronic phase of wound repair in a rabbit model. Eighteen rabbit larynges were scarred using a procedure that involved stripping the vocal fold lamina propria down to the thyroarytenoid muscle, using 3-mm microforceps. The approximate dimension of injury to the vocal fold was 3 x 1.5 x 0.5 mm [length x width x depth]. At 6 months postoperatively, histologic analysis of the scarred and control lamina propria in eight of these rabbits was completed for collagen, procollagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid. Compared with control samples, scarred tissue samples revealed fragmented and disorganized elastin fibers. Additionally, collagen was significantly increased, organized, and formed thick bundles in the scarred vocal fold lamina propria. Measurements of the viscoelastic shear properties of the scarred and control lamina propria in the remaining 10 rabbits revealed increased elastic shear modulus (G') in 8 of 10 scarred samples and increased dynamic viscosity (eta') in 9 of 10 scarred samples. Although rheologic differences were not statistically significant, they revealed that on average, scarred samples were stiffer and more viscous than the normal controls. Histologic data are interpreted as indicating that by 6 months postinjury, the scarred rabbit vocal fold has reached a mature phase of wound repair, characterized by an increased, organized, and thick bundle collagen matrix. Rheologic data are interpreted as providing support for the potential role of increased, thick bundle collagen, and a disorganized elastin network on shear stiffness and dynamic viscosity in the chronic vocal fold scar. Based on these results, a 6-month postoperative time frame is proposed for future studies of chronic vocal fold scarring using the rabbit animal model.

  3. Analysis of state of vehicular scars on Arctic Tundra, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathram, E. H.

    1974-01-01

    Identification on ERTS images of severe vehicular scars in the northern Alaska tundra suggests that, if such scars are of an intensity or have spread to a dimension such that they can be resolved by ERTS sensors (20 meters), they can be identified and their state monitored by the use of ERTS images. Field review of the state of vehicular scars in the Umiat area indicates that all are revegetating at varying rates and are approaching a stable state.

  4. Inter-institutional Variation in Use of Caesarean Delivery for Labour Dystocia.

    PubMed

    Riddell, Corinne A; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Strumpf, Erin C; Abenhaim, Haim A; Kaufman, Jay S

    2017-11-01

    To establish the degree of variation across hospitals in the use of Caesarean delivery for the indication of labour dystocia before and after accounting for maternal, fetal, and hospital characteristics. This study was a retrospective, population-based cohort study of nulliparous women delivering term singletons in cephalic position following labour. Delivery visits were extracted from three provincial perinatal registries in the Canadian provinces of Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia, from 2008-2012. Crude hospital-specific rates of Caesarean delivery for labour dystocia were reported, and these rates were then stabilized to account for hospitals with low delivery volumes. Rates were then adjusted for maternal, fetal, and hospital characteristics using hierarchical logistic regression. Among 403 205 women delivering at 170 hospitals, the overall Caesarean delivery rate was 21.0%, and the rate of Caesarean delivery for labour dystocia was 12.7%, indicating that 60% of all Caesarean deliveries were performed in part for this indication. The middle 95% of hospitals had Caesarean delivery rates for labour dystocia ranging from 4.5% to 24.7%. Differences in maternal case mix and hospital characteristics explained only a small proportion of this variation (95% central range 6.3%-21.7%). Considerable inter-hospital variation in rates of Caesarean delivery for labour dystocia remained after accounting for differences in maternal and hospital factors. Reporting systems that monitor variation in inter-institutional rates should incorporate stabilization and adjustment for case-mix differences and consider indication-specific rates of Caesarean delivery to more fairly compare hospital performance and better target interventions to reduce Caesarean delivery for specific indications. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Mechanomodulatory Device to Minimize Incisional Scar Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Victor W.; Beasley, Bill; Zepeda, John; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.; Yock, Paul G.; Longaker, Michael T.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To mechanically control the wound environment and prevent cutaneous scar formation. Approach We subjected various material substrates to biomechanical testing to investigate their ability to modulate skin behavior. Combinations of elastomeric materials, adhesives, and strain applicators were evaluated to develop topical stress-shielding devices. Noninvasive imaging modalities were utilized to characterize anatomic site-specific differences in skin biomechanical properties in humans. The devices were tested in a validated large animal model of hypertrophic scarring. Phase I within-patient controlled clinical trials were conducted to confirm their safety and efficacy in scar reduction in patients undergoing abdominoplasty surgery. Results Among the tested materials and device applicators, a polymer device was developed that effectively off-loaded high tension wounds and blocked pro-fibrotic pathways and excess scar formation in red Duroc swine. In humans, different anatomic sites exhibit unique biomechanical properties that may correlate with the propensity to form scars. In the clinical trial, utilization of this device significantly reduced incisional scar formation and improved scar appearance for up to 12 months compared with control incisions that underwent routine postoperative care. Innovation This is the first device that is able to precisely control the mechanical environment of incisional wounds and has been demonstrated in multiple clinical trials to significantly reduce scar formation after surgery. Conclusion Mechanomodulatory strategies to control the incisional wound environment can significantly reduce pathologic scarring and fibrosis after surgery. PMID:24527342

  6. Interactive visualization for scar transmurality in cardiac resynchronization therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiml, Sabrina; Toth, Daniel; Panayiotou, Maria; Fahn, Bernhard; Karim, Rashed; Behar, Jonathan M.; Rinaldi, Christopher A.; Razavi, Reza; Rhode, Kawal S.; Brost, Alexander; Mountney, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Heart failure is a serious disease affecting about 23 million people worldwide. Cardiac resynchronization therapy is used to treat patients suffering from symptomatic heart failure. However, 30% to 50% of patients have limited clinical benefit. One of the main causes is suboptimal placement of the left ventricular lead. Pacing in areas of myocardial scar correlates with poor clinical outcomes. Therefore precise knowledge of the individual patient's scar characteristics is critical for delivering tailored treatments capable of improving response rates. Current research methods for scar assessment either map information to an alternative non-anatomical coordinate system or they use the image coordinate system but lose critical information about scar extent and scar distribution. This paper proposes two interactive methods for visualizing relevant scar information. A 2-D slice based approach with a scar mask overlaid on a 16 segment heart model and a 3-D layered mesh visualization which allows physicians to scroll through layers of scar from endocardium to epicardium. These complementary methods enable physicians to evaluate scar location and transmurality during planning and guidance. Six physicians evaluated the proposed system by identifying target regions for lead placement. With the proposed method more target regions could be identified.

  7. NEW MOLECULAR MEDICINE-BASED SCAR MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

    PubMed Central

    Arno, Anna I; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Barret, Juan P; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are prevalent disabling conditions with still suboptimal treatments. Basic science and molecular-based medicine research has contributed to unravel new bench-to-bedside scar therapies, and to dissect the complex signaling pathways involved. Peptides such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, with SMADs, Ski, SnoN, Fussels, endoglin, DS-Sily, Cav-1p, AZX100, thymosin-β4 and other related molecules may emerge as targets to prevent and treat keloids and hypertrophic scars. The aim of this review is to describe the basic complexity of these new molecular scar management strategies, and point out new fibrosis research lines. PMID:24438742

  8. Quantitative analysis of a scar's pliability, perfusion and metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Mariacarla; Sevilla, Nicole; Chue-Sang, Joseph; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2017-02-01

    The primary effect of scarring is the loss of function in the affected area. Scarring also leads to physical and psychological problems that could be devastating to the patient's life. Currently, scar assessment is highly subjective and physician dependent. The examination relies on the expertise of the physician to determine the characteristics of the scar by touch and visual examination using the Vancouver scar scale (VSS), which categorizes scars depending on pigmentation, pliability, height and vascularity. In order to establish diagnostic guidelines for scar formation, a quantitative, accurate assessment method needs to be developed. An instrument capable of measuring all categories was developed; three of the aforementioned parameters will be explored. In order to look at pliability, a durometer which measures the amount of resistance a surface exerts to prevent the permanent indentation of the surface is used due to its simplicity and quantitative output. To look at height and vascularity, a profilometry system that collects the location of the scar in three-dimensions and laser speckle imaging (LSI), which shows the dynamic changes in perfusion, respectively, are used. Gelatin phantoms were utilized to measure pliability. Finally, dynamic changes in skin perfusion of volunteers' forearms undergoing pressure cuff occlusion were measured, along with incisional scars.

  9. Psychometric properties of the Brisbane Burn Scar Impact Profile in adults with burn scars

    PubMed Central

    Kimble, Roy; McPhail, Steven; Plaza, Anita; Simons, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to determine the longitudinal validity, reproducibility, responsiveness and interpretability of the adult version of the Brisbane Burn Scar Impact Profile, a patient-report measure of health-related quality of life. Methods A prospective longitudinal cohort study of patients with or at risk of burn scarring was conducted at three assessment points (at baseline around the time of wound healing, one to two weeks post-baseline and 1-month post-baseline). Participants attending a major metropolitan adult burn centre at baseline were recruited. Participants completed the Brisbane Burn Scar Impact Profile and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey and Patient Observer Scar Assessment Scale. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICCs), smallest detectable change, percentage of those who improved, stayed the same or worsened and Area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (AUC) were used to test the aim. Results Data were included for 118 participants at baseline, 68 participants at one to two weeks and 57 participants at 1-month post-baseline. All groups of items had acceptable reproducibility, except for the overall impact of burn scars (ICC = 0.69), the impact of sensations which was not expected to be stable (ICC = 0.63), mobility and daily activities (ICC = 0.63, 0.67 respectively). The responsiveness of six out of seven groups of items able to be tested against external criterion was supported (AUC = 0.72–0.75). Hypothesised correlations of changes in the Brisbane Burn Scar Impact Profile items with changes in criterion measures generally supported longitudinal validity (e.g., nine out of thirteen hypotheses using the SF-36 as an external criterion were supported). Internal consistency estimates, item-total and inter-item correlations indicated there was likely redundancy of some groups of items, particularly in the relationships and social interaction, appearance and emotional reactions items (Chronbach’s alpha range

  10. Comparison of results of Bakri balloon tamponade and caesarean hysterectomy in management of placenta accreta and increta: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Pala, Şehmus; Atilgan, Remzi; Başpınar, Melike; Kavak, Ebru Çelik; Yavuzkır, Şeyda; Akyol, Alparslan; Kavak, Burçin

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the postoperative results of the patients who were treated with Bakri balloon tamponade or hysterectomy for placenta accreta and increta. Patients who were diagnosed with placenta accreta or increta preoperatively and intraoperatively and treated with Bakri balloon tamponade (Group 1) or caesarean hysterectomy (Group 2) were compared in regards to the postoperative results. Among the 36 patients diagnosed with placenta accreta or increta, 19 patients were treated with Bakri balloon tamponade while 17 cases were treated with hysterectomy. Intraoperative blood loss amount was 1794 ± 725 ml in G1, which was lower than that in G2 (2694 ± 893 ml). Blood transfusion amount was 2.7 ± 2.6 units in G1, lower than that in G2 (5.7 ± 2.4 units), too. Operation time was 64.5 ± 29 min and 140 ± 51 min in G1 and G2, respectively, showing significant differences between two groups. The success rate of Bakri balloon was determined as 84.21%. In conclusion, cases with placenta accreta/increta, with predicted placental detachment who are willing to preserve fertility, application of uterine balloon tamponade devices before the hysterectomy is encouraging with its advantages compared with the hysterectomy. Impact statement What is already known on this subject: Invasive placental anomalies are the most common indication of postpartum hysterectomy. Recently, uterine balloon tamponade was also included in the treatment modalities of postpartum haemorrhage.This study aimed to compare the postoperative results of UBT or hysterectomy for patients with placenta accreta and increta. What the results of this study add: In this study, the total amount of blood loss was higher in the caesarean hysterectomy group when compared with the Bakri balloon tamponade group. The mean transfusion requirement, mean operation time and hospitalisation period was significantly longer in the caesarean hysterectomy group. The success

  11. Cardiac arrest during a twin birth caesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Pampín-Huerta, F R; Moreira-Gómez, D; Lozano-Requelme, M L; Molina-Nieto, F; Fontán-García-Boente, L; Moreira-Pacheco, M

    2016-04-01

    The case of a 35 year-old pregnant woman with a right ovarian vein thrombosis complicated with a floating thrombus in the inferior vena cava reaching the right atrium, is presented. The patient had a cardiac arrest due to a pulmonary embolism during a twin-birth caesarean delivery. Discussion includes the pathophysiology of this condition and management options in a cardiac arrest secondary to this aetiology, recovered with stable blood pressure, highlighting the role of thrombolytic therapy in the Postoperative Care Unit in this situation. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. ‘Groping through the fog’: a metasynthesis of women's experiences on VBAC (Vaginal birth after Caesarean section)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vaginal birth after Caesarean section (VBAC) is a relevant question for a large number of women due to the internationally rising Caesarean section (CS) rate. There is a great deal of research based on quantitative studies but few qualitative studies about women's experiences. Method A metasynthesis based on the interpretative meta ethnography method was conducted. The inclusion criterion was peer-review qualitative articles from different disciplines about women's experiences of VBAC. Eleven articles were checked for quality, and eight articles were included in the synthesis. Results The included studies were from Australia (four), UK (three), and US (one), and studied women's experience in relation to different aspects of VBAC; decision-making whether to give birth vaginally, the influence of health professionals on decision-making, reason for trying a vaginal birth, experiences when choosing VBAC, experiences of giving birth vaginally, and giving birth with CS when preferring VBAC. The main results are presented with the metaphor groping through the fog; for the women the issue of VBAC is like being in a fog, where decision-making and information from the health care system and professionals, both during pregnancy and the birth, is unclear and contrasting. The results are further presented with four themes: ‘to be involved in decision about mode of delivery is difficult but important,’ ‘vaginal birth has several positive aspects mainly described by women,’ ‘vaginal birth after CS is a risky project,’ and ‘own strong responsibility for giving birth vaginally'. Conclusion In order to promote VBAC, more studies are needed from different maternity settings and countries about women's experiences. Women need evidence-based information not only about the risks involved but also positive aspects of VBAC. PMID:22909230

  13. Video ethnography during and after caesarean sections: methodological challenges.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jeni; Schmied, Virginia; Burns, Elaine; Dahlen, Hannah G

    2017-07-01

    To describe the challenges of, and steps taken to successfully collect video ethnographic data during and after caesarean sections. Video ethnographic research uses real-time video footage to study a cultural group or phenomenon in the natural environment. It allows researchers to discover previously undocumented practices, which in-turn provides insight into strengths and weaknesses in practice. This knowledge can be used to translate evidence-based interventions into practice. Video ethnographic design. A video ethnographic approach was used to observe the contact between mothers and babies immediately after elective caesarean sections in a tertiary hospital in Sydney, Australia. Women, their support people and staff participated in the study. Data were collected via video footage and field notes in the operating theatre, recovery and the postnatal ward. Challenges faced whilst conducting video ethnographic research included attaining ethics approval, recruiting vast numbers of staff members and 'vulnerable' pregnant women, and endeavouring to be a 'fly on the wall' and a 'complete observer'. There were disadvantages being an 'insider' whilst conducting the research because occasionally staff members requested help with clinical tasks whilst collecting data; however, it was an advantage as it enabled ease of access to the environment and staff members that were to be recruited. Despite the challenges, video ethnographic research enabled the provision of unique data that could not be attained by any other means. Video ethnographic data are beneficial as it provides exceptionally rich data for in-depth analysis of interactions between the environment, equipment and people in the hospital environment. The analysis of this type of data can then be used to inform improvements for future care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. [Pelvic floor and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Fritel, X

    2010-05-01

    Congenital factor, obesity, aging, pregnancy and childbirth are the main risk factors for female pelvic floor disorders (urinary incontinence, anal incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, dyspareunia). Vaginal delivery may cause injury to the pudendal nerve, the anal sphincter, or the anal sphincter. However the link between these injuries and pelvic floor symptoms is not always determined and we still ignore what might be the ways of prevention. Of the many obstetrical methods proposed to prevent postpartum symptoms, episiotomy, delivery in vertical position, delayed pushing, perineal massage, warm pack, pelvic floor rehabilitation, results are disappointing or limited. Caesarean section is followed by less postnatal urinary incontinence than vaginal childbirth. However this difference tends to disappear with time and following childbirth. Limit the number of instrumental extractions and prefer the vacuum to forceps could reduce pelvic floor disorders after childbirth. Ultrasound examination of the anal sphincter after a second-degree perineal tear is useful to detect and repair infra-clinic anal sphincter lesions. Scientific data is insufficient to justify an elective cesarean section in order to avoid pelvic floor symptoms in a woman without previous disorders. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Management of scars: updated practical guidelines and use of silicones.

    PubMed

    Meaume, Sylvie; Le Pillouer-Prost, Anne; Richert, Bertrand; Roseeuw, Diane; Vadoud, Javid

    2014-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars and keloids resulting from surgery, burns, trauma and infection can be associated with substantial physical and psychological distress. Various non-invasive and invasive options are currently available for the prevention and treatment of these scars. Recently, an international multidisciplinary group of 24 experts on scar management (dermatologists; plastic and reconstructive surgeons; general surgeons; physical medicine, rehabilitation and burns specialists; psychosocial and behavioural researchers; epidemiologists; beauticians) convened to update a set of practical guidelines for the prevention and treatment of hypertrophic and keloid scars on the basis of the latest published clinical evidence on existing scar management options. Silicone-based products such as sheets and gels are recommended as the gold standard, first-line, non-invasive option for both the prevention and treatment of scars. Other general scar preventative measures include avoiding sun exposure, compression therapy, taping and the use of moisturisers. Invasive treatment options include intralesional injections of corticosteroids and/or 5-fluorouracil, cryotherapy, radiotherapy, laser therapy and surgical excision. All of these options may be used alone or as part of combination therapy. Of utmost importance is the regular re-evaluation of patients every four to eight weeks to evaluate whether additional treatment is warranted. The amount of scar management measures that are applied to each wound depends on the patient's risk of developing a scar and their level of concern about the scar's appearance. The practical advice presented in the current guidelines should be combined with clinical judgement when deciding on the most appropriate scar management measures for an individual patient.

  16. Reliable scar scoring system to assess photographs of burn patients.

    PubMed

    Mecott, Gabriel A; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M; Branski, Ludwik K; Hegde, Sachin; Kraft, Robert; Williams, Felicia N; Maldonado, Susana A; Rivero, Haidy G; Rodriguez-Escobar, Noe; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-12-01

    Several scar-scoring scales exist to clinically monitor burn scar development and maturation. Although scoring scars through direct clinical examination is ideal, scars must sometimes be scored from photographs. No scar scale currently exists for the latter purpose. We modified a previously described scar scale (Yeong et al., J Burn Care Rehabil 1997) and tested the reliability of this new scale in assessing burn scars from photographs. The new scale consisted of three parameters as follows: scar height, surface appearance, and color mismatch. Each parameter was assigned a score of 1 (best) to 4 (worst), generating a total score of 3-12. Five physicians with burns training scored 120 representative photographs using the original and modified scales. Reliability was analyzed using coefficient of agreement, Cronbach alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient, variance, and coefficient of variance. Analysis of variance was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Color mismatch and scar height scores were validated by analyzing actual height and color differences. The intraclass correlation coefficient, the coefficient of agreement, and Cronbach alpha were higher for the modified scale than those of the original scale. The original scale produced more variance than that in the modified scale. Subanalysis demonstrated that, for all categories, the modified scale had greater correlation and reliability than the original scale. The correlation between color mismatch scores and actual color differences was 0.84 and between scar height scores and actual height was 0.81. The modified scar scale is a simple, reliable, and useful scale for evaluating photographs of burn patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Short hospitalization after caesarean delivery: effects on maternal pain and stress at discharge.

    PubMed

    Zanardo, Vincenzo; Giliberti, Lara; Volpe, Francesca; Simbi, Alphonse; Guerrini, Pietro; Parotto, Matteo; Straface, Gianluca

    2018-09-01

    To characterize predischarge maternal pain and stress after caesarean delivery and short hospitalization. This is a descriptive study with 60 women in the postoperative period of caesarean section and 60 control women after vaginal delivery. Pain and stress were measured by McGill Pain Questionnaire (MGPQ) and by the Stress Measure (Psychological Stress Measure (PSM)), respectively, at mother-infant dyad discharge, scheduled at 36 hours after delivery. Caesarean section was the delivery modality with the highest MGPQ pain and sensorial, evaluative and mixed pain descriptive categories scores. The pain location involved lower abdomen, with associated localizations at back, breast and shoulders. Conversely, vaginal delivery was the delivery modality with the highest stress scores. This study provides important information on the quality of care implications of early discharge practices in puerperae after caesarean delivery, a critical time characterized by qualitatively and quantitatively high pain and stress.

  18. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy on scar tissue.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carla P; Melo, Cristina; Alexandrino, Ana M; Noites, Andreia

    2013-06-01

    Physiotherapy has a very important role in the maintenance of the integumentary system integrity. There is very few evidence in humans. Nevertheless, there are some studies about tissue regeneration using low-level laser therapy (LLLT). To analyze the effectiveness of LLLT on scar tissue. Seventeen volunteers were stratified by age of their scars, and then randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG) - n = 9 - and a placebo group (PG) - n = 8. Fifteen sessions were conducted to both the groups thrice a week. However, in the PG, the laser device was switched off. Scars' thickness, length, width, macroscopic aspect, pain threshold, pain perception, and itching were measured. After 5 weeks, there were no statistically significant differences in any variable between both the groups. However, analyzing independently each group, EG showed a significant improvement in macroscopic aspect (p = 0.003) using LLLT. Taking into account the scars' age, LLLT showed a tendency to decrease older scars' thickness in EG. The intervention with LLLT appears to have a positive effect on the macroscopic scars' appearance, and on old scars' thickness, in the studied sample. However, it cannot be said for sure that LLLT has influence on scar tissue.

  19. Macroanatomy of compartmentalization in fire scars of three western conifers

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith; Elaine Sutherland; Estelle Arbellay; Markus Stoffel; Donald Falk

    2013-01-01

    Fire scars are visible evidence of compartmentalization and closure processes that contribute to tree survival after fire injury. Preliminary observations of dissected fire scars from trees injured within the last decade showed centripetal development of wound-initiated discoloration (WID) through 2-3 decades of former sapwood in Larix occidentalis and Pseudotsuga...

  20. The distribution and implications of BCG scars in northern Malawi.

    PubMed Central

    Fine, P. E.; Ponnighaus, J. M.; Maine, N.

    1989-01-01

    Reported are data on the BCG scar status of more than 112,000 individuals who were surveyed in Karonga District, northern Malawi, between 1979 and 1984. The age and sex patterns of apparent BCG scars reflect the history of BCG vaccination activities in the district. Repeated independent examinations of large numbers of people revealed that the proportions remaining with the same observed scar status among those initially classified as being scar "positive" or scar "negative" were each approximately 90%. The repeatability of positive scar reading was lower among children and older adults than among young adults aged 15-24 years, and blind follow-up of children known to have been vaccinated as infants in child health clinics indicated that less than 60% had a detectable scar 3 years after receiving the vaccine. "Negative" repeatability increased consistently with age. The implications of these findings for estimating BCG vaccine uptake and for assessing its efficacy in case-control and cohort studies are discussed. The finding that BCG scars may be difficult to read suggests there is a danger of observer bias that could lead to distortion--in particular, to overestimates of vaccine efficacy. PMID:2706726

  1. Topical modalities for treatment and prevention of postsurgical hypertrophic scars.

    PubMed

    Foo, Chong Wee; Tristani-Firouzi, Payam

    2011-08-01

    There is no universally accepted treatment regimen and no evidence-based literature to guide management of hypertrophic scars. This article summarizes the existing literature regarding topical treatments such as silicone gel sheeting and ointment, onion extract, vitamin E, pressure garment therapy, massage therapy, and topical imiquimod 5% cream in the management of hypertrophic scars. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Trachomatous Scar Ranking: A Novel Outcome for Trachoma Studies.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Angela; Ryner, Alexander M; Tadesse, Zerihun; Shiferaw, Ayalew; Callahan, Kelly; Fry, Dionna M; Zhou, Zhaoxia; Lietman, Thomas M; Keenan, Jeremy D

    2017-06-01

    AbstractWe evaluated a new trachoma scarring ranking system with potential use in clinical research. The upper right tarsal conjunctivas of 427 individuals from Ethiopian villages with hyperendemic trachoma were photographed. An expert grader first assigned a scar grade to each photograph using the 1981 World Health Organization (WHO) grading system. Then, all photographs were ranked from least (rank = 1) to most scarring (rank = 427). Photographic grading found 79 (18.5%) conjunctivae without scarring (C0), 191 (44.7%) with minimal scarring (C1), 105 (24.6%) with moderate scarring (C2), and 52 (12.2%) with severe scarring (C3). The ranking method demonstrated good internal validity, exhibiting a monotonic increase in the median rank across the levels of the 1981 WHO grading system. Intrarater repeatability was better for the ranking method (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.74-0.94). Exhibiting better internal and external validity, this ranking method may be useful for evaluating the difference in scarring between groups of individuals.

  3. Predicting fire scars in Ozark timber species following prescribed burning

    Treesearch

    Aaron P. Stevenson; Richard P. Guyette; Rose-Marie Muzika

    2009-01-01

    A potential consequence of using prescribed fire is heat-related injury to timber trees. Scars formed following fire injuries are often associated with extensive decay in hardwoods. The ability to predict scarring caused by prescribed fire is important when multiple management goals are incorporated on a single forest site.

  4. External charring and fire scarring in three western conifers

    Treesearch

    E. K. Sutherland; Josh Farella; David K Wright; Ian Hyp; K. T. Smith; Donald A. Falk; Estelle Arbellay; Markus Stoffel

    2013-01-01

    Fires that injure but do not kill trees cause scars used as proxies for the reconstruction of wildfire history. Understanding about these wildfires - and their relationship to vegetation dynamics and climate - has profoundly affected wildfire and land management policy globally. To better understand scarring in the context of wildfire behavior, landscape and biological...

  5. Making sense of hypertrophic scar: a role for nerves.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jeffrey R; Muangman, Pornprom; Gibran, Nicole S

    2007-01-01

    Healed partial thickness wounds including burns and donor sites cause hypertrophic scar formation and patient discomfort. For many patients with hypertrophic scars, pruritus is the most distressing symptom, which leads to wound excoriation and chronic wound formation. In spite of the clinical significance of abnormal innervation in scars, the nervous system has been largely ignored in the pathophysiology of hypertrophic scars. Evidence that neuropeptides contribute to inflammatory responses to injury include inflammatory cell chemotaxis, cytokine and growth factor production. The neuropeptide substance P, which is released from nerve endings after injury, induces inflammation and mediates angiogenesis, keratinocyte proliferation, and fibrogenesis. Substance P activity is tightly regulated by neutral endopeptidase (NEP), a membrane bound metallopeptidase that degrades substance P at the cell membrane. Altered substance P levels may contribute to impaired cutaneous healing responses associated with diabetes mellitus or hypertrophic scar formation. Topical application of exogenous substance P or an NEP inhibitor enhances wound closure kinetics in diabetic murine wounds suggesting that diabetic wounds have insufficient substance P levels to promote a neuroinflammatory response necessary for normal wound repair. Conversely, increased nerve numbers and neuropeptide levels with reduced NEP levels in human and porcine hypertrophic scar samples suggest that excessive neuropeptide activity induces exuberant inflammation in hypertrophic scars. Given these observations about the role of neuropeptides in cutaneous repair, neuronal modulation of repair processes at two extremes of abnormal wound healing, chronic non-healing ulcers in type II diabetes mellitus and hypertrophic scars in deep partial thickness wounds, may provide therapeutic targets.

  6. Cutaneous Scarring: Basic Science, Current Treatments, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Clement D; Hu, Michael S; Leavitt, Tripp; Barnes, Leandra A; Lorenz, H Peter; Longaker, Michael T

    2018-02-01

    Significance: Scarring of the skin from burns, surgery, and injury constitutes a major burden on the healthcare system. Patients affected by major scars, particularly children, suffer from long-term functional and psychological problems. Recent Advances: Scarring in humans is the end result of the wound healing process, which has evolved to rapidly repair injuries. Wound healing and scar formation are well described on the cellular and molecular levels, but truly effective molecular or cell-based antiscarring treatments still do not exist. Recent discoveries have clarified the role of skin stem cells and fibroblasts in the regeneration of injuries and formation of scar. Critical Issues: It will be important to show that new advances in the stem cell and fibroblast biology of scarring can be translated into therapies that prevent and reduce scarring in humans without major side effects. Future Directions: Novel therapies involving the use of purified human cells as well as agents that target specific cells and modulate the immune response to injury are currently undergoing testing. In the basic science realm, researchers continue to refine our understanding of the role that particular cell types play in the development of scar.

  7. The genital herpes problem in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Guerra, B; Puccetti, C; Cervi, F

    2012-10-01

    Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted infection. In reproductive age it involves the additional risk of vertical transmission to the neonate. Rates of transmission are affected by the viral type and whether the infection around delivery is primary or recurrent. Neonatal herpes is a rare but very severe complication of genital herpes infection and is caused by contact with infected genital secretions at the time of labor. Maternal acquisition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the third trimester of pregnancy carries the highest risk of neonatal transmission. Prevention of neonatal herpes depends on preventing acquisition of genital HSV infection during late pregnancy and avoiding exposure of the infant to herpetic lesions during delivery. Uninfected woman should be counselled about the need of avoiding sexual contact during the third trimester. Elective caesarean section before the onset of labor is the choice mode of delivery for women with genital lesions or with prodromal symptoms near the term, even if it offers only a partial protection against neonatal infection. Antiviral suppressive therapy is used from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in pregnant women with recurrences to prevent genital lesions at the time of labor so reducing the need of caesarean sections. Currently, routine maternal serologic screening is not yet recommended. Because most mothers of infants who acquire neonatal herpes lack histories of clinically evident genital herpes, researchers should focus on the recognition of asymptomatic primary genital HSV infections.

  8. 'My pain was stronger than my happiness': experiences of caesarean births from Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Kabakian-Khasholian, Tamar

    2013-11-01

    the rising trends in caesarean section have been partially attributed to women's requests. Many studies in developed and very few in developing countries have attempted to understand this phenomenon. This qualitative study explores experiences of women having caesarean section on demand in a middle-income country with a private health-care system. an inductive qualitative design, using face-to-face semi-structured interviews. women were identified and recruited through a perinatal database and selected obstetricians' clinics in the Greater Beirut area in Lebanon. a purposive sample of women who had a caesarean childbirth within the four months preceding the interview, were visited for an interview at home using a semi-structured interview guide. Thematic content analysis was conducted on a sub-sample of 22 women who requested a caesarean birth. lack of information about caesarean sections fosters women's fear from labour pain and acts as the main impetus for women to consider caesareans as the pain free alternative. Findings reveal health-care providers' role in reinforcing beliefs about caesarean sections being the way for pain free deliveries by overestimating the safety of the procedure and disregarding postpartum health issues. caesarean birth is presented to women as a safe option for 'pain free' childbirth. This needs to be considered within the cultural context of understanding safety and pain as well as the dynamics of power in maternity care. Health-care professionals need to explore these dimensions and promote women's informed choice as well as encouraging the normality of birth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Incidence of post-operative adhesions following Misgav Ladach caesarean section--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Fatusić, Zlatan; Hudić, Igor

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the incidence of peritoneal adhesions as a post-operative complication after caesarean section following the Misgav Ladach method and compare it with peritoneal adhesions following traditional caesarean section methods (Pfannenstiel-Dörffler, low midline laparotomy-Dörffler). The analysis is retrospective and is based on medical documentation of the Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Clinical Centre, Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina (data from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2005). We analysed previous caesarean section dependent on caesarean section method (200 by Misgav Ladach method, 100 by Pfannenstiel-Dörffler method and 100 caesarean section by low midline laparotomy-Dörffler). Adhesion scores were assigned using a previously validated scoring system. We found statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in incidence of peritoneal adhesions in second and third caesarean section between Misgav Ladach method and the Pfannestiel-Dörffler and low midline laparotomy-Dörffler method. Difference in incidence of peritoneal adhesions between low midline laparotomy-Dörffler and Pfannenstiel-Dörffler method was not statistically different (p > 0.05). The mean pelvic adhesion score was statistically lower in Misgav Ladach group (0.43 +/- 0.79) than the mean score in the Pfannestiel-Dörffler (0.71 +/- 1.27) and low midline laparotomy-Dörffler groups (0.99 +/- 1.49) (p < 0.05). Our study showed that Misgav Ladach method of caesarean section makes possible lower incidence of peritoneal adhesions as post-operative complication of previous caesarean section.

  10. Implications of caesarean section for children's school achievement: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Smithers, Lisa G; Mol, Ben W; Wilkinson, Chris; Lynch, John W

    2016-08-01

    Caesarean birth is one of the most frequently performed major obstetrical interventions. Although there is speculation that caesarean at term may have consequences for children's later health and development, longer-term studies are needed. We aimed to evaluate risks to poor school achievement among children born by caesarean section compared with spontaneous vaginal birth. This population-based observational study involved linkage of routinely collected perinatal data with children's school assessments. Perinatal data included all children born in South Australia from 1999 to 2005. Participants were children born by elective caesarean (exposed, n = 650) or vaginal birth (unexposed, n = 2959), to women who previously had a caesarean delivery. School assessments were reported via a standardised national assessment program for children attending grade three (at ~eight years of age). Assessments included reading, writing, spelling, grammar and numeracy and were categorised according to performing at above or ≤National Minimum Standards (NMS). Statistical analyses involved augmented inverse probability weighting (apiw) and accounted for a range of maternal, perinatal and sociodemographic characteristics. Children performing ≤NMS for vaginal birth versus caesarean section were as follows: reading 144/640 (23%) and 688/2921 (24%), writing 69/636(11%) and 351/2917 (12%), spelling 128/646 (20%) and 684/2937 (23%), grammar 132/646 (20%) and 655/2937 (22%), and numeracy 151/634 (24%) and 729/2922 (25%). Both the raw data and the aipw analyses suggested little differences in school achievement between children born by caesarean versus vaginal birth. Analyses that carefully controlled for a wide range of confounders suggest that caesarean section does not increase the risk of poor school outcomes at age eight. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. Maternal accounts of their breast-feeding intent and early challenges after caesarean childbirth.

    PubMed

    Tully, Kristin P; Ball, Helen L

    2014-06-01

    breast-feeding outcomes are often worse after caesarean section compared to vaginal childbirth. this study characterises mothers' breast-feeding intentions and their infant feeding experiences after caesarean childbirth. data are from 115 mothers on a postnatal unit in Northeast England during February 2006-March 2009. Interviews were conducted an average of 1.5 days (range 1-6 days) after the women underwent unscheduled or scheduled caesarean. thematic analysis of the data suggested was mostly considered the 'right thing to do,' preferable, natural, and 'supposedly healthier,' but tiring and painful. Advantages of supplementation involved more satiated infants, feeding ease, and longer sleep bouts. The need for 'thinking about yourself' was part of caesarean recovery. Infrequent feeding was concerning but also enabled maternal rest. Other breast-feeding obstacles were maternal mobility limitations, positioning difficulties, and frustration at the need for assistance. Participants were confused about nocturnal infant wakings, leading many to determine that they had insufficient milk. Mothers were surprised that sub-clinically poor infant condition was common following caesarean section. Some breast-feeding difficulty stemmed from 'mucus' expulsion that had to occur before the infants could be 'interested' in feeding. Women who cited motivations for breast feeding that included benefit to themselves were more likely to exclusively breast feed on the postnatal unit after their caesareans than those who reported infant-only motivations. for the majority of mothers, breast feeding after a caesarean is affected by interrelated and compounding difficulties. Provision of more relational breast-feeding information may enable families to better anticipate early feeding experiences after caesarean section childbirth. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The incidence of caesarean sections in the university clinical center of kosovo.

    PubMed

    Elshani, Brikene; Daci, Armond; Gashi, Sanije; Lulaj, Shefqet

    2012-12-01

    As in most countries of the world also at Kosovo the rate of Cesarean section from year to year is increasing. The main purpose of this paper was to present the incidence of births completed by Caesarean section at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics of University Clinical Center of Kosovo in Prishtinë. This study is retrospective, namely its made by collecting epidemiological data from patients' histories that completed birth by Caesarean section for the period 2000-2006 in this clinic. During this period, 14 maternal deaths were recorded during or after Caesarean section. Besides this, 14 lethal outcomes, the object of our study was 84 mothers which completed birth by Caesarean section and which are best used as a control group. The average age of mothers who died during or after Caesarean section was 32.1 years (SD ± 4.9). Youngest in this group was 24 years old and oldest 42 years. While the average age of mothers from the control group was 30.6 years (SD ± 5.9). Youngest was 19 and oldest 43 years, without significant difference. Most mothers included in the survey had more than one indication for Caesarean section. The most frequent indication was PIH syndrome with 33.7% and previous Caesarean section in 32.7%. Then with the participation of 12.2% were abruption of the placenta and disproportio feto pelvinea, 11.2% pelvinea and placenta praevia presentation, 10.2% parturiens while other indications were much rarer with less than 10% participation. Based on this we can conclude that the risk of the Caesarean section is high.

  13. THE INCIDENCE OF CAESAREAN SECTIONS IN THE UNIVERSITY CLINICAL CENTER OF KOSOVO

    PubMed Central

    Elshani, Brikene; Daci, Armond; Gashi, Sanije; Lulaj, Shefqet

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: As in most countries of the world also at Kosovo the rate of Cesarean section from year to year is increasing. Aim: The main purpose of this paper was to present the incidence of births completed by Caesarean section at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics of University Clinical Center of Kosovo in Prishtinë. Material and methods: This study is retrospective, namely its made by collecting epidemiological data from patients’ histories that completed birth by Caesarean section for the period 2000-2006 in this clinic. Results and discussion: During this period, 14 maternal deaths were recorded during or after Caesarean section. Besides this, 14 lethal outcomes, the object of our study was 84 mothers which completed birth by Caesarean section and which are best used as a control group. The average age of mothers who died during or after Caesarean section was 32.1 years (SD ± 4.9). Youngest in this group was 24 years old and oldest 42 years. While the average age of mothers from the control group was 30.6 years (SD ± 5.9). Youngest was 19 and oldest 43 years, without significant difference. Most mothers included in the survey had more than one indication for Caesarean section. The most frequent indication was PIH syndrome with 33.7% and previous Caesarean section in 32.7%. Then with the participation of 12.2% were abruption of the placenta and disproportio feto pelvinea, 11.2% pelvinea and placenta praevia presentation, 10.2% parturiens while other indications were much rarer with less than 10% participation. Conclusion: Based on this we can conclude that the risk of the Caesarean section is high. PMID:23378692

  14. Reproductive performance in the next pregnancy for nulliparous women with history of first trimester spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    El Behery, Manal M; Siam, Soha; Seksaka, Mahmoud A; Ibrahim, Zakia M

    2013-10-01

    To determine whether interpregnancy interval after the first spontaneous abortion has an effect on reproductive performance of women in their next pregnancy. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 4,619 women with history of spontaneous abortion in their first pregnancy. Of them 2,422 (52.4 %) conceived within 6 months of the miscarriage (group A) and 2,197 47.6 % after 12 months (group B). The primary outcome was abortion, live birth, termination, or ectopic pregnancy in the next pregnancy. Secondary outcomes were preterm delivery, low birth weight infants, caesarean section rate and occurrence of preeclampsia, placental abruption and induced labour in the second pregnancy. Women who conceived again within 6 months were less likely to have another abortion, termination, or ectopic pregnancy compared with women with interpregnancy interval more than 12 months. Women with an interpregnancy interval more than 12 months were less likely to have live birth in the second pregnancy and more likely to have a caesarean section, preterm delivery, or infant of low birth weight compared with women who conceived again within 6 months. Women who conceive within 6 months after their first spontaneous abortion have better reproductive outcomes and the lowest complication rates in their subsequent pregnancy.

  15. [The "gentle caesarean section" - an alternative to the classical way of sectio. A prospective comparison between the classical technique and the method of Misgav Ladach].

    PubMed

    Redlich, A; Köppe, I

    2001-11-01

    A new technical variant of caesarean section was described a few years ago, which is characterised by blunt surgical preparation and simplified seam technique. A prospective investigation compared the differences in the surgery and postoperative process as well as the rate of complications between this Misgav Ladach method and the conventional technique of Sectio. The individual postoperative well-being of the women was recorded by visual analog scales. - Women, whom realize the including criterias (first caesarean section, >/= 32. week of pregnancy, one baby), were examined in this study over one year: 105 patients operated with the Misgav Ladach method and 67 conventionally operated patients. The patients were randomized in a function of the first letter of the surname (A-K: Misgav-Ladach method; L-Z: classical technique). - The surgical time from the cut to the seam was significantly shorter (29.8 vs. 49.3 min; p < 0,001) in the Misgav Ladach group. There were no differences between the two methods in the rate of postoperative complications. The febrile morbidity was equivalent in both groups (7.6 % vs. 9 %), likewise the frequency of postoperative hematomas (3.8 % vs. 3 %). The postoperative period with consumption of analgetics was significantly longer in the group of conventionally operated patients (1.9 d vs. 2.4 d; p < 0.01). The postoperative presentness was estimated significantly better (p < 0,.01) by the patients of the Misgav ladach group - probably caused by the significantly earlier mobilization (p < 0.05). - The surgical technique described by Misgav and Ladach allows a safe execution of the caesarean section and represents an alternative to the conventional method. The duration of operation (cut-seam-time) was significantly shorter. The technique of less traumatising of tissue caused a significantly earlier mobilisation and a significantly shorter requirement of analgetics. The women estimated her postoperative physical condition as better.

  16. Ectopic Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... woman is pregnant. If you have an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg grows in the wrong place, ... tubes. The result is usually a miscarriage. Ectopic pregnancy can be a medical emergency if it ruptures. ...

  17. Obesity in pregnancy: risks and management

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimons, Kate J; Modder, Jo; Greer, Ian A

    2009-01-01

    Maternal obesity is now considered one of the most commonly occurring risk factors seen in obstetric practice. Compared with women with a healthy pre-pregnancy weight, women with obesity are at increased risk of miscarriage, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, venous thromboembolism, induced labour, caesarean section, anaesthetic complications and wound infections, and they are less likely to initiate or maintain breastfeeding. Babies of obese mothers are at increased risk of stillbirth, congenital anomalies, prematurity, macrosomia and neonatal death. Intrauterine exposure to obesity is also associated with an increased risk of developing obesity and metabolic disorders in childhood. This article reviews the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy and the associated maternal and fetal complications. Recommendations and suggestions for pre-conception, antenatal and postnatal care of women with obesity are presented, and current research in the UK and future research priorities are considered. PMID:27582812

  18. Interstitial protein alterations in rabbit vocal fold with scar.

    PubMed

    Thibeault, Susan L; Bless, Diane M; Gray, Steven D

    2003-09-01

    Fibrous and interstitial proteins compose the extracellular matrix of the vocal fold lamina propria and account for its biomechanic properties. Vocal fold scarring is characterized by altered biomechanical properties, which create dysphonia. Although alterations of the fibrous proteins have been confirmed in the rabbit vocal fold scar, interstitial proteins, which are known to be important in wound repair, have not been investigated to date. Using a rabbit model, interstitial proteins decorin, fibromodulin, and fibronectin were examined immunohistologically, two months postinduction of vocal fold scar by means of forcep biopsy. Significantly decreased decorin and fibromodulin with significantly increased fibronectin characterized scarred vocal fold tissue. The implications of altered interstitial proteins levels and their affect on the fibrous proteins will be discussed in relation to increased vocal fold stiffness and viscosity, which characterizes vocal fold scar.

  19. Caesarean birth rates in public and privately funded hospitals: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Bruna Dias; Silva, Flora Maria Barbosa da; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Diniz, Carmen Simone Grilo; Bick, Debra

    2017-01-01

    To examine maternal and obstetric factors influencing births by cesarean section according to health care funding. A cross-sectional study with data from Southeastern Brazil. Caesarean section births from February 2011 to July 2012 were included. Data were obtained from interviews with women whose care was publicly or privately funded, and from their obstetric and neonatal records. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to generate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for caesarean section births. The overall caesarean section rate was 53% among 9,828 women for whom data were available, with the highest rates among women whose maternity care was privately funded. Reasons for performing a c-section were infrequently documented in women's maternity records. The variables that increased the likelihood of c-section regardless of health care funding were the following: paid employment, previous c-section, primiparity, antenatal and labor complications. Older maternal age, university education, and higher socioeconomic status were only associated with c-section in the public system. Higher maternal socioeconomic status was associated with greater likelihood of a caesarean section birth in publicly funded settings, but not in the private sector, where funding source alone determined the mode of birth rather than maternal or obstetric characteristics. Maternal socioeconomic status and private healthcare funding continue to drive high rates of caesarean section births in Brazil, with women who have a higher socioeconomic status more likely to have a caesarean section birth in all birth settings.

  20. Burn Scar Near the Hanford Nuclear Reservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) image pair shows 'before and after' views of the area around the Hanford Nuclear Reservation near Richland, Washington. On June 27, 2000, a fire in the dry sagebrush was sparked by an automobile crash. The flames were fanned by hot summer winds. By the day after the accident, about 100,000 acres had burned, and the fire's spread forced the closure of highways and loss of homes. These images were obtained by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Compare the area just above and to the right of the line of cumulus clouds in the May 15 image with the same area imaged on August 3. The darkened burn scar measures approximately 35 kilometers across. The Columbia River is seen wending its way around Hanford. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Science Team

  1. Assessment of vaccination coverage, vaccination scar rates, and smallpox scarring in five areas of West Africa.

    PubMed

    Henderson, R H; Davis, H; Eddins, D L; Foege, W H

    1973-01-01

    In 1966, nineteen countries of West and Central Africa began a regional smallpox eradication and measles control programme in cooperation with the World Health Organization. This paper summarizes sample survey data collected to assess the results of the programme in Northern Nigeria (Sokoto and Katsina Provinces), Western Nigeria, Niger, Dahomey, and Togo. These data indicate that the programme, which used mass vaccination campaigns based on a collecting-point strategy, was generally successful in reaching a high proportion of the population. Analysis of vaccination coverage and vaccination scar rates by age underlined the importance to the programme of newborn children who accumulate rapidly following the mass campaign. Of all persons without vaccination scars at the time of the surveys, 34.4% were under 5 years of age; in the absence of a maintenance programme, this figure would rise to 40% after 1 year.

  2. Bastrop County Complex Fire Burn Scar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    NASA image acquired September 12, 2011 To view more images from this event go to: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/event.php?id=52029 The Bastrop County Complex Fire in southern Texas started on September 4, 2011. By September 13, 2011, the fire was 70 percent contained, but had scorched 34,068 acres (13,787 hectares). The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA’s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite captured this image of the affected region on September 12, 2011. This false-color image shows a wide-area view of the fire. Vegetation is bright green, and sparsely vegetated or bare land is green-yellow. The burn scar appears in shades of red and orange. The burn scar is far from uniform; burned areas are separated by unburned expanses. As of September 13, a re-entry plan had been established for residents of the region, the Incident Information System reported. Residents were warned, however, that they might see vegetation still smoldering or burning. Ongoing drought set the stage for severe fires in Texas in the slate summer of 2011. In early September, Tropical Storm Lee, which drenched other parts of the United States, brought strong winds to Texas, worsening the fires. NASA Earth Observatory image created by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using EO-1 ALI data provided courtesy of the NASA EO-1 team. Caption by Michon Scott. Instrument: EO-1 - ALI Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  3. Pregnancy following laparoscopic ovarian drilling for clomiphene resistant polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ikechebelu, J I; Mbamara, S U; Okeke, C A F

    2010-06-01

    We present a case of a 29 year old nulliparous woman with clomiphene resistance polycystic ovarian syndrome. She had a successful laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) in a private fertility centre in Nnewi Southeast Nigeria. She achieved a pregnancy four months later following clomiphene citrate ovulation induction. The pregnancy was complicated with 1st trimester threatened abortion, pre-term PROM and later pre-term labour at 34 weeks gestation with breech presentation. She had a successful caesarean delivery of a 1.75 kg life female baby that was nursed in the incubator for 2 weeks before discharge. This is the first reported successful LOD in Southeast Nigeria with good pregnancy outcome.

  4. Conception, complicated pregnancy, and labour of gods and heroes in Greek mythology.

    PubMed

    Iavazzo, Christos; Trompoukis, Constantinos; Sardi, Thalia; Falagas, Matthew E

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy and labour are holy moments in a woman's life. Even in Greek mythology we can find descriptions of them. We searched in the Greek myths to find descriptions of labours of ancient heroes and gods. We identified descriptions of extracorporeal fertilization, superfecundation, ectopic pregnancy, preterm labour, prolonged pregnancy and Caesarean section. The use of imagination could help the reader to find similarities in present or future developments in the field of obstetrics. It could be concluded that various aspects of modern obstetrical practice are described in Greek mythology.

  5. Pregnancy following vulvar squamous cell carcinoma: a report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Tidy, John A

    2009-01-01

    Pregnancy following squamous cell carcinoma of the vulvar is rare. Its rarity is reflected by a paucity of cases reported in the literature. We report two cases of pregnancy following diagnosis and treatment for vulvar squamous cell carcinoma, and review eleven prior reported cases. In successfully treated vulvar cancer subsequent pregnancy is not shown to increase the risk of disease recurrence, and there appears to be no deleterious effects during the antenatal period. It is possible, when considering prior reports, that prior vulvectomy may increase the likelihood of delivery by caesarean section, though modifications in the surgical management of vulvar carcinoma may have decreased this risk. PMID:20041105

  6. Aesthetic effect of silicone gel on surgical scars in Asians.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Suk-Hyun; Koh, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Won; Park, Beyoung-Yun; Kim, Yong-Oock

    2010-05-01

    Scars on exposed areas are a major concern among Asian populations because of their conspicuousness. Size, color, or whether the scar is hypopigmented or hyperpigmented matters little. Silicone gel is well known for the prevention and induction of better maturation of hypertrophic and keloid scars. However, its aesthetic effect on normal surgical scars has not been considered. Clinical evaluation of scars was performed in 40 patients. All the 40 patients underwent clean and minor surgery of the exposed area, such as scar revision, by 1 plastic surgeon. Twenty of the 40 patients did not apply any adjunctive material for scar management and were grouped as the control. The other 20 patients applied a silicone gel sheet for 12 hours a day for 3 months. Three assessment criteria, pigmentation, vascularity, and height, were evaluated by photographic assessment of the scars at 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively and scored by 3 plastic surgeons. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to verify any significant differences in the previously mentioned 3 parameters between the 2 groups and parameter scores at each follow-up period. Two patients were excluded from the study because of the development of rashes on the areas covered by the silicone gel sheet. There was no statistical significance between the groups at postoperative 2 weeks and 1 month in pigmentation and redness. For evaluation of height, there was statistical significance (P = 0.024) at postoperative 1 month. However, there were statistically significant differences in all the assessment criteria at postoperative 3 months between the groups: pigmentation, P = 0.0002; vascularity, P = 0.0002; and height, P < 0.0001. The silicone gel sheet has a favorable aesthetical effect for normally created surgical scars in the Asians. Its application can reduce the conspicuousness of scars more rapidly than without.

  7. Elective Caesarean section on maternal request in Germany: factors affecting decision making concerning mode of delivery.

    PubMed

    Stützer, Paul Philipp; Berlit, Sebastian; Lis, Stefanie; Schmahl, Christian; Sütterlin, Marc; Tuschy, Benjamin

    2017-05-01

    To investigate sociopsychological factors of women undergoing a caesarean section on maternal request (CSMR). Twenty-eight women who underwent CSMR and 29 women with vaginal delivery (VD) filled in standardized questionnaires concerning psychological burden (SCL-R 90), fear of childbirth (W-DEQ, STAI), personality structure (HEXACO-Pi-R) and social support (F-SozU) as well as one questionnaire assessing potential factors influencing their mode of delivery. Women with CSMR were older (36.5 ± 5.4 vs. 30.6 ± 5.2 years; p < 0.001) and suffered more from fear of childbirth (W-DEQ 4.3 ± 0.8 vs. 3.7 ± 1.2; p = 0.041), concerns for their child (W-DEQ 2.0 ± 1.5 vs. 1.3 ± 0.7; p = 0.026) and appraised the birth less negative (W-DEQ 2.0 ± 0.7 vs. 2.7 ± 1.1; p = 0.008). The majority of parturients had chosen their preferred mode of delivery before pregnancy (CS 61% vs. VD 82%, p = 0.328). In the decision-making process for the mode of delivery, the advice of the partner (85 and 90%) played an important role. 82% of the women who delivered via CSMR did not regret the decision for this mode of delivery. Women who underwent CS had higher fear of childbirth and appraised the birth less negative. The majority did not regret the decision for the CS and would even choose this mode of delivery for their next pregnancy. Although the partner and the physician seem to be important in the decision process for of the mode of delivery, reasons for the choice for CSMR appear to be multifactorial.

  8. Pregnancy & Motherhood >

    Cancer.gov

    Smoking when pregnant; Pregnancy and smoking; Smoking during pregnancy; Pregnant women smoking; Smoking when pregnant effects; Pregnancy and smoking effects; Pregnant quit smoking; Pregnant stop smoking; How to quit smoking when pregnant; Smoking and fertility; Smoking and infertility; Mom smoking; Smoking around children; Second hand smoke and children

  9. Ectopic Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... are experiencing a typical pregnancy or an ectopic pregnancy. Abnormal bleeding and pelvic pain should be reported to your obstetrician–gynecologist ( ... health care professional suspects you may have ectopic pregnancy, he or she may perform a pelvic exam perform an ultrasound exam to see where ...

  10. Multiple Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 8 completed weeks of pregnancy. Fetus: The developing organism in the uterus from the ninth week of pregnancy until the end of pregnancy. Fraternal Twins: Twins that have developed from two fertilized eggs that are not genetically identical. Genetic Disorders: A term for disorders caused ...

  11. Use of Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale for evaluation of facial scars treated with self-drying silicone gel.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Francesca A; Roccia, Fabio; Fiorini, Paola; Berrone, Sid

    2010-05-01

    In this prospective study, we used the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) to evaluate the outcome of the healing process of posttraumatic and surgical facial scars that were treated with self-drying silicone gel, by both the patient and the observer. In our division, the application of base cream and massage represents the standard management of facial scars after suture removal. In the current study, 15 patients (7 men and 8 women) with facial scars were treated with self-drying silicone gel that was applied without massage, and 15 patients (8 men and 7 women) were treated with base cream and massage. Both groups underwent a clinical evaluation of facial scars by POSAS at the time of suture removal (T0) and after 2 months of treatment (T1). The patient rated scar pain, itch, color, stiffness, thickness, and surface (Patient Scale), and the observer rated scar vascularity, pigmentation, thickness, relief, pliability, and surface area (Observer Scale [OS]). The Patient Scale reported the greatest improvement in the items color, stiffness, and thickness. Itch was the only item that worsened in the group self-drying silicone gel. The OS primarily reported an improvement in the items vascularization, pigmentation, and pliability. The only item in the OS that underwent no change from T0 to T1 was surface area. The POSAS revealed satisfactory healing of posttraumatic and surgical facial scars that were treated with self-drying silicone gel.

  12. Cluster analysis as a prediction tool for pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Banjari, Ines; Kenjerić, Daniela; Šolić, Krešimir; Mandić, Milena L

    2015-03-01

    Considering specific physiology changes during gestation and thinking of pregnancy as a "critical window", classification of pregnant women at early pregnancy can be considered as crucial. The paper demonstrates the use of a method based on an approach from intelligent data mining, cluster analysis. Cluster analysis method is a statistical method which makes possible to group individuals based on sets of identifying variables. The method was chosen in order to determine possibility for classification of pregnant women at early pregnancy to analyze unknown correlations between different variables so that the certain outcomes could be predicted. 222 pregnant women from two general obstetric offices' were recruited. The main orient was set on characteristics of these pregnant women: their age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and haemoglobin value. Cluster analysis gained a 94.1% classification accuracy rate with three branch- es or groups of pregnant women showing statistically significant correlations with pregnancy outcomes. The results are showing that pregnant women both of older age and higher pre-pregnancy BMI have a significantly higher incidence of delivering baby of higher birth weight but they gain significantly less weight during pregnancy. Their babies are also longer, and these women have significantly higher probability for complications during pregnancy (gestosis) and higher probability of induced or caesarean delivery. We can conclude that the cluster analysis method can appropriately classify pregnant women at early pregnancy to predict certain outcomes.

  13. Why 'down under' is a cut above: a comparison of rates of and reasons for caesarean section in England and Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most studies examining determinants of rising rates of caesarean section have examined patterns in documented reasons for caesarean over time in a single location. Further insights could be gleaned from cross-cultural research that examines practice patterns in locations with disparate rates of caesarean section at a single time point. Methods We compared both rates of and main reason for pre-labour and intrapartum caesarean between England and Queensland, Australia, using data from retrospective cross-sectional surveys of women who had recently given birth in England (n = 5,250) and Queensland (n = 3,467). Results Women in Queensland were more likely to have had a caesarean birth (36.2%) than women in England (25.1% of births; OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.28-1.61), after adjustment for obstetric characteristics. Between-country differences were found for rates of pre-labour caesarean (21.2% vs. 12.2%) but not for intrapartum caesarean or assisted vaginal birth. Compared to women in England, women in Queensland with a history of caesarean were more likely to have had a pre-labour caesarean and more likely to have had an intrapartum caesarean, due only to a previous caesarean. Among women with no previous caesarean, Queensland women were more likely than women in England to have had a caesarean due to suspected disproportion and failure to progress in labour. Conclusions The higher rates of caesarean birth in Queensland are largely attributable to higher rates of caesarean for women with a previous caesarean, and for the main reason of having had a previous caesarean. Variation between countries may be accounted for by the absence of a single, comprehensive clinical guideline for caesarean section in Queensland. PMID:24767675

  14. Successful Management of Live Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Samal, Sunita; Ghose, Seetesh; Pallavee, P; Porkkodi, P

    2015-12-01

    Cervical pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy with potential grave consequences occurring in approximately 1:9,000 deliveries. It is life-threatening as the pregnancy is implanted in the endocervical canal and the trophoblast can penetrate through the cervical wall and into the uterine blood supply resulting in catastrophic haemorrhage. Historically, the treatment had been hysterectomy because of the considerable risk of life-threatening haemorrhage, but in the recent past various conservative management modalities have been applied to preserve fertility. Here, we report a case of successful (both medical and surgical) management of cervical ectopic pregnancy in a young woman. A 29-year-old, gravid 2, para1 and living 1 with previous caesarean section had presented with mild bleeding per vagina for 5 days following 7 weeks of amenorrhoea. Past menstrual, medical, surgical and family history were unremarkable except the previous caesarean section. On examination vital signs were normal but pelvic examination revealed a distended cervix with bulky uterus, without anyadnexal mass or tenderness and no cervical motion tenderness. Further transvaginal sonography showed a live cervical gestation of 7 weeks and 4 days and serum beta-HCG value of 1,03,113mIU/ml. Patient received conservative approach with combination of intraamniotic potassium chloride and methotrexate and suction curettage. Due to conservative approach emergency hysterectomy and blood transfusion was avoided.

  15. Preventing Scars after Injury with Partial Irreversible Electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Golberg, Alexander; Villiger, Martin; Khan, Saiqa; Quinn, Kyle P.; Lo, William C. Y.; Bouma, Brett E.; Mihm, Martin C.; Austen, William G.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2017-01-01

    Preventing the formation of hypertrophic scars, especially those that are a result of major trauma or burns, would have enormous impact in the fields of regenerative and trauma medicine. In this report, we introduce a non-invasive method to prevent scarring based on non-thermal partial irreversible electroporation. Contact burn injuries in rats were treated with varying treatment parameters to optimize the treatment protocol. Scar surface area and structural properties of the scar were assessed with histology and non-invasive, longitudinal imaging with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography. We found that partial irreversible electroporation using 200 pulses of 250 V and 70 μs duration, delivered at 3 Hz every 20 days during a total of five therapy sessions after the initial burn injury resulted in a 57.9% reduction of the scar area in comparison with untreated scars and structural features approaching those of normal skin. Noteworthy, unlike humans, rats do not develop hypertrophic scars. Therefore, the use of a rat animal model is the limiting factor of this work. PMID:27393126

  16. Histologic and rheologic characterization of vocal fold scarring.

    PubMed

    Thibeault, Susan L; Gray, Steven D; Bless, Diane M; Chan, Roger W; Ford, Charles N

    2002-03-01

    Scarring of the vocal fold causes considerable dysphonia and presents significant treatment challenges. A rabbit model was developed to investigate the histologic ultrastructure and rheologic properties of the scarred vocal fold lamina propria. Eleven rabbit larynges were scarred by means of forcep biopsy. Sixty days postoperatively, the rabbits were sacrificed and their vocal folds were harvested. Histological analysis of the scarred and normal lamina propria was completed for collagen, procollagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid. Linear viscoelastic shear properties of the tissues were also measured, including elastic shear modulus and dynamic viscosity. Compared to normal vocal fold lamina propria, scarred tissues demonstrated significantly less collagen, an increase in procollagen, and a decrease in elastin. Rheologically, both elastic shear modulus and dynamic viscosity were significantly higher for the scarred tissues. Increased stiffness and viscosity do not appear to result from an increase in collagen, but rather appear to be related to the presence of new, disorganized collagen scaffolding. Results are interpreted in terms of the possible role of interstitial proteins in the etiology of increased stiffness and viscosity, which requires further investigation. This animal model should allow for systematic future investigations of vocal fold scarring and its treatment.

  17. [Undiagnosed hereditary angioedema in a patient undergoing emergency caesarean section].

    PubMed

    Tomita, Yukihiko; Kamei, Masataka; Jyujou, Satoshi; Horiuchi, Chinami; Katsuragi, Shinji; Onishi, Yoshihiko

    2012-12-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is characterized by acute, recurrent attacks of localized edema. Surgical procedures, trauma, and infections have been considered as potential triggers of HAE. Although HAE is a rare genetic disorder, approximately 50-60% of all HAE patients are involved with at least one occurrence of upper airway obstruction. The airway trouble is the most life-threating complication in HAE patients because HAE-related edema does not respond to typical treatment, such as administration of epinephrine, antihistamines, or glucocorticoids. Indeed, mortality rates of laryngeal attack are estimated around 25% to 40%. Here we describe a case of undiagnosed HAE patient undergoing emergency caesarean section under neuraxial blockade. A 31-year-old woman showed multiple regions at her lip margin during surgery and rapidly developed lip swelling after admission to the ward. Neither respiratory nor hemodynamic instability was found during and after surgery. Immediately, in order to assess whether HAE caused these dermatological manifestations, we measured values of both complement component 4 (C4) and functional activity of C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inh), a protein of the complement system. These laboratory data showed low levels, which were compatible with HAE definition. After commencement of C1-inhibitor replacement therapy, her lip swelling and erythema gradually disappeared without adverse drug reactions. The patient was finally discharged from our institution 10 days after surgery.

  18. Caesarean delivery and risk of childhood leukaemia: a pooled analysis from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC).

    PubMed

    Marcotte, Erin L; Thomopoulos, Thomas P; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Clavel, Jacqueline; Petridou, Eleni Th; Schüz, Joachim; Ezzat, Sameera; Dockerty, John D; Metayer, Catherine; Magnani, Corrado; Scheurer, Michael E; Mueller, Beth A; Mora, Ana M; Wesseling, Catharina; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Rashed, Wafaa M; Francis, Stephen S; Ajrouche, Roula; Erdmann, Friederike; Orsi, Laurent; Spector, Logan G

    2016-04-01

    Results from case-control studies have shown an increased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in young children born by caesarean delivery, and prelabour caesarean delivery in particular; however, an association of method of delivery with childhood leukaemia subtypes has yet to be established. We therefore did a pooled analysis of data to investigate the association between childhood leukaemia and caesarean delivery. We pooled data from 13 case-control studies from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium done in nine countries (Canada, Costa Rica, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, New Zealand, and the USA) for births from 1970-2013. We analysed caesarean delivery overall and by indications that probably resulted in prelabour caesarean delivery or emergency caesarean delivery. We used multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for child's birthweight, sex, age, ethnic origin, parental education, maternal age, and study, to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for the risk of ALL and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in children aged 0-14 years at diagnosis. The studies provided data for 8780 ALL cases, 1332 AML cases, and 23 459 controls, of which the birth delivery method was known for 8655 (99%) ALL cases, 1292 (97%) AML cases, and 23 351 (>99%) controls. Indications for caesarean delivery were available in four studies (there were caesarean deliveries for 1061 of 4313 ALL cases, 138 of 664 AML cases, and 1401 of 5884 controls). The OR for all indications of caesarean delivery and ALL was 1·06 (95% CI 0·99-1·13), and was significant for prelabour caesarean delivery and ALL (1·23 [1·04-1·47]; p=0·018). Emergency caesarean delivery was not associated with ALL (OR 1·02 [95% CI 0·81-1·30]). AML was not associated with caesarean delivery (all indications OR 0·99 [95% CI 0·84-1·17]; prelabour caesarean delivery 0·83 [0·54-1·26]; and emergency caesarean delivery 1·05 [0·63-1·77]). Our results suggest an increased risk of

  19. Caesarean delivery and risk of childhood leukaemia: a pooled analysis from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC)

    PubMed Central

    Marcotte, Erin L; Thomopoulos, Thomas P; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Clavel, Jacqueline; Petridou, Eleni Th; Schüz, Joachim; Ezzat, Sameera; Dockerty, John D; Metayer, Catherine; Magnani, Corrado; Scheurer, Michael E; Mueller, Beth A; Mora, Ana M; Wesseling, Catharina; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Rashed, Wafaa M; Francis, Stephen S; Ajrouche, Roula; Erdmann, Friederike; Orsi, Laurent; Spector, Logan G

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Results from case-control studies have shown an increased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in young children born by caesarean delivery, and prelabour caesarean delivery in particular; however, an association of method of delivery with childhood leukaemia subtypes has yet to be established. We therefore did a pooled analysis of data to investigate the association between childhood leukaemia and caesarean delivery. Methods We pooled data from 13 case-control studies from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium done in nine countries (Canada, Costa Rica, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, New Zealand, and the USA) for births from 1970-2013. We analysed caesarean delivery overall and by indications that probably resulted in prelabour caesarean delivery or emergency caesarean delivery. We used multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for child's birthweight, sex, age, ethnic origin, parental education, maternal age, and study, to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for the risk of ALL and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in children aged 0-14 years at diagnosis. Findings The studies provided data for 8780 ALL cases, 1332 AML cases, and 23 459 controls, of which the birth delivery method was known for 8655 (99%) ALL cases, 1292 (97%) AML cases, and 23 351 (>99%) controls. Indications for caesarean delivery were available in four studies (there were caesarean deliveries for 1061 of 4313 ALL cases, 138 of 664 AML cases, and 1401 of 5884 controls). The OR for all indications of caesarean delivery and ALL was 1.06 (95% CI 0.99–1.13), and was significant for prelabour caesarean delivery and ALL (1.23 [1.04-1.47]; p=0.018). Emergency caesarean delivery was not associated with ALL (OR 1.02 [95% CI 0.81-1.30]). AML was not associated with caesarean delivery (all indications OR 0.99 [95% CI 0.84-1.17]; prelabour caesarean delivery 0.83 [0.54-1.26]; and emergency caesarean delivery 1.05 [0.63-1.77]). Interpretation Our

  20. External rhinoplasty for the Arabian nose: a columellar scar analysis.

    PubMed

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate columellar scar problems after external rhinoplasty in the Arabian population, and to analyze the technical factors that help prevent such problems and maximize the scar cosmesis. The investigation was conducted in university and private practice settings of the author in Alexandria, Egypt. A total of 600 Arab patients who underwent external rhinoplasty were included in the study. All the patients underwent surgery using the external rhinoplasty approach, in which bilateral alar marginal incisions were connected by an inverted V-shaped transcolumellar incision. At completion of the procedure, a two-layer closure of the columellar incision was performed. At a minimum of 1 year postoperatively, the columellar scar was evaluated subjectively by means of a patient questionnaire, and objectively by clinical examination and comparison of the close-up pre- and postoperative basal view photographs. Objectively, anything less than a barely visible, leveled, thin, linear scar was considered unsatisfactory. Subjectively, 95.5% of the patients rated the scar as unnoticeable, 3% as noticeable but acceptable, and 1.5% as unacceptable. Objectively, the scar was unsatisfactory in 7% of the cases. This was because of scar widening with or without depression (5%), hyperpigmentation (1.5%), and columellar rim notching (0.5%). The use of a deep 6/0 polydioxanon (PDS) suture significantly decreased the incidence of scar widening (p < 0.005).The columellar incision can be used safely in the Arab population regardless of their thick, dark, and oily skin. Technical factors that contributed to the favorable outcome of the columellar scar included proper planning of location and design of the incision used, precise execution, meticulous multilayered closure, and good postoperative care.

  1. Nonlinear optics for the study of human scar tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, D. P.; Vieira-Damiani, G.; Adam, R. L.; Cesar, C. L.; Metze, Konradin

    2012-03-01

    Collagen fibers are an essential component of the dynamic process of scarring, which accompanies various diseases. Scar tissue may reveal different morphologic expressions, such as hypertrophic scars or keloids. Collagen fibers can be visualized by fluorescent light when stained with eosin. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) creates a non linear signal that occurs only in molecules without inversion symmetry and is particularly strong in the collagen fibers arranged in triple helices. The aim of this study was to describe the methodology for the analysis of the density and texture of collagen in keloids, hypertrophic scars and conventional scars. Samples were examined in the National Institute of Science and Technology on Photonics Applied to Cell Biology (INFABIC) at the State University of Campinas. The images were acquired in a multiphoton microscopy LSM 780-NLO Zeiss 40X. Both signals, two-photon fluorescence (TPEF) and SHG, were excited by a Mai-Tai Ti:Sapphire laser at 940 nm. We used a LP490/SP485 NDD filter for SHG, and a BP565-610 NDD filter for fluorescence In each case, ten images were acquired serially (512×512 μm) in Z-stack and joined together to one patchwork-image . Image analysis was performed by a gliding-box-system with in-house made software. Keloids, hypertrophic scars and normal scar tissue show different collagen architecture. Inside an individual case differences of the scar process may be found between central and peripheral parts. In summary, the use of nonlinear optics is a helpful tool for the study of scars tissue.

  2. Patient reported facial scar assessment: directions for the professional.

    PubMed

    Hoogewerf, Cornelis J; van Baar, Margriet E; Middelkoop, Esther; van Loey, Nancy E

    2014-03-01

    The face is central to our identity and provides our most expressive means of communication. Currently, the role of facial scarring in relation to self-esteem is unclear and the value of self-reported scar assessment is insufficiently understood. The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to assess the extent of agreement between patients' ratings and observers' ratings of facial scar characteristics; and (2) to examine if patients' and observers' scar characteristics ratings, or the differences, are associated with the patients' self-esteem. A prospective study was conducted including patients with facial burns. Patients completed the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale 3 months post-burn. Ninety-four subjects were included, 76 (81%) men and mean percentage TBSA burned was 12.4 (SD 10.4; range 1-50). Subject's and observer's assessment were significantly positively correlated and were identical in 53% of the cases. Subjects' assessments and discrepancy scores on the scar characteristic surface roughness were associated with self-esteem in multiple regression analysis. The majority of the patients scored the quality of facial scars in a similar way as the professionals. Furthermore, facial scarring appeared only moderately associated with self-esteem. However, our study suggests that using both patients' and professionals' scar assessments provides more useful information regarding the patients' well-being relative to focussing on the separate assessments only. In particular a discrepancy between the patients' and professionals' view on surface roughness might be an early indication of psychological difficulties and a call for further clinical attention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Change in primary midwife-led care in the Netherlands in 2000–2008: A descriptive study of caesarean sections and other interventions among 807,437 low-risk births.

    PubMed

    Offerhaus, Pien M; de Jonge, Ank; van der Pal-de-Bruin, Karin M; Hukkelhoven, Chantal W P M; Scheepers, Peer L H; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M

    2015-06-01

    to study whether an increase in intrapartum referrals in primary midwife-led care births in the Netherlands is accompanied by an increase in caesarean sections. nationwide descriptive study. The Netherlands Perinatal Registry. 807,437 births of nine year cohorts of women with low risk pregnancies in primary midwife-led care at the onset of labour between 2000 and 2008. primary outcome is the caesarean section rate. Vaginal instrumental childbirth, augmentation with oxytocin, and pharmacological pain relief are secondary outcomes. Trends in outcomes are described. We used logistic regression to explore whether changes in the planned place of birth and other maternal characteristics were associated with the caesarean section rate. the caesarean section rate increased from 6.2 to 8.3 per cent for nulliparous and from 0.8 to 1.1 per cent for multiparous women. After controlling for maternal characteristics the year by year increase in the caesarean section rate was still significant for nulliparous women (adj OR 1.03; 95% CI 1.02–1.03). The vaginal instrumental birth declined from 18.2 to 17.4 per cent for nulliparous women (multiparous women: 1.7–1.5 per cent). Augmentation of labour and/or pharmacological pain relief increased from 23.1 to 38.1 per cent for nulliparous women and from 5.4 to 9.6 per cent for multiparous women. the rise in augmentation of labour, pharmacological pain relief and electronic fetal monitoring in the period 2000–2008 among women in primary midwife-led care was accompanied by an increase in caesarean section rate for nulliparous women. The vaginal instrumental deliveries declined for both nulliparous and multiparous women. primary care midwives should evaluate whether they can strengthen the opportunities for nulliparous women to achieve a physiological birth, without augmentation or pharmacological pain relief. If such interventions are considered necessary to achieve a spontaneous vaginal birth, the current disadvantage of

  4. Type of Labour in the First Pregnancy and Cumulative Maternal Morbidity.

    PubMed

    Allen, Victoria M; Baskett, Thomas F; O'Connell, Colleen M

    2015-08-01

    To estimate cumulative maternal morbidity among women who delivered at term in their first pregnancy on the basis of type of labour in the first pregnancy. Using a 25-year population-based cohort (1988 to 2012) derived from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database, we determined the type of labour in successive pregnancies in low-risk, nulliparous women at term in their first pregnancy (who had at least one subsequent pregnancy), and the maternal outcomes in subsequent deliveries based on the type of labour in the first pregnancy. A total of 36 871 pregnancies satisfied inclusion and exclusion criteria, 1346 of which were delivered by Caesarean section without labour in the first pregnancy. Rates of most adverse maternal outcomes were low (≤1%). The type of labour in the first pregnancy influenced the subsequent risk of postpartum hemorrhage and blood transfusion, and the risks increased with successive deliveries when labours were spontaneous in onset or were induced. The risks for abnormal placentation were low with subsequent deliveries, including following CS without labour in the first pregnancy, and risks for overall severe maternal morbidity were less than 10% for all subsequent deliveries. The absolute risks for severe maternal morbidity outcomes in a population of women without a high number of subsequent pregnancies were small (regardless of type of labour in the first pregnancy); this provides important information for women, families, and caregivers when considering pregnancy outcomes related to type of labour.

  5. Effect of Relaxin Expressing Adenovirus on Scar Remodeling: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Bok Ki; Lee, Won Jai; Kang, Eunhye; Ahn, Hyo Min; Kim, Yong Oock; Rah, Dong Kyun; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2017-01-01

    Background Relaxin is a transforming growth factor β1 antagonist. To determine the effects of relaxin on scar reduction, we investigated the scar remodeling process by injecting relaxin-expressing adenoviruses using a pig scar model. Methods Scars with full thickness were generated on the backs of Yorkshire pigs. Scars were divided into two groups (relaxin [RLX] and Control). Adenoviruses were injected into the RLX (expressing relaxin) and Control (not expressing relaxin) groups. Changes in the surface areas, color index and pliability of scars were compared. Results Fifty days after treatment, the surface areas of scars decreased, the color of scars was normalized, and the pliability of scars increased in RLX group. Conclusion Relaxin-expressing adenoviruses improved the surface area, color, and pliability of scars. The mechanism of therapeutic effects on scar formation should be further investigated. PMID:28913296

  6. International migration and caesarean birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Merry, Lisa; Small, Rhonda; Blondel, Béatrice; Gagnon, Anita J

    2013-01-30

    Perinatal health disparities including disparities in caesarean births have been observed between migrant and non-migrant women and some literature suggests that non-medical factors may be implicated. A systematic review was conducted to determine if migrants in Western industrialized countries consistently have different rates of caesarean than receiving-country-born women and to identify the reasons that explain these differences. Reports were identified by searching 12 literature databases (from inception to January 2012; no language limits) and the web, by bibliographic citation hand-searches and through key informants. Studies that compared caesarean rates between international migrants and non-migrants living in industrialized countries and that did not have a 'fatal flaw' according to the US Preventative Services Task Force criteria were included. Studies were summarized, analyzed descriptively and where possible, meta-analyzed. Seventy-six studies met inclusion criteria. Caesarean rates between migrants and non-migrants differed in 69% of studies. Meta-analyses revealed consistently higher overall caesarean rates for Sub-Saharan African, Somali and South Asian women; higher emergency rates for North African/West Asian and Latin American women; and lower overall rates for Eastern European and Vietnamese women. Evidence to explain the consistently different rates was limited. Frequently postulated risk factors for caesarean included: language/communication barriers, low SES, poor maternal health, GDM/high BMI, feto-pelvic disproportion, and inadequate prenatal care. Suggested protective factors included: a healthy immigrant effect, preference for a vaginal birth, a healthier lifestyle, younger mothers and the use of fewer interventions during childbirth. Certain groups of international migrants consistently have different caesarean rates than receiving-country-born women. There is insufficient evidence to explain the observed differences.

  7. Obstructed Labor and Caesarean Delivery: The Cost and Benefit of Surgical Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Christy Turlington; Metzler, Ian S.; Farmer, Paul E.; Meara, John G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although advances in the reduction of maternal mortality have been made, up to 273,000 women will die this year from obstetric etiologies. Obstructed labor (OL), most commonly treated with Caesarean delivery, has been identified as a major contributor to global maternal morbidity and mortality. We used economic and epidemiological modeling to estimate the cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted and benefit-cost ratio of treating OL with Caesarean delivery for 49 countries identified as providing an insufficient number of Caesarean deliveries to meet demand. Methods and Findings Using publicly available data and explicit economic assumptions, we estimated that the cost per DALY (3,0,0) averted for providing Caesarean delivery for OL ranged widely, from $251 per DALY averted in Madagascar to $3,462 in Oman. The median cost per DALY averted was $304. Benefit-cost ratios also varied, from 0.6 in Zimbabwe to 69.9 in Gabon. The median benefit-cost ratio calculated was 6.0. The main limitation of this study is an assumption that lack of surgical capacity is the main factor responsible for DALYs from OL. Conclusions Using the World Health Organization's cost-effectiveness standards, investing in Caesarean delivery can be considered “highly cost-effective” for 48 of the 49 countries included in this study. Furthermore, in 46 of the 49 included countries, the benefit-cost ratio was greater than 1.0, implying that investment in Caesarean delivery is a viable economic proposition. While Caesarean delivery alone is not sufficient for combating OL, it is necessary, cost-effective by WHO standards, and ultimately economically favorable in the vast majority of countries included in this study. PMID:22558089

  8. International migration and caesarean birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Perinatal health disparities including disparities in caesarean births have been observed between migrant and non-migrant women and some literature suggests that non-medical factors may be implicated. A systematic review was conducted to determine if migrants in Western industrialized countries consistently have different rates of caesarean than receiving-country-born women and to identify the reasons that explain these differences. Methods Reports were identified by searching 12 literature databases (from inception to January 2012; no language limits) and the web, by bibliographic citation hand-searches and through key informants. Studies that compared caesarean rates between international migrants and non-migrants living in industrialized countries and that did not have a ‘fatal flaw’ according to the US Preventative Services Task Force criteria were included. Studies were summarized, analyzed descriptively and where possible, meta-analyzed. Results Seventy-six studies met inclusion criteria. Caesarean rates between migrants and non-migrants differed in 69% of studies. Meta-analyses revealed consistently higher overall caesarean rates for Sub-Saharan African, Somali and South Asian women; higher emergency rates for North African/West Asian and Latin American women; and lower overall rates for Eastern European and Vietnamese women. Evidence to explain the consistently different rates was limited. Frequently postulated risk factors for caesarean included: language/communication barriers, low SES, poor maternal health, GDM/high BMI, feto-pelvic disproportion, and inadequate prenatal care. Suggested protective factors included: a healthy immigrant effect, preference for a vaginal birth, a healthier lifestyle, younger mothers and the use of fewer interventions during childbirth. Conclusion Certain groups of international migrants consistently have different caesarean rates than receiving-country-born women. There is insufficient evidence to explain the

  9. Practical Evaluation and Management of Atrophic Acne Scars

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Atrophic acne scarring is an unfortunate, permanent complication of acne vulgaris, which may be associated with significant psychological distress. General dermatologists are frequently presented with the challenge of evaluating and providing treatment recommendations to patients with acne scars. This article reviews a practical, step-by-step approach to evaluating the patient with atrophic acne scars. An algorithm for providing treatment options is presented, along with pitfalls to avoid. A few select procedures that may be incorporated into a general dermatology practice are reviewed in greater detail, including filler injections, skin needling, and the punch excision. PMID:21909457

  10. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy and postpartum. Associated risk factors and influence of pelvic floor exercises.

    PubMed

    Martin-Martin, Sergio; Pascual-Fernandez, Angela; Alvarez-Colomo, Cristina; Calvo-Gonzalez, Raul; Muñoz-Moreno, Marife; Cortiñas-Gonzalez, Jose Ramon

    2014-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) before pregnancy, in the third trimester and postpartum. To analyze its influence on quality of life and associated potential risk factors and the efficacy of pelvic floor exercises. Prospective study in 413 pregnant women. The modified ICIQ-SF incontinence questionnaire was given to the pregnant women at the end of the third quarter. This questionnaire was administered by telephone at 3 and 6 months postpartum. The influence of several risk factors for UI in pregnancy and postpartum were analyzed. Patients with persistent UI at 6 months postpartum were trained to do pelvic floor exercises. Patients with UI before pregnancy were excluded from the study. UI in the third trimester was 31%. Analyzed risk factors did not condition a higher percentage of UI. Prevalence of UI was 11.3% at 3 months postpartum and 6.9% at 6 months. 70% of the incontinent patients already had it during pregnancy and it appeared de novo post-delivery in 30% of the patients. Prevalence of UI after delivery was higher in women with UI in pregnancy and lower in caesarean cases. Most women improved with pelvic floor exercises. Analysed risk factors did not significantly increase UI in pregnancy. Prevalence of UI after delivery is higher in women with UI in pregnancy and lower in caesarean cases. Postpartum pelvic floor exercises for three months in patients with persistent stress UI at 6 months postpartum clearly improved the degree of continence.

  11. Successful pregnancy after spermatid injection.

    PubMed

    Bernabeu, R; Cremades, N; Takahashi, K; Sousa, M

    1998-07-01

    We present nine cases of spermatid intracytoplasmic injection for the treatment of non-obstructive azoospermia. In eight cases, no elongated spermatids or spermatozoa were found in previous spermiograms or testicular biopsies. In these patients, treatment was performed using ejaculated (n = 6) and testicular (n = 2) retrieved round spermatids (Sa type). In cases where ejaculated round spermatids were used, they were isolated on the day before oocyte retrieval and left in culture for 24 h before intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). No pregnancy was obtained in either group, although culturing seemed to increase the fertilization rate. In one other case, elongated spermatids were observed in the previous spermiogram and thus a normal ICSI procedure was scheduled. However, on the day of oocyte retrieval, no spermatids could be recovered from fresh sequential ejaculates, and a testicular open biopsy was then performed. Both round and elongated spermatids were found in the testicular tissue, but only the more mature germinal cells (Sb2) were injected. From this case, a normal pregnancy was obtained which resulted in the birth by Caesarean section at 37 weeks of gestation of a normal healthy baby girl, weighing 2700 g.

  12. Development of a Porcine Full-Thickness Burn Hypertrophic Scar Model and Investigation of the Effects of Shikonin on Hypertrophic Scar Remediation

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xingwang; Chen, Qian; Qiang, Lijuan; Chi, Mingwei; Xie, Nan; Wu, Yinsheng; Yao, Ming; Zhao, Dan; Ma, Jiaxiang; Zhang, Ning; Xie, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars formed after burns remain a challenge in clinical practice. Development of effective scar therapies relies on validated animal models that mimic human hypertrophic scars. A consistent porcine full-thickness burn hypertrophic scar model has yet to be developed. We have previously reported that Shikonin induces apoptosis and reduces collagen production in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts in vitro and may therefore hold potential as a novel scar remediation therapy. In this study, we aimed to validate the potential of Shikonin on scar remediation in vivo. A novel porcine hypertrophic scar model was created after full-thickness burn wounds, and the effect of Shikonin on scar remediation was investigated. Clinical scar assessments, histology, and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate scar appearance, morphology, and protein expression. Eight weeks after scar formation, clinical scar assessment indicated that the score of hypertrophic scars treated with Shikonin was significantly lower than that of the control group. Hypertrophic scars treated with Shikonin appeared flat, pink, and pliable. In addition, histological analysis indicated that hypertrophic scars treated with Shikonin exhibited reduced thickness of the epidermis and dermis, thin and even epithelial layers, reduced numbers of keratinocytes, uniform distribution of fibroblasts, and a parallel and loose arrangement of collagen fibers in the dermis. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis indicated that Shikonin inhibited the expression of p63, cytokeratin 10, alpha-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor-beta 1, and collagen I, which play important roles in hypertrophic scar formation. Based on these results, we conclude that Shikonin has potential as a novel scar therapy. PMID:29922164

  13. MISR Views a Fire-Scarred Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This MISR image pair shows 'before and after' views of the area around the Hanford Nuclear Reservation near Richland, Washington. On June 27, 2000, a fire in the dry sagebrush was sparked by an automobile crash. The flames were fanned by hot summer winds. By the day after the accident, about 100,000 acres had burned, and the fire's spread forced the closure of highways and loss of homes.

    These images, from Terra orbits 2176 and 3341, were obtained by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Compare the area just above and to the right of the line of cumulus clouds in the May 15 image with the same area imaged on August 3. The darkened burn scar measures approximately 35 kilometers across. The Columbia River is seen wending its way around the area, and the Snake River branches off to the right.

    According to Idaho's National Interagency Fire Center, the US has been experiencing the worst fire season since 1996.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  14. Surgical correction of gynecomastia with minimal scarring.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun-Ho; Kim, Il-Kug; Kim, Tae-Gon; Kim, Yong-Ha

    2012-12-01

    Gynecomastia is a benign, excessive development of the male breast that occurs at an overall incidence of 32-36 %. The authors effectively removed peripheral fat tissues with power-assisted liposuction (PAL) and periareolar glandular tissues with a cartilage shaver in a series of patients. The small periareolar incisions were not easily recognized. Between February 2010 and April 2012, the charts of 15 patients (28 breasts) treated with PAL and a cartilage shaver were retrospectively reviewed. The mean volume of fat tissue removed with liposuction was 319 mL, and the mean volume of glandular tissue removed with the cartilage shaver was 70 mL. The mean follow-up period was 11.2 months. No infection, nipple-areola complex necrosis, nipple retraction, or saucer deformity was encountered in this series. Intraoperative bleeding occurred in one patient. Mild asymmetries developed in three patients. Use of PAL and a cartilage shaver for the treatment of gynecomastia allows for effective removal of both the fat and the glandular tissue of the breast through a minimal periareolar incision. This technique can achieve excellent aesthetic results with inconspicuous scarring. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  15. Hair transplantation in burn scar alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Farjo, Bessam; Farjo, Nilofer; Williams, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Treating patients with burn alopecia or hair loss can often be a challenge to both the surgeon and the patient. As with other reconstructive procedures that are required in the post-burn phase, this is usually a multiple stage process often requiring surgery over several years. This is because graft take is not as reliable as in healthy non-scarred skin and may need repeating to achieve adequate density. Also, different areas of hair loss may need to be addressed in separate procedures. There are several limiting factors that will determine whether or not a patient is a candidate for hair restoration which includes but is not limited to the amount of hair loss and the availability of suitable donor hair. Here we discuss how the current surgical technique of hair transplant surgery by follicular unit extraction (FUE) or strip follicular unit transplant (FUT) has become the treatment of choice for alopecic areas that require a more refined aesthetic result. Eyebrow, eyelash, beard and scalp hair loss can all have a negative impact on a burn survivor’s self-esteem and even if surgery is not a possibility, there are non-surgical options available for hair restoration and these are also discussed. PMID:29799573

  16. Extensive Burn Scars in Russia's Amur Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Vast areas of southeastern Russia have been scorched by fires over the last few weeks. All across Siberia fires have been raging, and this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 15, 2002, shows extensive, dark burn scars along with actively burning fires (red dots) on the north side of the Amur River, which separates Russia (north) and China (south). The southern Amur region is largely devoted to farming and other agriculture, and these fires may have been set intentionally to prepare the land for the growing season. Fire is often used to clear land of unwanted vegetation, and to return the nutrients stored in vegetation back to the soil. However, fires that are too frequent or severe can devastate the soil, eventually making it unsuitable for farming or grazing. Fires can also escape control and spread into protected areas. In this image, fires are mostly concentrated in a lowland area within the drainage basin of the Zeya River, which drains from the frozen lake at the top of the image. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  17. Within country inequalities in caesarean section rates: observational study of 72 low and middle income countries

    PubMed Central

    Boatin, Adeline Adwoa; Schlotheuber, Anne; Betran, Ana Pilar; Moller, Ann-Beth; Barros, Aluisio J D; Boerma, Ties; Torloni, Maria Regina; Victora, Cesar G

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide an update on economic related inequalities in caesarean section rates within countries. Design Secondary analysis of demographic and health surveys and multiple indicator cluster surveys. Setting 72 low and middle income countries with a survey conducted between 2010 and 2014 for analysis of the latest situation of inequality, and 28 countries with a survey also conducted between 2000 and 2004 for analysis of the change in inequality over time. Participants Women aged 15-49 years with a live birth during the two or three years preceding the survey. Main outcome measures Data on caesarean section were disaggregated by asset based household wealth status and presented separately for five subgroups, ranging from the poorest to the richest fifth. Absolute and relative inequalities were measured using difference and ratio measures. The pace of change in the poorest and richest fifths was compared using a measure of excess change. Results National caesarean section rates ranged from 0.6% in South Sudan to 58.9% in the Dominican Republic. Within countries, caesarean section rates were lowest in the poorest fifth (median 3.7%) and highest in the richest fifth (median 18.4%). 18 out of 72 study countries reported a difference of 20 percentage points or higher between the richest and poorest fifth. The highest caesarean section rates and greatest levels of absolute inequality were observed in countries from the region of the Americas, whereas countries from the African region had low levels of caesarean use and comparatively lower levels of absolute inequality, although relative inequality was quite high in some countries. 26 out of 28 countries reported increases in caesarean section rates over time. Rates tended to increase faster in the richest fifth (median 0.9 percentage points per year) compared with the poorest fifth (median 0.2 percentage points per year), indicating an increase in inequality over time in most of these countries

  18. Pregnancy in spinal cord-injured women, a cohort study of 37 pregnancies in 25 women.

    PubMed

    Le Liepvre, H; Dinh, A; Idiard-Chamois, B; Chartier-Kastler, E; Phé, V; Even, A; Robain, G; Denys, P

    2017-02-01

    A retrospective observational study. To describe specificities of pregnancy in a traumatic spinal cord-injured (SCI) population managed by a coordinated medical care team involving physical medicine and rehabilitation (PMR) physicians, urologists, infectious diseases' physicians, obstetricians and anaesthesiologists. NeuroUrology Department in a University Hospital, France. All consecutive SCI pregnant women managed between 2001 and 2014 were included. A preconceptional consultation was proposed whenever possible. Obstetrical and urological outcomes, delivery mode and complications were reported. Overall, thirty-seven pregnancies in 25 women, of a mean age of 32±4 years, were included. Thirty-five children were born alive (three miscarriages, a twin pregnancy) without complications except for a case of neonatal respiratory distress in premature twins born at 33 weeks. The mean birth weight was 2979±599 g. Twenty-one (57%) pregnancies benefited from preconceptional care. A weekly oral cyclic antibiotic programme was prescribed in 28 (75%) pregnancies. The main complications during pregnancy included pyelonephritis (30%), lower urinary tract infections (UTI) (32%), pressure sores (8.8%) and prematurity (12% deliveries before 37 weeks, with only one delivery before 36 weeks). Two patients suffered from autonomic dysreflexia, one with serious complication (brain haematoma). Caesarean sections were performed for 68% of deliveries (23/34) to prevent syringomyelia deterioration (n=10), stress urinary incontinence aggravation (n=3) or for obstetrical reasons (n=7). Mothers' and infants' outcomes were satisfying after pregnancy in SCI women, but required many adjustments. Pregnancy must be prepared by a preconceptional consultation, and managed by a multidisciplinary team involving specialists of neurological disability and pregnancy.

  19. Life saving or money wasting? Perceptions of caesarean sections among users of services in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Parkhurst, Justin Oliver; Rahman, Syed Azizur

    2007-03-01

    Bangladesh has a high level of maternal mortality, corresponding to one of the world's lowest rates of use of skilled birth attendance (12.1%), and a similarly low rate of caesarean births (2.4%). While increasing the proportion of women who deliver with professional medical care is essential to prevent maternal deaths, past work has identified distrust of caesarean procedures in Bangladesh. The reasons behind this distrust can manifest itself in health seeking behaviour around maternal care. This paper presents findings from a qualitative study of 30 women in a rural district of Bangladesh who recently delivered in a health facility. It finds that the distrust in doctor's recommendations for surgery stemmed from high costs incurred and a belief that it was used when not medically justified. This could lead to women avoiding or leaving medical facilities in extreme cases. Some women's experiences further illustrated disagreement among medical staff as to whether or not a caesarean procedure should be done, with conflicting financial incentives for doctors to perform caesarean deliveries, and for nurses and midwives to conduct normal deliveries. Policy makers must recognise that the fears women hold of caesarean deliveries may not simply be rooted in ignorance and may, in fact, reflect legitimate concerns with medical practice. Ultimately, it will be essential to address problems in the health systems environment, which may promote improper service provision.

  20. Empowering surgical nurses improves compliance rates for antibiotic prophylaxis after caesarean birth.

    PubMed

    Shimoni, Zvi; Kama, Naama; Mamet, Yaakov; Glick, Joseph; Dusseldorp, Natan; Froom, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Empowering surgical nurses improves compliance rates for antibiotic prophylaxis after caesarean birth. This paper is a report of a study of the effect of empowering surgical nurses to ensure that patients receive antibiotic prophylaxis after caesarean birth. Despite the consensus that single dose antibiotic prophylaxis is beneficial for women have either elective or non-elective caesarean delivery, hospitals need methods to increase compliance rates. In a study in Israel in 2007 surgical nurses were empowered to ensure that a single dose of cefazolin was given to the mother after cord clamping. A computerized system was used to identify women having caesarean births, cultures sent and culture results. Compliance was determined by chart review. Rates of compliance, suspected wound infections, and confirmed wound infections in 2007 were compared to rates in 2006 before the policy change. Relative risks were calculated dividing 2007 rates by those in 2006, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Taylor's series that does not assume a normal distribution. Statistical significance was assessed using the chi-square test. The compliance rate was increased from 25% in 2006 to 100% in 2007 (chi-square test, P < 0.001). Suspected wound infection rates decreased from 16.8% (186/1104) to 12.6% (137/1089) after the intervention (relative risk 0.75, 95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.92). Surgical nurses can ensure universal compliance for antibiotic prophylaxis in women after caesarean birth, leading to a reduction in wound infections.

  1. Chewing gum for intestinal function recovery after caesarean section: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zunjia; Shen, Meifen; Wu, Chao; Ding, Jianping; Mei, Binbin

    2017-04-18

    Gum chewing has been reported to enhance the intestinal function recovery after caesarean section, current perspectives and practice guidelines vary widely on the use of gum chewing, more studies on the role of gum chewing after caesarean section are needed. We performed a comprehensive, systematic meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficacy of gum chewing after caesarean section. Studies were identified by searching EMBASE et al database (until June 30, 2016). Summary odd ratios or weighted mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each outcome with fixed- or random-effects model. Ten RCTs with a total of 1659 women were included in our meta-analysis. Gum chewing provided significant benefits in reducing the time to first passage of flatus, first defecation, first bowel sound, first bowel movement and the length of hospital stay, but not in the time to first feeling of hunger. Gun chewing hastens the intestinal function recovery after caesarean section and offers a safe and inexpensive option. High-quality and larger-scale RCTs are still warranted to clarify the role of gum chewing in intestinal function recovery after caesarean section.

  2. Hypertrophic scarring: the greatest unmet challenge following burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Finnerty, Celeste C; Jeschke, Marc G; Branski, Ludwik K; Barret, Juan P.; Dziewulski, Peter; Herndon, David N

    2017-01-01

    Summary Improvements in acute burn care have enabled patients to survive massive burns which would have once been fatal. Now up to 70% of patients develop hypertrophic scars following burns. The functional and psychosocial sequelae remain a major rehabilitative challenge, decreasing quality of life and delaying reintegration into society. The current approach is to optimise the healing potential of the burn wound using targeted wound care and surgery in order to minimise the development of hypertrophic scarring. This approach often fails, and modulation of established scar is continued although the optimal indication, timing, and combination of therapies have yet to be established. The need for novel treatments is paramount, and future efforts to improve outcomes and quality of life should include optimisation of wound healing to attenuate or prevent hypertrophic scarring, well-designed trials to confirm treatment efficacy, and further elucidation of molecular mechanisms to allow development of new preventative and therapeutic strategies. PMID:27707499

  3. Suppression of scarring in peripheral nerve implants by drug elution.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, James J

    2016-04-01

    Medical implants made of non-biological materials provoke a chronic inflammatory response, resulting in the deposition of a collagenous scar tissue (ST) layer on their surface, that gradually thickens over time. This is a critical problem for neural interfaces. Scar build-up on electrodes results in a progressive decline in signal level because the scar tissue gradually separates axons away from the recording contacts. In regenerative sieves and microchannel electrodes, progressive scar deposition will constrict and may eventually choke off the sieve hole or channel lumen. Interface designs need to address this issue if they are to be fit for long term use. This study examines a novel method of inhibiting the formation and thickening of the fibrous scar. Research to date has mainly focused on methods of preventing stimulation of the foreign body response by implant surface modification. In this paper a pharmacological approach using drug elution to suppress chronic inflammation is introduced. Microchannel implants made of silicone doped with the steroid drug dexamethasone were implanted in the rat sciatic nerve for periods of up to a year. Tissue from within the microchannels was compared to that from control devices that did not release any drug. In the drug eluting implants the scar layer was significantly thinner at all timepoints, and unlike the controls it did not continue to thicken after 6 months. Control implants supported axon regeneration well initially, but axon counts fell rapidly at later timepoints as scar thickened. Axon counts in drug eluting devices were initially much lower, but increased rather than declined and by one year were significantly higher than in controls. Drug elution offers a potential long term solution to the problem of performance degradation due to scarring around neural implants.

  4. Quantitative measurement of hypertrophic scar: interrater reliability and concurrent validity.

    PubMed

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; Rachelska, Grazyna; Armour, Alexis; LaSalle, Léo

    2008-01-01

    Research into the pathophysiology and treatment of hypertrophic scar (HSc) remains limited by the heterogeneity of scar and the imprecision with which its severity is measured. The objective of this study was to test the interrater reliability and concurrent validity of the Cutometer measurement of elasticity, the Mexameter measurement of erythema and pigmentation, and total thickness measure of the DermaScan C relative to the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (mVSS) in patient-matched normal skin, normal scar, and HSc. Three independent investigators evaluated 128 sites (severe HSc, moderate or mild HSc, donor site, and normal skin) on 32 burn survivors using all of the above measurement tools. The intraclass correlation coefficient, which was used to measure interrater reliability, reflects the inherent amount of error in the measure and is considered acceptable when it is >0.75. Interrater reliability of the totals of the height, pliability, and vascularity subscales of the mVSS fell below the acceptable limit ( congruent with0.50). The individual subscales of the mVSS fell well below the acceptable level (< or =0.3). The Cutometer reading of elasticity provided acceptable reliability (>0.89) for each study site with the exception of severe scar. Mexameter and DermaScan C reliability measurements were acceptable for all sites (>0.82). Concurrent validity correlations with the mVSS were significant except for the comparison of the mVSS pliability subscale and the Cutometer maximum deformation measure comparison in severe scar. In conclusion, the Mexameter and DermaScan C measurements of scar color and thickness of all sites, as well as the Cutometer measurement of elasticity in all but the most severe scars shows high interrater reliability. Their significant concurrent validity with the mVSS confirms that these tools are measuring the same traits as the mVSS, and in a more objective way.

  5. Suppression of scarring in peripheral nerve implants by drug elution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    FitzGerald, James J.

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Medical implants made of non-biological materials provoke a chronic inflammatory response, resulting in the deposition of a collagenous scar tissue (ST) layer on their surface, that gradually thickens over time. This is a critical problem for neural interfaces. Scar build-up on electrodes results in a progressive decline in signal level because the scar tissue gradually separates axons away from the recording contacts. In regenerative sieves and microchannel electrodes, progressive scar deposition will constrict and may eventually choke off the sieve hole or channel lumen. Interface designs need to address this issue if they are to be fit for long term use. This study examines a novel method of inhibiting the formation and thickening of the fibrous scar. Approach. Research to date has mainly focused on methods of preventing stimulation of the foreign body response by implant surface modification. In this paper a pharmacological approach using drug elution to suppress chronic inflammation is introduced. Microchannel implants made of silicone doped with the steroid drug dexamethasone were implanted in the rat sciatic nerve for periods of up to a year. Tissue from within the microchannels was compared to that from control devices that did not release any drug. Main results. In the drug eluting implants the scar layer was significantly thinner at all timepoints, and unlike the controls it did not continue to thicken after 6 months. Control implants supported axon regeneration well initially, but axon counts fell rapidly at later timepoints as scar thickened. Axon counts in drug eluting devices were initially much lower, but increased rather than declined and by one year were significantly higher than in controls. Significance. Drug elution offers a potential long term solution to the problem of performance degradation due to scarring around neural implants.

  6. Pre-pregnancy care and pregnancy outcomes in type 1 diabetes mellitus: a comparison of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and multiple daily injection therapy.

    PubMed

    Neff, K J; Forde, R; Gavin, C; Byrne, M M; Firth, R G R; Daly, S; McAuliffe, F M; Foley, M; Coffey, M; Coulter-Smith, S; Kinsley, B T

    2014-09-01

    Pre-pregnancy care improves pregnancy outcomes in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy and multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy can both be used to achieve glycaemic targets, but few data are available to compare their efficacy in pre-pregnancy care. To compare MDI and CSII in pre-pregnancy care in T1DM. Retrospective database review of women with T1DM attending the Dublin Diabetes in Pregnancy Centre. 464 women with T1DM (40 treated with CSII) were included. Women attending for pre-pregnancy care had lower HbA1c levels at booking to antenatal services [52 ± 10 mmol/mol (6.9 ± 0.9 %) vs. 62 ± 16 mmol/mol (7.8 ± 1.5 %), p < 0.001], and booked at an earlier gestation (6 ± 2 vs. 8 ± 6 weeks, p < 0.001). In those who attended for pre-pregnancy care, the CSII group had lower HbA1c levels at booking than those using MDI [48 ± 8 mmol/mol (6.5 ± 0.7 %) vs. 53 ± 10 mmol/mol (7.0 ± 0.9 %), p = 0.03]. Gestational age at delivery and birth weight did not differ between groups. Caesarean section rates were associated with CSII use (p < 0.001), duration of diabetes (p = 0.002), and parity (p = 0.006). Nulliparous women using CSII with a longer history of diabetes were more likely to deliver by Caesarean section. There was no perinatal mortality. Pre-pregnancy care delivered by a specialist multi-disciplinary team effectively reduces HbA1c levels peri-conception. CSII use results in lower HbA1c levels in pre-pregnancy care in selected individuals and should be considered in women with T1DM planning pregnancy.

  7. Adolescent Pregnancy Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Nathalie; O'Driscoll, Teresa; Becker, Gisela; Spitzer, Rachel F

    2015-08-01

    and postpartum, and more frequently if deemed necessary, is one option for such screening. (II-2A) 10. Pregnant adolescents should have a nutritional assessment, vitamins and food supplementation if needed, and access to a strategy to reduce anemia and low birth weight and to optimize weight gain in pregnancy. (II-2A) 11. Conflicting evidence supports and refutes differences in gestational hypertension in the adolescent population; therefore, the care usual for adult populations is supported for pregnant adolescents at this time. (II-2A) 12. Practitioners should consult gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) guidelines. In theory, testing all patients is appropriate, although rates of GDM are generally lower in adolescent populations. Practitioners should be aware, however, that certain ethnic groups including Aboriginal populations are at high risk of GDM. (II-2A) 13. An ultrasound anatomical assessment at 16 to 20 weeks is recommended because of increased rates of congenital anomalies in this population. (II-2A) 14. As in other populations at risk of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and low birth weight, an ultrasound to assess fetal well-being and estimated fetal weight at 32 to 34 weeks gestational age is suggested to screen for IUGR. (III-A) 15. Visits in the second or third trimester should be more frequent to address the increased risk of preterm labour and preterm birth and to assess fetal well-being. All caregivers should be aware of the signs and symptoms of preterm labour and should educate their patients to recognize them. (III-A) 16. It should be recognized that adolescents have improved vaginal delivery rates and a concomitantly lower Caesarean section rate than their adult counterparts. (II-2A) As with antenatal care, peripartum care in hospital should be multidisciplinary, involving social care, support for breastfeeding and lactation, and the involvement of children's aid services when warranted. (III-B) 17. Postpartum care should include a focus

  8. Mast cells contribute to scar formation during fetal wound healing.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Brian C; Parent, Allison E; Meleski, Melissa A; DiPietro, Luisa A; Schrementi, Megan E; Wilgus, Traci A

    2012-02-01

    Scar formation is a potentially detrimental process of tissue restoration in adults, affecting organ form and function. During fetal development, cutaneous wounds heal without inflammation or scarring at early stages of development; however, they begin to heal with significant inflammation and scarring as the skin becomes more mature. One possible cell type that could regulate the change from scarless to fibrotic healing is the mast cell. We show here that dermal mast cells in scarless wounds generated at embryonic day 15 (E15) are fewer in number, less mature, and do not degranulate in response to wounding as effectively as mast cells of fibrotic wounds made at embryonic day 18 (E18). Differences were also observed between cultured mast cells from E15 and E18 skin, with regard to degranulation and preformed cytokine levels. Injection of mast cell lysates into E15 wounds disrupted scarless healing, suggesting that mast cells interfere with scarless repair. Finally, wounds produced at E18, which normally heal with a scar, healed with significantly smaller scars in mast cell-deficient Kit(W/W-v) mice compared with Kit(+/+) littermates. Together, these data suggest that mast cells enhance scar formation, and that these cells may mediate the transition from scarless to fibrotic healing during fetal development.

  9. A case study on the successful management of Cotard's syndrome in pregnancy: Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Howe, G; Srinivasan, M

    1999-01-01

    Cotard's Syndrome is rare and no cases have been reported in pregnancy. We describe a case of a woman in the third trimester who attempted suicide by jumping out of a window, sustaining multiple fractures. Delivery of her baby by Caesarean section and orthopaedic intervention was necessary before electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) could be administered, resulting in a successful outcome for both mother and child. (Int J Psych Clin Pract 1999; 3: 293-295).

  10. Comparison of pharmacokinetic profiles of moxifloxacin in Caesarean versus non-pregnant sectioned women by fully validated HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Nemutlu, Emirhan; Kir, Sedef; Eroglu, Hakan; Katlan, Doruk; Ozek, Aykut; Özyüncü, Özgür; Oyüncü, Ozgür; Beksaç, M Sinan

    2010-07-01

    In this study, a simple, rapid, cost-effective, and sensitive reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the analysis of moxifloxacin in plasma. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.) connected to a Phenomenex C(18) column (4 mm x 3.0 mm i.d.) using a mixture of acetonitrile: 15 mM citrate buffer (pH 3) (23:77, v/v) as the mobile phase with isocratic system at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. Fluorescence detection was employed with excitation at 290 nm and emission at 500 nm. Lomefloxacin was used as internal standard. Plasma samples were prepared with addition of acetonitrile only. The method was fully validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The results of the validation parameters were: linearity range, 3-6000 ng/mL (R(2) = 0.9994); mean recovery, 100.48 %; limit of quantification, 5 ng/mL; limit of detection, 1 ng/mL; and intra- and inter-day precision less than 3.2% and 5.1%, respectively. The robustness of the method was evaluated and confirmed with fractional factorial design. After validation studies, the method was applied in order to conclude the effects of pregnancy on postoperative pharmacokinetic profiles of moxifloxacin. For this aim, moxifloxacin was given to non-pregnant women (n=9) and caesarean-sectioned women (n=6) as a single intravenous dose (400 mg Avelox(R) infusion). Plasma samples were analyzed in order to compare pharmacokinetic profiles of pregnants and non-pregnants. Peak serum concentrations of non-pregnant and caesarean-sectioned women at the arterial port after the infusion were 4.95 +/- 1.50 and 1.56 +/- 0.16 microg/mL, respectively. The mean elimination half-life, volume of distribution and calculated area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)(0-infinity) were 5.54 +/- 0.73 h, 65.58 +/- 6.30 L and 49.95 +/- 6.30 microg.h/mL for non-pregnant women and 3.50 +/- 0.37 h, 215

  11. An aggressive vertebral hemangioma in pregnancy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pregnancy-related compressive myelopathy secondary to vertebral hemangioma is a rare occurrence and its treatment antepartum is rare. Case presentation A 19-year-old North African woman in her 38th week of pregnancy presented with paraplegia that progressed within 2 days after a rapidly progressive weakness of her lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging studies showed compression of her spinal cord in front of the fourth thoracic vertebra for suspected tuberculous spondylitis. A Caesarean section was done followed by corpectomy with a bone graft because we intraoperatively discovered a vertebral hemangioma. Pathology showed an aggressive hemangioma. Conclusion At any term of pregnancy, extensive neurological involvement which is rapidly progressive due to compression should be considered for immediate decompression. PMID:24943121

  12. An aggressive vertebral hemangioma in pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Slimani, Ouafae; Jayi, Sofia; Fdili Alaoui, Fatimazahra; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hekmat; Fikri, Ghizlane; Alaoui Rachidi, Siham; Sqalli Houssaini, Nadia; Himmich, Mariam; Abdelilah Melhouf, Moulay

    2014-06-18

    Pregnancy-related compressive myelopathy secondary to vertebral hemangioma is a rare occurrence and its treatment antepartum is rare. A 19-year-old North African woman in her 38th week of pregnancy presented with paraplegia that progressed within 2 days after a rapidly progressive weakness of her lower limbs. Magnetic resonance imaging studies showed compression of her spinal cord in front of the fourth thoracic vertebra for suspected tuberculous spondylitis. A Caesarean section was done followed by corpectomy with a bone graft because we intraoperatively discovered a vertebral hemangioma. Pathology showed an aggressive hemangioma. At any term of pregnancy, extensive neurological involvement which is rapidly progressive due to compression should be considered for immediate decompression.

  13. Fetal gender effects on induction of labor in postdate pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Torricelli, Michela; Voltolini, Chiara; Vellucci, Francesca L; Conti, Nathalie; Bocchi, Caterina; Severi, Filiberto M; Challis, John R; Smith, Roger; Petraglia, Felice

    2013-06-01

    To determine delivery outcome in women undergoing induction of labor for postdate pregnancy in relation to fetal gender. A total of 365 nulliparous and 127 multiparous women carrying singleton postdate pregnancies with unfavorable cervix were enrolled. Clinical characteristics and delivery outcome were analyzed in relation to fetal gender. Women carrying male fetuses showed higher rate of caesarean section than those carrying females, in both nulliparous and multiparous women. Moreover, women carrying male fetuses presented more frequently with (i) interval between induction of labor and delivery >24 hours (P < .0002); (ii) augmentation of labor after cervical ripening (P < .0391); (iii) meconium-stained liquor (P< .0126); and (iv) higher neonatal weight (P < .0011) than those carrying females. Male fetuses are more likely to be associated with higher rates of cesarean section. In maternal fetal medicine, gender differences may add prognostic information on the delivery outcome in women induced for postdate pregnancy.

  14. A paired comparison analysis of third-party rater thyroidectomy scar preference.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, C; Doyle, P C; Brandt, M G; Moore, C C; Nichols, A; Franklin, J H; Yoo, J; Fung, K

    2017-01-01

    To determine the length and position of a thyroidectomy scar that is cosmetically most appealing to naïve raters. Images of thyroidectomy scars were reproduced on male and female necks using digital imaging software. Surgical variables studied were scar position and length. Fifteen raters were presented with 56 scar pairings and asked to identify which was preferred cosmetically. Twenty duplicate pairings were included to assess rater reliability. Analysis of variance was used to determine preference. Raters preferred low, short scars, followed by high, short scars, with long scars in either position being less desirable (p < 0.05). Twelve of 15 raters had acceptable intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. Naïve raters preferred low, short scars over the alternatives. High, short scars were the next most favourably rated. If other factors influencing incision choice are considered equal, surgeons should consider these preferences in scar position and length when planning their thyroidectomy approach.

  15. Vaginal Birth After Caesarean Section in Low Resource Settings: The Clinical and Ethical Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Wanyonyi, Sikolia; Muriithi, Francis G

    2015-10-01

    Vaginal birth after Caesarean section (VBAC) has long been practised in low resource settings using unconventional methods. This not only poses danger to the woman and her baby, but could also have serious legal and ethical implications. The adoption of this practice has been informed by observational studies with many deficiencies; this is so despite other studies from settings in which the standard of care is much better that show that elective repeat Caesarean section (ERCS) may actually be safer than VBAC. This raises questions about whether we should insist on a dangerous practice when there are safer alternatives. We highlight some of the challenges faced in making this decision, and discuss why the fear of ERCS may not be justified after all in low resource settings. Since a reduction in rates of Caesarean section may not be applicable in these regions, because their rates are already low, the emphasis should instead be on adequate birth spacing and safer primary operative delivery.

  16. Caesarean section and asthma in Malaysian children: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Anna Marie; de Bruyne, Jessie; Khalid, Farah; Arumugam, Kulantheran

    2012-09-01

    Birth cohort studies in some countries have shown a link between caesarean section and asthma. To determine if there is an association between asthma and delivery via caesarean section in Malaysian children. This is a case-control study involving 156 children aged 3-15 years old, in a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Seventy-eight children with a confirmed diagnosis of asthma and seventy-eight age-matched controls (no history of asthma or wheezing) were enrolled. Demographic data including mode of delivery and family history of allergic disorders was obtained. Total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) was measured and skin prick tests (SPT) to 6 common aeroallergens were performed. The median age of the patients was 8 years old. One hundred and three (66%) children were delivered via normal vaginal delivery, 8 (5.1%) via assisted vaginal delivery and 45 children (28.9%) via caesarean section. Delivery via caesarean section was not significantly associated with asthma (OR = 1.21 [95% CI 0.60-2.41], p = 0.596). Children delivered via caesarean section did not have higher IgE levels nor were they more sensitized to aeroallergens. Multiple logistic regression showed that asthma was significantly associated with a positive family history of atopy (OR = 13.8 [95% CI 5.96, 32.1], p < 0.001). Introduction of semi-solid food after 6 months old had a protective effect against asthma (OR = 0.97 [95% CI 0.94, 0.99], p = 0.034). Childhood asthma in Malaysian children was not associated with delivery by caesarean section.

  17. Delivery by caesarean section and risk of childhood obesity: analysis of a Peruvian prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Miranda, J Jaime; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to assess if Caesarean section is a risk factor for overnutrition in early- and late-childhood, and to assess the magnitude of the effect of child- versus family-related variables in these risk estimates. Methods. Longitudinal data from Peruvian children from the Young Lives Study was used. Outcomes assessed were overweight, obesity, overnutrition (overweight plus obesity), and central obesity (waist circumference) at the age 5 (first follow-up) and 7 (second follow-up) years. The exposure of interests was delivery by Caesarean section. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using multivariable models adjusted for child-related (e.g., birth weight) and family-related (e.g., maternal nutritional status) variables. Results. At baseline, mean age was 11.7 (± 3.5) months and 50.1% were boys. Children born by Caesarean section were 15.6%. The 10.5% of the children were overweight and 2.4% were obese. For the obesity outcome, data from 6,038 and 9,625 children-years was included from baseline to the first and second follow-up, respectively. Compared to those who did not experience Caesarean delivery, the risk of having obesity was higher in the group born by Caesarean: RRs were higher at early-childhood (first follow-up: 2.25; 95% CI [1.36-3.74]) than later in life (second follow-up: 1.57; 95% CI [1.02-2.41]). Family-related variables had a greater effect in attenuating the risk estimates for obesity at the first, than at the second follow-up. Conclusion. Our results suggest a higher probability of developing obesity, but not overweight, among children born by Caesarean section delivery. The magnitude of risk estimates decreased over time, and family-related variables had a stronger effect on the risk estimates at early-childhood.

  18. Factors influencing rising caesarean section rates in China between 1988 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xing Lin; Xu, Ling; Guo, Yan; Ronsmans, Carine

    2012-01-01

    To identify factors driving the rapid increase in caesarean section in China between 1988 and 2008. Data from four national cross-sectional surveys (1993, 1998, 2003 and 2008) and modified Poisson regression were used to determine whether changes in household income, access to health insurance or women's education accounted for the rise in caesarean sections in urban and rural areas. In 2008, 64.1% of urban women and 11.3% of women in the poorest rural region reported giving birth by caesarean section. A fast rise was occurring in all socioeconomic groups. Between 1993 and 2008, the risk of caesarean section had increased more than threefold in urban areas (relative risk, RR: 3.63; 95% confidence interval, CI: 2.61-5.04) and more than 15-fold in rural areas (RR: 15.46; 95% CI: 10.46-22.86). After adjustment for improvements in income, education and access to health insurance over the study period, the RR dropped minimally in urban areas (RR: 3.07; 95% CI: 2.32-4.07), which suggests that these factors do not explain the rise; in rural areas, the adjusted RR dropped to 7.18 (95% CI: 4.82-10.69), which shows that socioeconomic change is only partly responsible for the rise. Socioeconomic region of residence was a more important driver of the caesarean section rate than individual socioeconomic status. The large variation in caesarean section rate by socioeconomic region--independent of individual income, health insurance or education--suggests that structural factors related to service supply have influenced the increasing rate more than a woman's ability to pay.

  19. Vaginal delivery after previous caesarean section: is X-ray pelvimetry necessary?

    PubMed

    Thubisi, M; Ebrahim, A; Moodley, J; Shweni, P M

    1993-05-01

    To determine whether antepartum X-ray pelvimetry (XRP) reliably identified women suitable for a trial labour or repeat elective caesarean section after one previous section. A prospective controlled trial in which women were randomly allocated to either an antepartum XRP group who had XRP at 36 weeks gestation to determine mode of delivery, or a control group who had a trial labour without antepartum XRP. Following delivery, all controls had postpartum XRP. Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, South Africa. Three hundred-six women with a history of one previous caesarean section. Mode of delivery, birthweight and maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity in the two groups. In the antepartum XRP group, 23 of 144 (16%) of women delivered vaginally compared with 60 of 144 (42%) controls (P < 0.0001). Of the 84 women with adequate antepartum XRP only 23 (27.7%) delivered vaginally. In the control group, 33 of 60 (55%) women who had vaginal deliveries had inadequate postpartum XRP and would have had a caesarean section if this information was known in the antepartum period; 62 of 84 (74%) caesarean sections in the control group had adequate postpartum XRP. Birthweight of the infants was similar in the two groups. There were no maternal or perinatal deaths. Maternal morbidity was similar in the two groups. Neonatal morbidity was minimal. Antepartum XRP is not necessary prior to a trial labour in women with one previous caesarean section. It increases the caesarean section rate and is a poor predictor of the outcome of labour.

  20. Sociodemographic, pregnancy, obstetric, and postnatal predictors of postpartum stress, anxiety and depression in new mothers.

    PubMed

    Clout, Danielle; Brown, Rhonda

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to evaluate relationships between sociodemographic, pregnancy, obstetric, and postnatal variables and postpartum depression, anxiety and stress levels in new mothers. One-hundred-thirty-nine women completed the baseline questionnaire and 105 completed the follow-up questionnaire at 4-6 months postpartum. Sociodemographic and pregnancy factors were assessed at baseline, birth and postnatal factors were assessed at time 2, and depression, anxiety, and stress were assessed at both time points. Caesarean delivery was associated with high postpartum depression, anxiety, and stress levels. Child sleep problems was related to depression, child health problems were related to anxiety, more SLE related to high stress, and maternal sleep problems were related to PPD. However, the results became non-significant after controlling for antenatal distress levels. Finally, women who underwent caesarean delivery had higher antenatal stress, anxiety, and depression levels, relative to women who did not undergo the procedure. Psychological stress and distress tended to persist in the women from the third-trimester of pregnancy to 4-6 months postpartum. It tended to occur in the context of caesarean delivery, maternal sleep problems, child's health and sleep problems, and stressful life-events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative measurement of hypertrophic scar: intrarater reliability, sensitivity, and specificity.

    PubMed

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; Rachelska, Grazyna; Armour, Alexis; LaSalle, Léo

    2008-01-01

    The comparison of scar evaluation over time requires measurement tools with acceptable intrarater reliability and the ability to discriminate skin characteristics of interest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the intrarater reliability and sensitivity and specificity of the Cutometer, the Mexameter, and the DermaScan C relative to the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (mVSS) in patient-matched normal skin, normal scar (donor sites), and hypertrophic scar (HSc). A single investigator evaluated four tissue types (severe HSc, less severe HSc, donor site, and normal skin) in 30 burn survivors with all four measurement tools. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the Cutometer was acceptable (> or =0.75) for the maximum deformation measure for the donor site and normal skin (>0.78) but was below the acceptable range for the HSc sites and all other parameters. The ICC for the Mexameter erythema (>0.75) and melanin index (>0.89) and the DermaScan C total thickness measurement (>0.82) were acceptable for all sites. The ICC for the total of the height, pliability, and vascularity subscales of the mVSS was acceptable (0.81) for normal scar but below the acceptable range for the scar sites. The DermaScan C was clearly able to discriminate HSc from normal scar and normal skin based on the total thickness measure. The Cutometer was less discriminating but was still able to discriminate HSc from normal scar and normal skin. The Mexameter erythema index was not a good discriminator of HSc and normal scar. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to establish the best cutoff point for the DermaScan C total thickness and the Cutometer maximum deformation, which were 2.034 and 0.387 mm, respectively. This study showed that although the Cutometer, the DermaScan C, and the Mexameter have measurement properties that make them attractive substitutes for the mVSS, caution must be used when interpreting results since the Cutometer has a ceiling effect when

  2. Ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Carr, R J; Evans, P

    2000-03-01

    Ectopic pregnancy occurs in approximately 2% of all pregnancies in the United States, and is the nation's leading cause of first trimester maternal death. Its incidence has increased sixfold in the past 25 years, despite significant improvements in techniques for early diagnosis and management. This article reviews the epidemiology, risk factors, and common clinical presentations of ectopic pregnancy. Both traditional and newly developed strategies for diagnosis and management are described. The primary care physician is in an excellent position to screen for and diagnose ectopic pregnancy, and to counsel patients regarding treatment options and future risks. With the increasing trend toward outpatient nonsurgical management of ectopics, it is expected that the roll of the primary care physician in managing patients with ectopic pregnancy will continue to increase.

  3. Myasthenia gravis and pregnancy: anaesthetic management--a series of cases.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Carlos; Coutinho, Ester; Moreira, Daniela; Santos, Ernestina; Aguiar, José

    2010-11-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune neuromuscular disease, usually affecting women in the second and third decades. The course is unpredictable during pregnancy and puerperium. Myasthenia gravis can cause major interference in labour and partum and exacerbations of the disease frequently occur. The aim of this series of cases is to analyse retrospectively the anaesthetic management of myasthenia gravis patients and complications during the peripartum period. Retrospective, single centre study from clinical files of female myasthenia gravis patients who delivered between 1985 and 2007 at Hospital de Santo António, Porto, Portugal. Seventeen myasthenia gravis patients delivered between 1985 and 2007 in Hospital Santo António. Two women were not included in the study as they had a spontaneous abortion in the first trimester. Four patients presented exacerbations of the disease during pregnancy, no exacerbation occurred in eight patients and three patients presented their first symptoms of myasthenia gravis during pregnancy (without diagnosis at time of delivery). Concerning the eight patients without exacerbations of the disease during pregnancy, pregnancy was brought to term in 87.5% of the cases; five women were submitted to nonurgent caesarean section (62.5%); and epidural block was performed in six patients (75%). No complications related to anaesthesia occurred in the peripartum period. Concerning the four patients with exacerbations of the disease, pregnancy was brought to term in three cases (75%); three women were submitted to nonurgent caesarean section (75%); and epidural block was performed in three patients (75%). One patient underwent an uncomplicated thymectomy under general anaesthesia during pregnancy and, in the postpartum period, there was a myasthenic crisis in another patient. Concerning the three patients without a myasthenia gravis diagnosis at partum, one woman already being followed for presenting muscular weakness had a vaginal delivery under

  4. Pregnancy Is a Risk Factor for Secondary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis in Women with a History of Very Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Mari; Iwanari, Sachio; Tsujimoto, Yasushi; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Hagihara, Koichiro; Fumihara, Daiki; Miki, Syo; Shimoda, Saeko; Ikeda, Masaki; Takeoka, Hiroya

    2017-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) has been known to increase the susceptibility to renal injury in adulthood. A 26-year-old woman developed proteinuria in early pregnancy; she had been born with very LBW. The clinical course was progressive, and an emergency Caesarean section was performed at 36 weeks due to acute kidney injury. A renal biopsy provided a diagnosis of post-adaptive focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Increased demand for glomerular filtration during early pregnancy appeared to have initiated the renal injury. This report highlights the fact that pregnancy might be a risk factor for renal injury in women born with LBW. PMID:28626180

  5. Pregnancy Is a Risk Factor for Secondary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis in Women with a History of Very Low Birth Weight.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Mari; Iwanari, Sachio; Tsujimoto, Yasushi; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Hagihara, Koichiro; Fumihara, Daiki; Miki, Syo; Shimoda, Saeko; Ikeda, Masaki; Takeoka, Hiroya

    2017-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) has been known to increase the susceptibility to renal injury in adulthood. A 26-year-old woman developed proteinuria in early pregnancy; she had been born with very LBW. The clinical course was progressive, and an emergency Caesarean section was performed at 36 weeks due to acute kidney injury. A renal biopsy provided a diagnosis of post-adaptive focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Increased demand for glomerular filtration during early pregnancy appeared to have initiated the renal injury. This report highlights the fact that pregnancy might be a risk factor for renal injury in women born with LBW.

  6. Scar prevention and remodeling: a review of the medical, surgical, topical and light treatment approaches.

    PubMed

    Kerwin, Leonard Y; El Tal, Abdel Kader; Stiff, Mark A; Fakhouri, Tarek M

    2014-08-01

    Cosmetic, functional, and structural sequelae of scarring are innumerable, and measures exist to optimize and ultimately minimize these sequelae. To evaluate the innumerable methods available to decrease the cosmetic, functional, and structural repercussions of scarring, pubMed search of the English literature with key words scar, scar revision, scar prevention, scar treatment, scar remodeling, cicatrix, cicatrix treatment, and cicatrix remodeling was done. Original articles and reviews were examined and included. Seventy-nine manuscripts were reviewed. Techniques, comparisons, and results were reviewed and tabulated. Overall, though topical modalities are easier to use and are usually more attractive to the patient, the surgical approaches still prove to be superior and more reliable. However, advances in topical medications for scar modification are on the rise and a change towards medical treatment of scars may emerge as the next best approach. Comparison studies of the innumerable specific modalities for scar revision and prevention are impossible. Standardization of techniques is lacking. Scarring, the body's natural response to a wound, can create many adverse effects. At this point, the practice of sound, surgical fundamentals still trump the most advanced preventative methods and revision techniques. Advances in medical approaches are available, however, to assist the scarring process, which even the most advanced surgical fundamentals will ultimately lead to. Whether through newer topical therapies, light treatment, or classical surgical intervention, our treatment armamentarium of scars has expanded and will allow us to maximize scar prevention and to minimize scar morbidity. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. Pregnancy After Age 35

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Pregnancy after age 35 Pregnancy after age 35 E-mail to a friend ...

  8. Your Checkup Before Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... pregnancies > Your checkup before pregnancy Your checkup before pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  9. The Free Caesareans Policy in Low-Income Settings: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis in Mali (2003–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Pierre; Dumont, Alexandre; Tourigny, Caroline; Philibert, Aline; Coulibaly, Aliou; Traoré, Mamadou

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Several countries have instituted fee exemptions for caesareans to reduce maternal and newborn mortality. Objectives To evaluate the effect of fee exemptions for caesareans on population caesarean rates taking into account different levels of accessibility. Methods The observation period was from January 2003 to May 2012 in one Region and covered 11.7 million person-years. Exemption fees for caesareans were adopted on June 26, 2005. Data were obtained from a registration system implemented in 2003 that tracks all obstetrical emergencies and interventions including caesareans. The pre-intervention period was 30 months and the post-intervention period was 83 months. We used an interrupted time series to evaluate the trend before and after the policy adoption and the overall tendency. Findings During the study period, the caesarean rate increased from 0.25 to 1.5% for the entire population. For women living in cities with district hospitals that provided caesareans, the rate increased from 1.7% before the policy was enforced to 5.7% 83 months later. No significant change in trends was observed among women living in villages with a healthcare centre or those in villages with no healthcare facility. For the latter, the caesarean rate increased from 0.4 to 1%. Conclusions After nine years of implementation policy in Mali, the caesarean rate achieved in cities with a district hospital reached the full beneficial effect of this measure, whereas for women living elsewhere this policy did not increase the caesarean rate to a level that could contribute effectively to reduce their risk of maternal death. Only universal access to this essential intervention could reduce the inequities and increase the effectiveness of this policy. PMID:25137072

  10. Breast reduction with short L scar.

    PubMed

    Bozola, A R

    1990-05-01

    I didactically compared the breast as a glandular cone with an envelope of skin and subcutaneous tissue. The aesthetic alterations of the breast are classified in four groups related to form, to volume, to grams, and to ptosis in centimeters. An imaginary plane that passes by the mammary sulcus (plane A) will determine the area of the breast that is ptotic. The projection of this plane in the anterior part of the breast is called point A. The distance between point A and the nipple will give in centimeters the amount of ptosis. I use this distance to draw geometrically in the breast the amount of excess of skin to be removed to correct the ptosis. In group I, the volume is normal and part of the mammary gland is under plane A. In this type of breast, the skin is resected, and since there is no excess of breast tissue, the breast that is under plane A is used as an inferior pedicle flap to give a better volume to the new breast. In group II, the base of the breast is large, the height is normal, and the volume is increased by the enlargement of the base. In this type of breast, the excess of breast under plane A and a wedge under the nipple are resected to reach the normal volume at the end of the surgery. In group III, the base is normal and the volume of the breast is increased by the height. For treatment, I resect the excess of breast under plane A as well as a segment at the base to reduce its height. In group IV, the volume of the breast is increased by the size of the base and the height of the cone, and I treat by resection of the excess of tissue under the ptotic area, a wedge under the areola, and a transversal segment in the base to reduce all the dimensions. In the final result of this technique in the majority of patients I will obtain a short scar. This technique was used in 1083 patients from January of 1979 to May of 1988.

  11. Drought and Burn Scars in Southeastern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    More than 2 million acres were consumed by hundreds of fires between December 2002 and February 2003 in southeastern Australia's national parks, forests, foothills and city suburbs. These images were acquired on February 14, 2002 (left) and February 17, 2003 (right) by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument onboard NASA's Terra satellite. The year 2002 was one of Australia's hottest and driest on record, and the acreage burnt during the summer 2002-2003 fire season in Victoria, the Australian Capital Territory and southern New South Wales, is the largest since 1938-1939, when more than 3 million acres were scorched.

    The extent of the burnt area and the dry conditions as of February 2003 are indicated by these contrasting false-color views. Both image panels display data from the near-infrared, red and blue spectral bands of MISR's downward-viewing (nadir) camera, as red, green and blue, respectively. This display technique causes healthy vegetation to appear red and burnt areas to show as dark brown. The data displayed from the two dates were processed identically to preserve relative brightness variations. Vegetation changes related to the dry conditions (not related to the brown burn scars) are also indicated in the February 2003 panel, where many previously red areas exhibit instead the pale yellow-brown of the underlying soils and geology. Significant reduction in the surface area of several large and important water bodies are also apparent. The diminished extent of Lake Hume (along the left-hand edge) in the later date provides a good example.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 14999 and 16858. The panels cover an area of about 208 kilometers x 286 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 118 to

  12. Outcomes of Cutaneous Scar Revision During Surgical Implant Removal in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Davids, Jon R; Diaz, Kevin; Leba, Thu-Ba; Adams, Samuel; Westberry, David E; Bagley, Anita M

    2016-08-17

    Children who have had surgery involving the placement of an implant frequently undergo a subsequent surgery for hardware removal. The cosmesis of surgical scars following initial and subsequent surgeries is unpredictable. Scar incision (subsequent surgical incision through the initial scar) or excision (around the initial scar) is selected on the basis of the quality of the initial scar. The outcomes following these techniques have not been determined. This prospective, consecutive case series was designed to compare outcomes following surgical scar incision versus excision at the time of implant removal in children with cerebral palsy. Photographs of the scars were made preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months following implant removal and were graded for scar quality utilizing the modified Stony Brook Scar Evaluation Scale (SBSES). Parental assessment of scar appearance was performed at the same time points utilizing a visual analog cosmetic scale (VACS). The scars that were selected for incision had significantly worse SBSES scores at 6 and 12 months following the second surgery compared with preoperative values. However, parents' VACS scores of the incised scars, although worse at 6 months, were comparable with preoperative scores at 12 months. Scars that were selected for excision had significantly worse SBSES scores at 6 months but scores that were comparable with preoperative values at 12 months. VACS scores for the excised scars were comparable at the 3 time points. Surgical incisions that initially healed with good scar quality generally healed well (from the parents' perspective) following subsequent incision through the previous scar. Surgical incisions that initially healed with poor scar quality did not heal better following excision of the previous scar. In such situations, surgical excision of the existing scar should occur in conjunction with additional adjuvant therapies to improve cosmesis. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a

  13. Adolescent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Short, J D; Slusher, I L

    1994-01-01

    Kentucky has the fourth highest percentage of infants born to teenage mothers in the US. Risk factors for adolescent pregnancy are poor academic performance, family history of adolescent pregnancy, absence of one or both biological parents in the home, troubled family relationships, family violence, history of substance abuse, and poor self-concept. Pregnancy adds new developmental requirements to the continual developmental crisis of adolescence. Some of these developmental requirements are dealing with pregnancy and birth of a child and peer and family reactions and relationships. Pregnant teens are at high risk for anemia, preeclampsia, preterm delivery, and low birth weight infants. The health care team must assess the abilities, needs, practices, and priorities of teens. Nurses should promote health and positive health practices in teens. They should focus on prevention of adolescent pregnancy and on meeting the needs of pregnant teens. Adolescent pregnancy interventions include education and adolescent-centered special programs. Peer groups, role playing, videos, and computer games are individualized and effective education techniques for teens. Formal adolescent pregnancy prevention programs are abstinence education, knowledge-based programs, and clinic-focused or school-based programs. A combination of approaches is more effective than using just one approach. Adolescent pregnancy prevention interventions should promote the value of education, discourage substance abuse, and provide counseling for victims of child abuse. Pregnant teens should receive prenatal care as soon as possible. One health care agency should combine physical care, psychosocial support, and education for teens. Kentucky schools help pregnant teens continue their education and help them obtain information and support for care for themselves and their babies. Nurses can be effective at reducing the number of unwanted teen pregnancies.

  14. Association between rates of caesarean section and maternal and neonatal mortality in the 21st century: a worldwide population-based ecological study with longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Ye, J; Zhang, J; Mikolajczyk, R; Torloni, M R; Gülmezoglu, A M; Betran, A P

    2016-04-01

    Caesarean section was initially performed to save the lives of the mother and/or her baby. Caesarean section rates have risen substantially worldwide over the past decades. In this study, we set out to compile all available caesarean section rates worldwide at the country level, and to identify the appropriate caesarean section rate at the population level associated with the minimal maternal and neonatal mortality. Ecological study using longitudinal data. Worldwide country-level data. A total of 159 countries were included in the analyses, representing 98.0% of global live births (2005). Nationally representative caesarean section rates from 2000 to 2012 were compiled. We assessed the relationship between caesarean section rates and mortality outcomes, adjusting for socio-economic development by means of human development index (HDI) using fractional polynomial regression models. Maternal mortality ratio and neonatal mortality rate. Most countries have experienced increases in caesarean section rate during the study period. In the unadjusted analysis, there was a negative association between caesarean section rates and mortality outcomes for low caesarean section rates, especially among the least developed countries. After adjusting for HDI, this effect was much smaller and was only observed below a caesarean section rate of 5-10%. No important association between the caesarean section rate and maternal and neonatal mortality was observed when the caesarean section rate exceeded 10%. Although caesarean section is an effective intervention to save maternal and infant lives, based on the available ecological evidence, caesarean section rates higher than around 10% at the population level are not associated with decreases in maternal and neonatal mortality rates, and thus may not be necessary to achieve the lowest maternal and neonatal mortality. The caesarean section rate of around 10% may be the optimal rate to achieve the lowest mortality. © 2015 The Authors

  15. Hypertrophic scars and keloids in surgery: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Song, Colin

    2014-09-01

    Hypertrophic scars and keloids remain a challenge in surgery. We appreciate that our understanding of the process at cellular and molecular level, profound as it is, when it comes to the clinical evidence much is left to be desired. Although the bench to bedside conundrum remains, the science of translational research calls for an even higher level of cooperation between the scientist and the clinician for the impetus to succeed.The clinicians alerted us to the possible theories in the pathogenesis of keloid formation, inter alia, the ischemia theory, mast cell theory, immune theory, transforming growth factor β interaction, mechanical theory, and the melanocyte stimulating hormone theory. All of the above presupposed a stimulus that would result in an uncontrolled upregulation of collagen and extracellular matrix expression in the pathogenesis of the keloid. This bedside to bench initiative, as in true science, realized more ponderables than possibilities.By the same token, research into the epidermal-mesenchymal signaling, molecular biology, genomics, and stem cell research holds much promise in the bench top arena. To assess efficacy, many scar assessment scores exist in the literature. The clinical measurement of scar maturity can aid in determining end points for therapeutics. Tissue oxygen tension and color assessment of scars by standardized photography proved to be useful.In surgery, the use of dermal substitutes holds some promise as we surmise that quality scars that arise from dermal elements, molecular and enzyme behavior, and balance. Although a systematic review shows some benefit for earlier closure and healing of wounds, no such review exists at this point in time for the use of dermal substitutes in scars.Adipose-derived stem cell, as it pertains to scars, will hopefully realize the potential of skin regeneration rather than by repair in which we are familiar with as well as the undesirable scarring as a result of healing through the inflammatory

  16. [Comparision of Different Methods of Area Measurement in Irregular Scar].

    PubMed

    Ran, D; Li, W J; Sun, Q G; Li, J Q; Xia, Q

    2016-10-01

    To determine a measurement standard of irregular scar area by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of different measurement methods in measuring same irregular scar area. Irregular scar area was scanned by digital scanning and measured by coordinate reading method, AutoCAD pixel method, Photoshop lasso pixel method, Photoshop magic bar filled pixel method and Foxit PDF reading software, and some aspects of these methods such as measurement time, repeatability, whether could be recorded and whether could be traced were compared and analyzed. There was no significant difference in the scar areas by the measurement methods above. However, there was statistical difference in the measurement time and repeatability by one or multi performers and only Foxit PDF reading software could be traced back. The methods above can be used for measuring scar area, but each one has its advantages and disadvantages. It is necessary to develop new measurement software for forensic identification. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  17. Lactic acid peeling in superficial acne scarring in Indian skin.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Silonie

    2010-09-01

    Chemical peeling with both alpha and beta hydroxy acids has been used to improve acne scarring with pigmentation. Lactic acid, a mild alpha hydroxy acid, has been used in the treatment of various dermatological indications but no study is reported in acne scarring with pigmentation. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of full strength pure lactic acid 92% (pH 2.0) chemical peel in superficial acne scarring in Indian skin. Seven patients, Fitzpatrick skin type IV-V, in age group 20-30 years with superficial acne scarring were enrolled in the study. Chemical peeling was done with lactic acid at an interval of 2 weeks to a maximum of four peels. Pre- and post-peel clinical photographs were taken at every session. Patients were followed every month for 3 months after the last peel to evaluate the effects. At the end of 3 months, there was definite improvement in the texture, pigmentation, and appearance of the treated skin, with lightening of scars. Significant improvement (greater than 75% clearance of lesions) occurred in one patient (14.28%), good improvement (51-75% clearance) in three patients (42.84%), moderate improvement (26-50% clearance) in two patients (28.57%), and mild improvement (1-25% clearance) in one patient (14.28%). © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. ["Palimpsest scar" lesions in a context of torture (Darfur, Sudan)].

    PubMed

    Charlier, P; Bou Abdallah, F; Mostefai Dulac, Y; Deo, S; Jacqueline, S; Brun, L; Hervé, C

    2017-11-01

    As a result of the current exponentially growing refugee population from the Middle-East and East Africa (Sudan, Darfur, Eritrea), clinicians (including forensic pathologists) are seeing atypical skin lesions, mainly of a traumatic nature, but in some cases associated with long-standing lesions related to ethnic practices. A case of torture sequelae is presented herein in a patient originally from Darfur (Sudan): cutaneous incisions were made on old scars several times using a knife. The clinical presentation of scarification lesions and that of atypically healed wounds (presumably an effect of inflammation induced by the introduction of irritating foreign bodies such as sand, salt, etc.) are completely different: in all cases they indicate a relative timeframe of the facts, which the clinician should not overlook in reconstructing the patient's course and the injuries to which he has been subjected (hence the proposed designation of "palimpsest scar", in the sense that a palimpsest is a manuscript on a parchment that previously contained writing but has been scratched clean to be overwritten). Thus, a "palimpsest scar" constitutes a fresh scar on top of and hiding another (ritual) scar in a context of ethnic cleansing. The diagnostic and clinical significance comes from the importance of differentiating between ethnic-type lesions and those induced by physical violence and abuse in a context of war. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. The Living Scar – Cardiac Fibroblasts and the Injured Heart

    PubMed Central

    Rog-Zielinska, Eva A; Norris, Russell A; Kohl, Peter; Markwald, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac scars, often perceived as “dead” tissue, are very much alive, with heterocellular activity ensuring the maintenance of structural and mechanical integrity following heart injury. To form a scar, non-myocytes such as fibroblasts, proliferate and are recruited from intra- and extra-cardiac sources. Fibroblasts perform important autocrine and paracrine signalling functions. They also establish mechanical and, as is increasingly evident, electrical junctions with other cells. While fibroblasts were previously thought to act simply as electrical insulators, they may be electrically connected among themselves and, under certain circumstances, to other cells, including cardiomyocytes. A better understanding of these interactions will help target scar structure and function and facilitate the development of novel therapies aimed at modifying scar properties for patient benefit. This review explores available insight and recent concepts on fibroblast integration in the heart, and highlights potential avenues for harnessing their roles to optimise scar function following heart injury such as infarction, and therapeutic interventions such as ablation. PMID:26776094

  20. Emergent scar lines in chaotic advection of passive directors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazi, Bardia; Mehlig, Bernhard; Voth, Greg A.

    2017-12-01

    We examine the spatial field of orientations of slender fibers that are advected by a two-dimensional fluid flow. The orientation field of these passive directors are important in a wide range of industrial and geophysical flows. We introduce emergent scar lines as the dominant coherent structures in the orientation field of passive directors in chaotic flows. Previous work has identified the existence of scar lines where the orientation rotates by π over short distances, but the lines that were identified disappeared as time progressed. As a result, earlier work focused on topological singularities in the orientation field, which we find to play a negligible role at long times. We use the standard map as a simple time-periodic two-dimensional flow that produces Lagrangian chaos. This class of flows produces persistent patterns in passive scalar advection and we find that a different kind of persistent pattern develops in the passive director orientation field. We identify the mechanism by which emergent scar lines grow to dominate these patterns at long times in complex flows. Emergent scar lines form where the recent stretching of the fluid element is perpendicular to earlier stretching. Thus these scar lines can be labeled by their age, defined as the time since their stretching reached a maximum.

  1. Sarcoidosis presenting as non-scarring non-scalp alopecia.

    PubMed

    Dan, Luke; Relic, John

    2016-08-01

    In this article we describe a 39-year-old man who presented with non-scarring non-scalp alopecia of his limbs as the initial presentation of sarcoidosis. Alopecia is a rare cutaneous manifestation of sarcoidosis. A literature review has found only one other example of sarcoidosis presenting as non-scarring non-scalp alopecia in an area other than the scalp in a patient who was otherwise asymptomatic. Several reported cases have described scarring alopecia of the scalp, which is the area of skin most commonly affected by sarcoidosis. There has been one documented case of sarcoidosis manifesting as total body non-scarring alopecia in a patient who had systemic symptoms of sarcoidosis. Other cases have presented rare cutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis but in all these cases several other organ systems have been involved, and the patient has had systemic symptoms on presentation or the cutaneous presentation did not include non-scalp non-scarring alopecia. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  2. Intralesional cryotherapy for hypertrophic scars and keloids: a review

    PubMed Central

    O’Boyle, Ciaran P; Shayan-Arani, Holleh; Hamada, Maha Wagdy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertrophic and keloid scarring remain notoriously troublesome for patients to tolerate and frustratingly difficult for clinicians to treat. Many different treatment modalities exist, signifying the failure of any method to achieve consistently excellent results. Intralesional cryotherapy is a relatively recent development that uses a double lumen needle, placed through the core of a keloid or hypertrophic scar, to deliver nitrogen vapour, which freezes the scar from its core, outwards. Methods: This article provides a comprehensive review of the literature on intralesional cryotherapy for hypertrophic scars and keloids. A systematic review or meta-analysis was not possible, since the existing articles did not permit this. Results: A search of English language, peer-reviewed literature was carried out. The evidence base was found to be low (level 4). In addition, much of the published evidence comes from a very few groups. Despite this, consistent findings from case series suggest that the technique is safe and achieves good scar reduction with very few treatments. Adverse effects include depigmentation, recurrence and pain. Pain and recurrence appear to be uncommon and depigmentation may be temporary. Discussion: Well-constructed, prospectively recruited comparative trials are absent from the literature. These are strongly encouraged, in order to strengthen general confidence in this technique and in the repeatability of outcomes reported thus far. PMID:29799581

  3. Compressed Collagen Enhances Stem Cell Therapy for Corneal Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Shojaati, Golnar; Khandaker, Irona; Sylakowski, Kyle; Funderburgh, Martha L.; Du, Yiqin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Stem cells from human corneal stroma (CSSC) suppress corneal stromal scarring in a mouse wound‐healing model and promote regeneration of native transparent tissue (PMID:25504883). This study investigated efficacy of compressed collagen gel (CCG) as a vehicle to deliver CSSC for corneal therapy. CSSC isolated from limbal stroma of human donor corneas were embedded in soluble rat‐tendon collagen, gelled at 37°C, and partially dehydrated to a thickness of 100 µm by passive absorption. The CCG disks were dimensionally stable, easy to handle, and could be adhered securely to de‐epithelialized mouse cornea with fibrin‐based adhesive. CSSC in CCG maintained >80% viability for >1 week in culture media and could be cryopreserved in 20% fetal bovine serum‐10%DMSO in liquid nitrogen. CCG containing as few as 500 CSSC effectively prevented visible scarring and suppressed expression of fibrotic Col3a1 mRNA. CSSC in CCG were more effective at blocking scarring on a per‐cell basis than CSSC delivered directly in a fibrin gel as previously described. Collagen‐embedded cells retained the ability to suppress corneal scarring after conventional cryopreservation. This study demonstrates use of a common biomaterial that can facilitate storage and handling of stem cells in a manner that may provide off‐the‐shelf delivery of stem cells as a therapy for corneal scarring. stem cells translational medicine 2018;7:487–494 PMID:29654654

  4. Weight change across the start of three consecutive pregnancies and the risk of maternal morbidity and SGA birth at the second and third pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Horgan, Graham W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Weight-change across parities and/or current BMI may influence maternal and fetal morbidity and requires to be differentiated to better inform weight-management guidance. Methods Direction, pattern and magnitude of weight-change across three consecutive parities and thereby two inter-pregnancy periods was described in 5079 women. The association between inter-pregnancy weight-change versus current BMI and adverse maternal events, SGA-birth and preterm delivery at second and third pregnancy were investigated by logistic regression. Results More women gained weight across the defined childbearing period than lost it, with ~35% of normal and overweight women gaining sufficient weight to move up a BMI-category. Nine patterns of weight-change were defined across two inter-pregnancy periods and 50% of women remained weight-stable throughout (within 2BMI units/period). Women who were overweight/obese at first pregnancy had higher risk of substantial weight-gain and loss (>10kg) during each of two inter-pregnancy periods. Inter-pregnancy weight-gain (> 2BMI units) between first and second pregnancy increased the risk of maternal morbidity (1or more event of hypertensive disease, caesarean-section, thromboembolism) at second pregnancy, while weight-loss (>2BMI units) increased the risk of SGA-birth. Similarly, increased risk of maternal morbidity at the third pregnancy was influenced by weight-gain during both inter-pregnancy periods but not by current BMI-category. Both weight-gain between first and second pregnancy, and being overweight/obese by third pregnancy protected the fetus against SGA-birth whereas weight-loss between second and third pregnancy doubled the SGA risk. Conclusion Half the women studied exhibited significant weight-fluctuations. This influenced their risk of maternal morbidity and SGA-birth at second and third pregnancy. PMID:28628636

  5. Elastin Is Differentially Regulated by Pressure Therapy in a Porcine Model of Hypertrophic Scar.

    PubMed

    Carney, Bonnie C; Liu, Zekun; Alkhalil, Abdulnaser; Travis, Taryn E; Ramella-Roman, Jessica; Moffatt, Lauren T; Shupp, Jeffrey W

    Beneficial effects of pressure therapy for hypertrophic scars have been reported, but the mechanisms of action are not fully understood. This study evaluated elastin and its contribution to scar pliability. The relationship between changes in Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) scores of pressure-treated scars and differential regulation of elastin was assessed. Hypertrophic scars were created and assessed weekly using VSS and biopsy procurement. Pressure treatment began on day 70 postinjury. Treated scars were compared with untreated shams. Treatment lasted 2 weeks, through day 84, and scars were assessed weekly through day 126. Transcript and protein levels of elastin were quantified. Pressure treatment resulted in lower VSS scores compared with sham-treated scars. Pliability (VSSP) was a key contributor to this difference. At day 70 pretreatment, VSSP = 2. Without treatment, sham-treated scars became less pliable, while pressure-treated scars became more pliable. The percentage of elastin in scars at day 70 was higher than in uninjured skin. Following treatment, the percentage of elastin increased and continued to increase through day 126. Untreated sham scars did not show a similar increase. Quantification of Verhoeff-Van Gieson staining corroborated the findings and immunofluorescence revealed the alignment of elastin fibers. Pressure treatment results in increased protein level expression of elastin compared with sham-untreated scars. These findings further characterize the extracellular matrix's response to the application of pressure as a scar treatment, which will contribute to the refinement of rehabilitation practices and ultimately improvements in functional and psychosocial outcomes for patients.

  6. Denied pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, R; Grotowski, T

    1996-12-01

    To review the literature on the topic of denied pregnancy and present a case study that illustrates some salient points. A 21-year-old woman was unaware of her pregnancy until she went into labour, at which time she went into a state of panic. She delivered a dead baby. She was interviewed over the 5 days following delivery and referred for psychiatric assessment. She was discharged when cleared of serious psychiatric illness. At follow-up she was well but haunted by recollections of the delivery. She was referred for further counselling. Denial of pregnancy is more common than realised. It is a heterogeneous condition associated with different coping styles and psychiatric diagnoses. Early testing for pregnancy is recommended in young women with nausea, weight gain and menstruation-like bleeding.

  7. Pregnancy care

    MedlinePlus

    ... have few or mild symptoms during pregnancy. Many women work their full term and travel while they are pregnant. Others may have to cut back on their hours or stop working. Some women require bed rest ...

  8. Caesarean Section—A Density-Equalizing Mapping Study to Depict Its Global Research Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Brüggmann, Dörthe; Löhlein, Lena-Katharina; Louwen, Frank; Quarcoo, David; Jaque, Jenny; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Groneberg, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Caesarean section (CS) is a common surgical procedure. Although it has been performed in a modern context for about 100 years, there is no concise analysis of the international architecture of caesarean section research output available so far. Therefore, the present study characterizes the global pattern of the related publications by using the NewQIS (New Quality and Quantity Indices in Science) platform, which combines scientometric methods with density equalizing mapping algorithms. The Web of Science was used as a database. 12,608 publications were identified that originated from 131 countries. The leading nations concerning research activity, overall citations and country-specific h-Index were the USA and the United Kingdom. Relation of the research activity to epidemiologic data indicated that Scandinavian countries including Sweden and Finland were leading the field, whereas, in relation to economic data, countries such as Israel and Ireland led. Semi-qualitative indices such as country-specific citation rates ranked Sweden, Norway and Finland in the top positions. International caesarean section research output continues to grow annually in an era where caesarean section rates increased dramatically over the past decades. With regard to increasing employment of scientometric indicators in performance assessment, these findings should provide useful information for those tasked with the improvement of scientific achievements. PMID:26593932

  9. Caesarean Section--A Density-Equalizing Mapping Study to Depict Its Global Research Architecture.

    PubMed

    Brüggmann, Dörthe; Löhlein, Lena-Katharina; Louwen, Frank; Quarcoo, David; Jaque, Jenny; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Groneberg, David A

    2015-11-17

    Caesarean section (CS) is a common surgical procedure. Although it has been performed in a modern context for about 100 years, there is no concise analysis of the international architecture of caesarean section research output available so far. Therefore, the present study characterizes the global pattern of the related publications by using the NewQIS (New Quality and Quantity Indices in Science) platform, which combines scientometric methods with density equalizing mapping algorithms. The Web of Science was used as a database. 12,608 publications were identified that originated from 131 countries. The leading nations concerning research activity, overall citations and country-specific h-Index were the USA and the United Kingdom. Relation of the research activity to epidemiologic data indicated that Scandinavian countries including Sweden and Finland were leading the field, whereas, in relation to economic data, countries such as Israel and Ireland led. Semi-qualitative indices such as country-specific citation rates ranked Sweden, Norway and Finland in the top positions. International caesarean section research output continues to grow annually in an era where caesarean section rates increased dramatically over the past decades. With regard to increasing employment of scientometric indicators in performance assessment, these findings should provide useful information for those tasked with the improvement of scientific achievements.

  10. Association between Caesarean Delivery and Childhood Asthma in India and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lavin, Tina; Franklin, Peter; Preen, David B

    2017-01-01

    While there is evidence of an association between caesarean birth and increased asthma in children in high-income countries, it is unknown whether this association exists in low-to-middle-income countries (LMICs). We investigated whether children born through caesarean in India and Vietnam are at increased risk of caregiver-reported asthma by 8 years of age. Data from an ongoing multi-national longitudinal cohort study (the Young Lives Study) in two LMICs (India n = 2026; Vietnam n = 2000) were used. Caregiver questionnaires captured information on caregiver-reported long-term respiratory problems such as asthma or wheeze at age 8 years, birth mode and a range of sociodemographic factors. Multivariable logistic regression models using propensity score adjustment were used to explore birth mode and asthma at age 8 years adjusted for a range of known confounders. Children delivered by caesarean in India (odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3, 5.4) and Vietnam (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2, 3.3) had greater odds of asthma at age 8 years, after adjustment for other risk factors including wealth, liveborn parity, low birthweight, geographic location, cooking fuel used, livestock ownership, household size, housing quality and parental smoking. The study suggests that caesarean birth may be associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma in India and Vietnam. The underlying mechanisms of this finding need to be further elucidated. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Fathers' care of the newborn infant after caesarean section in Chile: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Ana; Christensson, Kyllike; Velandia, Marianne; Erlandsson, Kerstin

    2016-06-01

    In Chilean hospitals the current model of care after caesarean section is to separate newborn infants from both parents. The care of newborn infants and the parents' experience immediately after caesarean section requires further exploration. To describe fathers' experiences and perceptions of being the primary caregiver to their newborn infant during the first 90 minutes after caesarean section in a public general maternity hospital setting in Santiago de Chile. The questionnaire was one part of a larger research programme named: "Caregiving Models after Elective Caesarean Section - Parents' perceptions and effects on infants' wellbeing". Four open ended questions were used to gather written text on the experiences and perceptions of 95 fathers who were the primary caregiver to their newborn infant. Ethical approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee, Scientific Assessment Metropolitan Health Service South East. Systematic text condensation according to Malterud's description was used for analysis of the written text. Two themes were identified: "understanding the first moment of life" and "shared responsibility for future family life" with each theme divided into six categories. This study concludes by arguing that in situations where the mother is unavailable or unable to provide basic care, the father should be supported to care for the newborn infant. Parents should be made aware of the benefits of this caring model especially when mother and baby have been separated after birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The immediate effect of vaginal and caesarean delivery on anal sphincter measurements.

    PubMed

    Karcaaltincaba, Deniz; Erkaya, Salim; Isik, Hatice; Haberal, Ali

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of vaginal and caesarean delivery on internal and external anal sphincter muscle thickness using translabial ultrasonography (TL-US). This prospective cohort study enrolled nulliparous women who either had vaginal or caesarean deliveries. The thickness of the hypoechoic internal anal sphincter (IAS) and hyperechoic external anal sphincter (EAS) at the 12, 3, 6, and 9 o'clock positions at the distal level were measured before delivery and within 24-48 h after delivery. A total 105 consecutive women were enrolled in the study: 60 in the vaginal delivery group and 45 in the caesarean delivery group. The IAS muscle thickness at the 12 o'clock position in the vaginal delivery group was significantly thicker before compared with after delivery (mean ± SD: 2.31 ± 0.74 mm versus 1.81 ± 0.64 mm, respectively). The EAS muscle thickness at the 12 o'clock position in the vaginal delivery group was significantly thicker before compared with after delivery (mean ± SD: 2.42 ± 0.64 mm versus 1.97 ± 0.85, respectively). There was significant muscle thinning of both the IAS and EAS at the 12 o'clock position after vaginal delivery, but not after caesarean delivery. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. A multidisciplinary approach to scars: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Zanier, Emiliano; Bordoni, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to carry out a narrative review regarding the approach to scars through complementary and alternative medicine focusing on osteopathy, naturopathy, and other minor methods and traditional rehabilitative medicines, such as physiotherapy and manual therapies. We analyzed the existing literature regarding the possible influences of techniques relaxing the diaphragm – both manual and psychophysical relaxing techniques – and the consequent local response to events leading to scar tissue healing. The objective of the study is to become a useful instrument of knowledge for those manual therapists and professionals who deal with patients affected by discontinuity of the skin surface due to trauma or surgery. This article also intends to stimulate research in order to find and propose new methods of scar treatment, taking into consideration the information gained so far from other complementary and alternative disciplines. PMID:26316774

  14. Mapping Fire Scars in the Brazilian Cerrado Using AVHRR Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, C. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Brass, J. A.; Rezendez, A.; Alexander, S.; Guild, L. S.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The Brazilian cerrado, or savanna, spans an area of 1,800,000 square kilometers on the great plateau of Central Brazil. Large fires covering hundreds of square kilometers, frequently occur in wildland areas of the cerrado, dominated by grasslands or grasslands mixed with shrubs and small trees, and also within area in the cerrado used for agricultural purposes, particularly for grazing. Smaller fires, typically extending over arm of a few square kilometers or less, are associated with the clewing of crops, such as dry land rice. A method for mapping fire scars and differentiating them from extensive areas of bare sod with AVHRR bands 1 (.55 -.68 micrometer) and 3 (3.5 - 3.9 micrometers) and measures of performance based on comparison with maps of fires with Landsat imagery will be presented. Methods of estimating total area burned from the AVHRR fire scar map will be discussed and related to land use and scar size.

  15. Chemical peels in active acne and acne scars.

    PubMed

    Kontochristopoulos, Georgios; Platsidaki, Eftychia

    Chemical peeling is a widely used procedure in the management of acne and acne scars. It causes controlled destruction of a part of or the entire epidermis, with or without the dermis, leading to exfoliation and removal of superficial lesions, followed by regeneration of new epidermal and dermal tissues. The most frequently used peeling agents are salicylic acid, glycolic acid, pyruvic acid, lactic acid, mandelic acid, Jessner solution, trichloroacetic acid, and phenol. The appropriate peel is chosen based on the patient's skin type, acne activity, and type of acne scars. Combination peels minimize side effects. In acne scars, chemical peels may be combined with other procedures to achieve better clinical results. A series of chemical peels can lead to significant improvement over a short period, leading to patient satisfaction and maintenance of clinical results. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Homeostasis of Hyaluronic Acid in Normal and Scarred Vocal Folds

    PubMed Central

    Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Watanuki, Makoto; Bless, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives/Hypothesis Vocal fold scarring is one of the most challenging laryngeal disorders to treat. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is the main component of lamina propria, and it plays an important role in proper vocal fold vibration and is also thought to be important in fetal wound healing without scarring. Although several animal models of vocal fold scarring have been reported, little is known about the way in which HA is maintained in vocal folds. The purpose of this study was to clarify the homeostasis of HA by examining the expression of hyaluronan synthase (Has) and hyaluronidase (Hyal), which produce and digest HA, respectively. Study Design Experimental prospective animal study. Methods Vocal fold stripping was performed on 38 Sprague-Dawley rats. Vocal fold tissue was collected at five time points (3 days–2 months). Expression of HA was examined by immunohistochemistry, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Has and Hyal was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and in-situ hybridization. Results In scarred vocal folds, expression of Has1 and Has2 increased at day 3 together with expression of HA and returned to normal at 2 weeks. At 2 months, Has3 and Hyal3 mRNA showed higher expressions than normal. Conclusions Expression patterns of Has and Hyal genes differed between normal, acute-scarred, and chronic-scarred vocal folds, indicating the distinct roles of each enzyme in maintaining HA. Continuous upregulation of Has genes in the acute phase may be necessary to achieve scarless healing of vocal folds. PMID:25499520

  17. Dermal Remodeling of Burn Scar by Fractional CO2 Laser.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Jun; Suh, Dong-Hye; Lee, Ji Min; Song, Kye-Yong; Ryu, Hwa Jung

    2016-10-01

    Ablative CO2 fractional lasers have recently been introduced for burn scar treatment because of pronounced clinical outcomes with fewer treatment sessions than nonablative fractional laser. This study was conducted to observe clinical as well as histologic changes of burn scars after treatment with CO2 fractional laser. Eleven patients (one female and 10 males, aged 31-59 years) with skin phototypes III to V with burn scars received 10 sessions of fractional CO2 laser treatments (UltraPulse(®) Encore; Lumenis, Santa Clara, CA, USA) over an average 5-week interval. Two passes were performed using the following parameters: deep FX mode, 12.5-30 mJ, with a density setting of 5-10 %. Clinical evaluations by three blinded dermatologists were obtained at baseline and at 6 months after the final treatment via photographs using the Vancouver scar scale (VSS). Skin biopsies were done on four patients before and after treatment. All patients showed clinical improvement in their scars with significant decrease in VSS. Histologic findings showed the changes in the upper dermis with newly formed dermal papilla. This characteristic upper dermis change was presented as improvement in surface smoothness and skin tension clinically. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and itching sensation were the most common adverse effects. Burn scar treatment by fractional CO2 laser is effective by forming new collagen fibers mainly in the upper dermis. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  18. Obstetrical providers' preferred mode of delivery and attitude towards non-medically indicated caesarean sections: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Rivo, J C; Amyx, M; Pingray, V; Casale, R A; Fiorillo, A E; Krupitzki, H B; Malamud, J D; Mendilaharzu, M; Medina, M L; Del Pino, A B; Ribola, L; Schvartzman, J A; Tartalo, G M; Trasmonte, M; Varela, S; Althabe, F; Belizán, J M

    2018-01-11

    To describe obstetrical providers' delivery preferences and attitudes towards caesarean section without medical indication, including on maternal request, and to examine the association between provider characteristics and preferences/attitudes. Cross-sectional study. Two public and two private hospitals in Argentina. Obstetrician-gynaecologists and midwives who provide prenatal care and/or labour/delivery services. Providers in hospitals with at least 1000 births per year completed a self-administered, anonymous survey. Provider delivery preference for low-risk women, perception of women's preferred delivery method, support for a woman's right to choose her delivery method and willingness to perform caesarean section on maternal request. 168 providers participated (89.8% coverage rate). Providers (93.2%) preferred a vaginal delivery for their patients in the absence of a medical indication for caesarean section. Whereas 74.4% of providers supported their patient's right to choose a delivery method in the absence of a medical indication for caesarean section and 66.7% would perform a caesarean section upon maternal request, only 30.4% would consider a non-medically indicated caesarean section for their own personal delivery or that of their partner. In multivariate adjusted analysis, providers in the private sector [odds ratio (OR) 4.70, 95% CI 1.19-18.62] and obstetrician-gynaecologists (OR 4.37, 95% CI 1.58-12.09) were more willing than either providers working in the public/both settings or midwives to perform a caesarean section on maternal request. Despite the ethical debate surrounding non-medically indicated caesarean sections, we observe very high levels of support, especially by providers in the private sector and obstetrician-gynaecologists, as aligned with the high caesarean section rates in Argentina. Non-medically indicated c-section? 74% of sampled Argentine OB providers support women's right to choose. © 2018 Royal College of Obstetricians and

  19. Vaginal birth after caesarean delivery in Chinese women and Western immigrants in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Minsart, Anne-Frederique; Liu, Hau; Moffett, Shannon; Chen, Crystal; Ji, Ninni

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies show a steep rise in caesarean sections in China. Most couples are now eligible to apply for a second child. This retrospective cohort study compares the prevalence of trial of labour and vaginal birth after caesarean section among Chinese and foreign women in Shanghai. In total, 135 of 368 women underwent trial of labour (36.68%), and of those, 77 (57.04%) had a vaginal birth. After inclusion in a multivariate model, factors associated with trial of labour were maternal age <35 years with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.58 (1.49-4.46), absence of a history of ≥3 abortions (2.22 (1.08-4.57)), and European citizenship (1.94 (1.05-3.59)). The prevalence of trial of labour and vaginal birth seems to mirror rates found in countries of origin, but despite a high rate of caesarean section, Chinese women had a higher rate of vaginal birth after caesarean section than North American and Australian women, in particular. Impact statement What is already known on this subject: Caesarean section (CS) rates are rising worldwide. Repeat CS contributes largely to these rates, although vaginal birth after CS (VBAC) rates varies widely between countries. What the results of this study add: North American and Australian women who deliver in Shanghai have low rates of attempted trial of labour after CS (TOLAC) and VBAC, with European women having the highest rate of TOLAC, followed by Chinese women. Implications for clinical practice and/or further research: These findings might reflect different levels of acceptance in line with respective national trends. Studies evaluating the influence of cultural norms on birth preferences after CS are needed. Further research is also needed to assess the overall acceptance of TOLAC in the context of the softening of the one-child policy in China.

  20. The Hidden Costs of a Free Caesarean Section Policy in West Africa (Kayes Region, Mali).

    PubMed

    Ravit, Marion; Philibert, Aline; Tourigny, Caroline; Traore, Mamadou; Coulibaly, Aliou; Dumont, Alexandre; Fournier, Pierre

    2015-08-01

    The fee exemption policy for EmONC in Mali aims to lower the financial barrier to care. The objective of the study was to evaluate the direct and indirect expenses associated with caesarean interventions performed in EmONC and the factors associated with these expenses. Data sampling followed the case control approach used in the large project (deceased and near-miss women). Our sample consisted of a total of 190 women who underwent caesarean interventions. Data were collected from the health workers and with a social approach by administering questionnaires to the persons who accompanied the woman. Household socioeconomic status was assessed using a wealth index constructed with a principal component analysis. The factors significantly associated with expenses were determined using multivariate linear regression analyses. Women in the Kayes region spent on average 77,017 FCFA (163 USD) for a caesarean episode in EmONC, of which 70 % was for treatment. Despite the caesarean fee exemption, 91 % of the women still paid for their treatment. The largest treatment-related direct expenses were for prescriptions, transfusion, antibiotics, and antihypertensive medication. Near-misses, women who presented a hemorrhage or an infection, and/or women living in rural areas spent significantly more than the others. Although abolishing fees of EmONC in Mali plays an important role in reducing maternal death by increasing access to caesarean sections, this paper shows that the fee policy did not benefit to all women. There are still barriers to EmONC access for women of the lowest socio-economic group. These included direct expenses for drugs prescription, treatment and indirect expenses for transport and food.

  1. Mode of delivery after one caesarean section: audit of current practice in a health region.

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, C M; Saunders, N J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To audit the subsequent obstetric management of women who had had one previous baby delivered by caesarean section. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis of a regional obstetric database. SETTING--Data derived from the 17 obstetric units in North West Thames region. SUBJECTS--1059 women who delivered a singleton fetus of at least 37 weeks' gestation with a cephalic presentation in 1988 who had a history of one previous caesarean section and no other deliveries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Mode of delivery, postnatal morbidity, and duration of hospital stay. RESULTS--395 (37%) women were delivered by elective repeat caesarean section and 664 (63%) were allowed a trial of labour. Maternal height and birth weight of the previous infant differed significantly between those who were and those who were not allowed to labour. 471 (71%) of those allowed to labour achieved a vaginal delivery. In individual units there was no significant correlation between the proportion of patients allowed to labour and the rate of the successful trial of labour. There was a trend towards greater success rates in units that allowed a longer duration of labour (p less than 0.05) and units with greater use of oxytocin for augmentation of labour (not significant). Both elective and intrapartum caesarean section was associated with a significantly higher rate of postnatal infection than vaginal delivery (14.7% and 16.0% v 3.4%). CONCLUSIONS--In patients with a history of caesarean section there is no evidence that the likelihood of successful vaginal delivery after trial of labour is modified by the proportion of such patients allowed the option of attempted vaginal delivery. Until selection criteria of adequate prognostic value can be identified a more liberal approach to allowing women a trial of labour seems justified. PMID:1932972

  2. Fetal laceration during caesarean section and its medico-legal sequelae.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Ciro; Escolino, Maria; Paternoster, Mariano; Buccelli, Claudio; Graziano, Vincenzo; Falco, Marianna; Alicchio, Francesca; Cerulo, Mariapina; Settimi, Alessandro; Savanelli, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Fetal laceration is a recognized complication of caesarean delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, type, location, risk factors and long-term consequences of accidental fetal incised wounds during caesarean delivery. During a five-year period, we observed 25 cases of fetal lacerations caused by the scalpel during hysterotomy. In 20 of these cases, we observed these lesions as consultants for the Neonatologic Care Unit; the other five cases came under our care after an insurance claim for damages against the gynaecologist. All the infants had a lesion located to the head. In only 5 of the 25 cases the lesion was reported in the operative summary, and only 16 of the 25 mothers had signed an informed consent before surgery. With regard to the 20 cases diagnosed at the Neonatologic Care Unit, the lesion was closed using single stitches in nine cases, and with biological glue in 11 cases. Concerning the five cases that underwent legal proceedings against the gynaecologist, a clinical examination was performed by an expert in Public Health and Social Security in collaboration with a paediatric surgeon to evaluate the degree of biological damage. In all five cases, the result of the legal challenge was monetary compensation for the physical and moral damage caused by the gynaecologists to the patients and their parents. Accidental fetal lesions may occur during caesarean delivery; the incidence is significantly higher during emergency caesarean delivery compared to elective procedures. Patients should sign an informed consent in which they should be informed about the risk of the occurrence of fetal lacerations during caesarean delivery in order to avoid legal complications. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Influences on vaginal birth after caesarean section: A qualitative study of Taiwanese women.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Man; McKellar, Lois; Pincombe, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Vaginal birth is a safe mode of birth for most women who have had a prior caesarean with a transverse incision. Despite the evidence, most Taiwanese women who have had a previous caesarean are rarely offered the opportunity to consider any possibility other than a repeat caesarean. This study explored factors affecting Taiwanese women's decisionmaking regarding vaginal birth after cesarean. Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour provided the theoretical framework to underpin the study, which adopted an interpretive descriptive methodology. Sequential semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 women who had a previous caesarean and were pregnant between 34 and 38 weeks gestation, ten women who attempted vaginal birth in the third to fifth day postpartum, and 25 women in the fourth week postpartum. Boyatzis' method of thematic analysis was used to identify themes and codes. This paper reports the findings of the prenatal interviews with 29 participants. The major factor influencing women's decision-making was to avoid negative outcomes for themselves and their babies. Three thematic codes describe influences on the women's decisions: 'past experience of childbirth', 'anticipating the next experience of normal birth' and 'contemplation on the process of childbirth'. Women who have had a previous caesarean section are prepared to have a vaginal birth but are not always supported to carry out this decision. Changing the models of antenatal care is recommended as a strategy to overcome this difficulty therefore empowering women to make a meaningful choice about VBAC after a CS. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Validation of a new device to measure postsurgical scar adherence.

    PubMed

    Ferriero, Giorgio; Vercelli, Stefano; Salgovic, Ludovit; Stissi, Valeria; Sartorio, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    Scarring after surgery can lead to a wide range of disorders. At present, the degree of scar adhesion is assessed manually and by ordinal scales. This article describes a new device (the Adheremeter) to measure scar adhesion and assesses its validity, reliability, and sensitivity to change. This was a reliability and validity study. The study was conducted at the Scientific Institute of Veruno. Two independent raters, a physical therapist and a physical therapist student, used the Adheremeter to measure scar mobility and contralateral normal skin in a sample of 25 patients with adherent postsurgical scars before (T1) and after (T2) physical therapy. Two indexes of scar mobility, the adherence's surface mobility index (SM(A)) and the adherence severity index (AS), were calculated. Their correlation with the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) and its pliability subscale (PL-VSS) was assessed for the validity analysis. Both the SM(A) and the AS showed good-to-excellent intrarater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]=.96) and interrater reliability (SM(A): ICC=.97 and .99; AS: ICC=.87 and .87, respectively, at T1 and T2), correlated moderately with the VSS and PL-VSS only at T1 (r(s)=-.58 to -.66), and were able to detect changes (physical therapist/physical therapist student): z score=-4.09/-3.88 for the SM(A) and -4.32/-4.24 for the AS; effect size=0.6/0.4 for the SM(A) and 1.4/1.2 for the AS; standard error of measurement=4.59/4.79 mm(2) for the SM(A) and 0.05/0.06 for the AS; and minimum detectable change=12.68/13.23 mm(2) for the SM(A) and 0.14/0.17 for the AS. The measurement is based on the rater's evaluation of force to stretch the skin and on the patient's judgment of comfort. The Adheremeter showed a good level of reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change. Further studies are needed to confirm these results in larger cohorts and to assess the device's validity for other types of scars.

  5. Australia fires and burn scars as seen from STS-62

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-03-05

    STS062-106-042 (4-18 March 1994) --- This view of southern Australia about 100 miles northwest of Melbourne shows areas of protected reserves of natural forests in the midst of agricultural crop lands. The green patch seen here has been recently burned as indicated by the irregular large scar. The impact of winds on the scar is clearly visible. This nature preserve is reported to be the home to a large number of animals including the koala bears. Similar views were shot by the STS-60 crewmembers last month. These photographs will assist earth scientists in mapping the impact of forest fires and in moniotring the recovery of burned areas.

  6. Ongoing pregnancies in patients with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss: adverse obstetric outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Mauro; Rizzello, Francesca; Riviello, Chiara; Romanelli, Chiara; Coccia Elisabetta, Maria

    2018-05-25

    To investigate the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes in couples with an unexplained Recurrent Pregnancy Loss (RPL) history, a retrospective cohort study was conducted between 2014 and 2015. The study group (A) included couples with an unexplained RPL, and the control group (B) was composed of couples who attended the Low-Risk Antenatal Unit during the same period. On the other hand, 53 couples were included in the study group (A) and on the other hand, 65 in the control group (B). Women with previous unexplained recurrent pregnancies loss had a significantly increased risk of gestational diabetes with 12 cases (22.6%) in the study group and 3 cases (4.6%) in the control (OR: 6.048; 95% CI: 1.607-22.762; p = 0.007). A slight increase in the risk of preterm delivery and hepatic cholestasis was observed in the study group (6 cases, 11.3%, in study group and 1 case, 1.5% in the controls (OR: 8.170; 95% CI: 0.951-70.158; p = 0.0555). Women with a history of RPL delivered more frequently by caesarean section (OR: 3.252; 95% CI: 1.460-7.241; p = 0.0039). Women with a history of RPL were at an increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes, mainly gestational diabetes. Therefore, a closer surveillance during the antenatal period is recommended in this group of patients.

  7. [Pregnancy in HIV-positive women: 6 years of activity of the Regional Reference Center].

    PubMed

    Bernardon, M; De Seta, F; Maso, G P; Cescutti, V; Olivuzzi, M; Redaelli, I; Alberico, S

    2005-08-01

    With this study, we wanted to evaluate HIV-positive pregnant mothers followed at the HIV Reference Center of Friuli Venezia Giulia and to describe obstetric treatment aimed at identifying vertical transmission factors and at undertaking a correct diagnostic-therapeutic approach to this patient group. The data include a large case series from the European Collaborative Study on HIV in Pregnancy, in which our facility is a collaborating center. The protocol includes the administration of personalized antiretroviral therapy to seropositive patients at the first visit. An elective caesarean section is performed at 38 weeks gestation. Antiretroviral therapy is continued in the neonate. Breastfeeding is prohibited. From 1998 to 2002, 28 pregnant mothers with HIV infection were followed. Most patients came from out of region and had acquired the infection through heterosexual intercourse with a serodiscordant partner. In 1 in 3 patients, a diagnosis of seropositivity was made during pregnancy. One case of vertical transmission was observed. When appropriate prevention measures are instituted, the percentage of vertical transmission of infection can be reduced to less than 1% in Europe today. An important part of this effort is early screening for HIV infection in pregnancy. Other fundamental measures are the institution of antiretroviral therapy starting from the first weeks of pregnancy, monitoring of pregnancy at a tertiary reference center, intravenous administration of therapies before caesarean section, possibly not during labor and with the membrane intact. Equally important factors are neonatal therapy, adequate pediatric monitoring after the infant is born and discontinuation of breastfeeding.

  8. Two consecutive pregnancies in early and late stage of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sarafov, Stayko; Doitchinova, Maryana; Karagiozova, Zhvka; Slancheva, Boriana; Dengler, Reinhard; Petri, Susanne; Kollewe, Katja

    2009-01-01

    There are few reports on pregnancies in sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We report on a young woman with sporadic ALS who gave birth twice during the course of her disease. The first pregnancy occurred 13 months after the onset of symptoms, and one month after diagnosis. The pregnancy was uncomplicated and resulted in vaginal delivery of a healthy boy. Fifteen months later, when she was already bed-ridden, she became pregnant again. She received a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in the 21st gestational week and underwent early Caesarean section in the 34th week of gestation. The child was ventilated for 72 h in a neonatological unit. The patient was tracheotomized and ventilated two months later, i.e. 47 months after symptom onset, and died nine months later from gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Her two children have developed without abnormalities to date. This case confirms that pregnancies in early-stage ALS can develop normally and may result in uncomplicated vaginal delivery. Pregnancies in late stages may be critical for mother and child, and early delivery by Caesarean section may become necessary although neonatal outcome can be good.

  9. Women's decision-making processes and the influences on their mode of birth following a previous caesarean section in Taiwan: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Wen; Hutchinson, Alison M; Nagle, Cate; Bucknall, Tracey K

    2018-01-17

    Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) is an alternative option for women who have had a previous caesarean section (CS); however, uptake is limited because of concern about the risks of uterine rupture. The aim of this study was to explore women's decision-making processes and the influences on their mode of birth following a previous CS. A qualitative approach was used. The research comprised three stages. Stage I consisted of naturalistic observation at 33-34 weeks' gestation. Stage II involved interviews with pregnant women at 35-37 weeks' gestation. Stage III consisted of interviews with the same women who were interviewed postnatally, 1 month after birth. The research was conducted in a private medical centre in northern Taiwan. Using a purposive sampling, 21 women and 9 obstetricians were recruited. Data collection involved in-depth interviews, observation and field notes. Constant comparative analysis was employed for data analysis. Ensuring the safety of mother and baby was the focus of women's decisions. Women's decisions-making influences included previous birth experience, concern about the risks of vaginal birth, evaluation of mode of birth, current pregnancy situation, information resources and health insurance. In communicating with obstetricians, some women complied with obstetricians' recommendations for repeat caesarean section (RCS) without being informed of alternatives. Others used four step decision-making processes that included searching for information, listening to obstetricians' professional judgement, evaluating alternatives, and making a decision regarding mode of birth. After birth, women reflected on their decisions in three aspects: reflection on birth choices; reflection on factors influencing decisions; and reflection on outcomes of decisions. The health and wellbeing of mother and baby were the major concerns for women. In response to the decision-making influences, women's interactions with obstetricians regarding birth choices

  10. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Acne Scarring Among Patients Consulting Dermatologists in the USA

    PubMed

    Tan, Jerry; Kang, Sewon; Leyden, James

    2017-02-01

    Although there have been few formal studies, scarring is a known bothersome companion of acne vulgaris. We performed a prospective study of subjects consulting a dermatologist for active acne to assess the frequency of acne scarring. Investigators performed a short questionnaire on all acne patients seen at their office for one consecutive 5-day work week to assess scar frequency. Additionally, the first four subjects with acne scars identified were enrolled for a second phase (scar cohort) of the study during which the investigator collected further medical history and performed a clinical evaluation and the patient completed a self-administered questionnaire about scar perceptions and impact on quality of life. A total of 1,972 subjects were evaluated by 120 investigators. Among these, 43 percent (n=843) had acne scarring. Subjects with acne scars were significantly more likely to have severe or very severe acne (P less than .01); however, 69% of the subjects with acne scars had mild or moderate acne at the time of the study visit. Risk factors correlated with increased likelihood of scarring were acne severity, time between acne onset and first effective treatment, relapsing acne, and male gender. Treatments that can completely resolve acne scars are not yet available - prevention and early treatment remain a primary strategy against scars. It is vital for clinicians who manage individuals with acne to institute effective therapy as early as possible, since treatment delay is a key modifiable risk factor for scarring.

  11. Scar-free cutaneous wound healing in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Hanna M; Gilbert, Emily A B; Vickaryous, Matthew K

    2015-11-01

    Cutaneous wounds heal with two possible outcomes: scarification or near-perfect integumentary restoration. Whereas scar formation has been intensively investigated, less is known about the tissue-level events characterising wounds that spontaneously heal scar-free, particularly in non-foetal amniotes. Here, a spatiotemporal investigation of scar-free cutaneous wound healing following full-thickness excisional biopsies to the tail and body of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) is provided. All injuries healed without scarring. Cutaneous repair involves the development of a cell-rich aggregate within the wound bed, similar to scarring wounds. Unlike scar formation, scar-free healing involves a more rapid closure of the wound epithelium, and a delay in blood vessel development and collagen deposition within the wound bed. It was found that, while granulation tissue of scarring wounds is hypervascular, scar-free wound healing conspicuously does not involve a period of exuberant blood vessel formation. In addition, during scar-free wound healing the newly formed blood vessels are typically perivascular cell-supported. Immunohistochemistry revealed widespread expression of both the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor A and the anti-angiogenic factor thrombospondin-1 within the healing wound. It was found that scar-free wound healing is an intrinsic property of leopard gecko integument, and involves a modulation of the cutaneous scar repair program. This proportional revascularisation is an important factor in scar-free wound healing. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  12. Scar-free cutaneous wound healing in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Hanna M; Gilbert, Emily A B; Vickaryous, Matthew K

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous wounds heal with two possible outcomes: scarification or near-perfect integumentary restoration. Whereas scar formation has been intensively investigated, less is known about the tissue-level events characterising wounds that spontaneously heal scar-free, particularly in non-foetal amniotes. Here, a spatiotemporal investigation of scar-free cutaneous wound healing following full-thickness excisional biopsies to the tail and body of leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) is provided. All injuries healed without scarring. Cutaneous repair involves the development of a cell-rich aggregate within the wound bed, similar to scarring wounds. Unlike scar formation, scar-free healing involves a more rapid closure of the wound epithelium, and a delay in blood vessel development and collagen deposition within the wound bed. It was found that, while granulation tissue of scarring wounds is hypervascular, scar-free wound healing conspicuously does not involve a period of exuberant blood vessel formation. In addition, during scar-free wound healing the newly formed blood vessels are typically perivascular cell-supported. Immunohistochemistry revealed widespread expression of both the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor A and the anti-angiogenic factor thrombospondin-1 within the healing wound. It was found that scar-free wound healing is an intrinsic property of leopard gecko integument, and involves a modulation of the cutaneous scar repair program. This proportional revascularisation is an important factor in scar-free wound healing. PMID:26360824

  13. Factors Associated with Trial of Labour and Mode of Delivery in Robson Group 5: A Select Group of Women With Previous Caesarean Section.

    PubMed

    Smithies, Mila; Woolcott, Christy G; Brock, Jo-Ann K; Maguire, Bryan; Allen, Victoria M

    2018-06-01

    To determine the proportion of women in Robson group 5 (RG5) who were eligible for a trial of labour after Caesarean (TOLAC) and, among eligible candidates, identify determinants of having a TOLAC and subsequent vaginal delivery (VD). This population-based cohort study used data derived from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database. Deliveries from 1998-2014 to women in RG5 (≥1 previous CS with a singleton term cephalic fetus) were included. Eligibility for a TOLAC was based on SOGC criteria. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify characteristics independently associated with TOLAC and VD. The characteristics associated with VD were used in a logistic model to predict the theoretical probability of VD in women who did not have a TOLAC. Of the 15 111 deliveries in RG5, 75.3% were by CS. Of the 14 763 eligible women, 5488 (37.2%) had a TOLAC, of which 3739 (68.1%) resulted in VD. Predictors of VD included high area-level income and either a CS without labour or a spontaneous VD in the preceding pregnancy. While mode of previous delivery also predicted TOLAC among eligible women, high area-level income was associated with reduced odds of TOLAC. The probability of VD in women who did not undergo TOLAC was estimated to be 47.1%, and the lowest CS rate attainable in RG5 was estimated at 46.3%. Sociodemographic factors such as income and previous mode of delivery were associated with the rates of TOLAC and subsequent VD in eligible women, and suggest that the Caesarean section rate in RG5 could be safely reduced. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Associations of maternal circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration with pregnancy and birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, A; García-Esteban, R; Basterretxea, M; Lertxundi, A; Rodríguez-Bernal, C; Iñiguez, C; Rodriguez-Dehli, C; Tardón, A; Espada, M; Sunyer, J; Morales, E

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the association of maternal circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] concentration with pregnancy and birth outcomes. Prospective cohort study. Four geographical areas of Spain, 2003-2008. Of 2382 mother-child pairs participating in the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project. Maternal circulating 25(OH)D3 concentration was measured in pregnancy (mean [SD] 13.5 [2.2] weeks of gestation). We tested associations of maternal 25(OH)D3 concentration with pregnancy and birth outcomes. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preterm delivery, caesarean section, fetal growth restriction (FGR) and small-for-gestational age (SGA), anthropometric birth outcomes including weight, length and head circumference (HC). Overall, 31.8% and 19.7% of women had vitamin D insufficiency [25(OH)D3 20-29.99 ng/ml] and deficiency [25(OH)D3 < 20 ng/ml], respectively. After adjustment, there was no association between maternal 25(OH)D3 concentration and risk of GDM or preterm delivery. Women with sufficient vitamin D [25(OH)D3 ≥ 30 ng/ml] had a decreased risk of caesarean section by obstructed labour compared with women with vitamin D deficiency [relative risk (RR) = 0.60, 95% CI 0.37, 0.97). Offspring of mothers with higher circulating 25(OH)D3 concentration tended to have smaller HC [coefficient (SE) per doubling concentration of 25(OH)D3, -0.10 (0.05), P = 0.038]. No significant associations were found for other birth outcomes. This study did not find any evidence of an association between vitamin D status in pregnancy and GDM, preterm delivery, FGR, SGA and anthropometric birth outcomes. Results suggest that sufficient circulating vitamin D concentration [25(OH)D3 ≥ 30 ng/ml] in pregnancy may reduce the risk of caesarean section by obstructed labour. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  15. Timing of birth for women with a twin pregnancy at term: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a well recognized risk of complications for both women and infants of a twin pregnancy, increasing beyond 37 weeks gestation. Preterm birth prior to 37 weeks gestation is a recognized complication of a twin pregnancy, however, up to 50% of twins will be born after this time. The aims of this randomised trial are to assess whether elective birth at 37 weeks gestation compared with standard care in women with a twin pregnancy affects the risk of perinatal death, and serious infant complications. Methods/Design Design: Multicentred randomised trial. Inclusion Criteria: women with a twin pregnancy at 366 weeks or more without contraindication to continuation of pregnancy. Trial Entry & Randomisation: Following written informed consent, eligible women will be randomised from 36+6 weeks gestation. The randomisation schedule uses balanced variable blocks, with stratification for centre of birth and planned mode of birth. Women will be randomised to either elective birth or standard care. Treatment Schedules: Women allocated to the elective birth group will be planned for elective birth from 37 weeks gestation. Where the plan is for vaginal birth, this will involve induction of labour. Where the plan is for caesarean birth, this will involve elective caesarean section. For women allocated to standard care, birth will be planned for 38 weeks gestation or later. Where the plan is for vaginal birth, this will involve either awaiting the spontaneous onset of labour, or induction of labour if required. Where the plan is for caesarean birth, this will involve elective caesarean section (after 38 and as close to 39 weeks as possible). Primary Study Outcome: A composite of perinatal mortality or serious neonatal morbidity. Sample Size: 460 women with a twin pregnancy to show a reduction in the composite outcome from 16.3% to 6.7% with adjustment for the clustering of twin infants within mothers (p = 0.05, 80% power). Discussion This is a protocol for a

  16. Management of Corneal Scarring Secondary to Herpes Zoster Keratitis.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Omar M; Farooq, Asim V; Soin, Ketki; Djalilian, Ali R; Hou, Joshua H

    2017-08-01

    To review the management of visually significant corneal scarring secondary to herpes zoster keratitis (HZK). Literature review. Management options for visually significant corneal scarring secondary to HZK include scleral contact lenses, photorefractive or phototherapeutic keratectomy, lamellar keratoplasty, penetrating keratoplasty, and keratoprosthesis. Many authors recommend tarsorrhaphy in at-risk patients at the time of corneal transplantation. Most published studies either did not mention or did not use systemic antivirals at the time of surgery. Longer quiescent periods before surgical intervention may be associated with increased rates of graft survival. Reports of HZK recurrence after live-attenuated vaccine administration suggest that risks and benefits of the vaccine should be carefully considered. Overall, the prognosis of surgical intervention for corneal scarring due to HZK relies on appropriate patient selection and measures to ensure ocular surface stability. There remains a serious risk of ocular surface instability and corneal melt in these patients. Unfortunately, there is a lack of prospective studies in this area to guide clinical management. Patients with visually significant corneal scarring secondary to HZK may have good outcomes with the appropriate medical and surgical considerations, particularly in the absence of active ocular surface disease and inflammation. Those with active disease may benefit from delaying surgical intervention until a satisfactory quiescent period has been achieved. Prospective studies, such as the proposed Zoster Eye Disease Study, are imperative for validating these principles and determining evidence-based management guidelines.

  17. [Keloid scars of the external ear: a non solved problem].

    PubMed

    Bejarano Serrano, M; Parri Ferrandis, F J; García Smith, N I; Martínez-Herrada, S; Manzanares Quintela, A; Albert Cazalla, A

    2014-01-01

    The external ear is a location with high risk of keloid scar formation. Its incidence is growing since general use of piercings and performance of plastic surgery of the external ear. The external ear keloid can be a devasting process for adolescent population which is worried about their appearance. Our aim is to attract attention about the risk of keloid scars of the external ear, reviewing our experience. After dismissing radiotherapy, corticoid infiltration and surgical removal are the most used options, with a high recurrence risk. We have reviewed traumatic, surgical and piercing wounds of the external ear, with a subsequent keloid formation treated in our outpatient clinic, collecting data about wound etiology, treatment and results. During the last 10 years we have found 11 keloid scars, 2 of them improved with topical corticosteroid. Treatment has been surgical in 9 cases, 4 of them with skin graft: 5 recovered and 4 recurred; 2 of them were reoperated. 2 of them were treated with intralesional corticosteroid solely, one recovered and the other one had improved. Treatment management of keloid scars is complex and there isn't a procedure with superior results than the others. Risk of complication must be explained within adolescent population.

  18. Fire scar mapping in a southern African savanna

    Treesearch

    Andrew T. Hudak; Bruce H. Brockett; Carol A. Wessman

    1998-01-01

    Multitemporal principal components analyses (PCAs) of pre- and post-burn Landsat Thematic Mapper images were used to map fire scars in Madikwe Game Reserve (MGR), South Africa. Prior to MGR's inception in 1991, when the land was used for extensive cattle ranching, overgrazing and fire suppression lead to bush encroachment. Fire is currently being used to control...

  19. Terminology and biology of fire scars in selected central hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland

    2001-01-01

    Dendrochronological analysis of fire scars requires tree survival of fire exposure. Trees survive fire exposure by: (1) avoidance of injury through constitutive protection and (2) induced defense. Induced defenses include (a) compartmentalization processes that resist the spread of injury and infection and (b) closure processes that restore the continuity of the...

  20. Histologic features of alopecias: part II: scarring alopecias.

    PubMed

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex, Parity, and Scars: A Meta-analytic Review.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Clare; Oxenham, Marc F

    2018-01-01

    The ability to identify whether a female has been pregnant or has given birth has significant implications for forensic investigations and bioarcheological research. The meaning of "scars of parturition," their causes, and their significance are a matter of contention, with a substantial literature of re-evaluations and tests of the relationship between pelvic scarring and parity. The aim of this study was to use meta-analytic techniques (the methodological approach) to test whether pelvic scarring, namely dorsal pubic pitting and the preauricular groove, is a predictor of parity and sex. Meta-analyses indicated that neither dorsal pubic pitting nor the preauricular groove are predictors of parity status, while dorsal pubic pitting is a moderate predictor of sex. A weak relationship between dorsal pubic pitting and parity was identified, but this is believed to be a product of the moderate relationship with sex. This calls into question whether any causal relationship between parity and pelvic scarring exists. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Breast Augmentation Scar.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Lisa R; Cresce, Nicole D; Russell, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    We report a case of a 46-year-old female who presented with a persistent lesion on the inferior right breast. The lesion was located within the scar from a breast augmentation procedure 12 years ago. The lesion had been treated as several conditions with no improvement. Biopsy revealed a superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma, and the lesion was successfully removed with Mohs micrographic surgery. Basal cell carcinoma arising in a surgical scar is exceedingly rare with only 13 reported cases to date. This is the first reported case of basal cell carcinoma arising in a breast augmentation scar. We emphasize the importance of biopsy for suspicious lesions or those refractory to treatment, particularly those lesions that form within a scar. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  3. Intense pulsed light and laser treatment regimen improves scar evolution after cleft lip repair surgery.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lihong; Tang, Shijie; Li, Qin

    2018-06-19

    To observe the effects of intense pulsed light (IPL) and lattice CO 2 laser treatment on scar evolution following cleft lip repair. Fifty cleft lip repair patients were enrolled in this study. Twenty-five patients used conventional approach with scar cream massage combined with silica gel products after operation. While other 25 patients which received IPL and lattice CO 2 laser treatments. The treatments commenced 1 week after removal of stitches and observation of scar hyperplasia. Scar evolution was evaluated with the Vancouver scar scale (VSS) by postoperative photographs. Relative to the conventional approach, the laser treatments showed improved scar softening and flattening. These differences were reflected in the groups' significantly different VSS scores. Intense pulsed light combined with lattice CO 2 laser treatment can improve cleft lip surgery scar pliability and appearance, while alleviating children from having to endure the pain of scar massage. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Oxidative stress equilibrium during obstetric event in normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Salas-Pacheco, Jose Manuel; Lourenco-Jaramillo, Diana Lelidett; Mendez-Hernandez, Edna Madai; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada Agustina; Hernandez Rayon, Yessica Ivonne; Llave-Leon, Osmel La; Aguilar-Duran, Marisela; Lopez-Terrones, Marcos Alonso; Barraza-Salas, Marcelo; Vazquez-Alaniz, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration as an oxidative stress marker and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in pregnancy before and after perinatal event. This study was performed on 200 healthy full-term pregnant women admitted to pregnancy resolution in Maternal-Child Hospital of Durango, Mexico. Oxidative stress and TAC were assessed through detection of lipid peroxidation by quantitation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and TAC through ferric reducing ability of the plasma (FRAP). Our results showed increased levels of MDA after vaginal delivery (VD). TAC was also increased after obstetric event, but it did not differ between VD and caesarean section. We demonstrated that MDA concentrations are increased two hours after obstetric event, and this increase correlates with VD. The TAC was increased as a compensatory mechanism during obstetric event. Another important finding is that women receiving analgesia administration in VD, as well as dexamethasone administration in caesarean section, experienced a protector effect that decreased MDA levels.

  5. Postmastectomy radiotherapy with integrated scar boost using helical tomotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rong Yi, E-mail: rong@humonc.wisc.edu; University of Wisconsin Riverview Cancer Center, Wisconsin Rapids, WI; Yadav, Poonam

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate helical tomotherapy dosimetry in postmastectomy patients undergoing treatment for chest wall and positive nodal regions with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in the scar region using strip bolus. Six postmastectomy patients were scanned with a 5-mm-thick strip bolus covering the scar planning target volume (PTV) plus 2-cm margin. For all 6 cases, the chest wall received a total cumulative dose of 49.3-50.4 Gy with daily fraction size of 1.7-2.0 Gy. Total dose to the scar PTV was prescribed to 58.0-60.2 Gy at 2.0-2.5 Gy per fraction. The supraclavicular PTV and mammary nodal PTVmore » received 1.7-1.9 dose per fraction. Two plans (with and without bolus) were generated for all 6 cases. To generate no-bolus plans, strip bolus was contoured and overrode to air density before planning. The setup reproducibility and delivered dose accuracy were evaluated for all 6 cases. Dose-volume histograms were used to evaluate dose-volume coverage of targets and critical structures. We observed reduced air cavities with the strip bolus setup compared with what we normally see with the full bolus. The thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) in vivo dosimetry confirmed accurate dose delivery beneath the bolus. The verification plans performed on the first day megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) image verified that the daily setup and overall dose delivery was within 2% accuracy compared with the planned dose. The hotspot of the scar PTV in no-bolus plans was 111.4% of the prescribed dose averaged over 6 cases compared with 106.6% with strip bolus. With a strip bolus only covering the postmastectomy scar region, we observed increased dose uniformity to the scar PTV, higher setup reproducibility, and accurate dose delivered beneath the bolus. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a strip bolus over the scar using tomotherapy for SIB dosimetry in postmastectomy treatments.« less

  6. Postmastectomy radiotherapy with integrated scar boost using helical tomotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rong, Yi; Yadav, Poonam; Welsh, James S; Fahner, Tasha; Paliwal, Bhudatt

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate helical tomotherapy dosimetry in postmastectomy patients undergoing treatment for chest wall and positive nodal regions with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in the scar region using strip bolus. Six postmastectomy patients were scanned with a 5-mm-thick strip bolus covering the scar planning target volume (PTV) plus 2-cm margin. For all 6 cases, the chest wall received a total cumulative dose of 49.3-50.4 Gy with daily fraction size of 1.7-2.0 Gy. Total dose to the scar PTV was prescribed to 58.0-60.2 Gy at 2.0-2.5 Gy per fraction. The supraclavicular PTV and mammary nodal PTV received 1.7-1.9 dose per fraction. Two plans (with and without bolus) were generated for all 6 cases. To generate no-bolus plans, strip bolus was contoured and overrode to air density before planning. The setup reproducibility and delivered dose accuracy were evaluated for all 6 cases. Dose-volume histograms were used to evaluate dose-volume coverage of targets and critical structures. We observed reduced air cavities with the strip bolus setup compared with what we normally see with the full bolus. The thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) in vivo dosimetry confirmed accurate dose delivery beneath the bolus. The verification plans performed on the first day megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) image verified that the daily setup and overall dose delivery was within 2% accuracy compared with the planned dose. The hotspot of the scar PTV in no-bolus plans was 111.4% of the prescribed dose averaged over 6 cases compared with 106.6% with strip bolus. With a strip bolus only covering the postmastectomy scar region, we observed increased dose uniformity to the scar PTV, higher setup reproducibility, and accurate dose delivered beneath the bolus. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a strip bolus over the scar using tomotherapy for SIB dosimetry in postmastectomy treatments. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  8. Asthma Medications and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Associated Conditions Asthma & Pregnancy Asthma & Pregnancy: Medications Asthma & Pregnancy: Medications Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask ... mother and child. Making Decisions about Medication During Pregnancy It is important that your asthma be controlled ...

  9. Cystic Fibrosis and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... complications > Cystic fibrosis and pregnancy Cystic fibrosis and pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  10. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  11. Sex during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Sex During Pregnancy ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...

  12. Pregnancy week by week

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Pregnancy week by week Pregnancy week by week Week by week Videos Infographics Swipe to advance ... grows each week during pregnancy. Pick your week. Weeks 1-2 Conception (also called fertilization) usually happens ...

  13. Pregnancy Loss and Miscarriage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pinterest Email Print About Pregnancy Loss (Before 20 Weeks of Pregnancy) Pregnancy loss is the unexpected loss of a fetus before the 20th week of pregnancy. It is sometimes called miscarriage, early ...

  14. Epilepsy and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infants and Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management ... De Quervain’s Tenosynovitis Home Family Health Pregnancy and Childbirth Epilepsy and Pregnancy Epilepsy and Pregnancy Share Print ...

  15. Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnant Avoiding Pregnancy Zika and Pregnancy Articles Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend ... diabetes must also take insulin. Problems of Gestational Diabetes in Pregnancy Blood sugar that is not well ...

  16. Pregnancy in a woman with proportionate (primordial) dwarfism: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Vance, C E; Desmond, M; Robinson, A; Johns, J; Zacharin, M; Savarirayan, R; König, K; Warrillow, S; Walker, S P

    2012-09-01

    Primordial dwarfism is a rare form of severe proportionate dwarfism which poses significant challenges in pregnancy. A 27-year-old with primordial dwarfism (height 97 cm, weight 22 kg) and coexisting morbidities of familial hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension presented to our unit. Early pregnancy was complicated by difficult blood pressure control, sinus tachycardia, biochemical hyperthyroidism and insulin-requiring gestational diabetes. Delivery was indicated at 24 weeks with uncontrollable hypertension, progressive renal impairment and intrauterine growth restriction. A caesarean section was performed under general anaesthesia, resulting in the delivery of a 486 g male infant. This case highlights the difficulties of managing pregnancy in a woman with primordial dwarfism. Her limited capacity to respond to the physiological demands of pregnancy created a life-threatening situation, culminating in profound preterm birth.

  17. Pregnancy in a woman with proportionate (primordial) dwarfism: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Vance, C E; Desmond, M; Robinson, A; Johns, J; Zacharin, M; Savarirayan, R; König, K; Warrillow, S; Walker, S P

    2012-01-01

    Primordial dwarfism is a rare form of severe proportionate dwarfism which poses significant challenges in pregnancy. A 27-year-old with primordial dwarfism (height 97 cm, weight 22 kg) and coexisting morbidities of familial hypercholesterolaemia and hypertension presented to our unit. Early pregnancy was complicated by difficult blood pressure control, sinus tachycardia, biochemical hyperthyroidism and insulin-requiring gestational diabetes. Delivery was indicated at 24 weeks with uncontrollable hypertension, progressive renal impairment and intrauterine growth restriction. A caesarean section was performed under general anaesthesia, resulting in the delivery of a 486 g male infant. This case highlights the difficulties of managing pregnancy in a woman with primordial dwarfism. Her limited capacity to respond to the physiological demands of pregnancy created a life-threatening situation, culminating in profound preterm birth. PMID:27582869

  18. Teenage pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Molina Cartes, Ramiro; González Araya, Electra

    2012-01-01

    Teen pregnancy is a social problem not resolved in developing and some developed countries. Adolescent fecundity has become the most exact bio-demographic and health indicator of development. In developing countries that are expected to follow the sexual behaviour patterns of developed countries, without offering the levels of education and services for adolescents, the consequences will be adolescent fecundity and STI prevalence increase. The ignorance about sexuality and reproduction both in parents, teachers and adolescents increases the early initiation of coital relations and of unwanted pregnancies. Extreme poverty and being the son or daughter of an adolescent mother are risk factors of repeating the early pregnancy model. The application of predictive risk criteria in pregnant adolescents to facilitate the rational use of Health Services to diminish the maternal and perinatal mortality is discussed as well as the social factors associated with adolescent pregnancy as socioeconomic levels, structure - types and characteristics of the family, early leaving school, schooling after delivery, female employment, lack of sexual education, parental and family attitudes in different periods of adolescent pregnancy, adolescent decisions on pregnancy and children, unstable partner relationship and adoption as an option. Social consequences are analyzed as: incomplete education, more numerous families, difficulties in maternal role, abandonment by the partner, fewer possibilities of having a stable, qualified and well-paid job, greater difficulty in improving their socioeconomic level and less probability of social advancement, lack of protection of the recognition of the child. Finally, based on evidence, some measures that can reduce adverse consequences on adolescent mothers, fathers and their children are suggested. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Early treatment using fractional CO2 laser before skin suture during scar revision surgery in Asians.

    PubMed

    Du, Feiya; Yu, Yusheng; Zhou, Zhiqin; Wang, Liujia; Zheng, Shusen

    2018-04-01

    Fractional CO 2 laser is one of the most effective treatment options used to resurface scars. However, most previous studies have been performed on mature scars at least 2 months after surgery. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of early treatment to reduce scar formation. In the present study, we described our experience with fractional CO 2 laser intervention before skin suture during scar revision surgery in Asians, and found the treatment was safe and effective.

  20. National Rates of Uterine Rupture are not Associated with Rates of Previous Caesarean Delivery: Results from the Nordic Obstetric Surveillance Study.

    PubMed

    Colmorn, Lotte B; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Jakobsson, Maija; Tapper, Anna-Maija; Gissler, Mika; Lindqvist, Pelle G; Källen, Karin; Gottvall, Karin; Klungsøyr, Kari; Bøhrdahl, Per; Bjarnadóttir, Ragnhild I; Krebs, Lone

    2017-05-01

    Previous caesarean delivery and intended mode of delivery after caesarean are well-known individual risk factors for uterine rupture. We examined if different national rates of uterine rupture are associated with differences in national rates of previous caesarean delivery and intended mode of delivery after a previous caesarean delivery. This study is an ecological study based on data from a retrospective cohort in the Nordic countries. Data on uterine rupture were collected prospectively in each country as part of the Nordic obstetric surveillance study and included 91% of all Nordic deliveries. Information on the comparison population was retrieved from the national medical birth registers. Incidence rate ratios by previous caesarean delivery and intended mode of delivery after caesarean were modelled using Poisson regression. The incidence of uterine rupture was 7.8/10 000 in Finland and 4.6/10 000 in Denmark. Rates of caesarean (21.3%) and previous caesarean deliveries (11.5%) were highest in Denmark, while the rate of intended vaginal delivery after caesarean was highest in Finland (72%). National rates of uterine rupture were not associated with the population rates of previous caesarean but increased by 35% per 1% increase in the population rate of intended vaginal delivery and in the subpopulation of women with previous caesarean delivery by 4% per 1% increase in the rate of intended vaginal delivery. National rates of uterine rupture were not associated with national rates of previous caesarean, but increased with rates of intended vaginal delivery after caesarean. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Lung cancer in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Holzmann, Kornelia; Kropfmüller, Roland; Schinko, Herwig; Bogner, Stephan; Fellner, Franz; Arzt, Wolfgang; Lamprecht, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    In the 26th week of gestation, a 29-year-old pregnant office employee was referred to the pulmonary department of Linz General Hospital (AKH) under the suspicion of tuberculosis. She complained of a cough with intermittent hemoptysis and pain in the thoracic spine from which she had been suffering the past 9 weeks. A plain chest X-ray showed a dense infiltrate on the right side and multiple smaller shadows in both lungs. Laboratory testing revealed anemia, leukocytosis, and an increase of C-reactive protein. All tests for tuberculosis were negative.A bronchoscopy was performed and biopsies were taken from the right upper and middle lobe. The histopathological examination found cells of an adenocarcinoma. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large tumor and surrounding atelectasis were seen in the right upper and middle lobe, as well as multiple intrapulmonary metastases in both lungs. In addition, not only metastases in the thoracic spine (level Th2/3) but also at other osseous locations and multiple cerebral metastases were detected. The patient received one cycle of chemotherapy consisting of docetaxel and carboplatin (AUC5) in the 27th week of gestation. Additional radiotherapy was applied to the involved thoracic spine. Due to positive epidermal growth factor receptor mutation, therapy with gefitinib 250 mg/day was started 2 days after a Caesarean section (preceded by treatment for fetal lung maturation). A healthy girl was delivered in the 30th week of pregnancy. Staging with computed tomography (CT) after delivery revealed an unstable fracture of Th2 with compression of the spinal cord. Neurosurgery was performed, consisting of a ventral corporectomy of Th1-2 followed by an anterior and posterior osteosynthesis for stabilization. The patient was discharged without neurological deficits within 1 week. Subsequent treatment with gefitinib improved the performance status of the patient, and CT scans of the chest and an MRI of the brain showed the size of

  2. Macroanatomy and compartmentalization of recent fire scars in three North American conifers

    Treesearch

    Kevin T. Smith; Estelle Arbellay; Donald A. Falk; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland

    2016-01-01

    Fire scars are initiated by cambial necrosis caused by localized lethal heating of the tree stem. Scars develop as part of the linked survival processes of compartmentalization and wound closure. The position of scars within dated tree ring series is the basis for dendrochronological reconstruction of fire history. Macroanatomical features were described for western...

  3. Evidence-Based Scar Management: How to Improve Results with Technique and Technology.

    PubMed

    Khansa, Ibrahim; Harrison, Bridget; Janis, Jeffrey E

    2016-09-01

    Scars represent the visible sequelae of trauma, injury, burn, or surgery. They may induce distress in the patient because of their aesthetically unpleasant appearance, especially if they are excessively raised, depressed, wide, or erythematous. They may also cause the patient symptoms of pain, tightness, and pruritus. Numerous products are marketed for scar prevention or improvement, but their efficacy is unclear. A literature review of high-level studies analyzing methods to prevent or improve hypertrophic scars, keloids, and striae distensae was performed. The evidence from these articles was analyzed to generate recommendations. Each intervention's effectiveness at preventing or reducing scars was rated as none, low, or high, depending on the strength of the evidence for that intervention. For the prevention of hypertrophic scars, silicone, tension reduction, and wound edge eversion seem to have high efficacy, whereas onion extract, pulsed-dye laser, pressure garments, and scar massage have low efficacy. For the treatment of existing hypertrophic scars, silicone, pulsed-dye laser, CO2 laser, corticosteroids, 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin, and scar massage have high efficacy, whereas onion extract and fat grafting seem to have low efficacy. Fo