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Sample records for cai tien giong

  1. Copyright and CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, G.P.; Hunka, S.

    The application of copyright laws to Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) is not a simple matter of extending traditional literary practices because of the legal complications introduced by the use of computers to store and reproduce materials. In addition, CAI courseware poses some new problems for the definitions of educational usage. Some…

  2. Skinner and CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Harry N.

    1984-01-01

    The author cites comments of B.F. Skinner supporting the benefits of carefully constructed computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs. Preliminary studies on military populations suggesting the value of CAI are discussed, as is the collection of information about software. (CL)

  3. A Modular CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Mast, Charles

    The experimental CAI system which is being tested at Delft University of Technology is structured in a modular manner to account for high changeability. The concept formulated for this project was the outcome of research into technological, organizational, and educational developments in CAI, and the enumeration of the common aspects of the…

  4. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  5. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  6. Competition in Individualized CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines the effects of competition and cooperation on learning through computer-assisted instruction (CAI). A questionnaire was administered to 457 Israeli fourth graders who used two CAI arithmetic systems. The characteristics of the systems are discussed, and the results of the survey are correlated to students' gender and achievement levels.…

  7. Skinner and CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Harry N.

    1984-01-01

    The author cites comments of B.F. Skinner supporting the benefits of carefully constructed computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs. Preliminary studies on military populations suggesting the value of CAI are discussed, as is the collection of information about software. (CL)

  8. Experience with the CAIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tighe, Michael F.

    1986-01-01

    Intermetrics' experience is that the Ada package construct, which allows separation of specification and implementation allows specification of a CAIS that is transportable across varying hardware and software bases. Additionally, the CAIS is an excellent basis for providing operating system functionality to Ada applications. By allowing the Byron APSE to be moved easily from system to system, and allowing significant re-writes of underlying code. Ada and the CAIS provide portability as well as transparency to change at the application operating system interface level.

  9. Carbon, CAIs and chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. D.; Russell, S. S.

    1994-01-01

    It has been shown that C is present in CAI's and chondrules. It can be distinguished from matrix C both by its thermal stability and isotopic composition, which implies that it was not introduced after parent body accretion. It is concluded that C must have been present in the chondrule and CAI precursor material. Therefore any models of chondrule and CAI formation and inferences drawn about solar system conditions during these events must take into account the consequences of the presence of C on inclusion chemistry, mineralogy, and oxidation state.

  10. The CAIS 2 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legrand, Sue; Thall, Richard

    1986-01-01

    The Common APSE Interface Set (CAIS) is a proposed MIL-STD intended to promote the portability of Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) tools written in Ada. The standardized interfaces define a virtual operating system, from which portable tools derive their basic services, e.g., file management, input/output, communications, and process control. In the Ada world, such a virtual operating system is called a Kernel Ada Programming Support Environment (KAPSE). The CAIS is a standardized interface between KAPSEs and tools. The CAIS has been proposed as a starting point for standard interfaces to be used in the NASA Software Support Environment (SSE) for the Space Station Program. The status of the CAIS standardization effort and plans for further development are described.

  11. CAI: Overcoming Attitude Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netusil, Anton J.; Kockler, Lois H.

    During each of two school quarters, approximately 60 college students enrolled in a mathematics course were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The control group received instruction by the lecture method only; the experimental group received the same instruction, except that six computer-assisted instruction (CAI) units…

  12. The Ontario CAI Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivier, W. P.

    The evolution and current operation of the Ontario Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) Network are described. Sponsored by the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education and including 11 community colleges in Ontario, the network has computer installations and access devices throughout the province. Initial development work was done using a…

  13. Maxi CAI with a Micro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhold, George; And Others

    This paper describes an effective microprocessor-based CAI system which has been repeatedly tested by a large number of students and edited accordingly. Tasks not suitable for microprocessor based systems (authoring, testing, and debugging) were handled on larger multi-terminal systems. This approach requires that the CAI language used on the…

  14. Teacher's Handbook for CAI Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; And Others

    The handbooks for the most widely used computer-assisted instruction (CAI) courses now available on computer terminals at the Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences at Stanford University are presented. Handbooks are included for the following courses: Strands Drill-and-practice (arithmetic fundamentals for fourth grade), Logic…

  15. CAI in Advanced Literature Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Norman

    1981-01-01

    Ways that computer assisted instruction (CAI) can be useful in teaching English at upperclass and graduate levels are considered, with illustrations from PLATO lessons that have been composed and programmed. One lesson takes advantage of PLATO's graphic design capabilities, which enabled the teacher to design the runic figures and to show them in…

  16. Timing Students' Answers in CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of limiting response time for students' answers focuses on a study of Israeli elementary students that investigated the effects on their performance of increasing the response time in computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for arithmetic drill and practice. Effects on high- versus low-aptitude students, and younger versus older, are…

  17. The Screen Display Syntax for CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Boyd F.; Salisbury, David F.

    1987-01-01

    Describes four storyboard techniques frequently used in designing computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs, and explains screen display syntax (SDS), a new technique combining the major advantages of the storyboard techniques. SDS was developed to facilitate communication among designers, programmers, and editors working on a large CAI basic…

  18. Implications of Windowing Techniques for CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heines, Jesse M.; Grinstein, Georges G.

    This paper discusses the use of a technique called windowing in computer assisted instruction to allow independent control of functional areas in complex CAI displays and simultaneous display of output from a running computer program and coordinated instructional material. Two obstacles to widespread use of CAI in computer science courses are…

  19. The Evolutionary Development of CAI Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifle, John E.

    After six years of research in computer assisted instruction (CAI) using PLATO III, a decision was made at the University of Illinois to develop a larger system as a national CAI resource. This document describes the design specifications and problems in the development of PLATO IV, a system which is capable of accomodating up to 4,000 terminals…

  20. Some "Facts" about CAI: 1976 in Depth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    This report presents information about the state of the art in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in 1976. This information takes the form of quantitative data (mostly frequency distributions), on the number and average completion time of CAI programs according to subject matter, author, language, instructional strategies, sources, and central…

  1. Evaluating CAI Material for the Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, Timothy M.

    The relative worth of any evaluation instrument depends on user needs and the material being evaluated. Potential users of a good computer assisted instruction (CAI) instrument include purchasers, authors, reviewers, and publishers of CAI materials. Although each user has unique needs, a good instrument will serve both to educate and discriminate,…

  2. A unified framework for producing CAI melting, Wark-Lovering rims and bowl-shaped CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liffman, Kurt; Cuello, Nicolas; Paterson, David A.

    2016-10-01

    Calcium-Aluminium inclusions (CAIs) formed in the Solar system, some 4567 million years ago. CAIs are almost always surrounded by Wark-Lovering rims (WLRs), which are a sequence of thin, mono/bi-mineralic layers of refractory minerals, with a total thickness in the range of 1-100 microns. Recently, some CAIs have been found that have tektite-like bowl-shapes. To form such shapes, the CAI must have travelled through a rarefied gas at hypersonic speeds. We show how CAIs may have been ejected from the inner solar accretion disc via the centrifugal interaction between the solar magnetosphere and the inner disc rim. They subsequently punched through the hot, inner disc rim wall at hypersonic speeds. This re-entry heating partially or completely evaporated the CAIs. Such evaporation could have significantly increased the metal abundances of the inner disc rim. High speed movement through the inner disc produced WLRs. To match the observed thickness of WLRs required metal abundances at the inner disc wall that are of order 10 times that of standard solar abundances. The CAIs cooled as they moved away from the protosun, the deduced CAI cooling rates are consistent with the CAI cooling rates obtained from experiment and observation. The speeds and gas densities required to form bowl-shaped CAIs are also consistent with the expected speeds and gas densities for larger, ˜1 cm, CAIs punching through an inner accretion disc wall.

  3. A risk management approach to CAIS development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Hal; Kerner, Judy; Alden, Tony; Belz, Frank; Tadman, Frank

    1986-01-01

    The proposed DoD standard Common APSE Interface Set (CAIS) was developed as a framework set of interfaces that will support the transportability and interoperability of tools in the support environments of the future. While the current CAIS version is a promising start toward fulfilling those goals and current prototypes provide adequate testbeds for investigations in support of completing specifications for a full CAIS, there are many reasons why the proposed CAIS might fail to become a usable product and the foundation of next-generation (1990'S) project support environments such as NASA's Space Station software support environment. The most critical threats to the viability and acceptance of the CAIS include performance issues (especially in piggybacked implementations), transportability, and security requirements. To make the situation worse, the solution to some of these threats appears to be at conflict with the solutions to others.

  4. CAIS. Condition Assessment Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Oak, J.C.

    1996-09-30

    CAIS is used by Architects and Engineers to gather facility condition assessment data. This data consist of architectural, civil, structural, electrical, and mechanical systems and components that are a part of the inspected facility. Data is collected using a hand-held, pen-based computer system which is preprogrammed for detailed inventories of individual components. The program is deficiency based for collecting data for repair and replacement observations. Observations are recorded on checklists preformatted to individual site needs, allowing for comments on unusual conditions to be documented on site. Data is transferred to a central database, where it can be reviewed, costed, and reported on using different scenarios. Information can be transferred to the DOE operations offices as well as to the DOE FIMS database for each site.

  5. CAIs in Semarkona (LL3.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishra, R. K.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.; Marhas, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the first forming solids of the Solar system. Their observed abundance, mean size, and mineralogy vary quite significantly between different groups of chondrites. These differences may reflect the dynamics and distinct cosmochemical conditions present in the region(s) of the protoplanetary disk from which each type likely accreted. Only about 11 such objects have been found in L and LL type while another 57 have been found in H type ordinary chondrites, compared to thousands in carbonaceous chondrites. At issue is whether the rare CAIs contained in ordinary chondrites truly reflect a distinct population from the inclusions commonly found in other chondrite types. Semarkona (LL3.00) (fall, 691 g) is the most pristine chondrite available in our meteorite collection. Here we report petrography and mineralogy of 3 CAIs from Semarkona

  6. Re-Os Systematics in the Allende CAI: Big AL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. H.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1999-03-01

    A sample of coarse-grained Allende CAI, Big Al analyzed using reverse aqua regia, plots on the IIA iron meteorite reference isochron, suggesting a very small time difference between the formation of CAIs, chondrites, and iron.

  7. Jurassic evolution of the Tien-Shan

    SciTech Connect

    Bebeshev, I.I.

    1994-09-01

    Complex studies led to identification of three stages in Jurassic deposits. The stages reflect development periods of the studied deposits. Each stage is represented by a paleogeographic map that indicates the evolution of ancient landforms in the Tien-Shan region in time and space.

  8. Learning Effects of CAI on College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjaden, Bunny J.; Martin, C. Dianne

    1995-01-01

    Determined if college students learn better when using lecture/CAI than by using the conventional lecture method to present visually oriented material. Results indicated no significant difference between the test groups in amount of learning; also, it took longer to present examples to the control group than for the treatment group to absorb…

  9. The Relevance of AI Research to CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    This article provides a tutorial introduction to Artificial Intelligence (AI) research for those involved in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). The general theme is that much of the current work in AI, particularly in the areas of natural language understanding systems, rule induction, programming languages, and socratic systems, has important…

  10. Individual Differences in Learner Controlled CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Wilson A.; And Others

    Two assumptions in support of learner-controlled computer-assisted instruction (CAI) are that (1) instruction administered under learner control will be less aversive than if administered under program control, and (2) the student is sufficiently aware of his learning state to make, in most instances, his own instructional decisions. Some 130…

  11. CAI Use by Developmental Studies Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumb, Glenn H.; Monroe, Eula Ewing

    This study, conducted with college developmental studies students, explored possible relationships between individualized computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in basic mathematics skills and each of two variables; mathematics knowledge and anxiety toward mathematics. Both experimental (N=5) and control (N=12) groups made significant gains in…

  12. Tien Shan Geohazards Database: Earthquakes and landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havenith, H. B.; Strom, A.; Torgoev, I.; Torgoev, A.; Lamair, L.; Ischuk, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we present new and review already existing landslide and earthquake data for a large part of the Tien Shan, Central Asia. For the same area, only partial databases for sub-regions have been presented previously. They were compiled and new data were added to fill the gaps between the databases. Major new inputs are products of the Central Asia Seismic Risk Initiative (CASRI): a tentative digital map of active faults (even with indication of characteristic or possible maximum magnitude) and the earthquake catalogue of Central Asia until 2009 that was now updated with USGS data (to May 2014). The new compiled landslide inventory contains existing records of 1600 previously mapped mass movements and more than 1800 new landslide data. Considering presently available seismo-tectonic and landslide data, a target region of 1200 km (E-W) by 600 km (N-S) was defined for the production of more or less continuous geohazards information. This target region includes the entire Kyrgyz Tien Shan, the South-Western Tien Shan in Tajikistan, the Fergana Basin (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) as well as the Western part in Uzbekistan, the North-Easternmost part in Kazakhstan and a small part of the Eastern Chinese Tien Shan (for the zones outside Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, only limited information was available and compiled). On the basis of the new landslide inventory and the updated earthquake catalogue, the link between landslide and earthquake activity is analysed. First, size-frequency relationships are studied for both types of geohazards, in terms of Gutenberg-Richter Law for the earthquakes and in terms of probability density function for the landslides. For several regions and major earthquake events, case histories are presented to outline further the close connection between earthquake and landslide hazards in the Tien Shan. From this study, we concluded first that a major hazard component is still now insufficiently known for both types of geohazards

  13. GPS survey of the western Tien Shan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Peter H.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the background, field work, data collection and analysis, and future plans associated with a collaborative GPS experiment in the Tien Shan of the former Soviet Union. This project involves the amalgamation of two, separately funded projects, which were proposed separately by PIs Hamburger and Reilinger (NSF number EAR-9115159 and NASA number NAG5-1941) and Molnar and Hager (NSF number EAR9117889 and NASA number NAG5-1947). In addition, the work is being conducted under the auspices of the US-USSR Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Environmental Protection, with support from the United States Geological Survey.

  14. NALDA (Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis) CAI (computer aided instruction)

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, B.H. ); France, P.A.; Frey, S.C.; Gaubas, N.F.; Hyland, K.J.; Lindsey, A.M.; Manley, D.O. ); Hunnum, W.H. ); Smith, D.L. )

    1990-07-01

    Data Systems Engineering Organization (DSEO) personnel developed a prototype computer aided instruction CAI system for the Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) system. The objective of this project was to provide a CAI prototype that could be used as an enhancement to existing NALDA training. The CAI prototype project was performed in phases. The task undertaken in Phase I was to analyze the problem and the alternative solutions and to develop a set of recommendations on how best to proceed. The findings from Phase I are documented in Recommended CAI Approach for the NALDA System (Duncan et al., 1987). In Phase II, a structured design and specifications were developed, and a prototype CAI system was created. A report, NALDA CAI Prototype: Phase II Final Report, was written to record the findings and results of Phase II. NALDA CAI: Recommendations for an Advanced Instructional Model, is comprised of related papers encompassing research on computer aided instruction CAI, newly developing training technologies, instructional systems development, and an Advanced Instructional Model. These topics were selected because of their relevancy to the CAI needs of NALDA. These papers provide general background information on various aspects of CAI and give a broad overview of new technologies and their impact on the future design and development of training programs. The paper within have been index separately elsewhere.

  15. GPS survey of the western Tien Shan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, Bradford H.; Molnar, Peter H.; Hamburger, Michael W.; Reilinger, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    There were two major developments in 1994 in our collaborative GPS experiment in the Tien Shan of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Both were motivated by our expectation that we will ultimately obtain better science at lower cost if we involve our colleagues in the FSU more deeply in (1) the collection and (2) the analysis of data. As an experimental test of the concept of having our local collaborators carry out the field work semi-autonomously, we sent 6 MIT receivers to the Tien Shan for a period of 3 months. To enable our collaborators to have the capability for data analysis, we provided computers for two data analysis centers and organized a two-week training session. This report emphasizes the rationale for deeper involvement of FSU scientists, describes the training sessions, discusses the data collection, and presents the results. We also discuss future plans. More detailed discussion of background, general scientific objectives, discussions with collaborators, and results for the campaigns in 1992 and 1993 have been given in previous reports.

  16. Research on TRIZ and CAIs Application Problems for Technology Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangdong; Li, Qinghai; Bai, Zhonghang; Geng, Lixiao

    In order to realize application of invent problem solve theory (TRIZ) and computer aided innovation software (CAIs) , need to solve some key problems, such as the mode choice of technology innovation, establishment of technology innovation organization network(TION), and achievement of innovative process based on TRIZ and CAIs, etc.. This paper shows that the demands for TRIZ and CAIs according to the characteristics and existing problem of the manufacturing enterprises. Have explained that the manufacturing enterprises need to set up an open TION of enterprise leading type, and achieve the longitudinal cooperation innovation with institution of higher learning. The process of technology innovation based on TRIZ and CAIs has been set up from researching and developing point of view. Application of TRIZ and CAIs in FY Company has been summarized. The application effect of TRIZ and CAIs has been explained using technology innovation of the close goggle valve product.

  17. Physical properties of CAI-rich asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanga, P.; Devogele, M.; Cellino, A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Campins, H.; Bus, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Some L-type asteroids (collectively called "Barbarians") are known to exhibit an anomalous polarimetric behavior, whose origin - still to be elucidated - can be related to compositional and/or scattering effects. The fact that these asteroids belong to the same taxonomic class (following the De Meo 2009 classification, including NIR) implies that composition must play a role. Sunshine et al. 2008 showed that these asteroids contain high amounts of CAIs, possibly hinting to a formation in an early proto-planetary environment, very rich in refractory material. On the base of this evidence, we started an observational campaign to increase the data coverage of these objects, by obtaining new NIR spectra, photometric and polarimetric measurements. Our first results show that the peculiar features are not restricted to polarimetry. In particular we show the existence of an anomalous distribution of the rotation periods, and a possible relation between CAI abundance and albedos determined by WISE. We tentatively discuss a possible scenario justifying the different observed features.

  18. Oxygen Isotopes of CAIs from Unequilibrated Enstatite Chondrites: Characteristics and Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guan, Y.; McKeegan, K. D.; MacPherson, G. J.

    2000-01-01

    Ion microprobe analyses of ten CAIs from enstatite chondrites show large O-16 excesses similar to CAIs in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites, supporting the idea that most CAIs formed in a restricted nebular locale.

  19. A CAI Study of Learning Geologic Time and Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, James P.; Stolurow, Lawrence M.

    Twenty-two college students in science education were given an adjunctive computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program by means of typewriter consoles and computer-controlled colored slide presentations of critical information. Students were pretested, told how to respond at the student console, taught by the Harvard CAI System, and posttested. The…

  20. Marshall McLuhan and the Case Against CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirvela, Alan

    1988-01-01

    Presents some of the conventional arguments against computer assisted instruction (CAI) in language education and explores humanistic concerns raised in the works of Marshall McLuhan. It is concluded that CAI is introduced into the instructional process before proper research has demonstrated that this method of teaching is not harmful for…

  1. High School Students Participate in a CAI Study Skills Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.

    A 10-module computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program on study skills was field tested to determine its effectiveness with high school students, using 50 advanced seniors in a large Texas high school as subjects. The program consisted of a study skills pretest, the CAI modules, a notebook on study skills, and a posttest. The modules were…

  2. The Implementation of CAI at Florida State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Walter

    A Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) center, designed to train graduate students in CAI, conduct learning research, and develop prototypic instructional materials and systems, is described in this report. The problems of dealing with financial needs for staff salaries and computer costs, recruiting experienced personnel and identifying qualified…

  3. A CAI STUDY OF LEARNING GEOLOGIC TIME AND EVOLUTION.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Over a one-week period, a computer-aided instruction (CAI) lesson in geologic time and evolution was administered to 22 Lesley College freshmen...Graduate School of Education. The CAI lesson was to provide introductory material for the topic of evolution which was subsequently covered by the

  4. A Pilot CAI Scheme for the Malaysian Secondary Education System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, A. Kanakaratnam; Rao, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    A multi-phase computer aided instruction (CAI) scheme for Malaysian Secondary Schools and Matriculation Centres attached to local universities is presented as an aid for improving instruction and for solving some problems presently faced by the Malaysian Secondary Education System. Some approaches for successful implementation of a CAI scheme are…

  5. Effect of CAI on Achievement of LD Students in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivaram, R. T.; Ramar, R.

    2014-01-01

    The present experimental study was undertaken with three objectives in view, (i) to identify students with language learning disabilities (ii) to develop CAI software to teach LD students through computer-assisted instruction and (iii) to measure the effectiveness of CAI with special reference to LD students. Two matched groups of LD students were…

  6. Creation and Distribution of CAIs in the Protoplanetary Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Davis, S. S.; Dobrovolskis, A. R.

    2003-01-01

    CaAl rich refractory mineral inclusions (CAIs) found at 1 - 10% mass fraction in primitive chondrites appear to be several million years older than the dominant (chondrule) components in the same parent bodies. A prevalent concern is that it is difficult to retain CAIs for this long against gas-drag-induced radial drift into the sun. We assess a hot inner (turbulent) nebula context for CAI formation, using analytical models of nebula evolution and particle diffusion. We show that outward radial diffusion in a weakly turbulent nebula can prevent significant numbers of CAI-size particles from being lost into the sun for times of 1 - 3 x 10(exp 6) years. To match the CAI abundances quantitatively, we advocate an enhancement of the inner hot nebula in silicate-forming material, due to rapid inward migration of very primitive, silicate and carbon rich, meter-sized objects. 'Combustion' of the carbon into CO would make the CAI formation environment more reduced than solar, as certain observations imply. Abundant CO might also play a role in mass-independent chemical fractionation of oxygen isotopes as seen in CAIs and associated primitive, high-temperature condensates.

  7. Creation and Distribution of CAIs in the Protoplanetary Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Davis, S. S.; Dobrovolskis, A. R.

    2003-01-01

    CaAl rich refractory mineral inclusions (CAIs) found at 1 - 10% mass fraction in primitive chondrites appear to be several million years older than the dominant (chondrule) components in the same parent bodies. A prevalent concern is that it is difficult to retain CAIs for this long against gas-drag-induced radial drift into the sun. We assess a hot inner (turbulent) nebula context for CAI formation, using analytical models of nebula evolution and particle diffusion. We show that outward radial diffusion in a weakly turbulent nebula can prevent significant numbers of CAI-size particles from being lost into the sun for times of 1 - 3 x 10(exp 6) years. To match the CAI abundances quantitatively, we advocate an enhancement of the inner hot nebula in silicate-forming material, due to rapid inward migration of very primitive, silicate and carbon rich, meter-sized objects. 'Combustion' of the carbon into CO would make the CAI formation environment more reduced than solar, as certain observations imply. Abundant CO might also play a role in mass-independent chemical fractionation of oxygen isotopes as seen in CAIs and associated primitive, high-temperature condensates.

  8. Astrophysics of CAI formation as revealed by silicon isotope LA-MC-ICPMS of an igneous CAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahar, Anat; Young, Edward D.

    2007-05-01

    Silicon isotope ratios of a typical CAI from the Leoville carbonaceous chondrite, obtained in situ by laser ablation MC-ICPMS, together with existing 25Mg/ 24Mg data, reveal a detailed picture of the astrophysical setting of CAI melting and subsequent heating. Models for the chemical and isotopic effects of evaporation of the molten CAI are used to produce a univariant relationship between PH 2 and time during melting. The result shows that this CAI was molten for a cumulative time of no more than 70 days and probably less than 15 days depending on temperature. The object could have been molten for an integrated time of just a few hours if isotope ratio zoning was eliminated after melting by high subsolidus temperatures (e.g., > 1300 K) for ˜ 500 yr. In all cases subsolidus heating sufficient to produce diffusion-limited isotope fractionation at the margin of the solidified CAI is required. These stable isotope data point to a two-stage history for this igneous CAI involving melting for a cumulative timescale of hours to months followed by subsolidus heating for years to hundreds of years. The thermobarometric history deduced from combining Si and Mg isotope ratio data implicates thermal processing in the disk, perhaps by passage through shockwaves, following melting. This study underscores the direct link between the meaning of stable isotope ratio zoning, or lack thereof, and the inferred astrophysical setting of melting and subsequent processing of CAIs.

  9. A CAI in the Ivuna CI1 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, David R.; Zolensky, M.; Martinez, J.; Mikouchi, T.; Ohsumi, K.; Hagiya, K.; Satake, W.; Le, L.; Ross, D.; Peslier, A.

    2011-01-01

    We have recently discovered the first well-preserved calcium aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) in a CI1 chondrite (Ivuna). Previously, all CI1 chondrites were thought to be devoid of preserved CAI and chondrules due to the near total aqueous alteration to which their parent body (bodies) have been subjected. The CAI is roughly spherical, but with a slight teardrop geometry and a maximum diameter of 170 microns (fig. 1). It lacks any Wark-Lovering Rim. Incipient aqueous alteration, and probably shock, have rendered large portions of the CAI poorly crystalline. It is extremely fine-grained, with only a few grains exceeding 10 microns. We have performed electron microprobe analyses (EPMA), FEG-SEM imaging and element mapping, as well as electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD) in order to determine the fundamental characteristics of this apparently unique object.

  10. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Chondrules and CAIs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Chondrules and CAI's" included the following reports:Metallic Chondrules in NWA 1390 (H3-6): Clues to Their History from Metallic Cu; Relationship Between Bulk Chemical Composition and Formation Age of Chondrules in Bishunpur and Krymka; Relict Forsterite in Chondrules: Implications for Cooling Rates; An Evaluation of Quantitative Methods of Determining the Degree of Melting Experienced by a Chondrule; Rare Earth Element Fractionation in Chondrules; Mineralogy and Petrology of Chondrules in Carbonaceous Chondrite NWA 770; Isotopic Cosmobarometry: A Synthesis of Concepts and Implications for Chondrule and CAI Formation Mechanisms; Further Investigations of Minor Element Distributions in Spinels in Type B CAIs; and Trace Element Compositions of the Sublayers Making Up W-L Rims on CAI .

  11. NEW TITANIUM ISOTOPE DATA FOR ALLENDE AND EFREMOVKA CAIs

    SciTech Connect

    Leya, Ingo; Schoenbaechler, Maria; Kraehenbuehl, Urs; Halliday, Alex N.

    2009-09-10

    We measured the titanium (Ti) isotope composition, i.e., {sup 50}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, {sup 48}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, and {sup 46}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, in five calcium-rich-aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) from the oxidized CV3 chondrite Allende and in two CAIs from the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka. Our data indicate that CAIs are enriched in {sup 50}Ti/{sup 47}Ti and {sup 46}Ti/{sup 47}Ti and are slightly depleted in {sup 48}Ti/{sup 47}Ti compared to normal Ti defined by ordinary chondrites, eucrites, ureilites, mesosiderites, Earth, Moon, and Mars. Some CAIs have an additional {sup 50}Ti excess of {approx}8{epsilon} relative to bulk carbonaceous chondrites, which are enriched in {sup 50}Ti by {approx}2{epsilon} relative to terrestrial values, leading to a total excess of {approx}10{epsilon}. This additional {sup 50}Ti excess is correlated with nucleosynthetic anomalies found in {sup 62}Ni and {sup 96}Zr, all indicating an origin from a neutron-rich stellar source. Bulk carbonaceous chondrites show a similar trend, however, the extent of the anomalies is either less than or similar to the smallest anomalies seen in CAIs. Mass balance calculations suggest that bulk Allende Ti possibly consists of a mixture of at least two Ti components, anomalous Ti located in CAIs and a normal component possibly for matrix and chondrules. This argues for a heterogeneous distribution of Ti isotopes in the solar system. The finding that anomalous Ti is concentrated in CAIs suggests that CAIs formed in a specific region of the solar system and were, after their formation, not homogeneously redistributed within the solar system. Combining the CAI data with improved model predictions for early solar system irradiation effects indicates that a local production scenario for the relatively short lived radionuclides can be excluded, because the production of, e.g., {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, and {sup 41}Ca, would result in a significant collateral shift in Ti isotopes, which is not seen in the

  12. Numerical simulation and validation of SI-CAI hybrid combustion in a CAI/HCCI gasoline engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinyan; Xie, Hui; Xie, Liyan; Zhang, Lianfang; Li, Le; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Hua

    2013-02-01

    SI-CAI hybrid combustion, also known as spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), is a promising concept to extend the operating range of CAI (Controlled Auto-Ignition) and achieve the smooth transition between spark ignition (SI) and CAI in the gasoline engine. In this study, a SI-CAI hybrid combustion model (HCM) has been constructed on the basis of the 3-Zones Extended Coherent Flame Model (ECFM3Z). An ignition model is included to initiate the ECFM3Z calculation and induce the flame propagation. In order to precisely depict the subsequent auto-ignition process of the unburned fuel and air mixture independently after the initiation of flame propagation, the tabulated chemistry concept is adopted to describe the auto-ignition chemistry. The methodology for extracting tabulated parameters from the chemical kinetics calculations is developed so that both cool flame reactions and main auto-ignition combustion can be well captured under a wider range of thermodynamic conditions. The SI-CAI hybrid combustion model (HCM) is then applied in the three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3-D CFD) engine simulation. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data obtained from a single cylinder VVA engine. The detailed analysis of the simulations demonstrates that the SI-CAI hybrid combustion process is characterised with the early flame propagation and subsequent multi-site auto-ignition around the main flame front, which is consistent with the optical results reported by other researchers. Besides, the systematic study of the in-cylinder condition reveals the influence mechanism of the early flame propagation on the subsequent auto-ignition.

  13. Effectiveness of CAI Package on Achievement in Physics of IX Standard Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheswari, I. Uma; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is an experimental one in nature, to find out the effectiveness of CAI package on in Physics of IX std. students. For this purpose a CAI package was developed and validated. The validated CAI package formed an independent variable of this study. The dependent variable is students' achievements in physics content. In order to find…

  14. Effects of CAI on the Academic Performance and Attitudes of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyben, Paul D.; Hipworth, Kristin; Pappas, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Although computer-assisted instruction (CAI) favorably affects academic performance and attitudes toward instruction, most CAI programs target mastery but not fluency. This study used a within-subjects, crossover design to compare the effects of CAI that included fluency training with traditional study (TS) conditions on test performance and…

  15. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Clinical Education: A Roadmap to Increasing CAI Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Norman B.; Fall, Leslie H.; Maloney, Christopher G.; Levine, David A.

    2008-01-01

    This reflection is based on the premise that clinical education can be improved by more widespread use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and that a roadmap will enable more medical educators to begin using CAI. The rationale for CAI use includes many of its inherent features such as incorporation of multimedia and interactivity yet the use of…

  16. Development of CAI Presentations for Science Teaching and Overview of Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranade, Mridula D.

    2006-01-01

    Research suggests that information and communication technologies (ICT) used in the form of computer assisted instruction (CAI) may benefit student learning. There is, however, limited research about the application of CAI in non-Western educational contexts. Here I describe the use of CAI in the learning of science in India. Evaluation of student…

  17. The Cost of CAI: A Matter of Assumptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    Cost estimates for Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) depend crucially upon the particular assumptions made about the components of the system to be included in the costs, the expected lifetime of the system and courseware, and the anticipated student utilization of the system/courseware. The cost estimates of three currently operational systems…

  18. An Intelligent CAI Monitor and Generative Tutor. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffman, Elliot B.; And Others

    Design techniques for generative computer-assisted-instructional (CAI) systems are described in this report. These are systems capable of generating problems for students and of deriving and monitoring solutions; problem difficulty, instructional pace, and depth of monitoring are all individually tailored and parts of the solution algorithms can…

  19. Focal Manual for CAI Coding on the TSS/8 System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirbs, H. Dewey; And Others

    Basic information is provided in this manual for coding drill-and-practice CAI (computer-assisted instruction) applications in the language FOCAL (Formulating On-line Calculations in Algebraic Language). This language is available on the Digital Equipment Corporation Time-Sharing 8 system (TSS/8). While FOCAL is oriented toward solution of…

  20. CAISYS-8- A CAI Language Developed For A Minicomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Cheryl; And Others

    The University of Texas Medical Branch developed a minicomputer-based computer-assisted instruction (CAI) system which employed a teacher oriented software package called CAISYS-8, consisting of a highly modularized teaching compiler and operating system. CAISYS-8 used instructional quanta which generalized the flow of information to and from the…

  1. MONIFORMS as Authoring Aids for the PLATO IV CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Russel E.

    An analysis of portions of the HumRRO (Human Resources Research Organization) developed computer-assisted instruction (CAI) course in COBOL programing, and a survey of representatives from Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) PLATO IV installations indicated a need for authoring aids that could be prepared and programed easily and quickly. The…

  2. CAI for the Developmentally Handicapped: Nine Years of Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallworth, H. J.; Brebner, Ann

    Initiated nine years ago by the University of Calgary Faculty of Education Computer Applications Unit in cooperation with the nearby Vocational and Rehabilitation Research Institute (VRRI), this project uses computer assisted instruction (CAI) to teach social and vocational skills to developmentally handicapped young adults, many of whom also have…

  3. Development Processes in CAI Problems, Techniques, and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Duncan N.

    An input output model for individualizing learning in computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is analyzed, specifying a stimulus array, cognitive processes, and response requirements. These three components are discussed as keys to both instructional and curricular development processes; the appropriate use and control of instructional strategies are…

  4. Conjunctival mucin deficiency in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS).

    PubMed

    Mantelli, Flavio; Moretti, Costanzo; Micera, Alessandra; Bonini, Stefano

    2007-06-01

    Sex steroid hormones are essential for a healthy ocular surface and the androgen receptor impairment found in patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) has been described to cause meibomian gland dysfunction and functional dry eye for lipid tear film layer instability. However, it has not been reported if the mucous layer is also affected. A 37-year-old CAIS patient with persistent symptoms of dry eye underwent ophthalmological examination and was evaluated for qualitative and quantitative tear function tests and conjunctival cytology. Samples obtained from the conjunctival epithelium were stained for histology and immunohistochemistry and compared with three age-matched female controls. Western blot and relative real-time RT-PCR for MUC1 and MUC5AC were also performed on these samples. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and relative real-time RT-PCR showed a decrease in the expression of MUC1 and MUC5AC in CAIS. Changes in the tear film mucous layer were accompanied by a reduction in the tear film break up time test. This is the first report describing mucous layer alteration associated with androgen receptor impairment. Decreased mucin levels contribute in explaining the tear film instability in CAIS and should be considered an additional cause of dry eye in sex steroid hormone pathology.

  5. Distribution and Origin of 36Cl In Allende CAIs

    SciTech Connect

    Matzel, J P; Jacobsen, B; Hutcheon, I D; Krot, A N; Nagashima, K; Yin, Q; Ramon, E C; Weber, P; Wasserburg, G J

    2009-12-11

    The abundance of short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in early solar system materials provide key information about their nucleosynthetic origin and can constrain the timing of early solar system events. Excesses of {sup 36}S ({sup 36}S*) correlated with {sup 35}Cl/{sup 34}S ratios provide direct evidence for in situ decay of {sup 36}Cl ({tau}{sub 1/2} {approx} 0.3 Ma) and have been reported in sodalite (Na{sub 8}Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}Cl{sub 2}) and wadalite (Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 5}Si{sub 2}O{sub 16}Cl{sub 3}) in CAIs and chondrules from the Allende and Ningqiang CV carbonaceous chondrites. While previous studies demonstrate unequivocally that {sup 36}Cl was extant in the early solar system, no consensus on the origin or initial abundance of {sup 36}Cl has emerged. Understanding the origin of {sup 36}Cl, as well as the reported variation in the initial {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio, requires addressing when, where and how chlorine was incorporated into CAIs and chondrules. These factors are key to distinguishing between stellar nucleosynthesis or energetic particle irradiation for the origin of {sup 36}Cl. Wadalite is a chlorine-rich secondary mineral with structural and chemical affinities to grossular. The high chlorine ({approx}12 wt%) and very low sulfur content (<<0.01 wt%) make wadalite ideal for studies of the {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S system. Wadalite is present in Allende CAIs exclusively in the interior regions either in veins crosscutting melilite or in zones between melilite and anorthite associated with intergrowths of grossular, monticellite, and wollastonite. Wadalite and sodalite most likely resulted from open-system alteration of primary minerals with a chlorine-rich fluid phase. We recently reported large {sup 36}S* correlated with {sup 35}Cl/{sup 34}S in wadalite in Allende Type B CAI AJEF, yielding a ({sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl){sub 0} ratio of (1.7 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -5}. This value is the highest reported {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio and is {approx}5 times

  6. Search for 41K Excess in Efremovka CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, G.; Ulyanov, A. A.; Goswami, J. N.

    1993-07-01

    We have used the ion microprobe to measure K isotopic composition of refractory phases in Efremovka CAIs to look for the possible presence of K excess from the decay of extinct radionuclide Ca (halflife = 0.13 Ma). The presence of Ca at the time of CAI formation, if established, will allow us to place a lower limit on the time interval between the last injection of freshly synthesized matter into the solar nebula and the formation of some of the first solid objects (CAIs) in the solar system. Several attempts have been made earlier to detect 41K excess in Allende CAIs [1-4]. We have further investigated this problem by analyzing the Efremovka CAIs for two reasons. First, both the petrographic and magnesium isotopic systematics suggest the Efremovka CAIs to be less altered compared to the Allende CAIs making them an ideal and perhaps better sample for this study. Second, the presence of large perovskite (~10 micrometers) allowed us to analyse this phase, which was not included in earlier studies. The major difficulty in accurately measuring 41K, which was identified in earlier studies, is the unresolvable (40Ca42Ca)++ interference, which was found to be matrix dependent [4]. In addition, one can also have interfernce from the (40CaH)+ peak. In our operating condition the interference from the hydride peak can be neglected (Fig. 1, which appears in the hard copy). We have analyzed terrestrial perovskite (K <= 20 ppm) to determine the (40Ca42Ca)++ correction term, and its equivalence with (40Ca43Ca)++ ion signal at mass 41.5 [4]. In perovskite, the (40Ca42Ca)++ signal constitutes ~80% of the signal at 41K and we could estimate this interference with confidence. A value of (2.7 +- 0.1) x 10^-5 was obtained for the ratio [(40Ca42Ca)++/42Ca+], which is similar to the measured [(40Ca43Ca)++/43Ca+] ratio of (2.4 +- 0.2) x 10^-5. We have therefore used the measured value for the latter ratio in the analyzed phases to correct for the doubly charged interference at mass 41

  7. Mantle transition zone discontinuities beneath the Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Youqiang; Zhao, Dapeng; Lei, Jianshe

    2017-10-01

    To better understand geodynamic processes of intracontinental mountain building, we conduct a systematic investigation of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) beneath the Tien Shan and its surrounding areas using a receiver function method under non-plane wave front assumption. The resulting apparent depths of the 410 km (d410) and 660 km (d660) discontinuities and the MTZ thickness display significant lateral variations. Both the central Tien Shan and the Pamir Plateau are characterized by a thick MTZ, which can be well explained by the existence of lithospheric segments resulted from possible break-off of the subducted slab or lithosphere delamination. A thin MTZ and an obviously depressed d410, which may be induced by asthenosphere upwelling associated with the dropping lithospheric segment, are revealed beneath the Kazakh Shield. Seismic evidence is obtained for the potential existence of lower mantle upwelling beneath the Tarim Basin based on the observed thin MTZ and relatively significant uplift of d660. The subduction of the Kazakh Shield and Tarim lithosphere driven by the India-Eurasia collision possibly plays an essential role in the formation and evolution of the Tien Shan orogenic belt, and the lower mantle upwelling revealed beneath the Tarim Basin may promote the uplift of the Tien Shan by softening the upper mantle.

  8. Climatic and hydrologic changes in the Tien Shan, central Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Aizen, V.B.; Aizen, E.M.; Melack, J.M.; Dozier, J.

    1997-06-01

    The authors analyze climatic hydrologic data from 110 sites collected from the middle of the twentieth century to the present in the Tien Shan, one of the largest mountain systems of central Asia. In spite of a few confounding interregional variations in the temporal changes of surface air temperature, precipitation, runoff, glacier mass, and snow thickness in the Tien Shan, it has been possible to establish statistically significant long-range, with slightly lower values below 2000-m elevation. The precipitation in the Tien Shan increased 1.2 mm yr{sup -1} over the past half-century. The precipitation increase is larger at low altitudes in the northern and western regions than at altitudes above 2000 m. A decrease in snow resources occurred almost everywhere in the Tien Shan; the maximum snow thickness an snow duration have decreased on average 10 cm and 9 days, respectively. The annual runoff is the type of precipitation (liquid or solid). Over the last few decades, periods of glacier decline have coincided with declining river runoff. 45 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Modern status of the Tien-Shan cosmic ray station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, V. A.; Almenova, A. M.; Antonova, V. P.; Beisembayev, R. U.; Bezshapov, S. P.; Borisov, A. S.; Chubenko, A. P.; Dalkarov, O. D.; Gurevich, A. V.; Karashtin, A. N.; Kryakynova, O. N.; Mitko, G. G.; Mukhamedshin, R. A.; Mukhashev, A. M.; Nam, R. A.; Nikolaevsky, N. F.; Pavlyuchenko, V. P.; Piscal, V. V.; Ptitsyn, M. O.; Puchkov, V. S.; Saduev, N. O.; Sadykov, T. Kh.; Salikhov, N. M.; Shaulov, S. B.; Shepetov, A. L.; Shlyugaev, Yu. V.; Stepanov, A. V.; Thu, W. M.; Vildanova, L. I.; Vildanova, M. I.; Zastrozhnova, N. N.; Zukhov, V. V.; Zybin, K. P.

    2017-06-01

    We present a description of the new complex installation for the study of extensive air showers which was created at the Tien Shan mountain cosmic ray station, as well as the results of the first measurements made there in 2015-2016. We also present new results on high-energy radiation observed during a thunderstorm.

  10. INVESTIGATION OF CRUSTAL MOTION IN THE TIEN SHAN USING INSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Mellors, R J

    2011-02-25

    The northern Tien Shan of Central Asia is an area of active mid-continent deformation. Although far from a plate boundary, this region has experienced 5 earthquakes larger than magnitude 7 in the past century and includes one event that may as be as large as Mw 8.0. Previous studies based on GPS measurements indicate on the order of 23 mm/yr of shortening across the entire Tien Shan and up to 15 mm/year in the northern Tien Shan (Figure 1). The seismic moment release rate appears comparable with the geodetic measured slip, at least to first order, suggesting that geodetic rates can be considered a proxy for accumulation rates of stress for seismic hazard estimation. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar may provide a means to make detailed spatial measurements and hence in identifying block boundaries and assisting in seismic hazard. Therefore, we hoped to define block boundaries by direct measurement and by identifying and resolving earthquake slip. Due to political instability in Kyrgzystan, the existing seismic network has not performed as well as required to precisely determine earthquake hypocenters in remote areas and hence InSAR is highly useful. In this paper we present the result of three earthquake studies and show that InSAR is useful for refining locations of teleseismically located earthquakes. ALOS PALSAR data is used to investigate crustal motion in the Tien Shan mountains of Central Asia. As part of the work, considerable software development was undertaken to process PALSAR data. This software has been made freely available. Two damaging earthquakes have been imaged in the Tien Shan and the locations provided by ALOS InSAR have helped to refine seismological velocity models. A third earthquake south of Kyrgyzstan was also imaged. The use of InSAR data and especially L band is therefore very useful in providing groundtruth for earthquake locations.

  11. Observations from a prototype implementation of the Common APSE Interface Set (CAIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclimens, M.; Bowerman, R.; Howell, C.; Gill, H.; Hutchison, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Common Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) Interface Set (CAIS), its purpose, and its history. The paper describes an internal research and development effort at the Mitre Corporation to implement a prototype version of the current CAIS specification and to rehost existing Ada software development tools onto the CAIS prototype. Based on this effort, observations are made on the maturity and functionality of the CAIS. These observations support the government's current policy of publicizing the CAIS specification as a baseline for public review in support of its evolution into a standard which can be mandated for use as Ada is today.

  12. Oxygen Isotope Measurements of a Rare Murchison Type A CAI and Its Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, J. I.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Jacobsen, B.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2013-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) from CV chondrites commonly show oxygen isotope heterogeneity among different mineral phases within individual inclusions reflecting the complex history of CAIs in both the solar nebula and/or parent bodies. The degree of isotopic exchange is typically mineral-specific, yielding O-16-rich spinel, hibonite and pyroxene and O-16-depleted melilite and anorthite. Recent work demonstrated large and systematic variations in oxygen isotope composition within the margin and Wark-Lovering rim of an Allende Type A CAI. These variations suggest that some CV CAIs formed from several oxygen reservoirs and may reflect transport between distinct regions of the solar nebula or varying gas composition near the proto-Sun. Oxygen isotope compositions of CAIs from other, less-altered chondrites show less intra-CAI variability and 16O-rich compositions. The record of intra-CAI oxygen isotope variability in CM chondrites, which commonly show evidence for low-temperature aqueous alteration, is less clear, in part because the most common CAIs found in CM chondrites are mineralogically simple (hibonite +/- spinel or spinel +/- pyroxene) and are composed of minerals less susceptible to O-isotopic exchange. No measurements of the oxygen isotope compositions of rims on CAIs in CM chondrites have been reported. Here, we present oxygen isotope data from a rare, Type A CAI from the Murchison meteorite, MUM-1. The data were collected from melilite, hibonite, perovskite and spinel in a traverse into the interior of the CAI and from pyroxene, melilite, anorthite, and spinel in the Wark-Lovering rim. Our objectives were to (1) document any evidence for intra-CAI oxygen isotope variability; (2) determine the isotopic composition of the rim minerals and compare their composition(s) to the CAI interior; and (3) compare the MUM-1 data to oxygen isotope zoning profiles measured from CAIs in other chondrites.

  13. Replacement textures in CAI and implications regarding planetary metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeker, G. P.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Armstrong, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    Formation by a secondary metamorphic event, rather than primary crystallization from a melt or a sequential nebular condensation, is indicated by textural and chemical features of five coarse grained, Ca- and Al-rich inclusions (CAI) from the Allende meteorite which contain embayed pyroxene surrounded by melilite. It is suggested that the most probable environment for a metamorphic process (requiring the addition of Ca derived from calcite or from the introduction of a fluid phase) is that of a small planetary body, rather than the solar nebula. These results are compatible with O isotopic heterogeneities within CAI, and offer a mechanism for the production of lower temperature alteration phases, together with the rim phases found in these inclusions.

  14. CAIS standard manual. System number 32. Central cooling plants

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    At this installation the list of facilities to be surveyed will be addressed on the basis of 32 unique systems that form the CAIS Engineering Deficiency Standards and Inspection Methods document. Each system deals with a specific technical aspect of the facility to be surveyed. Within each system a further breakdown is made to subsystems, each having a specific list of components. Specific observations of the listed defects are provided so as to allow the entry of observed quantification data. A DOD CAIS manual is provided for each of the 32 systems with an internal organization. The System Tree is a graphical representation of the Work Breakdown Structure, showing system, subsystem and component relationships for the Central Cooling Plants.

  15. CAIS standard manual. System number 24. Natural gas distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    At this installation the list of facilities to be surveyed, including infrastructure, will be addressed on the basis of 32 unique systems that form the CAIS Engineering Deficiency Standards and Inspection Methods document. Each system deals with a specific technical aspect of the facility to be surveyed. Within each system a further breakdown is made to subsystems, each having a related list of components. Detailed observations of the listed defects are provided so as to allow the entry of observed quantification data. A DOD CAIS manual is provided for each of the 32 systems with an internal organization. The System Tree is a graphical representation of the Work Breakdown Structure, showing system, subsystem and component relationships for the Natural Gas Distribution System.

  16. CAIS standard manual. System number 28. Central heating plants

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    At this installation the list of facilities to be surveyed will be addressed on the basis of 32 unique systems that form the CAIS Engineering Deficiency Standards and Inspection Methods document. Each system deals with a specific technical aspect of the facility to be surveyed. Within each system a further breakdown is made to subsystems, each having a specific list of components. Specific observations of the listed defects are provided so as to allow the entry of observed quantification data. A DOD CAIS manual is provided for each of the 32 systems with an internal organization. The System Tree is a graphical representation of the Work Breakdown Structure, showing system, subsystem and component relationships for the Central Heating Plants.

  17. CAIS standard manual. System number 27. Petroleum fuel facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-28

    At this installation the list of facilities to be surveyed, including infrastructure, will be addressed on the basis of 32 unique systems that form the CAIS Engineering Deficiency Standards and Inspection Methods document. Each system deals with a specific technical aspect of the facility to be surveyed. Within each system a further breakdown is made to subsystems, each having a related list of components. Detailed observations of the listed defects are provided so as to allow the entry of observed quantification data. A DOD CAIS manual is provided for each of the 32 systems with an internal organization. The System Tree is a graphical representation of the Work Breakdown Structure, showing system, subsystem and component relationships for the Industrial Gas Storage and Distribution System.

  18. Surge-type glaciers in the Tien Shan (Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Kriti; Bolch, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    Surge-type glaciers in High Mountain Asia are mostly observed in Karakoram and Pamir. However, few surge-type glaciers also exist in the Tien Shan, but have not comprehensively studied in detail in the recent literature. We identified surge-type glaciers in the Tien Shan either from available literature or by manual interpretation using available satellite images (such as Corona, Hexagon, Landsat, SPOT, IRS) for the period 1960 to 2014. We identified 39 possible surge-type glaciers, showing typical characteristics like looped moraines. Twenty-two of them rapidly advanced during different periods or a surge was clearly described in the literature. For the remaining possible surge-type glaciers either the advance, in terms of time and length, were not mentioned in detail in the literature, or the glaciers have remained either stable or retreated during the entire period of our study. Most of the surge-type glaciers cluster in the Inner Tien Shan (especially in the Ak-Shiirak rage) and the Central Tien Shan, are in size and are facing North, West or North West. Pronounced surge events were observed for North Inylchek and Samoilowitsch glaciers, both of which are located in the Central Tien Shan. Samoilowitsch Glacier retreated by more than 3 km between 1960 (length ~8.9 km) and 1992 (~5.8 km), advanced by almost 3 km until 2006 and slightly retreated thereafter. The most pronounced advance occurred between 2000 and 2002. DEM differencing (based on SRTM3 data and stereo Hexagon and Cartosat-1 data) revealed a significant thickening in the middle reaches (reservoir area) of the glacier between 1973 and 2000 while the surface significantly lowered in the middle and upper parts of the glacier between 2000 and 2006. Hence, the ice mass was transferred to the lower reaches (receiving area) and caused the advance with a maximum thickening of more than 80 m. The ~30 km long North Inylchek Glacier retreated since 1943 and showed a very rapid advance of ~3.5 km especially in

  19. Silicon Isotopic Fractionation of CAI-like Vacuum Evaporation Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, K; Kita, N; Mendybaev, R; Richter, F; Davis, A; Valley, J

    2009-06-18

    Calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are often enriched in the heavy isotopes of magnesium and silicon relative to bulk solar system materials. It is likely that these isotopic enrichments resulted from evaporative mass loss of magnesium and silicon from early solar system condensates while they were molten during one or more high-temperature reheating events. Quantitative interpretation of these enrichments requires laboratory determinations of the evaporation kinetics and associated isotopic fractionation effects for these elements. The experimental data for the kinetics of evaporation of magnesium and silicon and the evaporative isotopic fractionation of magnesium is reasonably complete for Type B CAI liquids (Richter et al., 2002, 2007a). However, the isotopic fractionation factor for silicon evaporating from such liquids has not been as extensively studied. Here we report new ion microprobe silicon isotopic measurements of residual glass from partial evaporation of Type B CAI liquids into vacuum. The silicon isotopic fractionation is reported as a kinetic fractionation factor, {alpha}{sub Si}, corresponding to the ratio of the silicon isotopic composition of the evaporation flux to that of the residual silicate liquid. For CAI-like melts, we find that {alpha}{sub Si} = 0.98985 {+-} 0.00044 (2{sigma}) for {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si with no resolvable variation with temperature over the temperature range of the experiments, 1600-1900 C. This value is different from what has been reported for evaporation of liquid Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} (Davis et al., 1990) and of a melt with CI chondritic proportions of the major elements (Wang et al., 2001). There appears to be some compositional control on {alpha}{sub Si}, whereas no compositional effects have been reported for {alpha}{sub Mg}. We use the values of {alpha}Si and {alpha}Mg, to calculate the chemical compositions of the unevaporated precursors of a number of isotopically fractionated CAIs from CV chondrites whose

  20. Oxygen isotope variations at the margin of a CAI records circulation within the solar nebula.

    PubMed

    Simon, Justin I; Hutcheon, Ian D; Simon, Steven B; Matzel, Jennifer E P; Ramon, Erick C; Weber, Peter K; Grossman, Lawrence; DePaolo, Donald J

    2011-03-04

    Micrometer-scale analyses of a calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) and the characteristic mineral bands mantling the CAI reveal that the outer parts of this primitive object have a large range of oxygen isotope compositions. The variations are systematic; the relative abundance of (16)O first decreases toward the CAI margin, approaching a planetary-like isotopic composition, then shifts to extremely (16)O-rich compositions through the surrounding rim. The variability implies that CAIs probably formed from several oxygen reservoirs. The observations support early and short-lived fluctuations of the environment in which CAIs formed, either because of transport of the CAIs themselves to distinct regions of the solar nebula or because of varying gas composition near the proto-Sun.

  1. Oxygen Isotope Variations at the Margin of a CAI Records Circulation Within the Solar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Justin I.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Simon, Steven B.; Matzel, Jennifer E. P.; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K.; Grossman, Lawrence; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2011-03-01

    Micrometer-scale analyses of a calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) and the characteristic mineral bands mantling the CAI reveal that the outer parts of this primitive object have a large range of oxygen isotope compositions. The variations are systematic; the relative abundance of 16O first decreases toward the CAI margin, approaching a planetary-like isotopic composition, then shifts to extremely 16O-rich compositions through the surrounding rim. The variability implies that CAIs probably formed from several oxygen reservoirs. The observations support early and short-lived fluctuations of the environment in which CAIs formed, either because of transport of the CAIs themselves to distinct regions of the solar nebula or because of varying gas composition near the proto-Sun.

  2. Design procedure for ritchey-chrétien corrector.

    PubMed

    Howell, B J

    1969-03-01

    A four-lens corrector system to remove residual aberrations in a Ritchey-Chrétien telescope was selected as the means of studying the relative effectiveness of two design methods: a ray deviation error function and third order aberration theory. At several stages in the design, very significant improvements were made by switching from ray deviation results to aberration theory and then back to ray deviation design. The goal, a 300-cm focal length, f/10 diffraction-limited 1.2 degrees flat field telescope for white light, was achieved. Lens data and system performance, including computed spot diagrams, are given for eight versions.

  3. A phase I trial of pharmacokinetic modulation of carboxyamidotriazole (CAI) with ketoconazole in patients with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Desai, Apurva A; Innocenti, Federico; Janisch, Linda; DeMario, Mark; Shepard, Dale; Ramirez, Jacqueline; Fleming, Gini F; Ratain, Mark J

    2004-11-01

    Carboxyamidotriazole (CAI) is a novel antineoplastic agent in clinical development with limited oral bioavailability. In vitro, ketoconazole has been demonstrated to inhibit CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of CAI. We performed this phase I trial to determine if ketoconazole-mediated CYP3A4 inhibition would lead to favorable alteration of CAI pharmacokinetics, and to evaluate the safety, toxicity and tolerability of the proposed combination. Forty-seven patients were treated using a standard three patients per cohort CAI dose-escalation scheme. In cycle 1, CAI was administered alone on day-6 followed by a single dose of ketoconazole (200 mg) on day 0. CAI and ketoconazole (200 mg/day) were subsequently coadministered on days 1 and 3-28. Plasma samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were obtained following the doses on days-6 and 1. All subsequent cycles were of 28-day duration, and consisted of daily CAI and ketoconazole coadministration. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on samples from 44 patients. In most patients administration of ketoconazole produced an increase in CAI AUC and Cmax with a decrease in CAI clearance. Seven patients experienced stable disease for up to 12 months. Gastrointestinal and constitutional toxicities were the most common toxicities. Coadministration of CAI with ketoconazole increased CAI exposure in most of the patients without altering the toxicity profile of CAI. The highest CAI dose administered on the trial was 300 mg/day. The clinical utility of such a modulation strategy might be explored in future clinical trials of CAI.

  4. Some "Facts" About CAI: A Quantitative Analysis of the 1976 Index to Computer Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    1976-01-01

    Descriptive quantitative data on various aspects of CAI are reported, including subject matter, author languages, instructional strategies, level of instruction, sources, and central processors. (Author)

  5. Coordinated Oxygen Isotopic and Petrologic Studies of CAIS Record Varying Composition of Protosolar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Justin I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) record the O-isotope composition of Solar nebular gas from which they grew [1]. High spatial resolution O-isotope measurements afforded by ion microprobe analysis across the rims and margin of CAIs reveal systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 and suggest formation from a diversity of nebular environments [2-4]. This heterogeneity has been explained by isotopic mixing between the O-16-rich Solar reservoir [6] and a second O-16-poor reservoir (probably nebular gas) with a "planetary-like" isotopic composition [e.g., 1, 6-7], but the mechanism and location(s) where these events occur within the protoplanetary disk remain uncertain. The orientation of large and systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 reported by [3] for a compact Type A CAI from the Efremovka reduced CV3 chondrite differs dramatically from reports by [4] of a similar CAI, A37 from the Allende oxidized CV3 chondrite. Both studies conclude that CAIs were exposed to distinct, nebular O-isotope reservoirs, implying the transfer of CAIs among different settings within the protoplanetary disk [4]. To test this hypothesis further and the extent of intra-CAI O-isotopic variation, a pristine compact Type A CAI, Ef-1 from Efremovka, and a Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende were studied. Our new results are equally intriguing because, collectively, O-isotopic zoning patterns in the CAIs indicate a progressive and cyclic record. The results imply that CAIs were commonly exposed to multiple environments of distinct gas during their formation. Numerical models help constrain conditions and duration of these events.

  6. The Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing autoinducer CAI-1: analysis of the biosynthetic enzyme CqsA

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.; Bolitho, M; Higgins, D; Lu, W; Ng, W; Jeffrey, P; Rabinowitz, J; Semmelhack, M; Hughson, F; Bassler, B

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes the disease cholera, controls virulence factor production and biofilm development in response to two extracellular quorum-sensing molecules, called autoinducers. The strongest autoinducer, called CAI-1 (for cholera autoinducer-1), was previously identified as (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one. Biosynthesis of CAI-1 requires the enzyme CqsA. Here, we determine the CqsA reaction mechanism, identify the CqsA substrates as (S)-2-aminobutyrate and decanoyl coenzyme A, and demonstrate that the product of the reaction is 3-aminotridecan-4-one, dubbed amino-CAI-1. CqsA produces amino-CAI-1 by a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent acyl-CoA transferase reaction. Amino-CAI-1 is converted to CAI-1 in a subsequent step via a CqsA-independent mechanism. Consistent with this, we find cells release {ge}100 times more CAI-1 than amino-CAI-1. Nonetheless, V. cholerae responds to amino-CAI-1 as well as CAI-1, whereas other CAI-1 variants do not elicit a quorum-sensing response. Thus, both CAI-1 and amino-CAI-1 have potential as lead molecules in the development of an anticholera treatment.

  7. Audio-Tutorial and CAI Aids for Problem Solving in Introductory Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lower, Stephen K.

    1970-01-01

    Starting from a successful audio-tutorial program, the author initiated a computer assisted tutorial program in solving chemistry problems. Discusses the advantages of computer assisted instruction (CAI) over audiotapes and the advantages of both over conventional instructional methods. Presents a flow chart of a CAI program on a calorimetry…

  8. CAI - There Is a Way to Make It Pay (But Not in Conventional Schooling)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butman, Robert C.

    1973-01-01

    CAI can pay by choosing a market where a decrease in training time or an increase in student-teacher ratios can be translated into lower over-all costs to the system. This situation obtains when CAI is used for the education and training of professionals, children with learning disabilities and others whose instructional needs cannot be met by the…

  9. The Effects of the Locus of CAI Control Strategies on the Learning of Mathematics Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetzfried, Leslie; Hannafin, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of the locus of computer assisted instruction (CAI) strategies on low achievers' learning accuracy and efficiency were studied. Externally controlled adaptive, individually based learner control with advisement, and linear control design strategies were used. Effects were examined for CAI strategy, prior achievement, and sex of student.…

  10. CAI, Lecture, and Student Learning Style: The Differential Effects of Instructional Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ester, Don P.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study that compared the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and lecture approaches in teaching vocal anatomy and function to 60 undergraduate music students with different learning styles. Highlights include background on learning styles, implications for the use of CAI with various learning styles, and recommendations…

  11. Less Equals More: Coaching/Prompting CAI as a Tool Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Ted L.

    Recent reviews of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in various journals suggest that the technological and economic barriers to its adoption and use may be overcome in the very near future, and that CAI will be feasible in a number of educational settings. Computer hardware costs have dropped dramatically in recent years, and a variety of…

  12. An Object-Oriented Architecture for a Web-Based CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakabayashi, Kiyoshi; Hoshide, Takahide; Seshimo, Hitoshi; Fukuhara, Yoshimi

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an object-oriented World Wide Web-based CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction) system. The goal of the design is to provide a flexible CAI/ITS (Intelligent Tutoring System) framework with full extendibility and reusability, as well as to exploit Web-based software technologies such as JAVA, ASP (a…

  13. Learner Control of Instructional Sequencing within an Adaptive Tutorial CAI Environment. Technical Report 75-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Robert J.; And Others

    A study to test the effects of learner control of the sequencing of instructional tasks when using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems is described. Using a series of CAI modules to teach the COBOL programing language to military personnel, students were able to control various aspects of their learning environment. Among the research…

  14. Nebular History of the Allende FoB CAI SJ101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petaev, M. I.; Jacobsen, S. B.

    2009-03-01

    We compare petrologic and chemical characteristics of a unique FoB CAI SJ101 with the results of thermodynamic modeling of condensation of its precursors in a system of solar composition and speculate about nebular formation history of this CAI.

  15. Effects of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on Secondary School Students' Performance in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Afolabi, Adedeji Olufemi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer assisted instruction (CAI) on secondary school students' performance in biology. Also, the influence of gender on the performance of students exposed to CAI in individualised or cooperative learning settings package was examined. The research was a quasi experimental involving a 3 x 2 factorial…

  16. Distribution of vanadium and melting of opaque assemblages in Efremovka CAI's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casanova, I.; Grossman, L.

    1993-01-01

    A petrographic and chemical study of compact Type A CAI's from the Efremovka CV3 chondrite strongly suggests that the opaque assemblages (OA's) that they contain were molten at temperatures below the CAI silicate solidus, and that the V-rich magnetite presently observed in association with OA's formed by in situ oxidation of their FeNi.

  17. Student Conceptions of, and Attitudes toward, Specific Features of a CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira

    1989-01-01

    Describes study of Israeli elementary school students that examined student attitudes toward computer-assisted instruction (CAI) designed to provide drill and practice in arithmetic. Attitudes are compared in relation to students' aptitude, gender, grade level, and socioeconomic status, and implications for the design of CAI systems are discussed.…

  18. Distribution of vanadium and melting of opaque assemblages in Efremovka CAI's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casanova, I.; Grossman, L.

    1993-01-01

    A petrographic and chemical study of compact Type A CAI's from the Efremovka CV3 chondrite strongly suggests that the opaque assemblages (OA's) that they contain were molten at temperatures below the CAI silicate solidus, and that the V-rich magnetite presently observed in association with OA's formed by in situ oxidation of their FeNi.

  19. Can CAI Help? The Crisis of Content in Educational Psychology Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Michael C.

    Computer technology per se is not a solution to the problem of the current "crisis in content" in teacher education programs. Computer assisted instruction (CAI) is defined as the on-line interaction of a student with a computer program for purposes of instruction. The drill-and-practice and tutorial CAI programs serve merely as a medium for…

  20. A Multi-Media CAI Terminal Based upon a Microprocessor with Applications for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brebner, Ann; Hallworth, H. J.

    The design of the CAI interface described is based on the microprocessor in order to meet three basic requirements for providing appropriate instruction to the developmentally handicapped: (1) portability, so that CAI can be taken into the customary learning environment; (2) reliability; and (3) flexibility, to permit use of new input and output…

  1. A Study of Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) over Classroom Lecture (CRL) at ICS Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaousar, Tayyeba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CAI vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with classroom lecture and computer-assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of CAI and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypotheses of…

  2. Audio-Tutorial and CAI Aids for Problem Solving in Introductory Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lower, Stephen K.

    1970-01-01

    Starting from a successful audio-tutorial program, the author initiated a computer assisted tutorial program in solving chemistry problems. Discusses the advantages of computer assisted instruction (CAI) over audiotapes and the advantages of both over conventional instructional methods. Presents a flow chart of a CAI program on a calorimetry…

  3. INAA of CAIs from the Maralinga CK4 chondrite: Effects of parent body thermal metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Keller, L. P.; Martinez, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    Maralinga is an anomalous CK4 carbonaceous chondrite which contains numerous Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) unlike the other members of the CK group. These CAI's are characterized by abundant green hercynitic spinel intergrown with plagioclase and high-Ca clinopyroxene, and a total lack of melilite. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to further characterize the meteorite, with special focus on the CAI's. High sensitivity INAA was done on eight sample disks about 100-150 microns in diameter obtained from a normal 30 micron thin section with a diamond microcoring device. The CAI's are enriched by 60-70X bulk meteorite values in Zn, suggesting that the substantial exchange of Fe for Mg that made the spinel in the CAI's hercynitic also allowed efficient scavenging of Zn from the rest of the meteorite during parent body thermal metamorphism. Less mobile elements appear to have maintained their initial heterogeneity.

  4. Design Specification for Test and Evaluation of the NATO Common Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) Interface Set (CAIS) Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-23

    testing (i.e., testing of individual interfaces) for a critical subset of the SWG CAIS interfaces. The second category of testing activities includes...for correctness in the functionality of critical interfaces. These critical interfaces are defined in Section 2.2. The second category, usability...QUEUE-MANAGEMENT CAM-.STANDARD None CAM- DEFENITIONS CAMSJO..DEINITJONS CAI IST-MANAGEMENT CAIS.ACCESS-.CONTROL- MANAGEMENT CAIS-SCROLL-TERMNAL-10 CA1S

  5. Ozone and nitrogen dioxide above the northern Tien Shan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arefev, Vladimir N.; Volkovitsky, Oleg A.; Kamenogradsky, Nikita E.; Semyonov, Vladimir K.; Sinyakov, Valery P.

    1994-01-01

    The results of systematic perennial measurements of the total ozone (since 1979) and nitrogen dioxide column (since 1983) in the atmosphere in the European-Asian continent center above the mountainmass of the Tien Shan are given. This region is distinguished by a great number of sunny days during a year. The observation station is at the Northern shore of Issyk Kul Lake (42.56 N 77.04 E 1650 m above the sea level). The measurement results are presented as the monthly averaged atmospheric total ozone and NO2 stratospheric column abundances (morning and evening). The peculiarities of seasonal variations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide atmospheric contents, their regular variances with a quasi-biennial cycles and trends have been noticed. Irregular variances of ozone and nitrogen dioxide atmospheric contents, i.e. their positive and negative anomalies in the monthly averaged contents relative to the perennial averaged monthly means, have been analyzed. The synchronous and opposite in phase anomalies in variations of ozone and nitrogen dioxide atmospheric contents were explained by the transport and zonal circulation in the stratosphere (Kamenogradsky et al., 1990).

  6. Personality preference influences medical student use of specific computer-aided instruction (CAI)

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, John A; Espiritu, Baltazar; Halsey, Martha; Mendez, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that personality preference, which can be related to learning style, influences individual utilization of CAI applications developed specifically for the undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods Personality preferences of students were obtained using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) test. CAI utilization for individual students was collected from entry logs for two different web-based applications (a discussion forum and a tutorial) used in the basic science course on human anatomy. Individual login data were sorted by personality preference and the data statistically analyzed by 2-way mixed ANOVA and correlation. Results There was a wide discrepancy in the level and pattern of student use of both CAI. Although individual use of both CAI was positively correlated irrespective of MBTI preference, students with a "Sensing" preference tended to use both CAI applications more than the "iNtuitives". Differences in the level of use of these CAI applications (i.e., higher use of discussion forum vs. a tutorial) were also found for the "Perceiving/Judging" dimension. Conclusion We conclude that personality/learning preferences of individual students influence their use of CAI in the medical curriculum. PMID:16451719

  7. Two Generations of Sodic Metasomatism in an Allende Type B CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-Aluminum rich inclusions (CAI) in Allende, along with other chondritic compo-nents, experienced variable amounts and types of alter-ation of their mineralogy and chemistry. In CAIs, one of the principal types of alteration led to the depo-sition of nepheline and sodalite. Here we extend initial obervations of alteration in an Allende CAI, focus-ing on occurences of nepheline and a nepheline-like phase with unusally high Ca (referred to as "calcic nepheline" in this abstract). Detailed petrographic and microchemical observations of alteration phases in an Allende Type B CAI (TS4) show that two separate generations of "nepheline", with very distinct composi-tions, crystallized around the margins and in the interi-or of this CAI. We use observations of micro-faults as potential temporal markers, in order to place constraints on the timing of alteration events in Allende. These observa-tions of micro-faulting that truncate and offset one gen-eration of "nepheline" indicate that some "nepheline" crystallized before incorporation of the CAI into the Allende parent-body. Some of the sodic metasomatism in some Allende CAIs occurred prior to Allende par-ent-body assembly. The earlier generation of "calcic-nepheline" has a very distinctive, calcium-rich compo-sition, and the second generation is low in calcium, and matches the compositions of nephelines found in near-by altered chondrules, and in the Allende matrix.

  8. Microstructural Investigation of a Wark-Lovering Rim on a Vigarano CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, J.; Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.; Simon, J. I.

    2015-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multi-layered mineral sequences that surround many CAIs. These rim layers consist of the primary minerals found in the CAI interiors, but vary in their mineralogy. Several models for their origin have been proposed including condensation, reaction with a nebular gas, evaporation, or combinations of these. However, there still is little consensus on how and when the rims formed. Here, we describe the microstructure and mineralogy of a WL rim on a type B CAI from the Vigarano CV(sub red) chondrite using FIB/TEM to better understand the astrophysical significance of WL rim formation.

  9. Effects of Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) on 11th Graders' Attitudes to Biology and CAI and Understanding of Reproduction in Plants and Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyibo, Kola; Hudson, Ann

    2000-02-01

    This study investigated whether the use of the combination of the lecture, discussion and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) significantly improved the experimental students' attitudes to biology and the computer/CAI and their understanding of reproduction in plants and animals. The sample comprised 77 Jamaican grade 11 female students from two traditional high schools in Kingston. Attitudes to a biology questionnaire, attitudes to the computer/CAI questionnaire and a biology achievement test (BAT) were used for data collection. The results indicated that the experimental subjects' post-test attitudes to biology and the computer/CAI were significantly better than those of the control group subjects taught with the lecture and discussion methods; the experimental subjects significantly outscored the control group subjects on the post-test BAT; there were significant differences in their post-test BAT means based on their attitudes to biology in favour of experimental subjects with highly favourable attitudes to biology, but there were no significant differences in their means attributable to their post-test attitudes to the computer/CAI; there was a positive statistically significant but weak relationship between the experimental subjects' post-test attitudes to biology and their post-test BAT scores.

  10. Thermotectonic evolution of the northern Kyrgyz Tien Shan intrusives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glorie, Stijn; de Grave, Johan; Buslov, Mikhail

    2010-05-01

    The northern Kyrgyz Tien Shan (nKTS) encloses a large number of granitoid intrusions. These plutons intruded during the Palaeozoic and are geodynamical related to either Caledonian or Hercynian collisions. The most voluminous, i.e. the Caledonian intrusion phase is associated with the evolution and closure of the Early Palaeozoic Terskey Ocean (branch of the Turkestan Ocean). Hercynian plutons, smaller in both abundance and dimensions, are thought to have formed during the final closure of the Turkestan Ocean when the Tarim microcontinent eventually collided with the Kazakhstan plate. In the Late Palaeozoic - Early Mesozoic, the nKTS experienced tectonic quiescence. This geodynamic environment abruptly changed in the Mesozoic, when the Central Asian Orogenic System - including the nKTS - was reactivated as an intracontinental orogen (Cimmerian orogeny). The granitoids embedded in the basement record this phase as a cooling event. This cooling is a consequence of denudation and exhumation of the nKTS basement associated with this orogeny. The Late Mesozoic - Early Cenozoic introduced again a period of thermal stability. In the Cenozoic, a new phase of cooling, linked to renewed denudation as a tectonic far-field effect of the India-Eurasia collision, affected the nKTS basement. In this study, we dated each of the aforementioned events and reveal the thermotectonic history of the nKTS granitoids from emplacement to exhumation. Zircon SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS U/Pb concordia ages suggest a Middle to Late Ordovician crystallization age (440-470 Ma) for the Caledonian intrusion phase, however the presence of additional Early Ordovician - Cambrian U/Pb samples, points towards a more prolonged production of granitoids during the entire Early Palaeozoic. Hercynian samples are constrained to the Late Carboniferous - Permian (260-300 Ma). 40Ar/39Ar stepwise heating plateau-ages (biotite: 400-440 Ma; K-feldspar: 235-375 Ma) bear witness to rapid Silurian - Early Devonian post

  11. Coordinated Oxygen Isotopic and Petrologic Studies of CAIs Record Varying Composition of Protosolar Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, J. I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2012-03-01

    High-resolution O-isotopic zoning profiles obtained by NanoSIMS indicate a progressive and cyclic record of exchange between CAIs and distinct nebular gases. Numerical models are used to constrain conditions and duration of these exchange events.

  12. Late Cenozoic Exhumation of the Terskey Range, Kyrgyz Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobel, E. R.; Macaulay, E. A.; Mikolaichuk, A.; Kohn, B. P.

    2008-12-01

    The glaciated, granitic Terskey range and the associated foreland basin within the Kyrgyz Tien Shan is an ideal region to examine whether Plio-Pleistocene climate change has led to enhanced erosion. Three ca. 1000m vertical profiles were collected in the hanging wall of the main, north-vergent thrust, spaced 25 km apart along strike. AFT analysis have been conducted from the westernmost-transect; all profiles have been analyzed using apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He analysis. AFT and Helium data from the Barskoon gorge profile define parallel trends on the age-elevation plot with apparent exhumation rates of ca. 0.08 km/Myr. The uppermost AFT sample resided for a long period within the partial annealing zone (PAZ); hence, the onset of rapid exhumation defined by the base of the exhumed PAZ appears to be 31±5 Ma. This is earlier than expected from the known regional geology. An alternative interpretation is that the next lowest sample has also been partially reset, such that the onset of exhumation is later and the initial exhumation is more rapid. Helium data from the Kichikyzulsu and Turgenaksu profiles define linear trends on age-elevation plots with apparent exhumation rates of 0.1-0.25 km/Myr and 0.2 km/Myr, respectively. Much older ages at high elevations along the former profile suggest that the base of the Helium partial retention zone (PRZ) has been sampled; the onset of exhumation is roughly constrained to be between 10 and 20 Ma. The onset of rapid exhumation at the latter profile can only be constrained as prior to 11 Ma. Combining the apparent exhumation rate with the age of the youngest samples from each transect provides an estimate of the amount of exhumation since that sample cooled through the PRZ. For the 3 profiles, this implies 1 to 1.2 km, 0.7 to 1.8 km, and 1.5 km of exhumation, assuming that the exhumation rate remained constant. The observed small magnitude and slow rate of exhumation suggests that there has been only limited advection and hence

  13. Formation of refractory metal nuggets and their link to the history of CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwander, D.; Kööp, L.; Berg, T.; Schönhense, G.; Heck, P. R.; Davis, A. M.; Ott, U.

    2015-11-01

    Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) often contain numerous refractory metal nuggets (RMNs), consisting of elements like Os, Ir, Mo, Pt and Ru. The nuggets are usually thought to have formed by equilibrium condensation from a gas of solar composition, simultaneously with or prior to oxide and silicate minerals. However, the exact mechanisms responsible for their extremely variable compositions, small sizes and associations with CAI minerals remain puzzling. Expanding on previous work on chemically separated RMNs, we have studied a large number of RMNs within their host CAIs from three different meteorite types, i.e., the highly primitive chondrite Acfer 094 (C2-ungrouped), Allende (CV3ox) and Murchison (CM2). Our results show several inconsistencies between the observed features and a direct condensation origin, including a lack of correlated abundance variations in the refractory metals that are expected from variations in condensation temperature. Instead, we show that most RMN features are consistent with RMN formation by precipitation from a CAI liquid enriched in refractory metals. This scenario is additionally supported by the common occurrence of RMNs in CAIs with clear melt crystallization textures as well as the occurrence of synthetic RMNs with highly variable compositions in run products from Schwander et al. (2015). In some cases, the sizes of meteoritic RMNs correlate with the sizes of their host minerals in CAIs, which indicates common cooling rates.

  14. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) on 11th Graders' Attitudes to Biology and CAI and Understanding of Reproduction in Plants and Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; Hudson, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether the use of the combination of lecture, discussion, and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) significantly improved students' attitudes toward biology and their understanding of reproduction in plants and animals. Studies grade 11 Jamaican female students (n=77) from two traditional high schools in Kingston. (Contains 19…

  15. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) on 11th Graders' Attitudes to Biology and CAI and Understanding of Reproduction in Plants and Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; Hudson, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether the use of the combination of lecture, discussion, and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) significantly improved students' attitudes toward biology and their understanding of reproduction in plants and animals. Studies grade 11 Jamaican female students (n=77) from two traditional high schools in Kingston. (Contains 19…

  16. A Discussion of Behavioral Technology Laboratories CAI Projects In Relation to a CAI Test-Bed Concept. Technical Report Number 71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigney, Joseph W.

    The elements of an instructional system are discussed and some literature bearing on these is reviewed. The discussion is intended to stimulate thought about an instructional system as a computer-assisted instructional (CAI) test-bed and to point out some noteworthy laboratory research results, particularly in cognitive psychology. Following this,…

  17. Evolution of a Vigarano Forsterite-Bearing CAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacPherson, G. J.; Davis, A. M.

    1992-07-01

    Forsterite-bearing inclusions (FIs) are a small subset of Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI), most notable for the fact that 5 out of the 9 reported examples have unusual isotopic properties (Davis et al., 1991) relative to other CAIs. The origin of their unusual Mg-rich bulk compositions and their relation to other CAIs are not well understood (Wark et al., 1987), and little is known about their ^26Al-^26Mg isotopic systematics because of a general absence of Al-rich phases. A new FI from Vigarano (CV3) contains anorthite, and unusual petrologic features suggest that it evolved from a bulk composition more refractory than the present one. Vigarano 3137 is a crudely round, ~5-mm-diameter inclusion with some matrix embayments. It consists of fassaite (~45%; <=350 micrometers), melilite (~25%; <=950 micrometers), anorthite (~10%; <=225, micrometers), olivine (~10%; <=70 micrometers) and spinel (~10%; some up to 20 micrometers, most <=5 micrometers, with some framboidal clusters up to ~40 micrometers). Olivine and spinel grains are poikilitically enclosed within melilite and fassaite, but the distribution of olivine is very heterogeneous. Most olivines are contained only within fassaite, and the rare grains enclosed within melilite are smaller and rounder. Melilite crystals are zoned from broad cores of Angstrom k(sub)86-88 to rims of Angstrom k(sub)44-54. The primary anorthite in 3137 occurs mostly near the margin of the inclusion, some crystals being undeformed and others highly strained and deformed, and generally crosscut by thin lamellae of nepheline. Spinel grains within some of the anorthite crystals have thin rims of Al-rich melilite, ~Angstrom k(sub)11. Ion microprobe isotopic analysis of the anorthite shows no detectable excess ^26Mg at ^27Al/^24Mg ratios up to 1133, implying (^26Al/^27Al)(sub)0 <~1 x 10^-6. F(sub)Mg in anorthite, melilite, olivine, and fassaite is ~10 o/oo/amu, slightly lower than the "F" inclusion TE (Clayton et al., 1984) but heavier than most

  18. Fine-Gained CAIs in Comet Samples: Moderate Refractory Character and Comparison to Small Refractory Inclusions in Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joswiak, D. J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Nguyen, A. N.; Messenger, S

    2017-01-01

    Examination of >200 comet Wild 2 particles collected by the Stardust (SD) mission shows that the CAI abundance of comet Wild 2's rocky material is near 1% and that nearly 50% of all bulbous tracks will contain at least one recognizable CAI fragment. A similar abundance to Wild 2 is found in a giant cluster IDP thought to be of cometary origin. The properties of these CAIs and their comparison with meteoritic CAIs provide important clues on the role of CAIs in the early Solar System (SS) and how they were transported to the edge of the solar nebula where Kuiper Belt comets formed. Previously, only two CAIs in comet Wild 2 had been identified and studied in detail. Here we present 2 new Wild 2 CAIs and 2 from a giant cluster cometary IDP, describe their mineralogical characteristics and show that they are most analogous to nodules in spinel-rich, fine-grained inclusions (FGIs) observed in CV3 and other chondrites. Additionally, we present new O isotope measurements from one CAI from comet Wild 2 and show that its oxygen isotopic composition is similar to some FGIs. This is only the second CAI from Wild 2 in which O isotopes have been measured.

  19. Evidence for extinct 135Cs from Ba isotopes in Allende CAIs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermingham, K. R.; Mezger, K.; Desch, S. J.; Scherer, E. E.; Horstmann, M.

    2014-05-01

    The abundance and distribution of isotopes throughout the Solar System can be used to constrain the number and type of nucleosynthetic events that contributed material to the early nebula. Barium is particularly well suited to quantifying the degree of isotope heterogeneity in the Solar System because it comprises seven stable isotopes that were synthesized by three different nucleosynthetic processes (s-, r-, and p-processes), all of which contributed material to the Solar System. There is also potential contribution to 135Ba from short-lived radioisotope 135Cs, conclusive evidence for which is yet to be reported. Four Allende (CV3) Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAI 1, CAI 2, CAI 4, CAI 5) and one Allende dark inclusion (DI) were analyzed for Ba isotope variability. Two CAIs (CAI 2 and CAI 5) display 135Ba excesses that are not accompanied by 137Ba anomalies. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion 1 displays a 135Ba excess that is possibly coupled with a 137Ba excess, and the remaining refractory inclusions (CAI 2 and DI) have terrestrial Ba isotope compositions. These Ba isotope data are presented in conjunction with published whole rock Ba isotope data from individual Allende CAIs. The enrichment in 135Ba and absence of coupled 137Ba excesses in CAI 2 and CAI 5 is interpreted to indicate that the anomalies are not purely nucleosynthetic in origin but also contain contributions (16-48 ppm) from the decay of short-lived 135Cs. The majority of Allende CAIs studied to date may also have similar contributions from 135Cs on the basis of higher than expected 135Ba excesses if the Ba isotope anomalies were purely nucleosynthetic in origin. The 135Ba anomalies appear not to be coupled with superchondritic Cs/Ba, which may imply that the contribution to 135Ba did not occur via in situ decay of live 135Cs. However, it is feasible that the CAIs had a superchondritic Cs/Ba during decay of 135Cs, but Cs was subsequently removed from the system during aqueous alteration on the parent body

  20. The role of dye affinity in optical measurements of Cai(2+) transients in cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wei; Fast, Vladimir G

    2014-07-01

    Previous experiments in cultures of neonatal rat myocytes demonstrated that the shape of Cai(2+) transients measured using high-affinity Ca(2+)-sensitive dyes may be misrepresented. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of dye affinity in Cai(2+) measurements in intact adult cardiac tissue by comparing optical recordings obtained with high- and low-affinity dyes. Experiments were carried out in porcine left ventricular (LV) wedge preparations stained locally by intramural injection via microcapillaries (diameter = 150 μm) with a low-affinity Ca(2+)-sensitive dye Fluo-4FF or Fluo-2LA (nominal Kd, ~7-10 μmol/l), high-affinity dye Rhod-2 (Kd = 0.57 μmol/l), and Fluo-4 or Fluo-2MA (Kd, ~0.4 μmol/l); in addition, tissue was stained with transmembrane potential (Vm)-sensitive dye RH-237. Optical recordings of Vm and Cai(2+) were made using optical fibers (diameter = 325 μm) glued with the microcapillaries. The durations of Cai(2+) transients measured at 50% level of recovery (CaD50) using high-affinity Fluo-4/Fluo-2MA dyes were up to ~81% longer than those measured with low-affinity Fluo-4FF/Fluo-2LA at long pacing cycle lengths (CL). In Fluo-4/Fluo-2MA measurements at long CLs, Cai(2+) transients often (~50% of cases) exhibited slow upstroke rise and extended plateau. In Rhod-2 measurements, CaD50 was moderately longer (up to ~35%) than in Fluo-4FF recordings, but Cai(2+) transient shapes were similar. In all series of measurements, mean action potential duration values were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The delays between Vm and Cai(2+) upstrokes were comparable for low- and high-affinity dyes (P > 0.05). In conclusion, measurements of Cai(2+) transient in ventricular myocardium are strongly affected by the affinity of Ca(2+) dyes. The high-affinity dyes may overestimate the duration and alter the shape of Cai(2+) transients. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  1. The role of dye affinity in optical measurements of Cai2+ transients in cardiac muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Previous experiments in cultures of neonatal rat myocytes demonstrated that the shape of Cai2+ transients measured using high-affinity Ca2+-sensitive dyes may be misrepresented. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of dye affinity in Cai2+ measurements in intact adult cardiac tissue by comparing optical recordings obtained with high- and low-affinity dyes. Experiments were carried out in porcine left ventricular (LV) wedge preparations stained locally by intramural injection via microcapillaries (diameter = 150 μm) with a low-affinity Ca2+-sensitive dye Fluo-4FF or Fluo-2LA (nominal Kd, ∼7–10 μmol/l), high-affinity dye Rhod-2 (Kd = 0.57 μmol/l), and Fluo-4 or Fluo-2MA (Kd, ∼0.4 μmol/l); in addition, tissue was stained with transmembrane potential (Vm)-sensitive dye RH-237. Optical recordings of Vm and Cai2+ were made using optical fibers (diameter = 325 μm) glued with the microcapillaries. The durations of Cai2+ transients measured at 50% level of recovery (CaD50) using high-affinity Fluo-4/Fluo-2MA dyes were up to ∼81% longer than those measured with low-affinity Fluo-4FF/Fluo-2LA at long pacing cycle lengths (CL). In Fluo-4/Fluo-2MA measurements at long CLs, Cai2+ transients often (∼50% of cases) exhibited slow upstroke rise and extended plateau. In Rhod-2 measurements, CaD50 was moderately longer (up to ∼35%) than in Fluo-4FF recordings, but Cai2+ transient shapes were similar. In all series of measurements, mean action potential duration values were not significantly different (P > 0.05). The delays between Vm and Cai2+ upstrokes were comparable for low- and high-affinity dyes (P > 0.05). In conclusion, measurements of Cai2+ transient in ventricular myocardium are strongly affected by the affinity of Ca2+ dyes. The high-affinity dyes may overestimate the duration and alter the shape of Cai2+ transients. PMID:24791783

  2. The Formation Of The First Solids In The Solar System: An Investigation Of CAI Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taillifet, Esther; Baillié, K.; Charnoz, S.; Aléon, J.

    2012-10-01

    Chondritic meteorites are primitive bodies and therefore an important source of information on the first moments of planets formation. Chondrites contain several materials especially calcium and aluminum rich inclusions (CAIs), known to be the oldest objects of the solar system (4.567 Gyr - Amelin et al., 2002; Connelly et al., 2008) and thus the first solids to be formed. CAIs appear in various textures, sizes and compositions in chondrites. Though, all of them should have formed at high temperature (1300-1800 K) in the same region of the solar nebula by condensation from the gas (e.g. Grossman, 1972; Yoneda & Grossman, 1995; Petaev & Wood, 1998; Ebel & Grossman 2000). To answer this problem we study the CAI formation within the solar nebula using numerical simulations. For this work we developed a self consistent thermodynamical model of the solar nebula (see associated talk from Baillié et. al ) based on previous works (Calvet et. al, 1991; Hueso & Guillot, 2005; Dullemond, Dominik and Natta, 2001). Using this model, we simulate the young system with Lagrangian Implicit Disk Transport code (LIDT - Charnoz et. al, 2010). We will focus on the very first instants of the CAIs within the few years following their condensation. We will report our first results in terms of thermal history and investigate if turbulence-driven transport may explain the CAI diversity.

  3. The ethnoecology of Caiçara metapopulations (Atlantic Forest, Brazil): ecological concepts and questions

    PubMed Central

    Begossi, Alpina

    2006-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is represented on the coast of Brazil by approximately 7,5% of remnants, much of these concentrated on the country's SE coast. Within these southeastern remnants, we still find the coastal Caiçaras who descend from Native Indians and Portuguese Colonizers. The maintenance of such populations, and their existence in spite of the deforestation that occurred on the Atlantic Forest coast, deserves especial attention and analysis. In this study, I address, in particular, the Caiçaras who live on the coast of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States, illustrating with examples of coastal inhabitants from other areas, such as Bahia State (NE coast) and of other forested areas (riverine caboclos of the Amazon). The major focus of this study, based on previous research, performed since 1986 in several populations or villages of the Atlantic Forest coast, is to understand the resilience of the Caiçaras, which is analyzed using ecological concepts, such as metapopulation, resilience and adaptive cycles. The Caiçara populations are located on islands (Búzios, Comprida, Grande, Ilhabela, Jaguanum, Gipóia) and on the coast (Bertioga, Puruba, Picinguaba, among others). Information gathered about the Caiçaras regarding the economic cycles of the local regions, along with ecological, historical and economic data available, are used to understand such resilience, and are complemented with comparative examples from the Brazilian Amazon and with variables such as the local restrictions imposed by environmental governmental agencies. PMID:17010204

  4. Do comets have chondrules and CAIs? Evidence from the Leonid meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindle, Timothy D.; Campins, Humberto

    2004-10-01

    Chondrules, silicate spheres typically 0.1 to 1 mm in diameter, are the most abundant constituents in the most common meteorites falling on Earth, the ordinary chondrites. In addition, many primitive meteorites have calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). The question of whether comets have chondrules or CAIs is relevant to understanding what the interior of a comet is like and what a cometary meteorite might be like. In addition, one prominent model for forming chondrules and CAIs, the X-wind model, predicts their presence in comets, while most other models do not. At present, the best way to search for chondrules and CAIs in comets is through meteor showers derived from comets, in particular, the Leonid meteor shower. Evidence potentially could be found in the overall mass distribution of the shower, in chemical analyses of meteors, or in light curves. There is no evidence for a chondrule abundance in the Leonid meteors similar to that found in chondritic meteorites. There is intriguing evidence for chondrule- or CAI-sized objects in a small fraction of the light curves, but further work is required to generate a definitive test.

  5. Experimental Determination of Li, Be and B Partitioning During CAI Crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F J; Brenan, J M; Phinney, D L

    2005-01-12

    The main focus of the work is to develop a better understanding of the distribution of the elements B, Be and Li in melilite, fassaitic clinop clinopy-roxene, anorthite and spinel, which are the primary constituents of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). These elements are the parent or decay products of short-lived nuclides (specifically, {sup 7}Be and {sup 10}Be) formed by cosmic ray spallation reactions on silicon and oxygen. Recent observations suggest that some CAIs contain ''fossil'' {sup 7}Be and {sup 10}Be in the form of ''excess'' amounts of their decay products (B and Li). The exact timing of {sup 7}Be and {sup 10}Be production is unknown, but if it occurred early in CAI history, it could constrain the birthplace of CAIs to be within a limited region near the infant sun. Other interpretations are possible, however, and bear little significance to early CAI genesis. In order to interpret the anomalies as being ''primary'', and thus originating at high temperature, information on the intermineral partitioning of both parent and daughter elements is required.

  6. Mineralogy and Petrology of EK-459-5-1, A Type B1 CAI from Allende

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are a type of coarse-grained clast composed of Ca-, Al-, and Mg-rich silicates and oxides found in chondrite meteorites. Type B (CAIs) are exclusively found in the CV chondrite meteorites and are the most well studied type of inclusion found in chondritic meteorites. Type B1 CAIs are distinguished by a nearly monomineralic rim of melilite that surrounds an interior predominantly composed of melilite, fassaite (Ti and Al-rich clinopyroxene), anorthite, and spinel with varying amounts of other minor primary and secondary phases. The formation of Type B CAIs has received considerable attention in the course of CAI research and quantitative models, experimental results and observations from Type B inclusions remain largely in disagreement. Recent experimental results and quantitative models have shown that the formation of B1 mantles could have occurred by the evaporative loss of Si and Mg during the crystallization of these objects. However, comparative studies suggest that the lower bulk SiO2 compositions in B1s result in more prior melilite crystallization before the onset of fassaite and anorthite crystallization leading to the formation of thick melilite rich rims in B1 inclusions. Detailed petrographic and cosmochemical studies of these inclusions will further our understanding of these complex objects.

  7. The ethnoecology of Caiçara metapopulations (Atlantic Forest, Brazil): ecological concepts and questions.

    PubMed

    Begossi, Alpina

    2006-09-29

    The Atlantic Forest is represented on the coast of Brazil by approximately 7.5% of remnants, much of these concentrated on the country's SE coast. Within these southeastern remnants, we still find the coastal Caiçaras who descend from Native Indians and Portuguese Colonizers. The maintenance of such populations, and their existence in spite of the deforestation that occurred on the Atlantic Forest coast, deserves special attention and analysis. In this study, I address, in particular, the Caiçaras who live on the coast of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States, illustrating with examples of coastal inhabitants from other areas, such as Bahia State (NE coast) and of other forested areas (riverine caboclos of the Amazon). The major focus of this study, based on previous research, performed since 1986 in several populations or villages of the Atlantic Forest coast, is to understand the resilience of the Caiçaras, which is analyzed using ecological concepts, such as metapopulation, resilience and adaptive cycles. The Caiçara populations are located on islands (Búzios, Comprida, Grande, Ilhabela, Jaguanum, Gipóia) and on the coast (Bertioga, Puruba, Picinguaba, among others). Information gathered about the Caiçaras regarding the economic cycles of the local regions, along with ecological, historical and economic data available, are used to understand such resilience, and are complemented with comparative examples from the Brazilian Amazon and with variables such as the local restrictions imposed by environmental governmental agencies.

  8. The effects of gender and cooperative learning with CAI on college students' computer science achievement and attitudes toward computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ching-Heng

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of gender and cooperative learning with CAI on college students' computer science achievement and attitudes toward computers, when the effects of computer ownership, prior computer instruction, previous software and programming experience were controlled. The participants were 155 undergraduates enrolled in introductory computer courses at two colleges in North Taiwan during the Fall 1996 semester. Before the treatment period, they were asked to fill out the Background Data Form, instructed with cooperative learning strategy, and trained on cooperative and individual learning with CAI. During the treatment period, they were randomly assigned to the treatment (78 students) or the control group (77 students). The treatment group students used a CAI program on computer numbering, encoding, and hardware systems with their partner throughout all six CAI sessions. The control group students used the same CAI program individually within the six CAI sessions. After the 6-week treatment period, both groups were posttested by a 40-item multiple-choice Computer Science Achievement Test (CSAT) and a 30-item Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). Data for both posttests were collected from 153 students (77 in the treatment, 76 in the control group; 62 males, 91 females) and analyzed by MANCOVA and follow-up univariate hierarchical MRC analyses for ANCOVAs. Based on the covariate-adjusted CSAT scores, the results indicated that students using CAI cooperatively had a significantly higher mean than those using CAI individually. Neither gender nor interaction effects were found. Regarding the covariate-adjusted CAS scores, the results showed that males had a significantly higher mean than females. No treatment or interaction effects were found. Due to the higher computer achievement resulted from cooperative learning with CAI, this study suggested that instructors apply cooperative learning strategy in CAI settings in computer courses

  9. A FIB/TEM Study of a Complex Wark-Lovering Rim on a Vigarano CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.

    2013-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multilayered mineral sequences that surround most Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Several processes have been proposed for WL rim formation, including condensation, flash-heating or reaction with a nebular reservoir, or combinations of these [e.g. 1-7], but no consensus exists. Our previous coordinated transmission electron microscope (TEM) and NanoSIMS O isotopic measurements showed that a WL rim experienced flash heating events in a nebular environment with planetary O isotopic composition, distinct from the (16)O-rich formation environment [6]. Our efforts have focused on CAIs from the CV(sub red) chondrites, especially Vigarano, because these have escaped much of the parent body alteration effects that are common in CAIs from CV(sub ox) group.

  10. Verification of new cloud discrimination algorithm using GOSAT TANSO-CAI in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Y.; Ishida, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) was launched in 2009 to measure the global atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations. GOSAT is equipped with two sensors: the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI). The presence of clouds in the instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) of the FTS leads to incorrect estimates of the concentrations. Thus, the FTS data which are suspected to be cloud-contaminated must be identified using a CAI cloud discrimination algorithm and rejected. Conversely, overestimation of clouds leads to reduce the amount of the FTS data which can be used to estimate the greenhouse gases concentrations. It becomes a serious problem in the region of tropical rainforest such as the Amazon, where there are very few remaining FTS data by cloud cover. The preparation for the launch of the GOSAT-2 in fiscal 2017 has been progressing. To improve the accuracy of estimates of the greenhouse gases concentrations, we need to refine the existing CAI cloud discrimination algorithm. For the reason, a new cloud discrimination algorithm using support vector machines (SVM) was developed. Visual inspections can use the locally optimized thresholds, though the existing CAI cloud discrimination algorithm uses the common thresholds all over the world. Thus, it is certain that the accuracy of visual inspections is better than these algorithms in the limited region without areas such as ice and snow, where it is difficult to discriminate between clouds and ground surfaces. In this study we evaluated the accuracy of the new cloud discrimination algorithm by comparing with the existing CAI cloud discrimination algorithm and visual inspections of the same CAI images in the Amazon. We will present our latest results.

  11. Deriving High Resolution UV Aerosol Optical Depth over East Asia using CAI-OMI Joint Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Go, S.; Kim, J.; KIM, M.; Lee, S.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring aerosols using near UV spectral region have been successfully performed over decades by Ozong Monitoring Instruments (OMI) with benefit of strong aerosol signal over continuous dark surface reflectance, both land and ocean. However, because of big foot print of OMI, the cloud contamination error was a big issue in the UV aerosol algorithm. In the present study, high resolution UV aerosol optical depth (AOD) over East Asia was derived by collaborating the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite/Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (GOSAT/TANSO)-Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) and OMI together. AOD of 0.1 degree grid resolution was retrieved using CAI band 1 (380nm) by bring OMI lv.2 aerosol type, single scattering albedo, and aerosol layer peak height in 1 degree grid resolution. Collocation of the two dataset within the 0.5 degree grid with time difference of OMI and CAI less than 5 minute was selected. Selected region becomes wider as it goes to the higher latitude. Also, calculated degradation factor of 1.57 was applied to CAI band1 (380nm) by comparing normalized radiance and Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) of both sensors. The calculated degradation factor was reasonable over dark scene, but inconsistent over cirrus cloud and bright area. Then, surface reflectance was developed by compositing CAI LER minimum data over three month period, since the infrequent sampling rate associated with the three-day recursion period of GOSAT and the narrow CAI swath of 1000 km. To retrieve AOD, look up table (LUT) was generated using radiative transfer model VLIDORT NGST. Finally, the retrieved AOD was validated with AERONET ground based measurement data during the Dragon-NE Asia campaign in 2012.

  12. Arginine oscillation explains Na+ independence in the substrate/product antiporter CaiT.

    PubMed

    Kalayil, Sissy; Schulze, Sabrina; Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2013-10-22

    Most secondary-active transporters transport their substrates using an electrochemical ion gradient. In contrast, the carnitine transporter (CaiT) is an ion-independent, l-carnitine/γ-butyrobetaine antiporter belonging to the betaine/carnitine/choline transporter family of secondary transporters. Recently determined crystal structures of CaiT from Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis revealed an inverted five-transmembrane-helix repeat similar to that in the amino acid/Na(+) symporter LeuT. The ion independence of CaiT makes it unique in this family. Here we show that mutations of arginine 262 (R262) make CaiT Na(+)-dependent. The transport activity of R262 mutants increased by 30-40% in the presence of a membrane potential, indicating substrate/Na(+) cotransport. Structural and biochemical characterization revealed that R262 plays a crucial role in substrate binding by stabilizing the partly unwound TM1' helix. Modeling CaiT from P. mirabilis in the outward-open and closed states on the corresponding structures of the related symporter BetP reveals alternating orientations of the buried R262 sidechain, which mimic sodium binding and unbinding in the Na(+)-coupled substrate symporters. We propose that a similar mechanism is operative in other Na(+)/H(+)-independent transporters, in which a positively charged amino acid replaces the cotransported cation. The oscillation of the R262 sidechain in CaiT indicates how a positive charge triggers the change between outward-open and inward-open conformations as a unifying critical step in LeuT-type transporters.

  13. Oxygen reservoirs in the early solar nebula inferred from an Allende CAI.

    PubMed

    Young, E D; Russell, S S

    1998-10-16

    Ultraviolet laser microprobe analyses of a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the Allende meteorite suggest that a line with a slope of exactly 1.00 on a plot of delta (17)O against delta (18)O represents the primitive oxygen isotope reservoir of the early solar nebula. Most meteorites are enriched in (17)O and (18)O relative to this line, and their oxygen isotope ratios can be explained by mass fractionation or isotope exchange initiating from the primitive reservoir. These data establish a link between the oxygen isotopic composition of the abundant ordinary chondrites and the primitive (16)O-rich component of CAIs.

  14. Oxygen reservoirs in the early solar nebula inferred from an allende CAI

    PubMed

    Young; Russell

    1998-10-16

    Ultraviolet laser microprobe analyses of a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the Allende meteorite suggest that a line with a slope of exactly 1.00 on a plot of delta17O against delta18O represents the primitive oxygen isotope reservoir of the early solar nebula. Most meteorites are enriched in 17O and 18O relative to this line, and their oxygen isotope ratios can be explained by mass fractionation or isotope exchange initiating from the primitive reservoir. These data establish a link between the oxygen isotopic composition of the abundant ordinary chondrites and the primitive 16O-rich component of CAIs.

  15. Processing of refractory meteorite inclusions (CAIs) in parent-body atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podolak, Morris; Bunch, T. E.; Cassen, Pat; Reynolds, Ray T.; Chang, S.

    1990-01-01

    Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in refractory meteorites are shown to have been subject to partial melting during a suitably high gas density/small scale height regime arising during gasdynamic deceleration in a temporary atmosphere around an accreting parent body. The presence of dust in such an atmosphere would have increased the pressure gradient with height, lowering the boiloff rate, and permitting dust particles to become trapped in the partially melted material. CAIs may therefore be studied as probes of a primitive atmosphere.

  16. Thermal and chemical evolution in the early solar system as recorded by FUN CAIs: Part I - Petrology, mineral chemistry, and isotopic composition of Allende FUN CAI CMS-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. D.; Ushikubo, T.; Bullock, E. S.; Janney, P. E.; Hines, R. R.; Kita, N. T.; Hervig, R. L.; MacPherson, G. J.; Mendybaev, R. A.; Richter, F. M.; Wadhwa, M.

    2017-03-01

    Detailed petrologic, geochemical and isotopic analyses of a new FUN CAI from the Allende CV3 meteorite (designated CMS-1) indicate that it formed by extensive melting and evaporation of primitive precursor material(s). The precursor material(s) condensed in a 16O-rich region (δ17O and δ18O ∼ -49‰) of the inner solar nebula dominated by gas of solar composition at total pressures of ∼10-3-10-6 bar. Subsequent melting of the precursor material(s) was accompanied by evaporative loss of magnesium, silicon and oxygen resulting in large mass-dependent isotope fractionations in these elements (δ25Mg = 30.71-39.26‰, δ29Si = 14.98-16.65‰, and δ18O = -41.57 to -15.50‰). This evaporative loss resulted in a bulk composition similar to that of compact Type A and Type B CAIs, but very distinct from the composition of the original precursor condensate(s). Kinetic fractionation factors and the measured mass-dependent fractionation of silicon and magnesium in CMS-1 suggest that ∼80% of the silicon and ∼85% of the magnesium were lost from its precursor material(s) through evaporative processes. These results suggest that the precursor material(s) of normal and FUN CAIs condensed in similar environments, but subsequently evolved under vastly different conditions such as total gas pressure. The chemical and isotopic differences between normal and FUN CAIs could be explained by sorting of early solar system materials into distinct physical and chemical regimes, in conjunction with discrete heating events, within the protoplanetary disk.

  17. Gender Role, Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation in CAIS ("XY-Women") Compared With Subfertile and Infertile 46,XX Women.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Franziska; Fliegner, Maike; Krupp, Kerstin; Rall, Katharina; Brucker, Sara; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-01-01

    The perception of gender development of individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) as unambiguously female has recently been challenged in both qualitative data and case reports of male gender identity. The aim of the mixed-method study presented was to examine the self-perception of CAIS individuals regarding different aspects of gender and to identify commonalities and differences in comparison with subfertile and infertile XX-chromosomal women with diagnoses of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study sample comprised 11 participants with CAIS, 49 with MRKHS, and 55 with PCOS. Gender identity was assessed by means of a multidimensional instrument, which showed significant differences between the CAIS group and the XX-chromosomal women. Other-than-female gender roles and neither-female-nor-male sexes/genders were reported only by individuals with CAIS. The percentage with a not exclusively androphile sexual orientation was unexceptionally high in the CAIS group compared to the prevalence in "normative" women and the clinical groups. The findings support the assumption made by Meyer-Bahlburg ( 2010 ) that gender outcome in people with CAIS is more variable than generally stated. Parents and professionals should thus be open to courses of gender development other than typically female in individuals with CAIS.

  18. Stable Magnesium Isotope Variation in Melilite Mantle of Allende Type B1 CAI EK 459-5-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Jeffcoat, C. R.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the earliest formed crystalline material in our solar system and they record early Solar System processes. Here we present petrographic and delta Mg-25 data of melilite mantles in a Type B1 CAI that records early solar nebular processes.

  19. Revision of the Oriental leafhopper genus Destinoides Cai & He (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Ledrinae), with a new synonym and two new combinations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Webb, Michael D; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-04-08

    The leafhopper genus Destinoides Cai & He is revised to include two species D. latifrons (Walker 1851, Ledra) n. comb. and D. conspicuus (Distant 1907, Petalocephala) n. comb. Destinoides fasciata Cai & He, 2000 is placed as a junior synonym of D. latifrons, syn. nov. These two species are redescribed and illustrated in detail and a key is given based on the males.

  20. An Assessment of the Effectiveness of a Hypertext Instructional Delivery System when Compared to a Traditional CAI Tutorial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quade, Ann M.

    Differences in traditional student performance measures were examined following a computer assisted instruction (CAI) or a hypertext approach for mastering concepts related to intellectual property (i.e., copyright and patent) law. Seventy-six undergraduate business majors at a midwestern state university received CAI or hypertext instruction.…

  1. The Interplay between Different Forms of CAI and Students' Preferences of Learning Environment in the Secondary Science Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2005-01-01

    This evaluation study investigated the effects of a teacher-centered versus student-centered computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on 10th graders' earth science student learning outcomes. This study also explored whether the effects of different forms of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on student learning outcomes were influenced by student…

  2. The Matriculation Science Curriculum of the USM in the Context of the PPI and CAI Modes of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chuah Chong; Seng, Chin Pin

    1985-01-01

    Discusses philosophy, aims and objectives, and structure of the Matriculation Science Curriculum of the University Sains Malaysia. Includes comments on instructional strategies, individualized learning, programmed instruction, systems approach to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) implementation, CAI authoring system, and various program…

  3. Structural framework of a major intracontinental orogenic termination zone: The easternmost Tien Shan, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, D.; Owen, L.A.; Snee, L.W.; Li, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Barkol Tagh and Karlik Tagh ranges of the easternmost Tien Shan are a natural laboratory for studying the fault architecture of an active termination zone of a major intracontinental mountain range. Barkol and Karlik Tagh and lesser ranges to the north are bounded by active thrust faults that locally deform Quaternary sediments. Major thrusts in Karlik Tagh connect along strike to the east with the left-lateral Gobi-Tien Shan Fault System in SW Mongolia. From a Mongolian perspective. Karlik Tagh represents a large restraining bend for this regional strike-slip fault system, and the entire system of thrusts and strike-slip faults in the Karlik Tagh region defines a horsetail splay fault geometry. Regionally, there appears to be a kinematic transition from thrust-dominated deformation in the central Tien Shan to left-lateral transpressional deformation in the easternmost Tien Shan. This transition correlates with a general eastward decrease in mountain belt width and average elevation and a change in the angular relationship between the NNE-directed maximum horizontal stress in the region and the pre-existing basement structural grain, which is northwesterly in the central Tien Shan (orthogonal to SHmax) but more east-west in the eastern Tien Shan (acute angular relationship with SHmax . Ar-Ar ages indicate that major range-bounding thrusts in Barkol and Karlik Tagh are latest Permian-Triassic ductile thrust zones that underwent brittle reactivation in the Late Cenozoic. It is estimated that the modern mountain ranges of the extreme easternmost Tien Shan could have been constructed by only 10-15 km of Late Cenozoic horizontal shortening.

  4. Making C.A.I. Make a Difference in College Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lower, Stephen K.

    An explanation for the failure of technology and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in particular to make much headway in education is that even when innovations are introduced in the classroom, their potentials are not exploited; rather, they are used in traditional ways. The integration of new technologies with other classroom activities is…

  5. The Enhancement of Interactive Computing for CAI Users Through Development of a Multilingual Interpreter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Joan; Kheriaty, Larry

    The Multilingual Interpreter (MI), a language processor capable of executing more than one language, is being used at Western Washington State College to enhance interactive computing for computer-assisted instructional (CAI) users. The MI's two major functions are, first, that of scanning and translating a source language into internal…

  6. Computer Assisted Instructional Laboratory (CAI) Proposal for an Urban Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oglesby, Cynthia Hall

    This proposal for the creation of a computer-assisted instructional (CAI) laboratory in a middle school in Oklahoma City emphasizes the need for such facilities to provide remedial instruction and improve student motivation as a means of reducing the number of students in the district dropping out of school before graduation. Intended for use by…

  7. Web Pages: An Effective Method of Providing CAI Resource Material in Histology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    Presents research that introduces computer-aided instruction (CAI) resource material as an integral part of the second-year histology course at the University of Natal Medical School. Describes the ease with which this software can be developed, using limited resources and available skills, while providing students with valuable learning…

  8. A Pseudo-Language for Creating CAI Programs on APL Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gucker, Edward J.

    1973-01-01

    Encourages the use of APL as a language for computer assisted instruction (CAI) instead of such languages as BASIC or COURSEWRITER. Describes a set of APL functions that can simulate to some extent the features of COURSEWRITER, while permitting a more experienced course author to use the full mathematical power of APL. (Author/JF)

  9. Toward a Market Success for CAI; An Overview of the TICCIT Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetten, Kenneth J.

    A new computer-assisted instruction (CAI) system for college teaching is being tested in two locations by the MITRE Corporation. The system, called TICCIT (Time-Share Interactive Computer-Controlled Information Television), now interacts with more than 100 students, each moving at his own pace, for four semesters of community college math and…

  10. Real-Time Graphics for CAI: A Rudimentary Grammar and Demonstration Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, William

    This paper focuses on graphics and how they can be created, in real time, from information stored in a database, and the application of this technique to computer-assisted instruction (CAI). It is noted that this is a special case of the general trend towards endowing instructional systems with a degree of decision-making or design expertise, as…

  11. Consumption of fa cai Nostoc soup: a potential for BMAA exposure from Nostoc cyanobacteria in China?

    PubMed

    Roney, Britton R; Renhui, Li; Banack, Sandra Anne; Murch, Susan; Honegger, Rosmarie; Cox, Paul Alan

    2009-01-01

    Grown in arid regions of western China the cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme--called fa cai in Mandarin and fat choy in Cantonese--is wild-harvested and used to make soup consumed during New Year's celebrations. High prices, up to $125 USD/kg, led to overharvesting in Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, and Xinjiang. Degradation of arid ecosystems, desertification, and conflicts between Nostoc harvesters and Mongol herdsmen concerned the Chinese environmental authorities, leading to a government ban of Nostoc commerce. This ban stimulated increased marketing of a substitute made from starch. We analysed samples purchased throughout China as well as in Chinese markets in the United States and the United Kingdom. Some were counterfeits consisting of dyed starch noodles. A few samples from California contained Nostoc flagelliforme but were adulterated with starch noodles. Other samples, including those from the United Kingdom, consisted of pure Nostoc flagelliforme. A recent survey of markets in Cheng Du showed no real Nostoc flagelliforme to be marketed. Real and artificial fa cai differ in the presence of beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). Given its status as a high-priced luxury food, the government ban on collection and marketing, and the replacement of real fa cai with starch substitutes consumed only on special occasions, it is anticipated that dietary exposure to BMAA from fa cai will be reduced in the future in China.

  12. Melilite-Rich CAIs and Wark-Lovering Rims Formed from a Common Oxygen Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodénan, J.-D.; Starkey, N. A.; Russell, S. S.; Wright, I. P.; Franchi, I. A.

    2013-09-01

    O isotopic ratio profiles in CAIs from the unaltered meteorites Léoville and QUE 99177 and their Wark-Lovering rims show no variation, indicating that they sampled the same O isotopic reservoir that persisted until the end of WL rim formation.

  13. The Effect of Adaptive, Advisement, and Linear CAI Control Strategies on the Learning of Mathematics Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetzfried, Leslie; Hannafin, Michael

    This study examined the effects of the locus of three computer assisted instruction (CAI) strategies on the accuracy and efficiency of mathematics rule and application learning of 47 low-achieving seventh grade students in remedial mathematics classes. The instructional task was a mathematics rule lesson concerning divisibility by the numbers two,…

  14. CAI for the Visually Handicapped: Promising Collaboration Between Two and Four-Year Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, William K.; And Others

    This report describes the efforts of the Office of Research and Extension of the North Carolina State University (NCSU) School of Education to develop vocal computer-assisted instruction (CAI) tutorials for blind junior college students, the rationale behind those efforts, the costs and means of funding for the project, and suggested ways in which…

  15. 35 Secondary V Students Comment on Their Experience With C.A.I. (Preliminary Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gateau, Bernard

    An instrument has been designed and used to quantify the degree of student dissatisfaction with computer-assisted instruction (CAI) experiences. The instrument, entitled PERPI-LPI, was derived from the service test Perceptions Etudiantes de la Relation Professeur-Etudiants (Student Observations on the Teacher-Student Relationship). It measures the…

  16. Heterogeneity of Mg Isotopes and Variable ^26Al/^27Al Ratio in FUN CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, C.; Nagashima, K.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Davis, A. M.; Huss, G. R.; Krot, A. N.

    2013-09-01

    We report high-precision Mg-isotope data of individual minerals from the Axtell 2271, BG82DH8, EK1-4-1, C1, TE, and CG14 FUN CAIs, which shows variations in both Mg-isotope ratio and ^26Al/^27Al ratio.

  17. Learner Control of Instructional Sequencing Within an Adaptive Tutorial CAI Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Robert J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This study was designed to test effects of a specified degree of learner control over the sequencing of instructional materials in a self contained tutorial CAI course in COBOL programming. Findings describe contributions and interactions of learner controlled variables with respect to instructional effectiveness and efficiency. (RAO)

  18. Role of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in an Introductory Computer Concepts Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skudrna, Vincent J.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the role of computer assisted instruction (CAI) in undergraduate education via a survey of related literature and specific applications. Describes an undergraduate computer concepts course and includes appendices of instructions, flowcharts, programs, sample student work in accounting, COBOL instructional model, decision logic in a…

  19. The Use of C.A.I. in the Language Program at Gallaudet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madachy, James L.; Miller, J. Douglas

    Employing an English-as-a-second-language approach, Gallaudet College has developed 101 computer assisted instruction (CAI) lessons to help deaf students master basic English structures. These lessons begin with a pretest and then branch to appropriate explanations and drills. Some are accompanied by coordinated presentations in sign language. In…

  20. Web Pages: An Effective Method of Providing CAI Resource Material in Histology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    Presents research that introduces computer-aided instruction (CAI) resource material as an integral part of the second-year histology course at the University of Natal Medical School. Describes the ease with which this software can be developed, using limited resources and available skills, while providing students with valuable learning…

  1. Using CAI To Enhance the Peer Acceptance of Mainstreamed Students with Mild Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culliver, Concetta; Obi, Sunday

    This study applied computer-assisted instruction (CAI) techniques to improve peer acceptance among 92 mainstreamed students with mild disabilities from 10 to 13 years of age. Participants in the treatment group received their generalized curriculum program (including mathematics, language arts, reading, health, social studies, and science)…

  2. Steps Toward a Theoretical Foundation for Complex, Knowledge-based CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, John S.; And Others

    This report describes research directed at designing and evaluating computer assisted instructional (CAI) systems capable of inferring structural models of a student's reasoning strategies and identifying his underlying misconceptions. Several prototype systems using representative domains of knowledge were constructed. From these an information…

  3. A Cross-National CAI Tool To Support Learning Operations Decision-Making and Market Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mockler, Robert J.; Afanasiev, Mikhail Y.; Dologite, Dorothy G.

    1999-01-01

    Describes bicultural (United States and Russia) development of a computer-aided instruction (CAI) tool to learn management decision-making using information systems technologies. The program has been used with undergraduate and graduate students in both countries; it integrates free and controlled market concepts and combines traditional computer…

  4. Socioeconomic Status, Aptitude, and Gender Differences in CAI Gains of Arithmetic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hativa, Nira; Shorer, Dvora

    1989-01-01

    A report is given of a study which examined the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in mathematics on 99 disadvantaged and 112 advantaged Israeli students. Higher performance levels and larger gains were found for advantaged over disadvantaged students, for high achievers over low achievers, and for boys over girls. (IAH)

  5. C.A.I. as a Means for Educational Justice in Primary Schools: A Greek Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raptis, Nicos

    This study examines the effects of computer assisted instruction (CAI) on the inequalities in education among children of less privileged backgrounds. A natural science lesson was taught to 116 children at the fifth level of the Greek primary school. Subjects went to two different public schools, one of which was in a privileged area, and the…

  6. Making C.A.I. Make a Difference in College Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lower, Stephen K.

    An explanation for the failure of technology and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in particular to make much headway in education is that even when innovations are introduced in the classroom, their potentials are not exploited; rather, they are used in traditional ways. The integration of new technologies with other classroom activities is…

  7. Rationale for and Evaluation of a CAI Tutorial in a Removable Partial Prosthodontics Classification System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tira, Daniel E.

    1977-01-01

    A CAI tutorial for learning the Applegate-Kennedy (dental) Classification System for Partially Edentulous (toothless) Situations was developed at University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry. Evaluative data from three comparison groups of second year students indicated that this is generally a viable instructional alternative to…

  8. Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instructions (CAI) in Teaching of Mathematics at Secondary Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhevakrishnan, R.; Devi, S.; Chinnaiyan, K.

    2012-09-01

    The present study was aimed at effectiveness of computer assisted instructions (CAI) in teaching of mathematics at secondary level adopted experimental method and observing the difference between (CAI) and traditional method. A sample of sixty (60) students of IX class in VVB Matriculation Higher Secondary School at Elayampalayam, Namakkal district were selected for a sample and sample was divided into two group namely experiment and control group. The experimental group consisted 30 students who were taught 'Mensurationí by the computer assisted instructions and the control groups comprising 30 students were taught by the conventional method of teaching. Data analyzed using mean, S.D. and t-test. Findings of the study clearly point out that significant increase in the mean gain scores has been found in the post test scores of the experimental group. Significant differences have been found between the control group and experimental group on post test gain scores. The experiment group, which was taught by the CAI showed better, learning. The conclusion is evident that the CAI is an effective media of instruction for teaching Mathematics at secondary students.s

  9. Performance assessment of the cellulose absorption index (CAI) method for estimating crop residue cover

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Accurate and quick field estimation of crop residues are important for carbon sequestration and biofuel production programs. Landscape-scale assessment of this vital information has promoted the use of remote sensing technology. The cellulose absorption index (CAI) technique has outperformed other ...

  10. Has Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) Been a Financial Failure? Studies in Economic Education No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daellenbach, Lawrence A.; And Others

    A course in macroeconomics was used to investigate the cost effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI). The experimental design used an experimental section in which the students had the opportunity to use the computer to the intensity of their choice, choosing from tutorial lessons, games, and simulations. The students in the control…

  11. Case Study: Using VDO or CAI in Studying Methods of Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chundang, Ungsana; Setteechaichana, Patcharin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the research is to study the effectiveness of the students' performance and the attitude of the students towards using VDO (MTH 225 principle of mathematics) or CAI (MTH 225 principle of mathematics) in studying the topic "Methods of Proof", of 74 students. The students would be categorized into: group A, students who…

  12. Dynamic support of the Tien Shan lithosphere based on flexural and rheological modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaodian

    2014-10-01

    The Tien Shan is a high, young and seismically active intracontinental mountain belt in central Asia that has been uplifted approximately 3 km over the past 10 Ma. A flexural analysis using Bouguer gravity and topographic data was used to determine the dynamic lithospheric mechanisms that are responsible for the topographic uplift and crustal thickening of the range. Bouguer gravity anomalies were used to constrain flexural models for isostatic compensation associated with the large relief of the Tien Shan. This is explained by significant underthrusting of a continuous elastic plate below the Tien Shan, with an effective elastic thicknesses (Te) that gradually changes from 40 to 50 km in the Tarim and Junggar basins and the Kazakh plate to 20-23 km beneath the Tien Shan. Horizontal shortening due to folding and thrusting of the upper-middle crust causes uplift and crustal thickening of the margin of the Tien Shan. The regional and local compensation occur at the eastern and western parts of the Tien Shan respectively. Rheological modeling using a simple geothermal structure for the Tien Shan reveals that the base of the strong upper crust of Tibet is at a depth of 30-35 km, which is consistent with the depths of 7776 earthquakes between 1970 and 2011, which serve as constraints on the brittle failure domain of the area. The Moho depths are used to determine the thickness of the lower crust (17-25 km) and to understand the mobility of the lower-crustal flow of the Tien Shan. The tendency for the strong upper crust to flow over the weak, ductile lower crust (or middle-lower crust) depends on the thickness of the lower crust. In other words, its strength depends on the depths of the base of the upper crust and the Moho. The larger the difference, the easier it is for the upper crust to flow relative to the strong upper-mantle lithosphere. The crustal deformation is decoupled from deformation of the upper-mantle lithosphere by the weak, ductile lower crust of the Tien

  13. Cenozoic episodic uplift and kinematic evolution between the Pamir and Southwestern Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongliang; Li, Haibing; Sun, Zhiming; Cao, Yong; Wang, Leizhen; Pan, Jiawei; Han, Liang; Ye, Xiaozhou

    2017-08-01

    The Pamir Salient and Southwestern Tien Shan belong to two different systems, which collided due to the continuous northward drift of the Indian Plate during the Cenozoic, resulting in a shortening of 300 km. The uplift history and kinematic evolution of the Pamir-Southwestern Tien Shan remain unclear. In this study, we chose the 2025 m-thick Pakabulake formation in the East Wuqia section, at the southern-most margin of the Southwestern Tien Shan system, to obtain a high-resolution magnetostratigraphic record spanning 16.61 Ma to 9.78 Ma. Based on its high sedimentation rate, stable ca. E-W paleocurrents and stable magnetic susceptibility values, the nearby Southwestern Tien Shan was inferred to have undergone stable uplift during this period of sedimentation. Combining our results with the previous low-temperature thermochronology, magnetostratigraphy and re-calculated block rotations, we conclude that four episodic uplift events occurred in the Pamir-Southwestern Tien Shan during the Cenozoic, at times of 50-40 Ma, 35-16 Ma, 11-7 Ma and < 5 Ma, and that the first episodic uplift only occurred in the Pamir Salient. In addition, the Pamir Salient underwent a tectonic transformation from entire- to a half-oroclinal bending rotation during the Miocene, caused by activity along the Karakorum Fault and Kashgar-Yecheng Transfer System.

  14. Recent glacier changes in the Tien Shan observed by satellite gravity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shuanggen; Tian, X.; Feng, G.

    2016-08-01

    The glaciers in the Tien Shan are extensive and play an important role in water cycle in central Asia. However, it is difficult to accurately monitor glacier variations in the Tien Shan due to the lack of in situ widespread measurements. In this paper, glacier mass variations in the Tian Shan are obtained and investigated from 10 years of monthly GRACE gravity solutions (January 2003-December 2012) and the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM), including seasonal, secular and interannual variations . Results show that significant seasonal variations of glacier mass are found with the maximum normally in April-June and the minimum around in November-December. The trends in all four regions are positive from 2002 to 2005 and negative from 2005 to 2012, indicating that the Tien Shan glaciers are increasing prior to 2005 and significantly melting after 2005. These changes are consistent with the temperature change in the Tien Shan. In addition, in the past decade the precipitation has decreased and evapotranspiration has increased, which have joint influences on glacier mass changes in different regions of the Tien Shan.

  15. Chronology of chrondrule and CAI formation: Mg-Al isotopic evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, G. J.; Davis, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Details of the chondrule and Ca-Al-rich inclusion (CAI) formation during the earliest history of the solar system are imperfectly known. Because CAI's are more 'refractory' than ferromagnesian chondrules and have the lowest recorded initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios of any solar system materials, the expectation is that CAI's formed earlier than chondrules. But it is not known, for example, if CAI formation had stopped by the time chondrule formation began. Conventional (absolute) age-dating techniques cannot adequately resolve small age differences (less than 10(exp 6) years) between objects of such antiquity. One approach has been to look at systematic differences in the daughter products of short-lived radionuclides such as Al-26 and I-129. Unfortunately, neither system appears to be 'well-behaved.' One possible reason for this circumstance is that later secondary events have partially reset the isotopic systems, but a viable alternative continues to be large-scale (nebular) heterogeneity in initial isotopic abundances, which would of course render the systems nearly useless as chronometers. In the past two years the nature of this problem has been redefined somewhat. Examination of the Al-Mg isotopic database for all CAI's suggests that the vast majority of inclusions originally had the same initial Al-26/Al-27 abundance ratio, and that the ill-behaved isotopic systematics now observed are the results of later partial reequilibration due to thermal processing. Isotopic heterogeneities did exist in the nebula, as demonstrated by the existence of so-called FUN inclusions in CV3 chondrites and isotopically anomalous hibonite grains in CM2 chondrites, which had little or no live Al-26 at the time of their formation. But, among the population of CV3 inclusions at least, FUN inclusions appear to have been a relatively minor nebular component.

  16. Chronology of chrondrule and CAI formation: Mg-Al isotopic evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, G. J.; Davis, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Details of the chondrule and Ca-Al-rich inclusion (CAI) formation during the earliest history of the solar system are imperfectly known. Because CAI's are more 'refractory' than ferromagnesian chondrules and have the lowest recorded initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios of any solar system materials, the expectation is that CAI's formed earlier than chondrules. But it is not known, for example, if CAI formation had stopped by the time chondrule formation began. Conventional (absolute) age-dating techniques cannot adequately resolve small age differences (less than 10(exp 6) years) between objects of such antiquity. One approach has been to look at systematic differences in the daughter products of short-lived radionuclides such as Al-26 and I-129. Unfortunately, neither system appears to be 'well-behaved.' One possible reason for this circumstance is that later secondary events have partially reset the isotopic systems, but a viable alternative continues to be large-scale (nebular) heterogeneity in initial isotopic abundances, which would of course render the systems nearly useless as chronometers. In the past two years the nature of this problem has been redefined somewhat. Examination of the Al-Mg isotopic database for all CAI's suggests that the vast majority of inclusions originally had the same initial Al-26/Al-27 abundance ratio, and that the ill-behaved isotopic systematics now observed are the results of later partial reequilibration due to thermal processing. Isotopic heterogeneities did exist in the nebula, as demonstrated by the existence of so-called FUN inclusions in CV3 chondrites and isotopically anomalous hibonite grains in CM2 chondrites, which had little or no live Al-26 at the time of their formation. But, among the population of CV3 inclusions at least, FUN inclusions appear to have been a relatively minor nebular component.

  17. High-Throughput Proteomic Approaches to the Elucidation of Potential Biomarkers of Chronic Allograft Injury (CAI)

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Hilary; Slyne, Jennifer; Frain, Helena; Slattery, Craig; Ryan, Michael P.; McMorrow, Tara

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the role of OMICs technologies, concentrating in particular on proteomics, in biomarker discovery in chronic allograft injury (CAI). CAI is the second most prevalent cause of allograft dysfunction and loss in the first decade post-transplantation, after death with functioning graft (DWFG). The term CAI, sometimes referred to as chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), describes the deterioration of renal allograft function and structure as a result of immunological processes (chronic antibody-mediated rejection), and other non-immunological factors such as calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) induced nephrotoxicity, hypertension and infection. Current methods for assessing allograft function are costly, insensitive and invasive; traditional kidney function measurements such as serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) display poor predictive abilities, while the current “gold-standard” involving histological diagnosis with a renal biopsy presents its own inherent risks to the overall health of the allograft. As early as two years post-transplantation, protocol biopsies have shown more than 50% of allograft recipients have mild CAN; ten years post-transplantation more than 50% of the allograft recipients have progressed to severe CAN which is associated with diminishing graft function. Thus, there is a growing medical requirement for minimally invasive biomarkers capable of identifying the early stages of the disease which would allow for timely intervention. Proteomics involves the study of the expression, localization, function and interaction of the proteome. Proteomic technologies may be powerful tools used to identify novel biomarkers which would predict CAI in susceptible individuals. In this paper we will review the use of proteomics in the elucidation of novel predictive biomarkers of CAI in clinical, animal and in vitro studies. PMID:28250402

  18. An ion microprobe study of CAIs from CO3 meteorites. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, S. S.; Greenwood, R. C.; Fahey, A. J.; Huss, G. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    When attempting to interpret the history of Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) it is often difficult to distinguish between primary features inherited from the nebula and those produced during secondary processing on the parent body. We have undertaken a systematic study of CAIs from 10 CO chondrites, believed to represent a metamorphic sequence with the goal of distinguishing primary and secondary features. ALHA 77307 (3.0), Colony (3.0), Kainsaz (3.1), Felix (3.2), ALH 82101 (3.3), Ornans (3.3), Lance (3.4), ALHA 77003 (3.5), Warrenton (3.6), and Isna (3.7) were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. We have identified 141 CAIs within these samples, and studied in detail the petrology of 34 inclusions. The primary phases in the lower petrologic types are spinel, melilite, and hibonite. Perovskite, FeS, ilmenite, anorthite, kirschsteinite, and metallic Fe are present as minor phases. Melilite becomes less abundant in higher petrologic types and was not detected in chondrites of type 3.5 and above, confirming previous reports that this mineral easily breaks down during heating. Iron, an element that would not be expected to condense at high temperatures, has a lower abundance in spinel from low-petrologic-type meteorites than those of higher grade, and CaTiO3 is replaced by FeTiO3 in meteorites of higher petrologic type. The abundance of CAIs is similar in each meteorite. Eight inclusions have been analyzed by ion probe. The results are summarized. The results obtained to date show that CAIs in CO meteorites, like those from other meteorite classes, contain Mg* and that Mg in some inclusions has been redistributed.

  19. Northwest Africa 10758: A New CV3 Chondrite Bearing a Giant CAI with Hibonite-Rich Wark-Lovering Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Zolensky, M.

    2017-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 10758 is a newly identified carbonaceous chondrite that is a Bali-like oxidized CV3. The large Ca-Al rich inclusion (CAI) in this sample is approx. 2.4 x 1.4 cm. The CAI is transitional in composition between type A and type B, with interior mineralogy dominated by melilite, plus less abundant spinel and Al-Ti rich diopside, and only very minor anorthite (Fig. 1A). This CAI is largely free of secondary alteration in the exposed section we examined, with almost no nepheline, sodalite or Ca-Fe silicates. The Wark-Lovering (WL) rim on this CAI is dominated by hibonite, with lower abundances of spinel and perovskite, and with hibonite locally overlain by melilite plus perovskite (as in Fig. 1B). Note that the example shown in 1B is exceptional. Around most of the CAI, hibonite + spinel + perovskite form the WL rim, without overlying melilite. The WL rim can be unusually thick, ranging from approx.20 microns up to approx. 150 microns. A well-developed, stratified accretionary rim infills embayments of the CAI, and thins over protuberances in the convoluted CAI surface.

  20. NWA10758: A New CV3 Chondrite Bearing a Giant CAI with Hibonite-Rich Wark-Lovering Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Zolensky, M.

    2017-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 10758 is a newly identified carbonaceous chondrite that is a Bali-like oxidized CV3. The large Ca-Al rich inclusion (CAI) in this sample is approx. 2.4 x 1.4 cm. The CAI is transitional in composition between type A and type B, with interior mineralogy dominated by melilite, plus less abundant spinel and Al-Ti rich diopside, and only very minor anorthite (Fig. 1A). This CAI is largely free of secondary alteration in the exposed section we examined, with almost no nepheline, sodalite or Ca-Fe silicates. The Wark-Lovering (WL) rim on this CAI is dominated by hibonite, with lower abundances of spinel and perovskite, and with hibonite locally overlain by melilite plus perovskite (as in Fig. 1B). Note that the example shown in 1B is exceptional. Around most of the CAI, hibonite + spinel + perovskite form the WL rim, without overlying melilite. The WL rim can be unusually thick, ranging from approx. 20 microns up to approx. 150 microns. A well-developed, stratified accretionary rim infills embayments of the CAI, and thins over protuberances in the convoluted CAI surface.

  1. A lingering elevation of Cai accompanies inhibition of inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate-induced Ca release in Limulus ventral photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Injection of inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (InsP3) into Limulus ventral photoreceptors causes an elevation of intracellular free Ca concentration (Cai) and depolarizes the photoreceptors. When measured with the photoprotein aequorin, the InsP3-induced Cai increase follows the time course of depolarization and declines within 1-2 s. However, sensitivity to further injections of InsP3 remains suppressed for several tens of seconds. The possibility that the suppression of Ca release (feedback inhibition) is due to a small lingering elevation of Cai, below the existing detection limit of aequorin, was investigated by measuring Cai with Ca-sensitive electrodes. Double-barreled, Ca- selective microelectrodes were used to pressure inject InsP3 and measure Cai at the same point. Light or InsP3 injections into the light- sensitive compartment depolarized the photoreceptors and induced an elevation of Cai that persisted for tens of seconds. Injections of InsP3 during the decay of Cai showed that sensitivity to InsP3 recovered as resting Cai approached the prestimulus level. The relationship between elevated Cai and feedback inhibition was very steep. An elevation of Cai of 1 microM or more was associated with inhibitions of 79 +/- 12.4% (SEM; n = 7) for the InsP3-induced Cai increase and of 76 +/- 8% for depolarizations. With a residual Cai elevation of 0.01 microM or less, the mean inhibition was 10 +/- 7.4% for InsP3-induced Cai increase and 6.6 +/- 4% for InsP3-induced depolarization. Injections of InsP3 into a light-insensitive compartment within the cell induced elevations of Cai with no associated depolarizations or feedback inhibition. To verify that a sustained elevation of Cai is necessary for inhibition of InsP3-induced Cai increase and depolarization, we injected ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta- aminoethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) between two injections of InsP3. Injection of 1 mM EGTA or the related Ca chelator BAPTA, delivered 750 ms after the first injection

  2. Multiple Nebular Gas Reservoirs Recorded by Oxygen Isotope Variation in a Spinel-rich CAI in CO3 MIL 090019

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Nguyen, A. N.; Ross, D. K.; Messenger, S.

    2017-01-01

    We conducted NanoSIMS O-isotopic imaging of a primitive spinel-rich CAI spherule (27-2) from the MIL 090019 CO3 chondrite. Inclusions such as 27-2 are proposed to record inner nebula processes during an epoch of rapid solar nebula evolution. Mineralogical and textural analyses suggest that this CAI formed by high temperature reactions, partial melting, and condensation. This CAI exhibits radial O-isotopic heterogeneity among multiple occurrences of the same mineral, reflecting interactions with distinct nebular O-isotopic reservoirs.

  3. Compound ultrarefractory CAI-bearing inclusions from CV3 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Marina A.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; MacPherson, Glenn J.

    2012-12-01

    Abstract-Two compound calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>), 3N from the oxidized CV chondrite Northwest Africa (NWA) 3118 and 33E from the reduced CV chondrite Efremovka, contain ultrarefractory (UR) inclusions. 3N is a forsterite-bearing type B (FoB) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> that encloses UR inclusion 3N-24 composed of Zr,Sc,Y-rich oxides, Y-rich perovskite, and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopside. 33E contains a fluffy type A (FTA) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and UR <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 33E-1, surrounded by Wark-Lovering rim layers of spinel, Al-diopside, and forsterite, and a common forsterite-rich accretionary rim. 33E-1 is composed of Zr,Sc,Y-rich oxides, Y-rich perovskite, Zr,Sc,Y-rich pyroxenes (Al,Ti-diopside, Sc-rich pyroxene), and gehlenite. 3N-24's UR oxides and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopsides are 16O-poor (Δ17O approximately -2‰ to -5‰). Spinel in 3N-24 and spinel and Al-diopside in the FoB <span class="hlt">CAI</span> are 16O-rich (Δ17O approximately -23 ± 2‰). 33E-1's UR oxides and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopsides are 16O-depleted (Δ17O approximately -2‰ to -5‰) vs. Al,Ti-diopside of the FTA <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and spinel (Δ17O approximately -23 ± 2‰), and Wark-Lovering rim Al,Ti-diopside (Δ17O approximately -7‰ to -19‰). We infer that the inclusions experienced multistage formation in nebular regions with different oxygen-isotope compositions. 3N-24 and 33E-1's precursors formed by evaporation/condensation above 1600 °C. 3N and 33E's precursors formed by condensation and melting (3N only) at significantly lower temperatures. 3N-24 and 3N's precursors aggregated into a compound object and experienced partial melting and thermal annealing. 33E-1 and 33E avoided melting prior to and after aggregation. They acquired Wark-Lovering and common forsterite-rich accretionary rims, probably by condensation, followed by thermal annealing. We suggest 3N-24 and 33E-1 originated in a 16O-rich gaseous reservoir and subsequently experienced isotope exchange in a 16O-poor gaseous reservoir. Mechanism and timing of oxygen-isotope exchange remain</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=256253&keyword=clouds&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=256253&keyword=clouds&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Empirical Relationship between particulate matter and Aerosol Optical Depth over Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan, Central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Measurements were obtained at two sites in northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan in Central Asia during a 1-year period beginning July 2008 to examine the statistical relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and of fine [PM2.5, particles less than 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD)] and coars...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=256253&keyword=AOD+AND+process&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78763615&CFTOKEN=27133976','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=256253&keyword=AOD+AND+process&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78763615&CFTOKEN=27133976"><span>Empirical Relationship between particulate matter and Aerosol Optical Depth over Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan, Central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Measurements were obtained at two sites in northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan in Central Asia during a 1-year period beginning July 2008 to examine the statistical relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and of fine [PM2.5, particles less than 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD)] and coars...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..442B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..442B"><span>A 3D Moho depth model for the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan from EGM2008 gravity data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bratfisch, Rebekka; Jentzsch, Gerhard; Steffen, Holger</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Shan, a high mountain range in Central Asia, is one of the most interesting regions in the world due to its evolutionary history and the position in the Eurasian lithosphere plate. With a distance from 1500 km to the collision-zone of the Indian and Eurasian plate, the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is the largest intracontinental mountain range in the world. In addition, it is one of the most seismically active regions globally. So far, seismological data have been used to explore its origin and ongoing seismic activity. In this study, for the first time, gravity data are added to these studies in order to determine the Mohorovičič discontinuity (Moho) of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan by inversion of gravity data taken from EGM2008 (Pavlis et al., 2008). It is the best available gravity model for investigations such as this, having a horizontal resolution of 5'. Prior to that, the gravity effect of sediments is estimated and the Bouguer anomaly of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is analysed regarding heterogeneities in the crust. From the filtered and corrected field we calculate the Moho of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and compare it to results of former receiver function analyses. Additionally, an isostatic Moho is calculated with topographic data. The comparison of both CMBs gives insight in the state of isostatic compensation. The results of the gravity inversion indicate that the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan has a mountain root with a thickness of about 70 km. The Moho can be shallow under the basins, e.g., in the Tarim and Ili basins. In general though, the crust thickness is homogeneous at a small scale. The comparison with the isostatic Moho indicates an almost complete compensation of the orogen. It can be concluded that the resolution of the EGM2008 data set is suitable for the determination of the crustal thickness of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. From the comparison to receiver function analyses follows that the gravity inversion presents a very good method next to seismological methods to get a crustal thickness model of a selected</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984Tectp.104...67K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984Tectp.104...67K"><span>The relationship between the deep structure and quaternary tectonics of the pamir and <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krestnikov, V. N.; Nersesov, I. L.; Stange, D. V.</p> <p>1984-04-01</p> <p>The Quaternary period in the Pamir and <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan is marked by a sharp increase in the intensity of uplift which followed a short tectonically calm period in the late Pliocene and the early Pleistocene. Rates of the upward movement increased from the early Pleistocene to Holocene. The structural pattern of the region was formed throughout the whole neotectonic stage but the present shape is mainly the result of the Quaternary movements. A number of large uplifts and relative depressions can be identified in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan and Pamir. Only some of the greatest depressions were subject to absolute downwarping in their central parts during the Quaternary time. Numerous new data on the thickness of the earth's crust of Central Asia obtained in the past few years have allowed construction of a new relief map of the Mohorovičić discontinuity in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan and Pamir and of the discontinuity in relationship to the character of the Quaternary tectonic movements. As a result, correspondences relating to the development of the earth's crust were established and a suggestion was made as to the current rejuvenation of the structural pattern, with both an anti-<span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan and a meridional direction dominating in the Pamir. The comparison of the development of the earth's crust as a whole with the lateral heterogeneities of the upper mantle confirmed the assumption about the current rejuvenation. At the same time it made evident once again that there are significant differences in the deep processes taking place in the Pamir and <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan. Combining analyses of both the subsurface and the surface development in this part of Asia provided a better view of the characteristics of the deep fault zones. This has allowed the authors to outline the latent ruptures and establish individual blocks of the earth's crust that show different structure and development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003IJSEd..25..427C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003IJSEd..25..427C"><span>Teaching earth sciences: should we implement teacher-directed or student-controlled <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in the secondary classroom?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Chun-Yen</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>While previous studies and meta analyses have primarily focused on the comparative efficacy of computer assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) versus traditional instruction, there have been relatively fewer examples of research exploring how various teaching formats of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> influence student science learning outcomes in the secondary classroom. In this paper this issue is addressed by comparing teacher-directed <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (TDCAI) and student-controlled <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (SCCAI) in a compulsory earth science course in a secondary school in Taiwan. Data collection instruments included the Earth Science Achievement Test and the Attitudes Toward Earth Science Inventory. A multivariate analysis of covariance suggested that TDCAI students had significantly higher score gains than SCCAI students on the set of achievement and attitude measures. It is therefore suggested that TDCAI-based instruction is an alternative in teaching basic science concepts in the secondary classroom.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990Geokh......356F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990Geokh......356F"><span>Heterogeneity of a metal particle enriched with refractory elements in the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Efremovka CV chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fisenko, A. V.; Ignatenko, K. I.; Lavrukhina, A. K.</p> <p>1990-03-01</p> <p>This paper describes the morphology and mineral composition of a macroscopic-size (about 0.5 mm) metallic particle found in a type-B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> fragment from the Efremovka chondrite. Results of mineralographic and chemical analyses showed that the particle consists of two different metallic particles. One of these (EM1A), which is of a hypidiomorphic shape, is composed mainly of taenite and kamacite and contains micron-size inclusions of vanadium oxide. The other particle (EM1) is of ellipsoidal form and, besides taenite and kamacite, is enriched by phosphides; it also contains inclusions of vanadium sulfide and oxide. The EM particle is surrounded by a border of opaque minerals including kulsonite, chromite, and Ca phosphate. The characteristics of this particle have no analogs among the known metal particles in <span class="hlt">CAI</span> or other carbonaceous chondrites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750022313','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750022313"><span>Alternative communication network designs for an operational Plato 4 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mobley, R. E., Jr.; Eastwood, L. F., Jr.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The cost of alternative communications networks for the dissemination of PLATO IV computer-aided instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) was studied. Four communication techniques are compared: leased telephone lines, satellite communication, UHF TV, and low-power microwave radio. For each network design, costs per student contact hour are computed. These costs are derived as functions of student population density, a parameter which can be calculated from census data for one potential market for <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, the public primary and secondary schools. Calculating costs in this way allows one to determine which of the four communications alternatives can serve this market least expensively for any given area in the U.S. The analysis indicates that radio distribution techniques are cost optimum over a wide range of conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030110823&hterms=Diversity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DDiversity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030110823&hterms=Diversity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DDiversity"><span>Al-rich Chondrules: Petrologic Basis for Their Diversity, and Relation to Type C <span class="hlt">CAIs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>MacPherson, G. J.; Huss, G. R.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Al-rich chondrules share mineralogical and chemical properties with, and are intermediate in a volatility sense between, <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and ferromagnesian chondrules. In some way they must be petrogenetic links between the two. A recent upsurge of interest in Al-rich chondrules is due to their constituent plagioclase feldspar and Al-rich glass being amenable to successful ion microprobe searches for radiogenic Mg-26, the decay product of Al-26 (t(sub 1/2) = 720,000 y). This has allowed estimates to be made of the time duration between <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation and the onset of Al-rich (and possibly, by extension, ferromagnesian) chondrule formation, on the order of 1.5-2.5 million years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030110823&hterms=Cais&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DCais','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030110823&hterms=Cais&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DCais"><span>Al-rich Chondrules: Petrologic Basis for Their Diversity, and Relation to Type C <span class="hlt">CAIs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>MacPherson, G. J.; Huss, G. R.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Al-rich chondrules share mineralogical and chemical properties with, and are intermediate in a volatility sense between, <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and ferromagnesian chondrules. In some way they must be petrogenetic links between the two. A recent upsurge of interest in Al-rich chondrules is due to their constituent plagioclase feldspar and Al-rich glass being amenable to successful ion microprobe searches for radiogenic Mg-26, the decay product of Al-26 (t(sub 1/2) = 720,000 y). This has allowed estimates to be made of the time duration between <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation and the onset of Al-rich (and possibly, by extension, ferromagnesian) chondrule formation, on the order of 1.5-2.5 million years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/269968','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/269968"><span><span class="hlt">CAIS</span> standard manual. System number 26. Industrial gas storage and distribution systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-04-28</p> <p>At this installation the list of facilities to be surveyed, including infrastructure, will be addressed on the basis of 32 unique systems that form the <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> Engineering Deficiency Standards and Inspection Methods document. Each system deals with a specific technical aspect of the facility to be surveyed. Within each system a further breakdown is made to subsystems, each having a related list of components. Detailed observations of the listed defects are provided so as to allow the entry of observed quantification data. A DOD <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> manual is provided for each of the 32 systems with an internal organization. The System Tree is a graphical representation of the Work Breakdown Structure, showing system, subsystem and component relationships for the Industrial Gas Storage and Distribution System.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/269969','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/269969"><span><span class="hlt">CAIS</span> standard manual. System number 25. Coal site handling and storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-04-28</p> <p>At this installation the list of facilities to be surveyed, including infrastructure, will be addressed on the basis of 32 unique systems that form the <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> Engineering Deficiency Standards and Inspection Methods document. Each system deals with a specific technical aspect of the facility to be surveyed. Within each system a further breakdown is made to subsystems, each having a related list of components. Detailed observations of the listed defects are provided so as to allow the entry of observed quantification data. A DOD <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> manual is provided for each of the 32 systems with an internal organization. The System Tree is a graphical representation of the Work Breakdown Structure, showing system, subsystem and component relationships for the Coal Site Handling and Storage Svstem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011928','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011928"><span>Limited subsolidus diffusion in type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Evidence from Ti distribution in spinel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Meeker, G. P.; Quick, J. E.; Paque, Julie M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Most models of calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) have focused on early stages of formation by equilibrium crystallization of a homogeneous liquid. Less is known about the subsolidus cooling history of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Chemical and isotopic heterogeneties on a scale of tens to hundreds of micrometers (e.g. MacPherson et al. (1989) and Podosek, et al. (1991)) suggest fairly rapid cooling with a minimum of subsolidus diffusion. However, transmission electron microscopy indicates that solid state diffusion may have been an important process at a smaller scale (Barber et al. 1984). If so, chemical evidence for diffusion could provide constraints on cooling times and temperatures. With this in mind, we have begun an investigation of the Ti distribution in spinels from two type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from Allende to determine if post-crystallization diffusion was a significant process. The type B1 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, 3529Z and 5241 have been described by Podosek et al. (1991) and by El Goresy et al. (1985) and MacPherson et al. (1989). We have analyzed spinels in these inclusions using the electron microprobe. These spinels are generally euhedral, range in size from less than 10 to 15 micron and are poikilitically enclosed by millimeter-sized pyroxene, melilite, and anorthite. Analyses were obtained from both the mantles and cores of the inclusions. Compositions of pyroxene in the vicinity of individual spinel grains were obtained by analyzing at least two points on opposite sides of the spinel and averaging the compositions. The pyroxene analyses were obtained within 15 microns of the spinel-pyroxene interface. No compositional gradients were observed within single spinel crystals. Ti concentrations in spinels included within pyroxene, melilite, and anorthite are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA330395','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA330395"><span>Evaluation of the Vesicating Properties of Neutralized Chemical Agent Identification Set (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>) Components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>euthanasia, 17 TABLE 2. SYNOPSIS OF PHASE II AND PHASE 111 TESTING PROCEDURES Phase II. A total of I I hairless guinea pigs ( HGPs ) were used in this...24 HGPs were used, dosing six to eight sites per animal with a 1 hr duration of exposure. All animals were examined 24 hr following exposure and...The "blue" wastestream, that <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> component containing neat HD neutralized with DCDMH, has been found to cause microvesication in HGPs at dosing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1511..987S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AIPC.1511..987S"><span>Damage characterization of carbon/epoxy laminates using compression-after-impact (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) and ultrasonic NDE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Subramanian, A.; Dayal, V.; Barnard, D. J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>A study of impact damage morphology in unidirectional carbon/epoxy laminates was performed. A "load drop" method was investigated for prediction of the delamination threshold energy (EDT) for impact. The impacted samples were subjected to uniaxial, in-plane compression to observe the growth of damage, failure modes, and residual strength. Samples were scanned before and after <span class="hlt">CAI</span> using air-coupled through-transmission ultrasound and amplitude C-scans were collected for visual inspection of damage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7667070','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7667070"><span>Na/Ca exchange in the basolateral membrane of the A6 cell monolayer: role in <span class="hlt">Cai</span> homeostasis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brochiero, E; Raschi, C; Ehrenfeld, J</p> <p>1995-05-01</p> <p>The presence of a Na/Ca exchanger in A6 cells was investigated by measuring intracellular calcium (<span class="hlt">Cai</span>) fluctuations and the 45Ca fluxes through the basolateral membranes (blm) of the cell monolayer. Removal of Na+ from the medium produced a transient increase in <span class="hlt">Cai</span> followed by a regulatory phase returning <span class="hlt">Cai</span> to control levels in 3-4 min, this phase being greatly accelerated (< 60 s) by NaCl addition (apparent Km of approximately 5 mM Na+). The <span class="hlt">Cai</span> increase was only found with the Na(+)-free medium on the basolateral side of the cell monolayer. A twofold increase in the 45Ca influx was observed under these conditions. In Ca(2+)- depleted cells, the initial <span class="hlt">Cai</span> increase after Ca2+ addition to the medium was greater when the putative Na/Ca exchanger was not functioning (i.e. in a Na(+)-free medium). 45Ca effluxes through the blm of the monolayer were greatly and transiently increased by a Na(+)-free medium on the serosal side and blocked by orthovanadate (1 mM). The <span class="hlt">Cai</span> increased induced by a hypo-osmotic shock was greater in cells bathed in a Na(+)-medium, conditions expected to block the activity of the Na/Ca exchanger. These findings support the hypothesis that a Na/Ca exchanger is present on the blm of A6 cells and affirm its role in <span class="hlt">Cai</span> homeostasis in steady-state conditions and following osmotic shock. In addition, a Ca2+ pump also located on the blm and Ca2+ stores sensitive to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate were found to be implicated in <span class="hlt">Cai</span> homeostasis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..148a2083P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..148a2083P"><span>Numerical investigation of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Combustion in the Opposed- Piston Engine with Direct and Indirect Water Injection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pyszczek, R.; Mazuro, P.; Teodorczyk, A.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>This paper is focused on the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> combustion control in a turbocharged 2-stroke Opposed-Piston (OP) engine. The barrel type OP engine arrangement is of particular interest for the authors because of its robust design, high mechanical efficiency and relatively easy incorporation of a Variable Compression Ratio (VCR). The other advantage of such design is that combustion chamber is formed between two moving pistons - there is no additional cylinder head to be cooled which directly results in an increased thermal efficiency. Furthermore, engine operation in a Controlled Auto-Ignition (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) mode at high compression ratios (CR) raises a possibility of reaching even higher efficiencies and very low emissions. In order to control <span class="hlt">CAI</span> combustion such measures as VCR and water injection were considered for indirect ignition timing control. Numerical simulations of the scavenging and combustion processes were performed with the 3D CFD multipurpose AVL Fire solver. Numerous cases were calculated with different engine compression ratios and different amounts of directly and indirectly injected water. The influence of the VCR and water injection on the ignition timing and engine performance was determined and their application in the real engine was discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980004627','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980004627"><span>Application of Global Positioning Measurements to Continental Collision in the Pamir-<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Region, Central Asia and GPS Survey of the Western <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hamburger, Michael W.; Reilinger, Robert E.; Hager, Bradford H.; Molnar, Peter</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>In this report, we summarize what we have accomplished with five years of funding from NASA under its DOSE program, and with a comparable level of funding from NSF. We describe the development of a GPS network in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan of the former Soviet Union, the analysis of data, and the main results. This discussion presents the state of the current network, which has grown significantly since the termination of our DOSE grants, with continued support both from NSF through its continental dynamics program and from NASA's SENH program. Although grants from NASA's DOSE program did not support this growth not directly, it did so indirectly by building the infrastructure that has enabled further expansion in an area where otherwise there would be only a small GPS presence. We note how the network has grown over time, but the emphasis of this discussion is on the quantity and quality of measurements that we have made.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090020501','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090020501"><span>Rare Earth Element Measurements of Melilite and Fassaite in Allende <span class="hlt">Cai</span> by Nanosims</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ito, M.; Messenger, Scott</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The rare earth elements (REEs) are concentrated in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> by approx. 20 times the chondritic average [e.g., 1]. The REEs in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are important to understand processes of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation including the role of volatilization, condensation, and fractional crystallization [1,2]. REE measurements are a well established application of ion microprobes [e.g., 3]. However the spatial resolution of REE measurements by ion microprobe (approx.20 m) is not adequate to resolve heterogeneous distributions of REEs among/within minerals. We have developed methods for measuring REE with the NanoSIMS 50L at smaller spatial scales. Here we present our initial measurements of REEs in melilite and fassaite in an Allende Type-A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> with the JSC NanoSIMS 50L. We found that the key parameters for accurate REE abundance measurements differ between the NanoSIMS and conventional SIMS, in particular the oxide-to-element ratios, the relative sensitivity factors, the energy distributions, and requisite energy offset. Our REE abundance measurements of the 100 ppm REE diopside glass standards yielded good reproducibility and accuracy, 0.5-2.5 % and 5-25 %, respectively. We determined abundances and spatial distributions of REEs in core and rim within single crystals of fassaite, and adjacent melilite with 5-10 m spatial resolution. The REE abundances in fassaite core and rim are 20-100 times CI abundance but show a large negative Eu anomaly, exhibiting a well-defined Group III pattern. This is consistent with previous work [4]. On the other hand, adjacent melilite shows modified Group II pattern with no strong depletions of Eu and Yb, and no Tm positive anomaly. REE abundances (2-10 x CI) were lower than that of fassaite. These patterns suggest that fassaite crystallized first followed by a crystallization of melilite from the residual melt. In future work, we will carry out a correlated study of O and Mg isotopes and REEs of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in order to better understand the nature and timescales of its</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.440...62A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.440...62A"><span>Oxygen isotopes in the early protoplanetary disk inferred from pyroxene in a classical type B <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aléon, Jérôme</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A major unanswered question in solar system formation is the origin of the oxygen isotopic dichotomy between the Sun and the planets. Individual Calcium-Aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) from CV chondrites exhibit almost the full isotopic range, but how their composition evolved is still unclear, which prevents robust astrochemical conclusions. A key issue is notably the yet unsolved origin of the 16O-rich isotopic composition of pyroxene in type B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Here, I report an in-situ oxygen isotope study of the archetypal type B <span class="hlt">CAI</span> USNM-3529-Z from Allende with emphasis on the isotopic composition of pyroxene and its isotopic and petrographic relationships with other major minerals. The O isotopic composition of pyroxene is correlated with indicators of magmatic growth, indicating that the pyroxene evolved from a 16O-poor composition and became progressively enriched in 16O during its crystallization, contrary to the long held assumption that pyroxene was initially 16O-rich. This variation is well explained by isotopic exchange between a 16O-poor partial melt having the isotopic composition of melilite and a 16O-rich gas having the isotopic composition of spinel, during pyroxene crystallization. The isotopic evolution of 3529-Z is consistent with formation in an initially 16O-rich environment where spinel and gehlenitic melilite crystallized, followed by a 16O-depletion associated with melilite partial melting and recrystallization and finally a return to the initial 16O-rich environment before pyroxene crystallization. This strongly suggests that the environment of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation was globally 16O-rich, with local 16O-depletions systematically associated with high temperature events. The Al/Mg isotopic systematics of 3529-Z further indicates that this suite of isotopic changes occurred in the first 150 000 yr of the solar system, during the main <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation period. A new astrophysical setting is proposed, where the 16O-depletion occurs in an optically thin surface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Geote..49..219S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Geote..49..219S"><span>Tectonic evolution of Kazakhstan and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan in Neoproterozoic and Early-Middle Paleozoic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Samygin, S. G.; Kheraskova, T. N.; Kurchavov, A. M.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Geological information on Kazakhstan and the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan obtained up to the present time has been considered and integrated in order to demonstrate the main features of continental massifs, basins with oceanic crust, island arcs, marginal volcanic-plutonic belts, and transform fault zones differing in type and age. We ascertained the character and probable causes of their evolution and transformations resulting in the origination and development of mosaic structural assembly at margin of the Paleoasian ocean that existed from Neoproterozoic. The main stages of the geodynamic history of Paleozoides in Kazakhstan and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan are characterized, and a model of the probable course of regional tectonic events has been proposed. This model is illustrated by published paleomagnetic data and a series of paleotectonic reconstructions for time intervals 950-900, 850-800, 750-700, 650-630, 570-550, 530-515, 500-470, 460-440, and 390-380 Ma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S43A2463K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.S43A2463K"><span>Source processes of strong earthquakes in the North <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kulikova, G.; Krueger, F.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan region attracts attention of scientists worldwide due to its complexity and tectonic uniqueness. A series of very strong destructive earthquakes occurred in <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan at the turn of XIX and XX centuries. Such large intraplate earthquakes are rare in seismology, which increases the interest in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan region. The presented study focuses on the source processes of large earthquakes in <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan. The amount of seismic data is limited for those early times. In 1889, when a major earthquake has occurred in <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan, seismic instruments were installed in very few locations in the world and these analog records did not survive till nowadays. Although around a hundred seismic stations were operating at the beginning of XIX century worldwide, it is not always possible to get high quality analog seismograms. Digitizing seismograms is a very important step in the work with analog seismic records. While working with historical seismic records one has to take into account all the aspects and uncertainties of manual digitizing and the lack of accurate timing and instrument characteristics. In this study, we develop an easy-to-handle and fast digitization program on the basis of already existing software which allows to speed up digitizing process and to account for all the recoding system uncertainties. Owing to the lack of absolute timing for the historical earthquakes (due to the absence of a universal clock at that time), we used time differences between P and S phases to relocate the earthquakes in North <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan and the body-wave amplitudes to estimate their magnitudes. Combining our results with geological data, five earthquakes in North <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan were precisely relocated. The digitizing of records can introduce steps into the seismograms which makes restitution (removal of instrument response) undesirable. To avoid the restitution, we simulated historic seismograph recordings with given values for damping and free period of the respective instrument and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Tecto..33..464G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Tecto..33..464G"><span>Pliocene-Pleistocene initiation, style, and sequencing of deformation in the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goode, Joseph K.; Burbank, Douglas W.; Ormukov, Cholponbek</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>In response to the Indo-Asian collision, deformation of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan initiated at ~25 Ma along the northwestern margin of the Tarim Basin. 300 km north, the Kyrgyz Range began deforming ~15 Ma later. Although multiple intervening structures across the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan are currently active, the sequencing of initial deformation across the orogen's entire width remains poorly known. To determine whether deformation migrated sequentially northward or developed less predictably, we documented deformation patterns within the Naryn Basin in south-central Kyrgyzstan. Detailed mapping and a published balanced cross section across the Naryn Basin suggest that deep-seated, relatively steeply dipping thrust faults have disrupted the basin during late Cenozoic deformation. Dating of deformed fluvial terraces with ages between ~10 and 250 ka constrains the rate of deformation across relatively young structures in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan interior. Based on geodetic surveys of dated terraces, local rates of relative rock uplift span from 0.3 to 3.5 mm/yr. Folding rates and patterns are temporally persistent at a given site. Moreover, they mimic modern geodetic rates measured from interferometric synthetic aperture radar. Extrapolating these rates into the past suggests that structures within the interior of the Naryn Basin formed in the last 1 Myr, whereas the ranges surrounding the basin initiated at least 1-4 Myr earlier. Hence, within the Naryn Basin itself, deformation has migrated from margins to interior. Similarly, these new chronologies indicate that at least some deformation in the interior of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan initiated millions of years later than along either orogenic margin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.T31B0472L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.T31B0472L"><span>Tomographic Imaging of the Crust and Upper Mantle Beneath the Western <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Z.; Roecker, S.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>We combine P and S wave arrival times from the recent MANAS deployment of broad band sensors with the prior GENGHIS deployment and analogue observations from the Kyrgyz Institute of Seismology to generate a high resolution (5-20 km) image of elastic wavespeeds in the crust and upper mantle beneath the western <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The total data set consists of 29,006 P and 21,491 S arrivals from 2176 local events along with 27,196 P arrivals from 2631 teleseismic events recorded at 144 stations. Near surface structure is constrained by a combination of arrival times from local and regional events, Moho depths determined from receiver functions, and travel times from the 2007 MANAS active source profile. Our principal finding is a large high wavespeed region in the mantle beneath most of western <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan dipping to the north to depths as great as 600 km. This region appears to be continuous to shallow depths and surfaces at the southern range front near where the Tarim Basin is being overthrust by the Kokshal range. This result suggests that the Tarim Basin continues to actively subduct beneath the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. We do not see any similar feature associated with underthrusting of the Kazach shield to the south. We also inverted a subset of regionally located events for Pn wavespeed and anisotropy. Similar to the larger scale results, Pn wavespeeds in the uppermost mantle are 3-4 percent lower than normal under most of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The fast direction of Pn anisotropy is predominantly north-south in agreement with the sparser sampling of previous SKS studies. Taken with the tomographic image, we suggest that the anisotropy is most likely due to flow in the asthenosphere induced by the subduction of the Tarim basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Tecto..30.5019S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Tecto..30.5019S"><span>A three-dimensional Moho depth model for the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan from EGM2008 gravity data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steffen, Rebekka; Steffen, Holger; Jentzsch, Gerhard</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan in Central Asia is the largest intracontinental mountain range in the world, but it is 1500 km away from the collision zone between the Indian and Eurasian plates. This region has been and still is the focus of numerous geoscientific studies, mainly because of its evolutionary history and its unique position in the Eurasian lithosphere plate. So far, mainly seismological data have been used to explore the origin of and ongoing seismic activity in this region, but only one study has investigated terrestrial gravity data. In this study, a new gravity data set, EGM2008, is used to determine the crust-mantle boundary (Mohorovičić discontinuity, Moho) of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan using inversion of gravity data. In addition, an isostatic Moho is calculated from topographic data, which by comparison to the results of the gravity inversion illuminates the effects of isostatic compensation. The results of the gravity inversion generally agree with results of previous seismic studies and indicate that the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan has a mountain root with a thickness of about 75 km. Furthermore, the Moho is shallow under the basins, e.g., in the Tarim and Ili basins. The comparison with the isostatic Moho indicates an over-compensation of the orogen and an under-compensation of the basins. The over-compensation results from the former subduction of the Tarim Basin terrane in the south. The under-compensation of the Tarim Basin is generated by support of the terrane between the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan in the north and the Pamir mountains, Tibet and Himalayas in the south.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tecto..35..283Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Tecto..35..283Z"><span>Tectonic interaction between the Pamir and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan observed by GPS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zubovich, A.; Schöne, T.; Metzger, S.; Mosienko, O.; Mukhamediev, Sh.; Sharshebaev, A.; Zech, C.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The complex tectonic interplay between the Central Asian Southwest <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and the north advancing Pamir as well as the role of the Pamir Frontal Thrust (PFT) separating these two orogens along the intervening Alai Valley is yet unclear. In this paper we present data of the newly installed Western Alai GPS profile (WAGP), capturing the deformation signal of both mountain ranges. The 20 km long WAGP records a maximum displacement rate of 9.3 ± 0.8 mm yr-1. The lion's share of displacement (6.0 ± 0.8 mm yr-1) is accommodated between the two stations located directly north and south of the PFT in 5 km distance. The WAGP data nicely complement the existing South <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and the Pamir GPS network data, which we present here in a combined reference frame and use it as input for horizontal block rotation/strain models. The model results show that both the Southwest <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and the Pamir behave as uniformly strained blocks and rotate counterclockwise (with respect to Eurasia) by 0.93 ± 0.11° Myr-1 and 0.62 ± 0.05° Myr-1, respectively. The Southwest <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan undergoes NNE-SSW shortening of -22.1 ± 1.5 × 10-9 year-1 with an insignificant perpendicular extension. The Pamir is shortening with a rate of -10.2 ± 3.8 × 10-9 year-1 in a NNE-SSW direction, which is nearly 2.5 times less than its lateral extension rate. A band of increased deformation along the PFT is bounded to the north by the northern rim of the Alai Valley and extends up to 30-50 km south into the Pamir.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeCoA.145..206K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeCoA.145..206K"><span>Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with fractionation and unknown nuclear effects (FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>): I. Mineralogy, petrology, and oxygen isotopic compositions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Wasserburg, Gerald J.; Huss, Gary R.; Papanastassiou, Dimitri; Davis, Andrew M.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>We present a detailed characterization of the mineralogy, petrology, and oxygen isotopic compositions of twelve FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, including C1 and EK1-4-1 from Allende (CV), that were previously shown to have large isotopic fractionation patterns for magnesium and oxygen, and large isotopic anomalies of several elements. The other samples show more modest patterns of isotopic fractionation and have smaller but significant isotopic anomalies. All FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> studied are coarse-grained igneous inclusions: Type B, forsterite-bearing Type B, compact Type A, and hibonite-rich. Some inclusions consist of two mineralogically distinct lithologies, forsterite-rich and forsterite-free/poor. All the CV FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> experienced postcrystallization open-system iron-alkali-halogen metasomatic alteration resulting in the formation of secondary minerals commonly observed in non-FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from CV chondrites. The CR FUN <span class="hlt">CAI</span> GG#3 shows no evidence for alteration. In all samples, clear evidence of oxygen isotopic fractionation was found. Most samples were initially 16O-rich. On a three-oxygen isotope diagram, various minerals in each FUN <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (spinel, forsterite, hibonite, dmisteinbergite, most fassaite grains, and melilite (only in GG#3)), define mass-dependent fractionation lines with a similar slope of ∼0.5. The different inclusions have different Δ17O values ranging from ∼-25‰ to ∼-16‰. Melilite and plagioclase in the CV FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> have 16O-poor compositions (Δ17O ∼-3‰) and plot near the intercept of the Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span> line and the terrestrial fractionation line. We infer that mass-dependent fractionation effects of oxygen isotopes in FUN <span class="hlt">CAI</span> minerals are due to evaporation during melt crystallization. Differences in Δ17O values of mass-dependent fractionation lines defined by minerals in individual FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are inferred to reflect differences in Δ17O values of their precursors. Differences in δ18O values of minerals defining the mass-dependent fractionation lines in several FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/944372','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/944372"><span>OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF THE ALLENDE TYPE C <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>: EVIDENCE FOR ISOTOPIC EXCHANGE DURING NEBULAR MELTING AND ASTEROIDAL THERMAL METAMORPHISM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krot, A N; Chaussidon, M; Yurimoto, H; Sakamoto, N; Nagashima, K; Hutcheon, I D; MacPherson, G J</p> <p>2008-02-21</p> <p>Based on the mineralogy and petrography, coarse-grained, igneous, anorthite-rich (Type C) calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) in the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende have been recently divided into three groups: (i) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with melilite and Al,Ti-diopside of massive and lacy textures (coarse grains with numerous rounded inclusions of anorthite) in a fine-grained anorthite groundmass (6-1-72, 100, 160), (ii) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> CG5 with massive melilite, Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite, and (iii) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> associated with chondrule material: either containing chondrule fragments in their peripheries (ABC, TS26) or surrounded by chondrule-like, igneous rims (93) (Krot et al., 2007a,b). Here, we report in situ oxygen isotopic measurements of primary (melilite, spinel, Al,Ti-diopside, anorthite) and secondary (grossular, monticellite, forsterite) minerals in these <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -25{per_thousand} to -20{per_thousand}), massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -20{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}) and fine-grained anorthite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -15{per_thousand} to -2{per_thousand}) in 100, 160 and 6-1-72 are {sup 16}O-enriched relative spinel and coarse-grained Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite in ABC, 93 and TS26 ({Delta}{sup 17}O ranges from -20{per_thousand} to -15{per_thousand}, from -15{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}, and from -5{per_thousand} to 0{per_thousand}, respectively). In 6-1-72, massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside grains are {sup 16}O-depleted ({Delta}{sup 17}O {approx} -13{per_thousand}) relative to spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -23{per_thousand}). Melilite is the most {sup 16}O-depleted mineral in all Allende Type C <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. In <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 100, melilite and secondary grossular, monticellite and forsterite (minerals replacing melilite) are similarly {sup 16}O-depleted, whereas grossular in <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 160 is {sup 16}O-enriched ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -10{per_thousand} to -6{per_thousand}) relative to melilite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -5{per_thousand} to -3{per_thousand}). We infer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ISPAr3825W..94L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ISPAr3825W..94L"><span>Comparison of Gosat <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and SPOT Vgt Ndvi Data with Different Season and Land Cover in East Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Y.; Wang, X.; Guo, M.; Tani, H.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has become one of the most widely used indices in remote sensing applications in a variety of fields. Many studies have compared the NDVI values for different satellite sensors. Nowadays, the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) was successfully launched on January 23, 2009. It is used to monitor greenhouse gases on the Earth's surface and also has a sensor, the Cloud Aerosol Imager (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>), that senses red and near infrared spectrums. It can also process NDVI data. Therefore, we are first compare GOSAT <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and SPOT VGT NDVI data in different seasonal and land cover in East Asian, to explore the relationship between the two types of datasets, and to discuss the possibility of extending SPOT VGT data using GOSAT <span class="hlt">CAI</span> NDVI data for the same area. We used GOSAT <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Level 3 data to derive 10-day composite NDVI values for the East Asia region for November 2009 and January, April and July 2010 using the maximum value composite (MVC) method. We compared these values with 10-day composite SPOT VGT NDVI data for the same period. The results show that the correlation coefficients of regression analysis generally revealed a strong correlation between NDVI from the two sensors in November 2009 and January, April and July 2010 (0.88, 0.85, 0.77 and 0.74, respectively). The differences place may be affected by cloud cover. From the combined analysis of seasonal changes and land cover, we found that the correlations between the SPOT VGT and the GOSAT <span class="hlt">CAI</span> NDVI data are less affected by seasonal change and the SPOT VGT data is more sensitive to high vegetation coverage than the GOSAT <span class="hlt">CAI</span> data. In the future, through continued monitoring and processing by cloud removal technology, the accuracy of GOSAT <span class="hlt">CAI</span> NDVI data will be further improved and thus be more widely used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPI....43.2259M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPI....43.2259M"><span>Temporal and Spatial Heterogeneities in the Solar Nebula Reflected in Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Systematics of Al3S4, an Allende Type B <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marks, N. E.; Borg, L. E.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Jacobsen, B.; Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>We have measured the Rb-Sr, ^1^7^4Sm-^1^4^3Nd and ^1^4^7Sm-^1^4^2Nd isotope compositions of a type B <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. These data indicate that <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and Earth have the same ^1^4^2Nd/^1^4^4Nd composition and that carbonaceous chondrites are distinct from both Earth and <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A23A0175O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A23A0175O"><span>The impact of the use of different satellite data as training data against GOSAT-2 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-2 L2 cloud discrimination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Oishi, Y.; Ishida, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite-2 (GOSAT-2) will be launched in fiscal 2017 to determine atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, such as CO2, CH4, and CO. GOSAT-2 will be equipped with two sensors: the Thermal and Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation (TANSO)-Fourier Transform Spectrometer-2 (FTS-2) and TANSO-Cloud and Aerosol Imager-2 (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>-2). <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-2 is a push-broom imaging sensor that has forward- and backward-looking bands for observing the optical properties of aerosols and clouds, and for monitoring the status of urban air pollution and transboundary air pollution over oceans. An important role of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-2 is to perform cloud discrimination in each direction. The Cloud and Aerosol Unbiased Decision Intellectual Algorithm (CLAUDIA1), which applies sequential threshold tests to features, has been used in GOSAT <span class="hlt">CAI</span> L2 cloud flag processing. If CLAUDIA1 used with <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-2, it is necessary to optimize the thresholds in accordance with <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-2. Meanwhile, CLAUDIA3 using support vector machines (SVM), which is a supervised pattern recognition method, was developed for GOSAT-2 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-2 L2 cloud discrimination processing. Thus, CLAUDIA3 can automatically find the optimized boundary between clear and cloudy. Improvement of the CLAUDIA3 used with <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (CLAUDIA3-<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) has carried out and is still continuing. In this study we compared results of CLAUDIA3-<span class="hlt">CAI</span> using Terra MODIS data and GOSAT <span class="hlt">CAI</span> data as training data to clarify the impact of the use of different satellite data as training data against GOSAT-2 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-2 L2 cloud discrimination. We will present our latest results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V43J..02O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V43J..02O"><span>The isotopic homogeneity in the early solar system: Revisiting the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> oxygen isotopic anomaly</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ozima, M.; Yamada, A.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Since the first discovery of the mass-independently fractionated oxygen isotopes in anhydrous, high temperature Ca-Al rich inclusion minerals in carbonaceous meteorites (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) by Clayton et al. (1), their common occurrence in primitive meteorites has generally been regarded to reflect some fundamental process prevalent in the early solar nebula. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span> oxygen isotopic composition is uniquely characterized by (i) large mass independent isotopic fractionation and (ii) their isotopic data in an oxygen three isotope plot (δ17O - δ18O (δ17O ≡ {(17O/16O)/(17O/16O)SMOW - 1} × 1000) yield nearly a straight line with a slope 1.0. In establishing these characteristics, ion microprobe analyses has played a central role, especially an isotopic mapping technique (isotopography) was crucial (e.g., 2). The extraordinary oxygen isotopic ratio in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> is widely attributed to the self-shielding absorption of UV radiation in CO, one of the dominant chemical compounds in the early solar nebula (3). However, the self-shielding scenario necessarily leads to the unusual prediction that a mean solar oxygen isotopic composition differs from most of planetary bodies including Earth, Moon, and Mars. If the self-shielding process were indeed responsible to the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> oxygen isotopic anomaly, this would require a fundamental revision of the current theory of the origin of the solar system, which generally assumes the initial total vaporization of nebula material to give rise to isotopic homogenization. The GENESIS mission launched in 2001(4), which collected oxygen in the solar wind was hoped to resolve the isotopic composition of the Sun. However, because of difficulties in correcting for instrumental and more importantly for intrinsic isotopic fractionation between the SW and the Sun, a final answer is yet to be seen (5). Here, we show on the basis of the oxygen isotopic fractionation systematics that the self shielding hypothesis cannot explain the key characteristics of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> oxygen</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.169...99K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.169...99K"><span>26Al-26Mg chronology and oxygen isotope distributions of multiple melting for a Type C <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from Allende</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kawasaki, Noriyuki; Kato, Chizu; Itoh, Shoichi; Wakaki, Shigeyuki; Ito, Motoo; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Disequilibrium oxygen isotopic distributions of Ca-Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) correspond to multiple melting events in the solar nebula. 26Al-26Mg systematics may be applicable for age differences among such melting events. We have carried out a coordinated study of detailed petrographic observations and in-situ oxygen and magnesium isotope measurements for a Type C <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, EK1-04-2, from the Allende CV3 meteorite to determine the melting events and their ages. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span> consists mainly of spinel, anorthite, olivine, and pyroxene, and has a core and mantle structure. Petrography of the core suggests that the crystallization sequence of the core minerals is from spinel, anorthite, olivine, and to pyroxene. The mantle has the same mineral assemblage as the core, and shows incomplete melting and solidification textures. Oxygen isotopic compositions of the minerals are distributed along the carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous mineral (CCAM) line (δ18O = -44‰ to +9‰), which indicates to preserve a chemical disequilibrium status in the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Spinel shows a 16O-rich signature (δ18O ∼ -43‰), while anorthite is 16O-poor (δ18O ∼ +8‰). Olivine and pyroxene in the core have the same oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O ∼ -15‰), which indicates their equilibrium. Olivine and pyroxene in the mantle have variable oxygen isotopic compositions and are slightly depleted in 16O (δ18O = -13‰ to -4‰) compared with the same minerals in the core. The 26Al-26Mg systematics is consistent with the disequilibrium status observed according to the petrography and oxygen isotopes. Spinel is plotted on a line of (26Al/27Al)0 = (3.5 ± 0.2) × 10-5, anorthite is plotted on a line of (-1 ± 5) × 10-7, and olivine and pyroxene in the core are plotted on a line of (-1 ± 7) × 10-6. Plots of olivine and pyroxene in the mantle are scattered below the isochron of these minerals in the core. This study indicates that the EK1-04-2 Type C <span class="hlt">CAI</span> underwent multiple heating events after the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150018570','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150018570"><span>Characterization of Meteorites by Focused Ion Beam Sectioning: Recent Applications to <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and Primitive Meteorite Matrices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Christoffersen, Roy; Keller, Lindsay P.; Han, Jangmi; Rahman, Zia; Berger, Eve L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning has revolutionized preparation of meteorite samples for characterization by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and other techniques. Although FIB is not "non-destructive" in the purest sense, each extracted section amounts to no more than nanograms (approximately 500 cubic microns) removed intact from locations precisely controlled by SEM imaging and analysis. Physical alteration of surrounding material by ion damage, fracture or sputter contamination effects is localized to within a few micrometers around the lift-out point. This leaves adjacent material intact for coordinate geochemical analysis by SIMS, microdrill extraction/TIMS and other techniques. After lift out, FIB sections can be quantitatively analyzed by electron microprobe prior to final thinning, synchrotron x-ray techniques, and by the full range of state-of-the-art analytical field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM) techniques once thinning is complete. Multiple meteorite studies supported by FIB/FE-STEM are currently underway at NASA-JSC, including coordinated analysis of refractory phase assemblages in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and fine-grained matrices in carbonaceous chondrites. FIB sectioning of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> has uncovered epitaxial and other overgrowth relations between corundum-hibonite-spinel consistent with hibonite preceding corundum and/or spinel in non-equilibrium condensation sequences at combinations of higher gas pressures, dust-gas enrichments or significant nebular transport. For all of these cases, the ability of FIB to allow for coordination with spatially-associated isotopic data by SIMS provides immense value for constraining the formation scenarios of the particular <span class="hlt">CAI</span> assemblage. For carbonaceous chondrites matrix material, FIB has allowed us to obtain intact continuous sections of the immediate outer surface of Murchison (CM2) after it has been experimentally ion processed to simulate solar wind space weathering. The surface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907835','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907835"><span>Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from Short-Lived and Long-Lived Radionuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kita, N T; Huss, G R; Tachibana, S; Amelin, Y; Nyquist, L E; Hutcheon, I D</p> <p>2005-10-24</p> <p>The high time resolution Pb-Pb ages and short-lived nuclide based relative ages for <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and chondrules are reviewed. The solar system started at 4567.2 {+-} 0.6Ma inferred from the high precision Pb-Pb ages of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Time scales of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> ({le}0.1Myr), chondrules (1-3Myr), and early asteroidal differentiation ({ge}3Myr) inferred from {sup 26}Al relative ages are comparable to the time scale estimated from astronomical observations of young star; proto star, classical T Tauri star and week-lined T Tauri star, respectively. Pb-Pb ages of chondrules also indicate chondrule formation occur within 1-3 Myr after <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Mn-Cr isochron ages of chondrules are similar to or within 2 Myr after <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation. Chondrules from different classes of chondrites show the same range of {sup 26}Al ages in spite of their different oxygen isotopes, indicating that chondrule formed in the localized environment. The {sup 26}Al ages of chondrules in each chondrite class show a hint of correlation with their chemical compositions, which implies the process of elemental fractionation during chondrule formation events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26PSL.401..327B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26PSL.401..327B"><span>An oxygen isotope study of Wark-Lovering rims on type A <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in primitive carbonaceous chondrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bodénan, Jean-David; Starkey, Natalie A.; Russell, Sara S.; Wright, Ian P.; Franchi, Ian A.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Calcium-aluminium-rich Inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) and the thin Wark-Lovering (WL) rims of minerals surrounding them offer a record of the nature of changing conditions during the earliest stages of Solar System formation. Considerable heterogeneity in the gas composition in the immediate vicinity of the proto-Sun had previously been inferred from oxygen isotopic variations in the WL rim of a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from Allende (Simon et al., 2011). However, high precision and high spatial resolution oxygen isotope measurements presented in this study show that WL rim and pristine core minerals of individual <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from meteorites that had experienced only low degrees of alteration or low grade metamorphism (one from Léoville (reduced CV3), two in QUE 99177 (CR3.0) and two in ALHA 77307 (CO3.0)) are uniformly 16O-rich. This indicates that the previously observed variations are the result of secondary processes, most likely on the asteroid parent body, and that there were no temporal or spatial variations in oxygen isotopic composition during <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and WL rim formation. Such homogeneity across three groups of carbonaceous chondrites lends further support for a common origin for the <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in all chondrites. 16O-poor oxygen reservoirs such as those associated with chondrule formation, were probably generated by UV photo-dissociation involving self-shielding mechanisms and must have occurred elsewhere in outer regions of the solar accretion disk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100005633','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100005633"><span>FIB-NanoSIMS-TEM Coordinated Study of a Wark-Lovering Rim in a Vigarano Type A <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cai, A.; Ito, M.; Keller, L. P.; Ross, D. K.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multi layered mineral sequences that surround most Ca, Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>). Unaltered WL rims are composed of the same primary high temperature minerals as <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, such as melilite, spinel, pyroxene, hibonite, perovskite, anorthite and olivine. It is still unclear whether the rim minerals represent a different generation formed by a separate event from their associated <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> or are a byproduct of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation. Several models have been proposed for the origins of WL rims including condensation, flashheating, reaction of a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> with a Mg-Si-rich reservoir (nebular gas or solid); on the basis of mineralogy, abundances of trace elements, O and Mg isotopic studies. Detailed mineralogical characterizations of WL rims at micrometer to nanometer scales have been obtained by TEM observations, but so far no coordinated isotopic - mineralogical studies have been performed. Thus, we have applied an O isotopic imaging technique by NanoSIMS 50L to investigate heterogeneous distributions of O isotopic ratios in minerals within a cross section of a WL rim prepared using a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument. After the isotopic measurements, we determine the detailed mineralogy and microstructure of the same WL FIB section to gain insight into its petrogenesis. Here we present preliminary results from O isotopic and elemental maps by NanoSIMS and mineralogical analysis by FE-SEM of a FIB section of a WL rim in the Vigarano reduced CV3 chondrite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009gdca.conf..321C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009gdca.conf..321C"><span>Problem Solving Process Research of Everyone Involved in Innovation Based on <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Tao; Shao, Yunfei; Tang, Xiaowo</p> <p></p> <p>It is very important that non-technical department personnel especially bottom line employee serve as innovators under the requirements of everyone involved in innovation. According the view of this paper, it is feasible and necessary to build everyone involved in innovation problem solving process under Total Innovation Management (TIM) based on the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). The tools under the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> technology: How TO mode and science effects database could be very useful for all employee especially non-technical department and bottom line for innovation. The problem solving process put forward in the paper focus on non-technical department personnel especially bottom line employee for innovation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Metic..28Q.335C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Metic..28Q.335C"><span>Thermal Histories of PGE-rich Metal Particles in a Vigarano <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Casanova, I.; Grossman, L.</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>Metal particles in Vigarano 1623-8, a Type B2 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> [1], underwent virtually no sulfidation, as is typical of opaque assemblages from Ca, Al-rich inclusions in the reduced CV3 chondrites [2]. In this study, we have identified two large metal grains (M1 and M2) with chemical and mineralogical features that may indicate cooling under different conditions and are, therefore, difficult to understand in the environment of a single <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> thermal evolution. M1 is an almost spherical, kamacite+taenite-bearing particle included in a fassaite grain of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> host; a 17.5 micrometer-long (0.5 micrometer steps) microprobe traverse along M1 shows that Ni and Ru contents in the taenite (31.5 and 1.1 wt%, respectively) are uniform, and differ from those in the adjacent kamacite (Ni=4.5, Ru=0.7 wt%). M2 is a 20 micrometer, irregularly-shaped taenite particle, embedded in a fine-grained (spinel-rich) portion of 1623-8. It has a homogeneous composition with 10.5 wt% Ni, 0.4% Co, 0.7% Re, 0.6% Pt and high concentrations of Ru (6.5 wt%), Os (4.3 wt%) and Ir (8.2 wt%), as previously recognized by [1]. The composition of M2 is such that it should have undergone exsolution at 800 = T >= 600 degrees C (according to experimental data by [3]) to form at least two (alpha+gamma-NiFe), or probably three (+epsilon-RuFe) different phases. Lack of exsolution features in this large grain is therefore indicative of equilibration at relatively high temperatures (T>600 degrees C) followed by rapid cooling. Other metal particles of similar bulk compositions in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from the Leoville chondrite (also a reduced CV3) show extensive exsolution features that have been interpreted as the result of low- temperature equilibration of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and their constituents after incorporation into their parent body [4, 5]. The relatively high equilibration temperature of M2 is, however, inconsistent with the existence of kamacite in M1. From the phase relations in the Fe-Ni binary, a grain like M1, with 25 wt% bulk Ni</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Metic..29R.454C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Metic..29R.454C"><span>Opaque minerals in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, and classification of the Axtell (CV3) chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Casanova, I.; Simon, S. B.</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>Axtell is a new CV3 chondrite from Texas. Preliminary studies of its Ca-Al rich Inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) were reported. The mineralogy and chemical compositions of opaque minerals in four Axtell <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are distinct from their analogs in other inclusions from CV3 chondrites. Metallic NiFe (awaruite) is the dominant phase in opaque assemblages from Axtell inclusions, and occurs as well-rounded particles of sizes between about 1 and 20 microns. Their compositions (in atom %) are N63-67Fe31-33Co2-3 in AX-4, AX-7, and AX-9, and Ni74Fe23Co2 in AX-5. None of the awaruite grains contains measurable amounts (greater than 200 ppm by weight) of the platinum-group elements analyzed for Ru, W, Mo, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt. With very few exceptions, the awaruite particles studied are surrounded by or intergrown with V-free magnetite (detection limit = 400 ppm). In contrast with Allende, the dominant sulfide phase in Axtell inclusions is troilite (Ni less than or = 0.02-0.3%, by weight); pentlandite is scarce, occurring only sporadically as small grains associated with metallic FeNi (just a few particles of 5-15 microns were found in AX-5, AX-4, and AX-7, and none in AX-9). Also, an isolated 10-microns grain of millerite (NiS; Fe = 0.6 wt%) has been identified in AX-5. Unlike Allende inclusions, Axtell <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> do not contain sulfide veins. Two remarkably large PGE-rich sulfide grains have been recognized: one spherical 12-microns particle in AX-4 (AX-4A, in melilite, close to the edge of the inclusion) and another irregularly shaped 25-microns grain in AX-9 (AX-9A, in melilite inside a spinel palisade). Study of the elemental distribution by wavelength-dispersive X-ray mapping and analysis and backscattered electron imaging suggests that these are single minerals and not multiphase assemblages. Microprobe analyses of chondrule olivines and low-Ca pyroxenes yield average Fa and Fs contents of 6.7 and 1.0 mol% respectively. These compositions suggest that Axtell is more similar to the CV3 chondrites</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996LPI....27.1257S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996LPI....27.1257S"><span>New Evidence for 26Al in <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and Chondrules from Type 3 Ordinary Chondrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Srinivasan, G.; Russell, S. S.; MacPherson, G. J.; Huss, G. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.</p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>We have known since 1976 that 26A1 (tl/2 = 7.2 x 105 yrs) was alive in the early solar system, at a level of (26Al/27Al)o z 5 x 10-5 in calcium-aluminum inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>). However, several outstanding questions remain. Little evidence for 26A1 has been found in other chondritic material, and none has been found in differentiated meteorites. These results might imply that 26A1 was heterogeneously distributed in the nebula or by mineralogic site in nebular dust, or they might reflect differences in time of formation. There are strict limitations on finding evidence of 26A1 in normal chondrules with bulk Al/Mg ~ 0.1, since even quenched, perfectly preserved, late-stage glasses would have low Al/Mg. Primary plagioclase crystals provide the only possibility, but these only crystallize rarely in melts within the compositional range of normal chondrules. Also, metamorphism can erase the evidence in high-AI/Mg phases. To address these issues, we have conducted a search for chondrules and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> with high-Al/Mg phases suitable for ion-probe measurement in type 3 ordinary chondrites. Previous work has revealed evidence for 26Al in a plagioclase bearing, olivine-pyroxene class from Semarkona (LL3.0; (26Al/27Al)o = 7.7+/-2.1 x 10-6)), a plagioclase-rich object from Bovedy (L3.7?; 2.5+/-1.2 x 10-7), in separated plagioclase from St. Marguerite (H4; 2.0+/-0.6 x 10-7), an isolated hibonite grain from Dhajala (H3.8; 8.4+0.5 x 10-6), and in Al2O3 and hibonite grains ((26Al/27Al)o = 2-5 x 10-5; [GRH, unpublished]) from acid residues of Semarkona, Bishunpur (LL3.1), and Krymka (LL3.1). We have identified and measured Al-Mg isotope systematics in two <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and seven chondrules from ordinary chondrites of low metamorphic grade and have found clear evidence for 26A1 in both <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and in two chondrules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA016613','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA016613"><span>Intelligent <span class="hlt">CAI</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1975-10-01</p> <p>of industria !, technological, and sociological interest- invaluable information for executives and professionals who must keep up to date. The...BEVERAGE 1A HOT CHOCOLATE MB TEA IBI WITH LEMON HB2 WITH SUGAR AND CREAM 1C COFFEE 11 SUBSTITUTE WOR’ JN &TATCIKMT Before we end this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001852','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001852"><span>Ca-Fe and Alkali-Halide Alteration of an Allende Type B <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Aqueous Alteration in Nebular or Asteroidal Settings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Ca-Fe and alkali-halide alteration of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> is often attributed to aqueous alteration by fluids circulating on asteroidal parent bodies after the various chondritic components have been assembled, although debate continues about the roles of asteroidal vs. nebular modification processes [1-7]. Here we report de-tailed observations of alteration products in a large Type B2 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, TS4 from Allende, one of the oxidized subgroup of CV3s, and propose a speculative model for aqueous alteration of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in a nebular setting. Ca-Fe alteration in this <span class="hlt">CAI</span> consists predominantly of end-member hedenbergite, end-member andradite, and compositionally variable, magnesian high-Ca pyroxene. These phases are strongly concentrated in an unusual "nodule" enclosed within the interior of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (Fig. 1). The Ca, Fe-rich nodule superficially resembles a clast that pre-dated and was engulfed by the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, but closer inspection shows that relic spinel grains are enclosed in the nodule, and corroded <span class="hlt">CAI</span> primary phases interfinger with the Fe-rich phases at the nodule s margins. This <span class="hlt">CAI</span> also contains abundant sodalite and nepheline (alkali-halide) alteration that occurs around the rims of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, but also penetrates more deeply into the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. The two types of alteration (Ca-Fe and alkali-halide) are adjacent, and very fine-grained Fe-rich phases are associated with sodalite-rich regions. Both types of alteration appear to be replacive; if that is true, it would require substantial introduction of Fe, and transport of elements (Ti, Al and Mg) out of the nodule, and introduction of Na and Cl into alkali-halide rich zones. Parts of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> have been extensively metasomatized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012818','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012818"><span>In Situ Trace Element Analysis of an Allende Type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: EK-459-5-1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Variations in refractory major and trace element composition of calcium, aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) provide constraints on physical and chemical conditions and processes in the earliest stages of the Solar System. Previous work indicates that <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> have experienced complex histories involving, in many cases, multiple episodes of condensation, evaporation, and partial melting. We have analyzed major and trace element abundances in two core to rim transects of the melilite mantle as well as interior major phases of a Type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (EK-459-5-1) from Allende by electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to investigate the behavior of key trace elements with a primary focus on the REEs Tm and Yb.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890006945','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890006945"><span>Extending the granularity of representation and control for the MIL-STD <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> 1.0 node model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rogers, Kathy L.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The Common APSE (Ada 1 Program Support Environment) Interface Set (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>) (DoD85) node model provides an excellent baseline for interfaces in a single-host development environment. To encompass the entire spectrum of computing, however, the <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> model should be extended in four areas. It should provide the interface between the engineering workstation and the host system throughout the entire lifecycle of the system. It should provide a basis for communication and integration functions needed by distributed host environments. It should provide common interfaces for communications mechanisms to and among target processors. It should provide facilities for integration, validation, and verification of test beds extending to distributed systems on geographically separate processors with heterogeneous instruction set architectures (ISAS). Additions to the PROCESS NODE model to extend the <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> into these four areas are proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21390725','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21390725"><span>An experimental study of fuel injection strategies in <span class="hlt">CAI</span> gasoline engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hunicz, J.; Kordos, P.</p> <p>2011-01-15</p> <p>Combustion of gasoline in a direct injection controlled auto-ignition (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) single-cylinder research engine was studied. <span class="hlt">CAI</span> operation was achieved with the use of the negative valve overlap (NVO) technique and internal exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). Experiments were performed at single injection and split injection, where some amount of fuel was injected close to top dead centre (TDC) during NVO interval, and the second injection was applied with variable timing. Additionally, combustion at variable fuel-rail pressure was examined. Investigation showed that at fuel injection into recompressed exhaust fuel reforming took place. This process was identified via an analysis of the exhaust-fuel mixture composition after NVO interval. It was found that at single fuel injection in NVO phase, its advance determined the heat release rate and auto-ignition timing, and had a strong influence on NO{sub X} emission. However, a delay of single injection to intake stroke resulted in deterioration of cycle-to-cycle variability. Application of split injection showed benefits of this strategy versus single injection. Examinations of different fuel mass split ratios and variable second injection timing resulted in further optimisation of mixture formation. At equal share of the fuel mass injected in the first injection during NVO and in the second injection at the beginning of compression, the lowest emission level and cyclic variability improvement were observed. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27666995','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27666995"><span>Effects of Lactobacillus curvatus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides on Suan <span class="hlt">Cai</span> Fermentation in Northeast China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Hongyan; Wu, Hao; Gao, Lijuan; Jia, Hongbai; Zhang, Yuan; Cui, Zongjun; Li, Yuhua</p> <p>2016-12-28</p> <p>To investigate the effects of Lactobacillus curvatus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides on suan <span class="hlt">cai</span> (pickled Chinese cabbage) fermentation, L. curvatus and/or Ln. mesenteroides were inoculated into suan <span class="hlt">cai</span>. Physicochemical indexes were measured, and the microbial dynamics during the fermentation were analyzed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results showed that inoculation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) lowered the pH of the fermentation system more rapidly. The decrease in water-soluble carbohydrates in the inoculated treatments occurred more rapidly than in the control. The LAB counts in the control were lower than in other inoculated treatments during the first 12 days of fermentation. According to the Illumina MiSeq sequencing analyses, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia were present in the fermentations, along with other unclassified bacteria. Generally, Firmicutes was predominant during the fermentation in all treatments. At the genus level, 16 genera were detected. The relative abundance of Lactobacillus in all inoculated treatments was higher than in the control. The relative abundance of Lactobacillus in the treatments containing L. curvatus was higher than in the Ln. mesenteroides-only treatment. The relative abundance of Leuconostoc in the Ln. mesenteroides-containing treatments increased continuously throughout the fermentation. Leuconostoc was highest in the Ln. mesenteroides-only treatment. According to the qPCR results, L. curvatus and/or Ln. mesenteroides inoculations could effectively inhabit the fermentation system. L. curvatus dominated the fermentation in the inoculated treatments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023467','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70023467"><span>Thermal maturity patterns in New York State using <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and %Ro</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Weary, D.J.; Ryder, R.T.; Nyahay, R.E.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>New conodont alteration index (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) and vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) data collected from drill holes in the Appalachian basin of New York State allow refinement of thermal maturity maps for Ordovician and Devonian rocks. <span class="hlt">CAI</span> isotherms on the new maps show a pattern that approximates that published by Harris et al. (1978) in eastern and western New York, but it differs in central New York, where the isotherms are shifted markedly westward by more than 100 km and are more tightly grouped. This close grouping of isograds reflects a steeper thermal gradient than previously noted by Harris et al. (1978) and agrees closely with the abrupt west-to-east increase in thermal maturity across New York noted by Johnsson (1986). These data show, in concordance with previous studies, that thermal maturity levels in these rocks are higher than can be explained by simple burial heating beneath the present thickness of overburden. The Ordovician and Devonian rocks of the Appalachian Basin in New York must have been buried by very thick post-Devonian sediments (4-6 km suggested by Sarwar and Friedman 1995) or were exposed to a higher-than-normal geothermal flux caused by crustal extension, or a combination of the two.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S41A2163R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S41A2163R"><span>Full Waveform 2.5D Teleseismic Surface Wave Tomography with Application to the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roecker, S. W.; Priestley, K. F.; Baker, B. I.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>We adapt the 2.5D spectral domain finite difference waveform tomography algorithm of Roecker et al. (2010) to permit the analysis of teleseismically recorded surface waves. The teleseismic body wave technique of generating synthetic waveforms by specifying an analytic solution for a background wavefield in a 1D model and solving for a scattered field excited by this background is equally applicable to surface waves. We use the locked mode approach of Gomberg and Masters (1988) to calculate the background Greens functions at each point of the finite difference (FD) grid. Because of the much greater concentration of energy at the surface, we adopt the cell-based FD operators of Min et al. (2004) to calculate the free surface boundary conditions, and the generalized stretching function of Komatitch and Martin (2007) to improve the absorption in the PML. We use this algorithm to analyze broad band seismograms of events in Sumatra recorded by the MANAS array in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. Our results show that the upper mantle beneath much of the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan has shear wavespeeds at least 10% lower than the lithosphere beneath the Tarim basin to the south or the Kazach shield to the north. At the same time, there appears to be a remnant lithospheric lid beneath the Kyrgyz range in the north, an observation consistent with previous receiver function studies in this area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017QSRv..159...15B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017QSRv..159...15B"><span>Timing and process of river and lake terrace formation in the Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burgette, Reed J.; Weldon, Ray J.; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbek Ye.; Ormukov, Cholponbek; Owen, Lewis A.; Thompson, Stephen C.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Well-preserved flights of river and lake terraces traverse an actively deforming rangefront, and form a link between glaciated mountains and a large intermontane lake in the Issyk-Kul basin of the Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. We investigated the history and geometry of these lake and river terraces using geologic mapping, surveying, and radiocarbon and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating. A prominent late Pleistocene highstand of the lake occurred over at least the period of 43-25 ka, followed by a period of deep regression and subsequent rise of the lake to the modern sill level in the late Holocene. Major aggradation of the most prominent latest Quaternary river terrace along the Ak-Terek and Barskaun rivers likely started at ∼70-60 ka, coincident to the local last glacial maximum in this region. In contrast to some models of aggradation and incision, the rivers appear to have stayed near the top of the fill for >20 ka, incising subtly below the top of this fill by ∼37 ka, locally. Deep incision likely did not occur until the peak deglaciation in the latest Pleistocene. Older dated terrace surfaces are consistent with one major terrace-forming event per glacial, constant deformation and incision rates, and typical fluvial gradients lower than the modern incising streams. The dating confirms regional terrace correlations for the most prominent late Quaternary terraces, but correlating higher terraces is complicated by spatially varying uplift rates and preferential terrace preservation between basins in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23415182','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23415182"><span>Salud <span class="hlt">Tiene</span> Sabor: a model for healthier restaurants in a Latino community.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nevarez, Carmen R; Lafleur, Mariah S; Schwarte, Liz U; Rodin, Beth; de Silva, Pri; Samuels, Sarah E</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has risen nationally in recent decades, and is exceptionally high in low-income communities of color such as South Los Angeles CA. Independently owned restaurants participating in the Salud <span class="hlt">Tiene</span> Sabor program at ethnic foods marketplace Mercado La Paloma in South Los Angeles are responding to the childhood obesity crisis by posting calories for menu items and providing nutrition information to patrons. To evaluate whether menu labeling and nutrition information at point of purchase have an influence on availability of healthy food options, patron awareness of calorie information, and restaurant owners' support of the program. A case-study design using mixed methods included restaurant owner and stakeholder interviews, patron surveys, and environmental assessments. Data were collected using originally designed tools, and analyzed in 2009-2011. Healthy eating options were available at the Mercado La Paloma; restaurant owners and the larger community supported the Salud <span class="hlt">Tiene</span> Sabor program; 33% of patrons reported calorie information-influenced purchase decisions. Owners of independent restaurants have an important role in improving access to healthy foods in low-income, Latino communities. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Tectp.602..194D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Tectp.602..194D"><span>Basin evolution in a folding lithosphere: Altai-Sayan and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan belts in Central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Delvaux, D.; Cloetingh, S.; Beekman, F.; Sokoutis, D.; Burov, E.; Buslov, M. M.; Abdrakhmatov, K. E.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Central Asia is a classical example for continental lithospheric folding. In particular, the Altay-Sayan belt in South-Siberia and the Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan display a special mode of lithospheric deformation, involving decoupled lithospheric mantle folding and upper crustal folding and faulting. Both areas have a heterogenous crust with a long history of accretion-collision, subsequently reactivated as a far-field effect of the Indian-Eurasian collision. Thanks to the youthfulness of the tectonic deformation in this region (peak deformation in late Pliocene-early Pleistocene), the surface expression of lithospheric deformation is well documented by the surface topography and superficial tectonic structures. A review of the paleostress data and tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Kurai-Chuya basin in Siberian Altai, Zaisan basin in Kazakh South Altai and Issyk-Kul basin in Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan suggests that they were initiated in an extensional context and inverted by a combination of fault-controlled deformation and flexural folding. In these basins, fault-controlled deformation alone appears largely insufficient to explain their architecture. Lithospheric buckling inducing surface tilting, uplift and subsidence also played an important role. They form typical basins in a folding lithosphere (FLB). Their characteristic basin fill and symmetry, inner structure, folding wavelength and amplitude, thermal regime, time frame are examined in relation to basement structure, stress field, strain rate, timing of deformation, and compared to existing modelling results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.P11C1240D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.P11C1240D"><span>Characterizing Pyroxene Reaction Space in Calcium-Aluminum Rich Inclusions: Oxidation During <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Rim Formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dyl, K. A.; Young, E. D.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>We define the reaction space that controls changes in pyroxene composition in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and Wark-Lovering (WL) rims in an oxidizing solar nebula. Ti-rich pyroxenes in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> record a sub-solar oxygen fugacity (Ti3+/Ti4+~1.5). WL rim pyroxenes in the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Leoville 144A have a distinctly lower oxidation state.This difference supports WL rim condensation in an environment of increasing O2(g) and Mg(g) (Simon et al. 2005). We used the following phase components to identify four linearly independent reactions (Thompson 1982): diopside, CaTs (Al2Mg-1Si-1), T3 (Ti3+AlMg-1Si-1), T4 (Ti4+Al2Mg-1Si-2), En (MgCa-1), perovskite, O(g), Mg(g), SiO(g), and Ca(g). Compositional variation in this system is dominated by two reactions. The first is oxidation of Ti3+ via reaction with O and Mg in the gas phase: 1.5 O(g) + Mg(g) → ¼ Di + [Ti4+Mg3/4Ti3+-1Ca-1/4Si-1/2] (1). Pyroxene is produced and En is introduced. The second reaction (2) is perovskite formation. It is observed in the WL rim of Leoville 144A, and experiments confirm that an elevated Ti component converts pyroxene to perovskite(Gupta et al. 1973). MgCa-1 is the third linearly independent reaction (3). They combine to give: ½ Di + x Ca(g)→ x Mg(g)+ Pv + [Mg1/2-xSiTi4+-1Ca-1/2+x](2,3). Unlike (1), pyroxene is consumed in this reaction. The parameter x defines the extent of Mg-Ca exchange. When x > 0.5, WL rim formation occurs in an environment where Mg is volatile and Ca condenses. The reaction space defined by reactions (1) and (2,3) describes the transition from <span class="hlt">CAI</span> interior to WL rims. WL rim pyroxene Ti contents, [CaTs], and Ca < 1 pfu are all explained in this space. The fourth linearly independent reaction is SiO(g):1/8 Di + ¼ Mg(g)→ ¾ SiO(g) + [Mg3/8Ca1/8Ti4+Ti3+-1Si-1/2](4). Silica reduction forms Ti4+, releasing SiO(g). (4) does not describe the oxidation of Ti3+ in WL rim pyroxene, but (1) - (4) results in En formation directly from the gas phase. This may explain WL rim analyses that have Si contents in excess</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010679','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010679"><span>Microstructures of Hibonite From an ALH A77307 (CO3.0) <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Evidence for Evaporative Loss of Calcium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Han, Jangmi; Brearley, Adrian J.; Keller, Lindsay P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Hibonite is a comparatively rare, primary phase found in some <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from different chondrite groups and is also common in Wark-Lovering rims [1]. Hibonite is predicted to be one of the earliest refractory phases to form by equilibrium condensation from a cooling gas of solar composition [2] and, therefore, can be a potential recorder of very early solar system processes. In this study, we describe the microstructures of hibonite from one <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in ALH A77307 (CO3.0) using FIB/TEM techniques in order to reconstruct its formational history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002651','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002651"><span>Calcium and Titanium Isotope Fractionation in <span class="hlt">CAIS</span>: Tracers of Condensation and Inheritance in the Early Solar Protoplanetary Disk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Simon, J. I.; Jordan, M. K.; Tappa, M. J.; Kohl, I. E.; Young, E. D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The chemical and isotopic compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) can be used to understand the conditions present in the protoplantary disk where they formed. The isotopic compositions of these early-formed nebular materials are largely controlled by chemical volatility. The isotopic effects of evaporation/sublimation, which are well explained by both theory and experimental work, lead to enrichments of the heavy isotopes that are often exhibited by the moderately refractory elements Mg and Si. Less well understood are the isotopic effects of condensation, which limits our ability to determine whether a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is a primary condensate and/or retains any evidence of its primordial formation history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.201...65M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.201...65M"><span>High precision Al-Mg systematics of forsterite-bearing Type B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from CV3 chondrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>MacPherson, G. J.; Bullock, E. S.; Tenner, T. J.; Nakashima, D.; Kita, N. T.; Ivanova, M. A.; Krot, A. N.; Petaev, M. I.; Jacobsen, S. B.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>In order to further elucidate possible temporal relationships between different varieties of calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>), we measured the aluminum-magnesium isotopic systematics of seven examples of the rare type known as forsterite-bearing Type B (FoB) inclusions from four different CV3 carbonaceous chondrites: Allende, Efremovka, NWA 3118, and Vigarano. The primary phases (forsterite, Al-Ti-rich diopside, spinel, melilite, and anorthite) in each inclusion were analyzed in situ using high-precision secondary ion mass-spectrometry (SIMS). In all cases, minerals with low Al/Mg ratios (all except anorthite) yield well-defined internal Al-Mg isochrons, with a range of initial 26Al/27Al ratios [(26Al/27Al)0] ranging from (5.30 ± 0.22) × 10-5 down to (4.17 ± 0.43) × 10-5. Anorthite in all cases is significantly disturbed relative to the isochrons defined by the other phases in the same <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, and in several cases contains no resolved excesses of radiogenic 26Mg (δ26Mg∗) even at 27Al/24Mg ratios greater than 1000. The fact that some FoBs preserve (26Al/27Al)0 of ∼5.2 × 10-5, close to the canonical value of (5.23 ± 0.13) × 10-5 inferred from bulk magnesium-isotope measurements of CV <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> (B. Jacobsen et al., 2008), demonstrates that FoBs began forming very early, contemporaneous with other more-refractory <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. The range of (26Al/27Al)0 values further shows that FoBs continued to be reprocessed over ∼200,000 years of nebular history, consistent with results obtained for other types of igneous <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in CV chondrites. The absence of any correlation between of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> + FoB formation or reprocessing times with bulk composition or <span class="hlt">CAI</span> type means that there is no temporal evolutionary sequence between the diverse <span class="hlt">CAI</span> types. The initial δ26Mg∗ value in the most primitive FoB (SJ101) is significantly lower than the canonical solar system value of -0.040 ± 0.029‰.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22141459','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22141459"><span>Developing the Coach Analysis and Intervention System (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>): establishing validity and reliability of a computerised systematic observation instrument.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cushion, Christopher; Harvey, Stephen; Muir, Bob; Nelson, Lee</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We outline the evolution of a computerised systematic observation tool and describe the process for establishing the validity and reliability of this new instrument. The Coach Analysis and Interventions System (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>) has 23 primary behaviours related to physical behaviour, feedback/reinforcement, instruction, verbal/non-verbal, questioning and management. The instrument also analyses secondary coach behaviour related to performance states, recipient, timing, content and questioning/silence. The <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> is a multi-dimensional and multi-level mechanism able to provide detailed and contextualised data about specific coaching behaviours occurring in complex and nuanced coaching interventions and environments that can be applied to both practice sessions and competition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015LPICo1856.5225K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015LPICo1856.5225K"><span>26Al-Depletions in Anomalous and Solar PLAC-Like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> Suggest High Degrees of Processing in the Early Solar Nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kööp, L.; Davis, A. M.; Kita, N. T.; Nakashima, D.; Tenner, T. J.; Krot, A. N.; Park, C.; Nagashima, K.; Heck, P. R.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Our Al-Mg study of PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> shows that both isotopically anomalous and solar (in terms of O, Ca, Ti) PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are depleted in 26Al, suggesting that homogenized reservoir(s) had been established prior to a widespread distribution of 26Al.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=weight+AND+loss+AND+exercise&pg=5&id=EJ528590','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=weight+AND+loss+AND+exercise&pg=5&id=EJ528590"><span>A One Year Post-program Assessment of a Computer-Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) Weight Management Program for Industrial Employees: Lessons Learned.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dennison, Kathryn F.; And Others</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>This study examined whether a computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) nutrition program would help employees maintain weight loss and dietary intake improvements over time. Subjects received either no nutrition education, education with microcomputer use, or education without microcomputers. Posttesting found greater weight loss for <span class="hlt">CAI</span> participants,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED503459.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED503459.pdf"><span>A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) versus Class Room Lecture (RL) for Computer Science at ICS Level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kausar, Tayyaba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with class room lecture and computer assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypothesis of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1102933.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1102933.pdf"><span>A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) versus Class Room Lecture (CRL) for Computer Science at ICS Level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kausar, Tayyaba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with class room lecture and computer assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypothesis of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880032802&hterms=asia+central&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dasia%2Bcentral','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880032802&hterms=asia+central&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dasia%2Bcentral"><span>Source parameters for 11 earthquakes in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, central Asia, determined by P and SH waveform inversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nelson, Michael R.; Mccaffrey, Robert; Molnar, Peter</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The style and the distribution of faulting occurring today in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan region were studied, by digitizing long-period World-Wide Standard Seismograph Network P and SH waveforms of 11 of the largest <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan earthquakes between 1965 and 1982 and then using a least squares inversion routine to constrain their fault plane solutions and depths. The results of the examination indicate that north-south shortening is presently occurring in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, with the formation of basement uplifts flanked by moderately dipping thrust faults. The present-day tectonics of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan seem to be analogous to those of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah during the Laramide orogeny in Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880032802&hterms=central+asia&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dcentral%2Basia','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880032802&hterms=central+asia&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dcentral%2Basia"><span>Source parameters for 11 earthquakes in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, central Asia, determined by P and SH waveform inversion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nelson, Michael R.; Mccaffrey, Robert; Molnar, Peter</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The style and the distribution of faulting occurring today in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan region were studied, by digitizing long-period World-Wide Standard Seismograph Network P and SH waveforms of 11 of the largest <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan earthquakes between 1965 and 1982 and then using a least squares inversion routine to constrain their fault plane solutions and depths. The results of the examination indicate that north-south shortening is presently occurring in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, with the formation of basement uplifts flanked by moderately dipping thrust faults. The present-day tectonics of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan seem to be analogous to those of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah during the Laramide orogeny in Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C41B0355R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C41B0355R"><span>Climatic vs. Seismic Controlled Rockglacier Advances in Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan - Insights from Lichenometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rosenwinkel, S.; Korup, O.; Landgraf, A.; Dzhumabaeva, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Glaciers and permafrost landforms in high mountain areas are of major importance for storing and providing fresh water for the surroundings, especially in arid or semi-arid areas as Central Asia. Rockglaciers have been traditionally used as landform proxies of the distribution of alpine permafrost. In the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountains, the most distinct lobes of >200 rockglaciers that we mapped from satellite imagery occur at minimum elevations between 2500 and 3700 m. However, individual and particularly low-lying lobes extend down to well below 3000 m, and seem difficult to reconcile with regional paleoclimatic fluctuations. To support ground based and satellite imagery estimates on rockglacier advances (1 to 10 m/yr) and to gain information on their morphological characteristics, we present results of terrestrial LiDAR measurements on six rockglaciers in four steep mountain valleys in the Kyrgyz and Kazakh <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. Having the ability to destabilize, and thus provide massive sediment input from hillslopes, we hypothesize that strong earthquakes may also have influenced the formation or advance of some of the region's rockglaciers. This hypothesis is based on the observation that the tectonically active area was affected by a series of major earthquakes in the late 19th and earliest 20th centuries, which have subsequently triggered numerous landslides and rock falls. Using lichenometry, we aim to resolve age patterns on lobes of different rockglaciers located both, in the vicinity and distal from large young historic earthquakes. This method has been used successfully to reconstruct glaciation histories, and paleoseismicity. To gain information about and to compare advance histories of the rockglaciers from the relative ages of their lobes, we compiled a dataset of several thousand lichen diameter measurements of different species (e.g., Rhizocarpon geographicum, Aspicilia tianshanica, Lecanora muralis, and Xanthoria elegans). Results show that lichen age</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.C42A..02S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.C42A..02S"><span>Glacial Retreat and Associated Glacial Lake Hazards in the High <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, T. T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A number of studies have identified glacial retreat throughout the greater Himalayan region over the past few decades, but the Karakorum region remains an anomaly with large stagnating or advancing glaciers. The glacial behavior in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is still unclear, as few studies have investigated mass balances in the region. This study focuses on the highest peaks of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountain range, in the region of Jengish Chokusu along the Kyrgyzstan-China-Kazakhstan border. In a first step, a 30-year time series of Landsat imagery (n=27) and ASTER imagery (n=10) was developed to track glacial growth and retreat in the region. Using a combination of spectral and topographic information, glacial outlines are automatically delineated. As several important glaciers in the study region contain medium to high levels of debris cover, our algorithm also improves upon current methods of detecting debris-covered glaciers by using topography, distance weighting methods, river networks, and additional spectral data. Linked to glacial retreat are glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) that have become increasingly common in High Mountain Asia over the last few decades. As glaciers retreat, their melt water is often trapped by weakly bonded moraines. These moraines have been known to fail due to overtopping caused by surge waves created by avalanches, rockslides, or glacial calving. A suite of studies throughout High Mountain Asia have used remotely-sensed data to monitor the formation and growth of glacial lakes. In a second step of the work, lake-area changes over the past 15 years were tracked monthly and seasonally using dense Landsat/ASTER coverage (n=30) with an automatic procedure based on spectral and topographic information. Previous work has identified GLOFs as a significant process for infrastructural damage in the southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan/northern Pamir, as well as in the better studied Himalaya region. Lake identification and quantification of lake-growth rates is a valuable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2396H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2396H"><span><span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan geohazards database: Landslides versus other geomorphic features, seismic versus climatic triggering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Havenith, Hans-Balder; Strom, Alexander</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Recently, we compiled a new landslide inventory for the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Central Asia, containing about 3500 mapped mass movements within a target region of 1200 km (E-W) by 600 km (N-S). While compiling this inventory, we met several problems: which features need to be combined to identify a landslide - combination of scarp and depositional area? Are all deposits below scarps landslide deposits? Should we map scarps as a landslide feature even if no deposits are found below it? How to clearly distinguish landslide from moraine deposits in the higher mountain areas? ... and finally, as the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is prone to strong earthquakes (and comparatively less to severe climatic events), can we consider that most giant landslides are triggered by large seismic events .. and, then, could they be used a paleoseismic markers? Identification problems are partly due to the low resolution of imagery that was used for the landslide mapping (mainly based on Google Earth imagery); the other main reason for related uncertainties is the likely great age (> 1000 years) of the mapped features (even though conservation of geomorphic features can be considered as good in those semi-arid areas - much better than in the Alps). For some of those 'old' features, the uncertainty of their origin remained even after having visited the sites. The tendency was that 'landslide geologists' generally considered the mapped features as landslide deposits while some other geoscientists preferred the moraine hypothesis. The problem of the possible seismic origin of proved landslide morphologies is either directly solved if the triggering earthquake event is known (in recent historical times, after 1885) or indirectly in the other (more frequent) case. We consider that most giant landslides (>107 m3) in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan had been triggered by earthquakes - while most occurred in 'pre-historic' times (here, before 1885) and a direct proof is thus missing. Actually, several hard rock slopes and many soft rock</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP41A1979S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP41A1979S"><span>Dissolved Chemical Ions in an Ice Core of Grigoriev Ice Cap, Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>SHUN, A.; Takeuchi, N.; Sera, S.; Fujita, K.; Okamoto, S.; Naoki, K.; Aizen, V. B.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Snow and ice of glaciers contain various chemical ions supplied through the atmosphere and preserve them for a long period of time. Thus, analysis of soluble ions in glaciers is important to reveal material circulation and climate change in the cryosphere. Many glaciers are distributed over the mountains of the Central Asia. Chemical analysis of ice cores recovered from there play an important role to understand the atmosphere and material circulation peculiar to the Eurasian Continent. In this study, we analyzed the concentration of major ions in the ice core drilled on Grigoriev Ice Cap, Kyrgys <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, located in the northwestern part of Central Asia. We aim to understand material circulation in this area based on the chemical records. Then, we have attempted to reconstruct the environmental change of Central Asia, combining the chronology, hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratio, and density of dust in the ice core analyzed by prior researches. In this study, we used 2,176 samples of a snow pit and ice core from the surface to bed (86.87 m total length) on the top of Grigoriev Ice Cap (4,660 m high), Kyrgys <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan in September, 2007. Samples were cut every 1-5 cm and scraped thinly, and transported frozen to Chiba University, Japan. After that, we dispensed those for various experiments, and analyzed the concentration of major ions using ion chromatography. By the way, it is estimated that the date of the bottom of this ice core is approximately 12,000 years ago by prior researches. The concentration of major ions dissolved in the ice core of Grigoriev Ice Cap revealed that Ca is the most dominant species in the measured ions and it accounted for more than 50 % (Eq ratio) of the mean of the entire core. This suggests that CaCO3 included in mineral dust derived from deserts around <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan strongly influence the chemical composition of the Ice Cap. In addition, this composition is similar to those of Urumqi No.1 Glacier (<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan), Mustagh Ata Glacier</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMEP53D1064S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMEP53D1064S"><span>Climate change impacts on glaciers and runoff in <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (Central Asia)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sorg, A. F.; Bolch, T.; Stoffel, M.; Solomina, O.; Beniston, M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Climate-driven changes in glacier-fed streamflow regimes have direct implications on freshwater supply, irrigation and hydropower potential. Reliable information about current and future glaciation and runoff is crucial for water allocation and, hence, for social and ecological stability. Although the impacts of climate change on glaciation and runoff have been addressed in previous work undertaken in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (known as the 'water tower of Central Asia'), a coherent, regional perspective of these findings has not been presented until now. In our study, we explore the range of changes in glaciation in different climatic regions of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan based on existing data. We show that the majority of <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan glaciers experienced accelerated glacier wasting since the mid-1970s and that glacier shrinkage is most pronounced in peripheral, lower-elevation ranges near the densely populated forelands, where summers are dry and where snow and glacial meltwater is essential for water availability. The annual glacier area shrinkage rates since the middle of the twentieth century are 0.38-0.76% per year in the outer ranges, 0.15-0.40% per year in the inner ranges and 0.05-0.31% per year in the eastern ranges. This regionally non-uniform response to climate change implies that glacier shrinkage is less severe in the continental inner ranges than in the more humid outer ranges. Glaciers in the inner ranges react with larger time lags to climate change, because accumulation and thus mass turnover of the mainly cold glaciers are relatively small. Moreover, shrinkage is especially pronounced on small or fragmented glaciers, which are widely represented in the outer regions. The relative insensitivity of glaciers in the inner ranges is further accentuated by the higher average altitude, as the equilibrium line altitude ranges from 3'500 to 3'600 masl in the outer ranges to 4'400 masl in the inner ranges. For our study, we used glacier change assessments based both on direct data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4850505D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4850505D"><span>Linking <span class="hlt">CAI</span> abundance to polarimetric response in a population of ancient asteroids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Devogele, Maxime; Tanga, Paolo; Bendjoya, Philippe; Rivet, Jean-Pierre; Surdej, Jean; Bus, Schelte J.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Cellino, Alberto; Campins, Humberto; Licandro, Javier; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Carry, Benoit</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Polarimetry constitutes one of the fundamental tools for characterizing the surface texture and composition of airless Solar System bodies. In 2006, polarimetric observations led to the discovery of a new type of asteroids, which displays a peculiar polarimetric response. These asteroids are collectively known as "Barbarians", from (234) Barbara the first discovered one.The most commonly accepted explanation for this perculiar polarization response seems to be the presence of a high percentage of fluffy-type Calcium Aluminium-rich Inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>), whose optical properties could produce the observed polarization. Their reflectance spectra also exibit an absorption feature in the near-infrared around 2.1-2.2 microns, that is characteristic of this peculiar group.Based on these results, we organized a systematic polarimetric and near-infrared observational campaign of known Barbarians or candidate asteroids. These campaigns include members of the family of 1040 Klumpkea, 2085 Henan and 729 Watsonia, which are known to contain Barbarian and/or L-type asteroids also suspected to have such a polarimetric behaviour. We have made use of the ToPo polarimeter at the 1m telescope of the Centre pédagogique Planète et Univers (C2PU, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France). The spectroscopic observations in the near-infrared were obtained with the SpeX instrument at the NASA's InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF).By combining polarimetry and spectroscopy we find a correlation between the abundance of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and the inversion angle of the phase-polarization curve of Barbarian asteroids. This is the first time that a direct link has been established between a specific polarimetric response and the surface composition of asteroids. In addition, we find a considerable variety of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> abundance from one object to the other, consistent with a wide range of possible albedos. Since these asteroids constitute a reservoir of primitive Solar System material, understanding their origin can</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAESc..80...84W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAESc..80...84W"><span>Cenozoic paleo-environmental evolution of the Pamir-<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan convergence zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Xin; Sun, Donghuai; Chen, Fahu; Wang, Fei; Li, Baofeng; Popov, Sergej V.; Wu, Sheng; Zhang, Yuebao; Li, Zaijun</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>The retreat of the Tethys Sea and the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau play the critical roles in driving Asian climatic changes during the Cenozoic. In the Pamir-<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan convergence zone, over 3000 m of Cenozoic successions, consisting of marine deposits in the lower, continental clay and fine sand in the middle, and molasse in the upper part, record the evolution of the Tethys Sea, the Asian aridification, and the deformation of the Pamir. In this work, the existing biostratigraphic subdivisions and new electronic spinning resonance dating results were used to assign ages to formations within the Ulugqat section. Sedimentary facies analysis and multi-proxy indices were used to reconstruct the paleo-environmental evolution. The results show: (1) the Pamir-<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan convergence zone has undergone progressive environmental changes from shallow marine before ˜34 Ma to arid land at ˜23 Ma and finally to inter-mountain basin by ˜5.3 Ma; (2) the overall increase in mean size of grains, decrease in redness, in magnetic susceptibility, and in proportion of the ultrafine component of the sediments studied revealed a long-term strengthening in potential energy to transporting medium, cooling, and enhanced continental aridity, respectively; (3) the easternmost edge of the Tethys Sea prevailed in the western Tarim Basin from late Cretaceous to early Cenozoic, and finally retreated from this region around the Eocene-Oligocene transition, which in turn strengthened the Asian aridification; (4) accumulation of molasse with an upper age of ˜1 Ma suggests that the deformation front of the Pamir migrated to this area at or before that time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C44A..01F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.C44A..01F"><span>Adding the Long-Term Perspective: <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan's Glacier Mass Change during 1961-2012</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farinotti, D.; Longuevergne, L.; Moholdt, G.; Duethmann, D.; Bolch, T.; Vorogushyn, S.; Guntner, A.; Gafurov, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Central Asia's major mountain range, has recently been the focus of a series of studies targeting changes in meteorological variables, glacier mass and extent, as well as runoff. Reviews have repeatedly highlighted the importance of glacier melt for total runoff on the one hand, but the scarcity of direct glaciological observation on the other. At the regional to global scale, the lack of such direct observations has been tackled by using remotely sensed products such as satellite gravimetry and altimetry, but the covered time frame is typically in the order of one decade, thus hampering robust assessments. Here, an ensemble of approaches based on the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), and in-situ glacier mass balance measurements is used for estimating glacier mass changes in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan during the last decade, and for validating a glacier mass balance model that we subsequently use for reconstructing a continuous mass balance time series over the last half-century. The model ensemble is designed to take into account a wide range of uncertainty sources including often-neglected differences such as data sources or model structure. We cross-validate our different approaches during the period 2003-2009, and find an average glacier mass change of -6.1±4.4 Gt/a, thus confirming previously published estimates. We use the glaciological modelling approach to extend our estimates over the period 1961-2012, and gain insights in the spatial and temporal evolution of the regional glacier melt. Estimated melt rates are in turn used for assessing the contribution of glacier melt to the total runoff of major hydrological basins, and indicate that the contribution from glaciers has likely been overestimated in a series of previous studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28553695','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28553695"><span>Metal speciation in sediment and bioaccumulation in Meretrix lyrata in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Estuary in Vietnam.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van Hop, Nguyen; Thi Quynh Dieu, Hoang; Hai Phong, Nguyen</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The concentrations of seven toxic metals (cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn)) were determined in sediments and the soft tissues of a bivalve species (Meretrix lyrata) collected from the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Estuary in <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Giang Province, South Vietnam. The total metal concentrations in sediments (mg/kg dry weight) increased as Cd (0.06) < Cu (5.0) < Pb (13.9) < As (16.3) < Ni (24) < Cr (50) < Zn (62). Speciation analysis revealed that these metals existed mainly in the residual fraction (43-94%), followed by the Fe-Mn oxide-bound (5-35%) and organic/sulfide-bound (0.6-9.2%) fractions. The metal concentrations in M. lyrata (mg/kg dry weight) were in the ranges of 1.3-1.9 (Cd), 1.5-2.8 (Ni), 1.8-3.4 (Cr), 11-16 (As), 0.3-0.6 (Pb), 6.9-8.7 (Cu), and 95-128 (Zn), which are safe for human consumption. The order of the mean biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) of the metals in the non-residual fractions of the sediment for M. lyrata was Cd > Cu > As > Zn > Cr > Ni > Pb. The Risk Assessment Codes (RACs) suggest that the highest mobility of Cd (with RAC = 37%) poses greater environmental risk to aquatic biota. Correlation analysis results show that M. lyrata can be used as a biomonitor of Cd and Cu pollution in the exchangeable, acid-soluble, and non-residual sediment fractions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017FrES...11..531R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017FrES...11..531R"><span>Using isotope methods to study alpine headwater regions in the Northern Caucasus and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rets, Ekaterina; Chizhova, Julia N.; Loshakova, Nadezhda; Tokarev, Igor; Kireeva, Maria B.; Budantseva, Nadine A.; Vasil'chuk, Yurij K.; Frolova, Natalia; Popovnin, Viktor; Toropov, Pavel; Terskaya, Elena; Smirnov, Andrew M.; Belozerov, Egor; Karashova, Maria</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>High mountain areas provide water resources for a large share of the world's population. The ongoing deglaciation of these areas is resulting in great instability of mountainous headwater regions, which could significantly affect water supply and intensify dangerous hydrological processes. The hydrological processes in mountains are still poorly understood due to the complexity of the natural conditions, great spatial variation and a lack of observation. A knowledge of flow-forming processes in alpine areas is essential to predict future possible trends in hydrological conditions and to calculate river runoff characteristics. The goal of this study is to gain detailed field data on various components of natural hydrological processes in the alpine areas of the North Caucasus and Central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, and to investigate the possibility that the isotopic method can reveal important regularities of river flow formation in these regions. The study is based on field observations in representative alpine river basins in the North Caucasus (the Dzhankuat river basin) and the Central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (the Chon-Kyzyl-Suu river basin) during 2013-2015. A mixing-model approach was used to conduct river hydrograph separation. Isotope methods were used to estimate the contribution of different nourishment sources in total runoff and its regime. d18O, dD and mineralization were used as indicators. Two equation systems for the study sites were derived: in terms of water routing and runoff genesis. The Dzhankuat and Chon-Kyzyl-Suu river hydrographs were separated into 4 components: liquid precipitation/meltwaters, surface routed/subsurface routed waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED077195.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED077195.pdf"><span>A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brown, John S.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26159472','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26159472"><span>Changes in flavour and microbial diversity during natural fermentation of suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span>, a traditional food made in Northeast China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Rina; Yu, Meiling; Liu, Xiaoyu; Meng, Lingshuai; Wang, Qianqian; Xue, Yating; Wu, Junrui; Yue, Xiqing</p> <p>2015-10-15</p> <p>We measured changes in the main physical and chemical properties, flavour compounds and microbial diversity in suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span> during natural fermentation. The results showed that the pH and concentration of soluble protein initially decreased but were then maintained at a stable level; the concentration of nitrite increased in the initial fermentation stage and after reaching a peak it decreased significantly to a low level by the end of fermentation. Suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span> was rich in 17 free amino acids. All of the free amino acids increased in concentration to different degrees, except histidine. Total free amino acids reached their highest levels in the mid-fermentation stage. The 17 volatile flavour components identified at the start of fermentation increased to 57 by the mid-fermentation stage; esters and aldehydes were in the greatest diversity and abundance, contributing most to the aroma of suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span>. Bacteria were more abundant and diverse than fungi in suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span>; 14 bacterial species were identified from the genera Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Lactobacillus. The predominant fungal species identified were Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida tropicalis and Penicillium expansum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SciEd..89..707C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SciEd..89..707C"><span>The interplay between different forms of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and students' preferences of learning environment in the secondary science class</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chang, Chun-Yen; Tsai, Chin-Chung</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>This evaluation study investigated the effects of a teacher-centered versus student-centered computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) on 10th graders' earth science student learning outcomes. This study also explored whether the effects of different forms of computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) on student learning outcomes were influenced by student preferences of learning environment (PLE). A total of 347 10th-grade senior high school students participated in this nonequivalent control group quasiexperiment. During a one-week period, one group of students (n = 216) were taught by a teacher-centered <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (TCCAI) model whereas the other group of students (n = 131) were subject to a student-centered <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (SCCAI) method. Results showed that (a) no statistically significant difference on students' earth science achievement was found for either group; (b) TCCAI group had significantly better attitudes toward earth science than did the SCCAI group; furthermore (c) a significant PLE-treatment interaction was found on student attitudes toward the subject matter, where the teacher-centered instructional approach seemed to enhance more positive attitudes of less constructivist-oriented learning preferences students, whereas the student-centered method was more beneficial to more constructivist-oriented learning preferences students on their attitudes toward earth science in a computer-assisted learning environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Corporate+AND+social+AND+responsibility&id=EJ1062828','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Corporate+AND+social+AND+responsibility&id=EJ1062828"><span>From Corporate Social Responsibility, through Entrepreneurial Orientation, to Knowledge Sharing: A Study in <span class="hlt">Cai</span> Luong (Renovated Theatre) Theatre Companies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tuan, Luu Trong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: This paper aims to examine the role of antecedents such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) and entrepreneurial orientation in the chain effect to knowledge sharing among members of <span class="hlt">Cai</span> Luong theatre companies in the Vietnamese context. Knowledge sharing contributes to the depth of the knowledge pool of both the individuals and the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26832141','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26832141"><span>Phenotypic diversity and correlation between white-opaque switching and the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> microsatellite locus in Candida albicans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Jian; Guan, Guobo; Dai, Yu; Tao, Li; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Houmin; Huang, Guanghua</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Candida albicans is a commensal fungal pathogen that is often found as part of the human microbial flora. The aim of the present study was to establish a relationship between diverse genotypes and phenotypes of clinical isolates of C. albicans. Totally 231 clinical isolates were collected and used for genotyping and phenotypic switching analysis. Based on the microsatellite locus (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) genotyping assay, 65 different genotypes were identified, and some dominant types were found in certain human niches. For example, the genotypes of 30-44 and 30-45 were enriched in vaginal infection samples. C. albicans has a number of morphological forms including the single-celled yeasts, multicellular filaments, white, and opaque cell types. The relationship between the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> genotype and the ability to undergo phenotypic switching was examined in the clinical isolates. We found that the strains with longer CAA/G repeats in both alleles of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> locus were more opaque competent. We also discovered that some MTL heterozygous (a/alpha) isolates could undergo white-opaque switching when grown on regular culture medium (containing glucose as the sole carbon source). Our study establishes a link between phenotypic switching and genotypes of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> microsatellite locus in clinical isolates of C. albicans.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2784433','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2784433"><span>Hunting and use of terrestrial fauna used by <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çaras from the Atlantic Forest coast (Brazil)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is considered one of the hotspots for conservation, comprising remnants of rain forest along the eastern Brazilian coast. Its native inhabitants in the Southeastern coast include the <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çaras (descendants from Amerindians and European colonizers), with a deep knowledge on the natural resources used for their livelihood. Methods We studied the use of the terrestrial fauna in three <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çara communities, through open-ended interviews with 116 native residents. Data were checked through systematic observations and collection of zoological material. Results The dependence on the terrestrial fauna by <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çaras is especially for food and medicine. The main species used are Didelphis spp., Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, and small birds (several species of Turdidae). Contrasting with a high dependency on terrestrial fauna resources by native Amazonians, the <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çaras do not show a constant dependency on these resources. Nevertheless, the occasional hunting of native animals represents a complimentary source of animal protein. Conclusion Indigenous or local knowledge on native resources is important in order to promote local development in a sustainable way, and can help to conserve biodiversity, particularly if the resource is sporadically used and not commercially exploited. PMID:19930595</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=inductive+AND+analogy&id=EJ307127','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=inductive+AND+analogy&id=EJ307127"><span>Teaching Critical Thinking Skills with <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: A Design by Two Researchers Shows Computers Can Make a Difference.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bass, George M., Jr.; Perkins, Harvey W.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Describes a project which involved designing a nine-week course utilizing computer assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) to teach seventh graders critical thinking skills. Results indicate measurable gains were made in the critical thinking skills of verbal analogy and inductive/deductive reasoning, although no consistent gains were made in logical reasoning…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=verbal+AND+analogies&pg=5&id=EJ307127','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=verbal+AND+analogies&pg=5&id=EJ307127"><span>Teaching Critical Thinking Skills with <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: A Design by Two Researchers Shows Computers Can Make a Difference.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bass, George M., Jr.; Perkins, Harvey W.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Describes a project which involved designing a nine-week course utilizing computer assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) to teach seventh graders critical thinking skills. Results indicate measurable gains were made in the critical thinking skills of verbal analogy and inductive/deductive reasoning, although no consistent gains were made in logical reasoning…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Corporate+AND+social+AND+responsibility&id=EJ1062828','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Corporate+AND+social+AND+responsibility&id=EJ1062828"><span>From Corporate Social Responsibility, through Entrepreneurial Orientation, to Knowledge Sharing: A Study in <span class="hlt">Cai</span> Luong (Renovated Theatre) Theatre Companies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tuan, Luu Trong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: This paper aims to examine the role of antecedents such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) and entrepreneurial orientation in the chain effect to knowledge sharing among members of <span class="hlt">Cai</span> Luong theatre companies in the Vietnamese context. Knowledge sharing contributes to the depth of the knowledge pool of both the individuals and the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED505173.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED505173.pdf"><span>Computer-Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) in Language Arts: Investigating the Influence of Teacher Knowledge and Attitudes on the Learning Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Davis, Jamie M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The integration of Computer-Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) into the language arts classroom can greatly assist teachers meet the needs of diverse literacy learners. However, this new technology does not come without some concerns, including but not limited to ease of implementation, funding for new hardware and software, appropriate teacher support,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED532902.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED532902.pdf"><span>Investigating Learning Achievements of Thai High School Students in a Sequences and Series Lesson Delivered on <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-Based Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chundang, Ungsana; Singhaprink, Wipawaan; Pongpullponsak, Adisak; Tantipisalkul, Tasanee; Praekhaow, Puchong</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The current experimental research aims to investigate students' learning outcomes in classes in which the interactive <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (computer-assisted instruction)-based materials were implemented. It also aims to compare the learning outcomes of the students based on regions in which their school is located. The participants were 326 Matthayom-4 students…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010652','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010652"><span>A FIB/TEM/Nanosims Study of a Wark-Lovering Rim on an Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Ca- Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) are commonly surrounded by Wark-Lovering (WL) rims - thin (approx. 50 micrometers) multilayered sequences - whose mineralogy is dominated by high temperature minerals similar to those that occur in the cores of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> [1]. The origins of these WL rims involved high temperature events in the early nebula such as condensation, flashheating or reaction with a nebular reservoir, or combinations of these processes. These rims formed after <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation but prior to accretion into their parent bodies. We have undertaken a coordinated mineralogical and isotopic study of WL rims to determine the formation conditions of the individual layers and to constrain the isotopic reservoirs they interacted with during their history. We focus here on the spinel layer, the first-formed highest- temperature layer in the WL rim sequence. Results and Discussion: We have performed mineralogical, chemical and isotopic analyses of an unusual ultrarefractory inclusion from the Allende CV3 chondrite (SHAL) consisting of an approx. 500 micrometers long single crystal of hibonite and co-existing coarsegrained perovskite. SHAL is partially surrounded by WL rim. We previously reported on the mineralogy, isotopic compositions and trace elements in SHAL [2-4]. The spinel layer in the WL rim is present only on the hibonite and terminates abruptly at the contact with the coarse perovskite. This simple observation shows that the spinel layer is not a condensate in this case (otherwise spinel would have condensed on the perovskite as well). The spinel layer appears to have formed by gas-phase corrosion of the hibonite by Mg-rich vapors such that the spinel layer grew at the expense of the hibonite. We also found that the spinel layer has the same 16Orich composition as the hibonite. The spinel layer is polycrystalline and individual crystals do not show a crystallographic relationship with the hibonite. An Al-diopside layer overlies the spinel layer, and is present on both</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.361...69R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.361...69R"><span>Two years since SSAMS: Status of 14C AMS at <span class="hlt">CAIS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ravi Prasad, G. V.; Cherkinsky, Alexander; Culp, Randy A.; Dvoracek, Doug K.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The NEC 250 kV single stage AMS accelerator (SSAMS) was installed two years ago at the Center for Applied Isotope Studies (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>), University of Georgia. The accelerator is primarily being used for radiocarbon measurements to test the authenticity of natural and bio-based samples while all other samples such as geological, atmospheric, marine and archaeological. are run on the 500 kV, NEC 1.5SDH-1 model tandem accelerator, which has been operating since 2001. The data obtained over a six months period for OXI, OXII, ANU sucrose and FIRI-D are discussed. The mean value of ANU sucrose observed to be slightly lower than the consensus value. The processed blanks on SSAMS produce lower apparent age compared to the tandem accelerator as expected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2247690','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2247690"><span>Hypertext and three-dimensional computer graphics in an all digital PC-based <span class="hlt">CAI</span> workstation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schwarz, D. L.; Wind, G. G.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>In the past several years there has been an enormous increase in the number of computer-assisted instructional (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) applications. Many medical educators and physicians have recognized the power and utility of hypertext. Some developers have incorporated simple diagrams, scanned monochrome graphics or still frame photographs from a laser disc or CD-ROM into their hypertext applications. These technologies have greatly increased the role of the microcomputer in education and training. There still remain numerous applications for these tools which are yet to be explored. One of these exciting areas involves the use of three-dimensional computer graphics. An all digital platform increases application portability. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1807767</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930068398&hterms=Cais&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCais','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930068398&hterms=Cais&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCais"><span>Secondary processing of chondrules and refractory inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) by gasdynamic heating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Podolak, M.; Prialnik, D.; Bunch, T. E.; Cassen, P.; Reynolds, R.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Results of calculations performed to determine the conditions necessary for producing the opaque rims on chondrules and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> rims by high-speed entry into the transient atmosphere of an accreting meteorite parent body are presented. The sensitivity of these results to variations in critical parameters is investigated. The range of entry velocities which can produce such rims is shown to depend on the size, melting temperature, and thermal conductivity of the particles. For particles greater than 2 mm in radius, with thermal conductivities of 20,000 ergs/sm s K or lower, entry velocities of about 3 km/s suffice. For particle sizes less than 1 mm in radius, the range of encounter velocities that can produce rims is narrow or vanishing, regardless of the thermal conductivity, unless the melting temperature in the outer part of the chondrule has been reduced by compositional heterogeneity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A41I0176K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A41I0176K"><span>GOSAT CO2 retrieval results using TANSO-<span class="hlt">CAI</span> aerosol information over East Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>KIM, M.; Kim, W.; Jung, Y.; Lee, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, H.; Boesch, H.; Goo, T. Y.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In the satellite remote sensing of CO2, incorrect aerosol information could induce large errors as previous studies suggested. Many factors, such as, aerosol type, wavelength dependency of AOD, aerosol polarization effect and etc. have been main error sources. Due to these aerosol effects, large number of data retrieved are screened out in quality control, or retrieval errors tend to increase if not screened out, especially in East Asia where aerosol concentrations are fairly high. To reduce these aerosol induced errors, a CO2 retrieval algorithm using the simultaneous TANSO-<span class="hlt">CAI</span> aerosol information is developed. This algorithm adopts AOD and aerosol type information as a priori information from the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> aerosol retrieval algorithm. The CO2 retrieval algorithm based on optimal estimation method and VLIDORT, a vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer model. The CO2 algorithm, developed with various state vectors to find accurate CO2 concentration, shows reasonable results when compared with other dataset. This study concentrates on the validation of retrieved results with the ground-based TCCON measurements in East Asia and the comparison with the previous retrieval from ACOS, NIES, and UoL. Although, the retrieved CO2 concentration is lower than previous results by ppm's, it shows similar trend and high correlation with previous results. Retrieved data and TCCON measurements data are compared at three stations of Tsukuba, Saga, Anmyeondo in East Asia, with the collocation criteria of ±2°in latitude/longitude and ±1 hours of GOSAT passing time. Compared results also show similar trend with good correlation. Based on the TCCON comparison results, bias correction equation is calculated and applied to the East Asia data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A51B3029G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A51B3029G"><span>Retrieval of UV Aerosol Index using backscattered monochromatic radiance measured by GOSAT <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Go, S.; Kim, J.; KIM, M.; Park, S. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>UV Aerosol Index(AI) using backscattered radiance at a single channel has been retrieved. In the current UV AI algorithm, two UV channels are used to contrast the absorbing aerosol loaded atmosphere to Rayleigh scattering condition. There have been needs to retrieve information of absorbing aerosol from a single UV channel, such as GOSAT <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. 30-day minimum composite method, however, makes the process possible to construct the condition with the use of only single UV channel. Also, absorption by aerosol changes with respect to AOD and wavelength for different aerosol types. Therefore, single channel aerosol index(SAI) can detect absorbing aerosol qualitatively. Correlation coefficient of SAI to current UV AI indicate significant value, showing possibility of detecting highly absorbing aerosols. The application of a cloud screening makes the presence of absorbing aerosols even more clear. Radiative transfer calculations using VLIDORT were performed to test the sensitivity of SAI and UV AI to aerosol optical properties, showing that highly absorbing aerosol results in meaningful SAI. Results from dust case study in East Asia show reasonable performance of SAI for the region with single scattering albedo below 0.90. This study concludes with a comparison of SAI from GOSAT lv.1b data to OMI UVAI data, where reasonable agreement and low false detection was found for dust cases in East Asia. The SAI value of -0.2 to 0.0 from GOSAT-<span class="hlt">CAI</span> was comparable to OMI dust threshold value of 0.7. These findings corroborate the suitability of SAI as a for detecting absorbing aerosols for satellite instrument with a single UV channel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170006939','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170006939"><span>Oxygen, Magnesium, and Aluminum Isotopes in the Ivuna <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Re-Examining High-Temperature Fractionations in CI Chondrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Frank, D. R.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.; Zolensky, M. E.; Le, L.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>CI chondrites are thought to approximate the bulk solar system composition since they closely match the composition of the solar photosphere. Thus, chemical differences between a planetary object and the CI composition are interpreted to result from fractionations of a CI starting composition. This interpretation is often made despite the secondary mineralogy of CI chondrites, which resulted from low-T aqueous alteration on the parent asteroid(s). Prevalent alteration and the relatively large uncertainties in the photospheric abundances (approx. +/-5-10%) permit chemical fractionation of CI chondrites from the bulk solar system, if primary chondrules and/or <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> have been altered beyond recognition. Isolated olivine and pyroxene grains that range from approx. 5 microns to several hundred microns have been reported in CI chondrites, and acid residues of Orgueil were found to contain refractory oxides with oxygen isotopic compositions matching <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. However, the only <span class="hlt">CAI</span> found to be unambiguously preserved in a CI chondrite was identified in Ivuna. The Ivuna <span class="hlt">CAI</span>'s primary mineralogy, small size (approx.170 microns), and fine-grained igneous texture classify it as a compact type A. Aqueous alteration infiltrated large portions of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, but other regions remain pristine. The major primary phases are melilite (Ak 14-36 ), grossmanite (up to 20.8 wt.% TiO 2 ), and spinel. Both melilite and grossmanite have igneous textures and zoning patterns. An accretionary rim consists primarily of olivine (Fa 2-17 ) and low-Ca pyroxene (Fs 2-10 ), which could be either surviving CI2 material or a third lithology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Geote..47..291B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Geote..47..291B"><span>Geodynamics of late Paleozoic magmatism in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and its framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Biske, Yu. S.; Konopelko, D. L.; Seltmann, R.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>The Devonian-Permian history of magmatic activity in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and its framework has been considered using new isotopic datings. It has been shown that the intensity of magmatism and composition of igneous rocks are controlled by interaction of the local thermal upper mantle state (plumes) and dynamics of the lithosphere on a broader regional scale (plate motion). The Kazakhstan paleocontinent, which partly included the present-day <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Kyzylkum, was formed in the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian as a result of amalgamation of ancient continental masses and island arcs. In the Early Devonian, heating of the mantle resulted in the within-plate basaltic volcanism in the southern framework of the Kazakhstan paleocontinent (Turkestan paleoocean) and development of suprasubduction magmatism over an extensive area at its margin. In the Middle-Late Devonian, the margins of the Turkestan paleoocean were passive; the area of within-plate oceanic magmatism shifted eastward, and the active margin was retained at the junction with the Balkhash-Junggar paleoocean. A new period of active magmatism was induced by an overall shortening of the region under the settings of plate convergence. The process started in the Early Carboniferous at the Junggar-Balkhash margin of the Kazakhstan paleocontinent and the southern (Paleotethian) margin of the Karakum-Tajik paleocontinent. In the Late Carboniferous, magmatism developed along the northern boundary of the Turkestan paleoocean, which was closing between them. The disappearance of deepwater oceanic basins by the end of the Carboniferous was accompanied by collisional granitic magmatism, which inherited the paleolocations of subduction zones. Postcollision magmatism fell in the Early Permian with a peak at 280 Ma ago. In contrast to Late Carboniferous granitic rocks, the localization of Early Permian granitoids is more independent of collision sutures. The magmatism of this time comprises: (1) continuation of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGC23A0983S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGC23A0983S"><span>The Whole <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Glacier Area Changes Between 1973 and 2003 Estimated From Corona and ASTER Satellite Imagery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Surazakov, A. B.; Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Changes in glacier covered area of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mountains (western, central and eastern) was estimated between 1973-2003 using Corona KH-9 (9 m) and ASTER (15 m) imagery. Large spatial coverage of a single Corona KH-9 photograph (almost eight ASTER images) and accurate geometric qualities of the KH-9 frame- mapping camera provide a unique opportunity for reconstruction of the glacier covered area during the last 30 years with comparable spatial resolution. The images were orthorectified using SRTM DEM with void areas filled with ASTER DEM and ground control points collected from 1:25,000 and 1:50,000 topographic maps. The Corona and ASTER orthorectification RMS residuals were in the same order of 7-15 m. Glacier boundaries were derived using segmentation of ASTER 3N/4 band ratio and manual digitizing with error-checking in stereo viewing. Since the middle of 1970s, <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan was experiencing abrupt increase in air temperature, that accelerated glacier recession particularly in the mountain ranges lower than 5,000 m a.s.l. From 1973 to 2003 all <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan glaciers have significant recession trend. The most notable recession has been observed in the western and southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan: from 20% to 17.1% of the total glacier area. The eastern and northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan glaciers have lost 12.6% - 11% of their total area while the largest and highest (up to 7,000 m) central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan remained nearly the same glacierized area: only 1% of the total glacier area reduction. The large dendritic glaciers in the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan are heavily covered by moraine debris, which protect glaciers from intensive ablation. The <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountain ranges longitudinally spans more than 2,000 km and glaciers exist in different geo-morphological and climatic conditions determining the difference in glacier recession. However, the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan glacier surface has decreased in all regions and has to be measured by GPS and satellite altimetry to estimate real changes in glacier ice water resources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.269...75Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geomo.269...75Z"><span>Reconstruction of glacial lake outburst floods in northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan: Implications for hazard assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zaginaev, V.; Ballesteros-Cánovas, J. A.; Erokhin, S.; Matov, E.; Petrakov, D.; Stoffel, M.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and related debris flows are among the most significant natural threats in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mountains of Kyrgyzstan and have even caused the loss of life and damage to infrastructure in its capital Bishkek. An improved understanding of the occurrence of this process is essential so as to be able to design reliable disaster risk reduction strategies, even more so in view of ongoing climate change and scenarios of future evolutions. Here, we apply a dendrogeomorphic approach to reconstruct past debris-flow activity on the Aksay cone (Ala-Archa valley, Kyrgyz range), where outbursting glacier lakes and intense rainfalls have triggered huge debris flows over the past decades. A total of 96 Picea abies (L.) Karst. trees growing on the cone and along the main channel have been selected based on the evidence of past debris-flow damage in their trunks; these trees were then sampled using increment borers. The dating of past events was based on the assessment of growth disturbances (GD) in the tree-ring records and included the detection of injuries, tangential rows of traumatic resin ducts, reaction wood, and abrupt growth changes. In total, 320 GD were identified in the tree-ring samples. In combination with aerial imagery and geomorphic recognition in the field, reactions in trees and their position on the cone have allowed reconstruction of the main spatial patterns of past events on the Aksay cone. Our findings suggest that at least 27 debris flows have occurred on the site between 1877 and 2015 and point to the occurrence of at least 17 events that were not documented prior to this study. We also observe high process activity during the 1950s and 1960s, with major events on the cone in 1950, 1966, and 1968, coinciding with phases of slight glacier advance. The spatial analyses of events also point to two different spatial patterns, suggesting that quite dissimilar magnitudes probably occurred during glacier lake outburst floods and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DokES.442..292K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012DokES.442..292K"><span>Heterogeneities of the shear wave attenuation field in the lithosphere of East <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and their relationship with seismicity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kopnichev, Yu. F.; Sokolova, I. N.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The shear wave attenuation field in the lithosphere of Eastern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan has been mapped. The method based on analysis of the ratio between amplitudes of Sn and Pn waves was used. On aggregate, about 120 seismograms made at the Makanchi station (MKAR), mainly in the period of 2003-2009, at epicentral distances of about 350-1200 km were analyzed. It was found that shear wave attenuation in the lithosphere of Eastern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is weaker than that in the region of Central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. This agrees with the fact that the rate of deformation of the Earth's crust in Eastern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is lower (based on GPS data), as is the seismicity level, in comparison to Central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The zones of high attenuation, where strong earthquakes with M > 7.0 have not occurred for the last 200 years, have been identified: first of all, these are the area west of Urumqi and that of the Lop Nur test site. It is suggested that in the first zone, where an annular seismicity structure has formed over the last 30 years, a strong earthquake may be being prepared. The second zone is most probably related to the uplift of mantle fluids resulting from a long-term intensive technogenic effect, analogous to what has occurred in areas of other nuclear test sites (Nevada and Semipalatinsk).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015M%26PS...50.1512I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015M%26PS...50.1512I"><span>A compound Ca-, Al-rich inclusion from CV3 chondrite Northwest Africa 3118: Implications for understanding processes during <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ivanova, Marina A.; Lorenz, Cyril A.; Krot, Alexander N.; MacPherson, Glenn J.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion 3N from the Northwest Africa (NWA) 3118 CV3 carbonaceous chondrite is a unique cm-sized compound object, primarily a forsterite-bearing type B (FoB) <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, that encloses at least 26 smaller <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> of different types, including compact type A (CTA), B, C, and an ultra-refractory inclusion. Relative to typical type A and B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> found elsewhere, the bulk compositions of the types A and B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> within 3N more closely match the bulk compositions predicted by equilibrium condensation of a gas of solar composition. Being trapped within the FoB melt may have protected them from melt evaporation that affected most "stand-alone" <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. 3N originated either as an aggregate of many smaller (mostly types A, B, C) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> plus accreted Fo-bearing material (like an amoeboid olivine aggregate) which experienced partial melting of the whole, or else as a FoB melt droplet that collided with and trapped many smaller solid <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. In the former case, 3N recorded the earliest accretion of pebble-sized bodies known. In the latter case, the presence of a large number of individual refractory inclusions within 3N suggests a very high local density of refractory solids in the immediate region of the host <span class="hlt">CAI</span> during the brief time while it was melted. Collisions would have occurred on time scales of hours at most, assuming a melt solidification interval for the host <span class="hlt">CAI</span> of 300-400 °C (maximum) and a cooling rate of ~10 °C/h.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22078296','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22078296"><span>VARIABLE AND EXTREME IRRADIATION CONDITIONS IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM INFERRED FROM THE INITIAL ABUNDANCE OF {sup 10}Be IN ISHEYEVO <span class="hlt">CAIs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gounelle, Matthieu; Chaussidon, Marc; Rollion-Bard, Claire</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>A search for short-lived {sup 10}Be in 21 calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) from Isheyevo, a rare CB/CH chondrite, showed that only 5 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> had {sup 10}B/{sup 11}B ratios higher than chondritic correlating with the elemental ratio {sup 9}Be/{sup 11}B, suggestive of in situ decay of this key short-lived radionuclide. The initial ({sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be){sub 0} ratios vary between {approx}10{sup -3} and {approx}10{sup -2} for <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 411. The initial ratio of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 411 is one order of magnitude higher than the highest ratio found in CV3 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, suggesting that the more likely origin of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 411 {sup 10}Be is early solar system irradiation. The low ({sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al){sub 0} [{<=} 8.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}] with which <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 411 formed indicates that it was exposed to gradual flares with a proton fluence of a few 10{sup 19} protons cm{sup -2}, during the earliest phases of the solar system, possibly the infrared class 0. The irradiation conditions for other <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are less well constrained, with calculated fluences ranging between a few 10{sup 19} and 10{sup 20} protons cm{sup -2}. The variable and extreme value of the initial {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios in carbonaceous chondrite <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> is the reflection of the variable and extreme magnetic activity in young stars observed in the X-ray domain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20799645','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20799645"><span>[Termites (Isoptera) in forest ecosystems of Cat <span class="hlt">Tien</span> National Park (Southern Vietnam)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Beliaeva, N V; Tiunov, A V</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The species composition and termite community populations were studied and the total land termites biomass was estimated in five forest habitats of Cat <span class="hlt">Tien</span> National Park, Southern Vietnam. Twenty-four species of two families, Rhinotermitidae (1 species) and Termitidae (23 species), the predominant representatives of the subfamily Macrotermitinae, were found in mounds and in soil samples. On the test plots the density of termite mounds averaged 68 per hectare, primarily the mounds of three Macrotermes species. Destructive sampling allowed estimation of the caste composition and total community biomass based on six termite mounds of the prevailing species (Globitermes sulphureus, Microcerotermes burmanicus, Macrotermes carbonarius, M. gilvus, M. malaccensis, and Hypotermes obscuriceps). The total number of termites in the nests ranged from 65 000 to 3 150 000 individuals with the total biomass ranging from 185 to 2440 g live weight. The total abundance of nesting Macrotermes species alone could conservatively be estimated as 2.5 million individuals and 20.5 kg live weight per hectare. The number of soil- and litter-feeding termites averaged for the test plots was estimated at about 60 ind./m2. Four species dominating on the test plots (M. carbonarius, M. gilvus, M. malaccensis, and H. obscuriceps) belong to active tree litter feeders.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S13A4439G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S13A4439G"><span>Seismic Microzoning of Cap-Haï<span class="hlt">tien</span>: Effects of Lithological Site and Liquefaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gilles, R.; Jeudy, B.; Prepetit, C.; Bertil, D.; Roulle, A.; Noury, G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>After the earthquake of January 12, 2010 in Haiti, the Haitian Government has resolved to implement a program of seismic microzonation for most vulnerable cities in the country by the way of prevention. Metropolitan Port-au-Prince and five cities in the North of Haiti including Cap-Haitien were included in this program. The seismic microzonation is an important tool for the knowledge of the seismic risk. It is based on the collection of geological, geophysical and geotechnical data. It describes a specific class of soil associated with each type of soil. Its goal is to map the homogenous zones of soil to effects of site lithology, topographic site effects, liquefaction and ground movements. This work is based on two aspects of the studies of microzoning for the city of Cap-Haï<span class="hlt">tien</span>: effects of lithological site and Liquefaction. The zoning of site effects is to identify and map the areas with consistent geological and geomechanical characteristics and homogeneous seismic response; the objective is to provide, in each zone, seismic movements adapted. Five classes of soil at site effects were distinguished. Associated responses spectra were obtained by a 1D nonlinear analysis using CyberQuake software (Modaressi et al. 1997 BRGM). The zoning of the liquefaction present the liquefaction potential of different areas. Three levels of risk of liquefaction were found during this study that a large part of the city is strongly liquefiable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IzPSE..50..415S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IzPSE..50..415S"><span>Stress drop in the sources of intermediate-magnitude earthquakes in northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sycheva, N. A.; Bogomolov, L. M.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The paper is devoted to estimating the dynamical parameters of 14 earthquakes with intermediate magnitudes (energy class 11 to 14), which occurred in the Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. For obtaining the estimates of these parameters, including the stress drop, which could be then applied in crustal stress reconstruction by the technique suggested by Yu.L. Rebetsky (Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences), we have improved the algorithms and programs for calculating the spectra of the seismograms. The updated products allow for the site responses and spectral transformations during the propagation of seismic waves through the medium (the effect of finite Q-factor). By applying the new approach to the analysis of seismograms recorded by the seismic KNET network, we calculated the radii of the sources (Brune radius), scalar seismic moment, and stress drop (release) for the studied 14 earthquakes. The analysis revealed a scatter in the source radii and stress drop even among the earthquakes that have almost identical energy classes. The stress drop by different earthquakes ranges from one to 75 bar. We have also determined the focal mechanisms and stress regime of the Earth's crust. It is worth noting that during the considered period, strong seismic events with energy class above 14 were absent within the segment covered by the KNET stations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Tectp.590..196M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Tectp.590..196M"><span>Ordovician-Carboniferous tectono-sedimentary evolution of the North Nuratau region, Uzbekistan (Westernmost <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCann, T.; Nurtaev, B.; Kharin, V.; Valdivia-Manchego, M.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is a c. 2500 km long orogenic belt of which the Nuratau region of eastern Uzbekistan forms the western part. Petrographical and field analysis of the Ordovician-Carboniferous succession in the North Nuratau region provided the basis for a reconstruction of the depositional settings along part of the northern margin of the Alai continent and their evolution during the period of closure of the Turkestan Ocean, which separated the Alai and the Kazakh-Kyrgyz continents. Initial sedimentation (Ordovician) was broadly carbonate dominated, although by Mid-Late Ordovician times siliciclastic input predominated in some areas. These variations, between clastic- and carbonate-dominated regions may have been related to tectonic activity within the Alai continent. Carbonate sedimentation was reestablished in the ?Wenlock, with broad shelf systems forming along the continental margin. Volcanic activity in the Early Devonian records a period of tectonic instability, and this was followed by the reestablishment of the carbonate mosaic, albeit with a greater degree of instability (as indicated by stratigraphic gaps) than in the Silurian. This pattern extended up into the Carboniferous culminating in backarc-related magmatic activity. Final closure of the Turkestan Ocean involved significant folding and thrusting, as well as a major change from compressional to strike-slip movement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EurSS..50..158K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EurSS..50..158K"><span>Morphogenetic features of soils in the Cat <span class="hlt">Tien</span> National Park, southern Vietnam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khokhlova, O. S.; Myakshina, T. N.; Kuznetsov, A. N.; Gubin, S. V.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Morphogenetic features of soils on the selected plots in the Cat <span class="hlt">Tien</span> National Park in southern Vietnam have been studied with the use of a set of morphological, analytical, and instrumental methods. The lithological factor and topographic position play the leading role in the development of the particular genetic soil features. The soils can be subdivided into four groups according to these factors. The soils developing from volcanic deposits with a predominance of tephra can be classified as thin clayey brown tropical soils (Dystric Skeletic Rhodic Cambisols (Clayic)), and the soils developed from less weathered colluvial derivatives of basalts with some admixture of tephra can be classified as dark-humus clayey tropical soils (Skeletic Greyzemic Umbrisols (Clayic)). Very poor soils developed from the eluvium of argillites are classified as thin weakly developed clayey tropical soils (Dystric Regosols (Clayic)). The soils forming from the alluvial sediments of different textures are classified as alluvial loamy sandy soils (Dystric Fluvisols (Arenic, Drainic)) and as alluvial clay loamy soils (Eutric Fluvisols (Episiltic, Endoclayic)).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geote..50..366L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Geote..50..366L"><span>Alpine tectonics of granites in basement of Ysyk-Köl Basin, northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leonov, M. G.; Przhiyalgovsky, E. S.; Lavrushina, E. V.; Poleshchuk, A. V.; Rybin, A. K.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The Ysyk-Köl Basin filled with Lower Jurassic-Quaternary sedimentary rocks is the largest intermontane negative structural unit of the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The basement of this basin is composed of Precambrian-Paleozoic rocks, largely of Ordovician and Silurian granitoids exposed in mountain ranges of the basin framework and as separate anticlinal domes situated in areas occupied by the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary cover. The postmagmatic tectonic internalstructure of the Chonkurchak (Chunkurchak), Kyzyl-Choku, Kyzyl-Bulak, and Prishib massifs emplaced in the basement, as well as their relationships to the sedimentary cover, are described in the paper. The study was carried out using the morphostructural method, detailed geological mapping, structural kinematic analysis, and petrographic examination of rocks. The internalstructure of Paleozoic granites in the basement and indications of their 3D tectonic flow are characterized. It is shown that granites underwent 3D deformation after their emplacement in the consolidated crust, and this process had a substantial influence on tectonic processes at the plate and orogenic stages of regional evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610487B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610487B"><span>Towards an improved glacier monitoring program in the Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Pamir Mountains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barandun, Martina; Huss, Matthias; Azisov, Erlan; Gafurov, Abror; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Usubaliev, Ryskul; Kronenberg, Marlene; Hoelzle, Martin</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The monitoring of glacier mass balance in remote regions is important to understand the response of glaciers to climate change. The coverage of monitored glaciers in Central Asia has been very limited for the past 15 years; however the necessity of enhanced understanding regarding glacier dynamics and long term evolution in this particular region is crucial. Moisture availability importantly determines glacier response. Glaciers located in the Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Pamir Mountains are likely not to be directly influenced by monsoon such as most monitored Peri-Himalayan glaciers. However, not only scientific reasons make glacier monitoring to be of great relevance, also the link to political and socio-economic constraints on water scarcity carries high importance. First steps towards the establishment of a new glacier monitoring network were performed in 2010/2011 and since then modernization and extension of the monitoring strategies are continuously aspired. Close cooperation of international and local scientists build the basis of the program. Today four glaciers located in the Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (Golubin Glacier, Suek Zapadniy Glacier, Glacier No. 354) and the North-Western Pamir (Abramov Glacier) are regularly monitored. The network is planned to be extended in the next years to cover selected glaciers in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Further, we intend to develop new approaches to remotely monitor sub-seasonal glacier mass balance at a regional scale. In-situ mass balance measurements are taken at all four glaciers continuously in late summer. Automatic weather stations installed at Abramov Glacier in 2011 and at Golubin Glacier in 2013 deliver daily meteorological data allowing the application of a simple mass balance model driven with local precipitation and temperature data. Model calibration is performed using glaciological measurements and results are validated with snowline observations based on remote imagery. Automatic cameras at Abramov Glacier take</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T43C2240K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T43C2240K"><span>Tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Ili Basin (northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Kazakhstan)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kley, J.; Voigt, T.; Seib, N.; Kober, M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan active intraplate orogen of Central Asia exhibits strong along-strike variations in structure. Its northern front in southeastern Kazakhstan is characterized by a fragmented array of anticlinal basement highs whose wavelengths range from c. 5 to 30 km. Range-bounding faults are mostly E- to ENE-trending thrust or reverse faults and SE-trending dextral strike-slip faults. Faults of large displacement (more than several tens of meters) are conspicuously absent. The synclinal lows between the basement highs preserve Cenozoic strata of Oligocene to Quaternary age, probably deposited in a once continuous basin (the Ili Basin) and recording the entire history of <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan uplift. Very gentle, long-wavelength folds affect the Cenozoic strata. As far as visible, the basement is always folded conformably. The basin fill starts in the middle Oligocene (mammal fossils; Indricotherium horizon). The facies of these oldest deposits is characterized by fluvial deposits of a large river system and varying flood-plain deposits with intense soil formation (calcretes and gypsisols). Transport directions and quartz content of the sediments suggest they were not sourced from the nearby mountain ranges present today. The fluvial succession is followed by late Oligocene to early Miocene lake deposits which reflect the transition from an evaporitic lake/playa system to freshwater lacustrine conditions. The Oligocene to Early Miocene deposits are limited to a small area in the core of the Aktau anticline and show no relationship to the sediment succession overlying the basement in the uplifts surrounding the Aktau mountains in the north and west. There, alluvial and fluvial deposits of middle Miocene(?) age rest on deeply weathered paleosurfaces. Transport is mainly to the south. Changes in colour, grain size and ratio of channel to interchannel deposits probably reflect climatic changes. Rapid facies and thickness-changes allow the reconstruction of several alluvial fans</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8196B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.8196B"><span>Cenozoic tectonic history of the Western <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan constrained by low-temperature thermochronology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bande, Alejandro; Sobel, Edward; Mikolaichuk, Alexander</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The NW-SE trending dextral Talas-Fergana fault (TFF) separates the Western <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan from the Central Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. This ~2000 km long structure extends from western Tarim basin in the southeast to the Turgay basin in the northwest. The TFF formed in the late Paleozoic - Early Mesozoic and was reactivated in the Jurassic and Cenozoic. Cenozoic displacement only occurred along the southern segment of the fault and is poorly constrained; Thomas et al. (1993) suggested 100 ± 60 km Cenozoic displacement based on vertical-axis rotation of Tertiary red beds in the Fergana basin. AFT analysis was carried out on 26 samples collected from vertical profiles and spot samples in the Chatkal, Shandalash, Ugam, Talas and Fergana Ranges associated with structures that merge with the northern active end of the TFF with the goal of constraining the timing of slip. Sampling and thermal modeling of the Talas Range, on the east side of the TFF, show that the range was rapidly being exhumed by the latest Oligocene both near the TFF and at its northern termination. Based on this data and the geometrical relation of the TFF and the structural lineaments of the Talas Range, we interpret the zone as a transpressional pop-up structure kinematically-related to the TFF. A vertical profile in the Shandalash Range, directly to the west across the TFF, suggests a rapid exhumation event at Oligo-Miocene boundary. In this sector, the geometrical relationship of the reverse faults with the main TFF suggests a restraining bend connected to the TFF. Moreover, the timing of exhumation in these two areas suggests that strike-slip movement along the TFF is responsible for the uplift of the Talas pop-up and the development of restraining bends in the Ugam, Shandalash and Chatkal Ranges. Farther south along the west side of the TFF, we collected a vertical profile in the Fergana range in the hanging wall of a thrust sheet that roots into the TFF. A kink in an age-elevation plot suggests the onset of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917508S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1917508S"><span>Groundwater resources vulnerability due to melting glaciers in the Talgar alluvian fan, northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saks, Tomas; Timuhins, Andrejs; Sennikovs, Juris; Ibraimov, Vitaliy; Sotnikov, Evgeniy; Salybekova, Valentina; Rahimov, Timur; Popovs, Konrads</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Alluvial fans on the mountain slopes in Central Asia are an important source of the groundwater, due to there capacity of storing large quantities of the fresh groundwater and due to the fact that most urban centres are situated in the mountainous terrain or along mountain slopes. The groundwater resources in the alluvial fans are replenished by the infiltration from the rivers, which drain the mountain catchments and by infiltration from the precipitation, and released on there lower reaches as a series of seasonal springs or infiltrated into the lower lying aquifers. The rivers with there catchments in the mountainous terrain are fed by the precipitation (with the peak in May-June due to snow melt) and glacier melt. The glacier meltwater constitutes up to 90% of the river runoff in July-August, due to peak in glacier melt and low precipitation, providing much needed freshwater for agriculture in the dry season. In this study an attempt to quantify the importance of the glacier meltwater on the groundwater resources through groundwater modelling in the Talgar alluvial fan, Ili-Alatau mountain range has been performed. The results suggest that glacier meltwater is a substantial portion of the groundwater resources in the Talgar alluvial fan, with up to 30m drop of the groundwater level, if the glaciers disappear, endangering existing groundwater supply. The transient simulations suggest that disappearance of the glaciers and highly variable annual precipitation would result in highly fluctuating groundwater levels, as well as disappearance of most of the springs at the foot of the alluvial fan. These results are especially relevant for the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan, where glaciers have been rapidly retreating over last 50 years, and some of the glaciers could disappear in next decades.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2323H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2323H"><span><span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan geohazards database: earthquake and landslide size-frequency statistics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Havenith, Hans-Balder</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Recently compiled landslide and earthquake data covering a large part of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Central Asia, are analysed with respect to their size-frequency behaviour. For the same area, only partial databases for sub-regions had been presented previously. They were combined and new data were added to fill the gaps between the databases. The new compiled landslide inventory contains existing records of 1600 previously identified mass movements and more than 1800 new landslide data mapped over a target region of 1200 km (E-W) by 600 km (N-S). On the basis of the new landslide inventory and an updated earthquake catalogue (> 10000 records), the link between landslide and earthquake activity is analysed. Here we focus on the size-frequency relationships developed for both types of geohazards, in terms of Gutenberg-Richter Law for the earthquakes and in terms of probability density function for the landslides. Some similarities can be found in the spatially changing b-value of earthquake events and the power law exponent of the landslide data - lowest values are found in mountain areas where very large mass movements had occurred near major fault zones. The supra-regional landslide inventory will also be compared with sub-regional ones. For one of them, we also possess a multi-temporal landslide inventory and assessed landslide size-frequency relationships for each time period. Those show a decreasing power law exponent with time - due to the coalescence of smaller landslides to form fewer larger ones. However, at (supra-)regional scale, temporal data are very scarce; thus, a major hazard component is still insufficiently known and scaling in time is almost impossible. We may only counteract this problem by dating rockslides and any large mass movement. Finally, we would like to emphasize the role of coupling effects related to various types of geohazards that may also be expressed by similarities between size-frequency relationships.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPA.832..158C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPA.832..158C"><span>New complex EAS installation of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountain cosmic ray station</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chubenko, A. P.; Shepetov, A. L.; Antonova, V. P.; Beisembayev, R. U.; Borisov, A. S.; Dalkarov, O. D.; Kryakunova, O. N.; Mukashev, K. M.; Mukhamedshin, R. A.; Nam, R. A.; Nikolaevsky, N. F.; Pavlyuchenko, V. P.; Piscal, V. V.; Puchkov, V. S.; Ryabov, V. A.; Sadykov, T. Kh.; Saduev, N. O.; Salikhov, N. M.; Shaulov, S. B.; Stepanov, A. V.; Vildanov, N. G.; Vildanova, L. I.; Vildanova, M. I.; Zastrozhnova, N. N.; Zhukov, V. V.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>In this paper we present a description of the new complex installation for the study of extensive air showers which was created at the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountain cosmic ray station, as well as the results of the test measurements made there in 2014-2016. At present, the system for registration of electromagnetic shower component consists of ∼100 detector points built on the basis of plastic scintillator plates with the sensitive area of 0.25 m2 and 1 m2, spread equidistantly over ∼104m2 space. The dynamic range of scintillation amplitude measurements is currently about (3 - 7) ·104, and there is a prospect of it being extended up to ∼106. The direction of shower arrival is defined by signal delays from a number of the scintillators placed cross-wise at the periphery of the detector system. For the investigation of nuclear active shower components a multi-tier 55 m2 ionization-neutron calorimeter with a sum absorber thickness of ∼1000 g/cm2, typical spatial resolution of the order of 10 cm, and dynamic range of ionization measurement channel about ∼105 was created. Also, the use of saturation-free neutron detectors is anticipated for registration of the high- and low-energy hadron components in the region of shower core. A complex of underground detectors is designed for the study of muonic and penetrative nuclear-active components of the shower. The full stack of data acquisition, detector calibration, and shower parameters restoration procedures are now completed, and the newly obtained shower size spectrum and lateral distribution of shower particles occur in agreement with conventional data. Future studies in the field of 1014 -1017 eV cosmic ray physics to be held at the new shower installation are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812287L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812287L"><span>Segmented ruptures during intracontinental earthquakes: Kyrgyz Range, N-<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Landgraf, Angela; Patyniak, Magda; Dzhumabaeva, Atyrgul; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbek; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon; Strecker, Manfred R.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan was affected by a series of major M 6.9 to ~8 earthquakes. Ruptures affected either range fronts or range interiors. During these events (AD1885 Belovodskoe; AD1887 Verny; AD1889 Chilik; AD1911 Chon-Kemin; and AD1938 Kemino-Chu), neighboring faults ruptured and caused severe damage in the area of the Kyrgyz capital Bishkek and the former Kazakh capital Almaty (previously also called Alma-Ata or Verny), which were located in the epicentral areas. As recurrence intervals along single faults in this region are on the order of hundreds to thousands of years, such a sequence of earthquakes is not known in the remaining historic record. Earlier events may thus be recorded in long-term geomorphic archives. Through a combination of high-resolution offset measurements in the field, cosmogenic nuclide and luminescence dating of Quaternary landforms, stratigraphic analysis, and paleoseismological trenching, we evaluate the Quaternary deformation and analyze the paleoseismic history of neighboring fault systems along the Kyrgyz range mountain front. Our study sites are located close to the Kyrgyz capital Bishkek and include the epicentral area of the M6.9 Belovodskoe event of AD1885, but also the region west of it, which was not affected by this remarkable earthquake sequence. To date, the paleoseismic and historical seismic records for the Kyrgyz range indicate segmented ruptures that hardly exceed magnitude seven. Based on scaling relationships, however, the linked fault systems would be capable of generating M 8-events, similar to the long segmented ruptures observed in the mountain interior farther east during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The available observations, thus, point to incomplete fault ruptures along the mountain front, rather than earthquakes failing along a full rupture length.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPI....43.2466R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012LPI....43.2466R"><span>Ca-Fe and Alkali-Halide Alteration of an Allende Type B <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Aqueous Alteration in Nebular or Asteroidal Settings?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Petrographic and chemical observations of secondary alteration products in a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> constrain the physical and temporal setting of the alteration. Andradite, hedenbergite, sodalite, and nepheline alteration pre-dated assembly of the Allende chondrite parent body.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20919396','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20919396"><span>An experimental study of the combustion characteristics in SCCI and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> based on direct-injection gasoline engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.</p> <p>2007-08-15</p> <p>Emissions remain a critical issue affecting engine design and operation, while energy conservation is becoming increasingly important. One approach to favorably address these issues is to achieve homogeneous charge combustion and stratified charge combustion at lower peak temperatures with a variable compression ratio, a variable intake temperature and a trapped rate of the EGR using NVO (negative valve overlap). This experiment was attempted to investigate the origins of these lower temperature auto-ignition phenomena with SCCI and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> using gasoline fuel. In case of SCCI, the combustion and emission characteristics of gasoline-fueled stratified-charge compression ignition (SCCI) engine according to intake temperature and compression ratio was examined. We investigated the effects of air-fuel ratio, residual EGR rate and injection timing on the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> combustion area. In addition, the effect of injection timing on combustion factors such as the start of combustion, its duration and its heat release rate was also investigated. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeCoA..73.5100P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009GeCoA..73.5100P"><span>Petrologic study of SJ101, a new forsterite-bearing <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from the Allende CV3 chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petaev, Michail I.; Jacobsen, Stein B.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The forsterite-bearing Type B (FoB) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> SJ101 consists of three major structural units: (1) light patches of sector-zoned, poikilitic Al-rich clinopyroxene (Cpx) with numerous inclusions of small spinel grains and aggregates and subordinate amounts of Mg-rich melilite (Mel) and anorthite (An) (Sp-Cpx lithology), (2) dark sinuous bands of Al-rich clinopyroxene with large (up to ˜300 × 60 μm) poikilitically enclosed euhedral forsterite (Fo) crystals (Fo-Cpx lithology), and (3) the external Cpx-Sp-An rim overlying the entire inclusion. The two major lithologies are always separated by a transition zone of clinopyroxene poikilitically enclosing both forsterite and spinel. The patches of the Sp-Cpx lithology exhibit significant textural and mineralogical variability that is size-dependent. Small patches typically consist of Cpx and spinel with minor remnants of melilite and/or its alteration products. Large patches contain Mel-An-rich cores with either equigranular-ophitic-subophitic or 'lacy' textures reminiscent of those in Types B or C <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, respectively. All silicates poikilitically enclose numerous spinel grains of identical habit. Both melilite and anorthite gradually disappear toward the boundary with the Fo-Cpx lithology. Neither the evaporation mantle of Al-rich melilite typical of other FoBs nor the Wark-Lovering rim is present. Secondary minerals include grossular, monticellite, magnetite, and a few grains of wollastonite, andradite, and nepheline. Being a rather typical FoB mineralogically and chemically, texturally SJ101 differs from other FoBs in displaying the nearly complete segregation of forsterite from spinel which occur only in the Fo-Cpx and Sp-Cpx lithologies, respectively. The complex, convoluted internal structure of SJ101 suggests that the coarse-grained Sp-An-Mel-Cpx cores and Fo-Cpx lithology represent the precursor materials of FoBs, proto-<span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and Fo-rich accretionary rims. While the inferred chemistry and mineralogy of the Fo-rich rims</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA186080','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA186080"><span>A Prototype of Pilot Knowledge Evaluation by an Intelligent <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (Computer -Aided Instruction) System Using a Bayesian Diagnostic Model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1987-06-01</p> <p>The goal of computer is to cement the retention of the material by repeated practice and exercise. This method -provides the student .itn the...frcm outside material by the student t .rou ...a~r~ ...... .... e. norarn. The latter method is more flexible and provides for more student in’.%oement...tutorial strategy and it remains the most preferred of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> S.. methods . This technique can be tailored to fit most any learning situation but it excels</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026913','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026913"><span>Association between atmospheric circulation patterns and firn-ice core records from the Inilchek glacierized area, central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Aizen, V.B.; Aizen, E.M.; Melack, J.M.; Kreutz, K.J.; Cecil, L.D.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Glacioclimatological research in the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan was performed in the summers of 1998 and 1999 on the South Inilchek Glacier at 5100-5460 m. A 14.36 m firn-ice core and snow samples were collected and used for stratigraphic, isotopic, and chemical analyses. The firn-ice core and snow records were related to snow pit measurements at an event scale and to meteorological data and synoptic indices of atmospheric circulation at annual and seasonal scales. Linear relationships between the seasonal air temperature and seasonal isotopic composition in accumulated precipitation were established. Changes in the ??18O air temperature relationship, in major ion concentration and in the ratios between chemical species, were used to identify different sources of moisture and investigate changes in atmospheric circulation patterns. Precipitation over the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is characterized by the lowest ionic content among the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan glaciers and indicates its mainly marine origin. In seasons of minimum precipitation, autumn and winter, water vapor was derived from the and and semiarid regions in central Eurasia and contributed annual maximal solute content to snow accumulation in <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The lowest content of major ions was observed in spring and summer layers, which represent maximum seasonal accumulation when moisture originates over the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean and Black Seas. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850054072&hterms=united+kingdom+history&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dunited%2Bkingdom%2Bhistory','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850054072&hterms=united+kingdom+history&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dunited%2Bkingdom%2Bhistory"><span>Willy: A prize noble Ur-Fremdling - Its history and implications for the formation of Fremdlinge and <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Armstrong, J. T.; El Goresy, A.; Wasserburg, G. J.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The structure and composition of Willy, a 150-micron-diameter Fremdling in <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 5241 from the Allende meteorite, are investigated using optical, secondary-electron, and electron-backscatter microscopy and electron-microprobe analysis. The results are presented in diagrams, maps, tables, graphs, and micrographs and compared with those for other Allende Fremdlinge. Willy is found to have a concentric-zone structure comprising a complex porous core of magnetite, metal, sulfide, scheelite, and other minor phases; a compact magnetite-apatite mantle; a thin (20 microns or less) reaction-assemblage zone; and a dense outer rim of fassaite with minor spinel. A multistage formation sequence involving changes in T and fO2 and preceding the introduction of Willy into the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (which itself preceded <span class="hlt">CAI</span> spinel and silicate formation) is postulated, and it is inferred from the apparent lack of post-capture recrystallization that Willy has not been subjected to temperatures in excess of 600 C and may represent the precursor material for many other Fremdlinge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJCEM...7...41C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJCEM...7...41C"><span>Numerical Investigation Into Effect of Fuel Injection Timing on <span class="hlt">CAI</span>/HCCI Combustion in a Four-Stroke GDI Engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cao, Li; Zhao, Hua; Jiang, Xi; Kalian, Navin</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>The Controlled Auto-Ignition (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), was achieved by trapping residuals with early exhaust valve closure in conjunction with direct injection. Multi-cycle 3D engine simulations have been carried out for parametric study on four different injection timings in order to better understand the effects of injection timings on in-cylinder mixing and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> combustion. The full engine cycle simulation including complete gas exchange and combustion processes was carried out over several cycles in order to obtain the stable cycle for analysis. The combustion models used in the present study are the Shell auto-ignition model and the characteristic-time combustion model, which were modified to take the high level of EGR into consideration. A liquid sheet breakup spray model was used for the droplet breakup processes. The analyses show that the injection timing plays an important role in affecting the in-cylinder air/fuel mixing and mixture temperature, which in turn affects the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> combustion and engine performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850054072&hterms=Prizes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPrizes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850054072&hterms=Prizes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPrizes"><span>Willy: A prize noble Ur-Fremdling - Its history and implications for the formation of Fremdlinge and <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Armstrong, J. T.; El Goresy, A.; Wasserburg, G. J.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The structure and composition of Willy, a 150-micron-diameter Fremdling in <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 5241 from the Allende meteorite, are investigated using optical, secondary-electron, and electron-backscatter microscopy and electron-microprobe analysis. The results are presented in diagrams, maps, tables, graphs, and micrographs and compared with those for other Allende Fremdlinge. Willy is found to have a concentric-zone structure comprising a complex porous core of magnetite, metal, sulfide, scheelite, and other minor phases; a compact magnetite-apatite mantle; a thin (20 microns or less) reaction-assemblage zone; and a dense outer rim of fassaite with minor spinel. A multistage formation sequence involving changes in T and fO2 and preceding the introduction of Willy into the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (which itself preceded <span class="hlt">CAI</span> spinel and silicate formation) is postulated, and it is inferred from the apparent lack of post-capture recrystallization that Willy has not been subjected to temperatures in excess of 600 C and may represent the precursor material for many other Fremdlinge.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004M%26PS...39.1387W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004M%26PS...39.1387W"><span>I-Xe measurements of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and chondrules from the CV3 chondrites Mokoia and Vigarano</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Whitby, J. A.; Russell, S. S.; Turner, G.; Gilmour, J. D.</p> <p>2004-08-01</p> <p>I-Xe analyses were carried out for chondrules and refractory inclusions from the two CV3 carbonaceous chondrites Mokoia and Vigarano (representing the oxidized and reduced subgroups, respectively). Although some degree of disturbance to the I-Xe system is evident in all of the samples, evidence is preserved of aqueous alteration of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in Mokoia 1 Myr later than the I-Xe age of the Shallowater standard and of the alteration of a chondrule (V3) from Vigarano ~0.7 Myr later than Shallowater. Other chondrules in Mokoia and Vigarano experienced disturbance of the I-Xe system millions of years later and, in the case of one Vigarano chondrule (VS1), complete resetting of the I-Xe system after decay of essentially all 129I, corresponding to an age more than 80 Myr after Shallowater. Our interpretation is that accretion and processing to form the Mokoia and Vigarano parent bodies must have continued for at least 4 Myr and 80 Myr, respectively. The late age of a chondrule that shows no evidence for any aqueous alteration or significant thermal processing after its formation leads us to postulate the existence of an energetic chondrule-forming mechanism at a time when nebular processes are not expected to be important.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950012911&hterms=Cais&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCais','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950012911&hterms=Cais&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCais"><span>Heating during solar nebula formation and Mg isotopic fractionation in precursor grains of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and chondrules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sasaki, S.; Nagahara, H.; Kitagami, K.; Nakagawa, Y.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>In some Ca-Al-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) grains, mass-dependent isotopic fractionations of Mg, Si, and O are observed and large Mg isotopic fractionation is interpreted to have been produced by cosmochemical processes such as evaporation and condensation. Mass-dependent Mg isotopic fractionation was found in olivine chondrules of Allende meteorites. Presented is an approximate formula for the temperature of the solar nebula that depends on heliocentric distance and the initial gas distribution. Shock heating during solar nebula formation can cause evaporative fractionation within interstellar grains involved in a gas at the inner zone (a less than 3 AU) of the disk. Alternatively collision of late-accreting gas blobs might cause similar heating if Sigma(sub s) and Sigma are large enough. Since the grain size is small, the solid/gas mass ratio is low and solar (low P(sub O2)), and the ambient gas pressure is low, this heating event could not produce chondrules themselves. Chondrule formation should proceed around the disk midplane after dust grains would grow and sediment to increase the solid/gas ratio there. The heating source there is uncertain, but transient rapid accretion through the disk could release a large amount of heat, which would be observed as FU Orionis events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2880989','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2880989"><span>Inhibition of metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth by Chinese herbal cocktail <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Hsien Liquid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Advanced cancer is a multifactorial disease that demands treatments targeting multiple cellular pathways. Chinese herbal cocktail which contains various phytochemicals may target multiple dys-regulated pathways in cancer cells and thus may provide an alternative/complementary way to treat cancers. Previously we reported that the Chinese herbal cocktail <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Hsien Liguid (THL) can specifically induce apoptosis in various cancer cells and have immuno-modulating activity. In this study, we further evaluated the anti-metastatic, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities of THL with a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods The migration and invasion of cancer cells and endothelial cells was determined by Boyden chamber transwell assays. The effect of THL on pulmonary metastasis was done by injecting CT-26 colon cancer cells intravenously to syngenic mice. The in vitro and in vivo microvessel formation was determined by the tube formation assay and the Matrigel plug assay, respectively. The in vivo anti-tumor effect of THL was determined by a human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. The expression of metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) was measured by gelatin zymography. The expression of HIF-1α and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were determined by Western blot. Results THL inhibited the migration and invasion ability of various cancer cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA and the activity of ERK1/2 in cancer cells, and suppressed pulmonary metastasis of CT-26 cancer cells in syngenic mice. Moreover, THL inhibited the migration, invasion, and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2 and uPA in endothelial cells, and suppressed neovascularization in Matrigel plugs in mice. Besides its inhibitory effect on endothelial cells, THL inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression in cancer cells. Finally</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IzPSE..51..859L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IzPSE..51..859L"><span>Autonomous geodynamics of the Pamir-<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan junction zone from seismology data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lukk, A. A.; Shevchenko, V. I.; Leonova, V. G.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The geodynamics of the Tajik Depression, the junction zone of the Pamirs and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, is typically considered in the context of plate tectonic concept, which implies intense subhorizontal compression of the zone resulting from the subduction of the Indian and Eurasian lithospheric plates. This convergence has been reliably confirmed by the GPS measurements. However, the joint analysis of the geological structure, seismicity, and geodimeter measurements conducted during a few years at the Garm geodynamical testing site of the Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, demonstrates a widening of the Tajik Depression instead of its shortening, as should be expected from the subhorizontal compression predominant in the present-day stress-state of this region. This conclusion, together with the data from the other regions, suggests that, along with the plate tectonic mechanisms, there are also other, local, autonomous drivers that contribute to the tectogenesis of this region. Besides, the probable existence of these autonomous sources within the Tajik Depression directly follows from the seismology data. Among them is the crustal spreading within the depression suggested by the seismotectonic displacements in the focal mechanisms of the earthquakes. These displacements are directed in different azimuths off the axial's most subsided part of the depression at a depth of 20-30 km. Above this region the distribution of seismotectonic deformations (STD) is chaotic. This pattern of deformation is barely accounted for by a simple model of subhorizontal compression of the Earth's crust in the region. In our opinion, these features of the seismotectonic deformation in the crust within the studied part of the Tajik Depression is probably associated with the gain in the volume of the rocks due to the inflow of the additional material, which is supplied from the bottom crust or upper mantle by the deep fluids. This increase in the rock volume</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8125A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8125A"><span>Response of thunderstorm activity in data of neutron monitoring at <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Antonova, Valentina; Kryukov, Sergey; Lutsenko, Vadim</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We present results of the study of data of the monitoring of high-energy and thermal neutrons at <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan at different stages of thunderstorm activity. The data of the neutron monitoring were used taking into account the barometric effect. The intensity of the neutron component of cosmic rays is recorded in seven energy ranges. The electric field has values of ~ 100 V/m under fair weather conditions. Standard deviation of minute values of the neutron monitor data at the high altitude station does not exceed 0.5-0.6 %. Found that the standard deviation of the data during thunderstorms always exceeds these values. We selected events during the passage of thunderstorm clouds over the high altitude station without lightning discharges or with a small number of them. It was found that the particle rate of the neutron monitor changes in antiphase with the electric field changes. Atmospheric electric field of positive polarity decreases the count rate of the neutron monitor, and negative polarity - increases. Change of the count rate occurs at values of electric field ≥ 10-15 kV/m and reaches 2 %. The neutron monitor at the high-altitude station has the ability to measure the energy of recorded particles through determination of their multiplicity. We experimentally established that the sensitivity of the detected particles to change in Ez increases with decreasing their energy. The upper energy threshold of sensitivity of neutrons to change electric field is ~10 GeV. The physical mechanism of effect is based on lead nucleus capture of soft negative muons with the subsequent generation of neutrons. It is known that 7% of the neutron monitor count rate caused by negative muons. Absence of this effect in thermal neutrons data confirms the conclusion since the main difference of the thermal neutrons detector from the neutron monitor is the absence of the lead. In the active phase of a thunderstorm in the formed thundercloud the picture of distribution of charges is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeoJI.169.1289V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeoJI.169.1289V"><span>Depth localized azimuthal anisotropy from SKS and P receiver functions: The <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vinnik, L. P.; Aleshin, I. M.; Kiselev, S. G.; Kosarev, G. L.; Makeyeva, L. I.</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>Shear wave splitting in the seismic SKS phase provides a unique possibility to judge on deformations at depths inaccessible for direct observations. Fast S wave polarization direction in collisional belts is often parallel to the trend of the belt, although deformations of the mantle lithosphere in low-angle thrusts would lead to the fast polarization direction normal to the trend of the belt. These considerations suggested that the upper mantle in collisional belts is decoupled from the crust. However, SKS technique is notable by a poor depth resolution, and usually it assumes that the fast polarization direction is the same at any depth, which is hard to justify. Here, to investigate depth dependent azimuthal anisotropy in the mantle, we invert jointly P receiver functions and SKS particle motions at a number of seismograph stations. The technique involves azimuthal filtering of the receiver functions and provides a criterion to discriminate between the effects of azimuthal anisotropy and lateral heterogeneity of isotropic medium. A search for the optimum models is conducted with a technique similar to simulated annealing. Testing with synthetics demonstrates that this approach is robust. The results for 10 seismograph stations in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, the world's most active intracontinental collisional belt in Central Asia, reveal a pronounced change in the patterns of azimuthal anisotropy at a depth around 100 km. In the mantle lithosphere (at depths less than 100 km), anisotropy is relatively weak and fast wave polarization direction varies laterally in a broad range. This layer is not necessarily decoupled from the crust: its anisotropy can be a combined effect of present day thrusting and of deformations of the geologic past. In the lower layer (asthenosphere) the average azimuth of fast wave polarization is close to the trend of the belt, whereas magnitude of S wave anisotropy is stable and large (between 5 and 6 per cent). This anisotropy is a likely result of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22268104','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22268104"><span>Intramural optical mapping of V(m) and <span class="hlt">Ca(i</span>)2+ during long-duration ventricular fibrillation in canine hearts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kong, Wei; Ideker, Raymond E; Fast, Vladimir G</p> <p>2012-03-15</p> <p>Intramural gradients of intracellular Ca(2+) (<span class="hlt">Ca(i</span>)(2+)) <span class="hlt">Ca(i</span>)(2+) handling, <span class="hlt">Ca(i</span>)(2+) oscillations, and <span class="hlt">Ca(i</span>)(2+) transient (CaT) alternans may be important in long-duration ventricular fibrillation (LDVF). However, previous studies of <span class="hlt">Ca(i</span>)(2+) handling have been limited to recordings from the heart surface during short-duration ventricular fibrillation. To examine whether abnormalities of intramural <span class="hlt">Ca(i</span>)(2+) handling contribute to LDVF, we measured membrane voltage (V(m)) and <span class="hlt">Ca(i</span>)(2+) during pacing and LDVF in six perfused canine hearts using five eight-fiber optrodes. Measurements were grouped into epicardial, midwall, and endocardial layers. We found that during pacing at 350-ms cycle length, CaT duration was slightly longer (by ≃10%) in endocardial layers than in epicardial layers, whereas action potential duration (APD) exhibited no difference. Rapid pacing at 150-ms cycle length caused alternans in both APD (APD-ALT) and CaT amplitude (CaA-ALT) without significant transmural differences. For 93% of optrode recordings, CaA-ALT was transmurally concordant, whereas APD-ALT was either concordant (36%) or discordant (54%), suggesting that APD-ALT was not caused by CaA-ALT. During LDVF, V(m) and <span class="hlt">Ca(i</span>)(2+) progressively desynchronized when not every action potential was followed by a CaT. Such desynchronization developed faster in the epicardium than in the other layers. In addition, CaT duration strongly increased (by ∼240% at 5 min of LDVF), whereas APD shortened (by ∼17%). CaT rises always followed V(m) upstrokes during pacing and LDVF. In conclusion, the fact that V(m) upstrokes always preceded CaTs indicates that spontaneous <span class="hlt">Ca(i</span>)(2+) oscillations in the working myocardium were not likely the reason for LDVF maintenance. Strong V(m)-Ca(i)(2+) desynchronization and the occurrence of long CaTs during LDVF indicate severely impaired <span class="hlt">Ca(i</span>)(2+) handling and may potentially contribute to LDVF maintenance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JAESc..42..821S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JAESc..42..821S"><span>Hercynian post-collisional magmatism in the context of Paleozoic magmatic evolution of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan orogenic belt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seltmann, Reimar; Konopelko, Dmitry; Biske, Georgy; Divaev, Farid; Sergeev, Sergei</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The Hercynian <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (Tianshan) orogen formed during Late Palaeozoic collision between the Karakum-Tarim and the Kazakhstan paleo-continents. In order to constrain timing of Hercynian post-collisional magmatism, 27 intrusions were sampled for U-Pb zircon dating along a ca. 2000 km - long profile in Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. The samples were dated utilizing sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP-II). The obtained ages, together with previously published age data, allowed the timing of Hercynian post-collisional magmatism to be constrained and interpreted in the context of the Paleozoic magmatic evolution of the region. Apart from Hercynian post-collisional magmatism, two older magmatic episodes have been recognized, and the following sequence of events has been established: (1) approximately 10 Ma after cessation of continuous Caledonian magmatism a number of Late Silurian-Early Devonian intrusions were emplaced in the Middle and Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan terranes between 420 and 390 Ma. The intrusions probably formed in an extensional back arc setting during coeval subduction under the margins of Caledonian Paleo-Kazakhstan continent; (2) the next relatively short Late Carboniferous episode of subduction under Paleo-Kazakhstan was registered in the Kurama range of the Middle <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. Calc-alkaline volcanics and granitoids with ages 315-300 Ma have distinct metallogenic affinities typical for subduction-related rocks and are not found anywhere outside the Middle <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan terrane west of the Talas-Farghona fault; (3) the Early Permian Hercynian post-collisional magmatism culminated after the closure of the Paleo-Turkestan ocean and affected the whole region across terrane boundaries. The post-collisional intrusions formed within a relatively short time span between 295 and 280 Ma. The model for Hercynian post-collisional evolution suggests that after collision the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan was affected by trans-crustal strike-slip motions which provided suitable conduits</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3660H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3660H"><span>Results from the 2009 Investigations at the Global Change Observatory "Gottfried Merzbacher" (<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Kyrgyz Republic)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Häusler, Hermann; Leber, Diethard; Scheibz, Jürgen; Kopecny, Alexander; Wetzel, Hans-Ulrich; Echtler, Helmut; Moldobekov, Bolot</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The Global Change Observatory "Gottfried Merzbacher", which was installed near the former confluence of the Southern and Northern Inylchek Glacier, served as a platform for intensive field work in August 2009. "Peremitschka" (meaning "the area between") is a test site in front of the retreating Northern Inylchek Glacier, which regularly is flooded by the increasing glacier-dammed Lake Merzbacher, before it bursts out. Mapping the micro-geomorphology and conducting electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) profiles resulted in a sound interpretation of the surface morphology and of subsurface layers of the Peremitschka plain, which probably is underlain by both, permafrost and dead ice of the retreating Northern Inylchek Glacier. The flat 780 meters long high resolution ERT-profile reveals an undulated multilayer resistivity distribution. The uppermost 3-5 m of the profile show low resistivities ranging from 10 to about 200 ohm.m, indicating fine clastic sediments. In this area the surface of the whole test area is covered by silt and sand, the weathered material from the surrounding hills, which mainly consist of shists and calcareous shists of Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian age (Jamansu-Formation). The second "layer" below this low resistivity zone is characterized by resistivities up to 30.000 ohm.m to the final depth of the profile in approximately 45 m, and probably portraits permafrost overlying dead ice of the retreating Northern Inylchek Glacier. The geophysical measurements enable sound interpretations of the local geomorphology which consequently can be mapped in remote sensing images as flooded plain directly underlain by melting permafrost. Time series analysis of oblique aerial photos and remote sensing images allowed for a detailed reconstruction of the glacier retreat from 1943 to nowadays. It is still under discussion, however, if the Northern Inylchek Glacier surged in the late 1990ies. Compared to other regions in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan range the youngest</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.7097Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.7097Z"><span>Analysis of meteorological data and the surface energy balance of Keqicar Glacier, <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Y.; Liu, S.; Fujita, K.; Han, H.; Li, J.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Northwestern China currently experiences a climate change with fundamental consequences for the hydrological cycle. In the strongly arid region where water resources are essential for agriculture and food production, glaciers represent important water resources, contributing significantly to streamflow. The debris is an important glaciological feature of the region and has major impact on melt rates. It is essential to understand and quantify the interaction of climate and sub-debris melt in order to assess the current situation and to predict future water yield. Note that the surface energy balance determines glacier melt. However, little is known about the variability characteristics of the surface energy fluxes in this region. For this reason, we set up two automatic weather stuation (AWSs) in the ablation area of Keqicar Glacier. Keqicar Glacier is located in the Tarim River basin (largest inland river basin in China), southwestern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, China. It is a representative debris-covered glacier with a length of 26.0 km and a total surface area of 83.6 km2. The thickness of the debris layer varies from 0.0 to 2.50 m in general. In some places large rocks are piled up to several meters. In this study, we report on analysis of meteorological data for the period 1 July-13 September 2003, from two automatic weather stations, aimed at studying the relationship between climate and ablation. One station is located on the lower part of the ablation area where the glacier is covered by debris layer, and the other near the equilibrium line altitude (ELA). All sensors were sampled every 10 seconds, and data were stored as hourly averages. The stations were visited regularly for maintenance at two weeks intervals depending on the weather conditions and location of the AWS. A total of 17 ablation stakes were drilled into the glacier at different elevations to monitor glacier melt during the study period. Readings were taken regularly in connection with AWS maintenance. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1008873','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1008873"><span>Evidence for divalent vanadium in Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span> fassaite and implications for formation conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sutton, S.R.; Simon, S.; Grossman, L.; Delaney, J.S.; Beckett, J.; Newville, M.; Eng, P.; Rivers, M.L.</p> <p>2005-04-22</p> <p>Fassaite, a Ti-rich, Al-rich clinopyroxene, is a major mineral in Type B refractory inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites. Stoichiometric treatment of electron microprobe data reveals that Ti{sup 3+}/Ti{sup 4+} is {approx}1 in the fassaite, and experimental work shows that this implies crystallization at fO{sub 2} of {approx}10{sup -19} at 1200 C, very close to the fO{sub 2} of a gas of solar composition. Many fassaite grains are strongly zoned in Ti, whose abundance decreases from core to rim, probably as a result of the compatibility of Ti{sup 3+} in fassaite during crystallization of the molten Ca-rich, Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>). Superimposed on these profiles are zones where Ti and V contents spike upward together, within which the Ti{sup 3+}/Ti{sup 4+} ratio also increases significantly. Because Ti{sup 3+} is more compatible than Ti{sup 4+}, the spikes are thought to be caused by variable fO{sub 2} during crystallization. Thermodynamic calculations show that VO and V{sub 2}O{sub 3} are in equilibrium at approximately the same T-fO{sub 2} conditions as Ti{sup 3+} and Ti{sup 4+}, but whether variable fO{sub 2} can be responsible for the V spikes is unclear, since V{sup 2+} would not be expected to be more compatible than V{sup 3+} in clinopyroxene. We report here on our initial results from using x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy to determine the oxidation state of V in the zoned Allende fassaite and synthetic pyroxene. The ultimate goal is to place constraints on the oxygen fugacity history of the nebular environment during the crystallization of individual fassaite grains by also determining the pyroxene/liquid partitioning behavior of V as a function of oxidation state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24206231','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24206231"><span>Effect of malolactic fermentation by Pediococcus damnosus on the composition and sensory profile of Albariño and <span class="hlt">Cai</span>ño white wines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Juega, M; Costantini, A; Bonello, F; Cravero, M-C; Martinez-Rodriguez, A J; Carrascosa, A V; Garcia-Moruno, E</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>This study was aimed to investigate the influence of malolactic fermentation (MLF) on sensory profile and organoleptic characteristics of Albariño and <span class="hlt">Cai</span>ño white wines. Autochthonous bacteria were isolated from wines after alcoholic fermentation (AF) and further identified as Pediococcus damnosus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. When a commercial Oenococcus oeni starter was inoculated into Albariño and <span class="hlt">Cai</span>ño white wines to perform MLF, which was checked by HPLC quantification of malic and lactic acids, it was shown that autochthonous Ped. damnosus strains were able to predominate over the commercial O. oeni starter and perform MLF in <span class="hlt">Cai</span>ño wine. By contrast, neither commercial strain nor indigenous Pediococcus carried out MLF in Albariño wine. However, MLF was achieved when autochthonous strains that predominated in <span class="hlt">Cai</span>ño were inoculated into Albariño. Sensory analysis showed that after the MLF Albariño increased its body and softness, while <span class="hlt">Cai</span>ño result a more mature wine. MLF can positively affect Albariño and <span class="hlt">Cai</span>ño wines giving them new attributes. Pediococci isolated and characterized in this work can successfully perform MLF without negative effects on the wine, because no production of biogenic amines or exopolysaccharides by the selected pediococcus strains was detected. The effect of MLF in the sensory profile of Albariño and <span class="hlt">Cai</span>ño wines has never been studied before. Results obtained in this work showed that Ped. damnosus strains can be considered as a new topic of investigation on malolactic starter. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT.......222B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT.......222B"><span>An investigative study into the effectiveness of using computer-aided instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) as a laboratory component of college-level biology: A case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barrett, Joan Beverly</p> <p></p> <p>Community colleges serve the most diverse student populations in higher education. They consist of non-traditional, part-time, older, intermittent, and mobile students of different races, ethnic backgrounds, language preferences, physical and mental abilities, and learning style preferences. Students who are academically challenged may have diverse learning characteristics that are not compatible with the more traditional approaches to the delivery of instruction. With this need come new ways of solving the dilemma, such as Computer-aided Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>). This case study investigated the use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> as a laboratory component of college-level biology in a small, rural community college setting. The intent was to begin to fill a void that seems to exist in the literature regarding the role of the faculty in the development and use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. In particular, the investigator was seeking to understand the practice and its effectiveness, especially in helping the under prepared student. The case study approach was chosen to examine a specific phenomenon within a single institution. Ethnographic techniques, such as interviewing, documentary analysis, life's experiences, and participant observations were used to collect data about the phenomena being studied. Results showed that the faculty was primarily self-motivated and self-taught in their use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> as a teaching and learning tool. The importance of faculty leadership and collegiality was evident. Findings showed the faculty confident that expectations of helping students who have difficulties with mathematical concepts have been met and that <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is becoming the most valuable of learning tools. In a traditional college classroom, or practice, time is the constant (semesters) and competence is the variable. In the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> laboratory time became the variable and competence the constant. The use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> also eliminated hazardous chemicals that were routinely used in the more traditional lab. Outcomes showed that annual savings</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoJI.199..480G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoJI.199..480G"><span>Shear velocity model for the Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan from joint inversion of receiver function and surface wave data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gilligan, Amy; Roecker, Steven W.; Priestley, Keith F.; Nunn, Ceri</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is the largest active intracontinental orogenic belt on Earth. To better understand the processes causing mountains to form at great distances from a plate boundary, we analyse passive source seismic data collected on 40 broad-band stations of the MANAS project (2005-2007) and 12 stations of the permanent KRNET seismic network to determine variations in crustal thickness and shear wave speed across the range. We jointly invert P- and S-wave receiver functions with surface wave observations from both earthquakes and ambient noise to reduce the ambiguity inherent in the images obtained from the techniques applied individually. Inclusion of ambient noise data improves constraints on the upper crust by allowing dispersion measurements to be made at shorter periods. Joint inversion can also reduce the ambiguity in interpretation by revealing the extent to which various features in the receiver functions are amplified or eliminated by interference from multiples. The resulting wave speed model shows a variation in crustal thickness across the range. We find that crustal velocities extend to ˜75 km beneath the Kokshaal Range, which we attribute to underthrusting of the Tarim Basin beneath the southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. This result supports the plate model of intracontinental convergence. Crustal thickness elsewhere beneath the range is about 50 km, including beneath the Naryn Valley in the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan where previous studies reported a shallow Moho. This difference apparently is the result of wave speed variations in the upper crust that were not previously taken into account. Finally, a high velocity lid appears in the upper mantle of the Central and Northern part of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, which we interpret as a remnant of material that may have delaminated elsewhere under the range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28610284','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28610284"><span>A new species of <i>Gynacantha</i> Rambur, 1842 from Cat <span class="hlt">Tien</span> National Park, Vietnam (Odonata: Aeshnidae).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kompier, Tom; Holden, James</p> <p>2017-05-30</p> <p>Gynacantha cattienensis spec. nov. is described from Cat <span class="hlt">Tien</span> National Park, Dong Nai Province, Vietnam, on the basis of male and female specimens. This species is close in structure to G. khasiaca McLachlan, 1896, and differs in details of cerci, auricles and thorax coloration. Historical records of G. khasiaca from Vietnam may refer to this new species. Some information on its biology is provided.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1913151J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1913151J"><span>Deep structure and Cenozoic evolution of the Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan: modelling the past to better constrain the present</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jourdon, Anthony; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Petit, Carole; Rolland, Yann</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>In response to the India-Asia collision since 50 Ma, deformation propagates heterogeneously in the Eurasian plate. This complex deformation pattern illustrates how structural inheritance can influence the localization of the deformation especially in intraplate domains. In particular, Cenozoic and active deformation in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (TS) appears guided by structures and rheological contrasts inherited from the Paleozoic Variscan orogeny. The Cenozoic deformation is well documented and very intense and the interpolation of geological cross sections at lithospheric scale relies on numerous debated hypotheses about the Paleozoic geodynamic scenarii that are difficult to constrain. Which inherited structures and accommodate Cenozoic strain, and what was the initial geometry of these Paleozoic structures? A previous study based on numerical experiments aimed at testing different existing hypotheses about the vergence and rheology of the paleo-sutures in the Kyrgyz TS. Here, we start from the results obtained in this previous work to explore more accurately the strain localization and the thermo-chronological history of the Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. In order to constrain our results we compare numerical models with thermo-chronological data available in the literature. We find that the mechanical behavior of inherited heterogeneities has to be different in the upper and lower crust in order to obtain results compatible with data. Using these results, we propose a mechanically consistent depth-interpolated crustal cross-section of the Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, which incorporates available geological and geophysical data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017TCry...11..997W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017TCry...11..997W"><span>Mapping and inventorying active rock glaciers in the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan of China using satellite SAR interferometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Xiaowen; Liu, Lin; Zhao, Lin; Wu, Tonghua; Li, Zhongqin; Liu, Guoxiang</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Rock glaciers are widespread in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. However, rock glaciers in the Chinese part of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan have not been systematically investigated for more than 2 decades. In this study, we propose a new method that combines SAR interferometry and optical images from Google Earth to map active rock glaciers (ARGs) in the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (NTS) of China. We compiled an inventory that includes 261 ARGs and quantitative information about their locations, geomorphic parameters, and downslope velocities. Our inventory shows that most of the ARGs are moraine-derived (69 %) and facing northeast (56 %). The altitude distribution of ARGs in the western NTS is significantly different from those located in the eastern part. The downslope velocities of the ARGs vary significantly in space, with a maximum of about 114 cm yr-1 and a mean of about 37 cm yr-1. Using the ARG locations as a proxy for the extent of alpine permafrost, our inventory suggests that the lowest altitudinal limit for the presence of permafrost in the NTS is about 2500-2800 m, a range determined by the lowest ARG in the entire inventory and by a statistics-based estimation. The successful application of the proposed method would facilitate effective and robust efforts to map rock glaciers over mountain ranges globally. This study provides an important dataset to improve mapping and modeling permafrost occurrence in vast western China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.153..183F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.153..183F"><span>Evidence for an early nitrogen isotopic evolution in the solar nebula from volatile analyses of a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from the CV3 chondrite NWA 8616</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Füri, Evelyn; Chaussidon, Marc; Marty, Bernard</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Nitrogen and noble gas (Ne-Ar) abundances and isotope ratios, determined by CO2 laser extraction static mass spectrometry analysis, as well as Al-Mg and O isotope data from secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses, are reported for a type B calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) from the CV3 chondrite NWA 8616. The high (26Al/27Al)i ratio of (5.06 ± 0.50) × 10-5 dates the last melting event of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> at 39-99+109ka after "time zero", limiting the period during which high-temperature exchanges between the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and the nebular gas could have occurred to a very short time interval. Partial isotopic exchange with a 16O-poor reservoir resulted in Δ17O > -5‰ for melilite and anorthite, whereas spinel and Al-Ti-pyroxene retain the inferred original 16O-rich signature of the solar nebula (Δ17O ⩽ -20‰). The low 20Ne/22Ne (⩽0.83) and 36Ar/38Ar (⩽0.75) ratios of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> rule out the presence of any trapped planetary or solar noble gases. Cosmogenic 21Ne and 38Ar abundances are consistent with a cosmic ray exposure (CRE) age of ∼14 to 20 Ma, assuming CR fluxes similar to modern ones, without any evidence for pre-irradiation of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> before incorporation into the meteorite parent body. Strikingly, the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> contains 1.4-3.4 ppm N with a δ15N value of +8‰ to +30‰. Even after correcting the measured δ15N values for cosmogenic 15N produced in situ, the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is highly enriched in 15N compared to the protosolar nebula (δ15NPSN = -383 ± 8‰; Marty et al., 2011), implying that the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-forming region was contaminated by 15N-rich material within the first 0.15 Ma of Solar System history, or, alternatively, that the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> was ejected into the outer Solar System where it interacted with a 15N-rich reservoir.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014M%26PS...49..812F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014M%26PS...49..812F"><span>Hydrothermal origin of hexagonal CaAl2Si2O8 (dmisteinbergite) in a compact type A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from the Northwest Africa 2086 CV3 chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fintor, Krisztian; Park, Changkun; Nagy, Szabolcs; Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Krot, Alexander N.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We report an occurrence of hexagonal CaAl2Si2O8 (dmisteinbergite) in a compact type A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) from the CV3 (Vigarano-like) carbonaceous chondrite Northwest Africa 2086. Dmisteinbergite occurs as approximately 10 μm long and few micrometer-thick lath-shaped crystal aggregates in altered parts of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, and is associated with secondary nepheline, sodalite, Ti-poor Al-diopside, grossular, and Fe-rich spinel. Spinel is the only primary <span class="hlt">CAI</span> mineral that retained its original O-isotope composition (Δ17O ~ -24‰); Δ17O values of melilite, perovskite, and Al,Ti-diopside range from -3 to -11‰, suggesting postcrystallization isotope exchange. Dmisteinbergite, anorthite, Ti-poor Al-diopside, and ferroan olivine have 16O-poor compositions (Δ17O ~ -3‰). We infer that dmisteinbergite, together with the other secondary minerals, formed by replacement of melilite as a result of fluid-assisted thermal metamorphism experienced by the CV chondrite parent asteroid. Based on the textural appearance of dmisteinbergite in NWA 2086 and petrographic observations of altered <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from the Allende meteorite, we suggest that dmisteinbergite is a common secondary mineral in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from the oxidized Allende-like CV3 chondrites that has been previously misidentified as a secondary anorthite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T51A2450B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.T51A2450B"><span>2.5D Full Waveform Inversion of Teleseismic Body and Surface Waves in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker, B. I.; Roecker, S. W.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is the best contemporary example of intracontinental shortening resulting from continental collision, a process believed to have been significant in the evolution of a number of ancient orogens. Previous tomographic studies of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan implicate structures in the crust and upper mantle as key to understanding the dynamics of the region. In this study we apply recently developed full waveform inversion (FWI) techniques to passive data collected by the linear dense MANAS array between 2005 to 2007 in order to obtain higher resolution images of lateral heterogeneity beneath the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan than have previously been available. Our technique is an extension of that proposed by Roecker et al (2010); specifically the forward problem can now account for topographic features with a new 2.5D p-adaptive finite element solver. We incorporate a method developed by Bielak et. al. (2003) to input an appropriate force distribution to accommodate sources external to our model. The p-adaptivity allows us to suit element size to expected resolution as a function of depth and reduce the number of variables in inversion. Consequently, we can now explicitly calculate Frechet derivatives and generate the corresponding Gauss-Newton form with a model covariance regularization matrix all for modest additional computational expense. In order to take advantage of the complimentary sensitivities of different kinds of observations, we simultaneously invert fundamental mode Rayleigh waves and teleseismic P-wave coda. Our strategy is a multiscale approach by which we fit the longer period surface waves first followed by inclusion of body wave data.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21633079','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21633079"><span>In dialyzed squid axons oxidative stress inhibits the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger by impairing the <span class="hlt">Cai</span>2+-regulatory site.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>DiPolo, Reinaldo; Beaugé, Luis</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, a major mechanism by which cells extrude calcium, is involved in several physiological and physiopathological interactions. In this work we have used the dialyzed squid giant axon to study the effects of two oxidants, SIN-1-buffered peroxynitrite and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), on the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in the absence and presence of MgATP upregulation. The results show that oxidative stress induced by peroxynitrite and hydrogen peroxide inhibits the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger by impairing the intracellular Ca(2+) (<span class="hlt">Ca(i</span>)(2+))-regulatory sites, leaving unharmed the intracellular Na(+)- and Ca(2+)-transporting sites. This effect is efficiently counteracted by the presence of MgATP and by intracellular alkalinization, conditions that also protect H(i)(+) and (H(i)(+) + Na(i)(+)) inhibition of <span class="hlt">Ca(i</span>)(2+)-regulatory sites. In addition, 1 mM intracellular EGTA reduces oxidant inhibition. However, once the effects of oxidants are installed they cannot be reversed by either MgATP or EGTA. These results have significant implications regarding the role of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in response to pathological conditions leading to tissue ischemia-reperfusion and anoxia/reoxygenation; they concur with a marked reduction in ATP concentration, an increase in oxidant production, and a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration that seems to be the main factor responsible for cell damage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028484','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70028484"><span>Thermal maturity patterns in the Ordovician and Devonian of Pennsylvania using conodont color alteration index (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) and vitrinite reflectance (%Ro)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Repetski, J.E.; Ryder, R.T.; Harper, J.A.; Trippi, M.H.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This new series of maps enhances previous thermal maturity maps in Pennsylvania by establishing: 1) new subsurface <span class="hlt">CAI</span> data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Group are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2002/of02-302/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2002/of02-302/"><span>Thermal maturity patterns (<span class="hlt">CAI</span> and %R) in the Ordovician and Devonian rocks of the Appalachian basin in Pennsylvania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Repetski, John E.; Ryder, Robert T.; Harper, John A.; Trippi, Michael H.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to enhance existing thermal maturity maps in Pennsylvania by establishing: 1) new subsurface <span class="hlt">CAI</span> data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Group are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones (Ryder and others, 1998) and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2000/0496/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2000/0496/report.pdf"><span>Thermal maturity patterns (<span class="hlt">CAI</span> and %R%) in the Ordovician and Devonian rocks of the Appalachian basin in New York State</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Weary, David J.; Ryder, Robert T.; Nyahay, Richard</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to enhance existing thermal maturity maps in New York State by establishing: 1) new subsurface <span class="hlt">CAI</span> data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. The thermal maturity of the Ordovician and Devonian rocks is of major interest because they contain the source for most of the unconventional natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Group are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones (Jenden and others, 1993; Ryder and others, 1998). Improved <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation, in particular, its basin-centered part (Ryder, 1998). Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulation in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1078/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1078/"><span>Thermal maturity patterns (<span class="hlt">CAI</span> and %Ro) in the Ordovician and Devonian rocks of the Appalachian basin in West Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Repetski, John E.; Ryder, Robert T.; Avary, Katharine Lee; Trippi, Michael H.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to enhance existing thermal maturity maps in West Virginia by establishing: 1) new subsurface <span class="hlt">CAI</span> data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Limestone are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones (Ryder and others, 1998) and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014QSRv...89..169M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014QSRv...89..169M"><span>Regional vegetation patterns at lake Son Kul reveal Holocene climatic variability in central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mathis, Marie; Sorrel, Philippe; Klotz, Stefan; Huang, Xiangtong; Oberhänsli, Hedi</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>A multiproxy study was conducted on Holocene sediments from the alpine lake Son Kul (3010 m a.s.l, 41°48‧33N/75°07‧38E) in central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (Kyrgyzstan). The combination of high-resolution pollen, palynofacies and magnetic susceptibility data allowed reconstruction of changes in sedimentary and vegetation dynamics regionally at Son Kul between 8350 and ca 2000 cal. BP. Using pollen data to quantify climatic parameters, a quantitative reconstruction of climatic conditions was performed using the "Modern Analogue Vegetation types" (MAV) method and a ranged index of seasonality. The most temperate (e.g. moister) climate conditions occurred between 8350 and 5000-4500 cal. BP when alpine meadow vegetation was enriched in plants requiring moister conditions and trees developed regionally. Conversely, more continental and arid conditions prevailed after 4500 cal. BP with the decline of arboreal vegetation (especially Juniperus) and the extension of an alpine steppe-meadow along with a regional decrease in Poaceae. This climate transition was associated with a change in seasonality as the continentality greatly intensified after 5000-4500 cal. BP. Our results are consistent with other records from the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan range and the Chinese Province Xinjiang showing that relatively wet conditions prevailed regionally before 5000 cal. BP, whereas reduced moisture conditions were established after that time. From a more global perspective, we highlight that regional rainfall in central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and western Central Asia is likely to be predominantly controlled by the Eastern Mediterranean cyclonic system and North Atlantic climate, as based on the close correspondence between climatic archives from western Central Asia, the Levant, the Eastern Mediterranean and Caspian Sea regions. However, the effect of monsoonal dynamics on the regional climatic system in central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan still remains dubious, since recent modelling studies have shown that no dynamic link exists between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23456731','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23456731"><span>Efficacy and safety of herbal medicine yun-<span class="hlt">cai</span> tea in the treatment of hyperlipidemia: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Chien-Ying; Yu, Min-Chien; Lin, Chun-Che; Lee, Ming-Yung; Wei, James Cheng-Chung; Shih, Hung-Che</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Animal studies have demonstrated a lipid-modulating effect of yun-<span class="hlt">cai</span> tea. However, little is known about the lipid-lowering effect in humans.The aim of this study was to evaluate the lipid lowering effects and safety of yun-<span class="hlt">cai</span> tea in patients with elevated lipid levels in a human clinical trial. This was a 12-week, randomly assigned, parallel-group, double-blind, and placebo-controlled pilot clinical study. Sixty primary hyperlipidemia patients were included and randomly assigned to the yun-<span class="hlt">cai</span> tea group (30 patients) and the placebo group (30 patients), for 8 weeks of treatment and 4 weeks of follow-up. The primary endpoint was changes in plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) at 8 weeks. The secondary endpoints included total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG). Our results revealed no statistically signifificant differences in LDL-C and TC between the two groups. Despite the lack of a statistically signifificant difference in the level of TG between the two groups, a declining trend was noted. A signifificant reduction of TG was observed in the yun-<span class="hlt">cai</span> tea group at week 8, compared to baseline (P=0.048). The incidence of stomach discomfort, gastroesophageal reflfl ux, diarrhea, and constipation was slightly higher in the yun-<span class="hlt">cai</span> tea group. No other signifificant adverse events were found. It is unlikely that yun-<span class="hlt">cai</span> tea used had a blood lipid reduction effect. Further larger scale clinical trials with a longer duration and larger dose are necessary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED115225.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED115225.pdf"><span>Evaluation of the Experimental <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Network (1973-1975) of the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, National Library of Medicine. Final Report. No. ED-75-1.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rubin, Martin L.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>An evaluation was made of the biomedical Computer Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) Network Experiment, established by the National Library of Medicine in 1973 to test the feasibility of sharing <span class="hlt">CAI</span> learning materials through a national computer network. The evaluation was designed to assist decision makers in planning a future mechanism for distributing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.9203D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.9203D"><span>Folded Lithospheric Basins in Central Asia: Altai-Sayan and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan basins in a folding lithosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Delvaux, Damien; Cloetingh, Sierd; Beekman, Fred; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Burov, Evguenii; Buslov, Misha; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbeck</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Central Asia is a classic example for continental lithospheric folding. In particular, the Altay-Sayan belt in South-Siberia and the Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan display a special mode of lithospheric deformation, involving decoupled lithospheric mantle folding and upper crustal folding and faulting. A review of the paleostress data and tectono-stratigraphic evolution of the Kurai-Chuya basin in Siberian Altai, Zaisan basin in Kazakh South Altai and Issyk-Kul basin in Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan suggests that these basins were initiated in an extensional context and later inverted by a combination of fault-controlled deformation and flexural folding. They deformed by a combination of lithospheric buckling inducing surface tilting, uplift and subsidence, together with upper crustal fault-controlled deformation. They are good examples of Folded Lithospheric Basins (FLB) which typically form in a buckling lithosphere. Their characteristic basin fill and symmetry, inner structure, folding wavelength and amplitude, thermal regime and time frame are examined in relation to basement structure, stress field, strain rate, timing of deformation, and compared to existing modelling results. Both regions of active lithospheric folding have a heterogeneous crust with a long history of accretion-collision, subsequently reactivated as a far-field effect of the Indian-Eurasian collision. Thanks to the youthfulness of the tectonic deformation in this region (peak deformation in late Pliocene - early Pleistocene), the surface expression of lithospheric deformation is well documented by the surface topography and superficial tectonic structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.201....6P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.201....6P"><span>Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with fractionation and unidentified nuclear effects (FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>): II. Heterogeneities of magnesium isotopes and 26Al in the early Solar System inferred from in situ high-precision magnesium-isotope measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Changkun; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.; Davis, Andrew M.; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with isotopic mass fractionation effects and unidentified nuclear isotopic anomalies (FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) have been studied for more than 40 years, but their origins remain enigmatic. Here we report in situ high precision measurements of aluminum-magnesium isotope systematics of FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Individual minerals were analyzed in six FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from the oxidized CV3 carbonaceous chondrites Axtell (compact Type A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Axtell 2271) and Allende (Type B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> C1 and EK1-4-1, and forsterite-bearing Type B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> BG82DH8, CG-14, and TE). Most of these <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> show evidence for excess 26Mg due to the decay of 26Al. The inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratios [(26Al/27Al)0] and the initial magnesium isotopic compositions (δ26Mg0) calculated using an exponential law with an exponent β of 0.5128 are (3.1 ± 1.6) × 10-6 and 0.60 ± 0.10‰ (Axtell 2271), (3.7 ± 1.5) × 10-6 and -0.20 ± 0.05‰ (BG82DH8), (2.2 ± 1.1) × 10-6 and -0.18 ± 0.05‰ (C1), (2.3 ± 2.4) × 10-5 and -2.23 ± 0.37‰ (EK1-4-1), (1.5 ± 1.1) × 10-5 and -0.42 ± 0.08‰ (CG-14), and (5.3 ± 0.9) × 10-5 and -0.05 ± 0.08‰ (TE) with 2σ uncertainties. We infer that FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> recorded heterogeneities of magnesium isotopes and 26Al in the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-forming region(s). Comparison of 26Al-26Mg systematics, stable isotope (oxygen, magnesium, calcium, and titanium) and trace element studies of FUN and non-FUN igneous <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> indicates that there is a continuum among these <span class="hlt">CAI</span> types. Based on these observations and evaporation experiments on <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like melts, we propose a generic scenario for the origin of igneous (FUN and non-FUN) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>: (i) condensation of isotopically normal solids in an 16O-rich gas of approximately solar composition; (ii) formation of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> precursors by aggregation of these solids together with variable abundances of isotopically anomalous grains-possible carriers of unidentified nuclear (UN) effects; and (iii) melt evaporation of these precursors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.tmp..428H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoJI.tmp..428H"><span>Dynamics of Intra-Continental Convergence Between the Western Tarim Basin and Central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Constrained by Centroid Moment Tensors of Regional Earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Guo-chin Dino; Roecker, Steven W.; Levin, Vadim; Wang, Haitao; Li, Zhihai</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Among the outstanding tectonic questions regarding the convergence between the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Tarim basin in northwestern China are the manner in which deformation is accommodated within their lithospheres, and the extent that the Tarim lithosphere underthrusts the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. In particular, the amount and type of deformation within the Tarim basin is poorly understood. It is also uncertain if the convergence between the Tarim and the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan takes place mainly along a discrete boundary, or if the Tarim lithosphere simply indents into the Kazach shield, forming the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan through crustal thickening accommodated by a distributed series of thrust faults. In this study we use hypocenters from published earthquake catalogs and waveforms recorded by regional seismic networks to determine earthquake source parameters through regional centroid moment tensor inversion. The entire dataset consists of 160 earthquakes that occurred between 1969 and 2009 and with moment magnitudes between 3.5 and 7 distributed throughout the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and northwestern Tarim Basin. The estimated focal depths of these earthquakes range from the near-surface to about 44 km. Focal mechanisms throughout much of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan indicate active deformation accommodated by thrust faults from at least the upper crust to 30 km depth. South of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, the Jia-shi earthquake sequence within the Tarim basin suggests that both crustal shortening and localized flexure are part of a complicated process involving rotational convergence. Inside the Tarim basin, two earthquakes with thrust faulting mechanisms near the crust-mantle boundary beneath the Bachu uplift imply a brittle rheology of the lower crust. High-angle thrust events occur broadly across the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, suggesting that the Tarim lithosphere as a whole is strong and indents into the Kazach shield to create the mountain range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoJI.208..561H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeoJI.208..561H"><span>Dynamics of intracontinental convergence between the western Tarim basin and central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan constrained by centroid moment tensors of regional earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Guo-chin Dino; Roecker, Steven W.; Levin, Vadim; Wang, Haitao; Li, Zhihai</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Among the outstanding tectonic questions regarding the convergence between the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Tarim basin in northwestern China are the manner in which deformation is accommodated within their lithospheres, and the extent that the Tarim lithosphere underthrusts the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. In particular, the amount and type of deformation within the Tarim basin is poorly understood. It is also uncertain if the convergence between the Tarim and the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan takes place mainly along a discrete boundary, or if the Tarim lithosphere simply indents into the Kazach shield, forming the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan through crustal thickening accommodated by a distributed series of thrust faults. In this study we use hypocentres from published earthquake catalogues and waveforms recorded by regional seismic networks to determine earthquake source parameters through regional centroid moment tensor inversion. The entire dataset consists of 160 earthquakes that occurred between 1969 and 2009 and with moment magnitudes between 3.5 and 7 distributed throughout the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and northwestern Tarim Basin. The estimated focal depths of these earthquakes range from the near-surface to about 44 km. Focal mechanisms throughout much of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan indicate active deformation accommodated by thrust faults from at least the upper crust to 30 km depth. South of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, the Jia-shi earthquake sequence within the Tarim basin suggests that both crustal shortening and localized flexure are part of a complicated process involving rotational convergence. Inside the Tarim basin, two earthquakes with thrust faulting mechanisms near the crust-mantle boundary beneath the Bachu uplift imply a brittle rheology of the lower crust. High-angle thrust events occur broadly across the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, suggesting that the Tarim lithosphere as a whole is strong and indents into the Kazach shield to create the mountain range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lectures+AND+macroeconomics&pg=2&id=ED150057','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lectures+AND+macroeconomics&pg=2&id=ED150057"><span>An Evaluation of the Cognitive and Affective Performance of an Integrated Set of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Materials in the Principles of Macroeconomics. Studies in Economic Education, No. 4.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Daellenbach, Lawrence A.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of computer assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) on the cognitive and affective development of college students enrolled in a principles of macroeconomics course. The hypotheses of the experiment were stated as follows: In relation to the traditional principles course, the experimental treatment will…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26522496','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26522496"><span>The contribution of the androgen receptor (AR) in human spatial learning and memory: A study in women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mueller, S C; Verwilst, T; Van Branteghem, A; T'Sjoen, G; Cools, M</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Few studies have examined the impact of androgen insensitivity on human spatial learning and memory. In the present study, we tested 11 women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>), a rare genetic disorder characterized by complete absence of AR activity, and compared their performance against 20 comparison males and 19 comparison females on a virtual analog of the Morris Water Maze task. The results replicated a main sex effect showing that men relative to women were faster in finding the hidden platform and had reduced heading error. Furthermore, findings indicated that mean performance of women with <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> was between control women and control men, though the differences were not statistically significant. Effect size estimates (and corresponding confidence intervals) of spatial learning trials showed little difference between women with <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> and control women but <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> women differed from men, but not women, on two variables, latency to find the platform and first-move latency. No differences between groups were present during visible platform trials or the probe trial, a measure of spatial memory. Moreover, groups also did not differ on estimates of IQ and variability of performance. The findings are discussed in relation to androgen insensitivity in human spatial learning and memory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.201...83K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.201...83K"><span>Chronological study of oxygen isotope composition for the solar protoplanetary disk recorded in a fluffy Type A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from Vigarano</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kawasaki, Noriyuki; Itoh, Shoichi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Fluffy Type A Ca-Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) containing reversely zoned melilite crystals are suggested to be aggregates of direct condensates from solar nebular gas. We conducted an investigation of 26Al-26Mg systematics of a fluffy Type A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from Vigarano, named V2-01, with known oxygen isotopic distributions of reversely zoned melilite crystals; we also conducted oxygen isotope measurements of coexisting minerals. Two of six reversely zoned melilite crystals show continuous variations in magnesium isotopic composition, with δ25Mg decreasing along the inferred direction of crystal growth, which supports the idea that they originated through condensation. Petrography suggests that the constituent minerals of V2-01 formed in the following order: first spinel and fassaite enclosed by melilite, then reversely zoned melilite crystals, and spinel and diopside in the Wark-Lovering rim. The spinel enclosed by melilite has 16O-rich compositions (Δ17O ∼ -24‰) and on an Al-Mg evolutionary diagram plots along model isochron with an initial value of (26Al/27Al)0 = (5.6 ± 0.2) × 10-5. The fassaite enclosed by melilite crystals shows variable oxygen isotopic compositions (Δ17O ∼ -12‰ and -17‰) and plots on an isochron with (26Al/27Al)0 = (5.6 ± 0.2) × 10-5. The oxygen isotopic compositions of reversely zoned melilite showed continuous variations in Δ17O along the inferred direction of crystal growth, suggesting that surrounding nebular gas, during the formation of the reversely zoned melilite, changed from 16O-poor (Δ17O values larger than -10‰) to 16O-rich (Δ17O ∼ -25‰). The six reversely zoned melilite crystals show indistinguishable initial 26Al/27Al values with an average (26Al/27Al)0 of (4.7 ± 0.3) × 10-5, which is clearly distinguishable from the value of enclosed spinel and fassaite, indicating a younger formation age than the enclosed spinel and fassaite. The spinel and diopside from the Wark-Lovering rim show 16O-rich compositions (Δ17O </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050165546','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050165546"><span>Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from Short-lived and Long-lived Radionuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kita, N. T.; Huss, G. R.; Tachibana, S.; Amelin, Y.; Zinner, E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Hutcheon, I. D.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>In order to understand the timing of events in the early solar system, we rely on the radio-nuclide-based chronometers applied to materials in primitive meteorites. Because the time scale of early-solar system evolution was on the order of a few million years (Myr), we focus on so-called "short-lived radionuclides" with mean lives of less than 10 Myr (Table 1), as well as on the long-lived U-Pb system where high precision 207Pb-206Pb ages are applied. Note that the validity of some systems as chronometers (e.g., Be-B, Fe-Ni) has yet to be established. We summarize literature data for chondrules and <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and discuss how these chronometers constrain formation time scales in the early solar system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.409a2066N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.409a2066N"><span><span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan experimental results on the inelastic proton-air cross section at 0.5 - 5 PeV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nesterova, N.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>The analysis of experimental data from the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan complex array on extensive air showers originated from 0.5-5 PeV primary cosmic rays is presented. Conclusions are made on the rise of the inelastic proton-air cross section with energy on the base of comparisons with different interaction models. The analysis showed that the rise conforms to (7-9) % per one order of energy from 0.2 TeV (accelerator experiments with fixed targets) to 5 PeV (cosmic rays). These data correspond better to the new QGSJET-II-04 version of the interaction model based on the recent LHC results. This model predicts the slower rise of the cross-section than previous versions of QGSJET-II models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DokES.475..887G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017DokES.475..887G"><span>Zones of the origin of seismic centers in the Pamir-<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan sector of High Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gatinsky, Yu. G.; Prokhorova, T. V.; Rundquist, D. V.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>The zones of the origin of seismic centers within highly seismic areas of the Pamirs and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan are established. The majority of catastrophic earthquakes coincide with them in this part of High Asia. Their establishment is based on the distribution of the most intensive epicenters and the maximal volumes of the seismic energy together with its calculation and forecasting of the possible manifestations of high seismicity. The investigation of the deep structure of these zones allows us to determine the connection of the seismicity with geophysical field anomalies and some factors of the deep and near surface lithosphere and crust structure, which influence the present-day geodynamics. The results of our research enable us to appreciate the level of the seismic danger in different parts of the region investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.3888L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.3888L"><span>Repeated large-magnitude earthquakes in a tectonically active, low-strain continental interior: The northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Kyrgyzstan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Landgraf, A.; Dzhumabaeva, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K. E.; Strecker, M. R.; Macaulay, E. A.; Arrowsmith, Jr.; Sudhaus, H.; Preusser, F.; Rugel, G.; Merchel, S.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan has been affected by a series of major earthquakes in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. To assess the significance of such a pulse of strain release in a continental interior, it is important to analyze and quantify strain release over multiple time scales. We have undertaken paleoseismological investigations at two geomorphically distinct sites (Panfilovkoe and Rot Front) near the Kyrgyz capital Bishkek. Although located near the historic epicenters, both sites were not affected by these earthquakes. Trenching was accompanied by dating stratigraphy and offset surfaces using luminescence, radiocarbon, and 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide methods. At Rot Front, trenching of a small scarp did not reveal evidence for surface rupture during the last 5000 years. The scarp rather resembles an extensive debris-flow lobe. At Panfilovkoe, we estimate a Late Pleistocene minimum slip rate of 0.2 ± 0.1 mm/a, averaged over at least two, probably three earthquake cycles. Dip-slip reverse motion along segmented, moderately steep faults resulted in hanging wall collapse scarps during different events. The most recent earthquake occurred around 3.6 ± 1.3 kyr ago (1σ), with dip-slip offsets between 1.2 and 1.4 m. We calculate a probabilistic paleomagnitude to be between 6.7 and 7.2, which is in agreement with regional data from the Kyrgyz range. The morphotectonic signals in the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan are a prime example of deformation in a tectonically active intracontinental mountain belt and as such can help understand the longer-term coevolution of topography and seismogenic processes in similar structural settings worldwide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11..543B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11..543B"><span>Models of fluid saturated zones according magnetotellurics and seismics data on <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan crust and mantle along transect MANAS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bataleva, E.; Rybin, A.; Batalev, V.; Matyukov, V.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Recognized as one of the highest, youngest, and most active orogenic systems on the Earth the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is situated internal to the Eurasian continent. New deep seismic data acquired from 2004 to 2007 constitute an -400 km lithospheric transect located from the northwestern Tarim Basin in China to the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan in Kyrgyzstan. This seismic profile consists of 40 seismic stations "Quanterra" containing STS-2 (Streckeisen, Switzerland) and CMG - 3T (Güralp Systems Ltd) broadband seismic receivers. Registration of the seismic data in each station was conducted with sampling frequency of 40 Hz. Time service based on GPS clock was applied on each station. Average distance between the seismic stations along the profile is 10-15 km. Observations were held on 30 stations in Kyrgyzstan and on 10 of them in China. As a result of seismic investigations wave speeds cross-section was calculated. A 450 km long north-south magnetotelluric profile spanning the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan from Kazakhstan to western China reveals lateral variations in the resistivity of the Earth crust and mantle lithosphere to depths of 140 km. MT profile consisting of 19 long period MT soundings (20-20,000 s periods) were combined with 30 broadband stations (0.1-1600 s periods). Broadband measurements (0.001-100 s periods) were also acquired at the 14 long period sites in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. [Bielinski, et al 2003] Conductivity changes of up to one order of magnitude are a result from variations in temperature or composition, or both. Previous magneto telluric (MT) studies [Trapeznikov et al., 1997] partly show that some low velocity layers also have low resistivity, lending support to the fluid hypothesis. Studies of wave speeds reveal sections of the crust that have pronounced low velocity zones in the thicker portions of the crust which are attributed to crustal metasomatism [Ghose et al., 1998] or fluid filled fractures in pervasively deformed rocks [Vinnik et al., 2002]. Comparing an obtained</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070009991','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070009991"><span>Isotopic Measurements in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with the Nanosims: Implications to the understanding of the Formation process of Ca, Al-Rich Inclusions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ito, M.; Messenger, S.; Walker, Robert M.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Ca, Al-rich Inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) preserve evidence of thermal events that they experienced during their formation in the early solar system. Most <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from CV and CO chondrites are characterized by large variations in O-isotopic compositions of primary minerals, with spinel, hibonite, and pyroxene being more O-16-rich than melilite and anorthite, with delta 17, O-18 = approx. -40%o (DELTA O-17 = delta O-17 - 0.52 x delta O-18 = approx. - 20%o ). These anomalous compositions cannot be accounted for by standard mass dependent fractionation and diffusive process of those minerals. It requires the presence of an anomalous oxygen reservoir of nucleosynthetic origin or mass independent fractionations before the formation of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in the early solar system. The CAMECA NanoSIMS is a new generation ion microprobe that offers high sensitivity isotopic measurements with sub 100 nm spatial resolution. The NanoSIMS has significantly improved abilities in the study of presolar grains in various kind of meteorites and the decay products of extinct nuclides in ancient solar system matter. This instrument promises significant improvements over other conventional ion probes in the precision isotopic characterization of sub-micron scales. We report the results of our first O isotopic measurements of various <span class="hlt">CAI</span> minerals from EK1-6-3 and 7R19-1(a) utilizing the JSC NanoSIMS 50L ion microprobe. We evaluate the measurement conditions, the instrumental mass fractionation factor (IMF) for O isotopic measurement and the accuracy of the isotopic ratio through the analysis of a San Carlos olivine standard and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> sample of 7R19-1(a).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3006/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/sim/3006/"><span>Thermal Maturity Patterns (<span class="hlt">CAI</span> and %Ro) in Upper Ordovician and Devonian Rocks of the Appalachian Basin: A Major Revision of USGS Map I-917-E Using New Subsurface Collections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Repetski, John E.; Ryder, Robert T.; Weary, David J.; Harris, Anita G.; Trippi, Michael H.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The conodont color alteration index (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) introduced by Epstein and others (1977) and Harris and others (1978) is an important criterion for estimating the thermal maturity of Ordovician to Mississippian rocks in the Appalachian basin. Consequently, the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> isograd maps of Harris and others (1978) are commonly used by geologists to characterize the thermal and burial history of the Appalachian basin and to better understand the origin and distribution of oil and gas resources in the basin. The main objectives of our report are to present new <span class="hlt">CAI</span> isograd maps for Ordovician and Devonian rocks in the Appalachian basin and to interpret the geologic and petroleum resource implications of these maps. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span> isograd maps presented herein complement, and in some areas replace, the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-based isograd maps of Harris and others (1978) for the Appalachian basin. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span> data presented in this report were derived almost entirely from subsurface samples, whereas the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> data used by Harris and others (1978) were derived almost entirely from outcrop samples. Because of the different sampling methods, there is little geographic overlap of the two data sets. The new data set is mostly from the Allegheny Plateau structural province and most of the data set of Harris and others (1978) is from the Valley and Ridge structural province, east of the Allegheny structural front.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A23A0181H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A23A0181H"><span>Discussion of vicarious calibration of GOSAT/TANSO-<span class="hlt">CAI</span> UV-band (380nm) and aerosol retrieval in wildfire region in the OCO-2 and GOSAT observation campaign at Railroad Valley in 2016</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hashimoto, M.; Kuze, A.; Bruegge, C. J.; Shiomi, K.; Kataoka, F.; Kikuchi, N.; Arai, T.; Kasai, K.; Nakajima, T.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite) / TANSO-<span class="hlt">CAI</span> (Cloud and Aerosol Imager, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>) is an imaging sensor to measure cloud and aerosol properties and observes reflected sunlight from the atmosphere and surface of the ground. The sensor has four bands from near ultraviolet (near-UV) to shortwave infrared, 380, 674, 870 and 1600nm. The field of view size is 0.5 km for band-1 through band-3, and 1.5km for band-4. Band-1 (380nm) is one of unique function of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. The near-UV observation offers several advantages for the remote sensing of aerosols over land: Low reflectance of most surfaces; Sensitivity to absorbing aerosols; Absorption of trace gases is weak (Höller et al., 2004). <span class="hlt">CAI</span> UV-band is useful to distinguish absorbing aerosol (smoke) from cloud. GOSAT-2/TANSO-<span class="hlt">CAI</span>-2 that will be launched in the future also has UV-bands, 340 and 380nm. We carried out an experiment to calibrate <span class="hlt">CAI</span> UV-band radiance using data taken in a field campaign of OCO-2 and GOSAT at Railroad Valley in 2016. The campaign period is June 27 to July 3 in 2016. We measured surface reflectance by using USB4000 Spectrometer with 74-UV collimating lens (Ocean Optics) and Spectralon (Labsphere). USB4000 is a UV spectrometer, and its measurement range from 300 to 520nm. We simulated <span class="hlt">CAI</span> UV-band radiance using a vector type of radiation transfer code, i.e. including polarization calculation, pstar3 (Ota et al., 2010) using measured surface reflectance and atmospheric data, pressure and relative humidity by radiosonde in the same campaign, and aerosol optical depth by AERONET, etc. Then, we evaluated measured UV radiances with the simulated data. We show the result of vicarious calibration of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> UV-band in the campaign, and discuss about this method for future sensor, <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-2. Around the campaign period, there was wildfire around Los Angeles, and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observed by AERONET at Rail Road valley and Caltech sites is also high. We tried to detect and retrieve aerosol</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.7626D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.7626D"><span>The Jurassic to Paleogene detrital record of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: results from the Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Pelsmaeker, Elien; Jolivet, Marc; Dransart Laborde, Amandine; Robin, Cécile; Zhimulev, Fedor; Poujol, Marc; Nachtergaele, Simon; Glorie, Stijn; De Clercq, Shana; Batalev, Vladislav; De Grave, Johan</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) represents one of the largest Phanerozoic accretionary orogens in the world, pinched between North China - Tarim, Kazakhstan and the Siberian craton. It stretches from the Pamir in the southwest, over the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Junggar, Altai and Sayan mountain ranges to the Baikal rift in the northeast. The basement of the CAOB exists of various tectonic units that were assembled during several Paleozoic collision-accretion events. By the Permian, the accretionary tectonics in the CAOB culminated as all major composing units were joined. After final construction in the Late Paleozoic, the CAOB was subjected to several phases of Mesozoic deformation and was again reactivated in the Late Cenozoic as distant effect of the India-Eurasia collision. The Meso-Cenozoic reactivation episodes occurred in an intracontinental setting, related to tectonic far-field effects originating at the Eurasian margins. Subsequently intracontinental orogens, such as <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, were built superimposed on the inherited basement architecture and the erosion products of their exhuming mountain ranges accumulated in sedimentary basins. New sedimentological and detrital zircon U-Pb (LA-ICP-MS) results from several Jurassic to Paleogene sedimentary sections in Kyrgyzstan provide new insights in the Mesozoic - early Cenozoic geodynamic evolution and related basin-range interactions of the Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. Studied sedimentary sections are located in the Fergana and Yarkand-Fergana basins to the west of the Talas-Fergana Fault (TFF) and in the Issyk-Kul and Ming-Kush-Kökömeren basins to the east of the TFF. The U-Pb ages of the post-Precambrian zircon grains found in 18 Jurassic to Paleogene sandstones, can be generally divided into four groups: Caledonian (470-390 Ma), Hercynian (315-260 Ma), Triassic (250-210 Ma) and Jurassic (190-160 Ma) ages. The differences in sedimentation pattern and detrital zircon U-Pb age components suggest that the TFF played an important</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JGR...103.2725G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JGR...103.2725G"><span>Three-dimensional velocity structure and earthquake locations beneath the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan of Kyrgyzstan, central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghose, Sujoy; Hamburger, Michael W.; Virieux, Jean</p> <p>1998-02-01</p> <p>We used the arrival times of local earthquakes and quarry blasts recorded by the Kyrgyzstan Broadband Network (KNET) to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) P and S wave velocity models of the upper crust beneath an actively deforming mountain front and its associated foreland in the Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The continuous velocity models, described by cubic B spline interpolation of the squared slowness over a regular 3-D grid, were computed by simultaneous inversion of hypocenter and medium parameters. Exact ray tracing was done in the smooth 3-D medium by shooting rays from the sources to the stations by an analytical perturbation method based on the paraxial ray theory. The deduced large, sparse, linear system was solved using the damped, iterative, least squares algorithm LSQR. The stability and resolution of the result was qualitatively tested by two synthetic tests: the spike test and the checkerboard resolution test. We found that the models are well resolved up to a depth of ˜27 km for most parts of our image domain. The P and S wave velocity models are consistent with each other and provide evidence for marked heterogeneity in the upper crustal structure beneath the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. At shallower depths (<7 km) the sediment-filled foreland is imaged as a relatively lower velocity feature compared to the mountains, which are cored by crystalline basement rocks. In contrast, at midcrustal depths the mountains are underlain by relatively lower velocity materials compared to the foreland. A distinct contrast in velocity structure is also observed between the eastern and western parts of the Kyrgyz Range at midcrustal depths, with the presence of relatively higher velocities toward the east. The seismicity is concentrated near the traces of major active faults and extends deeper beneath the foreland compared to the mountains. The regional compression in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is accommodated along a series of high-angle reverse faults distributed throughout the orogenic system</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7659J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7659J"><span>Upper Paleozoic tectonics in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (Central Asian Orogenic Belt): insight from new structural data (Kyrgyzstan)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jourdon, Anthony; Petit, Carole; Rolland, Yann; Loury, Chloé; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Guillot, Stéphane; Ganino, Clément</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Due to successive block accretions, the polarity of structures and tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) are still a matter of debate. There are several conflicting models about the polarity of subduction during the Paleozoic, the number of microplates and oceanic basins and the timing of tectonic events in Kyrgyz and Chinese <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. In this study, we propose new structural maps and cross-sections of Middle and South Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (MTS and STS respectively). These cross-sections highlight an overall dextral strike-slip shear zone in the MTS and a north verging structure related to south-dipping subduction in the STS. These structures are Carboniferous in age and sealed by Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits. In detail, the STS exhibits two deformation phases. The first one is characterized by coeval top-to-the north thrusting and top-to-the-South normal shearing at the boundaries of large continental unit that underwent High-Pressure (Eclogite facies) metamorphism. We ascribe this phase to the exhumation of underthrusted passive margin units of the MTS. The second one corresponds to a top to the North nappe stacking that we link to the last collisional events between the MTS and the Tarim block. Later on, during the Late Carboniferous, a major deformation stage is characterized by the deformation of the MTS and its thrusting over the NTS. This deformation occurred on a large dextral shear zone between the NTS and the MTS known as Song-Kul Zone or Nikolaiev Line as a "side effect" of the Tarim/MTS collision. Based on these observations, we propose a new interpretation of the tectonic evolution of the CAOB. The resulting model comprises the underthrusting of the MTS-Kazakh platform beneath the Tarim and its exhumation followed by the folding, shortening and thickening of the internal metamorphic units during the last collisional events which partitioned the deformation between the STS and the MTS. Finally, the docking of the large Tarim Craton</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170002376','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170002376"><span>A New Type of Foreign Clast in A Polymict Ureilite: A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> or AL-Rich Chondrule</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodrich, C. A.; Ross, D. K.; Treiman, A. H.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Introduction: Polymict ureilites are breccias interpreted to represent regolith formed on a ureilitic asteroid [1-3]. They consist of approximately 90-95% clasts of various ureilite types (olivine-pyroxene rocks with Fo 75-95), a few % indigenous feldspathic clasts, and a few % foreign clasts [4-20]. The foreign clasts are diverse, including fragments of H, L, LL and R chondrites, angrites, other achondrites, and dark clasts similar to CC [6,7,9-19]. We report a new type of foreign clast in polymict ureilite DaG 999. Methods: Clast 8 in Dar al Gani (DaG) 999/1 (Museum fur Naturkunde) was discovered during a survey of feldspathic clasts in polymict ureilites [19,20]. It was studied by BEI, EMPA, and X-ray mapping on the JEOL 8530F electron microprobe at ARES, JSC. Petrography and Mineral Compositions: Clast 8 is sub-rounded to irregular in shape, approximately 85 micrometers in diameter, and consists of approximately 68% pyroxene and 32% mesostasis (by area). Part of the pyroxene (top half of clast in Fig. 1a and 2) shows a coarse dendritic morphology; the rest appears massive. Mesostasis may be glassy and contains fine needles/grains of pyroxene. The pyroxene has very high CaO (23.5 wt.%) and Al2O3 (19.7 wt.%), with the formula: (Ca(0.91)Mg(0.63)Fe(0.01)Al(sup VI) (0.38)Cr(0.01)Ti(0.05)1.99 Si2O6. The bulk mesostasis also has very high Al2O3 (approximately 26 wt.%). A bulk composition for the clast was obtained by combining modal abundances with phase compositions (Table 1, Fig. 3). Discussion: The pyroxene in clast 8 has a Ca-Al-(Ti)- rich (fassaitic) composition that is clearly distinct from compositions of pyroxenes in main group ureilites [22] or indigenous feldspathic clasts in polymict ureilites [4-8]. It also has significantly higher Al than fassaite in angrites (up to approximately 12 wt.% [23]), which occur as xenoliths in polymict ureilites. Ca-Al-Ti rich pyroxenes are most commonly found in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, Al-rich chondrules and other types of refractory</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20389540','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20389540"><span>A unique astigmatic nodal property in misaligned Ritchey-Chré<span class="hlt">tien</span> telescopes with misalignment coma removed.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmid, Tobias; Thompson, Kevin P; Rolland, Jannick P</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>We present the aberration field response of Ritchey-Chré<span class="hlt">tien</span> telescopes, with the aperture stop on the primary mirror, to secondary mirror misalignments. More specifically, we derive a general condition for the geometry of the binodal astigmatic aberration field for a telescope that has been aligned to remove field-constant coma. It has been observed that when the coma caused by secondary mirror misalignments is removed the astigmatic field is typically not symmetric around the periphery, but, significantly, it is always effectively zero on-axis. This observation is a manifestation of binodal astigmatism where one of the astigmatic nodes remains near the field center. Here, we show how the condition to remove field-constant coma simultaneously creates a constraint whereby one of the astigmatic nodes must remain effectively on-axis. This result points to why the alignment of a large telescope based on axial imagery is insufficient and demonstrates exactly the geometry of the remaining misalignment aberration field, which dominates the performance of the telescope, providing insights into more complete alignment approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025199','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025199"><span>Seasonal deuterium excess in a <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan ice core: Influence of moisture transport and recycling in Central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kreutz, K.J.; Wake, C.P.; Aizen, V.B.; DeWayne, Cecil L.; Synal, H.-A.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Stable water isotope (??18O, ??D) data from a high elevation (5100 masl) ice core recovered from the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mountains, Kyrgyzstan, display a seasonal cycle in deuterium excess (d = ??D - 8*??18O) related to changes in the regional hydrologic cycle during 1994-2000. While there is a strong correlation (r2 = 0.98) between ??18O and ??D in the ice core samples, the regression slope (6.9) and mean d value (23.0) are significantly different than the global meteoric water line values. The resulting time-series ice core d profile contains distinct winter maxima and summer minima, with a yearly d amplitude of ???15-20???. Local-scale processes that may affect d values preserved in the ice core are not consistent with the observed seasonal variability. Data from Central Asian monitoring sites in the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) have similar seasonal d changes. We suggest that regional-scale hydrological conditions, including seasonal changes in moisture source, transport, and recycling in the Caspian/Aral Sea region, are responsible for the observed spatial and temporal d variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014QSRv..103...26T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014QSRv..103...26T"><span>The disappearance of glaciers in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mountains in Central Asia at the end of Pleistocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takeuchi, Nozomu; Fujita, Koji; Aizen, Vladimir B.; Narama, Chiyuki; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Okamoto, Sachiko; Naoki, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Jumpei</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Glaciers in Central Asia are among the largest ice masses in the Eurasian continent and have supplied vital water to local inhabitants for thousands of years. The glaciers in this region are generally believed to be remnants of the last deglaciation, however, glacier variability in the central Asian mountains since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) has not been well documented. Here, we report an 86.87 m-deep ice core record drilled on an ice cap in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mountains of Central Asia. Radiocarbon dating of organic soil from the bottom of the ice-core borehole showed that the age of the soil was 12,656 - 12,434 cal years before present, coincident with the beginning of the Younger Dryas cold period (YD). This result indicates that the ice cap did not exist in the Bølling-Allerød period (BA), which was the warm period before the YD, and that the BA climate was significantly warmer than at present. It also indicates that the ice cap has never entirely disappeared in any warm periods throughout the Holocene. We estimated that during the BA its extent was 43% or less of the present glacier coverage in the mountains. Our results suggest that this region at the end of Pleistocene was considerably warmer than at present, and that most of the present glaciers in this region are not relics of the Last Glacial period, but are composed of ice formed during the YD and Holocene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Geomo.286..133N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017Geomo.286..133N"><span>Seasonal drainage of supraglacial lakes on debris-covered glaciers in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mountains, Central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Narama, Chiyuki; Daiyrov, Mirlan; Tadono, Takeo; Yamamoto, Minako; Kääb, Andreas; Morita, Reira; Ukita, Jinro</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Using field surveys in 2013, 2014, and 2016 plus satellite data from the 1999-2015 period, we analyze the seasonal drainage cycle of supraglacial lakes on seven debris-covered glaciers in the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. We characterize this cycle by the number of lakes and their water levels. The cycle of the Southern Inylchek Glacier starts to increase in the beginning of April, reaches a maximum in May-June, and decreases sharply in June-July. The increase in April to June comes from an inflow of meltwater from snow and ice, and the subsequent decrease arises from a greater connectivity to the englacial drainage network. For the Southern Inylchek Glacier, 94% of the supraglacial lakes that exist and appear during 2013-2015 drain during all three years, indicating that most lakes could connect to the englacial drainage network for three years. Concerning the water level, lakes in close proximity and with the same base-level tend to synchronize their seasonal water levels through the englacial channels. Although the maximum water level of the three-year, field-measured lake is about the same from 2014 through 2016, the date of maximum water level varies between mid-May and mid-June. During this period, the lifetime and size of the supraglacial lakes are controlled by the timing of their connectivity to the englacial drainage network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9365K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9365K"><span>Source parameters of the major historical earthquakes in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan region from the late 19th to the early 20th century.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kulikova, Galina; Krüger, Frank</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan is one of the largest mountain belts in the world. Its deformation is dominated by intermontane basins bounded by active thrust and reverse faulting. The <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan mountain belt is characterized by a very high rate of seismicity along its margins as well as within the <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan interior. The study area of the here presented work, the western part of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan region, is currently seismically active with small and moderate sized earthquakes. However, at the end of 19th beginning of 20th century, this region was struck by a remarkable series of large magnitude (M>7) earthquakes, two of them reached magnitude 8. These large earthquakes occurred before the global digital seismic network was installed and therefore were recorded only by analog seismic instruments. The processing of the analog is complicated especially due to the digitization of the records - a very time-consuming and delicate part. Therefore a special set of techniques is developed and modern methods are adapted for the digitized instrumental data analysis. Here presented study evaluates the impact of large magnitude M>7.0 earthquakes, in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan region, on the overall regional tectonics. It also investigates the accuracy of previously estimated source parameters for those earthquakes, which were mainly based on macroseismic observations, and re-estimate them based on the instrumental data. Ten strongest and most interesting historical earthquakes in <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan region are analyzed with in presented work. With the developed techniques, the source parameters of these major earthquakes are determined and their impact on the regional tectonics was investigated. The large magnitudes of the earthquakes are confirmed by instrumental data. The focal mechanisms of these earthquakes were determined providing evidence for responsible faults or fault systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Geote..44..102M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Geote..44..102M"><span>Underthrusting of Tarim beneath the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and deep structure of their junction zone: Main results of seismic experiment along MANAS Profile Kashgar-Song-Köl</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Makarov, V. I.; Alekseev, D. V.; Batalev, V. Yu.; Bataleva, E. A.; Belyaev, I. V.; Bragin, V. D.; Dergunov, N. T.; Efimova, N. N.; Leonov, M. G.; Munirova, L. M.; Pavlenkin, A. D.; Roecker, S.; Roslov, Yu. V.; Rybin, A. K.; Shchelochkov, G. G.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>The results of reflection CMP seismic profiling of the Central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan in the meridional tract 75-76° E from Lake Song-Köl in Kyrgyzstan to the town of Kashgar in China are considered. The seismic section demonstrating complex heterogeneous structure of the Earth’s crust and reflecting its near-horizontal delamination with vertical and inclined zones of compositional and structural differentiation was constructed from processing of initial data of reflection CMP seismic profiling, earthquake converted-wave method (ECWM), and seismic tomography. The most important is the large zone of underthrusting of the Tarim Massif beneath the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2233515','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2233515"><span>The development and evaluation of an adaptable computer aided instruction(<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) program for acquiring problem solving skills in biochemistry on the WWW: The "BioChem Thinker".</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hershkovitz, B.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>BioChem Thinker is a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> program that was developed to enhance problem solving skills and ability to integrate knowledge in biochemistry for medical and dental students. The program runs on a WWW browser. BioChem Thinker is adaptable, it enables the teacher to create a new problem solving assignment, or edit existing assignments without in-depth knowledge of computer programming. This provides teachers with greater independence and flexibility so as to be able to adapt the program to their own course requirements. The program was implemented and evaluated in the 3rd year biochemistry course of The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School. The tool used to develop Biochem Thinker can be utilized to develop similar <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in other biomedical areas. PMID:9357717</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9357717','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9357717"><span>The development and evaluation of an adaptable computer aided instruction(<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) program for acquiring problem solving skills in biochemistry on the WWW: The "BioChem Thinker".</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hershkovitz, B</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>BioChem Thinker is a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> program that was developed to enhance problem solving skills and ability to integrate knowledge in biochemistry for medical and dental students. The program runs on a WWW browser. BioChem Thinker is adaptable, it enables the teacher to create a new problem solving assignment, or edit existing assignments without in-depth knowledge of computer programming. This provides teachers with greater independence and flexibility so as to be able to adapt the program to their own course requirements. The program was implemented and evaluated in the 3rd year biochemistry course of The Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School. The tool used to develop Biochem Thinker can be utilized to develop similar <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in other biomedical areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3442516','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3442516"><span>A Conformational Switch in a Partially Unwound Helix Selectively Determines the Pathway for Substrate Release from the Carnitine/γ-Butyrobetaine Antiporter <span class="hlt">Cai</span>T*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zomot, Elia; Bahar, Ivet</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Cai</span>T is a homotrimeric antiporter that exchanges l-carnitine (CRN) with γ-butyrobetaine (GBB) across the bacterial membrane. Three structures have been resolved to date for <span class="hlt">Cai</span>T, all in the inward-facing state: CRN-bound (with four CRNs per subunit), GBB-bound (two GBBs per subunit), and apo. One of the reported binding sites is the counterpart of the primary site observed in structurally similar transporters. However, the mechanism and pathway(s) of CRN/GBB unbinding and translocation, or even the ability of the substrates to dislodge from the reported binding sites, are yet to be determined. To shed light on these issues, we performed a total of 1.3 μs of molecular dynamics simulations and examined the dynamics of substrate-bound <span class="hlt">Cai</span>T structures under different conditions. We find that both CRN and GBB are able to dissociate completely from their primary site into the cytoplasm. Substrate molecules initially located at the secondary sites dissociate even faster (within tens of nanoseconds) into the extra- or intracellular regions. Interestingly, the unbinding pathway from the primary site appears to be dictated by the geometry of the unwound part of the transmembrane (TM) helix 3, mostly around Thr100 therein. Arg262 on TM7, which apparently mimics the role of Na+ in <span class="hlt">Cai</span>T structural homologues, plays a key role in triggering the dissociation of the substrate away from the primary site and guiding its release to the cytoplasm provided that the unwound part of TM3 switches from a shielding to a yielding pose. PMID:22843728</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19793089','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19793089"><span>Histological structure and distribution of carbonic anhydrase isozymes (<span class="hlt">CA-I</span>, II, III and VI) in major salivary glands in koalas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mizuno, T; McKinnon, A; Ichihara, N; Amasaki, T; Asari, M; Nishita, T; Oishi, M; Soeta, S; Amasaki, H</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>While the mandibular glands usually consist of only mucous acinar cells or a combination of mucous and serous cells in other species of mammals, those of koalas were serous glands. Rabbit mono-specific polyclonal anti-canine <span class="hlt">CA-I</span>, II, III or VI antiserum showed cross-reactivity against corresponding koala carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes. Although immunohistochemical reactions to <span class="hlt">CA-I</span>, II and VI in ductal cells were moderate to strong in the tested salivary glands, no reaction or only slight reactions were observed against CA-III. In the sublingual glands, moderate immunohistochemical reactions to <span class="hlt">CA-I</span>, II and VI were also evident in serous acinar cells and serous demilunes. However, no reactions to the tested isozymes were observed in mucous acinar cells in these glands. With the exception of the histological structure of the mandibular glands, histological features and the distributional profile of CA isozymes of the salivary glands in koalas are relatively close to results obtained from horses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002232','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002232"><span>New Petrology, Mineral Chemistry and Stable MG Isotope Compositions of an Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: EK-459-7-2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Lapen, T. J.; Righter, M.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) are the key to understanding physical and chemical conditions in the nascent solar nebula. These inclusions have the oldest radiometric ages of solar system materials and are composed of phases that are predicted to condense early from a gas of solar composition. Thus, their chemistry and textures record conditions and processes in the earliest stages of development of the solar nebula. Type B inclusions are typically larger and more coarse grained than other types with substantial evidence that many of them were at least partially molten. Type B inclusions are further subdivided into Type B1 (possess thick melilite mantle) and Type B2 (lack melilite mantle). Despite being extensively studied, the origin of the melilite mantles of Type B1 inclusions remains uncertain. We present petrologic and chemical data for a Type B inclusion, EK-459-7-2, that bears features found in both Type B1 and B2 inclusions and likely represents an intermediate between the two types. Detailed studies of more of these intermediate objects may help to constrain models for Type B1 rim formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513378F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513378F"><span>Regional based modeling approach for rainfall-induced debris flows in the continental-climatic Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (SE Kazakhstan)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fischer, Thomas; Küfmann, Carola; Haas, Florian; Baume, Otfried; Becht, Michael</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The high mountain systems of Central Asia (Hindukush, Pamir and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan) are dominated by continental-climatic conditions. Nevertheless, westerly maritime air circulation and convective rainfalls during the summer season result in high rainfall intensities. In combination with a high availability of unconsolidated material rainfall triggered debris flows are prominent and intensive geomorphologic processes in these mountain areas. The presented study aims to figure out a regional based modeling approach for rainfall-induced debris flow processes based on combination of a disposition model for debris flow starting zones with process-flow models. The investigation area has a size of about 700 square kilometers and is situated in the Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountains in SE Kazakhstan (investigation areas: valleys of Prochadnaja, Big Almatinka, Little Almatinka and Left Talgar). The area is characterized by mountain forest zone, alpine meadows and high-alpine glaciated areas with the highest peaks at 4500m. In a first step the disposition (point of process triggering) of actual debris flows was analyzed. Due to different triggering mechanisms, the processes were divided into channel-type and slope-type debris flows. Detailed mapping of actual debris flows initiation areas and a GIS-based geostatistical disposition analysis are used to identify the main geofactor-variables and geofactor combinations which enhance the triggering of rainfall-induced debris flows. It can be shown that both, longtime variable geofactors (such as local geomorphology and hydrology) plays a significant role for triggering debris flows, as well as mid- and short time variable geofactors. Especially actual permafrost distribution and degradation plus glacier retreat comes into the focus of interest. This is most notably for rainfall induced slope-type debris flows which primarily are triggered in the discontinuous and continuous permafrost areas eroding younger unconsolidated material from actual</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3462S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3462S"><span>Active Seismicity and Tectonics in Central Asia from Seismological Data Recorded in the Pamir and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mountain Ranges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sippl, Christian; Schurr, Bernd; Schneider, Felix M.; Yuan, Xiaohui; Mechie, James; Minaev, Vladislav; Abdybachaev, Ulan A.; Gadoev, Mustafo; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Active tectonics in the Pamir mountains in central Asia, the westernmost part of the India-Eurasia collision zone, are controlled by ongoing convergence (about 20 mm/yr), causing substantial crustal shortening and compressional deformation. This leads to high seismicity rates throughout the region. Whereas seismic activity along the rim of the Pamir plateau is mostly compressional and concentrated along the Main Pamir Thrust, the distribution and focal mechanisms of earthquakes in its interior are more diffuse, with extensional events occurring along North-South trending rift zones (Kara Kul, Wachan). Seismicity in the south-western Pamir and in the Hindu Kush features frequent intermediate-depth earthquakes, reaching hypocentral depths of 300 km, which is rare for regions not obviously related to active subduction of oceanic lithosphere. These mantle earthquakes, which are not observed beneath the Himalayas and Tibet further east, form a rather well-defined Wadati-Benioff zone that was readily interpreted as subducted lithosphere present below the current collisional orogen. Earlier seismological studies showed the presence of a northward-dipping lithospheric slab under the Hindu Kush and a southward-dipping one beneath the Pamirs, with a small seismic gap in-between. Different hypotheses concerning the nature of these slabs (oceanic or continental lithosphere) and tectonic geometry in general (two slabs subducting in opposite directions or a single, hugely contorted slab) have been proposed in literature. Political instability in the region in the last two decades hampered on-site studies and field work, leaving many key issues poorly understood. In the framework of the multidisciplinary project TIPAGE (<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Pamir Geodynamic Programme), for the first time, new field campaigns collecting high quality data have been made possible. Local seismicity in the Pamir and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountain ranges (Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan) is currently being recorded by a temporary</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8053S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8053S"><span>Tectonically controlled relief evolution in the Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Junggar Alatau from the Eocene to the Present</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seib, N.; Kley, J.; Voigt, T.; Kober, M.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The Cenozoic <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Junggar Alatau mountains developed on the southern part of the Paleozoic Altaid orogen as a far-field effect of the collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates. Highland terrain, active seismicity, and fast GPS-derived motions are evidence of rapid ongoing mountain growth today. Variations in relief energy, hight-to-width ratio of ranges and apatite fission track (AFT) exhumation ages suggest they rose at different times. The strong dissection of the higher ridges (heights of up to 2km), indicates an earlier onset and higher rates of uplift. At the other end of the spectrum are low, little dissected ridges. According to AFT ages, exhumation in the Junggar Range began at 9 Ma (Jolivet et al., 2010), circa 11 Ma in the central Kyrgyz Range (Sobel et al., 2006) and 10 Ma in the Terskey Alatau. An AFT age of the low Sogety range is 77 Ma, suggesting that the Cenozic exhumation of the ridge was insufficient to expose rocks from below c.3 km depth. The synclinal lows between the basement highs preserve Cenozoic strata of Eocene to Quaternary age, probably deposited in a once continuous basin (the Ili Basin) and recording the entire history of <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan uplift. Facies pattern of proximal alluvial fans are strictly related to the recent higher mountain areas in the north and in the south. During Middle Miocene, a large lake developed in the basin center. Up to the Middle Miocene sedimentation was accompanied by normal faulting of small magnitude. The main Cenozoic folding and thrusting occurred after that time and before deposition of the Chorgos formation. Shortening was accommodated by reactivation of inherited basement structures, by a switch to reverse or strike-slip motion on normal faults, and the nucleation of new thrusts. The majority of faults which emplace basement rocks over upper Cenozoic sediments dip steeply at angles of 60-70˚, and some have throws of more than 200 m. They are marked by topographic steps and contrasting morphology</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.1884G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.1884G"><span>A twentieth century major soluble ion record of dust and anthropogenic pollutants from Inilchek Glacier, <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grigholm, B.; Mayewski, P. A.; Aizen, V.; Kreutz, K.; Aizen, E.; Kang, S.; Maasch, K. A.; Sneed, S. B.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Using a high-resolution ( 18 samples/year) major soluble ion record (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3-, and SO42-) covering the period 1908-1995 A.D. from the Inilchek Glacier, <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Kyrgyzstan, we provide a detailed climate and environmental proxy record for the region. Chemical concentrations, empirical orthogonal function analyses, and noncrustal excess calculations are used to identify natural and potential anthropogenic depositional trends. Dominant dust proxy species (i.e., Ca2+) reveal highest concentrations during the 1950s-1970s, with declining decadal trends through the end of the record. These trends likely reflect decreases in central Asian dust storm activity post-1950, which has been associated with coupled atmospheric circulation variability and anthropogenic activities. Comparison between Ca2+ and ERA-Interim (1979-1995) climate reanalysis data indicates a strong relationship to spring (March-May) geopotential height patterns in northwest China and southern Siberia associated with the Siberian High. Noncrustal contribution (excess) estimates of NO3-, K+, SO42-, and Cl- concentrations suggest discernable anthropogenic inputs began between the 1950s and 1970s, increased into the middle/late 1980s, and declined in the 1990s. Excess trends coincide with Former Soviet Union consumption, production, and emission of fossil fuels and fertilizers, reflecting the rapid growth of agriculture and industry, as well as economic declines in the middle to late 1980s/early 1990s. Excess-Cl- trends reflect timings that coincide with the construction of the Pavlodar Chemical Plant and the military production of Cl2 in Kazakhstan. NOAA Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory back trajectory frequency analysis suggests eastern Uzbekistan (e.g., Fergana Valley), Kyrgyzstan, and southern Kazakhstan as the primary pollutant sources to the study region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMPP52A0325K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMPP52A0325K"><span>Seasonal Deuterium Excess in a <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Ice Core: Influence of Moisture Transport and Recycling in Central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.; Aizen, V. B.; Cecil, D.; Green, J.; Synal, H.; Introne, D. S.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Stable water isotope (δ18O, δD) data from a high elevation (5100 masl) ice core recovered from the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mountains, Kyrgyzstan, display a seasonal cycle in deuterium excess (d = δD - 8*δ18O) related to changes in the regional hydrologic cycle during 1994-2000. While there is a strong correlation (r2 = 0.98) between δ18O and δD in the ice core samples, the regression slope (6.9) and mean d value (23.0) are significantly different than the global meteoric water line slope of 8 and global d value of 10. The resulting time-series ice core d profile contains distinct winter maxima and summer minima, with a yearly d amplitude of ~15-20 \\permil. Local-scale processes (i.e., sublimation, partial summer melting, snow formation temperature) that may affect d values preserved in the ice core are not consistent with the observed seasonal variability. Rather, we suggest that regional-scale hydrological conditions, including seasonal changes in moisture source, transport, and recycling in the Caspian/Aral Sea region, are responsible for the observed d variability. Examination of data from the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) indicates similar seasonal changes in southwestern Central Asian (Afghanistan and Tajikistan), likely related to moisture supply from the Mediterranean Sea during summer. The two years with the highest d values in the ice core record are 1997 and 1998, suggesting a possible link to ENSO ocean/atmosphere variability. The isotope data presented here provide a basis for interpreting centennial-scale ice core d records currently being developed from the region, and highlight the complexity of time-series isotope records from mid-latitude ice cores.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoJI.193..635B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeoJI.193..635B"><span>Late Devonian palaeomagnetism of the North <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Kyrgyzstan: can secular variation vary on a short timescale?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Van der Voo, Rob; Levashova, Natalia M.; Dominguez, Ada R.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>We studied more than 80 lava flows from a ˜600-m-thick pile of Upper Devonian (Frasnian) basalts and andesites of the Aral Formation in the North <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia). With the aid of stepwise thermal demagnetization, a high-temperature, dual-polarity component was reliably isolated from most flows. The primary origin of the high-temperature component is demonstrated by positive reversal, conglomerate and fold tests. The most prominent and intriguing feature of this Late Devonian data set involves a clear distinction in angular dispersion between the lower and upper parts of the studied section. A rather low concentration parameter (k = 13) and several directional anomalies characterize the lower section; in contrast, a much better grouping (k = 46) and a lack of directional outliers is observed for the dual-polarity vectors from the upper flow sequence of the formation. We analysed different mechanisms to account for this directional pattern and found that it is possible in just two ways. One is to assume that secular variation (SV) in the upper sequence is strongly underrepresented, and it is a coincidence that the mean directions of both polarities are statistically antipodal, and the corresponding concentration parameters are statistically equal. The other explanation is to hypothesize that the magnitude of SV can vary several-fold at the same palaeolatitude and over time intervals estimated as 105-106 yr. This is in sharp contrast with other models of SV, where this magnitude has been assumed to be rather time-independent (for a given latitude). Our hypothesis accounts for the observed irregularities in palaeomagnetic data, but makes attempts to establish a correlation between SV and other parameters (geographic latitude, reversal frequency, age, etc.) more difficult. We are aware, however, that more data are needed to refute or confirm it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JGR....98.6755A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JGR....98.6755A"><span>Active thrusting and folding along the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Late Cenozoic rotation of the Tarim relative to Dzungaria and Kazakhstan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Tapponnier, P.; Bai, M.; You, H.; Wang, G.</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>Geometries and rates of Late Cenozoic thrust faulting and folding along the northern piedmont of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountain belt, which was the location of the 1906 Manas earthquake, are studied. A flexural foredeep of the Dzungarian basement, filled with up to 11,000 m of sediment, is overthrusted by the 5,000 m northern range of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The active thrust is found to reach the surface 30 km north of the front range, within a 200-km-long zone of Neogene-Quaternary anticlines. Cenozoic shortening of the folded Dzungarian sediments is estimated to be on the order of 30 km, and the Cenozoic shortening rate is found to have been 3.0 +/- 1.5 mm/yr. Reactivation of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan by the collision of India and Asia is determined to have taken place in the early to middle Miocene. This is consistent with the existence of thick late Neogene and Quaternary deposits. Reactivation of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan roughly coincides with the great mid-Miocene changes in tectonic regimes, denudation, and sedimentation rates seen in southeast Asia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAESc.124..191L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAESc.124..191L"><span>Lithospheric structure across the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan constrained by gravity anomalies and joint inversions of receiver function and Rayleigh wave dispersion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Yonghua; Shi, Lei; Gao, Jiayi</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Shear wave velocity structure across the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan orogeny was generated by jointly inverting Rayleigh wave phase and group velocity with teleseismic P-wave receiver functions at 40 broadband seismic stations. The inferred seismic structure was validated by forward modeling of the complete Bouguer anomaly data. The joint inversion result reveals larger crust thicknesses beneath the Kokshaal (∼68-72 km) and Kyrgyz ranges (∼62-64 km), while other units have crustal thicknesses between 48 and 58 km. A fast velocity layer (Vs = 3.6-3.9 km/s) in the upper crust is found in some seismic stations within the Kazakh Shield. Our models show the presence of high velocity and density layers in the lowermost crust throughout the region, consistent with the presence of mafic/ultramafic lithologies. The large crustal thickness is associated with a thickened mafic layer in the lower crust, indicating that the thickened crust may be partly caused by magmatic underplating. The low velocity and density anomaly in the middle crust, and low upper mantle velocity observed in our model beneath the middle <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan reflect the presence of partial melt in the crust due to the intrusion of hot mantle material. The lack of correlation between Moho depth and topography, together with the gravity results, suggests that the topographic compensation in the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is not confined to the crust. This requires significant support from the mantle to account for the relative high elevation of the middle <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026959','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026959"><span>Crustal structure of the northern margin of the eastern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, China, and its tectonic implications for the 1906 M~7.7 Manas earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Wang, Chun-Yong; Yang, Zhu-En; Luo, Hai; Mooney, W.D.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan orogenic belt is the most active intracontinental mountain belt in the world. We describe an 86-km-long N–S-trending deep seismic reflection profile (which passes through the southern Junggar basin) located on the northeastern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan piedmont. Two distinct anticlines beneath the northern margin of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan are clearly imaged in the seismic section. In addition, we have imaged two detachment surfaces at depths of ∼7 and ∼16 km. The detachment surface at 16-km depth corresponds to the main detachment that converges with the steep angle reverse fault (the Junggar Southern Marginal Fault) on which the 1906 M~7.7 Manas earthquake occurred. A 12–14-km-thick sedimentary basin is imaged beneath the southern Junggar basin near Shihezi. The crust beneath the northern margin of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is 50–55-km thick, and decreases beneath the Junggar basin to 40–45-km thick. The crustal image of the deep seismic reflection profile is consistent with models derived from nearby seismic refraction data and Bouguer gravity anomalies in the same region. The faulting associated with the 1906 Manas earthquake also fits within the structural framework imaged by the seismic reflection profile. Present-day micro-seismicity shows a hypocentral depth-distribution between 5 and 35 km, with a peak at 20 km. We hypothesize that the 1906 Manas earthquake initiated at a depth of ∼20 km and propagated upwards, causing northward slip on the sub-horizontal detachments beneath the southern Junggar basin. Thus, in accord with regional geological mapping, the current shortening within the eastern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is accommodated both by high-angle reverse faulting and detachment faulting that can be clearly imaged at depth in seismic reflection data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004E%26PSL.223..187W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004E%26PSL.223..187W"><span>Crustal structure of the northern margin of the eastern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, China, and its tectonic implications for the 1906 M~7.7 Manas earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Chun-Yong; Yang, Zhu-En; Luo, Hai; Mooney, W. D.</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan orogenic belt is the most active intracontinental mountain belt in the world. We describe an 86-km-long N-S-trending deep seismic reflection profile (which passes through the southern Junggar basin) located on the northeastern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan piedmont. Two distinct anticlines beneath the northern margin of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan are clearly imaged in the seismic section. In addition, we have imaged two detachment surfaces at depths of ˜7 and ˜16 km. The detachment surface at 16-km depth corresponds to the main detachment that converges with the steep angle reverse fault (the Junggar Southern Marginal Fault) on which the 1906 M~7.7 Manas earthquake occurred. A 12-14-km-thick sedimentary basin is imaged beneath the southern Junggar basin near Shihezi. The crust beneath the northern margin of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is 50-55-km thick, and decreases beneath the Junggar basin to 40-45-km thick. The crustal image of the deep seismic reflection profile is consistent with models derived from nearby seismic refraction data and Bouguer gravity anomalies in the same region. The faulting associated with the 1906 Manas earthquake also fits within the structural framework imaged by the seismic reflection profile. Present-day micro-seismicity shows a hypocentral depth-distribution between 5 and 35 km, with a peak at 20 km. We hypothesize that the 1906 Manas earthquake initiated at a depth of ˜20 km and propagated upwards, causing northward slip on the sub-horizontal detachments beneath the southern Junggar basin. Thus, in accord with regional geological mapping, the current shortening within the eastern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is accommodated both by high-angle reverse faulting and detachment faulting that can be clearly imaged at depth in seismic reflection data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Metic..28Q.344E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Metic..28Q.344E"><span>Efremovka 101.1: A Primitive <span class="hlt">CAI</span> with Superrefractory REE Patterns and Enormous Enrichments of Sc, Zr, and Y in Fassaite and Perovskite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>El Goresy, A.; Zinner, E. K.; Matsunami, S.; Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Lin, Y.; Nazarov, M.</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>A fragment (30 mg) consisting of two inclusions (101.1 and 101.2) was separated from the Efremovka (CV3) meteorite. 101.1 is an unusual Type A <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, whereas 101.2 consists of Cr-spinel and fassaite. INAA of the whole fragment revealed 16% MgO reflecting significant contributions from 101.2. Refractory lithophile elements in the bulk fragment have CI-enrichment factors of ~14 with two times enrichment factors for Ca, Eu, and Yb. <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 101.1 (1.6 mm) contains more than 90% gehlenitic melilite (Ak(sub)1- Ak(sub)32) in its core. It is surrounded by a 5 layer rim sequence (~40 micrometers thick) consisting of spinel -->Al- diopside + fassaite (<= 0.7% Sc2O3) -->forsterite (Fo(sub)97- Fo(sub)100) --> diopside --> forsterite. Two small complete <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with a two layer sequence (diopside + anorthite) are contained within the core. Numerous layered sinuous inclusions presumably rim sequence fragments also consisting of diopside + anorthite, are locally crowded in the core. The melilite core is sprinkled with fassaite, perovskite, FeNi, and OsRu-rich metal blebs. Fassaite grains (<= 30 micrometers) contain enormous concentrations in Sc (up to 12.9% Sc2O3) and Zr (up to 5.4% ZrO2). Fassaite rims around FeNi blebs are rich in V (up to 5.4% V2O3) and are zoned with decreasing Sc-, Zr-, and V-concents from the metal cores to the outer fassaite rims. Sc2O3 and ZrO2 concentrations in fassaite display a positive correlation with a correlation coeffient of 0.88. This coherent behavior is a result of a complex cation substitution involving Mg, Ti, Sc, Zr, and V. A coupled substitution is demonstrated by the excellent linear correlation between Mg^2++Ti^4+(y) and Sc^3++Zr^4++Ti^3++V^3+(x) satisfying the equation y = 0.70-0.66x and having a linear regression coefficient of 0.84. Ti^3+/Ti^tot varies between 0.27 and 1. In contrast to fassaites, perovskites are generally depleted in Sc and Zr and enriched in Y (<=1.4% Y2O3). The assemblage andradite+wollastonite+ Fe^degree/or FeNi metal was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17615000','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17615000"><span>Digestibility and nitrogen retention of diets containing different levels of fibre in local (Mong <span class="hlt">Cai</span>), F1 (Mong <span class="hlt">Cai</span> x Yorkshire) and exotic (Landrace x Yorkshire) growing pigs in Vietnam.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Len, N T; Lindberg, J E; Ogle, B</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>Total tract digestibility and nitrogen retention of three diets containing different levels of fibre [200, 260 and 320 g/kg neutral detergent fibre (NDF) in dry matter] were determined in three breeds of growing pig at an initial age of approximately 3.5 months. The breeds were local (Mong <span class="hlt">Cai</span>, MC), F1 crossbred (MC x Yorkshire) and exotic (Landrace x Yorkshire, LY), allocated at random within breed (block) to double 3 x 3 Latin squares. The main fibrous ingredients of the experimental diets were rice bran, cassava residue meal and non-dehulled groundnut cake meal. Digestibility of organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), NDF, crude fibre, gross energy (GE) and ether extract (EE) decreased as the level of dietary NDF increased (p < 0.001). The r(2) values for the relationship between NDF level and digestibility of OM, CP, GE and EE were 83%, 83%, 80% and 82% respectively. On average, an increase in NDF content of 1% unit resulted in a decrease in OM, CP, GE and EE digestibility of 0.67%, 0.75%, 0.50% and 0.42% units respectively. Digestibility of energy and nutrients was the highest for MC and the lowest for LY (p < 0.01), with intermediate values for F1. There was a negative effect of NDF level on nitrogen (N) retained as a proportion of intake (p < 0.05). Nitrogen retention and utilization were significantly higher (p < 0.001) for LY than for MC and F1 pigs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.T33A1135K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.T33A1135K"><span>The Middle AsiaN Active Source (MANAS) Profile: Preliminary Results From A Deep Seismic Transect in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan of Kyrgyzstan and China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knapp, J. H.; Roecker, S. W.; Park, S. K.; Schelochkov, G.; He, R.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>New near-vertical deep seismic reflection data, acquired during the summer of 2007, constitute an ~350 km lithospheric transect from the northwestern Tarim Basin in China to the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan of Kyrgyzstan. Recognized as one of the highest, youngest, and most active orogenic systems on Earth, the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan are situated internal to the Eurasian continent, removed up to 3000 km from the former plate boundary with the Indian subcontinent. Existing geologic constraints imply that up to 200 km of shortening may have occurred in Late Tertiary to Recent time. Additionally, geologic, topographic, and gravimetric data suggest that continental lithosphere of the Tarim basin may presently be subducting beneath the southern margin of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, in the absence of an oceanic slab. While geodetic measurements document that the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan currently record about half of the shortening between India and Eurasia, geologic data dictate that active faults are restricted to only several of the individual ranges that make up the mountain belt. Passive-source seismological studies have shown the surprising result that the orogenic crust is thickest (65-70 km) at both the southern and northern margins of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, and thins dramatically to ~35 km within the internal part of the orogen. Key targets of the MANAS (Middle AsiaN Active Source) Profile include (1) the top of the Tarim crust as it descends beneath the southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, (2) an inferred crustal-scale frontal ramp, representing where the continental plate may have broken and is now descending into the upper mantle, (3) the geometry of demonstrably active faults below the shallow depths to which they can be inferred from surface geologic constraints, (4) the topography and seismic reflection signature of the Moho, especially given the unexpected variations in crustal thickness across the orogen, and (5) the significance of both crustal and upper mantle conductivity anomalies previously identified through magnetotelluric</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912789N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1912789N"><span>Mesozoic reactivation of the Talas-Fergana Fault in the Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan revealed by multi-method low-temperature geochronology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nachtergaele, Simon; De Pelsmaeker, Elien; Jolivet, Marc; Glorie, Stijn; Zhimulev, Fedor; Batalev, Vlad; De Grave, Johan</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is a mountain belt that represents a part of the vast intracontinental Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). It assembled at the end of the Paleozoic as a result of the closure of the Turkestan Ocean and consists of three main tectonic domains: the Northern, Middle and Southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. These blocks were displaced with an offset of over 100 km by the Talas-Fergana Fault (TFF) since they amalgamated at the end of the Paleozoic. The reactivated TFF remains in fact a dominant structural feature of the Mesozoic (and Cenozoic) <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, and kilometers of Mesozoic sediments accumulated in intracontinental basins along the TFF. New zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He (ZHe) and apatite fission track (AFT) age data obtained on crystalline basement samples close to the TFF indicate a multi-staged reactivation history during the Mesozoic. The reactivation of the Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is probably a result of Mesozoic accretion events to the growing Eurasian continent. Strike-slip movement of the TFF occurred during the Late Jurassic (±200 Ma) as a result of the collision of the Qiangtang block to the CAOB. The collision of the Lhasa block to the CAOB that occurred around 150 to 120 Ma ago reactivated the TFF again, as recorded in our data. A sedimentary hiatus in the Cretaceous east of the TFF and a continued sedimentation west of the TFF suggests that the TFF fault geometry changed and movements progressed from a dominant horizontal direction (Late Jurassic) to a more vertical one (Cretaceous) The Paleogene history of the Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is a tectonic quiet period in which paleosols could formed. This tectonic quiet episode is followed by a major tectonic reactivation event in the Neogene induced by the India-Eurasia collision. It is ultimately responsible for the modern topography of the Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. This is confirmed by low temperature thermochronological data and the deposition of kilometers of coarse-grained Neogene sediments. Detrital AFT results obtained on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7225J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7225J"><span>Role of Lithosphere structural inheritance in the localization of intraplate deformation: the example of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (Central Asian Orogenic Belt)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jourdon, Anthony; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Petit, Carole; Rolland, Yann</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Due to the India-Asia collision, the deformation of the Eurasian continent extends over several thousand kilometers, far away from the Himalayan belt. However, some areas like the Tarim craton are poorly deformed while others, as the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan belt or Tibet plateau, display large deformation rates. These actively deforming areas correspond to ancient plate boundaries which were previously involved in the construction of large orogenic belts. The <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is a relevant example to study the role of structural inheritance in the localization of recent deformation because of its Paleozoic tectonic history. Indeed, the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan has been built during two consecutive orogenies (Caledonian and Variscan) which formed large scale structures (as suture zones) clearly identifiable on the field. These structures are now reworked as active deformation zones where large earthquakes can occur. In order to improve our understanding of the role of this strong structural inheritance on the Cenozoic deformation, this study couples two approaches: 1-A field study which allowed us to identify the major Paleozoic structures, their geometry and the main lithologies involved. Our new findings include the reconnaissance of a transcurrent system in Middle <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, and a south-dipping structure of the major suture zone of the South <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan/ North Tarim. 2-Based on a reconstruction of the pre-Cenozoic structure geometries, we use the thermomechanical modeling code Ptatin to simulate the lithospheric deformation of the belt depending on the geometry and rheology of inherited structures. Our results show that inherited structures first localize the deformation before that antithetic neoformed structures develop on the outer parts of the belt. This result is consistent with seismologic, seismic and GPS data, which show that the deformation is now localized on the borders of the belt, and especially propagates in the South <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan/ North Tarim boundary along a N-dipping top-to-the South</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2714L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2714L"><span>Lithospheric structure across the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan constrained by gravity anomalies and joint inversions of receiver function and Rayleigh group velocity data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Yonghua; Shi, Lei; Gao, Jiayi</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Shear wave velocity structure across the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan orogeny was generated by jointly inverting Rayleigh wave phase and group velocity with teleseismic P-wave receiver functions at 40 broad band seismic stations of the MANAS project. The inferred seismic structure was validated by forward modeling of the complete Bouguer anomaly data. The joint inversion result reveals larger crust thicknesses beneath the Kokshaal (~68-72 km) and Kyrgyz ranges (~62-64 km), while other units have crustal thicknesses between 48 and 58 km. A fast velocity layer (Vs = 3.6-3.9 km/s) in the upper crust is found in some seismic stations within the Kazakh Shield. Our models show the presence of high velocity and density layers in the lowermost crust throughout the region, consistent with the presence of mafic/ultramafic lithologies. The large crustal thickness is associated with a thickened mafic layer in the lower crust, indicating that the thickened crust may be partly caused by magmatic underplating. The low velocity and density anomaly in the middle crust, and low upper mantle velocity observed in our model beneath the middle <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan reflects the presence of partial melt in the crust due to the intrusion of hot mantle material. The lack of correlation between Moho depth and topography, together with the gravity results, suggests that the topographic compensation in the central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is not confined to the crust. This requires significant support from the mantle to account for the relative high elevation of the middle <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A51J0218G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A51J0218G"><span>An Examination of the Impact of Pixel Size in the Upwelling Radiance of two operational UV Detectors (OMI and GOSAT-<span class="hlt">CAI</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gasso, S.; Torres, O.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Aerosol remote sensing in UV wavelengths is unique in that it can differentiate between absorbing and non-absorbing aerosols, a feature lacking in VIS passive remote sensors such as MODIS. Observations by the TOMS UV sensor and its follow-up instruments (OMI, OMPS) constitute a set of four decades of aerosol absorption measurements, unique among all historical satellite aerosol records. However, there are design features distinctive to each of them that need to be considered when composing an aerosol data record spanning all missions. Specifically, their spatial resolutions are different with pixels sizes ranging from 50x50km (TOMS) to 24x13 km (OMI). How the differences in pixel size among these detectors impact the identification of absorbing aerosols is the aim of this work. This presentation will show data from two currently deployed satellites with UV bans and different pixel sizes: the Cloud and Aerosol Imager (pixel size 0.5x0.5 km onboard of the GOSAT satellite) and OMI (Aura). <span class="hlt">CAI</span> has a band centered at 382nm and exceptional spatial resolution that enables the detection of sources of sub-pixel variability such as cloud contamination and smaller surface features inside a sensor with a larger pixel. These detectors have frequent coincident observations in time and space, which enables the pixel-by-pixel comparison. However, a detailed comparison of radiances between both sensors is needed as initial step prior assessment of cloud contamination. Comparisons of collocated Lambertian Equivalent Reflectances of OMI and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> pixels will be shown in different regions with representative surface brightness (snow, desert, ocean, vegetated). Initial comparison in scenes with no aerosols suggests that <span class="hlt">CAI</span>'s calibration changes in time can be corrected by comparing with OMI. Additional cases with absorbing and non-absorbing aerosols will be presented. This work is expected to result in a much improved understanding of the artifacts impacting the current and past aerosol</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26407967','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26407967"><span>Slow [Na]i Changes and Positive Feedback Between Membrane Potential and [<span class="hlt">Ca]i</span> Underlie Intermittent Early Afterdepolarizations and Arrhythmias.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xie, Yuanfang; Liao, Zhandi; Grandi, Eleonora; Shiferaw, Yohannes; Bers, Donald M</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Most cardiac arrhythmias occur intermittently. As a cellular precursor of lethal cardiac arrhythmias, early afterdepolarizations (EADs) during action potentials(APs) have been extensively investigated, and mechanisms for the occurrence of EADs on a beat-to-beat basis have been proposed. However, no previous study explains slow fluctuations in EADs, which may underlie intermittency of EAD trains and consequent arrhythmias. We hypothesize that the feedback of intracellular calcium and sodium concentrations ([Na](i) and [<span class="hlt">Ca](i</span>)) that influence membrane voltage (V) can explain EAD intermittency. AP recordings in rabbit ventricular myocytes revealed intermittent EADs, with slow fluctuations between runs of APs with EADs present or absent. We then used dynamical systems analysis and detailed mathematical models of rabbit ventricular myocytes that replicate the observed behavior and investigated the underlying mechanism. We found that a dominance of inward Na-Ca exchanger current (I(NCX)) over Ca-dependent inactivation of L-type Ca current (I(CaL)) forms a positive feedback between [<span class="hlt">Ca](i</span>) and V, thus resulting in 2 stable AP states, with and without EADs (ie, bistability). Slow changes in [Na](i) determine the transition between these 2 states, forming a bistable on-off switch of EADs. Tissue simulations showed that this bistable switch of cellular EADs provided both a trigger and a functional substrate for intermittent arrhythmias in homogeneous tissues. Our study demonstrates that the interaction among V, [<span class="hlt">Ca](i</span>), and [Na](i) causes slow on-off switching (or bistability) of AP duration in cardiac myocytes and EAD-mediated arrhythmias and suggests a novel possible mechanism for intermittency of cardiac arrhythmias. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Tectp.477...49Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009Tectp.477...49Z"><span>Tomographic image of the crust and upper mantle beneath the western <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan from the MANAS broadband deployment: Possible evidence for lithospheric delamination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhiwei, Li; Roecker, Steve; Zhihai, Li; Bin, Wei; Haitao, Wang; Schelochkov, Gennady; Bragin, Vitaly</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>We combine teleseismic P arrival times from the recent MANAS deployment of broadband sensors with P and S arrival times from local events recorded by the GENGHIS deployment and analog observations from the Kyrgyz Institute of Seismology to generate a high resolution (~ 20 km) image of elastic wavespeeds in the crust and upper mantle beneath the western <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The total data set consists of 29,006 P and 21,491 S arrivals from 2176 local events recorded at 144 stations along with 5202 P arrivals from 263 teleseismic events recorded at 40 stations. The most significant feature in our image of the mantle beneath the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is a pair of large, elongated high wavespeed regions dipping in opposite directions from the near surface to depths of at least 400 km. These regions appear to be continuous and extend upwards to bounding range fronts where the Tarim Basin is being overthrust by the Kokshal range on the south side, and the Kazach shield underthrusts the Kyrgyz range on the north side. While it is tempting to interpret these high wavespeed anomalies as evidence for contemporary subduction of continental lithosphere, such a scenario is difficult to reconcile with both the timing of the orogen and the size of the wavespeed anomaly. We suggest instead that they represent downwelling side-limbs of a lithospheric delamination beneath the central part of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, possibly by siphoning of the bordering continental lithosphere as the central part descends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24165016','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24165016"><span>Sexual life and sexual wellness in individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>) and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome (MRKHS).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fliegner, Maike; Krupp, Kerstin; Brunner, Franziska; Rall, Katharina; Brucker, Sara Y; Briken, Peer; Richter-Appelt, Hertha</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Sexual wellness depends on a person's physical and psychological constitution. Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>) and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome (MRKHS) can compromise sexual well-being. To compare sexual well-being in <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> and MRKHS using multiple measures: To assess sexual problems and perceived distress. To gain insight into participants' feelings of inadequacy in social and sexual situations, level of self-esteem and depression. To determine how these psychological factors relate to sexual (dys)function. To uncover what participants see as the source of their sexual problems. Data were collected using a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Eleven individuals with <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> and 49 with MRKHS with/without neovagina treatment were included. Rates of sexual dysfunctions, overall sexual function, feelings of inadequacy in social and sexual situations, self-esteem and depression scores were calculated. Categorizations were used to identify critical cases. Correlations between psychological variables and sexual function were computed. Sexually active subjects were compared with sexually not active participants. A qualitative content analysis was carried out to explore causes of sexual problems. An extended list of sexual problems based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text revision, by the American Psychiatric Association and related distress. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), German Questionnaire on Feelings of Inadequacy in Social and Sexual Situations (FUSS social scale, FUSS sexual scale), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) subscale depression. Open question on alleged causes of sexual problems. The results point to a far-reaching lack of sexual confidence and sexual satisfaction in <span class="hlt">CAIS</span>. In MRKHS apprehension in sexual situations is a source of distress, but sexual problems seem to be more focused on issues of vaginal functioning. MRKHS women report being satisfied with their</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27049745','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27049745"><span>[Preliminary exploration on the relationship between hand-copied edition and block-printed edition of Fu ke <span class="hlt">cai</span> zhen (Collected Essentials of Women Disease)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, X Y; Zhao, H Z; Xu, W; Yang, Y; Yan, F Y</p> <p>2016-01-28</p> <p>There are two extant versions of Fu ke <span class="hlt">cai</span> zhen (Collected Essentials of Women Disease) nowadays, namely, Yang Jichun's hand-copied version, and block-printed version of Direntang Sanctum. The former one was formally sorted out by Prof. Wang Yaoting of the Changchun College of TCM and published in 1988 in the Jilin Journal of TCM in serial form. Though Yang's version was completed later than the block-printed one, however, it can be found by careful comparison that it was not copied after the block-printed edition, but probably written from the draft of the author himself.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cinnamon&id=ED229789','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cinnamon&id=ED229789"><span><span class="hlt">CAI</span> Invention Strategies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rodrigues, Raymond J.; Rodrigues, Dawn</p> <p></p> <p>Prewriting programs using computers fall into two broad categories: interactive and noninteractive. An early example of a noninteractive program is that of Ellen Nold, called "Cinnamon." Its purpose was to present the student with a series of content questions. In answering such questions, the student would be accumulating a set of data…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Prototype+AND+models+AND+software+AND+engineering&id=EJ354623','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Prototype+AND+models+AND+software+AND+engineering&id=EJ354623"><span><span class="hlt">CAI</span> Applications in Statics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nelson, Clayton C.; And Others</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Describes a statics course developed at Texas A&M University in the engineering curriculum which utilizes computer-assisted instruction. Discusses the organization and management of the team that developed the course, the selection of the hardware and software used, and the implementation model and lesson prototype developed for the course.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cinnamon&id=ED229789','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cinnamon&id=ED229789"><span><span class="hlt">CAI</span> Invention Strategies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rodrigues, Raymond J.; Rodrigues, Dawn</p> <p></p> <p>Prewriting programs using computers fall into two broad categories: interactive and noninteractive. An early example of a noninteractive program is that of Ellen Nold, called "Cinnamon." Its purpose was to present the student with a series of content questions. In answering such questions, the student would be accumulating a set of data…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/mf/2239/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/mf/2239/report.pdf"><span>Conodont color alteration index (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) map and conodont-based age determinations for the Winchester 30' x 60' Quadrangle and adjacent area, Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Harris, Anita G.; Stamm, Nancy R.; Weary, David J.; Repetski, John E.; Stamm, Robert G.; Parker, Ronald A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Most of the conodont data presented in this report (table 1) were acquired to support 1:100,000-scale geologic mapping of the Winchester 30' X 60' quadrangle by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Conodonts were chosen to provide a biostratigraphic framework for the Upper Cambrian to Mississippian marine carbonate rocks that make up about 25 percent of the Paleozoic strata exposed in the quadrangle (~2,130 m of the approximately 9,450 m) of Paleozoic strata exposed in the quadrangle). Thickness of stratigraphic units are from McDowell (1991), our own measurements, and from many of the stratigraphic reports and geologic maps listed in the references cited. Conodont biostratigraphic and color alteration index (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) analyses help identify stratigraphic units and structural discontinuities, particularly in the Upper Cambrian to Middle Ordovician chiefly carbonate rocks of the Shenandoah Valley and North Mountain fault zone. Conodont biofacies analyses provide additional information about the provincial affinities of the conodonts and the depositional environment of the rocks that contain them. Lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, paleoenvironmental, and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> data for all conodont samples are given in table 1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.189...70K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.189...70K"><span>A link between oxygen, calcium and titanium isotopes in 26Al-poor hibonite-rich <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from Murchison and implications for the heterogeneity of dust reservoirs in the solar nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kööp, Levke; Davis, Andrew M.; Nakashima, Daisuke; Park, Changkun; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Tenner, Travis J.; Heck, Philipp R.; Kita, Noriko T.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>PLACs (platy hibonite crystals) and related hibonite-rich calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>; hereafter collectively referred to as PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) have the largest nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies of all materials believed to have formed in the solar system. Most PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> have low inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratios and could have formed prior to injection or widespread distribution of 26Al in the solar nebula. In this study, we report 26Al-26Mg systematics combined with oxygen, calcium, and titanium isotopic compositions for a large number of newly separated PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from the Murchison CM2 chondrite (32 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> studied for oxygen, 26 of these also for 26Al-26Mg, calcium and titanium). Our results confirm (1) the large range of nucleosynthetic anomalies in 50Ti and 48Ca (our data range from -70‰ to +170‰ and -60‰ to +80‰, respectively), (2) the substantial range of Δ17O values (-28‰ to -17‰, with Δ17O = δ17O - 0.52 × δ18O), and (3) general 26Al-depletion in PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. The multielement approach reveals a relationship between Δ17O and the degree of variability in 50Ti and 48Ca: PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with the highest Δ17O (∼-17‰) show large positive and negative 50Ti and 48Ca anomalies, while those with the lowest Δ17O (∼-28‰) have small to no anomalies in 50Ti and 48Ca. These observations could suggest a physical link between anomalous 48Ca and 50Ti carriers and an 16O-poor reservoir. We suggest that the solar nebula was isotopically heterogeneous shortly after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud, and that the primordial dust reservoir, in which anomalous carrier phases were heterogeneously distributed, was 16O-poor (Δ17O ⩾ -17‰) relative to the primordial gaseous (CO + H2O) reservoir (Δ17O < -35‰). However, other models such as CO self-shielding in the protoplanetary disk are also considered to explain the link between oxygen and calcium and titanium isotopes in PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GPC....71...42N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010GPC....71...42N"><span>Spatial variability of recent glacier area changes in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mountains, Central Asia, using Corona (~ 1970), Landsat (~ 2000), and ALOS (~ 2007) satellite data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Narama, Chiyuki; Kääb, Andreas; Duishonakunov, Murataly; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbek</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Geographic variability of the recent changes of glacier coverage in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mountains, Central Asia, is assessed using Corona KH-4B satellite photographs for 1968-1971, Landsat 7 ETM+data for 1999-2002, and ALOS/PRISM and AVNIR data for 2006-2008. The four mountain regions investigated (Pskem, Ili-Kungöy, At-Bashy, and SE-Fergana) cover several distributed glacierized areas in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mountain system, a region that is affected by highly variable local precipitation regimes. Over the 30 years investigated between ~ 1970 and ~ 2000, glacier area decreased by 19% in the Pskem region, 12% in the Ili-Kungöy region, 12% in the At-Bashy region, and 9% in the SE-Fergana region. In the last 7 years (~ 2000 to ~ 2007), glacier area shrank by 5% in the Pskem region, 4% in the Ili-Kungöy region, 4% in the At-Bashy region, and 0% in the SE-Fergana region. Glacier behavior has varied markedly in these regions. The most dramatic glacier shrinkage has occurred in the outer ranges of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mountains. Recent glacier area loss has resulted from rising summer temperatures. Regional differences of glacier-area changes related to local climate conditions, to the altitudinal distribution of glacier areas, and to the relative proportion of glaciers in different size classes. The observed accelerated glacier shrinkage is expected to have two impacts on the more populated outer ranges: 1) water shortages during summer and 2) increased threat from glacier hazards such as glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and ice avalanches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.183..176H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.183..176H"><span>Microstructural constraints on complex thermal histories of refractory <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like objects in an amoeboid olivine aggregate from the ALHA77307 CO3.0 chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Han, Jangmi; Brearley, Adrian J.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We have carried out a FIB/TEM study of refractory <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like objects in one AOA from the ALHA77307 CO3.0 chondrite. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like objects in the AOA consist of a zoned sequence with a spinel-rich core through an intergrowth layer of spinel and Al-Ti-rich diopside to a diopside rim. The spinel-rich core consists of polycrystalline aggregates of spinel and ±minor melilite showing equilibrated grain boundary textures. The intergrowth layer contains fine-grained diopside and spinel with minor anorthite with highly curved and embayed grain boundaries. The diopside rim consists of polycrystalline aggregates of diopside. The compositions of pyroxene change significantly outward from Al-Ti-rich diopside in contact with the spinel-rich core to Al-Ti-poor diopside next to the surrounding olivine of the AOA. Overall microstructural and chemical characteristics suggest that the spinel-rich core formed under equilibrium conditions whereas the intergrowth layer is the result of reactions that occurred under conditions that departed significantly from equilibrium. The remarkable changes in formation conditions of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like objects may have been achieved by transport and injection of refractory objects into a region of a partially-condensed, Ca,Ti-saturated gas which reacted with spinel and melilite to form Al-Ti-rich diopside. Crystallographically-oriented TiO2 nanoparticles decorate the grain boundaries between spinel grains and between spinel and Al-Ti-rich diopside grains. During the disequilibrium back-reaction of spinel with a partially-condensed, Ca,Ti-saturated gas, metastable TiO2 nanoparticles may have condensed by an epitaxial nucleation mechanism and grown on the surface of spinel. These TiO2 nanoparticles are disordered intergrowths of the two TiO2 polymorphs, anatase and rutile. These nanoparticles are inferred to have nucleated as anatase that underwent partial transformation into rutile. The local presence of the TiO2 nanoparticles and intergrowth of anatase and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/794067','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/794067"><span>Paleo-Climate and Glaciological Reconstruction in Central Asia through the Collection and Analysis of Ice Cores and Instrumental Data from the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Vladimir Aizen; Donald Bren; Karl Kreutz; Cameron Wake</p> <p>2001-05-30</p> <p>While the majority of ice core investigations have been undertaken in the polar regions, a few ice cores recovered from carefully selected high altitude/mid-to-low latitude glaciers have also provided valuable records of climate variability in these regions. A regional array of high resolution, multi-parameter ice core records developed from temperate and tropical regions of the globe can be used to document regional climate and environmental change in the latitudes which are home to the vase majority of the Earth's human population. In addition, these records can be directly compared with ice core records available from the polar regions and can therefore expand our understanding of inter-hemispheric dynamics of past climate changes. The main objectives of our paleoclimate research in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountains of middle Asia combine the development of detailed paleoenvironmental records via the physical and chemical analysis of ice cores with the analysis of modern meteorological and hydrological data. The first step in this research was the collection of ice cores from the accumulation zone of the Inylchek Glacier and the collection of meteorological data from a variety of stations throughout the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The research effort described in this report was part of a collaborative effort with the United State Geological Survey's (USGS) Global Environmental Research Program which began studying radionuclide deposition in mid-latitude glaciers in 1995.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......242S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......242S"><span>Application of remote sensing and GIS in glacier monitoring: Glacier variability in Central Asia (<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Altai) during the last 30--60 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Surazakov, Arzhan</p> <p></p> <p>This study aims to estimate glacier changes in the two mountain systems of Central Asia - <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Altai, during the last 30-60 years as a consequence of regional climatic changes using remote sensing and GIS methods. To this goal two methodological studies were undertaken demonstrating the potential of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data and declassified KH-9 Hexagon images for estimation of glacier changes. Glacier area and volume changes were estimated in three pilot basins in <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Altai: Akshiirak, Ala-Archa and Aktru using data from historical geodetic surveys, topographic maps, aerial photography, declassified KH-9 Hexagon photographs, ASTER and ALOS/PRISM satellite images, SRTM and IceSAT elevation data and DGPS in situ measurements. Using SRTM data and a DEM from 1:25,000 topographic map glacier surface changes can be estimated with error about 8.2 m. In spite of SRTM error and the occasional absence of data on steep slopes, major long-term changes on relatively flat ablation and accumulation areas are clearly identifiable. Furthermore, the presence of local areas of rebound on glacier surfaces allowed decoupling of dynamic and climatic components of glacier changes that are not available solely from planimetric data. The high metric qualities of KH-9 imagery demonstrated a unique opportunity to extend high-resolution land cover/land use change studies to early 70s on regional to global scales. An IDL program was developed for automatic geometric preprocessing of KH-9 images. The distortions of scanned KH-9 film frames were about 6 mum (maximum 47.32 mum) with non uniform local patterns that had to be removed by local interpolation. In bundle triangulation of KH-9 images horizontal accuracies below 8 m were achieved. The KH-9 DEM vertical accuracy over flat terrain was about 6 m and 30 m over high mountains. The triple overlap of the KH-9 images enabled good DEM definition and accuracy on both north and south facing steep mountain</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T12A..09S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T12A..09S"><span>3D and 2D inversion of MT data from the continental collision zone in the Pamirs and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sass, P.; Ritter, O.; Rybin, A.; Batalev, V.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Many geodynamic processes governing intra-continental collisional orogeny are largely unexplained and controversial. A key question is the state and dynamic behaviour of the lithosphere at middle and lower crustal levels while continental collision progresses. The Pamir - <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan region in Central Asia may be the best location on Earth to study such lithospheric deformation processes in situ. The mountain ranges and high plateaus formed at the tip of the north-western Indian promontory through the Cenozoic experienced rates of shortening similar to the adjacent Himalaya-Tibet system. Today, the Pamir - <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan orogenic belt hosts some of the deepest active intra-continental subduction zones on Earth and absorbs the highest strain rate over the shortest distance that is manifested in the India-Asia collision zone. The multi-disciplinary <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan - Pamir Geodynamic Program (TIPAGE) was designed to address some of the geodynamic key questions in this region. A magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out in concert with other geophysical and geological observations in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, predominantly along a 350 km long and 50 km wide corridor from southern Tajikistan to Osh in Kyrgyzstan across the Pamir Plateau and southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountain ranges. In total we recorded MT data at 178 stations, 26 of them combine long-period and broad band recordings. We present and compare 2D and 3D MT inversion results. Strike analysis of the data revealed an overall mean geo-electric strike direction consistent with the predominant tectonic trends. 2D inversion yields a reasonable data fit, with exception of some sites which exhibit phases above 90 degrees. 3D inversion was carried out with the ModEM package. We inverted for all four impedance tensor components and the vertical magnetic transfer functions. Topography was also included. The 3D models are generally in agreement with the 2D results but achieve a better data fit, particularly phases which could not be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1474S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1474S"><span>3D and 2D inversion of magnetotelluric data from the continental collision zone in the Pamirs and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sass, Paul; Ritter, Oliver; Rybin, Anatolii; Batalev, Vladislav</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Many geodynamic processes governing intra-continental collisional orogeny are largely unexplained and controversial. A key question is the state and dynamic behaviour of the lithosphere at middle and lower crustal levels while continental collision progresses. The Pamir - <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan region in Central Asia may be the best location on Earth to study such lithospheric deformation processes in situ. The mountain ranges and high plateaus formed at the tip of the north-western Indian promontory through the Cenozoic experienced rates of shortening similar to the adjacent Himalaya-Tibet system. Today, the Pamir - <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan orogenic belt hosts some of the deepest active intra-continental subduction zones on Earth and absorbs the highest strain rate over the shortest distance that is manifested in the India-Asia collision zone. The multi-disciplinary <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan - Pamir Geodynamic Program (TIPAGE) was designed to address some of the geodynamic key questions in this region. A magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out in concert with other geophysical and geological observations in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, predominantly along a 350 km long and 50 km wide corridor from southern Tajikistan to Osh in Kyrgyzstan across the Pamir Plateau and southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountain ranges. In total we recorded MT data at 178 stations, 26 of them combine long-period and broad band recordings. We present and compare 2D and 3D MT inversion results. Strike analysis of the data revealed an overall mean geo-electric strike direction consistent with the predominant tectonic trends. 2D inversion yields a reasonable data fit, with exception of some sites which exhibit phases above 90 degrees. 3D inversion was carried out with the ModEM package. We inverted for all four impedance tensor components and the vertical magnetic transfer functions. Topography was also included. The 3D models are generally in agreement with the 2D results but achieve a better data fit, particularly phases which could not be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED359936.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED359936.pdf"><span>Combining Computer Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) and a Live TV Teacher To Extend Learning Opportunities into the Home. A Learning Productivity Research and Developmental Project of the Research Foundation of the State University of New York and Instructional Systems Inc.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Benson, Gregory M., Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>The State University of New York and Instructional Systems, Inc., (ISI) developed a project to combine computer assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) and live, interactive videoconferencing with a television teacher, conducted via cable. The project is being pursued by the Syracuse (New York) City School District in conjunction with the State University of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=dolphins&pg=6&id=ED287161','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=dolphins&pg=6&id=ED287161"><span>Cost-Benefit Analysis for ECIA Chapter 1 and State DPPF Programs Comparing Groups Receiving Regular Program Instruction and Groups Receiving Computer Assisted Instruction/Computer Management System (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>/CMS). 1986-87.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chamberlain, Ed</p> <p></p> <p>A cost benefit study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a computer assisted instruction/computer management system (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>/CMS) as an alternative to conventional methods of teaching reading within Chapter 1 and DPPF funded programs of the Columbus (Ohio) Public Schools. The Chapter 1 funded Compensatory Language Experiences and Reading…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED287161.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED287161.pdf"><span>Cost-Benefit Analysis for ECIA Chapter 1 and State DPPF Programs Comparing Groups Receiving Regular Program Instruction and Groups Receiving Computer Assisted Instruction/Computer Management System (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>/CMS). 1986-87.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chamberlain, Ed</p> <p></p> <p>A cost benefit study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a computer assisted instruction/computer management system (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>/CMS) as an alternative to conventional methods of teaching reading within Chapter 1 and DPPF funded programs of the Columbus (Ohio) Public Schools. The Chapter 1 funded Compensatory Language Experiences and Reading…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1921.6459F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016LPICo1921.6459F"><span>An Iron Microprobe Study of Be-B Isotope Systematic in Melilite-Rich <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> Based on Newly Determined Be/B Relative Sensitivity Factors for Melilitic Glass Standards</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fukuda, K.; Fujiya, W.; Hiyagon, H.; Sugiura, N.; Takahata, N.; Sano, Y.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We report relative sensitivity factors for melilitic glasses and Be-B systematics of melilite-rich <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in CO, CH and ungrouped C chondrites. The variable 10Be/9Be ratios observed in this study supports 10Be production by local irradiation processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.207....1T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.207....1T"><span>In situ isotopic studies of the U-depleted Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Curious Marie: Pre-accretionary alteration and the co-existence of 26Al and 36Cl in the early solar nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, Haolan; Liu, Ming-Chang; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Tissot, Francois L. H.; Dauphas, Nicolas</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The isotopic composition of oxygen as well as 26Al-26Mg and 36Cl-36S systematics were studied in Curious Marie, an aqueously altered Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span> characterized by a Group II REE pattern and a large 235U excess produced by the decay of short-lived 247Cm. Oxygen isotopic compositions in the secondary minerals of Curious Marie follow a mass-dependent fractionation line with a relatively homogenous depletion in 16O (Δ17O of -8‰) compared to unaltered minerals of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> components. Both Mg and S show large excesses of radiogenic isotopes (26Mg∗ and 36S∗) that are uniformly distributed within the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, independent of parent/daughter ratio. A model initial 26Al/27Al ratio [(6.2 ± 0.9) × 10-5], calculated using the bulk Al/Mg ratio and the uniform δ26Mg∗ ∼ +43‰, is similar to the canonical initial solar system value within error. The exceptionally high bulk Al/Mg ratio of this <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (∼95) compared to other inclusions is presumably due to Mg mobilization by fluids. Therefore, the model initial 26Al/27Al ratio of this <span class="hlt">CAI</span> implies not only the early condensation of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> precursor but also that aqueous alteration occurred early, when 26Al was still at or near the canonical value. This alteration event is most likely responsible for the U depletion in Curious Marie and occurred at most 50 kyr after <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation, leading to a revised estimate of the early solar system 247Cm/235U ratio of (5.6 ± 0.3) × 10-5. The Mg isotopic composition in Curious Marie was subsequently homogenized by closed-system thermal processing without contamination by chondritic Mg. The large, homogeneous 36S excesses (Δ36S∗ ∼ +97‰) detected in the secondary phases of Curious Marie are attributed to 36Cl decay (t1/2 = 0.3 Myr) that was introduced by Cl-rich fluids during the aqueous alteration event that led to sodalite formation. A model 36Cl/35Cl ratio of (2.3 ± 0.6) × 10-5 is calculated at the time of aqueous alteration, translating into an initial 36Cl/35Cl ratio of ∼1.7-3 </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4762763','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4762763"><span>JPH-2 INTERACTS WITH <span class="hlt">Cai</span>-HANDLING PROTEINS AND ION CHANNELS IN DYADS: CONTRIBUTION TO PREMATURE VENTRICULAR CONTRACTION-INDUCED CARDIOMYOPATHY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jiang, Min; Zhang, Mei; Howren, Maureen; Wang, Yuhong; Tan, Alex; Balijepalli, Ravi C.; Huizar, Jose F.; Tseng, Gea-Ny</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background In a canine model of premature ventricular contraction-induced cardiomyopathy (PVC-CM), Cav1.2 is downregulated and misplaced from t-tubules. Junctophilin-2 (JPH-2) is also downregulated. Objective To understand the role of JPH-2 in PVC-CM, and to probe changes in other proteins involved in dyad structure and function. Methods We quantify t-tubule contents (di-8-ANEPPS fluorescence in live myocytes), examine myocyte ultra-structures (electron microscopy), probe JPH-2 interacting proteins (co-immunoprecipitation), quantify dyad and non-dyad protein levels (immunoblotting), and examine subcellular distributions of dyad proteins (immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy). We also test direct JPH-2 modulation of channel function (vs indirect modulation through dyad formation) using heterologous expression. Results PVC myocytes have reduced t-tubule contents but otherwise normal ultra-structures. Among nineteen proteins examined, only JPH-2, bridging-integrator-1 (BIN-1) and Cav1.2 are highly downregulated in PVC hearts. However, statistical analysis indicates a general reduction of dyad protein levels when JPH-2 is downregulated. Furthermore, several dyad proteins, including Na/Ca exchanger, are missing or shifted from dyads to peripheral surface in PVC myocytes. JPH-2 directly or indirectly interacts with <span class="hlt">Cai</span>-handling proteins, Cav1.2 and KCNQ1, although not BIN-1 or other scaffolding proteins tested. Expression in mammalian cells, that do not have dyads, confirms direct JPH-2 modulation of ICaL (Cav1.2/Cavβ2) and IKs (KCNQ1/KCNE1). Conclusion JPH-2 is more than a ‘dyad glue’: it can modulate <span class="hlt">Cai</span>-handling and ion channel function in the dyad region. Downregulation of JPH-2, BIN-1 and Cav1.2 plays a deterministic role in PVC-CM. Dissecting the hierarchical relationship among the three is necessary for the design of therapeutic interventions to prevent the progression of PVC-CM. PMID:26538326</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25785432','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25785432"><span>Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from pao <span class="hlt">cai</span>, a Chinese traditional fermented vegetable, with inhibitory activity against Salmonella associated with fresh-cut apple, using a modelling study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Luo, W; Chen, M; Chen, A; Dong, W; Hou, X; Pu, B</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>To isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from pao <span class="hlt">cai</span>, a Chinese traditional fermented vegetable, with outstanding inhibitory activity against Salmonella inoculated on fresh-cut apple, using a modelling method. Four kinds of pao <span class="hlt">cai</span> were selected. A total of 122 isolates exhibited typical LAB characteristics: Gram-positive and catalase negative, among which 104 (85·24%) colonies showed antibacterial activity against Salmonella by the well diffusion assay. Four colonies showing maximum antibacterial radius against Salmonella were selected to co-inoculate with Salmonella on fresh-cut apple and stored at 10°C, further identified as three strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and one strain of Lactobacillus brevis by 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis. The modified Gompertz model was employed to analyse the growth of the micro-organisms on apple wedges. Two of the four selected strains showed antagonistic activity against Salmonella on fresh-cut apple, one of which, RD1, exhibited best inhibitory activity (Salmonella were greatly inhibited when co-inoculated with RD1 at 10°C at 168 h). No deterioration in odour or appearance of the apple piece was observed by the triangle test when fresh-cut apple was inoculated with RD1. The mathematical modelling method is essential to select LAB with outstanding inhibitory activity against Salmonella associated with fresh-cut apple. LAB RD1 holds promise for the preservation of fresh-cut apple. This study provided a new method on fresh-cut product preservation. Besides, to make the LAB isolating procedure a more correct one, this study first added the mathematical modelling method to the isolating procedure. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T51F2674G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.T51F2674G"><span>Joint Inversion of Receiver Functions and Surface Wave Group Velocities from the MANAS data set to Determine Custal Thickness Variations in the<span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gilligan, A.; Priestley, K. F.; Roecker, S. W.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is the largest active intracontinental orgogenic belt on the Earth. To better understand the processes causing mountains to form in this location distant from a plate boundary, we analyze passive source seismic data collected on 40 broad band stations of the MANAS project (2005-2007) to determine variations in crustal thickness and wavespeed across the range. The linear MANAS array transects the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan just to the east of the Talas Fergana fault and extends from the Tarim Basin north over the Kokshal Range and across the Naryn Valley to the Kyrgyz Range and the Kazakh Shield. This data set has a denser station spacing (~10 km) than that available in previous studies. We combine P- and S-wave receiver functions with surface wave observations from both earthquakes and ambient noise analysis to reduce the ambiguity inherent in the images obtained from the techniques applied individually. In particular, fundamental-mode surface-wave dispersion observations are sensitive to absolute wavespeed averages rather than contrasts, while receiver functions are primarily sensitive to wavespeed contrasts and vertically integrated travel times rather than absolute wavespeeds. Moreover, analysis of the ambient noise allows dispersion measurements at shorter periods which improves constraints for the upper crust. We jointly invert P- and S-wave receiver functions, fundamental mode Rayleigh wave group velocity determined from 1.75 years of continuous seismic ambient noise for periods 4-28s, and group velocity data for periods 10-70s from the surface wave study of Acton et al. (2010). The resulting crustal model show a strong variation in the Moho depth across the range. We find the thickest crust (~60 km) beneath the Kokshal range, while that beneath the Naryn Valley, in the middle of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is thin (~45 km) and is of similar thickness to that beneath the Tarim Basin and Kazakh shield. This suggests a lack of crustal shortening, or shortening of a previously</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715015J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715015J"><span>Paleozoic structure of Middle <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (Kyrgyzstan Central Asian Orogenic Belt): Insights on the polarity and timing of tectonic motions, subductions, and lateral correlations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jourdon, Anthony; Loury, Chloé; Rolland, Yann; Petit, Carole; Bellahsen, Nicolas</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The structure and Palaeozoic tectonic evolution in Kyrgyz and Chinese <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) are still a matter of debate. There are numerous and conflicting models about the polarity of tectonic motions in the Paleozoic, the number of continental blocks and oceanic basins involved and the timing of tectonic events. In this study we propose new maps and structural cross-sections of Middle and South Kyrgyz <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (TS). These cross-sections allow us to highlight an overall South-verging structure in the Middle TS, with a thick-skin style involving the crystalline basement. This deformation occurred during the Early Carboniferous, and is sealed by an Upper Carboniferous unconformity. We ascribe this structure to an Upper Plate deformation linked to north-dipping subduction below Middle TS. In contrast, the South TS exhibits a north-verging structure, linked to south-dipping subduction, which is evidenced by an accretionary prism, a volcanic arc, and high-pressure rocks (Loury et al., 2015), and is correlated to similar structures in the Chinese TS (e.g., Charvet et al., 2011). Based on these observations, we propose a new interpretation of the tectonic evolution of the Middle and South TS CAOB. The resulting model comprises a long-lived north-dipping subduction of the Turkestan Ocean below the Middle TS-Karazakh Platform and a short-lived south-dipping subduction of a marginal back-arc basin below the Tarim. Consequently, the South TS is interpreted as a rifted block from the Tarim. Finally, the docking of the large Tarim Craton to the CAOB corresponds to a rapid collision phase (320-300 Ma). This put an end to the long-lived Paleozoic subduction history in the CAOB. Charvet, J., Shu, L., et al., 2011. Palaeozoic tectonic evolution of the Tianshan belt, NW China. Science China Earth Sciences, 54, 166-184. Loury, C. , Rolland, Y., Guillot S., Mikolaichuk, A.V., Lanari, P., Bruguier, O., D.Bosch, 2015. Crustal-scale structure of South <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20513621','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20513621"><span>A 'college of astrology and medicine'? Charles V, Gervais Chré<span class="hlt">tien</span>, and the scientific manuscripts of Maître Gervais's College.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boudet, Jean-Patrice</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Considered an institution mainly devoted to astrology and medicine by Simon de Phares and by some historians who believe that he was reliable, the college founded in 1371 by Charles V's first physician, Gervais Chré<span class="hlt">tien</span>, was in fact primarily dedicated to theological students. It was not before 1377 that there were created there two bursaries for scholares regis, specialising in 'licit mathematical sciences', and two medical fellowships. Yet the influence of the activity of these fellows seems to have been rather moderate and-as far as we can learn from the material still extant, notably from manuscripts that belonged to Maître Gervais' College and to some of its members-this institution was devoted much more to theological studies than to medicine and the quadrivium.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJWC.14519001N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJWC.14519001N"><span>Inelastic proton-air cross section growth from 0.2 TeV to 10 PeV according to <span class="hlt">TIEN</span> SHAN experimental cosmic ray data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nesterova, N.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Conclusions are made about the increase with energy of the inelastic proton air cross section σp-air from 0.2 TeV (accelerator experiments with fixed targets) to 10 PeV (cosmic rays). Experimental data from the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan complex array on various components (mainly hadron, Cherenkov light, and electron) of extensive air showers at 0.5-10 PeV of primary cosmic rays are analyzed. They were compared with many results of different calculated models of cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere. The analysis showed that the rise conforms to (7-9)% per one order of energy. These data correspond better to the QGSJET-II-04 version of the interaction model based on the recent LHC results. This model predicts better the slower rise of the cross-section than previous versions of QGSJET-II and some other models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJWC.14511003B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJWC.14511003B"><span>Search for EAS radio-emission at the <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan shower installation at a height of 3340 m above sea level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beisenova, A.; Boos, E.; Haungs, A.; Sadykov, T.; Salihov, N.; Shepetov, A.; Tautayev, Y.; Vildanova, L.; Zhukov, V.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>The complex EAS installation of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan mountain cosmic ray station which is situated at a height of 3340 m above sea level includes the scintillation and Cherenkov detectors of charged shower particles, an ionization calorimeter and a set of neutron detectors for registering the hadronic component of the shower, and a number of underground detectors of the penetrative EAS component. Now it is intended to expand this installation with a promising method for detecting the radio-emission generated by the particles of the developing shower. The facility for radio-emission detection consists of a three crossed dipole antennae, one being set vertically, and another two - mutually perpendicularly in a horizontal plane, all of them being connected to a three-channel radio-frequency amplifier of German production. By the passage of an extensive air shower, which is defined by a scintillation shower detector system, the output signal of antenna amplifier is digitized by a fast multichannel DT5720 ADC of Italian production, and kept within computer memory. The further analysis of the detected signal anticipates its operation according to a special algorithm and a search for the pulse of radio-emission from the shower. A functional test of the radio-installation is made with artificial signals which imitate those of the shower, and with the use of a N1996A type wave analyzer of Agilent Technologies production. We present preliminary results on the registration of extensive air shower emission at the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan installation which were collected during test measurements held in Summer 2016.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.4615A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRB..121.4615A"><span>Multisegment rupture in the 11 July 1889 Chilik earthquake (Mw 8.0-8.3), Kazakh <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, interpreted from remote sensing, field survey, and paleoseismic trenching</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abdrakhmatov, K. E.; Walker, R. T.; Campbell, G. E.; Carr, A. S.; Elliott, A.; Hillemann, C.; Hollingsworth, J.; Landgraf, A.; Mackenzie, D.; Mukambayev, A.; Rizza, M.; Sloan, R. A.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The 11 July 1889 Chilik earthquake (Mw 8.0-8.3) forms part of a remarkable sequence of large earthquakes in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. Despite its importance, the source of the 1889 earthquake remains unknown, though the macroseismic epicenter is sited in the Chilik valley, ~100 km southeast of Almaty, Kazakhstan (~2 million population). Several short fault segments that have been inferred to have ruptured in 1889 are too short on their own to account for the estimated magnitude. In this paper we perform detailed surveying and trenching of the ~30 km long Saty fault, one of the previously inferred sources, and find that it was formed in a single earthquake within the last 700 years, involving surface slip of up to 10 m. The scarp-forming event, likely to be the 1889 earthquake, was the only surface-rupturing event for at least 5000 years and potentially for much longer. From satellite imagery we extend the mapped length of fresh scarps within the 1889 epicentral zone to a total of ~175 km, which we also suggest as candidate ruptures from the 1889 earthquake. The 175 km of rupture involves conjugate oblique left-lateral and right-lateral slip on three separate faults, with step overs of several kilometers between them. All three faults were essentially invisible in the Holocene geomorphology prior to the last slip. The recurrence interval between large earthquakes on any of these faults, and presumably on other faults of the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, may be longer than the timescale over which the landscape is reset, providing a challenge for delineating sources of future hazard.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoJI.188..385M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoJI.188..385M"><span>Crustal and uppermost mantle velocity structure along a profile across the Pamir and southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan as derived from project TIPAGE wide-angle seismic data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mechie, J.; Yuan, X.; Schurr, B.; Schneider, F.; Sippl, C.; Ratschbacher, L.; Minaev, V.; Gadoev, M.; Oimahmadov, I.; Abdybachaev, U.; Moldobekov, B.; Orunbaev, S.; Negmatullaev, S.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Utilizing seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection data from 11 approximately in-line earthquakes, 2-D P- and S-velocity models and a Poisson's ratio model of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and the Pamir have been derived along the 400-km long main profile of the TIPAGE (<span class="hlt">TIen</span> shan - PAmir GEodynamic program) project. These models show that the crustal thickness varies from about 65.5 km close to the southern end of the profile beneath the South Pamir through about 73.6 km under Lake Karakul in the North Pamir, to about 57.7 km, 50 km south of the northern end of the profile in the southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. Average crustal P velocities are low with respect to the global average, varying from 6.26 to 6.30 km s-1. The average crustal S velocity varies from 3.54 to 3.70 km s-1 along the profile and thus average crustal Poisson's ratio (σ) varies from 0.23 beneath the central Pamir in the south central part of the profile to 0.265 towards the northern end of the profile beneath the southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The main layer of the upper crust extending from about 2 km below the Earth's surface to 27 km depth below sea level (b.s.l.) has average P velocities of about 6.05-6.1 km s-1, except beneath the south central part of the profile where they decrease to around 5.95 km s-1. This is in contrast to the S velocities which range from 3.4 to 3.6 km s-1 and exhibit the highest values of 3.55-3.6 km s-1 where the P velocity is lowest. Thus, σ for the main layer of the upper crust is 0.26 beneath the profile except beneath the south central part of the profile where it decreases to 0.22. The low value of 0.22 for σ under the central Pamir, the along-strike equivalent of the Qiangtang terrane in Tibet, is similar to that within the corresponding layer beneath the northern Lhasa and southern Qiangtang terranes in central Tibet and is indicative of felsic rocks rich in quartz in the α state. The lower crust below 27 km b.s.l. has P velocities ranging from 6</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1913283S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1913283S"><span>Inventory and state of activity of rockglaciers in the Ile and Kungöy Ranges of Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan from satellite SAR interferometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Strozzi, Tazio; Caduff, Rafael; Kääb, Andreas; Bolch, Tobias</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The best visual expression of mountain permafrost are rockglaciers, which, in contrast to the permafrost itself, can be mapped and monitored directly using remotely sensed data. Studies carried out in various parts of the European Alps have shown surface acceleration of rockglaciers and even destabilization of several such landforms over the two last decades, potentially related to the changing permafrost creep conditions. Changes in rockglacier motion are therefore believed to be the most indicative short- to medium-term response of rockglaciers to environmental changes and thus an indicator of mountain permafrost conditions in general. The ESA DUE GlobPermafrost project develops, validates and implements EO products to support research communities and international organizations in their work on better understanding permafrost characteristics and dynamics. Within this project we are building up a worldwide long-term monitoring network of active rockglacier motion investigated using remote sensing techniques. All sites are analysed through a uniform set of data and methods, and results are thus comparable. In order to quantify the rate of movement and the relative changes over time we consider two remote sensing methods: (i) matching of repeat optical data and (ii) satellite radar interferometry. In this contribution, we focus on the potential of recent high spatial resolution SAR data for the analysis of periglacial processes in mountain environments with special attention to the Ile and Kungöy Ranges of Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan at the border between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, an area which contains a high number of large and comparably fast (> 1m/yr) rockglaciers and is of interest as dry-season water resource and source of natural hazards. As demonstrated in the past with investigations conducted in the Swiss Alps, the visual analysis of differential SAR interferograms can be employed for the rough estimation of the surface deformation rates of rockglaciers and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910032S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1910032S"><span>Impacts of climate change on river discharge in the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan: Results from the long-term observations and modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shahgedanova, Maria; Afzal, Muhammad; Usmanova, Zamira; Kapitsa, Vasilii; Mayr, Elisabeth; Hagg, Wilfried; Severskiy, Igor; Zhumabayev, Dauren</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The study presents results of investigation of the observed and projected changes in discharge of seven snow- and glacier-nourished rivers of the northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (south-eastern Kazakhstan). The observed trends were assessed using the long-term (40-60 years) homogeneous daily records of discharge from the gauging stations located in the mountains and unaffected by human activities including water abstraction. Positive trends in discharge were registered at most sites between the 1950s and 2010s with the strongest increase in summer and autumn particularly in 2000-2010s in line with the positive temperature trends. The observed increase was most prominent in the catchments with a higher proportion of glacierized area. At the Ulken Almatinka and Kishi Almatinka rivers, where 16% and 12% of the catchment areas are glacierized, positive trends in summer and autumn discharge exceeded 1% per year. The strongest increase was observed in September indicating that melting period extends in the early autumn. In September-November, the number of days with extreme discharge values, defined as daily values exceeding 95th percentile (calculated for each meteorological season), increased at all rivers. Future changes in discharge were modelled using HBV-ETH hydrological model and four climate change scenarios derived using regional climate model PRECIS with 25 km spatial resolution driven by HadGEM GCM for RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 scenarios and HadCM3Q0 and ECHAM5 GCM for A1B scenario. A range of glacier change scenarios was considered. All climate experiments project increase in temperature with the strongest warming projected by the HadGEM-driven simulation for RCP 8.5 scenario and HadCM3Q0-driven simulation for A1B scenario. The projected changes in precipitation varied between models and seasons, however, most experiments did not show significant trends in precipitation within the studied catchments. The exception is a simulation driven by HadGEM GCM for 8.5 RCP scenario which</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003Tectp.365..129D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003Tectp.365..129D"><span>Intraplate mountain building in response to continent continent collision—the Ancestral Rocky Mountains (North America) and inferences drawn from the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (Central Asia)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dickerson, Patricia Wood</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The intraplate Ancestral Rocky Mountains of western North America extend from British Columbia, Canada, to Chihuahua, Mexico, and formed during Early Carboniferous through Early Permian time in response to continent-continent collision of Laurentia with Gondwana—the conjoined masses of Africa and South America, including Yucatán and Florida. Uplifts and flanking basins also formed within the Laurentian Midcontinent. On the Gondwanan continent, well inboard from the marginal fold belts, a counterpart structural array developed during the same period. Intraplate deformation began when full collisional plate coupling had been achieved along the continental margin; the intervening ocean had been closed and subduction had ceased—that is, the distinction between upper versus lower plates became moot. Ancestral Rockies deformation was not accompanied by volcanism. Basement shear zones that formed during Mesoproterozoic rifting of Laurentia were reactivated and exerted significant control on the locations, orientations, and modes of displacement on late Paleozoic faults. Ancestral Rocky Mountain uplifts extend as far south as Chihuahua and west Texas (28° to 33°N, 102° to 109°W) and include the Florida-Moyotes, Placer de Guadalupe-Carrizalillo, Ojinaga-Tascotal and Hueco Mountain blocks, as well as the Diablo and Central Basin Platforms. All are cored with Laurentian Proterozoic crystalline basement rocks and host correlative Paleozoic stratigraphic successions. Pre-late Paleozoic deformational, thermal, and metamorphic histories are similar as well. Southern Ancestral Rocky Mountain structures terminate along a line that trends approximately N 40°E (present coordinates), a common orientation for Mesoproterozoic extensional structures throughout southern to central North America. Continuing <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan intraplate deformation (Central Asia) has created an analogous array of uplifts and basins in response to the collision of India with Eurasia, beginning in late</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710743B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710743B"><span>Geomorphology and Ice Content of Glacier - Rock Glacier &ndash; Moraine Complexes in Ak-Shiirak Range (Inner <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Kyrgyzstan)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bolch, Tobias; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Rohrbach, Nico; Fischer, Andrea; Osmonov, Azamat</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Meltwater originating from the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan is of high importance for the runoff to the arid and semi-arid region of Central Asia. Previous studies estimate a glaciers' contribution of about 40% for the Aksu-Tarim Catchment, a transboundary watershed between Kyrgyzstan and China. Large parts of the Ak-Shiirak Range drain into this watershed. Glaciers in Central and Inner <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan are typically polythermal or even cold and surrounded by permafrost. Several glaciers terminate into large moraine complexes which show geomorphological indicators of ice content such as thermo-karst like depressions, and further downvalley signs of creep such as ridges and furrows and a fresh, steep rock front which are typical indicators for permafrost creep ("rock glacier"). Hence, glaciers and permafrost co-exist in this region and their interactions are important to consider, e.g. for the understanding of glacial and periglacial processes. It can also be assumed that the ice stored in these relatively large dead-ice/moraine-complexes is a significant amount of the total ice storage. However, no detailed investigations exist so far. In an initial study, we investigated the structure and ice content of two typical glacier-moraine complexes in the Ak-Shiirak-Range using different ground penetrating radar (GPR) devices. In addition, the geomorphology was mapped using high resolution satellite imagery. The structure of the moraine-rock glacier complex is in general heterogeneous. Several dead ice bodies with different thicknesses and moraine-derived rock glaciers with different stages of activities could be identified. Few parts of these "rock glaciers" contain also massive ice but the largest parts are likely characterised by rock-ice layers of different thickness and ice contents. In one glacier forefield, the thickness of the rock-ice mixture is partly more than 300 m. This is only slightly lower than the maximum thickness of the glacier ice. Our measurements revealed that up to 20% of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA......669K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA......669K"><span>Title of abstract - Different approaches to the determining of 3-d P and S wave velocity structures of the crust beneath Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kryukova, O.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The seismic images of the crust beneath Northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (NTS) are obtained with using of different sets of data and several algorithms for solution of local earthquake tomography problem. The NTS is a very interesting region from geophysical point if view due to high seismic activity caused by interplate collision: <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Kazakh. A rectangular region under investigation is constrained by lines 41.90o N - 43.40o N and 73.50o E- 76.50o E. 14661 P and 14436 S wave arrival times recorded 12 seismic stations of the Kyrgyzstan Broadband Network (KNET) from local earthquake in 1991-1999 years are used. In addition, data from 267 local earthquake recorded over a period of about 20 years by a regional arrays of 93 seismographs in NTS are involved in inversions. 1-d optimal velocity models and stations delays are estimated with help of program VELEST (E.Kissling, 1995). Block parameterization of model and ray tracing described by Thurber and Ellsworth (1980) are used for determination of 3-d velocity structure and relocation of events as one of the approaches (programs S.Roecker Sphypit90 and Sphrel3d). Other approach consists in application linear or cubic B spline interpolation of velocity function and ray tracing Um and Thurber (1987) for the solution of forward problem (program C.Thurber et al. Simulps and own program). The data resolution analysis and statistical analysis of models was carried out. Calculated P wave tomographic models were compared with tomographic models S.Roecker et al. (1993), S.Ghose et al. (1998) and T.Sabitova (1996). The main result is the confirmation of existence of different seismic velocity structure beneath Kyrgyz Range and Chu Basin. Using various sets of date and methods for reconstruction velocity model is effective in reveal of more reliable velocity heterogeneities in the domain of research. The author is grateful to dr. I. Kitov for help and to dr. I.Sanina for useful discussion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3137877','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3137877"><span>Targeting PML-RARα and Oncogenic Signaling Pathways by Chinese Herbal Mixture <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Hsien Liquid in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia NB4 Cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yao, Chih-Jung; Yang, Chia-Ming; Chuang, Shuang-En; Yan, Jiann-Long; Liu, Chun-Yen; Chen, Suz-Wen; Yan, Kun-Huang; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Lai, Gi-Ming</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Hsien Liquid (THL) is a Chinese herbal mixture that has been used worldwide as complementary treatment for cancer patients in the past decade. Recently, THL has been shown to induce apoptosis in various types of solid tumor cells in vitro. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been well elucidated. In this study, we explored the effects of THL on acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) NB4 cells, which could be effectively treated by some traditional Chinese remedies containing arsenic trioxide. The results showed THL could induce G2/M arrest and apoptosis in NB4 cells. Accordingly, the decrease of cyclin A and B1 were observed in THL-treated cells. The THL-induced apoptosis was accompanied with caspase-3 activation and decrease of PML-RARα fusion protein. Moreover, DNA methyltransferase 1 and oncogenic signaling pathways such as Akt/mTOR, Stat3 and ERK were also down-regulated by THL. By using ethyl acetate extraction and silica gel chromatography, an active fraction of THL named as EAS5 was isolated. At about 0.5–1% of the dose of THL, EAS5 appeared to have most of THL-induced multiple molecular targeting effects in NB4 cells. Based on the findings of these multi-targeting effects, THL might be regarding as a complementary and alternative therapeutic agent for refractory APL. PMID:19897545</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18038627','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18038627"><span>[Soil microarthropods and macrofauna in monsoon tropical forests of Cat <span class="hlt">Tien</span> and Bi Dup-Nui Ba National Parks, Southern Vietnam].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anichkin, A E; Beliaeva, N V; Dovgobrod, I G; Shveenkova, Iu B; Tiunov, A V</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The abundance, biomass, vertical distribution, and taxonomic composition of soil invertebrates (springtails, macrofauna, and termites) were studied in forest formations differing in edaphic and climatic conditions: lowland forests dominated by Lagerstroeomia spp. or Dipterocarpus spp. in the Cat <span class="hlt">Tien</span> National Park and in a mountain pine (Pinus kesiya) forest on the Da Lat Plateau, southern Vietnam. In the lowland forests, springtails had a relatively low density (10000-12000 ind./m2), but their diversity was high (41-43 species in each forest). The density of large soil invertebrates (without ants and termites) reached 500-700 ind./m2 at a biomass of approximately 30 g/m2 (with earthworms accounting for up to 230 ind./m2 and 19-28 g/m2). Among termites, species of the genera Macrotermes and Odontotermes were dominant. Their total biomass in some areas exceeded 15-20 g/m2. In the mountain pine forest, the total biomass of soil macrofauna was approximately 11 g/m2, the abundance and diversity of springtails were low (7500 ind./m2, 28 species), and wood-destroying species of the genera Schedorhinotermes sp. and Coptotermes sp. dominated among termites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA327155','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA327155"><span>A Medical Research and Evaluation Facility Defense and Studies Supporting the Medical Chemical Defense Program. Task 95-38: Evaluation of the Vesicating Properties of Neutralized Chemical Agent Identification Set (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>) Components.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>total of 11 hairless guinea pigs ( HGPs ) were used in this phase with seven or eight sites dosed on each animal. All animals were examined 24 hr...A total of 24 HGPs were used, dosing six to eight sites per animal with a 1 hr duration of exposure. All animals were examined 24 hr following...Change: The "blue" wastestream, that <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> component containing neat HD neutralized with DCDMH, has been found to cause microvesication in HGPs at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27746326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27746326"><span>Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and fuminisins of adults in Lao <span class="hlt">Cai</span> province, Viet Nam: A total dietary study approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Huong, Bui Thi Mai; Tuyen, Le Danh; Tuan, Do Huu; Brimer, Leon; Dalsgaard, Anders</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Aflatoxins, fumonisins and ochratoxin A that contaminate various agricultural commodities are considered of significant toxicity and potent human carcinogens. This study took a total dietary study approach and estimated the dietary exposure of these mycotoxins for adults living in Lao <span class="hlt">Cai</span> province, Vietnam. A total of 42 composite food samples representing 1134 individual food samples were prepared according to normal household practices and analysed for the three mycotoxins. Results showed that the dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 (39.4 ng/kg bw/day) and ochratoxin A (18.7 ng/kg bw/day) were much higher than recommended provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) values mainly due to contaminated cereals and meat. The exposure to total fumonisins (1400 ng/kg bw/day) was typically lower than the PTDI value (2000 ng/kg bw/day). The estimated risk of liver cancer associated with exposure to aflatoxin B1 was 2.7 cases/100,000 person/year. Margin of exposure (MOE) of renal cancer linked to ochratoxin A and liver cancer associated with fumonisins were 1124 and 1954, respectively indicating risk levels of public health concern. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficiency of technical solutions which could reduce mycotoxin contamination as well as to determine the health effects of the co-exposure to different types of mycotoxins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC23H..04M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC23H..04M"><span>Holocene River Dynamics, Climate Change and Floodwater Farming in the Watersheds of the Pamir and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mountains of Inner Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Macklin, M. G.; Panyushkina, I. P.; Toonen, W. H. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The Ili, Syr Dayra and Amu Dayra rivers of Inner Asia are emerging as critical areas for the development of irrigation-based agriculture in the ancient world. Following research by Russian archaeologists in the 1970s it is evident that these watersheds had flourishing riverine civilizations comparable to those in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley. But unlike these areas where the relationship between Holocene river dynamics, climate change and floodwater farming is increasingly underpinned by radiometric dating, the alluvial archaeology of Inner Asia is significantly under researched. To address this, a major multi-disciplinary research program was begun in 2011 centred on the Talgar catchment, a south-bank tributary of the Ili river, southeast Kazakhstan. Building on archaeological excavations and surveys conducted over the past 20 years, we have undertaken one of the most detailed investigations of Holocene people-river environment interactions in Inner Asia. River development has been reconstructed over the last 20,000 years and human settlement histories from the Eneolithic to the Medieval period documented. Periods of Holocene river aggradation and high water levels in Lake Balkhash and Aral Sea correspond with cooler and wetter neoglacial episodes while river entrenchment and floodplain soil development are associated with warmer and drier conditions. Floodwater farming in the Talgar river reached its acme in the late Iron Age (400-200 cal. BC) with more than 60 settlement sites and 550 burial mounds. This corresponds to a period of reduced flood flows, river stability and glacier retreat in the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan headwaters. A new hydroclimatic-based model for the spatial and temporal dynamics of floodwater farming in the Ili, Syr Dayra and Amu Dayra watersheds is proposed, which explains the large scale expansion (down-river) and contraction (up-river) of settlements since the first use of irrigation in the Neolithic through to the late Medieval period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.131...17G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmEn.131...17G"><span>Mid-twentieth century increases in anthropogenic Pb, Cd and Cu in central Asia set in hemispheric perspective using <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan ice core</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grigholm, B.; Mayewski, P. A.; Aizen, V.; Kreutz, K.; Wake, C. P.; Aizen, E.; Kang, S.; Maasch, K. A.; Handley, M. J.; Sneed, S. B.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>High-resolution major and trace element (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Ti, and V) ice core records from Inilchek glacier (5120 m above sea level) on the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau provide the first multi-decadal ice core record spanning the period 1908-1995 AD in central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The trace element records reveal pronounced temporal baseline trends and concentration maxima characteristic of post-1950 anthropogenic emissions. Examination of Pb, Cd and Cu concentrations, along with non-crustal calculation estimates (i.e. excess (ex) and enrichment factor (EF)), reveal that discernable anthropogenic inputs began during the 1950s and rapidly increased to the late-1970s and early 1980s, by factors up to of 5, 6 and 3, respectively, relative to a 1910-1950 means. Pb, Cd and Cu concentrations between the 1950s-1980s are reflective of large-scale Soviet industrial and agricultural development, including the growth of production and/or consumption of the non-ferrous metals, coal and phosphate fertilizers. NOAA HYSPLIT back-trajectory frequency analysis suggests pollutant sources originating primarily from southern Kazakhstan (e.g. Shymkent and Balkhash) and the Fergana Valley (located in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan). Inilchek ice core Pb, Cd and Cu reveals declines during the 1980s concurrent with Soviet economic declines, however, due to the rapid industrial and agricultural growth of western China, Pb, Cd and Cu trends increase during the 1990s reflecting a transition from primarily central Asian sources to emission sources from western China (e.g. Xinjiang Province).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.201...49M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.201...49M"><span>Thermal and chemical evolution in the early Solar System as recorded by FUN <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>: Part II - Laboratory evaporation of potential CMS-1 precursor material</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mendybaev, Ruslan A.; Williams, Curtis D.; Spicuzza, Michael J.; Richter, Frank M.; Valley, John W.; Fedkin, Alexei V.; Wadhwa, Meenakshi</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>We present the results of laboratory experiments in which a forsterite-rich melt estimated to be a potential precursor of Allende CMS-1 FUN <span class="hlt">CAI</span> was evaporated into vacuum for different lengths of time at 1900 °C. The evaporation of this melt resulted in residues that define trajectories in chemical as well as magnesium, silicon and oxygen isotopic composition space and come very close to the measured properties of CMS-1. The isotopic composition of the evaporation residues was also used to determine the kinetic isotopic fractionation factors [α2,1 (vapor-melt) defined as the ratio of isotopes 2 and 1 of a given element in the evaporating gas divided by their ratio in the evaporating source] for evaporation of magnesium (α25,24 for 25Mg/24Mg), silicon (α29,28 for 29Si/28Si) and oxygen (α18,16 for 18O/16O) from the forsterite-rich melt at 1900 °C. The values of α25,24 = 0.98383 ± 0.00033 and α29,28 = 0.99010 ± 0.00038 are essentially independent of change in the melt composition as evaporation proceeds. In contrast, α18,16 changes from 0.9815 ± 0.0016 to ∼0.9911 when the residual melt composition changes from forsteritic to melilitic. Using the determined values of α25,24 and α29,28 and present-day bulk chemical composition of the CMS-1, the composition of the precursor of the inclusion was estimated to be close to the clinopyroxene + spinel + forsterite assemblage condensed from a solar composition gas. The correspondence between the chemical composition and isotopic fractionation of experimental evaporation residues and the present-day bulk chemical and isotopic compositions of CMS-1 is evidence that evaporation played a major role in the chemical evolution of CMS-1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915740P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1915740P"><span>Boosting the trench: Paleoseimic Record of Three Holocene Earthquakes Rupturing the Issyk-Ata Fault near Bishkek, North <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Kyrgyzstan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Patyniak, Magda; Landgraf, Angela; Dzhumabaeva, Atyrgul; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbek; Rosenwinkel, Swenja; Strecker, Manfred; Korup, Oliver; Arrowsmith, Ramon</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The evaluation of thrust paleoearthquakes and associated fault scarps is often hampered by the size of their cumulative fault scarps and interaction with sedimentary processes during interseismic periods. This is especially true if these events occur in areas undergoing low strain accumulation with long recurrence intervals. Furthermore, the earthquakes might occur in environments that provide limited datable material, rendering an event chronology difficult to develop. Here we present a paleoseismological study from one site (Belek) along the Issyk-Ata fault, a major range-bounding fault that constitutes the northern edge of the Central <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The historic and paleoseismic record of this fault is limited, although it defines the southern boundary of Bishkek, the Kyrgyz capital. The only historically known earthquake ruptured along the Issyk-Ata fault in 1885 AD (M6.9). We use a range of tools, including photogrammetry, differential GPS, and 3D visualization and modeling, combined with different chronometers (IRSL, Radiocarbon) to boost the production of an event chronology from the trench stratigraphy and fault geometry. Our age control from both trench walls shows consistent age data in stratigraphic order irrespective of the chronometer. We were able to distinguish three different surface rupturing paleoearthquakes that affected the area at 8.9 ± 0.3 cal kyr BP; 4.7 ± 2.0 cal kyr BP; and 700 ± 80 cal yr BP, and interpret an extended episode of loess accumulation against the scarp between the oldest identified and penultimate events. Associated paleomagnitudes for the last two earthquakes range between M6.7 - M7.4 with a cumulative slip rate of 0.7 ± 0.2 mm/a. We did not find evidence for the 1885 AD event at Belek. Combined our results underline two major points: first, the historic and paleoseismic catalogue is incomplete; second, single ruptures do not necessarily involve the entire extend of the Issyk-Ata fault but point to segmented rupture behavior</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMPP13A1427A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMPP13A1427A"><span>Atmospheric circulation patterns and geochemistry time series from ice/firn cores and snow samples of central Asian glaciers (Pamir, <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and Altai).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aizen, E. M.; Aizen, V. B.; Joswiak, D. R.; Mayewski, P. A.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p> from Aral region are for the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan; 3. Western and central Gobi and Kazakhstan dust are for the Altai. The Aral region is the source of dust aerosol for Altai also. Based on in-situ data in the western Central Asia and Altai ice core records of particle number content there is tendency on decrease of dust storms frequency from the 30th in central and eastern Asia.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MinDe.tmp...23S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MinDe.tmp...23S"><span>Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion study of the Kuru-Tegerek Au-Cu-Mo skarn deposit in the Middle <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, Kyrgyzstan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey; Dvurechenskaya, Svetlana</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The Kuru-Tegerek Cu-Au-Mo deposit is situated in a system of Late Carboniferous subduction-related magmatic arcs of the Middle <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, which together constitute a metallogenic belt of Cu-Au-Mo (±W) porphyry, with local skarns, deposits. The deposit is related to magnetite-series gabbro-diorite to tonalite intrusion. It contains prograde magnesian and calcic skarns with abundant magnetite, associated with gabbro-diorite, and retrograde skarn with Cu mineralization, formed after intrusion of tonalite. Subsequent propylitic alteration introduced abundant chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite, and native Au culminating in zones overprinting magnetite and garnet skarn. Later quartz-muscovite-carbonate veins, formed after intrusion of late mafic quartz monzogabbro dikes, contain chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and other sulfides and sulfosalts, tellurides, and native Au. The earliest retrograde skarn garnet contains gaseous low-salinity (1.7-3.4 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid inclusions homogenizing at 460-500 °C into vapor, indicating that the early fluid released from crystallizing magma was a low-density vapor. It was followed by more saline (4.0-5.0 wt.% NaCl eq.), high-temperature (400-440 °C) aqueous fluid, as fluid release from the magma progressed. Boiling of this fluid at temperatures of 420 to 370 °C and a pressure of 350-300 bar produced a low-salinity (0.6-1.2 wt.% NaCl eq.), essentially gaseous, and high-salinity (from 39 to 31 wt.% NaCl eq.) brine, with possible metal (including Cu) partitioning into both gaseous and aqueous-saline phases. Boiling was coeval with sulfide deposition in the retrograde skarn. The latest episode of the retrograde skarn stage included direct separation of saline ( 40-42 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid from crystallizing magma. The separation of saline ( 40 to 14 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluids from a crystallizing magmatic melt continued during the propylitic stage, when fluid cooling from 370 to 320 °C, together with decreasing fO2, caused Cu and especially</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MinDe..50..187S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MinDe..50..187S"><span>Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Kumbel oxidized W-Cu-Mo skarn and Au-W stockwork deposit in Kyrgyzstan, <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soloviev, Serguei G.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The Kumbel deposit is located within a metallogenic belt of W-Mo, Cu-Mo, Au-W, and Au deposits along the Late Paleozoic active continental margin of <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan. The deposit is related to a Late Carboniferous multiphase pluton, with successive intrusive phases from early olivine monzogabbro through monzonite-quartz monzonite to granodiorite and granite, with the latest monzogabbro-porphyry dikes. The deposit represents an example of a complex W-Cu-Mo-Au magmatic-hydrothermal system related to magnetite-series high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic igneous suite. It contains large bodies of W-Cu-Mo oxidized prograde and retrograde skarns, with abundant andradite garnet, magnetite, and especially hematite, as well as K-feldspar, molybdoscheelite, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite, with transitions to zones of intense quartz-K-feldspar (with minor andradite and hematite) veining. The skarns are cut by quartz-carbonate ± adularia ± sericite veins (locally sheeted) and stockworks bearing scheelite and minor Cu, Zn, Pb sulfides, as well as Au, Bi, Te, and As mineralization. The association of these veins with the oxidized skarns and magnetite-series intrusion is consistent with the general oxidized, intrusion-related W-Mo-Cu-Au type of deposit, with an affinity to the alkalic (silica-saturated) Cu-Au ± Mo porphyry deposits. The fluid inclusion data show the predominance of magmatic-hydrothermal aqueous chloride fluid during the formation of skarns and quartz-carbonate-scheelite-sulfide veins. The high fluid pressures (˜1,750 bars), together with their high temperature (up to 600 °C) and high salinity (˜50-60 wt% NaCl-equiv.), suggest the formation of skarns and quartz-K-feldspar-andradite-hematite veins under conditions typical of magmatic-hydrothermal transition (depth of ≥4-5 km) of intrusion-related mineralized system, possibly by exsolution of the fluids from crystallizing magma. The auriferous quartz-carbonate-scheelite-sulfide veins formed from high to moderate</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026887','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026887"><span>Assembly of the Pamirs: Age and origin of magmatic belts from the southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan to the southern Pamirs and their relation to Tibet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Schwab, M.; Ratschbacher, L.; Siebel, W.; McWilliams, M.; Minaev, V.; Lutkov, V.; Chen, F.; Stanek, K.; Nelson, B.; Frisch, W.; Wooden, J.L.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Magmatic rocks and depositional setting of associated volcaniclastic strata along a north-south traverse spanning the southern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan and eastern Pamirs of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan constrain the tectonics of the Pamirs and Tibet. The northern Pamirs and northwestern Tibet contain the north facing Kunlun suture, the south facing Jinsha suture, and the intervening Carboniferous to Triassic Karakul-Mazar subduction accretion system; the latter is correlated with the Songpan-Garze-Hoh Xi system of Tibet. The Kunlun arc is a composite early Paleozoic to late Paleozoic-Triassic arc. Arc formation in the Pamirs is characterized by ???370-320 Ma volcanism that probably continued until the Triassic. The cryptic Tanymas suture of the southern northern Pamirs is part of the Jinsha suture. A massive ??????227 Ma batholith stitches the Karakul-Mazar complex in the Pamirs. There are striking similarities between the Qiangtang block in the Pamirs and Tibet. Like Tibet, the regional structure of the Pamirs is an anticlinorium that includes the Muskol and Sares domes. Like Tibet, the metamorphic rocks in these domes are equivalents to the Karakul-Mazar-Songpan-Garze system. Granitoids intruding the Qiangtang block yield ???200-230 Ma ages in the Pamirs and in central Tibet. The stratigraphy of the eastern Pshart area in the Pamirs is similar to the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone in the Amdo region of eastern central Tibet, but a Triassic ocean basin sequence is preserved in the Pamirs. Arc-type granitoids that intruded into the eastern Pshart oceanic-basin-arc sequence (???190-160 Ma) and granitoids that cut the southern Qiangtang block (???170-160 Ma) constitute the Rushan-Pshart arc. Cretaceous plutons that intruded the central and southern Pamirs record a long-lasting magmatic history. Their zircons and those from late Miocene xenoliths show that the most distinct magmatic events were Cambro-Ordovician (???410-575 Ma), Triassic (???210-250 Ma; likely due to subduction along the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.A13B0113K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.A13B0113K"><span>Assessment of Glacial Area and Volume Change in <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan (Central Asia) During the Last 60 years Using Geodetic, Aerial Photo, ASTER and STRM Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuzmichenok, V.; Aizen, V.; Surazakov, A.; Aizen, E.</p> <p>2004-12-01</p> <p>The water-issue problems that occur during times of persistent drought are extremely important for central Asia. Despite the presence of large deserts and prairies with very low precipitation and extremely dry climates, central Asian mountains hold one of the greatest concentrations of perennial snow and ice in the mid-latitudes and constitute a vital source of water for more then 100,000,000 people living in this region. This research aims to evaluate glacial area and ice volume changes using aerial photographs from 1943, 1977, and Satellite Remote Sensing data from 2000/2003 over the Akshiirak ice-fields and Ala Archa glacierized basin in the central and northern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan to understand changes in the glacier water resources of central Asia during the last 60 years. These data were converted from WGS-84 to STRM and then to the Pulkovo 1942 (Russian) coordinate system using a 7-parameter Helmert transformation method. For vertical validation, the STRM DEM was compared to a DEM constructed with additional 5 m and 10 m contour lines digitized from 1:25000 topographic maps for low-relief, non-glacial areas. Glacier boundaries were digitized from an ASTER L1A image acquired on August 18, 2003 and orthorectified using Orthobase digital photogrammetric package with 9.5 m RMSE of 28 ground control points. To delineate glaciers in problem areas, resulting from debris-covered termini and shadows, thermal bands and true hardware-enabled stereo viewing with nadir 3N and backward-looking 3B bands was used. Digitizing accuracy of the 2003 glacier boundaries was verified from GPS field measurements of 7 glacier termini in 2002. For surface elevation comparison, a second DEM was generated from 10 m contour lines for all glaciers (424 km2) using 16 topographic maps of 1:25000 scale that were created using the aerial photographs of 1977. In 1943, the glaciers of the Akshiirak massif covered 424.7 km2 and 42.8 km2 in the Ala Archa glacierized basin. From 1943 to 1977, the glacial</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H53E1466M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H53E1466M"><span>Hydrologic and Thermal Regimes of Coarse Blocky Materials and Imbalance in Seasonal Snowpack Contribution to the Total River Runoff in <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mountains, Central Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marchenko, S. S.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Gorbunov, A. P.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Central Asia is a water-stressed area where projected climate change could further decrease stream flow and groundwater recharge (IPCC, 2007). General circulation models suggest that the increase in summer diurnal temperatures over Central Asia is likely to be higher relative to that in other regions (IPCC, 2007). Therefore, we expect a further degradation of glaciers and alpine permafrost and decrease in snow cover. Under continued atmospheric warming the decrease in snowfall will lead to a decline in snow melt contribution to river runoff. Increased glacier melting will compensate this process for some period of time. But eventually, a further decrease in glacial area would lead to a decline in the contribution of glacier melting to the river runoff. Under continuing warming and permafrost degradation in Central Asia, the ground ice could increase future water supply, and the melt waters from permafrost could become an increasingly important source of fresh water in this region in the near future. Mountain permafrost and associated periglacial landforms contain large quantities of stored fresh water in the form of ice. The moraines, rock glaciers and other coarse blocky materials have especially high ice content (30-70% by volume). Recent observations indicate a warming of permafrost in many mountain regions with the resulting degradation of ice-rich permafrost. Permafrost temperature has increased by 0.5 to 1.5 deg C in <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Mountains, Central Asia during the last 35 years. At the same time, the average active-layer thickness increased by 23% in comparison to the early 1970s. Runoff from the active layer contributes a significant amount of water during the summer time, when snowmelt has finished and the ground ice melt starts and intensifies. The thickness of the active layer is one of the dominant factors controlling the subsurface flow conditions. Air temperature, precipitation and ground structure are other components influencing water flow. Blocky</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25049538','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25049538"><span>Effect of Fibre Level and Fibre Source on Gut Morphology and Micro-environment in Local (Mong <span class="hlt">Cai</span>) and Exotic (Landrace×Yorkshire) Pigs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ngoc, T T B; Hong, T T T; Len, N T; Lindberg, J E</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The effect of genotype, fibre level and fibre source on gut morphology, environment and microflora was studied using 18 Mong <span class="hlt">Cai</span> (MC) and 18 Landrace×Yorkshire (LY) pigs, aged around 60 d. The diets were based on maize, rice bran, soybean meal, fish meal and soybean oil, and cassava residue (CR) or brewer's grain (BG) as fibrous ingredient sources in the high-fibre diets (HF). A low-fibre diet (LF), containing around 200 g NDF/kg dry matter (DM), was formulated without CR and BG as feed ingredients. The HF diets (HF-CR and HF-BG) were formulated to contain around 270 g NDF/kg DM. The experiment was arranged according to a 2×3 factorial completely randomized design with six replications, and lasted 30 d. Crypt density in ileum was lowest (p<0.05) and villus height in jejunum and ileum were the greatest (p<0.05) in pigs fed diet HF-BG. Villus width in ileum was greatest in pigs fed diets HF-CR and HF-BG (p<0.05). Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts in stomach were greatest (p<0.05) and E. coli counts in ileum and colon were lowest (p<0.05) in pigs fed diet HF-CR. The concentration of total organic acids in ileum, caecum and colon were greatest (p<0.05), and pH in ileum and colon were lowest (p<0.05) in pigs fed diet HF-CR. Crypt density in ileum was lowest, and villus height in ileum and villus width in jejunum and ileum was greatest in LY pigs (p<0.05). LAB counts in stomach and ileum were greatest, and E. coli counts in ileum were lowest in MC pigs (p<0.05). The concentration of total organic acids in ileum, caecum and colon were greatest (p<0.05) and pH lowest (p<0.05) in MC pigs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Analytical+AND+geometry&id=ED046230','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Analytical+AND+geometry&id=ED046230"><span>Generative <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in Analytical Geometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Uttal, William R.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>A generative computer-assisted instruction system is being developed to tutor students in analytical geometry. The basis of this development is the thesis that a generative teaching system can be developed by establishing and then stimulating a simplified, explicit model of the human tutor. The goal attempted is that of a computer environment…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=coding%2c+AND+computer+AND+assisted&pg=5&id=EJ357117','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=coding%2c+AND+computer+AND+assisted&pg=5&id=EJ357117"><span>Human Factors in <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Design.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rambally, Gerard K.; Rambally, Rodney S.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Identifies human factor issues involved in the student-computer interface in computer assisted instruction and makes specific recommendations for screen design. Factors considered include simplicity, spaciousness, relevance, standardization, changing display screen contents, color coding, shape and size coding, and brightness coding. (Author/LRW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Thesis+AND+format&pg=4&id=ED046230','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Thesis+AND+format&pg=4&id=ED046230"><span>Generative <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in Analytical Geometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Uttal, William R.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>A generative computer-assisted instruction system is being developed to tutor students in analytical geometry. The basis of this development is the thesis that a generative teaching system can be developed by establishing and then stimulating a simplified, explicit model of the human tutor. The goal attempted is that of a computer environment…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Scientists+AND+lies&pg=3&id=EJ134842','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Scientists+AND+lies&pg=3&id=EJ134842"><span>A New Direction for <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dyer, Charles A.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Author contends that the future of computer assisted instruction lies in the wealth of concepts, analytical tools and practical techniques which computer scientists have accumulated in the process of learning to build and program various kinds of systems and hardware. (Author/HB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ114899.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ114899.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">CAI</span> on a Programmable Calculator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Schlaphoff, Carl W.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>This article describes a procedure for presenting routine practice problems on a programable calculator with attached teletype. The program uses a random number generator to write problems, gives feedback and assigns grades according to the procedures outlined (and flow-charted) by the author. (SD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/481276','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/481276"><span>Dermal toxicity evaluation of neutralized Chemical Agent Identification Sets (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>) with an overview of the dermal toxicity of vesicant agents and their degradation products. Final report, January-September 1995</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Olajos, E.J.; Cameron, K.P.; Way, R.A.; Manthei, J.H.; Heitkamp, D.H.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>Acute dermal toxicity (limit test) and skin irritation studies were conducted in New Zealand white rabbits to ascertain the systemic toxicity and skin-injury potential of chemically-neutralized Chemical Agent Identification Sets (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>). Studies also included the assessment of oxidant/solvent systems and solvent induced toxicity. The toxicity limit test consisted of a 24-hr occluded exposure to 1.0 ml/kg of `test article.` Dermal irritation studies were based on a 4-hr occluded exposure to 0.5 ml of `test article.` Chemical neutralization of <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> resulted in complex product solutions (wastestreams) containing ppm levels of agent and an array of degradation products. Findings from the skin irritation testing of wastestreams and oxidant/solvent systems indicate that wastestream-induced skin effects (edema and erythema) were equivalent to or less in severity than the skin effects produced by exposure to oxidant/solvent systems. Systemic effects were not observed in 4/5 wastestream-exposed groups; however, 2/5 wastestream-treated groups exhibited systemic effects. Lethality was noted in only 1/5 wastestream-treated groups. Limit test data indicate that agents (HD, HN, or L) were destroyed by reaction with oxidant to less toxic materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeCoA..70..224C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeCoA..70..224C"><span>Li and B isotopic variations in an Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Evidence for the in situ decay of short-lived 10Be and for the possible presence of the short-lived nuclide 7Be in the early solar system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chaussidon, Marc; Robert, François; McKeegan, Kevin D.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The concentrations and isotopic compositions of lithium, beryllium, and boron, analyzed in situ by ion microprobe in 66 spots of a type B1 Ca-Al-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span> 3529-41) from the Allende meteorite, are reported. Large variations are observed for both the Li and the B isotopic ratios with 7Li/ 6Li ranging from 9.2 ± 0.22 to 12.22 ± 0.43 (a ≈250‰ range in δ7Li values) and 10B/ 11B ranging from 0.2468 ± 0.0057 to 0.4189 ± 0.0493 (a 410‰ range in δ11B values). The very low Li concentrations (<1 ppb) observed in several anorthite and fassaite grains require that a correction for the contribution of spallogenic Li produced during irradiation of the Allende meteoroid by galactic cosmic rays (GCR) be made (after this correction 7Li/ 6Li ranges from 9.2 ± 0.22 to 13.44 ± 0.56, i.e., a ≈350‰ range in δ7Li values). In 3529-41, the 10B/ 11B ratios are positively correlated with 9Be/ 11B in a manner indicating the in situ decay of short-lived 10Be (half-life = 1.5 Ma) with a 10Be/ 9Be ratio at the time of formation of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> of 8.8 ± 0.6 × 10 -4, which is in agreement with previous findings [McKeegan, K.D., Chaussidon, M., Robert, F., 2000. Incorporation of short-lived 10Be in a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion from the Allende meteorite. Science289, 1334-1337]. The present detailed investigation demonstrates that only minor perturbations of the 10Be- 10B system are present in 3529-41, contrary to the 26Al/ 26Mg system for which numerous examples of isotopic redistribution following crystallization were observed [Podosek, F.A., Zinner, E.K., MacPherson, G.J., Lundberg, L.L., Brannon, J.C., Fahey, A.J., 1991. Correlated study of initial 87Sr/ 86Sr and Al-Mg systematics and petrologic properties in a suite of refractory inclusions from the Allende meteorite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta55, 1083-1110]. Petrographically based criteria were developed to identify within the 66 analyzed spots in 3529-41, those where post-magmatic perturbation of the Li and Be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17172385','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17172385"><span>Field evaluation of spatial repellency of metofluthrin-impregnated latticework plastic strips against Aedes aegypti (L.) and analysis of environmental factors affecting its efficacy in My Tho City, <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Giang, Vietnam.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kawada, Hitoshi; Iwasaki, Tomonori; LE Loan, Luu; Tien, Tran Khanh; Mai, Nguyen Thi Nhu; Shono, Yoshinori; Katayama, Yasuyuki; Takagi, Masahiro</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Spatial repellency of metofluthrin-impregnated polyethylene latticework plastic strips against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes was evaluated. Analysis of environmental factors affecting the efficacy of these strips, such as room temperature, humidity, and house structure, was performed in a residential area in My Tho City, <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Giang Province, Vietnam. Treatment with the strips at the rate of 1 strip per 2.6-5.52 m(2) (approximately 600 mg per 2.6-5.52 m(2)) reduced the collection of Ae. aegypti resting inside the houses for at least eight weeks. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both increase in the average room temperature and decrease in the area of openings in the rooms that were treated with the strips positively affected the spatial repellency of metofluthrin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1757751','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1757751"><span>Significant efficiency findings while controlling for the frequent confounders of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> research in the PlanAlyzer project's computer-based, self-paced, case-based programs in anemia and chest pain diagnosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lyon, H C; Healy, J C; Bell, J R; O'Donnell, J F; Shultz, E K; Wigton, R S; Hirai, F; Beck, J R</p> <p>1991-04-01</p> <p>Richard E. Clark in his widely published comprehensive studies and meta-analyses of the literature on computer assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) has decried the lack of carefully controlled research, challenging almost every study which shows the computer-based intervention to result in significant post-test proficiency gains over a non-computer-based intervention. We report on a randomized study in a medical school setting where the usual confounders found by Clark to plague most research, were carefully controlled. PlanAlyzer is a microcomputer-based, self-paced, case-based, event-driven system for medical education which was developed and used in carefully controlled trials in a second year medical school curriculum to test the hypothesis that students with access to the interactive programs could integrate their didactic knowledge more effectively and/or efficiently than with access only to traditional textual "nonintelligent" materials. PlanAlyzer presents cases, elicits and critiques a student's approach to the diagnosis of two common medical disorders: anemias and chest pain. PlanAlyzer uses text, hypertext, images and critiquing theory. Students were randomized, one half becoming the experimental group who received the interactive PlanAlyzer cases in anemia, the other half becoming the controls who received the exact same content material in a text format. Later in each year there was a crossover, the controls becoming the experimentals for a similar intervention with the cardiology PlanAlyzer cases. Preliminary results at the end of the first two full trials shows that the programs have achieved most of the proposed instructional objectives, plus some significant efficiency and economy gains. 96 faculty hours of classroom time were saved by using PlanAlyzer in their place, while maintaining high student achievement. In terms of student proficiency and efficiency, the 328 students in the trials over two years were able to accomplish the project's instructional</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeCoA..85..377Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeCoA..85..377Y"><span>Response to the Comment by S.B. Simon, L. Grossman, and S.R. Sutton on "Valence state of titanium in the Wark-Lovering rim of a Leoville <span class="hlt">CAI</span> as a record of progressive oxidation in the early Solar Nebula"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Young, Edward D.; Dyl, Kathryn A.; Simon, Justin I.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>S. Simon et al. incorrectly suggest that in earlier work we claimed there was no Ti3+ in Wark-Lovering rim pyroxenes. In neither the paper by Simon et al. (2005) nor the subsequent paper by Dyl et al. (2011) did we assert that there was no Ti3+ in rim pyroxenes. Rather, we found that many pyroxenes have Ti3+ below detection while others have lower Ti3+/Ti4+ than is typical of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> interiors, indicating rim formation in a relatively oxidizing environment. Dyl et al. (2011) showed through exhaustive testing that the suggestion by Simon et al. (2007) that EMPA data in the paper by Simon et al. (2005) were flawed is incorrect. Here we consider each point raised in the comment by S. Simon et al. and reiterate that our electron microprobe data and the XANES data of Simon et al. (2007) agree and demonstrate a statistically significant (˜2σ) or greater difference between rim and interior pyroxene Ti3+/Ti4+. We show that the oxidation states of Ti in Wark-Lovering rim pyroxenes, the chemistry of rim pyroxenes, and the modal abundances of rim minerals are best explained by reaction between the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and gas that was orders of magnitude more oxidizing than the solar-like gas from which the <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> originally formed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AnGla..43..250L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AnGla..43..250L"><span>Seasonal variability of ionic concentrations in surface snow and elution processes in snow-firn packs at the PGPI site on Ürümqi glacier No. 1, eastern <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Zhongqin; Edwards, Ross; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Wang, Feiteng; Dong, Zhibao; You, Xiaoni; Li, Huilin; Li, Chuanjin; Zhu, Yuman</p> <p></p> <p>To investigate the effects of both non-meltwater and meltwater-related post-depositional processes on chemical species within the snow-firn pack, a research program, the Program for Glacier Processes Investigation, was initiated in July 2002 by the <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Glaciological Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The seasonal variability of the ionic concentrations in surface snow samples and ion elution behavior in the snow-firn pack were assessed from surface samples collected year-round and 1011 samples collected from a snow pit at weekly intervals from September 2003 through September 2004. The results indicate that elevated ionic concentrations in spring and summer result from Asian dust-storm-derived aerosol input and other aerosols entrained in precipitation. Potential sources of these chemical species are explored using correlation and factor analyses. The elution sequence through the snow-firn pack was determined to be SO42- > Ca2+ > Na+ > NO3- > Cl- > K+ > Mg2+ > NH4+. The elution of ions at the sampling site was found to be driven primarily by air temperature and became evident when a diurnal mean temperature of -3.6°C was attained. At 0.3°C all of the year-round new ionic input was leached from the snow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4971317','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4971317"><span>Chinese Herbal Mixture, <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Hsien Liquid, Induces G2/M Cycle Arrest and Radiosensitivity in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells through Mechanisms Involving DNMT1 and Rad51 Downregulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chow, Jyh-Ming; Yang, Chia-Ming; Kuo, Hui-Ching; Chang, Chia-Lun; Lee, Hsin-Lun; Lai, I-Chun; Chuang, Shuang-En</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The Chinese herbal mixture, <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Hsien Liquid (THL), has been proven to suppress the growth and invasiveness of cancer cells and is currently regarded as a complementary medicine for the treatment of cancer. Our previous study using acute promyelocytic leukemia cells uncovered its effect on the downregulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) which is often overexpressed in cancer cells resulting in the repression of tumor suppressors via hypermethylation. Herein, we explored the effects of THL in MCF-7 breast cancer cells that also demonstrate elevated DNMT1. The results show that THL dose-dependently downregulated DNMT1 accompanied by the induction of tumor suppressors such as p21 and p15. THL arrested cell cycle in G2/M phase and decreased the protein levels of cyclin A, cyclin B1, phospho-pRb, and AKT. DNMT1 inhibition was previously reported to exert a radiosensitizing effect in cancer cells through the repression of DNA repair. We found that THL enhanced radiation-induced clonogenic cell death in MCF-7 cells and decreased the level of DNA double-strand break repair protein, Rad51. Our observations may be the result of DNMT1 downregulation. Due to the fact that DNMT1 inhibition is now a mainstream strategy for anticancer therapy, further clinical trials of THL to confirm its clinical efficacy are warranted. PMID:27525019</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED447713.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED447713.pdf"><span>If Your Child Learns in Two Languages: A Parent's Guide for Improving Educational Opportunities for Children Acquiring English as a Second Language = Si su nino aprende en dos idiomes: Una guia para que las familias sepan como mejorar las oportunidades educativas de los ninos que adquieren el ingles como segunda lengua = Neu lon Ban Hoc Bang Hai Thu Tieng: Chi-nam cua phu-huynh de <span class="hlt">cai</span> <span class="hlt">tien</span> co hoi hoc van cua con em dang hoc Anh van nhu sinh ngu thu hai.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zelasko, Nancy; Antunez, Beth</p> <p></p> <p>This guide, in English, Spanish, and Vietnamese, aims to inform parents of students who have learned or are learning English as a Second Language about appropriate approaches for educating children so that they can work with schools to ensure a high quality education for their children. The emphasis is on explaining the laws, schools, and research…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H21E1451H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.H21E1451H"><span>Anticipating Central Asian Water Stress: Variation in River Flow Dependency on Melt Waters from Alpine to Plains in the Remote <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan Range, Kyrgyzstan Using a Rapid Hydro Assessment Methodology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hill, A. F.; Wilson, A. M.; Williams, M. W.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The future of mountain water resources in High Asia is of high interest to water managers, development organizations and policy makers given large populations downstream reliant on snow and ice sourced river flow. Together with historical and cultural divides among ex-Soviet republics, a lack of central water management following the Soviet break-up has led to water stress as trans-boundary waters weave through and along borders. New upstream hydropower development, a thirsty downstream agricultural sector and a shrinking Aral Sea has led to increasing tension in the region. Despite these pressures and in contrast to eastern High Asia's Himalayan basins (Ganges, Brahmaputra), little attention has been given to western High Asia draining the Pamir and <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan ranges (Syr Darya and Amu Darya basins) to better understand the hydrology of this vast and remote area. Difficult access and challenging terrain exacerbate challenges to working in this remote mountain region. As part of the Contributions to High Asia Runoff from Ice and Snow (CHARIS) project, we asked how does river flow source water composition change over an alpine-to-plains domain of Kyrgyzstan's Naryn River in the Syr Darya basin? In addition, what may the future hold for river flow in Central Asia given the differing responses of snow and ice to climate changes? Utilizing a Rapid Hydrologic Assessment methodology including a suite of pre-field mapping techniques we collected in situ water chemistry data at targeted, remote mountain sites over 450km of the Naryn River over an elevation gradient from glacial headwaters to the lower lying areas - places where people, hydropower and agriculture utilize water. Chemical and isotope tracers were used to separate stream flow to understand relative dependency on melt waters as the river moves downstream from glaciers and snow covered areas. This case study demonstrates a technique to acquire field data over large scales in remote regions that facilitates</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeCoA..70.5426D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeCoA..70.5426D"><span>Comment on “Li and Be isotopic variations in an Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Evidence for the in situ decay of short-lived 10Be and for the possible presence of the short-lived nuclide 7Be in the early solar system,” by M. Chaussidon, F. Robert, and K.D. McKeegan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Desch, S. J.; Ouellette, N.</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>Recently Chaussidon et al. reported isotopic measurements of the Allende meteorite Ca, Al-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) 3529-41 that they claim as evidence that live 7Be was incorporated into this <span class="hlt">CAI</span> at the time of its formation [Chaussidon, M., Robert, F., McKeegan, K.D., 2006. Li and Be isotopic variations in an Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: evidence for the in situ decay of short-lived 10Be and for the possible presence of the short-lived nuclide 7Be in the early solar system. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta70, 224-245]. They claim their data show excesses of 7Li/ 6Li above the chondritic value, and that the 7Li/ 6Li excesses correlate linearly with 9Be/ 6Li, implying that the excess 7Li arose from the decay of 7Be ( t1/2 = 53 days). In this Comment we dispute this claim. We show that the authors did not statistically analyze their data correctly, and that a linear correlation between 7Li/ 6Li and 9Be/ 6Li can in fact be ruled out. We show that the authors over-corrected for the effects of spallogenic Li, and in fact no statistically significant excesses of 7Li above chondritic ratios exist. Finally, we show that many of the spots in Allende 3529-41 that the authors counted as isotopically undisturbed show evidence of isotopic disturbance. We demonstrate that while their data support the late addition of isotopically light Li in spots with low Be/Li, their data are otherwise consistent with constant 7Li/ 6Li at near-chondritic levels. The data do not provide support for live 7Be in the early Solar System.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED105893.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED105893.pdf"><span>Survey of Health Sciences <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kamp, Martin</p> <p></p> <p>A project to develop an automated index of information about existing computerized instruction in the health sciences is reported and described. Methods of obtaining and indexing materials for the catalog are detailed. Entry and recovery techniques and selection of descriptors are described. Results to date show that the data base contains…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22learning+german%22&pg=6&id=EJ312015','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22learning+german%22&pg=6&id=EJ312015"><span>Learning German: A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Program Catalogue.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Coombs, Virginia M.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Presents a catalogue of microcomputer courseware specifically designed for use in learning German. Covers four types of software: (1) authoring systems for drill and practice, (2) drill and practice programs that are self-contained, (3) authoring systems that create game-like materials, and (4) game programs. Includes a listing of publishers and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=vegetarianism&id=EJ301927','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=vegetarianism&id=EJ301927"><span>Authoring a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Lesson in Nutrition Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ries, Carol P.; And Others</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A nutrition lesson on vegetarianism (focusing on vegetarian types, complementary protein, special-care nutrients, and diet planning) that uses a pre-developed plan which concentrates on lesson content and design has been developed. Initial planning and procedures involved in developing the unit (selecting teaching modes, text writing, formatting,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=human+AND+computer+AND+interaction+AND+topics&pg=3&id=EJ404216','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=human+AND+computer+AND+interaction+AND+topics&pg=3&id=EJ404216"><span>Design Guidelines for <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Authoring Systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hunka, S.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Discussion of the use of authoring systems for courseware development focuses on guidelines to be considered when designing authoring systems. Topics discussed include allowing a variety of instructional strategies; interaction with peripheral processes such as student records; the editing process; and human factors in computer interface design,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ268637.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ268637.pdf"><span>New Study Says <span class="hlt">CAI</span> May Favor Introverts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hopmeier, George</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>A personality research study using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator indicates that computer-assisted instruction programs favor introverts, i.e., those learners who can concentrate on details, memorize facts, and stay with a task until it is completed. (JJD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=protein+AND+diet&pg=3&id=EJ301927','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=protein+AND+diet&pg=3&id=EJ301927"><span>Authoring a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Lesson in Nutrition Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ries, Carol P.; And Others</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A nutrition lesson on vegetarianism (focusing on vegetarian types, complementary protein, special-care nutrients, and diet planning) that uses a pre-developed plan which concentrates on lesson content and design has been developed. Initial planning and procedures involved in developing the unit (selecting teaching modes, text writing, formatting,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=manipulation&pg=4&id=EJ909969','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=manipulation&pg=4&id=EJ909969"><span>Improving Early Reading Comprehension Using Embodied <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Glenberg, Arthur M.; Goldberg, Andrew B.; Zhu, Xiaojin</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>An embodied approach to reading comprehension suggests that emerging readers must learn to map words and phrases onto their remembered experiences, but this is made difficult by the necessity of focusing attention on decoding. Having children manipulate toys to correspond to what they are reading overcomes this problem, but introduces its own…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ272500.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ272500.pdf"><span>Compupoem: <span class="hlt">CAI</span> for Writing and Studying Poetry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Marcus, Stephen</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Describes a computer program that prompts the user for different parts of speech and formats the words in a haiku-like poetic structure. (Available from "The Computing Teacher," Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403.) (AEA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=babel&pg=3&id=EJ317338','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=babel&pg=3&id=EJ317338"><span>Research Notes: Critical Thinking and <span class="hlt">CAI</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sadowski, Barbara R.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Summarizes a study which focused on teaching critical thinking skills with computer assisted instruction. Also summarizes a 1980 study in which a microcomputer was used to deliver a version of the program BABELS to college students and a replication of this study with younger students (5th-, 7th-, and 12th-graders). (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED039703.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED039703.pdf"><span>Introducing the Docile Technology Inmemoriam of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bushnell, Don D.</p> <p></p> <p>The most common mode for the use of computers in education is for the student to be directed by the programed stimulus of the computer. This method has failed to solve the long-standing problems of education. The author suggests that the time-shared computer assisted instruction console should be used as a problem-solving tool for the student. He…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=manipulation&pg=4&id=EJ909969','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=manipulation&pg=4&id=EJ909969"><span>Improving Early Reading Comprehension Using Embodied <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Glenberg, Arthur M.; Goldberg, Andrew B.; Zhu, Xiaojin</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>An embodied approach to reading comprehension suggests that emerging readers must learn to map words and phrases onto their remembered experiences, but this is made difficult by the necessity of focusing attention on decoding. Having children manipulate toys to correspond to what they are reading overcomes this problem, but introduces its own…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED491179.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED491179.pdf"><span>No High School Diploma? You've Got Options! = No <span class="hlt">tienes</span> un diploma de la escuela preparatoria? <span class="hlt">Tienes</span> opciones!</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>EdSource, 2006</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>If a student completes high school but is unable to graduate, there are still options. The student can still get a high school diploma whether he or she dropped out, failed the California High School Exit Exam, or did not have enough course credits. As many know, a high school diploma is a passport to a more interesting and better paying job.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED322509.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED322509.pdf"><span>Teaching English 101<span class="hlt">CAI</span>: From Romance to Realism.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pair, Joyce M.</p> <p></p> <p>This project/study introduced the use of computers in one freshman composition course to determine whether the instructor and the students could accomplish more in a computer-based rather than a traditionally structured course. The assumption was that students would produce better essays on the word-processor and printer, and that the instructor…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010044738&hterms=love&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dlove','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010044738&hterms=love&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dlove"><span>The Formation of Igneous <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and Chondrules by Impacts?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Connolly, Harold C., Jr.; Love, Stanley G.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Numerous challenges exist with forming the igneous spheres found within chondrites via collision events in the early solar nebula. We explore these challenges and discuss potential methods to overcome them. Collision models should be received cautiously. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=seo&pg=5&id=EJ976436','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=seo&pg=5&id=EJ976436"><span>Multimedia <span class="hlt">Cai</span> Program for Students with Mathematics Difficulties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Seo, You-Jin; Bryant, Diane</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated the effectiveness of "Math Explorer" at enhancing the word problem-solving skills of students with mathematics difficulties (MD). The study, which had a multiple-probe-across-subjects design, was conducted over 18 weeks. Four students with MD in Grades 2 and 3 participated. All students were able to use the four-step…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010044738&hterms=need+love&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dneed%2Blove','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010044738&hterms=need+love&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dneed%2Blove"><span>The Formation of Igneous <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and Chondrules by Impacts?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Connolly, Harold C., Jr.; Love, Stanley G.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Numerous challenges exist with forming the igneous spheres found within chondrites via collision events in the early solar nebula. We explore these challenges and discuss potential methods to overcome them. Collision models should be received cautiously. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=programming+AND+language+AND+graphics&id=ED160082','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=programming+AND+language+AND+graphics&id=ED160082"><span>A Microprocessor Based <span class="hlt">CAI</span> System with Graphic Capabilities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mabry, Frank J.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>This paper describes a system which operates on an independent basis as well as connected to communications network, e.g., PLATO and ASCII based communication systems. The system also has facilities for local production and use of PILOT lessons, for support of a generalized programming language (NSBASIC), and for development of graphic sequences.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=enzyme+AND+kinetics&pg=7&id=EJ598028','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=enzyme+AND+kinetics&pg=7&id=EJ598028"><span>A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> System for Simulation of Enzymes Kinetics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Amorim, G. G.; Leao, F. S.; Martins, M. R.; Santos, J. D.; Novaes, M. A.; Filho, J. L. Lima</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Describes a computer software program that simulates each step of the glycolytic enzyme pathway. Serves as a means of providing interactive learning for undergraduate biochemistry students with the aim of better preparing them for laboratory work. (Author/CCM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=coding%2c+AND+computer+AND+assisted&pg=7&id=EJ337781','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=coding%2c+AND+computer+AND+assisted&pg=7&id=EJ337781"><span>Presenting Questions, Processing Responses, and Providing Feedback in <span class="hlt">CAI</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wager, Walter; Wager, Susan</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Surveys research on programmed instruction, questions, and feedback in instruction to identify guidelines for developing computer assisted instruction. The most important guidelines identified are those related to use of questions as attention, coding, and rehearsal devices, and those related to corrective feedback. (MBR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Adapting+AND+teaching+AND+materials&pg=4&id=EJ278297','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Adapting+AND+teaching+AND+materials&pg=4&id=EJ278297"><span>Computer Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>): A Partner for PI?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Edwards, John S.; Tillman, Murray</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Discusses differences between computer-delivered instruction and print-delivered instruction and the importance of the role of the instructional design process when adapting traditional teaching materials to newer media. The use of authoring systems for preparing materials and computer-managed instruction as a support for programed instruction are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mds&pg=7&id=EJ976436','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=mds&pg=7&id=EJ976436"><span>Multimedia <span class="hlt">Cai</span> Program for Students with Mathematics Difficulties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Seo, You-Jin; Bryant, Diane</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated the effectiveness of "Math Explorer" at enhancing the word problem-solving skills of students with mathematics difficulties (MD). The study, which had a multiple-probe-across-subjects design, was conducted over 18 weeks. Four students with MD in Grades 2 and 3 participated. All students were able to use the four-step…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED165797.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED165797.pdf"><span>Intelligent <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: An Author Aid for a Natural Language Interface.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Burton, Richard R.; Brown, John Seely</p> <p></p> <p>This report addresses the problems of using natural language (English) as the communication language for advanced computer-based instructional systems. The instructional environment places requirements on a natural language understanding system that exceed the capabilities of all existing systems, including: (1) efficiency, (2) habitability, (3)…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=artificial+AND+intelligence+AND+courses&pg=6&id=EJ357116','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=artificial+AND+intelligence+AND+courses&pg=6&id=EJ357116"><span><span class="hlt">CAI</span> in Writing at the University: Some Recommendations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bump, Jerome</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Reviews the use of computers in the teaching and practice of writing in university courses. Highlights include hardware considerations; software options for grammar, punctuation, stylistic analysis, and prewriting (or invention) skills; artificial intelligence, composition, and literature; collaborative learning; and faculty development. (LRW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=r-project&pg=5&id=EJ443393','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=r-project&pg=5&id=EJ443393"><span><span class="hlt">CAI</span> and At-Risk Minority Urban High School Students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Signer, Barbara R.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The Microcomputer Adaptive Testing High-Risk-Urban Students (MATH-R-US) project made computerized assessment an integral part of remedial high school mathematics at an inner-city school with predominantly African-American students. Results suggest that the girls exhibited greater self-esteem toward using computers than did boys and that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED067010.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED067010.pdf"><span>FLUIDMOD: A Versatile <span class="hlt">CAI</span> System for Medical Students.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Deland, E. C.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>FLUIDMOD is an interactive program for student practice and instruction in the medical treatment of fluid and electrolyte problems in human patients. Previous instructional programs in this field have been based on teaching numerous rules applicable to particular problems, which must then be applied by the student to actual patients who supply…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=url&pg=6&id=EJ664590','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=url&pg=6&id=EJ664590"><span>OE-<span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Computer-Assisted Instruction of Old English.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Alcaraz, Alejandro</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Provides a survey of computer assisted instruction as applied to the Old English language from the work of the late 1980's pioneers to December 2001. Each instructional item--whether a website, java exercise, or an online course--is reviewed and URLs are provided in footnotes. Reviews are accompanied by pertinent background and practical advice.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982AmJPh..50..683W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982AmJPh..50..683W"><span>An investigation of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> teaching methods in an electronics course</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wood, Kenneth W.</p> <p>1982-08-01</p> <p>Computers are increasingly being used in the classroom. An investigation of several educational techniques in a computer-based version of an electronics course is reported. We found that, with a lesson for teaching virtual equality, students learned faster when using a general to specific approach. Students using a simulation of a Schmitt trigger before a qualitative analysis of the circuit performed the analysis faster and with less difficulty than the group performing the analysis first and then exploring the circuit with the simulation. Given a sizable amount of optional material in a computer lesson, most of the electronics students used all of the optional material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED260105.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED260105.pdf"><span>Matching Feedback and Cognitive Style in Visual <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Tasks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hedberg, John G.; McNamara, Suzanne E.</p> <p></p> <p>The effects of different types of feedback in computer assisted instruction were studied in 30 college students with different cognitive styles. The program, written in Apple Pilot and administered on an Apple IIE microcomputer, consisted of 16 problem solving tasks; for each, a graphic display and a textual question were presented. Two feedback…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ197838.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ197838.pdf"><span>OASIS-V: A Data-Base Driven <span class="hlt">CAI</span> System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dever, Michael K.; Spencer, Judson</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The system consists of a single program with data bases containing the material to be displayed. Editing, loading, and other support programs were written to transfer the burden of material and maintenance tasks from the user to the computer. (Author/IRT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1080289.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1080289.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">CAI</span> and Its Application in Rural Junior English Class</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>He, Xiaojun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Superiority in developing students' listening, speaking, etc. This thesis explores how to provide a better environment for English teaching in rural junior school with the aid of multimedia and find some ways to improve teaching efficiency. In recent years, using multimedia is the direction of reform and mainstream in English teaching. Compared…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED497705.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED497705.pdf"><span>The Design and Development of Intelligent Multimedia Network <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Courseware</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Liu, Guangran; Yin, Hong</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Currently, the intelligence and individuality of multimedia network courseware is not enough, which limits the universal development of modern long-distance education. It is the best way to develop network courseware with intelligence. The paper basing on "College English" introduces the idea of design, system structure and development of process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nira+AND+hativa&pg=2&id=EJ377821','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nira+AND+hativa&pg=2&id=EJ377821"><span><span class="hlt">CAI</span> versus Paper and Pencil--Discrepancies in Students' Performance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hativa, Nira</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>This study identified differences in elementary school students' performance of arithmetic tasks using paper and pencil and computer-assisted instruction. Many were found to perform more poorly using the computer, while others showed the opposite tendency. These findings challenge the validity of decisions made by the computer-based management…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED040884.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED040884.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">CAI</span> Programs and Macros for Formative Curriculum Evaluation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dasenbrock, David; Teates, Thomas</p> <p></p> <p>This technical memo is designed for persons who are interested in research with and development of curriculum material. Detailed information regarding computer programs, and program documentation used in the development and evaluation of ISCS curriculum materials is provided. The memo includes supplemental information to ISCS Technical Report I…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=storage+AND+devices&pg=4&id=ED144526','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=storage+AND+devices&pg=4&id=ED144526"><span>Future Review of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and the Coming of Videodisk Technology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hirschbuhl, John J.; Seeman, Robert</p> <p></p> <p>This paper describes the continuing development of a computer assisted instruction system that will connect the computer and a video storage device so as to allow the computer to regulate the delivery of instruction to individual television terminals. The video storage device consists of a videodisc player which feeds television signals from 60…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=hosford&pg=2&id=ED267786','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=hosford&pg=2&id=ED267786"><span>Instructional Strategies in <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Instructional Design Theory Needs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ragan, Tillman J.</p> <p></p> <p>This paper argues that research findings from the study of teaching could be very useful in enhancing knowledge and tools for the design of both conventional and intelligent instructional software. It also suggests that if the ways in which teachers effectively conduct instruction are different and in certain ways better than other media, and if…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED072625.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED072625.pdf"><span>The Development of Visual Materials for <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Technical Memo 5.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Best, Elowese</p> <p></p> <p>User-originated 16mm filmstrips for use with an IBM 1512 computer-controlled rear screen projector can be made at half the commercial cost. This report describes the procedures necessary for preparing, photographing, and processing either a black-and-white or color filmstrip for a computer-assisted instruction program. Master preparation,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=disadvantages+AND+supplements&pg=4&id=ED285585','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=disadvantages+AND+supplements&pg=4&id=ED285585"><span>Interactive Graphics in CAD/<span class="hlt">CAI</span> in Chemical Engineering.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lewin, D. R.</p> <p></p> <p>This paper describes the development of a software program which incorporates interactive graphics techniques into a teaching and research environment at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Technion, Israel, and the experience of transferring the software from mainframe to personal computer (PC) operating systems at the California Institute of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED134205.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED134205.pdf"><span>"Intelligent" Computer Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) Applications. Interim Report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brown, John Seely; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>Interim work is documented describing efforts to modify computer techniques used to recognize and process English language requests to an instructional simulator. The conversion from a hand-coded to a table driven technique are described in detail. Other modifications to a simulation based computer assisted instruction program to allow a gaming…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950012921&hterms=Cais&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCais','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950012921&hterms=Cais&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCais"><span>Major unresolved issues in the formation of chondrules and <span class="hlt">CAIs</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wood, J. A.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>So much has been learned and published about chondrites and so many models have been floated (but neither proven nor refuted) that the subject has become extremely diffuse and amorphous. It is impossible to remain simultaneously aware of all the many constraints, from many different subdisciplines, that bear on nebular processes. This paper attempts to impose some structure on the situation and loosen the interpretational logjam by breaking the chondrite problem into a series of well-defined questions. Most are open questions; those that some might consider closed by now may deserve formal reexamination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050173932','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050173932"><span>The Mn-53-Cr-53 System in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>: An Update</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Bogdanovski, O.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>High precision techniques have been developed for the measurement of Cr isotopes on the Triton mass spectrometer, at JPL. It is clear that multiple Faraday cup, simultaneous ion collection may reduce the uncertainty of isotope ratios relative to single Faraday cup ion collection, by the elimination of uncertainties from ion beam instabilities (since ion beam intensities for single cup collection are interpolated in time to calculate isotope ratios), and due to a greatly increased data collection duty cycle, for simultaneous ion collection. Efforts to measure Cr by simultaneous ion collection have not been successful in the past. Determinations on Cr-50-54Cr, by simultaneous ion collection on the Finnigan/ MAT 262 instrument at Caltech, resulted in large variations in extrinsic precision, for normal Cr, of up to 1% in Cr-53/Cr-52 (data corrected for mass fractionation, using Cr-50/Cr-52).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950012906&hterms=Cais&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCais','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950012906&hterms=Cais&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCais"><span>Formation of chondrules and <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> by nebular processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Palme, H.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Chondrules are essential components of most chondritic meteorites. Carbonaceous chondrites, with the exception of CI chondrites, contain 30-50% chondrules, ordinary and enstatite chondrites even more. A better understanding of chondrule formation will therefore lead to an improved understanding of the origin of meteorites. Most studies of chondrules are, however, concerned with their texture and mineralogy. As chondrules, by definition, passed through a molten stage, their present texture and mineralogy can only provide information on conditions of crystallization from a melt and the subsequent solid-state cooling history. Information concerning chondrule formation is contained in their chemical and isotopic composition. The two most important observations relevant to the chemistry of the chondrules are their generally low Fe content and the large compositional variability of chondrules from a single meteorite, reflected in major variations of Mg/Si ratios, of Al and other refractory element abundances, total Fe, metal (Fe, Ni), and sulfide. This large compositional variability is surprising considering the uniform and nearly solar composition of bulk chondrites, which, in some cases, consist of more than 90% of chondrules.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Dingo&id=EJ536978','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Dingo&id=EJ536978"><span>El Que No <span class="hlt">Tiene</span> Dingo, <span class="hlt">Tiene</span> Mandingo: The Inadequacy of the "Mestizo" as a Theoretical Construct in the Field of Latin American Studies--The Problem and Solution.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rosa, Andrew Juan</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Argues that the "mestizo" paradigm as a theoretical construct used in Latin American studies denies the historical and cultural contributions of Africans to Latin American society and that it is fundamentally inaccurate and racist. Discusses ways of correcting these misconceptions. (GR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=The%2blargest&id=EJ1014750','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=The%2blargest&id=EJ1014750"><span>"Todo <span class="hlt">Tiene</span> que ver con lo que se Habla." It's All About the Talk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Frey, Nancy; Fisher, Douglas; Nelson, John</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Chula Vista Elementary School District, the largest in California, dramatically raised its student achievement while taking on increasing proportions of English learners by focusing on what it calls teacher talk--the way lessons are developed, delivered, and executed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.9123H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.9123H"><span>Palaeogegraphic and palaeotopography evolution of the chinese <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Shan during the Mesozoic : a sedimentological synthesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heilbronn, Gloria; Jolivet, Marc; Robin, Cécile; Barrier, Laurie; Bourquin, Sylvie; Jia, Yingying; Fu, Bihong</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Tian Shan is one of the main ranges of Central Asia Orogenic Belt. The Tertiary deformation is driven by the India-Asia collision stress field. However, the deformation appears localised along inherited tectonic structures formed during the Palaeozoic - Early Mesozoic history of the range (e.g. Jolivet et al., 2010). Our aim is to reconstruct the pre-Tertiary history of relief building in the Chinese Tian Shan. We use the sedimentary facies, sediment provenances and paleocurrent directions of the exposed Mesozoic sections in the northern and southern piedmonts and inside the range. This will be used to understand the long-term reactivation pattern of the main inherited structures and to assess their influence on the localisation and propagation of the deformation. We first established 6 complete reference sections spanning from the Upper Triassic to the Palaeogene. These sections are interpreted in terms of sedimentary facies, palaeoenvironments and prograding-retrograding sequences. The correlation of these 6 sections allows us to propose some palaeogeographic maps for the middle Jurassic, the upper Jurassic - lower Cretaceous transition, the upper Cretaceous and the late Cretaceous - Paleogene transition. The dismantling of reliefs associated to the late-paleozoic range stops in the upper Trias. The Jurassic is characterised by a low tectonic activity and results in a general planation phase of the Tian Shan area. The supposed low relief is possibly associated to local activity of normal faults : this is attested by alluvial fan deposits on the internal sections, as well as paleocurrent directions to the North in the northern foothills and to the south in the southern foothills. These faults could belong to pull apart basins opening in a transtensive tectonic régime, under a humid climate, what is testified by numerous organic matter layers. The upper Jurassic - lower Cretaceous transition is characterized by a huge conglomeratic event at the scale of all the northern foothills, associated with some eolian deposits certified a arid climat at this period. We propose that alluvial fans are the result of the erosion of relatively small and local reliefs, caused by normal faults. This interpretation is in contradiction with all hypothesis of the literature supporting compressional tectonic and reactivation of the range during the Upper Jurassic. Nevertheless it fits to the interpretation of low thermochronology data. During the Upper Cretaceous, the widespread occurrence of alluvial fans indicates the ongoing erosion of a local positive topography in the Tian Shan area. A significant late Lower - early Upper Cretaceous unconformity is observable in the S-Junggar, N-Tarim and Turfan Basins (Hendrix et al., 1992). It is confirmed by low temperature thermochronology data that show a "major" late Lower Cretaceous unroofing event near Kuqa on the southern foothills (Dumitru et al., 2001) and some late Lower to early Upper Cretaceous exhumation ages within the range (Jolivet et al., 2010). This marks the onset of a new exhumation phase that goes on during the Upper Cretaceous and seems to stop after a peak in the late Upper Cretaceous. Following the Upper Cretaceous inversion episode, a tectonic quiet period characterises the late Upper Cretaceous - Early Paleogene and enables the formation of a widespread calcrete.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED351865.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED351865.pdf"><span>"El coronel no <span class="hlt">tiene</span> quien le escriba," Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Performance Guides to Spanish Texts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gies, David Thatcher, Comp.</p> <p></p> <p>This performance guide is the result of work conducted at the University of Virginia's National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, 1989, on "Spanish Literature in Performance," in which 25 secondary school Spanish teachers studied Spanish texts from the perspective of classroom performance to deepen knowledge of the texts and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Refrigerator&pg=4&id=ED264414','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Refrigerator&pg=4&id=ED264414"><span>Saving Energy around the House = <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Tan Trong Viec Tieu Thu Nang Luc Trong Nha.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Noyes, Marilyn; Jarrett, Von</p> <p></p> <p>This bilingual booklet is intended to help Vietnamese refugees learn basic energy conservation skills. Included in the booklet are Vietnamese and English translations of basic energy conservation practices related to the following areas: heating, cooling, cooking, using refrigerators and freezers, lighting, water heating, doing laundry, pursuing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=california&pg=6&id=EJ1014750','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=california&pg=6&id=EJ1014750"><span>"Todo <span class="hlt">Tiene</span> que ver con lo que se Habla." It's All About the Talk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Frey, Nancy; Fisher, Douglas; Nelson, John</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Chula Vista Elementary School District, the largest in California, dramatically raised its student achievement while taking on increasing proportions of English learners by focusing on what it calls teacher talk--the way lessons are developed, delivered, and executed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=arte&pg=6&id=EJ150905','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=arte&pg=6&id=EJ150905"><span><span class="hlt">Tiene</span> Arte Valor Afuera Del Barrio: The Murals of East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Holscher, Louis M.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the themes of the murals and explores the possible uses that the murals in Los Angeles have for the outsider, the non-Chicano, for those who have only a little understanding or awareness of the Chicano community. (Author/AM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ150905.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ150905.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">Tiene</span> Arte Valor Afuera Del Barrio: The Murals of East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Holscher, Louis M.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the themes of the murals and explores the possible uses that the murals in Los Angeles have for the outsider, the non-Chicano, for those who have only a little understanding or awareness of the Chicano community. (Author/AM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Auto+AND+help&pg=3&id=ED264414','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Auto+AND+help&pg=3&id=ED264414"><span>Saving Energy around the House = <span class="hlt">Tien</span> Tan Trong Viec Tieu Thu Nang Luc Trong Nha.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Noyes, Marilyn; Jarrett, Von</p> <p></p> <p>This bilingual booklet is intended to help Vietnamese refugees learn basic energy conservation skills. Included in the booklet are Vietnamese and English translations of basic energy conservation practices related to the following areas: heating, cooling, cooking, using refrigerators and freezers, lighting, water heating, doing laundry, pursuing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..94b3003G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..94b3003G"><span>Observations of high-energy radiation during thunderstorms at <span class="hlt">Tien</span>-Shan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gurevich, A. V.; Almenova, A. M.; Antonova, V. P.; Chubenko, A. P.; Karashtin, A. N.; Kryakunova, O. N.; Lutsenko, V. Yu.; Mitko, G. G.; Ptitsyn, M. O.; Piscal, V. V.; Ryabov, V. A.; Salikhov, N. M.; Sadykov, T. Kh.; Shepetov, A. L.; Shlyugaev, Yu. V.; Thu, W. M.; Vil'danova, L. I.; Zastrozhnova, N. N.; Zybin, K. P.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Energetic radiation during thunderstorms is studied. The possibility to identify the high-energy lightning emission in the 10 s monitoring mode is demonstrated. Simultaneous measurements of gamma-ray emission, high-energy electrons, and neutron radiation in the triggering mode are fulfilled. Energy spectra of gamma emission and electrons are obtained. The intensity both of electrons and gamma rays in lightning discharge prevail the background emission by 1.5 to 2 orders of magnitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Search+AND+%22Science+project%22&pg=2&id=ED326402','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Search+AND+%22Science+project%22&pg=2&id=ED326402"><span>Using <span class="hlt">CAI</span> To Improve Participation and Achievement in Science Research Projects in Middle School Science.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Price, Suzanne M.</p> <p></p> <p>The high percentage of students not participating in or completing a science research project has been a recurring problem for science teachers. In this project, three variables influencing the problem are identified: (1) students' failure to engage in an active search for science research topics; (2) inadequate resource materials at the middle…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=localization+AND+strategies&pg=2&id=ED021452','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=localization+AND+strategies&pg=2&id=ED021452"><span>Training Corrective Maintenance Performance on Electronic Equipment with <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Terminals: I. A Feasibility Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rigney, Joseph W.</p> <p></p> <p>A report is given of a feasibility study in which several possible relationships between student, computer terminal, and electronic equipment were considered. The simplest of these configurations was set up and examined in terms of its feasibility for teaching the performance of fault localization on a Navy transceiver. An instructional program…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED312998.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED312998.pdf"><span>Abstract Representation of Tutorial <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and the Development of an Adjustable Tutorial System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>de Diana, I. P. F.; Vos, Hans J.</p> <p></p> <p>This paper presents a model of an abstract tutorial system. The first section discusses some of the problems encountered in producing courseware and examines the availability of software tools to support effective communication on three levels: (1) accuracy of communication; (2) transmission of the desired meaning; and (3) affecting conduct in a…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Coast+AND+Guard&pg=3&id=ED249365','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Coast+AND+Guard&pg=3&id=ED249365"><span>The Coast Guard's <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Approach to Basic Math and Reading Skills.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Glidden, William C.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>To meet the remedial-instructional needs of its recruits, the Coast Guard developed a basic skills program, entitled the Basic Educational Enrichment Program (BEEP), at its recruit training center in Cape May, New Jersey. Objectives of the program were to ensure that all graduates of Coast Guard recruit training possess at least eighth-grade…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApCM..tmp...63P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApCM..tmp...63P"><span>A Numerical/Experimental Study on the Impact and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Behaviour of Glass Reinforced Compsite Plates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perillo, Giovanni; Jørgensen, Jens K.; Cristiano, Roberta; Riccio, Aniello</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>This paper focuses on the development of an advance numerical model specifically for simulating low velocity impact events and related stiffness reduction on composite structures. The model is suitable for low cost thick composite structures like wind turbine blade and maritime vessels. The model consist of a combination of inter and intra laminar models. The intra-laminar model present a combination of Puck and Hashin failure theories for the evaluation of the fibre and matrix failure. The inter-laminar damage is instead simulated by Cohesive Zone Method based on energy approach. Basic material properties, easily measurable according to standardized tests, are required. The model has been used to simulate impact and compression after impact tests. Experimental tests have been carried out on thick E-Glass/Epoxy composite commonly used in the wind turbine industry. The clustering effect as well as the consequence of the impact energy have been experimentally tested. The accuracy of numerical model has been verified against experimental data showing a very good accuracy of the model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gri&pg=2&id=EJ368062','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Gri&pg=2&id=EJ368062"><span>Using a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Network for Statewide Remediation: GRI in South Carolina.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rumford, John</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Describes South Carolina's Governor's Remediation Initiative (GRI), an instructional management system that links diagnostic tests and teaching modules for use by high school mathematics and reading laboratories. (TW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA139278','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA139278"><span>A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (Computer-Assisted Instruction) Course on Constructing PLANIT lessons: Development, Content, and Evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-06-01</p> <p>PLANIT lesson records for each student after the student signed off from each online session. 44 pa-BECKMG LOG-INFA1~ INTER- T" ACTION PLANI ARfCOPYj FPu ...answers (11) Same action for several tags e.g. BCD F: LET’S REVIEW B:2 (12) Actions extending to a second line 3. THE (M)ULTIPLE CHOICE FRAE 3.0</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA081072','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA081072"><span>Low-cost Computer-Aided Instruction/Computer-Managed Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>/ CMI) System: Feasibility Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1979-12-01</p> <p>Thomsniigr Tate Thoinas G. Klein F33615-78-C-0031 IV David C. Pflasierer LArry F.- Click 9. PERFORMING CIRGANIZAlItON NAME ANL, ADDRESS IS PROGRAM...VIIHI-VIIH3 19, 23 VA-VC2, VIC3-VIE6 24 VIC4-VIIA2A, VIIBI-VIIB8, VIIF-VIIH3 25 VIEl -VIE4 26 ! (Pages 124, 125, and 126 intentionally left blank</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8591449','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8591449"><span>Development of nursing <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in the administration: nursing daily hospital problems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carmagnani, M I; Cunha, I C; Marin, H F</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Since the nurse emerged as a qualified professional to attend human beings, the role which always characterized his/her action was assistance. Already since the foundation of the first nursing school, teaching aimed at developing the student to dispense nursing care necessary for the patient's assistance. When the nurse started to perform their activities in nosocomial and community institutions, the need for someone who would be responsible for the organization, coordination and control of nursing personnel and the Nursing Unit itself, in short, someone who would head the services became apparent. At present, the professional role of the nurse is changing regarding his/her overall assistance to the patient, caring directly, determining and/or carrying out nursing assistance necessary for the patient's health, maintenance or recovery. In this manner, it is necessary for nurses to use tools of administration science such as planning, decision making, and planned changes in order to be able to provide the nursing assistance with quality. Thus, this study aims at helping the development of the nurse's interest in computer during the teaching-learning process, motivating the search for knowledge in computerized sources. We intended to offer the opportunity for discussion and reflection on problems of nosocomial nursing practice, favoring interchange of theory and practice. The system is being developing using ToolBook Live Software to be run in Windows environment. The content of the subject allow the user (student or professional nursing) to choose the most correct answers to questions in the knowledge area. In this case, to discuss nursing administration issues through the study of practical situations is possible, such as the opportunity the verify the performance in tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED097873.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED097873.pdf"><span><span class="hlt">CAI</span> and Imagery: Interactive Computer Graphics for Teaching About Invisible Process. Technical Report No. 74.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rigney, Joseph W.; Lutz, Kathy A.</p> <p></p> <p>In preparation for a study of using interactive computer graphics for training, some current theorizing about internal and external, digital and analog representational systems are reviewed. The possibility is considered that there are two, overlapping, internal, analog representational systems, one for organismic states and the other for external…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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