Science.gov

Sample records for cai tien giong

  1. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  2. CAI Terminal Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Peter

    The bewildering number of available terminals which are offered to CAI users presents a rather formidable problem of which one to choose. This article surveys what appear to be evolving standards for terminals. The usefulness of these terminals for CAI purposes is discussed, together with the best known prototype exhibiting the particular feature.…

  3. Carbon, CAIs and chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. D.; Russell, S. S.

    1994-01-01

    It has been shown that C is present in CAI's and chondrules. It can be distinguished from matrix C both by its thermal stability and isotopic composition, which implies that it was not introduced after parent body accretion. It is concluded that C must have been present in the chondrule and CAI precursor material. Therefore any models of chondrule and CAI formation and inferences drawn about solar system conditions during these events must take into account the consequences of the presence of C on inclusion chemistry, mineralogy, and oxidation state.

  4. Skill Specific CAI Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavine, Roberta Z.; Fechter, Sharon Ahern

    Advantages of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for grammar-oriented exercises are considered, and a learning module to help the student prepare for the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) exam is described. The exercises are modeled on the TOEFL exam: the student is given a sentence, one part of which is incorrect and is asked to…

  5. Maxi CAI with a Micro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhold, George; And Others

    This paper describes an effective microprocessor-based CAI system which has been repeatedly tested by a large number of students and edited accordingly. Tasks not suitable for microprocessor based systems (authoring, testing, and debugging) were handled on larger multi-terminal systems. This approach requires that the CAI language used on the…

  6. Zr Isotope Systematics of Allende CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mane, P.; Romaniello, S. J.; Brennecka, G. A.; Williams, C. D.; Wadhwa, M.

    2014-09-01

    We report high precision Zr isotopic measurements of CAIs from Allende CV3 meteorite. Our results indicate a uniform Zr isotopic composition in the CAI forming region, with enrichment in r-process isotope 96Zr.

  7. Teacher's Handbook for CAI Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; And Others

    The handbooks for the most widely used computer-assisted instruction (CAI) courses now available on computer terminals at the Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences at Stanford University are presented. Handbooks are included for the following courses: Strands Drill-and-practice (arithmetic fundamentals for fourth grade), Logic…

  8. The Screen Display Syntax for CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Boyd F.; Salisbury, David F.

    1987-01-01

    Describes four storyboard techniques frequently used in designing computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs, and explains screen display syntax (SDS), a new technique combining the major advantages of the storyboard techniques. SDS was developed to facilitate communication among designers, programmers, and editors working on a large CAI basic…

  9. Implications of Windowing Techniques for CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heines, Jesse M.; Grinstein, Georges G.

    This paper discusses the use of a technique called windowing in computer assisted instruction to allow independent control of functional areas in complex CAI displays and simultaneous display of output from a running computer program and coordinated instructional material. Two obstacles to widespread use of CAI in computer science courses are…

  10. CAI: Its Cost and Its Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressman, Israel; Rosenbloom, Bruce

    1984-01-01

    Describes and evaluates costs of hardware, software, training, and maintenance for computer assisted instruction (CAI) as they relate to total system cost. An example of an educational system provides an illustration of CAI cost analysis. Future developments, cost effectiveness, affordability, and applications in public and private environments…

  11. The Evolutionary Development of CAI Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifle, John E.

    After six years of research in computer assisted instruction (CAI) using PLATO III, a decision was made at the University of Illinois to develop a larger system as a national CAI resource. This document describes the design specifications and problems in the development of PLATO IV, a system which is capable of accomodating up to 4,000 terminals…

  12. Economic Evaluation of CAI in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Gene L.

    This is an introductory presentation of economic evaluation methods for assessing computer-assisted instruction (CAI). Six different costing techniques, including cost effectiveness, are reviewed. Cost effectiveness is then examined in terms of its usefulness for evaluating CAI. A simplified system for cost effectiveness evaluation is presented…

  13. Computers for Your Classroom: CAI and CMI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, David B.; Bozeman, William C.

    1981-01-01

    The availability of compact, low-cost computer systems provides a means of assisting classroom teachers in the performance of their duties. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and computer-managed instruction (CMI) are two applications of computer technology with which school administrators should become familiar. CAI is a teaching medium in which…

  14. A unified framework for producing CAI melting, Wark-Lovering rims and bowl-shaped CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liffman, Kurt; Cuello, Nicolas; Paterson, David A.

    2016-10-01

    Calcium-Aluminium inclusions (CAIs) formed in the Solar system, some 4567 million years ago. CAIs are almost always surrounded by Wark-Lovering rims (WLRs), which are a sequence of thin, mono/bi-mineralic layers of refractory minerals, with a total thickness in the range of 1-100 microns. Recently, some CAIs have been found that have tektite-like bowl-shapes. To form such shapes, the CAI must have travelled through a rarefied gas at hypersonic speeds. We show how CAIs may have been ejected from the inner solar accretion disc via the centrifugal interaction between the solar magnetosphere and the inner disc rim. They subsequently punched through the hot, inner disc rim wall at hypersonic speeds. This re-entry heating partially or completely evaporated the CAIs. Such evaporation could have significantly increased the metal abundances of the inner disc rim. High speed movement through the inner disc produced WLRs. To match the observed thickness of WLRs required metal abundances at the inner disc wall that are of order 10 times that of standard solar abundances. The CAIs cooled as they moved away from the protosun, the deduced CAI cooling rates are consistent with the CAI cooling rates obtained from experiment and observation. The speeds and gas densities required to form bowl-shaped CAIs are also consistent with the expected speeds and gas densities for larger, ˜1 cm, CAIs punching through an inner accretion disc wall.

  15. CAIS. Condition Assessment Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Oak, J.C.

    1996-09-30

    CAIS is used by Architects and Engineers to gather facility condition assessment data. This data consist of architectural, civil, structural, electrical, and mechanical systems and components that are a part of the inspected facility. Data is collected using a hand-held, pen-based computer system which is preprogrammed for detailed inventories of individual components. The program is deficiency based for collecting data for repair and replacement observations. Observations are recorded on checklists preformatted to individual site needs, allowing for comments on unusual conditions to be documented on site. Data is transferred to a central database, where it can be reviewed, costed, and reported on using different scenarios. Information can be transferred to the DOE operations offices as well as to the DOE FIMS database for each site.

  16. CAIs in Semarkona (LL3.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishra, R. K.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.; Marhas, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the first forming solids of the Solar system. Their observed abundance, mean size, and mineralogy vary quite significantly between different groups of chondrites. These differences may reflect the dynamics and distinct cosmochemical conditions present in the region(s) of the protoplanetary disk from which each type likely accreted. Only about 11 such objects have been found in L and LL type while another 57 have been found in H type ordinary chondrites, compared to thousands in carbonaceous chondrites. At issue is whether the rare CAIs contained in ordinary chondrites truly reflect a distinct population from the inclusions commonly found in other chondrite types. Semarkona (LL3.00) (fall, 691 g) is the most pristine chondrite available in our meteorite collection. Here we report petrography and mineralogy of 3 CAIs from Semarkona

  17. CAI in Music Theory: Paradigms: Potential: Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultberg, W. Earle; Hultberg, Mary Lou

    Computer-assisted instructional programs have been developed at the State University College at Potsdam, New York, to teach basic concepts of music theory. The Computer-based Learning Experiences in Music Fundamentals (CLEF) project has spawned computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs which use an IBM 360/30 configuration with 2741 terminals…

  18. Individual Differences in Learner Controlled CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Wilson A.; And Others

    Two assumptions in support of learner-controlled computer-assisted instruction (CAI) are that (1) instruction administered under learner control will be less aversive than if administered under program control, and (2) the student is sufficiently aware of his learning state to make, in most instances, his own instructional decisions. Some 130…

  19. The Evolutionary Development of CAI Evaluation Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avner, R. A.

    The role of evaluation in the development of evolutionary procedures is briefly described and highlighted. Four aspects of evaluation technique which distinguish efficient from inefficient CAI programs are identified. Evaluation of products is also characterized. Findings of a continuing survey of students via questionnaire as to the value of…

  20. The Relevance of AI Research to CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    This article provides a tutorial introduction to Artificial Intelligence (AI) research for those involved in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). The general theme is that much of the current work in AI, particularly in the areas of natural language understanding systems, rule induction, programming languages, and socratic systems, has important…

  1. Man-Computer Communications and CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunka, S.

    A variety of direct and indirect instructional activities during the last ten years have employed computers. Within Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) programs, the following broad classes of instructional strategies have been generally accepted: tutorial, drill and practice, review, testing, remediation and diagnosis, problem solving, and…

  2. The Evolutionary Development of CAI Courseware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Esther R.

    The history of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) courseware is described with specific reference to the PLATO system. Among the goals of courseware authors are finding better ways to develop the cognitive skills of students, to shift some of the burden of routine classroom instruction away from the teacher so that more class time can be spent in…

  3. Jurassic evolution of the Tien-Shan

    SciTech Connect

    Bebeshev, I.I.

    1994-09-01

    Complex studies led to identification of three stages in Jurassic deposits. The stages reflect development periods of the studied deposits. Each stage is represented by a paleogeographic map that indicates the evolution of ancient landforms in the Tien-Shan region in time and space.

  4. NALDA (Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis) CAI (computer aided instruction)

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, B.H. ); France, P.A.; Frey, S.C.; Gaubas, N.F.; Hyland, K.J.; Lindsey, A.M.; Manley, D.O. ); Hunnum, W.H. ); Smith, D.L. )

    1990-07-01

    Data Systems Engineering Organization (DSEO) personnel developed a prototype computer aided instruction CAI system for the Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) system. The objective of this project was to provide a CAI prototype that could be used as an enhancement to existing NALDA training. The CAI prototype project was performed in phases. The task undertaken in Phase I was to analyze the problem and the alternative solutions and to develop a set of recommendations on how best to proceed. The findings from Phase I are documented in Recommended CAI Approach for the NALDA System (Duncan et al., 1987). In Phase II, a structured design and specifications were developed, and a prototype CAI system was created. A report, NALDA CAI Prototype: Phase II Final Report, was written to record the findings and results of Phase II. NALDA CAI: Recommendations for an Advanced Instructional Model, is comprised of related papers encompassing research on computer aided instruction CAI, newly developing training technologies, instructional systems development, and an Advanced Instructional Model. These topics were selected because of their relevancy to the CAI needs of NALDA. These papers provide general background information on various aspects of CAI and give a broad overview of new technologies and their impact on the future design and development of training programs. The paper within have been index separately elsewhere.

  5. Research on TRIZ and CAIs Application Problems for Technology Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangdong; Li, Qinghai; Bai, Zhonghang; Geng, Lixiao

    In order to realize application of invent problem solve theory (TRIZ) and computer aided innovation software (CAIs) , need to solve some key problems, such as the mode choice of technology innovation, establishment of technology innovation organization network(TION), and achievement of innovative process based on TRIZ and CAIs, etc.. This paper shows that the demands for TRIZ and CAIs according to the characteristics and existing problem of the manufacturing enterprises. Have explained that the manufacturing enterprises need to set up an open TION of enterprise leading type, and achieve the longitudinal cooperation innovation with institution of higher learning. The process of technology innovation based on TRIZ and CAIs has been set up from researching and developing point of view. Application of TRIZ and CAIs in FY Company has been summarized. The application effect of TRIZ and CAIs has been explained using technology innovation of the close goggle valve product.

  6. Tien Shan Geohazards Database: Earthquakes and landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havenith, H. B.; Strom, A.; Torgoev, I.; Torgoev, A.; Lamair, L.; Ischuk, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we present new and review already existing landslide and earthquake data for a large part of the Tien Shan, Central Asia. For the same area, only partial databases for sub-regions have been presented previously. They were compiled and new data were added to fill the gaps between the databases. Major new inputs are products of the Central Asia Seismic Risk Initiative (CASRI): a tentative digital map of active faults (even with indication of characteristic or possible maximum magnitude) and the earthquake catalogue of Central Asia until 2009 that was now updated with USGS data (to May 2014). The new compiled landslide inventory contains existing records of 1600 previously mapped mass movements and more than 1800 new landslide data. Considering presently available seismo-tectonic and landslide data, a target region of 1200 km (E-W) by 600 km (N-S) was defined for the production of more or less continuous geohazards information. This target region includes the entire Kyrgyz Tien Shan, the South-Western Tien Shan in Tajikistan, the Fergana Basin (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) as well as the Western part in Uzbekistan, the North-Easternmost part in Kazakhstan and a small part of the Eastern Chinese Tien Shan (for the zones outside Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, only limited information was available and compiled). On the basis of the new landslide inventory and the updated earthquake catalogue, the link between landslide and earthquake activity is analysed. First, size-frequency relationships are studied for both types of geohazards, in terms of Gutenberg-Richter Law for the earthquakes and in terms of probability density function for the landslides. For several regions and major earthquake events, case histories are presented to outline further the close connection between earthquake and landslide hazards in the Tien Shan. From this study, we concluded first that a major hazard component is still now insufficiently known for both types of geohazards

  7. Computer System Requirements for CAI/CMI Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, Robert J.

    This paper oriented for new researchers entering the field of CAI research discusses the research experience in this area, outlines some of the important computer requirements of CAI research, and proposes a conservative computer development strategy to meet those requirements. The development of PLATO and TICCIT are described as examples of the…

  8. An Intelligent CAI Monitor and Generative Tutor. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffman, Elliot B.; Perry, James

    This final report summarizes research findings and presents a model for generative computer assisted instruction (CAI) with respect to its usefulness in the classroom environment. Methods used to individualize instruction, and the evolution of a procedure used to select a concept for presentation to a student with the generative CAI system are…

  9. A CAI Study of Learning Geologic Time and Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, James P.; Stolurow, Lawrence M.

    Twenty-two college students in science education were given an adjunctive computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program by means of typewriter consoles and computer-controlled colored slide presentations of critical information. Students were pretested, told how to respond at the student console, taught by the Harvard CAI System, and posttested. The…

  10. A Pilot CAI Scheme for the Malaysian Secondary Education System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, A. Kanakaratnam; Rao, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    A multi-phase computer aided instruction (CAI) scheme for Malaysian Secondary Schools and Matriculation Centres attached to local universities is presented as an aid for improving instruction and for solving some problems presently faced by the Malaysian Secondary Education System. Some approaches for successful implementation of a CAI scheme are…

  11. Fifteen Years of Teaching Elementary Applied Statistics Using CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunka, S.

    A computer-assisted instructional (CAI) course in applied statistics has been taught for 15 years in the Faculty of Education at the University of Manitoba. The CAI courseware was originally created to be the primary mode of instruction for the course, and it is very extensive in terms of content and style of presentation. The course includes 14…

  12. A CAI Approach to Teaching an Office Technology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Patricia Veasey

    1989-01-01

    Describes study that investigated the difference between computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and traditional lecture instruction in teaching an office technology course. The effects of CAI on student achievement and student attitudes is discussed, hypotheses tested and pretests and posttests are described, and further research needs are suggested.…

  13. The Effectiveness of CAI Designed for the Hearing-Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogel, Nancy S.

    Two pilot studies probed effectiveness of linguistically controlled, highly visual computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for English grammar instruction with hearing-impaired high school students (N=29 in the first study and N=71 in the second). Results from the first study suggested that state-of-the-art CAI designed specifically for use with this…

  14. GPS survey of the western Tien Shan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Peter H.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the background, field work, data collection and analysis, and future plans associated with a collaborative GPS experiment in the Tien Shan of the former Soviet Union. This project involves the amalgamation of two, separately funded projects, which were proposed separately by PIs Hamburger and Reilinger (NSF number EAR-9115159 and NASA number NAG5-1941) and Molnar and Hager (NSF number EAR9117889 and NASA number NAG5-1947). In addition, the work is being conducted under the auspices of the US-USSR Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Environmental Protection, with support from the United States Geological Survey.

  15. GPS survey of the western Tien Shan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, Bradford H.; Molnar, Peter H.; Hamburger, Michael W.; Reilinger, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    There were two major developments in 1994 in our collaborative GPS experiment in the Tien Shan of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Both were motivated by our expectation that we will ultimately obtain better science at lower cost if we involve our colleagues in the FSU more deeply in (1) the collection and (2) the analysis of data. As an experimental test of the concept of having our local collaborators carry out the field work semi-autonomously, we sent 6 MIT receivers to the Tien Shan for a period of 3 months. To enable our collaborators to have the capability for data analysis, we provided computers for two data analysis centers and organized a two-week training session. This report emphasizes the rationale for deeper involvement of FSU scientists, describes the training sessions, discusses the data collection, and presents the results. We also discuss future plans. More detailed discussion of background, general scientific objectives, discussions with collaborators, and results for the campaigns in 1992 and 1993 have been given in previous reports.

  16. New Titanium Isotope Data for Allende and Efremovka CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leya, Ingo; Schönbächler, Maria; Krähenbühl, Urs; Halliday, Alex N.

    2009-09-01

    We measured the titanium (Ti) isotope composition, i.e., 50Ti/47Ti, 48Ti/47Ti, and 46Ti/47Ti, in five calcium-rich-aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) from the oxidized CV3 chondrite Allende and in two CAIs from the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka. Our data indicate that CAIs are enriched in 50Ti/47Ti and 46Ti/47Ti and are slightly depleted in 48Ti/47Ti compared to normal Ti defined by ordinary chondrites, eucrites, ureilites, mesosiderites, Earth, Moon, and Mars. Some CAIs have an additional 50Ti excess of ~8ɛ relative to bulk carbonaceous chondrites, which are enriched in 50Ti by ~2ɛ relative to terrestrial values, leading to a total excess of ~10ɛ. This additional 50Ti excess is correlated with nucleosynthetic anomalies found in 62Ni and 96Zr, all indicating an origin from a neutron-rich stellar source. Bulk carbonaceous chondrites show a similar trend, however, the extent of the anomalies is either less than or similar to the smallest anomalies seen in CAIs. Mass balance calculations suggest that bulk Allende Ti possibly consists of a mixture of at least two Ti components, anomalous Ti located in CAIs and a normal component possibly for matrix and chondrules. This argues for a heterogeneous distribution of Ti isotopes in the solar system. The finding that anomalous Ti is concentrated in CAIs suggests that CAIs formed in a specific region of the solar system and were, after their formation, not homogeneously redistributed within the solar system. Combining the CAI data with improved model predictions for early solar system irradiation effects indicates that a local production scenario for the relatively short lived radionuclides can be excluded, because the production of, e.g., 10Be, 26Al, and 41Ca, would result in a significant collateral shift in Ti isotopes, which is not seen in the measured data.

  17. CAI System of Obunsha Co., Ltd. Using CD-ROM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todokoro, Shigeru; Mukai, Yoshihiro

    This paper introduces the present status of R & D on CAI teaching materials in Obunsha Co., Ltd. Characteristics of CAI using CD-ROM as well as Culture-in CAI Teaching Materials System for junior high school English are described. The system consists of CD-ROM driver XM-2000 and Pasopia 700 of Toshiba Corporation having both features of CD-ROM and FD. CD-ROM stores vast amount of voice data while FD does text and graphics data. It is a frame-oriented mode system enabling to raise learning effect.

  18. Astrophysics of CAI formation as revealed by silicon isotope LA-MC-ICPMS of an igneous CAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahar, Anat; Young, Edward D.

    2007-05-01

    Silicon isotope ratios of a typical CAI from the Leoville carbonaceous chondrite, obtained in situ by laser ablation MC-ICPMS, together with existing 25Mg/ 24Mg data, reveal a detailed picture of the astrophysical setting of CAI melting and subsequent heating. Models for the chemical and isotopic effects of evaporation of the molten CAI are used to produce a univariant relationship between PH 2 and time during melting. The result shows that this CAI was molten for a cumulative time of no more than 70 days and probably less than 15 days depending on temperature. The object could have been molten for an integrated time of just a few hours if isotope ratio zoning was eliminated after melting by high subsolidus temperatures (e.g., > 1300 K) for ˜ 500 yr. In all cases subsolidus heating sufficient to produce diffusion-limited isotope fractionation at the margin of the solidified CAI is required. These stable isotope data point to a two-stage history for this igneous CAI involving melting for a cumulative timescale of hours to months followed by subsolidus heating for years to hundreds of years. The thermobarometric history deduced from combining Si and Mg isotope ratio data implicates thermal processing in the disk, perhaps by passage through shockwaves, following melting. This study underscores the direct link between the meaning of stable isotope ratio zoning, or lack thereof, and the inferred astrophysical setting of melting and subsequent processing of CAIs.

  19. The Relative Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) for Teaching Students To Read English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard A.

    In a review of research on computer assisted instruction (CAI) related to reading, evidence collected provides tentative conclusions about CAI effectiveness. CAI was effective as an instructional medium in the surveyed studies. In a number of instances, CAI groups achieved higher scores than the control groups. Some studies indicated that CAI…

  20. A CAI in the Ivuna CI1 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, David R.; Zolensky, M.; Martinez, J.; Mikouchi, T.; Ohsumi, K.; Hagiya, K.; Satake, W.; Le, L.; Ross, D.; Peslier, A.

    2011-01-01

    We have recently discovered the first well-preserved calcium aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) in a CI1 chondrite (Ivuna). Previously, all CI1 chondrites were thought to be devoid of preserved CAI and chondrules due to the near total aqueous alteration to which their parent body (bodies) have been subjected. The CAI is roughly spherical, but with a slight teardrop geometry and a maximum diameter of 170 microns (fig. 1). It lacks any Wark-Lovering Rim. Incipient aqueous alteration, and probably shock, have rendered large portions of the CAI poorly crystalline. It is extremely fine-grained, with only a few grains exceeding 10 microns. We have performed electron microprobe analyses (EPMA), FEG-SEM imaging and element mapping, as well as electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD) in order to determine the fundamental characteristics of this apparently unique object.

  1. NEW TITANIUM ISOTOPE DATA FOR ALLENDE AND EFREMOVKA CAIs

    SciTech Connect

    Leya, Ingo; Schoenbaechler, Maria; Kraehenbuehl, Urs; Halliday, Alex N.

    2009-09-10

    We measured the titanium (Ti) isotope composition, i.e., {sup 50}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, {sup 48}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, and {sup 46}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, in five calcium-rich-aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) from the oxidized CV3 chondrite Allende and in two CAIs from the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka. Our data indicate that CAIs are enriched in {sup 50}Ti/{sup 47}Ti and {sup 46}Ti/{sup 47}Ti and are slightly depleted in {sup 48}Ti/{sup 47}Ti compared to normal Ti defined by ordinary chondrites, eucrites, ureilites, mesosiderites, Earth, Moon, and Mars. Some CAIs have an additional {sup 50}Ti excess of {approx}8{epsilon} relative to bulk carbonaceous chondrites, which are enriched in {sup 50}Ti by {approx}2{epsilon} relative to terrestrial values, leading to a total excess of {approx}10{epsilon}. This additional {sup 50}Ti excess is correlated with nucleosynthetic anomalies found in {sup 62}Ni and {sup 96}Zr, all indicating an origin from a neutron-rich stellar source. Bulk carbonaceous chondrites show a similar trend, however, the extent of the anomalies is either less than or similar to the smallest anomalies seen in CAIs. Mass balance calculations suggest that bulk Allende Ti possibly consists of a mixture of at least two Ti components, anomalous Ti located in CAIs and a normal component possibly for matrix and chondrules. This argues for a heterogeneous distribution of Ti isotopes in the solar system. The finding that anomalous Ti is concentrated in CAIs suggests that CAIs formed in a specific region of the solar system and were, after their formation, not homogeneously redistributed within the solar system. Combining the CAI data with improved model predictions for early solar system irradiation effects indicates that a local production scenario for the relatively short lived radionuclides can be excluded, because the production of, e.g., {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, and {sup 41}Ca, would result in a significant collateral shift in Ti isotopes, which is not seen in the

  2. Magnesium, Silicon, and Oxygen Isotopic Consequences of CAI Evaporation and Inversion for Primordial Melt Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, E. D.; Shahar, A.

    2012-03-01

    We show how realistic activity-composition relationships in CMAS melts can be used to invert silicon- and magnesium-isotope ratios for evaporation histories of CAIs. Results suggest igneous CAIs were indeed condensates from a solar gas.

  3. CAI for the Developmentally Handicapped: Nine Years of Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallworth, H. J.; Brebner, Ann

    Initiated nine years ago by the University of Calgary Faculty of Education Computer Applications Unit in cooperation with the nearby Vocational and Rehabilitation Research Institute (VRRI), this project uses computer assisted instruction (CAI) to teach social and vocational skills to developmentally handicapped young adults, many of whom also have…

  4. Conjunctival mucin deficiency in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS).

    PubMed

    Mantelli, Flavio; Moretti, Costanzo; Micera, Alessandra; Bonini, Stefano

    2007-06-01

    Sex steroid hormones are essential for a healthy ocular surface and the androgen receptor impairment found in patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) has been described to cause meibomian gland dysfunction and functional dry eye for lipid tear film layer instability. However, it has not been reported if the mucous layer is also affected. A 37-year-old CAIS patient with persistent symptoms of dry eye underwent ophthalmological examination and was evaluated for qualitative and quantitative tear function tests and conjunctival cytology. Samples obtained from the conjunctival epithelium were stained for histology and immunohistochemistry and compared with three age-matched female controls. Western blot and relative real-time RT-PCR for MUC1 and MUC5AC were also performed on these samples. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and relative real-time RT-PCR showed a decrease in the expression of MUC1 and MUC5AC in CAIS. Changes in the tear film mucous layer were accompanied by a reduction in the tear film break up time test. This is the first report describing mucous layer alteration associated with androgen receptor impairment. Decreased mucin levels contribute in explaining the tear film instability in CAIS and should be considered an additional cause of dry eye in sex steroid hormone pathology.

  5. An Intelligent CAI Monitor and Generative Tutor. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffman, Elliot B.; And Others

    Design techniques for generative computer-assisted-instructional (CAI) systems are described in this report. These are systems capable of generating problems for students and of deriving and monitoring solutions; problem difficulty, instructional pace, and depth of monitoring are all individually tailored and parts of the solution algorithms can…

  6. Introductory CAI Dialogue in Differential Calculus for Freshman Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, C. S.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A project on computer based dialogue for freshmen is described and evaluated. The dialogue utilizes a CAI language written in Fortran that allows a designer to easily write and edit questions at his own desk without the use of a terminal. (Author/DT)

  7. CAI: Overcoming Attitude Barriers of Prospective Primary Teachers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kockler, Lois H.

    During each of two school quarters, approximately 60 college students enrolled in a mathematics course were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The control group received instruction by the lecture method only; the experimental group received the same instruction, except that six computer-assisted instruction (CAI) units…

  8. CAISYS-8- A CAI Language Developed For A Minicomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Cheryl; And Others

    The University of Texas Medical Branch developed a minicomputer-based computer-assisted instruction (CAI) system which employed a teacher oriented software package called CAISYS-8, consisting of a highly modularized teaching compiler and operating system. CAISYS-8 used instructional quanta which generalized the flow of information to and from the…

  9. A Comparison of Student Option Versus Program Controlled CAI Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Patrick H.; And Others

    A research study compared two methods for individualizing computer-assisted instruction (CAI) training and evaluated the effect of providing a lesson narrative before training. A 2x2 factorial design was used with 96 Navy trainees in the Basic Electricity/Electronics School. The two pretraining conditions were: 1) a narrative overview read before…

  10. Distribution and Origin of 36Cl In Allende CAIs

    SciTech Connect

    Matzel, J P; Jacobsen, B; Hutcheon, I D; Krot, A N; Nagashima, K; Yin, Q; Ramon, E C; Weber, P; Wasserburg, G J

    2009-12-11

    The abundance of short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in early solar system materials provide key information about their nucleosynthetic origin and can constrain the timing of early solar system events. Excesses of {sup 36}S ({sup 36}S*) correlated with {sup 35}Cl/{sup 34}S ratios provide direct evidence for in situ decay of {sup 36}Cl ({tau}{sub 1/2} {approx} 0.3 Ma) and have been reported in sodalite (Na{sub 8}Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}Cl{sub 2}) and wadalite (Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 5}Si{sub 2}O{sub 16}Cl{sub 3}) in CAIs and chondrules from the Allende and Ningqiang CV carbonaceous chondrites. While previous studies demonstrate unequivocally that {sup 36}Cl was extant in the early solar system, no consensus on the origin or initial abundance of {sup 36}Cl has emerged. Understanding the origin of {sup 36}Cl, as well as the reported variation in the initial {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio, requires addressing when, where and how chlorine was incorporated into CAIs and chondrules. These factors are key to distinguishing between stellar nucleosynthesis or energetic particle irradiation for the origin of {sup 36}Cl. Wadalite is a chlorine-rich secondary mineral with structural and chemical affinities to grossular. The high chlorine ({approx}12 wt%) and very low sulfur content (<<0.01 wt%) make wadalite ideal for studies of the {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S system. Wadalite is present in Allende CAIs exclusively in the interior regions either in veins crosscutting melilite or in zones between melilite and anorthite associated with intergrowths of grossular, monticellite, and wollastonite. Wadalite and sodalite most likely resulted from open-system alteration of primary minerals with a chlorine-rich fluid phase. We recently reported large {sup 36}S* correlated with {sup 35}Cl/{sup 34}S in wadalite in Allende Type B CAI AJEF, yielding a ({sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl){sub 0} ratio of (1.7 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -5}. This value is the highest reported {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio and is {approx}5 times

  11. Effectiveness of CAI Package on Achievement in Physics of IX Standard Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheswari, I. Uma; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is an experimental one in nature, to find out the effectiveness of CAI package on in Physics of IX std. students. For this purpose a CAI package was developed and validated. The validated CAI package formed an independent variable of this study. The dependent variable is students' achievements in physics content. In order to find…

  12. Harvard University Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI) Laboratory. Technical Report Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolurow, Lawrence M.; Peterson, Theodore I.

    This report is a detailed description of the Harvard CAI Laboratory, including its history, organization, functions, staffing, programs and support. Discussed are materials relating to CAI in general, such as psychological research, modes of instruction, advantages and implementation of CAI. Reviewed also are specific projects of this facility. A…

  13. CAIs in CO3 Meteorites: Parent Body or Nebular Alteration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, R. C.; Hutchison, R.; Huss, G. R.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    1992-07-01

    It is widely held that alteration of Ca Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in CV3 and CO3 meteorites occurred in the nebula (Hashimoto 1992). The CO3 chondrites, however, appear to define a metamorphic sequence dominated by parent body, and not nebular, metamorphic effects (Scott and Jones, 1990). To investigate the effects of metamorphism on CAIs we have studied inclusions from 4 CO chondrites: Colony (3.0), Felix (3.2), Lance (3.4), and Warrenton (3.6). In a section of Colony (74 mm^2) 81 CAIs, 30-870 micrometers long, comprise 52 nodular spinel-rich inclusions (fragments of Type-A CAI composed largely of spinel), 12 spinel-pyroxene inclusions, 10 melilite-rich inclusions, 2 hibonite-only inclusions, 2 CaAl4O7-bearing inclusions, and 3 spinel-pyroxene- olivine inclusions. Although a find, CAIs in Colony are relatively fresh, melilite in particular being little altered. In 79% of the spinel-bearing inclusions, spinel has <2wt% FeO, which otherwise ranges to 34.8%. Mg isotopic compositions were determined in 5 selected Colony inclusion; evidence of ^26Mg* from decay of ^26Al was found in 4 CAI. A hibonite-only inclusion has the largest ^26Mg* excess, delta^26Mg 32o/oo. Data show no evidence of isotopic disturbance and define a linear array with slope ^26Mg* /^27Al = (3.4+- 0.6) x 10^-5, like that obtained by Davis and Hinton (1986) in a hibonite-bearing spherule from Ornans. Despite Al/Mg ratios of up to 1500, CaAl4O7 in one inclusion shows no evidence of ^26Mg*; ^26Mg* < 4 x 10^-6. All three melilite-bearing inclusions from Colony C21 (angstrom k(sub)8.3-14.3), C56 (angstrom k(sub)10.5-16) and C62 (angstrom k(sub)15-21) show evidence of radiogenic ^26Mg*. Excess ^26Mg positively correlates with the Al/Mg ratios but the data do not define a unique initial value of ^26Al/^27Al. Data for melilite in C21, in particular, show evidence for disturbance of the Al-Mg system, as is common for Allende CAI (Podosek et al. 1991). Melilites in C56 in contrast show no evidence of

  14. Oxygen Isotope Measurements of a Rare Murchison Type A CAI and Its Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, J. I.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Jacobsen, B.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2013-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) from CV chondrites commonly show oxygen isotope heterogeneity among different mineral phases within individual inclusions reflecting the complex history of CAIs in both the solar nebula and/or parent bodies. The degree of isotopic exchange is typically mineral-specific, yielding O-16-rich spinel, hibonite and pyroxene and O-16-depleted melilite and anorthite. Recent work demonstrated large and systematic variations in oxygen isotope composition within the margin and Wark-Lovering rim of an Allende Type A CAI. These variations suggest that some CV CAIs formed from several oxygen reservoirs and may reflect transport between distinct regions of the solar nebula or varying gas composition near the proto-Sun. Oxygen isotope compositions of CAIs from other, less-altered chondrites show less intra-CAI variability and 16O-rich compositions. The record of intra-CAI oxygen isotope variability in CM chondrites, which commonly show evidence for low-temperature aqueous alteration, is less clear, in part because the most common CAIs found in CM chondrites are mineralogically simple (hibonite +/- spinel or spinel +/- pyroxene) and are composed of minerals less susceptible to O-isotopic exchange. No measurements of the oxygen isotope compositions of rims on CAIs in CM chondrites have been reported. Here, we present oxygen isotope data from a rare, Type A CAI from the Murchison meteorite, MUM-1. The data were collected from melilite, hibonite, perovskite and spinel in a traverse into the interior of the CAI and from pyroxene, melilite, anorthite, and spinel in the Wark-Lovering rim. Our objectives were to (1) document any evidence for intra-CAI oxygen isotope variability; (2) determine the isotopic composition of the rim minerals and compare their composition(s) to the CAI interior; and (3) compare the MUM-1 data to oxygen isotope zoning profiles measured from CAIs in other chondrites.

  15. Replacement textures in CAI and implications regarding planetary metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeker, G. P.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Armstrong, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    Formation by a secondary metamorphic event, rather than primary crystallization from a melt or a sequential nebular condensation, is indicated by textural and chemical features of five coarse grained, Ca- and Al-rich inclusions (CAI) from the Allende meteorite which contain embayed pyroxene surrounded by melilite. It is suggested that the most probable environment for a metamorphic process (requiring the addition of Ca derived from calcite or from the introduction of a fluid phase) is that of a small planetary body, rather than the solar nebula. These results are compatible with O isotopic heterogeneities within CAI, and offer a mechanism for the production of lower temperature alteration phases, together with the rim phases found in these inclusions.

  16. Naval Academy's CAI Project (Computer-Assisted Instruction Project). Final Project Report 1 July 1968 - 30 June 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandeford, W. H.; And Others

    Aimed at improving officer education through the use of modern technology, a two-pronged computer-assisted instruction (CAI) effort was initiated. CAI techniques and methods utilized in the dual projects (CAI-Teletype and CAI 1500) are discussed under three categories: computational, non-computational, and computer management of instruction.…

  17. Silicon Isotopic Fractionation of CAI-like Vacuum Evaporation Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, K; Kita, N; Mendybaev, R; Richter, F; Davis, A; Valley, J

    2009-06-18

    Calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are often enriched in the heavy isotopes of magnesium and silicon relative to bulk solar system materials. It is likely that these isotopic enrichments resulted from evaporative mass loss of magnesium and silicon from early solar system condensates while they were molten during one or more high-temperature reheating events. Quantitative interpretation of these enrichments requires laboratory determinations of the evaporation kinetics and associated isotopic fractionation effects for these elements. The experimental data for the kinetics of evaporation of magnesium and silicon and the evaporative isotopic fractionation of magnesium is reasonably complete for Type B CAI liquids (Richter et al., 2002, 2007a). However, the isotopic fractionation factor for silicon evaporating from such liquids has not been as extensively studied. Here we report new ion microprobe silicon isotopic measurements of residual glass from partial evaporation of Type B CAI liquids into vacuum. The silicon isotopic fractionation is reported as a kinetic fractionation factor, {alpha}{sub Si}, corresponding to the ratio of the silicon isotopic composition of the evaporation flux to that of the residual silicate liquid. For CAI-like melts, we find that {alpha}{sub Si} = 0.98985 {+-} 0.00044 (2{sigma}) for {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si with no resolvable variation with temperature over the temperature range of the experiments, 1600-1900 C. This value is different from what has been reported for evaporation of liquid Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} (Davis et al., 1990) and of a melt with CI chondritic proportions of the major elements (Wang et al., 2001). There appears to be some compositional control on {alpha}{sub Si}, whereas no compositional effects have been reported for {alpha}{sub Mg}. We use the values of {alpha}Si and {alpha}Mg, to calculate the chemical compositions of the unevaporated precursors of a number of isotopically fractionated CAIs from CV chondrites whose

  18. INVESTIGATION OF CRUSTAL MOTION IN THE TIEN SHAN USING INSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Mellors, R J

    2011-02-25

    The northern Tien Shan of Central Asia is an area of active mid-continent deformation. Although far from a plate boundary, this region has experienced 5 earthquakes larger than magnitude 7 in the past century and includes one event that may as be as large as Mw 8.0. Previous studies based on GPS measurements indicate on the order of 23 mm/yr of shortening across the entire Tien Shan and up to 15 mm/year in the northern Tien Shan (Figure 1). The seismic moment release rate appears comparable with the geodetic measured slip, at least to first order, suggesting that geodetic rates can be considered a proxy for accumulation rates of stress for seismic hazard estimation. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar may provide a means to make detailed spatial measurements and hence in identifying block boundaries and assisting in seismic hazard. Therefore, we hoped to define block boundaries by direct measurement and by identifying and resolving earthquake slip. Due to political instability in Kyrgzystan, the existing seismic network has not performed as well as required to precisely determine earthquake hypocenters in remote areas and hence InSAR is highly useful. In this paper we present the result of three earthquake studies and show that InSAR is useful for refining locations of teleseismically located earthquakes. ALOS PALSAR data is used to investigate crustal motion in the Tien Shan mountains of Central Asia. As part of the work, considerable software development was undertaken to process PALSAR data. This software has been made freely available. Two damaging earthquakes have been imaged in the Tien Shan and the locations provided by ALOS InSAR have helped to refine seismological velocity models. A third earthquake south of Kyrgyzstan was also imaged. The use of InSAR data and especially L band is therefore very useful in providing groundtruth for earthquake locations.

  19. Coordinated Oxygen Isotopic and Petrologic Studies of CAIS Record Varying Composition of Protosolar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Justin I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) record the O-isotope composition of Solar nebular gas from which they grew [1]. High spatial resolution O-isotope measurements afforded by ion microprobe analysis across the rims and margin of CAIs reveal systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 and suggest formation from a diversity of nebular environments [2-4]. This heterogeneity has been explained by isotopic mixing between the O-16-rich Solar reservoir [6] and a second O-16-poor reservoir (probably nebular gas) with a "planetary-like" isotopic composition [e.g., 1, 6-7], but the mechanism and location(s) where these events occur within the protoplanetary disk remain uncertain. The orientation of large and systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 reported by [3] for a compact Type A CAI from the Efremovka reduced CV3 chondrite differs dramatically from reports by [4] of a similar CAI, A37 from the Allende oxidized CV3 chondrite. Both studies conclude that CAIs were exposed to distinct, nebular O-isotope reservoirs, implying the transfer of CAIs among different settings within the protoplanetary disk [4]. To test this hypothesis further and the extent of intra-CAI O-isotopic variation, a pristine compact Type A CAI, Ef-1 from Efremovka, and a Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende were studied. Our new results are equally intriguing because, collectively, O-isotopic zoning patterns in the CAIs indicate a progressive and cyclic record. The results imply that CAIs were commonly exposed to multiple environments of distinct gas during their formation. Numerical models help constrain conditions and duration of these events.

  20. Surge-type glaciers in the Tien Shan (Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Kriti; Bolch, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    Surge-type glaciers in High Mountain Asia are mostly observed in Karakoram and Pamir. However, few surge-type glaciers also exist in the Tien Shan, but have not comprehensively studied in detail in the recent literature. We identified surge-type glaciers in the Tien Shan either from available literature or by manual interpretation using available satellite images (such as Corona, Hexagon, Landsat, SPOT, IRS) for the period 1960 to 2014. We identified 39 possible surge-type glaciers, showing typical characteristics like looped moraines. Twenty-two of them rapidly advanced during different periods or a surge was clearly described in the literature. For the remaining possible surge-type glaciers either the advance, in terms of time and length, were not mentioned in detail in the literature, or the glaciers have remained either stable or retreated during the entire period of our study. Most of the surge-type glaciers cluster in the Inner Tien Shan (especially in the Ak-Shiirak rage) and the Central Tien Shan, are in size and are facing North, West or North West. Pronounced surge events were observed for North Inylchek and Samoilowitsch glaciers, both of which are located in the Central Tien Shan. Samoilowitsch Glacier retreated by more than 3 km between 1960 (length ~8.9 km) and 1992 (~5.8 km), advanced by almost 3 km until 2006 and slightly retreated thereafter. The most pronounced advance occurred between 2000 and 2002. DEM differencing (based on SRTM3 data and stereo Hexagon and Cartosat-1 data) revealed a significant thickening in the middle reaches (reservoir area) of the glacier between 1973 and 2000 while the surface significantly lowered in the middle and upper parts of the glacier between 2000 and 2006. Hence, the ice mass was transferred to the lower reaches (receiving area) and caused the advance with a maximum thickening of more than 80 m. The ~30 km long North Inylchek Glacier retreated since 1943 and showed a very rapid advance of ~3.5 km especially in

  1. Phanerozoic evolution of the North Tien Shan microcontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grave, Johan; Glorie, Stijn; Buslov, Mikhail; Batalev, Vladislav; van den Haute, Peter

    2010-05-01

    The North Tien Shan microcontinent is the most prominent tectonic unit forming the basement of the northeastern Kyrgyz Tien Shan orogen. The microcontinent can be traced further north through Kazakhstan, to the Stepnyak terrane, and in fact seems to form a continuous continental fragment, the Stepnyak-North Tien Shan microcontinent (SNT). The SNT is underlain by Precambrian crystalline basement, with a (meta)sedimentary - (meta)volcanic cover. The sequence is extensively intruded by several magmatic arcs and post-collisional plutons. In this study the NTS crystalline basement and intrusives were targeted for multi-method geochronologic investigation to constrain its Phanerozoic evolution. For this purpose we revisit several sample profiles in the northeastern Kyrgyz Tien Shan, in the broad vicinity of the Issyk-Kul basin. Similar rock-types from the bordering accretionary wedges and suture zone of the Kyrgyz-Terskey and the Dzhalair-Naiman terranes are involved in this study as well. Zircon U/Pb, several Ar systems, fission-track thermochronometers and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He are applied to single rock samples. These methods provide an age array that pinpoints several Phanerozoic thermo-tectonic events that affected the basement rocks in an absolute time-frame. The main regional intrusion phase (magmatic arc) is constrained by zircon U/Pb (SHRIMP) to be Late Ordovician - Early Silurian (447-432 Ma), with smaller post-collisional plutons of Late Permian age (around 290 Ma). Biotite 40Ar/39Ar dating shows rapid Devonian cooling of the rocks, followed by a Permian-Trassic cooling phase (K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar and titanite fission-track dating). There is clear evidence for protracted Mesozoic reactivation and further exhumation of the basement in the Triassic, Late Jurassic and Late Cretaceous (apatite fission track - AFT, and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He - AHe, dating and modeling). In distinct areas, Neogene ages (AFT and AHe) constrain the Late Cenozoic cooling and associated

  2. The Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing autoinducer CAI-1: analysis of the biosynthetic enzyme CqsA

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.; Bolitho, M; Higgins, D; Lu, W; Ng, W; Jeffrey, P; Rabinowitz, J; Semmelhack, M; Hughson, F; Bassler, B

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes the disease cholera, controls virulence factor production and biofilm development in response to two extracellular quorum-sensing molecules, called autoinducers. The strongest autoinducer, called CAI-1 (for cholera autoinducer-1), was previously identified as (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one. Biosynthesis of CAI-1 requires the enzyme CqsA. Here, we determine the CqsA reaction mechanism, identify the CqsA substrates as (S)-2-aminobutyrate and decanoyl coenzyme A, and demonstrate that the product of the reaction is 3-aminotridecan-4-one, dubbed amino-CAI-1. CqsA produces amino-CAI-1 by a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent acyl-CoA transferase reaction. Amino-CAI-1 is converted to CAI-1 in a subsequent step via a CqsA-independent mechanism. Consistent with this, we find cells release {ge}100 times more CAI-1 than amino-CAI-1. Nonetheless, V. cholerae responds to amino-CAI-1 as well as CAI-1, whereas other CAI-1 variants do not elicit a quorum-sensing response. Thus, both CAI-1 and amino-CAI-1 have potential as lead molecules in the development of an anticholera treatment.

  3. Audio-Tutorial and CAI Aids for Problem Solving in Introductory Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lower, Stephen K.

    1970-01-01

    Starting from a successful audio-tutorial program, the author initiated a computer assisted tutorial program in solving chemistry problems. Discusses the advantages of computer assisted instruction (CAI) over audiotapes and the advantages of both over conventional instructional methods. Presents a flow chart of a CAI program on a calorimetry…

  4. Knowledge-Based CAI: CINS for Individualized Curriculum Sequencing. Final Technical Report No. 290.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wescourt, Keith T.; And Others

    This report describes research on the Curriculum Information Network (CIN) paradigm for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in technical subjects. The CIN concept was first conceived and implemented in the BASIC Instructional Program (BIP). The primary objective of CIN-based CAI and the BIP project has been to develop procedures for providing each…

  5. The Computer as a Socializing Agent: Some Socioaffective Outcomes of CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Robert D.; And Others

    The socializing role of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) was seen to be a positive one in this study. The students, predominantly Mexican-American, who experienced CAI, and other students, in a control group, who did not, liked the computer. They thought it gave the right answers and they respected it as having a vast array of information…

  6. A Study of Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) over Classroom Lecture (CRL) at ICS Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaousar, Tayyeba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CAI vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with classroom lecture and computer-assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of CAI and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypotheses of…

  7. The Graphics Terminal Display System; a Powerful General-Purpose CAI Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbeck, Frederick W., Brock, Lynn

    The Graphic Terminal Display System (GTDS) was created to support research and development in computer-assisted instruction (CAI). The system uses an IBM 360/50 computer and interfaces with a large-screen graphics display terminal, a random-access slide projector, and a speech synthesizer. An authoring language, GRAIL, was developed for CAI, and…

  8. Effects of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on Secondary School Students' Performance in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Afolabi, Adedeji Olufemi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer assisted instruction (CAI) on secondary school students' performance in biology. Also, the influence of gender on the performance of students exposed to CAI in individualised or cooperative learning settings package was examined. The research was a quasi experimental involving a 3 x 2 factorial…

  9. Curricular and Computer System Compatibility of CAI Programs for Multi-University Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Keith A.

    A brief introduction to developmental efforts in computer assisted instruction (CAI) at Pennsylvania State University is followed by a description of a program of mobile CAI facilities inaugurated in 1970 as part of the inservice continuing education program for teachers. The paper includes very brief descriptions of the graduate level courses…

  10. Distribution of vanadium and melting of opaque assemblages in Efremovka CAI's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casanova, I.; Grossman, L.

    1993-01-01

    A petrographic and chemical study of compact Type A CAI's from the Efremovka CV3 chondrite strongly suggests that the opaque assemblages (OA's) that they contain were molten at temperatures below the CAI silicate solidus, and that the V-rich magnetite presently observed in association with OA's formed by in situ oxidation of their FeNi.

  11. Generative Computer Assisted Instruction: An Application of Artificial Intelligence to CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffman, Elliot B.

    Frame-oriented computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems dominate the field, but these mechanized programed texts utilize the computational power of the computer to a minimal degree and are difficult to modify. Newer, generative CAI systems which are supplied with a knowledge of subject matter can generate their own problems and solutions, can…

  12. An Object-Oriented Architecture for a Web-Based CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakabayashi, Kiyoshi; Hoshide, Takahide; Seshimo, Hitoshi; Fukuhara, Yoshimi

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an object-oriented World Wide Web-based CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction) system. The goal of the design is to provide a flexible CAI/ITS (Intelligent Tutoring System) framework with full extendibility and reusability, as well as to exploit Web-based software technologies such as JAVA, ASP (a…

  13. Petrological Investigations of CAIs from Efremovka and NWA 3118 CV3 Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, M. A.; Lorenz, C. A.; Korochantseva, E. V.; MacPherson, G. J.

    2010-03-01

    Several new big CAIs were extracted from the Efremovka and NWA 3118 CV3 chondrites to analyze petrology, chemistry and isotopic compositions. Here we report preliminary results on mineralogy, petrology and bulk chemistry of two CAIs, of Type B1 and of Type A.

  14. A Multi-Media CAI Terminal Based upon a Microprocessor with Applications for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brebner, Ann; Hallworth, H. J.

    The design of the CAI interface described is based on the microprocessor in order to meet three basic requirements for providing appropriate instruction to the developmentally handicapped: (1) portability, so that CAI can be taken into the customary learning environment; (2) reliability; and (3) flexibility, to permit use of new input and output…

  15. A Position Paper on CAI Research and Development. A Series Two Paper from ERIC at Stanford.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldhusen, John H.; Lorton, Paul, Jr.

    After a critical review of the papers on Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) of several prominent educators, recommendations are proffered for CAI systems improvements prior to new research. These include replacing the typed message with an inexpensive cathode ray tube, developing the student interface as an efficient and pleasant carrel which…

  16. Computer-Aided Technical Training Using Electronic Equipment On-Line with the CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggett, Geoffrey; And Others

    This report describes an experimental course in the operation and troubleshooting of a communications transceiver, the AN/URC-32, in which the transceiver is used as part of an instructional station in a CAI system. The transceiver and the CAI system are hard-wired together to form a single training system. The system is presently operating in the…

  17. Nebular History of the Allende FoB CAI SJ101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petaev, M. I.; Jacobsen, S. B.

    2009-03-01

    We compare petrologic and chemical characteristics of a unique FoB CAI SJ101 with the results of thermodynamic modeling of condensation of its precursors in a system of solar composition and speculate about nebular formation history of this CAI.

  18. INAA of CAIs from the Maralinga CK4 chondrite: Effects of parent body thermal metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Keller, L. P.; Martinez, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    Maralinga is an anomalous CK4 carbonaceous chondrite which contains numerous Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) unlike the other members of the CK group. These CAI's are characterized by abundant green hercynitic spinel intergrown with plagioclase and high-Ca clinopyroxene, and a total lack of melilite. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to further characterize the meteorite, with special focus on the CAI's. High sensitivity INAA was done on eight sample disks about 100-150 microns in diameter obtained from a normal 30 micron thin section with a diamond microcoring device. The CAI's are enriched by 60-70X bulk meteorite values in Zn, suggesting that the substantial exchange of Fe for Mg that made the spinel in the CAI's hercynitic also allowed efficient scavenging of Zn from the rest of the meteorite during parent body thermal metamorphism. Less mobile elements appear to have maintained their initial heterogeneity.

  19. Spectral Analysis of Broadband Seismic Array Data, Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamshy, S.; Pavlis, G. L.

    2003-12-01

    We used a spectral analysis method to examine amplitude variations of body waves recorded in the Tien Shan region of central Asia. We used broadband data from the Kyrgyz Network (KNET), Kazakhstan Network (KZNET), and from a set of temporary, PASSCAL stations operated from 1997-2000 we refer to as the Ghengis array. A spectral ratio method similar to that used by Wilson and Pavlis (2000) was employed, but with station AAK used as a reference instead of the array median. Spectral ratios were estimated for all teleseismic events and a larger, intermediate depth events from the Hindu-Kush region for all three-components of ground motion and total signal strength on all components. Results are visualized by maps of amplitude for various frequency bands and through the 4-D animation method introduced by Wilson and Pavlis (2000). Data from Hindu-Kush events showed amplitude variations as much as a factor of 100 across the study area with a strong frequency dependence. The largest variations were at the highest frequencies observed near 15 Hz. Stations in the northwestern part of the Tien Shan array show little variation in amplitude relative to the reference station, AAK. In the central and eastern part of the array, the amplitude estimates are significantly smaller at all frequencies. In contrast, for stations in the western Tien Shan near the Talas-Fergana Fault, and the southern Tien Shan near the Tarim Basin, the amplitude values become much larger than the reference site. The teleseismic data show a different pattern and show a somewhat smaller, overall amplitude variation at comparable frequencies. The northern part of the array again shows small variations relative to the reference stations. There are some amplifications in the southern stations of the array, especially in the Tarim Basin. The higher frequency observations that show large amplifications at stations in the Tarim Basin are readily explained by site effects due to the thick deposits of sediments

  20. Effects of Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) on 11th Graders' Attitudes to Biology and CAI and Understanding of Reproduction in Plants and Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyibo, Kola; Hudson, Ann

    2000-02-01

    This study investigated whether the use of the combination of the lecture, discussion and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) significantly improved the experimental students' attitudes to biology and the computer/CAI and their understanding of reproduction in plants and animals. The sample comprised 77 Jamaican grade 11 female students from two traditional high schools in Kingston. Attitudes to a biology questionnaire, attitudes to the computer/CAI questionnaire and a biology achievement test (BAT) were used for data collection. The results indicated that the experimental subjects' post-test attitudes to biology and the computer/CAI were significantly better than those of the control group subjects taught with the lecture and discussion methods; the experimental subjects significantly outscored the control group subjects on the post-test BAT; there were significant differences in their post-test BAT means based on their attitudes to biology in favour of experimental subjects with highly favourable attitudes to biology, but there were no significant differences in their means attributable to their post-test attitudes to the computer/CAI; there was a positive statistically significant but weak relationship between the experimental subjects' post-test attitudes to biology and their post-test BAT scores.

  1. Microstructural Investigation of a Wark-Lovering Rim on a Vigarano CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, J.; Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.; Simon, J. I.

    2015-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multi-layered mineral sequences that surround many CAIs. These rim layers consist of the primary minerals found in the CAI interiors, but vary in their mineralogy. Several models for their origin have been proposed including condensation, reaction with a nebular gas, evaporation, or combinations of these. However, there still is little consensus on how and when the rims formed. Here, we describe the microstructure and mineralogy of a WL rim on a type B CAI from the Vigarano CV(sub red) chondrite using FIB/TEM to better understand the astrophysical significance of WL rim formation.

  2. Formation of refractory metal nuggets and their link to the history of CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwander, D.; Kööp, L.; Berg, T.; Schönhense, G.; Heck, P. R.; Davis, A. M.; Ott, U.

    2015-11-01

    Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) often contain numerous refractory metal nuggets (RMNs), consisting of elements like Os, Ir, Mo, Pt and Ru. The nuggets are usually thought to have formed by equilibrium condensation from a gas of solar composition, simultaneously with or prior to oxide and silicate minerals. However, the exact mechanisms responsible for their extremely variable compositions, small sizes and associations with CAI minerals remain puzzling. Expanding on previous work on chemically separated RMNs, we have studied a large number of RMNs within their host CAIs from three different meteorite types, i.e., the highly primitive chondrite Acfer 094 (C2-ungrouped), Allende (CV3ox) and Murchison (CM2). Our results show several inconsistencies between the observed features and a direct condensation origin, including a lack of correlated abundance variations in the refractory metals that are expected from variations in condensation temperature. Instead, we show that most RMN features are consistent with RMN formation by precipitation from a CAI liquid enriched in refractory metals. This scenario is additionally supported by the common occurrence of RMNs in CAIs with clear melt crystallization textures as well as the occurrence of synthetic RMNs with highly variable compositions in run products from Schwander et al. (2015). In some cases, the sizes of meteoritic RMNs correlate with the sizes of their host minerals in CAIs, which indicates common cooling rates.

  3. Ozone and nitrogen dioxide above the northern Tien Shan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arefev, Vladimir N.; Volkovitsky, Oleg A.; Kamenogradsky, Nikita E.; Semyonov, Vladimir K.; Sinyakov, Valery P.

    1994-01-01

    The results of systematic perennial measurements of the total ozone (since 1979) and nitrogen dioxide column (since 1983) in the atmosphere in the European-Asian continent center above the mountainmass of the Tien Shan are given. This region is distinguished by a great number of sunny days during a year. The observation station is at the Northern shore of Issyk Kul Lake (42.56 N 77.04 E 1650 m above the sea level). The measurement results are presented as the monthly averaged atmospheric total ozone and NO2 stratospheric column abundances (morning and evening). The peculiarities of seasonal variations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide atmospheric contents, their regular variances with a quasi-biennial cycles and trends have been noticed. Irregular variances of ozone and nitrogen dioxide atmospheric contents, i.e. their positive and negative anomalies in the monthly averaged contents relative to the perennial averaged monthly means, have been analyzed. The synchronous and opposite in phase anomalies in variations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide atmospheric contents were explained by the transport and zonal circulation in the stratosphere (Kamenogradsky et al., 1990).

  4. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) on 11th Graders' Attitudes to Biology and CAI and Understanding of Reproduction in Plants and Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; Hudson, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether the use of the combination of lecture, discussion, and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) significantly improved students' attitudes toward biology and their understanding of reproduction in plants and animals. Studies grade 11 Jamaican female students (n=77) from two traditional high schools in Kingston. (Contains 19…

  5. Search for extinct 36Cl: Vigarano CAIs, the Pink Angel from Allende, and a Ningqiang chondrule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Daisuke; Ott, Ulrich; Hoppe, Peter; El Goresy, Ahmed

    2008-12-01

    We have searched for excesses of 36S derived from the decay of extinct 36Cl in sodalite, a secondary Cl-rich mineral, in Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the Vigarano and Allende CV3 chondrites and in a chondrule from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite. The presence of sodalite in two CAIs from Vigarano and its absence from surrounding CAI fragments suggests sodalite formation after CAI fragmentation. As for sodalite in the Allende Pink Angel CAI, oxygen isotopic compositions have been interpreted as indicative of high temperature interactions, thus suggesting formation prior to accretion to the parent body, probably in a nebular setting. Sodalite in the Ningqiang chondrule is considered to have formed via alkali-Ca exchange, which is believed to have occurred before accretion to the parent body. Sodalites in the Vigarano CAIs and in the Ningqiang chondrule show no clear evidence for the presence of radiogenic 36S. The inferred 2 σ upper limits for 36Cl/ 35Cl at the time of sodalite formation are 1.6 × 10 -6 (Vigarano CAIs) and 3.3 × 10 -6 (Ningqiang chondrule), respectively. In the Pink Angel CAI sodalite exhibits small 36S excesses which weakly correlate with 35Cl/ 34S ratios. The inferred 36Cl/ 35Cl ratio of (1.8 ± 2.2) × 10 -6 (2 σ error) is lower than that found by Hsu et al. [Hsu, W., Guan, Y., Leshin, L. A., Ushikubo, T. and Wasserburg, G. J. (2006) A late episode of irradiation in the early solar system: Evidence from extinct 36Cl and 26Al in meteorites. Astrophys. J. 640, 525-529], thus indicative of heterogeneous distribution of 36Cl in this CAI. Spallation reactions induced by energetic particles from the young Sun are suggested for the origin of 36Cl, similar to the case of 10Be. While 10Be appears to be present in roughly equal abundance in all studied CAIs, our study indicates the level of 36Cl abundances to be variable so that there seems to be no simple relationship between 10Be and 36Cl. This would be expected if trapped cosmic rays rather

  6. Evidence for extinct 135Cs from Ba isotopes in Allende CAIs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermingham, K. R.; Mezger, K.; Desch, S. J.; Scherer, E. E.; Horstmann, M.

    2014-05-01

    The abundance and distribution of isotopes throughout the Solar System can be used to constrain the number and type of nucleosynthetic events that contributed material to the early nebula. Barium is particularly well suited to quantifying the degree of isotope heterogeneity in the Solar System because it comprises seven stable isotopes that were synthesized by three different nucleosynthetic processes (s-, r-, and p-processes), all of which contributed material to the Solar System. There is also potential contribution to 135Ba from short-lived radioisotope 135Cs, conclusive evidence for which is yet to be reported. Four Allende (CV3) Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAI 1, CAI 2, CAI 4, CAI 5) and one Allende dark inclusion (DI) were analyzed for Ba isotope variability. Two CAIs (CAI 2 and CAI 5) display 135Ba excesses that are not accompanied by 137Ba anomalies. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion 1 displays a 135Ba excess that is possibly coupled with a 137Ba excess, and the remaining refractory inclusions (CAI 2 and DI) have terrestrial Ba isotope compositions. These Ba isotope data are presented in conjunction with published whole rock Ba isotope data from individual Allende CAIs. The enrichment in 135Ba and absence of coupled 137Ba excesses in CAI 2 and CAI 5 is interpreted to indicate that the anomalies are not purely nucleosynthetic in origin but also contain contributions (16-48 ppm) from the decay of short-lived 135Cs. The majority of Allende CAIs studied to date may also have similar contributions from 135Cs on the basis of higher than expected 135Ba excesses if the Ba isotope anomalies were purely nucleosynthetic in origin. The 135Ba anomalies appear not to be coupled with superchondritic Cs/Ba, which may imply that the contribution to 135Ba did not occur via in situ decay of live 135Cs. However, it is feasible that the CAIs had a superchondritic Cs/Ba during decay of 135Cs, but Cs was subsequently removed from the system during aqueous alteration on the parent body

  7. The Formation Of The First Solids In The Solar System: An Investigation Of CAI Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taillifet, Esther; Baillié, K.; Charnoz, S.; Aléon, J.

    2012-10-01

    Chondritic meteorites are primitive bodies and therefore an important source of information on the first moments of planets formation. Chondrites contain several materials especially calcium and aluminum rich inclusions (CAIs), known to be the oldest objects of the solar system (4.567 Gyr - Amelin et al., 2002; Connelly et al., 2008) and thus the first solids to be formed. CAIs appear in various textures, sizes and compositions in chondrites. Though, all of them should have formed at high temperature (1300-1800 K) in the same region of the solar nebula by condensation from the gas (e.g. Grossman, 1972; Yoneda & Grossman, 1995; Petaev & Wood, 1998; Ebel & Grossman 2000). To answer this problem we study the CAI formation within the solar nebula using numerical simulations. For this work we developed a self consistent thermodynamical model of the solar nebula (see associated talk from Baillié et. al ) based on previous works (Calvet et. al, 1991; Hueso & Guillot, 2005; Dullemond, Dominik and Natta, 2001). Using this model, we simulate the young system with Lagrangian Implicit Disk Transport code (LIDT - Charnoz et. al, 2010). We will focus on the very first instants of the CAIs within the few years following their condensation. We will report our first results in terms of thermal history and investigate if turbulence-driven transport may explain the CAI diversity.

  8. The ethnoecology of Caiçara metapopulations (Atlantic Forest, Brazil): ecological concepts and questions

    PubMed Central

    Begossi, Alpina

    2006-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is represented on the coast of Brazil by approximately 7,5% of remnants, much of these concentrated on the country's SE coast. Within these southeastern remnants, we still find the coastal Caiçaras who descend from Native Indians and Portuguese Colonizers. The maintenance of such populations, and their existence in spite of the deforestation that occurred on the Atlantic Forest coast, deserves especial attention and analysis. In this study, I address, in particular, the Caiçaras who live on the coast of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States, illustrating with examples of coastal inhabitants from other areas, such as Bahia State (NE coast) and of other forested areas (riverine caboclos of the Amazon). The major focus of this study, based on previous research, performed since 1986 in several populations or villages of the Atlantic Forest coast, is to understand the resilience of the Caiçaras, which is analyzed using ecological concepts, such as metapopulation, resilience and adaptive cycles. The Caiçara populations are located on islands (Búzios, Comprida, Grande, Ilhabela, Jaguanum, Gipóia) and on the coast (Bertioga, Puruba, Picinguaba, among others). Information gathered about the Caiçaras regarding the economic cycles of the local regions, along with ecological, historical and economic data available, are used to understand such resilience, and are complemented with comparative examples from the Brazilian Amazon and with variables such as the local restrictions imposed by environmental governmental agencies. PMID:17010204

  9. Mineralogy and Petrology of EK-459-5-1, A Type B1 CAI from Allende

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are a type of coarse-grained clast composed of Ca-, Al-, and Mg-rich silicates and oxides found in chondrite meteorites. Type B (CAIs) are exclusively found in the CV chondrite meteorites and are the most well studied type of inclusion found in chondritic meteorites. Type B1 CAIs are distinguished by a nearly monomineralic rim of melilite that surrounds an interior predominantly composed of melilite, fassaite (Ti and Al-rich clinopyroxene), anorthite, and spinel with varying amounts of other minor primary and secondary phases. The formation of Type B CAIs has received considerable attention in the course of CAI research and quantitative models, experimental results and observations from Type B inclusions remain largely in disagreement. Recent experimental results and quantitative models have shown that the formation of B1 mantles could have occurred by the evaporative loss of Si and Mg during the crystallization of these objects. However, comparative studies suggest that the lower bulk SiO2 compositions in B1s result in more prior melilite crystallization before the onset of fassaite and anorthite crystallization leading to the formation of thick melilite rich rims in B1 inclusions. Detailed petrographic and cosmochemical studies of these inclusions will further our understanding of these complex objects.

  10. A FIB/TEM Study of a Complex Wark-Lovering Rim on a Vigarano CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.

    2013-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multilayered mineral sequences that surround most Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Several processes have been proposed for WL rim formation, including condensation, flash-heating or reaction with a nebular reservoir, or combinations of these [e.g. 1-7], but no consensus exists. Our previous coordinated transmission electron microscope (TEM) and NanoSIMS O isotopic measurements showed that a WL rim experienced flash heating events in a nebular environment with planetary O isotopic composition, distinct from the (16)O-rich formation environment [6]. Our efforts have focused on CAIs from the CV(sub red) chondrites, especially Vigarano, because these have escaped much of the parent body alteration effects that are common in CAIs from CV(sub ox) group.

  11. Deriving High Resolution UV Aerosol Optical Depth over East Asia using CAI-OMI Joint Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Go, S.; Kim, J.; KIM, M.; Lee, S.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring aerosols using near UV spectral region have been successfully performed over decades by Ozong Monitoring Instruments (OMI) with benefit of strong aerosol signal over continuous dark surface reflectance, both land and ocean. However, because of big foot print of OMI, the cloud contamination error was a big issue in the UV aerosol algorithm. In the present study, high resolution UV aerosol optical depth (AOD) over East Asia was derived by collaborating the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite/Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (GOSAT/TANSO)-Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) and OMI together. AOD of 0.1 degree grid resolution was retrieved using CAI band 1 (380nm) by bring OMI lv.2 aerosol type, single scattering albedo, and aerosol layer peak height in 1 degree grid resolution. Collocation of the two dataset within the 0.5 degree grid with time difference of OMI and CAI less than 5 minute was selected. Selected region becomes wider as it goes to the higher latitude. Also, calculated degradation factor of 1.57 was applied to CAI band1 (380nm) by comparing normalized radiance and Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) of both sensors. The calculated degradation factor was reasonable over dark scene, but inconsistent over cirrus cloud and bright area. Then, surface reflectance was developed by compositing CAI LER minimum data over three month period, since the infrequent sampling rate associated with the three-day recursion period of GOSAT and the narrow CAI swath of 1000 km. To retrieve AOD, look up table (LUT) was generated using radiative transfer model VLIDORT NGST. Finally, the retrieved AOD was validated with AERONET ground based measurement data during the Dragon-NE Asia campaign in 2012.

  12. Verification of new cloud discrimination algorithm using GOSAT TANSO-CAI in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Y.; Ishida, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) was launched in 2009 to measure the global atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations. GOSAT is equipped with two sensors: the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI). The presence of clouds in the instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) of the FTS leads to incorrect estimates of the concentrations. Thus, the FTS data which are suspected to be cloud-contaminated must be identified using a CAI cloud discrimination algorithm and rejected. Conversely, overestimation of clouds leads to reduce the amount of the FTS data which can be used to estimate the greenhouse gases concentrations. It becomes a serious problem in the region of tropical rainforest such as the Amazon, where there are very few remaining FTS data by cloud cover. The preparation for the launch of the GOSAT-2 in fiscal 2017 has been progressing. To improve the accuracy of estimates of the greenhouse gases concentrations, we need to refine the existing CAI cloud discrimination algorithm. For the reason, a new cloud discrimination algorithm using support vector machines (SVM) was developed. Visual inspections can use the locally optimized thresholds, though the existing CAI cloud discrimination algorithm uses the common thresholds all over the world. Thus, it is certain that the accuracy of visual inspections is better than these algorithms in the limited region without areas such as ice and snow, where it is difficult to discriminate between clouds and ground surfaces. In this study we evaluated the accuracy of the new cloud discrimination algorithm by comparing with the existing CAI cloud discrimination algorithm and visual inspections of the same CAI images in the Amazon. We will present our latest results.

  13. Oxygen reservoirs in the early solar nebula inferred from an allende CAI

    PubMed

    Young; Russell

    1998-10-16

    Ultraviolet laser microprobe analyses of a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the Allende meteorite suggest that a line with a slope of exactly 1.00 on a plot of delta17O against delta18O represents the primitive oxygen isotope reservoir of the early solar nebula. Most meteorites are enriched in 17O and 18O relative to this line, and their oxygen isotope ratios can be explained by mass fractionation or isotope exchange initiating from the primitive reservoir. These data establish a link between the oxygen isotopic composition of the abundant ordinary chondrites and the primitive 16O-rich component of CAIs.

  14. Oxygen reservoirs in the early solar nebula inferred from an Allende CAI.

    PubMed

    Young, E D; Russell, S S

    1998-10-16

    Ultraviolet laser microprobe analyses of a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the Allende meteorite suggest that a line with a slope of exactly 1.00 on a plot of delta (17)O against delta (18)O represents the primitive oxygen isotope reservoir of the early solar nebula. Most meteorites are enriched in (17)O and (18)O relative to this line, and their oxygen isotope ratios can be explained by mass fractionation or isotope exchange initiating from the primitive reservoir. These data establish a link between the oxygen isotopic composition of the abundant ordinary chondrites and the primitive (16)O-rich component of CAIs.

  15. Germination of white radish, buckwheat and qing-geng-cai under low pressure in closed environment.

    PubMed

    Hinokuchi, Tsutomu; Oshima, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi

    2004-11-01

    In order to cultivate plants under low pressure in closed environment, the germination rate of seeds of white radish was investigated under low pressure, low oxygen partial pressure and condition of pure oxygen. The result of these experiments showed that the germination rate was affected by the oxygen partial pressure. From this fact, it is possible to lower the total pressure by using only the pure oxygen in germination. Furthermore, the germination rates of seeds of buckwheat and qing-geng-cai were also investigated in pure oxygen for the comparison. Consequently, though tendency in germination rate of white radish was similar to qing-geng-cai, it was different from buckwheat.

  16. Stable Magnesium Isotope Variation in Melilite Mantle of Allende Type B1 CAI EK 459-5-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Jeffcoat, C. R.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the earliest formed crystalline material in our solar system and they record early Solar System processes. Here we present petrographic and delta Mg-25 data of melilite mantles in a Type B1 CAI that records early solar nebular processes.

  17. The Matriculation Science Curriculum of the USM in the Context of the PPI and CAI Modes of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chuah Chong; Seng, Chin Pin

    1985-01-01

    Discusses philosophy, aims and objectives, and structure of the Matriculation Science Curriculum of the University Sains Malaysia. Includes comments on instructional strategies, individualized learning, programmed instruction, systems approach to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) implementation, CAI authoring system, and various program…

  18. Gender Role, Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation in CAIS ("XY-Women") Compared With Subfertile and Infertile 46,XX Women.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Franziska; Fliegner, Maike; Krupp, Kerstin; Rall, Katharina; Brucker, Sara; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-01-01

    The perception of gender development of individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) as unambiguously female has recently been challenged in both qualitative data and case reports of male gender identity. The aim of the mixed-method study presented was to examine the self-perception of CAIS individuals regarding different aspects of gender and to identify commonalities and differences in comparison with subfertile and infertile XX-chromosomal women with diagnoses of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study sample comprised 11 participants with CAIS, 49 with MRKHS, and 55 with PCOS. Gender identity was assessed by means of a multidimensional instrument, which showed significant differences between the CAIS group and the XX-chromosomal women. Other-than-female gender roles and neither-female-nor-male sexes/genders were reported only by individuals with CAIS. The percentage with a not exclusively androphile sexual orientation was unexceptionally high in the CAIS group compared to the prevalence in "normative" women and the clinical groups. The findings support the assumption made by Meyer-Bahlburg ( 2010 ) that gender outcome in people with CAIS is more variable than generally stated. Parents and professionals should thus be open to courses of gender development other than typically female in individuals with CAIS.

  19. The Interplay between Different Forms of CAI and Students' Preferences of Learning Environment in the Secondary Science Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2005-01-01

    This evaluation study investigated the effects of a teacher-centered versus student-centered computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on 10th graders' earth science student learning outcomes. This study also explored whether the effects of different forms of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on student learning outcomes were influenced by student…

  20. Revision of the Oriental leafhopper genus Destinoides Cai & He (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Ledrinae), with a new synonym and two new combinations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Webb, Michael D; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    The leafhopper genus Destinoides Cai & He is revised to include two species D. latifrons (Walker 1851, Ledra) n. comb. and D. conspicuus (Distant 1907, Petalocephala) n. comb. Destinoides fasciata Cai & He, 2000 is placed as a junior synonym of D. latifrons, syn. nov. These two species are redescribed and illustrated in detail and a key is given based on the males.

  1. [CAIS correction for blood matrix effect on determination of lead concentration and isotope ratio by ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jing; Wang, Xiao-yan; Liu, Hu-sheng; Dun, Zhe; Zhai, Lei; Wang, Jing-yu

    2007-02-01

    The research studied the influence of matrix effect on the determination of lead concentration and isotope ratio through simulating blood matrix, and its correction by common analyte internal standardization (CAIS) method. The experiment results showed that CAIS method was suitable for the multi-element-matrix. The relative errors between the determined and the true concentration values are 20% (without correction), 8% (by conventional internal reference correction) and 2% (by CAIS correction), respectively. Otherwise, the influence of matrix effect and its correction for isotope ratio determination are not that obvious. Similarity of the mass number and properties between internal reference and analyte elements seems not important for CAIS correction, since very close correction results were obtained by using Tl and Dy as internal reference elements. Besides, correction results are not affected by different matrix dilution. Reliability and practicality of CAIS were proved by bovine blood standard material determination.

  2. Real-Time Graphics for CAI: A Rudimentary Grammar and Demonstration Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, William

    This paper focuses on graphics and how they can be created, in real time, from information stored in a database, and the application of this technique to computer-assisted instruction (CAI). It is noted that this is a special case of the general trend towards endowing instructional systems with a degree of decision-making or design expertise, as…

  3. Role of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in an Introductory Computer Concepts Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skudrna, Vincent J.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the role of computer assisted instruction (CAI) in undergraduate education via a survey of related literature and specific applications. Describes an undergraduate computer concepts course and includes appendices of instructions, flowcharts, programs, sample student work in accounting, COBOL instructional model, decision logic in a…

  4. Toward a Market Success for CAI; An Overview of the TICCIT Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetten, Kenneth J.

    A new computer-assisted instruction (CAI) system for college teaching is being tested in two locations by the MITRE Corporation. The system, called TICCIT (Time-Share Interactive Computer-Controlled Information Television), now interacts with more than 100 students, each moving at his own pace, for four semesters of community college math and…

  5. Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instructions (CAI) in Teaching of Mathematics at Secondary Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhevakrishnan, R.; Devi, S.; Chinnaiyan, K.

    2012-09-01

    The present study was aimed at effectiveness of computer assisted instructions (CAI) in teaching of mathematics at secondary level adopted experimental method and observing the difference between (CAI) and traditional method. A sample of sixty (60) students of IX class in VVB Matriculation Higher Secondary School at Elayampalayam, Namakkal district were selected for a sample and sample was divided into two group namely experiment and control group. The experimental group consisted 30 students who were taught 'Mensurationí by the computer assisted instructions and the control groups comprising 30 students were taught by the conventional method of teaching. Data analyzed using mean, S.D. and t-test. Findings of the study clearly point out that significant increase in the mean gain scores has been found in the post test scores of the experimental group. Significant differences have been found between the control group and experimental group on post test gain scores. The experiment group, which was taught by the CAI showed better, learning. The conclusion is evident that the CAI is an effective media of instruction for teaching Mathematics at secondary students.s

  6. Web Pages: An Effective Method of Providing CAI Resource Material in Histology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    Presents research that introduces computer-aided instruction (CAI) resource material as an integral part of the second-year histology course at the University of Natal Medical School. Describes the ease with which this software can be developed, using limited resources and available skills, while providing students with valuable learning…

  7. The Development and Utilization of Mobile CAI for the Education of Nurses in Remote Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Keith A.

    In providing for inservice nursing educational opportunities, the obvious advantages of the computer-assisted instruction (CAI) mobile system are its inherent interactive quality and the flexibility of scheduling made available to those who are already working in a field. The rationale for the development of the system is based on the past and…

  8. The Role of the CAI-1 Fatty Acid Tail in the Vibrio cholerae Quorum Sensing Response

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Lark J.; Ng, Wai-Leung; Marano, Paul; Brook, Karolina; Bassler, Bonnie L.; Semmelhack, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a mechanism of chemical communication among bacteria that enables collective behaviors. In V. cholerae, the etiological agent of the disease cholera, quorum sensing controls group behaviors including virulence factor production and biofilm formation. The major V. cholerae quorum-sensing system consists of the extracellular signal molecule called CAI-1 and its cognate membrane bound receptor called CqsS. Here, the ligand binding activity of CqsS is probed with structural analogs of the natural signal. Enabled by our discovery of a structurally simplified analog of CAI-1, we prepared and analyzed a focused library. The molecules were designed to probe the effects of conformational and structural changes along the length of the fatty acid tail of CAI-1. Our results, combined with pharmacophore modeling, suggest a molecular basis for signal molecule recognition and receptor fidelity with respect to the fatty acid tail portion of CAI-1. These efforts provide novel probes to enhance discovery of anti-virulence agents for the treatment of V. cholerae. PMID:23092313

  9. Assessing the Impact of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) in Undergraduate Latin American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child, Jack

    This paper assesses the impact of using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in three American University undergraduate classes, a General Education survey course on Latin America (taught in English), and two Spanish language courses. The courses utilized both commercial software programs and software programs authored by faculty using Macintosh…

  10. Examination and Application of Formative Evaluation for Author Utilization During the Preparation of a CAI Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Marjorie Ellen

    A study was devised to investigate the use of formative evaluation during the preparation of a course entitled "Education of Visually Handicapped Children" designed for presentation to students through computer-assisted instruction (CAI). Various models for formative evaluation were examined, the Baker and Schutz cycle for instructional product…

  11. On the Design and Development of Pedagogy-First CAI Tools for CS Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadaparty, K.; And Others

    This paper presents the implications of an ongoing project on the design and development of multimedia instructional material for teaching and learning computer science topics at both graduate and undergraduate levels. Important pedagogical requirements that CAI software should satisfy include: (1) animation of the changes in tree topologies; (2)…

  12. Development of a Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) Program on the Delphi Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurdy, Carol

    The concept of Delphi technique was presented in a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) module designed for educational administration classes or inservice training of administrators. Instructional Dialogue Facility (IDF) Author Language on a 2000F Hewlett-Packard time-sharing system was used to write the sequence. Instructional objectives,…

  13. Consumption of fa cai Nostoc soup: a potential for BMAA exposure from Nostoc cyanobacteria in China?

    PubMed

    Roney, Britton R; Renhui, Li; Banack, Sandra Anne; Murch, Susan; Honegger, Rosmarie; Cox, Paul Alan

    2009-01-01

    Grown in arid regions of western China the cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme--called fa cai in Mandarin and fat choy in Cantonese--is wild-harvested and used to make soup consumed during New Year's celebrations. High prices, up to $125 USD/kg, led to overharvesting in Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, and Xinjiang. Degradation of arid ecosystems, desertification, and conflicts between Nostoc harvesters and Mongol herdsmen concerned the Chinese environmental authorities, leading to a government ban of Nostoc commerce. This ban stimulated increased marketing of a substitute made from starch. We analysed samples purchased throughout China as well as in Chinese markets in the United States and the United Kingdom. Some were counterfeits consisting of dyed starch noodles. A few samples from California contained Nostoc flagelliforme but were adulterated with starch noodles. Other samples, including those from the United Kingdom, consisted of pure Nostoc flagelliforme. A recent survey of markets in Cheng Du showed no real Nostoc flagelliforme to be marketed. Real and artificial fa cai differ in the presence of beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). Given its status as a high-priced luxury food, the government ban on collection and marketing, and the replacement of real fa cai with starch substitutes consumed only on special occasions, it is anticipated that dietary exposure to BMAA from fa cai will be reduced in the future in China.

  14. A Cross-National CAI Tool To Support Learning Operations Decision-Making and Market Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mockler, Robert J.; Afanasiev, Mikhail Y.; Dologite, Dorothy G.

    1999-01-01

    Describes bicultural (United States and Russia) development of a computer-aided instruction (CAI) tool to learn management decision-making using information systems technologies. The program has been used with undergraduate and graduate students in both countries; it integrates free and controlled market concepts and combines traditional computer…

  15. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Engineering Dynamics. CAI-Systems Memo Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, John W.

    A 90-minute computer-assisted instruction (CAI) unit course supplemented by a 1-hour lecture on the dynamic nature of three-dimensional rotations and Euler angles was given to 29 undergraduate engineering students. The area of Euler angles was selected because it is essential to problem-working in three-dimensional rotations of a rigid body, yet…

  16. An ion microprobe study of CAIs from CO3 meteorites. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, S. S.; Greenwood, R. C.; Fahey, A. J.; Huss, G. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    When attempting to interpret the history of Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) it is often difficult to distinguish between primary features inherited from the nebula and those produced during secondary processing on the parent body. We have undertaken a systematic study of CAIs from 10 CO chondrites, believed to represent a metamorphic sequence with the goal of distinguishing primary and secondary features. ALHA 77307 (3.0), Colony (3.0), Kainsaz (3.1), Felix (3.2), ALH 82101 (3.3), Ornans (3.3), Lance (3.4), ALHA 77003 (3.5), Warrenton (3.6), and Isna (3.7) were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. We have identified 141 CAIs within these samples, and studied in detail the petrology of 34 inclusions. The primary phases in the lower petrologic types are spinel, melilite, and hibonite. Perovskite, FeS, ilmenite, anorthite, kirschsteinite, and metallic Fe are present as minor phases. Melilite becomes less abundant in higher petrologic types and was not detected in chondrites of type 3.5 and above, confirming previous reports that this mineral easily breaks down during heating. Iron, an element that would not be expected to condense at high temperatures, has a lower abundance in spinel from low-petrologic-type meteorites than those of higher grade, and CaTiO3 is replaced by FeTiO3 in meteorites of higher petrologic type. The abundance of CAIs is similar in each meteorite. Eight inclusions have been analyzed by ion probe. The results are summarized. The results obtained to date show that CAIs in CO meteorites, like those from other meteorite classes, contain Mg* and that Mg in some inclusions has been redistributed.

  17. Compound ultrarefractory CAI-bearing inclusions from CV3 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Marina A.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; MacPherson, Glenn J.

    2012-12-01

    Abstract-Two compound calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>), 3N from the oxidized CV chondrite Northwest Africa (NWA) 3118 and 33E from the reduced CV chondrite Efremovka, contain ultrarefractory (UR) inclusions. 3N is a forsterite-bearing type B (FoB) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> that encloses UR inclusion 3N-24 composed of Zr,Sc,Y-rich oxides, Y-rich perovskite, and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopside. 33E contains a fluffy type A (FTA) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and UR <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 33E-1, surrounded by Wark-Lovering rim layers of spinel, Al-diopside, and forsterite, and a common forsterite-rich accretionary rim. 33E-1 is composed of Zr,Sc,Y-rich oxides, Y-rich perovskite, Zr,Sc,Y-rich pyroxenes (Al,Ti-diopside, Sc-rich pyroxene), and gehlenite. 3N-24's UR oxides and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopsides are 16O-poor (Δ17O approximately -2‰ to -5‰). Spinel in 3N-24 and spinel and Al-diopside in the FoB <span class="hlt">CAI</span> are 16O-rich (Δ17O approximately -23 ± 2‰). 33E-1's UR oxides and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopsides are 16O-depleted (Δ17O approximately -2‰ to -5‰) vs. Al,Ti-diopside of the FTA <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and spinel (Δ17O approximately -23 ± 2‰), and Wark-Lovering rim Al,Ti-diopside (Δ17O approximately -7‰ to -19‰). We infer that the inclusions experienced multistage formation in nebular regions with different oxygen-isotope compositions. 3N-24 and 33E-1's precursors formed by evaporation/condensation above 1600 °C. 3N and 33E's precursors formed by condensation and melting (3N only) at significantly lower temperatures. 3N-24 and 3N's precursors aggregated into a compound object and experienced partial melting and thermal annealing. 33E-1 and 33E avoided melting prior to and after aggregation. They acquired Wark-Lovering and common forsterite-rich accretionary rims, probably by condensation, followed by thermal annealing. We suggest 3N-24 and 33E-1 originated in a 16O-rich gaseous reservoir and subsequently experienced isotope exchange in a 16O-poor gaseous reservoir. Mechanism and timing of oxygen-isotope exchange remain</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025390','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025390"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural framework of a major intracontinental orogenic termination zone: The easternmost <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cunningham, D.; Owen, L.A.; Snee, L.W.; Li, J.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The Barkol Tagh and Karlik Tagh ranges of the easternmost <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan are a natural laboratory for studying the fault architecture of an active termination zone of a major intracontinental mountain range. Barkol and Karlik Tagh and lesser ranges to the north are bounded by active thrust faults that locally deform Quaternary sediments. Major thrusts in Karlik Tagh connect along strike to the east with the left-lateral Gobi-<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Fault System in SW Mongolia. From a Mongolian perspective. Karlik Tagh represents a large restraining bend for this regional strike-slip fault system, and the entire system of thrusts and strike-slip faults in the Karlik Tagh region defines a horsetail splay fault geometry. Regionally, there appears to be a kinematic transition from thrust-dominated deformation in the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan to left-lateral transpressional deformation in the easternmost <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. This transition correlates with a general eastward decrease in mountain belt width and average elevation and a change in the angular relationship between the NNE-directed maximum horizontal stress in the region and the pre-existing basement structural grain, which is northwesterly in the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (orthogonal to SHmax) but more east-west in the eastern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (acute angular relationship with SHmax . Ar-Ar ages indicate that major range-bounding thrusts in Barkol and Karlik Tagh are latest Permian-Triassic ductile thrust zones that underwent brittle reactivation in the Late Cenozoic. It is estimated that the modern mountain ranges of the extreme easternmost <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan could have been constructed by only 10-15 km of Late Cenozoic horizontal shortening.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750022313','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750022313"><span id="translatedtitle">Alternative communication network designs for an operational Plato 4 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mobley, R. E., Jr.; Eastwood, L. F., Jr.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The cost of alternative communications networks for the dissemination of PLATO IV computer-aided instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) was studied. Four communication techniques are compared: leased telephone lines, satellite communication, UHF TV, and low-power microwave radio. For each network design, costs per student contact hour are computed. These costs are derived as functions of student population density, a parameter which can be calculated from census data for one potential market for <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, the public primary and secondary schools. Calculating costs in this way allows one to determine which of the four communications alternatives can serve this market least expensively for any given area in the U.S. The analysis indicates that radio distribution techniques are cost optimum over a wide range of conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011928','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011928"><span id="translatedtitle">Limited subsolidus diffusion in type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Evidence from Ti distribution in spinel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Meeker, G. P.; Quick, J. E.; Paque, Julie M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Most models of calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) have focused on early stages of formation by equilibrium crystallization of a homogeneous liquid. Less is known about the subsolidus cooling history of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Chemical and isotopic heterogeneties on a scale of tens to hundreds of micrometers (e.g. MacPherson et al. (1989) and Podosek, et al. (1991)) suggest fairly rapid cooling with a minimum of subsolidus diffusion. However, transmission electron microscopy indicates that solid state diffusion may have been an important process at a smaller scale (Barber et al. 1984). If so, chemical evidence for diffusion could provide constraints on cooling times and temperatures. With this in mind, we have begun an investigation of the Ti distribution in spinels from two type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from Allende to determine if post-crystallization diffusion was a significant process. The type B1 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, 3529Z and 5241 have been described by Podosek et al. (1991) and by El Goresy et al. (1985) and MacPherson et al. (1989). We have analyzed spinels in these inclusions using the electron microprobe. These spinels are generally euhedral, range in size from less than 10 to 15 micron and are poikilitically enclosed by millimeter-sized pyroxene, melilite, and anorthite. Analyses were obtained from both the mantles and cores of the inclusions. Compositions of pyroxene in the vicinity of individual spinel grains were obtained by analyzing at least two points on opposite sides of the spinel and averaging the compositions. The pyroxene analyses were obtained within 15 microns of the spinel-pyroxene interface. No compositional gradients were observed within single spinel crystals. Ti concentrations in spinels included within pyroxene, melilite, and anorthite are presented.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GPC...143...81J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GPC...143...81J"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent glacier changes in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan observed by satellite gravity measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jin, Shuanggen; Tian, X.; Feng, G.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The glaciers in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan are extensive and play an important role in water cycle in central Asia. However, it is difficult to accurately monitor glacier variations in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan due to the lack of in situ widespread measurements. In this paper, glacier mass variations in the Tian Shan are obtained and investigated from 10 years of monthly GRACE gravity solutions (January 2003-December 2012) and the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM), including seasonal, secular and interannual variations . Results show that significant seasonal variations of glacier mass are found with the maximum normally in April-June and the minimum around in November-December. The trends in all four regions are positive from 2002 to 2005 and negative from 2005 to 2012, indicating that the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan glaciers are increasing prior to 2005 and significantly melting after 2005. These changes are consistent with the temperature change in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. In addition, in the past decade the precipitation has decreased and evapotranspiration has increased, which have joint influences on glacier mass changes in different regions of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..148a2083P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..148a2083P"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical investigation of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Combustion in the Opposed- Piston Engine with Direct and Indirect Water Injection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pyszczek, R.; Mazuro, P.; Teodorczyk, A.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>This paper is focused on the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> combustion control in a turbocharged 2-stroke Opposed-Piston (OP) engine. The barrel type OP engine arrangement is of particular interest for the authors because of its robust design, high mechanical efficiency and relatively easy incorporation of a Variable Compression Ratio (VCR). The other advantage of such design is that combustion chamber is formed between two moving pistons - there is no additional cylinder head to be cooled which directly results in an increased thermal efficiency. Furthermore, engine operation in a Controlled Auto-Ignition (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) mode at high compression ratios (CR) raises a possibility of reaching even higher efficiencies and very low emissions. In order to control <span class="hlt">CAI</span> combustion such measures as VCR and water injection were considered for indirect ignition timing control. Numerical simulations of the scavenging and combustion processes were performed with the 3D CFD multipurpose AVL Fire solver. Numerous cases were calculated with different engine compression ratios and different amounts of directly and indirectly injected water. The influence of the VCR and water injection on the ignition timing and engine performance was determined and their application in the real engine was discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25186361','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25186361"><span id="translatedtitle">Crystal structures of hydrates of simple inorganic salts. II. Water-rich calcium bromide and iodide hydrates: CaBr2 · 9H2O, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2 · 8H2O, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2 · 7H2O and <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2 · 6.5H2O.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hennings, Erik; Schmidt, Horst; Voigt, Wolfgang</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Single crystals of calcium bromide enneahydrate, CaBr(2) · 9H2O, calcium iodide octahydrate, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>(2) · 8H2O, calcium iodide heptahydrate, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>(2) · 7H2O, and calcium iodide 6.5-hydrate, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>(2) · 6.5H2O, were grown from their aqueous solutions at and below room temperature according to the solid-liquid phase diagram. The crystal structure of <span class="hlt">CaI</span>(2) · 6.5H2O was redetermined. All four structures are built up from distorted Ca(H2O)8 antiprisms. The antiprisms of the iodide hydrate structures are connected either via trigonal-plane-sharing or edge-sharing, forming dimeric units. The antiprisms in calcium bromide enneahydrate are monomeric. PMID:25186361</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SGeo...35.1375K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SGeo...35.1375K"><span id="translatedtitle">Density Structure, Isostatic Balance and Tectonic Models of the Central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaban, Mikhail K.; Yuanda, T. Reiza</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>A new combined satellite-terrestrial model of the gravity field is used together with seismic data for construction of a density model of the lithosphere of the Central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and for estimation of its isostatic balance. The <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is one of the most active intraplate orogens in the world, located about 1,500 km north of the convergence between Indian and Eurasian plate, and surrounded by stable Kazakh platform to the north and the Tarim block to the south. Although this area was extensively studied during recent decades, several principal problems, related to its structure and tectonics, remain unsolved up to now: (1) various geodynamic scenarios have been discussed so far to explain tectonic evolution, such as direct "crustal shortening," intracontinental subduction and some others, but no definite evidence for any of them has been found. (2) Still, it is not clear why <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan grows so far from the plate boundary at the Himalayan collision zone. Gravity modeling can provide valuable constraints to resolve these questions. The results of this study show that: (1) there exists a very strong deflection of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan lithosphere from isostatic equilibrium. At the same time, the patterns of the isostatic anomalies are very different in the Western and Central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The latter one is characterized by much stronger variations. The best fit of the modeling results is found for the model according to which the Tarim plate partially underthrusts the Central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan; (2) negative density anomalies in the upper mantle under the central block possibly relate to magmatic underplating during the initial stage of the tectonic evolution. Therefore, the weak lithosphere could be the factor that initiates mountain building far away from the collision zone. Alternatively, this might be a gap after detachment of the eclogised lower crust and lithospheric lid, which is filled with the hot asthenospheric material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.440...62A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.440...62A"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen isotopes in the early protoplanetary disk inferred from pyroxene in a classical type B <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aléon, Jérôme</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A major unanswered question in solar system formation is the origin of the oxygen isotopic dichotomy between the Sun and the planets. Individual Calcium-Aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) from CV chondrites exhibit almost the full isotopic range, but how their composition evolved is still unclear, which prevents robust astrochemical conclusions. A key issue is notably the yet unsolved origin of the 16O-rich isotopic composition of pyroxene in type B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Here, I report an in-situ oxygen isotope study of the archetypal type B <span class="hlt">CAI</span> USNM-3529-Z from Allende with emphasis on the isotopic composition of pyroxene and its isotopic and petrographic relationships with other major minerals. The O isotopic composition of pyroxene is correlated with indicators of magmatic growth, indicating that the pyroxene evolved from a 16O-poor composition and became progressively enriched in 16O during its crystallization, contrary to the long held assumption that pyroxene was initially 16O-rich. This variation is well explained by isotopic exchange between a 16O-poor partial melt having the isotopic composition of melilite and a 16O-rich gas having the isotopic composition of spinel, during pyroxene crystallization. The isotopic evolution of 3529-Z is consistent with formation in an initially 16O-rich environment where spinel and gehlenitic melilite crystallized, followed by a 16O-depletion associated with melilite partial melting and recrystallization and finally a return to the initial 16O-rich environment before pyroxene crystallization. This strongly suggests that the environment of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation was globally 16O-rich, with local 16O-depletions systematically associated with high temperature events. The Al/Mg isotopic systematics of 3529-Z further indicates that this suite of isotopic changes occurred in the first 150 000 yr of the solar system, during the main <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation period. A new astrophysical setting is proposed, where the 16O-depletion occurs in an optically thin surface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090020501','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090020501"><span id="translatedtitle">Rare Earth Element Measurements of Melilite and Fassaite in Allende <span class="hlt">Cai</span> by Nanosims</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ito, M.; Messenger, Scott</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The rare earth elements (REEs) are concentrated in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> by approx. 20 times the chondritic average [e.g., 1]. The REEs in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are important to understand processes of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation including the role of volatilization, condensation, and fractional crystallization [1,2]. REE measurements are a well established application of ion microprobes [e.g., 3]. However the spatial resolution of REE measurements by ion microprobe (approx.20 m) is not adequate to resolve heterogeneous distributions of REEs among/within minerals. We have developed methods for measuring REE with the NanoSIMS 50L at smaller spatial scales. Here we present our initial measurements of REEs in melilite and fassaite in an Allende Type-A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> with the JSC NanoSIMS 50L. We found that the key parameters for accurate REE abundance measurements differ between the NanoSIMS and conventional SIMS, in particular the oxide-to-element ratios, the relative sensitivity factors, the energy distributions, and requisite energy offset. Our REE abundance measurements of the 100 ppm REE diopside glass standards yielded good reproducibility and accuracy, 0.5-2.5 % and 5-25 %, respectively. We determined abundances and spatial distributions of REEs in core and rim within single crystals of fassaite, and adjacent melilite with 5-10 m spatial resolution. The REE abundances in fassaite core and rim are 20-100 times CI abundance but show a large negative Eu anomaly, exhibiting a well-defined Group III pattern. This is consistent with previous work [4]. On the other hand, adjacent melilite shows modified Group II pattern with no strong depletions of Eu and Yb, and no Tm positive anomaly. REE abundances (2-10 x CI) were lower than that of fassaite. These patterns suggest that fassaite crystallized first followed by a crystallization of melilite from the residual melt. In future work, we will carry out a correlated study of O and Mg isotopes and REEs of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in order to better understand the nature and timescales of its</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/944372','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/944372"><span id="translatedtitle">OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF THE ALLENDE TYPE C <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>: EVIDENCE FOR ISOTOPIC EXCHANGE DURING NEBULAR MELTING AND ASTEROIDAL THERMAL METAMORPHISM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krot, A N; Chaussidon, M; Yurimoto, H; Sakamoto, N; Nagashima, K; Hutcheon, I D; MacPherson, G J</p> <p>2008-02-21</p> <p>Based on the mineralogy and petrography, coarse-grained, igneous, anorthite-rich (Type C) calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) in the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende have been recently divided into three groups: (i) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with melilite and Al,Ti-diopside of massive and lacy textures (coarse grains with numerous rounded inclusions of anorthite) in a fine-grained anorthite groundmass (6-1-72, 100, 160), (ii) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> CG5 with massive melilite, Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite, and (iii) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> associated with chondrule material: either containing chondrule fragments in their peripheries (ABC, TS26) or surrounded by chondrule-like, igneous rims (93) (Krot et al., 2007a,b). Here, we report in situ oxygen isotopic measurements of primary (melilite, spinel, Al,Ti-diopside, anorthite) and secondary (grossular, monticellite, forsterite) minerals in these <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -25{per_thousand} to -20{per_thousand}), massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -20{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}) and fine-grained anorthite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -15{per_thousand} to -2{per_thousand}) in 100, 160 and 6-1-72 are {sup 16}O-enriched relative spinel and coarse-grained Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite in ABC, 93 and TS26 ({Delta}{sup 17}O ranges from -20{per_thousand} to -15{per_thousand}, from -15{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}, and from -5{per_thousand} to 0{per_thousand}, respectively). In 6-1-72, massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside grains are {sup 16}O-depleted ({Delta}{sup 17}O {approx} -13{per_thousand}) relative to spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -23{per_thousand}). Melilite is the most {sup 16}O-depleted mineral in all Allende Type C <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. In <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 100, melilite and secondary grossular, monticellite and forsterite (minerals replacing melilite) are similarly {sup 16}O-depleted, whereas grossular in <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 160 is {sup 16}O-enriched ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -10{per_thousand} to -6{per_thousand}) relative to melilite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -5{per_thousand} to -3{per_thousand}). We infer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=256253&keyword=LIDAR&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=79438444&CFTOKEN=67234748','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=256253&keyword=LIDAR&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=79438444&CFTOKEN=67234748"><span id="translatedtitle">Empirical Relationship between particulate matter and Aerosol Optical Depth over Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan, Central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Measurements were obtained at two sites in northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan in Central Asia during a 1-year period beginning July 2008 to examine the statistical relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and of fine [PM2.5, particles less than 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD)] and coars...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V43J..02O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V43J..02O"><span id="translatedtitle">The isotopic homogeneity in the early solar system: Revisiting the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> oxygen isotopic anomaly</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ozima, M.; Yamada, A.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Since the first discovery of the mass-independently fractionated oxygen isotopes in anhydrous, high temperature Ca-Al rich inclusion minerals in carbonaceous meteorites (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) by Clayton et al. (1), their common occurrence in primitive meteorites has generally been regarded to reflect some fundamental process prevalent in the early solar nebula. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span> oxygen isotopic composition is uniquely characterized by (i) large mass independent isotopic fractionation and (ii) their isotopic data in an oxygen three isotope plot (δ17O - δ18O (δ17O ≡ {(17O/16O)/(17O/16O)SMOW - 1} × 1000) yield nearly a straight line with a slope 1.0. In establishing these characteristics, ion microprobe analyses has played a central role, especially an isotopic mapping technique (isotopography) was crucial (e.g., 2). The extraordinary oxygen isotopic ratio in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> is widely attributed to the self-shielding absorption of UV radiation in CO, one of the dominant chemical compounds in the early solar nebula (3). However, the self-shielding scenario necessarily leads to the unusual prediction that a mean solar oxygen isotopic composition differs from most of planetary bodies including Earth, Moon, and Mars. If the self-shielding process were indeed responsible to the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> oxygen isotopic anomaly, this would require a fundamental revision of the current theory of the origin of the solar system, which generally assumes the initial total vaporization of nebula material to give rise to isotopic homogenization. The GENESIS mission launched in 2001(4), which collected oxygen in the solar wind was hoped to resolve the isotopic composition of the Sun. However, because of difficulties in correcting for instrumental and more importantly for intrinsic isotopic fractionation between the SW and the Sun, a final answer is yet to be seen (5). Here, we show on the basis of the oxygen isotopic fractionation systematics that the self shielding hypothesis cannot explain the key characteristics of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> oxygen</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5734Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5734Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Study on remote sensing of aerosols over land using TANSO-<span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhong, Guosheng; Wang, Xiufeng; Yin, Shuai; Sun, Zhongyi; Tani, Hiroshi</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Cloud and Aerosol Imager (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) is one of the subunits of observation instrument Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO) onboard the GOSAT, and is used to observe aerosol optical properties and clouds. TANSO-<span class="hlt">CAI</span> includes 4 bands (370~390 nm, 668~688 nm, 860~880 nm and 1560~1680 nm), bands 1 to 3 have a 0.5-km spatial resolution at the nadir and 1000-km observation swath. The spatial resolution and swath of band 4 are 1.5 km and 750 km, respectively. In this study, it was assumed that the surface reflectance at 670 nm can be obatined using an empirical relationship between the reflectances at 670 nm and at 1600 nm. For analyzing the empirical relationship, dark fields were selected from the GOSAT-<span class="hlt">CAI</span> data, where AERONET sun photometer measurements were available within 30 minutes, the distance from the AERONET station was within 30 km, and the AOD at 550 nm was below 0.1. The surface reflectance was derived by atmospheric correction with the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) radiative transfer model and AERONET AOD. A regression function between top-of-atmosphere reflectances at 1600 nm and surface reflectances at 670 nm was summarized. AODs were retrieved using a look-up table method and compared with AERONET AODs. The results show that more than 70% validating data are located within expected errors for MODIS (±0.05 ±0.15τ, τ is AOD).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150018570','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150018570"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of Meteorites by Focused Ion Beam Sectioning: Recent Applications to <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and Primitive Meteorite Matrices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Christoffersen, Roy; Keller, Lindsay P.; Han, Jangmi; Rahman, Zia; Berger, Eve L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning has revolutionized preparation of meteorite samples for characterization by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and other techniques. Although FIB is not "non-destructive" in the purest sense, each extracted section amounts to no more than nanograms (approximately 500 cubic microns) removed intact from locations precisely controlled by SEM imaging and analysis. Physical alteration of surrounding material by ion damage, fracture or sputter contamination effects is localized to within a few micrometers around the lift-out point. This leaves adjacent material intact for coordinate geochemical analysis by SIMS, microdrill extraction/TIMS and other techniques. After lift out, FIB sections can be quantitatively analyzed by electron microprobe prior to final thinning, synchrotron x-ray techniques, and by the full range of state-of-the-art analytical field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM) techniques once thinning is complete. Multiple meteorite studies supported by FIB/FE-STEM are currently underway at NASA-JSC, including coordinated analysis of refractory phase assemblages in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and fine-grained matrices in carbonaceous chondrites. FIB sectioning of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> has uncovered epitaxial and other overgrowth relations between corundum-hibonite-spinel consistent with hibonite preceding corundum and/or spinel in non-equilibrium condensation sequences at combinations of higher gas pressures, dust-gas enrichments or significant nebular transport. For all of these cases, the ability of FIB to allow for coordination with spatially-associated isotopic data by SIMS provides immense value for constraining the formation scenarios of the particular <span class="hlt">CAI</span> assemblage. For carbonaceous chondrites matrix material, FIB has allowed us to obtain intact continuous sections of the immediate outer surface of Murchison (CM2) after it has been experimentally ion processed to simulate solar wind space weathering. The surface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.169...99K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.169...99K"><span id="translatedtitle">26Al-26Mg chronology and oxygen isotope distributions of multiple melting for a Type C <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from Allende</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kawasaki, Noriyuki; Kato, Chizu; Itoh, Shoichi; Wakaki, Shigeyuki; Ito, Motoo; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Disequilibrium oxygen isotopic distributions of Ca-Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) correspond to multiple melting events in the solar nebula. 26Al-26Mg systematics may be applicable for age differences among such melting events. We have carried out a coordinated study of detailed petrographic observations and in-situ oxygen and magnesium isotope measurements for a Type C <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, EK1-04-2, from the Allende CV3 meteorite to determine the melting events and their ages. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span> consists mainly of spinel, anorthite, olivine, and pyroxene, and has a core and mantle structure. Petrography of the core suggests that the crystallization sequence of the core minerals is from spinel, anorthite, olivine, and to pyroxene. The mantle has the same mineral assemblage as the core, and shows incomplete melting and solidification textures. Oxygen isotopic compositions of the minerals are distributed along the carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous mineral (CCAM) line (δ18O = -44‰ to +9‰), which indicates to preserve a chemical disequilibrium status in the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Spinel shows a 16O-rich signature (δ18O ∼ -43‰), while anorthite is 16O-poor (δ18O ∼ +8‰). Olivine and pyroxene in the core have the same oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O ∼ -15‰), which indicates their equilibrium. Olivine and pyroxene in the mantle have variable oxygen isotopic compositions and are slightly depleted in 16O (δ18O = -13‰ to -4‰) compared with the same minerals in the core. The 26Al-26Mg systematics is consistent with the disequilibrium status observed according to the petrography and oxygen isotopes. Spinel is plotted on a line of (26Al/27Al)0 = (3.5 ± 0.2) × 10-5, anorthite is plotted on a line of (-1 ± 5) × 10-7, and olivine and pyroxene in the core are plotted on a line of (-1 ± 7) × 10-6. Plots of olivine and pyroxene in the mantle are scattered below the isochron of these minerals in the core. This study indicates that the EK1-04-2 Type C <span class="hlt">CAI</span> underwent multiple heating events after the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApJ...763L..33G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApJ...763L..33G"><span id="translatedtitle">Variable and Extreme Irradiation Conditions in the Early Solar System Inferred from the Initial Abundance of 10Be in Isheyevo <span class="hlt">CAIs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gounelle, Matthieu; Chaussidon, Marc; Rollion-Bard, Claire</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>A search for short-lived 10Be in 21 calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) from Isheyevo, a rare CB/CH chondrite, showed that only 5 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> had 10B/11B ratios higher than chondritic correlating with the elemental ratio 9Be/11B, suggestive of in situ decay of this key short-lived radionuclide. The initial (10Be/9Be)0 ratios vary between ~10-3 and ~10-2 for <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 411. The initial ratio of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 411 is one order of magnitude higher than the highest ratio found in CV3 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, suggesting that the more likely origin of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 411 10Be is early solar system irradiation. The low (26Al/27Al)0 [<= 8.9 × 10-7] with which <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 411 formed indicates that it was exposed to gradual flares with a proton fluence of a few 1019 protons cm-2, during the earliest phases of the solar system, possibly the infrared class 0. The irradiation conditions for other <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are less well constrained, with calculated fluences ranging between a few 1019 and 1020 protons cm-2. The variable and extreme value of the initial 10Be/9Be ratios in carbonaceous chondrite <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> is the reflection of the variable and extreme magnetic activity in young stars observed in the X-ray domain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Metic..28Q.335C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Metic..28Q.335C"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal Histories of PGE-rich Metal Particles in a Vigarano <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Casanova, I.; Grossman, L.</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>Metal particles in Vigarano 1623-8, a Type B2 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> [1], underwent virtually no sulfidation, as is typical of opaque assemblages from Ca, Al-rich inclusions in the reduced CV3 chondrites [2]. In this study, we have identified two large metal grains (M1 and M2) with chemical and mineralogical features that may indicate cooling under different conditions and are, therefore, difficult to understand in the environment of a single <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> thermal evolution. M1 is an almost spherical, kamacite+taenite-bearing particle included in a fassaite grain of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> host; a 17.5 micrometer-long (0.5 micrometer steps) microprobe traverse along M1 shows that Ni and Ru contents in the taenite (31.5 and 1.1 wt%, respectively) are uniform, and differ from those in the adjacent kamacite (Ni=4.5, Ru=0.7 wt%). M2 is a 20 micrometer, irregularly-shaped taenite particle, embedded in a fine-grained (spinel-rich) portion of 1623-8. It has a homogeneous composition with 10.5 wt% Ni, 0.4% Co, 0.7% Re, 0.6% Pt and high concentrations of Ru (6.5 wt%), Os (4.3 wt%) and Ir (8.2 wt%), as previously recognized by [1]. The composition of M2 is such that it should have undergone exsolution at 800 = T >= 600 degrees C (according to experimental data by [3]) to form at least two (alpha+gamma-NiFe), or probably three (+epsilon-RuFe) different phases. Lack of exsolution features in this large grain is therefore indicative of equilibration at relatively high temperatures (T>600 degrees C) followed by rapid cooling. Other metal particles of similar bulk compositions in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from the Leoville chondrite (also a reduced CV3) show extensive exsolution features that have been interpreted as the result of low- temperature equilibration of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and their constituents after incorporation into their parent body [4, 5]. The relatively high equilibration temperature of M2 is, however, inconsistent with the existence of kamacite in M1. From the phase relations in the Fe-Ni binary, a grain like M1, with 25 wt% bulk Ni</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1807767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1807767"><span id="translatedtitle">Hypertext and three-dimensional computer graphics in an all digital PC-based <span class="hlt">CAI</span> workstation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schwarz, D L; Wind, G G</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>In the past several years there has been an enormous increase in the number of computer-assisted instructional (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) applications. Many medical educators and physicians have recognized the power and utility of hypertext. Some developers have incorporated simple diagrams, scanned monochrome graphics or still frame photographs from a laser disc or CD-ROM into their hypertext applications. These technologies have greatly increased the role of the microcomputer in education and training. There still remain numerous applications for these tools which are yet to be explored. One of these exciting areas involves the use of three-dimensional computer graphics. An all digital platform increases application portability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009gdca.conf..321C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009gdca.conf..321C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Problem Solving Process Research of Everyone Involved in Innovation Based on <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Tao; Shao, Yunfei; Tang, Xiaowo</p> <p></p> <p>It is very important that non-technical department personnel especially bottom line employee serve as innovators under the requirements of everyone involved in innovation. According the view of this paper, it is feasible and necessary to build everyone involved in innovation problem solving process under Total Innovation Management (TIM) based on the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). The tools under the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> technology: How TO mode and science effects database could be very useful for all employee especially non-technical department and bottom line for innovation. The problem solving process put forward in the paper focus on non-technical department personnel especially bottom line employee for innovation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26PSL.401..327B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26PSL.401..327B"><span id="translatedtitle">An oxygen isotope study of Wark-Lovering rims on type A <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in primitive carbonaceous chondrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bodénan, Jean-David; Starkey, Natalie A.; Russell, Sara S.; Wright, Ian P.; Franchi, Ian A.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Calcium-aluminium-rich Inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) and the thin Wark-Lovering (WL) rims of minerals surrounding them offer a record of the nature of changing conditions during the earliest stages of Solar System formation. Considerable heterogeneity in the gas composition in the immediate vicinity of the proto-Sun had previously been inferred from oxygen isotopic variations in the WL rim of a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from Allende (Simon et al., 2011). However, high precision and high spatial resolution oxygen isotope measurements presented in this study show that WL rim and pristine core minerals of individual <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from meteorites that had experienced only low degrees of alteration or low grade metamorphism (one from Léoville (reduced CV3), two in QUE 99177 (CR3.0) and two in ALHA 77307 (CO3.0)) are uniformly 16O-rich. This indicates that the previously observed variations are the result of secondary processes, most likely on the asteroid parent body, and that there were no temporal or spatial variations in oxygen isotopic composition during <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and WL rim formation. Such homogeneity across three groups of carbonaceous chondrites lends further support for a common origin for the <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in all chondrites. 16O-poor oxygen reservoirs such as those associated with chondrule formation, were probably generated by UV photo-dissociation involving self-shielding mechanisms and must have occurred elsewhere in outer regions of the solar accretion disk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100005633','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100005633"><span id="translatedtitle">FIB-NanoSIMS-TEM Coordinated Study of a Wark-Lovering Rim in a Vigarano Type A <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cai, A.; Ito, M.; Keller, L. P.; Ross, D. K.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multi layered mineral sequences that surround most Ca, Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>). Unaltered WL rims are composed of the same primary high temperature minerals as <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, such as melilite, spinel, pyroxene, hibonite, perovskite, anorthite and olivine. It is still unclear whether the rim minerals represent a different generation formed by a separate event from their associated <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> or are a byproduct of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation. Several models have been proposed for the origins of WL rims including condensation, flashheating, reaction of a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> with a Mg-Si-rich reservoir (nebular gas or solid); on the basis of mineralogy, abundances of trace elements, O and Mg isotopic studies. Detailed mineralogical characterizations of WL rims at micrometer to nanometer scales have been obtained by TEM observations, but so far no coordinated isotopic - mineralogical studies have been performed. Thus, we have applied an O isotopic imaging technique by NanoSIMS 50L to investigate heterogeneous distributions of O isotopic ratios in minerals within a cross section of a WL rim prepared using a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument. After the isotopic measurements, we determine the detailed mineralogy and microstructure of the same WL FIB section to gain insight into its petrogenesis. Here we present preliminary results from O isotopic and elemental maps by NanoSIMS and mineralogical analysis by FE-SEM of a FIB section of a WL rim in the Vigarano reduced CV3 chondrite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907835','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907835"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from Short-Lived and Long-Lived Radionuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kita, N T; Huss, G R; Tachibana, S; Amelin, Y; Nyquist, L E; Hutcheon, I D</p> <p>2005-10-24</p> <p>The high time resolution Pb-Pb ages and short-lived nuclide based relative ages for <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and chondrules are reviewed. The solar system started at 4567.2 {+-} 0.6Ma inferred from the high precision Pb-Pb ages of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Time scales of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> ({le}0.1Myr), chondrules (1-3Myr), and early asteroidal differentiation ({ge}3Myr) inferred from {sup 26}Al relative ages are comparable to the time scale estimated from astronomical observations of young star; proto star, classical T Tauri star and week-lined T Tauri star, respectively. Pb-Pb ages of chondrules also indicate chondrule formation occur within 1-3 Myr after <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Mn-Cr isochron ages of chondrules are similar to or within 2 Myr after <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation. Chondrules from different classes of chondrites show the same range of {sup 26}Al ages in spite of their different oxygen isotopes, indicating that chondrule formed in the localized environment. The {sup 26}Al ages of chondrules in each chondrite class show a hint of correlation with their chemical compositions, which implies the process of elemental fractionation during chondrule formation events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T41D2931L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T41D2931L"><span id="translatedtitle">Controls of Lithospheric Mechanical Strength on the Deformation Pattern of <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Y.; Xiong, X.; Zheng, Y.; Hu, X.; Zhang, Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is an outstanding example of intracontinental mountain belt, which was built rapidly and formed far away from plate boundaries. It exhibits 300~500 km in width and extends ~2000 km EW, located in central Asia. The <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is a key area for solution of the problems relating to intracontinental geodynamics. During last decades, despite a large amount of results based on various geological, geophysical and geodetic data about the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, however, deformation mechanism remains controversial and other several principal problems related to its structure and evolution also have not been completely resolved. As for patterns of continental deformation, they are always controlled by both the forces applied to the lithosphere and by lithospheric resistance to the forces. The latter is often measured by the mechanical strength of lithosphere. The lateral variation of strength of lithosphere has been recognized to be an important factor controlling the spatial construction and temporal evolution of continent. In this study, we investigate the mechanical strength (Te) of lithosphere in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan using wavelet coherency between Bouguer anomaly and topography. The patterns of Te variations are closely related to major tectonic boundaries and blocks. Mechanical strength exhibits a weak zone (Te~5-20km) beneath the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan while its surrounding blocks including Tarim Basin, Junggar Basin and Kazakh platform are characterized by a strong lithosphere (Te>40km). The lateral variations in mechanical strength and velocity field of horizontal movement with GPS demonstrate that strain localization appears at the margins of Tarim Basin, which is also the strong lithospheric domain. It is suggested that the weak lithosphere allows the crustal stress accumulation and the strong lithosphere helps to stress transfer. There is also a good agreement between mechanical strength and shear wave velocity structure in upper mantle. It indicates a strong domain located in the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980004627','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980004627"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of Global Positioning Measurements to Continental Collision in the Pamir-<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Region, Central Asia and GPS Survey of the Western <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hamburger, Michael W.; Reilinger, Robert E.; Hager, Bradford H.; Molnar, Peter</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>In this report, we summarize what we have accomplished with five years of funding from NASA under its DOSE program, and with a comparable level of funding from NSF. We describe the development of a GPS network in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan of the former Soviet Union, the analysis of data, and the main results. This discussion presents the state of the current network, which has grown significantly since the termination of our DOSE grants, with continued support both from NSF through its continental dynamics program and from NASA's SENH program. Although grants from NASA's DOSE program did not support this growth not directly, it did so indirectly by building the infrastructure that has enabled further expansion in an area where otherwise there would be only a small GPS presence. We note how the network has grown over time, but the emphasis of this discussion is on the quantity and quality of measurements that we have made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Geote..43..133S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Geote..43..133S"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonics of the Ural paleozoides in comparison with the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Samygin, S. G.; Burtman, V. S.</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>The main differences and similarities between the tectonic features of the Urals and the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan are considered. In the Neoproterozoic and Early and Middle Paleozoic, the Ural and Turkestan oceanic basins were parts of one oceanic domain, with several distinct regions in which tectonic events took different courses. The Baltic continental margin of the Ural paleoocean was active, whereas the Tarim-Alay margin of the Turkestan ocean, similar in position, was passive. The opposite continental margin in the Urals is known beginning from the Devonian as the Kazakh-Kyrgyz paleocontinent. In the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, a similar margin developed until the Late Ordovician as the Syr Darya block with the ancient continental crust. In the Silurian, this block became a part of the Kazakh-Kyrgyz paleocontinent. The internal structures of the Ural and Turkestan paleooceans were different. The East Ural microcontinent occurred in the Ural paleoocean during the Early and Middle Paleozoic. No microcontinents are established in the Turkestan oceanic basin. Volcanic arcs in the Ural paleoocean were formed in the Vendian (Ediacarian), at the Ordovician-Silurian boundary, and in the Devonian largely along the Baltic margin at different distances from its edge. In the Turkestan paleoocean, a volcanic arc probably existed in the Ordovician at its Syr Darya margin, i.e., on the other side of the ocean in comparison with the Urals. The subduction of the Turkestan oceanic crust developed with interruptions always in the same direction. The evolution of subduction in the Urals was more complicated. The island arc-continent collision occurred here in the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous; the continent-continent collision took place in the Moscovian simultaneously with the same process in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The deepwater flysch basins induced by collision appeared at the Baltic margin in the Famennian and Visean, whereas in the Bashkirian and Moscovian they appeared at the Alay-Tarim margin. In the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S43A2463K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S43A2463K"><span id="translatedtitle">Source processes of strong earthquakes in the North <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kulikova, G.; Krueger, F.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan region attracts attention of scientists worldwide due to its complexity and tectonic uniqueness. A series of very strong destructive earthquakes occurred in <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan at the turn of XIX and XX centuries. Such large intraplate earthquakes are rare in seismology, which increases the interest in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan region. The presented study focuses on the source processes of large earthquakes in <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan. The amount of seismic data is limited for those early times. In 1889, when a major earthquake has occurred in <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan, seismic instruments were installed in very few locations in the world and these analog records did not survive till nowadays. Although around a hundred seismic stations were operating at the beginning of XIX century worldwide, it is not always possible to get high quality analog seismograms. Digitizing seismograms is a very important step in the work with analog seismic records. While working with historical seismic records one has to take into account all the aspects and uncertainties of manual digitizing and the lack of accurate timing and instrument characteristics. In this study, we develop an easy-to-handle and fast digitization program on the basis of already existing software which allows to speed up digitizing process and to account for all the recoding system uncertainties. Owing to the lack of absolute timing for the historical earthquakes (due to the absence of a universal clock at that time), we used time differences between P and S phases to relocate the earthquakes in North <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan and the body-wave amplitudes to estimate their magnitudes. Combining our results with geological data, five earthquakes in North <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan were precisely relocated. The digitizing of records can introduce steps into the seismograms which makes restitution (removal of instrument response) undesirable. To avoid the restitution, we simulated historic seismograph recordings with given values for damping and free period of the respective instrument and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012818','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012818"><span id="translatedtitle">In Situ Trace Element Analysis of an Allende Type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: EK-459-5-1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Variations in refractory major and trace element composition of calcium, aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) provide constraints on physical and chemical conditions and processes in the earliest stages of the Solar System. Previous work indicates that <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> have experienced complex histories involving, in many cases, multiple episodes of condensation, evaporation, and partial melting. We have analyzed major and trace element abundances in two core to rim transects of the melilite mantle as well as interior major phases of a Type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (EK-459-5-1) from Allende by electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to investigate the behavior of key trace elements with a primary focus on the REEs Tm and Yb.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890006945','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890006945"><span id="translatedtitle">Extending the granularity of representation and control for the MIL-STD <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> 1.0 node model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rogers, Kathy L.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The Common APSE (Ada 1 Program Support Environment) Interface Set (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>) (DoD85) node model provides an excellent baseline for interfaces in a single-host development environment. To encompass the entire spectrum of computing, however, the <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> model should be extended in four areas. It should provide the interface between the engineering workstation and the host system throughout the entire lifecycle of the system. It should provide a basis for communication and integration functions needed by distributed host environments. It should provide common interfaces for communications mechanisms to and among target processors. It should provide facilities for integration, validation, and verification of test beds extending to distributed systems on geographically separate processors with heterogeneous instruction set architectures (ISAS). Additions to the PROCESS NODE model to extend the <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> into these four areas are proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21390725','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21390725"><span id="translatedtitle">An experimental study of fuel injection strategies in <span class="hlt">CAI</span> gasoline engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hunicz, J.; Kordos, P.</p> <p>2011-01-15</p> <p>Combustion of gasoline in a direct injection controlled auto-ignition (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) single-cylinder research engine was studied. <span class="hlt">CAI</span> operation was achieved with the use of the negative valve overlap (NVO) technique and internal exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). Experiments were performed at single injection and split injection, where some amount of fuel was injected close to top dead centre (TDC) during NVO interval, and the second injection was applied with variable timing. Additionally, combustion at variable fuel-rail pressure was examined. Investigation showed that at fuel injection into recompressed exhaust fuel reforming took place. This process was identified via an analysis of the exhaust-fuel mixture composition after NVO interval. It was found that at single fuel injection in NVO phase, its advance determined the heat release rate and auto-ignition timing, and had a strong influence on NO{sub X} emission. However, a delay of single injection to intake stroke resulted in deterioration of cycle-to-cycle variability. Application of split injection showed benefits of this strategy versus single injection. Examinations of different fuel mass split ratios and variable second injection timing resulted in further optimisation of mixture formation. At equal share of the fuel mass injected in the first injection during NVO and in the second injection at the beginning of compression, the lowest emission level and cyclic variability improvement were observed. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9731333','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9731333"><span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">CAI</span> to accommodate a variety of learning styles in a biomechanics course.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Washington, N; Parnianpour, M</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Multimedia technology offers a more interactive approach to instruction than the traditional classroom lectures. Through computer-aided instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>), a number of teaching styles can be used that take into account the different preferences of the students. The Biomechanics Tutorial program that the authors have written is a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> that incorporates audio, video, simulations, and graphics to: review concepts of mechanics (kinematics and kinetics of interconnected rigid bodies), familiarize students with functional anatomy, and allow students to interactively evaluate the law of mechanics applied to physical performance of activities modeled by a set of biomechanical models of the joints. Principles of ergonomics are reinforced by enabling the student to perform numerous numerical experiments within the context of workplace or task redesign and see the real time consequences of these alterations. For example, the task of holding a load is simulated by allowing the student to change elbow and shoulder angles and the orientation and magnitude of the load. The consequences of these in terms of required muscle forces and joint reaction forces at the elbow and shoulder will be updated on the screen. The detailed rationale of developing this Biomechanics Tutorial which integrates a variety of learning styles will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tecto..35..283Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tecto..35..283Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic interaction between the Pamir and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan observed by GPS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zubovich, A.; Schöne, T.; Metzger, S.; Mosienko, O.; Mukhamediev, Sh.; Sharshebaev, A.; Zech, C.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The complex tectonic interplay between the Central Asian Southwest <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and the north advancing Pamir as well as the role of the Pamir Frontal Thrust (PFT) separating these two orogens along the intervening Alai Valley is yet unclear. In this paper we present data of the newly installed Western Alai GPS profile (WAGP), capturing the deformation signal of both mountain ranges. The 20 km long WAGP records a maximum displacement rate of 9.3 ± 0.8 mm yr-1. The lion's share of displacement (6.0 ± 0.8 mm yr-1) is accommodated between the two stations located directly north and south of the PFT in 5 km distance. The WAGP data nicely complement the existing South <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and the Pamir GPS network data, which we present here in a combined reference frame and use it as input for horizontal block rotation/strain models. The model results show that both the Southwest <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and the Pamir behave as uniformly strained blocks and rotate counterclockwise (with respect to Eurasia) by 0.93 ± 0.11° Myr-1 and 0.62 ± 0.05° Myr-1, respectively. The Southwest <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan undergoes NNE-SSW shortening of -22.1 ± 1.5 × 10-9 year-1 with an insignificant perpendicular extension. The Pamir is shortening with a rate of -10.2 ± 3.8 × 10-9 year-1 in a NNE-SSW direction, which is nearly 2.5 times less than its lateral extension rate. A band of increased deformation along the PFT is bounded to the north by the northern rim of the Alai Valley and extends up to 30-50 km south into the Pamir.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001852','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001852"><span id="translatedtitle">Ca-Fe and Alkali-Halide Alteration of an Allende Type B <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Aqueous Alteration in Nebular or Asteroidal Settings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Ca-Fe and alkali-halide alteration of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> is often attributed to aqueous alteration by fluids circulating on asteroidal parent bodies after the various chondritic components have been assembled, although debate continues about the roles of asteroidal vs. nebular modification processes [1-7]. Here we report de-tailed observations of alteration products in a large Type B2 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, TS4 from Allende, one of the oxidized subgroup of CV3s, and propose a speculative model for aqueous alteration of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in a nebular setting. Ca-Fe alteration in this <span class="hlt">CAI</span> consists predominantly of end-member hedenbergite, end-member andradite, and compositionally variable, magnesian high-Ca pyroxene. These phases are strongly concentrated in an unusual "nodule" enclosed within the interior of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (Fig. 1). The Ca, Fe-rich nodule superficially resembles a clast that pre-dated and was engulfed by the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, but closer inspection shows that relic spinel grains are enclosed in the nodule, and corroded <span class="hlt">CAI</span> primary phases interfinger with the Fe-rich phases at the nodule s margins. This <span class="hlt">CAI</span> also contains abundant sodalite and nepheline (alkali-halide) alteration that occurs around the rims of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, but also penetrates more deeply into the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. The two types of alteration (Ca-Fe and alkali-halide) are adjacent, and very fine-grained Fe-rich phases are associated with sodalite-rich regions. Both types of alteration appear to be replacive; if that is true, it would require substantial introduction of Fe, and transport of elements (Ti, Al and Mg) out of the nodule, and introduction of Na and Cl into alkali-halide rich zones. Parts of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> have been extensively metasomatized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010679','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010679"><span id="translatedtitle">Microstructures of Hibonite From an ALH A77307 (CO3.0) <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Evidence for Evaporative Loss of Calcium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Han, Jangmi; Brearley, Adrian J.; Keller, Lindsay P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Hibonite is a comparatively rare, primary phase found in some <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from different chondrite groups and is also common in Wark-Lovering rims [1]. Hibonite is predicted to be one of the earliest refractory phases to form by equilibrium condensation from a cooling gas of solar composition [2] and, therefore, can be a potential recorder of very early solar system processes. In this study, we describe the microstructures of hibonite from one <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in ALH A77307 (CO3.0) using FIB/TEM techniques in order to reconstruct its formational history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002651','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002651"><span id="translatedtitle">Calcium and Titanium Isotope Fractionation in <span class="hlt">CAIS</span>: Tracers of Condensation and Inheritance in the Early Solar Protoplanetary Disk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Simon, J. I.; Jordan, M. K.; Tappa, M. J.; Kohl, I. E.; Young, E. D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The chemical and isotopic compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) can be used to understand the conditions present in the protoplantary disk where they formed. The isotopic compositions of these early-formed nebular materials are largely controlled by chemical volatility. The isotopic effects of evaporation/sublimation, which are well explained by both theory and experimental work, lead to enrichments of the heavy isotopes that are often exhibited by the moderately refractory elements Mg and Si. Less well understood are the isotopic effects of condensation, which limits our ability to determine whether a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is a primary condensate and/or retains any evidence of its primordial formation history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T14C..07L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T14C..07L"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase velocity and azimuthal anisotropy variations beneath the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lisi, A.; Li, A.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The goal of this study is to construct 3-D shear-wave structure from surface waves beneath the central part of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, the world’s largest and most active intracontinental orogen. We have analyzed fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave data recorded at the CHENGIS and KNET local seismic networks, which consist of 41 broadband seismic stations. Two different methods, the two-plane-wave inversion technique and the cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise, have been adopted to solve for phase velocities. We have applied the first method on fundamental mode Rayleigh wave trains that are extracted from 52 teleseismic events at central frequencies from 7.5 mHz to 50 mHz with a 10 mHz frequency interval. Rayleigh waves at short periods from 10 to 30 s have been determined by stacking two years ambient seismic noise at pairs of seismic stations. Combining the two techniques we are able to generate phase velocity maps at the periods of 10-133 s, which reflect structure from middle crust to about 200 km depth. A clear low velocity zone is imaged beneath the western part of the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan range at short periods, indicating a thick and /or slow crust. The slow anomaly region shifts to north at intermediate periods of 50 to 100 s, which are most sensitive to the shallow upper mantle. On the other hand, fast anomaly is observed in the eastern part of the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan at the same depth range. At long periods of 100 to 133 s, a slow anomaly is imaged in southwest of the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and a fast anomaly is present beneath the Tarim Basin. We have also estimated the azimuthal anisotropy from Rayleigh wave data and found an ENE-WSW fast direction at 20-50 s and WNW-ESE direction at long periods of 60 to 110 s. We will solve for 3-D shear wave structure from the phase velocity maps and discuss the important features of the results and their implications to the formation and evolution of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED503459.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED503459.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) versus Class Room Lecture (RL) for Computer Science at ICS Level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kausar, Tayyaba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with class room lecture and computer assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypothesis of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1102933.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1102933.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) versus Class Room Lecture (CRL) for Computer Science at ICS Level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kausar, Tayyaba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with class room lecture and computer assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypothesis of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4850505D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4850505D"><span id="translatedtitle">Linking <span class="hlt">CAI</span> abundance to polarimetric response in a population of ancient asteroids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Devogele, Maxime; Tanga, Paolo; Bendjoya, Philippe; Rivet, Jean-Pierre; Surdej, Jean; Bus, Schelte J.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Cellino, Alberto; Campins, Humberto; Licandro, Javier; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Carry, Benoit</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Polarimetry constitutes one of the fundamental tools for characterizing the surface texture and composition of airless Solar System bodies. In 2006, polarimetric observations led to the discovery of a new type of asteroids, which displays a peculiar polarimetric response. These asteroids are collectively known as "Barbarians", from (234) Barbara the first discovered one.The most commonly accepted explanation for this perculiar polarization response seems to be the presence of a high percentage of fluffy-type Calcium Aluminium-rich Inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>), whose optical properties could produce the observed polarization. Their reflectance spectra also exibit an absorption feature in the near-infrared around 2.1-2.2 microns, that is characteristic of this peculiar group.Based on these results, we organized a systematic polarimetric and near-infrared observational campaign of known Barbarians or candidate asteroids. These campaigns include members of the family of 1040 Klumpkea, 2085 Henan and 729 Watsonia, which are known to contain Barbarian and/or L-type asteroids also suspected to have such a polarimetric behaviour. We have made use of the ToPo polarimeter at the 1m telescope of the Centre pédagogique Planète et Univers (C2PU, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France). The spectroscopic observations in the near-infrared were obtained with the SpeX instrument at the NASA's InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF).By combining polarimetry and spectroscopy we find a correlation between the abundance of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and the inversion angle of the phase-polarization curve of Barbarian asteroids. This is the first time that a direct link has been established between a specific polarimetric response and the surface composition of asteroids. In addition, we find a considerable variety of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> abundance from one object to the other, consistent with a wide range of possible albedos. Since these asteroids constitute a reservoir of primitive Solar System material, understanding their origin can</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=csr&pg=2&id=EJ1062828','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=csr&pg=2&id=EJ1062828"><span id="translatedtitle">From Corporate Social Responsibility, through Entrepreneurial Orientation, to Knowledge Sharing: A Study in <span class="hlt">Cai</span> Luong (Renovated Theatre) Theatre Companies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tuan, Luu Trong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: This paper aims to examine the role of antecedents such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) and entrepreneurial orientation in the chain effect to knowledge sharing among members of <span class="hlt">Cai</span> Luong theatre companies in the Vietnamese context. Knowledge sharing contributes to the depth of the knowledge pool of both the individuals and the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED077195.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED077195.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brown, John S.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26832141','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26832141"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenotypic diversity and correlation between white-opaque switching and the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> microsatellite locus in Candida albicans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Jian; Guan, Guobo; Dai, Yu; Tao, Li; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Houmin; Huang, Guanghua</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Candida albicans is a commensal fungal pathogen that is often found as part of the human microbial flora. The aim of the present study was to establish a relationship between diverse genotypes and phenotypes of clinical isolates of C. albicans. Totally 231 clinical isolates were collected and used for genotyping and phenotypic switching analysis. Based on the microsatellite locus (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) genotyping assay, 65 different genotypes were identified, and some dominant types were found in certain human niches. For example, the genotypes of 30-44 and 30-45 were enriched in vaginal infection samples. C. albicans has a number of morphological forms including the single-celled yeasts, multicellular filaments, white, and opaque cell types. The relationship between the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> genotype and the ability to undergo phenotypic switching was examined in the clinical isolates. We found that the strains with longer CAA/G repeats in both alleles of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> locus were more opaque competent. We also discovered that some MTL heterozygous (a/alpha) isolates could undergo white-opaque switching when grown on regular culture medium (containing glucose as the sole carbon source). Our study establishes a link between phenotypic switching and genotypes of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> microsatellite locus in clinical isolates of C. albicans. PMID:26832141</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2784433','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2784433"><span id="translatedtitle">Hunting and use of terrestrial fauna used by <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çaras from the Atlantic Forest coast (Brazil)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is considered one of the hotspots for conservation, comprising remnants of rain forest along the eastern Brazilian coast. Its native inhabitants in the Southeastern coast include the <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çaras (descendants from Amerindians and European colonizers), with a deep knowledge on the natural resources used for their livelihood. Methods We studied the use of the terrestrial fauna in three <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çara communities, through open-ended interviews with 116 native residents. Data were checked through systematic observations and collection of zoological material. Results The dependence on the terrestrial fauna by <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çaras is especially for food and medicine. The main species used are Didelphis spp., Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, and small birds (several species of Turdidae). Contrasting with a high dependency on terrestrial fauna resources by native Amazonians, the <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çaras do not show a constant dependency on these resources. Nevertheless, the occasional hunting of native animals represents a complimentary source of animal protein. Conclusion Indigenous or local knowledge on native resources is important in order to promote local development in a sustainable way, and can help to conserve biodiversity, particularly if the resource is sporadically used and not commercially exploited. PMID:19930595</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26159472','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26159472"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in flavour and microbial diversity during natural fermentation of suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span>, a traditional food made in Northeast China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Rina; Yu, Meiling; Liu, Xiaoyu; Meng, Lingshuai; Wang, Qianqian; Xue, Yating; Wu, Junrui; Yue, Xiqing</p> <p>2015-10-15</p> <p>We measured changes in the main physical and chemical properties, flavour compounds and microbial diversity in suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span> during natural fermentation. The results showed that the pH and concentration of soluble protein initially decreased but were then maintained at a stable level; the concentration of nitrite increased in the initial fermentation stage and after reaching a peak it decreased significantly to a low level by the end of fermentation. Suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span> was rich in 17 free amino acids. All of the free amino acids increased in concentration to different degrees, except histidine. Total free amino acids reached their highest levels in the mid-fermentation stage. The 17 volatile flavour components identified at the start of fermentation increased to 57 by the mid-fermentation stage; esters and aldehydes were in the greatest diversity and abundance, contributing most to the aroma of suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span>. Bacteria were more abundant and diverse than fungi in suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span>; 14 bacterial species were identified from the genera Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Lactobacillus. The predominant fungal species identified were Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida tropicalis and Penicillium expansum.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010652','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010652"><span id="translatedtitle">A FIB/TEM/Nanosims Study of a Wark-Lovering Rim on an Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Ca- Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) are commonly surrounded by Wark-Lovering (WL) rims - thin (approx. 50 micrometers) multilayered sequences - whose mineralogy is dominated by high temperature minerals similar to those that occur in the cores of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> [1]. The origins of these WL rims involved high temperature events in the early nebula such as condensation, flashheating or reaction with a nebular reservoir, or combinations of these processes. These rims formed after <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation but prior to accretion into their parent bodies. We have undertaken a coordinated mineralogical and isotopic study of WL rims to determine the formation conditions of the individual layers and to constrain the isotopic reservoirs they interacted with during their history. We focus here on the spinel layer, the first-formed highest- temperature layer in the WL rim sequence. Results and Discussion: We have performed mineralogical, chemical and isotopic analyses of an unusual ultrarefractory inclusion from the Allende CV3 chondrite (SHAL) consisting of an approx. 500 micrometers long single crystal of hibonite and co-existing coarsegrained perovskite. SHAL is partially surrounded by WL rim. We previously reported on the mineralogy, isotopic compositions and trace elements in SHAL [2-4]. The spinel layer in the WL rim is present only on the hibonite and terminates abruptly at the contact with the coarse perovskite. This simple observation shows that the spinel layer is not a condensate in this case (otherwise spinel would have condensed on the perovskite as well). The spinel layer appears to have formed by gas-phase corrosion of the hibonite by Mg-rich vapors such that the spinel layer grew at the expense of the hibonite. We also found that the spinel layer has the same 16Orich composition as the hibonite. The spinel layer is polycrystalline and individual crystals do not show a crystallographic relationship with the hibonite. An Al-diopside layer overlies the spinel layer, and is present on both</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.361...69R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.361...69R"><span id="translatedtitle">Two years since SSAMS: Status of 14C AMS at <span class="hlt">CAIS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ravi Prasad, G. V.; Cherkinsky, Alexander; Culp, Randy A.; Dvoracek, Doug K.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The NEC 250 kV single stage AMS accelerator (SSAMS) was installed two years ago at the Center for Applied Isotope Studies (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>), University of Georgia. The accelerator is primarily being used for radiocarbon measurements to test the authenticity of natural and bio-based samples while all other samples such as geological, atmospheric, marine and archaeological. are run on the 500 kV, NEC 1.5SDH-1 model tandem accelerator, which has been operating since 2001. The data obtained over a six months period for OXI, OXII, ANU sucrose and FIRI-D are discussed. The mean value of ANU sucrose observed to be slightly lower than the consensus value. The processed blanks on SSAMS produce lower apparent age compared to the tandem accelerator as expected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012E%26PSL.329...51S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012E%26PSL.329...51S"><span id="translatedtitle">Lithium isotope compositions of chondrules, <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and a dark inclusion from Allende and ordinary chondrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seitz, Hans-Michael; Zipfel, Jutta; Brey, Gerhard P.; Ott, Ulrich</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Bulk carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites have distinct Li isotope compositions, indicating the existence of local reservoirs and distinct formation conditions in the early solar system. These differences may be also recorded in the components that compose chondrites. Here, Li concentrations and Li isotope compositions of 89 chondrules, 10 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and 1 dark inclusion (DI) from the Allende (CV3) meteorite and from 5 ordinary chondrites of low petrologic types Semarkona, Bishunpur, Saratov, Bjurböle and Bremervörde are presented. In general, chondrules have highly variable Li isotope compositions, ranging from δ7Li of - 8.5 to + 10‰, whereby the mean isotope composition of chondrules separated from a single chondrite is slightly lighter than its bulk. Remarkable, however, are the differences in Li concentrations between bulk chondrite and chondrules. Of the entire set studied here, 98% of the chondrules have significantly lower Li abundances (in the range of 0.2 to 0.75 μg/g) than their hosts (typically around 1.5 μg/g). Our results indicate that Li elemental and isotopic fractionation has not occurred extensively during chondrule formation. Low, but highly variable Li abundances as well as the relatively large range in Li isotopes point to small-scale heterogeneities in the chondrule-forming reservoir. With respect to Li, such a non-chondritic reservoir is unique to all chondrules. The compositional differences in Li isotopes between bulk carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites (Seitz et al., 2007) are likely to be the result of mixing chondrules, <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and matrix in different proportions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.102..261W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.102..261W"><span id="translatedtitle">Petrology, trace element abundances and oxygen isotopic compositions of a compound <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-chondrule object from Allende</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wakaki, S.; Itoh, S.; Tanaka, T.; Yurimoto, H.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>We report the petrology, trace element abundances and oxygen isotopic characteristics of a compound <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-chondrule object, WI-025, found in the Allende CV3 chondrite. The WI-025 is an irregularly shaped inclusion consisting of three texturally and chemically distinct portions: the interior portion, the igneous rim and the intermediate zone located between these two portions. The interior portion consists of anorthite, spinel, olivine and Al-bearing low-Ca pyroxene. The major element chemistry of the interior portion corresponds to that of Al-rich chondrules and is of intermediate character between fine-grained spinel-rich <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and ferromagnesian chondrules. The interior portion has abundant 16O-rich spinel (Δ17O = -14.2 to -24.7) and displays a group II <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like REE composition. These observations indicate that the interior portion contains a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> component formed by fractional condensation. The major and trace element chemistry of the interior portion indicate that the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> had subsequently assimilated chondrule materials through partial melting. The maximum heating temperature of the partial melting is estimated at approximately 1400 °C, similar to the maximum heating temperature of Type-B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. The oxygen isotopic compositions of the olivine and low-Ca pyroxene (Δ17O = -6.3) in the interior portion indicate that the partial melting and chondrule assimilation took place under a moderately 16O-poor nebular gas. The igneous rim is texturally and chemically similar to ferromagnesian chondrules and entirely surrounds the interior portion. The oxygen isotopic compositions of the olivine and low-Ca pyroxene in the igneous rim are indistinguishable from those of the interior olivine and Al-bearing low-Ca pyroxenes. These observations indicate that a chondrule material, which was melted in the same nebular gas as the interior portion, was accreted to the interior portion. The intermediate zone represents a reaction zone accompanying the igneous rim formation. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......394B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......394B"><span id="translatedtitle">2.5d teleseismic waveform tomography with application to the <span class="hlt">tien</span> shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker, Benjamin Ian</p> <p></p> <p>The analysis of passive source seismic data recorded by quasi-linear deployments of broadband stations at teleseismic distances has proven to be an effective means of probing the subsurface of the Earth. However, current methodologies are far from being able to exploit all the interpretable signal in these data sets. In this thesis, I describe a 2.5D, frequency domain, visco-elastic waveform tomography algorithm for imaging with this type of data. To compute synthetic seismograms (the forward problem), the general equations of motion are discretized with p-adaptive finite elements. This approach allows for geometric flexibility and accurate solutions as a function of wavelength. Artificial force distributions manifesting Huygen's principle for the teleseismic events are introduced locally through a Bielak layer. Because of the relatively low frequency content of teleseismic data, regional scale tectonic settings can be parameterized with a modest number of variables and perturbations can be determined directly from a regularized Gauss-Newton system of equations. Waveforms generated by the forward problem compare well with analytic solutions for simple 1D media and with those generated in heterogeneous structures by a finite difference technique. It is demonstrated through examples that the regularized approximate Hessian is particularly effective at focusing backpropagated residuals to their true location. It is observed that full waveform inversion can provide significantly better vertical resolution than arrival time tomography and significantly better lateral resolution than standard surface wave tomography. Used in tandem in a multi-scale approach, surface wave tomography followed by joint surface wave/body wave tomography is shown to be an effective strategy for image reconstruction from a simple starting model. This inversion strategy is then applied to body and surface wave teleseismic waves recorded in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The work of previous investigators is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2493R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2493R"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate- vs. Earthquake-induced Rock-Glacier Advances in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan: Insights from Lichenometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosenwinkel, Swenja; Landgraf, Angela; Korup, Oliver; Sorg, Annina</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Rock glaciers have been traditionally used as landform proxies of the distribution of sporadic alpine permafrost. In the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountains of Kyrgyzstan, most distinct lobes of >200 rock glaciers that we mapped from satellite imagery occur at two major elevation levels. However, a number of particularly low-lying lobes seem difficult to reconcile with palaeoclimatic fluctuations and commensurate changes of permafrost patterns: The minimum elevation of the majority of rock-glacier snouts lies between ~2500 up to ~3700 m a.s.l., but some 10% of rock-glaciers extend down to well below 3000 m a.s.l. We hypothesize that some of the rock glaciers in this area may have formed following strong earthquakes that could have triggered massive supraglacial rock-slope failures, which would have subsequently created sediment-rich rock glaciers from clear-ice glaciers. Our hypothesis is based on the observation that the tectonically active northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan was affected by a series of major earthquakes in the late 19th and earliest 20th centuries, e.g. in 1885 (Ms 6.9), 1887 (Ms 7.3), 1889 (Ms 8.3), and 1911 (Ms 8.1). All of these earthquakes had triggered numerous landslides in the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. It is also likely that similarly strong earthquakes had happened before, but their recurrence intervals are long and more palaeoseismological work is in progress. We test whether lichenometry of rock-glacier surfaces together with morphometric analysis are suitable methods to testing our hypothesis. We focus on assessing the possibility of earthquake-triggered rock-glacier advances, and use lichenometry to resolve age patterns of different rock-glacier lobes. We use a dataset of several thousand lichen diameter measurements encompassing seven different species calibrated by gravestones and dated mass-movement deposits. Data on four single and two merging rock glaciers in four selected valleys in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan support the notion</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996E%26PSL.140...67C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996E%26PSL.140...67C"><span id="translatedtitle">Late Cenozoic transpression in southwestern Mongolia and the Gobi Altai-<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan connection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cunningham, W. Dickson; Windley, Brian F.; Dorjnamjaa, D.; Badamgarov, J.; Saandar, M.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>The Gobi Altai region of southwestern Mongolia is a natural laboratory for studying processes of active, transpressional, intracontinental mountain building at different stages of development. The region is structurally dominated by several major E—W left-lateral strike-slip fault systems. The North Gobi Altai fault system is a seismically active, right-stepping, left-lateral, strike-slip fault system that can be traced along the surface for over 350 km. The eastern two-thirds of the fault system ruptured during a major earthquake (M = 8.3) in 1957, whereas degraded fault scarps cutting alluvial deposits along the western third of the system indicate that this segment did not rupture during the 1957 event but has been active during the Quaternary. The highest mountains in the Gobi Altai are restraining bend uplifts along the length of the fault system. Detailed transects across two of the restraining bends indicate that they have asymmetric flower structure cross-sectional geometries, with thrust faults rooting into oblique-slip and strike-slip master faults. Continued NE-directed convergence across the fault system, coupled with left-lateral strike-slip displacements, will lead to growth and coalescence of the restraining bends into a continuous sublinear range, possibly obscuring the original strike-slip fault system; this may be a common mountain building process. The largely unknown Gobi-<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan fault system is a major left-lateral strike-slip fault system (1200 km + long) that links the southern ranges of the Gobi Altai with the Barkol Tagh and Bogda Shan of the easternmost <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan in China. Active scarps cutting alluvial deposits are visible on satellite imagery along much of its central section, indicating Quaternary activity. The total displacement is unknown, but small parallel splays have apparent offsets of 20 + km, suggesting that the main fault zone has experienced significantly more displacement. Field investigations conducted at two locations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996E%26PSL.140...67D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996E%26PSL.140...67D"><span id="translatedtitle">Late Cenozoic transpression in southwestern Mongolia and the Gobi Altai-<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan connection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dickson Cunningham, W.; Windley, Brian F.; Dorjnamjaa, D.; Badamgarov, J.; Saandar, M.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>The Gobi Altai region of southwestern Mongolia is a natural laboratory for studying processes of active, transpressional, intracontinental mountain building at different stages of development. The region is structurally dominated by several major E-W left-lateral strike-slip fault systems. The North Gobi Altai fault system is a seismically active, right-stepping, left-lateral, strike-slip fault system that can be traced along the surface for over 350 km. The eastern two-thirds of the fault system ruptured during a major earthquake (M = 8.3) in 1957, whereas degraded fault scarps cutting alluvial deposits along the western third of the system indicate that this segment did not rupture during the 1957 event but has been active during the Quaternary. The highest mountains in the Gobi Altai are restraining bend uplifts along the length of the fault system. Detailed transects across two of the restraining bends indicate that they have asymmetric flower structure cross-sectional geometries, with thrust faults rooting into oblique-slip and strike-slip master faults. Continued NE-directed convergence across the fault system, coupled with left-lateral strike-slip displacements, will lead to growth and coalescence of the restraining bends into a continuous sublinear range, possibly obscuring the original strike-slip fault system; this may be a common mountain building process. The largely unknown Gobi-<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan fault system is a major left-lateral strike-slip fault system (1200 km + long) that links the southern ranges of the Gobi Altai with the Barkol Tagh and Bogda Shan of the easternmost <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan in China. Active scarps cutting alluvial deposits are visible on satellite imagery along much of its central section, indicating Quaternary activity. The total displacement is unknown, but small parallel splays have apparent offsets of 20 + km, suggesting that the main fault zone has experienced significantly more displacement. Field investigations conducted at two locations in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880032802&hterms=formation+rocky+mountains&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dformation%2Brocky%2Bmountains','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880032802&hterms=formation+rocky+mountains&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dformation%2Brocky%2Bmountains"><span id="translatedtitle">Source parameters for 11 earthquakes in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, central Asia, determined by P and SH waveform inversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nelson, Michael R.; Mccaffrey, Robert; Molnar, Peter</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The style and the distribution of faulting occurring today in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan region were studied, by digitizing long-period World-Wide Standard Seismograph Network P and SH waveforms of 11 of the largest <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan earthquakes between 1965 and 1982 and then using a least squares inversion routine to constrain their fault plane solutions and depths. The results of the examination indicate that north-south shortening is presently occurring in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, with the formation of basement uplifts flanked by moderately dipping thrust faults. The present-day tectonics of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan seem to be analogous to those of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah during the Laramide orogeny in Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.116...52R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.116...52R"><span id="translatedtitle">The texture of a fine-grained calcium-aluminium-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) in three dimensions and implications for early solar system condensation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Russell, Sara S.; Howard, Lauren</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>A 16 mm fine-grained spinel-rich calcium-aluminium-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) from the Allende CV3 meteorite was analysed using nano-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy on uncoated chips and a polished thin section. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is composed of spinel nodules surrounded by anorthite and Al-rich diopside rims. Minor secondary minerals including hedenbergite and nepheline are also present. The uncoated chips contain abundant wollastonite needles that are only rarely observed in the thin section. Nano-computed tomography shows that the structure of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is a branching interconnected network of nodules, most of which are attached to each other in three dimensions. However some nodules are unattached to the rest of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. The texture suggests that the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formed by condensation from a gas, and condensation and aggregation of nodules occurred contemporaneously, implying a high density of newly-formed dust. One portion of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is compact and rich in melilite, with a composition and texture dissimilar to the bulk of the inclusion. We infer that this is a melilite-rich mantle of the same <span class="hlt">CAI</span> that has experienced melting on one side.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015M%26PS...50.1512I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015M%26PS...50.1512I"><span id="translatedtitle">A compound Ca-, Al-rich inclusion from CV3 chondrite Northwest Africa 3118: Implications for understanding processes during <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ivanova, Marina A.; Lorenz, Cyril A.; Krot, Alexander N.; MacPherson, Glenn J.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion 3N from the Northwest Africa (NWA) 3118 CV3 carbonaceous chondrite is a unique cm-sized compound object, primarily a forsterite-bearing type B (FoB) <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, that encloses at least 26 smaller <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> of different types, including compact type A (CTA), B, C, and an ultra-refractory inclusion. Relative to typical type A and B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> found elsewhere, the bulk compositions of the types A and B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> within 3N more closely match the bulk compositions predicted by equilibrium condensation of a gas of solar composition. Being trapped within the FoB melt may have protected them from melt evaporation that affected most "stand-alone" <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. 3N originated either as an aggregate of many smaller (mostly types A, B, C) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> plus accreted Fo-bearing material (like an amoeboid olivine aggregate) which experienced partial melting of the whole, or else as a FoB melt droplet that collided with and trapped many smaller solid <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. In the former case, 3N recorded the earliest accretion of pebble-sized bodies known. In the latter case, the presence of a large number of individual refractory inclusions within 3N suggests a very high local density of refractory solids in the immediate region of the host <span class="hlt">CAI</span> during the brief time while it was melted. Collisions would have occurred on time scales of hours at most, assuming a melt solidification interval for the host <span class="hlt">CAI</span> of 300-400 °C (maximum) and a cooling rate of ~10 °C/h.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C41B0355R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C41B0355R"><span id="translatedtitle">Climatic vs. Seismic Controlled Rockglacier Advances in Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan - Insights from Lichenometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosenwinkel, S.; Korup, O.; Landgraf, A.; Dzhumabaeva, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Glaciers and permafrost landforms in high mountain areas are of major importance for storing and providing fresh water for the surroundings, especially in arid or semi-arid areas as Central Asia. Rockglaciers have been traditionally used as landform proxies of the distribution of alpine permafrost. In the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountains, the most distinct lobes of >200 rockglaciers that we mapped from satellite imagery occur at minimum elevations between 2500 and 3700 m. However, individual and particularly low-lying lobes extend down to well below 3000 m, and seem difficult to reconcile with regional paleoclimatic fluctuations. To support ground based and satellite imagery estimates on rockglacier advances (1 to 10 m/yr) and to gain information on their morphological characteristics, we present results of terrestrial LiDAR measurements on six rockglaciers in four steep mountain valleys in the Kyrgyz and Kazakh <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. Having the ability to destabilize, and thus provide massive sediment input from hillslopes, we hypothesize that strong earthquakes may also have influenced the formation or advance of some of the region's rockglaciers. This hypothesis is based on the observation that the tectonically active area was affected by a series of major earthquakes in the late 19th and earliest 20th centuries, which have subsequently triggered numerous landslides and rock falls. Using lichenometry, we aim to resolve age patterns on lobes of different rockglaciers located both, in the vicinity and distal from large young historic earthquakes. This method has been used successfully to reconstruct glaciation histories, and paleoseismicity. To gain information about and to compare advance histories of the rockglaciers from the relative ages of their lobes, we compiled a dataset of several thousand lichen diameter measurements of different species (e.g., Rhizocarpon geographicum, Aspicilia tianshanica, Lecanora muralis, and Xanthoria elegans). Results show that lichen age</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JSeis..10..431K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JSeis..10..431K"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismogenic destruction of the Kamenka medieval fortress, northern Issyk-Kul region, <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (Kyrgyzstan)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Korjenkov, Andrey M.; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon; Crosby, Christopher; Mamyrov, Ernes; Orlova, Lyubov A.; Povolotskaya, Irina E.; Tabaldiev, Kubatbek</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>A paleoseismological study of the medieval Kamenka fortress in the northern part of the Issyk-Kul Lake depression, northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan in Kyrgyzstan, revealed an oblique slip thrust fault scarp offsetting the fortification walls. This 700 m long scarp is not related to the 1911 Kebin Earthquake (Ms 8.2) fault scarps which are widespread in the region. As analysis of stratigraphy in a paleoseismic trench and archaeological evidence reveal, it can be assigned to a major twelfth century a.d. earthquake which produced up to 4 m of oblique slip thrusting antithetic to that of the nearby dominant faults. The inferred surface rupturing earthquake apparently caused the fortress destruction and was likely the primary reason for its abandonment, not the Mongolian Tatar invasions as previously thought.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T33A2642L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T33A2642L"><span id="translatedtitle">Paleoseismological investigations along a newly developing fault in the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan foreland near Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Landgraf, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K.; Djumabaeva, A.; Strecker, M. R.; Arrowsmith, R.; Haberland, C. A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is a low-strain orogen, which experiences large-magnitude earthquakes. The area comprises a broken foreland of basement-cored uplifts bounded by reverse faults that were reactivated along inherited shear zones, but lacks a clear deformation front. About one third of the current India-Asia collision is accommodated in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, but deformation is widely distributed across E-W striking structures. This pattern seems to be in agreement with long-term Quaternary slip rates of 1-3 mm/a, as calculated for single faults along a N-S transect. However, this pattern differs from the distribution of recent and historical seismicity, which is concentrated along the northern and southern periphery of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, respectively. Moreover, a series of major earthquakes occurred in the late 19th and earliest 20th centuries along the northern limit: 1885 (Ms 6.9), 1887 (Ms 7.3), 1889 (Ms 8.3), and 1911 (Ms 8.1). These events are amongst the largest known intraplate earthquakes worldwide and their spatial and temporal association is intriguing, but cause and recurrence still remain enigmatic. Furthermore, we find newly youthful fault scarps in close vicinity to reactivated inherited structures inferred to have been active during the Quaternary. To elucidate these rupture and earthquake patterns, we started paleoseismological investigations along a young fault, located just 35 km west of Belovodskoie, the epicenter of the 1885 (Ms 6.9) earthquake, and about 75 km west of Bishkek, the Kyrgyz capital. Two scarps are developed in an alluvial fan, nested inside a late Pleistocene loess terrace. The northern, more prominent, E-W striking scarp, can be followed for about 4 km across the alluvial fan. It is aligned with a cumulative break in topography of about 13 m in the loess-covered surface to the west. The trace of the scarp suggests a dominant reverse faulting mechanism, while the smaller scarp suggests a minor left-lateral component of motion. The alluvial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.C42A..02S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.C42A..02S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Glacial Retreat and Associated Glacial Lake Hazards in the High <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, T. T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A number of studies have identified glacial retreat throughout the greater Himalayan region over the past few decades, but the Karakorum region remains an anomaly with large stagnating or advancing glaciers. The glacial behavior in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is still unclear, as few studies have investigated mass balances in the region. This study focuses on the highest peaks of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountain range, in the region of Jengish Chokusu along the Kyrgyzstan-China-Kazakhstan border. In a first step, a 30-year time series of Landsat imagery (n=27) and ASTER imagery (n=10) was developed to track glacial growth and retreat in the region. Using a combination of spectral and topographic information, glacial outlines are automatically delineated. As several important glaciers in the study region contain medium to high levels of debris cover, our algorithm also improves upon current methods of detecting debris-covered glaciers by using topography, distance weighting methods, river networks, and additional spectral data. Linked to glacial retreat are glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) that have become increasingly common in High Mountain Asia over the last few decades. As glaciers retreat, their melt water is often trapped by weakly bonded moraines. These moraines have been known to fail due to overtopping caused by surge waves created by avalanches, rockslides, or glacial calving. A suite of studies throughout High Mountain Asia have used remotely-sensed data to monitor the formation and growth of glacial lakes. In a second step of the work, lake-area changes over the past 15 years were tracked monthly and seasonally using dense Landsat/ASTER coverage (n=30) with an automatic procedure based on spectral and topographic information. Previous work has identified GLOFs as a significant process for infrastructural damage in the southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan/northern Pamir, as well as in the better studied Himalaya region. Lake identification and quantification of lake-growth rates is a valuable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP41A1979S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP41A1979S"><span id="translatedtitle">Dissolved Chemical Ions in an Ice Core of Grigoriev Ice Cap, Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>SHUN, A.; Takeuchi, N.; Sera, S.; Fujita, K.; Okamoto, S.; Naoki, K.; Aizen, V. B.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Snow and ice of glaciers contain various chemical ions supplied through the atmosphere and preserve them for a long period of time. Thus, analysis of soluble ions in glaciers is important to reveal material circulation and climate change in the cryosphere. Many glaciers are distributed over the mountains of the Central Asia. Chemical analysis of ice cores recovered from there play an important role to understand the atmosphere and material circulation peculiar to the Eurasian Continent. In this study, we analyzed the concentration of major ions in the ice core drilled on Grigoriev Ice Cap, Kyrgys <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, located in the northwestern part of Central Asia. We aim to understand material circulation in this area based on the chemical records. Then, we have attempted to reconstruct the environmental change of Central Asia, combining the chronology, hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratio, and density of dust in the ice core analyzed by prior researches. In this study, we used 2,176 samples of a snow pit and ice core from the surface to bed (86.87 m total length) on the top of Grigoriev Ice Cap (4,660 m high), Kyrgys <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan in September, 2007. Samples were cut every 1-5 cm and scraped thinly, and transported frozen to Chiba University, Japan. After that, we dispensed those for various experiments, and analyzed the concentration of major ions using ion chromatography. By the way, it is estimated that the date of the bottom of this ice core is approximately 12,000 years ago by prior researches. The concentration of major ions dissolved in the ice core of Grigoriev Ice Cap revealed that Ca is the most dominant species in the measured ions and it accounted for more than 50 % (Eq ratio) of the mean of the entire core. This suggests that CaCO3 included in mineral dust derived from deserts around <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan strongly influence the chemical composition of the Ice Cap. In addition, this composition is similar to those of Urumqi No.1 Glacier (<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan), Mustagh Ata Glacier</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JAESc..21....7S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JAESc..21....7S"><span id="translatedtitle">Postcollisional granites in the South <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Variscan Collisional Belt, Kyrgyzstan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Solomovich, L. I.; Trifonov, B. A.</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>Two major types of the potassium-rich postcollisional granites of Permian age were studied in the South <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Variscan Collisional Belt. The first type, metaluminous granites of the Jangart complex, are located along the southeastern boundary of this belt with the Precambrian Tarim Block. The plagioclase rims on K-feldspar megacrysts (rapakivi texture), extremely high FeO t/(FeO t+MgO) ratio, indications of the low H 2O and O 2 fugacities, high concentrations of the incompatible elements especially light rare earth elements (LREE), Ba, Nb along with heightened contents of the compatible elements especially Ni, Cr and moderately initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio (Sr 0=0.7075) make those granites similar to other rapakivi granites. The second type, peraluminous granites of the Inylchek complex, is located along the northwestern boundary of the belt with the Caledonian Kazakh Microcontinent. Those granites are rich in F, B, Li, Rb, Cs, Sn, Ta and heavy rare earth elements (HREE), but are poor in Ba, Sr, Ni and Cr and are characterized by the relatively high initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio (Sr 0=0.7098). Li-mica granites are distributed widely among them. The granites of a transitional type (Uchkoshkon complex) occupy an intermediate geographic position between major granite types. The initial Sr isotopic composition of the transitional granites varies widely (Sr 0 from 0.7080 to 0.7256). The variation in chemical composition of the coeval postcollisional granites across the Collisional belt, together with the variability of initial Sr isotopic ratios of the transitional granites, are thought to indicate basement heterogeneity. This heterogeneity, in turn, is probably related to thrusting of the Tarim Block under South <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan during the collision.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20919396','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20919396"><span id="translatedtitle">An experimental study of the combustion characteristics in SCCI and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> based on direct-injection gasoline engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.</p> <p>2007-08-15</p> <p>Emissions remain a critical issue affecting engine design and operation, while energy conservation is becoming increasingly important. One approach to favorably address these issues is to achieve homogeneous charge combustion and stratified charge combustion at lower peak temperatures with a variable compression ratio, a variable intake temperature and a trapped rate of the EGR using NVO (negative valve overlap). This experiment was attempted to investigate the origins of these lower temperature auto-ignition phenomena with SCCI and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> using gasoline fuel. In case of SCCI, the combustion and emission characteristics of gasoline-fueled stratified-charge compression ignition (SCCI) engine according to intake temperature and compression ratio was examined. We investigated the effects of air-fuel ratio, residual EGR rate and injection timing on the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> combustion area. In addition, the effect of injection timing on combustion factors such as the start of combustion, its duration and its heat release rate was also investigated. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009GeCoA..73.5100P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009GeCoA..73.5100P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Petrologic study of SJ101, a new forsterite-bearing <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from the Allende CV3 chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petaev, Michail I.; Jacobsen, Stein B.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The forsterite-bearing Type B (FoB) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> SJ101 consists of three major structural units: (1) light patches of sector-zoned, poikilitic Al-rich clinopyroxene (Cpx) with numerous inclusions of small spinel grains and aggregates and subordinate amounts of Mg-rich melilite (Mel) and anorthite (An) (Sp-Cpx lithology), (2) dark sinuous bands of Al-rich clinopyroxene with large (up to ˜300 × 60 μm) poikilitically enclosed euhedral forsterite (Fo) crystals (Fo-Cpx lithology), and (3) the external Cpx-Sp-An rim overlying the entire inclusion. The two major lithologies are always separated by a transition zone of clinopyroxene poikilitically enclosing both forsterite and spinel. The patches of the Sp-Cpx lithology exhibit significant textural and mineralogical variability that is size-dependent. Small patches typically consist of Cpx and spinel with minor remnants of melilite and/or its alteration products. Large patches contain Mel-An-rich cores with either equigranular-ophitic-subophitic or 'lacy' textures reminiscent of those in Types B or C <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, respectively. All silicates poikilitically enclose numerous spinel grains of identical habit. Both melilite and anorthite gradually disappear toward the boundary with the Fo-Cpx lithology. Neither the evaporation mantle of Al-rich melilite typical of other FoBs nor the Wark-Lovering rim is present. Secondary minerals include grossular, monticellite, magnetite, and a few grains of wollastonite, andradite, and nepheline. Being a rather typical FoB mineralogically and chemically, texturally SJ101 differs from other FoBs in displaying the nearly complete segregation of forsterite from spinel which occur only in the Fo-Cpx and Sp-Cpx lithologies, respectively. The complex, convoluted internal structure of SJ101 suggests that the coarse-grained Sp-An-Mel-Cpx cores and Fo-Cpx lithology represent the precursor materials of FoBs, proto-<span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and Fo-rich accretionary rims. While the inferred chemistry and mineralogy of the Fo-rich rims</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Metic..29..461E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Metic..29..461E"><span id="translatedtitle">Efremovka E49: A compact type-A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> containing a partially molten spinel-melilite-diopside xenolith</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>El Goresy, A.; Zinner, E. K.</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>Eframovka E49 is a triangular 2-mm segment from a Compact Type A (CTA) inclusion with large portions of intact core and rim sequence. It is probably a fragment from an originally round approximately equal to 4-mm Ca-Al rich Inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>). The core consists of two lithologically different assemblages: (1) The major portion of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> contains melilite sprinkled with rare spinel, perovskite, and the new Ca-Ti silicate. It is covered by a six-layer rim consisting of (from the interior outward): two layers of Zr- and Y-rich perovskite, spinel, Al-diopside, diopside, and forsteritic olivine. (2) A 650-micron wide complex xenolith contains coarse spinel, melilite, perovskite, and metal in its interior, surrounded by a broad shell of Al-diopside, diopside, and minor fassaite and anorthite, and in the rim fassaite yields Al-diopside yields diopside. Coarse spinels abundantly display resorbtion outlines and some of the grains have been broken down to several amoeboid fragments floating in the eutectic assemblage. All these textures are evidence of local melting of the xenolith followed by fast cooling. No such features are observed in the host <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Since melting is confined to the xenolith, the melt event must have predated its capture into the core of E49. Ion microprobe trace-element studies reveal distinct differences between Rare Earth Element (REE) abundances in perovskites in the xenolith and the host <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Perovskites in the xenolith display REE patterns with prominent Yb and small Ce excesses and large Eu depletions. Perovskites in the xenolith show higher abundances of Nb, Zr, and V. Magnesium in xenolith and the host is almost unfractionated. Excesses of Mg-26 are found both in the xenolith and the host with data points plotting along a line with a slope of 4 x 105. This is in accord with the petrographic interpretation and indicates that the melting of the xenolith and its capture in E49 took place early.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950012911&hterms=Fractionation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DFractionation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950012911&hterms=Fractionation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DFractionation"><span id="translatedtitle">Heating during solar nebula formation and Mg isotopic fractionation in precursor grains of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and chondrules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sasaki, S.; Nagahara, H.; Kitagami, K.; Nakagawa, Y.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>In some Ca-Al-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) grains, mass-dependent isotopic fractionations of Mg, Si, and O are observed and large Mg isotopic fractionation is interpreted to have been produced by cosmochemical processes such as evaporation and condensation. Mass-dependent Mg isotopic fractionation was found in olivine chondrules of Allende meteorites. Presented is an approximate formula for the temperature of the solar nebula that depends on heliocentric distance and the initial gas distribution. Shock heating during solar nebula formation can cause evaporative fractionation within interstellar grains involved in a gas at the inner zone (a less than 3 AU) of the disk. Alternatively collision of late-accreting gas blobs might cause similar heating if Sigma(sub s) and Sigma are large enough. Since the grain size is small, the solid/gas mass ratio is low and solar (low P(sub O2)), and the ambient gas pressure is low, this heating event could not produce chondrules themselves. Chondrule formation should proceed around the disk midplane after dust grains would grow and sediment to increase the solid/gas ratio there. The heating source there is uncertain, but transient rapid accretion through the disk could release a large amount of heat, which would be observed as FU Orionis events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850054072&hterms=Prizes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPrizes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850054072&hterms=Prizes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPrizes"><span id="translatedtitle">Willy: A prize noble Ur-Fremdling - Its history and implications for the formation of Fremdlinge and <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Armstrong, J. T.; El Goresy, A.; Wasserburg, G. J.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The structure and composition of Willy, a 150-micron-diameter Fremdling in <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 5241 from the Allende meteorite, are investigated using optical, secondary-electron, and electron-backscatter microscopy and electron-microprobe analysis. The results are presented in diagrams, maps, tables, graphs, and micrographs and compared with those for other Allende Fremdlinge. Willy is found to have a concentric-zone structure comprising a complex porous core of magnetite, metal, sulfide, scheelite, and other minor phases; a compact magnetite-apatite mantle; a thin (20 microns or less) reaction-assemblage zone; and a dense outer rim of fassaite with minor spinel. A multistage formation sequence involving changes in T and fO2 and preceding the introduction of Willy into the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (which itself preceded <span class="hlt">CAI</span> spinel and silicate formation) is postulated, and it is inferred from the apparent lack of post-capture recrystallization that Willy has not been subjected to temperatures in excess of 600 C and may represent the precursor material for many other Fremdlinge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9840748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9840748"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of neutralized chemical agent identification sets (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>) for skin injury with an overview of the vesicant potential of agent degradation products.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Olajos, E J; Olson, C T; Salem, H; Singer, A W; Hayes, T L; Menton, R G; Miller, T L; Rosso, T; MacIver, B</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Vesication and skin irritation studies were conducted in hairless guinea-pigs to determine the vesicant and skin irritation potential of chemically-neutralized Chemical Agent Identification Sets (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>). The <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> are training items that contain chemical warfare-related material--sulfur mustard (HD), nitrogen mustard (HN) or lewisite (L)--and were declared obsolete in 1971. Animals were dosed topically with 'test article'--neat HD, 10% agent/chloroform solutions or product solutions (waste-streams) from neutralized <span class="hlt">CAIS</span>--and evaluated for skin-damaging effects (gross and microscopic). Product solutions from the chemical neutralization of neat sulfur mustard resulted in microvesicle formation. All agent-dosed (HD or agent/chloroform solutions) sites manifested microblisters as well as other histopathological lesions of the skin. Waste-streams from the neutralization of agent (agent/chloroform or agent/charcoal) were devoid of vesicant activity. Cutaneous effects (erythema and edema) were consistent with the skin-injurious activity associated with the neutralizing reagent 1,3-dichloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DCDMH). Chemical neutralization of <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> was effective in eliminating/reducing the vesicant property of <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> containing agent in chloroform or agent on charcoal but was inefficient in reducing the vesicant potential of <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> containing neat sulfur mustard.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Geote..47..291B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Geote..47..291B"><span id="translatedtitle">Geodynamics of late Paleozoic magmatism in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and its framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Biske, Yu. S.; Konopelko, D. L.; Seltmann, R.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>The Devonian-Permian history of magmatic activity in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and its framework has been considered using new isotopic datings. It has been shown that the intensity of magmatism and composition of igneous rocks are controlled by interaction of the local thermal upper mantle state (plumes) and dynamics of the lithosphere on a broader regional scale (plate motion). The Kazakhstan paleocontinent, which partly included the present-day <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Kyzylkum, was formed in the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian as a result of amalgamation of ancient continental masses and island arcs. In the Early Devonian, heating of the mantle resulted in the within-plate basaltic volcanism in the southern framework of the Kazakhstan paleocontinent (Turkestan paleoocean) and development of suprasubduction magmatism over an extensive area at its margin. In the Middle-Late Devonian, the margins of the Turkestan paleoocean were passive; the area of within-plate oceanic magmatism shifted eastward, and the active margin was retained at the junction with the Balkhash-Junggar paleoocean. A new period of active magmatism was induced by an overall shortening of the region under the settings of plate convergence. The process started in the Early Carboniferous at the Junggar-Balkhash margin of the Kazakhstan paleocontinent and the southern (Paleotethian) margin of the Karakum-Tajik paleocontinent. In the Late Carboniferous, magmatism developed along the northern boundary of the Turkestan paleoocean, which was closing between them. The disappearance of deepwater oceanic basins by the end of the Carboniferous was accompanied by collisional granitic magmatism, which inherited the paleolocations of subduction zones. Postcollision magmatism fell in the Early Permian with a peak at 280 Ma ago. In contrast to Late Carboniferous granitic rocks, the localization of Early Permian granitoids is more independent of collision sutures. The magmatism of this time comprises: (1) continuation of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27100016','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27100016"><span id="translatedtitle">Accelerated glacier shrinkage in the Ak-Shyirak massif, Inner <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, during 2003-2013.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petrakov, Dmitry; Shpuntova, Alyona; Aleinikov, Alexandr; Kääb, Andreas; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Lavrentiev, Ivan; Stoffel, Markus; Tutubalina, Olga; Usubaliev, Ryskul</p> <p>2016-08-15</p> <p>The observed increase in summer temperatures and the related glacier downwasting has led to a noticeable decrease of frozen water resources in Central Asia, with possible future impacts on the economy of all downstream countries in the region. Glaciers in the Ak-Shyirak massif, located in the Inner <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, are not only affected by climate change, but also impacted by the open pit gold mining of the Kumtor Gold Company. In this study, glacier inventories referring to the years 2003 and 2013 were created for the Ak-Shyirak massif based on satellite imagery. The 193 glaciers had a total area of 351.2±5.6km(2) in 2013. Compared to 2003, the total glacier area decreased by 5.9±3.4%. During 2003-2013, the shrinkage rate of Ak-Shyirak glaciers was twice than that in 1977-2003 and similar to shrinkage rates in <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan frontier ranges. We assessed glacier volume in 2013 using volume-area (VA) scaling and GlabTop modelling approaches. Resulting values for the whole massif differ strongly, the VA scaling derived volume is 30.0-26.4km(3) whereas the GlabTop derived volume accounts for 18.8-13.2km(3). Ice losses obtained from both approaches were compared to geodetically-derived volume change. VA scaling underestimates ice losses between 1943 and 2003 whereas GlabTop reveals a good match for eight glaciers for the period 2003-2012. In comparison to radio-echo soundings from three glaciers, the GlabTop model reveals a systematic underestimation of glacier thickness with a mean deviation of 16%. GlabTop tends to significantly underestimate ice thickness in accumulation areas, but tends to overestimate ice thickness in the lowermost parts of glacier snouts. Direct technogenic impact is responsible for about 7% of area and 5% of mass loss for glaciers in the Ak-Shyirak massif during 2003-2013. Therefore the increase of summer temperature seems to be the main driver of accelerated glacier shrinkage in the area. PMID:27100016</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7384K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7384K"><span id="translatedtitle">South <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan orogenic belt: structure, magmatism and gold mineralization (Uzbekistan)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koneev, Rustam; Seltmann, Reimer</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan represents one of the key units of the Central Asian orogenic belt in Uzbekistan. Together with the Beltau-Kurama volcano-plutonic arc it formed as a result of subduction of the crust under the Turkistan paleoocean and the Kazakhstan continent, followed by collision and post-collisional strike-slip processes. The Southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is of particular interest due to its gold mineralisation. It hosts the giant Muruntau gold deposit and the large gold deposits of Amantaitau, Daugyztau, Myutenbay (Kyzylkum ore district) and Charmitan, Guzhumsay, Urtalik (Nurata ore district). The Middle Tienshan hosts within the Beltau-Kurama volcano-plutonic arc the Kurama ore district with the giant Kalmakyr Cu-Au porphyry and large epithermal Au-Ag deposits of Kochbulak and Kyzylalma. Yakubchuk et al. (2005) and others stress that the largest ore clusters are confined by the intersections of volcano-plutonic belts and transform faults in result of sinistral strike slip dislocations during the Permo-Carboniferous. Others believe that the ore giants are in addition controlled by hot spots - a mantle plume, superimposed on the crust architecture shaped by the subduction processes. Zircon U-Pb geochronology of main intrusive massifs of Uzbekistan (CERCAMS data) showed that granitoid magmatism is predominantly of postcollisional age, manifested in the accretionary units at 270-290 Ma, whereas subduction magmatism prevails as characteristic in the volcano-plutonic arc at 300-320 Ma. Determination of sulphide mineralization ages using Os-Re method (CERCAMS data), are respectively 283-289 Ma and 298-314 Ma. The studies were performed in the framework of IGCP- 592. References 1. Yakubchuk A.S., Shatov V.V., Kirwin D. et al., (2005) Gold and base metal metallogeny of the Central Asian Orogenic supercollage: Society of Economic Geologists, Inc. Economic Geology, 100th, Anniversary Volume, 1035-1068. 2. Groves, D.I., Goldfarb, R.J., Gebre-Mariam, M., Hagemann, S.G. and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.269...75Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.269...75Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconstruction of glacial lake outburst floods in northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan: Implications for hazard assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaginaev, V.; Ballesteros-Cánovas, J. A.; Erokhin, S.; Matov, E.; Petrakov, D.; Stoffel, M.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and related debris flows are among the most significant natural threats in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mountains of Kyrgyzstan and have even caused the loss of life and damage to infrastructure in its capital Bishkek. An improved understanding of the occurrence of this process is essential so as to be able to design reliable disaster risk reduction strategies, even more so in view of ongoing climate change and scenarios of future evolutions. Here, we apply a dendrogeomorphic approach to reconstruct past debris-flow activity on the Aksay cone (Ala-Archa valley, Kyrgyz range), where outbursting glacier lakes and intense rainfalls have triggered huge debris flows over the past decades. A total of 96 Picea abies (L.) Karst. trees growing on the cone and along the main channel have been selected based on the evidence of past debris-flow damage in their trunks; these trees were then sampled using increment borers. The dating of past events was based on the assessment of growth disturbances (GD) in the tree-ring records and included the detection of injuries, tangential rows of traumatic resin ducts, reaction wood, and abrupt growth changes. In total, 320 GD were identified in the tree-ring samples. In combination with aerial imagery and geomorphic recognition in the field, reactions in trees and their position on the cone have allowed reconstruction of the main spatial patterns of past events on the Aksay cone. Our findings suggest that at least 27 debris flows have occurred on the site between 1877 and 2015 and point to the occurrence of at least 17 events that were not documented prior to this study. We also observe high process activity during the 1950s and 1960s, with major events on the cone in 1950, 1966, and 1968, coinciding with phases of slight glacier advance. The spatial analyses of events also point to two different spatial patterns, suggesting that quite dissimilar magnitudes probably occurred during glacier lake outburst floods and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008E%26PSL.272..353J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008E%26PSL.272..353J"><span id="translatedtitle">26Al- 26Mg and 207Pb- 206Pb systematics of Allende <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>: Canonical solar initial 26Al/ 27Al ratio reinstated</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jacobsen, Benjamin; Yin, Qing-zhu; Moynier, Frederic; Amelin, Yuri; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Palme, Herbert</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>The precise knowledge of the initial 26Al/ 27Al ratio [( 26Al/ 27Al) 0] is crucial if we are to use the very first solid objects formed in our Solar System, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) as the "time zero" age-anchor and guide future work with other short-lived radio-chronometers in the early Solar System, as well as determining the inventory of heat budgets from radioactivities for early planetary differentiation. New high-precision multi-collector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) measurements of 27Al/ 24Mg ratios and Mg-isotopic compositions of nine whole-rock <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> (six mineralogically characterized fragments and three micro-drilled inclusions) from the CV carbonaceous chondrite, Allende yield a well-defined 26Al- 26Mg fossil isochron with an ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 of (5.23 ± 0.13) × 10 - 5 . Internal mineral isochrons obtained for three of these <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> ( A44A, AJEF, and A43) are consistent with the whole-rock <span class="hlt">CAI</span> isochron. The mineral isochron of AJEF with ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 = (4.96 ± 0.25) × 10 - 5 , anchored to our precisely determined absolute 207Pb- 206Pb age of 4567.60 ± 0.36 Ma for the same mineral separates, reinstate the "canonical" ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 of 5 × 10 - 5 for the early Solar System. The uncertainty in ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 corresponds to a maximum time span of ± 20 Ka (thousand years), suggesting that the Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation events were culminated within this time span. Although all Allende <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> studied experienced multistage formation history, including melting and evaporation in the solar nebula and post-crystallization alteration likely on the asteroidal parent body, the 26Al- 26Mg and U-Pb-isotopic systematics of the mineral separates and bulk <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> behaved largely as closed-system since their formation. Our data do not support the "supra-canonical" 26Al/ 27Al ratio of individual minerals or their mixtures in CV <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, suggesting that the supra-canonical 26Al/ 27Al ratio in the CV <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> may have resulted from post</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20799645','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20799645"><span id="translatedtitle">[Termites (Isoptera) in forest ecosystems of Cat <span class="hlt">Tien</span> National Park (Southern Vietnam)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beliaeva, N V; Tiunov, A V</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The species composition and termite community populations were studied and the total land termites biomass was estimated in five forest habitats of Cat <span class="hlt">Tien</span> National Park, Southern Vietnam. Twenty-four species of two families, Rhinotermitidae (1 species) and Termitidae (23 species), the predominant representatives of the subfamily Macrotermitinae, were found in mounds and in soil samples. On the test plots the density of termite mounds averaged 68 per hectare, primarily the mounds of three Macrotermes species. Destructive sampling allowed estimation of the caste composition and total community biomass based on six termite mounds of the prevailing species (Globitermes sulphureus, Microcerotermes burmanicus, Macrotermes carbonarius, M. gilvus, M. malaccensis, and Hypotermes obscuriceps). The total number of termites in the nests ranged from 65 000 to 3 150 000 individuals with the total biomass ranging from 185 to 2440 g live weight. The total abundance of nesting Macrotermes species alone could conservatively be estimated as 2.5 million individuals and 20.5 kg live weight per hectare. The number of soil- and litter-feeding termites averaged for the test plots was estimated at about 60 ind./m2. Four species dominating on the test plots (M. carbonarius, M. gilvus, M. malaccensis, and H. obscuriceps) belong to active tree litter feeders. PMID:20799645</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20799645','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20799645"><span id="translatedtitle">[Termites (Isoptera) in forest ecosystems of Cat <span class="hlt">Tien</span> National Park (Southern Vietnam)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beliaeva, N V; Tiunov, A V</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The species composition and termite community populations were studied and the total land termites biomass was estimated in five forest habitats of Cat <span class="hlt">Tien</span> National Park, Southern Vietnam. Twenty-four species of two families, Rhinotermitidae (1 species) and Termitidae (23 species), the predominant representatives of the subfamily Macrotermitinae, were found in mounds and in soil samples. On the test plots the density of termite mounds averaged 68 per hectare, primarily the mounds of three Macrotermes species. Destructive sampling allowed estimation of the caste composition and total community biomass based on six termite mounds of the prevailing species (Globitermes sulphureus, Microcerotermes burmanicus, Macrotermes carbonarius, M. gilvus, M. malaccensis, and Hypotermes obscuriceps). The total number of termites in the nests ranged from 65 000 to 3 150 000 individuals with the total biomass ranging from 185 to 2440 g live weight. The total abundance of nesting Macrotermes species alone could conservatively be estimated as 2.5 million individuals and 20.5 kg live weight per hectare. The number of soil- and litter-feeding termites averaged for the test plots was estimated at about 60 ind./m2. Four species dominating on the test plots (M. carbonarius, M. gilvus, M. malaccensis, and H. obscuriceps) belong to active tree litter feeders.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IzPSE..50..415S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IzPSE..50..415S"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress drop in the sources of intermediate-magnitude earthquakes in northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sycheva, N. A.; Bogomolov, L. M.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The paper is devoted to estimating the dynamical parameters of 14 earthquakes with intermediate magnitudes (energy class 11 to 14), which occurred in the Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. For obtaining the estimates of these parameters, including the stress drop, which could be then applied in crustal stress reconstruction by the technique suggested by Yu.L. Rebetsky (Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences), we have improved the algorithms and programs for calculating the spectra of the seismograms. The updated products allow for the site responses and spectral transformations during the propagation of seismic waves through the medium (the effect of finite Q-factor). By applying the new approach to the analysis of seismograms recorded by the seismic KNET network, we calculated the radii of the sources (Brune radius), scalar seismic moment, and stress drop (release) for the studied 14 earthquakes. The analysis revealed a scatter in the source radii and stress drop even among the earthquakes that have almost identical energy classes. The stress drop by different earthquakes ranges from one to 75 bar. We have also determined the focal mechanisms and stress regime of the Earth's crust. It is worth noting that during the considered period, strong seismic events with energy class above 14 were absent within the segment covered by the KNET stations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geote..50..366L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geote..50..366L"><span id="translatedtitle">Alpine tectonics of granites in basement of Ysyk-Köl Basin, northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leonov, M. G.; Przhiyalgovsky, E. S.; Lavrushina, E. V.; Poleshchuk, A. V.; Rybin, A. K.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The Ysyk-Köl Basin filled with Lower Jurassic-Quaternary sedimentary rocks is the largest intermontane negative structural unit of the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The basement of this basin is composed of Precambrian-Paleozoic rocks, largely of Ordovician and Silurian granitoids exposed in mountain ranges of the basin framework and as separate anticlinal domes situated in areas occupied by the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary cover. The postmagmatic tectonic internalstructure of the Chonkurchak (Chunkurchak), Kyzyl-Choku, Kyzyl-Bulak, and Prishib massifs emplaced in the basement, as well as their relationships to the sedimentary cover, are described in the paper. The study was carried out using the morphostructural method, detailed geological mapping, structural kinematic analysis, and petrographic examination of rocks. The internalstructure of Paleozoic granites in the basement and indications of their 3D tectonic flow are characterized. It is shown that granites underwent 3D deformation after their emplacement in the consolidated crust, and this process had a substantial influence on tectonic processes at the plate and orogenic stages of regional evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S13A4439G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S13A4439G"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic Microzoning of Cap-Haï<span class="hlt">tien</span>: Effects of Lithological Site and Liquefaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gilles, R.; Jeudy, B.; Prepetit, C.; Bertil, D.; Roulle, A.; Noury, G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>After the earthquake of January 12, 2010 in Haiti, the Haitian Government has resolved to implement a program of seismic microzonation for most vulnerable cities in the country by the way of prevention. Metropolitan Port-au-Prince and five cities in the North of Haiti including Cap-Haitien were included in this program. The seismic microzonation is an important tool for the knowledge of the seismic risk. It is based on the collection of geological, geophysical and geotechnical data. It describes a specific class of soil associated with each type of soil. Its goal is to map the homogenous zones of soil to effects of site lithology, topographic site effects, liquefaction and ground movements. This work is based on two aspects of the studies of microzoning for the city of Cap-Haï<span class="hlt">tien</span>: effects of lithological site and Liquefaction. The zoning of site effects is to identify and map the areas with consistent geological and geomechanical characteristics and homogeneous seismic response; the objective is to provide, in each zone, seismic movements adapted. Five classes of soil at site effects were distinguished. Associated responses spectra were obtained by a 1D nonlinear analysis using CyberQuake software (Modaressi et al. 1997 BRGM). The zoning of the liquefaction present the liquefaction potential of different areas. Three levels of risk of liquefaction were found during this study that a large part of the city is strongly liquefiable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Tectp.590..196M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Tectp.590..196M"><span id="translatedtitle">Ordovician-Carboniferous tectono-sedimentary evolution of the North Nuratau region, Uzbekistan (Westernmost <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCann, T.; Nurtaev, B.; Kharin, V.; Valdivia-Manchego, M.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is a c. 2500 km long orogenic belt of which the Nuratau region of eastern Uzbekistan forms the western part. Petrographical and field analysis of the Ordovician-Carboniferous succession in the North Nuratau region provided the basis for a reconstruction of the depositional settings along part of the northern margin of the Alai continent and their evolution during the period of closure of the Turkestan Ocean, which separated the Alai and the Kazakh-Kyrgyz continents. Initial sedimentation (Ordovician) was broadly carbonate dominated, although by Mid-Late Ordovician times siliciclastic input predominated in some areas. These variations, between clastic- and carbonate-dominated regions may have been related to tectonic activity within the Alai continent. Carbonate sedimentation was reestablished in the ?Wenlock, with broad shelf systems forming along the continental margin. Volcanic activity in the Early Devonian records a period of tectonic instability, and this was followed by the reestablishment of the carbonate mosaic, albeit with a greater degree of instability (as indicated by stratigraphic gaps) than in the Silurian. This pattern extended up into the Carboniferous culminating in backarc-related magmatic activity. Final closure of the Turkestan Ocean involved significant folding and thrusting, as well as a major change from compressional to strike-slip movement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT.......222B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT.......222B"><span id="translatedtitle">An investigative study into the effectiveness of using computer-aided instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) as a laboratory component of college-level biology: A case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barrett, Joan Beverly</p> <p></p> <p>Community colleges serve the most diverse student populations in higher education. They consist of non-traditional, part-time, older, intermittent, and mobile students of different races, ethnic backgrounds, language preferences, physical and mental abilities, and learning style preferences. Students who are academically challenged may have diverse learning characteristics that are not compatible with the more traditional approaches to the delivery of instruction. With this need come new ways of solving the dilemma, such as Computer-aided Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>). This case study investigated the use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> as a laboratory component of college-level biology in a small, rural community college setting. The intent was to begin to fill a void that seems to exist in the literature regarding the role of the faculty in the development and use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. In particular, the investigator was seeking to understand the practice and its effectiveness, especially in helping the under prepared student. The case study approach was chosen to examine a specific phenomenon within a single institution. Ethnographic techniques, such as interviewing, documentary analysis, life's experiences, and participant observations were used to collect data about the phenomena being studied. Results showed that the faculty was primarily self-motivated and self-taught in their use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> as a teaching and learning tool. The importance of faculty leadership and collegiality was evident. Findings showed the faculty confident that expectations of helping students who have difficulties with mathematical concepts have been met and that <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is becoming the most valuable of learning tools. In a traditional college classroom, or practice, time is the constant (semesters) and competence is the variable. In the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> laboratory time became the variable and competence the constant. The use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> also eliminated hazardous chemicals that were routinely used in the more traditional lab. Outcomes showed that annual savings</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026913','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026913"><span id="translatedtitle">Association between atmospheric circulation patterns and firn-ice core records from the Inilchek glacierized area, central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Aizen, V.B.; Aizen, E.M.; Melack, J.M.; Kreutz, K.J.; Cecil, L.D.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Glacioclimatological research in the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan was performed in the summers of 1998 and 1999 on the South Inilchek Glacier at 5100-5460 m. A 14.36 m firn-ice core and snow samples were collected and used for stratigraphic, isotopic, and chemical analyses. The firn-ice core and snow records were related to snow pit measurements at an event scale and to meteorological data and synoptic indices of atmospheric circulation at annual and seasonal scales. Linear relationships between the seasonal air temperature and seasonal isotopic composition in accumulated precipitation were established. Changes in the ??18O air temperature relationship, in major ion concentration and in the ratios between chemical species, were used to identify different sources of moisture and investigate changes in atmospheric circulation patterns. Precipitation over the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is characterized by the lowest ionic content among the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan glaciers and indicates its mainly marine origin. In seasons of minimum precipitation, autumn and winter, water vapor was derived from the and and semiarid regions in central Eurasia and contributed annual maximal solute content to snow accumulation in <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The lowest content of major ions was observed in spring and summer layers, which represent maximum seasonal accumulation when moisture originates over the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean and Black Seas. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GPC....56....1B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GPC....56....1B"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate change and glacier retreat in northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (Kazakhstan/Kyrgyzstan) using remote sensing data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bolch, Tobias</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>This paper presents an analysis of precipitation and temperature trends and a GIS-supported investigation of the related glacier change in the mountain ridges Zailiyskiy and Kungey Alatau, which represent an important part of the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The recent glacier coverage was delineated in a semi-automated way using a TM4/TM5 ratio image of a Landsat ETM Scene from the year 1999 and a merged ASTER/SRTM3-DEM. The extent of these glaciers is compared to that of the glaciers in the Soviet Glacier Inventory [UdSSR, Academica Nauk (1966 to 1983). Katalog Lednikov SSSR (in Russian), Gidrometeoizdat. Leningrad], which represents the situation in study area in approx. 1955. Regionalization of temperature and precipitation as well as solar radiation calculation was conducted in order to determine the climate situation at the glaciers. Trend and correlation analysis for the period from 1879 to 2000 at 16 climate stations showed a temperature increase, which have become pronounced since the 1950s. Another strong increase occurred at the beginning of the 1970s and since around 1980, the temperatures have generally stayed at this high level. The trend coefficient was about 0.8 K/100a for the period 1900 to 2000 and about 2.0 K/100a on average for the second half of the last century. The increase was about two times higher than the global average in northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan from 1950 until 2000, where the increase was mainly due to temperature rise in autumn and winter. The increase is less pronounced in the mountainous areas, but still obvious. However, the higher temperature increase at the lower stations, located for the most part in cities or larger settlements, may be due in part to increased urbanization. For precipitation, there was a small increase on average, but no clear trend. On the average, the decrease in glacier extent was more than 32% between 1955 and 1999 in the investigated valleys of Zailiyskiy and Kungey Alatau. The glacier retreat was not homogeneous, but</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610487B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610487B"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards an improved glacier monitoring program in the Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Pamir Mountains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barandun, Martina; Huss, Matthias; Azisov, Erlan; Gafurov, Abror; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Usubaliev, Ryskul; Kronenberg, Marlene; Hoelzle, Martin</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The monitoring of glacier mass balance in remote regions is important to understand the response of glaciers to climate change. The coverage of monitored glaciers in Central Asia has been very limited for the past 15 years; however the necessity of enhanced understanding regarding glacier dynamics and long term evolution in this particular region is crucial. Moisture availability importantly determines glacier response. Glaciers located in the Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Pamir Mountains are likely not to be directly influenced by monsoon such as most monitored Peri-Himalayan glaciers. However, not only scientific reasons make glacier monitoring to be of great relevance, also the link to political and socio-economic constraints on water scarcity carries high importance. First steps towards the establishment of a new glacier monitoring network were performed in 2010/2011 and since then modernization and extension of the monitoring strategies are continuously aspired. Close cooperation of international and local scientists build the basis of the program. Today four glaciers located in the Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (Golubin Glacier, Suek Zapadniy Glacier, Glacier No. 354) and the North-Western Pamir (Abramov Glacier) are regularly monitored. The network is planned to be extended in the next years to cover selected glaciers in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Further, we intend to develop new approaches to remotely monitor sub-seasonal glacier mass balance at a regional scale. In-situ mass balance measurements are taken at all four glaciers continuously in late summer. Automatic weather stations installed at Abramov Glacier in 2011 and at Golubin Glacier in 2013 deliver daily meteorological data allowing the application of a simple mass balance model driven with local precipitation and temperature data. Model calibration is performed using glaciological measurements and results are validated with snowline observations based on remote imagery. Automatic cameras at Abramov Glacier take</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JAESc..32..280D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JAESc..32..280D"><span id="translatedtitle">Metallogeny and geodynamics of the Aktiuz Boordu Mining District, Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Kyrgyzstan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Djenchuraeva, R. D.; Borisov, F. I.; Pak, N. T.; Malyukova, N. N.</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>The Aktiuz-Boordu Mining District is located in the Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan in the eastern part of Kyrgyzstan. The region is characterized by nappe-folding structures and comprises strongly deformed Precambrian and Lower Paleozoic sedimentary, volcano-sedimentary, and metamorphic sequences. Metamorphic rocks are represented by crystalline schists, para- and orthogneisses, marble, migmatite, amphibolite and eclogite lenses. These rocks are thought to be the oldest in the Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The 2780-Ma Aktiuz complex has a total thickness of 2800-2900 m. Available U-Pb zircon age data for the Kemin Group migmatites yield ages of 2200 ± 50 Ma. Based upon their geological setting, multistage metamorphism and isotopic ages of retrograde metamorphism (1.1-1.9 Ga), these rocks reach a few kilometers in thickness and are subdivided into Archaean and Paleoproterozoic. The Archaean and Paleoproterozoic basement metamorphic rocks contain mineralization of various ages and types, including porphyry Cu, Au-sulphide, Au-Bi, barite, epithermal base metal and Au-Ag, REE and rare-metals. Two ore fields have been identified within the Aktiuz-Boordu Mining District, they are: (1) Taldybulak-Boordu, with Au, base metal, and porphyry Cu systems; (2) Aktiuz, with REE, rare- and base-metal deposits. Within the Paleozoic Taldybulak-Boordu volcanic structure, deposits and occurrences of Au are present at Taldybulak Levoberezhny, Chimbulak Zapadny, Karamoko and Kuranjailyau; of Pb at Boordu, Taldybulak Stary, Chimbulak Vostochny and Chimbulak Zapadny; of Mo at Karabulak, and of Cu at Berkut-Kashka. Almost all are found along the periphery of deeply eroded volcanoes. Rock types in the Taldybulak-Boordu ore field mainly comprise chlorite-amphibole and amphibole schists, amphibolites, and migmatites of the Paleoproterozoic Kuperlisay suite. The younger Paleoproterozoic Kokbulak and Kapchigay suites are represented by mica schists and granite gneisses, which are separated from the Kuperlisay suite</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812287L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812287L"><span id="translatedtitle">Segmented ruptures during intracontinental earthquakes: Kyrgyz Range, N-<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Landgraf, Angela; Patyniak, Magda; Dzhumabaeva, Atyrgul; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbek; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon; Strecker, Manfred R.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan was affected by a series of major M 6.9 to ~8 earthquakes. Ruptures affected either range fronts or range interiors. During these events (AD1885 Belovodskoe; AD1887 Verny; AD1889 Chilik; AD1911 Chon-Kemin; and AD1938 Kemino-Chu), neighboring faults ruptured and caused severe damage in the area of the Kyrgyz capital Bishkek and the former Kazakh capital Almaty (previously also called Alma-Ata or Verny), which were located in the epicentral areas. As recurrence intervals along single faults in this region are on the order of hundreds to thousands of years, such a sequence of earthquakes is not known in the remaining historic record. Earlier events may thus be recorded in long-term geomorphic archives. Through a combination of high-resolution offset measurements in the field, cosmogenic nuclide and luminescence dating of Quaternary landforms, stratigraphic analysis, and paleoseismological trenching, we evaluate the Quaternary deformation and analyze the paleoseismic history of neighboring fault systems along the Kyrgyz range mountain front. Our study sites are located close to the Kyrgyz capital Bishkek and include the epicentral area of the M6.9 Belovodskoe event of AD1885, but also the region west of it, which was not affected by this remarkable earthquake sequence. To date, the paleoseismic and historical seismic records for the Kyrgyz range indicate segmented ruptures that hardly exceed magnitude seven. Based on scaling relationships, however, the linked fault systems would be capable of generating M 8-events, similar to the long segmented ruptures observed in the mountain interior farther east during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The available observations, thus, point to incomplete fault ruptures along the mountain front, rather than earthquakes failing along a full rupture length.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2323H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2323H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan geohazards database: earthquake and landslide size-frequency statistics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Havenith, Hans-Balder</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Recently compiled landslide and earthquake data covering a large part of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Central Asia, are analysed with respect to their size-frequency behaviour. For the same area, only partial databases for sub-regions had been presented previously. They were combined and new data were added to fill the gaps between the databases. The new compiled landslide inventory contains existing records of 1600 previously identified mass movements and more than 1800 new landslide data mapped over a target region of 1200 km (E-W) by 600 km (N-S). On the basis of the new landslide inventory and an updated earthquake catalogue (> 10000 records), the link between landslide and earthquake activity is analysed. Here we focus on the size-frequency relationships developed for both types of geohazards, in terms of Gutenberg-Richter Law for the earthquakes and in terms of probability density function for the landslides. Some similarities can be found in the spatially changing b-value of earthquake events and the power law exponent of the landslide data - lowest values are found in mountain areas where very large mass movements had occurred near major fault zones. The supra-regional landslide inventory will also be compared with sub-regional ones. For one of them, we also possess a multi-temporal landslide inventory and assessed landslide size-frequency relationships for each time period. Those show a decreasing power law exponent with time - due to the coalescence of smaller landslides to form fewer larger ones. However, at (supra-)regional scale, temporal data are very scarce; thus, a major hazard component is still insufficiently known and scaling in time is almost impossible. We may only counteract this problem by dating rockslides and any large mass movement. Finally, we would like to emphasize the role of coupling effects related to various types of geohazards that may also be expressed by similarities between size-frequency relationships.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPA.832..158C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPA.832..158C"><span id="translatedtitle">New complex EAS installation of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountain cosmic ray station</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chubenko, A. P.; Shepetov, A. L.; Antonova, V. P.; Beisembayev, R. U.; Borisov, A. S.; Dalkarov, O. D.; Kryakunova, O. N.; Mukashev, K. M.; Mukhamedshin, R. A.; Nam, R. A.; Nikolaevsky, N. F.; Pavlyuchenko, V. P.; Piscal, V. V.; Puchkov, V. S.; Ryabov, V. A.; Sadykov, T. Kh.; Saduev, N. O.; Salikhov, N. M.; Shaulov, S. B.; Stepanov, A. V.; Vildanov, N. G.; Vildanova, L. I.; Vildanova, M. I.; Zastrozhnova, N. N.; Zhukov, V. V.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>In this paper we present a description of the new complex installation for the study of extensive air showers which was created at the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountain cosmic ray station, as well as the results of the test measurements made there in 2014-2016. At present, the system for registration of electromagnetic shower component consists of ∼100 detector points built on the basis of plastic scintillator plates with the sensitive area of 0.25 m2 and 1 m2, spread equidistantly over ∼104m2 space. The dynamic range of scintillation amplitude measurements is currently about (3 - 7) ·104, and there is a prospect of it being extended up to ∼106. The direction of shower arrival is defined by signal delays from a number of the scintillators placed cross-wise at the periphery of the detector system. For the investigation of nuclear active shower components a multi-tier 55 m2 ionization-neutron calorimeter with a sum absorber thickness of ∼1000 g/cm2, typical spatial resolution of the order of 10 cm, and dynamic range of ionization measurement channel about ∼105 was created. Also, the use of saturation-free neutron detectors is anticipated for registration of the high- and low-energy hadron components in the region of shower core. A complex of underground detectors is designed for the study of muonic and penetrative nuclear-active components of the shower. The full stack of data acquisition, detector calibration, and shower parameters restoration procedures are now completed, and the newly obtained shower size spectrum and lateral distribution of shower particles occur in agreement with conventional data. Future studies in the field of 1014 -1017 eV cosmic ray physics to be held at the new shower installation are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.153..183F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.153..183F"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for an early nitrogen isotopic evolution in the solar nebula from volatile analyses of a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from the CV3 chondrite NWA 8616</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Füri, Evelyn; Chaussidon, Marc; Marty, Bernard</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Nitrogen and noble gas (Ne-Ar) abundances and isotope ratios, determined by CO2 laser extraction static mass spectrometry analysis, as well as Al-Mg and O isotope data from secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses, are reported for a type B calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) from the CV3 chondrite NWA 8616. The high (26Al/27Al)i ratio of (5.06 ± 0.50) × 10-5 dates the last melting event of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> at 39-99+109ka after "time zero", limiting the period during which high-temperature exchanges between the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and the nebular gas could have occurred to a very short time interval. Partial isotopic exchange with a 16O-poor reservoir resulted in Δ17O > -5‰ for melilite and anorthite, whereas spinel and Al-Ti-pyroxene retain the inferred original 16O-rich signature of the solar nebula (Δ17O ⩽ -20‰). The low 20Ne/22Ne (⩽0.83) and 36Ar/38Ar (⩽0.75) ratios of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> rule out the presence of any trapped planetary or solar noble gases. Cosmogenic 21Ne and 38Ar abundances are consistent with a cosmic ray exposure (CRE) age of ∼14 to 20 Ma, assuming CR fluxes similar to modern ones, without any evidence for pre-irradiation of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> before incorporation into the meteorite parent body. Strikingly, the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> contains 1.4-3.4 ppm N with a δ15N value of +8‰ to +30‰. Even after correcting the measured δ15N values for cosmogenic 15N produced in situ, the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is highly enriched in 15N compared to the protosolar nebula (δ15NPSN = -383 ± 8‰; Marty et al., 2011), implying that the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-forming region was contaminated by 15N-rich material within the first 0.15 Ma of Solar System history, or, alternatively, that the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> was ejected into the outer Solar System where it interacted with a 15N-rich reservoir.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014M%26PS...49..812F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014M%26PS...49..812F"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrothermal origin of hexagonal CaAl2Si2O8 (dmisteinbergite) in a compact type A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from the Northwest Africa 2086 CV3 chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fintor, Krisztian; Park, Changkun; Nagy, Szabolcs; Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Krot, Alexander N.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We report an occurrence of hexagonal CaAl2Si2O8 (dmisteinbergite) in a compact type A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) from the CV3 (Vigarano-like) carbonaceous chondrite Northwest Africa 2086. Dmisteinbergite occurs as approximately 10 μm long and few micrometer-thick lath-shaped crystal aggregates in altered parts of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, and is associated with secondary nepheline, sodalite, Ti-poor Al-diopside, grossular, and Fe-rich spinel. Spinel is the only primary <span class="hlt">CAI</span> mineral that retained its original O-isotope composition (Δ17O ~ -24‰); Δ17O values of melilite, perovskite, and Al,Ti-diopside range from -3 to -11‰, suggesting postcrystallization isotope exchange. Dmisteinbergite, anorthite, Ti-poor Al-diopside, and ferroan olivine have 16O-poor compositions (Δ17O ~ -3‰). We infer that dmisteinbergite, together with the other secondary minerals, formed by replacement of melilite as a result of fluid-assisted thermal metamorphism experienced by the CV chondrite parent asteroid. Based on the textural appearance of dmisteinbergite in NWA 2086 and petrographic observations of altered <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from the Allende meteorite, we suggest that dmisteinbergite is a common secondary mineral in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from the oxidized Allende-like CV3 chondrites that has been previously misidentified as a secondary anorthite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IzPSE..51..859L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IzPSE..51..859L"><span id="translatedtitle">Autonomous geodynamics of the Pamir-<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan junction zone from seismology data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lukk, A. A.; Shevchenko, V. I.; Leonova, V. G.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The geodynamics of the Tajik Depression, the junction zone of the Pamirs and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, is typically considered in the context of plate tectonic concept, which implies intense subhorizontal compression of the zone resulting from the subduction of the Indian and Eurasian lithospheric plates. This convergence has been reliably confirmed by the GPS measurements. However, the joint analysis of the geological structure, seismicity, and geodimeter measurements conducted during a few years at the Garm geodynamical testing site of the Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, demonstrates a widening of the Tajik Depression instead of its shortening, as should be expected from the subhorizontal compression predominant in the present-day stress-state of this region. This conclusion, together with the data from the other regions, suggests that, along with the plate tectonic mechanisms, there are also other, local, autonomous drivers that contribute to the tectogenesis of this region. Besides, the probable existence of these autonomous sources within the Tajik Depression directly follows from the seismology data. Among them is the crustal spreading within the depression suggested by the seismotectonic displacements in the focal mechanisms of the earthquakes. These displacements are directed in different azimuths off the axial's most subsided part of the depression at a depth of 20-30 km. Above this region the distribution of seismotectonic deformations (STD) is chaotic. This pattern of deformation is barely accounted for by a simple model of subhorizontal compression of the Earth's crust in the region. In our opinion, these features of the seismotectonic deformation in the crust within the studied part of the Tajik Depression is probably associated with the gain in the volume of the rocks due to the inflow of the additional material, which is supplied from the bottom crust or upper mantle by the deep fluids. This increase in the rock volume</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2880989','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2880989"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhibition of metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth by Chinese herbal cocktail <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Hsien Liquid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Advanced cancer is a multifactorial disease that demands treatments targeting multiple cellular pathways. Chinese herbal cocktail which contains various phytochemicals may target multiple dys-regulated pathways in cancer cells and thus may provide an alternative/complementary way to treat cancers. Previously we reported that the Chinese herbal cocktail <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Hsien Liguid (THL) can specifically induce apoptosis in various cancer cells and have immuno-modulating activity. In this study, we further evaluated the anti-metastatic, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities of THL with a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods The migration and invasion of cancer cells and endothelial cells was determined by Boyden chamber transwell assays. The effect of THL on pulmonary metastasis was done by injecting CT-26 colon cancer cells intravenously to syngenic mice. The in vitro and in vivo microvessel formation was determined by the tube formation assay and the Matrigel plug assay, respectively. The in vivo anti-tumor effect of THL was determined by a human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. The expression of metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) was measured by gelatin zymography. The expression of HIF-1α and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were determined by Western blot. Results THL inhibited the migration and invasion ability of various cancer cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA and the activity of ERK1/2 in cancer cells, and suppressed pulmonary metastasis of CT-26 cancer cells in syngenic mice. Moreover, THL inhibited the migration, invasion, and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2 and uPA in endothelial cells, and suppressed neovascularization in Matrigel plugs in mice. Besides its inhibitory effect on endothelial cells, THL inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression in cancer cells. Finally</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8125A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8125A"><span id="translatedtitle">Response of thunderstorm activity in data of neutron monitoring at <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Antonova, Valentina; Kryukov, Sergey; Lutsenko, Vadim</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We present results of the study of data of the monitoring of high-energy and thermal neutrons at <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan at different stages of thunderstorm activity. The data of the neutron monitoring were used taking into account the barometric effect. The intensity of the neutron component of cosmic rays is recorded in seven energy ranges. The electric field has values of ~ 100 V/m under fair weather conditions. Standard deviation of minute values of the neutron monitor data at the high altitude station does not exceed 0.5-0.6 %. Found that the standard deviation of the data during thunderstorms always exceeds these values. We selected events during the passage of thunderstorm clouds over the high altitude station without lightning discharges or with a small number of them. It was found that the particle rate of the neutron monitor changes in antiphase with the electric field changes. Atmospheric electric field of positive polarity decreases the count rate of the neutron monitor, and negative polarity - increases. Change of the count rate occurs at values of electric field ≥ 10-15 kV/m and reaches 2 %. The neutron monitor at the high-altitude station has the ability to measure the energy of recorded particles through determination of their multiplicity. We experimentally established that the sensitivity of the detected particles to change in Ez increases with decreasing their energy. The upper energy threshold of sensitivity of neutrons to change electric field is ~10 GeV. The physical mechanism of effect is based on lead nucleus capture of soft negative muons with the subsequent generation of neutrons. It is known that 7% of the neutron monitor count rate caused by negative muons. Absence of this effect in thermal neutrons data confirms the conclusion since the main difference of the thermal neutrons detector from the neutron monitor is the absence of the lead. In the active phase of a thunderstorm in the formed thundercloud the picture of distribution of charges is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2002/of02-302/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2002/of02-302/"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal maturity patterns (<span class="hlt">CAI</span> and %R) in the Ordovician and Devonian rocks of the Appalachian basin in Pennsylvania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Repetski, John E.; Ryder, Robert T.; Harper, John A.; Trippi, Michael H.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to enhance existing thermal maturity maps in Pennsylvania by establishing: 1) new subsurface <span class="hlt">CAI</span> data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Group are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones (Ryder and others, 1998) and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028484','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028484"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal maturity patterns in the Ordovician and Devonian of Pennsylvania using conodont color alteration index (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) and vitrinite reflectance (%Ro)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Repetski, J.E.; Ryder, R.T.; Harper, J.A.; Trippi, M.H.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This new series of maps enhances previous thermal maturity maps in Pennsylvania by establishing: 1) new subsurface <span class="hlt">CAI</span> data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Group are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21633079','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21633079"><span id="translatedtitle">In dialyzed squid axons oxidative stress inhibits the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger by impairing the <span class="hlt">Cai</span>2+-regulatory site.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>DiPolo, Reinaldo; Beaugé, Luis</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, a major mechanism by which cells extrude calcium, is involved in several physiological and physiopathological interactions. In this work we have used the dialyzed squid giant axon to study the effects of two oxidants, SIN-1-buffered peroxynitrite and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), on the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in the absence and presence of MgATP upregulation. The results show that oxidative stress induced by peroxynitrite and hydrogen peroxide inhibits the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger by impairing the intracellular Ca(2+) (<span class="hlt">Ca(i</span>)(2+))-regulatory sites, leaving unharmed the intracellular Na(+)- and Ca(2+)-transporting sites. This effect is efficiently counteracted by the presence of MgATP and by intracellular alkalinization, conditions that also protect H(i)(+) and (H(i)(+) + Na(i)(+)) inhibition of <span class="hlt">Ca(i</span>)(2+)-regulatory sites. In addition, 1 mM intracellular EGTA reduces oxidant inhibition. However, once the effects of oxidants are installed they cannot be reversed by either MgATP or EGTA. These results have significant implications regarding the role of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in response to pathological conditions leading to tissue ischemia-reperfusion and anoxia/reoxygenation; they concur with a marked reduction in ATP concentration, an increase in oxidant production, and a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration that seems to be the main factor responsible for cell damage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MS%26E...64a2009N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MS%26E...64a2009N"><span id="translatedtitle">Compression-after-impact (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) performance of epoxycarbon fibre-reinforced nanocomposites using nanosilica and rubber particle enhancement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nikfar, B.; Njuguna, J.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>One of the problems in the design of automotive structures and body parts made by fibre reinforced composites is that these materials are susceptible to a small energy impact caused by for instance, accidental tool drop during maintenance or stone strike while in operation. This often lead to a barely visible impact damage which causes reduction in compressive strength of the composite part. To increase the impact tolerance of the composites, toughening agents like silica nanoparticles and rubber particles can be utilized to toughen the resin. To understand the effect of the particles enhancement, the impact tolerance was evaluated utilizing Compression After Impact (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) test after the impact induced by gas- gun impacting equipment. The results from <span class="hlt">CAI</span> test after 20 J impact (high energy stone strike) shows about 30% improvement in residual compressive strength for the nanosilica enhanced composite compared to unmodified CFRP. Also C-scan results after 7 J impact shows about 50% smaller delamination area for the nano-enhanced composite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1078/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1078/"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal maturity patterns (<span class="hlt">CAI</span> and %Ro) in the Ordovician and Devonian rocks of the Appalachian basin in West Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Repetski, John E.; Ryder, Robert T.; Avary, Katharine Lee; Trippi, Michael H.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to enhance existing thermal maturity maps in West Virginia by establishing: 1) new subsurface <span class="hlt">CAI</span> data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Limestone are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones (Ryder and others, 1998) and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.T51F..05A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.T51F..05A"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface rupture of the 1911 Kebin (Chon-Kemin) earthquake, Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Kyrgyzstan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arrowsmith, J. R.; Crosby, C. J.; Korjenkov, A. M.; Mamyrov, E.; Povolotskaya, I.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>The 1911 Ms 8.2 Kebin (Chon-Kemin) earthquake in the Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Kyrgyzstan is one of the largest historic intraplate reverse-faulting events. Documentation of slip distribution and fault geometry for major historic earthquakes, such as the Chon-Kemin event, provide important data on their source physics and seismotectonics. These data also provide insight into mechanical interaction with other large regional earthquakes, notably the 1887 Ms 7.3 Verny and 1889 Ms 8.3 Chilik events. Through detailed aerial photo mapping, examination of historic data (Bogdonovich et al., 1914), and two seasons of fieldwork, we mapped the entire 200 km of the1911 rupture and associated off-fault deformation and mass movements at > 1:50,000. At the 1911 events western end, the south dipping Djel Aryk section closely follows the range front at the southern edge of the Djel Aryk Valley. Mapping by Bogdonovich et al. indicates 1.5 km of rupture west of the Chu River in 1911 but 10-20 m high fault scarps further west in the Djel Aryk Valley indicate late Pleistocene paleoseismic activity. The Lower Chon-Kemin section stretches from the Chon-Kemin gorge to Chundi-Su. The fault dips steeply south and offset landforms indicate a left-lateral slip component. Vertical 1911 displacements are 1-3 m. Most of this portion of the 1911 rupture is located 500-1500 m above the Chon-Kemin Valley on the northern flank of the Kungei-Alatau Range. Bogdonovich et al. do not report 1911 rupture between Dyure River and Chundi-Su despite clear 10-30 m tall scarps offsetting Holocene landforms. The lack of mapped ground rupture in this area in 1911 suggests either a failure of the Bogdonovich team to reach this section of fault or that the earthquake failed to rupture here, despite clearly having done so prehistorically. The Upper Chon-Kemin section comprises steeply dipping to vertical discontinuous fractures located on steep slopes above the valley floor. Bogdonovich et al. report discontinuous</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.7097Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.7097Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of meteorological data and the surface energy balance of Keqicar Glacier, <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y.; Liu, S.; Fujita, K.; Han, H.; Li, J.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Northwestern China currently experiences a climate change with fundamental consequences for the hydrological cycle. In the strongly arid region where water resources are essential for agriculture and food production, glaciers represent important water resources, contributing significantly to streamflow. The debris is an important glaciological feature of the region and has major impact on melt rates. It is essential to understand and quantify the interaction of climate and sub-debris melt in order to assess the current situation and to predict future water yield. Note that the surface energy balance determines glacier melt. However, little is known about the variability characteristics of the surface energy fluxes in this region. For this reason, we set up two automatic weather stuation (AWSs) in the ablation area of Keqicar Glacier. Keqicar Glacier is located in the Tarim River basin (largest inland river basin in China), southwestern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, China. It is a representative debris-covered glacier with a length of 26.0 km and a total surface area of 83.6 km2. The thickness of the debris layer varies from 0.0 to 2.50 m in general. In some places large rocks are piled up to several meters. In this study, we report on analysis of meteorological data for the period 1 July-13 September 2003, from two automatic weather stations, aimed at studying the relationship between climate and ablation. One station is located on the lower part of the ablation area where the glacier is covered by debris layer, and the other near the equilibrium line altitude (ELA). All sensors were sampled every 10 seconds, and data were stored as hourly averages. The stations were visited regularly for maintenance at two weeks intervals depending on the weather conditions and location of the AWS. A total of 17 ablation stakes were drilled into the glacier at different elevations to monitor glacier melt during the study period. Readings were taken regularly in connection with AWS maintenance. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED115225.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED115225.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the Experimental <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Network (1973-1975) of the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, National Library of Medicine. Final Report. No. ED-75-1.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rubin, Martin L.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>An evaluation was made of the biomedical Computer Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) Network Experiment, established by the National Library of Medicine in 1973 to test the feasibility of sharing <span class="hlt">CAI</span> learning materials through a national computer network. The evaluation was designed to assist decision makers in planning a future mechanism for distributing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeCoA..70.2622M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeCoA..70.2622M"><span id="translatedtitle">Crystallization of melilite from CMAS-liquids and the formation of the melilite mantle of Type B1 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>: Experimental simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mendybaev, Ruslan A.; Richter, Frank M.; Davis, Andrew M.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>Type B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are subdivided into B1s, with well-developed melilite mantles, and B2s, with randomly distributed melilite. Despite intensive study, the origin of the characteristic melilite mantle of the B1s remains unclear. Recently, we proposed that formation of the melilite mantle is caused by depletion of the droplet surface in volatile magnesium and silicon due to higher evaporation rates of volatile species compared to their slow diffusion rates in the melt, thus making possible crystallization of melilite at the edge of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> first, followed by its crystallization in the central parts at lower temperatures. Here, we present the results of an experimental study that aimed to reproduce the texture observed in natural Type B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. First, we experimentally determined crystallization temperatures of melilite for three melt compositions, which, combined with literature data, allowed us to find a simple relationship between the melt composition, crystallization temperature, and composition of first crystallizing melilite. Second, we conducted a series of evaporation and cooling experiments exposing <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like melts to gas mixtures with different oxygen fugacities (f). Cooling of the molten droplets in gases with logf⩾IW-4 resulted in crystallization of randomly distributed melilite, while under more reducing conditions, melilite mantles have been formed. Chemical profiles through samples quenched right before melilite started to crystallize showed no chemical gradients in samples exposed to relatively oxidizing gases (logf⩾IW-4), while the near-surface parts of the samples exposed to very reducing gases (logf⩽IW-7) were depleted in volatile MgO and SiO 2, and enriched in refractory Al 2O 3. Using these experimental results and the fact that the evaporation rate of magnesium and silicon from <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like melts is proportional to √{P}, we estimate that Type B1 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> could be formed by evaporation of a partially molten precursor in a gas of solar composition with P</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....9292C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....9292C"><span id="translatedtitle">B and Mg isotopic variations in Leoville mrs-06 type B1 <span class="hlt">cai</span>:origin of 10Be and 26Al</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chaussidon, M.; Robert, F.; Russel, S. S.; Gounelle, M.; Ash, R. D.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The finding [1-3] in Ca-Al-rich refractory inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) of primitive chondrites of traces of the in situ decay of radioactive 10Be (half-life 1.5Myr) indicates that irradiation of the protosolar nebula by the young Sun in its T-Tauri phase has produced significant amounts of the Li-Be-B elements. This irradiation may have produced also some or all of the short-lived 26Al (half-life 0.7Myr) and 41Ca (half-life 0.1Myr) previously detected in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. To constrain the origin of 10Be and 10Al it is important to look for coupled variations in the 10Be/9Be and 26Al/27Al ratios in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and to understand the processes responsible for these variations (e.g. variations in the fluences of irradiation, secondary perturbations of the <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, ...) We have thus studied the Li and B isotopic compositions and the Be/Li and Be/B concentration ratios in one <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (MRS-06) from the Leoville CV3 chondrite in which large variations of the Mg isotopic compositions showing both the in situ decay of 26Al and the secondary redistribution of Mg isotopes have been observed [4]. The results show large variations for the Li and B isotopic compositions (^7Li/^6Li ranging from 11.02±0.21 to 11.82±0.07, and 10B/11B ratios ranging from 0.2457±0.0053 to 0.2980±0.0085). The ^7Li/^6Li ratio tend to decrease towards the rim of the inclusion. The 10B/11B ratios are positively correlated with the ^9Be/11B ratios indicating the in situ decay of 10Be. However perturbations of the 10Be/B system are observed. They would correspond to an event which occurred approximately 2Myr after the formation of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and the irradiation of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> precursors which is responsible for the 10Be observed in the core of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. These perturbations seem compatible with those observed for the 26Al/Mg system but they might be due to an irradiation of the already-formed, isolated <span class="hlt">CAI</span> which would have resulted in increased 10Be/^9Be ratios and low ^7Li/^6Li ratios in the margin of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. [1] McKeegan K. D. et al. (2000</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070009991','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070009991"><span id="translatedtitle">Isotopic Measurements in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with the Nanosims: Implications to the understanding of the Formation process of Ca, Al-Rich Inclusions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ito, M.; Messenger, S.; Walker, Robert M.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Ca, Al-rich Inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) preserve evidence of thermal events that they experienced during their formation in the early solar system. Most <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from CV and CO chondrites are characterized by large variations in O-isotopic compositions of primary minerals, with spinel, hibonite, and pyroxene being more O-16-rich than melilite and anorthite, with delta 17, O-18 = approx. -40%o (DELTA O-17 = delta O-17 - 0.52 x delta O-18 = approx. - 20%o ). These anomalous compositions cannot be accounted for by standard mass dependent fractionation and diffusive process of those minerals. It requires the presence of an anomalous oxygen reservoir of nucleosynthetic origin or mass independent fractionations before the formation of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in the early solar system. The CAMECA NanoSIMS is a new generation ion microprobe that offers high sensitivity isotopic measurements with sub 100 nm spatial resolution. The NanoSIMS has significantly improved abilities in the study of presolar grains in various kind of meteorites and the decay products of extinct nuclides in ancient solar system matter. This instrument promises significant improvements over other conventional ion probes in the precision isotopic characterization of sub-micron scales. We report the results of our first O isotopic measurements of various <span class="hlt">CAI</span> minerals from EK1-6-3 and 7R19-1(a) utilizing the JSC NanoSIMS 50L ion microprobe. We evaluate the measurement conditions, the instrumental mass fractionation factor (IMF) for O isotopic measurement and the accuracy of the isotopic ratio through the analysis of a San Carlos olivine standard and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> sample of 7R19-1(a).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013M%26PS...48.1440B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013M%26PS...48.1440B"><span id="translatedtitle">Mg and Si isotopic fractionation patterns in types B1 and B2 <fc><span class="hlt">CAI</span></fc>s: Implications for formation under different nebular conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bullock, Emma S.; Knight, Kim B.; Richter, Frank M.; Kita, Noriko T.; Ushikubo, Takayuki; MacPherson, Glenn J.; Davis, Andrew M.; Mendybaev, Ruslan A.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Magnesium and silicon isotopic profiles across melilite grains in two type B1 and two type B2 calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) reveal differing but constant enrichments in heavy isotopes everywhere except ≤1000 μm from the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> margins. There is no close correlation in the B1s or the B2s between isotopic composition and åkermanite content of the melilite, a measure of progressive igneous crystallization, yet such a correlation might be expected in a type B2: without a melilite mantle (as in B1s) to seal the interior off and prevent further evaporation, the melt would have maintained communication with the external gas. These observations indicate a model in which B1s and B2s solidified under differing conditions. The B2s solidified under lower hydrogen pressures (PH2 ≤ 10-4 - 10-5 bars) than did B1s (PH2 > 10-4 bars), so surface volatilization was slower in the B2s and internal chemical and isotopic equilibrium was maintained over the interval of melilite crystallization. The outermost zones of the <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> (≤1000 μm from the edge) are not consistently enriched in heavy isotopes relative to the interiors, as might be expected from diffusion-limited surface evaporation of the melt. In all cases, the magnesium in the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> margins is lighter than in the interiors. In one case, silicon in the margin also is lighter, but locally in some <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, it is isotopically heavier near the surface. If melt evaporation played a role in the formation of these outer zones, a later event in many cases caused isotopic re-equilibration with an external and isotopically near-normal reservoir.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3006/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3006/"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal Maturity Patterns (<span class="hlt">CAI</span> and %Ro) in Upper Ordovician and Devonian Rocks of the Appalachian Basin: A Major Revision of USGS Map I-917-E Using New Subsurface Collections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Repetski, John E.; Ryder, Robert T.; Weary, David J.; Harris, Anita G.; Trippi, Michael H.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The conodont color alteration index (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) introduced by Epstein and others (1977) and Harris and others (1978) is an important criterion for estimating the thermal maturity of Ordovician to Mississippian rocks in the Appalachian basin. Consequently, the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> isograd maps of Harris and others (1978) are commonly used by geologists to characterize the thermal and burial history of the Appalachian basin and to better understand the origin and distribution of oil and gas resources in the basin. The main objectives of our report are to present new <span class="hlt">CAI</span> isograd maps for Ordovician and Devonian rocks in the Appalachian basin and to interpret the geologic and petroleum resource implications of these maps. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span> isograd maps presented herein complement, and in some areas replace, the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-based isograd maps of Harris and others (1978) for the Appalachian basin. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span> data presented in this report were derived almost entirely from subsurface samples, whereas the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> data used by Harris and others (1978) were derived almost entirely from outcrop samples. Because of the different sampling methods, there is little geographic overlap of the two data sets. The new data set is mostly from the Allegheny Plateau structural province and most of the data set of Harris and others (1978) is from the Valley and Ridge structural province, east of the Allegheny structural front.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16838718','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16838718"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimization and risk analyses for rule curves of reservoir operation: application to <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Hua-Hu Reservoir in Taiwan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuo, J T; Hsu, N S; Chiu, S K</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Hua-Hu Reservoir is currently under planning by the Water Resources Agency, Taiwan to meet the increasing water demands of central Taiwan arising from rapid growth of domestic water supply, and high-tech industrial parks. This study develops a simulation model for the ten-day period reservoir operation to calculate the ten-day water shortage index under varying rule curves. A genetic algorithm is coupled to the simulation model to find the optimal rule curves using the minimum ten-day water shortage index as an objective function. This study generates many sets of synthetic streamflows for risk, reliability, resiliency, and vulnerability analyses of reservoir operation. ARMA and disaggregation models are developed and applied to the synthetic streamflow generation. The optimal rule curves obtained from this study perform better in the ten-day shortage index when compared to the originally designed rule curves from a previous study. The optimal rule curves are also superior to the originally designed rule curves in terms of vulnerability. However, in terms of reliability and resiliency, the optimal rule curves are inferior to the those originally designed. Results from this study have provided in general a set of improved rule curves for operation of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Hua-Hu Reservoir. Furthermore, results from reliability, resiliency and vulnerability analyses offer much useful information for decision making in reservoir operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GPC....74...34W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GPC....74...34W"><span id="translatedtitle">Concentration and composition of dust particles in surface snow at Urumqi Glacier No. 1, Eastern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Guangjian; Zhang, Xuelei; Zhang, Chenglong; Gao, Shaopeng; Li, Zhongqin; Wang, Feiteng; Wang, Wenbin</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Major, trace, and rare earth elements (REE) were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) for dust particles that were extracted from fresh surface snow samples collected weekly or biweekly between March 2006 and January 2008 at Urumqi Glacier No. 1 (UG1) in Eastern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Central Asia. The UG1 dust shows average Fe/Al ratios of 0.7, Ca/Al ratios of 0.35, La/Th ratios of 2.62, Th/U ratios of 3.31, an Eu anomaly of 0.63, and L/HREE ratios of 7.87. Seasonal variation is significant in dust concentration, but is not observed in dust composition, which remains rather uniform throughout the sampling period. The compositional homogeneity suggests that dust materials in UG1 are well mixed from their possible source areas. Fine materials from the Junggar Basin, and to a less extend from Tarim Basin, more closely resemble UG1 dust properties in their REE composition than do the local moraines, indicating that the dust in UG1 snow mainly comes from mid- to long-range source areas. The HYSPLIT model results suggest that the Westerlies, Arctic air masses and local winds are the main circulations for dust transport to Eastern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IzPSE..52..218K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IzPSE..52..218K"><span id="translatedtitle">Archaeoseismological studies and structural position of the medieval earthquakes in the South of the Issyk-Kul depression (<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Korzhenkov, A. M.; Kol'chenko, V. A.; Luzhanskii, D. V.; Abdieva, S. V.; Deev, E. V.; Mazeika, J. V.; Rogozhin, E. A.; Rodina, S. N.; Rodkin, M. V.; Fortuna, A. B.; Charimov, T. A.; Yudakhin, A. S.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We carried out archaeoseismological studies in the Southern Issyk-Kul region (Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan) and obtained radiocarbon datings of the collected samples. These data suggest that the sources of strong earthquakes have occurred in this territory in the 11th and (probably) 16th centuries. These earthquakes had magnitude M ≥ 7 and seismic intensity of at least I ≥ 9. The sources of these earthquakes were associated with the local adyr (piedmont) faults—components of the Pre-Terskei border fault. Our results demonstrate considerable underestimation of the seismic hazard for the South Issyk-Kul region in the latest Seismic Zoning Map of Kyrgyz Republic (2012), which should be taken into account in the construction of the new seismic zoning map for Kyrgyzstan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2276283','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2276283"><span id="translatedtitle">Chromosomal Q-heterochromatin regions in native highlanders of Pamir and <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan and in newcomers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ibraimov, A I; Kurmanova, G U; Ginsburg, E Kh; Aksenovich, T I; Aksenrod, E I</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The variability of human chromosomal Q-heterochromatin regions (Q-HR) was studied in 385 newcomers well adapted to the extreme environmental conditions of Pamir and <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan, as well as in 284 representatives of the native population of these regions. Newcomers were found to represent a highly homogeneous group as regards all the quantitative characteristics of Q-HR variability, but at the same time they differed significantly from both native residents and individuals of similar nationality (Russians) living permanently at low altitude. Differences between these three groups in the amount of Q-HRs in their genome are discussed as evidence in favour of the hypothesis of the possible selective value of chromosomal Q-heterochromatin material in human adaptation to extreme environmental high-altitude conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.3888L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.3888L"><span id="translatedtitle">Repeated large-magnitude earthquakes in a tectonically active, low-strain continental interior: The northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Kyrgyzstan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Landgraf, A.; Dzhumabaeva, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K. E.; Strecker, M. R.; Macaulay, E. A.; Arrowsmith, Jr.; Sudhaus, H.; Preusser, F.; Rugel, G.; Merchel, S.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan has been affected by a series of major earthquakes in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. To assess the significance of such a pulse of strain release in a continental interior, it is important to analyze and quantify strain release over multiple time scales. We have undertaken paleoseismological investigations at two geomorphically distinct sites (Panfilovkoe and Rot Front) near the Kyrgyz capital Bishkek. Although located near the historic epicenters, both sites were not affected by these earthquakes. Trenching was accompanied by dating stratigraphy and offset surfaces using luminescence, radiocarbon, and 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide methods. At Rot Front, trenching of a small scarp did not reveal evidence for surface rupture during the last 5000 years. The scarp rather resembles an extensive debris-flow lobe. At Panfilovkoe, we estimate a Late Pleistocene minimum slip rate of 0.2 ± 0.1 mm/a, averaged over at least two, probably three earthquake cycles. Dip-slip reverse motion along segmented, moderately steep faults resulted in hanging wall collapse scarps during different events. The most recent earthquake occurred around 3.6 ± 1.3 kyr ago (1σ), with dip-slip offsets between 1.2 and 1.4 m. We calculate a probabilistic paleomagnitude to be between 6.7 and 7.2, which is in agreement with regional data from the Kyrgyz range. The morphotectonic signals in the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan are a prime example of deformation in a tectonically active intracontinental mountain belt and as such can help understand the longer-term coevolution of topography and seismogenic processes in similar structural settings worldwide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11..543B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11..543B"><span id="translatedtitle">Models of fluid saturated zones according magnetotellurics and seismics data on <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan crust and mantle along transect MANAS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bataleva, E.; Rybin, A.; Batalev, V.; Matyukov, V.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Recognized as one of the highest, youngest, and most active orogenic systems on the Earth the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is situated internal to the Eurasian continent. New deep seismic data acquired from 2004 to 2007 constitute an -400 km lithospheric transect located from the northwestern Tarim Basin in China to the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan in Kyrgyzstan. This seismic profile consists of 40 seismic stations "Quanterra" containing STS-2 (Streckeisen, Switzerland) and CMG - 3T (Güralp Systems Ltd) broadband seismic receivers. Registration of the seismic data in each station was conducted with sampling frequency of 40 Hz. Time service based on GPS clock was applied on each station. Average distance between the seismic stations along the profile is 10-15 km. Observations were held on 30 stations in Kyrgyzstan and on 10 of them in China. As a result of seismic investigations wave speeds cross-section was calculated. A 450 km long north-south magnetotelluric profile spanning the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan from Kazakhstan to western China reveals lateral variations in the resistivity of the Earth crust and mantle lithosphere to depths of 140 km. MT profile consisting of 19 long period MT soundings (20-20,000 s periods) were combined with 30 broadband stations (0.1-1600 s periods). Broadband measurements (0.001-100 s periods) were also acquired at the 14 long period sites in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. [Bielinski, et al 2003] Conductivity changes of up to one order of magnitude are a result from variations in temperature or composition, or both. Previous magneto telluric (MT) studies [Trapeznikov et al., 1997] partly show that some low velocity layers also have low resistivity, lending support to the fluid hypothesis. Studies of wave speeds reveal sections of the crust that have pronounced low velocity zones in the thicker portions of the crust which are attributed to crustal metasomatism [Ghose et al., 1998] or fluid filled fractures in pervasively deformed rocks [Vinnik et al., 2002]. Comparing an obtained</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002232','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002232"><span id="translatedtitle">New Petrology, Mineral Chemistry and Stable MG Isotope Compositions of an Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: EK-459-7-2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Lapen, T. J.; Righter, M.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) are the key to understanding physical and chemical conditions in the nascent solar nebula. These inclusions have the oldest radiometric ages of solar system materials and are composed of phases that are predicted to condense early from a gas of solar composition. Thus, their chemistry and textures record conditions and processes in the earliest stages of development of the solar nebula. Type B inclusions are typically larger and more coarse grained than other types with substantial evidence that many of them were at least partially molten. Type B inclusions are further subdivided into Type B1 (possess thick melilite mantle) and Type B2 (lack melilite mantle). Despite being extensively studied, the origin of the melilite mantles of Type B1 inclusions remains uncertain. We present petrologic and chemical data for a Type B inclusion, EK-459-7-2, that bears features found in both Type B1 and B2 inclusions and likely represents an intermediate between the two types. Detailed studies of more of these intermediate objects may help to constrain models for Type B1 rim formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T43F2462T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T43F2462T"><span id="translatedtitle">2D Numeric Modeling of Cenozoic Lithospheric deformation in the Himalaya-Tibet-Pamir-<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Orogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tympel, J.; Sobolev, S. V.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Pamir-Hindu Kush region located in the western syntaxis of the Himalaya is the locus of a large number of intermediate-depth earthquakes and an almost vertical high velocity zone, seen in seismic tomography. The seismicity is not clearly related to oceanic subduction and forms an S-shaped zone between north-western Afghanistan and the eastern Pamir. In depth, the earthquake hypocenters are forming what some authors interpret as a V-shaped pattern which supports the model of two converging subduction zones to explain the observations. However, other models propose a single but highly contorted Indian slab or even a Rayleigh-Taylor instability due to a higher density in the lithosphere compared to the asthenosphere. As part of the TIPAGE project (<span class="hlt">TIen</span> Shan - PAmir GEodynamic program) our aim is to find lithospheric scale models consistent with all major observations as well as to find controlling factors for the extreme Cenozoic shortening in the Pamir-<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan orogen. For our current modeling approach we use the finite-element code SLIM3D which allows coupled thermo-mechanical treatment of deformation processes. The code is capable of highly nonlinear elasto-visco-plastic rheology including diffusion, dislocation and Peierls creep mechanism and allowing self-consistent generation of faults. It incorporates free surface boundary conditions and is equiped with petrological routines for gabbro-eclogite, coesite-stishovite phase transitions. We run several 2D cross-section models in order to explain the high velocity zone below the Pamir-Hindu Kush and the seismicity which distingushes the region from the rest of the Himalaya. In a typical model setup India has two parts: the 'inner part' which comprises 35-45 km thick continental crust and relatively thick cratonic mantle lithosphere; the 'outer part' has 25-30 km thick crust and a less depleted, more ocean-like lithosphere. Inside of Asia we place an "inclusion" of thicker cratonic lithosphere, like that of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7659J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7659J"><span id="translatedtitle">Upper Paleozoic tectonics in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (Central Asian Orogenic Belt): insight from new structural data (Kyrgyzstan)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jourdon, Anthony; Petit, Carole; Rolland, Yann; Loury, Chloé; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Guillot, Stéphane; Ganino, Clément</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Due to successive block accretions, the polarity of structures and tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) are still a matter of debate. There are several conflicting models about the polarity of subduction during the Paleozoic, the number of microplates and oceanic basins and the timing of tectonic events in Kyrgyz and Chinese <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. In this study, we propose new structural maps and cross-sections of Middle and South Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (MTS and STS respectively). These cross-sections highlight an overall dextral strike-slip shear zone in the MTS and a north verging structure related to south-dipping subduction in the STS. These structures are Carboniferous in age and sealed by Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits. In detail, the STS exhibits two deformation phases. The first one is characterized by coeval top-to-the north thrusting and top-to-the-South normal shearing at the boundaries of large continental unit that underwent High-Pressure (Eclogite facies) metamorphism. We ascribe this phase to the exhumation of underthrusted passive margin units of the MTS. The second one corresponds to a top to the North nappe stacking that we link to the last collisional events between the MTS and the Tarim block. Later on, during the Late Carboniferous, a major deformation stage is characterized by the deformation of the MTS and its thrusting over the NTS. This deformation occurred on a large dextral shear zone between the NTS and the MTS known as Song-Kul Zone or Nikolaiev Line as a "side effect" of the Tarim/MTS collision. Based on these observations, we propose a new interpretation of the tectonic evolution of the CAOB. The resulting model comprises the underthrusting of the MTS-Kazakh platform beneath the Tarim and its exhumation followed by the folding, shortening and thickening of the internal metamorphic units during the last collisional events which partitioned the deformation between the STS and the MTS. Finally, the docking of the large Tarim Craton</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GPC...127...12D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GPC...127...12D"><span id="translatedtitle">Geochemical characteristics of insoluble dust as a tracer in an ice core from Miaoergou Glacier, east <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Du, Zhiheng; Xiao, Cunde; Liu, Yaping; Wu, Guoju</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>An ice core was extracted from Miaoergou Glacier, east <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, China. Concentrations of the rare earth elements (REEs) and Sr-Nd isotopic ratios were measured in insoluble dust sampled from the core. The ratios of REEs in insoluble dust were found to have characteristics typical of aeolian deposition, similar to those of sand and loess from Taklamakan. This suggests that the Taklamakan Desert might be an important source of dust reaching the Miaoergou Glacier. Sr (87Sr/86Sr average 0.718014 and range 0.717025 to 0.718958) and Nd (εNd(0) average - 9.1 and range - 9.5 to - 8.5) isotopic compositions in insoluble dust are similar to those of desert sand from Taklamakan and Gobi, suggesting that the Gobi Desert may be another major aeolian source for Miaoergou Glacier. Our results can be compared with Sr-Nd isotopic ratios from Greenland snow and ice, further demonstrating how the dust from Asian deserts contributes a high proportion of aeolian dust in the Greenland region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025199','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025199"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal deuterium excess in a <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan ice core: Influence of moisture transport and recycling in Central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kreutz, K.J.; Wake, C.P.; Aizen, V.B.; DeWayne, Cecil L.; Synal, H.-A.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Stable water isotope (??18O, ??D) data from a high elevation (5100 masl) ice core recovered from the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mountains, Kyrgyzstan, display a seasonal cycle in deuterium excess (d = ??D - 8*??18O) related to changes in the regional hydrologic cycle during 1994-2000. While there is a strong correlation (r2 = 0.98) between ??18O and ??D in the ice core samples, the regression slope (6.9) and mean d value (23.0) are significantly different than the global meteoric water line values. The resulting time-series ice core d profile contains distinct winter maxima and summer minima, with a yearly d amplitude of ???15-20???. Local-scale processes that may affect d values preserved in the ice core are not consistent with the observed seasonal variability. Data from Central Asian monitoring sites in the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) have similar seasonal d changes. We suggest that regional-scale hydrological conditions, including seasonal changes in moisture source, transport, and recycling in the Caspian/Aral Sea region, are responsible for the observed spatial and temporal d variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20389540','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20389540"><span id="translatedtitle">A unique astigmatic nodal property in misaligned Ritchey-Chré<span class="hlt">tien</span> telescopes with misalignment coma removed.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmid, Tobias; Thompson, Kevin P; Rolland, Jannick P</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>We present the aberration field response of Ritchey-Chré<span class="hlt">tien</span> telescopes, with the aperture stop on the primary mirror, to secondary mirror misalignments. More specifically, we derive a general condition for the geometry of the binodal astigmatic aberration field for a telescope that has been aligned to remove field-constant coma. It has been observed that when the coma caused by secondary mirror misalignments is removed the astigmatic field is typically not symmetric around the periphery, but, significantly, it is always effectively zero on-axis. This observation is a manifestation of binodal astigmatism where one of the astigmatic nodes remains near the field center. Here, we show how the condition to remove field-constant coma simultaneously creates a constraint whereby one of the astigmatic nodes must remain effectively on-axis. This result points to why the alignment of a large telescope based on axial imagery is insufficient and demonstrates exactly the geometry of the remaining misalignment aberration field, which dominates the performance of the telescope, providing insights into more complete alignment approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5479S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5479S"><span id="translatedtitle">How much water will glaciers in the Chon Kemin valley (<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountains, Kyrgyzstan) provide in the future?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sorg, Annina; Huss, Matthias; Stoffel, Markus</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Climate-driven changes in glacier-fed streamflow regimes have direct implications on freshwater supply, irrigation and hydropower potential. Reliable information on current and future glaciation and runoff is thus crucial for water allocation. In summer-dry regions like Central Asia, glaciers play an important role in streamflow regimes, as meltwater from glaciers is released when other sources such as snowmelt are depleted. This situation is well reflected by the Chon Kemin River, an important tributary to the Chu River providing Kyrgyzstan's capital Bishkek with freshwater. Today, glaciers cover around 8% of the Chon Kemin valley (118 of 1'438 km2) and 30% of the headwater catchment (49 of 165 km2), but these glaciers in the low-altitude northern periphery of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountains are melting particularly fast. Glacier shrinkage has considerable impacts on the seasonal and overall availability of water: In a first instance, shrinking glaciers supply ample quantities of water in the form of increased glacial runoff, but reduced glacier volume will ultimately result in a decrease in both glacier-fed and total runoff, if no other sources can offset reduced glacier melt. Although crucial for efficient water planning, it is largely unknown if the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan rivers have already passed this tipping point ("peak water"), or, if not yet, when this will happen. In our study, we assess past and future runoff changes in the Chon Kemin River to elucidate the timing of "peak water" and to quantify water availability in coming summers, when precipitation is expected to be even more scarce than today. Meteorological and hydrological data suggest that total runoff has increased in the past decades, particularly during summer and fall, probably as a result of increasing glacial meltwater. Annual fluctuations in precipitation and runoff have shown an asynchronous behavior in a first phase (1936 until early 1960s), but have then changed to a synchronous pattern (early 1960s until</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513378F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513378F"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional based modeling approach for rainfall-induced debris flows in the continental-climatic Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (SE Kazakhstan)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fischer, Thomas; Küfmann, Carola; Haas, Florian; Baume, Otfried; Becht, Michael</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The high mountain systems of Central Asia (Hindukush, Pamir and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan) are dominated by continental-climatic conditions. Nevertheless, westerly maritime air circulation and convective rainfalls during the summer season result in high rainfall intensities. In combination with a high availability of unconsolidated material rainfall triggered debris flows are prominent and intensive geomorphologic processes in these mountain areas. The presented study aims to figure out a regional based modeling approach for rainfall-induced debris flow processes based on combination of a disposition model for debris flow starting zones with process-flow models. The investigation area has a size of about 700 square kilometers and is situated in the Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountains in SE Kazakhstan (investigation areas: valleys of Prochadnaja, Big Almatinka, Little Almatinka and Left Talgar). The area is characterized by mountain forest zone, alpine meadows and high-alpine glaciated areas with the highest peaks at 4500m. In a first step the disposition (point of process triggering) of actual debris flows was analyzed. Due to different triggering mechanisms, the processes were divided into channel-type and slope-type debris flows. Detailed mapping of actual debris flows initiation areas and a GIS-based geostatistical disposition analysis are used to identify the main geofactor-variables and geofactor combinations which enhance the triggering of rainfall-induced debris flows. It can be shown that both, longtime variable geofactors (such as local geomorphology and hydrology) plays a significant role for triggering debris flows, as well as mid- and short time variable geofactors. Especially actual permafrost distribution and degradation plus glacier retreat comes into the focus of interest. This is most notably for rainfall induced slope-type debris flows which primarily are triggered in the discontinuous and continuous permafrost areas eroding younger unconsolidated material from actual</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.T23D1635C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.T23D1635C"><span id="translatedtitle">The Hunt for Surface Rupture From the 1889 Ms 8.3 Chilik Earthquake, Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crosby, C. J.; Arrowsmith, J. R.; Korjenkov, A. M.; Guralnik, B.; Mamyrov, E.; Povolotskaya, I. E.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The 1889 Ms 8.3 Chilik earthquake in the Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mountains of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan is one of the largest historic intraplate reverse-faulting events. Documentation of slip distribution and fault geometry for major historic earthquakes, such as the Chilik event, provide important data on their source physics, seismotectonics, and hazard. These data also provide insight into potential mechanical interaction with other large regional earthquakes, notably the 1887 Ms 7.3 Verny and 1911 Ms 8.2 Kebin (Chon Kemin) events. Despite the importance of the Chilik event, very little is known about the earthquake's epicenter and the presence of associated ground rupture. Isoseismal's from historic shaking intensity data gathered immediately following the event were used to estimate the event magnitude and suggest an epicentral location in the northern foothills of the Kungey Ala-too range, 80-100 kilometers east-southeast of Almaty. Researchers who have visited this area report no evidence of ground rupture, suggesting that the event either did not rupture the ground surface or that the isoseismal data do not provide a sufficiently focused estimate of epicentral location. We have reanalyzed the shaking intensity data to update the estimate of the epicentral location. During June 2007 field work and in review of aerial photography, we observed extensive east-west trending and morphologically youthful km-long and 1-5 m high fault scarps on the eastern crest of the Kungey Ala-Too Range along the Kygyz-Kazak border north of Tyup. Contemporary reports of the 1911 Kebin earthquake did not document these structures, despite the thorough investigation of rupture to the west and northwest. The scarp lengths and their offsets indicate that they did not form in the M6.6 1978 Djalanash Tyup earthquake. Although located to the south of the isoseismal epicenter for the Chilik earthquake, the scarps observed near the range crest must be considered as possible candidates for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11612307L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..11612307L"><span id="translatedtitle">High-resolution trace element records of an ice core from the eastern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, central Asia, since 1953 AD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Yaping; Hou, Shugui; Hong, Sungmin; Hur, Soon Do; Lee, Khanghyun; Wang, Yetang</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>High-resolution records of trace elements (Ba, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, and U) quantified in an ice core recovered from the Miaoergou glacier in the eastern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, central Asia, spanning the period 1953-2004 AD, provide the first comprehensive time series on characterizing the relative contributions from natural and anthropogenic sources to the deposition of trace elements in central Asia. It is suggested that rock and soil dust is the most important natural source for most of elements investigated. Slight decreases in concentrations (or fallout fluxes) of crustal elements, such as Ba, Mn, Rb, Th, U, and Sr are observed during recent decades, which may be due to decreases in dust emissions from source regions and a decrease of accumulation rate since 1980s. The increasing trends of median concentrations and crustal enrichment factors (EFc) of V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, and Mo, during the period 1953-2004 AD, are insignificant in comparison to their respective levels prior to 1953 AD. However, slight enhancements of both concentrations and EFc are observed for Cd, Sb, Pb, Bi, Tl, and Sn since 1950s. Such recent increases are likely to be attributed to enhanced anthropogenic emissions, such as metal smelting, mining, stationary fossil fuel combustion, and combustion of gasoline due to human activities in Eurasia, particularly Xinjiang in northwestern China, Russia, and Kazakhstan. Our study supports evidence that environmental contamination has become a global problem for Pb and Bi and a large-scale phenomenon for Cd, Sb, Tl, and Sn.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.C21A0458Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.C21A0458Y"><span id="translatedtitle">High-resolution trace element records of an ice core from the eastern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, central Asia, since 1953 AD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yaping, L.; Shugui, H.; Hong, S.; Hur, S.; Khanghyun, L.; Yetang, W.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>High-resolution records of trace elements (Ba, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th and U) quantified in an ice core recovered from the Miaoergou glacier in the eastern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, central Asia, spanning the period 1953-2004 AD, provide the first comprehensive time-series on characterizing the relative contributions from natural and anthropogenic sources to the deposition of trace elements in central Asia. It is suggested that rock and soil dust is the most important natural source for most of elements investigated. Slight decreases in concentrations (or fallout fluxes) of crustal elements, such as Ba, Mn, Rb, Th, U and Sr are observed during recent decades, which may be due to decreases in dust emissions from source regions and a decrease of accumulation rate since 1980s. The increasing trends of median concentrations and crustal enrichment factors (EFc) of V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, and Mo, during the period 1953-2004 AD, are insignificant in comparison to their respective levels prior to 1953 AD. However, slight enhancements of both concentrations and EFc are observed for Cd, Sb, Pb, Bi, Tl and Sn since 1950s. Such recent increases are likely to be attributed to enhanced anthropogenic emissions, such as metal smelting, mining, stationary fossil fuel combustion and combustion of gasoline due to human activities in Eurasia, particularly Xinjiang in northwestern China, Russia and Kazakhstan. Our study supports evidence that environmental contamination has become a global problem for Pb and Bi and a large scale phenomenon for Cd, Sb, Tl, and Sn.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010EGUGA..1213168B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010EGUGA..1213168B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification and monitoring of potentially dangerous glacial lakes in northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (Kazakhstan/Kyrgyzstan) using geoinformation techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bolch, Tobias; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Peters, Juliane; Buchroithner, Manfred</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Like in many other parts of the world, the glaciers in northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan are receding and the permafrost is thawing and concomitant glacial lakes are developing. Outbursts of these glacial lakes pose severe hazards for the society. Over the last decade, several outbursts in this seismically active region are documented. Multi-temporal space imageries are an ideal means to study and monitor glaciers and glacial lakes over larger areas. Morphometric analyses and modelling approaches allow the estimation of the potential danger of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). In this paper, we present a comprehensive approach to identify glaciers and the potentially dangerous glacial lakes based on multi-temporal space imagery from 1972 (Corona KH-4B), 1973 (Landsat MSS), 1991 (Landsat TM), 1999 (Landsat ETM+), 2000/2001/ (ASTER) 2005, and 2008 (Landsat TM) as well as morphometric analysis and modelling. The identification and monitoring of glacial lakes were carried out automatically using image ratioing and the Normalized Difference Water Index (except for the panchromatic Corona images). The results were evaluated and, if necessary, manually edited. The probability of the growth of a glacial lake was estimated by analysing glacier changes, glacier motion, and slope analysis. A permafrost model based on morphometric parameters, solar radiation and regionalised temperature conditions aided us to asses the effect of probable permafrost thawing. A GIS-based model was applied in order to simulate the possible downstream impact of a lake outburst. The findings of our studies indicate a continuous glacier recession with an increasing number and area of glacial lakes. This possibly leads into a higher risk of a glacial lake outburst. Finally, the lakes are classified according to their outburst probability and their downstream impact.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026959','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026959"><span id="translatedtitle">Crustal structure of the northern margin of the eastern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, China, and its tectonic implications for the 1906 M~7.7 Manas earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wang, Chun-Yong; Yang, Zhu-En; Luo, Hai; Mooney, W.D.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan orogenic belt is the most active intracontinental mountain belt in the world. We describe an 86-km-long N–S-trending deep seismic reflection profile (which passes through the southern Junggar basin) located on the northeastern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan piedmont. Two distinct anticlines beneath the northern margin of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan are clearly imaged in the seismic section. In addition, we have imaged two detachment surfaces at depths of ∼7 and ∼16 km. The detachment surface at 16-km depth corresponds to the main detachment that converges with the steep angle reverse fault (the Junggar Southern Marginal Fault) on which the 1906 M~7.7 Manas earthquake occurred. A 12–14-km-thick sedimentary basin is imaged beneath the southern Junggar basin near Shihezi. The crust beneath the northern margin of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is 50–55-km thick, and decreases beneath the Junggar basin to 40–45-km thick. The crustal image of the deep seismic reflection profile is consistent with models derived from nearby seismic refraction data and Bouguer gravity anomalies in the same region. The faulting associated with the 1906 Manas earthquake also fits within the structural framework imaged by the seismic reflection profile. Present-day micro-seismicity shows a hypocentral depth-distribution between 5 and 35 km, with a peak at 20 km. We hypothesize that the 1906 Manas earthquake initiated at a depth of ∼20 km and propagated upwards, causing northward slip on the sub-horizontal detachments beneath the southern Junggar basin. Thus, in accord with regional geological mapping, the current shortening within the eastern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is accommodated both by high-angle reverse faulting and detachment faulting that can be clearly imaged at depth in seismic reflection data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cinnamon&id=ED229789','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cinnamon&id=ED229789"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CAI</span> Invention Strategies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rodrigues, Raymond J.; Rodrigues, Dawn</p> <p></p> <p>Prewriting programs using computers fall into two broad categories: interactive and noninteractive. An early example of a noninteractive program is that of Ellen Nold, called "Cinnamon." Its purpose was to present the student with a series of content questions. In answering such questions, the student would be accumulating a set of data that could…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cathode+AND+ray+AND+tube&pg=2&id=EJ020346','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cathode+AND+ray+AND+tube&pg=2&id=EJ020346"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CAI</span> Physics Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lindsay, Robert E.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Describes a novel instructional method for physics involving the use of a computer assisted instruction system equipped with cathode-ray-tube terminals, light pen, and keyboard input. Discusses exercises with regard to content, mediation, scoring and control. Several examples of exercises are given along with results from student evaluation. (LC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.5829K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.5829K"><span id="translatedtitle">The 1911 Chon-Kemin (M 8.3) earthquake in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan region*: preliminary investigation results by means of historical data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kulikova, G.; Krüger, F.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>For many years the <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan region* attracts attention of geophysicists and geologists due to complexity and uniqueness of its tectonics. At the turn of the XIX. to the XX. century several destructive earthquakes have occurred in the region with estimated magnitudes between 7 and 8 and two of them even exceeding the magnitude of 8. Our main goal is to investigate the deformation processes responsible for this significant earthquake sequence and the possible interrelation between the single events. Here we present preliminary results of the Chon-Kemin earthquake as an example. On 3rd January 1911 the M 8.3 Chon-Kemin earthquake hit the <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan region. It is the strongest event in the history of <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan region for which instrumental recordings are available and one of the strongest intracontinental earthquakes in XX. century. Historical analog data were collected from different seismic archives in European and non-European countries. The data from 20 seismic station were collected, mostly stations at that time had only horizontal components although there are some vertical recordings as well. Preprocessing the analog data brings several difficulties, e.g. limited information on instrument characteristics. Digitization is the most time-consuming part among preprocessing. The quality of seismograms is not always good enough this is why it was necessary to combine different methods of data processing. Since at that time localizations have been done on the base of intensity distributions, the epicenter is poorly determined. Several localizations, differed in the value of up to 80 km, are available. The surface rupture was also estimated in previous studies (about 200 km) and the deformation on the surface can be still observed nowadays, which gives opportunity to calibrate new localization comparing it to the geological data. Thus, we located the earthquake epicenter and determined the magnitude again based on the digitized seismograms. From first motion body wave</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.189...70K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.189...70K"><span id="translatedtitle">A link between oxygen, calcium and titanium isotopes in 26Al-poor hibonite-rich <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from Murchison and implications for the heterogeneity of dust reservoirs in the solar nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kööp, Levke; Davis, Andrew M.; Nakashima, Daisuke; Park, Changkun; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Tenner, Travis J.; Heck, Philipp R.; Kita, Noriko T.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>PLACs (platy hibonite crystals) and related hibonite-rich calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>; hereafter collectively referred to as PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) have the largest nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies of all materials believed to have formed in the solar system. Most PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> have low inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratios and could have formed prior to injection or widespread distribution of 26Al in the solar nebula. In this study, we report 26Al-26Mg systematics combined with oxygen, calcium, and titanium isotopic compositions for a large number of newly separated PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from the Murchison CM2 chondrite (32 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> studied for oxygen, 26 of these also for 26Al-26Mg, calcium and titanium). Our results confirm (1) the large range of nucleosynthetic anomalies in 50Ti and 48Ca (our data range from -70‰ to +170‰ and -60‰ to +80‰, respectively), (2) the substantial range of Δ17O values (-28‰ to -17‰, with Δ17O = δ17O - 0.52 × δ18O), and (3) general 26Al-depletion in PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. The multielement approach reveals a relationship between Δ17O and the degree of variability in 50Ti and 48Ca: PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with the highest Δ17O (∼-17‰) show large positive and negative 50Ti and 48Ca anomalies, while those with the lowest Δ17O (∼-28‰) have small to no anomalies in 50Ti and 48Ca. These observations could suggest a physical link between anomalous 48Ca and 50Ti carriers and an 16O-poor reservoir. We suggest that the solar nebula was isotopically heterogeneous shortly after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud, and that the primordial dust reservoir, in which anomalous carrier phases were heterogeneously distributed, was 16O-poor (Δ17O ⩾ -17‰) relative to the primordial gaseous (CO + H2O) reservoir (Δ17O < -35‰). However, other models such as CO self-shielding in the protoplanetary disk are also considered to explain the link between oxygen and calcium and titanium isotopes in PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Tecto..30.6016G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Tecto..30.6016G"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic history of the Kyrgyz South <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (Atbashi-Inylchek) suture zone: The role of inherited structures during deformation-propagation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Glorie, S.; de Grave, J.; Buslov, M. M.; Zhimulev, F. I.; Stockli, D. F.; Batalev, V. Y.; Izmer, A.; van den Haute, P.; Vanhaecke, F.; Elburg, M. A.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Multimethod chronology was applied on intrusives bordering the Kyrgyz South <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan suture (STSs) to decipher the timing of (1) formation and amalgamation of the suturing units and (2) intracontinental deformation that built the bordering mountain ranges. Zircon U/Pb data indicate similarities between the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Tarim Precambrian crust. Caledonian (˜440-410 Ma) and Hercynian (˜310-280 Ma) zircon U/Pb ages were found at the edge of the STSs, related to subduction and closure of the Turkestan Ocean and the formation of the suture itself. Permian-Triassic (˜280-210 Ma) titanite fission track and zircon (U-Th)/He data record the first signs of exhumation when the STSs evolved into a shear zone and the adjacent Tarim basin started to subside. Low-temperature thermochronological (apatite fission track, zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He) analyses reveal three distinct cooling phases, becoming younger toward the STSs center: (1) Jurassic-Cretaceous cooling ages provide evidence that a Mesozoic South <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan orogen formed as a response to the Cimmerian orogeny; (2) Early Paleogene (˜60-45 Ma) data indicate a renewed pulse of STSs reactivation during the Early Cenozoic; (3) Neogene ages constrain the onset of the modern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountain building to the Late Oligocene (˜30-25 Ma), which intensified during the Miocene (˜10-8 Ma) and Pliocene (˜3-2 Ma). The Cenozoic signals may reflect renewed responses to collisions at the southern Eurasian border (i.e., the Kohistan-Dras and India-Eurasia collisions). This progressive rejuvenation of the STSs demonstrates that deformation has not migrated steadily into the forelands, but was focused on pre-existing basement structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGeo...96...62L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGeo...96...62L"><span id="translatedtitle">Late Paleozoic evolution of the South <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan: Insights from P-T estimates and allanite geochronology on retrogressed eclogites (Chatkal range, Kyrgyzstan)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loury, Chloé; Rolland, Yann; Cenki-Tok, Bénédicte; Lanari, Pierre; Guillot, Stéphane</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In the South <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan range (Kyrgyzstan), the Late Paleozoic geodynamic evolution remains debated especially to the west of the Talas-Fergana fault (TFF) fault where suture-related high-pressure (HP) rocks are scarce. We provide new petrological and geochronological data on garnet amphibolites from the Chatkal range, to the west of the TFF, northwest of the South <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan suture. These rocks are retrogressed eclogites. We used a micro-mapping approach combined with forward modeling and empirical thermobarometry to decipher the P-T path of these amphibolitized eclogites. The metamorphic peak conditions culminated at 490 ± 50 °C and 18.5 ± 2 kbar and were followed by higher temperature retrogression (∼560 °C at 11-7 kbar). In order to constrain the age of the HP stage, we dated allanite crystals texturally coeval to the HP mineral assemblage. Allanite grains dated in situ with a U-Pb LA-ICPMS methodology yield an age of 301 ± 15 Ma. Compared with previously published data for the east of the TFF, these P-T constraints allow improving the understanding of the Late Paleozoic geodynamic evolution of the South <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. To the east of TFF, the Turkestan Ocean closed around 320 Ma with the collision of the Tarim Craton with the Kazakh microcontinent. To the west of TFF, the Turkestan Ocean closed around 300 Ma, when the Alai block collided with the Kazakh microcontinent. This later collision involved nappe-stacking and intense subvertical folding in the western South <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. This complex folding explains the S-shape of the suture to the west of the TFF that cannot be observed in the eastern part. These new data allow us to propose a distinct tectonic evolution of the two sides of the TFF, which suggests that this fault was a major transform fault before being a strike-slip intra-continental fault.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C13B0625H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C13B0625H"><span id="translatedtitle">Snow algae in an ice core drilled on Grigoriev Ice cap in the Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shen Mountains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Honda, M.; Takeuchi, N.; Sera, S.; Fujita, K.; Okamoto, S.; Naoki, K.; Aizen, V. B.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Snow algae are photosynthetic microorganisms and are living on the surfase of glaciers. They grow on melting surface from spring to summer and their biomass and community structure are changed with physical and chemical conditions on glaciers. Ice cores drilled from glaciers also contain snow algae that grew in the past. Studying biomass and community structure of snow algae in ice cores could reveal the temporal variation in snow algae in the past, and also environmental conditions relating propagation of snow algae. In this study, we anlalyzed snow algae preserved in an ice core of Grigoriev Ice cap located in eastern Kyrgyzstan of the central Asia, and to describe their temporal variations for the last 200 years. The ice core drilling was carried out on September in 2007 on the Grigoriev Ice cap in the Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shen Mountains. A 87 m long ice core from the surface to the bedrock was recovered at the top of the ice cap. The core was horizontally cut every 5 cm (total 1212 samples). The samples were melted and preserved as a 3% formalin solution. After the sample water was filtered through a hydrophilized PTFE membrane filter, observed by microscope. Snow algae in the sample water were counting. The algal biomass was represented by the cell number per unit water volume. Here, we showed the results between the surface to the 64 m in depth. We also analyzed the snow algal communities on the surface of the ice cap collected from five different sites from the top down to the terminus. Microscopy revealed that the ice core contained three taxa of filamentous cyanobacteria, an unicellular cyanobacterium, and two green algae. They were also found on the ice or snow surface of the i Ice cap. The quantitative analyses of the algae in the part of upper 64 m deep of the ice core samples revealed that the algal biomass varied significantly and showed many peaks. Furthermore, the biomass profile differed among the taxa. The filamentous cyanobacterium varied from 0.0 to 4</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.183..176H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.183..176H"><span id="translatedtitle">Microstructural constraints on complex thermal histories of refractory <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like objects in an amoeboid olivine aggregate from the ALHA77307 CO3.0 chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Han, Jangmi; Brearley, Adrian J.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We have carried out a FIB/TEM study of refractory <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like objects in one AOA from the ALHA77307 CO3.0 chondrite. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like objects in the AOA consist of a zoned sequence with a spinel-rich core through an intergrowth layer of spinel and Al-Ti-rich diopside to a diopside rim. The spinel-rich core consists of polycrystalline aggregates of spinel and ±minor melilite showing equilibrated grain boundary textures. The intergrowth layer contains fine-grained diopside and spinel with minor anorthite with highly curved and embayed grain boundaries. The diopside rim consists of polycrystalline aggregates of diopside. The compositions of pyroxene change significantly outward from Al-Ti-rich diopside in contact with the spinel-rich core to Al-Ti-poor diopside next to the surrounding olivine of the AOA. Overall microstructural and chemical characteristics suggest that the spinel-rich core formed under equilibrium conditions whereas the intergrowth layer is the result of reactions that occurred under conditions that departed significantly from equilibrium. The remarkable changes in formation conditions of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like objects may have been achieved by transport and injection of refractory objects into a region of a partially-condensed, Ca,Ti-saturated gas which reacted with spinel and melilite to form Al-Ti-rich diopside. Crystallographically-oriented TiO2 nanoparticles decorate the grain boundaries between spinel grains and between spinel and Al-Ti-rich diopside grains. During the disequilibrium back-reaction of spinel with a partially-condensed, Ca,Ti-saturated gas, metastable TiO2 nanoparticles may have condensed by an epitaxial nucleation mechanism and grown on the surface of spinel. These TiO2 nanoparticles are disordered intergrowths of the two TiO2 polymorphs, anatase and rutile. These nanoparticles are inferred to have nucleated as anatase that underwent partial transformation into rutile. The local presence of the TiO2 nanoparticles and intergrowth of anatase and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3907S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3907S"><span id="translatedtitle">Large Igneous Provinces of the Central Asia: data on geochronology, geochemistry and petrology of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Junggar basaltic complexes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Simonov, V.; Mikolaichuk, A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>During last years Large Igneous Provinces of the Central Asia were an object of steadfast attention of researchers. It was established that on a formation and development of continental earth crust a great influence was rendered by deep magmatic systems of mantle plumes of various age. Undoubtedly that these global processes of basaltic magmatism had in many respects crucial importance for ecology, climate and life development. Our researches of magmatic associations of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Junggar have allowed to accumulate a considerable volume of new data on geochronology, geochemistry and physico-chemical parameters of petrogenesis of within-plate basaltic complexes of the Central Asia, which area of distribution covers territory over than 285000 km2. Analysis with the help of 40Ar/39Ar method has shown that the basaltic complexes of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan have Cretaceous-Paleogene age (61-76 Ma). Basalts of the Southeast Kazakhstan (North <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan) corresponds to Paleozoic age: 305-312 Ma. Rather close values of 40Ar/39Ar data are received for basalts of the Altynemel Ridge (South Junggar) - 282 Ma. Isotope 40Ar/39Ar dating of basalts of the Alakol site (Junggar) has shown Mesozoic age (186-198 Ma). As a whole, the carried out researches testify to formation of <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Junggar within-plate basalt complexes as a result of influence of three plumes, operating in various time: Tarim (282-312 Ma), Junggar (186-198 Ma) and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (61-76 Ma). Data on petrochemistry, geochemistry of trace and rare-earth elements and mineralogy shows an enriched plume characteristics (close to OIB) of Mesozoic-Cenozoic basalts and presence of group of Paleozoic rocks close to continental and oceanic plateau basalts. As a whole, successive evolution in time of geodynamics of within-plate basalt magmatism of <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Junggar is established. Paleozoic - plateau basaltic magmatism like Siberian traps or oceanic plateau basalts of Ontong Java. Mesozoic - development of more local hot</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dolphin+AND+language&pg=2&id=ED287161','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dolphin+AND+language&pg=2&id=ED287161"><span id="translatedtitle">Cost-Benefit Analysis for ECIA Chapter 1 and State DPPF Programs Comparing Groups Receiving Regular Program Instruction and Groups Receiving Computer Assisted Instruction/Computer Management System (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>/CMS). 1986-87.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chamberlain, Ed</p> <p></p> <p>A cost benefit study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a computer assisted instruction/computer management system (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>/CMS) as an alternative to conventional methods of teaching reading within Chapter 1 and DPPF funded programs of the Columbus (Ohio) Public Schools. The Chapter 1 funded Compensatory Language Experiences and Reading…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/794067','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/794067"><span id="translatedtitle">Paleo-Climate and Glaciological Reconstruction in Central Asia through the Collection and Analysis of Ice Cores and Instrumental Data from the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vladimir Aizen; Donald Bren; Karl Kreutz; Cameron Wake</p> <p>2001-05-30</p> <p>While the majority of ice core investigations have been undertaken in the polar regions, a few ice cores recovered from carefully selected high altitude/mid-to-low latitude glaciers have also provided valuable records of climate variability in these regions. A regional array of high resolution, multi-parameter ice core records developed from temperate and tropical regions of the globe can be used to document regional climate and environmental change in the latitudes which are home to the vase majority of the Earth's human population. In addition, these records can be directly compared with ice core records available from the polar regions and can therefore expand our understanding of inter-hemispheric dynamics of past climate changes. The main objectives of our paleoclimate research in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountains of middle Asia combine the development of detailed paleoenvironmental records via the physical and chemical analysis of ice cores with the analysis of modern meteorological and hydrological data. The first step in this research was the collection of ice cores from the accumulation zone of the Inylchek Glacier and the collection of meteorological data from a variety of stations throughout the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The research effort described in this report was part of a collaborative effort with the United State Geological Survey's (USGS) Global Environmental Research Program which began studying radionuclide deposition in mid-latitude glaciers in 1995.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......242S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......242S"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of remote sensing and GIS in glacier monitoring: Glacier variability in Central Asia (<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Altai) during the last 30--60 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Surazakov, Arzhan</p> <p></p> <p>This study aims to estimate glacier changes in the two mountain systems of Central Asia - <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Altai, during the last 30-60 years as a consequence of regional climatic changes using remote sensing and GIS methods. To this goal two methodological studies were undertaken demonstrating the potential of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data and declassified KH-9 Hexagon images for estimation of glacier changes. Glacier area and volume changes were estimated in three pilot basins in <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Altai: Akshiirak, Ala-Archa and Aktru using data from historical geodetic surveys, topographic maps, aerial photography, declassified KH-9 Hexagon photographs, ASTER and ALOS/PRISM satellite images, SRTM and IceSAT elevation data and DGPS in situ measurements. Using SRTM data and a DEM from 1:25,000 topographic map glacier surface changes can be estimated with error about 8.2 m. In spite of SRTM error and the occasional absence of data on steep slopes, major long-term changes on relatively flat ablation and accumulation areas are clearly identifiable. Furthermore, the presence of local areas of rebound on glacier surfaces allowed decoupling of dynamic and climatic components of glacier changes that are not available solely from planimetric data. The high metric qualities of KH-9 imagery demonstrated a unique opportunity to extend high-resolution land cover/land use change studies to early 70s on regional to global scales. An IDL program was developed for automatic geometric preprocessing of KH-9 images. The distortions of scanned KH-9 film frames were about 6 mum (maximum 47.32 mum) with non uniform local patterns that had to be removed by local interpolation. In bundle triangulation of KH-9 images horizontal accuracies below 8 m were achieved. The KH-9 DEM vertical accuracy over flat terrain was about 6 m and 30 m over high mountains. The triple overlap of the KH-9 images enabled good DEM definition and accuracy on both north and south facing steep mountain</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1474S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1474S"><span id="translatedtitle">3D and 2D inversion of magnetotelluric data from the continental collision zone in the Pamirs and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sass, Paul; Ritter, Oliver; Rybin, Anatolii; Batalev, Vladislav</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Many geodynamic processes governing intra-continental collisional orogeny are largely unexplained and controversial. A key question is the state and dynamic behaviour of the lithosphere at middle and lower crustal levels while continental collision progresses. The Pamir - <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan region in Central Asia may be the best location on Earth to study such lithospheric deformation processes in situ. The mountain ranges and high plateaus formed at the tip of the north-western Indian promontory through the Cenozoic experienced rates of shortening similar to the adjacent Himalaya-Tibet system. Today, the Pamir - <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan orogenic belt hosts some of the deepest active intra-continental subduction zones on Earth and absorbs the highest strain rate over the shortest distance that is manifested in the India-Asia collision zone. The multi-disciplinary <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan - Pamir Geodynamic Program (TIPAGE) was designed to address some of the geodynamic key questions in this region. A magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out in concert with other geophysical and geological observations in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, predominantly along a 350 km long and 50 km wide corridor from southern Tajikistan to Osh in Kyrgyzstan across the Pamir Plateau and southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountain ranges. In total we recorded MT data at 178 stations, 26 of them combine long-period and broad band recordings. We present and compare 2D and 3D MT inversion results. Strike analysis of the data revealed an overall mean geo-electric strike direction consistent with the predominant tectonic trends. 2D inversion yields a reasonable data fit, with exception of some sites which exhibit phases above 90 degrees. 3D inversion was carried out with the ModEM package. We inverted for all four impedance tensor components and the vertical magnetic transfer functions. Topography was also included. The 3D models are generally in agreement with the 2D results but achieve a better data fit, particularly phases which could not be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T12A..09S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T12A..09S"><span id="translatedtitle">3D and 2D inversion of MT data from the continental collision zone in the Pamirs and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sass, P.; Ritter, O.; Rybin, A.; Batalev, V.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Many geodynamic processes governing intra-continental collisional orogeny are largely unexplained and controversial. A key question is the state and dynamic behaviour of the lithosphere at middle and lower crustal levels while continental collision progresses. The Pamir - <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan region in Central Asia may be the best location on Earth to study such lithospheric deformation processes in situ. The mountain ranges and high plateaus formed at the tip of the north-western Indian promontory through the Cenozoic experienced rates of shortening similar to the adjacent Himalaya-Tibet system. Today, the Pamir - <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan orogenic belt hosts some of the deepest active intra-continental subduction zones on Earth and absorbs the highest strain rate over the shortest distance that is manifested in the India-Asia collision zone. The multi-disciplinary <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan - Pamir Geodynamic Program (TIPAGE) was designed to address some of the geodynamic key questions in this region. A magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out in concert with other geophysical and geological observations in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, predominantly along a 350 km long and 50 km wide corridor from southern Tajikistan to Osh in Kyrgyzstan across the Pamir Plateau and southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountain ranges. In total we recorded MT data at 178 stations, 26 of them combine long-period and broad band recordings. We present and compare 2D and 3D MT inversion results. Strike analysis of the data revealed an overall mean geo-electric strike direction consistent with the predominant tectonic trends. 2D inversion yields a reasonable data fit, with exception of some sites which exhibit phases above 90 degrees. 3D inversion was carried out with the ModEM package. We inverted for all four impedance tensor components and the vertical magnetic transfer functions. Topography was also included. The 3D models are generally in agreement with the 2D results but achieve a better data fit, particularly phases which could not be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GPC...128....1P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GPC...128....1P"><span id="translatedtitle">Region-wide glacier mass budgets and area changes for the Central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan between ~ 1975 and 1999 using Hexagon KH-9 imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pieczonka, Tino; Bolch, Tobias</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The meltwater released by the glaciers in the Central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan feeds in particular the Tarim River which is the main artery for the oases at the northern margin of the Taklamakan desert. The correct assessment of the contribution of the glaciers' meltwater to the total runoff is hampered by the lack of long-term measurements of glacier mass budgets. Digital terrain models (DTMs) for the different regions in the Central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan were generated based on ~ 1975 KH-9 Hexagon imagery and compared to the SRTM3 DTM acquired in February 2000. Moreover, glacier area changes for the period ~ 1975-2008 have been measured by means of multi-temporal optical satellite imagery. The geodetic mass budget estimates for a glacierized area of 5000 km2 revealed increasing mass loss east to west and from the inner to the outer ranges. Highest mass loss accompanied by the most pronounced glacier retreat was found for the Ak-Shirak massif with a region-wide mass balance of - 0.51 ± 0.36 m w.e. a- 1 and a rate of area change of - 0.27 ± 0.15% a- 1, whilst moderate mass loss was observed for the Inylchek (0.20 ± 0.44 m w.e. a- 1) and Tomur area (0.33 ± 0.30 m w.e. a- 1) despite partly debris cover. These latter regions also revealed the lowest glacier shrinkage within the entire Central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The total glacier mass loss of 0.35 ± 0.34 m w.e. a- 1 is, however, within the global average whilst the glacier area shrinkage is comparatively low. On average, the investigated glacierized area of ~ 6600 km2 shrank by 0.11 ± 0.15% a- 1 only. We could also identify several surge-type glaciers. The results are consistent with in-situ mass balance measurements for Karabatkak Glacier and previously published results of the Ak-Shirak range proving the suitability of declassified imagery for glacier change investigations. The contribution to the runoff of Aksu River, the largest tributary of the Tarim River, due to glacier imbalance has been determined at ~ 20% for the 1975-2000 period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20513621','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20513621"><span id="translatedtitle">A 'college of astrology and medicine'? Charles V, Gervais Chré<span class="hlt">tien</span>, and the scientific manuscripts of Maître Gervais's College.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boudet, Jean-Patrice</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Considered an institution mainly devoted to astrology and medicine by Simon de Phares and by some historians who believe that he was reliable, the college founded in 1371 by Charles V's first physician, Gervais Chré<span class="hlt">tien</span>, was in fact primarily dedicated to theological students. It was not before 1377 that there were created there two bursaries for scholares regis, specialising in 'licit mathematical sciences', and two medical fellowships. Yet the influence of the activity of these fellows seems to have been rather moderate and-as far as we can learn from the material still extant, notably from manuscripts that belonged to Maître Gervais' College and to some of its members-this institution was devoted much more to theological studies than to medicine and the quadrivium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20513621','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20513621"><span id="translatedtitle">A 'college of astrology and medicine'? Charles V, Gervais Chré<span class="hlt">tien</span>, and the scientific manuscripts of Maître Gervais's College.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boudet, Jean-Patrice</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Considered an institution mainly devoted to astrology and medicine by Simon de Phares and by some historians who believe that he was reliable, the college founded in 1371 by Charles V's first physician, Gervais Chré<span class="hlt">tien</span>, was in fact primarily dedicated to theological students. It was not before 1377 that there were created there two bursaries for scholares regis, specialising in 'licit mathematical sciences', and two medical fellowships. Yet the influence of the activity of these fellows seems to have been rather moderate and-as far as we can learn from the material still extant, notably from manuscripts that belonged to Maître Gervais' College and to some of its members-this institution was devoted much more to theological studies than to medicine and the quadrivium. PMID:20513621</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T23C4677H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T23C4677H"><span id="translatedtitle">Macroscopic Fault Structure of the 1911 Mw8.1 Chon Kemin Earthquake (<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Kyrgyzstan) from Combined Seismic Imaging, Palaeo-Seismological Investigations and Historial Seismicity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haberland, C. A.; Sonnemann, T.; Landgraf, A.; Ryberg, T.; Kulikova, G.; Krueger, F.; Dzhumabaeva, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K.; Abdybachaev, U.; Orunbaev, S.; Rosenwinkel, S.; Sharshebaev, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Earthquakes in low-strain regions and their driving forces are still sparsely studied and understood, and constitute serious first-order research questions. Data acquisition concerning paleo-earthquakes, related hazards, and tectonic activity beyond historical records plays an important role. Such information can be obtained with tools from tectonic geomorphology, geophysics, historic seismicity, and paleo-seismology that should span a variety of time and length scales. The Chon-Kemin Valley in the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (Kyrgyzstan) is a small, intermontane basin of unknown origin framed by a network of active faults. In the year 1911, the Chon-Kemin earthquake (Mw=8.1) activated fault structures of about 200 km length which also ruptured the surface along the Chon-Kemin Valley and caused numerous landslides and rock avalanches of up to several tens of millions of cubic meters in volume. The Chon-Kemin earthquake was one of a series of strong seismic events that affected the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan between 1885 and 1938. A seismic survey across the Chon-Kemin Valley was conducted to investigate the subsurface velocity structure of the valley and its surrounding faults. Tomographic inversion techniques were applied to first-arrival traveltimes of refracted P waves, and the seismic data were screened for reflection signatures. Additionally, the region was analyzed through paleo-seismological trenching. Tomographic and reflection images identified a shallow basin structure bounded by a set of thrust faults in the south only which - in part - correlate with the surface trace of the rupture. The deformation seems to be distributed in time and space across several sub-parallel fault strands. Synthesis of historical (analog) recordings of this earthquake provide new insights into the source mechanisms and processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.4615A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.4615A"><span id="translatedtitle">Multisegment rupture in the 11 July 1889 Chilik earthquake (Mw 8.0-8.3), Kazakh <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, interpreted from remote sensing, field survey, and paleoseismic trenching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abdrakhmatov, K. E.; Walker, R. T.; Campbell, G. E.; Carr, A. S.; Elliott, A.; Hillemann, C.; Hollingsworth, J.; Landgraf, A.; Mackenzie, D.; Mukambayev, A.; Rizza, M.; Sloan, R. A.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The 11 July 1889 Chilik earthquake (Mw 8.0-8.3) forms part of a remarkable sequence of large earthquakes in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. Despite its importance, the source of the 1889 earthquake remains unknown, though the macroseismic epicenter is sited in the Chilik valley, ~100 km southeast of Almaty, Kazakhstan (~2 million population). Several short fault segments that have been inferred to have ruptured in 1889 are too short on their own to account for the estimated magnitude. In this paper we perform detailed surveying and trenching of the ~30 km long Saty fault, one of the previously inferred sources, and find that it was formed in a single earthquake within the last 700 years, involving surface slip of up to 10 m. The scarp-forming event, likely to be the 1889 earthquake, was the only surface-rupturing event for at least 5000 years and potentially for much longer. From satellite imagery we extend the mapped length of fresh scarps within the 1889 epicentral zone to a total of ~175 km, which we also suggest as candidate ruptures from the 1889 earthquake. The 175 km of rupture involves conjugate oblique left-lateral and right-lateral slip on three separate faults, with step overs of several kilometers between them. All three faults were essentially invisible in the Holocene geomorphology prior to the last slip. The recurrence interval between large earthquakes on any of these faults, and presumably on other faults of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, may be longer than the timescale over which the landscape is reset, providing a challenge for delineating sources of future hazard.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003Tectp.365..129D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003Tectp.365..129D"><span id="translatedtitle">Intraplate mountain building in response to continent continent collision—the Ancestral Rocky Mountains (North America) and inferences drawn from the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (Central Asia)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dickerson, Patricia Wood</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The intraplate Ancestral Rocky Mountains of western North America extend from British Columbia, Canada, to Chihuahua, Mexico, and formed during Early Carboniferous through Early Permian time in response to continent-continent collision of Laurentia with Gondwana—the conjoined masses of Africa and South America, including Yucatán and Florida. Uplifts and flanking basins also formed within the Laurentian Midcontinent. On the Gondwanan continent, well inboard from the marginal fold belts, a counterpart structural array developed during the same period. Intraplate deformation began when full collisional plate coupling had been achieved along the continental margin; the intervening ocean had been closed and subduction had ceased—that is, the distinction between upper versus lower plates became moot. Ancestral Rockies deformation was not accompanied by volcanism. Basement shear zones that formed during Mesoproterozoic rifting of Laurentia were reactivated and exerted significant control on the locations, orientations, and modes of displacement on late Paleozoic faults. Ancestral Rocky Mountain uplifts extend as far south as Chihuahua and west Texas (28° to 33°N, 102° to 109°W) and include the Florida-Moyotes, Placer de Guadalupe-Carrizalillo, Ojinaga-Tascotal and Hueco Mountain blocks, as well as the Diablo and Central Basin Platforms. All are cored with Laurentian Proterozoic crystalline basement rocks and host correlative Paleozoic stratigraphic successions. Pre-late Paleozoic deformational, thermal, and metamorphic histories are similar as well. Southern Ancestral Rocky Mountain structures terminate along a line that trends approximately N 40°E (present coordinates), a common orientation for Mesoproterozoic extensional structures throughout southern to central North America. Continuing <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan intraplate deformation (Central Asia) has created an analogous array of uplifts and basins in response to the collision of India with Eurasia, beginning in late</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710743B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710743B"><span id="translatedtitle">Geomorphology and Ice Content of Glacier - Rock Glacier &ndash; Moraine Complexes in Ak-Shiirak Range (Inner <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Kyrgyzstan)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bolch, Tobias; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Rohrbach, Nico; Fischer, Andrea; Osmonov, Azamat</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Meltwater originating from the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is of high importance for the runoff to the arid and semi-arid region of Central Asia. Previous studies estimate a glaciers' contribution of about 40% for the Aksu-Tarim Catchment, a transboundary watershed between Kyrgyzstan and China. Large parts of the Ak-Shiirak Range drain into this watershed. Glaciers in Central and Inner <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan are typically polythermal or even cold and surrounded by permafrost. Several glaciers terminate into large moraine complexes which show geomorphological indicators of ice content such as thermo-karst like depressions, and further downvalley signs of creep such as ridges and furrows and a fresh, steep rock front which are typical indicators for permafrost creep ("rock glacier"). Hence, glaciers and permafrost co-exist in this region and their interactions are important to consider, e.g. for the understanding of glacial and periglacial processes. It can also be assumed that the ice stored in these relatively large dead-ice/moraine-complexes is a significant amount of the total ice storage. However, no detailed investigations exist so far. In an initial study, we investigated the structure and ice content of two typical glacier-moraine complexes in the Ak-Shiirak-Range using different ground penetrating radar (GPR) devices. In addition, the geomorphology was mapped using high resolution satellite imagery. The structure of the moraine-rock glacier complex is in general heterogeneous. Several dead ice bodies with different thicknesses and moraine-derived rock glaciers with different stages of activities could be identified. Few parts of these "rock glaciers" contain also massive ice but the largest parts are likely characterised by rock-ice layers of different thickness and ice contents. In one glacier forefield, the thickness of the rock-ice mixture is partly more than 300 m. This is only slightly lower than the maximum thickness of the glacier ice. Our measurements revealed that up to 20% of</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5596335','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5596335"><span id="translatedtitle">Fayalite-rich rims, veins, and halos around and in forsteritic olivines in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and chondrules in carbonaceous chondrites: Types, compositional profiles and constraints of their formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hua, X.; Adam, J.; Palme, H.; Goresy, A. E. )</p> <p>1988-06-01</p> <p>Fayalite-rich rims, veins, and halos around and in forsteritic olivines are a wide-spread phenomenon in chondrules, Ca, Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>), and single grains in carbonaceous chondrites. The presence of fayalite rod-like crystals and laths in rims, veins, in wall of pores, and as fluffy network bridging neighboring olivines, pyroxenes, feldspars, etc. is strongly suggestive that the fayalitic olivine was formed by condensation presumably from the solar nebula gas. The formation of the fayalitic olivine was probably caused by an increase in the H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2} ratio (to a ratio between 0.1-1) subsequent to condensation of forsterite. At that stage, FeNi inclusions in olivine were also oxidized and fayalitic halos around the metal were then formed Fe diffusion along with addition of SiO{sub 2} from the solar gas or loss of M{sub g}O to the solar gas. The Fa-rich olivine rims and veins display a narrow compositional variation between Fa{sup 34} and Fa{sup 46}. Subsequent to condensation of Fa-rich olivine and oxidation of FeNi metal, Fe diffused in forsterite. This diffusion was probable enhanced due to the presence of point defects in olivine or the formation of a nonstoichiometric phase analogous to laihunite enriched in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. However, the presence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3{minus}} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3{minus}} rich discrete domains cannot by excluded. Cooling rates calculated by modeling of the diffusion profiles are indicative of rapid cooling subsequent to the condensation of fayalitic olivines. The authors obtain cooling rates ranging from 2000{degree}/day and 10{degree}C/day at an initial temperature of 1200C{degree} and 900C{degree}, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18038627','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18038627"><span id="translatedtitle">[Soil microarthropods and macrofauna in monsoon tropical forests of Cat <span class="hlt">Tien</span> and Bi Dup-Nui Ba National Parks, Southern Vietnam].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anichkin, A E; Beliaeva, N V; Dovgobrod, I G; Shveenkova, Iu B; Tiunov, A V</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The abundance, biomass, vertical distribution, and taxonomic composition of soil invertebrates (springtails, macrofauna, and termites) were studied in forest formations differing in edaphic and climatic conditions: lowland forests dominated by Lagerstroeomia spp. or Dipterocarpus spp. in the Cat <span class="hlt">Tien</span> National Park and in a mountain pine (Pinus kesiya) forest on the Da Lat Plateau, southern Vietnam. In the lowland forests, springtails had a relatively low density (10000-12000 ind./m2), but their diversity was high (41-43 species in each forest). The density of large soil invertebrates (without ants and termites) reached 500-700 ind./m2 at a biomass of approximately 30 g/m2 (with earthworms accounting for up to 230 ind./m2 and 19-28 g/m2). Among termites, species of the genera Macrotermes and Odontotermes were dominant. Their total biomass in some areas exceeded 15-20 g/m2. In the mountain pine forest, the total biomass of soil macrofauna was approximately 11 g/m2, the abundance and diversity of springtails were low (7500 ind./m2, 28 species), and wood-destroying species of the genera Schedorhinotermes sp. and Coptotermes sp. dominated among termites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18038627','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18038627"><span id="translatedtitle">[Soil microarthropods and macrofauna in monsoon tropical forests of Cat <span class="hlt">Tien</span> and Bi Dup-Nui Ba National Parks, Southern Vietnam].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anichkin, A E; Beliaeva, N V; Dovgobrod, I G; Shveenkova, Iu B; Tiunov, A V</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The abundance, biomass, vertical distribution, and taxonomic composition of soil invertebrates (springtails, macrofauna, and termites) were studied in forest formations differing in edaphic and climatic conditions: lowland forests dominated by Lagerstroeomia spp. or Dipterocarpus spp. in the Cat <span class="hlt">Tien</span> National Park and in a mountain pine (Pinus kesiya) forest on the Da Lat Plateau, southern Vietnam. In the lowland forests, springtails had a relatively low density (10000-12000 ind./m2), but their diversity was high (41-43 species in each forest). The density of large soil invertebrates (without ants and termites) reached 500-700 ind./m2 at a biomass of approximately 30 g/m2 (with earthworms accounting for up to 230 ind./m2 and 19-28 g/m2). Among termites, species of the genera Macrotermes and Odontotermes were dominant. Their total biomass in some areas exceeded 15-20 g/m2. In the mountain pine forest, the total biomass of soil macrofauna was approximately 11 g/m2, the abundance and diversity of springtails were low (7500 ind./m2, 28 species), and wood-destroying species of the genera Schedorhinotermes sp. and Coptotermes sp. dominated among termites. PMID:18038627</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.T14C..02A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.T14C..02A"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface rupture along the Chon Aksu and Aksu (eastern) segments of the 1911 Kebin (Chon-Kemin) earthquake, <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Kyrgyzstan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arrowsmith, J. R.; Crosby, C. J.; Korjenkov, A. M.; Mamyrov, E.; Povolotskaya, I. E.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>The 1911 Ms 8.2 Kebin (Chon-Kemin) earthquake is one of the largest intraplate reverse-faulting events to occur historically. It ruptured a 200 km E-W trending zone in the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. Description of the characteristics of major historic earthquakes, such as the Chon-Kemin event, provide data on the primary deformation and its initial geomorphic degradation, thus informing paleoseismological investigations. Trace geometry and offset distribution are key parameters for the interpretation of the seismotectonic setting and mechanical interaction with other regional structures. The Chon-Kemin earthquake's relationship to other large regional earthquakes, notably the 1887 Ms 7.3 Verny and 1889 Ms 8.3 Chilik events, indicates a strong interaction between structures in this portion of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. We reconnoitered most of the Chon-Kemin rupture belt and associated mass movements and conclude that many of the 1911 features are still well preserved. We emphasized mapping and description of the easternmost 50 km of the rupture, along the Aksu (easternmost) and Chon-Aksu segments. Moving from east to west, 1-3 m high fault scarps and warped Holocene terraces discontinuously cut the piedmonts north and northeast of the town of Anan'evo. The rupture closely follows the mountain front and enters the range just below the Anan'evo landslide (formed in the earthquake). Scarp heights are 2-4 m. West of the Tegermenty River, the left-stepping rupture is continuous and consists of sub parallel strands in places. Between the Sutubulak and the Aksu River crossing, some of the tallest scarps are present, with heights of 6 - 10 m. The generally north-dipping fault zone has low south dips in the near surface as the thrust has driven the hanging wall over the south-sloping piedmont. This change in dip is likely responsible for the formation of E-W extensional faults in the hanging wall. Given the shallow fault dips and tall scarps in this area, 1911 displacement is probably > 10 m</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413283T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1413283T"><span id="translatedtitle">Two-/three-dimensional thermo-mechanical modeling of Cenozoic lithospheric deformation in the Himalaya-Tibet-Pamir-<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan orogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tympel, J.; Sobolev, S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The Pamir-Hindu Kush region located in the western syntaxis of the Himalaya is the locus of a large number of intermediate-depth earthquakes and an almost vertical high velocity zone, seen in seismic tomography. The seismicity is not clearly related to oceanic subduction and forms an S-shaped zone between north-western Afghanistan and the eastern Pamir. In depth, the earthquake hypocenters are forming what some authors interpret as a V-shaped pattern which supports the model of two converging subduction zones. However, other models propose a single but highly contorted Indian slab or even a Rayleigh-Taylor instability due to a higher density in the lithosphere compared to the asthenosphere. As part of the TIPAGE project (<span class="hlt">TIen</span> Shan - PAmir GEodynamic program) our aim is to find lithospheric scale models constrained by all TIPAGE observations as well as to find controlling factors for the extreme Cenozoic shortening in the Pamir-<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan orogen. In our current modeling approach, we use the finite-element codes SLIM2D and SLIM3D which are allowing coupled thermo-mechanical treatment of deformation processes. These codes are capable of highly nonlinear elasto-visco-plastic rheology including diffusion, dislocation and Peierls creep mechanism and allowing self-consistent generation of faults. They incorporate free surface boundary conditions and are equipped with petrological routines for gabbro-eclogite, coesite-stishovite phase transitions. We run several 2D cross-section models in order to explain the high velocity zone below the Pamir-Hindu Kush and the seismicity which distinguishes the region from the rest of the Himalaya. In a typical model setup India has two parts: the 'inner part' which comprises 35-45 km thick continental crust and relatively thick cratonic mantle lithosphere; the 'outer part' has 25-30 km thick crust and a less depleted, more ocean-like lithosphere. Inside of Asia we place an "inclusion" of thicker cratonic lithosphere, like that of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC41A0868S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC41A0868S"><span id="translatedtitle">A New Comprehensive Dataset on Glacier Area Changes From 1960s to 2008 in Altai-Sayan, <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan And Pamir Mountain Systems of Central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Surazakov, A.; Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E.; Nikitin, S.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Mountain glaciers are a vital source of fresh water in arid and semi-arid regions of central Asia. To quantify glacier loss due to climate change during the last 42 years and use this information in water resources estimation, we have completed a comprehensive database of the glacier area changes in Altai-Sayan (AS), <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (TS) and Pamir (PA) mountains. A new wall-to-wall glacier inventory was completed based on ASTER and Landsat ETM+ multispectral imagery (circa 2000). Counting only the glaciers that are larger than 0.1 sq. km, in Central Asia there were: 1,428 glaciers with area of 1,285 sq. km in AS; 11,671 glaciers with area of 13,424 sq. km in PA; 10,925 glaciers with area of 13,196 sq. km in TS. Glacier changes since 1960s and after 2000, were estimated using historical snapshots of glacier areas that were manually digitized from declassified 2 m Corona (1960s) and 6-9 m Hexagon (1970s) satellite photographs and 2.5 m ALOS/PRISM imagery (2008). The high-resolution Corona and Hexagon images were co-registered to the modern imagery using novel rigorous orthorectification approaches. The developed multitemporal orthophotography allowed, for the first time, direct image to image analysis of glacier area changes at unprecedented level of detail, while retaining regional scope of the study. Overall, historical snapshots were created for about 61% of the total glacier area in Central Asia. Preliminary analysis suggested large variability of glacier area losses in these three mountains systems. The largest massifs of glaciations in PA and TS lost only 2-4% during the last half a century, whereas regions of dispersed glaciations located at low elevation of the periphery of mountains systems lost up to 25% of their area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC23H..04M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC23H..04M"><span id="translatedtitle">Holocene River Dynamics, Climate Change and Floodwater Farming in the Watersheds of the Pamir and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mountains of Inner Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Macklin, M. G.; Panyushkina, I. P.; Toonen, W. H. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Ili, Syr Dayra and Amu Dayra rivers of Inner Asia are emerging as critical areas for the development of irrigation-based agriculture in the ancient world. Following research by Russian archaeologists in the 1970s it is evident that these watersheds had flourishing riverine civilizations comparable to those in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley. But unlike these areas where the relationship between Holocene river dynamics, climate change and floodwater farming is increasingly underpinned by radiometric dating, the alluvial archaeology of Inner Asia is significantly under researched. To address this, a major multi-disciplinary research program was begun in 2011 centred on the Talgar catchment, a south-bank tributary of the Ili river, southeast Kazakhstan. Building on archaeological excavations and surveys conducted over the past 20 years, we have undertaken one of the most detailed investigations of Holocene people-river environment interactions in Inner Asia. River development has been reconstructed over the last 20,000 years and human settlement histories from the Eneolithic to the Medieval period documented. Periods of Holocene river aggradation and high water levels in Lake Balkhash and Aral Sea correspond with cooler and wetter neoglacial episodes while river entrenchment and floodplain soil development are associated with warmer and drier conditions. Floodwater farming in the Talgar river reached its acme in the late Iron Age (400-200 cal. BC) with more than 60 settlement sites and 550 burial mounds. This corresponds to a period of reduced flood flows, river stability and glacier retreat in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan headwaters. A new hydroclimatic-based model for the spatial and temporal dynamics of floodwater farming in the Ili, Syr Dayra and Amu Dayra watersheds is proposed, which explains the large scale expansion (down-river) and contraction (up-river) of settlements since the first use of irrigation in the Neolithic through to the late Medieval period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.131...17G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.131...17G"><span id="translatedtitle">Mid-twentieth century increases in anthropogenic Pb, Cd and Cu in central Asia set in hemispheric perspective using <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan ice core</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grigholm, B.; Mayewski, P. A.; Aizen, V.; Kreutz, K.; Wake, C. P.; Aizen, E.; Kang, S.; Maasch, K. A.; Handley, M. J.; Sneed, S. B.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>High-resolution major and trace element (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Ti, and V) ice core records from Inilchek glacier (5120 m above sea level) on the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau provide the first multi-decadal ice core record spanning the period 1908-1995 AD in central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The trace element records reveal pronounced temporal baseline trends and concentration maxima characteristic of post-1950 anthropogenic emissions. Examination of Pb, Cd and Cu concentrations, along with non-crustal calculation estimates (i.e. excess (ex) and enrichment factor (EF)), reveal that discernable anthropogenic inputs began during the 1950s and rapidly increased to the late-1970s and early 1980s, by factors up to of 5, 6 and 3, respectively, relative to a 1910-1950 means. Pb, Cd and Cu concentrations between the 1950s-1980s are reflective of large-scale Soviet industrial and agricultural development, including the growth of production and/or consumption of the non-ferrous metals, coal and phosphate fertilizers. NOAA HYSPLIT back-trajectory frequency analysis suggests pollutant sources originating primarily from southern Kazakhstan (e.g. Shymkent and Balkhash) and the Fergana Valley (located in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan). Inilchek ice core Pb, Cd and Cu reveals declines during the 1980s concurrent with Soviet economic declines, however, due to the rapid industrial and agricultural growth of western China, Pb, Cd and Cu trends increase during the 1990s reflecting a transition from primarily central Asian sources to emission sources from western China (e.g. Xinjiang Province).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026887','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026887"><span id="translatedtitle">Assembly of the Pamirs: Age and origin of magmatic belts from the southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan to the southern Pamirs and their relation to Tibet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Schwab, M.; Ratschbacher, L.; Siebel, W.; McWilliams, M.; Minaev, V.; Lutkov, V.; Chen, F.; Stanek, K.; Nelson, B.; Frisch, W.; Wooden, J.L.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Magmatic rocks and depositional setting of associated volcaniclastic strata along a north-south traverse spanning the southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and eastern Pamirs of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan constrain the tectonics of the Pamirs and Tibet. The northern Pamirs and northwestern Tibet contain the north facing Kunlun suture, the south facing Jinsha suture, and the intervening Carboniferous to Triassic Karakul-Mazar subduction accretion system; the latter is correlated with the Songpan-Garze-Hoh Xi system of Tibet. The Kunlun arc is a composite early Paleozoic to late Paleozoic-Triassic arc. Arc formation in the Pamirs is characterized by ???370-320 Ma volcanism that probably continued until the Triassic. The cryptic Tanymas suture of the southern northern Pamirs is part of the Jinsha suture. A massive ??????227 Ma batholith stitches the Karakul-Mazar complex in the Pamirs. There are striking similarities between the Qiangtang block in the Pamirs and Tibet. Like Tibet, the regional structure of the Pamirs is an anticlinorium that includes the Muskol and Sares domes. Like Tibet, the metamorphic rocks in these domes are equivalents to the Karakul-Mazar-Songpan-Garze system. Granitoids intruding the Qiangtang block yield ???200-230 Ma ages in the Pamirs and in central Tibet. The stratigraphy of the eastern Pshart area in the Pamirs is similar to the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone in the Amdo region of eastern central Tibet, but a Triassic ocean basin sequence is preserved in the Pamirs. Arc-type granitoids that intruded into the eastern Pshart oceanic-basin-arc sequence (???190-160 Ma) and granitoids that cut the southern Qiangtang block (???170-160 Ma) constitute the Rushan-Pshart arc. Cretaceous plutons that intruded the central and southern Pamirs record a long-lasting magmatic history. Their zircons and those from late Miocene xenoliths show that the most distinct magmatic events were Cambro-Ordovician (???410-575 Ma), Triassic (???210-250 Ma; likely due to subduction along the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC41A0701S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC41A0701S"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards a new High Resolution Orthophoto Mosaic Circa 1976 for the Northern Eurasia: Assessing the Potential of Declassified Hexagon KH-9 Images (<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Region, Central Asia Case Study)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Surazakov, A.; Aizen, V.; Aizen, E.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Repeated satellite-based inventories of land-cover and land-use, such as Global Landsat Orthorectified data collection (28.5-57 m resolution), are crucial for understanding dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems. However, accurate estimation of dynamics of certain natural and man-made phenomena (mountain glaciers, lakes, urban and agricultural areas) often requires higher resolution remote sensed datasets (with resolution below 10-20 m). In the Northern Eurasia, such datasets are often too expensive or unavailable for a regional study (for example SPOT, TK-350, aerial photography) or span only the last decade (for example Landsat ETM, ASTER, IRS, ALOS/PRISM). This study estimates accuracy and potential of historical Hexagon KH-9 images for generation of a high resolution orthorectified product circa 1976 on a regional scale. The Hexagon KH-9 images were declassified by the U.S. Government in 2002. Although the KH-9 dataset coverage is global, it is particularly rich over the Northern Eurasia where multiple repeat images were acquired for the U.S. Defense Mapping Agency. Using a set of KH-9 images we generated a high quality orthorectified mosaic for the area of <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountain system (about 550,000 km2) with resolution of 6-9 m and horizontal accuracy about 9 m. The panchromatic orthophoto mosaic is a unique dataset that for the first time portrays the remote region with such detail and, at the same time, extends the retrospective for more than three decades. The mosaic enabled creation of a glacier inventory for the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountains circa 1976. The <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan case study demonstrated that Hexagon KH-9 images can be used for generation of a land-cover/land-use inventory circa 1976 on regional scales and with high spatial resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6817746','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6817746"><span id="translatedtitle">A polymorphic variant of human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase I with a widespread distribution in Australian aborigines, <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Australia-9 (8 Asp leads to Gly): purification, properties, amino acid substitution, and possible physiological significance of the variant enzyme.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jones, G L; Shaw, D C</p> <p>1982-10-01</p> <p>Carbonic anhydrase I (EC 4.2.1.1) purified from the pooled packed red blood cells of 100 individuals typed as heterozygous for the common Australian Aboriginal carbonic anhydrase I variant <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Australia-9 had a slightly higher specific CO2 hydratase or esterase (toward p-nitrophenyl acetate) activity than the normal component and a higher Km and Vmax using the esterase substrate. The variant enzyme was slightly more resistant to heat inactivation. The extent of inhibition of both enzymes by the specific inhibitor acetazolamide was identical, as was their immunological behavior and the lability of the active-site zinc ion. The variant enzyme was more resistant to chloride inhibition. The physiological importance of this observation is discussed in the context of a proposed adaptive advantage of the variant gene in the arid western and central regions of Australia. The amino acid substitution in the Aboriginal variant of a glycine for an aspartic acid residue has been located at residue 8 from the N terminus (i.e., 8 Asp leads to Gly), by proteolytic and partial acid hydrolyses. The possible effects of this substitution on the structure and function of the molecule are discussed. PMID:6817746</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/421051','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/421051"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated use of remotely sensed imagery and other data sets to infer the tectonics, structural style, and hydrocarbon habitats of the basins of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan orogenic belt, Western China: A case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Berry, J.L.; Nishidai, T.</p> <p>1996-08-01</p> <p>Remotely sensed imagery and various other published regional data sets (gravity, magnetics, earthquake data) were integrated in order to interpret the structural style, both at deep crustal levels and at the relatively shallow levels of interest to explorationists, of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. Cross-sections through the range were systematically prepared, and then palinspastically restored, constrained by the remote sensing interpretation, potential fields data, and published microplate movement vectors. Since large portions of the area are covered by late Tertiary orogenic sediments, the resulting interpretation focused on these areas, and what and how much geology lies concealed beneath them. We were able to demonstrate the likely consumption in the late Tertiary of over 100 km of Tarim Basin west along a broad front south of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, as well as within the Kuruktag area, where basins are compressional rather than extensional. There are also local areas of extension within the orogenic zone, and these can be explained using the known microplate boundaries, backward extrapolation of present microplate motions, and the type and extent of late Tertiary deformation within the plates as constraints. Relative and absolute microplate motions have to change greatly through Tertiary time in order to comply with these constraints. The results of this work allow one to infer the affinities, and hence something of the hydrocarbon potential, of fragmentary plates by reconstructing their motions. They also allow one to infer the nature of the stratigraphy, the likely depth of burial, and something of the maturation history of pre-Tertiary rocks buried by Tertiary sediments deposited in both compressional and extensional regimes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED447713.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED447713.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">If Your Child Learns in Two Languages: A Parent's Guide for Improving Educational Opportunities for Children Acquiring English as a Second Language = Si su nino aprende en dos idiomes: Una guia para que las familias sepan como mejorar las oportunidades educativas de los ninos que adquieren el ingles como segunda lengua = Neu lon Ban Hoc Bang Hai Thu Tieng: Chi-nam cua phu-huynh de <span class="hlt">cai</span> <span class="hlt">tien</span> co hoi hoc van cua con em dang hoc Anh van nhu sinh ngu thu hai.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zelasko, Nancy; Antunez, Beth</p> <p></p> <p>This guide, in English, Spanish, and Vietnamese, aims to inform parents of students who have learned or are learning English as a Second Language about appropriate approaches for educating children so that they can work with schools to ensure a high quality education for their children. The emphasis is on explaining the laws, schools, and research…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4971317','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4971317"><span id="translatedtitle">Chinese Herbal Mixture, <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Hsien Liquid, Induces G2/M Cycle Arrest and Radiosensitivity in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells through Mechanisms Involving DNMT1 and Rad51 Downregulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chow, Jyh-Ming; Yang, Chia-Ming; Kuo, Hui-Ching; Chang, Chia-Lun; Lee, Hsin-Lun; Lai, I-Chun; Chuang, Shuang-En</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Chinese herbal mixture, <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Hsien Liquid (THL), has been proven to suppress the growth and invasiveness of cancer cells and is currently regarded as a complementary medicine for the treatment of cancer. Our previous study using acute promyelocytic leukemia cells uncovered its effect on the downregulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) which is often overexpressed in cancer cells resulting in the repression of tumor suppressors via hypermethylation. Herein, we explored the effects of THL in MCF-7 breast cancer cells that also demonstrate elevated DNMT1. The results show that THL dose-dependently downregulated DNMT1 accompanied by the induction of tumor suppressors such as p21 and p15. THL arrested cell cycle in G2/M phase and decreased the protein levels of cyclin A, cyclin B1, phospho-pRb, and AKT. DNMT1 inhibition was previously reported to exert a radiosensitizing effect in cancer cells through the repression of DNA repair. We found that THL enhanced radiation-induced clonogenic cell death in MCF-7 cells and decreased the level of DNA double-strand break repair protein, Rad51. Our observations may be the result of DNMT1 downregulation. Due to the fact that DNMT1 inhibition is now a mainstream strategy for anticancer therapy, further clinical trials of THL to confirm its clinical efficacy are warranted. PMID:27525019</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=introvert&pg=5&id=EJ268637','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=introvert&pg=5&id=EJ268637"><span id="translatedtitle">New Study Says <span class="hlt">CAI</span> May Favor Introverts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hopmeier, George</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A personality research study using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator indicates that computer-assisted instruction programs favor introverts, i.e., those learners who can concentrate on details, memorize facts, and stay with a task until it is completed. (JJD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=processor+AND+design&pg=6&id=ED161417','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=processor+AND+design&pg=6&id=ED161417"><span id="translatedtitle">Strategies for Production and Dissemination of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Olivier, W. P.; Scott, G. F.</p> <p></p> <p>The Individualization Project at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE) was organized on a cooperative basis with a federal agency and several community colleges. The main design goals were to produce needed courseware, move smoothly from research and development to a production mode of operation, and to emphasize dissemination of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=PCM&pg=3&id=EJ262275','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=PCM&pg=3&id=EJ262275"><span id="translatedtitle">PCM: A Physical Chemistry Monitor for <span class="hlt">CAI</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tardy, Dwight C.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A physical chemistry computer program with seven subprograms (available from the author) was developed to present student questions, evaluate mathematical expressions (calculator mode), retrieve tables, and refresh output on the terminal. Criteria for easily adding new questions are listed and sample output included. (SK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=vegetarianism&id=EJ301927','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=vegetarianism&id=EJ301927"><span id="translatedtitle">Authoring a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Lesson in Nutrition Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ries, Carol P.; And Others</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A nutrition lesson on vegetarianism (focusing on vegetarian types, complementary protein, special-care nutrients, and diet planning) that uses a pre-developed plan which concentrates on lesson content and design has been developed. Initial planning and procedures involved in developing the unit (selecting teaching modes, text writing, formatting,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED105893.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED105893.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Survey of Health Sciences <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kamp, Martin</p> <p></p> <p>A project to develop an automated index of information about existing computerized instruction in the health sciences is reported and described. Methods of obtaining and indexing materials for the catalog are detailed. Entry and recovery techniques and selection of descriptors are described. Results to date show that the data base contains…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=manipulation&pg=3&id=EJ909969','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=manipulation&pg=3&id=EJ909969"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving Early Reading Comprehension Using Embodied <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Glenberg, Arthur M.; Goldberg, Andrew B.; Zhu, Xiaojin</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>An embodied approach to reading comprehension suggests that emerging readers must learn to map words and phrases onto their remembered experiences, but this is made difficult by the necessity of focusing attention on decoding. Having children manipulate toys to correspond to what they are reading overcomes this problem, but introduces its own…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=engineering+AND+design+AND+power+AND+systems&pg=4&id=ED285585','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=engineering+AND+design+AND+power+AND+systems&pg=4&id=ED285585"><span id="translatedtitle">Interactive Graphics in CAD/<span class="hlt">CAI</span> in Chemical Engineering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lewin, D. R.</p> <p></p> <p>This paper describes the development of a software program which incorporates interactive graphics techniques into a teaching and research environment at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Technion, Israel, and the experience of transferring the software from mainframe to personal computer (PC) operating systems at the California Institute of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED078647.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED078647.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Generative <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Monitor For Teaching Machine-Language Programming.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Blount, Sumner E.</p> <p></p> <p>An effective generative computer-assisted instructional system designed to teach basic machine language computer programing is now available. The system--known as Machine Language Teacher (MALT)--is implemented on an IBM 360 with numerous 2741 remote terminals giving student access. It teaches the machine language of the Simulated Educational…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED071443.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED071443.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Behavioral Objectives, Sequence, and Aptitude Treatment Interactions in <span class="hlt">CAI</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tobias, Sigmund; Duchastel, Philippe C.</p> <p></p> <p>The interaction of behavioral objectives, sequence order, and test and state anxiety were investigated. The study had four purposes: 1) to examine the effects of objectives on achievement; 2) to investigate the effects of sequencing; 3) to study the interaction of availability of objectives and sequence; 4) to study the effects of objectives and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=enzyme+AND+kinetics&pg=7&id=EJ598028','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=enzyme+AND+kinetics&pg=7&id=EJ598028"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> System for Simulation of Enzymes Kinetics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Amorim, G. G.; Leao, F. S.; Martins, M. R.; Santos, J. D.; Novaes, M. A.; Filho, J. L. Lima</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Describes a computer software program that simulates each step of the glycolytic enzyme pathway. Serves as a means of providing interactive learning for undergraduate biochemistry students with the aim of better preparing them for laboratory work. (Author/CCM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1080289.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1080289.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CAI</span> and Its Application in Rural Junior English Class</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>He, Xiaojun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Superiority in developing students' listening, speaking, etc. This thesis explores how to provide a better environment for English teaching in rural junior school with the aid of multimedia and find some ways to improve teaching efficiency. In recent years, using multimedia is the direction of reform and mainstream in English teaching. Compared…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mood+AND+memory&pg=7&id=ED247884','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mood+AND+memory&pg=7&id=ED247884"><span id="translatedtitle">Strategy Training: An Incidental Learning Model for <span class="hlt">CAI</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Derry, Sharon J.</p> <p></p> <p>Attempts to train learning strategies have not produced marked or lasting increases in academic IQ, probably because current training models fail to recognize the evolutionary nature of strategies acquisition. Empirical and theoretical evidence supports an incidental learning model, which engineers the instructional environment following study…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=resource+AND+rent&id=EJ528570','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=resource+AND+rent&id=EJ528570"><span id="translatedtitle">Richer Harvests: A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Approach to Teaching Fisheries Economics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Whitmarsh, David</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Maintains that computer-assisted instruction built around a spreadsheet-based model can illustrate and simplify some of the more difficult concepts concerning economics and fisheries. Describes a software program that illustrates overcapitalization, asset fixity, resource rent capture, economic optimum, and sustainable yield. (MJP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED165797.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED165797.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Intelligent <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: An Author Aid for a Natural Language Interface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Burton, Richard R.; Brown, John Seely</p> <p></p> <p>This report addresses the problems of using natural language (English) as the communication language for advanced computer-based instructional systems. The instructional environment places requirements on a natural language understanding system that exceed the capabilities of all existing systems, including: (1) efficiency, (2) habitability, (3)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED031966.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED031966.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Pilot Study of a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Laboratory in German.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Morrison, H.W.; Adams, E.N.</p> <p>1968-01-01</p> <p>Comparisons are made between two introductory German sections at the State University of New York, Stony Brook, one of which had a conventional language laboratory and the other a computer assisted instruction laboratory. A brief description of the instructional arrangements is followed by descriptions of experimental comparisons, making up the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED313033.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED313033.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CAI</span> and CMI Methods for Teaching Business Statistics Using COMPENSTAT.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sanders, William V.</p> <p></p> <p>COMPENSTAT, a menu-driven statistical program for IBM-compatible microcomputers, has two distinct versions: instructional and computational. The instructional version can be used by instructors as a classroom resource, and the computational version is used directly by students to calculate answers to problems. The software package is primarily…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED067010.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED067010.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">FLUIDMOD: A Versatile <span class="hlt">CAI</span> System for Medical Students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Deland, E. C.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>FLUIDMOD is an interactive program for student practice and instruction in the medical treatment of fluid and electrolyte problems in human patients. Previous instructional programs in this field have been based on teaching numerous rules applicable to particular problems, which must then be applied by the student to actual patients who supply…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED382997.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED382997.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Sonnets, High Tech, Haiku: Teaching Poetry in the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Classroom.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Krebs, Cynthia; Nichols, Chloe</p> <p></p> <p>This report emphasizes the techniques required today for effective slide construction and contains suggestions about the nuts and bolts of slide preparation. Two instructors developed a presentation at Utah Valley State College to enhance their teaching of the sonnet and the Japanese haiku. Their premise: since poetry is a highly visual art form,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED497705.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED497705.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Design and Development of Intelligent Multimedia Network <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Courseware</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Liu, Guangran; Yin, Hong</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Currently, the intelligence and individuality of multimedia network courseware is not enough, which limits the universal development of modern long-distance education. It is the best way to develop network courseware with intelligence. The paper basing on "College English" introduces the idea of design, system structure and development of process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010044738&hterms=Love&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DLove','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010044738&hterms=Love&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DLove"><span id="translatedtitle">The Formation of Igneous <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and Chondrules by Impacts?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Connolly, Harold C., Jr.; Love, Stanley G.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Numerous challenges exist with forming the igneous spheres found within chondrites via collision events in the early solar nebula. We explore these challenges and discuss potential methods to overcome them. Collision models should be received cautiously. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012M%26PSA..75.5203S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012M%26PSA..75.5203S"><span id="translatedtitle">Formation of Refractory Metal Alloys and Their Occurrence in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schwander, D.; Berg, T.; Ott, U.; Schönhense, G.; Palme, H.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>At the conference we will give an overview of the current state of our research of RMN from Murchison, Allende and Acfer 094 including statistical analysis of their compositions and structures in relation to condensation calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED076048.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED076048.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Commonwealth <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Consortium, E.S.E.A., Title III.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Igo, Robert; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>Algebra I and General Mathematics courses using tutorial instructional programs under computer control supplemented by "off-line" materials (included in the computer controlled testing) have been developed for a ninth grade student population. The relationships of instructional materials, pretests, posttests, and choice points are illustrated by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED076045.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED076045.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Commonwealth <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Consortium. E.S.E.A., Title III.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Igo, Robert; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>Algebra I and General Mathematics courses directed at a ninth grade population are being designed to include a tutorial program under computer control and a variety of supplemental learning experiences. Student performance data will not only control the flow of the program, but also will enable the classroom teacher to assign appropriate…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED322509.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED322509.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching English 101<span class="hlt">CAI</span>: From Romance to Realism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pair, Joyce M.</p> <p></p> <p>This project/study introduced the use of computers in one freshman composition course to determine whether the instructor and the students could accomplish more in a computer-based rather than a traditionally structured course. The assumption was that students would produce better essays on the word-processor and printer, and that the instructor…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050173932','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050173932"><span id="translatedtitle">The Mn-53-Cr-53 System in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>: An Update</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Bogdanovski, O.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>High precision techniques have been developed for the measurement of Cr isotopes on the Triton mass spectrometer, at JPL. It is clear that multiple Faraday cup, simultaneous ion collection may reduce the uncertainty of isotope ratios relative to single Faraday cup ion collection, by the elimination of uncertainties from ion beam instabilities (since ion beam intensities for single cup collection are interpolated in time to calculate isotope ratios), and due to a greatly increased data collection duty cycle, for simultaneous ion collection. Efforts to measure Cr by simultaneous ion collection have not been successful in the past. Determinations on Cr-50-54Cr, by simultaneous ion collection on the Finnigan/ MAT 262 instrument at Caltech, resulted in large variations in extrinsic precision, for normal Cr, of up to 1% in Cr-53/Cr-52 (data corrected for mass fractionation, using Cr-50/Cr-52).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=schleicher&pg=4&id=EJ271551','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=schleicher&pg=4&id=EJ271551"><span id="translatedtitle">Authoring Systems Can Save Time in Development of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schleicher, Gordon</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Discusses a computer software program called "The Author" which allows computer-assisted instruction lessons to be written by an instructor with no programing experience. The authoring system provides printed formatting sheets which enable the instructor to write out lesson text, questions, and instructions prior to entering them on the terminal.…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Dingo&id=EJ536978','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Dingo&id=EJ536978"><span id="translatedtitle">El Que No <span class="hlt">Tiene</span> Dingo, <span class="hlt">Tiene</span> Mandingo: The Inadequacy of the "Mestizo" as a Theoretical Construct in the Field of Latin American Studies--The Problem and Solution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rosa, Andrew Juan</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Argues that the "mestizo" paradigm as a theoretical construct used in Latin American studies denies the historical and cultural contributions of Africans to Latin American society and that it is fundamentally inaccurate and racist. Discusses ways of correcting these misconceptions. (GR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=action+AND+help+AND+refugees&id=ED264414','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=action+AND+help+AND+refugees&id=ED264414"><span id="translatedtitle">Saving Energy around the House = <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Tan Trong Viec Tieu Thu Nang Luc Trong Nha.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Noyes, Marilyn; Jarrett, Von</p> <p></p> <p>This bilingual booklet is intended to help Vietnamese refugees learn basic energy conservation skills. Included in the booklet are Vietnamese and English translations of basic energy conservation practices related to the following areas: heating, cooling, cooking, using refrigerators and freezers, lighting, water heating, doing laundry, pursuing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.9123H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.9123H"><span id="translatedtitle">Palaeogegraphic and palaeotopography evolution of the chinese <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan during the Mesozoic : a sedimentological synthesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heilbronn, Gloria; Jolivet, Marc; Robin, Cécile; Barrier, Laurie; Bourquin, Sylvie; Jia, Yingying; Fu, Bihong</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Tian Shan is one of the main ranges of Central Asia Orogenic Belt. The Tertiary deformation is driven by the India-Asia collision stress field. However, the deformation appears localised along inherited tectonic structures formed during the Palaeozoic - Early Mesozoic history of the range (e.g. Jolivet et al., 2010). Our aim is to reconstruct the pre-Tertiary history of relief building in the Chinese Tian Shan. We use the sedimentary facies, sediment provenances and paleocurrent directions of the exposed Mesozoic sections in the northern and southern piedmonts and inside the range. This will be used to understand the long-term reactivation pattern of the main inherited structures and to assess their influence on the localisation and propagation of the deformation. We first established 6 complete reference sections spanning from the Upper Triassic to the Palaeogene. These sections are interpreted in terms of sedimentary facies, palaeoenvironments and prograding-retrograding sequences. The correlation of these 6 sections allows us to propose some palaeogeographic maps for the middle Jurassic, the upper Jurassic - lower Cretaceous transition, the upper Cretaceous and the late Cretaceous - Paleogene transition. The dismantling of reliefs associated to the late-paleozoic range stops in the upper Trias. The Jurassic is characterised by a low tectonic activity and results in a general planation phase of the Tian Shan area. The supposed low relief is possibly associated to local activity of normal faults : this is attested by alluvial fan deposits on the internal sections, as well as paleocurrent directions to the North in the northern foothills and to the south in the southern foothills. These faults could belong to pull apart basins opening in a transtensive tectonic régime, under a humid climate, what is testified by numerous organic matter layers. The upper Jurassic - lower Cretaceous transition is characterized by a huge conglomeratic event at the scale of all the northern foothills, associated with some eolian deposits certified a arid climat at this period. We propose that alluvial fans are the result of the erosion of relatively small and local reliefs, caused by normal faults. This interpretation is in contradiction with all hypothesis of the literature supporting compressional tectonic and reactivation of the range during the Upper Jurassic. Nevertheless it fits to the interpretation of low thermochronology data. During the Upper Cretaceous, the widespread occurrence of alluvial fans indicates the ongoing erosion of a local positive topography in the Tian Shan area. A significant late Lower - early Upper Cretaceous unconformity is observable in the S-Junggar, N-Tarim and Turfan Basins (Hendrix et al., 1992). It is confirmed by low temperature thermochronology data that show a "major" late Lower Cretaceous unroofing event near Kuqa on the southern foothills (Dumitru et al., 2001) and some late Lower to early Upper Cretaceous exhumation ages within the range (Jolivet et al., 2010). This marks the onset of a new exhumation phase that goes on during the Upper Cretaceous and seems to stop after a peak in the late Upper Cretaceous. Following the Upper Cretaceous inversion episode, a tectonic quiet period characterises the late Upper Cretaceous - Early Paleogene and enables the formation of a widespread calcrete.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B31A0363M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B31A0363M"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative Biostratigraphic Analysis of Central Asia with Implications for the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan of Kyrgyzstan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McLaughlin, W. N.; Hopkins, S. S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Central Asia lies at a nexus both in terms of geology and evolutionary biogeography. With the convergence of the Indian and Asian plates creating high rates of deformation over broad regions, shortening of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic basement rocks has created a rich history of late Cenozoic sedimentary basins. In fact, Kyrgyzstan is the most seismically active country in the world. Additionally, Central Asia is a biogeographic crossroads, facilitating the intercontinental migrations of distant faunas from North American, Europe, Africa, and Southern Asia. With such an active geologic and biological evolution, the usefulness of temporal constraints is apparent. However, the continental collision environment has provided few volcanic rocks suitable for radiometric dating. Therefore, while less precise, the biostratigraphic analysis of Central Asia I present is an ideal method for both establishing ages and correlating between disparate basins. The last several decades provided great advancements in quantitative biostratigraphic methods applied to marine microfossils from drill cores. While these newer methods such as RASC (ranking and scaling), its sister program CASC, and CONOP (constrained optimization) provide a clear improvement over older methods such as graphic correlation, they have yet to be applied to terrestrial vertebrate faunas. Graphic correlation only allows comparison between two stratigraphic columns at a time and is heavily weighted by the initial selection of a type section. Both RASC and CONOP compare all stratigraphic sections simultaneously, eliminating type section bias. Previous vertebrate biostratigraphy methods attempted to predict FADs and LADs with the assumption they are generally minimum estimates. RASC instead establishes average stratigraphic ranges for each taxon and with CASC actually provides confidence intervals for each prediction, reducing the potential error resulting from reworking. CONOP generates maximum stratigraphic ranges observed in all sections, yet also includes error bars for the estimates of each biological event such as an extinction or origination. Used in conjunction, RASC, CASC, and CONOP provide both a solid evaluation of land mammal ages or zones for Central Asia and a predictive composite column for new late Cenozoic fossil localities. With a high degree of endemicity and migration, Central Asia cannot rely on the European Neogene Mammal Zones. This study aims to support and evaluate the emerging Asian biostratigraphic and geochronologic framework. With little fossil material currently collected from Kyrgyzstan, this study also sets a temporal framework for future paleontological work. Material is included from countries with much better constrained biostratigraphic records, preferably associated with existing radiometric dates. Specifically included were sites from Asiatic Russia, Mongolia, Western China, India, and Nepal. This geographic range is selected both to preserve the signal of faunas endemic to the Himalayan and Tibetan highlands, but also to provide a large enough sample to account for the well-known problems with the terrestrial fossil record such as high sampling errors and diachrony.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.cancer.gov/espanol/publicaciones/educacion-para-pacientes/padres-con-cancer','NCI'); return false;" href="https://www.cancer.gov/espanol/publicaciones/educacion-para-pacientes/padres-con-cancer"><span id="translatedtitle">Cuando uno de tus papás <span class="hlt">tiene</span> cáncer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.cancer.gov">Cancer.gov</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Sugerencias para saber qué decir a los amigos, cómo superar la tensión y en dónde encontrar apoyo; también, información sobre el cáncer y sobre los tratamientos de cáncer, para jóvenes que tienen a uno de sus papás con cáncer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED351865.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED351865.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">"El coronel no <span class="hlt">tiene</span> quien le escriba," Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Performance Guides to Spanish Texts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gies, David Thatcher, Comp.</p> <p></p> <p>This performance guide is the result of work conducted at the University of Virginia's National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, 1989, on "Spanish Literature in Performance," in which 25 secondary school Spanish teachers studied Spanish texts from the perspective of classroom performance to deepen knowledge of the texts and discover…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=arte&pg=5&id=EJ150905','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=arte&pg=5&id=EJ150905"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Tiene</span> Arte Valor Afuera Del Barrio: The Murals of East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Holscher, Louis M.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the themes of the murals and explores the possible uses that the murals in Los Angeles have for the outsider, the non-Chicano, for those who have only a little understanding or awareness of the Chicano community. (Author/AM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..94b3003G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..94b3003G"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations of high-energy radiation during thunderstorms at <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gurevich, A. V.; Almenova, A. M.; Antonova, V. P.; Chubenko, A. P.; Karashtin, A. N.; Kryakunova, O. N.; Lutsenko, V. Yu.; Mitko, G. G.; Ptitsyn, M. O.; Piscal, V. V.; Ryabov, V. A.; Salikhov, N. M.; Sadykov, T. Kh.; Shepetov, A. L.; Shlyugaev, Yu. V.; Thu, W. M.; Vil'danova, L. I.; Zastrozhnova, N. N.; Zybin, K. P.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Energetic radiation during thunderstorms is studied. The possibility to identify the high-energy lightning emission in the 10 s monitoring mode is demonstrated. Simultaneous measurements of gamma-ray emission, high-energy electrons, and neutron radiation in the triggering mode are fulfilled. Energy spectra of gamma emission and electrons are obtained. The intensity both of electrons and gamma rays in lightning discharge prevail the background emission by 1.5 to 2 orders of magnitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=master+AND+card&pg=5&id=EJ240909','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=master+AND+card&pg=5&id=EJ240909"><span id="translatedtitle">FLUID/MASHOV--A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> System Based on Games, Dialogue, and Feedback.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Regev, Joseph</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A master program to manage instruction and generate the necessary control cards was designed to both teach thinking skills and assist the teacher in assessing the student's thought processes. Twelve references are cited. (MER)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ouyang&pg=2&id=EJ503609','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ouyang&pg=2&id=EJ503609"><span id="translatedtitle">Resources of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Software Packages for Geography Education in Elementary Schools.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ouyang, Ronghua; Shirey, Ruth</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Provides an annotated bibliography of up-to-date information on computer technology for geographic education in elementary schools. Suggests that, if teachers are made aware of the available resources of sophisticated computer technology, they will be better able to face the challenges in geography education. (AA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=polynomial+AND+functions&pg=6&id=EJ276982','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=polynomial+AND+functions&pg=6&id=EJ276982"><span id="translatedtitle">Integration of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> into a Freshmen Liberal Arts Math Course in the Community College.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCall, Michael B.; Holton, Jean L.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Discusses four computer-assisted-instruction programs used in a college-level mathematics course to introduce computer literacy and improve mathematical skills. The BASIC programs include polynomial functions, trigonometric functions, matrix algebra, and differential calculus. Each program discusses mathematics theory and introduces programming…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kunst&pg=2&id=EJ370535','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kunst&pg=2&id=EJ370535"><span id="translatedtitle">Chinese Flashcards on Computer: A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> System for Chinese with Voice, Characters and Pinyin Tonal Diacritics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kunst, Richard</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Describes a system for computer-assisted practice of Chinese vocabulary. Its main goal is to help students improve their association between the sound of a Chinese word or phrase and its graphic shape in Chinese characters. This system is currently for use with the Victor 9000. (Author/LMO)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED112839.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED112839.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Alternative Communication Network Designs for an Operational Plato IV <span class="hlt">CAI</span> System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Morley, Robert E., Jr.; Eastwood, Lester F., Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>Alternative communication networks for the dissemination of PLATO IV computer aided instruction were designed and comparative cost estimates were made for leased telephone lines, satellite communications, UHF TV, and low-power microwave radio. Costs per student contact hour were computed on the basis of student population density in public schools…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-02-17/pdf/2012-3839.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-02-17/pdf/2012-3839.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 9625 - Presentation of Final Conventional Conformance Test Criteria and Common Air Interface (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-02-17</p> <p>... can be found at http://www.safecomprogram.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Emergency responders--emergency medical technicians, fire personnel, and law enforcement officers--need to seamlessly exchange... large- scale emergencies. P25 focuses on developing standards that allow radios and other components...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Computer+AND+Design+AND+Construction&pg=3&id=EJ998170','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Computer+AND+Design+AND+Construction&pg=3&id=EJ998170"><span id="translatedtitle">A Novel <span class="hlt">CAI</span> System for Space Conceptualization Training in Perspective Sketching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Luh, Ding-Bang; Chen, Shao-Nung</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>For many designers, freehand sketching is the primary tool for conceptualization in the early stage of the design process. However, current education on concept presentation techniques rarely emphasizes the construction of the most fundamental spatial unit, the cube. Incorrect construction of spatial units leads to disproportions that deviate from…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED273684.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED273684.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CAI</span>: A Model for the Comparison and Selection of Integrated Learning Systems in Large School Districts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Resta, Paul E.; Rost, Paul</p> <p></p> <p>The Albuquerque (New Mexico) Public Schools conducted a three-year study of integrated computer-based learning systems, including WICAT, Dolphin, PLATO, CCC, and DEGEM. Through cooperation with the Education Consolidation Improvement Act Chapter 1 program, four large integrated learning systems (ILS) were purchased and studied. They were installed…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/965091','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/965091"><span id="translatedtitle">The Formation of Boundary Clinopyroxenes and Associated Glass Veins in Type B1 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Paque, J M; Beckett, J R; Ishii, H A; Toppani, A; Burnett, D S; Teslich, N; Dai, Z R; Bradley, J P</p> <p>2008-05-18</p> <p>We used focused ion beam thin section preparation and scanning transmission electron microscopy (FIB/STEM) to examine the interfacial region between spinel and host melilite for three spinel grains, two from the mantle and one from the core of an Allende type B1 inclusion, and a second pair of spinel grains from a type B1 inclusion from the Leoville carbonaceous chondrite. The compositions of boundary clinopyroxenes decorating spinel surfaces are generally consistent with those of coarser clinopyroxenes from the same region of the inclusion, suggesting little movement of spinels between mantle and core regions after the formation of boundary clinopyroxenes. The host melilite displays no anomalous compositions near the interface, and anorthite or other late-stage minerals are not observed, suggesting that crystallization of residual liquid was not responsible for the formation of boundary clinopyroxenes. Allende spinels display either direct spinel-melilite contact or an intervening boundary clinopyroxene between the two phases. In the core, boundary clinopyroxene is mantled by a thin (1-2 {micro}m thick) layer of normally zoned (X{sub Ak} increasing away from the melilite-clinopyroxene contact) melilite with X{sub Ak} matching that of the host melilite at the melilite-melilite contact. In the mantle, X{sub Ak} near boundary spinels is constant. Spinels in a Leoville type B1 inclusion are more complex with boundary clinopyroxene, as observed in Allende, but also variable amounts of glass ({approx}1 {micro}m width), secondary calcite, perovskite, and an unknown Mg-, Al-, OH-rich and Ca-, Si-poor crystalline phase that may be a layered double hydrate. Glass compositions are consistent to first order with a precursor consisting mostly of Mg-carpholite or sudoite with some aluminous diopside. One possible scenario of formation for the glass veins is that open system alteration of melilite produced a porous, hydrated aggregate of Mg-carpholite or sudoite + aluminous diopside that was shock melted and quenched to a glass. The unknown crystalline phase may be a shocked remnant of the precursor phase assemblage but is more likely to have formed later by alteration of the glass. Calcite appears to be an opportunistic fracture filling that postdated all major shock events. Boundary clinopyroxenes probably share a common origin with coarser-grained pyroxenes from the same region of the inclusion. In the mantle, these crystals may represent clinopyroxene crystallized in Ti-rich liquids caused by the direct dissolution of perovskite and an associated Sc-Zr-rich phase or as a reaction product between dissolving perovskite and liquid (i.e., indirect dissolution of perovskite). In the core, any perovskite and associated Ti-enriched liquids that may have originally been present disappeared before the growth of boundary clinopyroxene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1102768.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1102768.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CAI</span> in Learning Voice in English Grammar among Eighth Standard Students--An Experimental Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ramesh, R.; Sumathi, B.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>English is a language, which is spoken by numerous people across the world. It has acquired a prominent place in meeting the communicational needs of the people. Grammar is a set of rules that helps the people to use the language better. In schools, the teachers of English are considered as the most important factor in making the study of English…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED095848.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED095848.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Interactive Computer Graphics for Performance-Structure-Oriented <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Technical Report No. 73.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rigney, Joseph W.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>Two different uses of interactive graphics in computer-assisted instruction are described. Interactive graphics may be used as substitutes for physical devices and operations. An example is simulation of operating on man/machine interfaces, substituting interactive graphics for controls, indicators, and indications. Interactive graphics may also…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Coast+AND+Guard&pg=3&id=ED249365','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Coast+AND+Guard&pg=3&id=ED249365"><span id="translatedtitle">The Coast Guard's <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Approach to Basic Math and Reading Skills.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Glidden, William C.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>To meet the remedial-instructional needs of its recruits, the Coast Guard developed a basic skills program, entitled the Basic Educational Enrichment Program (BEEP), at its recruit training center in Cape May, New Jersey. Objectives of the program were to ensure that all graduates of Coast Guard recruit training possess at least eighth-grade…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kaplan&pg=2&id=EJ979230','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=kaplan&pg=2&id=EJ979230"><span id="translatedtitle">Rejoinder to MacCallum, Edwards, and <span class="hlt">Cai</span> (2012) and Rindskopf (2012): Mastering a New Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Muthen, Bengt; Asparouhov, Tihomir</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This rejoinder discusses the general comments on how to use Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) wisely and how to get more people better trained in using Bayesian methods. Responses to specific comments cover how to handle sign switching, nonconvergence and nonidentification, and prior choices in latent variable models. Two new…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1100/ofr2012-1100.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2012/1100/ofr2012-1100.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Conodont color alteration (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) as an aid to structural interpretation in the Black Pine Mountains, Idaho</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Smith, Fred J., Jr.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Black Pine Mountains, southeastern Cassia County, Idaho, consist of southern and northern blocks separated by a northeast-trending, high-angle fault. Differences in conodont color alteration values distinguish the two blocks. The southern block has significantly higher organic maturation levels than the northern block and is interpreted to have been thrust northeastward adjacent to the northern block.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fel&id=EJ309148','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fel&id=EJ309148"><span id="translatedtitle">Why Has <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Not Been More Successful in Economic Education: A Note.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schenk, Robert; Silvia, John E.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The negative judgment about computers reached by Siegfried and Fels in their article, "Teaching College Economics: A Survey" (Journal of Economic Literature, September 1979) is questioned. There are research questions in need of answers before economists reject the generally positive picture across disciplines of the efficacy of computer related…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Hewlett-Packard&pg=6&id=ED306141','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Hewlett-Packard&pg=6&id=ED306141"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Mathematics on Student Performance: A Nine Year Longitudinal Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>DelForge, Clarence; Clark, J. Milford</p> <p></p> <p>In 1976, students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades in a multigraded classroom who had evidence low mathematics scores on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills were selected to work on the Hewlett-Packard mathematics program for 10 minutes each day on a classroom computer. The higher performing students (the upper 55% of the class) were selected as a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bunker&pg=6&id=ED268525','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=bunker&pg=6&id=ED268525"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CAI</span> and English Composition for the Multi-Cultural/Lingual Student.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dunbar, Shirley</p> <p></p> <p>Bunker Hill Community College in Boston, Massachusetts, supports a prodigious English as a Second Language (ESL) program, which attracts large numbers of Hispanics, Asian Americans, and other minority language groups. They are accepted in the program only after they have learned the basic "survival" skills in the various pre-ESL programs around…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860022909','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860022909"><span id="translatedtitle">Reduction and analysis of data from experiment <span class="hlt">CAI</span> on the IMP-8 mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stone, E. C.; Mewaldt, R. A.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The Caltech Electron/Isotope Spectrometer (EIS) on the Interplanetary Monitoring Platform 8 (IMP-8) has provided precise measurements of the energy spectra and time variations of low energy electrons (0.16 to 6 MeV), the isotopes of hydrogen and helium (approximately 2 to 40 MeV/nucleon), and the elements from lithium through oxygen (approximately 5 to 50 MeV/nucleon) in energetic particle fluxes of solar, galactic, interplanetary, and magnetospheric origin since 1973. The accomplishments that have resulted from EIS measurements during the period March 24, 1980 to December 31, 1984 are summarized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED061714.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED061714.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A General-Purpose ASCII Decoder for Control of Peripheral Devices for <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Terminals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rigney, Joseph W.; Williams, Louis A.</p> <p></p> <p>The ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) decoder described here accepts inputs from an acoustic coupler, or Modem, in a remote time-sharing system. On receipt of a special command character the decoder recognizes, stores, and decodes the next two decimal digits. The output can be used to access any one of 100 items. For…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=student+AND+centered+AND+computer+AND+science&id=EJ659679','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=student+AND+centered+AND+computer+AND+science&id=EJ659679"><span id="translatedtitle">The Impact of Different Forms of Multimedia <span class="hlt">CAI</span> on Students' Science Achievement.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chang, Chun-Yen</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Describes a study that explored the effects of teacher-centered versus student-centered multimedia computer-assisted instruction on the science achievements of tenth-grade students in Taiwan. Results of analysis of covariance on pretests-posttest scores showed the teacher-centered approach was more effective in promoting students' science…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=FAILURE+AND+PROJECT+AND+COMPUTER&pg=7&id=ED326402','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=FAILURE+AND+PROJECT+AND+COMPUTER&pg=7&id=ED326402"><span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">CAI</span> To Improve Participation and Achievement in Science Research Projects in Middle School Science.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Price, Suzanne M.</p> <p></p> <p>The high percentage of students not participating in or completing a science research project has been a recurring problem for science teachers. In this project, three variables influencing the problem are identified: (1) students' failure to engage in an active search for science research topics; (2) inadequate resource materials at the middle…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED122753.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED122753.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">ENIGMA, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-CMI for Introductory Logic: Some of Its Abilities with English Sentences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Laymon, Ronald</p> <p></p> <p>The philosophy department of the Ohio State University began development of a computer-tutorial program, called ENIGMA, in 1972. The aim of the course was to help students to use various logical tools in the analysis of everyday arguments by giving drill-and-practice sessions, testing, and grading examinations. Part of ENIGMA is the propositional…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=histopathology&id=ED038845','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=histopathology&id=ED038845"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CAI</span>--Socratic Dialogue and Laboratory Simulation in Pathology. Technical Report Number Three.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hellerstein, Earl E.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>The report describes work accomplished in the development of instructional materials for second-year medical students taking a histopathology laboratory course. The objectives and methods are described and several examples of techniques are illustrated with short segments of dialogue. These segments also illustrate the branching characteristics of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=compilers&pg=4&id=ED044910','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=compilers&pg=4&id=ED044910"><span id="translatedtitle">ONR Conference on <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Languages Held at Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2-3 March 1966.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Entelek, Inc., Newburyport, MA.</p> <p></p> <p>An invitational meeting was held to consider computer-assisted instruction. Topics discussed included the BBM (Bolt, Beranek, Newman, Inc.) Mathematics program and programing languages, such as, Coursewriter, AUTHOR (Automatically Translating Heuristically Organized Routines), and PLATO/CATO (Programed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations/PLATO…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=MS-DOS&pg=5&id=ED359358','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=MS-DOS&pg=5&id=ED359358"><span id="translatedtitle">Incorporating Audio Support into English Composition <span class="hlt">CAI</span> for Adult Learners. Phase II Final Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mid-Continent Regional Educational Lab., Aurora, CO.</p> <p></p> <p>A research and development project focused on designing a basic English writing skills curriculum for adult basic education students and implementing that curriculum in a computer-assisted, audio-supported format. Materials were designed for MS-DOS computers and consumer grade audiotape players. The project involved developing 18 computer lessons…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=newspaper+AND+advertising+AND+function&pg=2&id=ED295453','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=newspaper+AND+advertising+AND+function&pg=2&id=ED295453"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching Popular Culture with a Computer-Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) Program.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>del Pozo, Ivania</p> <p></p> <p>The foreign language student must experience popular culture to fully comprehend the framework in which the foreign language functions. Traditional language learning, preoccupied with words, syntax, and pronunciation, has ignored this element, leaving students unprepared to interact with individuals in the target culture. Classroom activities to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=medical+AND+laser&id=EJ305588','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=medical+AND+laser&id=EJ305588"><span id="translatedtitle">The Use of Natural Language Entry and Laser Videodisk Technology in <span class="hlt">CAI</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Abdulla, Abdulla M.; And Others</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The use of an authoring system is described that incorporates student interaction with the computer by natural language entry at the keyboard and the use of the microcomputer to direct a random-access laser video-disk player. (Author/MLW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25264397','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25264397"><span id="translatedtitle">Presentación del estudio "Links" de hombres que <span class="hlt">tienes</span> sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, María M; Balán, Iván C; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos ("teteras"), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=256316&keyword=aura&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68457357&CFTOKEN=56189601','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=256316&keyword=aura&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=68457357&CFTOKEN=56189601"><span id="translatedtitle">Ozone Variations over Central <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan in Central Asia and Implications for Regional Emissions Reduction Strategies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The variability of total column ozone (TCO) and tropospheric column ozone (TrCO) was examined in Central Asia. Measurements were conducted at the Lidar Station Teplokluchenka in eastern Kyrgyzstan for one year, July 2008–July 2009. TCO was obtained using a handheld Microtops II ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.273..292H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.273..292H"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote-sensing-based analysis of the 1996 surge of Northern Inylchek Glacier, central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Kyrgyzstan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Häusler, Hermann; Ng, Felix; Kopecny, Alexander; Leber, Diethard</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The evolution of Northern Inylchek Glacier and its proglacial lake - Upper Lake Merzbacher - during its 1996 surge and the surrounding decades is analyzed with remote sensing imagery. Overall retreat of the glacier from 1943 to 1996 enlarged the lake to 4 km long and ≈ 100 m deep. The surge in 1996 initiated between 12 September and 7 October and advanced the glacier by 3.7 km to override most of Upper Lake Merzbacher. The surge phase probably ended in December 1996 and involved mean flow velocities across the lower trunk of the glacier that reached 50 m d- 1 over a 32-day period. Water displaced by the surge from Upper Lake Merzbacher, totalling 1.5 × 108 m3 in volume, accelerated filling of Lower Lake Merzbacher downvalley and helped trigger this marginal ice-dammed lake to outburst in a jökulhlaup around late November/early December. The characteristics and duration of the surge render it as similar to temperate glacier surges elsewhere. It may have been facilitated by low basal friction caused by water-saturated sediments in the upper lake bed. Furthermore, bathymetric measurements show that the surge evacuated much sediment into the upper lake, causing its depth to reduce from 20 to 30 m in 1996 to 8 m by 2005 and 2 m by 2011; the corresponding deposition rates imply glacier-catchment specific mean sediment yields of 1.4 to 3.4 × 103 Mg km- 2 a- 1 in the years after the surge. Our study documents novel interactions within a cascade system of glaciers and lakes that exhibits surging and outburst-flood behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016QuRes..85..371Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016QuRes..85..371Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Streamflow variability for the Aksu River on the southern slopes of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan inferred from tree ring records</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Ruibo; Yuan, Yujiang; Gou, Xiaohua; Yang, Qing; Wei, Wenshou; Yu, Shulong; Zhang, Tongwen; Shang, Huaming; Chen, Feng; Fan, Ziang; Qin, Li</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Gauged river flow records from China generally span only a few decades, which hampers the detection of long-term, decadal- to centennial-scale cycles and trends in streamflow variability. New and updated tree-ring chronologies help reconstructed the water-year (October-September) streamflow for the Aksu River, which is an important river at the edge of the Taklimakan Desert that drains into the Tarim Basin. The reconstruction dates back to 1692 and has an adjusted r2 of 0.61 (1957-2006). Based on frequency, intensity and duration of droughts and pluvial events, the lowest streamflows occurred in the 1920s. Since then streamflow has continuously increased, and was exceptionally rapidly after the 1960s, until today. The start and end of the 20th century to the present were the highest streamflow periods. The mid-20th century was the longest and driest period over the past 300 yr. The reconstructed streamflow series has a strong positive correlation with the North Atlantic Oscillation Index. Changes in mid-latitude circulation patterns influencing precipitation may have indirectly resulted in streamflow variations along the Aksu River over the past 300 yr. The rapid increase and the exceptional streamflows of the 1960s are likely linked with global warming and mid-latitude atmospheric circulation changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4175515','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4175515"><span id="translatedtitle">Presentación del estudio “Links” de hombres que <span class="hlt">tienes</span> sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ávila, María M; Balán, Iván C.; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Resumen Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos (“teteras”), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T43F2441S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.T43F2441S"><span id="translatedtitle">Distribution of seismicity in the Pamir-<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan-Hindu Kush region, central Asia, from TIPAGE seismic data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sippl, C.; Schurr, B.; Schneider, F.; Yuan, X.; Mechie, J.; Haberland, C. A.; Orunbaev, S.; Gadoev, M.; Negmatullaev, S.; Rui, H.; Pingren, L.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Pamir-Hindu Kush region in central Asia is unique as it hosts vigorous intermediate-depth (80-300 km) seismicity in the continental interior far away from oceanic plate subduction. The earthquakes occur within an S-shaped seismic zone extending from north-western Afghanistan into the Eastern Pamir plateau. This zone shows an intriguing geometry, with earthquake hypocenter locations resembling a Wadati-Benioff zone with significant change in its dip along strike, from sub-vertically northward in the Hindu Kush to shallower southward dipping in the Eastern Pamir. The interpretation of these observations and the nature of the seismic zone are still debated. Proposed models include two-sided subduction of Indian and Asian lithosphere, an overturned slab of exclusively Indian material as well as scenarios involving delamination of mantle lithosphere. Another unsolved question is whether the subducted material is of continental or oceanic nature. Plate reconstructions provide no ocean of fitting age, yet absence of hydrated oceanic lithosphere also takes away the mechanism to generate earthquakes at the pressure and temperature regime of the upper mantle. Analyzing two years of data (2008-2010) from a number of new temporary deployments as well as permanent stations in the region, we detected more than 15,000 earthquakes. The sheer number of events prohibits a manual determination of phase onsets. We therefore implemented an automatic scheme that uses state-of-the-art picking algorithms for both P and S phases including a quality assessment of the phase arrivals. The scheme involves several stages of picking, relocation, re-picking and weeding out spurious arrivals. We will demonstrate the robustness of the scheme by comparison with several hand-picked sub sets of the catalogue. We further refined the earthquake locations by determining differential travel times for clustered events using cross correlation and the double-difference relocation algorithm. Our results reveal some new details about the structure and geometry of the seismic zone: in the Eastern Pamir, intermediate-depth seismicity is confined to depths between 90 and 180 km and thus clearly separated from shallow seismicity along the Main Pamir Thrust, which does not reach depths in excess of 30 km. The lower crust throughout the Pamir appears to be completely aseismic. The gap between crustal and mantle seismicity persists along-strike, but becomes smaller towards the west. The mantle seismic zone appears continuous along its shallowest level (~90-100 km depth) all the way from the Hindu Kush to the eastern Pamir. On this "rack" hang three "curtains" with high seismic activity and increasing steepness and larger maximum depths from east to west.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QuRes..85..371Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016QuRes..85..371Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Streamflow variability for the Aksu River on the southern slopes of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan inferred from tree ring records</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Ruibo; Yuan, Yujiang; Gou, Xiaohua; Yang, Qing; Wei, Wenshou; Yu, Shulong; Zhang, Tongwen; Shang, Huaming; Chen, Feng; Fan, Ziang; Qin, Li</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Gauged river flow records from China generally span only a few decades, which hampers the detection of long-term, decadal- to centennial-scale cycles and trends in streamflow variability. New and updated tree-ring chronologies help reconstructed the water-year (October-September) streamflow for the Aksu River, which is an important river at the edge of the Taklimakan Desert that drains into the Tarim Basin. The reconstruction dates back to 1692 and has an adjusted r2 of 0.61 (1957-2006). Based on frequency, intensity and duration of droughts and pluvial events, the lowest streamflows occurred in the 1920s. Since then streamflow has continuously increased, and was exceptionally rapidly after the 1960s, until today. The start and end of the 20th century to the present were the highest streamflow periods. The mid-20th century was the longest and driest period over the past 300 yr. The reconstructed streamflow series has a strong positive correlation with the North Atlantic Oscillation Index. Changes in mid-latitude circulation patterns influencing precipitation may have indirectly resulted in streamflow variations along the Aksu River over the past 300 yr. The rapid increase and the exceptional streamflows of the 1960s are likely linked with global warming and mid-latitude atmospheric circulation changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=vista&id=EJ1014750','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=vista&id=EJ1014750"><span id="translatedtitle">"Todo <span class="hlt">Tiene</span> que ver con lo que se Habla." It's All About the Talk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Frey, Nancy; Fisher, Douglas; Nelson, John</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Chula Vista Elementary School District, the largest in California, dramatically raised its student achievement while taking on increasing proportions of English learners by focusing on what it calls teacher talk--the way lessons are developed, delivered, and executed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25283398','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25283398"><span id="translatedtitle">A new and a rare species of Chydorus Leach, 1816 (Branchiopoda: Cladocera: Anomopoda) from Cat <span class="hlt">Tien</span> National Park, Vietnam.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sinev, Artem Y</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The present study of cladocera of the genus Chydorus from South Vietnam revealed a new species, C. idrisi sp. nov. and a rare species, C. breviceps (Stingelin, 1905). C. idrisi sp. nov. belongs to the C. eurynotus Sars, 1901 group, characterized by small labral plate with rounded tip and by absence of honeycomb sculpture on the valves. C. idrisi sp. nov. differs from other species of the group by the sculpture of valves, morphology of rostrum, postabdominal claw, inner distal lobe of first thoracic limb and male postabdomen. Morphology of C. breviceps was studied for the first time. C. breviceps has only one major head pore, and differs from the majority of Chydorus species by numerous other characters. Taxonomic position of studied species is discussed. </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25264397','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25264397"><span id="translatedtitle">Presentación del estudio "Links" de hombres que <span class="hlt">tienes</span> sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, María M; Balán, Iván C; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos ("teteras"), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED168572.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED168572.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Research on Learning Strategies and Hands-On Training in <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Final Report, 1 January 1975 to 30 September 1978.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Towne, Douglas M.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>This final report reviews research performed in two major areas--instructional theory, and development of a generalized maintenance trainer simulator. Five related research projects were carried out in the domain of instructional theory: (1) the effects of visual analogies of abstract concepts, (2) Markov decision models for instructional sequence…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Mammoths&pg=3&id=ED123131','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Mammoths&pg=3&id=ED123131"><span id="translatedtitle">Problem-Solving Behaviors as a Function of Instructional Mode, Conceptual Systems, and Field Independence in a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lazzaro, Anthony; Szabo, Michael</p> <p></p> <p>This study investigated the problem-solving performance of education undergraduates while engaged in the solution of complex, data-rich, real problems in a computer environment. The problem used was the riddle of the frozen wooly mammoths. Two instructional programs were used: the problem mode (I) engages the problem-solver in the data base with…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED352947.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED352947.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Listen and Learn: Varying Sound Sources' Effect on Ear-Training <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, Using the Apple II Microcomputer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Killam, Rosemary N.; Scott, Daniel W.</p> <p></p> <p>In 1981, North Texas State University (NTSU) conducted an experiment in sound sources which was made possible by a grant from the Apple Education Foundation. The culminating research of the grant was the testing of the AFL sound source and Micromusic sound sources, as well as the NTSU sound source, AMUS. Students participated in the experiment to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9933162','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9933162"><span id="translatedtitle">16O excesses in olivine inclusions in Yamato-86009 and Murchison chondrites and their relation to <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hiyagon, H; Hashimoto, A</p> <p>1999-02-01</p> <p>In situ ion microprobe analyses of oxygen isotopes in Yamato-86009 and Murchison chondrites show that they contain abundant olivine-rich inclusions that have large oxygen-16 (16O) excesses, similar to those in spinel grains in calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions in Allende and other carbonaceous chondrites. The existence of 16O-enriched olivine-rich inclusions suggests that oxygen isotopic anomalies were more extensive in the early solar system than was previously thought and that their origin may be attributed to a nebular chemical process rather than to an unidentified 16O-rich carrier of presolar origin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED532057.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED532057.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Lessons Learned in Systemic District Reform: A Cross-District Analysis from the Comprehensive Aligned Instructional System (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>) Benchmarking Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Waters, Louise Bay; Vargo, Merrill</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Urban district reform has been hampered by the challenge of understanding and supporting the tremendous complexity of district change. Improving this understanding through actionable, practice-based research is the purpose of this study. The authors began the study with the hypothesis that achieving districts both align their instructional systems…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED042368.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED042368.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Development of an On-Line Laboratory for <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and Behavioral Research (1964-1968). Technical Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Judd, Wilson A.</p> <p></p> <p>Psychologists and educational researchers who may be interested in installing a computer system in a behavioral science laboratory may learn from the experience gained in the development and operation of the Computer Facility at the Learning and Research Development Center of the University of Pittsburgh. Built around a PDP-7 computer, using a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRA..118.7905B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRA..118.7905B"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical analysis of 2010 high-mountain (<span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan) experiment on observations of thunderstorm-related low-energy neutron emissions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Babich, Leonid P.; Bochkov, Evgenii; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Kutsyk, Igor M.; Zalyalov, Adel N.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>high-mountain experiment in a thunderstorm atmosphere, in which "extraordinary high flux of low-energy neutrons" was detected, is analyzed. Due to the lack of data on the radiation source, we do not analyze directly measured absolute count rates. Instead, we address the experimental configuration, namely, simultaneous measurements by shielded and unshielded helium counters, which allow a comparison of relative count rates and, thus, verifying the species of the detected radiation. Results of Monte Carlo simulations of neutron transport executed without aprioristic assumptions, using only data on the experimental configuration, have raised strong doubts as to whether the detected increases of the count rates can be attributed to neutrons. Results of simulations allowing for the neutron transport in atmosphere from distant (100-500 m) photoneutron source with spectrum in the range 0-20.1 MeV produced by relativistic runaway electron avalanche bremsstrahlung demonstrate that ratios R of the count rates of shielded and unshielded counters below 1 keV are manyfold higher than the ratios Rexp ≈ 0.34-1.06 of the measured count rates. In the total range 0-20.1 MeV, the R magnitudes vary from 0.14 to 0.84 depending on the distance to the neutron source. Results of simulations of γ rays transport executed without aprioristic assumptions demonstrate that, most likely, hard γ rays with energies ɛγ > 1 MeV were detected. We note that in thunderstorm environment, a selection is required of neutrons and γ rays, for which the time-of-flight technique is the most adequate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP34B..04B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP34B..04B"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on timing and rates of strath terrace formation on actively uplifting anticlines in the foreland of the Chinese <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bufe, A.; Burbank, D. W.; Chen, J.; Liu, L.; Li, T.; Thompson, J. A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The formation of strath surfaces (fluvially created, sub-horizontal erosion surfaces) requires that the rate of lateral erosion outpaces the rate of incision of a river. The change from incision to strath cutting has commonly been linked to a decrease of incision rates due to shielding of the river bed by a thick sediment cover1. Straths are abandoned when the bed cover is reduced and incision resumes. A more recent study suggests that strath terrace formation might be linked to a change between a braided and a single-thread river2. Finally, several models have explored strath formation due to inherent dynamics of meandering systems3,4. In the foreland of the Tian Shan in northwest China, weakly consolidated Pliocene sand and siltstones are being actively uplifted at rates of 1 - 3 mm/y by a series of detachment anticlines. A number of elevated, several-kilometer-wide planation surfaces bear witness to a history of multiple strath cutting events by braided streams. In contrast, modern rivers incise into the uplifting folds creating 10 - 200 m deep canyons while the up- and downstream alluvial fans remain unincised. We use GIS analysis, field mapping, and OSL dating to describe incision and beveling of the folds. Our chronologic data reveal at least 2 - 3 beveling events over the last 40 ky on the Mutule fold. We find that lateral erosion of the bedrock during beveling events occurs at rates that are more than an order of magnitude higher than average incision rates. During times of incision (which can be tens of thousands of years long), lateral erosion rates need to be considerably lower in order to explain the formation of narrow canyons. Thus, our observations of scale, rate, and intermittency of strath cutting, seem difficult to reconcile with models that explain strath formation by variations of the incision rate1 or intrinsic meandering dynamics under steady forcing3,4. The critical requirement to explain our observations appears to be repeated changes in the rate of lateral erosion, for example, by climatically modulated changes in river lateral mobility. 1 Hancock, G. S. & Anderson, R. S. (2002), GSA Bulletin 114, 1131-1142. 2 Finnegan, N. J. & Balco, G. (2013), GSA Bulletin 125, 1114-1124. 3 Finnegan, N. J. & Dietrich, W. E. (2011), Geology 39, 143-146. 4 Limaye, A. B. S. & Lamb, M. P. (2014), JGR: Earth Surface 119, 927-950.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015QSRv..126..112Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015QSRv..126..112Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Vegetation and climate history in arid western China during MIS2: New insights from pollen and grain-size data of the Balikun Lake, eastern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Yongtao; An, Cheng-Bang; Mao, Limi; Zhao, Jiaju; Tang, Lingyu; Zhou, Aifeng; Li, Hu; Dong, Weimiao; Duan, Futao; Chen, Fahu</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 is mostly a cold period encompassing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but the regional expression of MIS2 in arid areas of China is not well known. In this paper, we use high-resolution lacustrine pollen and grain-size records from Balikun Lake to infer vegetation, lake evolution, and climate in arid western China during MIS2. Our results suggest that: 1) the regional vegetation around Balikun was mainly dominated by desert and/or desert-steppe, and Balikun Lake was relatively shallow and experienced high aeolian input during MIS2; 2) distinctive runoff from mountain glacial meltwater in the eastern parts of the Balikun basin caused a high relative abundance of Artemisia pollen during the LGM (26.5-19.2 cal kyr BP), while simultaneously the desert areas expanded as indicated by the high abundance of desert shrubs (e.g., Elaeagnaceae, Rhamnaceae, Hippophae). This cold and dry LGM climate triggered a substantial lowering of lake level; 3) an extremely cold and dry climate prevailing from 17.0 to 15.2 cal kyr BP, correlated with Heinrich event 1 (H1), would explain the low vegetation cover found then; and 4) the warm and humid Bølling/Allerød interstadial (BA: ca. 15-ca. 13 cal kyr BP) is clearly recorded in the Balikun region by the development of wetland herb communities (e.g., Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Typha), and the lake level rose due to increased runoff. Our results challenge the traditional view of cold and wet climatic conditions and high lake levels in arid western China during the LGM, and we propose that changes in local temperature modulated by July insolation was an indispensable factor in triggering vegetation evolution in the Balikun region during MIS2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24113511','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24113511"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Streptomyces strains isolated from herbal vermicompost for their plant growth-promotion traits in rice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Vadlamudi, Srinivas; Bandikinda, Prakash; Sathya, Arumugam; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Rupela, Om; Kudapa, Himabindu; Katta, Krishnamohan; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar</p> <p>2014-01-20</p> <p>Six actinomycetes, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-13, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-85, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-93, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-140, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-155 and KAI-180, isolated from six different herbal vermi-composts were characterized for in vitro plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties and further evaluated in the field for PGP activity in rice. Of the six actinomycetes, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-13, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-85, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-93, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-140 and <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-155 produced siderophores; <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-13, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-93, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-155 and KAI-180 produced chitinase; <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-13, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-140, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-155 and KAI-180 produced lipase; <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-13, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-93, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-155 and KAI-180 produced protease; and <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-13, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-85, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-140 and <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-155 produced ß-1-3-glucanase whereas all the six actinomycetes produced cellulase, hydrocyanic acid and indole acetic acid (IAA). The actinomycetes were able to grow in NaCl concentrations of up to 8%, at pH values between 7 and 11, temperatures between 20 and 40 °C and compatible with fungicide bavistin at field application levels. In the rice field, the actinomycetes significantly enhanced tiller numbers, panicle numbers, filled grain numbers and weight, stover yield, grain yield, total dry matter, root length, volume and dry weight over the un-inoculated control. In the rhizosphere, the actinomycetes also significantly enhanced total nitrogen, available phosphorous, % organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and dehydrogenase activity over the un-inoculated control. Sequences of 16S rDNA gene of the actinomycetes matched with different Streptomyces species in BLAST analysis. Of the six actinomycetes, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-85 and <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-93 were found superior over other actinomycetes in terms of PGP properties, root development and crop productivity. qRT-PCR analysis on selected plant growth promoting genes of actinomycetes revealed the up-regulation of IAA genes only in <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-85 and <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-93. PMID:24113511</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24113511','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24113511"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Streptomyces strains isolated from herbal vermicompost for their plant growth-promotion traits in rice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Vadlamudi, Srinivas; Bandikinda, Prakash; Sathya, Arumugam; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Rupela, Om; Kudapa, Himabindu; Katta, Krishnamohan; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar</p> <p>2014-01-20</p> <p>Six actinomycetes, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-13, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-85, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-93, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-140, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-155 and KAI-180, isolated from six different herbal vermi-composts were characterized for in vitro plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties and further evaluated in the field for PGP activity in rice. Of the six actinomycetes, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-13, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-85, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-93, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-140 and <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-155 produced siderophores; <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-13, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-93, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-155 and KAI-180 produced chitinase; <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-13, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-140, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-155 and KAI-180 produced lipase; <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-13, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-93, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-155 and KAI-180 produced protease; and <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-13, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-85, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-140 and <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-155 produced ß-1-3-glucanase whereas all the six actinomycetes produced cellulase, hydrocyanic acid and indole acetic acid (IAA). The actinomycetes were able to grow in NaCl concentrations of up to 8%, at pH values between 7 and 11, temperatures between 20 and 40 °C and compatible with fungicide bavistin at field application levels. In the rice field, the actinomycetes significantly enhanced tiller numbers, panicle numbers, filled grain numbers and weight, stover yield, grain yield, total dry matter, root length, volume and dry weight over the un-inoculated control. In the rhizosphere, the actinomycetes also significantly enhanced total nitrogen, available phosphorous, % organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and dehydrogenase activity over the un-inoculated control. Sequences of 16S rDNA gene of the actinomycetes matched with different Streptomyces species in BLAST analysis. Of the six actinomycetes, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-85 and <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-93 were found superior over other actinomycetes in terms of PGP properties, root development and crop productivity. qRT-PCR analysis on selected plant growth promoting genes of actinomycetes revealed the up-regulation of IAA genes only in <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-85 and <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-93.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=stahlman&pg=3&id=EJ385924','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=stahlman&pg=3&id=EJ385924"><span id="translatedtitle">The Benefit of Using <span class="hlt">CAI</span> with a Six-Year-Old Hearing Impaired Boy Learning Previously Unknown Vocabulary and Spelling Words.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Luetke-Stahlman, B.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Two studies demonstrated the usefulness of single-subject research in providing a teacher with empirical support for using one method of instruction rather than another for a particular special-needs child. Drill-and-practice software helped older hearing impaired students learn to spell and define new words. (RH)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED224457.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED224457.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">MICROPIK: A Multiple-Alternatives, Criterion-Referenced Decisioning Model for Evaluating <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Software and Microcomputer Hardware Against Selected Curriculum Instructional Objectives. Paper and Report Series No. 73.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wholeben, Brent Edward</p> <p></p> <p>This report describing the use of operations research techniques to determine which courseware packages or what microcomputer systems best address varied instructional objectives focuses on the MICROPIK model, a highly structured evaluation technique for making such complex instructional decisions. MICROPIK is a multiple alternatives model (MAA)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1921.6290K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1921.6290K"><span id="translatedtitle">Petrological Characteristics of the Fine-Grained <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from the Reduced CV Chondrites Thiel Mountains 07003 and 07007, and Origin of Anorthite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, H.; Choi, B.-G.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We classified nodules of FGIs into three types; melilite-bearing without anorthite, anorthite-bearing without melilite, and both melilite- and anorthite-bearing. The former two types are dominant while the latter is relatively rare.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CPU&pg=3&id=ED022687','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CPU&pg=3&id=ED022687"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer-Assisted Instruction Guide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Entelek, Inc., Newburyport, MA.</p> <p></p> <p>Provided is a compilation of abstracts of currently available computer-assisted instructional (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) programs. The guide contains the specifications of all operational <span class="hlt">CAI</span> programs that have come under the surveillance of ENTELEK's <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Information Exchange since its establishment in 1965. A total of 226 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> programs by 160 authors at 38 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> centers…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meyer+AND+tables&pg=2&id=EJ858973','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meyer+AND+tables&pg=2&id=EJ858973"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Computer-Aided Instruction in a Gross Anatomy Course: A Six-Year Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McNulty, John A.; Sonntag, Beth; Sinacore, James M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Web-based computer-aided instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) has become increasingly important to medical curricula. This multi-year study investigated the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and the factors affecting level of individual use. Three <span class="hlt">CAI</span> were tested that differed in specificity of applicability to the curriculum and in the level of student interaction with the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED524141.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED524141.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) on Student Achievement in Algebraic Expression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chien, Tsai Chen; Md. Yunus, Aida Suraya; Ali, Wan Zah Wan; Bakar, Ab. Rahim</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In this experimental study, use of Computer Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) followed by use of an Intelligent Tutoring System (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>+ITS) was compared to the use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (<span class="hlt">CAI</span> only) in tutoring students on the topic of Algebraic Expression. Two groups of students participated in the study. One group of 32 students studied algebraic expression in a CAI…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=information+AND+design&pg=3&id=EJ1024715','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=information+AND+design&pg=3&id=EJ1024715"><span id="translatedtitle">Effectiveness of Cognitive Skills-Based Computer-Assisted Instruction for Students with Disabilities: A Synthesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Weng, Pei-Lin; Maeda, Yukiko; Bouck, Emily C.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) for students with disabilities can be categorized into the following categories: visual, auditory, mobile, and cognitive skills-based <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Cognitive-skills based <span class="hlt">CAI</span> differs from other types of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> largely in terms of an emphasis on instructional design features. We conducted both systematic review of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NHESS..10..647N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NHESS..10..647N"><span id="translatedtitle">The 24 July 2008 outburst flood at the western Zyndan glacier lake and recent regional changes in glacier lakes of the Teskey Ala-Too range, <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Kyrgyzstan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Narama, C.; Duishonakunov, M.; Kääb, A.; Daiyrov, M.; Abdrakhmatov, K.</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>On 24 July 2008, a glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF) occurred at the western (w-) Zyndan glacier lake in the Tong District of Ysyk-Köl Oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The flood killed three people and numerous livestock, destroyed infrastructure, and devastated potato and barley crops as well as pastures. Tuurasuu village and a downstream reservoir on the Zyndan river escaped heavy damage because the main flood was diverted toward the Tong river. RTK-GPS and satellite data (Landsat 7 ETM+, ALOS/PRISM, and ALOS/AVNIR-2) reveal that the flood reduced the lake area from 0.0422 km2 to 0.0083 km2, discharging 437 000 m3 of water. This glacier lake was not present in a Landsat 7 ETM+ image taken on 26 April 2008. It formed rapidly over just two and half months from early May to the late July, when large amounts of snow and glacier melt water became trapped in a basin in the glacier terminus area, blocked by temporary closure of the drainage channel through the terminal moraine that included much dead-ice. In the same mountain region, most other glacier-lake expansions were not particularly large during the period from 1999-2008. Although events like the w-Zyndan glacier lake outburst occur infrequently in the high Central Asian mountains, such fast developing, short-lived lakes are particularly dangerous and not easy to monitor using satellite data. Appropriate measures to protect against such lake outburst hazards in this region include educating residents on glacier hazards and monitoring techniques, providing frequently updated maps of glacier lakes, and planning and monitoring land-use, including house locations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19217066','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19217066"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of computer-aided instruction in a gross anatomy course: a six-year study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McNulty, John A; Sonntag, Beth; Sinacore, James M</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Web-based computer-aided instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) has become increasingly important to medical curricula. This multi-year study investigated the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and the factors affecting level of individual use. Three <span class="hlt">CAI</span> were tested that differed in specificity of applicability to the curriculum and in the level of student interaction with the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Student personality preferences and learning styles were measured using the Meyers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI). Information on "computer literacy" and use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> was collected from student surveys. Server logs were used to quantify individual use of respective <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. There was considerable variability in the level of utilization of each <span class="hlt">CAI</span> by individual students. Individual use of each <span class="hlt">CAI</span> differed and was associated with gender, MBTI preferences and learning style, but not with "computer literacy." The majority of students found the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> useful for learning and used the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> by themselves. Students who accessed the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> resources most frequently scored significantly higher on exams compared with students who never accessed the resources. Our results show that medical students do not uniformly use <span class="hlt">CAI</span> developed for their curriculum and this variability is associated with various attributes of individual students. Our data also provide evidence of the importance of understanding student preferences and learning styles when implementing <span class="hlt">CAI</span> into the curriculum. PMID:19217066</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effective+AND+package+AND+design&pg=7&id=EJ251011','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effective+AND+package+AND+design&pg=7&id=EJ251011"><span id="translatedtitle">Instructional Design versus Authoring of Courseware: Some Crucial Differences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Roblyer, M.D.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Points out differences between the "instructional design" and "authoring" approaches to creating courses and courseware for computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>). Describes models and procedures for designing effective <span class="hlt">CAI</span> packages. (Author/RW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22psychomotor+skills%22&pg=5&id=EJ261016','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22psychomotor+skills%22&pg=5&id=EJ261016"><span id="translatedtitle">Research on the Use of Computer-Assisted Instruction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Craft, C. O.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Reviews recent research studies related to computer assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>). The studies concerned program effectiveness, teaching of psychomotor skills, tool availability, and factors affecting the adoption of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. (CT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=artificial+AND+intelligence+AND+journal&pg=7&id=EJ576267','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=artificial+AND+intelligence+AND+journal&pg=7&id=EJ576267"><span id="translatedtitle">The Successive Contributions of Computers to Education: A Survey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lelouche, Ruddy</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Shows how education has successively benefited from traditional information processing through programmed instruction and computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>), artificial intelligence, intelligent <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, intelligent tutoring systems, and hypermedia techniques. Contains 29 references. (DDR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=artificial+AND+intelligence+AND+computers&pg=5&id=EJ232607','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=artificial+AND+intelligence+AND+computers&pg=5&id=EJ232607"><span id="translatedtitle">Artificial Intelligence Approaches to Computer-Based Instruction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bregar, William S.; Farley, Arthur M.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Explores how new, operational models of cognition processing developed in Artificial Intelligence (AI) can be applied in computer assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) systems. <span class="hlt">CAI</span> systems are surveyed in terms of their goals and formalisms, and a model for the development of a tutorial <span class="hlt">CAI</span> system for algebra problem solving is introduced. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED088465.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED088465.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer-Assisted Instruction In Dental Diagnosis; A Systematic Product Development.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barber, Thomas K.; Sokolow, Sonya</p> <p></p> <p>A developmental project created and field tested a computer-assisted instructional (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) unit in dental diagnosis. The main objectives were to determine 1) if, after having received <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, the dental student could determine whether a patient had a clinical need for space management and 2) if the dental student's attitude toward <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and space…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=menu+AND+design&id=EJ433225','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=menu+AND+design&id=EJ433225"><span id="translatedtitle">Pull-Down Menus, Menu Design, and Usage Patterns in Computer-Assisted Instruction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schuerman, Robert L.; Peck, Kyle L.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Discussion of menu design strategies for computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) focuses on a study that investigated whether menu design would affect undergraduate learners' usage patterns during a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> lesson. Sequential versus random selection of options is discussed, and new measures for describing usage patterns in <span class="hlt">CAI</span> are explained. (eight…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED129652.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED129652.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer-Assisted Instruction in Political Science. Instructional Resource Monograph No. 4.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pool, Jonathan, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This six-author study highlights the most significant attributes of Computer Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) and explains the techniques of authoring <span class="hlt">CAI</span> lessons in political science. Fourth in a series of Instructional Resource Monographs, the volume has the objective to inform political science teachers and students about what <span class="hlt">CAI</span> has to offer on a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED082472.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED082472.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Sequential Evaluation of Computer Assisted Instruction in US Army Basic Electronics Training.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Longo, Alexander A.; Giunti, Frank E.</p> <p></p> <p>The Computer Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) Division of the U.S. Army Signal Center and School (USASCS) at Fort Monmouth, New Jersey evaluated <span class="hlt">CAI</span>'s success in teaching basic electronics. An initial feasibility study, interim assessments, and a summative evaluation assessed the value of the developmental, user-oriented, individualized <span class="hlt">CAI</span> programs…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=island&pg=2&id=ED562992','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=island&pg=2&id=ED562992"><span id="translatedtitle">Student Achievement and the Use of the Program "Study Island"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bernard, Benjamin Thomas</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Computer Aided Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) has been used for many years in an attempt to increase student achievement. Districts have spent millions of dollars implementing different forms of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> that may or may not be working. This study was an attempt to describe one such district and its <span class="hlt">CAI</span> implementation. The study sought to complete three tasks. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bostwick&id=EJ806662','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bostwick&id=EJ806662"><span id="translatedtitle">"It's High-Tech, but Is It Better?": Applications of Technology in Psychiatry Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Krain, Lewis P.; Bostwick, J. Michael; Sampson, Shirlene</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Objective: This article reviews the existing literature on the use of computer assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) in the field of psychiatry to answer the questions, 1) Is <span class="hlt">CAI</span> an effective tool for teaching psychiatry? and 2) What are the best methods for studying <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in a real-world training environment? Method: A Medline search was conducted for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=critical+AND+thinking+AND+exercise+AND+improve&pg=3&id=EJ739223','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=critical+AND+thinking+AND+exercise+AND+improve&pg=3&id=EJ739223"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving Computer-Assisted Instruction in Teaching Higher-Order Skills</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sinclair, Kelsey J.; Renshaw, Carl E.; Taylor, Holly A.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) has been shown to enhance rote memory skills and improve higher order critical thinking skills. The challenge now is to identify what aspects of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> improve which specific higher-order skills. This study focuses on the effectiveness of using <span class="hlt">CAI</span> to teach logarithmic graphing and dimensional analysis. Two groups…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Computer+AND+Aided+AND+Design%2c+AND+statistic&id=ED178009','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Computer+AND+Aided+AND+Design%2c+AND+statistic&id=ED178009"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching Law with Computers: A Collection of Essays.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Burris, Russell; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>The use of the computer in teaching law is examined in this collection of essays. Discussed are the development of law-related programmed workbooks, predecessors to computer aided instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>); research findings and their implications for the design of law-related <span class="hlt">CAI</span> exercises; advantages and limitations of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> programs in law; and attempts…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED049614.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED049614.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Strategies in Computer-Assisted Instruction: A Selective Overview.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Block, Karen K.</p> <p></p> <p>The history of some computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) strategies is traced. A number of components of computerized instruction systems are described and explanations provided on the influence these components have in the development and production of a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> system. A description of the interaction between a student and a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> system is presented…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED335355.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED335355.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Drills vs. Games--Any Differences? A Pilot Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McMullen, David W.</p> <p></p> <p>This study investigated the effect of informational, drill, and game format computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) on the achievement, retention, and attitude toward instruction of sixth-grade science students (N=37). An informational <span class="hlt">CAI</span> lesson on Halley's Comet was administered to three randomly selected groups of sixth-grade students. A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> drill…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9545215','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9545215"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen isotopic abundances in calcium- aluminum-rich inclusions from ordinary chondrites: implications for nebular heterogeneity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McKeegan, K D; Leshin, L A; Russell, S S; MacPherson, G J</p> <p>1998-04-17</p> <p>The oxygen isotopic compositions of two calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) from the unequilibrated ordinary chondrite meteorites Quinyambie and Semarkona are enriched in 16O by an amount similar to that in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from carbonaceous chondrites. This may indicate that most <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> formed in a restricted region of the solar nebula and were then unevenly distributed throughout the various chondrite accretion regions. The Semarkona <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is isotopically homogeneous and contains highly 16O-enriched melilite, supporting the hypothesis that all <span class="hlt">CAI</span> minerals were originally 16O-rich, but that in most carbonaceous chondrite inclusions some minerals exchanged oxygen isotopes with an external reservoir following crystallization.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/263027','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/263027"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectral reflectance of conodonts: A step toward quantitative color alteration and thermal maturity indexes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Deaton, B.C.; Nestell, M.; Balsam, W.L.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>Changes in the color of conodonts have long been used to assess thermal maturity. Color is a subjective measure, and color changes in conodonts are related to a subjective scale, the conodont alteration index or <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. In this paper, we propose a simple, nondestructive method for objectively determining <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and relating <span class="hlt">CAI</span> to thermal maturity, the spectral reflectance of conodonts (SRC). The diffuse reflectance of about 30 large conodont fragments arranged on a barium-sulfate slide was determined with a total reflectance spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 300-850 nm. By examining conodonts that ranged form a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> of 1 to a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> of 6 we found that the average slope of the reflectance curve from 550 to 800 nm is a good proxy for <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. A second-order regression equation estimates <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from this slope with high accuracy (correlation coefficient = 0.99). These estimates appear most accurate for a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> of 1 to a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> of 4, where the slopes change most rapidly, but give reasonable results up to a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> of 6. Based on the results of our analysis of two samples with known thermal maturities form the Valles Caldera region of New Mexico, we propose a preliminary relationship among SRC slope, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, and in-situ alteration temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApJ...748L..25W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApJ...748L..25W"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for Multiple Sources of 10 Be in the Early Solar System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wielandt, Daniel; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.; Ivanova, Marina A.; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Beryllium-10 is a short-lived radionuclide (t 1/2 = 1.4 Myr) uniquely synthesized by spallation reactions and inferred to have been present when the solar system's oldest solids (calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) formed. Yet, the astrophysical site of 10Be nucleosynthesis is uncertain. We report Li-Be-B isotope measurements of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from CV chondrites, including <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> that formed with the canonical 26Al/27Al ratio of ~5 × 10-5 (canonical <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) and <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear isotope effects (FUN-<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) characterized by 26Al/27Al ratios much lower than the canonical value. Our measurements demonstrate the presence of four distinct fossil 10Be/9Be isochrons, lower in the FUN-<span class="hlt">CAIs</span> than in the canonical <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, and variable within these classes. Given that FUN-<span class="hlt">CAI</span> precursors escaped evaporation-recondensation prior to evaporative melting, we suggest that the 10Be/9Be ratio recorded by FUN-<span class="hlt">CAIs</span> represents a baseline level present in presolar material inherited from the protosolar molecular cloud, generated via enhanced trapping of galactic cosmic rays. The higher and possibly variable apparent 10Be/9Be ratios of canonical <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> reflect additional spallogenesis, either in the gaseous <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-forming reservoir, or in the inclusions themselves: this indicates at least two nucleosynthetic sources of 10Be in the early solar system. The most promising locale for 10Be synthesis is close to the proto-Sun during its early mass-accreting stages, as these are thought to coincide with periods of intense particle irradiation occurring on timescales significantly shorter than the formation interval of canonical <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2573049','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2573049"><span id="translatedtitle">Superiority of Biphasic Over Monophasic Defibrillation Shocks is Attributable to Less Intracellular Calcium Transient Heterogeneity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hwang, Gyo-Seung; Tang, Liang; Joung, Boyoung; Morita, Norishige; Hayashi, Hideki; Karagueuzian, Hrayr S.; Weiss, James N.; Lin, Shien-Fong; Chen, Peng-Sheng</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Objectives To test the hypothesis that superiority of biphasic waveform (BW) over monophasic waveform (MW) defibrillation shocks is attributable to less intracellular calcium (<span class="hlt">Cai</span>) transient heterogeneity. Background The mechanism by which BW shocks have a higher defibrillation efficacy than MW shocks remains unclear. Methods We simultaneously mapped epicardial membrane potential (Vm) and <span class="hlt">Cai</span> during 6 ms MW and 3/3 ms BW shocks in 19 Langendorff-perfused rabbit ventricles. After shock, the percentage of depolarized area was plotted over time. The maximum (peak) postshock values (VmP and <span class="hlt">Cai</span>P, respectively) were used to measure heterogeneity. Higher VmP and <span class="hlt">Cai</span>P imply less heterogeneity. Results The defibrillation threshold was for BW and MW shocks were 288±99 V and 399±155 V, respectively (p=0.0005). Successful BW shocks had higher VmP (88±9 %) and <span class="hlt">Cai</span>P (70±13 %) than unsuccessful MW shocks (VmP 76 %±10, p<0.001; <span class="hlt">Cai</span>P, 57±8 %, p<0.001) of the same shock strength. In contrast, for unsuccessful BW and MW shocks of the same shock strengths, the VmP and <span class="hlt">Cai</span>P were not significantly different. MW shocks more frequently created regions of low <span class="hlt">Cai</span> surrounded by regions of high <span class="hlt">Cai</span> (postshock <span class="hlt">Cai</span> sinkholes). The defibrillation threshold for MW and BW shocks became similar after disabling the sarcoplasmic reticulum with thapsigargin and ryanodine. Conclusions The greater efficacy of BW shocks is directly related to their less heterogeneous effects on shock-induced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca release and <span class="hlt">Cai</span> transients. Less heterogeneous <span class="hlt">Cai</span> transients reduces the probability of <span class="hlt">Cai</span> sinkhole formation, thereby preventing the postshock reinitiation of VF. PMID:18755345</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22047934','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22047934"><span id="translatedtitle">EVIDENCE FOR MULTIPLE SOURCES OF {sup 10}Be IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wielandt, Daniel; Krot, Alexander N.; Bizzarro, Martin; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Huss, Gary R.; Ivanova, Marina A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Beryllium-10 is a short-lived radionuclide (t{sub 1/2} = 1.4 Myr) uniquely synthesized by spallation reactions and inferred to have been present when the solar system's oldest solids (calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) formed. Yet, the astrophysical site of {sup 10}Be nucleosynthesis is uncertain. We report Li-Be-B isotope measurements of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from CV chondrites, including <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> that formed with the canonical {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratio of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} (canonical <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) and <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear isotope effects (FUN-<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) characterized by {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratios much lower than the canonical value. Our measurements demonstrate the presence of four distinct fossil {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be isochrons, lower in the FUN-<span class="hlt">CAIs</span> than in the canonical <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, and variable within these classes. Given that FUN-<span class="hlt">CAI</span> precursors escaped evaporation-recondensation prior to evaporative melting, we suggest that the {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratio recorded by FUN-<span class="hlt">CAIs</span> represents a baseline level present in presolar material inherited from the protosolar molecular cloud, generated via enhanced trapping of galactic cosmic rays. The higher and possibly variable apparent {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios of canonical <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> reflect additional spallogenesis, either in the gaseous <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-forming reservoir, or in the inclusions themselves: this indicates at least two nucleosynthetic sources of {sup 10}Be in the early solar system. The most promising locale for {sup 10}Be synthesis is close to the proto-Sun during its early mass-accreting stages, as these are thought to coincide with periods of intense particle irradiation occurring on timescales significantly shorter than the formation interval of canonical <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060041247&hterms=insar&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dinsar','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060041247&hterms=insar&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dinsar"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of Polarimetric-Interferometric Phase Coherence Optimization (PIPCO) Procedure to SIR-C/X-SAR <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan Tracks 122.20(94 Oct. 08)/154.20(94 Oct. 09) Repeat-Orbit C/L-Band Pol-D-InSAR Imag</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Boerner, W. M.; Mott, H.; Verdi, J.; Darizhapov, D.; Dorjiev, B.; Tsybjito, T.; Korsunov, V.; Tatchkov, G.; Bashkuyev, Y.; Cloude, S.; Papathanassiou, K.; Pottier, E.; Lee, J.; Ainsworth, T.; Schuler, D.; Grandi, G.; Rosen, P.; Peltzer, G.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>During the past decade, Radar Polarimetry has established itself as a mature science and advanced technology in high resolution POL-SAR imaging, image target characterization and selective image feature extraction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2578090','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2578090"><span id="translatedtitle">Effective Computer Aided Instruction in Biomedical Science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hause, Lawrence L.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A menu-driven Computer Aided Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) package was integrated with word processing and effectively applied in five curricula at the Medical College of Wisconsin. Integration with word processing facilitates the ease of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> development by instructors and was found to be the most important step in the development of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. <span class="hlt">CAI</span> modules were developed and are currently used to reinforce lectures in medical pathology, laboratory quality control, computer programming and basic science reviews of medicine. Modules help the lecturer efficiently cover fundamentals and provide the student with a self-directed learning alternative. A structured approach to <span class="hlt">CAI</span> has helped build a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> program which supports other traditional modes of instruction at MCW.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LaPhL..13k6202D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LaPhL..13k6202D"><span id="translatedtitle">Controllably accelerating and decelerating Airy–Bessel–Gaussian wave packets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Deng, Fu; Yu, Weihao; Deng, Dongmei</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>By solving the (3  +  1)D free-space Schrödinger equation in polar coordinates analytically, we have investigated the propagation of 3D controllably accelerating and decelerating Airy–Bessel–Gaussian (<span class="hlt">CAi</span>BG) wave packets, even <span class="hlt">CAi</span>BG wave packets, odd <span class="hlt">CAi</span>BG wave packets and the superposition of several <span class="hlt">CAi</span>BG wave packets in free space. The <span class="hlt">CAi</span>BG wave packets are constructed with the Airy pulses with initial velocity in temporal domain and the Bessel–Gaussian beams in space domain. Due to the initial velocity on Airy pulses, we can obtain decelerating and accelerating Airy–Bessel–Gaussian wave packets by selecting different initial velocities. Moreover, by superposing several <span class="hlt">CAi</span>BG wave packets, we can obtain the rotating wave packets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1825201','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1825201"><span id="translatedtitle">Abscisic acid induces a cytosolic calcium decrease in barley aleurone protoplasts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, M; Van Duijn, B; Schram, A W</p> <p>1991-01-14</p> <p>Cytosolic calcium concentrations (<span class="hlt">Cai</span>) of barley aleurone protoplasts after stimulation with the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) were measured by using the calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye Indo-1. The measured basal <span class="hlt">Cai</span> is about 200 nM. Stimulation with ABA induces a strong dose-dependent decrease in <span class="hlt">Cai</span> to a minimal value of about 50 nM. This decrease occurs within 5 s. The Ca2+ antagonists La3+ and Cd2+ inhibit the ABA-induced <span class="hlt">Cai</span> decrease in a dose-dependent manner, while the Ca2+ channel blockers verapamil and nifedipine give no inhibition. The induction of <span class="hlt">Cai</span> decrease by ABA is consistent with activation of the plasma membrane Ca2(+)-ATPase by ABA. The possible role of this ABA-induced <span class="hlt">Cai</span> decrease in ABA signal transduction and in counteracting the effects of gibberellic acid are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15846340','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15846340"><span id="translatedtitle">Chronology of the early Solar System from chondrule-bearing calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krot, Alexander N; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Hutcheon, Ian D; MacPherson, Glenn J</p> <p>2005-04-21</p> <p>Chondrules and Ca-Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) are high-temperature components of meteorites that formed during transient heating events in the early Solar System. A major unresolved issue is the relative timing of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and chondrule formation. From the presence of chondrule fragments in an igneous <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, it was concluded that some chondrules formed before <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> (ref. 5). This conclusion is contrary to the presence of relict <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> inside chondrules, as well as to the higher abundance of 26Al in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>; both observations indicate that <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> pre-date chondrules by 1-3 million years (Myr). Here we report that relict chondrule material in the Allende meteorite, composed of olivine and low-calcium pyroxene, occurs in the outer portions of two <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and is 16O-poor (Delta17O approximately -1 per thousand to -5 per thousand). Spinel and diopside in the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> cores are 16O-rich (Delta17O up to -20 per thousand), whereas diopside in their outer zones, as well as melilite and anorthite, are 16O-depleted (Delta17O = -8 per thousand to 2 per thousand). Both chondrule-bearing <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are 26Al-poor with initial 26Al/27Al ratios of (4.7 +/- 1.4) x 10(-6) and <1.2 x 10(-6). We conclude that these <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> had chondrule material added to them during a re-melting episode approximately 2 Myr after formation of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with the canonical 26Al/27Al ratio of 5 x 10(-5).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19008430','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19008430"><span id="translatedtitle">Comment on "ancient asteroids enriched in refractory inclusions".</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hezel, Dominik C; Russell, Sara S</p> <p>2008-11-14</p> <p>Sunshine et al. (Reports, 25 April 2008, p. 514) reported that certain asteroids contain 30 +/- 10 volume percent calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>). We contend that the amount of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in CV chondrites is two to three times as low as the 10 volume percent assumed by the authors; thus, we question whether the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-rich bodies they studied are indeed older than known asteroids or formed before the injection of (26)Al into the solar nebula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27246620','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27246620"><span id="translatedtitle">Medical Treatment for Acromegaly does not Increase the Risk of Central Adrenal Insufficiency: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ceccato, F; Lizzul, L; Zilio, M; Barbot, M; Denaro, L; Emanuelli, E; Alessio, L; Rolma, G; Manara, R; Saller, A; Boscaro, M; Scaroni, C</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Central adrenal insufficiency (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) in acromegaly may be related to pituitary adenoma or induced by various medical treatments, transsphenoidal neurosurgery (TNS) or radiotherapy (RT), alone or combined. We assessed the role of all available treatments for acromegaly in inducing <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. We retrospectively studied 97 patients. <span class="hlt">CAI</span> was diagnosed if morning serum cortisol was <138 nmol/l, or if its response was inadequate in the low-dose short synacthen test. Seventy-four subjects underwent TNS (and 17 of whom also underwent RT), and 23 were on primary medical therapy: overall we diagnosed 21 cases of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Duration of acromegaly, invasion of cavernous sinus, disease control, and type of medical treatment were much the same for patients with and without <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, which was identified in 18% of patients (10/57) after one TNS, and in 53% (9/17) after RT (p=0.01); repeat surgery increased the risk of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (p=0.02). The risk of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> onset during the follow-up was lower among patients treated with TNS or medical therapy than after RT (p=0.035). Medical treatment did not raise the risk of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, whereas a 5- and 4-fold higher risk of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> was associated with repeat TNS and RT, respectively. Basal or stimulated cortisol levels were similar among acromegalic patients without <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and matched controls with nonsecreting pituitary lesions. A significant proportion of patients with acromegaly developed <span class="hlt">CAI</span> over time. While primary or secondary medical treatment did not contribute to the risk of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, repeat TNS and RT correlated with pituitary-adrenal axis impairment. PMID:27246620</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Icar..252..440C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Icar..252..440C"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions by coagulation and fragmentation in a turbulent protoplanetary disk: Observations and simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Charnoz, Sébastien; Aléon, Jérôme; Chaumard, Noël; Baillié, Kévin; Taillifet, Esther</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Whereas it is generally accepted that calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) from chondritic meteorites formed in a hot environment in the solar protoplanetary disk, the conditions of their formation remain debated. Recent laboratory studies of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> have provided new kind of data: their size distributions. We report that size distributions of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> measured in laboratory from sections of carbonaceous chondrites have a power law size distribution with cumulative size exponent between -1.7 and -1.9, which translates into cumulative size exponent between -2.5 and -2.8 after correction for sectioning. To explain these observations, numerical simulations were run to explore the growth of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from micrometer to centimeter sizes, in a hot and turbulent protoplanetary disk through the competition of coagulation and fragmentation. We show that the size distributions obtained in growth simulations are in agreement with <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> size distributions in meteorites. We explain the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> sharp cut-off of their size distribution at centimeter sizes as the direct result from the famous fragmentation barrier, provided that <span class="hlt">CAI</span> fragment for impact velocities larger than 10 m/s. The growth/destruction timescales of millimeter- and centimeter-sized <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> is inversely proportional to the local dust/gas ratio and is about 10 years at 1300 K and up to 104 years at 1670 K. This implies that the most refractory <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are expected to be smaller in size owing to their long growth timescale compared to less refractory <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Conversely, the least refractory <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> could have been recycled many times during the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> production era which may have profound consequences for their radiometric age.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2215782','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2215782"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between light sensitivity and intracellular free Ca concentration in Limulus ventral photoreceptors. A quantitative study using Ca-selective microelectrodes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The possible role of Ca ions in mediating the drop in sensitivity associated with light adaptation in Limulus ventral photoreceptors was assessed by simultaneously measuring the sensitivity to light and the intracellular free Ca concentration (<span class="hlt">Cai</span>); the latter was measured by using Ca-selective microelectrodes. In dark-adapted photoreceptors, the mean resting <span class="hlt">Cai</span> was 3.5 +/- 2.5 microM SD (n = 31). No correlation was found between resting <span class="hlt">Cai</span> and absolute sensitivity from cell to cell. Typically, photoreceptors are not uniformly sensitive to light; the <span class="hlt">Cai</span> rise evoked by uniform illumination was 20-40 times larger and faster in the most sensitive region of the cell (the rhabdomeral lobe) than it was away from it. In response to a brief flash, the <span class="hlt">Cai</span> rise was barely detectable when 10(2) photons were absorbed, and it was saturated when approximately 10(5) photons were absorbed. During maintained illumination, starting near the threshold of light adaptation, steady <span class="hlt">Cai</span> increases were associated with steady desensitizations over several log units of light intensity: a 100-fold desensitization was associated with a 2.5-fold increase in <span class="hlt">Cai</span>. After a bright flash, sensitivity and <span class="hlt">Cai</span> recovered with different time courses: the cell was still desensitized by approximately 0.5 log units when <span class="hlt">Cai</span> had already recovered to the prestimulus level, which suggests that under those conditions <span class="hlt">Cai</span> is not the rate-limiting step of dark adaptation. Ionophoretic injection of EGTA markedly decreased the light-induced <span class="hlt">Cai</span> rise and increased the time to peak of the light response, but did not alter the resting <span class="hlt">Cai</span>, which suggests that the time to peak is affected by a change in the capacity to bind Ca2+ and not by resting <span class="hlt">Cai</span>. Lowering the extracellular Ca2+ concentration (Cao) first decreased <span class="hlt">Cai</span> and increased sensitivity. Longer exposure to low Cao resulted in a further decrease of <span class="hlt">Cai</span> but decreased rather than increased sensitivity, which suggests that under certain conditions it is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880056322&hterms=ruthenium+element&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Druthenium%2Belement','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880056322&hterms=ruthenium+element&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Druthenium%2Belement"><span id="translatedtitle">'Domestic' origin of opaque assemblages in refractory inclusions in meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blum, Joel D.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Beckett, John R.; Stolper, Edward M.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Experimental studies indicate that opaque assemblages rich in refractory siderophile elements were formed within host calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) by exsolution, oxidation and sulphidization of homogeneous alloys, rather than by aggregation of materials in the solar nebula before the formation of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. These opaque assemblages are thus not the oldest known solid materials, as was once thought, and they do not constrain processes in the early solar nebula before <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation. Instead, the assemblages record the changing oxygen fugacity experienced by <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> during slow cooling in nebular and/or planetary environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25439444','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25439444"><span id="translatedtitle">Proactive and reactive neuromuscular control in subjects with chronic ankle instability: evidence from a pilot study on landing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Levin, Oron; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; Thijsen, Jo R J; Helsen, Werner F; Staes, Filip F; Duysens, Jacques</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>To understand why subjects with chronic ankle instability (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) have frequent sprains, one must study the preparation/reactions of these subjects to situations related to ankle inversion in real life. In the present pilot study, we examined whether subjects with <span class="hlt">CAI</span> altered their neuromuscular control and reflex responses during and after ankle perturbations in landing. EMG signals were collected from the tibialis anterior (TA), peroneus longus (PL), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and gluteus medius (GLM) of both legs in 9 subjects with <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and 9 subjects with intact ankles (control). A trapdoor was used to produce an ankle inversion of 25° with the left leg (control) or the affected leg (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) in 0%, 50% or 100% of the landing trials. As compared to controls, subjects with <span class="hlt">CAI</span> had increased proactive activity in the contralateral side prior to touchdown during landing trials with 50% (PL) and 100% (PL and MG) chance of inversion (all, p < 0.05). The increase proactive control on the contralateral side could be part of a strategy to smooth the impact of landing on the affected side in subjects with <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Following touchdown, the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> group showed decreased ipsilateral short latency reflex (SLR) responses in all test conditions both in distal (PL and MG) and in proximal muscles (GLM) on the affected side (all, p < 0.05). Finally, subjects with <span class="hlt">CAI</span> adjusted their reflex gain differently as compared to controls when exposed to a possible inversion. Overall, individuals with <span class="hlt">CAI</span> displayed different neuromuscular strategies from controls while landing. PMID:25439444</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988Natur.331..405B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988Natur.331..405B"><span id="translatedtitle">'Domestic' origin of opaque assemblages in refractory inclusions in meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blum, J. D.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Beckett, J. R.; Stolper, E. M.</p> <p>1988-02-01</p> <p>Experimental studies indicate that opaque assemblages rich in refractory siderophile elements were formed within host calcium- and aluminium-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) by exsolution, oxidation and sulphidization of homogeneous alloys, rather than by aggregation of materials in the solar nebula before the formation of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. These opaque assemblages are thus not the oldest known solid materials, as was once thought, and they do not constrain processes in the early solar nebula before <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation. Instead, the assemblages record the changing oxygen fugacity experienced by <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> during slow cooling in nebular and/or planetary environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1039060','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1039060"><span id="translatedtitle">Comment on "Valence state of titanium in the Wark-Lovering rim of a Leoville <span class="hlt">CAI</span> as a record of progressive oxidation in the early Solar Nebula" by K.A. Dyl, J.I. Simon and E.D. Young</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Simon, S B; Grossman, L; Sutton, S R</p> <p>2012-05-29</p> <p>Dyl et al. (2011) state that their results confirm the conclusion of J. Simon et al. (2005) that the pyroxene in Wark-Lovering rims (Wark and Lovering, 1977) found on Ca-, Al-rich refractory inclusions has lower Ti<sup>3+</sup>/Ti<sup>tot</sup> ratios than the primary pyroxene in the interiors of inclusions. While true, the claim is misleading because J. Simon et al. (2005) concluded that there was no Ti<sup>3+</sup> in the rims, whereas Dyl et al. (2011) found Ti<sup>3+</sup> in 41 of 42 new rim analyses. In addition, J. Simon et al. (2005) concluded that rims formed under much more oxidizing conditions, log fO<sub>2</sub> ≥ IW-1, or ≥ 6-7 log units higher, than inclusion interiors. The conclusions of J. Simon et al. (2005) were disputed by S. Simon et al. (2007) and are not supported by the new data of Dyl et al. (2011). The present work is intended for clarification of this and other issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3670341','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3670341"><span id="translatedtitle">182Hf–182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Holst, Jesper C.; Olsen, Mia B.; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K.; Connelly, James N.; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nordlund, Åke; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Refractory inclusions [calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions, (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., 26Al, 41Ca, and 182Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> formed with the canonical abundance of 26Al corresponding to 26Al/27Al of ∼5 × 10−5, rare <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and 26Al/27Al of <5 × 10−6, possibly reflecting their formation before canonical <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Thus, FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the 182Hf–182W chronometer, we show that a FUN <span class="hlt">CAI</span> recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, but with 26Al/27Al of ∼3 × 10−6. The decoupling between 182Hf and 26Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for 182Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for 26Al. Admixing of stellar-derived 26Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation and, therefore, the 26Al–26Mg systematics of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support 182Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the 182Hf–182W clock. PMID:23671077</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16963531','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16963531"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of Ca2+ in responses of airway epithelia to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, flagellin, ATP, and thapsigargin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fu, Zhu; Bettega, Kelly; Carroll, Susheela; Buchholz, Kerry R; Machen, Terry E</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Neither Pseudomonas aeruginosa nor flagellin affected cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([<span class="hlt">Ca](i</span>)) in airway epithelial cell lines JME and Calu-3, but bacteria or flagellin activated NF-kappaB, IL-8 promoter, and IL-8 secretion. ATP (purinergic agonist) and thapsigargin (blocks Ca(2+) pump, releases endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+), and triggers Ca(2+) entry through plasma membrane channels) both increased [<span class="hlt">Ca](i</span>) but hardly stimulated NF-kappaB and IL-8. ATP and thapsigargin elicited larger, synergistic activations of NF-kappaB and IL-8 secretion when combined with flagellin. BAPTA-AM (to buffer [<span class="hlt">Ca](i</span>)) or Ca(2+)-free solution reduced increases in [<span class="hlt">Ca](i</span>) due to ATP or thapsigargin and also reduced NF-kappaB activation and IL-8 secretion triggered by flagellin, ATP, thapsigargin, ATP + flagellin, and thapsigargin + flagellin. IL-8 promoter analysis showed that AP-1 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)beta/nuclear factor for IL-6 (NF-IL6) sites were important for IL-8 expression, and the NF-kappaB-binding site was critical for activation by all agonists and for activation by [<span class="hlt">Ca](i</span>). Thus increased [<span class="hlt">Ca](i</span>) was not required for P. aeruginosa- or flagellin-activated NF-kappaB and IL-8 expression and secretion, and increased [<span class="hlt">Ca](i</span>) was only weakly stimulatory during activation by ATP or thapsigargin. However, ATP- or thapsigargin-induced increases in [<span class="hlt">Ca](i</span>) synergized with flagellin or P. aeruginosa, and buffering or reducing [<span class="hlt">Ca](i</span>) reduced these responses. Thus [<span class="hlt">Ca](i</span>) plays an important regulatory role in P. aeruginosa- or flagellin-activated innate immune responses in airway epithelia. Dose-dependent responses indicated that flagellin-ATP synergism occurred most prominently at ATP concentrations ([ATP]) > 10 microM and [flagellin] >10(-8) g/ml and during steady increases rather than oscillations in [<span class="hlt">Ca](i</span>). PMID:16963531</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23671077','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23671077"><span id="translatedtitle">182Hf-182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holst, Jesper C; Olsen, Mia B; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K; Connelly, James N; Jørgensen, Jes K; Krot, Alexander N; Nordlund, Ake; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2013-05-28</p> <p>Refractory inclusions [calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., (26)Al, (41)Ca, and (182)Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> formed with the canonical abundance of (26)Al corresponding to (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼5 × 10(-5), rare <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and (26)Al/(27)Al of <5 × 10(-6), possibly reflecting their formation before canonical <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Thus, FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the (182)Hf-(182)W chronometer, we show that a FUN <span class="hlt">CAI</span> recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, but with (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼3 × 10(-6). The decoupling between (182)Hf and (26)Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for (182)Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for (26)Al. Admixing of stellar-derived (26)Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation and, therefore, the (26)Al-(26)Mg systematics of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support (182)Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the (182)Hf-(182)W clock. PMID:23671077</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27272500','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27272500"><span id="translatedtitle">Using the cognitive assessment interview to screen cognitive impairment in psychosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Elosúa, María Rosa; Lorente-Omeñaca, Ruth; Moreno-Izco, Lucía; Peralta, Victor; Ventura, Joseph; Cuesta, Manuel J</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Cognitive impairment in psychosis is closely related to functional outcome, so research into psychotic disorders is focusing most effort on treatments for improving cognition. New treatments must show not only an improvement on neuropsychological tests but also in co-primary measures of cognition. The cognitive assessment interview (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) is an interview-based measure of cognition which assesses the impact of cognitive deficits in patients' daily lives. Information obtained from patients and their relatives is integrated into a rater composite score. This study examines the validity of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (adapted to Spanish, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-Sp) as a screening instrument for cognitive impairment, compared to an objective test of cognitive functioning. The psychometric properties of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-Sp and its association with clinical dimensions are also explored. Eighty-one patients with a psychotic disorder and 38 healthy controls were assessed using the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-Sp and the screen for cognitive impairment in psychiatry (SCIP-S). Patients also underwent a clinical assessment. Poorer cognitive functioning as assessed with the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-Sp was associated to illness severity, specifically positive, negative and disorganised syndromes. Binary logistic regression showed that the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-Sp was able to detect cognitive impairment in patients, when considering <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-Sp patient and informant information and <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-Sp rater scores. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-Sp was found to be a valid and reliable scale to assess cognitive functioning in the context of its impact on daily living. Given its ease and speed of application, the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-Sp could prove useful in clinical practice, though not a substitute of objective cognitive testing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23671077','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23671077"><span id="translatedtitle">182Hf-182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holst, Jesper C; Olsen, Mia B; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K; Connelly, James N; Jørgensen, Jes K; Krot, Alexander N; Nordlund, Ake; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2013-05-28</p> <p>Refractory inclusions [calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., (26)Al, (41)Ca, and (182)Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> formed with the canonical abundance of (26)Al corresponding to (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼5 × 10(-5), rare <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and (26)Al/(27)Al of <5 × 10(-6), possibly reflecting their formation before canonical <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Thus, FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the (182)Hf-(182)W chronometer, we show that a FUN <span class="hlt">CAI</span> recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, but with (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼3 × 10(-6). The decoupling between (182)Hf and (26)Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for (182)Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for (26)Al. Admixing of stellar-derived (26)Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation and, therefore, the (26)Al-(26)Mg systematics of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support (182)Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the (182)Hf-(182)W clock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=biology+AND+games+AND+high+AND+school&pg=2&id=EJ247788','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=biology+AND+games+AND+high+AND+school&pg=2&id=EJ247788"><span id="translatedtitle">The Microcomputer/Biology "Interface."</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tocci, Salvatore</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Describes ways that computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) is used in a high school biology course, including: (1) mastery of specific objectives; (2) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> as a self-check; (3) computer games; (4) laboratory simulations; (5) genetics instruction; (6) writing programs; and (7) remedial assistance and testing. (CS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED267449.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED267449.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Computers, Invention, and the Power to Change Student Writing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Strickland, James</p> <p></p> <p>A study examined the quantity and quality of ideas produced in freshman composition students' writing to determine whether computer assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) stimulates invention as well as or better than current invention instruction in traditional classrooms. Two <span class="hlt">CAI</span> programs were used: QUEST, the systematic program that examines an item/event…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED262433.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED262433.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Beyond Word Processing: Rhetorical Invention with Computers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Strickland, James</p> <p></p> <p>In the area of composition, computer assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) must move beyond the limited concerns of the current-traditional rhetoric to address the larger issues of writing, become process-centered, and involve active writing rather than answering multiple-choice questions. Researchers cite four major types of interactive <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, the last of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=corporate+AND+service+AND+industry&pg=5&id=EJ189163','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=corporate+AND+service+AND+industry&pg=5&id=EJ189163"><span id="translatedtitle">Corporate Involvement in C AI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Baker, Justine C.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Historic perspective of computer manufacturers and their contribution to <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Corporate <span class="hlt">CAI</span> products and services are mentioned, as is a forecast for educational involvement by computer corporations. A chart of major computer corporations shows gross sales, net earnings, products and services offered, and other corporate information. (RAO)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED033611.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED033611.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">An Overview of Computer-Assisted Instruction for Adult Educators.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dick, Walter</p> <p></p> <p>After a detailed history and definition of Computer-Assisted Instruction (which identifies drill and practice, tutorial, and problem-solving activities as comprising <span class="hlt">CAI</span>), the development and implementation of a college level computer based multimedia physics course is described as an example of tutorial activities in <span class="hlt">CAI</span> for those interested in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=reading+AND+comprehension+AND+effect&pg=3&id=EJ1007829','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=reading+AND+comprehension+AND+effect&pg=3&id=EJ1007829"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Computer-Assisted Comprehension Training in Less Skilled Comprehenders in Second Grade: A One-Year Follow-Up Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Potocki, Anna; Ecalle, Jean; Magnan, Annie</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This study examines the effects of a new <span class="hlt">CAI</span> program designed to remediate text comprehension difficulties in less skilled comprehenders at the beginning of learning to read. In a randomized control trial design, two groups of second grade children experiencing comprehension difficulties were selected and trained using two <span class="hlt">CAI</span> programs. One of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CHALK+AND+MATERIALS&pg=2&id=EJ890348','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=CHALK+AND+MATERIALS&pg=2&id=EJ890348"><span id="translatedtitle">A Research Note Assessing the Benefit of Presentation Software in Two Different Lecture Courses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kunkel, Karl R.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>"Teaching Sociology" recently published several articles dealing with the use of computer-assisted pedagogical techniques. Many authors assess the effectiveness of specific computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) forms by examining either student performance or student course evaluation. Typically one group uses some form of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> while the other does…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=199296','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=199296"><span id="translatedtitle">A two-phased model for library instruction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Davis, E B; Northup, D E; Self, P C; Williams, M</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>This article describes two methods of library orientation and instruction: self-paced audiotapes and computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>). The tapes are used to orient the user to the libraries' physical facilities, policies, services, and tools, while <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is used to provide detailed library information in an interactive mode. PMID:64266</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=shoes&id=EJ975700','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=shoes&id=EJ975700"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Computer-Assisted Interviewing to Consult with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barrow, Wilma; Hannah, Elizabeth F.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This article explores the use of computer-assisted interviewing (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) as a tool for consulting with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This is considered within the context of a research study which utilized one <span class="hlt">CAI</span> programme, "In My Shoes", to investigate children and young people's views of provision, support, and participation in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED012092.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED012092.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">USING COMPUTERS IN EDUCATION--SOME PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>SILBERMAN, HARRY F.</p> <p></p> <p>POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEM OF THE DESIGN OF COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) PROGRAMS ARE TO COPY EXISTING METHODS, TO USE SCIENTIFIC METHODS, OR TO DESIGN PROGRAMS FITTED TO LOCAL NEEDS. THE BEST ANSWER TO THE PROBLEM OF INSTRUCTIONAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS NEEDED FOR <span class="hlt">CAI</span> PROGRAMS IS COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF STUDENT PERFORMANCE DATA. TRAINING…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=intelligent+AND+design+AND+classrooms&pg=7&id=ED320439','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=intelligent+AND+design+AND+classrooms&pg=7&id=ED320439"><span id="translatedtitle">Implications for Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Research and Practice in Foreign Language Learning, NFLC Occasional Papers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ginsberg, Ralph B.</p> <p></p> <p>Most of the now commonplace computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) uses computers to increase the capacity to perform logical, numerical, and symbolic computations. However, computers are an interactive and potentially intelligent medium. The implications of artificial intelligence (AI) for learning are more radical than those for traditional <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. AI…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1921.6080U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1921.6080U"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for a Long Duration of the 16O-Rich Reservoir in the Solar Nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ushikubo, T.; Tenner, T. J.; Hiyagon, H.; Kita, N. T.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Oxygen isotope ratios and 26Al-26Mg systematics of a pyroxene-anorthite-rich <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from Acfer 094 suggest decomposition of melilite occurred in an 16O-rich environment at ~2.3 million years after normal <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED094732.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED094732.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Individual Differences and Learner Control I: Program Development and Investigation of Control Over Mnemonics in Computer-Assisted Instruction. AFHRL-TR-74-3. Interim Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Judd, Wilson A.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>The reported research was designed to investigate the impact of learner control on performance and anxiety in a computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) task. The first phase entailed the development of a two-hour <span class="hlt">CAI</span> program on the identification of edible plants. The second phase was experimentation to determine the effectiveness of learner control.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=principles+AND+effective+AND+package&pg=2&id=EJ401092','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=principles+AND+effective+AND+package&pg=2&id=EJ401092"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer-Aided Instruction in a Law Library.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bunnage, Rosemary</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Describes the development of a computer assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) package for use in teaching basic aspects of legal research. The discussion covers implementation of effective <span class="hlt">CAI</span> techniques, identification of learning principles applicable to the design of the program, and the feasibility of converting practical aspects of learning principles…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=motivation+AND+reinforcement+AND+approach&pg=6&id=ED238509','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=motivation+AND+reinforcement+AND+approach&pg=6&id=ED238509"><span id="translatedtitle">The Impact of Computer Assisted Instruction As It Relates to Learning Disabled Adults in California Community Colleges.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brower, Mary Jo</p> <p></p> <p>A study was conducted to determine the advantages and disadvantages of using computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) with learning disabled (LD) adults attending California community colleges. A questionnaire survey of the directors of the LD programs solicited information on the availability of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> for LD adults, methods of course advertisement,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..275..249B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..275..249B"><span id="translatedtitle">A note on cement in asteroids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bilalbegović, G.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Cement mineral tobermorite was formed in hydrothermal experiments on alternation of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Unidentified bands at 14 μm were measured for <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and the matrix of the Allende meteorite sample, as well as for Hektor and Agamemnon asteroids. The presence of cement nanoparticles may explain the feature at 14 μm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=principles+AND+accounting&pg=4&id=EJ884613','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=principles+AND+accounting&pg=4&id=EJ884613"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer Aided Instruction: A Study of Student Evaluations and Academic Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Collins, David; Deck, Alan; McCrickard, Myra</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Computer aided instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) encompasses a broad range of computer technologies that supplement the classroom learning environment and can dramatically increase a student's access to information. Criticism of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> generally focuses on two issues: it lacks an adequate foundation in educational theory and the software is difficult to implement…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=programing&pg=4&id=EJ267517','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=programing&pg=4&id=EJ267517"><span id="translatedtitle">TRS-80 MicroPilot: Writing Courseware on the TRS-80.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hardy, R. Reed; Elfner, Eliot S.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>PILOT is the generic name of a programing language suited for authoring/executing <span class="hlt">CAI</span> educational programing. The strengths/weaknesses of TRS-80 MicroPilot (formerly Pilot Plus) and differences between Micropilot and Basic and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> courseware authoring languages are discussed. Major strength is efficiency for educational/interactive programing with…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Hofstetter&pg=5&id=EJ215482','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Hofstetter&pg=5&id=EJ215482"><span id="translatedtitle">Microelectronics and Music Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hofstetter, Fred T.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>This look at the impact of microelectronics on computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) in music notes trends toward new applications and lower costs. Included are: a rationale for <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in music, a list of sample programs, comparison of five microelectronic music systems, PLATO cost projections, and sources of further information. (SJL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Inductance&pg=3&id=ED049651','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Inductance&pg=3&id=ED049651"><span id="translatedtitle">Development and Evaluation of Computer Assisted Instruction for Navy Electronics Training. Two, Inductance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hurlock, Richard E.</p> <p></p> <p>A computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) curriculum module covering the area of electrical inductance was developed and evaluated. This module was a part of a program in which a series of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> modules are being developed and tested for a Navy training course in basic electronics. After the module was written, it was given three tryout tests.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Anatomy&pg=6&id=EJ1031336','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Anatomy&pg=6&id=EJ1031336"><span id="translatedtitle">Gross Anatomy Videos: Student Satisfaction, Usage, and Effect on Student Performance in a Condensed Curriculum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Topping, Daniel B.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Anatomy educators are being tasked with delivering the same quantity and quality of material in the face of fewer classroom and laboratory hours. As a result they have turned to computer-aided instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) to supplement and augment curriculum delivery. Research on the satisfaction and use of anatomy videos, a form of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, on examination…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED296701.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED296701.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Intelligent Computer-Assisted Instruction: A Review and Assessment of ICAI Research and Its Potential for Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dede, Christopher J.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>The first of five sections in this report places intelligent computer-assisted instruction (ICAI) in its historical context through discussions of traditional computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) linear and branching programs; TICCIT and PLATO IV, two <span class="hlt">CAI</span> demonstration projects funded by the National Science Foundation; generative programs, the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED210961.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED210961.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Using the Computer to Teach Methods and Interpretative Skills in the Humanities: Implementing a Project.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jones, Bruce William</p> <p></p> <p>The results of implementing computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) in two religion courses and a logic course at California State College, Bakersfield, are examined along with student responses. The main purpose of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> project was to teach interpretive skills. The most positive results came in the logic course. The programs in the New Testament…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sample+AND+respondent+AND+student&id=EJ982125','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sample+AND+respondent+AND+student&id=EJ982125"><span id="translatedtitle">Secondary School Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics Computer--Assisted Instruction Environment in Kenya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mwei, Philip K.; Wando, Dave; Too, Jackson K.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports the results of research conducted in six classes (Form IV) with 205 students with a sample of 94 respondents. Data represent students' statements that describe (a) the role of Mathematics teachers in a computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) environment and (b) effectiveness of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in Mathematics instruction. The results indicated…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=harvard+AND+law&pg=4&id=EJ286847','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=harvard+AND+law&pg=4&id=EJ286847"><span id="translatedtitle">The Rationale for Computer-Aided Instruction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Clark, Robert Charles</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Some theoretical considerations for increased use of computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) in legal education are compared with other teaching methods, empirical evidence of the method's effectiveness is discussed, and some of the activities involving <span class="hlt">CAI</span> at Harvard Law School are outlined. (MSE)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED096957.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED096957.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Application and Evaluation of PLATO IV in AF Technical Training.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mockovak, William P.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>The Air Force has been plagued with the rising cost of technical training and has increasingly turned to computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) for better cost effectiveness. Toward this aim a trial of PLATO IV, a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> system utilizing a graphic display and centered at the University of Illinois, was initiated at the Chanute and Sheppard training…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=did&pg=2&id=EJ1099524','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=did&pg=2&id=EJ1099524"><span id="translatedtitle">Is Computer-Aided Instruction an Effective Tier-One Intervention for Kindergarten Students at Risk for Reading Failure in an Applied Setting?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kreskey, Donna DeVaughn; Truscott, Stephen D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated the use of computer-aided instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) as an intervention for kindergarten students at risk for reading failure. Headsprout Early Reading (Headsprout 2005), a type of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, provides internet-based, reading instruction incorporating the critical components of reading instruction cited by the National Reading Panel (NRP…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=renal&pg=5&id=EJ252807','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=renal&pg=5&id=EJ252807"><span id="translatedtitle">Renal Diet Therapy--A Computer-Assisted Instruction Model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schroeder, Lois; Thiele, Victoria F.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) unit was designed to teach renal diet therapy. Utilizing this unit, differences in performance and attitudes between traditionally taught and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> taught students (N=34), and differences in achievement between students in two nutrition fields were assessed. (DS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=languages+AND+schedules+AND+current&pg=3&id=ED200187','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=languages+AND+schedules+AND+current&pg=3&id=ED200187"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer Assisted Instruction in Schools: Achievements, Present Developments, and Projections for the Future.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hallworth, H. J.; Brebner, Ann</p> <p></p> <p>This overview of computer assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) traces the development and use of computers in learning and instruction and describes some current <span class="hlt">CAI</span> projects including PLATO, CDC PLATO, TICCIT, and others at Stanford University and the Computer Curriculum Corporation, and in Chicago, Los Nietos (California), Minnesota, Europe, and Canada.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=army+AND+simulation+AND+training&pg=2&id=ED273516','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=army+AND+simulation+AND+training&pg=2&id=ED273516"><span id="translatedtitle">The Application of Computer-Assisted Instruction to the Training and Education of US Army Band Officers, Warrant Officers, Bandmasters, and Enlisted Bandpersons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wilkins, Colette Jousse</p> <p></p> <p>This paper is the result of a feasibility study on the implementation of computer-assisted-instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) for the U.S. Army Bands. The study analyzes the state-of-the-art capabilities of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> with regard to Army requirements. The contract for the study states: "The objective of this task is to explore and analyze alternate approaches to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED084770.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED084770.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Use of Modular Computer-Based Lessons in a Modification of the Classical Introductory Course in Organic Chemistry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stotter, Philip L.; Culp, George H.</p> <p></p> <p>An experimental course in organic chemistry utilized computer-assisted instructional (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) techniques. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span> lessons provided tutorial drill and practice and simulated experiments and reactions. The Conversational Language for Instruction and Computing was used, along with a CDC 6400-6600 system; students scheduled and completed the lessons at…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=osmosis&pg=6&id=EJ386301','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=osmosis&pg=6&id=EJ386301"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comparative Evaluation of Computer Based and Non-Computer Based Instructional Strategies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Emerson, Ian</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Compares the computer assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) tutorial with its non-computerized pedagogical roots: the Socratic Dialog with Skinner's Programmed Instruction. Tests the effectiveness of a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> tutorial on diffusion and osmosis against four other interactive and non-interactive instructional strategies. Notes computer based strategies were…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=BIOSTATISTICS&pg=3&id=EJ209809','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=BIOSTATISTICS&pg=3&id=EJ209809"><span id="translatedtitle">An Evaluation of Computer-Aided Instruction in an Introductory Biostatistics Course.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Forsythe, Alan B.; Freed, James R.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Evaluates the effectiveness of computer assisted instruction for teaching biostatistics to first year students at the UCLA School of Dentistry. Results do not demonstrate the superiority of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> but do suggest that <span class="hlt">CAI</span> compares favorably to conventional lecture and programed instruction methods. (RAO)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22vol.+2%22&pg=2&id=EJ787628','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22vol.+2%22&pg=2&id=EJ787628"><span id="translatedtitle">The Current Status of Instructional Design Theories in Relation to Today's Authoring Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>O'Neil, A. Fred</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>It is of course very difficult to accurately project important characteristics of the future state of any rapidly evolving field, and the field of authoring systems for computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) is no exception. However, strong trends in evolving <span class="hlt">CAI</span> systems of today would seem to indicate some important characteristics of the software…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=care+AND+pre-hospital+AND+emergency&id=EJ622585','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=care+AND+pre-hospital+AND+emergency&id=EJ622585"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer-Assisted Learning Design for Reflective Practice Supporting Multiple Learning Styles for Education and Training in Pre-Hospital Emergency Care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jones, Indra; Cookson, John</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Students in paramedic education used a model combining computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>), reflective practice, and learning styles. Although reflective practice normally requires teacher-student interaction, <span class="hlt">CAI</span> with reflective practice embedded enabled students to develop learning style competencies and achieve curricular outcomes. (SK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1921.6238M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1921.6238M"><span id="translatedtitle">Al-Mg Systematics of Wark-Lovering Rims Around a Refractory Inclusion from the NWA 5028 CR2 Chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mane, P.; Bose, M.; Wadhwa, M.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We report Al-Mg relative ages of Wark-Lovering rims and the host <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. A hibonite + spinel layer of the rim sequence shows canonical initial 26Al/27Al ratio, suggesting a contemporaneous formation of these rims and its host <span class="hlt">CAI</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=msds&id=ED556700','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=msds&id=ED556700"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Computer Assisted Instruction to Teach Science Facts to Students with Moderate to Severe Disabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Berrong, Amy Ketterer</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Previous research has found the use of computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) to be effective in teaching skills to a variety of populations. Students with and without disabilities have been taught a variety of skills including social skills and core academic content using <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Students with moderate to severe disabilities (MSD) have been taught a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Suppes%2c+AND+Patrick&pg=4&id=ED034432','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Suppes%2c+AND+Patrick&pg=4&id=ED034432"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer-Assisted Instruction: Stanford's 1965-66 Arithmetic Program.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Suppes, Patrick; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>A review of the possibilities and challenges of computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>), and a brief history of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> projects at Stanford serve to give the reader the context of the particular program described and analyzed in this book. The 1965-66 arithmetic drill-and-practice program is described, summarizing the curriculum and project operation. An…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED050599.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED050599.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer-Assisted Instruction at Stanford.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Suppes, Patrick</p> <p></p> <p>Programs for computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) which were developed at Stanford University from 1963-70 are described, and prospects for <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in the 1970's are considered briefly. The programs include ones in arithmetic, logic, and reading for elementary grades and in basic Russian and remedial algebra for college students. Of these, the logic…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED084871.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED084871.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer-Assisted Instruction in Mathematics and Language Arts for the Deaf. Final Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fletcher, J. D.; Suppes, Patrick</p> <p></p> <p>A three-year project supported research, development and evaluation of computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) for hearing impaired, or deaf, children. Over 4,000 students from 15 schools for the deaf in five states participated in the effort. Although students received <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in algebra, logic, computer programing and basic English, the skill subjects…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED281504.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED281504.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer-Assisted Instruction: Authoring Languages. ERIC Digest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Reeves, Thomas C.</p> <p></p> <p>One of the most perplexing tasks in producing computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) is the authoring process. Authoring is generally defined as the process of turning the flowcharts, control algorithms, format sheets, and other documentation of a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> program's design into computer code that will operationalize the simulation on the delivery system.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=classical+AND+conditioning+AND+development&pg=3&id=ED295714','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=classical+AND+conditioning+AND+development&pg=3&id=ED295714"><span id="translatedtitle">How the Use of Cognitive Psychology Findings Can Raise the Productivity of Computer-Assisted Instruction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hodges, Daniel L.</p> <p></p> <p>An overview is provided of the principles of cognitive psychology that can be used to enhance the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>). First, the paper looks at the features of classical and operant conditioning that provide the foundation for important parts of mastery learning and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> programs. Next, findings from four areas of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=english+AND+exercises&pg=7&id=EJ948573','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=english+AND+exercises&pg=7&id=EJ948573"><span id="translatedtitle">Benefits of Computer-Assisted Instruction to Support Reading Acquisition in English Language Learners</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Macaruso, Paul; Rodman, Alyson</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Young children who are English language learners (ELLs) face major challenges in learning to read English. This study examined whether computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) can be beneficial to ELL kindergartners enrolled in bilingual classes. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span> programs provided systematic and structured exercises in developing phonological awareness and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22The+Mathematics+Teacher%22&pg=3&id=EJ1038530','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22The+Mathematics+Teacher%22&pg=3&id=EJ1038530"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Dynamic Software in Mathematics: The Case of Reflection Symmetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tatar, Enver; Akkaya, Adnan; Kagizmanli, Türkan Berrin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study was carried out to examine the effects of computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) using dynamic software on the achievement of students in mathematics in the topic of reflection symmetry. The study also aimed to ascertain the pre-service mathematics teachers' opinions on the use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in mathematics lessons. In the study, a mixed…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED125660.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED125660.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer Assisted Instruction. Papers Presented at the Association for Educational Data Systems Annual Convention (Phoenix, Arizona, May 3-7, 1976).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Association for Educational Data Systems, Washington, DC.</p> <p></p> <p>Two abstracts and seventeen articles on computer assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) presented at the 1976 Association for Educational Data Systems (AEDS) convention are included here. Four new computer programs are described: Author System for Education and Training (ASET); GNOSIS, a Swedish/English <span class="hlt">CAI</span> package; Statistical Interactive Programming System…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=oncology&pg=5&id=EJ362523','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=oncology&pg=5&id=EJ362523"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comparison of Computer-Assisted Instruction and Tutorials in Hematology and Oncology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Garrett, T. J.; And Others</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A study comparing the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) and small group instruction found no significant difference in medical student achievement in oncology but higher achievement through small-group instruction in hematology. Students did not view <span class="hlt">CAI</span> as more effective, but saw it as a supplement to traditional methods. (MSE)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Florence&pg=7&id=EJ515205','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Florence&pg=7&id=EJ515205"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer-Assisted Instruction in 2-Year Colleges: Technology for Innovative Teaching.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Garrett, Rick L.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Describes efforts of Florence-Darlington Technical College (South Carolina) to improve academic programs through the development and implementation of computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>). Includes results from a study investigating four variables of student performance in <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and traditional lecture sections for five courses. Reports mixed results…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Duffy+AND+system&id=ED300537','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Duffy+AND+system&id=ED300537"><span id="translatedtitle">The Case for Computers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1985</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Given the large gap between the millions of adults in need of basic literacy skills and the shortage of teachers, tutors, and funds to serve them, computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) has the potential to reduce the gap. The merits of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> include its holding power, provision of a positive learning environment, opportunity to learn about computers,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1105561.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1105561.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative Effects of Two Modes of Computer-Assisted Instructional Package on Solid Geometry Achievement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gambari, Isiaka Amosa; Ezenwa, Victoria Ifeoma; Anyanwu, Romanus Chogozie</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The study examined the effects of two modes of computer-assisted instructional package on solid geometry achievement amongst senior secondary school students in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. Also, the influence of gender on the performance of students exposed to <span class="hlt">CAI</span>(AT) and <span class="hlt">CAI</span>(AN) packages were examined. This study adopted a pretest-posttest…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cooperative+AND+agents&pg=5&id=EJ446219','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cooperative+AND+agents&pg=5&id=EJ446219"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Individual versus Paired/Cooperative Computer-Assisted Instruction on the Effectiveness and Efficiency of an In-Service Training Lesson.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Makuch, Joseph R.; And Others</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Describes a study that compared individual computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) with paired/cooperative <span class="hlt">CAI</span> as a method of providing inservice training for cooperative extension agents on the topic of proper water well location and construction. Cognitive achievement and time spent on the lesson are investigated. (18 references) (LRW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Tree+AND+interactions&pg=4&id=ED049616','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Tree+AND+interactions&pg=4&id=ED049616"><span id="translatedtitle">RASCAL: A Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Stewart, John Christopher</p> <p></p> <p>Both the background of computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) systems in general and the requirements of a computer-aided learning system which would be a reasonable assistant to a teacher are discussed. RASCAL (Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning) is a first attempt at defining a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> system which would individualize the learning…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008LPI....39.2121E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008LPI....39.2121E"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiscale Abundance and Size Distribution of Inclusions in the Allende CV3 Meteorite by X-Ray Image Analysis of Slabs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ebel, D. S.; Brunner, C. E.; Weisberg, M. K.</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>Analysis of combined X-ray (CMAS + Fe) and BSE maps of Allende slabs (13 µm/pxl) and sections (4-5 µm/pxl) (>19 mm2) yield higher matrix and AOA, lower <span class="hlt">CAI</span> abundances than McSween (1977). Size distributions of chondrules and <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are similar.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Unicorns&pg=6&id=EJ313682','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Unicorns&pg=6&id=EJ313682"><span id="translatedtitle">Is the Computer Revolution About to Happen in the Classroom?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Smith, S.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Both practical and irrational factors will substantially delay the widespread use of computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) in Australia's schools, including the following: lack of suitable software, insufficient hardware, ignorance of what <span class="hlt">CAI</span> offers, lack of expert advice, computer anxiety, reaction against computer zealots, and resistance to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED366792.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED366792.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of an Electronics Curriculum Using Computer-Assisted Instruction/Computer-Controlled Laboratory at Motlow State Community College, Tullahoma, Tennessee.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hasty, Doyle E.</p> <p></p> <p>Motlow State Community College (MSCC) in Tullahoma, Tennessee, received a federal grant to develop and implement an electronics computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) classroom and an electronics computer-controlled laboratory (CCL). A portion of a complete <span class="hlt">CAI</span>/CCL electronics curriculum developed by NIDA Corporation was developed, implemented, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=SOS&pg=7&id=EJ1031253','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=SOS&pg=7&id=EJ1031253"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction for Struggling Elementary Readers with Disabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Regan, Kelley; Berkeley, Sheri; Hughes, Melissa; Kirby, Suzanne</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Despite a lack of conclusive evidence, many researchers in the field view computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) as an opportunity for improved instruction for students with disabilities. This study examined the effects of a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> program, Lexia Strategies for Older Students (SOS)™ on the word recognition skills of four, upper elementary students with…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED157542.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED157542.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Problems in Conducting Research on Computer-Based Simulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Crawford, Alice M.</p> <p></p> <p>Computer-based simulation (CBS) represents a unique utilization of computers for instruction that combines some of the best features of the technologies of simulation and computer assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>). CBS grew out of an interest in testing the application of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> to procedural and perceptual motor skills. With the sophisticated graphics…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Artificial+AND+Intelligence+AND+definition&pg=4&id=EJ344231','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Artificial+AND+Intelligence+AND+definition&pg=4&id=EJ344231"><span id="translatedtitle">Framework for Computer Assisted Instruction Courseware: A Case Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Betlach, Judith A.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Systematically investigates, defines, and organizes variables related to production of internally designed and implemented computer assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) courseware: special needs of users; costs; identification and definition of realistic training needs; <span class="hlt">CAI</span> definition and design methodology; hardware and software requirements; and general…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Assisted+AND+suicide&pg=2&id=EJ968966','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Assisted+AND+suicide&pg=2&id=EJ968966"><span id="translatedtitle">A Method for Evaluating Competency in Assessment and Management of Suicide Risk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hung, Erick K.; Binder, Renee L.; Fordwood, Samantha R.; Hall, Stephen E.; Cramer, Robert J.; McNiel, Dale E.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Objective: Although health professionals increasingly are expected to be able to assess and manage patients' risk for suicide, few methods are available to evaluate this competency. This report describes development of a competency-assessment instrument for suicide risk-assessment (<span class="hlt">CAI-S</span>), and evaluates its use in an objective structured clinical…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/230369','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/230369"><span id="translatedtitle">Ready, set,...quit! A review of the controlled-air incinerator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reader, G.E.</p> <p>1996-05-01</p> <p>The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Controlled-Air Incinerator (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) has had a long and productive past as a research and development tool. It now appears that use of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> to treat LANL legacy and other wastes under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act is no longer viable due to numerous programmatic problems. This paper will review the history of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Various aspects associated with the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and how those aspects resulted in the loss of this Department of Energy asset as a viable waste treatment option will also be discussed. Included are past missions and tests-<span class="hlt">CAI</span> capabilities, emissions, and permits; Federal Facility Compliance Act and associated Agreement; National Environmental Policy Act coverage; cost; budget impacts; public perception; the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Combustion Strategy; Independent Technical Review {open_quotes}Red{close_quotes} Team review; waste treatment alternative technologies; the New Mexico Environment Department; and future options and issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890010483','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890010483"><span id="translatedtitle">Intelligent tutoring systems research in the training systems division: Space applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Regian, J. Wesley</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Computer-Aided Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) is a mature technology used to teach students in a wide variety of domains. The introduction of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology of the field of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> has prompted research and development efforts in an area known as Intelligent Computer-Aided Instruction (ICAI). In some cases, ICAI has been touted as a revolutionary alternative to traditional <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. With the advent of powerful, inexpensive school computers, ICAI is emerging as a potential rival to <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. In contrast to this, one may conceive of Computer-Based Training (CBT) systems as lying along a continuum which runs from <span class="hlt">CAI</span> to ICAI. Although the key difference between the two is intelligence, there is not commonly accepted definition of what constitutes an intelligent instructional system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18356491','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18356491"><span id="translatedtitle">Ancient asteroids enriched in refractory inclusions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sunshine, J M; Connolly, H C; McCoy, T J; Bus, S J; La Croix, L M</p> <p>2008-04-25</p> <p>Calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) occur in all classes of chondritic meteorites and contain refractory minerals predicted to be the first condensates from the solar nebula. Near-infrared spectra of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> have strong 2-micrometer absorptions, attributed to iron oxide-bearing aluminous spinel. Similar absorptions are present in the telescopic spectra of several asteroids; modeling indicates that these contain approximately 30 +/- 10% <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> (two to three times that of any meteorite). Survival of these undifferentiated, large (50- to 100-kilometer diameter) <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-rich bodies suggests that they may have formed before the injection of radiogenic 26Al into the solar system. They have also experienced only modest post-accretionary alteration. Thus, these asteroids have higher concentrations of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> material, appear less altered, and are more ancient than any known sample in our meteorite collection, making them prime candidates for sample return.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/237726','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/237726"><span id="translatedtitle">Sublaminate buckling and compression strength of stitched uniweave graphite/epoxy laminates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sharma, S.K.; Sankar, B.V.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Effects of through-the-thickness stitching on the sublaminate buckling and residual compression strength (often referred as compression-after-impact or <span class="hlt">CAI</span> strength) of graphite/epoxy uniweave laminates are experimentally investigated. Primarily, three stitching variables: type of stitch yarn, linear density of stitch yam and stitch density were studied. Delaminations were created by implanting teflon inserts during processing. The improvement in the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> strength of the stitched laminates was up to 400% compared to the unstitched laminates. Stitching was observed to effectively restrict sublaminate buckling failure of the laminates. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span> strength increases rapidly with increase in stitch density. It reaches a peak <span class="hlt">CAI</span> strength that is very close to the compression strength of the undamaged material. All the stitch yams in this study demonstrated very close performance in improving the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> strength. It appears that any stitch yarn with adequate breaking strength and stiffness successfully restricts the sublaminate buckling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17004677','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17004677"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of computer-assisted instruction on number combination skill in at-risk first graders.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fuchs, Lynn S; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlet, Carol L; Powell, Sarah R; Capizzi, Andrea M; Seethaler, Pamela M</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the potential for computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) to enhance number combination skill among children with concurrent risk for math disability and reading disability. A secondary purpose was to examine the effects of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> on spelling. At-risk students were assigned randomly to math or spelling <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, which they received in 50 sessions over 18 weeks. Acquisition and transfer effects were assessed. The results indicated that math <span class="hlt">CAI</span> was effective in promoting addition but not subtraction number combination skill and that transfer to arithmetic story problems did not occur. Spelling <span class="hlt">CAI</span> effects were reliable on acquisition and transfer spelling measures, with small to moderate effect sizes on transfer to reading measures. These results provide the basis for additional work with larger samples. PMID:17004677</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ApJ...639.1227K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006ApJ...639.1227K"><span id="translatedtitle">Aluminum-Magnesium and Oxygen Isotope Study of Relict Ca-Al-rich Inclusions in Chondrules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krot, Alexander N.; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Huss, Gary R.; Liffman, Kurt; Sahijpal, Sandeep; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Srinivasan, Gopalan; Bischoff, Adolph; Keil, Klaus</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>Relict Ca-Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) in chondrules crystallized before their host chondrules and were subsequently partly melted together with chondrule precursors during chondrule formation. Like most <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, relict <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are 16O enriched (Δ17O<-20‰) compared to their host chondrules (Δ17O>-9‰). Hibonite in a relict <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from the ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite Adelaide has a large excess of radiogenic 26Mg (26Mg*) from the decay of 26Al, corresponding to an initial 26Al/27Al ratio [(26Al/27Al)I] of (3.7+/-0.5)×10-5 in contrast, melilite in this <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and plagioclase in the host chondrule show no evidence for 26Mg* [(26Al/27Al)I of <5×10-6]. Grossite in a relict <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from the CH carbonaceous chondrite PAT 91546 has little 26Mg*, corresponding to a (26Al/27Al)I of (1.7+/-1.3)×10-6. Three other relict <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and their host chondrules from the ungrouped carbonaceous chondrite Acfer 094, CH chondrite Acfer 182, and H3.4 ordinary chondrite Sharps do not have detectable 26Mg* [(26Al/27Al)I<1×10-5, <(4-6)×10-6, and <1.3×10-5, respectively]. Isotopic data combined with mineralogical observations suggest that relict <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> formed in an 16O-rich gaseous reservoir before their host chondrules, which originated in an 16O-poor gas. The Adelaide <span class="hlt">CAI</span> was incorporated into its host chondrule after 26Al had mostly decayed, at least 2 Myr after the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formed, and this event reset 26Al-26Mg systematics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24372841','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24372841"><span id="translatedtitle">CqsA-CqsS quorum-sensing signal-receptor specificity in Photobacterium angustum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ke, Xiaobo; Miller, Laura C; Ng, Wai-Leung; Bassler, Bonnie L</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Quorum sensing (QS) is a process of bacterial cell-cell communication that relies on the production, detection and population-wide response to extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. The QS system commonly found in vibrios and photobacteria consists of the CqsA synthase/CqsS receptor pair. Vibrio cholerae CqsA/S synthesizes and detects (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one (C10-<span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1), whereas Vibrio harveyi produces and detects a distinct but similar molecule, (Z)-3-aminoundec-2-en-4-one (Ea-C8-<span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1). To understand the signalling properties of the larger family of CqsA-CqsS pairs, here, we characterize the Photobacterium angustum CqsA/S system. Many photobacterial cqsA genes harbour a conserved frameshift mutation that abolishes <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1 production. By contrast, their cqsS genes are intact. Correcting the P. angustum cqsA reading frame restores production of a mixture of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1 moieties, including C8-<span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1, C10-<span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1, Ea-C8-<span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1 and Ea-C10-<span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1. This signal production profile matches the P. angustum CqsS receptor ligand-detection capability. The receptor exhibits a preference for molecules with 10-carbon tails, and the CqsS Ser(168) residue governs this preference. P. angustum can overcome the cqsA frameshift to produce <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1 under particular limiting growth conditions presumably through a ribosome slippage mechanism. Thus, we propose that P. angustum uses <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1 signalling for adaptation to stressful environments. PMID:24372841</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19290676','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19290676"><span id="translatedtitle">Treatment of common deficits associated with chronic ankle instability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holmes, Alison; Delahunt, Eamonn</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Lateral ankle sprains are amongst the most common injuries incurred by athletes, with the high rate of reoccurrence after initial injury becoming of great concern. Chronic ankle instability (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) refers to the development of repetitive ankle sprains and persistent residual symptoms post-injury. Some of the initial symptoms that occur in acute sprains may persist for at least 6 months post-injury in the absence of recurrent sprains, despite the athlete having returned to full functional activity. <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is generally thought to be caused by mechanical instability (MI) or functional instability (FI), or both. Although previously discussed as separate entities, recent research has demonstrated that deficits associated with both MI and FI may co-exist to result in <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. For clinicians, the main deficits associated with <span class="hlt">CAI</span> include deficits in proprioception, neuromuscular control, strength and postural control. Based on the literature reviewed, it does seem that subjects with <span class="hlt">CAI</span> have a deficit in frontal plane ankle joint positional sense. Subjects with <span class="hlt">CAI</span> do not appear to exhibit any increased latency in the peroneal muscles in response to an external perturbation. Preliminary data suggest that feed-forward neuromuscular control may be more important than feed-back neuromuscular control and interventions are now required to address deficits in feed-forward neuromuscular control. Balance training protocols have consistently been shown to improve postural stability in subjects with <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Subjects with <span class="hlt">CAI</span> do not experience decreased peroneus longus strength, but instead may experience strength deficits in the ankle joint invertor muscles. These findings are of great clinical significance in terms of understanding the mechanisms and deficits associated with <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. An appreciation of these is vital to allow clinicians to develop effective prevention and treatment programmes in relation to <span class="hlt">CAI</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24372841','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24372841"><span id="translatedtitle">CqsA-CqsS quorum-sensing signal-receptor specificity in Photobacterium angustum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ke, Xiaobo; Miller, Laura C; Ng, Wai-Leung; Bassler, Bonnie L</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Quorum sensing (QS) is a process of bacterial cell-cell communication that relies on the production, detection and population-wide response to extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. The QS system commonly found in vibrios and photobacteria consists of the CqsA synthase/CqsS receptor pair. Vibrio cholerae CqsA/S synthesizes and detects (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one (C10-<span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1), whereas Vibrio harveyi produces and detects a distinct but similar molecule, (Z)-3-aminoundec-2-en-4-one (Ea-C8-<span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1). To understand the signalling properties of the larger family of CqsA-CqsS pairs, here, we characterize the Photobacterium angustum CqsA/S system. Many photobacterial cqsA genes harbour a conserved frameshift mutation that abolishes <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1 production. By contrast, their cqsS genes are intact. Correcting the P. angustum cqsA reading frame restores production of a mixture of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1 moieties, including C8-<span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1, C10-<span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1, Ea-C8-<span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1 and Ea-C10-<span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1. This signal production profile matches the P. angustum CqsS receptor ligand-detection capability. The receptor exhibits a preference for molecules with 10-carbon tails, and the CqsS Ser(168) residue governs this preference. P. angustum can overcome the cqsA frameshift to produce <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1 under particular limiting growth conditions presumably through a ribosome slippage mechanism. Thus, we propose that P. angustum uses <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1 signalling for adaptation to stressful environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080014318','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080014318"><span id="translatedtitle">The Chronology of Asteroid Accretion, Differentiation, and Secondary Mineralization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nyquist, L. E.; Kleine, T.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y. D.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We evaluate initial (Al-26/Al-27)(sub I), (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I), (Hf-182/Hf-180)(sub I), and Pb-207/Pb-206 ages for igneous differentiated meteorites and chondrules from ordinary chondrites for consistency with radioactive decay of the parent nuclides within a common, closed isotopic system, i.e., the early solar nebula. We find that the relative abundances of Al-26, Mn-53, and Hf-182, here denoted by I(Al)(sub <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, I(Mn)(sub <span class="hlt">CAI</span>) and I(Hf)(sub <span class="hlt">CAI</span>), are consistent with decay from common initial values for the bulk solar system. I(Mn)(sub <span class="hlt">CAI</span>) and I(Hf)(sub <span class="hlt">CAI</span>) = 9.1+/-1.7 x 10(exp -6) and 1.06+/-0.09 x 10(exp -6) respectively, correspond to the canonical value of I(Al)(sub <span class="hlt">CAI</span>) = 5.1 x 10(exp -5). I(Hf)(sub <span class="hlt">CAI</span>) thus determined is consistent with I(Hf)(sub <span class="hlt">CAI</span>) = 1.003+/-0.045 x 10(exp -6) directly determined in separate work. I(Mn)(sub <span class="hlt">CAI</span>) is within error of the lowest value directly determined for <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. We suggest that erratically higher values directly determined for <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in carbonaceous chondrites reflect proton irradiation of unaccreted <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> by the early Sun after other asteroids destined for melting by Al-26 decay had already accreted. The Mn-53 incorporated within such asteroids would have been shielded from further "local" spallogenic contributions. The relative abundances of the short-lived nuclides are less consistent with the Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of the corresponding materials with the best consistency being obtained between (Hf-182/Hf-180)(sub I) and Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of angrites. (Hf-182/Hf-180)(sub I) decreases with decreasing Pb-207/Pb-206 ages at the rate expected from the 8.90+/-0.09 Ma half-life of Hf-182. However, the model "<span class="hlt">CAI</span> age" thus determined, T(sub <span class="hlt">CAI</span>,Mn-W) = 4568.6+/-0.7 Ma, is older than the commonly accepted directly measured value T(sub <span class="hlt">CAI</span>) = 4567.l+/-0.2 Ma. I(Al)(sub I), and (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I) are less consistent with Pb-207/Pb-206 ages, but determine T(sub <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, Mn-Cr) = 4568.3+/-0.5 Ma relative to I(AI)(sub <span class="hlt">CAI</span>)= 5.1 x 10(exp -5</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED236906.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED236906.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Do You Know a Child with a Handicap? Children with Handicaps Have a Right to an Education [and] Do You Know Someone with a Handicap? Individuals with Handicaps Have a Right to an Education = Conoce Usted a un Nino que <span class="hlt">Tiene</span> Alguna Desventaja? Los Ninos con Desventajas Tienen Derecho a Recibir Educacion [and] Conoce Usted Alguna Persona que Tenga Alguna Desventaja? Las Personas que Tienen Desventajas Tienen Derecho a Recibir Educacion.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Div. of Special Education.</p> <p></p> <p>Two advertisements and two brochures for the California Search and Serve program are presented in this excerpt from the California Search and Serve "Search Guidelines and Resource Manual." The materials are designed to promote community involvement in the identification of handicapped persons, from birth through age 21, so that they may be served…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950012907&hterms=Blast+furnaces&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2528Blast%2Bfurnaces%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950012907&hterms=Blast+furnaces&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2528Blast%2Bfurnaces%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">A ceramic/slag interface as an analog for accretion of hot refractory objects and rim formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Paque, J. M.; Bunch, T. E.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Refractory inclusions or Ca-Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>'s) from carbonaceous chondrites span a wide range of bulk compositions that cannot be explained either by segregation from a gas of solar composition at different points in the condensation sequence or by fractional crystallization from a parent liquid. <span class="hlt">CAI</span>'s are commonly rimmed by Wark-Lovering (W-L) rims, a series of nearly monomineralic layers that have been a source of controversy since the variety of rim sequences occurring on different types of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>'s from Allende were described. The origin of these distinctive features has not yet been resolved, with proponents of accretion, condensation, flash heating, ablation, evaporation, etc. Rims have generated considerable interest because they potentially contain clues to conditions experienced by <span class="hlt">CAI</span>'s after the formation of the inclusion and prior to incorporation into the parent body. Ceramic bricks in contact with hot steel slag may produce reaction products in rimlike fashion similar to those found in <span class="hlt">CAI</span>'s. The similarity between the mineralogy of blast furnace slags and <span class="hlt">CAI</span>'s has long been recognized, with both containing unusual phases not found in terrestrial materials. We provide here a comparison between a ceramic brick/slag multiple-layered interface and a multiple-layered interface between a melilite-perovskite object and a melilite-spinel object in the Allende inclusion USNM 4691-1. These results have implications in interpreting the origin of rims and the textures and compositions of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>'s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130011253','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130011253"><span id="translatedtitle">Does Oxygen Isotopic Heterogeneity in Refractory Inclusions and Their Wark-Lovering Rims Record Nebular Repressing?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Simon, J. I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Large systematic variations in O-isotopic compositions found within individual mineral layers of rims surrounding Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) and at the margins of some <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> imply formation from distinct environments [e.g., 1-3]. The O-isotope compositions of many <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> preserve a record of the Solar nebula gas believed to initially be O-16-rich (delta O-17 less than or equal to -25%0) [4-5]. Data from a recent study of the compact Type A Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, A37, preserve a diffusion profile in the outermost 70 micrometers of the inclusion and show greater than 25%0 variations in delta O-17 within its 100 micrometer-thick Wark-Lovering rim (WL-rim) [3]. This and comparable heterogeneity measured in several other <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> have been explained by isotopic mixing between the O-16-rich Solar reservoir and a second O-16-poor reservoir (probably nebular gas) with a planetary-like isotopic composition, e.g., [1,2,3,6]. However, there is mineralogical and isotopic evidence from the interiors of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, in particular those from Allende, for parent body alteration. At issue is how to distinguish the record of secondary reprocessing in the nebula from that which occurred on the parent body. We have undertaken the task to study a range of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> types with varying mineralogies, in part, to address this problem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25092291','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25092291"><span id="translatedtitle">Caenorhabditis elegans recognizes a bacterial quorum-sensing signal molecule through the AWCON neuron.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Werner, Kristen M; Perez, Lark J; Ghosh, Rajarshi; Semmelhack, Martin F; Bassler, Bonnie L</p> <p>2014-09-19</p> <p>In a process known as quorum sensing, bacteria use chemicals called autoinducers for cell-cell communication. Population-wide detection of autoinducers enables bacteria to orchestrate collective behaviors. In the animal kingdom detection of chemicals is vital for success in locating food, finding hosts, and avoiding predators. This behavior, termed chemotaxis, is especially well studied in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we demonstrate that the Vibrio cholerae autoinducer (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one, termed <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1, influences chemotaxis in C. elegans. C. elegans prefers V. cholerae that produces <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1 over a V. cholerae mutant defective for <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1 production. The position of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1 ketone moiety is the key feature driving <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1-directed nematode behavior. <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1 is detected by the C. elegans amphid sensory neuron AWC(ON). Laser ablation of the AWC(ON) cell, but not other amphid sensory neurons, abolished chemoattraction to <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1. These analyses define the structural features of a bacterial-produced signal and the nematode chemosensory neuron that permit cross-kingdom interaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4176233','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4176233"><span id="translatedtitle">Caenorhabditis elegans Recognizes a Bacterial Quorum-sensing Signal Molecule through the AWCON Neuron*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Werner, Kristen M.; Perez, Lark J.; Ghosh, Rajarshi; Semmelhack, Martin F.; Bassler, Bonnie L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In a process known as quorum sensing, bacteria use chemicals called autoinducers for cell-cell communication. Population-wide detection of autoinducers enables bacteria to orchestrate collective behaviors. In the animal kingdom detection of chemicals is vital for success in locating food, finding hosts, and avoiding predators. This behavior, termed chemotaxis, is especially well studied in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we demonstrate that the Vibrio cholerae autoinducer (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one, termed <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1, influences chemotaxis in C. elegans. C. elegans prefers V. cholerae that produces <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1 over a V. cholerae mutant defective for <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1 production. The position of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1 ketone moiety is the key feature driving <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1-directed nematode behavior. <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1 is detected by the C. elegans amphid sensory neuron AWCON. Laser ablation of the AWCON cell, but not other amphid sensory neurons, abolished chemoattraction to <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-1. These analyses define the structural features of a bacterial-produced signal and the nematode chemosensory neuron that permit cross-kingdom interaction. PMID:25092291</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994LPICo.844...31P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994LPICo.844...31P"><span id="translatedtitle">A ceramic/slag interface as an analog for accretion of hot refractory objects and rim formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paque, J. M.; Bunch, T. E.</p> <p></p> <p>Refractory inclusions or Ca-Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>'s) from carbonaceous chondrites span a wide range of bulk compositions that cannot be explained either by segregation from a gas of solar composition at different points in the condensation sequence or by fractional crystallization from a parent liquid. <span class="hlt">CAI</span>'s are commonly rimmed by Wark-Lovering (W-L) rims, a series of nearly monomineralic layers that have been a source of controversy since the variety of rim sequences occurring on different types of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>'s from Allende were described. The origin of these distinctive features has not yet been resolved, with proponents of accretion, condensation, flash heating, ablation, evaporation, etc. Rims have generated considerable interest because they potentially contain clues to conditions experienced by <span class="hlt">CAI</span>'s after the formation of the inclusion and prior to incorporation into the parent body. Ceramic bricks in contact with hot steel slag may produce reaction products in rim-like fashion similar to those found in <span class="hlt">CAI</span>'s. The similarity between the mineralogy of blast furnace slags and <span class="hlt">CAI</span>'s has long been recognized, with both containing unusual phases not found in terrestrial materials. We provide here a comparison between a ceramic brick/slag multiple-layered interface and a multiple-layered interface between a melilite-perovskite object and a melilite-spinel object in the Allende inclusion USNM 4691-1. These results have implications in interpreting the origin of rims and the textures and compositions of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>'s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=160559','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=160559"><span id="translatedtitle">Elevation of cytosolic calcium precedes anoxic gene expression in maize suspension-cultured cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Subbaiah, C C; Bush, D S; Sachs, M M</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Based on pharmacological evidence, we previously proposed that intracellular Ca2+ mediates the perception of O2 deprivation in maize seedlings. Herein, using fluorescence imaging and photometry of Ca2+ in maize suspension-cultured cells, the proposal was further investigated. Two complementary approaches were taken: (1) real time analysis of anoxia-induced changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([<span class="hlt">Ca]i</span>) and (2) experimental manipulation of [<span class="hlt">Ca]i</span> and then assay of the resultant anoxia-specific responses. O2 depletion caused an immediate increase in [Ca2+]i, and this was reversible within a few seconds of reoxygenation. The [<span class="hlt">Ca]i</span> elevation proceeded independent of extracellular Ca2+. The kinetics of the Ca2+ response showed that it occurred much earlier than any detectable changes in gene expression. Ruthenium red blocked the anoxic [<span class="hlt">Ca]i</span> elevation and also the induction of adh1 (encoding alcohol dehydrogenase) and sh1 (encoding sucrose synthase) mRNA. Ca2+, when added along with ruthenium red, prevented the effects of the antagonist on the anoxic responses. Verapamil and bepridil failed to block the [<span class="hlt">Ca]i</span> rise induced by anoxia and were equally ineffective on anoxic gene expression. Caffeine induced an elevation of [<span class="hlt">Ca]i</span> as well as ADH activity under normoxia. The data provide direct evidence for [<span class="hlt">Ca]i</span> elevation in maize cells as a result of anoxia-induced mobilization of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Furthermore, any manipulation that modified the [<span class="hlt">Ca]i</span> rise brought about a parallel change in the expression of two anoxia-inducible genes. Thus, these results corroborate our proposal that [<span class="hlt">Ca]i</span> is a physiological transducer of anoxia signals in plants. PMID:7866021</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030054489','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030054489"><span id="translatedtitle">Blowing in the Wind: II. Creation and Redistribution of Refractory Inclusions in a Turbulent Protoplanetary Nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Davis, Sanford S.; Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Ca-Al rich refractory mineral inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) found at 1-6% mass fraction in primitive chondrites appear to be 1-3 million years older than the dominant (chondrule) components which were accreted into the same parent bodies. A prevalent concern is that it is difficult to retain <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> for this long against gas-drag-induced radial drift into the sun. We reassess the situation in terms of a hot inner (turbulent) nebula context for <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation, using analytical models of nebula evolution and particle diffusion. We show that outward radial diffusion in a weakly turbulent nebula can overwhelm inward drift, and prevent significant numbers of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-size particles from being lost into the sun for times on the order of 10(exp 6) years. <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> can form early, when the inner nebula was hot, and persist in sufficient abundance to be incorporated into primitive planetesimals at a much later time. Small (less than or approx. equal to 0.1 mm diameter) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> persist for longer times than large (greater than or approx. equal to 5mm diameter ones). To obtain a quantitative match t o the observed volume fractions of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in chondrites, another process must be allowed for: a substantial enhancement of the inner hot nebula in silicate-forming material, which we suggest was caused by rapid inward drift of meter-sized objects. This early in nebula history, the drifting rubble would have a carbon content probably an order of magnitude larger than even the most primitive (CI) carbonaceous chondrites. Abundant carbon in the evaporating material would help keep the nebula oxygen fugacity low, plausably solar, as inferred for the formation environment of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. The associated production of a larger than canonical amount of CO2 might also play a role in mass-independent fractionation of oxygen isotopes, leaving the gas rich in l60 as inferred from <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and other high temperature condensates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030062961','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20030062961"><span id="translatedtitle">Blowing in the Wind: II. Creation and Redistribution of Refractory Inclusions in a Turbulent Protoplanetary Nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Davis, Sanford S.; Dobrovolskis, Anthony R.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Ca-A1 rich refractory mineral inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) found at 1-6% mass fraction in primitive chondrites appear to be 1-3 million years older than the dominant (chondrule) components which were accreted into the same parent bodies. A prevalent concern is that it is difficult to retain <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> for this long against gas-drag-induced radial drift into the sun. We reassess the situation in terms of a hot inner (turbulent) nebula context for <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation, using analytical models of nebula evolution and particle diffusion. We show that outward radial diffusion in a weakly turbulent nebula can overwhelm inward drift, and prevent significant numbers of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-size particles from being lost into the sun for times on the order of 10(exp 6) years. <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> can form early, when the inner nebula was hot, and persist in sufficient abundance to be incorporated into primitive planetesimals at a much later time. Small (less than or approximately 0.1 mm diameter) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> persist for longer times than large (greater than or approximately 5mm diameter ones. To obtain a quantitative match to the observed volume fractions of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in chondrites, another process must be allowed for: a substantial enhancement of the inner hot nebula in silicate-forming material, which we suggest was caused by rapid inward drift of meter-sized objects. This early in nebula history, the drifting rubble would have a carbon content probably an order of magnitude larger than even the most primitive (CI) carbonaceous chondrites. Abundant carbon in the evaporating material would help keep the nebula oxygen fugacity low, plausibly solar; as inferred for the formation environment of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. The associated production of a larger than canonical amount of CO2 might also play a role in mass-independent fractionation of oxygen isotopes, leaving the gas rich in O-16 as inferred from <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and other high temperature condensates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4500378','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4500378"><span id="translatedtitle">Activation of NALP1 inflammasomes in rats with adjuvant arthritis; a novel therapeutic target of carboxyamidotriazole in a model of rheumatoid arthritis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhu, Lei; Li, Juan; Guo, Lei; Yu, Xiaoli; Wu, Danwei; Luo, Lifeng; Zhu, Lingzhi; Chen, Wei; Chen, Chen; Ye, Caiying; Zhang, Dechang</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background and Purpose Pro-inflammatory cytokines are important in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and their production is mainly regulated by NF-κB and inflammasomes. Carboxyamidotriazole (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activities by decreasing cytokines. Here, we have investigated NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein (NALP) inflammasomes in a rat model of RA and explored the therapeutic effects of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in this model and the involvement of NF-κB and inflammasomes in the actions of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Experimental Approach The anti-arthritic effects of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> were assessed in the adjuvant arthritis (AA) model in rats, using radiological and histological techniques. NALP1 and NALP3 inflammasomes, NF-κB pathway and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels were measured with Western blots, immunohistochemistry and elisa. Key Results <span class="hlt">CAI</span> decreased the arthritis index, improved radiological and histological changes, and reduced synovial IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18 and TNF-α levels in rats with AA. Compared with normal rats, the 70 kDa NALP1 isoform was up-regulated, NALP3 was down-regulated, and levels of the 165 kDa NALP1 isoform and the adaptor protein ASC were unchanged in synovial tissue from AA rats. <span class="hlt">CAI</span> reduced the 70 kDa NALP1 isoform and restored NALP3 levels in AA rats; <span class="hlt">CAI</span> inhibited caspase-1 activation in AA synovial tissue, but not its enzymic activity in vitro. In addition, <span class="hlt">CAI</span> reduced expression of p65 NF-κB subunit and IκBα phosphorylation and degradation in AA rats. Conclusion and Implications NALP1 inflammasomes were activated in synovial tissues from AA rats and appeared to be a novel therapeutic target for RA. <span class="hlt">CAI</span> could have therapeutic value in RA by inhibiting activation of NF-κB and NALP1 inflammasomes and by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25799914</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25633053','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25633053"><span id="translatedtitle">Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome associated with male gender identity or female precocious puberty in the same family.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bermúdez de la Vega, José A; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Bernal, Susana; Audí, Laura</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In 4 complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>) members of one family, 2 presented extreme and unusual clinical features: male gender identity disorder (case 1) and female precocious central puberty (case 2). The AR gene carried the mutation c.1752C>G, p.Phe584Leu. Gender dysphoria in <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> may be considered as a true transgender and has been described in 3 other cases. Central precocious puberty has only been described in 1 case; Müllerian ducts in case 2 permitted menarche. Despite the common <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> phenotype, there was a familial disparity for gender identity adequacy and timing and type of puberty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6689495','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6689495"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer-Aided-Instruction (user/CSO computer security training)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Twyman, J.A.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>This paper discusses a Computer-Aided-Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) course that has been implemented at Rocky Flats. Trying to train 2000 computer users and Computer Security Officers (CSO) has been a real dilemma at Rocky Flats. In order to resolve this problem, our Training Department implemented a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> training course on Computer Security. Presently, we are training approximately 100 users/CSOs per month, and soon these numbers should increase. The duration of the User course is about an hour and the CSO's is about an hour and a half. <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is being used on the unclassified VAX computer system in conjunction with IBM PC XTs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1185906-divalent-europium-doped-un-doped-calcium-iodide-scintillators-scintillator-characterization-single-crystal-growth','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1185906-divalent-europium-doped-un-doped-calcium-iodide-scintillators-scintillator-characterization-single-crystal-growth"><span id="translatedtitle">Divalent europium doped and un-doped calcium iodide scintillators: Scintillator characterization and single crystal growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Boatner, L. A.; Ramey, J. O.; Kolopus, J. A.; Neal, John S.</p> <p>2015-02-21</p> <p>Initially, the alkaline-earth scintillator, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2:Eu2+, was discovered around 1964 by Hofstadter, Odell, and Schmidt. Serious practical problems quickly arose, however, that were associated with the growth of large monolithic single crystals of this material due to its lamellar, mica-like structure. As a result of its theoretically higher light yield, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2:Eu2+ has the potential to exceed the excellent scintillation performance of SrI2:Eu2+. In fact, theoretical predictions for the light yield of <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2:Eu2+ scintillators suggested that an energy resolution approaching 2% at 662 keV could be achievable. Like the early SrI2:Eu2+ scintillator, the performance of <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2:Eu2+ scintillators has traditionally suffered due, atmore » least in part, to outdated materials synthesis, component stoichiometry/purity, and single-crystal-growth techniques. Based on our recent work on SrI2:Eu2+ scintillators in single-crystal form, we have developed new techniques that are applied here to <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2:Eu2+ and pure <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2 with the goal of growing large un-cracked crystals and, potentially, realizing the theoretically predicted performance of the <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2:Eu2+ form of this material. Calcium iodide does not adhere to modern glassy carbon Bridgman crucibles - so there should be no differential thermal-contraction-induced crystal/crucible stresses on cooling that would result in crystal cracking of the lamellar structure of <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2. Here we apply glassy carbon crucible Bridgman growth, high-purity growth-charge compounds, our molten salt processing/filtration technique, and extended vacuum-melt-pumping methods to the growth of both <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2:Eu2+ and un-doped <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2. Moreover, large scintillating single crystals were obtained, and detailed characterization studies of the scintillation properties of <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2:Eu2+ and pure <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2 single crystals are presented that include studies of the effects of plastic deformation of the crystals on the scintillator performance.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019121','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019121"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on formation processes of two coarse-grained calcium- aluminum-rich inclusions: a study of mantles, islands and cores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Meeker, G.P.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Many coarse-grained calcium- aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) contain features that are inconsistent with equilibrium liquid crystallization models of origin. Spinel-free islands (SFIs) in spinel-rich cores of Type B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are examples of such features. One model previously proposed for the origin of Allende 5241, a Type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> containing SFIs, involves the capture and assimilation of xenoliths by a liquid droplet in the solar nebula (El Goresy et al, 1985; MacPherson et al 1989). This study reports new textural and chemical zoning data from 5241 and identifies previously unrecognized chemical zoning patterns in the melilite mantle and in a SFI. -from Author</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3903670','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3903670"><span id="translatedtitle">Developing educational software for publisher vendors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Joseph, L S; Joseph, A F</p> <p>1985-09-01</p> <p>This article has provided the principles of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> development, marketing strategies, information on getting started with <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, and how to approach publisher vendors. Guidelines for software development proposals have been synthesized from major software publishers in nursing. There is a great demand for courseware that teaches critical thinking skills, problem solving, application, and analysis. Tutorials and simulations are much needed. Computer-assisted testing courseware will also be highly used by teachers at all levels in the future. Opportunity awaits the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> author in the publishing arena! PMID:3903670</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890006943','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890006943"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact of common APSE interface set specifications on space station information systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Diaz-Herrera, Jorge L.; Sibley, Edgar H.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Certain types of software facilities are needed in a Space Station Information Systems Environment; the Common APSE (Ada Program Support Environment) Interface Set (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>) was proposed as a means of satisfying them. The reasonableness of this is discussed by examining the current <span class="hlt">CAIS</span>, considering the changes due to the latest Requirements and Criteria (RAC) document, and postulating the effects on the <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> 2.0. Finally, a few additional comments are made on the problems inherent in the Ada language itself, especially on its deficiencies when used for implementing large distributed processing and data base applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140000408','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140000408"><span id="translatedtitle">Trace Element Abundances in an Unusual Hibonite-Perovskite Refractory Inclusion from Allende</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mane, Prajkta; Wadhwa, M.; Keller, L. P.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Calcium-aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) are thought to be the first-formed solids in the Solar protoplanetary disk and can provide information about the earliest Solar System processes (e.g., [1]). A hibonite-perovskitebearing <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from the Allende CV3 chondrite (SHAL, [2]) contains a single of 500 micrometers hibonite grain and coarse-grained perovskite. The mineralogy and oxygen isotopic composition of this <span class="hlt">CAI</span> shows similarities with FUN inclusions, especially HAL [2]. Here we present trace element abundances in SHAL.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008M%26PS...43.1531K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008M%26PS...43.1531K"><span id="translatedtitle">Refractory inclusions in the CH/CB-like carbonaceous chondrite Isheyevo: I. Mineralogy and petrography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krot, A. N.; Ulyanov, A. A.; Ivanova, M. A.</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>The CH/CB-like chondrite Isheyevo consists of metal-rich (70 90 vol% Fe,Ni-metal) and metal-poor (7 20 vol% Fe,Ni-metal) lithologies which differ in size and relative abundance of Fe,Nimetal and chondrules, as well as proportions of porphyritic versus non-porphyritic chondrules. Here, we describe the mineralogy and petrography of Ca,Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) and amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) in these lithologies. Based on mineralogy, refractory inclusions can be divided into hibonite-rich (39%), grossite-rich (16%), melilite-rich (19%), spinel-rich (14%), pyroxeneanorthite- rich (8%), fine-grained spinel-rich <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> (1%), and AOAs (4%). There are no systematic differences in the inclusion types or their relative abundances between the lithologies. About 55% of the Isheyevo <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are very refractory (hibonite-rich and grossite-rich) objects, 20 240 μm in size, which appear to have crystallized from rapidly cooling melts. These inclusions are texturally and mineralogically similar to the majority of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in CH and CB chondrites. They are distinctly different from <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in other carbonaceous chondrite groups dominated by the spinel-pyroxene ± melilite <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and AOAs. The remaining 45% of inclusions are less refractory objects (melilite-, spinel- and pyroxene-rich <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and AOAs), 40 300 μm in size, which are texturally and mineralogically similar to those in other chondrite groups. Both types of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are found as relict objects inside porphyritic chondrules indicating recycling during chondrule formation. We infer that there are at least two populations of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in Isheyevo which appear to have experienced different thermal histories. All of the Isheyevo <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> apparently formed at an early stage, prior to chondrule formation and prior to a hypothesized planetary impact that produced magnesian cryptocrystalline and skeletal chondrules and metal grains in CB, and possibly CH chondrites. However, some of the <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> appear to have undergone melting during chondrule</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPA.786...23B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPA.786...23B"><span id="translatedtitle">Divalent europium doped and un-doped calcium iodide scintillators: Scintillator characterization and single crystal growth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boatner, L. A.; Ramey, J. O.; Kolopus, J. A.; Neal, John S.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The alkaline-earth scintillator, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2:Eu2+, was initially discovered around 1964 by Hofstadter, Odell, and Schmidt. Serious practical problems quickly arose, however, that were associated with the growth of large monolithic single crystals of this material due to its lamellar, mica-like structure. As a result of its theoretically higher light yield, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2:Eu2+ has the potential to exceed the excellent scintillation performance of SrI2:Eu2+. In fact, theoretical predictions for the light yield of <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2:Eu2+ scintillators suggested that an energy resolution approaching 2% at 662 keV could be achievable. As in the case of the early SrI2:Eu2+ scintillator, the performance of <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2:Eu2+ scintillators has traditionally suffered due, at least in part, to outdated materials synthesis, component stoichiometry/purity, and single-crystal-growth techniques. Based on our recent work on SrI2:Eu2+ scintillators in single-crystal form, we have developed new techniques that are applied here to <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2:Eu2+ and pure <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2 with the goal of growing large un-cracked crystals and, potentially, realizing the theoretically predicted performance of the <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2:Eu2+ form of this material. Calcium iodide does not adhere to modern glassy carbon Bridgman crucibles-so there should be no differential thermal-contraction-induced crystal/crucible stresses on cooling that would result in crystal cracking of the lamellar structure of <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2. Here we apply glassy carbon crucible Bridgman growth, high-purity growth-charge compounds, our molten salt processing/filtration technique, and extended vacuum-melt-pumping methods to the growth of both <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2:Eu2+ and un-doped <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2. Large scintillating single crystals were obtained, and detailed characterization studies of the scintillation properties of <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2:Eu2+ and pure <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2 single crystals are presented that include studies of the effects of plastic deformation of the crystals on the scintillator performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4321801','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4321801"><span id="translatedtitle">SCREENING FOR PTSD AMONG INCARCERATED MEN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>WOLFF, NANCY; GREGORY CHUGO, M; SHI, JING; HUENING, JESSICA; FRUEH, B. CHRISTOPHER</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Trauma exposure is overrepresented in incarcerated male populations and is linked to psychiatric morbidity, particularly posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study tests the feasibility, reliability, and validity of using computer-administered interviewing (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) versus orally administered interviewing (OAI) to screen for PTSD among incarcerated men. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used to randomly assign 592 incarcerated men to screening modality. Findings indicate that computer screening was feasible. Compared with OAI, <span class="hlt">CAI</span> produced equally reliable screening information on PTSD symptoms, with test–retest intraclass correlations for the PTSD Checklist (PCL) total score ranging from .774 to .817, and the Clinician-Administered PTSD scale and PCL scores were significantly correlated for OAI and <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. These findings indicate that data on PTSD symptoms can be reliably and validly obtained from <span class="hlt">CAI</span> technology, increasing the efficiency by which incarcerated populations can be screened for PTSD, and those at risk can be identified for treatment. PMID:25673900</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1921.6342G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1921.6342G"><span id="translatedtitle">Titanium Isotope Heterogeneity in the Early Solar Nebula as Recorded in Individual Chondrules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gerber, S.; Burkhardt, C.; Metzler, K.; Kleine, T.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The ɛ^50 Ti values of single chondrules imply a heterogeneous distribution of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like material among chondrule precursors in the carbonaceous chondrite source region, and only limited mixing between ordinary and carbonaceous chondrite materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25861731','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25861731"><span id="translatedtitle">Developmental Change in the Effects of Sexual Partner and Relationship Characteristics on Sexual Risk Behavior in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Young men who have sex with men are substantially impacted by HIV/AIDS, and most new infections occur in serious romantic dyads. Young people experience substantial psychosocial and neurocognitive change between adolescence and emerging adulthood which impacts engagement in risk behaviors. We aimed to examine developmental change in the association between sexual partnership characteristics and condomless anal intercourse (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>). Data were taken from an analytic sample of 114 young adult MSM from a longitudinal study of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth with 4-year follow-up. Rates of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> were approximately 12 times higher in serious compared to casual partnerships, but this effect diminished in size over time. Partner age differences and violence were associated with more <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, and these associations strengthened across development. Characteristics of serious relationships (e.g., power dynamics) were also examined. We discuss the need for HIV prevention strategies that address dyadic influences on <span class="hlt">CAI</span> during this critical developmental period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874638','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874638"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen isotope exchange between refractory inclusion in Allende and solar nebula gas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yurimoto, H; Ito, M; Nagasawa, H</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) from the Allende meteorite was analyzed and found to contain melilite crystals with extreme oxygen-isotope composition (approximately 5 percent oxygen-16 enrichment relative to terrestrial oxygen-16). Some of the melilite is also anomalously enriched in oxygen-16 compared with oxygen isotopes measured in other <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. The oxygen isotopic variation measured among the minerals (melilite, spinel, and fassaite) indicates that crystallization of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> started from oxygen-16-rich materials that were probably liquid droplets in the solar nebula, and oxygen isotope exchange with the surrounding oxygen-16-poor nebular gas progressed through the crystallization of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Additional oxygen isotope exchange also occurred during subsequent reheating events in the solar nebula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3808631','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3808631"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for supernova injection into the solar nebula and the decoupling of r-process nucleosynthesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Brennecka, Gregory A.; Borg, Lars E.; Wadhwa, Meenakshi</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The isotopic composition of our Solar System reflects the blending of materials derived from numerous past nucleosynthetic events, each characterized by a distinct isotopic signature. We show that the isotopic compositions of elements spanning a large mass range in the earliest formed solids in our Solar System, calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>), are uniform, and yet distinct from the average Solar System composition. Relative to younger objects in the Solar System, <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> contain positive r-process anomalies in isotopes A < 140 and negative r-process anomalies in isotopes A > 140. This fundamental difference in the isotopic character of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> around mass 140 necessitates (i) the existence of multiple sources for r-process nucleosynthesis and (ii) the injection of supernova material into a reservoir untapped by <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. A scenario of late supernova injection into the protoplanetary disk is consistent with formation of our Solar System in an active star-forming region of the galaxy. PMID:24101483</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9836634','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9836634"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen isotope exchange between refractory inclusion in allende and solar nebula Gas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yurimoto; Ito; Nagasawa</p> <p>1998-12-01</p> <p>A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) from the Allende meteorite was analyzed and found to contain melilite crystals with extreme oxygen-isotope compositions ( approximately 5 percent oxygen-16 enrichment relative to terrestrial oxygen-16). Some of the melilite is also anomalously enriched in oxygen-16 compared with oxygen isotopes measured in other <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. The oxygen isotopic variation measured among the minerals (melilite, spinel, and fassaite) indicates that crystallization of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> started from oxygen-16-rich materials that were probably liquid droplets in the solar nebula, and oxygen isotope exchange with the surrounding oxygen-16-poor nebular gas progressed through the crystallization of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Additional oxygen isotope exchange also occurred during subsequent reheating events in the solar nebula.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4964523','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4964523"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-Classical Inhibition of Carbonic Anhydrase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lomelino, Carrie L.; Supuran, Claudiu T.; McKenna, Robert</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Specific isoforms from the carbonic anhydrase (CA) family of zinc metalloenzymes have been associated with a variety of diseases. Isoform-specific carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) are therefore a major focus of attention for specific disease treatments. Classical <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, primarily sulfonamide-based compounds and their bioisosteres, are examined as antiglaucoma, antiepileptic, antiobesity, antineuropathic pain and anticancer compounds. However, many sulfonamide compounds inhibit all CA isoforms nonspecifically, diluting drug effectiveness and causing undesired side effects due to off-target inhibition. In addition, a small but significant percentage of the general population cannot be treated with sulfonamide-based compounds due to a sulfa allergy. Therefore, <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> must be developed that are not only isoform specific, but also non-classical, i.e. not based on sulfonamides, sulfamates, or sulfamides. This review covers the classes of non-classical <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and the recent advances in the development of isoform-specific inhibitors based on phenols, polyamines, coumarins and their derivatives. PMID:27438828</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890045446&hterms=nebular+hypothesis&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnebular%2Bhypothesis','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890045446&hterms=nebular+hypothesis&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnebular%2Bhypothesis"><span id="translatedtitle">Origin of opaque assemblages in C3V meteorites - Implications for nebular and planetary processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blum, Joel D.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Beckett, J. R.; Stolper, E. M.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The results of analyses of meteoritic opaque assemblages (OAs) are presented and used in conjunction with literature data on phase equilibria and diffusion to further develop the hypothesis of Blum et al. (1989) for the origin of OAs in Ca,Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>). Based on the results of the analyses, it is suggested that OAs formed after the crystallization of host <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> by exsolution, sulfidation, and oxidation of precursor alloys at low temperatures (about 770 K) and higher than solar gas sulfur and oxygen fugacities. This model contrasts with previous models that call upon the formation of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> OAs by aggregation of previously formed phases in the solar nebula prior to the crystallization of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=teaching+AND+languages+AND+blind+AND+students&pg=4&id=EJ236814','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=teaching+AND+languages+AND+blind+AND+students&pg=4&id=EJ236814"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer-Aided Instruction at the Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hoffmeyer, Dennis B.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The computer assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) center at the Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind is described in terms of scheduling; monitoring of student progress in mathematics, language, and reading; comparing student achievement; and funding. (CL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24101483','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24101483"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for supernova injection into the solar nebula and the decoupling of r-process nucleosynthesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brennecka, Gregory A; Borg, Lars E; Wadhwa, Meenakshi</p> <p>2013-10-22</p> <p>The isotopic composition of our Solar System reflects the blending of materials derived from numerous past nucleosynthetic events, each characterized by a distinct isotopic signature. We show that the isotopic compositions of elements spanning a large mass range in the earliest formed solids in our Solar System, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>), are uniform, and yet distinct from the average Solar System composition. Relative to younger objects in the Solar System, <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> contain positive r-process anomalies in isotopes A < 140 and negative r-process anomalies in isotopes A > 140. This fundamental difference in the isotopic character of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> around mass 140 necessitates (i) the existence of multiple sources for r-process nucleosynthesis and (ii) the injection of supernova material into a reservoir untapped by <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. A scenario of late supernova injection into the protoplanetary disk is consistent with formation of our Solar System in an active star-forming region of the galaxy. PMID:24101483</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mahler&pg=7&id=EJ160778','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mahler&pg=7&id=EJ160778"><span id="translatedtitle">Faculty Acceptance of Instructional Technology: Attitudes toward Educational Practices and Computer-Assisted Instruction at Community Colleges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alderman, Donald L.; Mahler, William A.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Completed surveys from about 300 faculty members at six community colleges indicated current opinions about educational practices and provided a baseline of initial attitudes towards <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. The data was factor analysed. 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