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Sample records for calcium channels

  1. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... Goldschlager N. Cardiovascular toxicology. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management ... SD. Calcium channel antagonists. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management ...

  2. Store-Operated Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Store-operated calcium channels (SOCs) are a major pathway for calcium signaling in virtually all metozoan cells and serve a wide variety of functions ranging from gene expression, motility, and secretion to tissue and organ development and the immune response. SOCs are activated by the depletion of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), triggered physiologically through stimulation of a diverse set of surface receptors. Over 15 years after the first characterization of SOCs through electrophysiology, the identification of the STIM proteins as ER Ca2+ sensors and the Orai proteins as store-operated channels has enabled rapid progress in understanding the unique mechanism of store-operate calcium entry (SOCE). Depletion of Ca2+ from the ER causes STIM to accumulate at ER-plasma membrane (PM) junctions where it traps and activates Orai channels diffusing in the closely apposed PM. Mutagenesis studies combined with recent structural insights about STIM and Orai proteins are now beginning to reveal the molecular underpinnings of these choreographic events. This review describes the major experimental advances underlying our current understanding of how ER Ca2+ depletion is coupled to the activation of SOCs. Particular emphasis is placed on the molecular mechanisms of STIM and Orai activation, Orai channel properties, modulation of STIM and Orai function, pharmacological inhibitors of SOCE, and the functions of STIM and Orai in physiology and disease. PMID:26400989

  3. Calcium Channel Signaling Complexes with Receptors and Channels.

    PubMed

    Zamponi, Gerald W

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are not only mediators of cell signalling events, but also are recipients of signalling inputs from G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their associated second messenger pathways. The coupling of GPCRs to calcium channels is optimized through the formation of receptor-channel complexes. In addition, this provides a mechanism for receptorchannel co-trafficking to and from the plasma membrane. On the other hand, voltage-gated calcium channel activity affects other types of ion channels such as voltage-and calcium-activated potassium channels. Coupling efficiency between these two families of channels is also enhanced through the formation of channel-channel complexes. This review provides a concise overview of the current state of knowledge on the physical interactions between voltage-gated calcium channels and members of the GPCR family, and with other types of ion channels.

  4. Intracellular calcium channels in protozoa.

    PubMed

    Docampo, Roberto; Moreno, Silvia N J; Plattner, Helmut

    2014-09-15

    Ca(2+)-signaling pathways and intracellular Ca(2+) channels are present in protozoa. Ancient origin of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and other intracellular channels predates the divergence of animals and fungi as evidenced by their presence in the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis, the closest known relative to metazoans. The first protozoan IP3R cloned, from the ciliate Paramecium, displays strong sequence similarity to the rat type 3 IP3R. This ciliate has a large number of IP3- and ryanodine(Ry)-like receptors in six subfamilies suggesting the evolutionary adaptation to local requirements for an expanding diversification of vesicle trafficking. IP3Rs have also been functionally characterized in trypanosomatids, where they are essential for growth, differentiation, and establishment of infection. The presence of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) in a number of protozoa indicates that mitochondrial regulation of Ca(2+) signaling is also an early appearance in evolution, and contributed to the discovery of the molecular nature of this channel in mammalian cells. There is only sequence evidence for the occurrence of two-pore channels (TPCs), transient receptor potential Ca(2+) channels (TRPCs) and intracellular mechanosensitive Ca(2+)-channels in Paramecium and in parasitic protozoa.

  5. Intracellular Calcium Channels in Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Docampo, Roberto; Moreno, Silvia N.J.; Plattner, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Ca2+-signaling pathways and intracellular Ca2+ channels are present in protozoa. Ancient origin of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and other intracellular channels predates the divergence of animals and fungi as evidenced by their presence in the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis, the closest known relative to metazoans. The first protozoan IP3R cloned, from the ciliate Paramecium, displays strong sequence similarity to the rat type 3 IP3R. This ciliate has a large number of IP3- and ryanodine(Ry)-like receptors in 6 subfamilies suggesting the evolutionary adaptation to local requirements for an expanding diversification of vesicle trafficking. IP3Rs have also been functionally characterized in trypanosomatids, where they are essential for growth, differentiation, and establishment of infection. The presence of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) in a number of protozoa indicates that mitochondrial regulation of Ca2+ signaling is also an early appearance in evolution, and contributed to the discovery of the molecular nature of this channel in mammalian cells. There is only sequence evidence for the occurrence of two-pore channels (TPCs), transient receptor potential Ca2+ channels (TRPCs) and intracellular mechanosensitive Ca2+-channels in Paramecium and in parasitic protozoa. PMID:24291099

  6. Calcium channel as a potential anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Kriazhev, L

    2009-11-01

    Anticancer treatment in modern clinical practices includes chemotherapy and radiation therapy with or without surgical interventions. Efficiency of both methods varies greatly depending on cancer types and stages. Besides, chemo- and radiotherapy are toxic and damaging that causes serious side effects. This fact prompts the search for alternative methods of antitumor therapy. It is well known that prolonged or high increase of intracellular calcium concentration inevitably leads to the cell death via apoptosis or necrosis. However, stimulation of cell calcium level by chemical agents is hardly achievable because cells have very sophisticated machinery for maintaining intracellular calcium in physiological ranges. This obstacle can be overridden, nevertheless. It was found that calcium channels in so called calcium cells in land snails are directly regulated by extracellular calcium concentration. The higher the concentration the higher the calcium intake is through the channels. Bearing in mind that extracellular/intracellular calcium concentration ratio in human beings is 10,000-12,000 fold the insertion of the channel into cancer cells would lead to fast and uncontrollable by the cells calcium intake and cell death. Proteins composing the channel may be extracted from plasma membrane of calcium cells and sequenced by mass-spectrometry or N-terminal sequencing. Either proteins or corresponding genes could be used for targeted delivery into cancer cells.

  7. Management of calcium channel antagonist overdose.

    PubMed

    Salhanick, Steven D; Shannon, Michael W

    2003-01-01

    Calcium channel antagonists are used primarily for the treatment of hypertension and tachyarrhythmias. Overdose of calcium channel antagonists can be lethal. Calcium channel antagonists act at the L-type calcium channels primarily in cardiac and vascular smooth muscle preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decreases in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy and chronotropy. The L-type calcium channel is a complex structure and is thus affected by a large number of structurally diverse antagonists. In the setting of overdose, patients may experience vasodilatation and bradycardia leading to a shock state. Patients may also be hyperglycaemic and acidotic due to the blockade of L-type calcium channels in the pancreatic islet cells that affect insulin secretion. Aggressive therapy is warranted in the setting of toxicity. Gut decontamination with charcoal, or whole bowel irrigation or multiple-dose charcoal in the setting of extended-release products is indicated. Specific antidotes include calcium salts, glucagon and insulin. Calcium salts may be given in bolus doses or may be employed as a continuous infusion. Care should be exercised to avoid the administration of calcium in the setting of concomitant digoxin toxicity. Insulin administration has been used effectively to increase cardiac inotropy and survival. The likely mechanism involves a shift to carbohydrate metabolism in the setting of decreased availability of carbohydrates due to decreased insulin secretion secondary to blockade of calcium channels in pancreatic islet cells. Glucose should be administered as well to maintain euglycaemia. Supportive care including the use of phosphodiesterase inhibitors, adrenergic agents, cardiac pacing, balloon pump or extracorporeal bypass is frequently indicated if antidotal therapy is not effective. Careful evaluation of asymptomatic patients, including and electrocardiogram and a period of observation, is indicated. Patients ingesting a nonsustained

  8. Calcium signals and calcium channels in osteoblastic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R. L.; Akanbi, K. A.; Farach-Carson, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) channels are present in non-excitable as well as in excitable cells. In bone cells of the osteoblast lineage, Ca2+ channels play fundamental roles in cellular responses to external stimuli including both mechanical forces and hormonal signals. They are also proposed to modulate paracrine signaling between bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts at local sites of bone remodeling. Calcium signals are characterized by transient increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels that are associated with activation of intracellular signaling pathways that control cell behavior and phenotype, including patterns of gene expression. Development of Ca2+ signals is a tightly regulated cellular process that involves the concerted actions of plasma membrane and intracellular Ca2+ channels, along with Ca2+ pumps and exchangers. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning the structure, function, and role of Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ signals in bone cells, focusing on the osteoblast.

  9. Computational study of a calcium release-activated calcium channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukdar, Keka; Shantappa, Anil

    2016-05-01

    The naturally occurring proteins that form hole in membrane are commonly known as ion channels. They play multiple roles in many important biological processes. Deletion or alteration of these channels often leads to serious problems in the physiological processes as it controls the flow of ions through it. The proper maintenance of the flow of ions, in turn, is required for normal health. Here we have investigated the behavior of a calcium release-activated calcium ion channel with pdb entry 4HKR in Drosophila Melanogaster. The equilibrium energy as well as molecular dynamics simulation is performed first. The protein is subjected to molecular dynamics simulation to find their energy minimized value. Simulation of the protein in the environment of water and ions has given us important results too. The solvation energy is also found using Charmm potential.

  10. P/Q-type calcium channel modulators

    PubMed Central

    Nimmrich, V; Gross, G

    2012-01-01

    P/Q-type calcium channels are high-voltage-gated calcium channels contributing to vesicle release at synaptic terminals. A number of neurological diseases have been attributed to malfunctioning of P/Q channels, including ataxia, migraine and Alzheimer's disease. To date, only two specific P/Q-type blockers are known: both are peptides deriving from the spider venom of Agelenopsis aperta, ω-agatoxins. Other peptidic calcium channel blockers with activity at P/Q channels are available, albeit with less selectivity. A number of low molecular weight compounds modulate P/Q-type currents with different characteristics, and some exhibit a peculiar bidirectional pattern of modulation. Interestingly, there are a number of therapeutics in clinical use, which also show P/Q channel activity. Because selectivity as well as the exact mode of action is different between all P/Q-type channel modulators, the interpretation of clinical and experimental data is complicated and needs a comprehensive understanding of their target profile. The situation is further complicated by the fact that information on potency varies vastly in the literature, which may be the result of different experimental systems, conditions or the splice variants of the P/Q channel. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of the compounds available that affect the P/Q-type channel and should help with the interpretation of results of in vitro experiments and animal models. It also aims to explain some clinical observations by implementing current knowledge about P/Q channel modulation of therapeutically used non-selective drugs. Chances and challenges of the development of P/Q channel-selective molecules are discussed. PMID:22670568

  11. Calcium, channels, intracellular signaling and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Jorge-Hernán; Bonilla-Abadía, Fabio; Cañas, Carlos A; Tobón, Gabriel J

    2014-01-01

    Calcium (Ca²⁺) is an important cation able to function as a second messenger in different cells of the immune system, particularly in B and T lymphocytes, macrophages and mastocytes, among others. Recent discoveries related to the entry of Ca²⁺ through the store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) has opened a new investigation area about the cell destiny regulated by Ca²⁺ especially in B and T lymphocytes. SOCE acts through calcium-release-activated calcium (CRAC) channels. The function of CRAC depends of two recently discovered regulators: the Ca²⁺ sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum or stromal interaction molecule (STIM-1) and one subunit of CRAC channels called Orai1. This review focuses on the role of Ca²⁺ signals in B and T lymphocytes functions, the signalling pathways leading to Ca²⁺ influx, and the relationship between Ca²⁺ signals and autoimmune diseases.

  12. Amiloride Selectively Blocks the Low Threshold (T) Calcium Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Cha-Min; Presser, Fernando; Morad, Martin

    1988-04-01

    More than one type of voltage-gated calcium channel has been identified in muscle cells and neurons. Many specific organic and inorganic blockers of the conventional, slowly inactivating high threshold (L) calcium channel have been reported. No specific blockers of the low threshold (T) channel have been as yet identified. Amiloride, a potassium sparing diuretic, has now been shown to selectively block the low threshold calcium channel in mouse neuroblastoma and chick dorsal root ganglion neurons. The selective blockade of the T-type calcium channel will allow identification of this channel in different tissues and characterization of its specific physiological role.

  13. Structural aspects of calcium-release activated calcium channel function

    PubMed Central

    Stathopulos, Peter B; Ikura, Mitsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Store-operated calcium (Ca2+) entry is the process by which molecules located on the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) respond to decreased luminal Ca2+ levels by signaling Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ channels (CRAC) channels to open on the plasma membrane (PM). This activation of PM CRAC channels provides a sustained cytosolic Ca2+ elevation associated with myriad physiological processes. The identities of the molecules which mediate SOCE include stromal interaction molecules (STIMs), functioning as the ER/SR luminal Ca2+ sensors, and Orai proteins, forming the PM CRAC channels. This review examines the current available high-resolution structural information on these CRAC molecular components with particular focus on the solution structures of the luminal STIM Ca2+ sensing domains, the crystal structures of cytosolic STIM fragments, a closed Orai hexameric crystal structure and a structure of an Orai1 N-terminal fragment in complex with calmodulin. The accessible structural data are discussed in terms of potential mechanisms of action and cohesiveness with functional observations. PMID:24213636

  14. Calcium entry through nicotinic receptor channels and calcium channels in cultured rat superior cervical ganglion cells.

    PubMed Central

    Trouslard, J; Marsh, S J; Brown, D A

    1993-01-01

    1. Patch-clamp techniques in conjunction with indo-1 fluorescent measurements were used to measure increases in intracellular free calcium concentration and membrane conductance induced by the activation of nicotinic and calcium channels in cultured rat sympathetic neurons. 2. Under voltage-clamp conditions, pressure application of the nicotinic agonist DMPP (1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide, 100 microM, 100 ms) increased [Ca2+]i by 193 +/- 26 nM at a clamp potential of -60 mV. This was accompanied by an inward current of -4.53 +/- 0.89 nA, giving a mean ratio of the delta (Ca2+]i to the total inward charge transfer of 42.7 nmoles per litre of free calcium per nanocoulomb of charge (M/q ratio). 3. The DMPP-induced current and associated delta [Ca2+]i were reduced by mecamylamine (100 nM-10 microM) but were unaffected by alpha-bungarotoxin (100 nM) or cadmium (100 microM). 4. The M/q ratio was not affected by the holding potential (from -80 to -40 mV) but was a function of the external calcium concentration. 5. The M/q ratio was reduced by increasing the intracellular calcium buffering capacity and increased by heparin but not affected by ryanodine or by depletion of the caffeine-sensitive calcium store. 6. Under the same recording conditions, we quantified the increase in [Ca2+]i associated with activation of the voltage-dependent calcium current. On average at -60 mV, the M/q ratio of this highly calcium-selective permeability was 1961 mM nC-1, which is 46 times that obtained for the nicotinic channel. 7. Assuming constant-field theory, ion-substitution experiments suggest that in 2.5 mM external calcium, the permeability sequence for the nicotinic conductance was Cs+ < Li+ < Na+ < K+ < Ca2+. 8. We conclude that the nicotinic channels in rat sympathetic neurones are significantly permeant to Ca2+ and that the influx of Ca2+ through these channels is the principal cause of the rise in [Ca2+]i seen under voltage clamp. PMID:8254522

  15. Cadmium and calcium uptake in the mollusc donax rugosus and effect of a calcium channel blocker

    SciTech Connect

    Sidoumou, Z.; Gnassia-Barelli, M.; Romeo, M.

    1997-02-01

    Donax rugosus, a common bivalve mollusc in the coastal waters of Mauritania, has been studied for trace metal concentrations as a function of sampling site (from South of Mauritania to the North of this country) and of season. In this paper, the uptake of cadmium was experimentally studied in the different organs of D. rugosus. Since metals such as cadmium, copper and mercury may alter calcium homeostasis, calcium uptake was also studied in the animals treated with cadmium. Since calcium is taken up through specific channels, it appears that metals inhibit Ca uptake by interacting with these channels in the plasma membrane. Cadmium and calcium have very similar atomic radii, thus cadmium may be taken up through the calcium channels, particularly through voltage-dependent channels. The uptake of cadmium and calcium by D. Rugosus was therefore also studied in the presence of the calcium channel blocker verapamil. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Calcium channel blocker-induced gingival enlargement.

    PubMed

    Livada, R; Shiloah, J

    2014-01-01

    Despite the popularity and wide acceptance of the calcium channel blockers (CCBs) by the medical community, their oral impact is rarely recognized or discussed. CCBs, as a group, have been frequently implicated as an etiologic factor for a common oral condition seen among patients seeking dental care: drug-induced gingival enlargement or overgrowth. This enlargement can be localized or generalized, and can range from mild to extremely severe, affecting patient's appearance and function. Treatment options for these patients include cessation of the offending drug and substitution with another class of antihypertensive medication to prevent recurrence of the lesions. In addition, depending on the severity of the gingival overgrowth, nonsurgical and surgical periodontal therapy may be required. The overall objective of this article is to review the etiology and known risk factors of these lesions, their clinical manifestations and periodontal management.

  17. Analytical models of calcium binding in a calcium channel

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jinn-Liang; Eisenberg, Bob

    2014-08-21

    The anomalous mole fraction effect of L-type calcium channels is analyzed using a Fermi like distribution with the experimental data of Almers and McCleskey [J. Physiol. 353, 585 (1984)] and the atomic resolution model of Lipkind and Fozzard [Biochemistry 40, 6786 (2001)] of the selectivity filter of the channel. Much of the analysis is algebraic, independent of differential equations. The Fermi distribution is derived from the configuration entropy of ions and water molecules with different sizes, different valences, and interstitial voids between particles. It allows us to calculate potentials and distances (between the binding ion and the oxygen ions of the glutamate side chains) directly from the experimental data using algebraic formulas. The spatial resolution of these results is comparable with those of molecular models, but of course the accuracy is no better than that implied by the experimental data. The glutamate side chains in our model are flexible enough to accommodate different types of binding ions in different bath conditions. The binding curves of Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} for [CaCl{sub 2}] ranging from 10{sup −8} to 10{sup −2} M with a fixed 32 mM background [NaCl] are shown to agree with published Monte Carlo simulations. The Poisson-Fermi differential equation—that includes both steric and correlation effects—is then used to obtain the spatial profiles of energy, concentration, and dielectric coefficient from the solvent region to the filter. The energy profiles of ions are shown to depend sensitively on the steric energy that is not taken into account in the classical rate theory. We improve the rate theory by introducing a steric energy that lumps the effects of excluded volumes of all ions and water molecules and empty spaces between particles created by Lennard-Jones type and electrostatic forces. We show that the energy landscape varies significantly with bath concentrations. The energy landscape is not constant.

  18. Analytical models of calcium binding in a calcium channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinn-Liang; Eisenberg, Bob

    2014-08-01

    The anomalous mole fraction effect of L-type calcium channels is analyzed using a Fermi like distribution with the experimental data of Almers and McCleskey [J. Physiol. 353, 585 (1984)] and the atomic resolution model of Lipkind and Fozzard [Biochemistry 40, 6786 (2001)] of the selectivity filter of the channel. Much of the analysis is algebraic, independent of differential equations. The Fermi distribution is derived from the configuration entropy of ions and water molecules with different sizes, different valences, and interstitial voids between particles. It allows us to calculate potentials and distances (between the binding ion and the oxygen ions of the glutamate side chains) directly from the experimental data using algebraic formulas. The spatial resolution of these results is comparable with those of molecular models, but of course the accuracy is no better than that implied by the experimental data. The glutamate side chains in our model are flexible enough to accommodate different types of binding ions in different bath conditions. The binding curves of Na+ and Ca2+ for [CaCl2] ranging from 10-8 to 10-2 M with a fixed 32 mM background [NaCl] are shown to agree with published Monte Carlo simulations. The Poisson-Fermi differential equation—that includes both steric and correlation effects—is then used to obtain the spatial profiles of energy, concentration, and dielectric coefficient from the solvent region to the filter. The energy profiles of ions are shown to depend sensitively on the steric energy that is not taken into account in the classical rate theory. We improve the rate theory by introducing a steric energy that lumps the effects of excluded volumes of all ions and water molecules and empty spaces between particles created by Lennard-Jones type and electrostatic forces. We show that the energy landscape varies significantly with bath concentrations. The energy landscape is not constant.

  19. [Voltage gated calcium channels: structure, characteristics and terminology].

    PubMed

    Veizerová, L; Svetlík, J; Kettmann, V

    2007-07-01

    Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels are the major pathway of Ca2+ entry into the cells. Their activity is essential to couple electrical signals from the cell surface to physiological events in cells. Several pharmacologically, structurally and kinetically distinct calcium channel types have been identified at the electrophysiological and molecular levels. This review aims to describe the functional, structural and pharmacological properties of voltage-gated calcium channels.

  20. Sulfhydryl oxidation modifies the calcium dependence of ryanodine-sensitive calcium channels of excitable cells.

    PubMed Central

    Marengo, J J; Hidalgo, C; Bull, R

    1998-01-01

    The calcium dependence of ryanodine-sensitive single calcium channels was studied after fusing with planar lipid bilayers sarcoendoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from excitable tissues. Native channels from mammalian or amphibian skeletal muscle displayed three different calcium dependencies, cardiac (C), mammalian skeletal (MS), and low fractional open times (low Po), as reported for channels from brain cortex. Native channels from cardiac muscle presented only the MS and C dependencies. Channels with the MS or low Po behaviors showed bell-shaped calcium dependencies, but the latter had fractional open times of <0.1 at all [Ca2+]. Channels with C calcium dependence were activated by [Ca2+] < 10 microM and were not inhibited by increasing cis [Ca2+] up to 0.5 mM. After oxidation with 2,2'-dithiodipyridine or thimerosal, channels with low Po or MS dependencies increased their activity. These channels modified their calcium dependencies sequentially, from low Po to MS and C, or from MS to C. Reduction with glutathione of channels with C dependence (native or oxidized) decreased their fractional open times in 0.5 mM cis [Ca2+], from near unity to 0.1-0.3. These results show that all native channels displayed at least two calcium dependencies regardless of their origin, and that these changed after treatment with redox reagents. PMID:9512024

  1. Pharmacokinetic interactions with calcium channel antagonists (Part I).

    PubMed

    Schlanz, K D; Myre, S A; Bottorff, M B

    1991-11-01

    Calcium channel antagonists are a diverse class of drugs widely used in combination with other therapeutic agents. The potential exists for many clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions between these and other concurrently administered drugs. The mechanisms of calcium channel antagonist-induced changes in drug metabolism include altered hepatic blood flow and impaired hepatic enzyme metabolising activity. Increases in serum concentrations and/or reductions in clearance have been reported for several drugs used with a number of calcium channel antagonists. A number of reports and studies of calcium channel antagonist interactions have yielded contradictory results and the clinical significance of pharmacokinetic changes seen with these agents is ill-defined. The first part of this article deals with interactions between calcium antagonists and marker compounds, theophylline, midazolam, lithium, doxorubicin, oral hypoglycaemics and cardiac drugs. PMID:1773549

  2. Osteoblasts detect pericellular calcium concentration increase via neomycin-sensitive voltage gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuanhao; Kishore, Vipuil; Fites, Kateri; Akkus, Ozan

    2012-11-01

    The mechanisms underlying the detection of critically loaded or micro-damaged regions of bone by bone cells are still a matter of debate. Our previous studies showed that calcium efflux originates from pre-failure regions of bone matrix and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts respond to such efflux by an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration. The mechanisms by which the intracellular calcium concentration increases in response to an increase in the pericellular calcium concentration are unknown. Elevation of the intracellular calcium may occur via release from the internal calcium stores of the cell and/or via the membrane bound channels. The current study applied a wide range of pharmaceutical inhibitors to identify the calcium entry pathways involved in the process: internal calcium release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER, inhibited by thapsigargin and TMB-8), calcium receptor (CaSR, inhibited by calhex), stretch-activated calcium channel (SACC, inhibited by gadolinium), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC, inhibited by nifedipine, verapamil, neomycin, and ω-conotoxin), and calcium-induced-calcium-release channel (CICRC, inhibited by ryanodine and dantrolene). These inhibitors were screened for their effectiveness to block intracellular calcium increase by using a concentration gradient induced calcium efflux model which mimics calcium diffusion from the basal aspect of cells. The inhibitor(s) which reduced the intracellular calcium response was further tested on osteoblasts seeded on mechanically loaded notched cortical bone wafers undergoing damage. The results showed that only neomycin reduced the intracellular calcium response in osteoblasts, by 27%, upon extracellular calcium stimulus induced by concentration gradient. The inhibitory effect of neomycin was more pronounced (75% reduction in maximum fluorescence) for osteoblasts seeded on notched cortical bone wafers loaded mechanically to damaging load levels. These results imply that the increase in

  3. T-type calcium channels contribute to calcium disturbances in brain during hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Odackal, John; Sherpa, Ang D; Patel, Nisha; Colbourn, Robert; Hrabetova, Sabina

    2015-11-01

    Disturbance of calcium homeostasis is implicated in the normal process of aging and brain pathology prevalent in the elderly such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Previous studies demonstrated that applying a hyponatremic iso-osmotic (low-NaCl) artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) to rodent hippocampus causes extracellular calcium to rapidly decrease. Restoring normonatremia after low-NaCl treatment causes a rapid increase in extracellular calcium that overshoots baseline. This study examined the amplitude, timing, and mechanism of these surprising calcium changes. We also tested whether hyponatremia increased calcium entry into brain cells or calcium binding to chondroitin sulfate (CS), a negatively charged constituent of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that may be occupied by sodium during normonatremia. We report three major findings. First we show that CS does not contribute to extracellular calcium changes during low-NaCl treatments. Second, we show that the time to minimum extracellular calcium during low-NaCl treatment is significantly shorter than the time to maximum extracellular calcium in recovery from low-NaCl treatment. Third, we show that the decrease in extracellular calcium observed during hyponatremia is attenuated by ML 218, a highly selective T-type calcium channel blocker. Together these data suggest that calcium rapidly enters cells at the onset of low-NaCl treatment and is extruded from cells when normonatremia is restored. Calcium binding to CS does not significantly contribute to calcium changes in brain during hyponatremia. Differences in timing suggest that extracellular calcium changes during and in recovery from hyponatremia occur by distinct mechanisms or by a multistep process. Finally, partial block of extracellular calcium influx by ML 218 suggests that T-type channels are involved in calcium entering cells during hyponatremia. Given the high prevalence of hyponatremia among elderly patients and the

  4. Redox control of calcium channels: from mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hool, Livia C; Corry, Ben

    2007-04-01

    Calcium plays an integral role in cellular function. It is a well-recognized second messenger necessary for signaling cellular responses, but in excessive amounts can be deleterious to function, causing cell death. The main route by which calcium enters the cytoplasm is either from the extracellular compartment or internal addistores via calcium channels. There is good evidence that calcium channels can respond to pharmacological compounds that reduce or oxidize thiol groups on the channel protein. In addition, reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide that can mediate oxidative pathology also mediate changes in channel function via alterations of thiol groups. This review looks at the structure and function of calcium channels, the evidence that changes in cellular redox state mediate changes in channel function, and the role of redox modification of channels in disease processes. Understanding how redox modification of the channel protein alters channel structure and function is providing leads for the design of therapeutic interventions that target oxidative stress responses.

  5. [Model of the selective calcium channel of characean algae].

    PubMed

    Lunevskiĭ, V Z; Zherelova, O M; Aleksandrov, A A; Vinokurov, M G; Berestovskiĭ, G N

    1980-01-01

    The present work was intended to further investigate the selective filter of calcium channel on both a cell membrane and reconstructed channels. For the studies on cell membranes, an inhibitor of chloride channels was chosen (ethacrynic acid) to pass currents only through the calcium channels. On both the cells and reconstructed channels, permeability of ions of different crystal radii and valencies was investigated. The obtained results suggest that the channel represents a wide water pore with a diameter larger than 8 A into which ions go together with the nearest water shell. The values of the maximal currents are given by electrostatic interaction of the ions with the anion center of the channel. A phenomenological two-barrier model of the channel is given which describes the movement of all the ions studied. PMID:6251921

  6. Redox Regulation of Neuronal Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Voltage-gated calcium channels are ubiquitously expressed in neurons and are key regulators of cellular excitability and synaptic transmitter release. There is accumulating evidence that multiple subtypes of voltage-gated calcium channels may be regulated by oxidation and reduction. However, the redox mechanisms involved in the regulation of channel function are not well understood. Recent Advances: Several studies have established that both T-type and high-voltage-activated subtypes of voltage-gated calcium channel can be redox-regulated. This article reviews different mechanisms that can be involved in redox regulation of calcium channel function and their implication in neuronal function, particularly in pain pathways and thalamic oscillation. Critical Issues: A current critical issue in the field is to decipher precise mechanisms of calcium channel modulation via redox reactions. In this review we discuss covalent post-translational modification via oxidation of cysteine molecules and chelation of trace metals, and reactions involving nitric oxide-related molecules and free radicals. Improved understanding of the roles of redox-based reactions in regulation of voltage-gated calcium channels may lead to improved understanding of novel redox mechanisms in physiological and pathological processes. Future Directions: Identification of redox mechanisms and sites on voltage-gated calcium channel may allow development of novel and specific ion channel therapies for unmet medical needs. Thus, it may be possible to regulate the redox state of these channels in treatment of pathological process such as epilepsy and neuropathic pain. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 880–891. PMID:24161125

  7. Calcium signaling and T-type calcium channels in cancer cell cycling

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, James T; Zeng, Xiang-Bin; Pottle, Jonathan E; Lee, Kevin; Wang, Alun R; Yi, Stephenie G; Scruggs, Jennifer A S; Sikka, Suresh S; Li, Ming

    2008-01-01

    Regulation of intracellular calcium is an important signaling mechanism for cell proliferation in both normal and cancerous cells. In normal epithelial cells, free calcium concentration is essential for cells to enter and accomplish the S phase and the M phase of the cell cycle. In contrast, cancerous cells can pass these phases of the cell cycle with much lower cytoplasmic free calcium concentrations, indicating an alternative mechanism has developed for fulfilling the intracellular calcium requirement for an increased rate of DNA synthesis and mitosis of fast replicating cancerous cells. The detailed mechanism underlying the altered calcium loading pathway remains unclear; however, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests the T-type Ca2+ channel is abnormally expressed in cancerous cells and that blockade of these channels may reduce cell proliferation in addition to inducing apoptosis. Recent studies also show that the expression of T-type Ca2+ channels in breast cancer cells is proliferation state dependent, i.e. the channels are expressed at higher levels during the fast-replication period, and once the cells are in a non-proliferation state, expression of this channel is minimal. Therefore, selectively blocking calcium entry into cancerous cells may be a valuable approach for preventing tumor growth. Since T-type Ca2+ channels are not expressed in epithelial cells, selective T-type Ca2+ channel blockers may be useful in the treatment of certain types of cancers. PMID:18763278

  8. Calcium-dependent inactivation of the dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels in GH3 cells

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The inactivation of calcium channels in mammalian pituitary tumor cells (GH3) was studied with patch electrodes under voltage clamp in cell- free membrane patches and in dialyzed cells. The calcium current elicited by depolarization from a holding potential of -40 mV passed predominantly through one class of channels previously shown to be modulated by dihydropyridines and cAMP-dependent phosphorylation (Armstrong and Eckert, 1987). When exogenous calcium buffers were omitted from the pipette solution, the macroscopic calcium current through those channels inactivated with a half time of approximately 10 ms to a steady state level 40-75% smaller than the peak. Inactivation was also measured as the reduction in peak current during a test pulse that closely followed a prepulse. Inactivation was largely reduced or eliminated by (a) buffering free calcium in the pipette solution to less than 10(-8) M; (b) replacing extracellular calcium with barium; (c) increasing the prepulse voltage from +10 to +60 mV; or (d) increasing the intracellular concentration of cAMP, either 'directly' with dibutyryl-cAMP or indirectly by activating adenylate cyclase with forskolin or vasoactive intestinal peptide. Thus, inactivation of the dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels in GH3 cells only occurs when membrane depolarization leads to calcium ion entry and intracellular accumulation. PMID:2849631

  9. T-Type Calcium Channel: A Privileged Gate for Calcium Entry and Control of Adrenal Steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rossier, Michel F

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular calcium plays a crucial role in modulating a variety of functions such as muscle contraction, hormone secretion, gene expression, or cell growth. Calcium signaling has been however shown to be more complex than initially thought. Indeed, it is confined within cell microdomains, and different calcium channels are associated with different functions, as shown by various channelopathies. Sporadic mutations on voltage-operated L-type calcium channels in adrenal glomerulosa cells have been shown recently to be the second most prevalent genetic abnormalities present in human aldosterone-producing adenoma. The observed modification of the threshold of activation of the mutated channels not only provides an explanation for this gain of function but also reminds us on the importance of maintaining adequate electrophysiological characteristics to make channels able to exert specific cellular functions. Indeed, the contribution to steroid production of the various calcium channels expressed in adrenocortical cells is not equal, and the reason has been investigated for a long time. Given the very negative resting potential of these cells, and the small membrane depolarization induced by their physiological agonists, low threshold T-type calcium channels are particularly well suited for responding under these conditions and conveying calcium into the cell, at the right place for controlling steroidogenesis. In contrast, high threshold L-type channels are normally activated by much stronger cell depolarizations. The fact that dihydropyridine calcium antagonists, specific for L-type channels, are poorly efficient for reducing aldosterone secretion either in vivo or in vitro, strongly supports the view that these two types of channels differently affect steroid biosynthesis. Whether a similar analysis is transposable to fasciculata cells and cortisol secretion is one of the questions addressed in the present review. No similar mutations on L-type or T-type channels

  10. Calcium Channels and Associated Receptors in Malignant Brain Tumor Therapy.

    PubMed

    Morrone, Fernanda B; Gehring, Marina P; Nicoletti, Natália F

    2016-09-01

    Malignant brain tumors are highly lethal and aggressive. Despite recent advances in the current therapies, which include the combination of surgery and radio/chemotherapy, the average survival rate remains poor. Altered regulation of ion channels is part of the neoplastic transformation, which suggests that ion channels are involved in cancer. Distinct classes of calcium-permeable channels are abnormally expressed in cancer and are likely involved in the alterations underlying malignant growth. Specifically, cytosolic Ca(2+) activity plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation, and Ca(2+) signaling is altered in proliferating tumor cells. A series of previous studies emphasized the importance of the T-type low-voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) in different cancer types, including gliomas, and remarkably, pharmacologic inhibition of T-type VGCC caused antiproliferative effects and triggered apoptosis of human glioma cells. Other calcium permeable channels, such as transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, contribute to changes in Ca(2+) by modulating the driving force for Ca(2+) entry, and some TRP channels are required for proliferation and migration in gliomas. Furthermore, recent evidence shows that TRP channels contribute to the progression and survival of the glioblastoma patients. Likewise, the purinergic P2X7 receptor acts as a direct conduit for Ca(2+)-influx and an indirect activator of voltage-gated Ca(2+)-channel. Evidence also shows that P2X7 receptor activation is linked to elevated expression of inflammation promoting factors, tumor cell migration, an increase in intracellular mobilization of Ca(2+), and membrane depolarization in gliomas. Therefore, this review summarizes the recent findings on calcium channels and associated receptors as potential targets to treat malignant gliomas. PMID:27418672

  11. T-Type Calcium Channel: A Privileged Gate for Calcium Entry and Control of Adrenal Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rossier, Michel F.

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular calcium plays a crucial role in modulating a variety of functions such as muscle contraction, hormone secretion, gene expression, or cell growth. Calcium signaling has been however shown to be more complex than initially thought. Indeed, it is confined within cell microdomains, and different calcium channels are associated with different functions, as shown by various channelopathies. Sporadic mutations on voltage-operated L-type calcium channels in adrenal glomerulosa cells have been shown recently to be the second most prevalent genetic abnormalities present in human aldosterone-producing adenoma. The observed modification of the threshold of activation of the mutated channels not only provides an explanation for this gain of function but also reminds us on the importance of maintaining adequate electrophysiological characteristics to make channels able to exert specific cellular functions. Indeed, the contribution to steroid production of the various calcium channels expressed in adrenocortical cells is not equal, and the reason has been investigated for a long time. Given the very negative resting potential of these cells, and the small membrane depolarization induced by their physiological agonists, low threshold T-type calcium channels are particularly well suited for responding under these conditions and conveying calcium into the cell, at the right place for controlling steroidogenesis. In contrast, high threshold L-type channels are normally activated by much stronger cell depolarizations. The fact that dihydropyridine calcium antagonists, specific for L-type channels, are poorly efficient for reducing aldosterone secretion either in vivo or in vitro, strongly supports the view that these two types of channels differently affect steroid biosynthesis. Whether a similar analysis is transposable to fasciculata cells and cortisol secretion is one of the questions addressed in the present review. No similar mutations on L-type or T-type channels

  12. Ion selectivity in the ryanodine receptor and other calcium channels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillespie, Dirk

    2006-03-01

    Biological ion channels passively conduct ions across cell membranes, some with great specificity. Calcium channels are selective channels that range in their Ca^2+ affinity depending on the channel's physiological role. For example, the L-type calcium channel has micromolar affinity while the ryanodine receptor (RyR) has millimolar affinity. On the other hand, both of these channels have the chemically-similar EEEE and DDDD amino acid motifs in their selectivity filters. An electrodiffusion model of RyR that reproduces and predicts >50 data curves will be presented. In this model, ions are charged, hard spheres and the chemical potential is computed using density functional theory of fluids. Ion selectivity arises from a competition between the need for cations to screen the negative charges of the channel and the crowding of ions in the tiny space of the channel. Charge/space competition implies that selectivity increases as the channel volume decreases (thereby increasing the protein charge density), something that has recently been experimentally confirmed in mutant channels. Dielectric properties can also increase selectivity. In Monte Carlo simulations, Ca^2+ affinity is much higher when the channel protein has a low dielectric constant. This counterintuitive result occurs because calcium channel selectivity filters are lined with negatively-charged (acidic) amino acids (EEEE or DDDD). These permanent negative charges induce negative polarization charge at the protein/lumen interface. The total negative charge of the protein (polarization plus permanent) is increased, resulting in increased ion densities, increased charge/space competition, and there in increased Ca^2+ affinity. If no negative protein charges were present, cations would induce enough positive polarization charge to prevent flux.

  13. Behavioral effects of a calcium channel antagonist: nifedipine.

    PubMed

    Tazi, A; Farh, M; Hakkou, F

    1991-01-01

    A series of experiments investigated the behavioral effects of a calcium channel antagonist, nifedipine. This antagonist has facilitatory effects on learning and memory as assessed by the active and passive avoidance tests respectively. In the forced swimming test, nifedipine at a dose of 5 mg/kg had an inhibitory effect on immobilization. Finally, nifedipine (2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg) induced an anxiolytic effect in the water consumption test in a novel environment. These findings are discussed with respect to other findings in the same field and to the neurochemical changes known to be induced by calcium channel antagonists.

  14. Cardiac voltage-gated calcium channel macromolecular complexes.

    PubMed

    Rougier, Jean-Sébastien; Abriel, Hugues

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 20 years, a new field of research, called channelopathies, investigating diseases caused by ion channel dysfunction has emerged. Cardiac ion channels play an essential role in the generation of the cardiac action potential. Investigators have largely determined the physiological roles of different cardiac ion channels, but little is known about the molecular determinants of their regulation. The voltage-gated calcium channel Ca(v)1.2 shapes the plateau phase of the cardiac action potential and allows the influx of calcium leading to cardiomyocyte contraction. Studies suggest that the regulation of Ca(v)1.2 channels is not uniform in working cardiomyocytes. The notion of micro-domains containing Ca(v)1.2 channels and different calcium channel interacting proteins, called macro-molecular complex, has been proposed to explain these observations. The objective of this review is to summarize the currently known information on the Ca(v)1.2 macromolecular complexes in the cardiac cell and discuss their implication in cardiac function and disorder. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel.

  15. GPCR and voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) signaling complexes.

    PubMed

    Altier, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are transmembrane proteins that control nerve impulses and cell homeostasis. Signaling molecules that regulate ion channel activity and density at the plasma membrane must be specifically and efficiently coupled to these channels in order to control critical physiological functions such as action potential propagation. Although their regulation by G-protein receptor activation has been extensively explored, the assembly of ion channels into signaling complexes of GPCRs plays a fundamental role, engaging specific downstream -signaling pathways that trigger precise downstream effectors. Recent work has confirmed that GPCRs can intimately interact with ion channels and serve as -chaperone proteins that finely control their gating and trafficking in subcellular microdomains. This chapter aims to describe examples of GPCR-ion channel co-assembly, focusing mainly on signaling complexes between GPCRs and voltage-gated calcium channels.

  16. Inhibition of N-Type Calcium Channels by Fluorophenoxyanilide Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Gleeson, Ellen C.; Graham, Janease E.; Spiller, Sandro; Vetter, Irina; Lewis, Richard J.; Duggan, Peter J.; Tuck, Kellie L.

    2015-01-01

    A set of fluorophenoxyanilides, designed to be simplified analogues of previously reported ω-conotoxin GVIA mimetics, were prepared and tested for N-type calcium channel inhibition in a SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma FLIPR assay. N-type or Cav2.2 channel is a validated target for the treatment of refractory chronic pain. Despite being significantly less complex than the originally designed mimetics, up to a seven-fold improvement in activity was observed. PMID:25871286

  17. Calcium Signals Driven by Single Channel Noise

    PubMed Central

    Skupin, Alexander; Kettenmann, Helmut; Falcke, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Usually, the occurrence of random cell behavior is appointed to small copy numbers of molecules involved in the stochastic process. Recently, we demonstrated for a variety of cell types that intracellular Ca2+ oscillations are sequences of random spikes despite the involvement of many molecules in spike generation. This randomness arises from the stochastic state transitions of individual Ca2+ release channels and does not average out due to the existence of steep concentration gradients. The system is hierarchical due to the structural levels channel - channel cluster - cell and a corresponding strength of coupling. Concentration gradients introduce microdomains which couple channels of a cluster strongly. But they couple clusters only weakly; too weak to establish deterministic behavior on cell level. Here, we present a multi-scale modelling concept for stochastic hierarchical systems. It simulates active molecules individually as Markov chains and their coupling by deterministic diffusion. Thus, we are able to follow the consequences of random single molecule state changes up to the signal on cell level. To demonstrate the potential of the method, we simulate a variety of experiments. Comparisons of simulated and experimental data of spontaneous oscillations in astrocytes emphasize the role of spatial concentration gradients in Ca2+ signalling. Analysis of extensive simulations indicates that frequency encoding described by the relation between average and standard deviation of interspike intervals is surprisingly robust. This robustness is a property of the random spiking mechanism and not a result of control. PMID:20700497

  18. Location of Release Sites and Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels Relative to Calcium Channels at the Photoreceptor Ribbon Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, A. J.; Rabl, K.; Riccardi, G. E.; Brecha, N. C.; Stella, S. L.

    2011-01-01

    Vesicle release from photoreceptor ribbon synapses is regulated by L-type Ca2+ channels, which are in turn regulated by Cl− moving through calcium-activated chloride [Cl(Ca)] channels. We assessed the proximity of Ca2+ channels to release sites and Cl(Ca) channels in synaptic terminals of salamander photoreceptors by comparing fast (BAPTA) and slow (EGTA) intracellular Ca2+ buffers. BAPTA did not fully block synaptic release, indicating some release sites are <100 nm from Ca2+ channels. Comparing Cl(Ca) currents with predicted Ca2+ diffusion profiles suggested that Cl(Ca) and Ca2+ channels average a few hundred nanometers apart, but the inability of BAPTA to block Cl(Ca) currents completely suggested some channels are much closer together. Diffuse immunolabeling of terminals with an antibody to the putative Cl(Ca) channel TMEM16A supports the idea that Cl(Ca) channels are dispersed throughout the presynaptic terminal, in contrast with clustering of Ca2+ channels near ribbons. Cl(Ca) currents evoked by intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) elevation through flash photolysis of DM-nitrophen exhibited EC50 values of 556 and 377 nM with Hill slopes of 1.8 and 2.4 in rods and cones, respectively. These relationships were used to estimate average submembrane [Ca2+]i in photoreceptor terminals. Consistent with control of exocytosis by [Ca2+] nanodomains near Ca2+ channels, average submembrane [Ca2+]i remained below the vesicle release threshold (∼400 nM) over much of the physiological voltage range for cones. Positioning Ca2+ channels near release sites may improve fidelity in converting voltage changes to synaptic release. A diffuse distribution of Cl(Ca) channels may allow Ca2+ influx at one site to influence relatively distant Ca2+ channels. PMID:21084687

  19. Oxidative Stress and Maxi Calcium-Activated Potassium (BK) Channels

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Anton; Sitdikova, Guzel F.; Weiger, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    All cells contain ion channels in their outer (plasma) and inner (organelle) membranes. Ion channels, similar to other proteins, are targets of oxidative impact, which modulates ion fluxes across membranes. Subsequently, these ion currents affect electrical excitability, such as action potential discharge (in neurons, muscle, and receptor cells), alteration of the membrane resting potential, synaptic transmission, hormone secretion, muscle contraction or coordination of the cell cycle. In this chapter we summarize effects of oxidative stress and redox mechanisms on some ion channels, in particular on maxi calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels which play an outstanding role in a plethora of physiological and pathophysiological functions in almost all cells and tissues. We first elaborate on some general features of ion channel structure and function and then summarize effects of oxidative alterations of ion channels and their functional consequences. PMID:26287261

  20. Release of calcium from endolysosomes increases calcium influx through N-type calcium channels: Evidence for acidic store-operated calcium entry in neurons.

    PubMed

    Hui, Liang; Geiger, Nicholas H; Bloor-Young, Duncan; Churchill, Grant C; Geiger, Jonathan D; Chen, Xuesong

    2015-12-01

    Neurons possess an elaborate system of endolysosomes. Recently, endolysosomes were found to have readily releasable stores of intracellular calcium; however, relatively little is known about how such 'acidic calcium stores' affect calcium signaling in neurons. Here we demonstrated in primary cultured neurons that calcium released from acidic calcium stores triggered calcium influx across the plasma membrane, a phenomenon we have termed "acidic store-operated calcium entry (aSOCE)". aSOCE was functionally distinct from store-operated calcium release and calcium entry involving endoplasmic reticulum. aSOCE appeared to be governed by N-type calcium channels (NTCCs) because aSOCE was attenuated significantly by selectively blocking NTCCs or by siRNA knockdown of NTCCs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that NTCCs co-immunoprecipitated with the lysosome associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1), and that aSOCE is accompanied by increased cell-surface expression levels of NTCC and LAMP1 proteins. Moreover, we demonstrated that siRNA knockdown of LAMP1 or Rab27a, both of which are key proteins involved in lysosome exocytosis, attenuated significantly aSOCE. Taken together our data suggest that aSOCE occurs in neurons, that aSOCE plays an important role in regulating the levels and actions of intraneuronal calcium, and that aSOCE is regulated at least in part by exocytotic insertion of N-type calcium channels into plasma membranes through LAMP1-dependent lysosome exocytosis.

  1. Purification and reconstitution of the calcium antagonist receptor of the voltage-sensitive calcium channel

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Treatment with digitonin solubilized the calcium antagonist receptor as a stable complex with (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine from rat brain membranes. The solubilized complex retains allosteric coupling to binding sites for diltiazem, verapamil, and inorganic calcium antagonist sites. The calcium antagonist receptor from cardiac sarcolemma and the transverse-tubule membrane of skeletal muscle is also efficiently solubilized with digitonin and the receptor in all three tissues is a large glycoprotein with a sedimentation coefficient of 20 S. The T-tubule calcium antagonist receptor complex was extensively purified by a combination of chromatography on WGA-Sepharose, ion exchange chromatography, and sedimentation on sucrose gradients to yield preparations estimated to be 41% homogeneous by specific activity and 63% homogeneous by SDS gel electrophoresis. Analysis of SDS gels detect three polypeptides termed ..cap alpha..(Mr 135,000), ..beta..(Mr 50,000), and ..gamma..(Mr 32,000) as noncovalently associated subunits of the calcium antagonist receptor. The ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. subunits are glycosylated polypeptides, and the molecular weight of the core polypeptides are 108,000 and 24,000 respectively. The calcium antagonist receptor was reconstituted into a phospholipid bilayer by adding CHAPS and exogeneous lipid to the purified receptor followed by rapid detergent removal. This procedure resulted in the incorporation of 45% of the calcium antagonist receptor into closed phospholipid vesicles. Data suggests that the ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., and ..gamma.. subunits of the T-tubule calcium antagonist receptor are sufficient to form a functional calcium channel.

  2. Mobility of calcium channels in the presynaptic membrane.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Romy; Hosy, Eric; Kohl, Johannes; Klueva, Julia; Choquet, Daniel; Thomas, Ulrich; Voigt, Andreas; Heine, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Unravelling principles underlying neurotransmitter release are key to understand neural signaling. Here, we describe how surface mobility of voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) modulates release probabilities (P(r)) of synaptic vesicles (SVs). Coupling distances of <10 to >100 nm have been reported for SVs and VDCCs in different synapses. Tracking individual VDCCs revealed that within hippocampal synapses, ∼60% of VDCCs are mobile while confined to presynaptic membrane compartments. Intracellular Ca(2+) chelation decreased VDCC mobility. Increasing VDCC surface populations by co-expression of the α2δ1 subunit did not alter channel mobility but led to enlarged active zones (AZs) rather than higher channel densities. VDCCs thus scale presynaptic scaffolds to maintain local mobility. We propose that dynamic coupling based on mobile VDCCs supports calcium domain cooperativity and tunes neurotransmitter release by equalizing Pr for docked SVs within AZs. PMID:25892305

  3. Heterogeneity of Calcium Channel/cAMP-Dependent Transcriptional Activation.

    PubMed

    Kobrinsky, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    The major function of the voltage-gated calcium channels is to provide the Ca(2+) flux into the cell. L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (Cav1) serve as voltage sensors that couple membrane depolarization to many intracellular processes. Electrical activity in excitable cells affects gene expression through signaling pathways involved in the excitation-transcription (E-T) coupling. E-T coupling starts with activation of the Cav1 channel and results in initiation of the cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB)-dependent transcription. In this review we discuss the new quantitative approaches to measuring E-T signaling events. We describe the use of wavelet transform to detect heterogeneity of transcriptional activation in nuclei. Furthermore, we discuss the properties of discovered microdomains of nuclear signaling associated with the E-T coupling and the basis of the frequency-dependent transcriptional regulation.

  4. Treatment for calcium channel blocker poisoning: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, P.-A.; Gosselin, S.; Guimont, C.; Godwin, J.; Archambault, P. M.; Chauny, J.-M.; Frenette, A. J.; Darveau, M.; Le sage, N.; Poitras, J.; Provencher, J.; Juurlink, D. N.; Blais, R.

    2014-01-01

    Context Calcium channel blocker poisoning is a common and sometimes life-threatening ingestion. Objective To evaluate the reported effects of treatments for calcium channel blocker poisoning. The primary outcomes of interest were mortality and hemodynamic parameters. The secondary outcomes included length of stay in hospital, length of stay in intensive care unit, duration of vasopressor use, functional outcomes, and serum calcium channel blocker concentrations. Methods Medline/Ovid, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, TOXLINE, International pharmaceutical abstracts, Google Scholar, and the gray literature up to December 31, 2013 were searched without time restriction to identify all types of studies that examined effects of various treatments for calcium channel blocker poisoning for the outcomes of interest. The search strategy included the following Keywords: [calcium channel blockers OR calcium channel antagonist OR calcium channel blocking agent OR (amlodipine or bencyclane or bepridil or cinnarizine or felodipine or fendiline or flunarizine or gallopamil or isradipine or lidoflazine or mibefradil or nicardipine or nifedipine or nimodipine or nisoldipine or nitrendipine or prenylamine or verapamil or diltiazem)] AND [overdose OR medication errors OR poisoning OR intoxication OR toxicity OR adverse effect]. Two reviewers independently selected studies and a group of reviewers abstracted all relevant data using a pilot-tested form. A second group analyzed the risk of bias and overall quality using the STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) checklist and the Thomas tool for observational studies, the Institute of Health Economics tool for Quality of Case Series, the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments) guidelines, and the modified NRCNA (National Research Council for the National Academies) list for animal studies. Qualitative synthesis was used to summarize the evidence. Of 15,577 citations identified in

  5. Ion channels and calcium signaling in motile cilia

    PubMed Central

    Doerner, Julia F; Delling, Markus; Clapham, David E

    2015-01-01

    The beating of motile cilia generates fluid flow over epithelia in brain ventricles, airways, and Fallopian tubes. Here, we patch clamp single motile cilia of mammalian ependymal cells and examine their potential function as a calcium signaling compartment. Resting motile cilia calcium concentration ([Ca2+] ~170 nM) is only slightly elevated over cytoplasmic [Ca2+] (~100 nM) at steady state. Ca2+ changes that arise in the cytoplasm rapidly equilibrate in motile cilia. We measured CaV1 voltage-gated calcium channels in ependymal cells, but these channels are not specifically enriched in motile cilia. Membrane depolarization increases ciliary [Ca2+], but only marginally alters cilia beating and cilia-driven fluid velocity within short (~1 min) time frames. We conclude that beating of ependymal motile cilia is not tightly regulated by voltage-gated calcium channels, unlike that of well-studied motile cilia and flagella in protists, such as Paramecia and Chlamydomonas. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11066.001 PMID:26650848

  6. Pharmacokinetic interactions with calcium channel antagonists (Part II).

    PubMed

    Schlanz, K D; Myre, S A; Bottorff, M B

    1991-12-01

    Since calcium channel antagonists are a diverse class of drugs frequently administered in combination with other agents, the potential for clinically significant pharmacokinetic drug interactions exists. These interactions occur most frequently via altered hepatic blood flow and impaired hepatic enzyme activity. Part I of the article, which appeared in the previous issue of the Journal, dealt with interactions between calcium antagonists and marker compounds, theophylline, midazolam, lithium, doxorubicin, oral hypoglycaemics and cardiac drugs. Part II examines interactions with cyclosporin, anaesthetics, carbamazepine and cardiovascular agents. PMID:1782739

  7. Simplification and analysis of models of calcium dynamics based on IP3-sensitive calcium channel kinetics.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y; Stephenson, J L; Othmer, H G

    1996-01-01

    We study the models for calcium (Ca) dynamics developed in earlier studies, in each of which the key component is the kinetics of intracellular inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive Ca channels. After rapidly equilibrating steps are eliminated, the channel kinetics in these models are represented by a single differential equation that is linear in the state of the channel. In the reduced kinetic model, the graph of the steady-state fraction of conducting channels as a function of log10(Ca) is a bell-shaped curve. Dynamically, a step increase in inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate induces an incremental increase in the fraction of conducting channels, whereas a step increase in Ca can either potentiate or inhibit channel activation, depending on the Ca level before and after the increase. The relationships among these models are discussed, and experimental tests to distinguish between them are given. Under certain conditions the models for intracellular calcium dynamics are reduced to the singular perturbed form epsilon dx/d tau = f(x, y, p), dy/d tau = g(x, y, p). Phase-plane analysis is applied to a generic form of these simplified models to show how different types of Ca response, such as excitability, oscillations, and a sustained elevation of Ca, can arise. The generic model can also be used to study frequency encoding of hormonal stimuli, to determine the conditions for stable traveling Ca waves, and to understand the effect of channel properties on the wave speed.

  8. L-type Calcium Channel Auto-Regulation of Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Satin, Jonathan; Schroder, Elizabeth A.; Crump, Shawn M.

    2011-01-01

    L-type calcium channels (LTCC) impact the function of nearly all excitable cells. The classical LTCC function is to mediate trans-sarcolemmal Ca2+ flux. This review focuses on the contribution of a mobile segment of the LTCC that regulates ion channel function, and also serves as a regulator of transcription in the nucleus. Specifically we highlight recent work demonstrating an auto-feedback regulatory pathway whereby the LTCC transcription factor regulates the LTCC. Also discussed is acute and long-term regulation of function by the LTCC-transcription regulator. PMID:21295347

  9. Calcium channel antagonists in the treatment of interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, J

    1994-02-01

    The calcium channel antagonist nifedipine has shown efficacy in the treatment of interstitial cystitis and the urethral syndrome. The optimal daily dose of nifedipine can be determined with the use of a nifedipine titration test. To complete the repair of damaged bladder and/or urethral mucosa, nifedipine therapy should be used for a minimum of 3 months. Patients who do not respond well to nifedipine are those with the pelvic floor muscle spasm syndrome variant of interstitial cystitis.

  10. Toxic effects of antimalarial drugs in Paramecium: role of calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Nori, V S; Barry, S R

    1997-05-01

    The antimalarial drugs, quinacrine, quinine and mefloquine, as well as the structurally-similar compound, W-7, inhibit calcium-dependent backward swimming and calcium currents in Paramecium calkinsi. These drugs are also toxic to paramecia at high concentrations. Therefore, one site of toxic action of the drugs may be the calcium channel. To test this hypothesis, the toxicity of the antimalarials and W-7 was compared in paramecia with and without calcium channels. Since calcium channels are located on the cilia, calcium channels were removed from the paramecia by deciliating the cells. Deciliated cells were found to be less susceptible to the lethal effects of the antimalarials and W-7 than their ciliated counterparts. Moreover, Pawns, mutants of P. tetraurelia that possess cilia but lack functional calcium channels, were also less susceptible to the antimalarials than wild-type cells. Thus, calcium channels may be one site of toxic action of the antimalarial drugs in paramecia and perhaps in other protists.

  11. L-type calcium channels: on the fast track to nuclear signaling.

    PubMed

    D'Arco, Marianna; Dolphin, Annette C

    2012-08-14

    Calcium signaling resulting from depolarization of neurons can trigger changes in transcription, and this response has been called excitation-transcription (E-T) coupling. In neurons, voltage-gated and ligand-gated calcium-permeable channels contribute to the increase in intracellular calcium. It appears that calcium signals mediated by specific voltage-gated calcium channels may have distinct roles in E-T coupling.

  12. Effect of pulse magnetic field stimulation on calcium channel current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J.; Lee, Z. H.; Ng, W. C.; Khoa, W. L.; Teoh, S. H.; Soong, T. H.; Qin, Y. R.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Li, X. P.

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of low frequency and high amplitude pulse magnetic field (PMF) on Calcium ion channel current of cells. Measurements were done on the Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells (HEK 293), which have only Calcium ion channels functioning. The whole cell current was measured by patch clamp method, with the clamped voltage ramping from -90 mV to +50 mV across the cell membrane. A PMF was generated by a 400-turn coil connected to a pulse current generator. The frequency of the pulse was 7 Hz, the width of the pulse was 3 ms, and the amplitude of the pulse, or the flux density, was ranging from 6 to 25 mT. The results showed that the profile of the whole cell Calcium channel current could be modified by the PMF. With the PMF applied, the phase shifting occurred: the onset of the channel opening took place several mili-seconds earlier than that without the PWF and correspondingly, the whole cell current reached its maximum earlier, and the current returned back to zero earlier as well. When the PWF was stopped, these effects persisted for a period of time, and then the current profile "recovered" to its original appearance. The decrease of the onset time and peak current time could be due to the local electric potential induced by the PWF and the direct interaction between PMF and ion channels/ions. The exact mechanisms of the observed effects of PMF on the cell are still unknown and need to be further studied.

  13. T-type calcium channels in neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Bourinet, Emmanuel; Francois, Amaury; Laffray, Sophie

    2016-02-01

    Pain is a quite frequent complaint accompanying numerous pathologies. Among these pathological cases, numerous neuropathies are retrieved with identified etiologies (chemotherapies, diabetes, surgeries…) and also more diffuse syndromes such as fibromyalgia. More broadly, pain is one of the first consequences of most inherited diseases. Despite its importance for the quality of life, current pain management is limited to drugs that are either old or with a limited efficacy or that possess a bad risk benefit ratio. As no new pharmacological concept has led to new analgesics in the last decades, the discovery of new medications is needed, and to this aim, the identification of new druggable targets in pain transmission is a first step. Therefore, studies of ion channels in pain pathways are extremely active. This is particularly true with ion channels in peripheral sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia known how to express unique sets of these channels. Moreover, both spinal and supraspinal levels are clearly important in pain modulation. Among these ion channels, we and others revealed the important role of low voltage-gated calcium channels in cellular excitability in different steps of the pain pathways. These channels, by being activated nearby resting membrane potential, have biophysical characteristics suited to facilitate action potential generation and rhythmicity. In this review, we will present the current knowledge on the role of these channels in the perception and modulation of pain.

  14. Role of TRPC Channels in Store-Operated Calcium Entry.

    PubMed

    Ong, Hwei Ling; de Souza, Lorena Brito; Ambudkar, Indu S

    2016-01-01

    Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is a ubiquitous Ca(2+) entry pathway that is activated in response to depletion of Ca(2+) stores within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and contributes to the control of various physiological functions in a wide variety of cell types. The transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels (TRPCs 1-7), that are activated by stimuli leading to PIP2 hydrolysis, were first identified as molecular components of SOCE channels. TRPC channels show a miscellany of tissue expression, physiological functions and channel properties. However, none of the TRPC members display currents that resemble I CRAC. Intensive search for the CRAC channel component led to identification of Orai1 and STIM1, now established as being the primary constituents of the CRAC channel. There is now considerable evidence that STIM1 activates both Orai1 and TRPC1 via distinct domains in its C-terminus. Intriguingly, TRPC1 function is not only dependent on STIM1 but also requires Orai1. The critical functional interaction between TRPC1 and Orai1, which determines the activation of TRPC1, has also been identified. In this review, we will discuss current concepts regarding the role of TRPC channels in SOCE, the physiological functions regulated by TRPC-mediated SOCE, and the complex mechanisms underlying the regulation of TRPCs, including the functional interactions with Orai1 and STIM1. PMID:27161226

  15. T-type calcium channels in neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Bourinet, Emmanuel; Francois, Amaury; Laffray, Sophie

    2016-02-01

    Pain is a quite frequent complaint accompanying numerous pathologies. Among these pathological cases, numerous neuropathies are retrieved with identified etiologies (chemotherapies, diabetes, surgeries…) and also more diffuse syndromes such as fibromyalgia. More broadly, pain is one of the first consequences of most inherited diseases. Despite its importance for the quality of life, current pain management is limited to drugs that are either old or with a limited efficacy or that possess a bad risk benefit ratio. As no new pharmacological concept has led to new analgesics in the last decades, the discovery of new medications is needed, and to this aim, the identification of new druggable targets in pain transmission is a first step. Therefore, studies of ion channels in pain pathways are extremely active. This is particularly true with ion channels in peripheral sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia known how to express unique sets of these channels. Moreover, both spinal and supraspinal levels are clearly important in pain modulation. Among these ion channels, we and others revealed the important role of low voltage-gated calcium channels in cellular excitability in different steps of the pain pathways. These channels, by being activated nearby resting membrane potential, have biophysical characteristics suited to facilitate action potential generation and rhythmicity. In this review, we will present the current knowledge on the role of these channels in the perception and modulation of pain. PMID:26785151

  16. Calcium-dependent inactivation of L-type calcium channels in planar lipid bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Haack, J A; Rosenberg, R L

    1994-01-01

    Intracellular Ca2+ can inhibit the activity of voltage-gated Ca channels by modulating the rate of channel inactivation. Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation of these channels may be a common negative feedback process important for regulating Ca2+ entry under physiological and pathological conditions. This article demonstrates that the inactivation of cardiac L-type Ca channels, reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers and studied in the presence of a dihydropyridine agonist, is sensitive to Ca2+. The rates and extents of inactivation, determined from ensemble averages of unitary Ba2+ currents, decreased when the calcium concentration facing the intracellular surface of the channel ([Ca2+]i) was lowered from approximately 10 microM to 20 nM by the addition of Ca2+ chelators. The rates and extents of Ba2+ current inactivation could also be increased by subsequent addition of Ca2+ raising the [Ca2+]i to 15 microM, thus demonstrating that the Ca2+ dependence of inactivation could be reversibly regulated by changes in [Ca2+]i. In addition, reconstituted Ca channels inactivated more quickly when the inward current was carried by Ca2+ than when it was carried by Ba2+, suggesting that local increases in [Ca2+]i could activate Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation. These data support models in which Ca2+ binds to the channel itself or to closely associated regulatory proteins to control the rate of channel inactivation, and are inconsistent with purely enzymatic models for channel inactivation. PMID:8038377

  17. Crystal structure of the epithelial calcium channel TRPV6.

    PubMed

    Saotome, Kei; Singh, Appu K; Yelshanskaya, Maria V; Sobolevsky, Alexander I

    2016-06-23

    Precise regulation of calcium homeostasis is essential for many physiological functions. The Ca(2+)-selective transient receptor potential (TRP) channels TRPV5 and TRPV6 play vital roles in calcium homeostasis as Ca(2+) uptake channels in epithelial tissues. Detailed structural bases for their assembly and Ca(2+) permeation remain obscure. Here we report the crystal structure of rat TRPV6 at 3.25 Å resolution. The overall architecture of TRPV6 reveals shared and unique features compared with other TRP channels. Intracellular domains engage in extensive interactions to form an intracellular 'skirt' involved in allosteric modulation. In the K(+) channel-like transmembrane domain, Ca(2+) selectivity is determined by direct coordination of Ca(2+) by a ring of aspartate side chains in the selectivity filter. On the basis of crystallographically identified cation-binding sites at the pore axis and extracellular vestibule, we propose a Ca(2+) permeation mechanism. Our results provide a structural foundation for understanding the regulation of epithelial Ca(2+) uptake and its role in pathophysiology. PMID:27296226

  18. Physiology and Regulation of Calcium Channels in Stomatal Guard Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Julian I.

    2007-05-02

    Stomatal pores in the epidermis of leaves regulate the diffusion of CO2 into leaves for photosynthetic carbon fixation and control water loss of plants during drought periods. Guard cells sense CO2, water status, light and other environmental conditions to regulate stomatal apertures for optimization of CO2 intake and plant growth under drought stress. The cytosolic second messenger calcium contributes to stomatal movements by transducing signals and regulating ion channels in guard cells. Studies suggest that both plasma membrane Ca2+ influx channels and vacuolar/organellar Ca2+ release channels contribute to ABA-induced Ca2+ elevations in guard cells. Recent research in the P.I.'s laboratory has led to identification of a novel major cation-selective Ca2+-permeable influx channel (Ica) in the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis guard cells. These advances will allow detailed characterization of Ica plasma membrane Ca2+ influx channels in guard cells. The long term goal of this research project is to gain a first detailed characterization of these novel plasma membrane Ca2+-permeable channel currents in Arabidopsis guard cells. The proposed research will investigate the hypothesis that Ica represents an important Ca2+ influx pathway for ABA and CO2 signal transduction in Arabidopsis guard cells. These studies will lead to elucidation of key signal transduction mechanisms by which plants balance CO2 influx into leaves and transpirational water loss and may contribute to future strategies for manipulating gas exchange for improved growth of crop plants and for biomass production.

  19. Inhibition of the interaction of G protein G(o) with calcium channels by the calcium channel beta-subunit in rat neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, V; Berrow, N S; Fitzgerald, E M; Brickley, K; Dolphin, A C

    1995-01-01

    1. The beta-subunit has marked effects on the biophysical and pharmacological properties of voltage-dependent calcium channels. In the present study we examined the ability of the GABAB agonist (-) -baclofen to inhibit calcium channel currents in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion neurones following depletion of beta-subunit immunoreactivity, 108-116 h after microinjection of a beta-subunit antisense oligonucleotide. 2.We observed that, although the calcium channel current was markedly reduced in amplitude following beta-subunit depletion, the residual current (comprising both N- and L-type calcium channel currents) showed an enhanced response to application of (-) -baclofen. Therefore, it is possible that there is normally competition between activated G protein G(o) and the calcium channel beta-subunit for binding to the calcium channel alpha 1-subunit; and this competition shifts in favour of the binding of activated G(o) following depletion of the beta-subunit, resulting in increased inhibition. 3. This hypothesis is supported by evidence that an antibody against the calcium channel beta-subunit completely abolishes stimulation of the GTPase activity of G(o) by the dihydropyridine agonist S-(-) -Bay K 8644 in brain membranes. This stimulation of GTPase is thought to result from an interaction of G(o) alpha-subunit (G alpha o) with its calcium channel effector which may operate as a GTPase-activating protein. 4. These data suggest that the calcium channel beta-subunit when complexed with the beta 1-subunit normally inhibits its association with activated G(o). It may function as a GTPase-activating protein to reduce the ability of activated G(o) to associate with the calcium channel, and thus limit the efficacy of agonists such as (-) -baclofen. Images Figure 1 PMID:7666364

  20. L-type calcium channel modulates cystic kidney phenotype.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xingjian; Muntean, Brian S; Aal-Aaboda, Munaf S; Duan, Qiming; Zhou, Jing; Nauli, Surya M

    2014-09-01

    In polycystic kidney disease (PKD), abnormal proliferation and genomic instability of renal epithelia have been associated with cyst formation and kidney enlargement. We recently showed that L-type calcium channel (CaV1.2) is localized to primary cilia of epithelial cells. Previous studies have also shown that low intracellular calcium level was associated with the hyperproliferation phenotype in the epithelial cells. However, the relationship between calcium channel and cystic kidney phenotype is largely unknown. In this study, we generated cells with somatic deficient Pkd1 or Pkd2 to examine ciliary CaV1.2 function via lentiviral knockdown or pharmacological verapamil inhibition. Although inhibition of CaV1.2 expression or function did not change division and growth patterns in wild-type epithelium, it led to hyperproliferation and polyploidy in mutant cells. Lack of CaV1.2 in Pkd mutant cells also decreased the intracellular calcium level. This contributed to a decrease in CaM kinase activity, which played a significant role in regulating Akt and Erk signaling pathways. Consistent with our in vitro results, CaV1.2 knockdown in zebrafish and Pkd1 heterozygous mice facilitated the formation of kidney cysts. Larger cysts were developed faster in Pkd1 heterozygous mice with CaV1.2 knockdown. Overall, our findings emphasized the importance of CaV1.2 expression in kidneys with somatic Pkd mutation. We further suggest that CaV1.2 could serve as a modifier gene to cystic kidney phenotype.

  1. A Novel Calcium Binding Site in the Slow Vacuolar Cation Channel TPC1 Senses Luminal Calcium Levels[W

    PubMed Central

    Dadacz-Narloch, Beata; Beyhl, Diana; Larisch, Christina; López-Sanjurjo, Enrique J.; Reski, Ralf; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Müller, Thomas D.; Becker, Dirk; Schönknecht, Gerald; Hedrich, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Cytosolic calcium homeostasis is pivotal for intracellular signaling and requires sensing of calcium concentrations in the cytosol and accessible stores. Numerous Ca2+ binding sites have been characterized in cytosolic proteins. However, little is known about Ca2+ binding inside organelles, like the vacuole. The slow vacuolar (SV) channel, encoded by Arabidopsis thaliana TPC1, is regulated by luminal Ca2+. However, the D454/fou2 mutation in TPC1 eliminates vacuolar calcium sensitivity and increases store calcium content. In a search for the luminal calcium binding site, structure modeling indicated a possible coordination site formed by residues Glu-450, Asp-454, Glu-456, and Glu-457 on the luminal side of TPC1. Each Glu residue was replaced by Gln, the modified genes were transiently expressed in loss-of-TPC1-function protoplasts, and SV channel responses to luminal calcium were recorded by patch clamp. SV channels lacking any of the four negatively charged residues appeared altered in calcium sensitivity of channel gating. Our results indicate that Glu-450 and Asp-454 are directly involved in Ca2+ binding, whereas Glu-456 and Glu-457 are probably involved in connecting the luminal Ca2+ binding site to the channel gate. This novel vacuolar calcium binding site represents a potential tool to address calcium storage in plants. PMID:21764990

  2. Role of calcium channels in cellular antituberculosis effects: Potential of voltage-gated calcium-channel blockers in tuberculosis therapy.

    PubMed

    Song, Lele; Cui, Ruina; Yang, Yourong; Wu, Xueqiong

    2015-10-01

    The immunity of human immune cells and their ability to inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) are key factors in the anti-MTB effect. However, MTB modulates the levels and activity of key intracellular second messengers, such as calcium, to evade protective immune responses. Recent studies suggest that inhibiting L-type calcium channel in immune cells using either antibodies or small interfering RNA increases calcium influx, upregulates the expression of proinflammation genes, and reduces MTB burden. First, we will review the key factors in calcium-signaling pathway that may affect the immunity of immune cells to MTB infection. Second, we will focus on the role of calcium channels in regulating cellular immunity to MTB. Finally, we will discuss the possibility of using calcium-channel blockers as anti-MTB chemotherapy drugs to enhance chemotherapy effects, shorten treatment period, and overcome drug resistance.

  3. Voltage, calcium, and stretch activated ionic channels and intracellular calcium in bone cells.

    PubMed

    Ypey, D L; Weidema, A F; Höld, K M; Van der Laarse, A; Ravesloot, J H; Van Der Plas, A; Nijweide, P J

    1992-12-01

    Embryonic chick bone cells express various types of ionic channels in their plasma membranes for as yet unresolved functions. Chick osteoclasts (OCL) have the richest spectrum of channel types. Specific for OCL is a K+ channel, which activates (opens) when the inside negative membrane potential (Vm) becomes more negative (hyperpolarization). This is consistent with findings of others on rat OCL. The membrane conductance constituted by these channels is called the inward rectifying K+ conductance (GKi), or inward rectifier, because the hyperpolarization-activated channels cause cell-inward K+ current to pass more easily through the membrane than outward K+ current. Besides GKi channels, OCL may express two other types of voltage-activated K+ channels. One constitutes the transient outward rectifying K+ conductance (GKto), which is activated upon making the membrane potential less negative (depolarization) but has a transient nature. This conductance favors transient K+ conduction in the cell-outward direction. The GKto also occurs in a small percentage of cells in osteoblast (OBL) and periosteal fibroblast (PFB) cultures. The other OCL K+ conductance, the GKCa, is activated by both membrane depolarization and a rise in [Ca2+]i. GKCa channels are also present in the other chick bone cell types, that is, OBL, osteocytes (OCY), and PFB. Furthermore, in excised patches of all bone cell types, channels have been found that conduct anions, including Cl- and phosphate ions. These channels are only active around Vm = 0 mV. While searching for a membrane mechanism for adaptation of bone to mechanical loading, we found stretch-activated channels in chick osteoclasts; other investigators have found stretch-activated cation channels (K+ or aselective) in rat and human osteogenic cell lines. In contrast to other studies on cell lines or OBL from other species, we have not found any of the classic macroscopic voltage-activated calcium conductances (GCa) in any of the chick bone

  4. Trypsin-Sensitive, Rapid Inactivation of a Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solaro, Christopher R.; Lingle, Christopher J.

    1992-09-01

    Most calcium-activated potassium channels couple changes in intracellular calcium to membrane excitability by conducting a current with a probability that depends directly on submembrane calcium concentration. In rat adrenal chromaffin cells, however, a large conductance, voltage- and calcium-activated potassium channel (BK) undergoes rapid inactivation, suggesting that this channel has a physiological role different than that of other BK channels. The inactivation of the BK channel, like that of the voltage-gated Shaker B potassium channel, is removed by trypsin digestion and channels are blocked by the Shaker B amino-terminal inactivating domain. Thus, this BK channel shares functional and possibly structural homologies with other inactivating voltage-gated potassium channels.

  5. The action of calcium channel blockers on recombinant L-type calcium channel α1-subunits

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Nicole; Buryi, Vitali; Feron, Olivier; Gomez, Jean-Pierre; Christen, Marie-Odile; Godfraind, Théophile

    1998-01-01

    CHO cells expressing the α1C-a subunit (cardiac isoform) and the α1C-b subunit (vascular isoform) of the voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channel were used to investigate whether tissue selectivity of Ca2+ channel blockers could be related to different affinities for α1C isoforms.Inward current evoked by the transfected α1 subunit was recorded by the patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration.Neutral dihydropyridines (nifedipine, nisoldipine, (+)-PN200-110) were more potent inhibitors of α1C-b-subunit than of α1C-a-subunit. This difference was more marked at a holding potential of −100 mV than at −50 mV. SDZ 207-180 (an ionized dihydropyridine) exhibited the same potency on the two isoforms.Pinaverium (ionized non-dihydropyridine derivative) was 2 and 4 fold more potent on α1C-a than on α1C-b subunit at Vh of −100 mV and −50 mV, respectively. Effects of verapamil were identical on the two isoforms at both voltages.[3H]-(+)-PN 200-110 binding experiments showed that neutral dihydropyridines had a higher affinity for the α1C-b than for the α1C-a subunit. SDZ 207-180 had the same affinity for the two isoforms and pinaverium had a higher affinity for the α1C-a subunit than for the α1C-b subunit.These results indicate marked differences among Ca2+ channel blockers in their selectivity for the α1C-a and α1C-b subunits of the Ca2+ channel. PMID:9846638

  6. The action of calcium channel blockers on recombinant L-type calcium channel alpha1-subunits.

    PubMed

    Morel, N; Buryi, V; Feron, O; Gomez, J P; Christen, M O; Godfraind, T

    1998-11-01

    1. CHO cells expressing the alpha(1C-a) subunit (cardiac isoform) and the alpha(1C-b) subunit (vascular isoform) of the voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channel were used to investigate whether tissue selectivity of Ca2+ channel blockers could be related to different affinities for alpha1C isoforms. 2. Inward current evoked by the transfected alpha1 subunit was recorded by the patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration. 3. Neutral dihydropyridines (nifedipine, nisoldipine, (+)-PN200-110) were more potent inhibitors of alpha(1C-)b-subunit than of alpha(1C-a)-subunit. This difference was more marked at a holding potential of -100 mV than at -50 mV. SDZ 207-180 (an ionized dihydropyridine) exhibited the same potency on the two isoforms. 4. Pinaverium (ionized non-dihydropyridine derivative) was 2 and 4 fold more potent on alpha(1C-a) than on alpha(1C-b) subunit at Vh of -100 mV and -50 mV, respectively. Effects of verapamil were identical on the two isoforms at both voltages. 5. [3H]-(+)-PN 200-110 binding experiments showed that neutral dihydropyridines had a higher affinity for the alpha(1C-b) than for the alpha(1C-a) subunit. SDZ 207-180 had the same affinity for the two isoforms and pinaverium had a higher affinity for the alpha(1C-a) subunit than for the alpha(1C-b) subunit. 6. These results indicate marked differences among Ca2+ channel blockers in their selectivity for the alpha(1C-a) and alpha(1C-b) subunits of the Ca2+ channel. PMID:9846638

  7. Regulation of Arterial Tone by Activation of Calcium-Dependent Potassium Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brayden, Joseph E.; Nelson, Mark T.

    1992-04-01

    Blood pressure and tissue perfusion are controlled in part by the level of intrinsic (myogenic) vascular tone. However, many of the molecular determinants of this response are unknown. Evidence is now presented that the degree of myogenic tone is regulated in part by the activation of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in arterial smooth muscle. Tetraethylammonium ion (TEA^+) and charybdotoxin (CTX), at concentrations that block calcium-activated potassium channels in smooth muscle cells isolated from cerebral arteries, depolarized and constricted pressurized cerebral arteries with myogenic tone. Both TEA^+ and CTX had little effect on arteries when intracellular calcium was reduced by lowering intravascular pressure or by blocking calcium channels. Elevation of intravascular pressure through membrane depolarization and an increase in intracellular calcium may activate calcium-activated potassium channels. Thus, these channels may serve as a negative feedback pathway to control the degree of membrane depolarization and vasoconstriction.

  8. Surface charge and calcium channel saturation in bullfrog sympathetic neurons

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Currents carried by Ba2+ through calcium channels were recorded in the whole-cell configuration in isolated frog sympathetic neurons. The effect of surface charge on the apparent saturation of the channel with Ba2+ was examined by varying [Ba2+]o and ionic strength. The current increased with [Ba2+]o, and the I-V relation and the activation curve shifted to more positive voltages. The shift of activation could be described by Gouy-Chapman theory, with a surface charge density of 1 e- /140 A2, calculated from the Grahame equation. Changes in ionic strength (replacing N-methyl-D-glucamine with sucrose) shifted the activation curve as expected for a surface charge density of 1 e-/85 A2, in reasonable agreement with the value from changing [Ba2+]o. The instantaneous I-V for fully activated channels also changed with ionic strength, which could be described either by a low surface charge density (less than 1 e-/1,500 A2), or by block by NMG with Kd approximately 300 mM (assuming no surface charge). We conclude that the channel permeation mechanism sees much less surface charge than the gating mechanism. The peak inward current saturated with an apparent Kd = 11.6 mM for Ba2+, while the instantaneous I-V saturated with an apparent Kd = 23.5 mM at 0 mV. This discrepancy can be explained by a lower surface charge near the pore, compared to the voltage sensor. After correction for a surface charge near the pore of 1 e-/1,500 A2, the instantaneous I-V saturated as a function of local [Ba2+]o, with Kd = 65 mM. These results suggest that the channel pore does bind Ba2+ in a saturable manner, but the current-[Ba2+]o relationship may be significantly affected by surface charge. PMID:7608653

  9. Glucocorticoids specifically enhance L-type calcium current amplitude and affect calcium channel subunit expression in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chameau, Pascal; Qin, Yongjun; Spijker, Sabine; Smit, August Benjamin; Smit, Guus; Joëls, Marian

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that corticosterone enhances whole cell calcium currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons, through a pathway involving binding of glucocorticoid receptor homodimers to the DNA. We examined whether glucocorticoids show selectivity for L- over N-type of calcium currents. Moreover, we addressed the putative gene targets that eventually lead to the enhanced calcium currents. Electrophysiological recordings were performed in nucleated patches that allow excellent voltage control. Calcium currents in these patches almost exclusively involve N- and L-type channels. We found that L- but not N-type calcium currents were largely enhanced after treatment with a high dose of corticosterone sufficient to activate glucocorticoid receptors. Voltage dependency and kinetic properties of the currents were unaffected by the hormone. Nonstationary noise analysis suggests that the increased current is not caused by a larger unitary conductance, but rather to a doubling of the number of functional channels. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that transcripts of the Ca(v)1 subunits encoding for the N- or L-type calcium channels are not upregulated in the mouse CA1 area; instead, a strong, direct, and consistent upregulation of the beta4 subunit was observed. This indicates that the corticosteroid-induced increase in number of L-type calcium channels is not caused by a simple transcriptional regulation of the pore-forming subunit of the channels.

  10. Prolactin stimulates the L-type calcium channel-mediated transepithelial calcium transport in the duodenum of male rats.

    PubMed

    Dorkkam, Nitita; Wongdee, Kannikar; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2013-01-11

    Elevated plasma levels of prolactin (PRL) have been reported in several physiological and pathological conditions, such as lactation, prolactinoma, and dopaminergic antipsychotic drug uses. Although PRL is a calcium-regulating hormone that stimulates intestinal calcium absorption in lactating rats, whether PRL is capable of stimulating calcium absorption in male rats has been elusive. Herein, the transepithelial calcium transport and electrical characteristics were determined in ex vivo duodenal tissues of male rats by Ussing chamber technique. We found that PRL receptors were abundantly present in the basolateral membrane of the duodenal epithelial cells. PRL (200-800 ng/mL) markedly increased the active duodenal calcium transport in a dose-dependent fashion without effect on the transepithelial resistance. The PRL-enhanced active duodenal calcium transport was completely abolished by L-type calcium channel blocker (nifedipine) as well as inhibitors of the major basolateral calcium transporters, namely plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Several intracellular mediators, such as JAK2, MEK, PI3K and Src kinase, were involved in the PRL-enhanced transcellular calcium transport. Moreover, PRL also stimulated the paracellular calcium transport in the duodenum of male rats in a PI3K-dependent manner. In conclusion, PRL appeared to be a calcium-regulating hormone in male rats by enhancing the L-type calcium channel-mediated transcellular and the paracellular passive duodenal calcium transport. This phenomenon could help restrict or alleviate negative calcium balance and osteoporosis that often accompany hyperprolactinemia in male patients. PMID:23206706

  11. Structural Basis for Pharmacology of Voltage-Gated Sodium and Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Teresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels initiate action potentials in nerve, muscle, and other electrically excitable cells. Voltage-gated calcium channels are activated by depolarization during action potentials, and calcium influx through them is the key second messenger of electrical signaling, initiating secretion, contraction, neurotransmission, gene transcription, and many other intracellular processes. Drugs that block sodium channels are used in local anesthesia and the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder, chronic pain, and cardiac arrhythmia. Drugs that block calcium channels are used in the treatment of epilepsy, chronic pain, and cardiovascular disorders, including hypertension, angina pectoris, and cardiac arrhythmia. The principal pore-forming subunits of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels are structurally related and likely to have evolved from ancestral voltage-gated sodium channels that are widely expressed in prokaryotes. Determination of the structure of a bacterial ancestor of voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels at high resolution now provides a three-dimensional view of the binding sites for drugs acting on sodium and calcium channels. In this minireview, we outline the different classes of sodium and calcium channel drugs, review studies that have identified amino acid residues that are required for their binding and therapeutic actions, and illustrate how the analogs of those key amino acid residues may form drug-binding sites in three-dimensional models derived from bacterial channels. PMID:25848093

  12. Rational use of calcium-channel antagonists in Raynaud's phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Sturgill, M G; Seibold, J R

    1998-11-01

    Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is a peripheral circulatory disorder characterized by sudden episodes of digital artery spasm, often precipitated by cold temperature or emotional stress. Although the cause of RP is not fully known, it appears to involve inappropriate adrenergic response to cold stimuli. Treatment of RP is conservative in most patients, but in patients with severe disease includes the use of agents that promote digital vasodilation. The calcium-channel antagonists, particularly the dihydropyridine derivative nifedipine, are the most thoroughly studied drug class for the treatment of RP. Approximately two thirds of patients respond favorably, with significant reductions in the frequency and severity of vasospastic attacks. Nifedipine use is often limited by the appearance of adverse vasodilatory effects such as headache or peripheral edema. The newer second-generation dihydropyridines such as amlodipine, isradipine, nicardipine, and felodipine also appear to be effective in patients with RP and may be associated with fewer adverse effects.

  13. Plasma membrane calcium channels in cancer: Alterations and consequences for cell proliferation and migration.

    PubMed

    Déliot, Nadine; Constantin, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    The study of calcium channels in molecular mechanisms of cancer transformation is still a novel area of research. Several studies, mostly conducted on cancer cell lines, however support the idea that a diversity of plasma membrane channels participates in the remodeling of Ca2+ homeostasis, which regulates various cancer hallmarks such as uncontrolled multiplication and increase in migration and invasion abilities. However few is still understood concerning the intracellular signaling cascades mobilized by calcium influx participating to cancer cell behavior. This review intends to gather some of these pathways dependent on plasma membrane calcium channels and described in prostate, breast and lung cancer cell lines. In these cancer cell types, the calcium channels involved in calcium signaling pathways promoting cancer behaviors are mostly non-voltage activated calcium channels and belong to the TRP superfamily (TRPC, TPRPV and TRPM families) and the Orai family. TRP and Orai channels are part of many signaling cascades involving the activation of transmembrane receptors by extracellular ligand from the tumor environment. TRPV can sense changes in the physical and chemical environment of cancer cells and TRPM7 are stretch activated and sensitive to cholesterol. Changes in activation and or expression of plasma-membrane calcium channels affect calcium-dependent signaling processes relevant to tumorigenesis. The studies cited in this review suggest that an increase in plasma membrane calcium channel expression and/or activity sustain an elevated calcium entry (constitutive or under the control of extracellular signals) promoting higher cell proliferation and migration in most cases. A variety of non-voltage-operated calcium channels display change expression and/or activity in a same cancer type and cooperate to the same process relevant to cancer cell behavior, or can be involved in a different sequence of events during the tumorigenesis. This article is part of a

  14. Attenuation of drinking sweetened water following calcium channel blockade.

    PubMed

    Calcagnetti, D J; Schechter, M D

    1992-06-01

    Recent reports cite results that both cocaine-induced conditioned place preference and activity stimulation are attenuated by pretreatment with the calcium channel blocker isradipine (ISR) in rats. By blocking voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels, ISR may regulate neural dopamine release that, in turn, decreases the putative rewarding effects mediated by dopaminergic mechanisms. It is known that nonfluid deprived rats avidly consume sweetened fluids; this suggests that the sweet taste is rewarding. Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of ISR on drinking sweetened and nonflavored water. Experiment 1 was designed to test whether ISR would attenuate the intake of a palatable solution in a dose-dependent manner. To this end, ISR was administered both peripherally (3.0-30 mg/kg) and centrally (0.3-30 micrograms/rat) prior to a solution of saccharin and d-glucose (S + G) being made available to rats (15 min/day) and intake was recorded. ISR produced dose-dependent decreases (38%-81%) in S + G intake dependent on the route of administration. In Experiment 2, water intake was measured in 18 h water-deprived rats following ISR (10 mg/kg) administration as well as comparing S + G drinking. The effect of two ISR vehicles, dimethyl sulfoxide and Tween 80, upon fluid intake was also determined. ISR injection did not attenuate water intake in 18 h water-deprived rats and the choice of vehicle did not affect the ISR-induced attenuation of S + G drinking. In Experiment 3, a single dose (30 micrograms) of ICV administered ISR, that attenuated S + G intake by approximately 44%, did not attenuate water intake in 18 h water-deprived rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Differential Calcium Signaling Mediated by Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells and Their Unmyelinated Axons

    PubMed Central

    Sargoy, Allison; Sun, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant calcium regulation has been implicated as a causative factor in the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in numerous injury models of optic neuropathy. Since calcium has dual roles in maintaining homeostasis and triggering apoptotic pathways in healthy and injured cells, respectively, investigation of voltage-gated Ca channel (VGCC) regulation as a potential strategy to reduce the loss of RGCs is warranted. The accessibility and structure of the retina provide advantages for the investigation of the mechanisms of calcium signalling in both the somata of ganglion cells as well as their unmyelinated axons. The goal of the present study was to determine the distribution of VGCC subtypes in the cell bodies and axons of ganglion cells in the normal retina and to define their contribution to calcium signals in these cellular compartments. We report L-type Ca channel α1C and α1D subunit immunoreactivity in rat RGC somata and axons. The N-type Ca channel α1B subunit was in RGC somata and axons, while the P/Q-type Ca channel α1A subunit was only in the RGC somata. We patch clamped isolated ganglion cells and biophysically identified T-type Ca channels. Calcium imaging studies of RGCs in wholemounted retinas showed that selective Ca channel antagonists reduced depolarization-evoked calcium signals mediated by L-, N-, P/Q- and T-type Ca channels in the cell bodies but only by L-type Ca channels in the axons. This differential contribution of VGCC subtypes to calcium signals in RGC somata and their axons may provide insight into the development of target-specific strategies to spare the loss of RGCs and their axons following injury. PMID:24416240

  16. Block of L-type calcium channels by charged dihydropyridines. Sensitivity to side of application and calcium

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    We have studied block of L-type calcium channels by intracellular and extracellular application of the ionized dihydropyridine derivatives amlodipine and SDZ 207-180. We find that extracellular application of either drug causes voltage-dependent block of calcium channels. However, neither drug is effective when applied intracellularly. The insensitivity of calcium channels to intracellular drug is not due to the low concentrations of cytosolic calcium, because voltage-dependent block by ionized amlodipine, SDZ 207-180, and the neutral drug nisoldipine persists under conditions in which Ca0 is buffered by EGTA. In fact, the time course of the development of block by the ionized but not neutral drug molecules studied, is slower in the presence than in the absence of calcium. Our results indicate that the DHP binding site of the L-type calcium channel is close to the extracellular surface of the cell membrane and that ionized DHP molecules may interact with the receptor in a manner that is uniquely affected by calcium. PMID:1658191

  17. Bell-shaped calcium-response curves of lns(l,4,5)P3- and calcium-gated channels from endoplasmic reticulum of cerebellum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezprozvanny, Llya; Watras, James; Ehrlich, Barbara E.

    1991-06-01

    RELEASE of calcium from intracellular stores occurs by two pathways, an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3)-gated channel1-3 and a calcium-gated channel (ryanodine receptor)4-6. Using specific antibodies, both receptors were found in Purkinje cells of cerebellum7,8. We have now compared the functional properties of the channels corresponding to the two receptors by incorporating endoplasmic reticulum vesicles from canine cerebellum into planar bilayers. InsP3-gated channels were observed most frequently. Another channel type was activated by adenine nucleotides or caffeine, inhibited by ruthenium red, and modified by ryanodine, characteristics of the ryanodine receptor/channel6. The open probability of both channel types displayed a bell-shaped curve for dependence on calcium. For the InsP3-gated channel, the maximum probability of opening occurred at 0.2 µM free calcium, with sharp decreases on either side of the maximum. Maximum activity for the ryanodine receptor/channel was maintained between 1 and 100 µM calcium. Thus, within the physiological range of cytoplasmic calcium, the InsP3-gated channel itself allows positive feed-back and then negative feedback for calcium release, whereas the ryanodine receptor/channel behaves solely as a calcium-activated channel. The existence in the same cell of two channels with different responses to calcium and different ligand sensitivities provides a basis for complex patterns of intracellular calcium regulation.

  18. Calcium channel structural determinants of synaptic transmission between identified invertebrate neurons.

    PubMed

    Spafford, J David; Munno, David W; Van Nierop, Pim; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Jarvis, Scott E; Gallin, Warren J; Smit, August B; Zamponi, Gerald W; Syed, Naweed I

    2003-02-01

    We report here that unlike what was suggested for many vertebrate neurons, synaptic transmission in Lymnaea stagnalis occurs independent of a physical interaction between presynaptic calcium channels and a functional complement of SNARE proteins. Instead, synaptic transmission in Lymnaea requires the expression of a C-terminal splice variant of the Lymnaea homolog to mammalian N- and P/Q-type calcium channels. We show that the alternately spliced region physically interacts with the scaffolding proteins Mint1 and CASK, and that synaptic transmission is abolished following RNA interference knockdown of CASK or after the injection of peptide sequences designed to disrupt the calcium channel-Mint1 interactions. Our data suggest that Mint1 and CASK may serve to localize the non-L-type channels at the active zone and that synaptic transmission in invertebrate neurons utilizes a mechanism for optimizing calcium entry, which occurs independently of a physical association between calcium channels and SNARE proteins.

  19. The cardiac L-type calcium channel distal carboxy terminus autoinhibition is regulated by calcium.

    PubMed

    Crump, Shawn M; Andres, Douglas A; Sievert, Gail; Satin, Jonathan

    2013-02-01

    The L-type calcium channel (LTCC) provides trigger Ca(2+) for sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-release, and LTCC function is influenced by interacting proteins including the LTCC distal COOH terminus (DCT) and calmodulin. DCT is proteolytically cleaved and reassociates with the LTCC complex to regulate calcium channel function. DCT reduces LTCC barium current (I(Ba,L)) in reconstituted channel complexes, yet the contribution of DCT to LTCC Ca(2+) current (I(Ca,L)) in cardiomyocyte systems is unexplored. This study tests the hypothesis that DCT attenuates cardiomyocyte I(Ca,L). We measured LTCC current and Ca(2+) transients with DCT coexpressed in murine cardiomyocytes. We also heterologously coexpressed DCT and Ca(V)1.2 constructs with truncations corresponding to the predicted proteolytic cleavage site, Ca(V)1.2Δ1801, and a shorter deletion corresponding to well-studied construct, Ca(V)1.2Δ1733. DCT inhibited I(Ba,L) in cardiomyocytes, and in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells expressing Ca(V)1.2Δ1801 and Ca(V)1.2Δ1733. Ca(2+)-CaM relieved DCT block in cardiomyocytes and HEK cells. The selective block of I(Ba,L) combined with Ca(2+)-CaM effects suggested that DCT-mediated blockade may be relieved under conditions of elevated Ca(2+). We therefore tested the hypothesis that DCT block is dynamic, increasing under relatively low Ca(2+), and show that DCT reduced diastolic Ca(2+) at low stimulation frequencies but spared high frequency Ca(2+) entry. DCT reduction of diastolic Ca(2+) and relief of block at high pacing frequencies and under conditions of supraphysiological bath Ca(2+) suggests that a physiological function of DCT is to increase the dynamic range of Ca(2+) transients in response to elevated pacing frequencies. Our data motivate the new hypothesis that DCT is a native reverse use-dependent inhibitor of LTCC current.

  20. Aging Reduces L-Type Calcium Channel Current and the Vasodilatory Response of Small Mesenteric Arteries to Calcium Channel Blockers

    PubMed Central

    Albarwani, Sulayma A.; Mansour, Fathi; Khan, Abdul Aleem; Al-Lawati, Intisar; Al-Kaabi, Abdulla; Al-Busaidi, Al-Manar; Al-Hadhrami, Safa; Al-Husseini, Isehaq; Al-Siyabi, Sultan; Tanira, Musbah O.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are widely used to treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) including hypertension. As aging is an independent risk factor for CVD, the use of CCBs increases with increasing age. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of aging on the sensitivity of small mesenteric arteries to L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (LTCC) blockers and also to investigate whether there was a concomitant change in calcium current density. Third order mesenteric arteries from male F344 rats, aged 2.5–3 months (young) and 22–26 months (old) were mounted on wire myograph to measure the tension during isometric contraction. Arteries were contracted with 100 mM KCl and were then relaxed in a cumulative concentration-response dependent manner with nifedipine (0.1 nM–1 μM), verapamil (0.1 nM–10 μM), or diltiazem (0.1 nM–10 μM). Relaxation-concentration response curves produced by cumulative concentrations of three different CCBs in arteries of old rats were shifted to the right with statistically significant IC50s. pIC50 ± s.e.m: (8.37 ± 0.06 vs. 8.04 ± 0.05, 7.40 ± 0.07 vs. 6.81 ± 0.04, and 6.58 ± 0.07 vs. 6.34 ± 0.06) in young vs. old. It was observed that the maximal contractions induced by phenylephrine and reversed by sodium nitroprusside were not different between young and old groups. However, Bay K 8644 (1 μM) increased resting tension by 23 ± 4.8% in young arteries and 4.7 ± 1.6% in old arteries. LTCC current density were also significantly lower in old arteries (−2.77 ± 0.45 pA/pF) compared to young arteries (−4.5 ± 0.40 pA/pF); with similar steady-state activation and inactivation curves. Parallel to this reduction, the expression of Cav1.2 protein was reduced by 57 ± 5% in arteries from old rats compared to those from young rats. In conclusion, our results suggest that aging reduces the response of small mesenteric arteries to the vasodilatory effect of the CCBs and this may be due to, at least in part, reduced

  1. SLO BK Potassium Channels Couple Gap Junctions to Inhibition of Calcium Signaling in Olfactory Neuron Diversification.

    PubMed

    Alqadah, Amel; Hsieh, Yi-Wen; Schumacher, Jennifer A; Wang, Xiaohong; Merrill, Sean A; Millington, Grethel; Bayne, Brittany; Jorgensen, Erik M; Chuang, Chiou-Fen

    2016-01-01

    The C. elegans AWC olfactory neuron pair communicates to specify asymmetric subtypes AWCOFF and AWCON in a stochastic manner. Intercellular communication between AWC and other neurons in a transient NSY-5 gap junction network antagonizes voltage-activated calcium channels, UNC-2 (CaV2) and EGL-19 (CaV1), in the AWCON cell, but how calcium signaling is downregulated by NSY-5 is only partly understood. Here, we show that voltage- and calcium-activated SLO BK potassium channels mediate gap junction signaling to inhibit calcium pathways for asymmetric AWC differentiation. Activation of vertebrate SLO-1 channels causes transient membrane hyperpolarization, which makes it an important negative feedback system for calcium entry through voltage-activated calcium channels. Consistent with the physiological roles of SLO-1, our genetic results suggest that slo-1 BK channels act downstream of NSY-5 gap junctions to inhibit calcium channel-mediated signaling in the specification of AWCON. We also show for the first time that slo-2 BK channels are important for AWC asymmetry and act redundantly with slo-1 to inhibit calcium signaling. In addition, nsy-5-dependent asymmetric expression of slo-1 and slo-2 in the AWCON neuron is necessary and sufficient for AWC asymmetry. SLO-1 and SLO-2 localize close to UNC-2 and EGL-19 in AWC, suggesting a role of possible functional coupling between SLO BK channels and voltage-activated calcium channels in AWC asymmetry. Furthermore, slo-1 and slo-2 regulate the localization of synaptic markers, UNC-2 and RAB-3, in AWC neurons to control AWC asymmetry. We also identify the requirement of bkip-1, which encodes a previously identified auxiliary subunit of SLO-1, for slo-1 and slo-2 function in AWC asymmetry. Together, these results provide an unprecedented molecular link between gap junctions and calcium pathways for terminal differentiation of olfactory neurons.

  2. SLO BK Potassium Channels Couple Gap Junctions to Inhibition of Calcium Signaling in Olfactory Neuron Diversification

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Jennifer A.; Wang, Xiaohong; Merrill, Sean A.; Millington, Grethel; Bayne, Brittany; Jorgensen, Erik M.; Chuang, Chiou-Fen

    2016-01-01

    The C. elegans AWC olfactory neuron pair communicates to specify asymmetric subtypes AWCOFF and AWCON in a stochastic manner. Intercellular communication between AWC and other neurons in a transient NSY-5 gap junction network antagonizes voltage-activated calcium channels, UNC-2 (CaV2) and EGL-19 (CaV1), in the AWCON cell, but how calcium signaling is downregulated by NSY-5 is only partly understood. Here, we show that voltage- and calcium-activated SLO BK potassium channels mediate gap junction signaling to inhibit calcium pathways for asymmetric AWC differentiation. Activation of vertebrate SLO-1 channels causes transient membrane hyperpolarization, which makes it an important negative feedback system for calcium entry through voltage-activated calcium channels. Consistent with the physiological roles of SLO-1, our genetic results suggest that slo-1 BK channels act downstream of NSY-5 gap junctions to inhibit calcium channel-mediated signaling in the specification of AWCON. We also show for the first time that slo-2 BK channels are important for AWC asymmetry and act redundantly with slo-1 to inhibit calcium signaling. In addition, nsy-5-dependent asymmetric expression of slo-1 and slo-2 in the AWCON neuron is necessary and sufficient for AWC asymmetry. SLO-1 and SLO-2 localize close to UNC-2 and EGL-19 in AWC, suggesting a role of possible functional coupling between SLO BK channels and voltage-activated calcium channels in AWC asymmetry. Furthermore, slo-1 and slo-2 regulate the localization of synaptic markers, UNC-2 and RAB-3, in AWC neurons to control AWC asymmetry. We also identify the requirement of bkip-1, which encodes a previously identified auxiliary subunit of SLO-1, for slo-1 and slo-2 function in AWC asymmetry. Together, these results provide an unprecedented molecular link between gap junctions and calcium pathways for terminal differentiation of olfactory neurons. PMID:26771544

  3. A comprehensive search for calcium binding sites critical for TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel activity.

    PubMed

    Tien, Jason; Peters, Christian J; Wong, Xiu Ming; Cheng, Tong; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh; Yang, Huanghe

    2014-06-30

    TMEM16A forms calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) that regulate physiological processes such as the secretions of airway epithelia and exocrine glands, the contraction of smooth muscles, and the excitability of neurons. Notwithstanding intense interest in the mechanism behind TMEM16A-CaCC calcium-dependent gating, comprehensive surveys to identify and characterize potential calcium sensors of this channel are still lacking. By aligning distantly related calcium-activated ion channels in the TMEM16 family and conducting systematic mutagenesis of all conserved acidic residues thought to be exposed to the cytoplasm, we identify four acidic amino acids as putative calcium-binding residues. Alterations of the charge, polarity, and size of amino acid side chains at these sites alter the ability of different divalent cations to activate the channel. Furthermore, TMEM16A mutant channels containing double cysteine substitutions at these residues are sensitive to the redox potential of the internal solution, providing evidence for their physical proximity and solvent accessibility.

  4. Adrenal medulla calcium channel population is not conserved in bovine chromaffin cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Benavides, A; Calvo, S; Tornero, D; González-García, C; Ceña, V

    2004-01-01

    During the stress response adrenal medullary chromaffin cells release catecholamines to the bloodstream. Voltage-activated calcium channels present in the cell membrane play a crucial role in this process. Although the electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of chromaffin cell calcium channels have been studied in detail, the molecular composition of these channels has not been defined yet. Another aspect that needs to be explored is the extent to which chromaffin cells in culture reflect the adrenal medulla calcium channel characteristics. In this sense, it has been described that catecholamine release in the intact adrenal gland recruits different calcium channels than those recruited during secretion from cultured chromaffin cells. Additionally, recent electrophysiological studies show that chromaffin cells in culture differ from those located in the intact adrenal medulla in the contribution of several calcium channel types to the whole cell current. However there is not yet any study that compares the population of calcium channels in chromaffin cells with that one present in the adrenal medulla. In order to gain some insight into the roles that calcium channels might play in the adrenal medullary cells we have analyzed the alpha1 subunit mRNA expression profile. We demonstrate that the expression pattern of voltage-dependent calcium channels in cultured bovine chromaffin cells markedly differs from that found in the native adrenal medulla and that glucocorticoids are only partially involved in those differences. Additionally, we show, for the first time, that the cardiac isoform of L-type calcium channel is present in both bovine adrenal medulla and cultured chromaffin cells and that its levels of expression do not vary during culture. PMID:15450357

  5. External cadmium and internal calcium block of single calcium channels in smooth muscle cells from rabbit mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Quayle, J M; Worley, J F; Standen, N B; Nelson, M T

    1989-11-01

    The patch clamp technique was used to record unitary currents through single calcium channels from smooth muscle cells of rabbit mesenteric arteries. The effects of external cadmium and cobalt and internal calcium, barium, cadmium, and magnesium on single channel currents were investigated with 80 mM barium as the charge carrier and Bay K 8644 to prolong openings. External cadmium shortened the mean open time of single Ca channels. Cadmium blocking and unblocking rate constants of 16.5 mM-1 ms-1 and 0.6 ms-1, respectively, were determined, corresponding to dissociation constant Kd of 36 microM at -20 mV. These results are very similar to those reported for cardiac muscle Ca channels (Lansman, J. B., P. Hess, and R. W. Tsien. 1986. J. Gen. Physiol. 88:321-347). In contrast, Cd2+ (01-10 mM), when applied to the internal surface of Ca channels in inside-out patches, did not affect the mean open time, mean unitary current, or the variance of the open channel current. Internal calcium induced a flickery block, with a Kd of 5.8 mM. Mean blocking and unblocking rate constants for calcium of 0.56 mM-1 ms-1 and 3.22 ms-1, respectively, were determined. Internal barium (8 mM) reduced the mean unitary current by 36%. We conclude that under our experimental conditions, the Ca channel is not symmetrical with respect to inorganic ion block and that intracellular calcium can modulate Ca channel currents via a low-affinity binding site. PMID:2481511

  6. External cadmium and internal calcium block of single calcium channels in smooth muscle cells from rabbit mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Quayle, J M; Worley, J F; Standen, N B; Nelson, M T

    1989-11-01

    The patch clamp technique was used to record unitary currents through single calcium channels from smooth muscle cells of rabbit mesenteric arteries. The effects of external cadmium and cobalt and internal calcium, barium, cadmium, and magnesium on single channel currents were investigated with 80 mM barium as the charge carrier and Bay K 8644 to prolong openings. External cadmium shortened the mean open time of single Ca channels. Cadmium blocking and unblocking rate constants of 16.5 mM-1 ms-1 and 0.6 ms-1, respectively, were determined, corresponding to dissociation constant Kd of 36 microM at -20 mV. These results are very similar to those reported for cardiac muscle Ca channels (Lansman, J. B., P. Hess, and R. W. Tsien. 1986. J. Gen. Physiol. 88:321-347). In contrast, Cd2+ (01-10 mM), when applied to the internal surface of Ca channels in inside-out patches, did not affect the mean open time, mean unitary current, or the variance of the open channel current. Internal calcium induced a flickery block, with a Kd of 5.8 mM. Mean blocking and unblocking rate constants for calcium of 0.56 mM-1 ms-1 and 3.22 ms-1, respectively, were determined. Internal barium (8 mM) reduced the mean unitary current by 36%. We conclude that under our experimental conditions, the Ca channel is not symmetrical with respect to inorganic ion block and that intracellular calcium can modulate Ca channel currents via a low-affinity binding site.

  7. Presynaptic Calcium Channel Localization and Calcium Dependent Synaptic Vesicle Exocytosis Regulated by the Fuseless Protein

    PubMed Central

    Long, A. Ashleigh; Kim, Eunju; Leung, Hung-Tat; Woodruff, Elvin; An, Lingling; Doerge, R. W.; Pak, William L.; Broadie, Kendal

    2009-01-01

    Summary A systematic forward genetic Drosophila screen for electroretinogram mutants lacking synaptic transients identified the fuseless (fusl) gene, which encodes a predicted 8-pass transmembrane protein in the presynaptic membrane. Null fusl mutants display >75% reduction in evoked synaptic transmission but, conversely, a ~3-fold increase in the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous synaptic vesicle fusion events. These neurotransmission defects are rescued by a wildtype fusl transgene targeted only to the presynaptic cell, demonstrating a strictly presynaptic requirement for Fusl function. Defects in FM dye turnover at the synapse show a severely impaired exo-endo synaptic vesicle cycling pool. Consistently, ultrastructural analyses reveal accumulated vesicles arrested in clustered and docked pools at presynaptic active zones. In the absence of Fusl, calcium-dependent neurotransmitter release is dramatically compromised and there is little enhancement of synaptic efficacy with elevated external Ca2+ concentrations. These defects are causally linked with severe loss of the Cacophony voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, which fail to localize normally at presynaptic active zone domains in the absence of Fusl. These data indicate that Fusl regulates assembly of the presynaptic active zone Ca2+ channel domains required for efficient coupling of the Ca2+ influx and synaptic vesicle exocytosis during neurotransmission. PMID:18385325

  8. Signal processing by T-type calcium channel interactions in the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Engbers, Jordan D T; Anderson, Dustin; Zamponi, Gerald W; Turner, Ray W

    2013-11-27

    T-type calcium channels of the Cav3 family are unique among voltage-gated calcium channels due to their low activation voltage, rapid inactivation, and small single channel conductance. These special properties allow Cav3 calcium channels to regulate neuronal processing in the subthreshold voltage range. Here, we review two different subthreshold ion channel interactions involving Cav3 channels and explore the ability of these interactions to expand the functional roles of Cav3 channels. In cerebellar Purkinje cells, Cav3 and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium (IKCa) channels form a novel complex which creates a low voltage-activated, transient outward current capable of suppressing temporal summation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). In large diameter neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei, Cav3-mediated calcium current (I T) and hyperpolarization-activated cation current (I H) are activated during trains of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. These currents have distinct, and yet synergistic, roles in the subthreshold domain with I T generating a rebound burst and I H controlling first spike latency and rebound spike precision. However, by shortening the membrane time constant the membrane returns towards resting value at a faster rate, allowing I H to increase the efficacy of I T and increase the range of burst frequencies that can be generated. The net effect of Cav3 channels thus depends on the channels with which they are paired. When expressed in a complex with a KCa channel, Cav3 channels reduce excitability when processing excitatory inputs. If functionally coupled with an HCN channel, the depolarizing effect of Cav3 channels is accentuated, allowing for efficient inversion of inhibitory inputs to generate a rebound burst output. Therefore, signal processing relies not only on the activity of individual subtypes of channels but also on complex interactions between ion channels whether based on a physical complex or by indirect

  9. Signal processing by T-type calcium channel interactions in the cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Engbers, Jordan D. T.; Anderson, Dustin; Zamponi, Gerald W.; Turner, Ray W.

    2013-01-01

    T-type calcium channels of the Cav3 family are unique among voltage-gated calcium channels due to their low activation voltage, rapid inactivation, and small single channel conductance. These special properties allow Cav3 calcium channels to regulate neuronal processing in the subthreshold voltage range. Here, we review two different subthreshold ion channel interactions involving Cav3 channels and explore the ability of these interactions to expand the functional roles of Cav3 channels. In cerebellar Purkinje cells, Cav3 and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium (IKCa) channels form a novel complex which creates a low voltage-activated, transient outward current capable of suppressing temporal summation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). In large diameter neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei, Cav3-mediated calcium current (IT) and hyperpolarization-activated cation current (IH) are activated during trains of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials. These currents have distinct, and yet synergistic, roles in the subthreshold domain with IT generating a rebound burst and IH controlling first spike latency and rebound spike precision. However, by shortening the membrane time constant the membrane returns towards resting value at a faster rate, allowing IH to increase the efficacy of IT and increase the range of burst frequencies that can be generated. The net effect of Cav3 channels thus depends on the channels with which they are paired. When expressed in a complex with a KCa channel, Cav3 channels reduce excitability when processing excitatory inputs. If functionally coupled with an HCN channel, the depolarizing effect of Cav3 channels is accentuated, allowing for efficient inversion of inhibitory inputs to generate a rebound burst output. Therefore, signal processing relies not only on the activity of individual subtypes of channels but also on complex interactions between ion channels whether based on a physical complex or by indirect

  10. Targeting voltage-gated calcium channels for neuropathic pain management

    PubMed Central

    Perret, Danielle; Luo, Z. David

    2009-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) play obligatory roles in diverse physiological functions. Pathological conditions leading to changes in their biophysical properties and expression levels may cause malfunctions of VGCC mediated activities, resulting in disease states. It is believed that changes in VGCC properties under pain-inducing conditions may play a causal role in the development of chronic pain, including nerve injury-induced pain, or neuropathic pain. Over the past decades, preclinical and clinical research in developing VGCC blockers or modulators for chronic pain management has been fruitful, leading to some US Food and Drug Administration approved drugs currently available for chronic pain management. However, their efficacy in pain relief is limited in some patients and their long-term use is limited by their side effect profiles. Certainly, there is room for improvement in developing more subtype specific VGCC blockers or modulators for chronic pain conditions. In this review, we summarized the most recent preclinical and clinical studies related to chronic pain medications acting on the VGCC. We also included clinical trials aiming to expand the application of approved VGCC drugs to different pain states derived from various pathological conditions, as well as drug combination therapies trying to improve the efficacies and side effect profiles of current pain medications. PMID:19789072

  11. Calcium-permeable ion channels in control of autophagy and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kondratskyi, Artem; Yassine, Maya; Kondratska, Kateryna; Skryma, Roman; Slomianny, Christian; Prevarskaya, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy, or cellular self-eating, is a tightly regulated cellular pathway the main purpose of which is lysosomal degradation and subsequent recycling of cytoplasmic material to maintain normal cellular homeostasis. Defects in autophagy are linked to a variety of pathological states, including cancer. Cancer is the disease associated with abnormal tissue growth following an alteration in such fundamental cellular processes as apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, migration and autophagy. The role of autophagy in cancer is complex, as it can promote both tumor prevention and survival/treatment resistance. It's now clear that modulation of autophagy has a great potential in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Recent findings identified intracellular calcium as an important regulator of both basal and induced autophagy. Calcium is a ubiquitous secondary messenger which regulates plethora of physiological and pathological processes such as aging, neurodegeneration and cancer. The role of calcium and calcium-permeable channels in cancer is well-established, whereas the information about molecular nature of channels regulating autophagy and the mechanisms of this regulation is still limited. Here we review existing mechanisms of autophagy regulation by calcium and calcium-permeable ion channels. Furthermore, we will also discuss some calcium-permeable channels as the potential new candidates for autophagy regulation. Finally we will propose the possible link between calcium permeable channels, autophagy and cancer progression and therapeutic response. PMID:24106480

  12. Voltage-gated calcium channels: Determinants of channel function and modulation by inorganic cations.

    PubMed

    Neumaier, Felix; Dibué-Adjei, Maxine; Hescheler, Jürgen; Schneider, Toni

    2015-06-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) represent a key link between electrical signals and non-electrical processes, such as contraction, secretion and transcription. Evolved to achieve high rates of Ca(2+)-selective flux, they possess an elaborate mechanism for selection of Ca(2+) over foreign ions. It has been convincingly linked to competitive binding in the pore, but the fundamental question of how this is reconcilable with high rates of Ca(2+) transfer remains unanswered. By virtue of their similarity to Ca(2+), polyvalent cations can interfere with the function of VGCCs and have proven instrumental in probing the mechanisms underlying selective permeation. Recent emergence of crystallographic data on a set of Ca(2+)-selective model channels provides a structural framework for permeation in VGCCs, and warrants a reconsideration of their diverse modulation by polyvalent cations, which can be roughly separated into three general mechanisms: (I) long-range interactions with charged regions on the surface, affecting the local potential sensed by the channel or influencing voltage-sensor movement by repulsive forces (electrostatic effects), (II) short-range interactions with sites in the ion-conducting pathway, leading to physical obstruction of the channel (pore block), and in some cases (III) short-range interactions with extracellular binding sites, leading to non-electrostatic modifications of channel gating (allosteric effects). These effects, together with the underlying molecular modifications, provide valuable insights into the function of VGCCs, and have important physiological and pathophysiological implications. Allosteric suppression of some of the pore-forming Cavα1-subunits (Cav2.3, Cav3.2) by Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) may play a major role for the regulation of excitability by endogenous transition metal ions. The fact that these ions can often traverse VGCCs can contribute to the detrimental intracellular accumulation of metal ions following excessive

  13. ω-Phonetoxin-IIA: a calcium channel blocker from the spider Phoneutria nigriventer.

    PubMed

    Cassola, A C; Jaffe, H; Fales, H M; Afeche, S C; Magnoli, F; Cipolla-Neto, J

    1998-07-01

    A peptide with neurotoxic effect on mammals, purified from the venom of the spider Phoneutria nigriventer, was studied regarding its primary structure and its effects on voltage-gated calcium channels. The peptide, named ω-phonetoxin-IIA, has 76 amino acids residues, with 14 Cys forming 7 disulphide bonds, and a molecular weight of 8362.7 Da. The neurotoxicity is a consequence of the peptide’s blocking effects on high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium channels. N-type HVA calcium channels of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons are blocked with affinity in the sub-nanomolar concentration range. The toxin also blocks L-type channels of rat β pancreatic cells, with an affinity 40 times lower. Although not studied in detail, evidence indicates that the toxin also blocks other types of HVA calcium channels, such as P and Q. No effect was observed on low-voltage-activated, T-type calcium channels. The significant homologies between ω-phonetoxin-IIA and the peptides of the ω-agatoxin-III family, and the overlapping inhibitory effects on calcium channels are discussed in terms of the structure-activity relationship.

  14. Spontaneous and CRH-Induced Excitability and Calcium Signaling in Mice Corticotrophs Involves Sodium, Calcium, and Cation-Conducting Channels.

    PubMed

    Zemkova, Hana; Tomić, Melanija; Kucka, Marek; Aguilera, Greti; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2016-04-01

    Transgenic mice expressing the tdimer2(12) form of Discosoma red fluorescent protein under control of the proopiomelanocortin gene's regulatory elements are a useful model for studying corticotrophs. Using these mice, we studied the ion channels and mechanisms controlling corticotroph excitability. Corticotrophs were either quiescent or electrically active, with a 22-mV difference in the resting membrane potential (RMP) between the 2 groups. In quiescent cells, CRH depolarized the membrane, leading to initial single spiking and sustained bursting; in active cells, CRH further facilitated or inhibited electrical activity and calcium spiking, depending on the initial activity pattern and CRH concentration. The stimulatory but not inhibitory action of CRH on electrical activity was mimicked by cAMP independently of the presence or absence of arachidonic acid. Removal of bath sodium silenced spiking and hyperpolarized the majority of cells; in contrast, the removal of bath calcium did not affect RMP but reduced CRH-induced depolarization, which abolished bursting electrical activity and decreased the spiking frequency but not the amplitude of single spikes. Corticotrophs with inhibited voltage-gated sodium channels fired calcium-dependent action potentials, whereas cells with inhibited L-type calcium channels fired sodium-dependent spikes; blockade of both channels abolished spiking without affecting the RMP. These results indicate that the background voltage-insensitive sodium conductance influences RMP, the CRH-depolarization current is driven by a cationic conductance, and the interplay between voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels plays a critical role in determining the status and pattern of electrical activity and calcium signaling.

  15. ZC88, a novel N-type calcium channel blocker from 4-amino-piperidine derivatives state-dependent inhibits Cav2.2 calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuzhuo; Yang, Lujia; Zhang, Kang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Dai, Weiwei; Zhang, Cheng; Yong, Zheng; Li, Jin; Zheng, Jianquan

    2015-04-24

    Small molecular inhibitors of Cav2.2 have been reported for the treatment of neuropathic pain; however, low selectivity and side effects limit their further development. In our study, a series of new compounds were designed and synthesized by optimizing the 4-amino-piperidine template. The results show that ZC88 inhibits transiently expressed Cav2.2 in state-dependent manner in oocytes with an IC50 of 0.45 ± 0.09 μM. The steady-state inactivation relationship curve is shifted to more negative potentials for the calcium channels, suggesting that ZC88 blocks inactivated state of the channel. ZC88 does not present any remarkable effects on voltage-gated P/Q-type calcium channel currents, l-type calcium channel currents, potassium channel and sodium channel currents. Taken together, these in vitro data suggest that ZC88 is a voltage-dependent, subtype-selective Cav2.2 channel inhibitor and can achieve an improved therapeutic window over the relatively state-independent Cav2.2-selective inhibitor, which may have potential to be developed into a novel analgesic agent. PMID:25681549

  16. ZC88, a novel N-type calcium channel blocker from 4-amino-piperidine derivatives state-dependent inhibits Cav2.2 calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuzhuo; Yang, Lujia; Zhang, Kang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Dai, Weiwei; Zhang, Cheng; Yong, Zheng; Li, Jin; Zheng, Jianquan

    2015-04-24

    Small molecular inhibitors of Cav2.2 have been reported for the treatment of neuropathic pain; however, low selectivity and side effects limit their further development. In our study, a series of new compounds were designed and synthesized by optimizing the 4-amino-piperidine template. The results show that ZC88 inhibits transiently expressed Cav2.2 in state-dependent manner in oocytes with an IC50 of 0.45 ± 0.09 μM. The steady-state inactivation relationship curve is shifted to more negative potentials for the calcium channels, suggesting that ZC88 blocks inactivated state of the channel. ZC88 does not present any remarkable effects on voltage-gated P/Q-type calcium channel currents, l-type calcium channel currents, potassium channel and sodium channel currents. Taken together, these in vitro data suggest that ZC88 is a voltage-dependent, subtype-selective Cav2.2 channel inhibitor and can achieve an improved therapeutic window over the relatively state-independent Cav2.2-selective inhibitor, which may have potential to be developed into a novel analgesic agent.

  17. The Physiology, Pathology, and Pharmacology of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels and Their Future Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Zamponi, Gerald W.; Striessnig, Joerg; Koschak, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are required for many key functions in the body. In this review, the different subtypes of voltage-gated calcium channels are described and their physiologic roles and pharmacology are outlined. We describe the current uses of drugs interacting with the different calcium channel subtypes and subunits, as well as specific areas in which there is strong potential for future drug development. Current therapeutic agents include drugs targeting L-type CaV1.2 calcium channels, particularly 1,4-dihydropyridines, which are widely used in the treatment of hypertension. T-type (CaV3) channels are a target of ethosuximide, widely used in absence epilepsy. The auxiliary subunit α2δ-1 is the therapeutic target of the gabapentinoid drugs, which are of value in certain epilepsies and chronic neuropathic pain. The limited use of intrathecal ziconotide, a peptide blocker of N-type (CaV2.2) calcium channels, as a treatment of intractable pain, gives an indication that these channels represent excellent drug targets for various pain conditions. We describe how selectivity for different subtypes of calcium channels (e.g., CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 L-type channels) may be achieved in the future by exploiting differences between channel isoforms in terms of sequence and biophysical properties, variation in splicing in different target tissues, and differences in the properties of the target tissues themselves in terms of membrane potential or firing frequency. Thus, use-dependent blockers of the different isoforms could selectively block calcium channels in particular pathologies, such as nociceptive neurons in pain states or in epileptic brain circuits. Of important future potential are selective CaV1.3 blockers for neuropsychiatric diseases, neuroprotection in Parkinson’s disease, and resistant hypertension. In addition, selective or nonselective T-type channel blockers are considered potential therapeutic targets in epilepsy, pain, obesity, sleep, and

  18. Myoscape controls cardiac calcium cycling and contractility via regulation of L-type calcium channel surface expression.

    PubMed

    Eden, Matthias; Meder, Benjamin; Völkers, Mirko; Poomvanicha, Montatip; Domes, Katrin; Branchereau, M; Marck, P; Will, Rainer; Bernt, Alexander; Rangrez, Ashraf; Busch, Matthias; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Heymes, Christophe; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Most, Patrick; Hofmann, Franz; Frey, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Calcium signalling plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Here we describe a cardiac protein named Myoscape/FAM40B/STRIP2, which directly interacts with the L-type calcium channel. Knockdown of Myoscape in cardiomyocytes decreases calcium transients associated with smaller Ca(2+) amplitudes and a lower diastolic Ca(2+) content. Likewise, L-type calcium channel currents are significantly diminished on Myoscape ablation, and downregulation of Myoscape significantly reduces contractility of cardiomyocytes. Conversely, overexpression of Myoscape increases global Ca(2+) transients and enhances L-type Ca(2+) channel currents, and is sufficient to restore decreased currents in failing cardiomyocytes. In vivo, both Myoscape-depleted morphant zebrafish and Myoscape knockout (KO) mice display impairment of cardiac function progressing to advanced heart failure. Mechanistically, Myoscape-deficient mice show reduced L-type Ca(2+)currents, cell capacity and calcium current densities as a result of diminished LTCC surface expression. Finally, Myoscape expression is reduced in hearts from patients suffering of terminal heart failure, implying a role in human disease. PMID:27122098

  19. Activation of L-type calcium channels is required for gap junction-mediated intercellular calcium signaling in osteoblastic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Niklas Rye; Teilmann, Stefan Cuoni; Henriksen, Zanne; Civitelli, Roberto; Sorensen, Ole Helmer; Steinberg, Thomas H.

    2003-01-01

    The propagation of mechanically induced intercellular calcium waves (ICW) among osteoblastic cells occurs both by activation of P2Y (purinergic) receptors by extracellular nucleotides, resulting in "fast" ICW, and by gap junctional communication in cells that express connexin43 (Cx43), resulting in "slow" ICW. Human osteoblastic cells transmit intercellular calcium signals by both of these mechanisms. In the current studies we have examined the mechanism of slow gap junction-dependent ICW in osteoblastic cells. In ROS rat osteoblastic cells, gap junction-dependent ICW were inhibited by removal of extracellular calcium, plasma membrane depolarization by high extracellular potassium, and the L-type voltage-operated calcium channel inhibitor, nifedipine. In contrast, all these treatments enhanced the spread of P2 receptor-mediated ICW in UMR rat osteoblastic cells. Using UMR cells transfected to express Cx43 (UMR/Cx43) we confirmed that nifedipine sensitivity of ICW required Cx43 expression. In human osteoblastic cells, gap junction-dependent ICW also required activation of L-type calcium channels and influx of extracellular calcium.

  20. Osteoclast cytosolic calcium, regulated by voltage-gated calcium channels and extracellular calcium, controls podosome assembly and bone resorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyauchi, A.; Hruska, K. A.; Greenfield, E. M.; Duncan, R.; Alvarez, J.; Barattolo, R.; Colucci, S.; Zambonin-Zallone, A.; Teitelbaum, S. L.; Teti, A.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms of Ca2+ entry and their effects on cell function were investigated in cultured chicken osteoclasts and putative osteoclasts produced by fusion of mononuclear cell precursors. Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCC) were detected by the effects of membrane depolarization with K+, BAY K 8644, and dihydropyridine antagonists. K+ produced dose-dependent increases of cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) in osteoclasts on glass coverslips. Half-maximal effects were achieved at 70 mM K+. The effects of K+ were completely inhibited by dihydropyridine derivative Ca2+ channel blocking agents. BAY K 8644 (5 X 10(-6) M), a VGCC agonist, stimulated Ca2+ entry which was inhibited by nicardipine. VGCCs were inactivated by the attachment of osteoclasts to bone, indicating a rapid phenotypic change in Ca2+ entry mechanisms associated with adhesion of osteoclasts to their resorption substrate. Increasing extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]e) induced Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and Ca2+ influx. The Ca2+ release was blocked by dantrolene (10(-5) M), and the influx by La3+. The effects of [Ca2+]e on [Ca2+]i suggests the presence of a Ca2+ receptor on the osteoclast cell membrane that could be coupled to mechanisms regulating cell function. Expression of the [Ca2+]e effect on [Ca2+]i was similar in the presence or absence of bone matrix substrate. Each of the mechanisms producing increases in [Ca2+]i, (membrane depolarization, BAY K 8644, and [Ca2+]e) reduced expression of the osteoclast-specific adhesion structure, the podosome. The decrease in podosome expression was mirrored by a 50% decrease in bone resorptive activity. Thus, stimulated increases of osteoclast [Ca2+]i lead to cytoskeletal changes affecting cell adhesion and decreasing bone resorptive activity.

  1. Calcium Release-Activated Calcium (CRAC) Channels Mediate the β2-Adrenergic Regulation of Na,K-ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Michael J.; Lecuona, Emilia; Prakriya, Murali; Cheng, Yuan; Soberanes, Saul; Scott Budinger, G.R.; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2014-01-01

    β2-adrenergic agonists have been shown to regulate Na,K-ATPase in the alveolar epithelium by recruiting Na,K-ATPase-containing vesicles to the plasma membrane of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). Here, we provide evidence that β2-agonists induce store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in AECs. This calcium entry is necessary for β2-agonist-induced recruitment of Na,K-ATPase to the plasma membrane of AECs. Specifically, we show that β2-agonists induce SOCE via stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1)-associated calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channels. We also demonstrate that the magnitude of SOCE affects the abundance of Na,K-ATPase at the plasma membrane of AECs. PMID:25447523

  2. Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: Potential Target for Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Dong, De-Li; Bai, Yun-Long; Cai, Ben-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (KCa) are classified into three subtypes: big conductance (BKCa), intermediate conductance (IKCa), and small conductance (SKCa) KCa channels. The three types of KCa channels have distinct physiological or pathological functions in cardiovascular system. BKCa channels are mainly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and inner mitochondrial membrane of cardiomyocytes, activation of BKCa channels in these locations results in vasodilation and cardioprotection against cardiac ischemia. IKCa channels are expressed in VSMCs, endothelial cells, and cardiac fibroblasts and involved in vascular smooth muscle proliferation, migration, vessel dilation, and cardiac fibrosis. SKCa channels are widely expressed in nervous and cardiovascular system, and activation of SKCa channels mainly contributes membrane hyperpolarization. In this chapter, we summarize the physiological and pathological roles of the three types of KCa channels in cardiovascular system and put forward the possibility of KCa channels as potential target for cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Hydrogen peroxide mediates oxidant-dependent stimulation of arterial smooth muscle L-type calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Nathan L; Amberg, Gregory C

    2012-05-01

    Changes in calcium and redox homeostasis influence multiple cellular processes. Dysregulation of these signaling modalities is associated with pathology in cardiovascular, neuronal, endocrine, and other physiological systems. Calcium and oxidant signaling mechanisms are frequently inferred to be functionally related. To address and clarify this clinically relevant issue in the vasculature we tested the hypothesis that the ubiquitous reactive oxygen molecule hydrogen peroxide mediates oxidant-dependent stimulation of cerebral arterial smooth muscle L-type calcium channels. Using a combinatorial approach including intact arterial manipulations, electrophysiology, and total internal reflection fluorescence imaging, we found that application of physiological levels of hydrogen peroxide to isolated arterial smooth muscle cells increased localized calcium influx through L-type calcium channels. Similarly, oxidant-dependent stimulation of L-type calcium channels by the vasoconstrictor ANG II was abolished by intracellular application of catalase. Catalase also prevented ANG II from increasing localized subplasmalemmal sites of increased oxidation previously associated with colocalized calcium influx through L-type channels. Furthermore, catalase largely attenuated the contractile response of intact cerebral arterial segments to ANG II. In contrast, enhanced dismutation of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide with SOD had no effect on ANG II-dependent stimulation of L-type calcium channels. From these data we conclude that hydrogen peroxide is important for oxidant-dependent regulation of smooth muscle L-type calcium channels and arterial function. These data also support the emerging concept of hydrogen peroxide as a biologically relevant oxidant second messenger in multiple cell types with a diverse array of physiological functions.

  4. Phylogeny unites animal sodium leak channels with fungal calcium channels in an ancient, voltage-insensitive clade.

    PubMed

    Liebeskind, Benjamin J; Hillis, David M; Zakon, Harold H

    2012-12-01

    Proteins in the superfamily of voltage-gated ion channels mediate behavior across the tree of life. These proteins regulate the movement of ions across cell membranes by opening and closing a central pore that controls ion flow. The best-known members of this superfamily are the voltage-gated potassium, calcium (Ca(v)), and sodium (Na(v)) channels, which underlie impulse conduction in nerve and muscle. Not all members of this family are opened by changes in voltage, however. NALCN (NA(+) leak channel nonselective) channels, which encode a voltage-insensitive "sodium leak" channel, have garnered a growing interest. This study examines the phylogenetic relationship among Na(v)/Ca(v) voltage-gated and voltage-insensitive channels in the eukaryotic group Opisthokonta, which includes animals, fungi, and their unicellular relatives. We show that NALCN channels diverged from voltage-gated channels before the divergence of fungi and animals and that the closest relatives of NALCN channels are fungal calcium channels, which they functionally resemble.

  5. Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels in Glomerulus: From Cell Signal Integration to Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jie; Lan, Zhen; Wang, Yunman; Hei, Hongya; Tian, Lulu; Pan, Wanma; Zhang, Xuemei; Peng, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels are currently considered as vital players in a variety of renal physiological processes. In podocytes, BK channels become active in response to stimuli that increase local cytosolic Ca2+, possibly secondary to activation of slit diaphragm TRPC6 channels by chemical or mechanical stimuli. Insulin increases filtration barrier permeability through mobilization of BK channels. In mesangial cells, BK channels co-expressed with β1 subunits act as a major component of the counteractive response to contraction in order to regulate glomerular filtration. This review aims to highlight recent discoveries on the localization, physiological and pathological roles of BK channels in glomerulus. PMID:27445840

  6. Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels in Glomerulus: From Cell Signal Integration to Disease.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jie; Lan, Zhen; Wang, Yunman; Hei, Hongya; Tian, Lulu; Pan, Wanma; Zhang, Xuemei; Peng, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels are currently considered as vital players in a variety of renal physiological processes. In podocytes, BK channels become active in response to stimuli that increase local cytosolic Ca(2+), possibly secondary to activation of slit diaphragm TRPC6 channels by chemical or mechanical stimuli. Insulin increases filtration barrier permeability through mobilization of BK channels. In mesangial cells, BK channels co-expressed with β1 subunits act as a major component of the counteractive response to contraction in order to regulate glomerular filtration. This review aims to highlight recent discoveries on the localization, physiological and pathological roles of BK channels in glomerulus. PMID:27445840

  7. Voltage-gated calcium channels and their auxiliary subunits: physiology and pathophysiology and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Dolphin, Annette C

    2016-10-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are essential players in many physiological processes in excitable cells. There are three main subdivisions of calcium channel, defined by the pore-forming α1 subunit, the CaV 1, CaV 2 and CaV 3 channels. For all the subtypes of voltage-gated calcium channel, their gating properties are key for the precise control of neurotransmitter release, muscle contraction and cell excitability, among many other processes. For the CaV 1 and CaV 2 channels, their ability to reach their required destinations in the cell membrane, their activation and the fine tuning of their biophysical properties are all dramatically influenced by the auxiliary subunits that associate with them. Furthermore, there are many diseases, both genetic and acquired, involving voltage-gated calcium channels. This review will provide a general introduction and then concentrate particularly on the role of auxiliary α2 δ subunits in both physiological and pathological processes involving calcium channels, and as a therapeutic target. PMID:27273705

  8. Voltage-gated calcium channels and their auxiliary subunits: physiology and pathophysiology and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Dolphin, Annette C

    2016-10-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are essential players in many physiological processes in excitable cells. There are three main subdivisions of calcium channel, defined by the pore-forming α1 subunit, the CaV 1, CaV 2 and CaV 3 channels. For all the subtypes of voltage-gated calcium channel, their gating properties are key for the precise control of neurotransmitter release, muscle contraction and cell excitability, among many other processes. For the CaV 1 and CaV 2 channels, their ability to reach their required destinations in the cell membrane, their activation and the fine tuning of their biophysical properties are all dramatically influenced by the auxiliary subunits that associate with them. Furthermore, there are many diseases, both genetic and acquired, involving voltage-gated calcium channels. This review will provide a general introduction and then concentrate particularly on the role of auxiliary α2 δ subunits in both physiological and pathological processes involving calcium channels, and as a therapeutic target.

  9. Spironolactone inhibition of contraction and calcium channels in rat portal vein.

    PubMed Central

    Dacquet, C.; Loirand, G.; Mironneau, C.; Mironneau, J.; Pacaud, P.

    1987-01-01

    1. The effects of spironolactone have been studied on the mechanical activity of rat portal vein strips and the calcium channel currents of isolated cells using the patch clamp technique (whole-cell configuration). 2. Spironolactone (50 nM to 0.1 mM) depressed both K+-induced and twitch contractions within 5-6 min. This inhibitory effect was overcome by elevating the calcium concentration in the perfusing solution. 3. Spironolactone (60 microM) depressed the transient contractions induced in a Ca2+-free, EGTA-containing solution by either acetylcholine (0.1 mM) or noradrenaline (10 microM). The effect of spironolactone was dependent on a reduction in the filling of the internal calcium store. 4. Rapidly inactivating calcium channel current was maintained in the presence of spironolactone (60 microM), while slowly inactivating calcium channel current was blocked in a concentration-dependent manner. Half-inhibition of slow calcium channel current was obtained at concentrations between 5-7 microM. 5. Administration of spironolactone (10 microM) at rest reduced calcium channel current by about 70% (tonic inhibition). Repetitive depolarizations (300 ms long pulses to zero mV, applied between 0.05 and 0.5 Hz) had no further inhibitory effect on the inward current (absence of use-dependence). 6. When cells were held at depolarized membrane potentials at which slow calcium current was inactivated by about 80%, the inhibitory effect of spironolactone (10 microM) was similar to that obtained with cells normally polarized. Spironolactone (10 microM) had no effect on the voltage-dependence of inactivation of the calcium channel current. 7. Our results suggest that spironolactone acts primarily on the plasma membrane by depressing inward current through slow calcium channels. This effect may be explained by a preferential binding of the drug to the resting state of the slow calcium channel. In addition, spironolactone may depress contractions dependent on the release of calcium

  10. A Monte Carlo Simulation of Vesicle Exocytosis in the Buffered Diffusion of Calcium Channel Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimcovic, Z.; Eagan, T. P.; Brown, R. W.; Petschek, R. G.; Eppell, S. J.; Yunker, A. M. R.; Sharp, A. H.; McEnery, M. W.

    2001-04-01

    The voltage-dependent opening of calcium channels results in an influx of calcium ions that leads to the fusion of synaptic vesicles with the cell membrane, resulting in the release of neurotransmitters. This allows nerve impulses to be transmitted from one neuron to another. A Monte Carlo model of the three-dimensional diffusion of calcium following a channel opening is employed to estimate the space and time dependence of the calcium density. The effects of fixed and mobile calcium buffers are included, and a tethered nearby vesicle is considered. The importance of the size and location of the vesicle is studied. When the vesicle is ignored, these results are compared with the analytical calculations of Naraghi and Neher and the Monte Carlo calculations of Bennett et al. The finite-vesicle-size analysis offers new insights into the process of neurosecretion. Support: NIH MH55747, AHA 96001250, NSF 0086643, and CWRU Presidential Research Initiative grants.

  11. Multi-ion conduction bands in a simple model of calcium ion channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, I.; Luchinsky, D. G.; Tindjong, R.; McClintock, P. V. E.; Eisenberg, R. S.

    2013-04-01

    We report self-consistent Brownian dynamics simulations of a simple electrostatic model of the selectivity filters (SF) of calcium ion channels. They reveal regular structure in the conductance and selectivity as functions of the fixed negative charge Qf at the SF. With increasing Qf, there are distinct regions of high conductance (conduction bands) M0, M1, M2 separated by regions of almost zero-conductance (stop-bands). Two of these conduction bands, M1 and M2, are related to the saturated calcium occupancies of P = 1 and P = 2, respectively and demonstrate self-sustained conductivity. Despite the model's limitations, its M1 and M2 bands show high calcium selectivity and prominent anomalous mole fraction effects and can be identified with the L-type and RyR calcium channels. The non-selective band M0 can be identified with a non-selective cation channel, or with OmpF porin.

  12. Discovery of novel tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives as orally active N-type calcium channel blockers with high selectivity for hERG potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Ogiyama, Takashi; Inoue, Makoto; Honda, Shugo; Yamada, Hiroyoshi; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Gotoh, Takayasu; Kiso, Tetsuo; Koakutsu, Akiko; Kakimoto, Shuichiro; Shishikura, Jun-ichi

    2014-12-15

    N-type calcium channels represent a promising target for the treatment of neuropathic pain. The selective N-type calcium channel blocker ziconotide ameliorates severe chronic pain but has a narrow therapeutic window and requires intrathecal administration. We identified tetrahydroisoquinoline derivative 1a as a novel potent N-type calcium channel blocker. However, this compound also exhibited potent inhibitory activity against hERG channels. Structural optimizations led to identification of (1S)-(1-cyclohexyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl)-2-{[(1-hydroxycyclohexyl)methyl]amino}ethanone ((S)-1h), which exhibited high selectivity for hERG channels while retaining potency for N-type calcium channel inhibition. (S)-1h went on to demonstrate in vivo efficacy as an orally available N-type calcium channel blocker in a rat spinal nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain.

  13. Interaction of calcium channel antagonists with calcium: structural studies on verapamil and its Ca2+ complex.

    PubMed

    Tetreault, S; Ananthanarayanan, V S

    1993-04-16

    The conformation of the calcium channel antagonist verapamil has been determined in acetonitrile, in the absence and presence of Ca2+, using two-dimensional 1H-NMR and molecular modeling techniques. Interproton connectivities in the drug molecule were identified from the observed NOESY cross peaks and interproton distances were estimated from the magnitudes of the volume integrals of the cross peaks. The molecular modeling program utilized the Monte Carlo simulation to generate a random ensemble of conformers complying with the NOESY-derived distance constraints. The energies of these conformers were subsequently computed. The minimum-energy structure of the free drug obtained in this manner exhibited some significant differences from the structure of verapamil determined by X-ray crystallography. In particular, the torsional angles in the middle region of the molecule containing the aliphatic "backbone" were such that the two aromatic rings at either end of the drug molecules were moved farther apart from each other in solution than in the crystal structure. The nearly perpendicular orientation of the aromatic rings seen in the crystal was, however, maintained in the solution structure as well. The addition of Ca2+ to a solution of verapamil in acetonitrile caused marked changes in the difference absorbance of the drug in the 200-300-nm region and in many of its 1H-NMR resonances. The changes were most significant up to a mole ratio of about 0.5 Ca2+:drug. Analysis of the binding data at 25 degrees C showed the presence of both 2:1 and 1:1 drug:Ca2+ complexes in equilibrium, the former "sandwich" complex being dominant at the lower cation concentrations with an estimated dissociation constant of about 300 microM. All of the NOESY cross peaks of the free drug remained on addition of 0.5 mol ratio of Ca2+ to verapamil in deuterated acetonitrile and only two new connectivities were observed. Using the interproton distances calculated from these NOESY data, molecular

  14. Two Types of Calcium Channels in Guinea Pig Ventricular Myocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Raman; Morad, Martin

    1986-07-01

    In cardiac muscle, Ca2+ plays a key role in regulation of numerous processes, including generation of the action potential and development of tension. The entry of Ca2+ into the cell is regulated primarily by voltage-gated channels in the membrane. Until recently, it was felt that only one type of Ca2+ channel existed in cardiac ventricular muscle. Experiments reported here suggest that in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes, there are two distinct types of Ca2+ channels with markedly different activation thresholds, inactivation kinetics, and sensitivities to inorganic and organic Ca2+ channel blockers. The channels were also distinguished based on their response to increased frequency of clamping such that the current through the low-threshold channel decreased while that through the high-threshold channel increased. In a few cells, the current through both channels was enhanced by isoproterenol, a β -adrenergic agonist, but only the high-threshold channel was enhanced by the Ca2+-channel agonist Bay K 8644. Thus, isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes appear to have two types of Ca2+ channels distinguished by various criteria.

  15. A Calcium-Dependent Plasticity Rule for HCN Channels Maintains Activity Homeostasis and Stable Synaptic Learning

    PubMed Central

    Honnuraiah, Suraj; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and computational frameworks for synaptic plasticity and learning have a long and cherished history, with few parallels within the well-established literature for plasticity of voltage-gated ion channels. In this study, we derive rules for plasticity in the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, and assess the synergy between synaptic and HCN channel plasticity in establishing stability during synaptic learning. To do this, we employ a conductance-based model for the hippocampal pyramidal neuron, and incorporate synaptic plasticity through the well-established Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro (BCM)-like rule for synaptic plasticity, wherein the direction and strength of the plasticity is dependent on the concentration of calcium influx. Under this framework, we derive a rule for HCN channel plasticity to establish homeostasis in synaptically-driven firing rate, and incorporate such plasticity into our model. In demonstrating that this rule for HCN channel plasticity helps maintain firing rate homeostasis after bidirectional synaptic plasticity, we observe a linear relationship between synaptic plasticity and HCN channel plasticity for maintaining firing rate homeostasis. Motivated by this linear relationship, we derive a calcium-dependent rule for HCN-channel plasticity, and demonstrate that firing rate homeostasis is maintained in the face of synaptic plasticity when moderate and high levels of cytosolic calcium influx induced depression and potentiation of the HCN-channel conductance, respectively. Additionally, we show that such synergy between synaptic and HCN-channel plasticity enhances the stability of synaptic learning through metaplasticity in the BCM-like synaptic plasticity profile. Finally, we demonstrate that the synergistic interaction between synaptic and HCN-channel plasticity preserves robustness of information transfer across the neuron under a rate-coding schema. Our results establish specific physiological roles

  16. Nuclear membrane R-type calcium channels mediate cytosolic ET-1-induced increase of nuclear calcium in human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Bkaily, Ghassan; Avedanian, Levon; Al-Khoury, Johny; Chamoun, Marc; Semaan, Rana; Jubinville-Leblanc, Cynthia; D'Orléans-Juste, Pedro; Jacques, Danielle

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work was to verify whether, as in the case of the plasma membrane of human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs), cytosolic ET-1-induced increase of nuclear calcium is mediated via the activation of calcium influx through the steady-state R-type calcium channel. Pharmacological tools to identify the R-type calcium channels, as well as real 3-D confocal microscopy imaging techniques coupled to calcium fluorescent probes, were used to study the effect of cytosolic ET-1 on nuclear calcium in isolated nuclei of human hepatocytes and plasma membrane perforated hVSMCs. Our results showed that pre-treatment with pertussis toxin (PTX) or cholera toxin (CTX) prevented cytosolic ET-1 (10(-9) mol/L) from inducing a sustained increase in nuclear calcium. Furthermore, the L-type calcium channel blocker nifedipine did not prevent cytosolic ET-1 from inducing an increase in nuclear calcium, as opposed to the dual L- and R-type calcium channel blocker isradipine (PN200-110) (in the presence of nifedipine). In conclusion, the preventative effect with PTX and CTX, and the absence of an effect with nifedipine, as well as the blockade by isradipine on cytosolic ET-1-induced increase in nuclear calcium, suggest that this nuclear calcium influx in hVSMCs is due to activation of the steady-state R-type calcium channel. The sarcolemmal and nuclear membrane R-type calcium channels in hVSMCs are involved in ET-1 modulation of vascular tone in physiology and pathology.

  17. Regulation of N-type voltage-gated calcium channels and presynaptic function by cyclin-dependent kinase 5

    PubMed Central

    Su, Susan C.; Seo, Jinsoo; Pan, Jen Q.; Samuels, Benjamin Adam; Rudenko, Andrii; Ericsson, Maria; Neve, Rachael L.; Yue, David T.; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY N-type voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV2.2) localize to presynaptic nerve terminals and mediate key events including synaptogenesis and neurotransmission. While several kinases have been implicated in the modulation of calcium channels, their impact on presynaptic functions remains unclear. Here we report that the N-type calcium channel is a substrate for cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5). The pore-forming α1 subunit of the N-type calcium channel is phosphorylated in the C-terminal domain, and phosphorylation results in enhanced calcium influx due to increased channel open probability. Phosphorylation of the N-type calcium channel by Cdk5 facilitates neurotransmitter release and alters presynaptic plasticity by increasing the number of docked vesicles at the synaptic cleft. These effects are mediated by an altered interaction between N-type calcium channels and RIM1, which tethers presynaptic calcium channels to the active zone. Collectively, our results highlight a molecular mechanism by which N-type calcium channels are regulated by Cdk5 to affect presynaptic functions. PMID:22920258

  18. Regulation of Cardiac Calcium Channels in the Fight-or-Flight Response.

    PubMed

    Catterall, William A

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular calcium transients generated by activation of voltage-gated calcium (CaV) channels generate local signals, which initiate physiological processes such as secretion, synaptic transmission, and excitation-contraction coupling. Regulation of calcium entry through CaV channels is crucial for control of these physiological processes. In this article, I review experimental results that have emerged over several years showing that cardiac CaV1.2 channels form a local signaling complex, in which their proteolytically processed distal C-terminal domain, an A-Kinase Anchoring Protein, and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) interact directly with the transmembrane core of the ion channel through the proximal C-terminal domain. This signaling complex is the substrate for β-adrenergic up-regulation of the CaV1.2 channel in the heart during the fight-or-flight response. Protein phosphorylation of two sites at the interface between the distal and proximal C-terminal domains contributes importantly to control of basal CaV1.2 channel activity, and phosphorylation of Ser1700 by PKA at that interface up-regulates CaV1.2 activity in response to β-adrenergic signaling. Thus, the intracellular C-terminal domain of CaV1.2 channels serves as a signaling platform, mediating beat-to-beat physiological regulation of channel activity and up-regulation by β-adrenergic signaling in the fight-or-flight response.

  19. The mechanosensory calcium-selective ion channel: key component of a plasmalemmal control centre?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickard, B. G.; Ding, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Mechanosensory calcium-selective ion channels probably serve to detect not only mechanical stress but also electrical, thermal, and diverse chemical stimuli. Because all stimuli result in a common output, most notably a shift in second messenger calcium concentration, the channels are presumed to serve as signal integrators. Further, insofar as second messenger calcium in turn gives rise to mechanical, electrical, and diverse chemical changes, the channels are postulated to initiate regulatory feedbacks. It is proposed that the channels and the feedback loops play a wide range of roles in regulating normal plant function, as well as in mediating disturbance of normal function by environmental stressors and various pathogens. In developing evidence for the physiological performance of the channel, a model for a cluster of regulatory plasmalemmal proteins and cytoskeletal elements grouped around a set of wall-to-membrane and transmembrane linkers has proved useful. An illustration of how the model might operate is presented. It is founded on the demonstration that several xenobiotics interfere both with normal channel behaviour and with gravitropic reception. Accordingly, the first part of the illustration deals with how the channels and the control system within which they putatively operate might initiate gravitropism. Assuming that gravitropism is an asymmetric expression of growth, the activities of the channels and the plasmalemmal control system are extrapolated to account for regulation of both rate and allometry of cell expansion. Finally, it is discussed how light, hormones, redox agents and herbicides could in principle affect growth via the putative plasmalemmal control cluster or centre.

  20. T Cell Receptor Mediated Calcium Entry Requires Alternatively Spliced Cav1.1 Channels.

    PubMed

    Matza, Didi; Badou, Abdallah; Klemic, Kathryn G; Stein, Judith; Govindarajulu, Usha; Nadler, Monica J; Kinet, Jean-Pierre; Peled, Amnon; Shapira, Oz M; Kaczmarek, Leonard K; Flavell, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    The process of calcium entry in T cells is a multichannel and multi-step process. We have studied the requirement for L-type calcium channels (Cav1.1) α1S subunits during calcium entry after TCR stimulation. High expression levels of Cav1.1 channels were detected in activated T cells. Sequencing and cloning of Cav1.1 channel cDNA from T cells revealed that a single splice variant is expressed. This variant lacks exon 29, which encodes the linker region adjacent to the voltage sensor, but contains five new N-terminal exons that substitute for exons 1 and 2, which are found in the Cav1.1 muscle counterpart. Overexpression studies using cloned T cell Cav1.1 in 293HEK cells (that lack TCR) suggest that the gating of these channels was altered. Knockdown of Cav1.1 channels in T cells abrogated calcium entry after TCR stimulation, suggesting that Cav1.1 channels are controlled by TCR signaling. PMID:26815481

  1. T Cell Receptor Mediated Calcium Entry Requires Alternatively Spliced Cav1.1 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Matza, Didi; Badou, Abdallah; Klemic, Kathryn G.; Stein, Judith; Govindarajulu, Usha; Nadler, Monica J.; Kinet, Jean-Pierre; Peled, Amnon; Shapira, Oz M.; Kaczmarek, Leonard K.; Flavell, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The process of calcium entry in T cells is a multichannel and multi-step process. We have studied the requirement for L-type calcium channels (Cav1.1) α1S subunits during calcium entry after TCR stimulation. High expression levels of Cav1.1 channels were detected in activated T cells. Sequencing and cloning of Cav1.1 channel cDNA from T cells revealed that a single splice variant is expressed. This variant lacks exon 29, which encodes the linker region adjacent to the voltage sensor, but contains five new N-terminal exons that substitute for exons 1 and 2, which are found in the Cav1.1 muscle counterpart. Overexpression studies using cloned T cell Cav1.1 in 293HEK cells (that lack TCR) suggest that the gating of these channels was altered. Knockdown of Cav1.1 channels in T cells abrogated calcium entry after TCR stimulation, suggesting that Cav1.1 channels are controlled by TCR signaling. PMID:26815481

  2. Coupled gating between cardiac calcium release channels (ryanodine receptors).

    PubMed

    Marx, S O; Gaburjakova, J; Gaburjakova, M; Henrikson, C; Ondrias, K; Marks, A R

    2001-06-01

    Excitation-contraction coupling in heart muscle requires the activation of Ca(2+)-release channels/type 2 ryanodine receptors (RyR2s) by Ca(2+) influx. RyR2s are arranged on the sarcoplasmic reticular membrane in closely packed arrays such that their large cytoplasmic domains contact one another. We now show that multiple RyR2s can be isolated under conditions such that they remain physically coupled to one another. When these coupled channels are examined in planar lipid bilayers, multiple channels exhibit simultaneous gating, termed "coupled gating." Removal of the regulatory subunit, the FK506 binding protein (FKBP12.6), functionally but not physically uncouples multiple RyR2 channels. Coupled gating between RyR2 channels may be an important regulatory mechanism in excitation-contraction coupling as well as in other signaling pathways involving intracellular Ca(2+) release. PMID:11397781

  3. Calmodulin-dependent activation and inactivation of anoctamin calcium-gated chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Vocke, Kerstin; Dauner, Kristin; Hahn, Anne; Ulbrich, Anne; Broecker, Jana; Keller, Sandro; Frings, Stephan; Möhrlen, Frank

    2013-10-01

    Calcium-dependent chloride channels serve critical functions in diverse biological systems. Driven by cellular calcium signals, the channels codetermine excitatory processes and promote solute transport. The anoctamin (ANO) family of membrane proteins encodes three calcium-activated chloride channels, named ANO 1 (also TMEM16A), ANO 2 (also TMEM16B), and ANO 6 (also TMEM16F). Here we examined how ANO 1 and ANO 2 interact with Ca(2+)/calmodulin using nonstationary current analysis during channel activation. We identified a putative calmodulin-binding domain in the N-terminal region of the channel proteins that is involved in channel activation. Binding studies with peptides indicated that this domain, a regulatory calmodulin-binding motif (RCBM), provides two distinct modes of interaction with Ca(2+)/calmodulin, one at submicromolar Ca(2+) concentrations and one in the micromolar Ca(2+) range. Functional, structural, and pharmacological data support the concept that calmodulin serves as a calcium sensor that is stably associated with the RCBM domain and regulates the activation of ANO 1 and ANO 2 channels. Moreover, the predominant splice variant of ANO 2 in the brain exhibits Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent inactivation, a loss of channel activity within 30 s. This property may curtail ANO 2 activity during persistent Ca(2+) signals in neurons. Mutagenesis data indicated that the RCBM domain is also involved in ANO 2 inactivation, and that inactivation is suppressed in the retinal ANO 2 splice variant. These results advance the understanding of Ca(2+) regulation in anoctamin Cl(-) channels and its significance for the physiological function that anoctamin channels subserve in neurons and other cell types.

  4. How voltage-gated calcium channels gate forms of homeostatic synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Frank, C. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Throughout life, animals face a variety of challenges such as developmental growth, the presence of toxins, or changes in temperature. Neuronal circuits and synapses respond to challenges by executing an array of neuroplasticity paradigms. Some paradigms allow neurons to up- or downregulate activity outputs, while countervailing ones ensure that outputs remain within appropriate physiological ranges. A growing body of evidence suggests that homeostatic synaptic plasticity (HSP) is critical in the latter case. Voltage-gated calcium channels gate forms of HSP. Presynaptically, the aggregate data show that when synapse activity is weakened, homeostatic signaling systems can act to correct impairments, in part by increasing calcium influx through presynaptic CaV2-type channels. Increased calcium influx is often accompanied by parallel increases in the size of active zones and the size of the readily releasable pool of presynaptic vesicles. These changes coincide with homeostatic enhancements of neurotransmitter release. Postsynaptically, there is a great deal of evidence that reduced network activity and loss of calcium influx through CaV1-type calcium channels also results in adaptive homeostatic signaling. Some adaptations drive presynaptic enhancements of vesicle pool size and turnover rate via retrograde signaling, as well as de novo insertion of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. Enhanced calcium influx through CaV1 after network activation or single cell stimulation can elicit the opposite response—homeostatic depression via removal of excitatory receptors. There exist intriguing links between HSP and calcium channelopathies—such as forms of epilepsy, migraine, ataxia, and myasthenia. The episodic nature of some of these disorders suggests alternating periods of stable and unstable function. Uncovering information about how calcium channels are regulated in the context of HSP could be relevant toward understanding these and other disorders. PMID

  5. Interactions of cryptosin with mammalian cardiac dihydropyridine-specific calcium channels

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, V.R.; Banning, J.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Cryptosin, a new cardenolide, was found to be a potent inhibitor of cardiac Na{sup +} and K{sup +} dependent Adenosinetri-phosphatase. In experiments with dog heart ex vivo, development of inotropic and toxic effect correlated with changes in the cardiac dihydropyridine-specific calcium channels as measured by the binding of {sup 3}(H)PN 200-110. A significant change in the PN 200-110 binding was observed when guinea pig and dog heart sarcolemmal membranes were pre-incubated with cryptosin in vitro. Binding analysis of {sup 3}(H)PN 200-110 (Isradipine), a 1,4-dihydropyridine analog with very specific calcium channel binding properties, in both in vitro and ex vivo studies were consistent and indicated a non-specific type of interaction of cryptosin with mammalian cardiac 1,4-dihydropyridine-specific calcium channels.

  6. ANO2 is the cilial calcium-activated chloride channel that may mediate olfactory amplification

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Aaron B.; Shum, Eleen Y.; Hirsh, Sarah; Cygnar, Katherine D.; Reisert, Johannes; Zhao, Haiqing

    2009-01-01

    For vertebrate olfactory signal transduction, a calcium-activated chloride conductance serves as a major amplification step. However, the molecular identity of the olfactory calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) is unknown. Here we report a proteomic screen for cilial membrane proteins of mouse olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that identified all the known olfactory transduction components as well as Anoctamin 2 (ANO2). Ano2 transcripts were expressed specifically in OSNs in the olfactory epithelium, and ANO2::EGFP fusion protein localized to the OSN cilia when expressed in vivo using an adenoviral vector. Patch-clamp analysis revealed that ANO2, when expressed in HEK-293 cells, forms a CaCC and exhibits channel properties closely resembling the native olfactory CaCC. Considering these findings together, we propose that ANO2 constitutes the olfactory calcium-activated chloride channel. PMID:19561302

  7. Genetic disruption of voltage-gated calcium channels in psychiatric and neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Heyes, Samuel; Pratt, Wendy S.; Rees, Elliott; Dahimene, Shehrazade; Ferron, Laurent; Owen, Michael J.; Dolphin, Annette C.

    2015-01-01

    This review summarises genetic studies in which calcium channel genes have been connected to the spectrum of neuropsychiatric syndromes, from bipolar disorder and schizophrenia to autism spectrum disorders and intellectual impairment. Among many other genes, striking numbers of the calcium channel gene superfamily have been implicated in the aetiology of these diseases by various DNA analysis techniques. We will discuss how these relate to the known monogenic disorders associated with point mutations in calcium channels. We will then examine the functional evidence for a causative link between these mutations or single nucleotide polymorphisms and the disease processes. A major challenge for the future will be to translate the expanding psychiatric genetic findings into altered physiological function, involvement in the wider pathology of the diseases, and what potential that provides for personalised and stratified treatment options for patients. PMID:26386135

  8. Detection of calcium activity in human monocytes by the fura-2 fluorescence method: in vitro differentiation sensitizes cells to dihydropyridine calcium channel modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Cabello, Olga A.; Shan, Qin; Tittel, Frank K.; Henry, Philip D.

    1994-07-01

    Dihydropyridine (DHP) calcium channel blockers have been shown to suppress atherogenesis in various species and controlled angiographic trials suggest that these drugs may retard the progression of occlusive coronary disease in humans. Because mononuclear leukocytes play a key role in the formation of early and advanced atheromatous lesions, we determined effects of DHP calcium channel modulators on calcium uptake by cells of the monocytic lineage. Human peripheral blood monocytes were evaluated before and after undergoing in vitro differentiation induced by two days of culture with fetal calf serum and FMLP. Changes in intracellular calcium activity were estimated with fura-2, a fluorescent calcium indicator. Freshly isolated (unactivated) monocytes were insensitive to DHP drugs both in the presence and absence of high potassium membrane depolarization. In contrast, nisoldipine, a DHP calcium channel blocker, and BAY K 8644, a DHP calcium channel activator, decreased and increased calcium uptake by KC1-depolarized differentiated monocytes. Results suggest that differentiation of monocytes to macrophages may involve a change in the expression and/or regulation of DHP- sensitive calcium channels.

  9. Noradrenaline upregulates T-type calcium channels in rat pinealocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haijie; Seo, Jong Bae; Jung, Seung-Ryoung; Koh, Duk-Su; Hille, Bertil

    2015-01-01

    Our basic hypothesis is that mammalian pinealocytes have cycling electrical excitability and Ca2+ signalling that may contribute to the circadian rhythm of pineal melatonin secretion. This study asked whether the functional expression of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (CaV channels) in rat pinealocytes is changed by culturing them in noradrenaline (NA) as a surrogate for the night signal. Channel activity was assayed as ionic currents under patch clamp and as optical signals from a Ca2+-sensitive dye. Channel mRNAs were assayed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cultured without NA, pinealocytes showed only non-inactivating L-type dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca2+ current. After 24 h in NA, additional low-voltage activated transient Ca2+ current developed whose pharmacology and kinetics corresponded to a T-type CaV3.1 channel. This change was initiated by β-adrenergic receptors, cyclic AMP and protein kinase A as revealed by pharmacological experiments. mRNA for CaV3.1 T-type channels became significantly elevated, but mRNA for another T-type channel and for the major L-type channel did not change. After only 8 h of NA treatment, the CaV3.1 mRNA was already elevated, but the transient Ca2+ current was not. Even a 16 h wait without NA following the 8 h NA treatment induced little additional transient current. However, these cells were somehow primed to make transient current as a second NA exposure for only 60 min sufficed to induce large T-type currents. The NA-induced T-type channel mediated an increased Ca2+ entry during short depolarizations and supported modest transient electrical responses to depolarizing stimuli. Such experiments reveal the potential for circadian regulation of excitability. PMID:25504572

  10. Prevalence of gingival enlargement secondary to calcium channel blockers in patients with cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pedaballi, Priya; Sundaram, Rajasekar; Ramachandran, Mythili

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and extent of gingival overgrowth in patients treated with calcium channel blockers for cardiovascular diseases. Background: Calcium channel blockers are widely used in the treatment of hypertension, vasoplastic angina, and cardiacarrythmias. Gingival overgrowth resulting from the use of calcium channel blockers is of primary concern to dentists. The purpose of the present study is to determine the prevalence and extent of gingival overgrowth in patients treated with calcium channel blockers for various cardiovascular diseases, to assess their periodontal status and to correlate the factors like age, sex, duration, dosage, type of drugs that result in gingival overgrowth. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done in cardiac patients treated with calcium channel blockers, visiting The Railway hospital, Perumbur, Chennai. Information regarding medical history, type, duration, dosage of medication were recorded and analyzed. The periodontal condition of the patients was assessed using the plaque index, gingival index, calculus index, papillary bleeding index, and extent of gingival overgrowth using appropriate indices. The data was later subjected to statistical analysis. Results: In this study, a total of 213 cardiac patients (145 males and 68 females) who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were screened. The patients were between 19 and 69 years. Conclusions: From the results of the present study it can be concluded that gingival overgrowth does occur with calcium channel blockers. Elderly males appeared to be more susceptible to the development of drug-induced gingival overgrowth, which was independent of dosage, duration of drug administered but the presence of local factors seemed to aggravate the same. PMID:23162342

  11. Modulation of mechanosensitive calcium-selective cation channels by temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, J. P.; Pickard, B. G.

    1993-01-01

    Gating of associations of mechanosensitive Ca(2+)-selective cation co-channels in the plasmalemma of onion epidermis has a strong and unusual temperature dependence. Tension-dependent activity rises steeply as temperature is lowered from 25 degrees C to about 6 degrees C, but drops to a low level at about 5 degrees C. Under the conditions tested (with Mg2+ and K+ at the cytosolic face of outside-out membrane patches), promotion results both from more bursting at all observed linkage levels and from longer duration of bursts of co-channels linked as quadruplets and quintuplets. Co-channel conductance decreases linearly, but only modestly, with declining temperature. It is proposed that these and related mechanosensitive channels may participate in a variety of responses to temperature, including thermonasty, thermotropism, hydrotropism, and both cold damage and cold acclimation.

  12. Calcium channels of schistosomes: unresolved questions and unexpected answers

    PubMed Central

    Salvador-Recatalà, Vicenta; Greenberg, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma are the causative agents of schistosomiasis, a highly prevalent, neglected tropical disease that causes significant morbidity in hundreds of millions of people worldwide. The current treatment of choice against schistosomiasis is praziquantel (PZQ), which is known to affect Ca2+ homeostasis in schistosomes, but which has an undefined molecular target and mode of action. PZQ is the only available antischistosomal drug in most parts of the world, making reports of PZQ resistance particularly troubling. Voltage-gated Ca2+ (Cav) channels have been proposed as possible targets for PZQ, and, given their central role in the neuromuscular system, may also serve as targets for new anthelmintic therapeutics. Indeed, ion channels constitute the majority of targets for current anthelmintics. Cav channel subunits from schistosomes and other platyhelminths have several unique properties that make them attractive as potential drug targets, and that could also provide insights into structure-function relationships in, and evolution of, Cav channels. PMID:22347719

  13. Fibroblast Growth Factor Homologous Factors Modulate Cardiac Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Hennessey, Jessica A.; Wei, Eric Q.; Pitt, Geoffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) homologous factors (FHFs, FGF11-14) are intracellular modulators of voltage-gated Na+ channels, but their cellular distribution in cardiomyocytes indicated that they performed other functions. Objective We aimed to uncover novel roles for FHFs in cardiomyocytes starting with a proteomic approach to identify novel interacting proteins. Methods and Results Affinity purification of FGF13 from rodent ventricular lysates followed by mass spectroscopy revealed an interaction with Junctophilin-2, a protein that organizes the close apposition of the L-type Ca2+ channel, CaV1.2, and the ryanodine receptor, RyR2, in the dyad. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed overall T-tubule structure and localization RyR2 were unaffected by FGF13 knockdown in adult ventricular cardiomyocytes, but localization of CaV1.2 was affected. FGF13 knockdown decreased CaV1.2 current density, and reduced the amount of CaV1.2 at the surface due to aberrant localization of the channels. CaV1.2 current density and channel localization were rescued by expression of an shRNA-insensitive FGF13, indicating a specific role for FGF13. Consistent with these newly discovered effects on CaV1.2, we demonstrated that FGF13 also regulated Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release, indicated by a smaller Ca2+ transient after FGF13 knockdown. Further, FGF13 knockdown caused a profound decrease in the cardiac action potential half width. Conclusions This study demonstrates that FHFs are not only potent modulators voltage-gated Na+ channels, but also affect Ca2+ channels and their function. We predict that FHF loss-of-function mutations would adversely affect currents through both Na+ and Ca2+ channels, suggesting that FHFs may be arrhythmogenic loci, leading to arrhythmias through a novel, dual-ion channel mechanism. PMID:23804213

  14. Antibody-mediated targeting of the Orai1 calcium channel inhibits T cell function.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jennifer H; Hussell, Scott; Søndergaard, Henrik; Roepstorff, Kirstine; Bui, John-Vu; Deer, Jen Running; Zhang, Jun; Li, Zhan-Guo; Lamberth, Kasper; Kvist, Peter Helding; Padkjær, Søren; Haase, Claus; Zahn, Stefan; Odegard, Valerie H

    2013-01-01

    Despite the attractiveness of ion channels as therapeutic targets, there are no examples of monoclonal antibodies directed against ion channels in clinical development. Antibody-mediated inhibition of ion channels could offer a directed, specific therapeutic approach. To investigate the potential of inhibiting ion channel function with an antibody, we focused on Orai1, the pore subunit of the calcium channel responsible for store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in T cells. Effector T cells are key drivers of autoimmune disease pathogenesis and calcium signaling is essential for T cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production. We show here the generation of a specific anti-human Orai1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) against an extracellular loop of the plasma membrane-spanning protein. The anti-Orai1 mAb binds native Orai1 on lymphocytes and leads to cellular internalization of the channel. As a result, T cell proliferation, and cytokine production is inhibited in vitro. In vivo, anti-Orai1 mAb is efficacious in a human T cell-mediated graft-versus host disease (GvHD) mouse model. This study demonstrates the feasibility of antibody-mediated inhibition of Orai1 function and, more broadly, reveals the possibility of targeting ion channels with biologics for the treatment of autoimmunity and other diseases. PMID:24376610

  15. Ligand action on sodium, potassium, and calcium channels: role of permeant ions.

    PubMed

    Zhorov, Boris S; Tikhonov, Denis B

    2013-03-01

    Ion channels are targets for many naturally occurring toxins and small-molecule drugs. Despite great progress in the X-ray crystallography of ion channels, we still do not have a complete understanding of the atomistic mechanisms of channel modulation by ligands. In particular, the importance of the simultaneous interaction of permeant ions with the ligand and the channel protein has not been the focus of much attention. Considering these interactions often allows one to rationalize the highly diverse experimental data within the framework of relatively simple structural models. This has been illustrated in earlier studies on the action of local anesthetics, sodium channel activators, as well as blockers of potassium and calcium channels. Here, we discuss the available data with a view to understanding the use-, voltage-, and current carrying cation-dependence of the ligand action, paradoxes in structure--activity relationships, and effects of mutations in these ion channels.

  16. Microdamage induced calcium efflux from bone matrix activates intracellular calcium signaling in osteoblasts via L-type and T-type voltage-gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyungjin; Best, Makenzie; Akkus, Ozan

    2015-07-01

    Mechanisms by which bone microdamage triggers repair response are not completely understood. It has been shown that calcium efflux ([Ca(2+)]E) occurs from regions of bone undergoing microdamage. Such efflux has also been shown to trigger intracellular calcium signaling ([Ca(2+)]I) in MC3T3-E1 cells local to damaged regions. Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are implicated in the entry of [Ca(2+)]E to the cytoplasm. We investigated the involvement of VGCC in the extracellular calcium induced intracellular calcium response (ECIICR). MC3T3-E1 cells were subjected to one dimensional calcium efflux from their basal aspect which results in an increase in [Ca(2+)]I. This increase was concomitant with membrane depolarization and it was significantly reduced in the presence of Bepridil, a non-selective VGCC inhibitor. To identify specific type(s) of VGCC in ECIICR, the cells were treated with selective inhibitors for different types of VGCC. Significant changes in the peak intensity and the number of [Ca(2+)]I oscillations were observed when L-type and T-type specific VGCC inhibitors (Verapamil and NNC55-0396, respectively) were used. So as to confirm the involvement of L- and T-type VGCC in the context of microdamage, cells were seeded on devitalized notched bone specimen, which were loaded to induce microdamage in the presence and absence of Verapamil and NNC55-0396. The results showed significant decrease in [Ca(2+)]I activity of cells in the microdamaged regions of bone when L- and T-type blockers were applied. This study demonstrated that extracellular calcium increase in association with damage depolarizes the cell membrane and the calcium ions enter the cell cytoplasm by L- and T-type VGCCs.

  17. Energetics of divalent selectivity in a calcium channel: the ryanodine receptor case study.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Dirk

    2008-02-15

    A model of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) calcium channel is used to study the energetics of binding selectivity of Ca(2+) versus monovalent cations. RyR is a calcium-selective channel with a DDDD locus in the selectivity filter, similar to the EEEE locus of the L-type calcium channel. While the affinity of RyR for Ca(2+) is in the millimolar range (as opposed to the micromolar range of the L-type channel), the ease of single-channel measurements compared to L-type and its similar selectivity filter make RyR an excellent candidate for studying calcium selectivity. A Poisson-Nernst-Planck/density functional theory model of RyR is used to calculate the energetics of selectivity. Ca(2+) versus monovalent selectivity is driven by the charge/space competition mechanism in which selectivity arises from a balance of electrostatics and the excluded volume of ions in the crowded selectivity filter. While electrostatic terms dominate the selectivity, the much smaller excluded-volume term also plays a substantial role. In the D4899N and D4938N mutations of RyR that are analyzed, substantial changes in specific components of the chemical potential profiles are found far from the mutation site. These changes result in the significant reduction of Ca(2+) selectivity found in both theory and experiments.

  18. Contribution of potential EF hand motifs to the calcium-dependent gating of a mouse brain large conductance, calcium-sensitive K(+) channel.

    PubMed

    Braun, A P; Sy, L

    2001-06-15

    1. The large conductance, calcium-sensitive K(+) channel (BK(Ca) channel) is a unique member of the K(+)-selective ion channel family in that activation is dependent upon both direct calcium binding and membrane depolarization. Calcium binding acts to dynamically shift voltage-dependent gating in a negative or left-ward direction, thereby adjusting channel opening to changes in cellular membrane potential. 2. We hypothesized that the intrinsic calcium-binding site within the BK(Ca) channel alpha subunit may contain an EF hand motif, the most common, naturally occurring calcium binding structure. Following identification of six potential sites, we introduced a single amino acid substitution (D/E to N/Q or A) at the equivalent of the -z position of a bona fide EF hand that would be predicted to lower calcium binding affinity at each of the six sites. 3. Using macroscopic current recordings of wild-type and mutant BK(Ca) channels in excised inside-out membrane patches from HEK 293 cells, we observed that a single point mutation in the C-terminus (Site 6, FLD(923)QD to N), adjacent to the 'calcium bowl' described by Salkoff and colleagues, shifted calcium-sensitive gating right-ward by 50--65 mV over the range of 2--12 microM free calcium, but had little effect on voltage-dependent gating in the absence of calcium. Combining this mutation at Site 6 with a similar mutation at Site 1 (PVD(81)EK to N) in the N-terminus produced a greater shift (70--90 mV) in calcium-sensitive gating over the same range of calcium. We calculated that these combined mutations decreased the apparent calcium binding affinity approximately 11-fold (129.5 microM vs. 11.3 microm) compared to the wild-type channel. 4. We further observed that a bacterially expressed protein encompassing Site 6 of the BK(Ca) channel C-terminus and bovine brain calmodulin were both able to directly bind (45)Ca(2+) following denaturation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (e.g. SDS-PAGE). 5. Our results suggest

  19. LRRK2 Regulates Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel Function

    PubMed Central

    Bedford, Cade; Sears, Catherine; Perez-Carrion, Maria; Piccoli, Giovanni; Condliffe, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated Ca2+ (CaV) channels enable Ca2+ influx in response to membrane depolarization. CaV2.1 channels are localized to the presynaptic membrane of many types of neurons where they are involved in triggering neurotransmitter release. Several signaling proteins have been identified as important CaV2.1 regulators including protein kinases, G-proteins and Ca2+ binding proteins. Recently, we discovered that leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), a protein associated with inherited Parkinson’s disease, interacts with specific synaptic proteins and influences synaptic transmission. Since synaptic proteins functionally interact with CaV2.1 channels and synaptic transmission is triggered by Ca2+ entry via CaV2.1, we investigated whether LRRK2 could impact CaV2.1 channel function. CaV2.1 channel properties were measured using whole cell patch clamp electrophysiology in HEK293 cells transfected with CaV2.1 subunits and various LRRK2 constructs. Our results demonstrate that both wild type (wt) LRRK2 and the G2019S LRRK2 mutant caused a significant increase in whole cell Ca2+ current density compared to cells expressing only the CaV2.1 channel complex. In addition, LRRK2 expression caused a significant hyperpolarizing shift in voltage-dependent activation while having no significant effect on inactivation properties. These functional changes in CaV2.1 activity are likely due to a direct action of LRRK2 as we detected a physical interaction between LRRK2 and the β3 CaV channel subunit via coimmunoprecipitation. Furthermore, effects on CaV2.1 channel function are dependent on LRRK2 kinase activity as these could be reversed via treatment with a LRRK2 inhibitor. Interestingly, LRRK2 also augmented endogenous voltage-gated Ca2+ channel function in PC12 cells suggesting other CaV channels could also be regulated by LRRK2. Overall, our findings support a novel physiological role for LRRK2 in regulating CaV2.1 function that could have implications for how mutations in LRRK2

  20. Mechanosensory calcium-selective cation channels in epidermal cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, J. P.; Pickard, B. G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper explores the properties and likely functions of an epidermal Ca(2+)-selective cation channel complex activated by tension. As many as eight or nine linked or linkable equivalent conductance units or co-channels can open together. Open time for co-channel quadruplets and quintuplets tends to be relatively long with millimolar Mg2+ (but not millimolar Ca2+) at the cytosolic face of excised plasma membrane. Sensitivity to tension is regulated by transmembrane voltage and temperature. Under some circumstances channel activity is sychronized in rhythmic pulses. Certain lanthanides and a cytoskeleton-disturbing herbicide that inhibit gravitropic reception act on the channel system at low concentrations. Specifically, ethyl-N-phenylcarbamate promotes tension-dependent activity at micromolar levels. With moderate suction, Gd3+ provided at about 0.5 micromole at the extracellular face of the membrane promotes for several seconds but may then become inhibitory. Provision at 1-2 micromoles promotes and subsequently inhibits more vigorously (often abruptly and totally), and at high levels inhibits immediately. La3+, a poor gravitropic inhibitor, acts similarly but much more gradually and only at much higher concentrations. These properties, particularly these susceptibilities to modulation, indicate that in vivo the mechanosensitive channel must be mechanosensory and mechanoregulatory. It could serve to transduce the shear forces generated in the integrated wall-membrane-cytoskeleton system during turgor changes and cell expansion as well as transducing the stresses induced by gravity, touch and flexure. In so far as such transduction is modulated by voltage and temperature, the channels would also be sensors for these modalities as long as the wall-membrane-cytoskeleton system experiences mechanical stress.

  1. THE CRITICAL ROLE OF VOLTAGE-DEPENDENT CALCIUM CHANNEL IN AXONAL REPAIR FOLLOWING MECHANICAL TRAUMA

    PubMed Central

    Nehrt, Ashley; Rodgers, Richard; Shapiro, Scott; Borgens, Richard; Shi, Riyi

    2009-01-01

    Membrane disruption following mechanical injury likely plays a critical role in the pathology of spinal cord trauma. It is known that intracellular calcium is a key factor that is essential to membrane resealing. However, the differential role of calcium influx through the injury site and through voltage dependent calcium channels (VDCC) has not been examined in detail. Using a well established ex vivo guinea pig spinal cord white matter preparation, we have found that axonal membrane resealing was significantly inhibited following transection or compression in the presence of cadmiun, a non-specific calcium channel blocker, or nimodipine, a specific L-type calcium channel blocker. Membrane resealing was assessed by the changes of membrane potential and compound action potential (CAP), and exclusion of horseradish peroxidase 60 minutes following trauma. Furthermore, 1 μM BayK 8644, a VDCC agonist, significantly enhanced membrane resealing. Interestingly, this effect was completely abolished when the concentration of BayK 8644 was increased to 30 μM. These data suggest that VDCC play a critical role in membrane resealing. Further, there is likely an appropriate range of calcium influx through VDCC which ensures effective axonal membrane resealing. Since elevated intracellular calcium has also been linked to axonal deterioration, blockage of VDCC is proposed to be a clinical treatment for various injuries. The knowledge gained in this study will likely help us better understand the role of calcium in various CNS trauma, which is critical for designing new approaches or perhaps optimizing the effectiveness of existing methods in the treatment of CNS trauma. PMID:17448606

  2. A model of calcium dynamics in cardiac myocytes based on the kinetics of ryanodine-sensitive calcium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Y; Othmer, H G

    1994-01-01

    The ryanodine-sensitive calcium channels are pivotal to signal transduction and cell function in many cell types, including cardiac myocytes. In this paper a kinetic model is proposed for these channels. In the model there are two Ca regulatory sites on the channel protein, one positive and the other negative. Cytoplasmic Ca binds to these regulatory sites independently It is assumed that the binding of Ca to the positive site is a much faster process than binding to the negative site. At steady state, the channel opening as a function of the Ca concentration is a bell-shaped curve. The model predicts the adaptation of channels to constant Ca stimulus. When this model is applied to cardiac myocytes, it predicts excitability with respect to Ca perturbations, smoothly graded responses, and Ca oscillations in certain pathological circumstances. In a spatially distributed system, traveling Ca waves in individual myocytes exist under certain conditions. This model can also be applied to other systems where the ryanodine-sensitive channels have been identified. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 15 PMID:7696464

  3. The Role of Auxiliary Subunits for the Functional Diversity of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Campiglio, Marta; Flucher, Bernhard E

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) represent the sole mechanism to convert membrane depolarization into cellular functions like secretion, contraction, or gene regulation. VGCCs consist of a pore-forming α1 subunit and several auxiliary channel subunits. These subunits come in multiple isoforms and splice-variants giving rise to a stunning molecular diversity of possible subunit combinations. It is generally believed that specific auxiliary subunits differentially regulate the channels and thereby contribute to the great functional diversity of VGCCs. If auxiliary subunits can associate and dissociate from pre-existing channel complexes, this would allow dynamic regulation of channel properties. However, most auxiliary subunits modulate current properties very similarly, and proof that any cellular calcium channel function is indeed modulated by the physiological exchange of auxiliary subunits is still lacking. In this review we summarize available information supporting a differential modulation of calcium channel functions by exchange of auxiliary subunits, as well as experimental evidence in support of alternative functions of the auxiliary subunits. At the heart of the discussion is the concept that, in their native environment, VGCCs function in the context of macromolecular signaling complexes and that the auxiliary subunits help to orchestrate the diverse protein–protein interactions found in these calcium channel signalosomes. Thus, in addition to a putative differential modulation of current properties, differential subcellular targeting properties and differential protein–protein interactions of the auxiliary subunits may explain the need for their vast molecular diversity. J. Cell. Physiol. 999: 00–00, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 2019–2031, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25820299

  4. Identifying Calcium Channels and Porters in Plant Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, Heven

    1998-04-01

    The overall objectives of the proposal submitted in 6/90 was to understand how Ca was transported across plant membranes, and how these transport pathways were regulated. Ca participates in many cellular processes, including the transduction of hormonal and environmental signals, secretion, and protein folding. These processes depend on the coordination of passive Ca fluxes via channels and active Ca pumps; however these transport pathways are poorly understood in plants. We had, therefore, proposed to identify and characterize Ca transport proteins, such as the inositol-1 ,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive Ca channels and Ca pumps. We have had difficulties characterizing and cloning the IP3-sensitive Ca channel, but have made considerable progress on the biochemical characterization, and partial purification of a 120 kD Ca-pumping ATPase. We have begun to determine the structure of Ca pumps by molecular cloning and have already obtained a partial cDNA with features characteristic of Ca pumps.

  5. Calmodulin regulation (calmodulation) of voltage-gated calcium channels

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Johny, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Calmodulin regulation (calmodulation) of the family of voltage-gated CaV1-2 channels comprises a prominent prototype for ion channel regulation, remarkable for its powerful Ca2+ sensing capabilities, deep in elegant mechanistic lessons, and rich in biological and therapeutic implications. This field thereby resides squarely at the epicenter of Ca2+ signaling biology, ion channel biophysics, and therapeutic advance. This review summarizes the historical development of ideas in this field, the scope and richly patterned organization of Ca2+ feedback behaviors encompassed by this system, and the long-standing challenges and recent developments in discerning a molecular basis for calmodulation. We conclude by highlighting the considerable synergy between mechanism, biological insight, and promising therapeutics. PMID:24863929

  6. Anoctamin Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels May Modulate Inhibitory Transmission in the Cerebellar Cortex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiping; Schmelzeisen, Steffen; Parthier, Daniel; Frings, Stephan; Möhrlen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels of the anoctamin (alias TMEM16) protein family fulfill critical functions in epithelial fluid transport, smooth muscle contraction and sensory signal processing. Little is known, however, about their contribution to information processing in the central nervous system. Here we examined the recent finding that a calcium-dependent chloride conductance impacts on GABAergic synaptic inhibition in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. We asked whether anoctamin channels may underlie this chloride conductance. We identified two anoctamin channel proteins, ANO1 and ANO2, in the cerebellar cortex. ANO1 was expressed in inhibitory interneurons of the molecular layer and the granule cell layer. Both channels were expressed in Purkinje cells but, while ANO1 appeared to be retained in the cell body, ANO2 was targeted to the dendritic tree. Functional studies confirmed that ANO2 was involved in a calcium-dependent mode of ionic plasticity that reduces the efficacy of GABAergic synapses. ANO2 channels attenuated GABAergic transmission by increasing the postsynaptic chloride concentration, hence reducing the driving force for chloride influx. Our data suggest that ANO2 channels are involved in a Ca2+-dependent regulation of synaptic weight in GABAergic inhibition. Thus, in balance with the chloride extrusion mechanism via the co-transporter KCC2, ANO2 appears to regulate ionic plasticity in the cerebellum.

  7. Anoctamin Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels May Modulate Inhibitory Transmission in the Cerebellar Cortex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiping; Schmelzeisen, Steffen; Parthier, Daniel; Frings, Stephan; Möhrlen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels of the anoctamin (alias TMEM16) protein family fulfill critical functions in epithelial fluid transport, smooth muscle contraction and sensory signal processing. Little is known, however, about their contribution to information processing in the central nervous system. Here we examined the recent finding that a calcium-dependent chloride conductance impacts on GABAergic synaptic inhibition in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. We asked whether anoctamin channels may underlie this chloride conductance. We identified two anoctamin channel proteins, ANO1 and ANO2, in the cerebellar cortex. ANO1 was expressed in inhibitory interneurons of the molecular layer and the granule cell layer. Both channels were expressed in Purkinje cells but, while ANO1 appeared to be retained in the cell body, ANO2 was targeted to the dendritic tree. Functional studies confirmed that ANO2 was involved in a calcium-dependent mode of ionic plasticity that reduces the efficacy of GABAergic synapses. ANO2 channels attenuated GABAergic transmission by increasing the postsynaptic chloride concentration, hence reducing the driving force for chloride influx. Our data suggest that ANO2 channels are involved in a Ca2+-dependent regulation of synaptic weight in GABAergic inhibition. Thus, in balance with the chloride extrusion mechanism via the co-transporter KCC2, ANO2 appears to regulate ionic plasticity in the cerebellum. PMID:26558388

  8. Anoctamin Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels May Modulate Inhibitory Transmission in the Cerebellar Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Parthier, Daniel; Frings, Stephan; Möhrlen, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels of the anoctamin (alias TMEM16) protein family fulfill critical functions in epithelial fluid transport, smooth muscle contraction and sensory signal processing. Little is known, however, about their contribution to information processing in the central nervous system. Here we examined the recent finding that a calcium-dependent chloride conductance impacts on GABAergic synaptic inhibition in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. We asked whether anoctamin channels may underlie this chloride conductance. We identified two anoctamin channel proteins, ANO1 and ANO2, in the cerebellar cortex. ANO1 was expressed in inhibitory interneurons of the molecular layer and the granule cell layer. Both channels were expressed in Purkinje cells but, while ANO1 appeared to be retained in the cell body, ANO2 was targeted to the dendritic tree. Functional studies confirmed that ANO2 was involved in a calcium-dependent mode of ionic plasticity that reduces the efficacy of GABAergic synapses. ANO2 channels attenuated GABAergic transmission by increasing the postsynaptic chloride concentration, hence reducing the driving force for chloride influx. Our data suggest that ANO2 channels are involved in a Ca2+-dependent regulation of synaptic weight in GABAergic inhibition. Thus, in balance with the chloride extrusion mechanism via the co-transporter KCC2, ANO2 appears to regulate ionic plasticity in the cerebellum. PMID:26558388

  9. David J. Triggle: Medicinal chemistry, to pharmacology, calcium channels, and beyond.

    PubMed

    Walker, Michael J A

    2015-11-15

    David Triggle's scientific career began as a chemist, went through medicinal chemistry into pharmacology, and finally on to somewhat more philosophical interests in later years. It was a career marked by many contributions to all of those aspects of science. Chief amongst his many contributions, in addition to those in medicinal chemistry, was his work on the drugs known as calcium ion channel blockers or (calcium antagonists). In the calcium ion channel field he was a particularly instrumental figure in sorting out the mechanisms, actions and roles of the class of calcium channel blockers, known chemical and pharmacologically as the dihydropyridines (DHPs) in particular, as well as other calcium blockers of diverse structures. During the course of a long career, and extensive journeys into medicinal chemistry and pharmacology, he published voluminously in terms of papers, reviews, conference proceedings and books. Notably, many of his papers often had limited authorship where, as senior author it reflected his deep involvement in all aspects of the reported work. His work always helped clarify the field while his incisive reviews, together with his role in coordinating and running scientific meetings, were a great help in clarifying and organizing various fields of study. He has had a long and illustrious career, and is wellknown in the world of biomedical science; his contributions are appreciated, and well recognized everywhere. The following article attempts to chart a path through his work and contributions to medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, science, academia and students.

  10. Voltage-gated calcium channel and antisense oligonucleotides thereto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruska, Keith A. (Inventor); Friedman, Peter A. (Inventor); Barry, Elizabeth L. R. (Inventor); Duncan, Randall L. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An antisense oligonucleotide of 10 to 35 nucleotides in length that can hybridize with a region of the .alpha..sub.1 subunit of the SA-Cat channel gene DNA or mRNA is provided, together with pharmaceutical compositions containing and methods utilizing such antisense oligonucleotide.

  11. Evolutionary determinants of divergent calcium selectivity of TRPM channels.

    PubMed

    Mederos y Schnitzler, Michael; Wäring, Janine; Gudermann, Thomas; Chubanov, Vladimir

    2008-05-01

    The mammalian TRPM gene family can be subdivided into distinct categories of cation channels that are either highly permeable for Ca(2+) (TRPM3/6/7), nonselective (TRPM2/8), or even Ca(2+) impermeable (TRPM4/5). TRPM6/7 are fused to alpha-kinase domains, whereas TRPM2 is linked to an ADP-ribose phosphohydrolase (Nudix domain). At a molecular level, the evolutionary steps that gave rise to the structural and functional TRPM channel diversity remain elusive. Here, we provide phylogenetic evidence that Nudix-linked channels represent an ancestral type of TRPMs that is present in various phyla, ranging from protists to humans. Surprisingly, the pore-forming segments of invertebrate TRPM2-like proteins display high sequence similarity to those of Ca(2+)-selective TRPMs, while human TRPM2 is characterized by a loss of several conserved residues. Using the patch-clamp technique, Ca(2+) imaging, and site-directed mutagenesis, we demonstrate that restoration of only two "ancient" pore residues in human TRPM2 (Q981E/P983Y) significantly increased (approximately 4-fold) its permeability for Ca(2+). Conversely, introduction of a "modern" sequence motif into mouse TRPM7 (E1047Q/Y1049P) resulted in the loss of Ca(2+) permeation and a linear TRPM2-like current-voltage relationship. Overall, our findings provide an integrative view on the evolution of the domain architecture and the structural basis of the distinct ion permeation profiles of TRPM channels.

  12. Methamphetamine acutely inhibits voltage-gated calcium channels but chronically up-regulates L-type channels.

    PubMed

    Andres, Marilou A; Cooke, Ian M; Bellinger, Frederick P; Berry, Marla J; Zaporteza, Maribel M; Rueli, Rachel H; Barayuga, Stephanie M; Chang, Linda

    2015-07-01

    In neurons, calcium (Ca(2+) ) channels regulate a wide variety of functions ranging from synaptic transmission to gene expression. They also induce neuroplastic changes that alter gene expression following psychostimulant administration. Ca(2+) channel blockers have been considered as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of methamphetamine (METH) dependence because of their ability to reduce drug craving among METH users. Here, we studied the effects of METH exposure on voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels using SH-SY5Y cells as a model of dopaminergic neurons. We found that METH has different short- and long-term effects. A short-term effect involves immediate (< 5 min) direct inhibition of Ca(2+) ion movements through Ca(2+) channels. Longer exposure to METH (20 min or 48 h) selectively up-regulates the expression of only the CACNA1C gene, thus increasing the number of L-type Ca(2+) channels. This up-regulation of CACNA1C is associated with the expression of the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB), a known regulator of CACNA1C gene expression, and the MYC gene, which encodes a transcription factor that putatively binds to a site proximal to the CACNA1C gene transcription initiation site. The short-term inhibition of Ca(2+) ion movement and later, the up-regulation of Ca(2+) channel gene expression together suggest the operation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein- and C-MYC-mediated mechanisms to compensate for Ca(2+) channel inhibition by METH. Increased Ca(2+) current density and subsequent increased intracellular Ca(2+) may contribute to the neurodegeneration accompanying chronic METH abuse. Methamphetamine (METH) exposure has both short- and long-term effects. Acutely, methamphetamine directly inhibits voltage-gated calcium channels. Chronically, neurons compensate by up-regulating the L-type Ca(2+) channel gene, CACNA1C. This compensatory mechanism is mediated by transcription factors C-MYC and CREB, in which CREB is linked to the

  13. Discovery of novel bridged tetrahydronaphthalene derivatives as potent T/L-type calcium channel blockers.

    PubMed

    Renneberg, Dorte; Hubler, Francis; Rey, Markus; Hess, Patrick; Delahaye, Stephane; Gatfield, John; Iglarz, Marc; Hilpert, Kurt

    2015-09-15

    Chemical evolution of mibefradil resulted in the identification of novel bridged tetrahydronaphthalene derivatives as potent T/L-type calcium channel blockers. A SAR study, in vitro and in vivo DMPK properties as well as the in vivo antihypertensive effect in rats are presented.

  14. Calcium-activated chloride channels anoctamin 1 and 2 promote murine uterine smooth muscle contractility

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Kyra; Vink, Joy Y; Fu, Xiao Wen; Wakita, Hiromi; Danielsson, Jennifer; Wapner, Ronald; Gallos, George

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the presence of calcium activated chloride channels anoctamin 1 and 2 in human and murine uterine smooth muscle and evaluate the physiologic role for these ion channels in murine myometrial contractility. Study Design We performed reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to determine if anoctamin 1 and 2 are expressed in human and murine uterine tissue to validate the study of this protein in mouse models. Immunohistochemical staining of anoctamin 1 and 2 was then performed to determine protein expression in murine myometrial tissue. The function of anoctamin 1 and 2 in murine uterine tissue was evaluated using electrophysiological studies, organ bath, and calcium flux experiments. Results Anoctamin 1 and 2 are expressed in human and murine USM cells. Functional studies show that selective antagonism of these channels promotes relaxation of spontaneous murine uterine smooth muscle contractions. Blockade of anoctamin 1 and 2 inhibits both agonist-induced and spontaneous transient inward currents and abolishes G-protein coupled receptor (oxytocin) mediated elevations in intracellular calcium. Conclusion The calcium activated chloride channels ANO 1 and 2 are present in human and murine myometrial tissue and may provide novel potential therapeutic targets to achieve effective tocolysis. PMID:24928056

  15. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Release Channels in Ventricles of Older Adult Hamsters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholl, Peter A.; Howlett, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    Whether the density of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium release channels/ryanodine receptors in the heart declines with age is not clear. We investigated age-related changes in the density of [3H]-ryanodine receptors in crude ventricular homogenates, which contained all ligand binding sites in heart and in isolated junctional SR membranes.…

  16. L-type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Conditioned Fear: A Genetic and Pharmacological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Brandon C.; Sze, Wilson; White, Jessica A.; Murphy, Geoffrey G.

    2008-01-01

    Using pharmacological approaches, others have suggested that L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs) mediate both consolidation and extinction of conditioned fear. In the absence of L-VGCC isoform-specific antagonists, we have begun to investigate the subtype-specific role of LVGCCs in consolidation and extinction of conditioned fear…

  17. [Discovering L-type calcium channels inhibitors of antihypertensive drugs based on drug repositioning].

    PubMed

    Liang, Ying-xi; He, Yu-su; Jiang, Lu-di; Yue, Qiao-xin; Cui, Shuai; Bin, Li; Ye, Xiao-tong; Zhang, Xiao-hua; Zhang, Yang-ling

    2015-09-01

    This study was amid to construct the pharmacophore model of L-type calcium channel antagonist in the application of screening Drugbank and TCMD. This paper repositions the approved drugs resulting from virtual screening and discusses the relocation-based drug discovery methods, screening antihypertensive drugs with L-type calcium channel function from TCMD. Qualitative hypotheses wre generated by HipHop separately on the basis of 12 compounds with antagonistic action on L-type calcium channel expressed in rabbit cardiac muscle. Datebase searching method was used to evaluate the generated hypotheses. The optimum hypothesis was used to search Drugbank and TCMD. This paper repositions the approved drugs and evaluates the antihypertensive effect of the chemical constituent of traditional Chinese medicine resulting from virtual screening by the matching score and literature. The results showed that optimum qualitative hypothesis is with six features, which were two hydrogen-bond acceptors, four hydrophobic groups, and the CAI value of 2.78. Screening Drugbank achieves 93 approved drugs. Screening TCMD achieves 285 chemical constituents of traditional Chinese medicine. It was concluded that the hypothesis is reliable and can be used to screen datebase. The approved drugs resulting from virtual screening, such as pravastatin, are potentially L-type calcium channels inhibitors. The chemical constituents of traditional Chinese medicine, such as Arctigenin III and Arctigenin are potentially antihypertensive drugs. It indicates that Drug Repositioning based on hypothesis is possible. PMID:26983215

  18. Immunosuppressive Interactions among Calcium Channel Antagonists and Selected Corticosteroids and Macrolides Using Human whole Blood Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Fung-Sing; Jusko, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The immunosuppressive interactions of calcium channel antagonists [diltiazem (Dil), verapamil (Ver) and nifedipine (Nif)], with corticosteroids [methylprednisolone (Mpl), prednisolone (Prd)], and macrolides [tacrolimus (Tac) and sirolnnus (Sir)] were examined in human whole blood lymphocyte cultures. Gender-related differences in responses in the interactions between these drug classes were studied using blood from 6 males and 6 females. The nature and intensity of interactions were determined using an extended Loewe additivity model. All immunosuppressants exhibited higher potency than the calcium channel antagonists with mean IC50 values of: Dil (mM)Ver (mM)Nif (mM)Mpl (nM)Prd (nM)Tac (nM)Sir (nM)Male13541.921312.118.6150327Female11431.847.44.68.8111106 Gender-related differences in responses to Mpl and Prd were observed while the others were not significant. Additive interactions were found among calcium channel antagonists and corticosteroids. Significant synergistic interactions were observed between calcium channel antagonists and tacrolimus and sirolimus, although these are unlikely to be of clinical importance. These studies demonstrate diverse drug interactions in the examination of an important array of immunosuppressant drug combinations. PMID:15681895

  19. Interactions between diltiazem and ethanol: differences from those seen with dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists.

    PubMed

    Watson, W P; Little, H J

    1994-03-01

    It has previously been shown that dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists prevent the ethanol withdrawal syndrome and potentiate the acute effects of ethanol and other central depressant drugs. We now report that, in contrast, the benzothiazepine calcium channel antagonist, diltiazem, gave no protection against the behavioural hyperexcitability seen during ethanol withdrawal, when given either acutely, on withdrawal, or chronically, during the ethanol treatment. A significant increase in convulsive behaviour on handling was seen during the withdrawal period when diltiazem was given on cessation of a mild chronic ethanol treatment schedule. Diltiazem decreased the acute general anaesthetic effects of ethanol, and did not appear to potentiate the ataxic action of ethanol. Centrally administered diltiazem did not enhance the hypothermic action of ethanol, but this effect was significantly increased by diltiazem when the calcium channel antagonist was given peripherally. When given alone by the intraperitoneal route, diltiazem decreased spontaneous locomotor activity and lowered body temperature. When the intracerebral route was used for administration of diltiazem, a significantly decrease in body temperature was seen when this compound was given alone, accompanied by a brief hyperexcitability. The interactions between ethanol and diltiazem therefore appear to differ from those seen with other calcium channel antagonists.

  20. [Discovering L-type calcium channels inhibitors of antihypertensive drugs based on drug repositioning].

    PubMed

    Liang, Ying-xi; He, Yu-su; Jiang, Lu-di; Yue, Qiao-xin; Cui, Shuai; Bin, Li; Ye, Xiao-tong; Zhang, Xiao-hua; Zhang, Yang-ling

    2015-09-01

    This study was amid to construct the pharmacophore model of L-type calcium channel antagonist in the application of screening Drugbank and TCMD. This paper repositions the approved drugs resulting from virtual screening and discusses the relocation-based drug discovery methods, screening antihypertensive drugs with L-type calcium channel function from TCMD. Qualitative hypotheses wre generated by HipHop separately on the basis of 12 compounds with antagonistic action on L-type calcium channel expressed in rabbit cardiac muscle. Datebase searching method was used to evaluate the generated hypotheses. The optimum hypothesis was used to search Drugbank and TCMD. This paper repositions the approved drugs and evaluates the antihypertensive effect of the chemical constituent of traditional Chinese medicine resulting from virtual screening by the matching score and literature. The results showed that optimum qualitative hypothesis is with six features, which were two hydrogen-bond acceptors, four hydrophobic groups, and the CAI value of 2.78. Screening Drugbank achieves 93 approved drugs. Screening TCMD achieves 285 chemical constituents of traditional Chinese medicine. It was concluded that the hypothesis is reliable and can be used to screen datebase. The approved drugs resulting from virtual screening, such as pravastatin, are potentially L-type calcium channels inhibitors. The chemical constituents of traditional Chinese medicine, such as Arctigenin III and Arctigenin are potentially antihypertensive drugs. It indicates that Drug Repositioning based on hypothesis is possible.

  1. Neuroleptics of the diphenylbutylpiperidine series are potent calcium channel inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Galizzi, J P; Fosset, M; Romey, G; Laduron, P; Lazdunski, M

    1986-01-01

    [3H]Fluspirilene, a neuroleptic molecule of the diphenylbutylpiperidine series, binds to skeletal muscle transverse tubule membranes with a high affinity corresponding to a Kd of 0.11 +/- 0.04 nM, A 1:1 stoichiometry was found between [3H]fluspirilene binding and the binding of (-)-[3H]desmethoxyverapamil [(-)[3H]D888], one of the most potent Ca2+ channel inhibitors. Ca2+ channel inhibitors such as D888, verapamil, gallopamil, bepridil, or diltiazem antagonize [3H]fluspirilene binding besides antagonizing (-)[3H]-D888 binding. Neuroleptics, especially those of the diphenylbutylpiperidine family, also antagonize both (-)[3H]D888 binding and [3H]fluspirilene binding. There is an excellent correlation between affinities found from [3H]fluspirilene binding experiments and those found from (-)[3H]D888 binding experiments. Analysis of the properties of these cross-inhibitions indicates that [3H]fluspirilene binds to a site that is not identical to that for phenylalkylamine derivatives (gallopamil, verapamil, diltiazem, and bepridil). Voltage-clamp experiments have shown that fluspirilene is an efficient inhibitor of the voltage dependent Ca2+ channel, achieving a half-maximal effect near 0.1-0.2 nM and nearly complete blockade at 1 nM. Fluspirilene blockade has little voltage dependence. PMID:2429309

  2. L-type calcium channel β subunit modulates angiotensin II responses in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Tamara; Moreno, Cristian; Itfinca, Mircea; Altier, Christophe; Armisén, Ricardo; Stutzin, Andres; Zamponi, Gerald W; Varela, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Angiotensin II regulation of L-type calcium currents in cardiac muscle is controversial and the underlying signaling events are not completely understood. Moreover, the possible role of auxiliary subunit composition of the channels in Angiotensin II modulation of L-type calcium channels has not yet been explored. In this work we study the role of Ca(v)β subunits and the intracellular signaling responsible for L-type calcium current modulation by Angiotensin II. In cardiomyocytes, Angiotensin II exposure induces rapid inhibition of L-type current with a magnitude that is correlated with the rate of current inactivation. Semi-quantitative PCR of cardiomyocytes at different days of culture reveals changes in the Ca(v)β subunits expression pattern that are correlated with the rate of current inactivation and with Angiotensin II effect. Over-expression of individual b subunits in heterologous systems reveals that the magnitude of Angiotensin II inhibition is dependent on the Ca(v)β subunit isoform, with Ca(v)β(1b) containing channels being more strongly regulated. Ca(v)β(2a) containing channels were insensitive to modulation and this effect was partially due to the N-terminal palmitoylation sites of this subunit. Moreover, PLC or diacylglycerol lipase inhibition prevents the Angiotensin II effect on L-type calcium channels, while PKC inhibition with chelerythrine does not, suggesting a role of arachidonic acid in this process. Finally, we show that in intact cardiomyocytes the magnitude of calcium transients on spontaneous beating cells is modulated by Angiotensin II in a Ca(v)β subunit-dependent manner. These data demonstrate that Ca(v)β subunits alter the magnitude of inhibition of L-type current by Angiotensin II. PMID:21525790

  3. Atypical calcium regulation of the PKD2-L1 polycystin ion channel.

    PubMed

    DeCaen, Paul G; Liu, Xiaowen; Abiria, Sunday; Clapham, David E

    2016-01-01

    Native PKD2-L1 channel subunits are present in primary cilia and other restricted cellular spaces. Here we investigate the mechanism for the channel's unusual regulation by external calcium, and rationalize this behavior to its specialized function. We report that the human PKD2-L1 selectivity filter is partially selective to calcium ions (Ca(2+)) moving into the cell, but blocked by high internal Ca(2+)concentrations, a unique feature of this transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family member. Surprisingly, we find that the C-terminal EF-hands and coiled-coil domains do not contribute to PKD2-L1 Ca(2+)-induced potentiation and inactivation. We propose a model in which prolonged channel activity results in calcium accumulation, triggering outward-moving Ca(2+) ions to block PKD2-L1 in a high-affinity interaction with the innermost acidic residue (D523) of the selectivity filter and subsequent long-term channel inactivation. This response rectifies Ca(2+) flow, enabling Ca(2+) to enter but not leave small compartments such as the cilium. PMID:27348301

  4. Atypical calcium regulation of the PKD2-L1 polycystin ion channel

    PubMed Central

    DeCaen, Paul G; Liu, Xiaowen; Abiria, Sunday; Clapham, David E

    2016-01-01

    Native PKD2-L1 channel subunits are present in primary cilia and other restricted cellular spaces. Here we investigate the mechanism for the channel's unusual regulation by external calcium, and rationalize this behavior to its specialized function. We report that the human PKD2-L1 selectivity filter is partially selective to calcium ions (Ca2+) moving into the cell, but blocked by high internal Ca2+concentrations, a unique feature of this transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family member. Surprisingly, we find that the C-terminal EF-hands and coiled-coil domains do not contribute to PKD2-L1 Ca2+-induced potentiation and inactivation. We propose a model in which prolonged channel activity results in calcium accumulation, triggering outward-moving Ca2+ ions to block PKD2-L1 in a high-affinity interaction with the innermost acidic residue (D523) of the selectivity filter and subsequent long-term channel inactivation. This response rectifies Ca2+ flow, enabling Ca2+ to enter but not leave small compartments such as the cilium. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13413.001 PMID:27348301

  5. The TRPV5/6 calcium channels contain multiple calmodulin binding sites with differential binding properties.

    PubMed

    Kovalevskaya, Nadezda V; Bokhovchuk, Fedir M; Vuister, Geerten W

    2012-06-01

    The epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV5/6 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 5/6) are thoroughly regulated in order to fine-tune the amount of Ca(2+) reabsorption. Calmodulin has been shown to be involved into calcium-dependent inactivation of TRPV5/6 channels by binding directly to the distal C-terminal fragment of the channels (de Groot et al. in Mol Cell Biol 31:2845-2853, 12). Here, we investigate this binding in detail and find significant differences between TRPV5 and TRPV6. We also identify and characterize in vitro four other CaM binding fragments of TRPV5/6, which likely are also involved in TRPV5/6 channel regulation. The five CaM binding sites display diversity in binding modes, binding stoichiometries and binding affinities, which may fine-tune the response of the channels to varying Ca(2+)-concentrations. PMID:22354706

  6. Neuronal calcium channel antagonists. Discrimination between calcium channel subtypes using omega-conotoxin from Conus magus venom

    SciTech Connect

    Olivera, B.M.; Cruz, L.J.; de Santos, V.; LeCheminant, G.W.; Griffin, D.; Zeikus, R.; McIntosh, M.; Galyean, R.; Varga, J.; Gray, W.R.; Rivier, J.

    1987-04-21

    The omega-conotoxins from the venom of fish-hunting cone snails are probably the most useful of presently available ligands for neuronal Ca channels from vertebrates. Two of these peptide toxins, omega-conotoxins MVIIA and MVIIB from the venom of Conus magus, were purified. The amino acid sequences show significant differences from omega-conotoxins from Conus geographus. Total synthesis of omega-conotoxin MVIIA was achieved, and biologically active radiolabeled toxin was produced by iodination. Although omega-conotoxins from C. geographus (GVIA) and C. magus (MVIIA) appear to compete for the same sites in mammalian brain, in amphibian brain the high-affinity binding of omega-conotoxin MVIIA has narrower specificity. In this system, it is demonstrated that a combination of two omega-conotoxins can be used for biochemically defining receptor subtypes and suggested that these correspond to subtypes of neutronal Ca/sup 2 +/ channels.

  7. Calcium channel blockers as potential therapeutics for obesity-associated autophagy defects and fatty liver pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hwan-Woo; Lee, Jun Hee

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), typically associated with overnutrition and obesity, is one of the most common liver diseases both in the US and worldwide. During obesity and NAFLD, lipotoxic injuries to hepatocytes can provoke formation of protein inclusions consisting of SQSTM1/p62 and ubiquitinated proteins. It has been suggested that autophagy deregulation during obesity contributes to protein inclusion formation and progression of other liver pathologies including insulin resistance, steatohepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. To examine how lipotoxicity and obesity affect autophagy, we established an in vitro system where cultured HepG2 cells exhibit prominent accumulation of SQSTM1 and ubiquitinated proteins in insoluble inclusion bodies upon treatment with saturated fatty acids. Using this system and a mouse model of obesity, we have determined that obesity induces chronic elevation of cytosolic calcium levels in hepatocytes, which interferes with the fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes. Intriguingly, pharmacological inhibition of calcium channels using the FDA-approved drug verapamil successfully restores autophagic flux and suppresses protein inclusions, not only in HepG2 cells but also in mouse liver. Verapamil also reduces hepatic lipid droplet accumulation, insulin resistance and steatohepatitis, suggesting that calcium channel blockers can be used for correction of general NAFLD pathologies. Indeed, there have been a number of clinical observations in which beneficial effects of calcium channel blockers against obesity-associated metabolic pathologies are observed in humans and animal models. PMID:25484079

  8. Calcium channel inhibition accelerates polycystic kidney disease progression in the Cy/+ rat.

    PubMed

    Nagao, S; Nishii, K; Yoshihara, D; Kurahashi, H; Nagaoka, K; Yamashita, T; Takahashi, H; Yamaguchi, T; Calvet, J P; Wallace, D P

    2008-02-01

    In polycystic kidney disease, abnormal epithelial cell proliferation is the main factor leading to cyst formation and kidney enlargement. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is mitogenic in cystic but antimitogenic in normal human kidney cells, which is due to reduced steady-state intracellular calcium levels in cystic compared to the normal cells. Inhibition of intracellular calcium entry with channel blockers, such as verapamil, induced cAMP-dependent cell proliferation in normal renal cells. To determine if calcium channel blockers have a similar effect on cell proliferation in vivo, Cy/+ rats, a model of dominant polycystic kidney disease, were treated with verapamil. Kidney weight and cyst index were elevated in verapamil-treated Cy/+ rats. This was associated with increased cell proliferation and apoptosis, elevated expression, and phosphorylation of B-Raf with stimulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase MEK/ERK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular-regulated kinase) pathway. Verapamil had no effect on kidney morphology or B-Raf stimulation in wild-type rats. We conclude that treatment of Cy/+ rats with calcium channel blockers increases activity of the B-Raf/MEK/ERK pathway accelerating cyst growth in the presence of endogenous cAMP, thus exacerbating renal cystic disease.

  9. Putative calcium-binding domains of the Caenorhabditis elegans BK channel are dispensable for intoxication and ethanol activation.

    PubMed

    Davis, S J; Scott, L L; Ordemann, G; Philpo, A; Cohn, J; Pierce-Shimomura, J T

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol modulates the highly conserved, voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel, which contributes to alcohol-mediated behaviors in species from worms to humans. Previous studies have shown that the calcium-sensitive domains, RCK1 and the Ca(2+) bowl, are required for ethanol activation of the mammalian BK channel in vitro. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, ethanol activates the BK channel in vivo, and deletion of the worm BK channel, SLO-1, confers strong resistance to intoxication. To determine if the conserved RCK1 and calcium bowl domains were also critical for intoxication and basal BK channel-dependent behaviors in C. elegans, we generated transgenic worms that express mutated SLO-1 channels predicted to have the RCK1, Ca(2+) bowl or both domains rendered insensitive to calcium. As expected, mutating these domains inhibited basal function of SLO-1 in vivo as neck and body curvature of these mutants mimicked that of the BK null mutant. Unexpectedly, however, mutating these domains singly or together in SLO-1 had no effect on intoxication in C. elegans. Consistent with these behavioral results, we found that ethanol activated the SLO-1 channel in vitro with or without these domains. By contrast, in agreement with previous in vitro findings, C. elegans harboring a human BK channel with mutated calcium-sensing domains displayed resistance to intoxication. Thus, for the worm SLO-1 channel, the putative calcium-sensitive domains are critical for basal in vivo function but unnecessary for in vivo ethanol action.

  10. Single-channel Analysis and Calcium Imaging in the Podocytes of the Freshly Isolated Glomeruli.

    PubMed

    Ilatovskaya, Daria V; Palygin, Oleg; Levchenko, Vladislav; Staruschenko, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Podocytes (renal glomerular epithelial cells) are known to regulate glomerular permeability and maintain glomerular structure; a key role for these cells in the pathogenesis of various renal diseases has been established since podocyte injury leads to proteinuria and foot process effacement. It was previously reported that various endogenous agents may cause a dramatic overload in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in podocytes, presumably leading to albuminuria, and this likely occurs via calcium-conducting ion channels. Therefore, it appeared important to study calcium handling in the podocytes both under normal conditions and in various pathological states. However, available experimental approaches have remained somewhat limited to cultured and transfected cells. Although they represent a good basic model for such studies, they are essentially extracted from the native environment of the glomerulus. Here we describe the methodology of studying podocytes as a part of the freshly isolated whole glomerulus. This preparation retains the functional potential of the podocytes, which are still attached to the capillaries; therefore, podocytes remain in the environment that conserves the major parts of the glomeruli filtration apparatus. The present manuscript elaborates on two experimental approaches that allow 1) real-time detection of calcium concentration changes with the help of ratiometric confocal fluorescence microscopy, and 2) the recording of the single ion channels activity in the podocytes of the freshly isolated glomeruli. These methodologies utilize the advantages of the native environment of the glomerulus that enable researchers to resolve acute changes in the intracellular calcium handling in response to applications of various agents, measure basal concentration of calcium within the cells (for instance, to evaluate disease progression), and assess and manipulate calcium conductance at the level of single ion channels. PMID:26167808

  11. Single-channel Analysis and Calcium Imaging in the Podocytes of the Freshly Isolated Glomeruli

    PubMed Central

    Ilatovskaya, Daria V.; Palygin, Oleg; Levchenko, Vladislav; Staruschenko, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Podocytes (renal glomerular epithelial cells) are known to regulate glomerular permeability and maintain glomerular structure; a key role for these cells in the pathogenesis of various renal diseases has been established since podocyte injury leads to proteinuria and foot process effacement. It was previously reported that various endogenous agents may cause a dramatic overload in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in podocytes, presumably leading to albuminuria, and this likely occurs via calcium-conducting ion channels. Therefore, it appeared important to study calcium handling in the podocytes both under normal conditions and in various pathological states. However, available experimental approaches have remained somewhat limited to cultured and transfected cells. Although they represent a good basic model for such studies, they are essentially extracted from the native environment of the glomerulus. Here we describe the methodology of studying podocytes as a part of the freshly isolated whole glomerulus. This preparation retains the functional potential of the podocytes, which are still attached to the capillaries; therefore, podocytes remain in the environment that conserves the major parts of the glomeruli filtration apparatus. The present manuscript elaborates on two experimental approaches that allow 1) real-time detection of calcium concentration changes with the help of ratiometric confocal fluorescence microscopy, and 2) the recording of the single ion channels activity in the podocytes of the freshly isolated glomeruli. These methodologies utilize the advantages of the native environment of the glomerulus that enable researchers to resolve acute changes in the intracellular calcium handling in response to applications of various agents, measure basal concentration of calcium within the cells (for instance, to evaluate disease progression), and assess and manipulate calcium conductance at the level of single ion channels. PMID:26167808

  12. Zebrafish CaV2.1 Calcium Channels Are Tailored for Fast Synchronous Neuromuscular Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, David; Wen, Hua; Brehm, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The CaV2.2 (N-type) and CaV2.1 (P/Q-type) voltage-dependent calcium channels are prevalent throughout the nervous system where they mediate synaptic transmission, but the basis for the selective presence at individual synapses still remains an open question. The CaV2.1 channels have been proposed to respond more effectively to brief action potentials (APs), an idea supported by computational modeling. However, the side-by-side comparison of CaV2.1 and CaV2.2 kinetics in intact neurons failed to reveal differences. As an alternative means for direct functional comparison we expressed zebrafish CaV2.1 and CaV2.2 α-subunits, along with their accessory subunits, in HEK293 cells. HEK cells lack calcium currents, thereby circumventing the need for pharmacological inhibition of mixed calcium channel isoforms present in neurons. HEK cells also have a simplified morphology compared to neurons, which improves voltage control. Our measurements revealed faster kinetics and shallower voltage-dependence of activation and deactivation for CaV2.1. Additionally, recordings of calcium current in response to a command waveform based on the motorneuron AP show, directly, more effective activation of CaV2.1. Analysis of calcium currents associated with the AP waveform indicate an approximately fourfold greater open probability (PO) for CaV2.1. The efficient activation of CaV2.1 channels during APs may contribute to the highly reliable transmission at zebrafish neuromuscular junctions. PMID:25650925

  13. Molecular Interactions between Tarantula Toxins and Low-Voltage-Activated Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Salari, Autoosa; Vega, Benjamin S.; Milescu, Lorin S.; Milescu, Mirela

    2016-01-01

    Few gating-modifier toxins have been reported to target low-voltage-activated (LVA) calcium channels, and the structural basis of toxin sensitivity remains incompletely understood. Studies of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels have identified the S3b–S4 “paddle motif,” which moves at the protein-lipid interface to drive channel opening, as the target for these amphipathic neurotoxins. Voltage-gated calcium (Cav) channels contain four homologous voltage sensor domains, suggesting multiple toxin binding sites. We show here that the S3–S4 segments within Cav3.1 can be transplanted into Kv2.1 to examine their individual contributions to voltage sensing and pharmacology. With these results, we now have a more complete picture of the conserved nature of the paddle motif in all three major voltage-gated ion channel types (Kv, Nav, and Cav). When screened with tarantula toxins, the four paddle sequences display distinct toxin binding properties, demonstrating that gating-modifier toxins can bind to Cav channels in a domain specific fashion. Domain III was the most commonly and strongly targeted, and mutagenesis revealed an acidic residue that is important for toxin binding. We also measured the lipid partitioning strength of all toxins tested and observed a positive correlation with their inhibition of Cav3.1, suggesting a key role for membrane partitioning. PMID:27045173

  14. Molecular Interactions between Tarantula Toxins and Low-Voltage-Activated Calcium Channels.

    PubMed

    Salari, Autoosa; Vega, Benjamin S; Milescu, Lorin S; Milescu, Mirela

    2016-01-01

    Few gating-modifier toxins have been reported to target low-voltage-activated (LVA) calcium channels, and the structural basis of toxin sensitivity remains incompletely understood. Studies of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels have identified the S3b-S4 "paddle motif," which moves at the protein-lipid interface to drive channel opening, as the target for these amphipathic neurotoxins. Voltage-gated calcium (Cav) channels contain four homologous voltage sensor domains, suggesting multiple toxin binding sites. We show here that the S3-S4 segments within Cav3.1 can be transplanted into Kv2.1 to examine their individual contributions to voltage sensing and pharmacology. With these results, we now have a more complete picture of the conserved nature of the paddle motif in all three major voltage-gated ion channel types (Kv, Nav, and Cav). When screened with tarantula toxins, the four paddle sequences display distinct toxin binding properties, demonstrating that gating-modifier toxins can bind to Cav channels in a domain specific fashion. Domain III was the most commonly and strongly targeted, and mutagenesis revealed an acidic residue that is important for toxin binding. We also measured the lipid partitioning strength of all toxins tested and observed a positive correlation with their inhibition of Cav3.1, suggesting a key role for membrane partitioning. PMID:27045173

  15. Enhanced currents through L-type calcium channels in cardiomyocytes disturb the electrophysiology of the dystrophic heart

    PubMed Central

    Obermair, Gerald J.; Cervenka, Rene; Dang, Xuan B.; Lukacs, Peter; Kummer, Stefan; Bittner, Reginald E.; Kubista, Helmut; Todt, Hannes; Hilber, Karlheinz

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), induced by mutations in the gene encoding for the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin, is an inherited disease characterized by progressive muscle weakness. Besides the relatively well characterized skeletal muscle degenerative processes, DMD is also associated with cardiac complications. These include cardiomyopathy development and cardiac arrhythmias. The current understanding of the pathomechanisms in the heart is very limited, but recent research indicates that dysfunctional ion channels in dystrophic cardiomyocytes play a role. The aim of the present study was to characterize abnormalities in L-type calcium channel function in adult dystrophic ventricular cardiomyocytes. By using the whole cell patch clamp technique, the properties of currents through calcium channels in ventricular cardiomyocytes isolated from the hearts of normal and dystrophic adult mice were compared. Besides the commonly used dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse model for human DMD, we also used mdx-utr mice which are both dystrophin- and utrophin-deficient. We found that calcium channel currents were significantly increased, and channel inactivation was reduced in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. Both effects enhance the calcium influx during an action potential (AP). Whereas the AP in dystrophic mouse cardiomyocytes was nearly normal, implementation of the enhanced dystrophic calcium conductance in a computer model of a human ventricular cardiomyocyte considerably prolonged the AP. Finally, the described dystrophic calcium channel abnormalities entailed alterations in the electrocardiograms of dystrophic mice. We conclude that gain of function in cardiac L-type calcium channels may disturb the electrophysiology of the dystrophic heart and thereby cause arrhythmias. PMID:24337461

  16. Different calcium influx characteristics upon Kv1.3 and IKCa1 potassium channel inhibition in T helper subsets.

    PubMed

    Orbán, Csaba; Bajnok, Anna; Vásárhelyi, Barna; Tulassay, Tivadar; Toldi, Gergely

    2014-07-01

    Functional imbalance between T helper subsets plays important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. Transient increase of cytoplasmic calcium level, and sustention of negative membrane potential by voltage sensitive Kv1.3 and calcium-dependent IKCa1 potassium channels are essential for short-term lymphocyte activation, thus present possible target for selective immunomodulation. We aimed to investigate calcium influx sensitivity to the inhibition of potassium channels in the main T helper subsets. Peripheral blood from 11 healthy individuals was drawn and calcium influx kinetics following activation with phytohemagglutinin in Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells were evaluated. Alteration of calcium influx induced by specific inhibitors of Kv1.3 and IKCa1 potassium channels, and the expression of Kv1.3 channels were also assessed. Highest cytoplasmic calcium concentration was observed in stimulated Th1 cells, while the lowest level was measured in Treg cells. In Th1 and Th17 cells, inhibition of both investigated potassium channels decreased calcium influx. In Th2 cells only the inhibitor of Kv1.3 channels, while in Treg cells none of the inhibitors had significant effect. Upon the inhibition of IKCa1 channels, short-term activation of proinflammatory cells was specifically decreased without affecting anti-inflammatory subsets, indicating that selective immunomodulation is possible in healthy individuals.

  17. Fear conditioning suppresses large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in lateral amygdala neurons.

    PubMed

    Sun, P; Zhang, Q; Zhang, Y; Wang, F; Wang, L; Yamamoto, R; Sugai, T; Kato, N

    2015-01-01

    It was previously shown that depression-like behavior is accompanied with suppression of the large-conductance calcium activated potassium (BK) channel in cingulate cortex pyramidal cells. To test whether BK channels are also involved in fear conditioning, we studied neuronal properties of amygdala principal cells in fear conditioned mice. After behavior, we made brain slices containing the amygdala, the structure critically relevant to fear memory. The resting membrane potential in lateral amygdala (LA) neurons obtained from fear conditioned mice (FC group) was more depolarized than in neurons from naïve controls. The frequencies of spikes evoked by current injections were higher in neurons from FC mice, demonstrating that excitability of LA neurons was elevated by fear conditioning. The depolarization in neurons from FC mice was shown to depend on BK channels by using the BK channel blocker charybdotoxin. Suppression of BK channels in LA neurons from the FC group was further confirmed on the basis of the spike width, since BK channels affect the descending phase of spikes. Spikes were broader in the FC group than those in the naïve control in a manner dependent on BK channels. Consistently, quantitative real-time PCR revealed a decreased expression of BK channel mRNA. The present findings suggest that emotional disorder manifested in the forms of fear conditioning is accompanied with BK channel suppression in the amygdala, the brain structure critical to this emotional disorder.

  18. Peptide neurotoxins that affect voltage-gated calcium channels: a close-up on ω-agatoxins.

    PubMed

    Pringos, Emilie; Vignes, Michel; Martinez, Jean; Rolland, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    Peptide neurotoxins found in animal venoms have gained great interest in the field of neurotransmission. As they are high affinity ligands for calcium, potassium and sodium channels, they have become useful tools for studying channel structure and activity. Peptide neurotoxins represent the clinical potential of ion-channel modulators across several therapeutic fields, especially in developing new strategies for treatment of ion channel-related diseases. The aim of this review is to overview the latest updates in the domain of peptide neurotoxins that affect voltage-gated calcium channels, with a special focus on ω-agatoxins.

  19. Isolated P/Q Calcium Channel Deletion in Layer VI Corticothalamic Neurons Generates Absence Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Bomben, Valerie C.; Aiba, Isamu; Qian, Jing; Mark, Melanie D.; Herlitze, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Generalized spike-wave seizures involving abnormal synchronization of cortical and underlying thalamic circuitry represent a major category of childhood epilepsy. Inborn errors of Cacna1a, the P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channel α subunit gene, expressed throughout the brain destabilize corticothalamic rhythmicity and produce this phenotype. To determine the minimal cellular lesion required for this network disturbance, we used neurotensin receptor 1 (Ntsr1) cre-driver mice to ablate floxed Cacna1a in layer VI pyramidal neurons, which supply the sole descending cortical synaptic input to thalamocortical relay cells and reticular interneurons and activate intrathalamic circuits. Targeted Cacna1a ablation in layer VI cells resulted in mice that display a robust spontaneous spike-wave absence seizure phenotype accompanied by behavioral arrest and inhibited by ethosuximide. To verify the selectivity of the molecular lesion, we determined that P/Q subunit proteins were reduced in corticothalamic relay neuron terminal zones, and confirmed that P/Q-mediated glutamate release was reduced at these synapses. Spike-triggered exocytosis was preserved by N-type calcium channel rescue, demonstrating that evoked release at layer VI terminals relies on both P/Q and N-type channels. Whereas intrinsic excitability of the P/Q channel depleted layer VI neurons was unaltered, T-type calcium currents in the postsynaptic thalamic relay and reticular cells were dramatically elevated, favoring rebound bursting and seizure generation. We find that an early P/Q-type release defect, limited to synapses of a single cell-type within the thalamocortical circuit, is sufficient to remodel synchronized firing behavior and produce a stable generalized epilepsy phenotype. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study dissects a critical component of the corticothalamic circuit in spike-wave epilepsy and identifies the developmental importance of P/Q-type calcium channel-mediated presynaptic glutamate release

  20. Energetics of discrete selectivity bands and mutation-induced transitions in the calcium-sodium ion channels family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, I.; Luchinsky, D. G.; Tindjong, R.; McClintock, P. V. E.; Eisenberg, R. S.

    2013-11-01

    We use Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations to study the ionic conduction and valence selectivity of a generic electrostatic model of a biological ion channel as functions of the fixed charge Qf at its selectivity filter. We are thus able to reconcile the discrete calcium conduction bands recently revealed in our BD simulations, M0 (Qf=1e), M1 (3e), M2 (5e), with a set of sodium conduction bands L0 (0.5e), L1 (1.5e), thereby obtaining a completed pattern of conduction and selectivity bands vs Qf for the sodium-calcium channels family. An increase of Qf leads to an increase of calcium selectivity: L0 (sodium-selective, nonblocking channel) → M0 (nonselective channel) → L1 (sodium-selective channel with divalent block) → M1 (calcium-selective channel exhibiting the anomalous mole fraction effect). We create a consistent identification scheme where the L0 band is putatively identified with the eukaryotic sodium channel The scheme created is able to account for the experimentally observed mutation-induced transformations between nonselective channels, sodium-selective channels, and calcium-selective channels, which we interpret as transitions between different rows of the identification table. By considering the potential energy changes during permeation, we show explicitly that the multi-ion conduction bands of calcium and sodium channels arise as the result of resonant barrierless conduction. The pattern of periodic conduction bands is explained on the basis of sequential neutralization taking account of self-energy, as Qf(z,i)=ze(1/2+i), where i is the order of the band and z is the valence of the ion. Our results confirm the crucial influence of electrostatic interactions on conduction and on the Ca2+/Na+ valence selectivity of calcium and sodium ion channels. The model and results could be also applicable to biomimetic nanopores with charged walls.

  1. Energetics of discrete selectivity bands and mutation-induced transitions in the calcium-sodium ion channels family.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, I; Luchinsky, D G; Tindjong, R; McClintock, P V E; Eisenberg, R S

    2013-11-01

    We use Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations to study the ionic conduction and valence selectivity of a generic electrostatic model of a biological ion channel as functions of the fixed charge Q(f) at its selectivity filter. We are thus able to reconcile the discrete calcium conduction bands recently revealed in our BD simulations, M0 (Q(f)=1e), M1 (3e), M2 (5e), with a set of sodium conduction bands L0 (0.5e), L1 (1.5e), thereby obtaining a completed pattern of conduction and selectivity bands vs Q(f) for the sodium-calcium channels family. An increase of Q(f) leads to an increase of calcium selectivity: L0 (sodium-selective, nonblocking channel) → M0 (nonselective channel) → L1 (sodium-selective channel with divalent block) → M1 (calcium-selective channel exhibiting the anomalous mole fraction effect). We create a consistent identification scheme where the L0 band is putatively identified with the eukaryotic sodium channel The scheme created is able to account for the experimentally observed mutation-induced transformations between nonselective channels, sodium-selective channels, and calcium-selective channels, which we interpret as transitions between different rows of the identification table. By considering the potential energy changes during permeation, we show explicitly that the multi-ion conduction bands of calcium and sodium channels arise as the result of resonant barrierless conduction. The pattern of periodic conduction bands is explained on the basis of sequential neutralization taking account of self-energy, as Q(f)(z,i)=ze(1/2+i), where i is the order of the band and z is the valence of the ion. Our results confirm the crucial influence of electrostatic interactions on conduction and on the Ca(2+)/Na(+) valence selectivity of calcium and sodium ion channels. The model and results could be also applicable to biomimetic nanopores with charged walls. PMID:24329301

  2. The mRNA of L-Type Calcium Channel Elevated in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xi-Tao; Nagaba, Yasushi; Cross, Heide S.; Wrba, Fritz; Zhang, Lin; Guggino, Sandra E.

    2000-01-01

    Previous reports indicate that the mRNA for the cardiac isoform of the voltage-gated L-type calcium channel (α1C) is elevated in colon cancer. The aim of these experiments was to verify that the mRNA for α1C was significantly increased in tumors of two separate populations of patients when compared to normal adjacent mucosa. The second aim was to measure the distribution of α1C using immunocytochemistry in normal human colon and in colon cancer and to determine what might regulate the channel expression. Biopsies were taken from patients with various stages of colon cancer and nearby normal mucosa were used as control. RNA was prepared and mRNA level measured by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The mRNA of the calcium channel was compared with other markers including β-actin. The mRNA for α1C was increased significantly in colon cancers compared to nearby adjacent mucosa. Using confocal microscopy α1C was localized mainly at the apical membrane in the surface epithelium of normal human colon with less distribution on the lateral and basal membranes. The channel was localized on the lateral and basal membranes in crypt cells. Calcium channel localization appeared to be nearer nuclei in colon cancer samples, in part because of the smaller size of the cells. Likewise, cultured Caco-2 and T84 cells showed a membrane distribution. Western blotting indicated that α1C protein was increased in nonconfluent cultures of colonic carcinoma cells compared to confluent cells and immunocytochemistry confirms that there is more calcium channel protein in cells that are nonconfluent. We conclude that the increase in mRNA of α1 subunit of the cardiac isoform of the L-type calcium channel may be a useful marker of colon cancer compared to other markers because the increase is large and this increase can be documented on small samples using a simple semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. We found that α1C protein is

  3. Endothelin induces two types of contractions of rat uterus: phasic contractions by way of voltage-dependent calcium channels and developing contractions through a second type of calcium channels

    SciTech Connect

    Kozuka, M.; Ito, T.; Hirose, S.; Takahashi, K.; Hagiwara, H.

    1989-02-28

    Effects of endothelin on nonvascular smooth muscle have been examined using rat uterine horns and two modes of endothelin action have been revealed. Endothelin (0.3 nM) caused rhythmic contractions of isolated uterus in the presence of extracellular calcium. The rhythmic contractions were completely inhibited by calcium channel antagonists. These characteristics of endothelin-induced contractions were very similar to those induced by oxytocin. Binding assays using /sup 125/I-endothelin showed that endothelin and the calcium channel blockers did not compete for the binding sites. However, endothelin was unique in that it caused, in addition to rhythmic contractions, a slowly developing monophasic contraction that was insensitive to calcium channel blockers. This developing contraction became dominant at higher concentrations of endothelin and was also calcium dependent.

  4. Aluminium and hydrogen ions inhibit a mechanosensory calcium-selective cation channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, J. P.; Pickard, B. G.

    1993-01-01

    The tension-dependent activity of mechanosensory calcium-selective cation channels in excised plasmalemmal patches from onion bulb scale epidermis is modulated by pH in the physiologically meaningful range between 4.5 and 7.2. It is rapidly lowered by lowering pH and rapidly raised by raising pH. Channel activity is effectively inhibited by low levels of aluminium ions and activity can be partially restored by washing for a few minutes. We suggest that under normal conditions the sensitivity of the mechanosensory channels to pH of the wall free space plays important roles in regulation of plant activities such as growth. We further suggest that, when levels of acid and aluminium ions in the soil solution are high, they might inhibit similar sensory channels in cells of the root tip, thus contributing critically to the acid soil syndrome.

  5. Structural and functional characterization of a calcium-activated cation channel from Tsukamurella paurometabola

    PubMed Central

    Dhakshnamoorthy, Balasundaresan; Rohaim, Ahmed; Rui, Huan; Blachowicz, Lydia; Roux, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    The selectivity filter is an essential functional element of K+ channels that is highly conserved both in terms of its primary sequence and its three-dimensional structure. Here, we investigate the properties of an ion channel from the Gram-positive bacterium Tsukamurella paurometabola with a selectivity filter formed by an uncommon proline-rich sequence. Electrophysiological recordings show that it is a non-selective cation channel and that its activity depends on Ca2+ concentration. In the crystal structure, the selectivity filter adopts a novel conformation with Ca2+ ions bound within the filter near the pore helix where they are coordinated by backbone oxygen atoms, a recurrent motif found in multiple proteins. The binding of Ca2+ ion in the selectivity filter controls the widening of the pore as shown in crystal structures and in molecular dynamics simulations. The structural, functional and computational data provide a characterization of this calcium-gated cationic channel. PMID:27678077

  6. Structural and functional characterization of a calcium-activated cation channel from Tsukamurella paurometabola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakshnamoorthy, Balasundaresan; Rohaim, Ahmed; Rui, Huan; Blachowicz, Lydia; Roux, Benoît

    2016-09-01

    The selectivity filter is an essential functional element of K+ channels that is highly conserved both in terms of its primary sequence and its three-dimensional structure. Here, we investigate the properties of an ion channel from the Gram-positive bacterium Tsukamurella paurometabola with a selectivity filter formed by an uncommon proline-rich sequence. Electrophysiological recordings show that it is a non-selective cation channel and that its activity depends on Ca2+ concentration. In the crystal structure, the selectivity filter adopts a novel conformation with Ca2+ ions bound within the filter near the pore helix where they are coordinated by backbone oxygen atoms, a recurrent motif found in multiple proteins. The binding of Ca2+ ion in the selectivity filter controls the widening of the pore as shown in crystal structures and in molecular dynamics simulations. The structural, functional and computational data provide a characterization of this calcium-gated cationic channel.

  7. Postcountershock myocardial damage after pretreatment with adrenergic and calcium channel antagonists in halothane-anesthetized dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Gaba, D.M.; Metz, S.; Maze, M.

    1985-05-01

    Transthoracic electric countershock can cause necrotic myocardial lesions in humans as well as experimental animals. The authors investigated the effect on postcountershock myocardial damage of pretreatment with prazosin, an alpha-1 antagonist; L-metoprolol, a beta-1 antagonist, and verapamil, a calcium channel-blocking agent. Twenty dogs were anesthetized with halothane and given two transthoracic countershocks of 295 delivered joules each after drug or vehicle treatment. Myocardial injury was quantitated 24 h following countershock by measuring the uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate in the myocardium. Elevated technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake occurred in visible lesions in most dogs regardless of drug treatment. For each of four parameters of myocardial damage there was no statistically significant difference between control animals and those treated with prazosin, metoprolol, or verapamil. These data suggest that adrenergic or calcium channel-mediated mechanisms are not involved in the pathogenesis of postcountershock myocardial damage.

  8. Molecular mechanism of calcium channel regulation in the fight-or-flight response.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Matthew D; Emrick, Michelle A; Sadilek, Martin; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A

    2010-01-01

    During the fight-or-flight response, the sympathetic nervous system stimulates L-type calcium ion (Ca2+) currents conducted by Ca(V)1 channels through activation of β-adrenergic receptors, adenylyl cyclase, and phosphorylation by adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase [also known as protein kinase A (PKA)], increasing contractility of skeletal and cardiac muscles. We reconstituted this regulation of cardiac Ca(V)1.2 channels in non-muscle cells by forming an autoinhibitory signaling complex composed of Ca(V)1.2Δ1800 (a form of the channel truncated at the in vivo site of proteolytic processing), its noncovalently associated distal carboxyl-terminal domain, the auxiliary α₂δ₁ and β(2b) subunits, and A-kinase anchoring protein 15 (AKAP15). A factor of 3.6 range of Ca(V)1.2 channel activity was observed from a minimum in the presence of protein kinase inhibitors to a maximum upon activation of adenylyl cyclase. Basal Ca(V)1.2 channel activity in unstimulated cells was regulated by phosphorylation of serine-1700 and threonine-1704, two residues located at the interface between the distal and the proximal carboxyl-terminal regulatory domains, whereas further stimulation of channel activity through the PKA signaling pathway only required phosphorylation of serine-1700. Our results define a conceptual framework for Ca(V)1.2 channel regulation and identify sites of phosphorylation that regulate channel activity.

  9. Maitotoxin: Effects on calcium channels, phosphoinositide breakdown, and arachidonate release in pheochromocytoma PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, O.H.; Padgett, W.L.; Nishizawa, Y.; Gusovsky, F.; Yasumoto, T.; Daly, J.W. )

    1990-02-01

    Maitotoxin (MTX) increases formation of (3H)inositol phosphates from phosphoinositides and release of (3H)arachidonic acid from phospholipids in pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Formation of (3H)inositol phosphates is detected within 1 min of incubation even with concentrations as low as 0.3 ng/ml (90 pm) MTX, whereas release of (3H)arachidonic acid is not detected until 20 min even with concentrations as high as 1 ng/ml (300 pm) MTX. Stimulation of arachidonic acid release can be detected at 0.03 ng/ml (9 pm) MTX, whereas 0.1 ng/ml (30 pm) MTX is the threshold for detection of phosphoinositide breakdown. Organic and inorganic calcium channel blockers, except Cd2+ and a high concentration of Mn2+, have no effect on MTX-elicited phosphoinositide breakdown, whereas inorganic blockers (e.g., Co2+, Mn2+, Cd2+), but not organic blockers (nifedipine, verapamil, diltiazem), inhibit MTX-stimulated arachidonic acid release. All calcium channel blockers, however, inhibited MTX-elicited influx of 45Ca2+ and the MTX-elicited increase in internal Ca2+ measured with fura-2 was markedly reduced by nifedipine. MTX-elicited phosphoinositide breakdown and arachidonic acid release are abolished or reduced, respectively, in the absence of extracellular calcium plus chelating agent. The calcium ionophore A23187 has little or no effect alone but, in combination with MTX, A23187 inhibits MTX-elicited phosphoinositide breakdown and enhances arachidonic acid release, the latter even in the absence of extracellular calcium. The results suggest that different sites and/or mechanisms are involved in stimulation of calcium influx, breakdown of phosphoinositides, and release of arachidonic acid by MTX.

  10. Dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels in cardiac and skeletal muscle membranes: studies with antibodies against the. cap alpha. subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, M.; Catterall, W.A.

    1987-08-25

    Polyclonal antibodies (PAC-2) against the purified skeletal muscle calcium channel were prepared and shown to be directed against ..cap alpha.. subunits of this protein by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. These polypeptides have an apparent molecular weight of 162,000 without reduction of disulfide bonds. Under conditions where the functional properties of the purified skeletal muscle calcium channel are retained, ..beta.. subunits (M/sub r/ 50,000) and lambda subunits (M/sub r/ 33,000) are coprecipitated, demonstrating specific noncovalent association of these three polypeptides in the purified skeletal muscle channel. PAC-2 immunoprecipitated cardiac calcium channels labeled with (/sup 3/H)isopropyl 4-(2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-5-(methoxycarbonyl)pyridine-3-carboxylate ((/sup 3/H)PN200-110) at a 3-fold higher concentration than skeletal muscle channels. Preincubation with cardiac calcium channels blocked only 49% of the immunoreactivity of PAC-2 toward skeletal muscle channels, indicating that these two proteins have both homologous and distinct epitopes. The immunoreactive component of the cardiac calcium channel was identified by immunoprecipitation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a polypeptide with an apparent molecular weight of 170,000 before reduction of disulfide bonds and 141,000 after reduction, in close analogy with the properties of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/ subunits of the skeletal muscle channel. The calcium channels were radiolabeled with /sup 32/P and /sup 125/I. It is concluded that these two calcium channels have a homologous, but distinct, ..cap alpha.. subunit as a major polypeptide component.

  11. [Comparative assessment of nephroprotective properties of potassium and calcium channel modulators in experimental renal injury].

    PubMed

    Filipets, N D; Gozhenko, A I

    2014-01-01

    The experiments in white laboratory rats have shown that a single intragasrtric administration of the new fluorine-containing potassium channel opener flocalin in a dose of 5 mg/kg in the initial stage of sublimate nephropathy increased the glomerular filtration rate, reduced creatininemia, increased urinary creatinine excretion, and decreased proteinuria. Under similar conditions, the administration of the calcium channel blocker diltiazem in a dose of 5 mg/kg (intragasrtric) showed a less pronounced antiproteinuric effect as compared to that of flocalin. A comparative assessment of the influence of flocalin and diltiazem on the basic renal function markers demonstrated predominant nephroprotective effect of flocalin in the treatment of acute toxic nephropathy.

  12. Structural basis for calcium and magnesium regulation of a large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel with β1 subunits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao-Wen; Hou, Pan-Pan; Guo, Xi-Ying; Zhao, Zhi-Wen; Hu, Bin; Li, Xia; Wang, Lu-Yang; Ding, Jiu-Ping; Wang, Sheng

    2014-06-13

    Large conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channels, composed of pore-forming α subunits and auxiliary β subunits, play important roles in diverse physiological activities. The β1 is predominately expressed in smooth muscle cells, where it greatly enhances the Ca(2+) sensitivity of BK channels for proper regulation of smooth muscle tone. However, the structural basis underlying dynamic interaction between BK mSlo1 α and β1 remains elusive. Using macroscopic ionic current recordings in various Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) concentrations, we identified two binding sites on the cytosolic N terminus of β1, namely the electrostatic enhancing site (mSlo1(K392,R393)-β1(E13,T14)), increasing the calcium sensitivity of BK channels, and the hydrophobic site (mSlo1(L906,L908)-β1(L5,V6,M7)), passing the physical force from the Ca(2+) bowl onto the enhancing site and S6 C-linker. Dynamic binding of these sites affects the interaction between the cytosolic domain and voltage-sensing domain, leading to the reduction of Mg(2+) sensitivity. A comprehensive structural model of the BK(mSlo1 α-β1) complex was reconstructed based on these functional studies, which provides structural and mechanistic insights for understanding BK gating. PMID:24764303

  13. Direct recording and molecular identification of the calcium channel of primary cilia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decaen, Paul G.; Delling, Markus; Vien, Thuy N.; Clapham, David E.

    2013-12-01

    A primary cilium is a solitary, slender, non-motile protuberance of structured microtubules (9+0) enclosed by plasma membrane. Housing components of the cell division apparatus between cell divisions, primary cilia also serve as specialized compartments for calcium signalling and hedgehog signalling pathways. Specialized sensory cilia such as retinal photoreceptors and olfactory cilia use diverse ion channels. An ion current has been measured from primary cilia of kidney cells, but the responsible genes have not been identified. The polycystin proteins (PC and PKD), identified in linkage studies of polycystic kidney disease, are candidate channels divided into two structural classes: 11-transmembrane proteins (PKD1, PKD1L1 and PKD1L2) remarkable for a large extracellular amino terminus of putative cell adhesion domains and a G-protein-coupled receptor proteolytic site, and the 6-transmembrane channel proteins (PKD2, PKD2L1 and PKD2L2; TRPPs). Evidence indicates that the PKD1 proteins associate with the PKD2 proteins via coiled-coil domains. Here we use a transgenic mouse in which only cilia express a fluorophore and use it to record directly from primary cilia, and demonstrate that PKD1L1 and PKD2L1 form ion channels at high densities in several cell types. In conjunction with an accompanying manuscript, we show that the PKD1L1-PKD2L1 heteromeric channel establishes the cilia as a unique calcium compartment within cells that modulates established hedgehog pathways.

  14. The anomalous mole fraction effect in calcium channels: a measure of preferential selectivity.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Dirk; Boda, Dezso

    2008-09-15

    The cause of the anomalous mole fraction effect (AMFE) in calcium-selective ion channels is studied. An AMFE occurs when the conductance through a channel is lower in a mixture of salts than in the pure salts at the same concentration. The textbook interpretation of the AMFE is that multiple ions move through the pore in coordinated, single-file motion. Instead of this, we find that at its most basic level an AMFE reflects a channel's preferential binding selectivity for one ion species over another. The AMFE is explained by considering the charged and uncharged regions of the pore as electrical resistors in series: the AMFE is produced by these regions of high and low ion concentration changing differently with mole fraction due to the preferential ion selectivity. This is demonstrated with simulations of a model L-type calcium channel and a mathematical analysis of a simplistic point-charge model. The particle simulations reproduce the experimental data of two L-type channel AMFEs. Conditions under which an AMFE may be found experimentally are discussed. The resistors-in-series model provides a fundamentally different explanation of the AMFE than the traditional theory and does not require single filing, multiple occupancy, or momentum-correlated ion motion.

  15. Direct recording and molecular identification of the calcium channel of primary cilia.

    PubMed

    DeCaen, Paul G; Delling, Markus; Vien, Thuy N; Clapham, David E

    2013-12-12

    A primary cilium is a solitary, slender, non-motile protuberance of structured microtubules (9+0) enclosed by plasma membrane. Housing components of the cell division apparatus between cell divisions, primary cilia also serve as specialized compartments for calcium signalling and hedgehog signalling pathways. Specialized sensory cilia such as retinal photoreceptors and olfactory cilia use diverse ion channels. An ion current has been measured from primary cilia of kidney cells, but the responsible genes have not been identified. The polycystin proteins (PC and PKD), identified in linkage studies of polycystic kidney disease, are candidate channels divided into two structural classes: 11-transmembrane proteins (PKD1, PKD1L1 and PKD1L2) remarkable for a large extracellular amino terminus of putative cell adhesion domains and a G-protein-coupled receptor proteolytic site, and the 6-transmembrane channel proteins (PKD2, PKD2L1 and PKD2L2; TRPPs). Evidence indicates that the PKD1 proteins associate with the PKD2 proteins via coiled-coil domains. Here we use a transgenic mouse in which only cilia express a fluorophore and use it to record directly from primary cilia, and demonstrate that PKD1L1 and PKD2L1 form ion channels at high densities in several cell types. In conjunction with an accompanying manuscript, we show that the PKD1L1-PKD2L1 heteromeric channel establishes the cilia as a unique calcium compartment within cells that modulates established hedgehog pathways. PMID:24336289

  16. Discovery, structure-activity relationship study, and oral analgesic efficacy of cyproheptadine derivatives possessing N-type calcium channel inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Niwa, Seiji; Iwayama, Satoshi; Koganei, Hajime; Fujita, Shin-ichi; Takeda, Tomoko; Kito, Morikazu; Ono, Yukitsugu; Saitou, Yuki; Takahara, Akira; Iwata, Seinosuke; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Shoji, Masataka

    2006-08-01

    Antiallergic drug cyproheptadine (Cyp) is known to have inhibitory activities for L-type calcium channels in addition to histamine and serotonin receptors. Since we found that Cyp had an inhibitory activity against N-type calcium channel, Cyp was optimized to obtain more selective N-type calcium channel blocker with analgesic action. As a consequence of the optimization, we found 13 with potent N-type calcium channel inhibitory activity which had lower inhibitory activities against L-type calcium channel, histamine (H1), and serotonin (5-HT2A) receptors than those of Cyp. 13 showed an oral analgesic activity in rat formalin-induced pain model.

  17. The calcium-activated chloride channel Anoctamin 1 contributes to the regulation of renal function.

    PubMed

    Faria, Diana; Rock, Jason R; Romao, Ana M; Schweda, Frank; Bandulik, Sascha; Witzgall, Ralph; Schlatter, Eberhard; Heitzmann, Dirk; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Herrmann, Edwin; Kunzelmann, Karl; Schreiber, Rainer

    2014-06-01

    The role of calcium-activated chloride channels for renal function is unknown. By immunohistochemistry we demonstrate dominant expression of the recently identified calcium-activated chloride channels, Anoctamin 1 (Ano1, TMEM16A) in human and mouse proximal tubular epithelial (PTE) cells, with some expression in podocytes and other tubular segments. Ano1-null mice had proteinuria and numerous large reabsorption vesicles in PTE cells. Selective knockout of Ano1 in podocytes (Ano1-/-/Nphs2-Cre) did not impair renal function, whereas tubular knockout in Ano1-/-/Ksp-Cre mice increased urine protein excretion and decreased urine electrolyte concentrations. Purinergic stimulation activated calcium-dependent chloride currents in isolated proximal tubule epithelial cells from wild-type but not from Ano1-/-/Ksp-Cre mice. Ano1 currents were activated by acidic pH, suggesting parallel stimulation of Ano1 chloride secretion with activation of the proton-ATPase. Lack of calcium-dependent chloride secretion in cells from Ano1-/-/Ksp-Cre mice was paralleled by attenuated proton secretion and reduced endosomal acidification, which compromised proximal tubular albumin uptake. Tubular knockout of Ano1 enhanced serum renin and aldosterone concentrations, probably leading to enhanced compensatory distal tubular reabsorption, thus maintaining normal blood pressure levels. Thus, Ano1 has a role in proximal tubular proton secretion and protein reabsorption. The results correspond to regulation of the proton-ATPase by the Ano1-homolog Ist2 in yeast.

  18. Emerging evidence for specific neuronal functions of auxiliary calcium channel α2δ subunits

    PubMed Central

    Obermair, Gerald J.

    2015-01-01

    In nerve cells the ubiquitous second messenger calcium regulates a variety of vitally important functions including neurotransmitter release, gene regulation, and neuronal plasticity. The entry of calcium into cells is tightly regulated by voltage-gated calcium channels, which consist of a heteromultimeric complex of a pore forming α1, and the auxiliary β and α2δ subunits. Four genes (Cacna2d1-4) encode for the extracellular membrane-attached α2δ subunits (α2δ-1 to α2δ-4), out of which three isoforms (α2δ-1 to -3) are strongly expressed in the central nervous system. Over the years a wealth of studies has demonstrated the classical role of α2δ subunits in channel trafficking and calcium current modulation. Recent studies in specialized neuronal cell systems propose roles of α2δ subunits beyond the classical view and implicate α2δ subunits as important regulators of synapse formation. These findings are supported by the identification of novel human disease mutations associated with α2δ subunits and by the fact that α2δ subunits are the target of the anti-epileptic and anti-allodynic drugs gabapentin and pregabalin. Here we review the recently emerging evidence for specific as well as redundant neuronal roles of α2δ subunits and discuss the mechanisms for establishing and maintaining specificity. PMID:25504062

  19. Calcium channel blockade attenuates angiotensin II-induced drinking in rats.

    PubMed

    Calcagnetti, D J; Schechter, M D

    1993-01-01

    Lateral ventricular administration of angiotensin II (ANG II) produces potent dipsogenic effects in water-sated rats. ANG II seems to require functional voltage-gated calcium channels on neurons throughout circumventricular brain sites to exert its effects. Although there are at least three types of calcium channels, only L-type calcium channel-blocking drugs have been reported to decrease drinking. (4-(4-Benzofurazanyl)-1-4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-3,5-pyridine-dic arb oxylic acid methyl 1-methyl-ethyl ester) [PN 200-110; isradipine (ISR)], a selective L-type calcium channel blocker, has been shown to attenuate significantly the intake of sweetened water in water-sated rats following either peripheral or ICV administration, but ISR does not affect plain-water intake in water-deprived rats. The present experiment was designed to determine whether ISR would attenuate ANG II-induced drinking that is not either motivated by palatability or dependent on deprivation. Rats, each fitted with chronic indwelling ventricular cannulae, were pretreated with ISR (0.3, 3.0, and 30 micrograms/rat; ICV). ANG II (40 ng/rat; ICV) was administered 10 min later and rats were allowed free access to water for 15 min. Injections of ANG II plus saline and ANG II plus the ISR vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide) did not attenuate ANG II-induced polydipsia, whereas ANG II+ISR (0.3 and 3.0 micrograms) attenuated ANG II-induced drinking to 62 and 22% of control, respectively. Results with the 30-micrograms dose were not different from the 3.0 dose.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Functional segregation of voltage-activated calcium channels in motoneurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Garry; Lasser-Katz, Efrat; Simchovitz, Alon; Sharon, Ronit; Soreq, Hermona; Surmeier, D. James

    2015-01-01

    Calcium influx elevates mitochondrial oxidant stress (mOS) in dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) neurons that are prone to Lewy body pathologies in presymptomatic Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. In experimental PD models, treatment with isradipine, the dihydropyridine with the highest affinity to Cav1.3 channels, prevents subthreshold calcium influx via Cav1.3 channels into midbrain dopamine neurons and protects them from mOS. In DMV neurons, isradipine is also effective in reducing mOS despite overwhelming evidence that subthreshold calcium influx is negligible compared with spike-triggered influx. To solve this conundrum we combined slice electrophysiology, two-photon laser scanning microscopy, mRNA profiling, and computational modeling. We find that the unusually depolarized subthreshold voltage trajectory of DMV neurons is positioned between the relatively hyperpolarized activation curve of Cav1.3 channels and that of other high-voltage activated (HVA) calcium channels, thus creating a functional segregation between Cav1.3 and HVA calcium channels. The HVA channels flux the bulk of calcium during spikes but can only influence pacemaking through their coupling to calcium-activated potassium currents. In contrast, Cav1.3 currents, which we show to be more than an order-of-magnitude smaller than the HVA calcium currents, are able to introduce sufficient inward current to speed up firing. However, Kv4 channels that are constitutively open in the subthreshold range guarantee slow pacemaking, despite the depolarizing action of Cav1.3 and other pacemaking currents. We propose that the efficacy of isradipine in preventing mOS in DMV neurons arises from its mixed effect on Cav1.3 channels and on HVA Cav1.2 channels. PMID:26156385

  1. On the localization of voltage-sensitive calcium channels in the flagella of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    This study was undertaken to prove that voltage-sensitive calcium channels controlling the photophobic stop response of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are exclusively found in the flagellar region of the cell and to answer the question as to their exact localization within the flagellar membrane. The strategy used was to amputate flagella to a variable degree without perturbing the electrical properties of the cell and measure flagellar currents shortly after amputation and during the subsequent regeneration process. Under all conditions, a close correlation was found between current size and flagellar length, strongly suggesting that the channels that mediate increases in intraflagellar calcium concentration are confined to and distributed over the total flagellar length. Bald mutants yielded tiny flagellar currents, in agreement with the existence of residual flagellar stubs. In the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, flagellar length and flagellar currents also recovered in parallel. Recovery came to an earlier end, however, leveling off at a time when in the absence of cycloheximide only half maximal values were achieved. This suggests the existence of a pool of precursors, which permits the maintenance of a constant ratio between voltage-sensitive calcium channels and other intraflagellar proteins. PMID:8195293

  2. Activation and inhibition of TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yu-Li; Kuan, Ai-Seon; Chen, Tsung-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) encoded by family members of transmembrane proteins of unknown function 16 (TMEM16) have recently been intensely studied for functional properties as well as their physiological roles as chloride channels in various tissues. One technical hurdle in studying these channels is the well-known channel rundown that frequently impairs the precision of electrophysiological measurements for the channels. Using experimental protocols that employ fast-solution exchange, we circumvented the problem of channel rundown by normalizing the Ca(2+)-induced current to the maximally-activated current obtained within a time period in which the channel rundown was negligible. We characterized the activation of the TMEM16A-encoded CaCC (also called ANO1) by Ca(2+), Sr(2+), and Ba(2+), and discovered that Mg(2+) competes with Ca(2+) in binding to the divalent-cation binding site without activating the channel. We also studied the permeability of the ANO1 pore for various anions and found that the anion occupancy in the pore-as revealed by the permeability ratios of these anions-appeared to be inversely correlated with the apparent affinity of the ANO1 inhibition by niflumic acid (NFA). On the other hand, the NFA inhibition was neither affected by the degree of the channel activation nor influenced by the types of divalent cations used for the channel activation. These results suggest that the NFA inhibition of ANO1 is likely mediated by altering the pore function but not through changing the channel gating. Our study provides a precise characterization of ANO1 and documents factors that can affect divalent cation activation and NFA inhibition of ANO1.

  3. Receptor model for the molecular basis of tissue selectivity of 1, 4-dihydropyridine calcium channel drugs.

    PubMed

    Langs, D A; Strong, P D; Triggle, D J

    1990-09-01

    Our analysis of the solid state conformations of nifedipine [dimethyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(2-nitrophenyl)-3,5-pyridinecarboxylate ] and its 1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) analogues produced a cartoon description of the important interactions between these drugs and their voltage-dependent calcium channel receptor. In the present study a molecular-level detailed model of the 1,4-DHP receptor binding site has been built from the published amino acid sequence of the alpha 1 subunit of the voltage-dependent calcium channel isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle transverse tubule membranes. The voltage-sensing component of the channel described in this work differs from other reported for the homologous sodium channel in that it incorporates a water structure and a staggered, rather than eclipsed, hydrogen bonded S4 helix conformation. The major recognition surfaces of the receptor lie in helical grooves on the S4 or voltage-sensing alpha-helix that is positioned in the center of the bundle of transmembrane helices that define each of the four calcium channel domains. Multiple binding clefts defined by Arg-X-X-Arg-P-X-X-S 'reading frames' exist on the S4 strand. The tissue selectivity of nifedipine and its analogues may arise, in part, from conservative changes in the amino acid residues at the P and S positions of the reading frame that define the ester-binding regions of receptors from different tissues. The crystal structures of two tissue-selective nifedipine analogues, nimodipine [isopropyl (2-methoxyethyl) 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-3,5-pyridinecarboxylate ] and nitrendipine [ethyl methyl 1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-nitrophenyl)-3, 5-pyridinecarboxylate] are reported. Nimodipine was observed to have an unusual ester side chain conformation that enhances the fit to the proposed ester-sensing region of the receptor.

  4. Investigation of calcium antagonist-L-type calcium channel interactions by a vascular smooth muscle cell membrane chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Du, Hui; He, Jianyu; Wang, Sicen; He, Langchong

    2010-07-01

    The dissociation equilibrium constant (K(D)) is an important affinity parameter for studying drug-receptor interactions. A vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cell membrane chromatography (CMC) method was developed for determination of the K(D) values for calcium antagonist-L-type calcium channel (L-CC) interactions. VSM cells, by means of primary culture with rat thoracic aortas, were used for preparation of the cell membrane stationary phase in the VSM/CMC model. All measurements were performed with spectrophotometric detection (237 nm) at 37 degrees C. The K(D) values obtained using frontal analysis were 3.36 x 10(-6) M for nifedipine, 1.34 x 10(-6) M for nimodipine, 6.83 x 10(-7) M for nitrendipine, 1.23 x 10(-7) M for nicardipine, 1.09 x 10(-7) M for amlodipine, and 8.51 x 10(-8) M for verapamil. This affinity rank order obtained from the VSM/CMC method had a strong positive correlation with that obtained from radioligand binding assay. The location of the binding region was examined by displacement experiments using nitrendipine as a mobile-phase additive. It was found that verapamil occupied a class of binding sites on L-CCs different from those occupied by nitrendipine. In addition, nicardipine, amlodipine, and nitrendipine had direct competition at a single common binding site. The studies showed that CMC can be applied to the investigation of drug-receptor interactions.

  5. Comparison of electrophysiological effects of calcium channel blockers on cardiac repolarization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyang-Ae; Hyun, Sung-Ae; Park, Sung-Gurl; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Sung Joon

    2016-01-01

    Dihydropyridine (DHP) calcium channel blockers (CCBs) have been widely used to treat of several cardiovascular diseases. An excessive shortening of action potential duration (APD) due to the reduction of Ca(2+) channel current (I Ca) might increase the risk of arrhythmia. In this study we investigated the electrophysiological effects of nicardipine (NIC), isradipine (ISR), and amlodipine (AML) on the cardiac APD in rabbit Purkinje fibers, voltage-gated K(+) channel currents (I Kr, I Ks) and voltage-gated Na(+) channel current (I Na). The concentration-dependent inhibition of Ca(2+) channel currents (I Ca) was examined in rat cardiomyocytes; these CCBs have similar potency on I Ca channel blocking with IC50 (the half-maximum inhibiting concentration) values of 0.142, 0.229, and 0.227 nM on NIC, ISR, and AML, respectively. However, ISR shortened both APD50 and APD90 already at 1 µM whereas NIC and AML shortened APD50 but not APD90 up to 30 µM. According to ion channel studies, NIC and AML concentration-dependently inhibited I Kr and I Ks while ISR had only partial inhibitory effects (<50% at 30 µM). Inhibition of I Na was similarly observed in the three CCBs. Since the I Kr and I Ks mainly contribute to cardiac repolarization, their inhibition by NIC and AML could compensate for the AP shortening effects due to the block of I Ca.

  6. Comparison of electrophysiological effects of calcium channel blockers on cardiac repolarization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyang-Ae; Hyun, Sung-Ae; Park, Sung-Gurl

    2016-01-01

    Dihydropyridine (DHP) calcium channel blockers (CCBs) have been widely used to treat of several cardiovascular diseases. An excessive shortening of action potential duration (APD) due to the reduction of Ca2+ channel current (ICa) might increase the risk of arrhythmia. In this study we investigated the electrophysiological effects of nicardipine (NIC), isradipine (ISR), and amlodipine (AML) on the cardiac APD in rabbit Purkinje fibers, voltage-gated K+ channel currents (IKr, IKs) and voltage-gated Na+ channel current (INa). The concentration-dependent inhibition of Ca2+ channel currents (ICa) was examined in rat cardiomyocytes; these CCBs have similar potency on ICa channel blocking with IC50 (the half-maximum inhibiting concentration) values of 0.142, 0.229, and 0.227 nM on NIC, ISR, and AML, respectively. However, ISR shortened both APD50 and APD90 already at 1 µM whereas NIC and AML shortened APD50 but not APD90 up to 30 µM. According to ion channel studies, NIC and AML concentration-dependently inhibited IKr and IKs while ISR had only partial inhibitory effects (<50% at 30 µM). Inhibition of INa was similarly observed in the three CCBs. Since the IKr and IKs mainly contribute to cardiac repolarization, their inhibition by NIC and AML could compensate for the AP shortening effects due to the block of ICa. PMID:26807031

  7. Calcium activated potassium channel expression during human iPS cell-derived neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Linta, Leonhard; Boeckers, Tobias M; Kleger, Alexander; Liebau, Stefan

    2013-07-01

    The family of calcium activated potassium channels of low and intermediate conductance, known as SK channels, consists of four members (SK1-4). These channels are widely expressed throughout the organism and involved in various cellular processes, such as the afterhyperpolarization in excitable cells but also in differentiation processes of various tissues. To date, the role of SK channels in developmental processes has been merely a marginal focus of investigation, although it is well accepted that cell differentiation and maturation affect the expression patterns of certain ion channels. Recently, several studies from our laboratory delineated the influence of SK channel expression and their respective activity on cytoskeletal reorganization in neural and pluripotent stem cells and regulation of cell fate determination toward the cardiac lineage in human and mouse pluripotent stem cells. Herein, we have now analyzed SK channel expression patterns and distribution at various stages of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurogenesis particularly focusing on undifferentiated iPS cells, neural progenitors and mature neurons. All family members could be detected starting at the iPS cell level and were differentially expressed during the subsequent maturation process. Intriguingly, we found obvious discrepancies between mRNA and protein expression pointing toward a complex regulatory mechanism. Inhibition of SK channels with either apamin or clotrimazol did not have any significant effects on the speed or amount of neurogenesis in vitro. The abundance and specific regulation of SK channel expression during iPS cell differentiation indicates distinct roles of these ion channels not only for the cardiac but also for neuronal cell differentiation and in vitro neurogenesis.

  8. Calcium-dependent expression of transient receptor potential canonical type 3 channels in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Krueger, Katharina; Hovsepian, Anahit; Tepel, Martin; Thilo, Florian

    2011-10-01

    It is unknown whether extracellular calcium may regulate the expression of transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) channels in patients with chronic kidney disease. Using quantitative in-cell Western assay we compared the expression of TRPC3 channel protein in monocytes from 20 patients with chronic kidney disease and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. TRPC3 channels were identified by immunoblotting using specific antibodies and TRPC3 protein was further confirmed by mass spectrometry. We observed a significant increase of TRPC3 channel protein expression in patients with chronic kidney disease compared to healthy control subjects (normalized expression, 0.42±0.06 vs. 0.19±0.03; p<0.01). Expression of TRPC3 was significantly inversely correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rates (Spearman r=-0.41) or serum calcium concentration (Spearman r=-0.34). During a hemodialysis session serum calcium concentrations significantly increased, whereas the expression of TRPC3 channels and calcium influx significantly decreased. In vitro studies confirmed that higher calcium concentrations but not magnesium, barium nor sodium concentrations significantly decreased TRPC3 expression in human monocytes. This study indicates that reduced extracellular calcium concentrations up-regulate TRPC3 channel protein expression in patients with chronic kidney disease.

  9. Effect of inhibition of tyrosine phosphatases on voltage-operated calcium channel currents in rabbit isolated ear artery cells

    PubMed Central

    Wijetunge, S; Lymn, J S; Hughes, A D

    1998-01-01

    The effect of increasing cellular tyrosine phosphorylation by inhibiting endogenous tyrosine phosphatases was examined on voltage-operated calcium channel currents in vascular smooth muscle cells.In single ear artery smooth muscle cells of the rabbit, studied by the whole cell voltage clamp technique, intracellular application of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors, sodium orthovanadate (100 μM) and peroxyvanadate (100 μM orthovanadate+1 mM H2O2) increased voltage-operated calcium channel currents by 56% and 83%, respectively.Bath application of two other membrane permeant tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors, phenylarsine oxide (100 μM) and dephostatin (50 μM) also increased voltage-operated calcium channel currents by 48% and 52%, respectively.The selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, tyrphostin-23 (100 μM) reduced calcium channel currents by 41%. Pre-incubation with tyrphostin-23 abolished the effects of peroxyvanadate, phenylarsine oxide and dephostatin on calcium channels.Western blot analysis of rabbit ear artery cell lysates showed increased tyrosine phosphorylation of several endogenous proteins following treatment with peroxyvanadate.These results indicate that a number of structurally dissimilar inhibitors of tyrosine phosphatases increase voltage-operated calcium channel currents in arterial smooth muscle cells presumably due to increased tyrosine phosphorylation. PMID:9641547

  10. Calcium domains associated with individual channels can account for anomalous voltage relations of CA-dependent responses.

    PubMed Central

    Chad, J E; Eckert, R

    1984-01-01

    Computer-assisted modeling of calcium influx through voltage-activated membrane channels predicted that buffer-limited elevation of cytoplasmic free calcium ion concentration occurs within microscopic hemispherical "domains" centered upon the active Ca channels. With increasing depolarization, the number of activated channels, and hence the number of Ca domains, should increase; the single-channel current should, however, decrease, thereby decreasing Ca2+ accumulation in each domain relative to the macroscopic current. Such voltage dependence of the microscopic distribution of Ca2+ may influence relations between total Ca2+ entry and Ca-dependent processes. Ca-mediated inactivation of Ca channels in Aplysia neurons exhibits behavior consistent with the calcium domain hypothesis. PMID:6329349

  11. Mechanisms and Functional Significance of Inhibition of Neuronal T-Type Calcium Channels by Isoflurane

    PubMed Central

    Orestes, Peihan; Bojadzic, Damir; Chow, Robert M.; Todorovic, Slobodan M.

    2009-01-01

    Previous data have indicated that T-type calcium channels (low-voltage activated T-channels) are potently inhibited by volatile anesthetics. Although the interactions of T-channels with a number of anesthetics have been described, the mechanisms by which these agents modulate channel activity, and the functional consequences of such interactions, are not well studied. Here, we used patch-clamp recordings to explore the actions of a prototypical volatile anesthetic, isoflurane (Iso), on recombinant human CaV3.1 and CaV3.2 isoforms of T-channels. We also performed behavioral testing of anesthetic endpoints in mice lacking CaV3.2. Iso applied at resting channel states blocked current through both isoforms in a similar manner at clinically relevant concentrations (1 minimum alveolar concentration, MAC). Inhibition was more prominent at depolarized membrane potentials (-65 versus -100 mV) as evidenced by hyperpolarizing shifts in channel availability curves and a 2.5-fold decrease in IC50 values. Iso slowed recovery from inactivation and enhanced deactivation in both CaV3.1 and CaV3.2 in a comparable manner but caused a depolarizing shift in activation curves and greater use-dependent block of CaV3.2 channels. In behavioral tests, CaV3.2 knockout (KO) mice showed significantly decreased MAC in comparison with wild-type (WT) litter mates. KO and WT mice did not differ in loss of righting reflex, but mutant mice displayed a delayed onset of anesthetic induction. We conclude that state-dependent inhibition of T-channel isoforms in the central and peripheral nervous systems may contribute to isoflurane's important clinical effects. PMID:19038845

  12. Use of a purified and functional recombinant calcium-channel beta4 subunit in surface-plasmon resonance studies.

    PubMed Central

    Geib, Sandrine; Sandoz, Guillaume; Mabrouk, Kamel; Matavel, Alessandra; Marchot, Pascale; Hoshi, Toshinori; Villaz, Michel; Ronjat, Michel; Miquelis, Raymond; Lévêque, Christian; de Waard, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Native high-voltage-gated calcium channels are multi-subunit complexes comprising a pore-forming subunit Ca(v) and at least two auxiliary subunits alpha(2)delta and beta. The beta subunit facilitates cell-surface expression of the channel and contributes significantly to its biophysical properties. In spite of its importance, detailed structural and functional studies are hampered by the limited availability of native beta subunit. Here, we report the purification of a recombinant calcium-channel beta(4) subunit from bacterial extracts by using a polyhistidine tag. The purified protein is fully functional since it binds on the alpha1 interaction domain, its main Ca(v)-binding site, and regulates the activity of P/Q calcium channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes in a similar way to the beta(4) subunit produced by cRNA injection. We took advantage of the functionality of the purified material to (i) develop an efficient surface-plasmon resonance assay of the interaction between two calcium channel subunits and (ii) measure, for the first time, the affinity of the recombinant His-beta(4) subunit for the full-length Ca(v)2.1 channel. The availability of this purified material and the development of a surface-plasmon resonance assay opens two immediate research perspectives: (i) drug screening programmes applied to the Ca(v)/beta interaction and (ii) crystallographic studies of the calcium-channel beta(4) subunit. PMID:11988102

  13. Proteolytic maturation of α2δ represents a checkpoint for activation and neuronal trafficking of latent calcium channels

    PubMed Central

    Kadurin, Ivan; Ferron, Laurent; Rothwell, Simon W; Meyer, James O; Douglas, Leon R; Bauer, Claudia S; Lana, Beatrice; Margas, Wojciech; Alexopoulos, Orpheas; Nieto-Rostro, Manuela; Pratt, Wendy S; Dolphin, Annette C

    2016-01-01

    The auxiliary α2δ subunits of voltage-gated calcium channels are extracellular membrane-associated proteins, which are post-translationally cleaved into disulfide-linked polypeptides α2 and δ. We now show, using α2δ constructs containing artificial cleavage sites, that this processing is an essential step permitting voltage-dependent activation of plasma membrane N-type (CaV2.2) calcium channels. Indeed, uncleaved α2δ inhibits native calcium currents in mammalian neurons. By inducing acute cell-surface proteolytic cleavage of α2δ, voltage-dependent activation of channels is promoted, independent from the trafficking role of α2δ. Uncleaved α2δ does not support trafficking of CaV2.2 channel complexes into neuronal processes, and inhibits Ca2+ entry into synaptic boutons, and we can reverse this by controlled intracellular proteolytic cleavage. We propose a model whereby uncleaved α2δ subunits maintain immature calcium channels in an inhibited state. Proteolytic processing of α2δ then permits voltage-dependent activation of the channels, acting as a checkpoint allowing trafficking only of mature calcium channel complexes into neuronal processes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21143.001 PMID:27782881

  14. RIM Promotes Calcium Channel Accumulation at Active Zones of the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Ethan R.; Valakh, Vera; Wright, Christina M.; Wu, Chunlai; Liu, Zhihua; Zhang, Yong Q.; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Summary Synaptic communication requires the controlled release of synaptic vesicles from presynaptic axon terminals. Release efficacy is regulated by the many proteins that comprise the presynaptic release apparatus, including Ca2+ channels and proteins that influence Ca2+ channel accumulation at release sites. Here we identify Drosophila RIM and demonstrate that it localizes to active zones at the larval neuromuscular junction. In Drosophila RIM mutants, there is a large decrease in evoked synaptic transmission, due to a significant reduction in both the clustering of Ca2+ channels and the size of the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles at active zones. Hence, RIM plays an evolutionarily conserved role in regulating synaptic calcium channel localization and readily releasable pool size. Since RIM has traditionally been studied as an effector of Rab3 function, we investigate whether RIM is involved in the newly identified function of Rab3 in the distribution of presynaptic release machinery components across release sites. Bruchpilot (Brp), an essential component of the active zone cytomatrix T bar, is unaffected by RIM disruption, indicating that Brp localization and distribution across active zones does not require wild type RIM. In addition, larvae containing mutations in both RIM and rab3 have reduced Ca2+ channel levels and a Brp distribution that is very similar to that of the rab3 single mutant, indicating that RIM functions to regulate Ca2+ channel accumulation but is not a Rab3 effector for release machinery distribution across release sites. PMID:23175814

  15. CRAC channels, calcium, and cancer in light of the driver and passenger concept.

    PubMed

    Hoth, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Advances in next-generation sequencing allow very comprehensive analyses of large numbers of cancer genomes leading to an increasingly better characterization and classification of cancers. Comparing genomic data predicts candidate genes driving development, growth, or metastasis of cancer. Cancer driver genes are defined as genes whose mutations are causally implicated in oncogenesis whereas passenger mutations are defined as not being oncogenic. Currently, a list of several hundred cancer driver mutations is discussed including prominent members like TP53, BRAF, NRAS, or NF1. According to the vast literature on Ca(2+) and cancer, Ca(2+) signals and the underlying Ca(2+) channels and transporters certainly influence the development, growth, and metastasis of many cancers. In this review, I focus on the calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channel genes STIM and Orai and their role for cancer development, growth, and metastasis. STIM and Orai genes are being discussed in the context of current cancer concepts with a focus on the driver-passenger hypothesis. One result of this discussion is the hypothesis that a driver analysis of Ca(2+) homeostasis-related genes should not be carried out by looking at isolated genes. Rather a pool of “Ca(2+) genes” might be considered to act as one potential cancer driver. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen.

  16. Effects of calcium channel blockers on gastric emptying and acid secretion of the rat in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Brage, R.; Cortijo, J.; Esplugues, J.; Esplugues, J. V.; Martí-Bonmatí, E.; Rodriguez, C.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of three calcium channel blockers (verapamil, diltiazem and cinnarizine) on gastric emptying and secretion in the rat. Pretreatment with the calcium blockers delayed gastric emptying of phenol red in a dose-dependent manner. Verapamil was the most effective of the agents tested. Verapamil and diltiazem inhibited gastric acid secretion in the pylorus-ligated rat without affecting pepsin output. Cinnarizine was ineffective in this model. When the perfused lumen of the anaesthetized rat was used, verapamil was found to inhibit responses to carbachol or histamine more than those to pentagastrin. Further, we found a greater sensitivity to verapamil for basal compared with vagal-stimulated (2-deoxy-D-glucose) acid secretion. Neither diltiazem nor cinnarizine modified gastric acid secretion in this experimental model. These findings are discussed in relation to the role of extracellular calcium in gastric motility and secretion, and the existence of a regional and functional selectivity for calcium blockers is proposed. PMID:3814903

  17. Cav3-type α1T calcium channels mediate transient calcium currents that regulate repetitive firing in Drosophila antennal lobe PNs

    PubMed Central

    Iniguez, Jorge; Schutte, Soleil S.

    2013-01-01

    Projection neurons (PNs), located in the antennal lobe region of the insect brain, play a key role in processing olfactory information. To explore how activity is regulated at the level of single PNs within this central circuit we have recorded from these neurons in adult Drosophila melanogaster brains. Our previous study demonstrated that PNs express voltage-gated calcium currents with a transient and sustained component. We found that the sustained component is mediated by cac gene-encoded Cav2-type channels involved in regulating action potential-independent release of neurotransmitter at excitatory cholinergic synapses. The function of the transient calcium current and the gene encoding the underlying channels, however, were unknown. Here we report that the transient current blocked by prepulse inactivation is sensitive to amiloride, a vertebrate Cav3-type channel blocker. In addition PN-specific RNAi knockdown of α1T, the Drosophila Cav3-type gene, caused a dramatic reduction in the transient current without altering the sustained component. These data demonstrate that the α1T gene encodes voltage-gated calcium channels underlying the amiloride-sensitive transient current. Alterations in evoked firing and spontaneous burst firing in the α1T knockdowns demonstrate that the Cav3-type calcium channels are important in regulating excitability in adult PNs. PMID:23864373

  18. TRPC6 is the endothelial calcium channel that regulates leukocyte transendothelial migration during the inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Evan W.; Han, Fei; Tauseef, Mohammad; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Mehta, Dolly

    2015-01-01

    Leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) is a tightly regulated, multistep process that is critical to the inflammatory response. A transient increase in endothelial cytosolic free calcium ion concentration (↑[Ca2+]i) is required for TEM. However, the mechanism by which endothelial ↑[Ca2+]i regulates TEM and the channels mediating this ↑[Ca2+]i are unknown. Buffering ↑[Ca2+]i in endothelial cells does not affect leukocyte adhesion or locomotion but selectively blocks TEM, suggesting a role for ↑[Ca2+]i specifically for this step. Transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6), a Ca2+ channel expressed in endothelial cells, colocalizes with platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM) to surround leukocytes during TEM and clusters when endothelial PECAM is engaged. Expression of dominant-negative TRPC6 or shRNA knockdown in endothelial cells arrests neutrophils apically over the junction, similar to when PECAM is blocked. Selectively activating endothelial TRPC6 rescues TEM during an ongoing PECAM blockade, indicating that TRPC6 functions downstream of PECAM. Furthermore, endothelial TRPC6 is required for trafficking of lateral border recycling compartment membrane, which facilitates TEM. Finally, mice lacking TRPC6 in the nonmyeloid compartment (i.e., endothelium) exhibit a profound defect in neutrophil TEM with no effect on leukocyte trafficking. Our findings identify endothelial TRPC6 as the calcium channel mediating the ↑[Ca2+]i required for TEM at a step downstream of PECAM homophilic interactions. PMID:26392222

  19. TRPC6 is the endothelial calcium channel that regulates leukocyte transendothelial migration during the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Weber, Evan W; Han, Fei; Tauseef, Mohammad; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Mehta, Dolly; Muller, William A

    2015-10-19

    Leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) is a tightly regulated, multistep process that is critical to the inflammatory response. A transient increase in endothelial cytosolic free calcium ion concentration (↑[Ca(2+)]i) is required for TEM. However, the mechanism by which endothelial ↑[Ca(2+)]i regulates TEM and the channels mediating this ↑[Ca(2+)]i are unknown. Buffering ↑[Ca(2+)]i in endothelial cells does not affect leukocyte adhesion or locomotion but selectively blocks TEM, suggesting a role for ↑[Ca(2+)]i specifically for this step. Transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6), a Ca(2+) channel expressed in endothelial cells, colocalizes with platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM) to surround leukocytes during TEM and clusters when endothelial PECAM is engaged. Expression of dominant-negative TRPC6 or shRNA knockdown in endothelial cells arrests neutrophils apically over the junction, similar to when PECAM is blocked. Selectively activating endothelial TRPC6 rescues TEM during an ongoing PECAM blockade, indicating that TRPC6 functions downstream of PECAM. Furthermore, endothelial TRPC6 is required for trafficking of lateral border recycling compartment membrane, which facilitates TEM. Finally, mice lacking TRPC6 in the nonmyeloid compartment (i.e., endothelium) exhibit a profound defect in neutrophil TEM with no effect on leukocyte trafficking. Our findings identify endothelial TRPC6 as the calcium channel mediating the ↑[Ca(2+)]i required for TEM at a step downstream of PECAM homophilic interactions. PMID:26392222

  20. Direct recording and molecular identification of the calcium channel of primary cilia

    PubMed Central

    DeCaen, Paul G.; Delling, Markus; Vien, Thuy N.; Clapham, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary A primary cilium is a solitary slender non-motile protuberance of structured microtubules (9+0) enclosed by plasma membrane1. Housing components of the cell division apparatus between cell divisions, they also serve as specialized compartments for calcium signaling2 and Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathways3. Specialized sensory cilia such as retinal photoreceptors and olfactory cilia employ diverse ion channels4-7. An ion current has been measured from primary cilia of kidney cells8 but the responsible genes have not been identified. The polycystin proteins (PC, PKD), identified in linkage studies of polycystic kidney disease9, are candidate channels divided into two structural classes: 11-transmembrane (TM) proteins (PKD1, PKD1-L1 and PKD1-L2) remarkable for a large extracellular N-terminus of putative cell adhesion domains and a GPCR proteolytic site, and the 6-TM channel proteins (PKD2, PKD2-L1, PKD2-L2; TRPPs). Evidence suggests that the PKD1s associate with the PKD2s via coiled-coil domains10-12. Here, we employ a transgenic mouse in which only cilia express a fluorophore and employ it to directly record from primary cilia and demonstrate that PKD1-L1 and PKD2-L1 form ion channels at high densities in several cell types. In conjunction with the companion manuscript2, we show that the PKD1-L1/PKD2-L1 heteromeric channel establishes the cilia as a unique calcium compartment within cells that modulates established Hedgehog pathways. PMID:24336289

  1. Beta-adrenergic modulation of cardiac ion channels. Differential temperature sensitivity of potassium and calcium currents

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    beta-Adrenergic stimulation of ventricular heart cells results in the enhancement of two important ion currents that regulate the plateau phase of the action potential: the delayed rectifier potassium channel current (IK) and L-type calcium channel current (ICa). The temperature dependence of beta-adrenergic modulation of these two currents was examined in patch-clamped guinea pig ventricular myocytes at various steps in the beta-receptor/cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase pathway. External applications of isoproterenol and forskolin were used to activate the beta-receptor and the enzyme adenylate cyclase, respectively. Internal dialysis of cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) or the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (CS), as well as the external addition of 8-chlorphenylthio cAMP (CPT-cAMP) was applied to increase intracellular levels of cAMP and CS. Isoproterenol-mediated increases in IK, but not ICa, were found to be very temperature dependent over the range of 20-37 degrees C. At room temperature (20-22 degrees C) isoproterenol produced a large (threefold) enhancement of ICa but had no effect on IK. In contrast, at warmer temperatures (30-37 degrees C) both currents increased in the presence of this agonist and the kinetics of IK were slowed at -30 mV. A similar temperature sensitivity also existed after exposure to forskolin, CPT-cAMP, cAMP, and CS, suggesting that this temperature sensitivity of IK may arise at the channel protein level. Modulation of IK during each of these interventions was accompanied by a slowing in IK kinetics. Thus, regulation of cardiac potassium channels but not calcium channels involves a temperature-dependent step that occurs after activation of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. PMID:2472462

  2. α-SNAP regulates dynamic, on-site assembly and calcium selectivity of Orai1 channels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peiyao; Miao, Yong; Dani, Adish; Vig, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Orai1 forms a highly calcium-selective pore of the calcium release activated channel, and α-SNAP is necessary for its function. Here we show that α-SNAP regulates on-site assembly of Orai1 dimers into calcium-selective multimers. We find that Orai1 is a dimer in resting primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts but displays variable stoichiometry in the plasma membrane of store-depleted cells. Remarkably, α-SNAP depletion induces formation of higher-order Orai1 oligomers, which permeate significant levels of sodium via Orai1 channels. Sodium permeation in α-SNAP–deficient cells cannot be corrected by tethering multiple Stim1 domains to Orai1 C-terminal tail, demonstrating that α-SNAP regulates functional assembly and calcium selectivity of Orai1 multimers independently of Stim1 levels. Fluorescence nanoscopy reveals sustained coassociation of α-SNAP with Stim1 and Orai1, and α-SNAP–depleted cells show faster and less constrained mobility of Orai1 within ER-PM junctions, suggesting Orai1 and Stim1 coentrapment without stable contacts. Furthermore, α-SNAP depletion significantly reduces fluorescence resonance energy transfer between Stim1 and Orai1 N-terminus but not C-terminus. Taken together, these data reveal a unique role of α-SNAP in the on-site functional assembly of Orai1 subunits and suggest that this process may, in part, involve enabling crucial low-affinity interactions between Orai1 N-terminus and Stim1. PMID:27335124

  3. α-SNAP regulates dynamic, on-site assembly and calcium selectivity of Orai1 channels.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyao; Miao, Yong; Dani, Adish; Vig, Monika

    2016-08-15

    Orai1 forms a highly calcium-selective pore of the calcium release activated channel, and α-SNAP is necessary for its function. Here we show that α-SNAP regulates on-site assembly of Orai1 dimers into calcium-selective multimers. We find that Orai1 is a dimer in resting primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts but displays variable stoichiometry in the plasma membrane of store-depleted cells. Remarkably, α-SNAP depletion induces formation of higher-order Orai1 oligomers, which permeate significant levels of sodium via Orai1 channels. Sodium permeation in α-SNAP-deficient cells cannot be corrected by tethering multiple Stim1 domains to Orai1 C-terminal tail, demonstrating that α-SNAP regulates functional assembly and calcium selectivity of Orai1 multimers independently of Stim1 levels. Fluorescence nanoscopy reveals sustained coassociation of α-SNAP with Stim1 and Orai1, and α-SNAP-depleted cells show faster and less constrained mobility of Orai1 within ER-PM junctions, suggesting Orai1 and Stim1 coentrapment without stable contacts. Furthermore, α-SNAP depletion significantly reduces fluorescence resonance energy transfer between Stim1 and Orai1 N-terminus but not C-terminus. Taken together, these data reveal a unique role of α-SNAP in the on-site functional assembly of Orai1 subunits and suggest that this process may, in part, involve enabling crucial low-affinity interactions between Orai1 N-terminus and Stim1.

  4. Responses of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) swim-up fry to dietary calcium in soft and hard water.

    PubMed

    Scarpa, J; Gatlin, D M

    1993-12-01

    1. Responses of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) swim-up fry to dietary calcium in soft (< 1 mg/l as CaCO3) and hard (> 100 mg/l as CaCO3) water were determined by feeding purified egg-white diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% calcium from CaCO3 for 8 weeks. 2. Catfish fry fed the basal diet (0.03% Ca) in hard and soft water had lower whole-body ash and whole-body calcium concentrations but higher weight gain and survival than those fed calcium-supplemented diets. 3. Fry in soft water generally had lower whole-body ash, whole-body calcium, and survival, as well as a higher incidence of spinal deformities than fry in hard water. 4. Feeding higher levels of calcium to fry reared in soft water did not increase whole-body calcium levels or decrease spinal deformities to the levels observed for fry reared in hard water and fed supplemental calcium. 5. These data indicate that calcium derived solely from dietary or environmental sources was not sufficient for optimum health of channel catfish fry.

  5. Shikonin Inhibits Intestinal Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels and Prevents Rotaviral Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2016-01-01

    Secretory diarrhea remains a global health burden and causes major mortality in children. There have been some focuses on antidiarrheal therapies that may reduce fluid losses and intestinal motility in diarrheal diseases. In the present study, we identified shikonin as an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay. The IC50 value of shikonin was 6.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurements demonstrated that shikonin inhibited Eact-induced Cl(-) current in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 value of 1.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurement showed that shikonin exhibited inhibitory effect against CCh-induced Cl(-) currents in mouse colonic epithelia but did not affect cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration as well as the other major enterocyte chloride channel conductance regulator. Characterization study found that shikonin inhibited basolateral K(+) channel activity without affecting Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities. In vivo studies revealed that shikonin significantly delayed intestinal motility in mice and reduced stool water content in a neonatal mice model of rotaviral diarrhea without affecting the viral infection process in vivo. Taken together, the results suggested that shikonin inhibited enterocyte calcium-activated chloride channels, the inhibitory effect was partially through inhbition of basolateral K(+) channel activity, and shikonin could be a lead compound in the treatment of rotaviral secretory diarrhea.

  6. Calcium channels responsible for potassium-induced transmitter release at rat cerebellar synapses.

    PubMed

    Momiyama, A; Takahashi, T

    1994-04-15

    The effects of calcium channel blockers on potassium-induced transmitter release were studied in thin slices of cerebellum from neonatal rats using whole-cell patch clamp methods. Miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were recorded from deep cerebellar nuclear neurones in the presence of tetrodotoxin. The frequency of mIPSCs was reproducibly increased by a brief application of high-potassium solution. In the presence of the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nicardipine (10 microM), the potassium-induced increase in mIPSC frequency was suppressed by 49%. Neither the mean amplitude nor the time course of mIPSCs was affected by the blocker. The N-type Ca2+ channel blocker omega-conotoxin GVIA (omega-CgTX, 3 microM) had no effect on the frequency of potassium-induced mIPSCs. The P-type Ca2+ channel blocker omega-Aga-IVA (200 nM) suppressed the potassium-induced increase in mIPSC frequency by 83% without affecting the mean amplitude or time course of mIPSCs. Comparing these data with previous studies of neurally evoked transmission, it is concluded that the Ca2+ channel subtypes responsible for potassium-induced transmitter release may be different from those mediating fast synaptic transmission.

  7. Shikonin Inhibits Intestinal Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels and Prevents Rotaviral Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2016-01-01

    Secretory diarrhea remains a global health burden and causes major mortality in children. There have been some focuses on antidiarrheal therapies that may reduce fluid losses and intestinal motility in diarrheal diseases. In the present study, we identified shikonin as an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay. The IC50 value of shikonin was 6.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurements demonstrated that shikonin inhibited Eact-induced Cl- current in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 value of 1.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurement showed that shikonin exhibited inhibitory effect against CCh-induced Cl- currents in mouse colonic epithelia but did not affect cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration as well as the other major enterocyte chloride channel conductance regulator. Characterization study found that shikonin inhibited basolateral K+ channel activity without affecting Na+/K+-ATPase activities. In vivo studies revealed that shikonin significantly delayed intestinal motility in mice and reduced stool water content in a neonatal mice model of rotaviral diarrhea without affecting the viral infection process in vivo. Taken together, the results suggested that shikonin inhibited enterocyte calcium-activated chloride channels, the inhibitory effect was partially through inhbition of basolateral K+ channel activity, and shikonin could be a lead compound in the treatment of rotaviral secretory diarrhea. PMID:27601995

  8. Modulation of BK channel activities by calcium-sensing receptor in rat bronchopulmonary sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Vysotskaya, Zhanna V; Moss, Charles R; Gilbert, Carolyn A; Gabriel, Sabry A; Gu, Qihai

    2014-11-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the expression of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels and to explore the possible modulation of BK channel activities by calcium-sensing receptors (CaSR) in rat bronchopulmonary sensory neurons. The expression of BK channels was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. Results from whole-cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrated that activation of CaSR with its agonist spermine or NPS R-568 showed a dual regulating effect on BK channel activities: it potentiated BK currents in cells exhibiting low baseline BK activity while slightly inhibited BK currents in cells with high baseline BK activity. Blocking CaSR with its antagonist NPS 2143 significantly inhibited BK currents. Our results further showed that the modulation of BK currents by CaSR activation or blockade was completely abolished when the intracellular Ca(2+) was chelated by BAPTA-AM. In summary, our data suggest that CaSR plays an integrative role in bronchopulmonary afferent signaling, at least partially through the regulation of BK channel activities.

  9. Shikonin Inhibits Intestinal Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels and Prevents Rotaviral Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2016-01-01

    Secretory diarrhea remains a global health burden and causes major mortality in children. There have been some focuses on antidiarrheal therapies that may reduce fluid losses and intestinal motility in diarrheal diseases. In the present study, we identified shikonin as an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay. The IC50 value of shikonin was 6.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurements demonstrated that shikonin inhibited Eact-induced Cl(-) current in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 value of 1.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurement showed that shikonin exhibited inhibitory effect against CCh-induced Cl(-) currents in mouse colonic epithelia but did not affect cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration as well as the other major enterocyte chloride channel conductance regulator. Characterization study found that shikonin inhibited basolateral K(+) channel activity without affecting Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities. In vivo studies revealed that shikonin significantly delayed intestinal motility in mice and reduced stool water content in a neonatal mice model of rotaviral diarrhea without affecting the viral infection process in vivo. Taken together, the results suggested that shikonin inhibited enterocyte calcium-activated chloride channels, the inhibitory effect was partially through inhbition of basolateral K(+) channel activity, and shikonin could be a lead compound in the treatment of rotaviral secretory diarrhea. PMID:27601995

  10. Shikonin Inhibits Intestinal Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels and Prevents Rotaviral Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu; Yu, Bo; Yang, Hong; Ma, Tonghui

    2016-01-01

    Secretory diarrhea remains a global health burden and causes major mortality in children. There have been some focuses on antidiarrheal therapies that may reduce fluid losses and intestinal motility in diarrheal diseases. In the present study, we identified shikonin as an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay. The IC50 value of shikonin was 6.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurements demonstrated that shikonin inhibited Eact-induced Cl- current in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 value of 1.5 μM. Short-circuit current measurement showed that shikonin exhibited inhibitory effect against CCh-induced Cl- currents in mouse colonic epithelia but did not affect cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration as well as the other major enterocyte chloride channel conductance regulator. Characterization study found that shikonin inhibited basolateral K+ channel activity without affecting Na+/K+-ATPase activities. In vivo studies revealed that shikonin significantly delayed intestinal motility in mice and reduced stool water content in a neonatal mice model of rotaviral diarrhea without affecting the viral infection process in vivo. Taken together, the results suggested that shikonin inhibited enterocyte calcium-activated chloride channels, the inhibitory effect was partially through inhbition of basolateral K+ channel activity, and shikonin could be a lead compound in the treatment of rotaviral secretory diarrhea.

  11. Metabolism of omega-conotoxin-sensitive voltage-operated calcium channels in human neuroblastoma cells: modulation by cell differentiation and anti-channel antibodies.

    PubMed

    Passafaro, M; Clementi, F; Sher, E

    1992-09-01

    The turnover of voltage-operated calcium channels was studied in two different human neuroblastoma cell lines (IMR32 and SH-SY5Y) using omega-conotoxin. The 125I-omega-conotoxin bound to surface channels was internalized and degraded by the cells in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. The radioactive degradation products released in the medium were all trichloroacetic acid soluble and no longer recognized by anti-omega-conotoxin antibodies. Altering the pH of intracellular organelles with chloroquine and inhibiting lysosomal proteases with leupeptin reduced 125I-omega-conotoxin degradation but had no effect on its internalization. Postlabeling measurements showed that the rates of 125I-omega-conotoxin internalization and degradation were equal to the rate of channel removal from the cell surface after protein synthesis inhibition. The rate of removal of omega-conotoxin binding sites was parallel to the rate of loss of functional channels, as measured by means of the fura-2 technique. Drug-induced differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells slowed down channel internalization and degradation rates, leading to the known increased expression of plasma membrane calcium channels in differentiated cells. On the other hand, both human (from Lambert-Eaton myasthenic patients) and murine (from immunized mice) anti-channel antibodies increased the rates of channel internalization and degradation, leading to channel downregulation. The activity of presynaptic calcium channels is already known to be acutely modulated by a number of different agents (e.g., hormones and neurotransmitters); our studies suggest that a different form of channel modulation (changes in the number of channels due to interference with channel turnover) may be active over a longer time scale in neurons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Calmodulin and calcium differentially regulate the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-dependent sodium channel

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudioso, Christelle; Carlier, Edmond; Youssouf, Fahamoe; Clare, Jeffrey J.; Debanne, Dominique; Alcaraz, Gisele

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Both Ca{sup ++}-Calmodulin (CaM) and Ca{sup ++}-free CaM bind to the C-terminal region of Nav1.1. {yields} Ca{sup ++} and CaM have both opposite and convergent effects on I{sub Nav1.1}. {yields} Ca{sup ++}-CaM modulates I{sub Nav1.1} amplitude. {yields} CaM hyperpolarizes the voltage-dependence of activation, and increases the inactivation rate. {yields} Ca{sup ++} alone antagonizes CaM for both effects, and depolarizes the voltage-dependence of inactivation. -- Abstract: Mutations in the neuronal Nav1.1 voltage-gated sodium channel are responsible for mild to severe epileptic syndromes. The ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin (CaM) bound to rat brain Nav1.1 and to the human Nav1.1 channel expressed by a stably transfected HEK-293 cell line. The C-terminal region of the channel, as a fusion protein or in the yeast two-hybrid system, interacted with CaM via a consensus C-terminal motif, the IQ domain. Patch clamp experiments on HEK1.1 cells showed that CaM overexpression increased peak current in a calcium-dependent way. CaM had no effect on the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation, and accelerated the inactivation kinetics. Elevating Ca{sup ++} depolarized the voltage-dependence of fast inactivation and slowed down the fast inactivation kinetics, and for high concentrations this effect competed with the acceleration induced by CaM alone. Similarly, the depolarizing action of calcium antagonized the hyperpolarizing shift of the voltage-dependence of activation due to CaM overexpression. Fluorescence spectroscopy measurements suggested that Ca{sup ++} could bind the Nav1.1 C-terminal region with micromolar affinity.

  13. A functional tandem between transient receptor potential canonical channels 6 and calcium-dependent chloride channels in human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Johanna; Dannhoffer, Luc; Antigny, Fabrice; Vachel, Laura; Jayle, Christophe; Vandebrouck, Clarisse; Becq, Frédéric; Norez, Caroline

    2015-10-15

    TRPC6 plays important human physiological functions, notably in artery and arterioles constriction, in regulation of vascular volume and in bronchial muscle constriction. It is implicated in pulmonary hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and seems to play a role in cancer development. Previously, we identified Guanabenz, an α2-adrenergic agonist used for hypertension treatment (Wytensin®), as an activator of calcium-dependent chloride channels (CaCC) in human Cystic Fibrosis (CF) nasal epithelial cells by transiently increasing [Ca2+]i via an influx of extracellular Ca2+. In this study, using assays to measure chloride channel activity, we show that guanabenz is an activator of CaCC in freshly dissociated human bronchial epithelial cells from three CF patients with various genotypes (F508del/F508del, F508del/R1066C, F508del/H1085R). We further characterised the effect of guanabenz and show that it is independent of α-adrenergic receptors, is inhibited by the TRPC family inhibitor SKF-96365 but not by the TRPV family inhibitor ruthenium red. Using western-blotting, Ca2+ measurements and iodide efflux assay, we found that TRPC1 siRNA has no effect on guanabenz induced responses whereas TRPC6 siRNA prevented the guanabenz-dependent Ca2+ influx and the CaCC-dependent activity stimulated by guanabenz. In conclusion, we show that TRPC6 channel is pivotal for the activation of CaCC by guanabenz through a α2-adrenergic-independent pathway in human airway epithelial cells. We suggest propose a functional coupling between TRPC6 and CaCC and guanabenz as a potential TRPC6 activator for exploring TRPC6 and CaCC channel functions and corresponding channelopathies.

  14. Involvements of calcium channel and potassium channel in Danshen and Gegen decoction induced vasodilation in porcine coronary LAD artery.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fan; Koon, Chi Man; Chan, Judy Yuet Wa; Lau, Kit Man; Kwan, Y W; Fung, Kwok Pui

    2012-09-15

    Danshen (Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix) and Gegen (Puerariae Lobatae Radix) have been widely used in treating cardiovascular diseases for thousands of years in China. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of a Danshen and Gegen decoction (DG) on the vascular reactivity of a porcine isolated coronary artery and the underlying mechanisms involved. Porcine coronary rings were precontracted with 15 nM U46619. The involvement of endothelium-dependent mechanisms was explored by removing the endothelium; the involvement of potassium channels was investigated by the pretreatment of the artery rings with various blockers, and the involvement of the calcium channels was investigated by incubating the artery rings with Ca²⁺-free buffer and priming them with high [K⁺] prior to adding CaCl₂ to elicit contraction. The involvement of Ca²⁺ sensitization was explored by evaluating the Rho-activity expression. The results revealed that DG elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation on a U46619-precontracted coronary artery ring. These relaxation responses were not altered by the pretreatment of inhibitors of endothelium-related dilator synthases, cGMP and cAMP pathway inhibitors, potassium channel (BK(Ca), SK(Ca), K(V) and K(ATP)) blockers and endothelium removal. The K(IR) channel blocker BaCl₂ only slightly attenuated the DG-induced relaxation. However, the Ca²⁺-induced artery contraction was inhibited by DG. Additionally, the expression of the phosphorylated myosin light chain was inhibited by DG whereas the activity of RhoA was not affected. Therefore, DG could be a useful cardioprotective agent for vasodilation in patients who have hypertension.

  15. L-type cardiac calcium channels in doxorubicin cardiomyopathy in rats morphological, biochemical, and functional correlations.

    PubMed Central

    Keung, E C; Toll, L; Ellis, M; Jensen, R A

    1991-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DXR) is an effective antitumor agent in a wide spectrum of neoplasms. Chronic treatment is associated with cardiomyopathy and characteristic myocardial ultrastructural changes, which include swelling of the t tubules. Accordingly, we investigated excitation-contraction coupling in cardiomyopathic rat heart resulting from chronic DXR treatment. Using the whole-cell patch clamp technique, we studied the L-type calcium channel in single cells enzymatically isolated from normal (CTRL) and DXR rat hearts. Despite similar cell dimensions, the total membrane capacitance was significantly smaller in the DXR cells (138 +/- 9 pF) than in the CTRL cells (169 +/- 11 pF) (mean +/- SEM, n = 9, P less than 0.05). The mean current and the current density-voltage relationships of the CTRL and the DXR cells were significantly different (n = 9, P less than 0.001) with the maximal peak L-type calcium current (ICa) density increased from 6.4 +/- 0.9 in CTRL cells to 10.5 +/- 2.4 microA/cm2 in the DXR cells (P less than 0.05). There was no shift either in the current-voltage relationship or the steady-state inactivation curve in the two cell groups. However, the fast time constant of inactivation was increased at a membrane voltage of -10 to 10 mV. Calcium channel antagonist equilibrium binding assays using [3H]-PN200-110 revealed no difference in the maximal receptor binding capacity (CTRL, 194 +/- 27 and DXR 211 +/- 24 fmol/mg protein; P greater than 0.05, n = 6) and in receptor affinity (CTRL, 0.15 +/- 0.05 and DXR 0.13 +/- 0.03 nM; P less than 0.05). These data suggest that a decrease in effective capacitance might be associated with t-tubular damage. Despite this decrease, ICa was increased in the DXR cells. Such an increase may result from an alteration in the properties of the calcium channels and/or recruitment of "hibernating" channels in the remaining surface and t-tubular membranes. PMID:1645752

  16. Unveiling (−)‐Englerin A as a Modulator of L‐Type Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Sieglitz, Florian; Somovilla, Víctor J.; Cal, Pedro M. S. D.; Galione, Antony

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The voltage‐dependent L‐type Ca2+channel was identified as a macromolecular target for (−)‐englerin A. This finding was reached by using an unprecedented ligand‐based prediction platform and the natural product piperlongumine as a pharmacophore probe. (−)‐Englerin A features high substructure dissimilarity to known ligands for voltage‐dependent Ca2+ channels, selective binding affinity for the dihydropyridine site, and potent modulation of calcium signaling in muscle cells and vascular tissue. The observed activity was rationalized at the atomic level by molecular dynamics simulations. Experimental confirmation of this hitherto unknown macromolecular target expands the bioactivity space for this natural product and corroborates the effectiveness of chemocentric computational methods for prioritizing target‐based screens and identifying binding counterparts of complex natural products. PMID:27391219

  17. Increased Asynchronous Release and Aberrant Calcium Channel Activation in Amyloid Precursor Protein Deficient Neuromuscular Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Wang, Baiping; Long, Cheng; Wu, Gangyi; Zheng, Hui

    2007-01-01

    Despite the critical roles of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, its physiological function remains poorly established. Our previous studies implicated a structural and functional activity of the APP family of proteins in the developing neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Here we performed comprehensive analyses of neurotransmission in mature neuromuscular synapse of APP deficient mice. We found that APP deletion led to reduced paired-pulse facilitation and increased depression of synaptic transmission with repetitive stimulation. Readily releasable pool size and total releasable vesicles were not affected, but probability of release was significantly increased. Strikingly, the amount of asynchronous release, a measure sensitive to presynaptic calcium concentration, was dramatically increased, and pharmacological studies revealed that it was attributed to aberrant activation of N- and L-type Ca2+ channels. We propose that APP modulates synaptic transmission at the NMJ by ensuring proper Ca2+ channel function. PMID:17919826

  18. TRPA1 channels regulate astrocyte resting calcium levels and inhibitory synapse efficacy via GAT-3

    PubMed Central

    Shigetomi, Eiji; Tong, Xiaoping; Kwan, Kelvin Y.; Corey, David P.; Khakh, Baljit S.

    2011-01-01

    Astrocytes contribute to the formation and function of synapses and are found throughout the brain where they display intracellular store mediated Ca2+ signals. Here, using a membrane tethered genetically encoded calcium indicator (Lck-GCaMP3), we report the serendipitous discovery of a novel Ca2+ signal in rat hippocampal astrocyte-neuron co-cultures. We found that TRPA1 channel mediated Ca2+ fluxes give rise to frequent and highly localised near membrane “spotty” Ca2+ microdomains that contribute significantly to resting Ca2+ levels of astrocytes. Mechanistic evaluations in brain slices show that decreasing astrocyte resting Ca2+ levels mediated by TRPA1 channels decreased interneuron inhibitory synapse efficacy by reducing GABA transport via GAT-3, thus elevating extracellular GABA levels. Our data indicate how a novel transmembrane Ca2+ source (TRPA1) targets a transporter (GAT-3) in astrocytes to regulate inhibitory synapses. PMID:22158513

  19. In vivo impact of presynaptic calcium channel dysfunction on motor axons in episodic ataxia type 2

    PubMed Central

    Tan, S. Veronica; Burke, David; Labrum, Robyn W.; Haworth, Andrea; Gibbons, Vaneesha S.; Sweeney, Mary G.; Griggs, Robert C.; Kullmann, Dimitri M.; Bostock, Hugh; Hanna, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Ion channel dysfunction causes a range of neurological disorders by altering transmembrane ion fluxes, neuronal or muscle excitability, and neurotransmitter release. Genetic neuronal channelopathies affecting peripheral axons provide a unique opportunity to examine the impact of dysfunction of a single channel subtype in detail in vivo. Episodic ataxia type 2 is caused by mutations in CACNA1A, which encodes the pore-forming subunit of the neuronal voltage-gated calcium channel Cav2.1. In peripheral motor axons, this channel is highly expressed at the presynaptic neuromuscular junction where it contributes to action potential-evoked neurotransmitter release, but it is not expressed mid-axon or thought to contribute to action potential generation. Eight patients from five families with genetically confirmed episodic ataxia type 2 underwent neurophysiological assessment to determine whether axonal excitability was normal and, if not, whether changes could be explained by Cav2.1 dysfunction. New mutations in the CACNA1A gene were identified in two families. Nerve conduction studies were normal, but increased jitter in single-fibre EMG studies indicated unstable neuromuscular transmission in two patients. Excitability properties of median motor axons were compared with those in 30 age-matched healthy control subjects. All patients had similar excitability abnormalities, including a high electrical threshold and increased responses to hyperpolarizing (P < 0.00007) and depolarizing currents (P < 0.001) in threshold electrotonus. In the recovery cycle, refractoriness (P < 0.0002) and superexcitability (P < 0.006) were increased. Cav2.1 dysfunction in episodic ataxia type 2 thus has unexpected effects on axon excitability, which may reflect an indirect effect of abnormal calcium current fluxes during development. PMID:26912519

  20. In vivo impact of presynaptic calcium channel dysfunction on motor axons in episodic ataxia type 2.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Susan E; Tan, S Veronica; Burke, David; Labrum, Robyn W; Haworth, Andrea; Gibbons, Vaneesha S; Sweeney, Mary G; Griggs, Robert C; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Bostock, Hugh; Hanna, Michael G

    2016-02-01

    Ion channel dysfunction causes a range of neurological disorders by altering transmembrane ion fluxes, neuronal or muscle excitability, and neurotransmitter release. Genetic neuronal channelopathies affecting peripheral axons provide a unique opportunity to examine the impact of dysfunction of a single channel subtype in detail in vivo. Episodic ataxia type 2 is caused by mutations in CACNA1A, which encodes the pore-forming subunit of the neuronal voltage-gated calcium channel Cav2.1. In peripheral motor axons, this channel is highly expressed at the presynaptic neuromuscular junction where it contributes to action potential-evoked neurotransmitter release, but it is not expressed mid-axon or thought to contribute to action potential generation. Eight patients from five families with genetically confirmed episodic ataxia type 2 underwent neurophysiological assessment to determine whether axonal excitability was normal and, if not, whether changes could be explained by Cav2.1 dysfunction. New mutations in the CACNA1A gene were identified in two families. Nerve conduction studies were normal, but increased jitter in single-fibre EMG studies indicated unstable neuromuscular transmission in two patients. Excitability properties of median motor axons were compared with those in 30 age-matched healthy control subjects. All patients had similar excitability abnormalities, including a high electrical threshold and increased responses to hyperpolarizing (P < 0.00007) and depolarizing currents (P < 0.001) in threshold electrotonus. In the recovery cycle, refractoriness (P < 0.0002) and superexcitability (P < 0.006) were increased. Cav2.1 dysfunction in episodic ataxia type 2 thus has unexpected effects on axon excitability, which may reflect an indirect effect of abnormal calcium current fluxes during development.

  1. In vivo impact of presynaptic calcium channel dysfunction on motor axons in episodic ataxia type 2.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Susan E; Tan, S Veronica; Burke, David; Labrum, Robyn W; Haworth, Andrea; Gibbons, Vaneesha S; Sweeney, Mary G; Griggs, Robert C; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Bostock, Hugh; Hanna, Michael G

    2016-02-01

    Ion channel dysfunction causes a range of neurological disorders by altering transmembrane ion fluxes, neuronal or muscle excitability, and neurotransmitter release. Genetic neuronal channelopathies affecting peripheral axons provide a unique opportunity to examine the impact of dysfunction of a single channel subtype in detail in vivo. Episodic ataxia type 2 is caused by mutations in CACNA1A, which encodes the pore-forming subunit of the neuronal voltage-gated calcium channel Cav2.1. In peripheral motor axons, this channel is highly expressed at the presynaptic neuromuscular junction where it contributes to action potential-evoked neurotransmitter release, but it is not expressed mid-axon or thought to contribute to action potential generation. Eight patients from five families with genetically confirmed episodic ataxia type 2 underwent neurophysiological assessment to determine whether axonal excitability was normal and, if not, whether changes could be explained by Cav2.1 dysfunction. New mutations in the CACNA1A gene were identified in two families. Nerve conduction studies were normal, but increased jitter in single-fibre EMG studies indicated unstable neuromuscular transmission in two patients. Excitability properties of median motor axons were compared with those in 30 age-matched healthy control subjects. All patients had similar excitability abnormalities, including a high electrical threshold and increased responses to hyperpolarizing (P < 0.00007) and depolarizing currents (P < 0.001) in threshold electrotonus. In the recovery cycle, refractoriness (P < 0.0002) and superexcitability (P < 0.006) were increased. Cav2.1 dysfunction in episodic ataxia type 2 thus has unexpected effects on axon excitability, which may reflect an indirect effect of abnormal calcium current fluxes during development. PMID:26912519

  2. Protective effect of a calcium channel blocker "diltiazem" on aluminum chloride-induced dementia in mice.

    PubMed

    Rani, Anu; Neha; Sodhi, Rupinder K; Kaur, Amanpreet

    2015-11-01

    Many studies report that heavy metals such as aluminum are involved in amyloid beta aggregation and neurotoxicity. Further, high concentration of aluminum in the brain deregulates calcium signaling which contributes to synaptic dysfunction and halts neuronal communication which ultimately leads to the development of Alzheimer's disease. Recently, diltiazem, a calcium channel blocker clinically used in angina, is reported to decrease amyloid beta production by inhibiting calcium influx, decreasing inflammation and oxidative stress. However, the probable role of this drug in aluminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced experimental dementia is yet to be explored. Therefore, the present study is designed to investigate the effect of AlCl3-induced dementia in mice. Morris water maze test and elevated plus maze were utilized to evaluate learning and memory. Various biochemical estimations including brain acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE), brain total protein, thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) level, reduced glutathione (GSH) level, nitrate/nitrite, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. AlCl3 significantly impaired learning and memory and increased brain AChE, brain total protein, TBARS, and nitrate/nitrite and decreased brain GSH or SOD. On the other hand, treatment with diltiazem significantly reversed AlCl3-induced behavioral and biochemical deficits. The present study indicates the beneficial role of diltiazem in AlCl3-induced dementia.

  3. The distribution of intermediate-conductance, calcium-activated, potassium (IK) channels in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Vest, Nichola; Shimizu, Yasutake; Hunne, Billie; Furness, John B

    2006-02-01

    Intermediate-conductance, calcium-activated, potassium (IK) channels were first identified by their roles in cell volume regulation, and were later shown to be involved in control of proliferation of lymphocytes and to provide a K+ current for epithelial secretory activity. Until now, there has been no systematic investigation of IK channel localization within different epithelia. IK channel immunoreactivity was present in most epithelia, where it occurred in surface membranes of epithelial cells. It was found in all stratified epithelia, including skin, cornea, oral mucosa, vaginal mucosa, urothelium and the oesophageal lining. It occurred in the ducts of fluid-secreting glands, the salivary glands, lacrimal glands and pancreas, and in the respiratory epithelium. A low level of expression was seen in serous acinar cells. It was also found in other epithelia with fluid-exchange properties, the choroid plexus epithelium, the ependyma, visceral pleura and peritoneum, bile ducts and intestinal lining epithelium. However, there was little or no expression in vascular endothelial cells, kidney tubules or collecting ducts, lung alveoli, or in sebaceous glands. It is concluded that the channel is present in surface epithelia (e.g. skin) where it has a cell-protective role against osmotic challenge, and in epithelia where there is anion secretion that is facilitated by a K+ current-dependent hyperpolarization. It was also in some epithelial cells where its roles are as yet unknown. PMID:16441566

  4. Molecular mechanism underlying β1 regulation in voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Karen; Contreras, Gustavo F; Pupo, Amaury; Torres, Yolima P; Neely, Alan; González, Carlos; Latorre, Ramon

    2015-04-14

    Being activated by depolarizing voltages and increases in cytoplasmic Ca(2+), voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels and their modulatory β-subunits are able to dampen or stop excitatory stimuli in a wide range of cellular types, including both neuronal and nonneuronal tissues. Minimal alterations in BK channel function may contribute to the pathophysiology of several diseases, including hypertension, asthma, cancer, epilepsy, and diabetes. Several gating processes, allosterically coupled to each other, control BK channel activity and are potential targets for regulation by auxiliary β-subunits that are expressed together with the α (BK)-subunit in almost every tissue type where they are found. By measuring gating currents in BK channels coexpressed with chimeras between β1 and β3 or β2 auxiliary subunits, we were able to identify that the cytoplasmic regions of β1 are responsible for the modulation of the voltage sensors. In addition, we narrowed down the structural determinants to the N terminus of β1, which contains two lysine residues (i.e., K3 and K4), which upon substitution virtually abolished the effects of β1 on charge movement. The mechanism by which K3 and K4 stabilize the voltage sensor is not electrostatic but specific, and the α (BK)-residues involved remain to be identified. This is the first report, to our knowledge, where the regulatory effects of the β1-subunit have been clearly assigned to a particular segment, with two pivotal amino acids being responsible for this modulation.

  5. Calcium-activated potassium channels mask vascular dysfunction associated with oxidized LDL exposure in rabbit aorta.

    PubMed

    Bocker, J M; Miller, F J; Oltman, C L; Chappell, D A; Gutterman, D D

    2001-05-01

    Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is impaired in atherosclerosis. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) plays an important role, possibly through alterations in G-protein activation. We examined the effect of acute exposure to ox-LDL on the dilator responses of isolated rabbit aorta segments. We sought also to evaluate the specificity of this dysfunction for dilator stimuli that traditionally operate through a Gi-protein mechanism. Aortic segments were prepared for measurement of isometric tension. After contraction with prostaglandin F2alpha, relaxation to thrombin, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), or the endothelium-independent agonists, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) or papaverine was examined. Maximal relaxation to thrombin was impaired in the presence of ox-LDL (17.7+/-3.7% p<0.05) compared to control (no LDL) (52.6+/-4.0%). Ox-LDL did not affect maximal relaxation to ADP or SNP. However, in the presence of charybdotoxin (CHTX: calcium-activated potassium channel inhibitor) ox-LDL impaired relaxation to ADP (17.4+/-3.2%). CHTX did not affect control (no LDL) responses to ADP (69.6+/-5.0%) or relaxation to thrombin or papaverine. In conclusion, ox-LDL impairs relaxation to thrombin, but in the case of ADP, calcium-activated potassium channels compensate to maintain this relaxation. PMID:11605770

  6. Synergistic Effect of Fluconazole and Calcium Channel Blockers against Resistant Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuyuan; Yue, Longtao; Gu, Wenrui; Li, Xiuyun; Zhang, Liuping; Sun, Shujuan

    2016-01-01

    Candidiasis has increased significantly recently that threatens patients with low immunity. However, the number of antifungal drugs on the market is limited in comparison to the number of available antibacterial drugs. This fact, coupled with the increased frequency of fungal resistance, makes it necessary to develop new therapeutic strategies. Combination drug therapy is one of the most widely used and effective strategy to alleviate this problem. In this paper, we were aimed to evaluate the combined antifungal effects of four CCBs (calcium channel blockers), amlodipine (AML), nifedipine (NIF), benidipine (BEN) and flunarizine (FNZ) with fluconazole against C. albicans by checkerboard and time-killing method. In addition, we determined gene (CCH1, MID1, CNA1, CNB1, YVC1, CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1) expression by quantitative PCR and investigated the efflux pump activity of resistant candida albicans by rhodamine 6G assay to reveal the potential mechanisms. Finally, we concluded that there was a synergy when fluconazole combined with the four tested CCBs against resistant strains, with fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) <0.5, but no interaction against sensitive strains (FICI = 0.56 ~ 2). The mechanism studies revealed that fluconazole plus amlodipine caused down-regulating of CNA1, CNB1 (encoding calcineurin) and YVC1 (encoding calcium channel protein in vacuole membrane). PMID:26986478

  7. Synergistic Effect of Fluconazole and Calcium Channel Blockers against Resistant Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuyuan; Yue, Longtao; Gu, Wenrui; Li, Xiuyun; Zhang, Liuping; Sun, Shujuan

    2016-01-01

    Candidiasis has increased significantly recently that threatens patients with low immunity. However, the number of antifungal drugs on the market is limited in comparison to the number of available antibacterial drugs. This fact, coupled with the increased frequency of fungal resistance, makes it necessary to develop new therapeutic strategies. Combination drug therapy is one of the most widely used and effective strategy to alleviate this problem. In this paper, we were aimed to evaluate the combined antifungal effects of four CCBs (calcium channel blockers), amlodipine (AML), nifedipine (NIF), benidipine (BEN) and flunarizine (FNZ) with fluconazole against C. albicans by checkerboard and time-killing method. In addition, we determined gene (CCH1, MID1, CNA1, CNB1, YVC1, CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1) expression by quantitative PCR and investigated the efflux pump activity of resistant candida albicans by rhodamine 6G assay to reveal the potential mechanisms. Finally, we concluded that there was a synergy when fluconazole combined with the four tested CCBs against resistant strains, with fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) <0.5, but no interaction against sensitive strains (FICI = 0.56 ~ 2). The mechanism studies revealed that fluconazole plus amlodipine caused down-regulating of CNA1, CNB1 (encoding calcineurin) and YVC1 (encoding calcium channel protein in vacuole membrane).

  8. The calcium channel blocker controversy in patients with diabetic nephropathy: Is there an issue?

    PubMed

    Ruilope, L M; Campo, C; Segura, J

    2001-10-01

    Chronic renal failure, proteinuria, and arterial hypertension run in parallel in the presence of diabetic nephropathy. New goal blood pressure levels have been established in diabetic patients: 130/85 mm Hg and 125/75 mm Hg depending on the level of proteinuria being below or above 1 g/d. New and lower threshold blood pressure (>130/85 mm Hg) to initiate pharmacologic therapy is required in the presence of diabetes mellitus in order to facilitate the strict blood pressure control that is required. It must be considered that both renal and cardiovascular protection are obtained with strict blood pressure control, which otherwise seems to require blockade of angiotensin II effects when proteinuria above 1 g/d is present. While awaiting the publication of long-term follow-up studies looking at renal and cardiovascular outcome in diabetic and other nephropathies in which calcium channel blockers are compared with other antihypertensive drugs, calcium channel blockers will remain the drugs needed to attain the expected goal blood pressure in diabetics, both alone (in the absence of microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria) or in combination, particularly with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.

  9. Synergistic Effect of Fluconazole and Calcium Channel Blockers against Resistant Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuyuan; Yue, Longtao; Gu, Wenrui; Li, Xiuyun; Zhang, Liuping; Sun, Shujuan

    2016-01-01

    Candidiasis has increased significantly recently that threatens patients with low immunity. However, the number of antifungal drugs on the market is limited in comparison to the number of available antibacterial drugs. This fact, coupled with the increased frequency of fungal resistance, makes it necessary to develop new therapeutic strategies. Combination drug therapy is one of the most widely used and effective strategy to alleviate this problem. In this paper, we were aimed to evaluate the combined antifungal effects of four CCBs (calcium channel blockers), amlodipine (AML), nifedipine (NIF), benidipine (BEN) and flunarizine (FNZ) with fluconazole against C. albicans by checkerboard and time-killing method. In addition, we determined gene (CCH1, MID1, CNA1, CNB1, YVC1, CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1) expression by quantitative PCR and investigated the efflux pump activity of resistant candida albicans by rhodamine 6G assay to reveal the potential mechanisms. Finally, we concluded that there was a synergy when fluconazole combined with the four tested CCBs against resistant strains, with fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) <0.5, but no interaction against sensitive strains (FICI = 0.56 ~ 2). The mechanism studies revealed that fluconazole plus amlodipine caused down-regulating of CNA1, CNB1 (encoding calcineurin) and YVC1 (encoding calcium channel protein in vacuole membrane). PMID:26986478

  10. Calcium-channel blockers and other factors influencing delayed function in renal allografts.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, C J; Hillis, A N; Williams, J D; Griffin, P J; Salaman, J R

    1990-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was undertaken to examine the influence of calcium-channel blocking drugs on early renal allograft function. Delayed function was defined as the need for dialysis or a reduction in serum creatinine of less than 15% within 4 days of transplantation. The drug histories of 172 patients were examined. After exclusions, the data from 138 patients were analysed. No patient was taking any calcium-channel blocking drug other than nifedipine. Thirty-one patients were taking nifedipine at the time of transplantation and these had a delayed function rate of 16% compared with 40% for 107 patients not taking nifedipine (chi 2, P less than 0.05). Delayed function occurred in 61% of cases when the donor age was over 50 years compared with 29% with younger donors (chi 2, P less than 0.05). A total ischaemic time of longer than 24 h and administration of inotropic support to the donor were associated with delayed function (chi 2, P less than 0.05). Administration to the donor of mannitol, steroids, phenoxybenzamine and heparin had no effect on the rate of delayed function. Recipients treated with low-dose dopamine in the perioperative period had no advantage. Elevated trough whole blood concentrations of cyclosporin in the first week after transplant were associated with delayed function (Mann-Whitney U, P less than 0.05).

  11. Reversal of endotoxic shock with the calcium channel agonist BAY k 8644

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, N.; King, J.W.; Chernow, B.; Roth, B.L.

    1986-03-05

    The hypotension and diminished myocardial function observed in sepsis and endotoxin-induced shock are difficult to overcome pharmacologically. They previously demonstrated that a down regulation of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors may contribute to the hypotension and diminished response to catecholamines seen in septic shock. They here demonstrate that the calcium channel agonist BAY k 8644 potently reverses the hypotension of experimental endotoxin (20 mg/kg Difico lipopolysaccharide) shock in rats. A dose as low as 10 ..mu..g/kg BAY k 8644 significantly elevated mean arterial pressure (MAP) in hypotensive rats. The maximum percentage increase in MAP was greater in endotoxin-treated rats compared with saline-treated controls (153% vs 120% increase respectively). BAY k 8644 also caused a dose-dependent decrease in heart rate of 37% in endotoxin-treated rats and 39% in controls. No difference in (/sup 3/H)-nitrendipine binding sites were detected comparing control and endotoxin-treated rates. These results demonstrate that calcium channel agonists might represent unique agents in pathologic states characterized by hypotension and diminished cardiac function.

  12. Calcium channels contribute to albiflorin-mediated antinociceptive effects in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yizhi; Sun, Dejun; Meng, Qingjin; Guo, Wanxu; Chen, Qiuhui; Zhang, Ying

    2016-08-15

    Albiflorin (AF), one of important bioactive constituents of Paeonia lactiflora Radix, possesses neuro-protective effect. The present study aims to investigate the antinociceptive activities of AF and possible mechanisms. AF suppressed acetic acid-caused writhing, lengthened the latency period of mouse in hot plate test, and reduced the licking and biting response time of the injected mouse paw during phase I and phase II, and it suggested that AF exerted the antinociceptive activity mainly through central nervous system. Nimodipine, a commonly used calcium channels blocker, strongly lengthened AF-enhanced latency period of mouse in hot plate test. Compared with control group, AF reduced the levels of euronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and enhanced the levels of serotonin (5-HT) in serum and/or hypothalamus before and after 30-s thermal stimuli. The reduced activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in hypothalamus was observed in AF-treated mice. Collectively, AF-mediated antinociceptive activities were, at least partially, related to calcium channels. PMID:27038516

  13. Calcium sulfate crystallization along citrus root channels in a Florida soil exhibiting acid sulfate properties

    SciTech Connect

    Syslo, S.K.; Myhre, D.L.; Harris, W.G.

    1988-02-01

    The authors observed euhedral crystals in Manatee soil in a citrus grove in St. Lucie County, Florida. The material was identified as gypsum (CaSO/sub 4/ /times/ 2H/sub 2/O) using x-ray diffraction and infrared spectra. Photomicrography and scanning electron microscopy revealed that gypsum accumulated both in old root channels and within citrus root tissue of the Btg horizon. The subsurface horizons had elevated sulfate levels, a low initial pH, a drop (0.5 unit) in pH upon air-drying. Electrical conductivity paralleled the concentration of water-soluble sulfate. High levels of calcium and sulfate occurred for horizons above the water table. This accumulation is attributed to groundwater bearing these ions and subsequently discharging them to the overlying soil. Dead citrus roots appear to act as wicks to aid water transfer from lower to higher horizons. The roots and their empty channels provide spaces in which the gypsum can precipitate if the concentrations of calcium and sulfate in the evaporating groundwater exceed the solubility product of gypsum.

  14. Stereoselective inhibition of thromboxane-induced coronary vasoconstriction by 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Eltze, M.; Boer, R.; Sanders, K.H.; Boss, H.; Ulrich, W.R.; Flockerzi, D. )

    1990-01-01

    The biological activity of the (+)-S- and (-)-R-enantiomers of niguldipine, of the (-)-S- and (+)-R-enantiomers of felodipine and nitrendipine, and of rac-nisoldipine and rac-nimodipine was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of coronary vasoconstriction due to the thromboxane A2 (TxA2)-mimetic U-46619 in guinea pig Langendorff hearts, displacement of (+)-({sup 3}H)isradipine from calcium channel binding sites of guinea pig skeletal muscle T-tubule membranes, and blood pressure reduction in spontaneously hypertensive rats were determined. The enantiomers were obtained by stereoselective synthesis. Cross-contamination was less than 0.5% for both S- and R-enantiomers of niguldipine and nitrendipine and less than 1% for those of felodipine. From the doses necessary for a 50% inhibition of coronary vasoconstriction, stereoselectivity ratios for (+)-(S)-/(-)-(R)-niguldipine, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-felodipine, and (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-nitrendipine of 28, 13, and 7, respectively, were calculated. The potency ratio rac-nisoldipine/rac-nimodipine was 3.5. Ratios obtained from binding experiments and antihypertensive activity were (+)-(S)-/(-)-(R)-niguldipine = 45 and 35, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-felodipine = 12 and 13, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-nitrendipine = 8 and 8, and rac-nisoldipine/rac-nimodipine = 8 and 7, respectively. Highly significant correlations were found between the in vitro potency of the substances to prevent U-46619-induced coronary vasoconstriction and their affinity for calcium channel binding sites as well as their antihypertensive activity.

  15. High-dose insulin therapy in beta-blocker and calcium channel-blocker poisoning.

    PubMed

    Engebretsen, Kristin M; Kaczmarek, Kathleen M; Morgan, Jenifer; Holger, Joel S

    2011-04-01

    INTRODUCTION. High-dose insulin therapy, along with glucose supplementation, has emerged as an effective treatment for severe beta-blocker and calcium channel-blocker poisoning. We review the experimental data and clinical experience that suggests high-dose insulin is superior to conventional therapies for these poisonings. PRESENTATION AND GENERAL MANAGEMENT. Hypotension, bradycardia, decreased systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and cardiogenic shock are characteristic features of beta-blocker and calcium-channel blocker poisoning. Initial treatment is primarily supportive and includes saline fluid resuscitation which is essential to correct vasodilation and low cardiac filling pressures. Conventional therapies such as atropine, glucagon and calcium often fail to improve hemodynamic status in severely poisoned patients. Catecholamines can increase blood pressure and heart rate, but they also increase SVR which may result in decreases in cardiac output and perfusion of vascular beds. The increased myocardial oxygen demand that results from catecholamines and vasopressors may be deleterious in the setting of hypotension and decreased coronary perfusion. METHODS. The Medline, Embase, Toxnet, and Google Scholar databases were searched for the years 1975-2010 using the terms: high-dose insulin, hyperinsulinemia-euglycemia, beta-blocker, calcium-channel blocker, toxicology, poisoning, antidote, toxin-induced cardiovascular shock, and overdose. In addition, a manual search of the Abstracts of the North American Congress of Clinical Toxicology and the Congress of the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists published in Clinical Toxicology for the years 1996-2010 was undertaken. These searches identified 485 articles of which 72 were considered relevant. MECHANISMS OF HIGH-DOSE INSULIN BENEFIT. There are three main mechanisms of benefit: increased inotropy, increased intracellular glucose transport, and vascular dilatation. EFFICACY OF HIGH

  16. Distribution of High-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels in Rat Vestibular Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, Felix E.; Savin, David; Luu, Cindy; Sultemeier, David R.; Hoffman, Larry F.

    2011-01-01

    Voltage- and calcium-activated potassium channels (BK) are important regulators of neuronal excitability. BK channels seem to be crucial for frequency tuning in nonmammalian vestibular and auditory hair cells. However, there are a paucity of data concerning BK expression in mammalian vestibular hair cells. We therefore investigated the localization of BK channels in mammalian vestibular hair cells, specifically in rat vestibular neuroepithelia. We find that only a subset of hair cells in the utricle and the crista ampullaris express BK channels. BK-positive hair cells are located mainly in the medial striolar region of the utricle, where they constitute at most 12% of hair cells, and in the central zone of the horizontal crista. A majority of BK-positive hair cells are encapsulated by a calretinin-positive calyx defining them as type I cells. The remainder are either type I cells encapsulated by a calretinin-negative calyx or type II hair cells. Surprisingly, the number of BK-positive hair cells in the utricle peaks in juvenile rats and declines in early adulthood. BK channels were not found in vestibular afferent dendrites or somata. Our data indicate that BK channel expression in the mammalian vestibular system differs from the expression pattern in the mammalian auditory and the nonmammalian vestibular system. The molecular diversity of vestibular hair cells indicates a functional diversity that has not yet been fully characterized. The predominance of BK-positive hair cells within the medial striola of juvenile animals suggests that they contribute to a scheme of highly lateralized coding of linear head movements during late development. PMID:19731297

  17. Vascularization of plastic calcium phosphate cement in vivo induced by in-situ-generated hollow channels.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Dong, Chao; Shen, Zhonghua; Chen, Yan; Yu, Bo; Shi, Haishan; Zhou, Changren; Ye, Jiandong

    2016-11-01

    Despite calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is promising for bone repair therapy, slow biodegradation and insufficient vascularization in constructs negatively impacts its clinical application. A self-setting CPC composited with gelatin fiber is investigated to test the utility of this tissue engineering strategy to support rapid and extensive vascularization process. The interconnected hollow channels in CPC are formed after dissolution of gelatin fibers in vivo. The CPC-gelatin samples exhibit relatively decent/enhanced mechanical property, compared to the control. When implanted in vivo, the pre-established vascular networks in material anastomose with host vessels and accelerate vascular infiltration throughout the whole tissue construct. Different channel sizes induce different vascularization behaviors in vivo. Results indicate that the channel with the size of 250μm increases the expression of the representative angiogenic factors HIF1α, PLGF and migration factor CXCR4, which benefit the formation of small vessels. On the other hand, the channel with the size of 500μm enhances VEGF-A expression, which benefit the development of large vessels. Notably, the intersection area of channels has high invasive, sprouting and vasculogenesis potential under hypoxic condition, because more HIF1α-positive cells are observed there. Observation of the CD31-positive lumen in the border of scaffold indicates the ingrowth of blood vessels from its host into material through channel, benefited from gradually increased HIF1α expression. This kind of material was suggested to promote the effective application of bone regeneration through the combination of in situ self-setting, plasticity, angiogenesis, and osteoconductivity. PMID:27524007

  18. Calcium-regulated anion channels in the plasma membrane of Lilium longiflorum pollen protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Bárbara; Dias, Pedro Nuno; Domingos, Patrícia; Moura, Teresa Fonseca; Feijó, José Alberto; Bicho, Ana

    2011-10-01

    • Currents through anion channels in the plasma membrane of Lilium longiflorum pollen grain protoplasts were studied under conditions of symmetrical anionic concentrations by means of patch-clamp whole-cell configuration. • With Cl(-) -based intra- and extracellular solutions, three outward-rectifying anion conductances, I(Cl1) , I(Cl2) and I(Cl3) , were identified. These three activities were discriminated by differential rundown behaviour and sensitivity to 5-nitro-2-(phenylpropylamino)-benzoate (NPPB), which could not be attributed to one or more channel types. All shared strong outward rectification, activated instantaneously and displayed a slow time-dependent activation for positive potentials. All showed modulation by intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+) ](in) ), increasing intensity from 6.04 nM up to 0.5 mM (I(Cl1) ), or reaching a maximum value with 8.50 μM (I(Cl2) and I(Cl3) ). • After rundown, the anionic currents measured using NO(3) (-) -based solutions were indistinguishable, indicating that the permeabilities of the channels for Cl(-) and NO(3) (-) are similar. Additionally, unitary anionic currents were measured from outside-out excised patches, confirming the presence of individual anionic channels. • This study shows for the first time the presence of a large anionic conductance across the membrane of pollen protoplasts, resulting from the presence of Ca(2+) -regulated channels. A similar conductance was also found in germinated pollen. We hypothesize that these putative channels may be responsible for the large anionic fluxes previously detected by means of self-referencing vibrating probes. PMID:21668885

  19. Oxygen causes fetal pulmonary vasodilation through activation of a calcium-dependent potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Cornfield, D N; Reeve, H L; Tolarova, S; Weir, E K; Archer, S

    1996-07-23

    At birth, pulmonary vasodilation occurs as air-breathing life begins. The mechanism of O2-induced pulmonary vasodilation is unknown. We proposed that O2 causes fetal pulmonary vasodilation through activation of a calcium-dependent potassium channel (KCa) via a cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinase. We tested this hypothesis in hemodynamic studies in acutely prepared fetal lambs and in patch-clamp studies on resistance fetal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Fetal O2 tension (PaO2) was increased by ventilating the ewe with 100% O2, causing fetal total pulmonary resistance to decrease from 1.18 +/- 0.14 to 0.41 +/- 0.03 mmHg per ml per min. Tetraethylammonium and iberiotoxin, preferential KCa-channel inhibitors, attenuated O2-induced fetal pulmonary vasodilation, while glibenclamide, an ATP-sensitive K+-channel antagonist, had no effect. Treatment with either a guanylate cyclase antagonist (LY83583) or cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinase inhibitors (H-89 and KT 5823) significantly attenuated O2-induced fetal pulmonary vasodilation. Under hypoxic conditions (PaO2 = 25 mmHg), whole-cell K+-channel currents (Ik) were small and were inhibited by 1 mM tetraethylammonium or 100 nM charybdotoxin (CTX; a specific KCa-channel blocker). Normoxia (PaO2 = 120 mmHg) increased Ik by more than 300%, and this was reversed by 100 nM CTX. Nitric oxide also increased Ik. Resting membrane potential was -37.2 +/- 1.9 mV and cells depolarized on exposure to CTX, while hyperpolarizing in normoxia. We conclude that O2 causes fetal pulmonary vasodilation by stimulating a cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinase, resulting in KCa-channel activation, membrane hyperpolarization, and vasodilation. PMID:8755608

  20. Selectivity and permeation in calcium release channel of cardiac muscle: alkali metal ions.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, D P; Xu, L; Tripathy, A; Meissner, G; Eisenberg, B

    1999-01-01

    Current was measured from single open channels of the calcium release channel (CRC) of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (over the range +/-180 mV) in pure and mixed solutions (e.g., biionic conditions) of the alkali metal ions Li+, K+, Na+, Rb+, Cs+, ranging in concentration from 25 mM to 2 M. The current-voltage (I-V) relations were analyzed by an extension of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) formulation of electrodiffusion, which includes local chemical interaction described by an offset in chemical potential, which likely reflects the difference in dehydration/solvation/rehydration energies in the entry/exit steps of permeation. The theory fits all of the data with few adjustable parameters: the diffusion coefficient of each ion species, the average effective charge distribution on the wall of the pore, and an offset in chemical potential for lithium and sodium ions. In particular, the theory explains the discrepancy between "selectivities" defined by conductance sequence and "selectivities" determined by the permeability ratios (i.e., reversal potentials) in biionic conditions. The extended PNP formulation seems to offer a successful combined treatment of selectivity and permeation. Conductance selectivity in this channel arises mostly from friction: different species of ions have different diffusion coefficients in the channel. Permeability selectivity of an ion is determined by its electrochemical potential gradient and local chemical interaction with the channel. Neither selectivity (in CRC) seems to involve different electrostatic interaction of different ions with the channel protein, even though the ions have widely varying diameters. PMID:10049318

  1. Lavender oil-potent anxiolytic properties via modulating voltage dependent calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Schuwald, Anita M; Nöldner, Michael; Wilmes, Thomas; Klugbauer, Norbert; Leuner, Kristina; Müller, Walter E

    2013-01-01

    Recent clinical data support the clinical use of oral lavender oil in patients suffering from subsyndromal anxiety. We identified the molecular mechanism of action that will alter the perception of lavender oil as a nonspecific ingredient of aromatherapy to a potent anxiolytic inhibiting voltage dependent calcium channels (VOCCs) as highly selective drug target. In contrast to previous publications where exorbitant high concentrations were used, the effects of lavender oil in behavioral, biochemical, and electrophysiological experiments were investigated in physiological concentrations in the nanomolar range, which correlate to a single dosage of 80 mg/d in humans that was used in clinical trials. We show for the first time that lavender oil bears some similarities with the established anxiolytic pregabalin. Lavender oil inhibits VOCCs in synaptosomes, primary hippocampal neurons and stably overexpressing cell lines in the same range such as pregabalin. Interestingly, Silexan does not primarily bind to P/Q type calcium channels such as pregabalin and does not interact with the binding site of pregabalin, the α2δ subunit of VOCCs. Lavender oil reduces non-selectively the calcium influx through several different types of VOCCs such as the N-type, P/Q-type and T-type VOCCs. In the hippocampus, one brain region important for anxiety disorders, we show that inhibition by lavender oil is mainly mediated via N-type and P/Q-type VOCCs. Taken together, we provide a pharmacological and molecular rationale for the clinical use of the oral application of lavender oil in patients suffering from anxiety.

  2. Effect of gingerol on colonic motility via inhibition of calcium channel currents in rats

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Zheng-Xu; Tang, Xu-Dong; Wang, Feng-Yun; Duan, Zhi-Jun; Li, Yu-Chun; Qiu, Juan-Juan; Guo, Hui-Shu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of gingerol on colonic motility and the action of L-type calcium channel currents in this process. METHODS: The distal colon was cut along the mesenteric border and cleaned with Ca2+-free physiological saline solution. Muscle strips were removed and placed in Ca2+-free physiological saline solution, which was oxygenated continuously. Longitudinal smooth muscle samples were prepared by cutting along the muscle strips and were then placed in a chamber. Mechanical contractile activities of isolated colonic segments in rats were recorded by a 4-channel physiograph. Colon smooth muscle cells were dissociated by enzymatic digestion. L-type calcium currents were recorded using the conventional whole-cell patch-clamp technique. RESULTS: Gingerol inhibited the spontaneous contraction of colonic longitudinal smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner with inhibition percentages of 13.3% ± 4.1%, 43.4% ± 3.9%, 78.2% ± 3.6% and 80.5% ± 4.5% at 25 μmol/L, 50 μmol/L, 75 μmol/L and 100 μmol/L, respectively (P < 0.01). Nifedipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker, diminished the inhibition of colonic motility by gingerol. Gingerol inhibited L-type calcium channel currents in colonic longitudinal myocytes of rats. At a 75 μmol/L concentration of gingerol, the percentage of gingerol-induced inhibition was diminished by nifedipine from 77.1% ± 4.2% to 42.6% ± 3.6% (P < 0.01). Gingerol suppressed IBa in a dose-dependent manner, and the inhibition rates were 22.7% ± 2.38%, 35.77% ± 3.14%, 49.78% ± 3.48% and 53.78% ± 4.16% of control at 0 mV, respectively, at concentrations of 25 μmol/L, 50 μmol/L, 75 μmol/L and 100 μmol/L (P < 0.01). The steady-state activation curve was shifted to the right by treatment with gingerol. The value of half activation was -14.23 ± 1.12 mV in the control group and -10.56 ± 1.04 mV in the 75 μmol/L group (P < 0.05) with slope factors, Ks, of 7.16 ± 0.84 and 7.02 ± 0.93 (P < 0.05) in the control and 75

  3. The Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel regulates temporal coding in mouse mechanoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Lewin, Gary R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In mammals there are three types of low-voltage-activated (LVA) calcium channels, Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and Cav3.3, which all give rise to T-type Ca2+currents. T-type Ca2+currents have long been known to be highly enriched in a sub-population of medium-sized sensory neurones in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). However, the identity of the T-type-rich sensory neurones has remained controversial and the precise physiological role of the Cav3.2 calcium channel in these sensory neurones has not been directly addressed. Here we show, using Cav3.2−/− mutant mice, that these channels are essential for the normal temporal coding of moving stimuli by specialized skin mechanoreceptors called D-hair receptors. We show that D-hair receptors from Cav3.2−/− fire approximately 50% fewer spikes in response to ramp-and-hold displacement stimuli compared to wild type receptors. The reduced sensitivity of D-hair receptors in Cav3.2−/− mice is chiefly due to an increase in the mechanical threshold and a substantial temporal delay in the onset of high-frequency firing to moving stimuli. We examined the receptive properties of other cutaneous mechanoreceptors and Aδ- and C-fibre nociceptors in Cav3.2−/− mice, but found no alteration in their mechanosensitivity compared to Cav3.2+/+ mice. However, C-fibre nociceptors recorded in Cav3.2−/− mutant mice displayed a small but statistically significant reduction in their spiking rate during noxious heat ramps when compared to C-fibres in control mice. The T-type calcium channel Cav3.2 is thus not only a highly specific marker of D-hair receptors but is also required to maintain their high sensitivity and above all to ensure ultra rapid temporal detection of skin movement. PMID:21486775

  4. Generation of slow wave type action potentials in the mouse small intestine involves a non-L-type calcium channel.

    PubMed

    Malysz, J; Richardson, D; Farraway, L; Christen, M O; Huizinga, J D

    1995-10-01

    Intrinsic electrical activities in various isolated segments of the mouse small intestine were recorded (i) to characterize action potential generation and (ii) to obtain a profile on the ion channels involved in initiating the slow wave type action potentials (slow waves). Gradients in slow wave frequency, resting membrane potential, and occurrence of spiking activity were found, with the proximal intestine exhibiting the highest frequency, the most hyperpolarized cell membrane, and the greatest occurrence of spikes. The slow waves were only partially sensitive to L-type calcium channel blockers. Nifedipine, verapamil, and pinaverium bromide abolished spikes that occurred on the plateau phase of the slow waves in all tissues. The activity that remained in the presence of L-type calcium channel blockers, the upstroke potential, retained a similar amplitude to the original slow wave and was of identical frequency. The upstroke potential was not sensitive to a reduction in extracellular chloride or to the sodium channel blockers tetrodotoxin and mexiletine. Abolishment of the Na+ gradient by removal of 120 mM extracellular Na+ reduced the upstroke potential frequency by 13 - 18% and its amplitude by 50 - 70% in the ileum. The amplitude was similarly reduced by Ni2+ (up to 5 mM), and by flufenamic acid (100 mu M), a nonspecific cation and chloride channel blocker. Gadolinium, a nonspecific blocker of cation and stretch-activated channels, had no effect. Throughout these pharmacological manipulations, a robust oscillation remained at 5 - 10 mV. This oscillation likely reflects pacemaker activity. It was rapidly abolished by removal of extracellular calcium but not affected by L-type calcium channel blockers. In summary, the mouse small intestine has been established as a model for research into slow wave generation and electrical pacemaker activity. The upstroke part of the slow wave has two components, the pacemaker component involves a non-L-type calcium channel

  5. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor inhibits calcium channel activation, exocytosis, and endocytosis at a central nerve terminal.

    PubMed

    Baydyuk, Maryna; Wu, Xin-Sheng; He, Liming; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2015-03-18

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that regulates synaptic function and plasticity and plays important roles in neuronal development, survival, and brain disorders. Despite such diverse and important roles, how BDNF, or more generally speaking, neurotrophins affect synapses, particularly nerve terminals, remains unclear. By measuring calcium currents and membrane capacitance during depolarization at a large mammalian central nerve terminal, the rat calyx of Held, we report for the first time that BDNF slows down calcium channel activation, including P/Q-type channels, and inhibits exocytosis induced by brief depolarization or single action potentials, inhibits slow and rapid endocytosis, and inhibits vesicle mobilization to the readily releasable pool. These presynaptic mechanisms may contribute to the important roles of BDNF in regulating synapses and neuronal circuits and suggest that regulation of presynaptic calcium channels, exocytosis, and endocytosis are potential mechanisms by which neurotrophins achieve diverse neuronal functions.

  6. Nefopam inhibits calcium influx, cGMP formation, and NMDA receptor-dependent neurotoxicity following activation of voltage sensitive calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Novelli, A; Díaz-Trelles, R; Groppetti, A; Fernández-Sánchez, M T

    2005-03-01

    Nefopam hydrochloride is a potent non sedative benzoxazocine analgesic that possesses a profile distinct from that of anti-inflammatory drugs. Previous evidence suggested a central action of nefopam but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. We have investigated the actions of nefopam on voltage sensitive calcium channels and calcium-mediated pathways. We found that nefopam prevented N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated excitotoxicity following stimulation of L-type voltage sensitive calcium channels by the specific agonist BayK8644. Nefopam protection was concentration-dependent. 47 muM nefopam provided 50% protection while full neuroprotection was achieved at 100 muM nefopam. Neuroprotection was associated with a 73% reduction in the BayK8644-induced increase in intracellular calcium concentration. Nefopam also inhibited intracellular cGMP formation following BayK8644 in a concentration-dependent manner, 100 muM nefopam providing full inhibition of cGMP synthesis and 58 muM allowing 50% cGMP formation. Nefopam reduced NMDA receptor-mediated cGMP formation resulting from the release of glutamate following activation of channels by BayK8644. Finally, we also showed that nefopam effectively reduced cGMP formation following stimulation of cultures with domoic acid, while not providing neuroprotection against domoic acid. Thus, the novel action of nefopam we report here may be important both for its central analgesic effects and for its potential therapeutic use in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders involving an excessive glutamate release.

  7. Bexarotene blocks calcium-permeable ion channels formed by neurotoxic Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptides.

    PubMed

    Fantini, Jacques; Di Scala, Coralie; Yahi, Nouara; Troadec, Jean-Denis; Sadelli, Kevin; Chahinian, Henri; Garmy, Nicolas

    2014-03-19

    The anticancer drug bexarotene has been shown to restore cognitive functions in animal models of Alzheimer's disease, but its exact mechanism of action remains elusive. In the present report, we have used a combination of molecular, physicochemical, and cellular approaches to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the anti-Alzheimer properties of bexarotene in neural cells. First of all, we noticed that bexarotene shares a structural analogy with cholesterol. We showed that cholesterol and bexarotene compete for the same binding site in the C-terminal region of Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptide 1-42 (Aβ1-42). This common bexarotene/cholesterol binding domain was characterized as a linear motif encompassing amino acid residues 25-35 of Aβ1-42. Because cholesterol is involved in the oligomerization of Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptides into neurotoxic amyloid channels, we studied the capability of bexarotene to interfere with this process. We showed that nanomolar concentrations of bexarotene efficiently prevented the cholesterol-dependent increase of calcium fluxes induced by β-amyloid peptides Aβ1-42 and Aβ25-35 in SH-SY5Y cells, suggesting a direct effect of the drug on amyloid channel formation. Molecular dynamics simulations gave structural insights into the role of cholesterol in amyloid channel formation and explained the inhibitory effect of bexarotene. Because it is the first drug that can both inhibit the binding of cholesterol to β-amyloid peptides and prevent calcium-permeable amyloid pore formation in the plasma membrane of neural cells, bexarotene might be considered as the prototype of a new class of anti-Alzheimer compounds. The experimental approach developed herein can be used as a screening strategy to identify such compounds. PMID:24383913

  8. Bexarotene blocks calcium-permeable ion channels formed by neurotoxic Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptides.

    PubMed

    Fantini, Jacques; Di Scala, Coralie; Yahi, Nouara; Troadec, Jean-Denis; Sadelli, Kevin; Chahinian, Henri; Garmy, Nicolas

    2014-03-19

    The anticancer drug bexarotene has been shown to restore cognitive functions in animal models of Alzheimer's disease, but its exact mechanism of action remains elusive. In the present report, we have used a combination of molecular, physicochemical, and cellular approaches to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the anti-Alzheimer properties of bexarotene in neural cells. First of all, we noticed that bexarotene shares a structural analogy with cholesterol. We showed that cholesterol and bexarotene compete for the same binding site in the C-terminal region of Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptide 1-42 (Aβ1-42). This common bexarotene/cholesterol binding domain was characterized as a linear motif encompassing amino acid residues 25-35 of Aβ1-42. Because cholesterol is involved in the oligomerization of Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptides into neurotoxic amyloid channels, we studied the capability of bexarotene to interfere with this process. We showed that nanomolar concentrations of bexarotene efficiently prevented the cholesterol-dependent increase of calcium fluxes induced by β-amyloid peptides Aβ1-42 and Aβ25-35 in SH-SY5Y cells, suggesting a direct effect of the drug on amyloid channel formation. Molecular dynamics simulations gave structural insights into the role of cholesterol in amyloid channel formation and explained the inhibitory effect of bexarotene. Because it is the first drug that can both inhibit the binding of cholesterol to β-amyloid peptides and prevent calcium-permeable amyloid pore formation in the plasma membrane of neural cells, bexarotene might be considered as the prototype of a new class of anti-Alzheimer compounds. The experimental approach developed herein can be used as a screening strategy to identify such compounds.

  9. Possible roles of exceptionally conserved residues around the selectivity filters of sodium and calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Tikhonov, Denis B; Zhorov, Boris S

    2011-01-28

    In the absence of x-ray structures of sodium and calcium channels their homology models are used to rationalize experimental data and design new experiments. A challenge is to model the outer-pore region that folds differently from potassium channels. Here we report a new model of the outer-pore region of the NaV1.4 channel, which suggests roles of highly conserved residues around the selectivity filter. The model takes from our previous study (Tikhonov, D. B., and Zhorov, B. S. (2005) Biophys. J. 88, 184-197) the general disposition of the P-helices, selectivity filter residues, and the outer carboxylates, but proposes new intra- and inter-domain contacts that support structural stability of the outer pore. Glycine residues downstream from the selectivity filter are proposed to participate in knob-into-hole contacts with the P-helices and S6s. These contacts explain the adapted tetrodotoxin resistance of snakes that feed on toxic prey through valine substitution of isoleucine in the P-helix of repeat IV. Polar residues five positions upstream from the selectivity filter residues form H-bonds with the ascending-limb backbones. Exceptionally conserved tryptophans are engaged in inter-repeat H-bonds to form a ring whose π-electrons would facilitate passage of ions from the outer carboxylates to the selectivity filter. The outer-pore model of CaV1.2 derived from the NaV1.4 model is also stabilized by the ring of exceptionally conservative tryptophans and H-bonds between the P-helices and ascending limbs. In this model, the exceptionally conserved aspartate downstream from the selectivity-filter glutamate in repeat II facilitates passage of calcium ions to the selectivity-filter ring through the tryptophan ring. Available experimental data are discussed in view of the models.

  10. (De)constructing the ryanodine receptor: modeling ion permeation and selectivity of the calcium release channel.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Dirk; Xu, Le; Wang, Ying; Meissner, Gerhard

    2005-08-18

    Biological ion channels are proteins that passively conduct ions across membranes that are otherwise impermeable to ions. Here, we present a model of ion permeation and selectivity through a single, open ryanodine receptor (RyR) ion channel. Combining recent mutation data with electrodiffusion of finite-sized ions, the model reproduces the current/voltage curves of cardiac RyR (RyR2) in KCl, LiCl, NaCl, RbCl, CsCl, CaCl(2), MgCl(2), and their mixtures over large concentrations and applied voltage ranges. It also reproduces the reduced K(+) conductances and Ca(2+) selectivity of two skeletal muscle RyR (RyR1) mutants (D4899N and E4900Q). The model suggests that the selectivity filter of RyR contains the negatively charged residue D4899 that dominates the permeation and selectivity properties and gives RyR a DDDD locus similar to the EEEE locus of the L-type calcium channel. In contrast to previously applied barrier models, the current model describes RyR as a multi-ion channel with approximately three monovalent cations in the selectivity filter at all times. Reasons for the contradicting occupancy predictions are discussed. In addition, the model predicted an anomalous mole fraction effect for Na(+)/Cs(+) mixtures, which was later verified by experiment. Combining these results, the binding selectivity of RyR appears to be driven by the same charge/space competition mechanism of other highly charged channels.

  11. TRPC1 regulates calcium-activated chloride channels in salivary gland cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuyang; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Singh, Brij B

    2015-11-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) plays an important role in modulating epithelial secretion. It has been suggested that in salivary tissues, sustained fluid secretion is dependent on Ca(2+) influx that activates ion channels such as CaCC to initiate Cl(-) efflux. However direct evidence as well as the molecular identity of the Ca(2+) channel responsible for activating CaCC in salivary tissues is not yet identified. Here we provide evidence that in human salivary cells, an outward rectifying Cl(-) current was activated by increasing [Ca(2+)]i, which was inhibited by the addition of pharmacological agents niflumic acid (NFA), an antagonist of CaCC, or T16Ainh-A01, a specific TMEM16a inhibitor. Addition of thapsigargin (Tg), that induces store-depletion and activates TRPC1-mediated Ca(2+) entry, potentiated the Cl(-) current, which was inhibited by the addition of a non-specific TRPC channel blocker SKF96365 or removal of external Ca(2+). Stimulation with Tg also increased plasma membrane expression of TMEM16a protein, which was also dependent on Ca(2+) entry. Importantly, in salivary cells, TRPC1 silencing, but not that of TRPC3, inhibited CaCC especially upon store depletion. Moreover, primary acinar cells isolated from submandibular gland also showed outward rectifying Cl(-) currents upon increasing [Ca(2+)]i. These Cl(-) currents were again potentiated with the addition of Tg, but inhibited in the presence of T16Ainh-A01. Finally, acinar cells isolated from the submandibular glands of TRPC1 knockout mice showed significant inhibition of the outward Cl(-) currents without decreasing TMEM16a expression. Together the data suggests that Ca(2+) entry via the TRPC1 channels is essential for the activation of CaCC.

  12. Evaluating State Dependence and Subtype Selectivity of Calcium Channel Modulators in Automated Electrophysiology Assays

    PubMed Central

    Kuryshev, Yuri A.; Brown, Arthur M.; Duzic, Emir

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels play essential roles in control of neurosecretion and muscle contraction. The pharmacological significance of Cav channels stem from their identification as the molecular targets of calcium blockers used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, angina, and arrhythmia, and neurologic diseases, such as pain and seizure. It has been proposed that state-dependent Cav inhibitors, that is, those that preferentially bind to channels in open or inactivated states, may improve the therapeutic window over relatively state-independent Cav inhibitors. High-throughput fluorescent-based functional assays have been useful in screening chemical libraries to identify Cav inhibitors. However, hit confirmation, mechanism of action, and subtype selectivity are better suited to automated patch clamp assays that have sufficient capacity to handle the volume of compounds identified during screening, even of modest sized libraries (≤500,000 compounds), and the flexible voltage control that allows evaluation of state-dependent drug blocks. IonWorks™ Barracuda (IWB), the newest generation of IonWorks instruments, provides the opportunity to accelerate the Cav drug discovery studies in an automated patch clamp platform in 384-well format capable of medium throughput screening and profiling studies. We have validated hCav1.2, hCav2.1, hCav2.2, and hCav3.2 channels assays on the IWB platform (population patch clamp mode) and demonstrated that the biophysical characteristics of the channels (activation, inactivation, and steady-state inactivation) obtained with the IWB system are consistent with known subtype-specific characteristics. Using standard reference compounds (nifedipine, BAY K8644, verapamil, mibefradil, and pimozide), we demonstrated subtype-selective and state- and use-dependent characteristics of drug–channel interactions. Here we describe the design and validation of novel robust high-throughput Cav channel

  13. Selectivity filters and cysteine-rich extracellular loops in voltage-gated sodium, calcium, and NALCN channels

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Robert F.; Guan, W.; Zhorov, Boris S.; Spafford, J. David

    2015-01-01

    How nature discriminates sodium from calcium ions in eukaryotic channels has been difficult to resolve because they contain four homologous, but markedly different repeat domains. We glean clues from analyzing the changing pore region in sodium, calcium and NALCN channels, from single-cell eukaryotes to mammals. Alternative splicing in invertebrate homologs provides insights into different structural features underlying calcium and sodium selectivity. NALCN generates alternative ion selectivity with splicing that changes the high field strength (HFS) site at the narrowest level of the hourglass shaped pore where the selectivity filter is located. Alternative splicing creates NALCN isoforms, in which the HFS site has a ring of glutamates contributed by all four repeat domains (EEEE), or three glutamates and a lysine residue in the third (EEKE) or second (EKEE) position. Alternative splicing provides sodium and/or calcium selectivity in T-type channels with extracellular loops between S5 and P-helices (S5P) of different lengths that contain three or five cysteines. All eukaryotic channels have a set of eight core cysteines in extracellular regions, but the T-type channels have an infusion of 4–12 extra cysteines in extracellular regions. The pattern of conservation suggests a possible pairing of long loops in Domains I and III, which are bridged with core cysteines in NALCN, Cav, and Nav channels, and pairing of shorter loops in Domains II and IV in T-type channel through disulfide bonds involving T-type specific cysteines. Extracellular turrets of increasing lengths in potassium channels (Kir2.2, hERG, and K2P1) contribute to a changing landscape above the pore selectivity filter that can limit drug access and serve as an ion pre-filter before ions reach the pore selectivity filter below. Pairing of extended loops likely contributes to the large extracellular appendage as seen in single particle electron cryo-microscopy images of the eel Nav1 channel. PMID

  14. Huwentoxin-XVI, an analgesic, highly reversible mammalian N-type calcium channel antagonist from Chinese tarantula Ornithoctonus huwena.

    PubMed

    Deng, Meichun; Luo, Xuan; Xiao, Yucheng; Sun, Zhenghua; Jiang, Liping; Liu, Zhonghua; Zeng, Xiongzhi; Chen, Hanchun; Tang, Jianhua; Zeng, Weimin; Songping Liang

    2014-04-01

    N-type calcium channels play important roles in the control of neurotransmission release and transmission of pain signals to the central nervous system. Their selective inhibitors are believed to be potential drugs for treating chronic pain. In this study, a novel neurotoxin named Huwentoxin-XVI (HWTX-XVI) specific for N-type calcium channels was purified and characterized from the venom of Chinese tarantula Ornithoctonus huwena. HWTX-XVI is composed of 39 amino acid residues including six cysteines that constitute three disulfide bridges. HWTX-XVI could almost completely block the twitch response of rat vas deferens to low-frequency electrical stimulation. Electrophysiological assay indicated that HWTX-XVI specifically inhibited N-type calcium channels in rat dorsal root ganglion cells (IC50 ∼60 nM). The inhibitory effect of HWTX-XVI on N-type calcium channel currents was dose-dependent and similar to that of CTx-GVIA and CTx-MVIIA. However, the three peptides exhibited markedly different degrees of reversibility after block. The toxin had no effect on voltage-gated T-type calcium channels, potassium channels or sodium channels. Intraperitoneal injection of the toxin HWTX-XVI to rats elicited significant analgesic responses to formalin-induced inflammation pain. Toxin treatment also changed withdrawal latency in hot plate tests. Intriguingly, we found that intramuscular injection of the toxin reduced mechanical allodynia induced by incisional injury in Von Frey test. Thus, our findings suggest that the analgesic potency of HWTX-XVI and its greater reversibility could contribute to the design of a novel potential analgesic agent with high potency and low side effects. PMID:24467846

  15. Huwentoxin-XVI, an analgesic, highly reversible mammalian N-type calcium channel antagonist from Chinese tarantula Ornithoctonus huwena.

    PubMed

    Deng, Meichun; Luo, Xuan; Xiao, Yucheng; Sun, Zhenghua; Jiang, Liping; Liu, Zhonghua; Zeng, Xiongzhi; Chen, Hanchun; Tang, Jianhua; Zeng, Weimin; Songping Liang

    2014-04-01

    N-type calcium channels play important roles in the control of neurotransmission release and transmission of pain signals to the central nervous system. Their selective inhibitors are believed to be potential drugs for treating chronic pain. In this study, a novel neurotoxin named Huwentoxin-XVI (HWTX-XVI) specific for N-type calcium channels was purified and characterized from the venom of Chinese tarantula Ornithoctonus huwena. HWTX-XVI is composed of 39 amino acid residues including six cysteines that constitute three disulfide bridges. HWTX-XVI could almost completely block the twitch response of rat vas deferens to low-frequency electrical stimulation. Electrophysiological assay indicated that HWTX-XVI specifically inhibited N-type calcium channels in rat dorsal root ganglion cells (IC50 ∼60 nM). The inhibitory effect of HWTX-XVI on N-type calcium channel currents was dose-dependent and similar to that of CTx-GVIA and CTx-MVIIA. However, the three peptides exhibited markedly different degrees of reversibility after block. The toxin had no effect on voltage-gated T-type calcium channels, potassium channels or sodium channels. Intraperitoneal injection of the toxin HWTX-XVI to rats elicited significant analgesic responses to formalin-induced inflammation pain. Toxin treatment also changed withdrawal latency in hot plate tests. Intriguingly, we found that intramuscular injection of the toxin reduced mechanical allodynia induced by incisional injury in Von Frey test. Thus, our findings suggest that the analgesic potency of HWTX-XVI and its greater reversibility could contribute to the design of a novel potential analgesic agent with high potency and low side effects.

  16. A homology model of the pore domain of a voltage-gated calcium channel is consistent with available SCAM data.

    PubMed

    Bruhova, Iva; Zhorov, Boris S

    2010-03-01

    In the absence of x-ray structures of calcium channels, their homology models are used to rationalize experimental data and design new experiments. The modeling relies on sequence alignments between calcium and potassium channels. Zhen et al. (2005. J. Gen. Physiol. doi:10.1085/jgp.200509292) used the substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) to identify pore-lining residues in the Ca(v)2.1 channel and concluded that their data are inconsistent with the symmetric architecture of the pore domain and published sequence alignments between calcium and potassium channels. Here, we have built K(v)1.2-based models of the Ca(v)2.1 channel with 2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTSET)-modified engineered cysteines and used Monte Carlo energy minimizations to predict their energetically optimal orientations. We found that depending on the position of an engineered cysteine in S6 and S5 helices, the ammonium group in the long flexible MTSET-modified side chain can orient into the inner pore, an interface between domains (repeats), or an interface between S5 and S6 helices. Different local environments of equivalent positions in the four repeats can lead to different SCAM results. The reported current inhibition by MTSET generally decreases with the predicted distances between the ammonium nitrogen and the pore axis. A possible explanation for outliers of this correlation is suggested. Our calculations rationalize the SCAM data, validate one of several published sequence alignments between calcium and potassium channels, and suggest similar spatial dispositions of S5 and S6 helices in voltage-gated potassium and calcium channels.

  17. Practical Radiosynthesis and Preclinical Neuroimaging of [11C]isradipine, A Calcium Channel Antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Rotstein, Benjamin H.; Liang, Steven H.; Belov, Vasily V.; Livni, Eli; Levine, Dylan B.; Bonab, Ali A.; Papisov, Mikhail I.; Perlis, Roy H.; Vasdev, Neil

    2016-01-01

    In the interest of developing in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) probes for neuroimaging of calcium channels, we have prepared a carbon-11 isotopologue of a dihydropyridine Ca2+-channel antagonist, isradipine. Desmethyl isradipine (4-(benzo[c][1,2,5]oxadiazol-4-yl)-5-(isopropoxycarbonyl)-2,6-dimethyl-1,4-dihydropyridine -3-carboxylic acid) was reacted with [11C]CH3I in the presence of tetrabutylammonium hydroxide in DMF in an HPLC injector loop to produce the radiotracer in a good yield (6 ± 3% uncorrected radiochemical yield) and high specific activity (143 ± 90 GBq·μmol−1 at end-of-synthesis). PET imaging of normal rats revealed rapid brain uptake at baseline (0.37 ± 0.08 %ID/cc (percent of injected dose per cubic centimeter) at peak, 15–60 s), which was followed by fast washout. After pretreatment with isradipine (2 mg·kg−1, i.p.), whole brain radioactivity uptake was diminished by 25–40%. This preliminary study confirms that [11C]isradipine can be synthesized routinely for research studies and is brain penetrating. Further work on Ca2+-channel radiotracer development is planned. PMID:26016546

  18. Localization of P-type calcium channels in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Hillman, D; Chen, S; Aung, T T; Cherksey, B; Sugimori, M; Llinás, R R

    1991-08-15

    The distribution of the P-type calcium channel in the mammalian central nervous system has been demonstrated immunohistochemically by using a polyclonal specific antibody. This antibody was generated after P-channel isolation via a fraction from funnel-web spider toxin (FTX) that blocks the voltage-gated P channels in cerebellar Purkinje cells. In the cerebellar cortex, immunolabeling to the antibody appeared throughout the molecular layer, while all the other regions were negative. Intensely labeled patches of reactivity were seen on Purkinje cell dendrites, especially at bifurcations; much weaker reactivity was present in the soma and stem segment. Electron microscopic localization revealed labeled patches of plasma membrane on the soma, main dendrites, spiny branchlets, and spines; portions of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum were also labeled. Strong labeling was present in the periglomerular cells of the olfactory bulb and scattered neurons in the deep layer of the entorhinal and pyriform cortices. Neurons in the brainstem, habenula, nucleus of the trapezoid body and inferior olive and along the floor of the fourth ventricle were also labeled intensely. Medium-intensity reactions were observed in layer II pyramidal cells of the frontal cortex, the CA1 cells of the hippocampus, the lateral nucleus of the substantia nigra, lateral reticular nucleus, and spinal fifth nucleus. Light labeling was seen in the neocortex, striatum, and in some brainstem neurons.

  19. Troponin I binds polycystin-L and inhibits its calcium-induced channel activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Liu, Yan; Shen, Patrick Y; Dai, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Shaohua; Smillie, Lawrence B; Sandford, Richard; Chen, Xing-Zhen

    2003-06-24

    Polycystin-L (PCL) is an isoform of polycystin-2, the product of the second gene associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, and functions as a Ca(2+)-regulated nonselective cation channel. We recently demonstrated that polycystin-2 interacts with troponin I, an important regulatory component of the actin microfilament complex in striated muscle cells and an angiogenesis inhibitor. In this study, using the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique and Xenopus oocyte expression system, we showed that the calcium-induced PCL channel activation is substantially inhibited by the skeletal and cardiac troponin I (60% and 31% reduction, respectively). Reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that PCL physically associates with the skeletal and cardiac troponin I isoforms in overexpressed Xenopus oocytes and mouse fibroblast NIH 3T3 cells. Furthermore, both native PCL and cardiac troponin I were present in human heart tissues where they indeed associate with each other. GST pull-down and microtiter binding assays showed that the C-terminus of PCL interacts with the troponin I proteins. The yeast two-hybrid assay further verified this interaction and defined the corresponding interacting domains of the PCL C-terminus and troponin I. Taken together, this study suggests that troponin I acts as a regulatory subunit of the PCL channel complex and provides the first direct evidence that PCL is associated with the actin cytoskeleton through troponin I. PMID:12809519

  20. Comparison of the calcium release channel of cardiac and skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum by target inactivation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, S.G.; Inui, Makoto; Chadwick, C.C.; Boucek, R.J. Jr.; Jung, C.Y.; Fleischer, S. )

    1989-02-07

    The calcium release channel of sarcoplasmic reticulum which triggers muscle contraction in excitation-contraction coupling has recently been isolated. The channel has been found to be morphologically identical with the feet structures of the junctional face membrane of terminal cisternae and consists of an oligomer of a unique high molecular weight polypeptide. In this study, the authors compare the target size of the calcium release channel from heart and skeletal muscle using target inactivation analysis. The target molecular weights of the calcium release channel estimated by measuring ryanodine binding after irradiation are similar for heart (139,000) and skeletal muscle (143,000) and are smaller than the monomeric unit (estimated to be about 360,000). The target size, estimated by measuring polypeptide remaining after irradiation, was essentially the same for heart and skeletal muscle, 1,061,000 and 1,070,000, respectively, indicating an oligomeric association of protomers. Thus, the calcium release channel of both cardiac and skeletal muscle reacts uniquely with regard to target inactivation analysis in that (1) the size by ryanodine binding is smaller than the monomeric unit and (2) a single hit leads to destruction of more than one polypeptide, by measuring polypeptide remaining. The target inactivation analysis studies indicate that heart and skeletal muscle receptors are structurally very similar.

  1. An alcohol-sensing site in the calcium- and voltage-gated, large conductance potassium (BK) channel.

    PubMed

    Bukiya, Anna N; Kuntamallappanavar, Guruprasad; Edwards, Justin; Singh, Aditya K; Shivakumar, Bangalore; Dopico, Alex M

    2014-06-24

    Ethanol alters BK (slo1) channel function leading to perturbation of physiology and behavior. Site(s) and mechanism(s) of ethanol-BK channel interaction are unknown. We demonstrate that ethanol docks onto a water-accessible site that is strategically positioned between the slo1 calcium-sensors and gate. Ethanol only accesses this site in presence of calcium, the BK channel's physiological agonist. Within the site, ethanol hydrogen-bonds with K361. Moreover, substitutions that hamper hydrogen bond formation or prevent ethanol from accessing K361 abolish alcohol action without altering basal channel function. Alcohol interacting site dimensions are approximately 10.7 × 8.6 × 7.1 Å, accommodating effective (ethanol-heptanol) but not ineffective (octanol, nonanol) channel activators. This study presents: (i) to our knowledge, the first identification and characterization of an n-alkanol recognition site in a member of the voltage-gated TM6 channel superfamily; (ii) structural insights on ethanol allosteric interactions with ligand-gated ion channels; and (iii) a first step for designing agents that antagonize BK channel-mediated alcohol actions without perturbing basal channel function.

  2. Effects of electromagnetic field exposure on conduction and concentration of voltage gated calcium channels: A Brownian dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Tekieh, Tahereh; Sasanpour, Pezhman; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem

    2016-09-01

    A three-dimensional Brownian Dynamics (BD) in combination with electrostatic calculations is employed to specifically study the effects of radiation of high frequency electromagnetic fields on the conduction and concentration profile of calcium ions inside the voltage-gated calcium channels. The electrostatic calculations are performed using COMSOL Multiphysics by considering dielectric interfaces effectively. The simulations are performed for different frequencies and intensities. The simulation results show the variations of conductance, average number of ions and the concentration profiles of ions inside the channels in response to high frequency radiation. The ionic current inside the channel increases in response to high frequency electromagnetic field radiation, and the concentration profiles show that the residency of ions in the channel decreases accordingly. PMID:27346366

  3. Sustained reduction of intraocular pressure in humans with the calcium channel blocker verapamil.

    PubMed

    Abelson, M B; Gilbert, C M; Smith, L M

    1988-02-15

    We investigated the effect of the calcium channel blocker verapamil on intraocular pressure in human volunteers. In the initial trial, 15 subjects with untreated ocular hypertension were tested. After a baseline measurement was obtained with applanation tonometry, a 40-microliter drop of verapamil, 1.25 mg/ml, was instilled in one eye. After 30 minutes, a second reading was taken. In a subsequent trial of 12 untreated ocular hypertensive subjects, the duration of action was determined using the same dose and method of delivery. Results showed that verapamil elicited a mean +/- S.E.M. change in intraocular pressure of -3.8 +/- 0.900 mm Hg in the treated eye, and -1.6 +/- 0.400 mm Hg in the untreated eye. This reduction was statistically different in both eyes (treated eye, P = .0007; untreated eye, P = .005). This decrease in intraocular pressure remained statistically significant when compared to predrug baseline values for up to ten hours.

  4. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... milligrams) of calcium each day. Get it from: Dairy products. Low-fat milk, yogurt, cheese, and cottage ... lactase that helps digest the sugar (lactose) in dairy products, and may have gas, bloating, cramps, or ...

  5. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplements and fortified foods include gluconate, lactate, and phosphate. Calcium absorption is best when a person consumes ... also interfere with the body's ability to absorb iron and zinc, but this effect is not well ...

  6. Dominance of P/Q-type calcium channels in depolarization-induced presynaptic FM dye release in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Nimmervoll, B; Flucher, B E; Obermair, G J

    2013-12-01

    Neurotransmitter release probability is related by high power to the local concentration of calcium in presynaptic terminals, which in turn is controlled by voltage-gated calcium channels. P/Q- and N-type channels trigger synaptic transmission in the majority of neurons of the central nervous system. However, whether and under which conditions both channel types act cooperatively or independently is still insufficiently understood. Previous studies suggested either a dominance of N- or P/Q-type channels, or a synergistic action of both channels, depending on the experimental paradigms. Thus, to provide insight into the properties of neurotransmitter release in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons, we used quantitative analysis of FM dye release from presynaptic boutons induced by high potassium membrane depolarization. Increasing extracellular potassium concentrations revealed a sigmoid dependence of FM dye release to the stimulation strength. Individual and combined application of the P/Q- and N-type channel-specific blockers ω-agatoxin-IVA and ω-conotoxin-GVIA, respectively, allowed us to specifically isolate the contribution of both channel types to release triggered with 40 mM KCl. Analysis of the release kinetics and the fractional release amplitude demonstrate that, whereas in only 15% of the synapses release depended exclusively on P/Q-type channels, the majority of synapses (85%) contained both N- and P/Q-type channels. Nevertheless, the kinetics of FM dye release in synapses containing both channel types was determined by the P/Q-type channels. Together, our data suggest a more direct coupling of P/Q-type channels to synaptic release compared to N-type channels, which may explain the high prevalence of neurological P/Q-type channelopathies.

  7. Molecular mechanism underlying β1 regulation in voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Karen; Contreras, Gustavo F; Pupo, Amaury; Torres, Yolima P; Neely, Alan; González, Carlos; Latorre, Ramon

    2015-04-14

    Being activated by depolarizing voltages and increases in cytoplasmic Ca(2+), voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels and their modulatory β-subunits are able to dampen or stop excitatory stimuli in a wide range of cellular types, including both neuronal and nonneuronal tissues. Minimal alterations in BK channel function may contribute to the pathophysiology of several diseases, including hypertension, asthma, cancer, epilepsy, and diabetes. Several gating processes, allosterically coupled to each other, control BK channel activity and are potential targets for regulation by auxiliary β-subunits that are expressed together with the α (BK)-subunit in almost every tissue type where they are found. By measuring gating currents in BK channels coexpressed with chimeras between β1 and β3 or β2 auxiliary subunits, we were able to identify that the cytoplasmic regions of β1 are responsible for the modulation of the voltage sensors. In addition, we narrowed down the structural determinants to the N terminus of β1, which contains two lysine residues (i.e., K3 and K4), which upon substitution virtually abolished the effects of β1 on charge movement. The mechanism by which K3 and K4 stabilize the voltage sensor is not electrostatic but specific, and the α (BK)-residues involved remain to be identified. This is the first report, to our knowledge, where the regulatory effects of the β1-subunit have been clearly assigned to a particular segment, with two pivotal amino acids being responsible for this modulation. PMID:25825713

  8. BKCa channel regulates calcium oscillations induced by alpha-2-macroglobulin in human myometrial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Wakle-Prabagaran, Monali; Lorca, Ramón A; Ma, Xiaofeng; Stamnes, Susan J; Amazu, Chinwendu; Hsiao, Jordy J; Karch, Celeste M; Hyrc, Krzysztof L; Wright, Michael E; England, Sarah K

    2016-04-19

    The large-conductance, voltage-gated, calcium (Ca(2+))-activated potassium channel (BKCa) plays an important role in regulating Ca(2+)signaling and is implicated in the maintenance of uterine quiescence during pregnancy. We used immunopurification and mass spectrometry to identify proteins that interact with BKCain myometrium samples from term pregnant (≥37 wk gestation) women. From this screen, we identified alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M). We then used immunoprecipitation followed by immunoblot and the proximity ligation assay to confirm the interaction between BKCaand both α2M and its receptor, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), in cultured primary human myometrial smooth muscle cells (hMSMCs). Single-channel electrophysiological recordings in the cell-attached configuration demonstrated that activated α2M (α2M*) increased the open probability of BKCain an oscillatory pattern in hMSMCs. Furthermore, α2M* caused intracellular levels of Ca(2+)to oscillate in oxytocin-primed hMSMCs. The initiation of oscillations required an interaction between α2M* and LRP1. By using Ca(2+)-free medium and inhibitors of various Ca(2+)signaling pathways, we demonstrated that the oscillations required entry of extracellular Ca(2+)through store-operated Ca(2+)channels. Finally, we found that the specific BKCablocker paxilline inhibited the oscillations, whereas the channel opener NS11021 increased the rate of these oscillations. These data demonstrate that α2M* and LRP1 modulate the BKCachannel in human myometrium and that BKCaand its immunomodulatory interacting partners regulate Ca(2+)dynamics in hMSMCs during pregnancy. PMID:27044074

  9. Molecular mechanism underlying β1 regulation in voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Karen; Contreras, Gustavo F.; Pupo, Amaury; Torres, Yolima P.; Neely, Alan; González, Carlos; Latorre, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Being activated by depolarizing voltages and increases in cytoplasmic Ca2+, voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels and their modulatory β-subunits are able to dampen or stop excitatory stimuli in a wide range of cellular types, including both neuronal and nonneuronal tissues. Minimal alterations in BK channel function may contribute to the pathophysiology of several diseases, including hypertension, asthma, cancer, epilepsy, and diabetes. Several gating processes, allosterically coupled to each other, control BK channel activity and are potential targets for regulation by auxiliary β-subunits that are expressed together with the α (BK)-subunit in almost every tissue type where they are found. By measuring gating currents in BK channels coexpressed with chimeras between β1 and β3 or β2 auxiliary subunits, we were able to identify that the cytoplasmic regions of β1 are responsible for the modulation of the voltage sensors. In addition, we narrowed down the structural determinants to the N terminus of β1, which contains two lysine residues (i.e., K3 and K4), which upon substitution virtually abolished the effects of β1 on charge movement. The mechanism by which K3 and K4 stabilize the voltage sensor is not electrostatic but specific, and the α (BK)-residues involved remain to be identified. This is the first report, to our knowledge, where the regulatory effects of the β1-subunit have been clearly assigned to a particular segment, with two pivotal amino acids being responsible for this modulation. PMID:25825713

  10. Genetically targeted single-channel optical recording reveals multiple Orai1 gating states and oscillations in calcium influx

    PubMed Central

    Dynes, Joseph L.; Amcheslavsky, Anna; Cahalan, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Orai1 comprises the pore-forming subunit of the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel. When bound and activated by stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident calcium sensor, Orai1 channels possess high selectivity for calcium but extremely small conductance that has precluded direct recording of single-channel currents. We have developed an approach to visualize Orai1 activity by fusing Orai1 to fluorescent, genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs). The GECI–Orai1 probes reveal local Ca2+ influx at STIM1–Orai1 puncta. By whole cell recording, these fusions are fully functional as CRAC channels. When GECI–Orai1 and the CRAC-activating domain (CAD) of STIM1 were coexpressed at low levels and imaged using a total internal reflectance fluorescence microscope, cells exhibited sporadic fluorescence transients the size of diffraction-limited spots and the brightness of a few activated GECI proteins. Transients typically rose rapidly and fell into two classes according to duration: briefer “flickers” lasting only a few hundred milliseconds, and longer “pulses” lasting one to several seconds. The size, intensity, trace shape, frequency, distribution, physiological characteristics, and association with CAD binding together demonstrate that GECI–Orai1 fluorescence transients correspond to single-channel Orai1 responses. Single Orai1 channels gated by CAD, and small Orai1 puncta gated by STIM1, exhibit repetitive fluctuations in single-channel output. CAD binding supports a role in open state maintenance and reveals a second phase of CAD/STIM1 binding after channel opening. These first recordings of single-channel Orai1 currents reveal unexpected dynamics, and when paired with CAD association, support multiple single-channel states. PMID:26712003

  11. The mutant Moonwalker TRPC3 channel links calcium signaling to lipid metabolism in the developing cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Dulneva, Anna; Lee, Sheena; Oliver, Peter L; Di Gleria, Katalin; Kessler, Benedikt M; Davies, Kay E; Becker, Esther B E

    2015-07-15

    The Moonwalker (Mwk) mouse is a model of dominantly inherited cerebellar ataxia caused by a gain-of-function mutation in the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel TRPC3. Here, we report impairments in dendritic growth and synapse formation early on during Purkinje cell development in the Mwk cerebellum that are accompanied by alterations in calcium signaling. To elucidate the molecular effector pathways that regulate Purkinje cell dendritic arborization downstream of mutant TRPC3, we employed transcriptomic analysis of developing Purkinje cells isolated by laser-capture microdissection. We identified significant gene and protein expression changes in molecules involved in lipid metabolism. Consistently, lipid homeostasis in the Mwk cerebellum was found to be disturbed, and treatment of organotypic cerebellar slices with ceramide significantly improved dendritic outgrowth of Mwk Purkinje cells. These findings provide the first mechanistic insights into the TRPC3-dependent mechanisms, by which activated calcium signaling is coupled to lipid metabolism and the regulation of Purkinje cell development in the Mwk cerebellum.

  12. Aging-associated changes in L-type calcium channels in the left atria of dogs

    PubMed Central

    GAN, TIAN-YI; QIAO, WEIWEI; XU, GUO-JUN; ZHOU, XIAN-HUI; TANG, BAO-PENG; SONG, JIAN-GUO; LI, YAO-DONG; ZHANG, JIAN; LI, FA-PENG; MAO, TING; JIANG, TAO

    2013-01-01

    Action potential (AP) contours vary considerably between the fibers of normal adult and aged left atria. The underlying ionic and molecular mechanisms that mediate these differences remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the L-type calcium current (ICa.L) and the L-type Ca2+ channel of the left atria may be altered with age to contribute to atrial fibrillation (AF). Two groups of mongrel dogs (normal adults, 2–2.5 years old and older dogs, >8 years old) were used in this study. The inducibility of AF was quantitated using the cumulative window of vulnerability (WOV). A whole-cell patch-clamp was used to record APs and ICa.L in left atrial (LA) cells obtained from the two groups of dogs. Protein and mRNA expression levels of the a1C (Cav1.2) subunit of the L-type calcium channel were assessed using western blotting and quantitative PCR (qPCR), respectively. Although the resting potential, AP amplitude and did not differ with age, the plateau potential was more negative and the APD90 was longer in the aged cells compared with that in normal adult cells. Aged LA cells exhibited lower peak ICa.L current densities than normal adult LA cells (P<0.05). In addition, the Cav1.2 mRNA and protein expression levels in LA cells were decreased in the aged group compared with those in the normal adult group. The lower AP plateau potential and the decreased ICa.L of LA cells in aged dogs may contribute to the slow and discontinuous conduction of the left atria. Furthermore, the reduction of the expression levels of Cav1.2 with age may be the molecular mechanism that mediates the decline in ICa.L with increasing age. PMID:24137290

  13. Calcium influx through L-type channels attenuates skeletal muscle contraction via inhibition of adenylyl cyclases.

    PubMed

    Menezes-Rodrigues, Francisco Sandro; Pires-Oliveira, Marcelo; Duarte, Thiago; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Chiavegatti, Tiago; Godinho, Rosely Oliveira

    2013-11-15

    Skeletal muscle contraction is triggered by acetylcholine induced release of Ca(2+) from sarcoplasmic reticulum. Although this signaling pathway is independent of extracellular Ca(2+), L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (Cav) blockers have inotropic effects on frog skeletal muscles which occur by an unknown mechanism. Taking into account that skeletal muscle fiber expresses Ca(+2)-sensitive adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms and that cAMP is able to increase skeletal muscle contraction force, we investigated the role of Ca(2+) influx on mouse skeletal muscle contraction and the putative crosstalk between extracellular Ca(2+) and intracellular cAMP signaling pathways. The effects of Cav blockers (verapamil and nifedipine) and extracellular Ca(2+) chelator EGTA were evaluated on isometric contractility of mouse diaphragm muscle under direct electrical stimulus (supramaximal voltage, 2 ms, 0.1 Hz). Production of cAMP was evaluated by radiometric assay while Ca(2+) transients were assessed by confocal microscopy using L6 cells loaded with fluo-4/AM. Ca(2+) channel blockers verapamil and nifedipine had positive inotropic effect, which was mimicked by removal of extracellular Ca(+2) with EGTA or Ca(2+)-free Tyrode. While phosphodiesterase inhibitor IBMX potentiates verapamil positive inotropic effect, it was abolished by AC inhibitors SQ22536 and NYK80. Finally, the inotropic effect of verapamil was associated with increased intracellular cAMP content and mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+), indicating that positive inotropic effects of Ca(2+) blockers depend on cAMP formation. Together, our results show that extracellular Ca(2+) modulates skeletal muscle contraction, through inhibition of Ca(2+)-sensitive AC. The cross-talk between extracellular calcium and cAMP-dependent signaling pathways appears to regulate the extent of skeletal muscle contraction responses.

  14. [Molecular immunology of voltage-gated calcium channel and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Iwasa, K; Komai, K; Yasukawa, Y; Maruta, T; Takamori, M

    1997-12-01

    Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome(LEMS), an autoimmune disease that is often associated with small cell lung carcinoma(SCLC), impairs the quantal release of acetylcholine by directing antibodies against voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) in the motor nerve terminal. We focused attention on the P/Q type VGCC, to which there are antibodies in LEMS patients in higher frequency than antibodies to other types of VGCC. To search for antigenic sites in the molecular structure of alpha 1A subuuit of P/Q type VGCC in LEMS, we synthesized 4 peptides corresponding to the extracellular region (S5-S6 linker) of each of 4 domains that form alpha 1A subunit of VGCC. Also, LEMS patients' sera were studied by immunoprecipitation assay using these antigens. Peptides corresponding to the extracellular region (S5-S6 linker) of domains II and IV were specifically reactive with LEMS antibodies; their titiers respectively correlated with those of anti-P/Q type calcium channel (omega-conotoxin MVIIC-sensitive human cerebellum extret). Lewis rats were immunized with the domain II S5-S6 linker peptides conjugated with KLH. The immunized rats showed LEMS features characterized by reduced acetylcholine quantum content of endplate potentials and antibodies reactive with P/Q type VGCC. Our observations suggest 2 potential epitopes of LEMS antibodies. Synaptotagmin is a Ca2+ and phospholipid binding protein integrated in synaptic vesicle membranes. It plays a crucial role in neurotransmitter release, probably as a Ca2+ sensor for exocytosis of synaptic vesicles. The extracellular region of synaptotagmin was found antigenic for the induction of a rat model of LEMS. A proportion of human LEMS antibodies reacted with the recombinant synaptotagmin in immunoblot.

  15. The T-type calcium channel antagonist Z944 disrupts prepulse inhibition in both epileptic and non-epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Marks, Wendie N; Greba, Quentin; Cain, Stuart M; Snutch, Terrance P; Howland, John G

    2016-09-22

    The role of T-type calcium channels in brain diseases such as absence epilepsy and neuropathic pain has been studied extensively. However, less is known regarding the involvement of T-type channels in cognition and behavior. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a measure of sensorimotor gating which is a basic process whereby the brain filters incoming stimuli to enable appropriate responding in sensory rich environments. The regulation of PPI involves a network of limbic, cortical, striatal, pallidal and pontine brain areas, many of which show high levels of T-type calcium channel expression. Therefore, we tested the effects of blocking T-type calcium channels on PPI with the potent and selective T-type antagonist Z944 (0.3, 1, 3, 10mg/kg; i.p.) in adult Wistar rats and two related strains, the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) and Non-Epileptic Control (NEC). PPI was tested using a protocol that varied prepulse intensity (3, 6, and 12dB above background) and prepulse-pulse interval (30, 50, 80, 140ms). Z944 decreased startle in the Wistar strain at the highest dose relative to lower doses. Z944 dose-dependently disrupted PPI in the Wistar and GAERS strains with the most potent effect observed with the higher doses. These findings suggest that T-type calcium channels contribute to normal patterns of brain activity that regulate PPI. Given that PPI is disrupted in psychiatric disorders, future experiments that test the specific brain regions involved in the regulation of PPI by T-type calcium channels may help inform therapeutic development for those suffering from sensorimotor gating impairments. PMID:27365170

  16. The T-type calcium channel antagonist Z944 disrupts prepulse inhibition in both epileptic and non-epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Marks, Wendie N; Greba, Quentin; Cain, Stuart M; Snutch, Terrance P; Howland, John G

    2016-09-22

    The role of T-type calcium channels in brain diseases such as absence epilepsy and neuropathic pain has been studied extensively. However, less is known regarding the involvement of T-type channels in cognition and behavior. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a measure of sensorimotor gating which is a basic process whereby the brain filters incoming stimuli to enable appropriate responding in sensory rich environments. The regulation of PPI involves a network of limbic, cortical, striatal, pallidal and pontine brain areas, many of which show high levels of T-type calcium channel expression. Therefore, we tested the effects of blocking T-type calcium channels on PPI with the potent and selective T-type antagonist Z944 (0.3, 1, 3, 10mg/kg; i.p.) in adult Wistar rats and two related strains, the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) and Non-Epileptic Control (NEC). PPI was tested using a protocol that varied prepulse intensity (3, 6, and 12dB above background) and prepulse-pulse interval (30, 50, 80, 140ms). Z944 decreased startle in the Wistar strain at the highest dose relative to lower doses. Z944 dose-dependently disrupted PPI in the Wistar and GAERS strains with the most potent effect observed with the higher doses. These findings suggest that T-type calcium channels contribute to normal patterns of brain activity that regulate PPI. Given that PPI is disrupted in psychiatric disorders, future experiments that test the specific brain regions involved in the regulation of PPI by T-type calcium channels may help inform therapeutic development for those suffering from sensorimotor gating impairments.

  17. Calmodulin modulates the delay period between release of calcium from internal stores and activation of calcium influx via endogenous TRP1 channels.

    PubMed

    Vaca, Luis; Sampieri, Alicia

    2002-11-01

    In the present study we have explored the role of calmodulin (CaM) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) in the communication process activated after the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the activation of calcium influx via endogenous TRP1 channels from Chinese hamster ovary cells. Experiments using combined rapid confocal calcium and electrophysiology measurements uncovered a consistent delay of around 900 ms between the first detectable calcium released from the ER and the activation of the calcium current. This delay was evident with two different methods used to release calcium from the ER: either the blockade of the microsomal calcium ATPase with thapsigargin or activation of bradykinin receptors linked to the IP(3) cascade. Direct application of IP(3) or a peptide from the NH(2)-terminal region of the IP(3)R activated store operated calcium, reducing the delay period. Introduction of CaM into the cell via the patch pipette increased the delay period from 900 +/- 100 ms to 10 +/- 2.1 s (n = 18). Furthermore, the use of selective CaM antagonists W7 and trifluoperazine maleate resulted in a substantial reduction of the delay period to 200 +/- 100 ms with 5 microm trifluoperazine maleate (n = 16) and 150 +/- 50 ms with 500 nm W7 (n = 22). CaM reduced also the current density activated by thapsigargin or brandykinin to about 60% from control. The CaM antagonists did not affect significantly the current density. The results presented here are consistent with an antagonistic effect of IP(3)R and CaM for the activation of store operated calcium after depletion of the ER. The functional competition between the activating effect of IP(3)R and the inhibiting effect of CaM may modulate the delay period between the release of calcium from the ER and the activation of calcium influx observed in different cells, as well as the amount of current activated after depletion of the ER.

  18. Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Facilitate Vesicle Endocytosis by Increasing Presynaptic Calcium Channel Expression at a Central Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhi-cheng; Ge, Jian-long; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Hao, Mei; Wu, Yi-chen; Lin, Yi-an; La, Ting; Yao, Pan-tong; Mei, Yan-ai; Feng, Yi; Xue, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests significant biological effects caused by extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF). Although exo-endocytosis plays crucial physical and biological roles in neuronal communication, studies on how ELF-EMF regulates this process are scarce. By directly measuring calcium currents and membrane capacitance at a large mammalian central nervous synapse, the calyx of Held, we report for the first time that ELF-EMF critically affects synaptic transmission and plasticity. Exposure to ELF-EMF for 8 to 10 days dramatically increases the calcium influx upon stimulation and facilitates all forms of vesicle endocytosis, including slow and rapid endocytosis, endocytosis overshoot and bulk endocytosis, but does not affect the RRP size and exocytosis. Exposure to ELF-EMF also potentiates PTP, a form of short-term plasticity, increasing its peak amplitude without impacting its time course. We further investigated the underlying mechanisms and found that calcium channel expression, including the P/Q, N, and R subtypes, at the presynaptic nerve terminal was enhanced, accounting for the increased calcium influx upon stimulation. Thus, we conclude that exposure to ELF-EMF facilitates vesicle endocytosis and synaptic plasticity in a calcium-dependent manner by increasing calcium channel expression at the nerve terminal. PMID:26887777

  19. An alcohol-sensing site in the calcium- and voltage-gated, large conductance potassium (BK) channel

    PubMed Central

    Bukiya, Anna N.; Kuntamallappanavar, Guruprasad; Edwards, Justin; Singh, Aditya K.; Shivakumar, Bangalore; Dopico, Alex M.

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol alters BK (slo1) channel function leading to perturbation of physiology and behavior. Site(s) and mechanism(s) of ethanol–BK channel interaction are unknown. We demonstrate that ethanol docks onto a water-accessible site that is strategically positioned between the slo1 calcium-sensors and gate. Ethanol only accesses this site in presence of calcium, the BK channel’s physiological agonist. Within the site, ethanol hydrogen-bonds with K361. Moreover, substitutions that hamper hydrogen bond formation or prevent ethanol from accessing K361 abolish alcohol action without altering basal channel function. Alcohol interacting site dimensions are approximately 10.7 × 8.6 × 7.1 Å, accommodating effective (ethanol-heptanol) but not ineffective (octanol, nonanol) channel activators. This study presents: (i) to our knowledge, the first identification and characterization of an n-alkanol recognition site in a member of the voltage-gated TM6 channel superfamily; (ii) structural insights on ethanol allosteric interactions with ligand-gated ion channels; and (iii) a first step for designing agents that antagonize BK channel-mediated alcohol actions without perturbing basal channel function. PMID:24927535

  20. Variomics screen identifies the re-entrant loop of the calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 that facilitates channel activation.

    PubMed

    Bill, Anke; Popa, M Oana; van Diepen, Michiel T; Gutierrez, Abraham; Lilley, Sarah; Velkova, Maria; Acheson, Kathryn; Choudhury, Hedaythul; Renaud, Nicole A; Auld, Douglas S; Gosling, Martin; Groot-Kormelink, Paul J; Gaither, L Alex

    2015-01-01

    The calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 regulates multiple physiological processes. However, little is known about the mechanism of channel gating and regulation of ANO1 activity. Using a high-throughput, random mutagenesis-based variomics screen, we generated and functionally characterized ∼6000 ANO1 mutants and identified novel mutations that affected channel activity, intracellular trafficking, or localization of ANO1. Mutations such as S741T increased ANO1 calcium sensitivity and rendered ANO1 calcium gating voltage-independent, demonstrating a critical role of the re-entrant loop in coupling calcium and voltage sensitivity of ANO1 and hence in regulating ANO1 activation. Our data present the first unbiased and comprehensive study of the structure-function relationship of ANO1. The novel ANO1 mutants reported have diverse functional characteristics, providing new tools to study ANO1 function in biological systems, paving the path for a better understanding of the function of ANO1 and its role in health and diseases.

  1. Variomics Screen Identifies the Re-entrant Loop of the Calcium-activated Chloride Channel ANO1 That Facilitates Channel Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Bill, Anke; Popa, M. Oana; van Diepen, Michiel T.; Gutierrez, Abraham; Lilley, Sarah; Velkova, Maria; Acheson, Kathryn; Choudhury, Hedaythul; Renaud, Nicole A.; Auld, Douglas S.; Gosling, Martin; Groot-Kormelink, Paul J.; Gaither, L. Alex

    2015-01-01

    The calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 regulates multiple physiological processes. However, little is known about the mechanism of channel gating and regulation of ANO1 activity. Using a high-throughput, random mutagenesis-based variomics screen, we generated and functionally characterized ∼6000 ANO1 mutants and identified novel mutations that affected channel activity, intracellular trafficking, or localization of ANO1. Mutations such as S741T increased ANO1 calcium sensitivity and rendered ANO1 calcium gating voltage-independent, demonstrating a critical role of the re-entrant loop in coupling calcium and voltage sensitivity of ANO1 and hence in regulating ANO1 activation. Our data present the first unbiased and comprehensive study of the structure-function relationship of ANO1. The novel ANO1 mutants reported have diverse functional characteristics, providing new tools to study ANO1 function in biological systems, paving the path for a better understanding of the function of ANO1 and its role in health and diseases. PMID:25425649

  2. Antagonism of T-type calcium channels inhibits high-fat diet–induced weight gain in mice

    PubMed Central

    Uebele, Victor N.; Gotter, Anthony L.; Nuss, Cindy E.; Kraus, Richard L.; Doran, Scott M.; Garson, Susan L.; Reiss, Duane R.; Li, Yuxing; Barrow, James C.; Reger, Thomas S.; Yang, Zhi-Qiang; Ballard, Jeanine E.; Tang, Cuyue; Metzger, Joseph M.; Wang, Sheng-Ping; Koblan, Kenneth S.; Renger, John J.

    2009-01-01

    The epidemics of obesity and metabolic disorders have well-recognized health and economic burdens. Pharmacologic treatments for these diseases remain unsatisfactory with respect to both efficacy and side-effect profiles. Here, we have identified a potential central role for T-type calcium channels in regulating body weight maintenance and sleep. Previously, it was shown that mice lacking CaV3.1 T-type calcium channels have altered sleep/wake activity. We found that these mice were also resistant to high-fat diet–induced weight gain, without changes in food intake or sensitivity to high-fat diet–induced disruptions of diurnal rhythm. Administration of a potent and selective antagonist of T-type calcium channels, TTA-A2, to normal-weight animals prior to the inactive phase acutely increased sleep, decreased body core temperature, and prevented high-fat diet–induced weight gain. Administration of TTA-A2 to obese rodents reduced body weight and fat mass while concurrently increasing lean muscle mass. These effects likely result from better alignment of diurnal feeding patterns with daily changes in circadian physiology and potentially an increased metabolic rate during the active phase. Together, these studies reveal what we believe to be a previously unknown role for T-type calcium channels in the regulation of sleep and weight maintenance and suggest the potential for a novel therapeutic approach to treating obesity. PMID:19451696

  3. Dopamine Induces LTP Differentially in Apical and Basal Dendrites through BDNF and Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navakkode, Sheeja; Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Korte, Martin; Soong, Tuck Wah

    2012-01-01

    The dopaminergic modulation of long-term potentiation (LTP) has been studied well, but the mechanism by which dopamine induces LTP (DA-LTP) in CA1 pyramidal neurons is unknown. Here, we report that DA-LTP in basal dendrites is dependent while in apical dendrites it is independent of activation of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VDCC).…

  4. Characterization of L-type calcium channel activity in atrioventricular nodal myocytes from rats with streptozotocin-induced Diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yuill, Kathryn H; Al Kury, Lina T; Howarth, Frank Christopher

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular complications are common in patients with Diabetes mellitus (DM). In addition to changes in cardiac muscle inotropy, electrical abnormalities are also commonly observed in these patients. We have previously shown that spontaneous cellular electrical activity is altered in atrioventricular nodal (AVN) myocytes, isolated from the streptozotocin (STZ) rat model of type-1 DM. In this study, utilizing the same model, we have characterized the changes in L-type calcium channel activity in single AVN myocytes. Ionic currents were recorded from AVN myocytes isolated from the hearts of control rats and from those with STZ-induced diabetes. Patch-clamp recordings were used to assess the changes in cellular electrical activity in individual myocytes. Type-1 DM significantly altered the cellular characteristics of L-type calcium current. A reduction in peak ICaL density was observed, with no corresponding changes in the activation parameters of the current. L-type calcium channel current also exhibited faster time-dependent inactivation in AVN myocytes from diabetic rats. A negative shift in the voltage dependence of inactivation was also evident, and a slowing of restitution parameters. These findings demonstrate that experimentally induced type-1 DM significantly alters AVN L-type calcium channel cellular electrophysiology. These changes in ion channel activity may contribute to the abnormalities in cardiac electrical function that are associated with high mortality levels in patients with DM. PMID:26603460

  5. The L-Type Calcium Channel Blocker Nifedipine Impairs Extinction, but Not Reduced Contingency Effects, in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jami, Shekib; Barad, Mark; Cain, Christopher K.; Godsil, Bill P.

    2005-01-01

    We recently reported that fear extinction, a form of inhibitory learning, is selectively blocked by systemic administration of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (LVGCC) antagonists, including nifedipine, in mice. We here replicate this finding and examine three reduced contingency effects after vehicle or nifedipine (40 mg/kg) administration.…

  6. Metabotropic glutamate receptors activate dendritic calcium waves and TRPM channels which drive rhythmic respiratory patterns in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mironov, S L

    2008-01-01

    Respiration in vertebrates is generated by a compact network which is located in the lower brainstem but cellular mechanisms which underlie persistent oscillatory activity of the respiratory network are yet unknown. Using two-photon imaging and patch-clamp recordings in functional brainstem preparations of mice containing pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC), we examined the actions of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR1/5) on the respiratory patterns. The agonist DHPG potentiated and antagonist LY367385 depressed respiration-related activities. In the inspiratory neurons, we observed rhythmic activation of non-selective channels which had a conductance of 24 pS. Their activity was enhanced with membrane depolarization and after elevation of calcium from the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. They were activated by a non-hydrolysable PIP2 analogue and blocked by flufenamate, ATP4− and Gd3+. All these properties correspond well to those of TRPM4 channels. Calcium imaging of functional slices revealed rhythmic transients in small clusters of neurons present in a network. Calcium transients in the soma were preceded by the waves in dendrites which were dependent on mGluR activation. Initiation and propagation of waves required calcium influx and calcium release from internal stores. Calcium waves activated TPRM4-like channels in the soma and promoted generation of inspiratory bursts. Simulations of activity of neurons communicated via dendritic calcium waves showed emerging activity within neuronal clusters and its synchronization between the clusters. The experimental and theoretical data provide a subcellular basis for a recently proposed group-pacemaker hypothesis and describe a novel mechanism of rhythm generation in neuronal networks. PMID:18308826

  7. Differential expression of T- and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels in renal resistance vessels.

    PubMed

    Hansen, P B; Jensen, B L; Andreasen, D; Skøtt, O

    2001-09-28

    The distribution of voltage-dependent calcium channels in kidney pre- and postglomerular resistance vessels was determined at the molecular and functional levels. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of microdissected rat preglomerular vessels and cultured smooth muscle cells showed coexpression of mRNAs for T-type subunits (Ca(V)3.1, Ca(V)3.2) and for an L-type subunit (Ca(V)1.2). The same expression pattern was observed in juxtamedullary efferent arterioles and outer medullary vasa recta. No calcium channel messages were detected in cortical efferent arterioles. Ca(V)1.2 protein was demonstrated by immunochemical labeling of rat preglomerular vasculature and juxtamedullary efferent arterioles and vasa recta. Cortical efferent arterioles were not immunopositive. Recordings of intracellular calcium concentration with digital fluorescence imaging microscopy showed a significant increase of calcium in response to K(+) (100 mmol/L) in isolated afferent arterioles (140+/-25%) and in juxtamedullary efferent arterioles (118+/-21%). These calcium responses were attenuated by the L-type antagonist calciseptine and by the T-type antagonist mibefradil. Intracellular calcium increased in response to K(+) in cortical efferent arterioles (21+/-9%). Mibefradil and nickel concentration dependently blocked K(+)-induced contraction of perfused rabbit afferent arterioles. Calciseptine blocked the contraction mediated by K(+) (EC(50) 8x10(-14)). S-(-)-Bay K 8644 had no effect on vascular diameter in the afferent arteriole. We conclude that voltage-dependent L- and T-type calcium channels are expressed and of functional significance in renal cortical preglomerular vessels, in juxtamedullary efferent arterioles, and in outer medullary vasa recta, but not in cortical efferent arterioles.

  8. BARP suppresses voltage-gated calcium channel activity and Ca2+-evoked exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Béguin, Pascal; Nagashima, Kazuaki; Mahalakshmi, Ramasubbu N.; Vigot, Réjan; Matsunaga, Atsuko; Miki, Takafumi; Ng, Mei Yong; Ng, Yu Jin Alvin; Lim, Chiaw Hwee; Tay, Hock Soon; Hwang, Le-Ann; Firsov, Dmitri; Tang, Bor Luen; Inagaki, Nobuya; Mori, Yasuo; Seino, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are key regulators of cell signaling and Ca2+-dependent release of neurotransmitters and hormones. Understanding the mechanisms that inactivate VGCCs to prevent intracellular Ca2+ overload and govern their specific subcellular localization is of critical importance. We report the identification and functional characterization of VGCC β-anchoring and -regulatory protein (BARP), a previously uncharacterized integral membrane glycoprotein expressed in neuroendocrine cells and neurons. BARP interacts via two cytosolic domains (I and II) with all Cavβ subunit isoforms, affecting their subcellular localization and suppressing VGCC activity. Domain I interacts at the α1 interaction domain–binding pocket in Cavβ and interferes with the association between Cavβ and Cavα1. In the absence of domain I binding, BARP can form a ternary complex with Cavα1 and Cavβ via domain II. BARP does not affect cell surface expression of Cavα1 but inhibits Ca2+ channel activity at the plasma membrane, resulting in the inhibition of Ca2+-evoked exocytosis. Thus, BARP can modulate the localization of Cavβ and its association with the Cavα1 subunit to negatively regulate VGCC activity. PMID:24751537

  9. BARP suppresses voltage-gated calcium channel activity and Ca2+-evoked exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Béguin, Pascal; Nagashima, Kazuaki; Mahalakshmi, Ramasubbu N; Vigot, Réjan; Matsunaga, Atsuko; Miki, Takafumi; Ng, Mei Yong; Ng, Yu Jin Alvin; Lim, Chiaw Hwee; Tay, Hock Soon; Hwang, Le-Ann; Firsov, Dmitri; Tang, Bor Luen; Inagaki, Nobuya; Mori, Yasuo; Seino, Susumu; Launey, Thomas; Hunziker, Walter

    2014-04-28

    Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are key regulators of cell signaling and Ca(2+)-dependent release of neurotransmitters and hormones. Understanding the mechanisms that inactivate VGCCs to prevent intracellular Ca(2+) overload and govern their specific subcellular localization is of critical importance. We report the identification and functional characterization of VGCC β-anchoring and -regulatory protein (BARP), a previously uncharacterized integral membrane glycoprotein expressed in neuroendocrine cells and neurons. BARP interacts via two cytosolic domains (I and II) with all Cavβ subunit isoforms, affecting their subcellular localization and suppressing VGCC activity. Domain I interacts at the α1 interaction domain-binding pocket in Cavβ and interferes with the association between Cavβ and Cavα1. In the absence of domain I binding, BARP can form a ternary complex with Cavα1 and Cavβ via domain II. BARP does not affect cell surface expression of Cavα1 but inhibits Ca(2+) channel activity at the plasma membrane, resulting in the inhibition of Ca(2+)-evoked exocytosis. Thus, BARP can modulate the localization of Cavβ and its association with the Cavα1 subunit to negatively regulate VGCC activity.

  10. [Effects of calcium-activated chloride channels on vascular activity of rat cerebral basilar artery].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Li, Li; Ma, Ke-Tao; Si, Jun-Qiang

    2014-06-25

    This study investigated the role of calcium-activated Cl⁻ channels (CaCCs) in mediating vasomotor activity of cerebral basilar artery (BA) of Wistar rat. Pressure myograph was used to examine the changes in diameter of isolated BA to vasoactive reagents. The results showed that (1) The rate of pressure-induced vasomotor activity was 78.6% (n = 28) in BA from 0 to 100 mmHg working pressure. The contractile phase of the response was faster than the relaxation phase; (2) The amplitude of contraction was (62.6 ± 6.4) µm (n = 22), the frequency of contraction was variable and the highest value was 8.0 ± 2.3 per 5 min at 60 mmHg working pressure (n = 22); (3) The pressure-induced vasomotor activity of BA was markedly attenuated when Ca²⁺ was removed from medium; (4) The pressure-induced vasomotor activity was blocked by voltage dependent Ca²⁺ channel blocker nimodipine; (5) The pressure-induced vasomotor was inhibited by CaCC antagonists NFA and NPPB. These results suggest that the pressure-induced vasomotor activity of isolated BA is associated with Ca²⁺ influx that activates CaCCs.

  11. Study of permeation and blocker binding in TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Reyes, J P; Huanosta-Gutiérrez, A; López-Rodríguez, A; Martínez-Torres, A

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of mutations of positively charged amino acid residues in the pore of X. tropicalis TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channels: K613E, K628E, K630E; R646E and R761E. The activation and deactivation kinetics were not affected, and only K613E showed a lower current density. K628E and R761E affect anion selectivity without affecting Na(+) permeation, whereas K613E, R646E and the double mutant K613E + R646E affect anion selectivity and permeability to Na(+). Furthermore, altered blockade by the chloride channel blockers anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (A-9-C), 4, 4'-Diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS) and T16inh-A01 was observed. These results suggest the existence of 2 binding sites for anions within the pore at electrical distances of 0.3 and 0.5. These sites are also relevant for anion permeation and blockade.

  12. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tommasso J.R., Wright; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  13. The Changing Landscape of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Neurovascular Disorders and in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cataldi, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    It is a common belief that voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) cannot carry toxic amounts of Ca2+ in neurons. Also, some of them as L-type channels are essential for Ca2+-dependent regulation of prosurvival gene-programs. However, a wealth of data show a beneficial effect of drugs acting on VGCCs in several neurodegenerative and neurovascular diseases. In the present review, we explore several mechanisms by which the “harmless” VGCCs may become “toxic” for neurons. These mechanisms could explain how, though usually required for neuronal survival, VGCCs may take part in neurodegeneration. We will present evidence showing that VGCCs can carry toxic Ca2+ when: a) their density or activity increases because of aging, chronic hypoxia or exposure to β-amyloid peptides or b) Ca2+-dependent action potentials carry high Ca2+ loads in pacemaker neurons. Besides, we will examine conditions in which VGCCs promote neuronal cell death without carrying excess Ca2+. This can happen, for instance, when they carry metal ions into the neuronal cytoplasm or when a pathological decrease in their activity weakens Ca2+-dependent prosurvival gene programs. Finally, we will explore the role of VGCCs in the control of nonneuronal cells that take part to neurodegeneration like those of the neurovascular unit or of microglia. PMID:24179464

  14. Calcium influx through CRAC channels controls actin organization and dynamics at the immune synapse

    PubMed Central

    Hartzell, Catherine A; Jankowska, Katarzyna I; Burkhardt, Janis K; Lewis, Richard S

    2016-01-01

    T cell receptor (TCR) engagement opens Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels and triggers formation of an immune synapse between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. At the synapse, actin reorganizes into a concentric lamellipod and lamella with retrograde actin flow that helps regulate the intensity and duration of TCR signaling. We find that Ca2+ influx is required to drive actin organization and dynamics at the synapse. Calcium acts by promoting actin depolymerization and localizing actin polymerization and the actin nucleation promotion factor WAVE2 to the periphery of the lamellipod while suppressing polymerization elsewhere. Ca2+-dependent retrograde actin flow corrals ER tubule extensions and STIM1/Orai1 complexes to the synapse center, creating a self-organizing process for CRAC channel localization. Our results demonstrate a new role for Ca2+ as a critical regulator of actin organization and dynamics at the synapse, and reveal potential feedback loops through which Ca2+ influx may modulate TCR signaling. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14850.001 PMID:27440222

  15. Establishing homology between mitochondrial calcium uniporters, prokaryotic magnesium channels and chlamydial IncA proteins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andre; Vastermark, Ake; Saier, Milton H

    2014-08-01

    Mitochondrial calcium uniporters (MCUs) (TC no. 1.A.77) are oligomeric channel proteins found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. MCUs have two well-conserved transmembrane segments (TMSs), connected by a linker, similar to bacterial MCU homologues. These proteins and chlamydial IncA proteins (of unknown function; TC no. 9.B.159) are homologous to prokaryotic Mg(2+) transporters, AtpI and AtpZ, based on comparison scores of up to 14.5 sds. A phylogenetic tree containing all of these proteins showed that the AtpZ proteins cluster coherently as a subset within the large and diverse AtpI cluster, which branches separately from the MCUs and IncAs, both of which cluster coherently. The MCUs and AtpZs share the same two TMS topology, but the AtpIs have four TMSs, and IncAs can have either two (most frequent) or four (less frequent) TMSs. Binary alignments, comparison scores and motif analyses showed that TMSs 1 and 2 align with TMSs 3 and 4 of the AtpIs, suggesting that the four TMS AtpI proteins arose via an intragenic duplication event. These findings establish an evolutionary link interconnecting eukaryotic and prokaryotic Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) transporters with chlamydial IncAs, and lead us to suggest that all members of the MCU superfamily, including IncAs, function as divalent cation channels.

  16. Establishing homology between mitochondrial calcium uniporters, prokaryotic magnesium channels and chlamydial IncA proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Andre; Vastermark, Ake

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial calcium uniporters (MCUs) (TC no. 1.A.77) are oligomeric channel proteins found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. MCUs have two well-conserved transmembrane segments (TMSs), connected by a linker, similar to bacterial MCU homologues. These proteins and chlamydial IncA proteins (of unknown function; TC no. 9.B.159) are homologous to prokaryotic Mg2+ transporters, AtpI and AtpZ, based on comparison scores of up to 14.5 sds. A phylogenetic tree containing all of these proteins showed that the AtpZ proteins cluster coherently as a subset within the large and diverse AtpI cluster, which branches separately from the MCUs and IncAs, both of which cluster coherently. The MCUs and AtpZs share the same two TMS topology, but the AtpIs have four TMSs, and IncAs can have either two (most frequent) or four (less frequent) TMSs. Binary alignments, comparison scores and motif analyses showed that TMSs 1 and 2 align with TMSs 3 and 4 of the AtpIs, suggesting that the four TMS AtpI proteins arose via an intragenic duplication event. These findings establish an evolutionary link interconnecting eukaryotic and prokaryotic Ca2+ and Mg2+ transporters with chlamydial IncAs, and lead us to suggest that all members of the MCU superfamily, including IncAs, function as divalent cation channels. PMID:24869855

  17. Intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 and chloride channel modulate chemokine ligand (CCL19/CCL21)-induced migration of dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhifei; Gaurav, Rohit; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2015-07-01

    The role of ion channels is largely unknown in chemokine-induced migration in nonexcitable cells such as dendritic cells (DCs). Here, we examined the role of intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (KCa3.1) and chloride channel (CLC3) in lymphatic chemokine-induced migration of DCs. The amplitude and kinetics of chemokine ligand (CCL19/CCL21)-induced Ca(2+) influx were associated with chemokine receptor 7 expression levels, extracellular-free Ca(2+) and Cl(-), and independent of extracellular K(+). Chemokines (CCL19 and CCL21) and KCa3.1 activator (1-ethyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one) induced plasma membrane hyperpolarization and K(+) efflux, which was blocked by 1-[(2-chlorophenyl)diphenylmethyl]-1H-pyrazole, suggesting that KCa3.1 carried larger conductance than the inward calcium release-activated calcium channel. Blockade of KCa3.1, low Cl(-) in the medium, and low dose of 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS) impaired CCL19/CCL21-induced Ca(2+) influx, cell volume change, and DC migration. High doses of DIDS completely blocked DC migration possibly by significantly disrupting mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, KCa3.1 and CLC3 are critical in human DC migration by synergistically regulating membrane potential, chemokine-induced Ca(2+) influx, and cell volume.

  18. RGS12 interacts with the SNARE-binding region of the Cav2.2 calcium channel.

    PubMed

    Richman, Ryan W; Strock, Jesse; Hains, Melinda D; Cabanilla, Nory Jun; Lau, King-Kei; Siderovski, David P; Diversé-Pierluissi, María

    2005-01-14

    Activation of GABAB receptors in chick dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons inhibits the Cav2.2 calcium channel in both a voltage-dependent and voltage-independent manner. The voltage-independent inhibition requires activation of a tyrosine kinase that phosphorylates the alpha1 subunit of the channel and thereby recruits RGS12, a member of the "regulator of G protein signaling" (RGS) proteins. Here we report that RGS12 binds to the SNARE-binding or "synprint" region (amino acids 726-985) in loop II-III of the calcium channel alpha1 subunit. A recombinant protein encompassing the N-terminal PTB domain of RGS12 binds to the synprint region in protein overlay and surface plasmon resonance binding assays; this interaction is dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation and yet is within a sequence that differs from the canonical NPXY motif targeted by other PTB domains. In electrophysiological experiments, microinjection of DRG neurons with synprint-derived peptides containing the tyrosine residue Tyr-804 altered the rate of desensitization of neurotransmitter-mediated inhibition of the Cav2.2 calcium channel, whereas peptides centered about a second tyrosine residue, Tyr-815, were without effect. RGS12 from a DRG neuron lysate was precipitated using synprint peptides containing phosphorylated Tyr-804. The high degree of conservation of Tyr-804 in the SNARE-binding region of Cav2.1 and Cav2.2 calcium channels suggests that this region, in addition to the binding of SNARE proteins, is also important for determining the time course of the modulation of calcium current via tyrosine phosphorylation.

  19. The Need for a Rational Approach to Vasoconstrictive Syndromes: Transcranial Doppler and Calcium Channel Blockade in Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Elisabeth B.; Ziai, Wendy C.; Llinas, Rafael H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) typically affects young patients and left untreated can result in hemorrhage or ischemic stroke. Though the disorder has been well characterized in the literature, the most appropriate way to diagnose, treat, and evaluate therapeutic response remains unclear. In previous studies, transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) has shown elevated velocities indicative of vasospasm. This imaging modality is noninvasive and inexpensive; an attractive option for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring if it is sensitive enough to detect changes in the acute setting given that RCVS often affects the distal vessels early in the course of disease. There is also limited data that calcium channel blockade may be effective in treating vasospasm secondary to RCVS, though the agent of choice, formulation, and dose are unclear. Methods We report a small cohort of seven patients presenting with thunderclap headache whose vascular imaging was consistent with RCVS. All were treated with calcium channel blockade and monitored with TCD performed every 1–2 days. Results On presentation, TCD correlated with standard neuroimaging findings of vasospasm (on MR, CT, and conventional angiography). TCD was also able to detect improvement in velocities in the acute setting that correlated well with initiation of calcium channel blockade. Long-acting verapamil appeared to have the greatest effect on velocities compared to nimodipine and shorter-acting calcium channel blockers. Conclusion Though small, our cohort demonstrates potential utility of TCD to monitor RCVS, and relative superiority of extended-release verapamil over other calcium channel blockers, illustrating the need for larger randomized trials. PMID:27721780

  20. Divergent biophysical properties, gating mechanisms, and possible functions of the two skeletal muscle CaV1.1 calcium channel splice variants

    PubMed Central

    Tuluc, Petronel; Flucher, Bernhard E.

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated calcium channels are multi-subunit protein complexes that specifically allow calcium ions to enter the cell in response to membrane depolarization. But, for many years it seemed that the skeletal muscle calcium channel CaV1.1 is the exception. The classical splice variant CaV1.1a activates slowly, has a very small current amplitude and poor voltage sensitivity. In fact adult muscle fibers work perfectly well even in the absence of calcium influx. Recently a new splice variant of the skeletal muscle calcium channel CaV1.1e has been characterized. The lack of the 19 amino acid exon 29 in this splice variant results in a rapidly activating calcium channel with high current amplitude and good voltage sensitivity. CaV1.1e is the dominant channel in embryonic muscle, where the expression of this high calcium-conducting CaV1.1 isoform readily explains developmental processes depending on L-type calcium currents. Moreover, the availability of these two structurally similar but functionally distinct channel variants facilitates the analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying the unique current properties of the classical CaV1.1a channel. PMID:22057633

  1. Functional heterogeneity of the four voltage sensors of a human L-type calcium channel

    PubMed Central

    Pantazis, Antonios; Savalli, Nicoletta; Sigg, Daniel; Neely, Alan; Olcese, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Excitation-evoked Ca2+ influx is the fastest and most ubiquitous chemical trigger for cellular processes, including neurotransmitter release, muscle contraction, and gene expression. The voltage dependence and timing of Ca2+ entry are thought to be functions of voltage-gated calcium (CaV) channels composed of a central pore regulated by four nonidentical voltage-sensing domains (VSDs I–IV). Currently, the individual voltage dependence and the contribution to pore opening of each VSD remain largely unknown. Using an optical approach (voltage-clamp fluorometry) to track the movement of the individual voltage sensors, we discovered that the four VSDs of CaV1.2 channels undergo voltage-evoked conformational rearrangements, each exhibiting distinct voltage- and time-dependent properties over a wide range of potentials and kinetics. The voltage dependence and fast kinetic components in the activation of VSDs II and III were compatible with the ionic current properties, suggesting that these voltage sensors are involved in CaV1.2 activation. This view is supported by an obligatory model, in which activation of VSDs II and III is necessary to open the pore. When these data were interpreted in view of an allosteric model, where pore opening is intrinsically independent but biased by VSD activation, VSDs II and III were each found to supply ∼50 meV (∼2 kT), amounting to ∼85% of the total energy, toward stabilizing the open state, with a smaller contribution from VSD I (∼16 meV). VSD IV did not appear to participate in channel opening. PMID:25489110

  2. Calcium channels in the high resistivity axonal membrane of photoreceptors of the giant barnacle.

    PubMed Central

    Edgington, D R; Stuart, A E

    1979-01-01

    1. The distribution of calcium channels in the cell membrane of the photoreceptor neurone of the giant barnacle, Balanus nubilus, was studied by recording intracellularly in or near the soma, in the axon, and near the presynaptic terminals. The membrane properties of these different regions of the cell could be studied by separately superfusing each region with test salines or by cutting the axon between two regions. 2. In the presence of tetraethylammonium (TEA) or 3-aminopyridine (3-AP), but not in their absence, Ca dependent action potentials could be evoked with depolarizing current pulses in the somatic, axonal, and terminal regions. Consequently, voltage-sensitive Ca channels and TEA-sensitive channels are present in all three regions of the cell. 3. The action potentials recorded from the three regions were similar in their slow times-to-peak (30-300 msec), long durations (0.2-2 sec in 100 mM-TEA), and long-lasting (0.2-10 sec) undershoots. The action potentials were inhibited by extracellular Co. 4. Clear differences were consistently observed between terminal action potentials and axonal or somatic action potentials in TEA. Terminal action potentials displayed a lower voltage threshold, faster rate of rise, and were less sensitive to inhibition by extracellular cobalt, suggesting that the Ca current is greater in the terminal region. 5. Bathing the receptor axon in low Ca or Co solutions led to a greater attenuation of large depolarizing components of the visual signal as they spread to the presynaptic terminals. PMID:512951

  3. Ginger lowers blood pressure through blockade of voltage-dependent calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Ghayur, Muhammad Nabeel; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2005-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), a well-known spice plant, has been used traditionally in a wide variety of ailments including hypertension. We report here the cardiovascular effects of ginger under controlled experimental conditions. The crude extract of ginger (Zo.Cr) induced a dose-dependent (0.3-3 mg/kg) fall in the arterial blood pressure of anesthetized rats. In guinea pig paired atria, Zo.Cr exhibited a cardiodepressant activity on the rate and force of spontaneous contractions. In rabbit thoracic aorta preparation, Zo.Cr relaxed the phenylephrine-induced vascular contraction at a dose 10 times higher than that required against K (80 mM)-induced contraction. Ca2+ channel-blocking (CCB) activity was confirmed when Zo.Cr shifted the Ca2+ dose-response curves to the right similar to the effect of verapamil. It also inhibited the phenylephrine (1 microM) control peaks in normal-Ca2+ and Ca2+-free solution, indicating that it acts at both the membrane-bound and the intracellular Ca2+ channels. When tested in endothelium-intact rat aorta, it again relaxed the K-induced contraction at a dose 14 times less than that required for relaxing the PE-induced contraction. The vasodilator effect of Zo.Cr was endothelium-independent because it was not blocked by L-NAME (0.1 mM) or atropine (1 microM) and also was reproduced in the endothelium-denuded preparations at the same dose range. These data indicate that the blood pressure-lowering effect of ginger is mediated through blockade of voltage-dependent calcium channels. PMID:15613983

  4. Calcium.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert J P

    2002-01-01

    This chapter describes the chemical and biological value of the calcium ion. In calcium chemistry, our main interest is in equilibria within static, nonflowing systems. Hence, we examined the way calcium formed precipitates and complex ions in solution. We observed thereafter its uses by humankind in a vast number of materials such as minerals, e.g., marble, concrete, mortars, which parallel the biological use in shells and bones. In complex formation, we noted that many combinations were of anion interaction with calcium for example in the uses of detergents and medicines. The rates of exchange of calcium from bound states were noted but they had little application. Calcium ions do not act as catalysts of organic reactions. In biological systems, interest is in the above chemistry, but extends to the fact that Ca2+ ions can carry information by flowing in one solution or from one solution to another through membranes. Hence, we became interested in the details of rates of calcium exchange. The fast exchange of this divalent ion from most organic binding sites has allowed it to develop as the dominant second messenger. Now the flow can be examined in vitro as calcium binds particular isolated proteins, which it activates as seen in physical mechanical changes or chemical changes and this piece-by-piece study of cells is common. Here, however, we have chosen to stress the whole circuit of Ca2+ action indicating that the cell is organized both at a basal and an activated state kinetic level by the steady state flow of the ion (see Fig. 11). Different time constants of exchange utilizing very similar binding constants lead to: 1) fast responses as in the muscle of an animal; or 2) slower change as in differentiation of an egg or seed. Many other changes of state may relate to Ca2+ steady-state levels of flow in the circuitry and here we point to two: 1) dormancy in reptiles and animals; and 2) sporulation in both bacteria and lower plants. In the other chapters of

  5. Calcium-activated potassium channels in cultured human endothelial cells are not directly modulated by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Haburcák, M; Wei, L; Viana, F; Prenen, J; Droogmans, G; Nilius, B

    1997-04-01

    Nitric oxide has been proposed to directly activated large conductance Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels (BKCa) [Bolotina V.M., Najibi S., Palacino J.J., Pagano P.J., Cohen R.A. Nitric oxide directly activates calcium-dependent potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle. Nature 1994; 368: 850-853]. The nitric oxide (NO) donor S-nitrosocysteine (SNOC) was used to evaluate a possible direct modulation of BKCa by NO in EAhy926 (EA cells), a cultured human umbilical vein derived endothelial cell line, using the whole-cell, cell-attached and inside-out configuration of the patch-clamp technique, together with simultaneous amperometric measurement of NO and the concentration of free intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i. BKCa channels with a large conductance of approximately 190 pS, voltage-dependent activation and a reversal potential close to -80 mV have been identified in EA cells. Exposure of EA cells in the experimental chamber to 1 mM SNOC delivered approximately 5 microM NO, as recorded by an amperometric probe in situ. SNOC produced a modest increases in [Ca2+]i that was insufficient to activate BKCa channels. NO alone neither activated BKCa channels directly nor modulated preactivated BKCa channels in EA cells. These results do not support a direct modulatory effect of NO on large conductance BKCa channels in cultured endothelial cells. PMID:9160165

  6. A cell model study of calcium influx mechanism regulated by calcium-dependent potassium channels in Purkinje cell dendrites.

    PubMed

    Chono, Koji; Takagi, Hiroshi; Koyama, Shozo; Suzuki, Hideo; Ito, Etsuro

    2003-10-30

    The present study was designed to elucidate the roles of dendritic voltage-gated K+ channels in Ca2+ influx mechanism of a rat Purkinje cell using a computer simulation program. First, we improved the channel descriptions and the maximum conductance in the Purkinje cell model to mimic both the kinetics of ion channels and the Ca2+ spikes, which had failed in previous studies. Our cell model is, therefore, much more authentic than those in previous studies. Second, synaptic inputs that mimic stimulation of parallel fibers and induce sub-threshold excitability were simultaneously applied to the spiny dendrites. As a result, transient Ca2+ responses were observed in the stimulation points and they decreased with the faster decay rate in the cell model including high-threshold Ca2+-dependent K+ channels than in those excluding these channels. Third, when a single synaptic input was applied into a spiny dendrite, Ca2+-dependent K+ channels suppressed Ca2+ increases at stimulation and recording points. Finally, Ca2+-dependent K+ channels were also found to suppress the time to peak Ca2+ values in the recording points. These results suggest that the opening of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels by Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels hyperpolarizes the membrane potentials and deactivates these Ca2+ channels in a negative feedback manner, resulting in local, weak Ca2+ responses in spiny dendrites of Purkinje cells.

  7. Fabrication of multilayer ZrO₂-biphasic calcium phosphate-poly-caprolactone unidirectional channeled scaffold for bone tissue formation.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Dibakar; So-Ra, Son; Sarkar, Swapan Kumar; Min, Young Ki; Yang, Hun Mo; Lee, Byong Taek

    2013-09-01

    We developed a continuously porous scaffold with laminated matrix and bone-like microstructure by a multi-pass extrusion process. In this scaffold, tetragonal ZrO₂, biphasic calcium phosphate and poly-caprolactone layers were arranged in a co-axially laminated unit cell with a channel in the center. The entire matrix phase had a laminated microstructure of alternate lamina of tetragonal ZrO₂, biphasic calcium phosphate and poly-caprolactone--biphasic calcium phosphate with optimized designed thickness and channeled porosity. Each of the continuous pores was coaxially encircled by the poly-caprolactone--biphasic calcium phosphate layer, biphasic calcium phosphate layer and finally tetragonal ZrO₂ layer, one after the other. Before extrusion, 5 vol% graphite powder was mixed with tetragonal ZrO₂ to ensure pores in the outer layer and connectivity among the lamellas. The design strategy is aimed to incorporate a lamellar microstructure like the natural bone in the macro-scaled ceramic body to investigate the strengthening phenomenon and pave the way for fabricating complex microstructure of natural bone could be applied for whole bone replacement. The final fabricated scaffold had a compressive strength of 12.7 MPa and porosity of 78 vol% with excellent cell viability, cell attachment and osteocalcin and collagen expression from cultured MG63 cells on scaffold.

  8. L-Type Calcium Channels Do Not Play a Critical Role in Chest Blow Induced Ventricular Fibrillation: Commotio Cordis

    PubMed Central

    Madias, Christopher; Garlitski, Ann C.; Kalin, John; Link, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. In a commotio cordis swine model, ventricular fibrillation (VF) can be induced by a ball blow to the chest believed secondary to activation of mechanosensitive ion channels. The purpose of the current study is to evaluate whether stretch induced activation of the L-type calcium channel may cause intracellular calcium overload and underlie the VF in commotio cordis. Method and Results. Anesthetized juvenile swine received 6 chest wall strikes with a 17.9 m/s lacrosse ball timed to the vulnerable period for VF induction. Animals were randomized to IV verapamil (n = 6) or placebo (n = 6). There was no difference in the observed frequency of VF between verapamil (19/26: 73%) and placebo (20/36: 56%) treated animals (p = 0.16). There was also no significant difference in the combined endpoint of VF or nonsustained VF (21/26: 81% in verapamil versus 24/36: 67% in controls, p = 0.22). Conclusions. In this experimental model of commotio cordis, verapamil did not prevent VF induction. Thus, in commotio cordis it is unlikely that stretch activation of the L-type calcium channel with resultant intracellular calcium overload plays a prominent role. PMID:26925288

  9. Rare Mutations of CACNB2 Found in Autism Spectrum Disease-Affected Families Alter Calcium Channel Function

    PubMed Central

    Breitenkamp, Alexandra F. S.; Matthes, Jan; Nass, Robert Daniel; Sinzig, Judith; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Nürnberg, Peter; Herzig, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are complex neurodevelopmental diseases clinically defined by dysfunction of social interaction. Dysregulation of cellular calcium homeostasis might be involved in ASD pathogenesis, and genes coding for the L-type calcium channel subunits CaV1.2 (CACNA1C) and CaVβ2 (CACNB2) were recently identified as risk loci for psychiatric diseases. Here, we present three rare missense mutations of CACNB2 (G167S, S197F, and F240L) found in ASD-affected families, two of them described here for the first time (G167S and F240L). All these mutations affect highly conserved regions while being absent in a sample of ethnically matched controls. We suggest the mutations to be of physiological relevance since they modulate whole-cell Ba2+ currents through calcium channels when expressed in a recombinant system (HEK-293 cells). Two mutations displayed significantly decelerated time-dependent inactivation as well as increased sensitivity of voltage-dependent inactivation. In contrast, the third mutation (F240L) showed significantly accelerated time-dependent inactivation. By altering the kinetic parameters, the mutations are reminiscent of the CACNA1C mutation causing Timothy Syndrome, a Mendelian disease presenting with ASD. In conclusion, the results of our first-time biophysical characterization of these three rare CACNB2 missense mutations identified in ASD patients support the hypothesis that calcium channel dysfunction may contribute to autism. PMID:24752249

  10. L-Type Calcium Channels Do Not Play a Critical Role in Chest Blow Induced Ventricular Fibrillation: Commotio Cordis.

    PubMed

    Madias, Christopher; Garlitski, Ann C; Kalin, John; Link, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Background. In a commotio cordis swine model, ventricular fibrillation (VF) can be induced by a ball blow to the chest believed secondary to activation of mechanosensitive ion channels. The purpose of the current study is to evaluate whether stretch induced activation of the L-type calcium channel may cause intracellular calcium overload and underlie the VF in commotio cordis. Method and Results. Anesthetized juvenile swine received 6 chest wall strikes with a 17.9 m/s lacrosse ball timed to the vulnerable period for VF induction. Animals were randomized to IV verapamil (n = 6) or placebo (n = 6). There was no difference in the observed frequency of VF between verapamil (19/26: 73%) and placebo (20/36: 56%) treated animals (p = 0.16). There was also no significant difference in the combined endpoint of VF or nonsustained VF (21/26: 81% in verapamil versus 24/36: 67% in controls, p = 0.22). Conclusions. In this experimental model of commotio cordis, verapamil did not prevent VF induction. Thus, in commotio cordis it is unlikely that stretch activation of the L-type calcium channel with resultant intracellular calcium overload plays a prominent role. PMID:26925288

  11. Aging, motor function, and sensitivity to calcium channel blockers: An investigation using chronic methylmercury exposure.

    PubMed

    Shen, Andrew Nathanael; Cummings, Craig; Hoffman, Daniel; Pope, Derek; Arnold, Megan; Newland, M Christopher

    2016-12-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) neurotoxicity is thought to be mediated, in part, by dysregulation of calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis, a mechanism that may also slowly and progressively degrade neuronal function during normal aging. Longitudinal studies of MeHg exposure provide a powerful approach to studying neural and behavioral mechanisms by which both MeHg toxicity and aging affect motor function. Wheel-running and rotarod performance were assessed in two age groups of BALB/c mice chronically exposed to 0 or 1.2mg/kg/day MeHg and 0 or 20mg/kg/day nimodipine, a 1,4-dihyrdopyridine L-type calcium channel blocker (CCB), for approximately 8.5 months. Adults began exposure on postnatal day (PND) 72 and retired breeders on PND 296. A log-survivor bout analysis partitioned wheel-running into bouts that identified motor (within-bout rates) and motivational (bout-initiation rates) influences. Retired breeders ran farther, because of a higher bout-initiation rates, but performed more poorly on the rotarod than younger adults, a difference unaffected by nimodipine. MeHg produced relatively age-independent deficits in wheel-running and rotarod performance, whereas nimodipine afforded greater protection to adult mice than to retired breeders. Rotarod performance and within-bout response rate were more sensitive to and more reliable predictors of MeHg toxicity than bout-initiation rate, which was least affected by MeHg exposure. Thus the motivation to run was unimpaired as the ability to do so declined. While chronic MeHg exposure produced functionally similar behavior deficits between age groups, the age-dependent neuroprotection by nimodipine supports the notion that underlying neurobiological systems mediated by Ca(2+) signaling, are differentially affected in older adults. PMID:27481695

  12. Single calcium channel domain gating of synaptic vesicle fusion at fast synapses; analysis by graphic modeling

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Elise F

    2015-01-01

    At fast-transmitting presynaptic terminals Ca2+ enter through voltage gated calcium channels (CaVs) and bind to a synaptic vesicle (SV) -associated calcium sensor (SV-sensor) to gate fusion and discharge. An open CaV generates a high-concentration plume, or nanodomain of Ca2+ that dissipates precipitously with distance from the pore. At most fast synapses, such as the frog neuromuscular junction (NMJ), the SV sensors are located sufficiently close to individual CaVs to be gated by single nanodomains. However, at others, such as the mature rodent calyx of Held (calyx of Held), the physiology is more complex with evidence that CaVs that are both close and distant from the SV sensor and it is argued that release is gated primarily by the overlapping Ca2+ nanodomains from many CaVs. We devised a 'graphic modeling' method to sum Ca2+ from individual CaVs located at varying distances from the SV-sensor to determine the SV release probability and also the fraction of that probability that can be attributed to single domain gating. This method was applied first to simplified, low and high CaV density model release sites and then to published data on the contrasting frog NMJ and the rodent calyx of Held native synapses. We report 3 main predictions: the SV-sensor is positioned very close to the point at which the SV fuses with the membrane; single domain-release gating predominates even at synapses where the SV abuts a large cluster of CaVs, and even relatively remote CaVs can contribute significantly to single domain-based gating. PMID:26457441

  13. Calcium channel blockade attenuates abnormal synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus elicited by entorhinal amyloidopathy.

    PubMed

    Gholami Pourbadie, Hamid; Naderi, Nima; Janahmadi, Mahyar; Mehranfard, Nasrin; Motamedi, Fereshteh

    2016-10-01

    Entorhinal-hippocampal network is one of the earliest circuits which is affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). There are numerous data providing the evidence of synaptic deficit in the dentate gyrus (DG) of AD animal model. However, there is little known about how entorhinal cortex (EC) amyloidophaty affects each excitatory and/or inhibitory transmission in the early stage of AD. On the other hand, it is believed that calcium dyshomeostasis has a critical role in the etiology of AD. Here, the effect of the EC amyloid pathogenesis on excitatory or inhibitory post synaptic currents (EPSC and IPSC, respectively) in the DG granule cells and then the possible neuroprotective action of L-type calcium channel blockers (CCBs), nimodipine and isradipine, were examined. The amyloid beta (Aβ) 1-42 was injected bilaterally into the EC of male rats and one week later, synaptic currents in the DG granule cells were assessed by whole cell patch clamp. EPSCs were evoked by stimulating the perforant pathway. Voltage clamp recording showed profound decrease of evoked EPSC amplitude and paired pulse facilitation in the DG granule cells of Aβ treated rats. Furthermore, AMPA/NMDA ratio was significantly decreased in the Aβ treated animals. On the other hand, amplitude of IPSC currents was significantly increased in the DG granule cells of these animals. These modifications of synaptic currents were partially reversed by daily intracerebroventricular administration of isradipine or nimodipine. In conclusion, our results suggest that Aβ in the EC triggers decreased excitatory transmission in the DG with substantial decrement in AMPA currents, leading to a prominent activity of inhibitory circuits and increased inhibition of granule cells which may contribute to the development of AD-related neurological deficits in AD and treatment by CCBs could preserve normal synaptic transmission against Aβ toxicity. PMID:27240164

  14. Ion concentration-dependence of rat cardiac unitary L-type calcium channel conductance.

    PubMed Central

    Guia, A; Stern, M D; Lakatta, E G; Josephson, I R

    2001-01-01

    Little is known about the native properties of unitary cardiac L-type calcium currents (i(Ca)) measured with physiological calcium (Ca) ion concentration, and their role in excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling. Our goal was to chart the concentration-dependence of unitary conductance (gamma) to physiological Ca concentration and compare it to barium ion (Ba) conductance in the absence of agonists. In isolated, K-depolarized rat myocytes, i(Ca) amplitudes were measured using cell-attached patches with 2 to 70 mM Ca or 2 to 105 mM Ba in the pipette. At 0 mV, 2 mM of Ca produced 0.12 pA, and 2 mM of Ba produced 0.19 pA unitary currents. Unitary conductance was described by a Langmuir isotherm relationship with a maximum gammaCa of 5.3 +/- 0.2 pS (n = 15), and gammaBa of 15 +/- 1 pS (n = 27). The concentration producing half-maximal gamma, Kd(gamma), was not different between Ca (1.7 +/- 0.3 mM) and Ba (1.9 +/- 0.4 mM). We found that quasi-physiological concentrations of Ca produced currents that were as easily resolvable as those obtained with the traditionally used higher concentrations. This study leads to future work on the molecular basis of E-C coupling with a physiological concentration of Ca ions permeating the Ca channel. PMID:11371449

  15. Ovine tracheal muscle contraction in vitro: inhibition by calcium channel blockers gallopamil and verapamil.

    PubMed

    Jackowski, J; Chapman, G A; Abraham, W M; Ahmed, T

    1993-01-01

    We compared the inhibitory effects of calcium channel blockers, gallopamil and verapamil on acetylcholine (Ach)-induced contractions of ovine tracheal muscle in vitro. Adult sheep were sacrificed and tracheal strips were obtained by cutting the single tracheal rings from the mid-trachea. Tracheal strips were suspended in Krebs-Henseleit solution and isometric tension measured upon stimulation with cumulative doses of Ach (10(-7) to 10(-4) M) without and after pretreatment with gallopamil (10(-7) to 10(-6) M) or verapamil (10(-6) to 10(-5) M). In untreated tissues, the mean concentration of Ach required to produce 50% of maximal response (EC50) was 4.3 x 10(-6) M Ach. Both gallopamil and verapamil inhibited the Ach-induced contractions of ovine tracheal smooth muscle, by shifting the dose-response curves to Ach to the right. EC50 Ach for gallopamil (10(-6) M) and verapamil (10(-6) M) was 2.6 x 10(-5) and 5.2 x 10(-6) M, respectively. Dose ratio defined as postantagonist EC50 Ach/control EC50 Ach, was 7.7 for gallopamil and 2.0 for verapamil. Thus, the inhibitory effect of gallopamil was approximately 4-fold more potent than that of verapamil. Gallopamil was 17-fold more potent than verapamil in relaxing precontracted tracheal strips. The dose of calcium antagonists required to produce 25% relaxation (EC25) of tracheal strips precontracted with 10(-4) Ach was 3.7 x 10(-5) M for verapamil and 2.2 x 10(-6) M for gallopamil. These results indicate that gallopamil is effective against Ach-induced contractions of ovine trachealis muscles, and is more potent than verapamil. PMID:8469817

  16. Involvement of Potassium Channels and Calcium-Independent Mechanisms in Hydrogen Sulfide-Induced Relaxation of Rat Mesenteric Small Arteries.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, Elise R; Gouliaev, Anja; Winther, Anna K; Arcanjo, Daniel D R; Aalling, Mathilde; Renaltan, Nirthika S; Wood, Mark E; Whiteman, Matthew; Skovgaard, Nini; Simonsen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in the regulation of vascular tone. We hypothesized that the lowering of calcium and opening of potassium (K) channels as well as calcium-independent mechanisms are involved in H2S-induced relaxation in rat mesenteric small arteries. Amperometric recordings revealed that free [H2S] after addition to closed tubes of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), Na2S, and GYY4137 [P-(4-methoxyphenyl)-P-4-morpholinyl-phosphinodithioic acid] were, respectively, 14%, 17%, and 1% of added amount. The compounds caused equipotent relaxations in isometric myographs, but based on the measured free [H2S], GYY4137 caused more relaxation in relation to released free H2S than NaHS and Na2S in rat mesenteric small arteries. Simultaneous measurements of [H2S] and tension showed that 15 µM of free H2S caused 61% relaxation in superior mesenteric arteries. Simultaneous measurements of smooth muscle calcium and tension revealed that NaHS lowered calcium and caused relaxation of NE-contracted arteries, while high extracellular potassium reduced NaHS relaxation without corresponding calcium changes. In NE-contracted arteries, NaHS (1 mM) lowered the phosphorylation of myosin light chain, while phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 remained unchanged. Protein kinase A and G, inhibitors of guanylate cyclase, failed to reduce NaHS relaxation, whereas blockers of voltage-gated KV7 channels inhibited NaHS relaxation, and blockers of mitochondrial complex I and III abolished NaHS relaxation. Our findings suggest that low micromolar concentrations of free H2S open K channels followed by lowering of smooth muscle calcium, and by another mechanism involving mitochondrial complex I and III leads to uncoupling of force, and hence vasodilation. PMID:26493746

  17. Involvement of Potassium Channels and Calcium-Independent Mechanisms in Hydrogen Sulfide-Induced Relaxation of Rat Mesenteric Small Arteries.

    PubMed

    Hedegaard, Elise R; Gouliaev, Anja; Winther, Anna K; Arcanjo, Daniel D R; Aalling, Mathilde; Renaltan, Nirthika S; Wood, Mark E; Whiteman, Matthew; Skovgaard, Nini; Simonsen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in the regulation of vascular tone. We hypothesized that the lowering of calcium and opening of potassium (K) channels as well as calcium-independent mechanisms are involved in H2S-induced relaxation in rat mesenteric small arteries. Amperometric recordings revealed that free [H2S] after addition to closed tubes of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), Na2S, and GYY4137 [P-(4-methoxyphenyl)-P-4-morpholinyl-phosphinodithioic acid] were, respectively, 14%, 17%, and 1% of added amount. The compounds caused equipotent relaxations in isometric myographs, but based on the measured free [H2S], GYY4137 caused more relaxation in relation to released free H2S than NaHS and Na2S in rat mesenteric small arteries. Simultaneous measurements of [H2S] and tension showed that 15 µM of free H2S caused 61% relaxation in superior mesenteric arteries. Simultaneous measurements of smooth muscle calcium and tension revealed that NaHS lowered calcium and caused relaxation of NE-contracted arteries, while high extracellular potassium reduced NaHS relaxation without corresponding calcium changes. In NE-contracted arteries, NaHS (1 mM) lowered the phosphorylation of myosin light chain, while phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 remained unchanged. Protein kinase A and G, inhibitors of guanylate cyclase, failed to reduce NaHS relaxation, whereas blockers of voltage-gated KV7 channels inhibited NaHS relaxation, and blockers of mitochondrial complex I and III abolished NaHS relaxation. Our findings suggest that low micromolar concentrations of free H2S open K channels followed by lowering of smooth muscle calcium, and by another mechanism involving mitochondrial complex I and III leads to uncoupling of force, and hence vasodilation.

  18. Changes of cytosolic Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity and plasma membrane calcium channels of maize root tip cells under osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zihui; Ma, Zhenyu; Guo, Xiulin; Shao, Hongbo; Cui, Qiuhua; Song, Weiyi

    2010-01-01

    The changes of cytosolic Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity and the activities of calcium channel of primary maize root tip cells induced by PEG6000 or abscisic acid (ABA) were studied by both confocal techniques and the whole-cell patch clamping in this study. The Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity increased while treated with PEG or ABA within 10 min, illuminating that Ca(2+) participated in the process of ABA signal transduction. For further proving the mechanism and origin of cytosolic Ca(2+) increase induced by PEG treatments, N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), Verapamil (VP) and Trifluoperazine (TFP) were added to the PEG solution in the experiments separately. The results showed that Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity induced by PEG was suppressed by both EGTA and VP obviously in the root tip cells. The Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity of plants changed after the addition of CaM inhibitor TFP while subjected to osmotic stress, which seemed to show that CaM participated in the process of signal transduction of osmotic stress too. The mechanism about it is unknown today. Further, a hyperpolarization-activated calcium permeable channel was recorded in plasma membrane of maize root tip cells. The Ca(2+) current (I(Ca)) intensity increased remarkably after PEG treatment, and the open voltage of the calcium conductance increased. Similar changes could be observed after ABA treatment, but the channel opened earlier and the current intensity was stronger than that of PEG treatment. The activation of calcium channel initiated by PEG strongly was inhibited by EGTA, VP or TFP respectively. The results revealed that Ca(2+) participated in the signals transduction process of osmotic stress, and the cytosolic free Ca(2+) increase by osmotic stress mainly came from the extracellular, and some came from the release of cytoplasmic calcium pool.

  19. Insulation of the conduction pathway of muscle transverse tubule calcium channels from the surface charge of bilayer phospholipid

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Functional calcium channels present in purified skeletal muscle transverse tubules were inserted into planar phospholipid bilayers composed of the neutral lipid phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), the negatively charged lipid phosphatidylserine (PS), and mixtures of both. The lengthening of the mean open time and stabilization of single channel fluctuations under constant holding potentials was accomplished by the use of the agonist Bay K8644. It was found that the barium current carried through the channel saturates as a function of the BaCl2 concentration at a maximum current of 0.6 pA (at a holding potential of 0 mV) and a half-saturation value of 40 mM. Under saturation, the slope conductance of the channel is 20 pS at voltages more negative than -50 mV and 13 pS at a holding potential of 0 mV. At barium concentrations above and below the half-saturation point, the open channel currents were independent of the bilayer mole fraction of PS from XPS = 0 (pure PE) to XPS = 1.0 (pure PS). It is shown that in the absence of barium, the calcium channel transports sodium or potassium ions (P Na/PK = 1.4) at saturating rates higher than those for barium alone. The sodium conductance in pure PE bilayers saturates as a function of NaCl concentration, following a curve that can be described as a rectangular hyperbola with a half-saturation value of 200 mM and a maximum conductance of 68 pS (slope conductance at a holding potential of 0 mV). In pure PS bilayers, the sodium conductance is about twice that measured in PE at concentrations below 100 mM NaCl. The maximum channel conductance at high ionic strength is unaffected by the lipid charge. This effect at low ionic strength was analyzed according to J. Bell and C. Miller (1984. Biophysical Journal. 45:279- 287) and interpreted as if the conduction pathway of the calcium channel were separated from the bilayer lipid by approximately 20 A. This distance thereby effectively insulates the ion entry to the channel from the bulk of

  20. Delineation of the clotrimazole/TRAM-34 binding site on the intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel, IKCa1.

    PubMed

    Wulff, H; Gutman, G A; Cahalan, M D; Chandy, K G

    2001-08-24

    Selective and potent triarylmethane blockers of the intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel, IKCa1, have therapeutic use in sickle cell disease and secretory diarrhea and as immunosuppressants. Clotrimazole, a membrane-permeant triarylmethane, blocked IKCa1 with equal affinity when applied externally or internally, whereas a membrane-impermeant derivative TRAM-30 blocked the channel only when applied to the cytoplasmic side, indicating an internal drug-binding site. Introduction of the S5-P-S6 region of the triarylmethane-insensitive small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel SKCa3 into IKCa1 rendered the channel resistant to triarylmethanes. Replacement of Thr(250) or Val(275) in IKCa1 with the corresponding SKCa3 residues selectively abolished triarylmethane sensitivity without affecting the affinity of the channel for tetraethylammonium, charybdotoxin, and nifedipine. Introduction of these two residues into SKCa3 rendered the channel sensitive to triarylmethanes. In a molecular model of IKCa1, Thr(250) and Val(275) line a water-filled cavity just below the selectivity filter. Structure-activity studies suggest that the side chain methyl groups of Thr(250) and Val(275) may lock the triarylmethanes in place via hydrophobic interactions with the pi-electron clouds of the phenyl rings. The heterocyclic moiety may project into the selectivity filter and obstruct the ion-conducting pathway from the inside.

  1. Critical residues of the Caenorhabditis elegans unc-2 voltage-gated calcium channel that affect behavioral and physiological properties.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Eleanor A; García, Esperanza; Santi, Celia M; Mullen, Gregory P; Thacker, Colin; Moerman, Donald G; Snutch, Terrance P

    2003-07-23

    The Caenorhabditis elegans unc-2 gene encodes a voltage-gated calcium channel alpha1 subunit structurally related to mammalian dihydropyridine-insensitive high-threshold channels. In the present paper we describe the characterization of seven alleles of unc-2. Using an unc-2 promoter-tagged green fluorescent protein construct, we show that unc-2 is primarily expressed in motor neurons, several subsets of sensory neurons, and the HSN and VC neurons that control egg laying. Examination of behavioral phenotypes, including defecation, thrashing, and sensitivities to aldicarb and nicotine suggests that UNC-2 acts presynaptically to mediate both cholinergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. Sequence analysis of the unc-2 alleles shows that e55, ra605, ra606, ra609, and ra610 all are predicted to prematurely terminate and greatly reduce or eliminate unc-2 function. In contrast, the ra612 and ra614 alleles are missense mutations resulting in the substitution of highly conserved residues in the C terminus and the domain IVS4-IVS5 linker, respectively. Heterologous expression of a rat brain P/Q-type channel containing the ra612 mutation shows that the glycine to arginine substitution affects a variety of channel characteristics, including the voltage dependence of activation, steady-state inactivation, as well as channel kinetics. Overall, our findings suggest that UNC-2 plays a pivotal role in mediating a number of physiological processes in the nematode and also defines a number of critical residues important for calcium channel function in vivo. PMID:12878695

  2. Identification of State-Dependent Blockers for Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels Using a FLIPR-Based Assay.

    PubMed

    di Silvio, Alberto; Rolland, JeanFrancois; Stucchi, Michela

    2016-01-01

    The FLIPR (Fluorescent Imaging Plate Reader) system has been extensively used in the early stages of drug discovery for the identification of small molecules as a starting point for drug development, and for the pharmacological characterization of compounds. The main application of the system has been the measurement of intracellular Ca(2+) signals using fluorescent calcium indicators.This chapter describes the application of a protocol for the study and characterization of state-dependent blockers of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels (VGCC) on the FLIPR(TETRA).The cell line suitable for the application of the protocol, and described hereafter, co-expresses the human CaV1.2 channel and the human inward rectifier K(+) channel Kir2.3. The presence of Kir2.3 allows the modulation of the plasma membrane potential and consequently of the state of the CaV1.2 channel by changing the extracellular K(+) concentration. In this way, CaV1.2 activity can be measured at different membrane voltages, corresponding to either the resting or partial inactivated state, by loading the cells with a calcium probe in extracellular low or high potassium buffer.

  3. Increased extracellular pressure stimulates tumor proliferation by a mechanosensitive calcium channel and PKC-β.

    PubMed

    Basson, Marc D; Zeng, Bixi; Downey, Christina; Sirivelu, Madhu P; Tepe, Jetze J

    2015-02-01

    Large tumors exhibit high interstitial pressure heightened by growth against the constraining stroma. Such pressures could stimulate tumor proliferation via a mechanosensitive ion channel. We studied the effects of 0-80 mmHg increased extracellular pressure for 24 h on proliferation of SW620, Caco-2, and CT-26 colon; MCF-7 breast; and MLL and PC3 prostate cancer cells, and delineated its mechanism in SW620 cells with specific inhibitors and siRNA. Finally, we compared NF-kB, phospho-IkB and cyclin D1 immunoreactivity in the high pressure centers and low pressure peripheries of human tumors. Pressure-stimulated proliferation in all cells. Pressure-driven SW620 proliferation required calcium influx via the T-type Ca(2+) channel Cav3.3, which stimulated PKC-β to invoke the IKK-IkB-NF-kB pathway to increase proliferation and S-phase fraction. The mitotic index and immunoreactivity of NF-kB, phospho-IkB, and cyclin D1 in the center of 28 large human colon, lung, and head and neck tumors exceeded that in tumor peripheries. Extracellular pressure increases [Ca(2+)]i via Cav3.3, driving a PKC-β- IKK- IkB-NF-kB pathway that stimulates cancer cell proliferation. Rapid proliferation in large stiff tumors may increase intratumoral pressure, activating this pathway to stimulate further proliferation in a feedback cycle that potentiates tumor growth. Targeting this pathway may inhibit proliferation in large unresectable tumors.

  4. Dopamine D1 receptor modulation of calcium channel currents in horizontal cells of mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue; Grove, James C R; Hirano, Arlene A; Brecha, Nicholas C; Barnes, Steven

    2016-08-01

    Horizontal cells form the first laterally interacting network of inhibitory interneurons in the retina. Dopamine released onto horizontal cells under photic and circadian control modulates horizontal cell function. Using isolated, identified horizontal cells from a connexin-57-iCre × ROSA26-tdTomato transgenic mouse line, we investigated dopaminergic modulation of calcium channel currents (ICa) with whole cell patch-clamp techniques. Dopamine (10 μM) blocked 27% of steady-state ICa, an action blunted to 9% in the presence of the L-type Ca channel blocker verapamil (50 μM). The dopamine type 1 receptor (D1R) agonist SKF38393 (20 μM) inhibited ICa by 24%. The D1R antagonist SCH23390 (20 μM) reduced dopamine and SKF38393 inhibition. Dopamine slowed ICa activation, blocking ICa by 38% early in a voltage step. Enhanced early inhibition of ICa was eliminated by applying voltage prepulses to +120 mV for 100 ms, increasing ICa by 31% and 11% for early and steady-state currents, respectively. Voltage-dependent facilitation of ICa and block of dopamine inhibition after preincubation with a Gβγ-blocking peptide suggested involvement of Gβγ proteins in the D1R-mediated modulation. When the G protein activator guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTPγS) was added intracellularly, ICa was smaller and showed the same slowed kinetics seen during D1R activation. With GTPγS in the pipette, additional block of ICa by dopamine was only 6%. Strong depolarizing voltage prepulses restored the GTPγS-reduced early ICa amplitude by 36% and steady-state ICa amplitude by 3%. These results suggest that dopaminergic inhibition of ICa via D1Rs is primarily mediated through the action of Gβγ proteins in horizontal cells. PMID:27193322

  5. Phosphorylation sites required for regulation of cardiac calcium channels in the fight-or-flight response.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Westenbroek, Ruth E; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A

    2013-11-26

    L-type Ca(2+) currents conducted by CaV1.2 channels initiate excitation-contraction coupling in the heart. Their activity is increased by β-adrenergic/cAMP signaling via phosphorylation by PKA in the fight-or-flight response, but the sites of regulation are unknown. We describe the functional role of phosphorylation of Ser1700 and Thr1704-sites of phosphorylation by PKA and casein kinase II at the interface between the proximal and distal C-terminal regulatory domains. Mutation of both residues to Ala in STAA mice reduced basal L-type Ca(2+) currents, due to a small decrease in expression and a substantial decrease in functional activity. The increase in L-type Ca(2+) current caused by isoproterenol was markedly reduced at physiological levels of stimulation (3-10 nM). Maximal increases in calcium current at nearly saturating concentrations of isoproterenol (100 nM) were also significantly reduced, but the mutation effects were smaller, suggesting that alternative regulatory mechanisms are engaged at maximal levels of stimulation. The β-adrenergic increase in cell contraction was also diminished. STAA ventricular myocytes exhibited arrhythmic contractions in response to isoproterenol, and up to 20% of STAA cells failed to sustain contractions when stimulated at 1 Hz. STAA mice have reduced exercise capacity, and cardiac hypertrophy is evident at 3 mo. We conclude that phosphorylation of Ser1700 and Thr1704 is essential for regulation of basal activity of CaV1.2 channels and for up-regulation by β-adrenergic signaling at physiological levels of stimulation. Disruption of phosphorylation at those sites leads to impaired cardiac function in vivo, as indicated by reduced exercise capacity and cardiac hypertrophy.

  6. Anion permeation in calcium-activated chloride channels formed by TMEM16A from Xenopus tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Reyes, J P; López-Rodríguez, A; Espino-Saldaña, A E; Huanosta-Gutiérrez, A; Miledi, R; Martínez-Torres, A

    2014-09-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) formed by anoctamin1/TMEM16A subunits are ubiquitously expressed, and these channels are known to prevent polyspermy in amphibian oocytes. Here, we describe a TMEM16A clone isolated from Xenopus tropicalis oocytes (xtTMEM16A) and how the anion permeation properties are modified in single-site mutants of the ion pore. The anion permeability sequence was SCN(-) > I(-) > Br(-) > Cl(-) > gluconate (relative permeabilities 5.6:3.0:2.1:1:0.2, respectively). Dose-response curves indicated that the voltage-dependent half-maximal concentration for Ca(2+) activation (K d of the Hill equation at +100 mV) was 120 nM in normal external Cl(-), whereas it was displaced leftward to 75 nM Ca(2+), when I(-) replaced Cl(-). The I(-):Cl(-) mole fraction (MF) of the external solution was varied in order to gain insight into the permeation mechanism of the pore. No anomaly in MF behavior was observed for conductance, but it was observed for current reversal potential, which deviated from the prediction of the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation. Mutations of positively charged amino acids in the pore, R646 and R761, to glutamate resulted in reduction of the relative permeability to I(-). Data from the wild type and mutants could be well fitted by a three-barrier, two-site permeation model. This suggests a multi-ion pore with at least two binding sites for anions, with R646 mole fraction closer to the extracellular membrane surface--being important for the stability of both sites--and R761--located deeper within the membrane--mainly affecting the innermost binding site. Considerations of xtTMEM16A putative pore region topology are discussed in the light of two alternative topological models of the protein. PMID:24352628

  7. Increased extracellular pressure stimulates tumor proliferation by a mechanosensitive calcium channel and PKC-β

    PubMed Central

    Basson, Marc D.; Zeng, Bixi; Downey, Christina; Siriveluprabhakar, Madhu; Tepe, Jetze J.

    2014-01-01

    Large tumors exhibit high interstitial pressure heightened by growth against the constraining stroma. Such pressures could stimulate tumor proliferation via a mechanosensitive ion channel. We studied the effects of 0–80 mm Hg increased extracellular pressure for 24 hours on proliferation of SW620, Caco-2, and CT-26 colon; MCF-7 breast; and MLL and PC3 prostate cancer cells, and delineated its mechanism in SW620 cells with specific inhibitors and siRNA. Finally, we compared NF-kB, phospho-IkB and cyclin D1 immunoreactivity in the high pressure centers and low pressure peripheries of human tumors. Pressure stimulated proliferation in all cells. Pressure-driven SW620 proliferation required calcium influx via the T-type Ca2+ channel Cav3.3, which stimulated PKC-β to invoke the IKK-IkB-NF-kB pathway to increase proliferation and S-phase fraction. The mitotic index and immunoreactivity of NF-kB, phospho-IkB, and cyclin D1 in the center of 28 large human colon, lung, and head and neck tumors exceeded that in tumor peripheries. Extracellular pressure increases [Ca2+]i via Cav3.3, driving a PKC-β-IKK-IkB-NF-kB pathway that stimulates cancer cell proliferation. Rapid proliferation in large stiff tumors may increase intratumoral pressure, activating this pathway to stimulate further proliferation in a feedback cycle that potentiates tumor growth. Targeting this pathway may inhibit proliferation in large unresectable tumors. PMID:25454347

  8. Calcium channel beta 4 (CACNB4): human ortholog of the mouse epilepsy gene lethargic.

    PubMed

    Escayg, A; Jones, J M; Kearney, J A; Hitchcock, P F; Meisler, M H

    1998-05-15

    The mouse neurological mutant lethargic (lh) is characterized by ataxia, focal myoclonus, and absence epilepsy due to a loss-of-function mutation in the beta4 subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel. To evaluate the role of this channel subunit in human neurological disease, we determined the chromosomal location and intron/exon structure of the human CACNB4 gene. The 1560-bp open reading frame of the CACNB4 cDNA predicts a 58-kDa protein with an amino acid sequence that is 99% identical to the rat protein. The 13 coding exons of CACNB4 span >55 kb of genomic DNA. Human cerebellar RNA contains one major CACNB4 transcript that is 9 kb in length. Expression of CACNB4 was detected in cerebellum, kidney, testis, retina, lymphoblasts, and circulating lymphocytes. Retinal transcripts were localized by in situ hybridization to ganglion cells and the inner nuclear layer. Analysis of the GeneBridge 4 radiation hybrid mapping panel localized CACNB4 to position 791 cR on human chromosome 2, in a conserved linkage group on human 2q22-q31 and mouse chromosome 2. We localized CACNB4 to the 1.3-Mb YAC clone 952F10 in Whitehead contig WC861, along with the polymorphic markers D2S2236 and D2S2299. The chromosomal linkage of three of the four beta subunit genes to homeobox gene clusters associates the evolutionary origin of the beta gene family with the events that generated the four HOX clusters early in vertebrate evolution.

  9. Cholinergic modulation of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels regulates synaptic strength and spine calcium in cartwheel cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Wang, Ya-Xian; Petralia, Ronald S; Brenowitz, Stephan D

    2014-04-01

    Acetylcholine is a neuromodulatory transmitter that controls synaptic plasticity and sensory processing in many brain regions. The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) is an auditory brainstem nucleus that integrates auditory signals from the cochlea with multisensory inputs from several brainstem nuclei and receives prominent cholinergic projections. In the auditory periphery, cholinergic modulation serves a neuroprotective function, reducing cochlear output under high sound levels. However, the role of cholinergic signaling in the DCN is less understood. Here we examine postsynaptic mechanisms of cholinergic modulation at glutamatergic synapses formed by parallel fiber axons onto cartwheel cells (CWCs) in the apical DCN circuit from mouse brainstem slice using calcium (Ca) imaging combined with two-photon laser glutamate uncaging onto CWC spines. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) significantly increased the amplitude of both uncaging-evoked EPSPs (uEPSPs) and spine Ca transients. Our results demonstrate that mAChRs in CWC spines act by suppressing large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels, and this effect is mediated through the cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway. Blocking BK channels relieves voltage-dependent magnesium block of NMDA receptors, thereby enhancing uEPSPs and spine Ca transients. Finally, we demonstrate that mAChR activation inhibits L-type Ca channels and thus may contribute to the suppression of BK channels by mAChRs. In summary, we demonstrate a novel role for BK channels in regulating glutamatergic transmission and show that this mechanism is under modulatory control of mAChRs.

  10. Cholinergic Modulation of Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels Regulates Synaptic Strength and Spine Calcium in Cartwheel Cells of the Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    He, Shan; Wang, Ya-Xian; Petralia, Ronald S.

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholine is a neuromodulatory transmitter that controls synaptic plasticity and sensory processing in many brain regions. The dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) is an auditory brainstem nucleus that integrates auditory signals from the cochlea with multisensory inputs from several brainstem nuclei and receives prominent cholinergic projections. In the auditory periphery, cholinergic modulation serves a neuroprotective function, reducing cochlear output under high sound levels. However, the role of cholinergic signaling in the DCN is less understood. Here we examine postsynaptic mechanisms of cholinergic modulation at glutamatergic synapses formed by parallel fiber axons onto cartwheel cells (CWCs) in the apical DCN circuit from mouse brainstem slice using calcium (Ca) imaging combined with two-photon laser glutamate uncaging onto CWC spines. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) significantly increased the amplitude of both uncaging-evoked EPSPs (uEPSPs) and spine Ca transients. Our results demonstrate that mAChRs in CWC spines act by suppressing large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels, and this effect is mediated through the cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway. Blocking BK channels relieves voltage-dependent magnesium block of NMDA receptors, thereby enhancing uEPSPs and spine Ca transients. Finally, we demonstrate that mAChR activation inhibits L-type Ca channels and thus may contribute to the suppression of BK channels by mAChRs. In summary, we demonstrate a novel role for BK channels in regulating glutamatergic transmission and show that this mechanism is under modulatory control of mAChRs. PMID:24719104

  11. Calcium-activated potassium channels in insect pacemaker neurons as unexpected target site for the novel fumigant dimethyl disulfide.

    PubMed

    Gautier, Hélène; Auger, Jacques; Legros, Christian; Lapied, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), a plant-derived insecticide, is a promising fumigant as a substitute for methyl bromide. To further understand the mode of action of DMDS, we examined its effect on cockroach octopaminergic neurosecretory cells, called dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons, using whole-cell patch-clamp technique, calcium imaging and antisense oligonucleotide strategy. At low concentration (1 microM), DMDS modified spontaneous regular spike discharge into clear bursting activity associated with a decrease of the amplitude of the afterhyperpolarization. This effect led us to suspect alterations of calcium-activated potassium currents (IKCa) and [Ca(2+)](i) changes. We showed that DMDS reduced amplitudes of both peak transient and sustained components of the total potassium current. IKCa was confirmed as a target of DMDS by using iberiotoxin, cadmium chloride, and pSlo antisense oligonucleotide. In addition, we showed that DMDS induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise in Fura-2-loaded DUM neurons. Using calcium-free solution, and (R,S)-(3,4-dihydro-6,7-dimethoxy-isoquinoline-1-yl)-2-phenyl-N,N-di-[2-(2,3,4-trimethoxy-phenyl)ethyl]-acetamide (LOE 908) [an inhibitor of transient receptor potential (TRP)gamma], we demonstrated that TRPgamma initiated calcium influx. By contrast, omega-conotoxin GVIA (an inhibitor of N-type high-voltage-activated calcium channels), did not affect the DMDS-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. Finally, the participation of the calcium-induced calcium release mechanism was investigated using thapsigargin, caffeine, and ryanodine. Our study revealed that DMDS-induced elevation in [Ca(2+)](i) modulated IKCa in an unexpected bell-shaped manner via intracellular calcium. In conclusion, DMDS affects multiple targets, which could be an effective way to improve pest control efficacy of fumigation. PMID:17942746

  12. Degradation kinetics and pathways of three calcium channel blockers under UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bing; Zonja, Bozo; Gonzalez, Oscar; Sans, Carme; Pérez, Sandra; Barceló, Damia; Esplugas, Santiago; Xu, Ke; Qiang, Zhimin

    2015-12-01

    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are a group of pharmaceuticals widely prescribed to lower blood pressure and treat heart diseases. They have been frequently detected in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and downstream river waters, thus inducing a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. However, little is known about the behavior and fate of CCBs under UV irradiation, which has been adopted as a primary disinfection method for WWTP effluents. This study investigated the degradation kinetics and pathways of three commonly-used CCBs, including amlodipine (AML), diltiazem (DIL), and verapamil (VER), under UV (254 nm) irradiation. The chemical structures of transformation byproducts (TBPs) were first identified to assess the potential ecological hazards. On that basis, a generic solid-phase extraction method, which simultaneously used four different cartridges, was adopted to extract and enrich the TBPs. Thereafter, the photo-degradation of target CCBs was performed under UV fluences typical for WWTP effluent disinfection. The degradation of all three CCBs conformed to the pseudo-first-order kinetics, with rate constants of 0.031, 0.044 and 0.011 min(-1) for AML, DIL and VER, respectively. By comparing the MS(2) fragments and the evolution (i.e., formation or decay) trends of identified TBPs, the degradation pathways were proposed. In the WWTP effluent, although the target CCBs could be degraded, several TBPs still contained the functional pharmacophores and reached peak concentrations under UV fluences of 40-100 mJ cm(-2).

  13. Eugenol dilates rat cerebral arteries by inhibiting smooth muscle cell voltage-dependent calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Peixoto-Neves, Dieniffer; Leal-Cardoso, Jose Henrique; Jaggar, Jonathan H

    2014-11-01

    Plants high in eugenol, a phenylpropanoid compound, are used as folk medicines to alleviate diseases including hypertension. Eugenol has been demonstrated to relax conduit and ear arteries and reduce systemic blood pressure, but mechanisms involved are unclear. Here, we studied eugenol regulation of resistance-size cerebral arteries that control regional brain blood pressure and flow and investigated mechanisms involved. We demonstrate that eugenol dilates arteries constricted by either pressure or membrane depolarization (60 mM K) in a concentration-dependent manner. Experiments performed using patch-clamp electrophysiology demonstrated that eugenol inhibited voltage-dependent calcium (Ca) currents, when using Ba as a charge carrier, in isolated cerebral artery smooth muscle cells. Eugenol inhibition of voltage-dependent Ca currents involved pore block, a hyperpolarizing shift (∼-10 mV) in voltage-dependent inactivation, an increase in the proportion of steady-state inactivating current, and acceleration of inactivation rate. In summary, our data indicate that eugenol dilates cerebral arteries by means of multimodal inhibition of voltage-dependent Ca channels.

  14. Eugenol dilates rat cerebral arteries by inhibiting smooth muscle cell voltage-dependent calcium channels

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto-Neves, Dieniffer; Leal-Cardoso, Jose Henrique; Jaggar, Jonathan H.

    2014-01-01

    Plants high in eugenol, a phenylpropanoid compound, are used as folk medicines to alleviate diseases including hypertension. Eugenol has been demonstrated to relax conduit and ear arteries and reduce systemic blood pressure, but mechanisms involved are unclear. Here, we studied eugenol regulation of resistance-size cerebral arteries that control regional brain blood pressure and flow and investigated mechanisms involved. We demonstrate that eugenol dilates arteries constricted by either pressure or membrane depolarization (60 mM K+) in a concentration-dependent manner. Experiments performed using patch-clamp electrophysiology demonstrated that eugenol inhibited voltage-dependent calcium (Ca2+) currents, when using Ba2+ as a charge carrier, in isolated cerebral artery smooth muscle cells. Eugenol inhibition of voltage-dependent Ca2+ currents involved pore block, a hyperpolarizing shift ( ~−10 mV) in voltage-dependent inactivation, an increase in the proportion of steady-state inactivating current, and acceleration of inactivaiton rate. In summary, our data indicate that eugenol dilates cerebral arteries via multi-modal inhibition of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. PMID:24921632

  15. Contractile function is unaltered in diaphragm from mice lacking calcium release channel isoform 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, J. S.; Takeshima, H.; Hamilton, S. L.; Reid, M. B.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle expresses at least two isoforms of the calcium release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (RyR1 and RyR3). Whereas the function of RyR1 is well defined, the physiological significance of RyR3 is unclear. Some authors have suggested that RyR3 participates in excitation-contraction coupling and that RyR3 may specifically confer resistance to fatigue. To test this hypothesis, we measured contractile function of diaphragm strips from adult RyR3-deficient mice (exon 2-targeted mutation) and their heterozygous and wild-type littermates. In unfatigued diaphragm, there were no differences in isometric contractile properties (twitch characteristics, force-frequency relationships, maximal force) among the three groups. Our fatigue protocol (30 Hz, 0.25 duty cycle, 37 degrees C) depressed force to 25% of the initial force; however, lack of RyR3 did not accelerate the decline in force production. The force-frequency relationship was shifted to higher frequencies and was depressed in fatigued diaphragm; lack of RyR3 did not exaggerate these changes. We therefore provide evidence that RyR3 deficiency does not alter contractile function of adult muscle before, during, or after fatigue.

  16. Biochemical characterization of cysteine-rich peptides from Oxyopes sp. venom that block calcium ion channels.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Elba; Adachi-Akahane, Satomi; Bosmans, Frank; Tytgat, Jan; Nakajima, Terumi; Corzo, Gerardo

    2008-08-01

    Oxytoxins (OxyTx1 and OxyTx2) are disulfide-rich peptides isolated from the venom of the spider Oxyopes lineatus that block voltage-sensitive calcium ion channels (VSCCs). OxyTx1 was identified previously and isolated from the related spider Oxyopes kitabensis; however, its pharmacology was unknown. OxyTx1 and OxyTx2 contain 69 and 55 amino acid residues with molecular masses of 8058.2 and 6175.2Da, respectively. Oxytoxins contain five disulfide bridges, are amidated at their C-terminus, antagonize P/Q-, N- or L-type VSCCs, and have low amino acid identity to known VSCC blockers from arthropod venoms. OxyTx1 is not specific for VSCCs subtypes when compared to the classical P/Q-type blocker omega-AgaIVA, but OxyTx1 has higher paralytic activity towards Spodoptera litura larvae. Because of their structural and biochemical characteristics OxyTx1 and OxyTx2 may represent a new family of insecticidal peptides.

  17. Eugenol dilates rat cerebral arteries by inhibiting smooth muscle cell voltage-dependent calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Peixoto-Neves, Dieniffer; Leal-Cardoso, Jose Henrique; Jaggar, Jonathan H

    2014-11-01

    Plants high in eugenol, a phenylpropanoid compound, are used as folk medicines to alleviate diseases including hypertension. Eugenol has been demonstrated to relax conduit and ear arteries and reduce systemic blood pressure, but mechanisms involved are unclear. Here, we studied eugenol regulation of resistance-size cerebral arteries that control regional brain blood pressure and flow and investigated mechanisms involved. We demonstrate that eugenol dilates arteries constricted by either pressure or membrane depolarization (60 mM K) in a concentration-dependent manner. Experiments performed using patch-clamp electrophysiology demonstrated that eugenol inhibited voltage-dependent calcium (Ca) currents, when using Ba as a charge carrier, in isolated cerebral artery smooth muscle cells. Eugenol inhibition of voltage-dependent Ca currents involved pore block, a hyperpolarizing shift (∼-10 mV) in voltage-dependent inactivation, an increase in the proportion of steady-state inactivating current, and acceleration of inactivation rate. In summary, our data indicate that eugenol dilates cerebral arteries by means of multimodal inhibition of voltage-dependent Ca channels. PMID:24921632

  18. Polyaniline-graphene oxide nanocomposite sensor for quantification of calcium channel blocker levamlodipine.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rajeev; Sinha, Ankita; Khan, Ab Lateef

    2016-08-01

    A novel polyaniline-graphene oxide nanocomposite (PANI/GO/GCE) sensor has been fabricated for quantification of a calcium channel blocker drug levamlodipine (LAMP). Fabricated sensor has been characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, square wave and cyclic voltammetry, Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The developed PANI/GO/GCE sensor has excellent analytical performance towards electrocatalytic oxidation as compared to PANI/GCE, GO/GCE and bare GCE. Under optimized experimental conditions, the fabricated sensor exhibits a linear response for LAMP for its oxidation over a concentration range from 1.25μgmL(-1) to 13.25μgmL(-1) with correlation coefficient of 0.9950 (r(2)), detection limit of 1.07ngmL(-1) and quantification limit of 3.57ngmL(-1). The sensor shows an excellent performance for detecting LAMP with reproducibility of 2.78% relative standard deviation (RSD). The proposed method has been successfully applied for LAMP determination in pharmaceutical formulation with a recovery from 99.88% to 101.75%.

  19. Loss of β2-laminin alters calcium sensitivity and voltage-gated calcium channel maturation of neurotransmission at the neuromuscular junction

    PubMed Central

    Chand, Kirat K; Lee, Kah Meng; Schenning, Mitja P; Lavidis, Nickolas A; Noakes, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    β2-laminin is a key mediator in the differentiation and formation of the skeletal neuromuscular junction. Loss of β2-laminin results in significant structural and functional aberrations such as decreased number of active zones and reduced spontaneous release of transmitter. In vitro β2-laminin has been shown to bind directly to the pore forming subunit of P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). Neurotransmission is initially mediated by N-type VGCCs, but by postnatal day 18 switches to P/Q-type VGCC dominance. The present study investigated the changes in neurotransmission during the switch from N- to P/Q-type VGCC-mediated transmitter release at β2-laminin-deficient junctions. Analysis of the relationship between quantal content and extracellular calcium concentrations demonstrated a decrease in the calcium sensitivity, but no change in calcium dependence at β2-laminin-deficient junctions. Electrophysiological studies on VGCC sub-types involved in transmitter release indicate N-type VGCCs remain the primary mediator of transmitter release at matured β2-laminin-deficient junctions. Immunohistochemical analyses displayed irregularly shaped and immature β2-laminin-deficient neuromuscular junctions when compared to matured wild-type junctions. β2-laminin-deficient junctions also maintained the presence of N-type VGCC clustering within the presynaptic membrane, which supported the functional findings of the present study. We conclude that β2-laminin is a key regulator in development of the NMJ, with its loss resulting in reduced transmitter release due to decreased calcium sensitivity stemming from a failure to switch from N- to P/Q-type VGCC-mediated synaptic transmission. PMID:25556799

  20. CNTF-ACM promotes mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in cortical neurons through upregulating L-type calcium channel activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Meiqun; Liu, Hongli; Xu, Huanbai; Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-09-01

    A specialized culture medium termed ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium (CNTF-ACM) allows investigators to assess the peripheral effects of CNTF-induced activated astrocytes upon cultured neurons. CNTF-ACM has been shown to upregulate neuronal L-type calcium channel current activity, which has been previously linked to changes in mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate CNTF-ACM's effects upon mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in rat cortical neurons. Cortical neurons, CNTF-ACM, and untreated control astrocyte-conditioned medium (UC-ACM) were prepared from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rat cortical tissue. Neurons were cultured in either CNTF-ACM or UC-ACM for a 48-h period. Changes in the following parameters before and after treatment with the L-type calcium channel blocker isradipine were assessed: (i) intracellular calcium levels, (ii) mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), (iii) oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) formation, (iv) intracellular nitric oxide (NO) levels, (v) mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and (vi) susceptibility to the mitochondrial complex I toxin rotenone. CNTF-ACM neurons displayed the following significant changes relative to UC-ACM neurons: (i) increased intracellular calcium levels (p < 0.05), (ii) elevation in ΔΨm (p < 0.05), (iii) increased OCR and ATP formation (p < 0.05), (iv) increased intracellular NO levels (p < 0.05), (v) increased mitochondrial ROS production (p < 0.05), and (vi) increased susceptibility to rotenone (p < 0.05). Treatment with isradipine was able to partially rescue these negative effects of CNTF-ACM (p < 0.05). CNTF-ACM promotes mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress in cortical neurons through elevating L-type calcium channel activity. PMID:27514537

  1. Gene Disruption of the Calcium Channel Orai1 Results in Inhibition of Osteoclast and Osteoblast Differentiation and Impairs Skeletal Development

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Lisa J.; Mancarella, Salvatore; Songsawad, Duangrat; Tourkova, Irina L.; Barnett, John B.; Gill, Donald L.; Soboloff, Jonathan; Blair, Harry C.

    2012-01-01

    Calcium signaling plays a central role in the regulation of bone cells, though uncertainty remains with regard to the channels involved. In previous studies, we determined that the calcium channel Orai1 was required for the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts in vitro. To define the skeletal functions of calcium release-activated calcium currents, we compared mice with targeted deletion of the calcium channel Orai1 to wild-type littermate controls, and examined differentiation and function of osteoblast and osteoclast precursors in vitro with and without Orai1 inhibition. Consistent with in vitro findings, Orai1−/− mice lacked multinucleated osteoclasts. Yet they did not develop osteopetrosis. Mononuclear cells expressing osteoclast products were found in Orai1−/− mice, and in vitro studies showed significantly reduced, but not absent, mineral resorption by the mononuclear osteoclast-like cells that form in culture from peripheral blood monocytic cells when Orai1 is inhibited. More prominent in Orai1−/− mice was a decrease in bone with retention of fetal cartilage. Micro-computed tomography showed reduced cortical ossification and thinned trabeculae in Orai1−/− animals compared to controls; bone deposition was markedly decreased in the knock-out. This suggested a previously unrecognized role for Orai1 within osteoblasts. Analysis of osteoblasts and precursors in Orai1−/− and control mice showed a significant decrease in alkaline phosphatase-expressing osteoblasts. In vitro studies confirmed that inhibiting Orai1 activity impaired differentiation and function of human osteoblasts, supporting a critical function for Orai1 in osteoblasts, in addition to its role as a regulator of osteoclast formation. PMID:22546867

  2. (-)-Englerin A is a potent and selective activator of TRPC4 and TRPC5 calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Yasemin; Gaunt, Hannah J; Muraki, Katsuhiko; Ludlow, Melanie J; Amer, Mohamed S; Bruns, Alexander; Vasudev, Naveen S; Radtke, Lea; Willot, Matthieu; Hahn, Sven; Seitz, Tobias; Ziegler, Slava; Christmann, Mathias; Beech, David J; Waldmann, Herbert

    2015-03-16

    Current therapies for common types of cancer such as renal cell cancer are often ineffective and unspecific, and novel pharmacological targets and approaches are in high demand. Here we show the unexpected possibility for the rapid and selective killing of renal cancer cells through activation of calcium-permeable nonselective transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) calcium channels by the sesquiterpene (-)-englerin A. This compound was found to be a highly efficient, fast-acting, potent, selective, and direct stimulator of TRPC4 and TRPC5 channels. TRPC4/5 activation through a high-affinity extracellular (-)-englerin A binding site may open up novel opportunities for drug discovery aimed at renal cancer.

  3. A novel biophysical model on calcium and voltage dual dependent gating of calcium-activated chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Suhua; Chen, Yafei; An, Hailong; Liu, Hui; Li, Junwei; Pang, Chunli; Ji, Qing; Zhan, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) are anion-selective channels and involved in physiological processes such as electrolyte/fluid secretion, smooth muscle excitability, and olfactory perception which critically depend on the Ca(2+) and voltage dual-dependent gating of channels. However, how the Ca(2+) and voltage regulate the gating of CaCCs still unclear. In this work, the authors constructed a biophysical model to illustrate the dual-dependent gating of CaCCs. For validation, we applied our model on both native CaCCs and exogenous TMEM16A which is thought to be the molecular basis of CaCCs. Our data show that the native CaCCs may share universal gating mechanism. We confirmed the assumption that by binding with the channel, Ca(2+) decreases the energy-barrier to open the channel, but not changes the voltage-sensitivity. For TMEM16A, our model indicates that the exogenous channels show different Ca(2+) dependent gating mechanism from the native ones. These results advance the understanding of intracellular Ca(2+) and membrane potential regulation in CaCCs, and shed new light on its function in aspect of physiology and pharmacology.

  4. Opioids potentiate transmitter release from SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells by modulating N-type calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Keren, O; Gafni, M; Sarne, Y

    1997-08-01

    Opioids induce dual (inhibitory and excitatory) regulation of depolarization-evoked [3H]dopamine release in SK-N-SH cells through either mu or delta receptors. The potentiation of dopamine release by opioid agonists is mediated by N-type voltage-dependent calcium channels and does not involve Gi/Go proteins. Removal of the excitatory opioid effect by blockade with omega-conotoxin, an N-channel antagonist, reveals the inhibitory effect of opioids on release, thus suggesting that both modulatory effects of opioids are exerted in parallel.

  5. Calcium Channel Blockade and Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor γ Agonism Diminish Cognitive Loss and Preserve Endothelial Function During Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Jain, Swati; Sharma, B M; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is considered as a main risk factor for vascular dementia. In the past, we have reported the induction of vascular dementia (VaD) by experimental diabetes. This study investigates the efficacy of a nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker and pioglitazone in the pharmacological interdiction of pancreatectomy diabetes (PaD) induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and subsequent VaD in rats. Attentional set shifting (ASST) and Morris water-maze (MWM) test were used for assessment of learning and memory. Vascular endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, serum glucose, serum nitrite/nitrate, oxidative stress (viz. aortic superoxide anion, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species and brain glutathione), brain calcium and inflammation (myeloperoxidase) were also estimated. PaD rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, learning and memory along with an increase in brain inflammation, oxidative stress and calcium. Administration of nifedipine and pioglitazone significantly attenuated PaD induced impairment of learning, memory, blood brain barrier permeability, endothelial function and biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker may be considered as a potent pharmacological agent for the management of PaD induced endothelial dysfunction and subsequent VaD. PMID:26648342

  6. Neuroprotective effect of gadolinium: a stretch-activated calcium channel blocker in mouse model of ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Puja; Muthuraman, Arunachalam; Jaggi, Amteshwar S; Singh, Nirmal

    2013-03-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the potential of gadolinium, a stretch-activated calcium channel blocker in ischemic reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain injury in mice. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion of 12 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h was given to induce cerebral injury in male Swiss mice. Cerebral infarct size was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Memory was assessed using Morris water maze test and motor incoordination was evaluated using rota-rod, lateral push, and inclined beam walking tests. In addition, total calcium, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were also estimated in brain tissue. I/R injury produced a significant increase in cerebral infarct size. A significant loss of memory along with impairment of motor performance was also noted. Furthermore, I/R injury also produced a significant increase in levels of TBARS, total calcium, AChE activity, and a decrease in GSH levels. Pretreatment of gadolinium significantly attenuated I/R-induced infarct size, behavioral and biochemical changes. On the basis of the present findings, we can suggest that opening of stretch-activated calcium channel may play a critical role in ischemic reperfusion-induced brain injury and that gadolinium has neuroprotective potential in I/R-induced injury.

  7. Interaction between calcium channel blockers and sweetening agents on morphine-induced analgesia in mice by formalin test.

    PubMed

    Nikfar, S; Abdollahi, M; Sarkarati, F; Etemad, F

    1998-09-01

    1. Calcium is known to be an important ion in the modulation of nociception and inflammation. Previous research has shown that mice drinking sweet-tasting solutions such as sucrose, saccharin and aspartame exhibit significant changes in morphine-induced analgesia in both phases of the formalin test. 2. In this study, the role of calcium channel blockers on the effectivity of a 12-day regimen of different sweetening agents (sucrose 32%, saccharin 0.08% and aspartame 0.16%) on the alteration of the morphine response has been investigated. 3. Male albino mice weighing 20-27 g were used for experiments. Animals were given 12 days to adapt to dietary conditions. Animals were given morphine (1.5, 3, 6, 9 mg/kg) subcutaneously 30 min before observation. Nifedipine (5 mg/kg), verapamil (5 mg/kg) and diltiazem (10 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally 20 min before morphine injection. 4. Recording of the early phase started immediately and lasted for 10 min after formalin injection. Recording of the late response started 20 min after formalin injection and lasted for 10 min. 5. Calcium channel blockers potentiated the antinociceptive effects of sweetening agents and diminished the antagonistic effects of these compounds on morphine-induced analgesia in the early and late phases of the formalin test. 6. It is proposed that calcium has a role for the interactive effects of sweetening agents and morphine on pain sensitivity.

  8. Effects of angiotensin II blockade on inflammation-induced alterations of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcium channel blockers

    PubMed Central

    Hanafy, S; Dagenais, N J; Dryden, W F; Jamali, F

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Inflammation elevates plasma verapamil concentrations but diminishes pharmacological response. Angiotensin II is a pro-inflammatory mediator. We examined the effect of angiotensin II receptor blockade on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of verapamil, as well as the binding properties and amounts of its target protein in calcium channels, in a rat model of inflammation. Experimental approach: We used 4 groups of male Sprague–Dawley rats (220–280 g): inflamed-placebo, inflamed-treated, control-placebo and control-treated. Inflammation as pre-adjuvant arthritis was induced by injecting Mycobacterium butyricum on day 0. From day 6 to 12, 30 mg kg−1 oral valsartan or placebo was administered twice daily. On day 12, a single oral dose of 25 mg kg−1 verapamil was administered and prolongation of the PR interval measured and plasma samples collected for verapamil and nor-verapamil analysis. The amounts of the target protein Cav1.2 subunit of L-type calcium channels in heart was measured by Western blotting and ligand binding with 3H-nitrendipine. Key results: Inflammation reduced effects of verapamil, although plasma drug concentrations were increased. This was associated with a reduction in ligand binding capacity and amount of the calcium channel target protein in heart extracts. Valsartan significantly reversed the down-regulating effect of inflammation on verapamil's effects on the PR interval, and the lower level of protein binding and the decreased target protein. Conclusions and implications: Reduced responses to calcium channel blockers in inflammatory conditions appeared to be due to a reduced amount of target protein that was reversed by the angiotensin II antagonist, valsartan. PMID:17965735

  9. Risk of suicide in users of β-adrenoceptor blockers, calcium channel blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Mellemkjær, Lene; Olsen, Jørgen H

    2001-01-01

    Aims To examine the risk of suicide in users of β-adrenoceptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Methods We conducted a cohort study based on linkage of a population-based prescription registry in North Jutland County, Denmark, and the nationwide Death Registry. From 1989 to 1995 there were 58 529 users of β-adrenoceptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. The mortality rates from suicides in the cohort members were compared with the rates in the general population. Results One hundred and four suicides occurred in the cohorts. The standardized mortality ratio for suicide in users of β-adrenoceptor blockers was 1.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.2–2.1), in users of calcium channel blockers 1.2 (95% confidence interval: 0.8–1.7), and in users of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors 1.2 (95% confidence interval: 0.7–1.8). In users of β-adrenoceptor blockers, the risk of suicide was increased during the first 12 months after the start of therapy, standardized mortality ratio 2.1 (95% confidence interval: 1.2–3.5). There was a trend in the standardized mortality ratio of suicide from 0.9 (95% confidence interval: 0.4–1.9) in users of β-adrenoceptor blockers with low lipid solubility, to 1.6 (0.8–2.8) and 2.7 (1.7–4.1) in users of β-adrenoceptor blockers with medium and high lipid solubility, respectively. Conclusions Users of medium and high lipid soluble β-adrenoceptor blockers may have an increased risk of suicide. Users of calcium channel blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors do not seem to have a significantly increased risk of suicide. PMID:11560564

  10. An efficacious protocol for C-4 substituted 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones. Synthesis and calcium channel binding studies

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Divya; Falkowski, Danielle; Liu, Qingxin; Moreland, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Ethyl 1,2-dihydro-1,6-dimethyl/6-methyl-2-oxopyrimidine-5-carboxylates react with C-nucleophiles as well as anion of enantiopure chiral auxiliary (1R,2S,5R)-(−)-methyl (S)-p-toluenesulfinate to afford C-4 substituted and enantiopure congeners of medicinally potent Biginelli dihydropyrimidinones. The calcium channel blocking activity of some of the compounds was evaluated and compared with nifedipine for their ability to relax a membrane depolarization induced contraction. PMID:24273442

  11. Structure-function of proteins interacting with the α1 pore-forming subunit of high-voltage-activated calcium channels

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Alan; Hidalgo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Openings of high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium channels lead to a transient increase in calcium concentration that in turn activate a plethora of cellular functions, including muscle contraction, secretion and gene transcription. To coordinate all these responses calcium channels form supramolecular assemblies containing effectors and regulatory proteins that couple calcium influx to the downstream signal cascades and to feedback elements. According to the original biochemical characterization of skeletal muscle Dihydropyridine receptors, HVA calcium channels are multi-subunit protein complexes consisting of a pore-forming subunit (α1) associated with four additional polypeptide chains β, α2, δ, and γ, often referred to as accessory subunits. Twenty-five years after the first purification of a high-voltage calcium channel, the concept of a flexible stoichiometry to expand the repertoire of mechanisms that regulate calcium channel influx has emerged. Several other proteins have been identified that associate directly with the α1-subunit, including calmodulin and multiple members of the small and large GTPase family. Some of these proteins only interact with a subset of α1-subunits and during specific stages of biogenesis. More strikingly, most of the α1-subunit interacting proteins, such as the β-subunit and small GTPases, regulate both gating and trafficking through a variety of mechanisms. Modulation of channel activity covers almost all biophysical properties of the channel. Likewise, regulation of the number of channels in the plasma membrane is performed by altering the release of the α1-subunit from the endoplasmic reticulum, by reducing its degradation or enhancing its recycling back to the cell surface. In this review, we discuss the structural basis, interplay and functional role of selected proteins that interact with the central pore-forming subunit of HVA calcium channels. PMID:24917826

  12. Chronic Calcium Channel Inhibitor Verapamil Antagonizes TNF-α-Mediated Inflammatory Reaction and Protects Against Inflammatory Arthritis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenhan; Li, Zhong; Meng, Qingjuan; Zhang, Pei; Yan, Pengcheng; Zhang, Zhenbiao; Zhang, Hao; Pan, Jingrui; Zhai, Yujia; Liu, Yaoge; Wang, Xiaokai; Li, Weiwei; Zhao, Yunpeng

    2016-10-01

    It is well established that the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays a dominant role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Calcium channel is recently reported to be closely associated with various inflammatory diseases. However, whether chronic calcium channel blocker verapamil plays a role in RA still remains unknown. To investigate the role of verapamil in antagonizing TNF-α-mediated inflammation reaction and the underlying mechanisms, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) cells were cultured with stimulation of TNF-α, in the presence or absence of verapamil. Inflammation-associated cytokines, including IL-1, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS-2), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), were assessed, and verapamil suppressed TNF-α-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice models were established, and arthritis progression was evaluated by clinical and histological signs of arthritis. Treatment of verapamil attenuated inflammation as well as joint destruction in arthritis models. In addition, activity of NF-kB signaling pathway was determined both in vitro and in mice arthritis models, and verapamil inhibited TNF-α-induced activation of NF-kB signaling both in vitro and in mice models. Collectively, chronic calcium channel blocker verapamil may shed light on treatment of inflammatory arthritis and provide a potential therapeutic instrument for RA in the future. PMID:27438468

  13. CNS Voltage-gated Calcium Channel Gene Variation And Prolonged Recovery Following Sport-related Concussion

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the association between concussion duration and two calcium channel, voltage-dependent, R type, alpha 1E subunit (CACNA1E) single nucleotide polymorphisms (i.e., rs35737760 and rs704326). A secondary purpose was to examine the association between CACNA1E single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and three acute concussion severity scores (i.e., vestibule-ocular reflex test, balance error scoring scale, and Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing). Methods: Forty athletes with a diagnosed concussion from a hospital concussion program completed a standardized initial evaluation. Concussion injury characteristics, acute signs and symptoms followed by an objective screening (i.e., vestibular ocular assessments, balance error scoring system test, and Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing exam) were assessed. Enrolled participants provided salivary samples for isolation of DNA. Two exon SNPs rs35737760 and rs704326 within CACNA1E were genotyped. Results: There was a significant difference found between acute balance deficits and prolonged recovery group (X2 = 5.66, p = 0.017). There was an association found between the dominant model GG genotype (X2 = 5.41, p = 0.027) within the rs704326 SNP and prolonged recovery group. Significant differences were identified for the rs704326 SNP within the dominant model GG genotype (p = 0.030) for VOR scores by recovery. A significant difference was found between the rs704326 SNP codominant model AA (p = 0.042) and visual memory. There was an association between acute balance deficits and prolonged recovery (X2 = 5.66, p = 0.017) for the rs35737760 SNP. No significant associations between concussion severity and genotype for rs35737760 SNP. Conclusion: Athletes carrying the CACNA1E rs704326 homozygous genotype GG are at a greater risk of a prolonged recovery. Athletes that reported balance deficits at the time of injury were more likely to have prolonged recovery. These

  14. Neuroprotective Effect of Lercanidipine- A Novel Calcium Channel Blocker in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Adhimoolam, Mangaiarkkarasi; Perumal, Deepa Kameswari; Rajamohammed, Meher Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background The available conventional antiepileptics do not afford cure or prophylactic treatment and henceforth there is always a quest to explore new targets for management of convulsions. In this perspective, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers have been investigated in various animal models of epilepsy. Lercanidipine, a newer dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, is a potential candidate with its favourable lipid profile and longer duration of action. Objective (1) To evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of lercanidipine alone and in combination with standard drug in adult male Swiss albino mice. (2) To evaluate the muscle relaxant and spontaneous locomotor activity of lercanidipine in adult male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods Adult male Swiss albino mice weighing 20-30g were used to study the anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and spontaneous locomotor activity using electroconvulsometer, rotarod and actophotometer apparatus respectively. The mice were divided into six groups of six animals in each group. Group 1 and 2 served as control (vehicle treated) and standard group respectively. Standard drug used to evaluate anticonvulsant effect is phenytoin sodium 25 mg/kg I.P. whereas muscle relaxant activity and locomotor activity is diazepam 4 mg/kg I.P., Group 3 and 4 received lercanidipine 1 and 3 mg/kg I.P., respectively. Anticonvulsant models included group 5 and 6 and they were given combination of phenytoin sodium 12.5 mg/kg I.P., with lercanidipine 1 and 3 mg/kg i.p, respectively. Abolition or reduction of tonic hind limb extension was considered as index of anticonvulsant activity whereas the balancing time of the animals in rod was recorded to asses muscle relaxant activity. The locomotor activity was recorded for 5 minutes. The data were analysed with one-way Analysis of Variance followed by post-hoc ‘Dunnett t-test’. Results Lercanidipine given alone in a dose of 1 and 3 mg/kg had significantly reduced the tonic hind limb extension

  15. Calcium-calmodulin does not alter the anion permeability of the mouse TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yawei; Kuan, Ai-Seon; Chen, Tsung-Yu

    2014-07-01

    The transmembrane protein TMEM16A forms a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel that is permeable to many anions, including SCN(-), I(-), Br(-), Cl(-), and HCO3 (-), and has been implicated in various physiological functions. Indeed, controlling anion permeation through the TMEM16A channel pore may be critical in regulating the pH of exocrine fluids such as the pancreatic juice. The anion permeability of the TMEM16A channel pore has recently been reported to be modulated by Ca(2+)-calmodulin (CaCaM), such that the pore of the CaCaM-bound channel shows a reduced ability to discriminate between anions as measured by a shift of the reversal potential under bi-ionic conditions. Here, using a mouse TMEM16A clone that contains the two previously identified putative CaM-binding motifs, we were unable to demonstrate such CaCaM-dependent changes in the bi-ionic potential. We confirmed the activity of CaCaM used in our study by showing CaCaM modulation of the olfactory cyclic nucleotide-gated channel. We suspect that the different bi-ionic potentials that were obtained previously from whole-cell recordings in low and high intracellular [Ca(2+)] may result from different degrees of bi-ionic potential shift secondary to a series resistance problem, an ion accumulation effect, or both.

  16. Dopamine midbrain neurons in health and Parkinson's disease: emerging roles of voltage-gated calcium channels and ATP-sensitive potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Dragicevic, E; Schiemann, J; Liss, B

    2015-01-22

    Dopamine (DA) releasing midbrain neurons are essential for multiple brain functions, such as voluntary movement, working memory, emotion and cognition. DA midbrain neurons within the substantia nigra (SN) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) exhibit a variety of distinct axonal projections and cellular properties, and are differentially affected in diseases like schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and Parkinson's disease (PD). Apart from having diverse functions in health and disease states, DA midbrain neurons display distinct electrical activity patterns, crucial for DA release. These activity patterns are generated and modulated by specific sets of ion channels. Recently, two ion channels have been identified, not only contributing to these activity patterns and to functional properties of DA midbrain neurons, but also seem to render SN DA neurons particularly vulnerable to degeneration in PD and its animal models: L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) and ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K-ATPs). In this review, we focus on the emerging physiological and pathophysiological roles of these two ion channels (and their complex interplay with other ion channels), particularly in highly vulnerable SN DA neurons, as selective degeneration of these neurons causes the major motor symptoms of PD. PMID:25450964

  17. Dopamine midbrain neurons in health and Parkinson's disease: emerging roles of voltage-gated calcium channels and ATP-sensitive potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Dragicevic, E; Schiemann, J; Liss, B

    2015-01-22

    Dopamine (DA) releasing midbrain neurons are essential for multiple brain functions, such as voluntary movement, working memory, emotion and cognition. DA midbrain neurons within the substantia nigra (SN) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) exhibit a variety of distinct axonal projections and cellular properties, and are differentially affected in diseases like schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and Parkinson's disease (PD). Apart from having diverse functions in health and disease states, DA midbrain neurons display distinct electrical activity patterns, crucial for DA release. These activity patterns are generated and modulated by specific sets of ion channels. Recently, two ion channels have been identified, not only contributing to these activity patterns and to functional properties of DA midbrain neurons, but also seem to render SN DA neurons particularly vulnerable to degeneration in PD and its animal models: L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) and ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K-ATPs). In this review, we focus on the emerging physiological and pathophysiological roles of these two ion channels (and their complex interplay with other ion channels), particularly in highly vulnerable SN DA neurons, as selective degeneration of these neurons causes the major motor symptoms of PD.

  18. New evidence about the relationship between water channel activity and calcium in salinity-stressed pepper plants.

    PubMed

    Cabañero, Francisco J; Martínez-Ballesta, M Carmen; Teruel, José A; Carvajal, Micaela

    2006-02-01

    This study, of how Ca2+ availability (intracellular, extracellular or linked to the membrane) influences the functionality of aquaporins of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants grown under salinity stress, was carried out in plants treated with NaCl (50 mM), CaCl2 (10 mM), and CaCl2 (10 mM) + NaCl (50 mM). For this, water transport through the plasma membrane of isolated protoplasts, and the involvement of aquaporins and calcium (extracellular, intracellular and linked to the membrane) has been determined. After these treatments, it could be seen that the calcium concentration was reduced in the apoplast, in the cells and on the plasma membrane of roots of pepper plants grown under saline conditions; these concentrations were increased or restored when extra calcium was added to the nutrient solution. Protoplasts extracted from plants grown under Ca2+ starvation showed no aquaporin functionality. However, for the protoplasts to which calcium was added, an increase of aquaporin functionality of the plasma membrane was observed [osmotic water permeability (Pf) inhibition after Hg addition]. Interestingly, when verapamil (a Ca2+ channel blocker) was added, no functionality was observed, even when Ca2+ was added with verapamil. Therefore, calcium seems to be involved in plasma membrane aquaporin regulation via a chain of processes within the cell but not by alteration of the stability of the plasma membrane. PMID:16352698

  19. T-type calcium channels promote predictive homeostasis of input-output relations in thalamocortical neurons of lateral geniculate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Hong, Su Z; Kim, Haram R; Fiorillo, Christopher D

    2014-01-01

    A general theory views the function of all neurons as prediction, and one component of this theory is that of "predictive homeostasis" or "prediction error." It is well established that sensory systems adapt so that neuronal output maintains sensitivity to sensory input, in accord with information theory. Predictive homeostasis applies the same principle at the cellular level, where the challenge is to maintain membrane excitability at the optimal homeostatic level so that spike generation is maximally sensitive to small gradations in synaptic drive. Negative feedback is a hallmark of homeostatic mechanisms, as exemplified by depolarization-activated potassium channels. In contrast, T-type calcium channels exhibit positive feedback that appears at odds with the theory. In thalamocortical neurons of lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), T-type channels are capable of causing bursts of spikes with an all-or-none character in response to excitation from a hyperpolarized potential. This "burst mode" would partially uncouple visual input from spike output and reduce the information spikes convey about gradations in visual input. However, past observations of T-type-driven bursts may have resulted from unnaturally high membrane excitability. Here we have mimicked within rat brain slices the patterns of synaptic conductance that occur naturally during vision. In support of the theory of predictive homeostasis, we found that T-type channels restored excitability toward its homeostatic level during periods of hyperpolarization. Thus, activation of T-type channels allowed two retinal input spikes to cause one output spike on average, and we observed almost no instances in which output count exceeded input count (a "burst"). T-type calcium channels therefore help to maintain a single optimal mode of transmission rather than creating a second mode. More fundamentally our results support the general theory, which seeks to predict the properties of a neuron's ion channels and

  20. Calsequestrin and the calcium release channel of skeletal and cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Beard, N A; Laver, D R; Dulhunty, A F

    2004-05-01

    Calsequestrin is by far the most abundant Ca(2+)-binding protein in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skeletal and cardiac muscle. It allows the Ca2+ required for contraction to be stored at total concentrations of up to 20mM, while the free Ca2+ concentration remains at approximately 1mM. This storage capacity confers upon muscle the ability to contract frequently with minimal run-down in tension. Calsequestrin is highly acidic, containing up to 50 Ca(2+)-binding sites, which are formed simply by clustering of two or more acidic residues. The Kd for Ca2+ binding is between 1 and 100 microM, depending on the isoform, species and the presence of other cations. Calsequestrin monomers have a molecular mass of approximately 40 kDa and contain approximately 400 residues. The monomer contains three domains each with a compact alpha-helical/beta-sheet thioredoxin fold which is stable in the presence of Ca2+. The protein polymerises when Ca2+ concentrations approach 1mM. The polymer is anchored at one end to ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca2+ release channels either via the intrinsic membrane proteins triadin and junctin or by binding directly to the RyR. It is becoming clear that calsequestrin has several functions in the lumen of the SR in addition to its well-recognised role as a Ca2+ buffer. Firstly, it is a luminal regulator of RyR activity. When triadin and junctin are present, calsequestrin maximally inhibits the Ca2+ release channel when the free Ca2+ concentration in the SR lumen is 1mM. The inhibition is relieved when the Ca2+ concentration alters, either because of small changes in the conformation of calsequestrin or its dissociation from the junctional face membrane. These changes in calsequestrin's association with the RyR amplify the direct effects of luminal Ca2+ concentration on RyR activity. In addition, calsequestrin activates purified RyRs lacking triadin and junctin. Further roles for calsequestrin are indicated by the kinase activity of the protein, its

  1. Pinaverium acts as L-type calcium channel blocker on smooth muscle of colon.

    PubMed

    Malysz, J; Farraway, L A; Christen, M O; Huizinga, J D

    1997-08-01

    The effect of pinaverium was electrophysiologically characterized and compared with the established L-type calcium channel blockers diltiazem, D600, and nitrendipine on canine colonic circular smooth muscle. Effects were studied on the electrical activity of the smooth muscle cells, in particular the spontaneously occurring slow wave. In addition, effects were examined on spontaneous contraction patterns and contractile activities generated by stimulation of cholinergic nerves or directly by stimulating muscarinic receptors. Effects were also examined on excitation of NO-releasing intrinsic nerves. Pinaverium bromide affected the slow wave by selectively inhibiting the plateau potential that is associated with generation of contractile activity. Pinaverium, similar to diltiazem and D600, produced reductions in cholinergic responses as well as spontaneous contractions. The IC50 values for inhibition of cholinergic responses for pinaverium, diltiazem, and D600 were 1.0 x 10(-6), 4.1 x 10(-7), and 5.3 x 10(-7) M, respectively. The IC50 values for inhibition of spontaneous contractile activity for pinaverium, diltiazem, and D600 were 3.8 x 10(-6), 9.7 x 10(-7), and 8.0 x 10(-7) M, respectively. Increases in contractility by carbachol were abolished by pretreatment with either pinaverium or D600. In addition, neither pinaverium nor D600 had any effects on the inhibitory NO-mediated relaxations. These data provide a rationale for the use of pinaverium in the treatment of colonic motor disorders where excessive contraction has to be suppressed. PMID:9360010

  2. Possibility of inhibition of calcium-activated chloride channel rescuing erectile failures in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lau, L-C; Adaikan, P G

    2014-01-01

    Although calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) blockers, niflumic acid (NFA) and anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (A9C), have been shown as potential erectogenic agents in healthy corpus cavernosum (CC) tissues, the pharmacological characteristics of CaCC blockers in diabetic state are relatively unknown. This study compares the direct muscle relaxant property of NFA and A9C with their influence on contraction and nitrergic relaxation as elicited by electrical field stimulation in normal and 16-week-old diabetic rabbit CC (n=8). Mean blood glucose level in alloxan-treated rabbits was elevated threefold (21.9±0.5 mmol  l(-1) vs 7.1±0.2 mmol l(-1) in untreated rabbits; P<0.05). There was no significant alteration in the efficacies of NFA and A9C in eliciting a concentration-dependent relaxation of noradrenaline-induced cavernosum tone and in inhibiting neurogenic contraction of CC from diabetic rabbits. The capability of NFA (100 μM) and A9C (1 mM) in augmenting nitrergic transmission was also not adversely affected by diabetes. However, in CC from diabetic rabbits, A9C markedly increased nitrergic relaxation response to 1-10 Hz by 10.6-36.6% (vs -5.1-0.8% in nondiabetic control). CaCC sensitivity to A9C appears to be enhanced in diabetic CC tissue. Inhibiting the CaCC activity in diabetes-related ED may tip the balance between proerectile/relaxant and antierectile/contractile mechanisms in favor of cavernosum relaxation.

  3. Lessons learned from a novel calcium-channel protagonist and person.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Margaret

    2015-11-15

    A long time ago (circa 1976), David C. Triggle was Chair of the Department of Biochemical Pharmacology at S.U.N.Y. Buffalo where he led the faculty and staff in the education and mentoring of countless pharmacy and graduate students who passed through the hallowed halls of the University. Trained as a chemist, David spent his days synthesizing new and improved calcium channel blockers in a cramped, makeshift organic chemistry lab while a lab full of aspiring pharmacologists measured their effects on contractile responses of various smooth muscle preparations. I was a graduate student fortunate enough to land in David's laboratory, and thanks to him, I successfully navigated out with a Ph.D. in hand. That being said, his influence was less through his role as thesis advisor and more by the example he set in his simple, everyday life in Buffalo, N.Y: his love for - and dedication to - his family, his concern for the environment and his health, his perseverance in that tiny organic chemistry closet, his command of the English language, his unbridled honesty and cynicism, and his quiet pursuit of excellence. This article chronicles student life during that particular time period and provides a glimpse into David's unique personality and lifestyle that made him a role model to me and others. Interwoven is my own circuitous career path both before and after leaving S.U.N.Y. Buffalo that culminated in a productive career at the opposite end of the drug development process from where it all started in pharmacology.

  4. Lessons learned from a novel calcium-channel protagonist and person.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Margaret

    2015-11-15

    A long time ago (circa 1976), David C. Triggle was Chair of the Department of Biochemical Pharmacology at S.U.N.Y. Buffalo where he led the faculty and staff in the education and mentoring of countless pharmacy and graduate students who passed through the hallowed halls of the University. Trained as a chemist, David spent his days synthesizing new and improved calcium channel blockers in a cramped, makeshift organic chemistry lab while a lab full of aspiring pharmacologists measured their effects on contractile responses of various smooth muscle preparations. I was a graduate student fortunate enough to land in David's laboratory, and thanks to him, I successfully navigated out with a Ph.D. in hand. That being said, his influence was less through his role as thesis advisor and more by the example he set in his simple, everyday life in Buffalo, N.Y: his love for - and dedication to - his family, his concern for the environment and his health, his perseverance in that tiny organic chemistry closet, his command of the English language, his unbridled honesty and cynicism, and his quiet pursuit of excellence. This article chronicles student life during that particular time period and provides a glimpse into David's unique personality and lifestyle that made him a role model to me and others. Interwoven is my own circuitous career path both before and after leaving S.U.N.Y. Buffalo that culminated in a productive career at the opposite end of the drug development process from where it all started in pharmacology. PMID:26206185

  5. Calcium channel blockers and cancer: a risk analysis using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD)

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi-Bensouda, Lamiae; Klungel, Olaf; Kurz, Xavier; de Groot, Mark C H; Maciel Afonso, Ana S; de Bruin, Marie L; Reynolds, Robert; Rossignol, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Objective The evidence of an association between calcium channel blockers (CCBs) and cancer is conflicting. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the risk of cancer (all, breast, prostate and colon cancers) in association with exposure to CCB. Methods This is a population-based cohort study in patients exposed to CCBs from across the UK, using two comparison cohorts: (1) patients with no exposure to CCB (non-CCB) matched on age and gender and (2) unmatched patients unexposed to CCB and at least one other antihypertensive (AHT) prescription. Cancer incidence rates computed in the exposed and the two unexposed groups were compared using HRs and 95% CIs obtained from multivariate Cox regression analyses. Results Overall, 150 750, 557 931 and 156 966 patients were included, respectively, in the CCB, non-CCB and AHT cohorts. Crude cancer incidence rates per 1000 person-years were 16.51, 15.75 and 10.62 for the three cohorts, respectively. Adjusted HRs (CI) for all cancers comparing CCB, non-CCB and AHT cohorts were 0.88 (0.86 to 0.89) and 1.01 (0.98 to 1.04), respectively. Compared to the AHT cohort, adjusted HRs (CI) for breast, prostate and colon cancer for the CCB cohort were 0.95 (0.87 to 1.04), 1.07 (0.98 to 1.16) and 0.89 (0.81 to 0.98), respectively. Analyses by duration of exposure to CCB did not show excess risk. Conclusions This large population-based study provides strong evidence that CCB use is not associated with an increased risk of cancer. The analyses yielded robust results across all types of cancer and different durations of exposure to CCBs. PMID:26747033

  6. Verapamil - L type voltage gated calcium channel inhibitor diminishes aggressive behavior in male Siamese fighting fish.

    PubMed

    Kania, B F; Dębski, B; Wrońska, D; Zawadzka, E

    2015-01-01

    Verapamil is a L-type voltage gated calcium channels inhibitor (VGCCI), which is a highly prescribed drug used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia and cluster headaches. Its common use caused its appearance in water environment. VGCC inhibit epinephrine release and cause many neuro-hormonal changes influencing also fish behavior. Siamese fighting fish was chosen to study the influence of verapamil given to the water on the beginning of experiment in 3 different concentrations of 0 (control), 8 and 160 μg · L-1, on aggressive behavior in these fish. The experimental fish were placed in individual glass containers for 3 weeks and the mirror test was used. The highest concentration led to a significant modulation of fish behavior after 1 week and the lower dose caused statistically significant behavioral changes after 2 weeks of verapamil treatment. Siamese fighting fish males exposed to verapamil had longer latencies to the first chase - 12.6 s (8 μg · L-1 of verapamil) and 18.8 s (160 μg · L-1 of verapamil) compared to 5.6 s in the control group, decreased attack frequency and shorter duration of these attacks. The number of attacks within 10 min was decreased from 38.3 in the control group to 27.1 and 16.1, respectively. Also the total duration of these attacks decreased from 354.8 (control) to 326.4 (decrease statistically insignificant) and to 194.8 s in verapamil treated groups. It was shown, that even relatively low concentrations of verapamil in water may have adverse effects on fish and probably other living organisms.

  7. Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL) Cholesterol Induces the Expression of miRNA-223 and L-type Calcium Channel Protein in Atrial Fibrillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Fengping; Xu, Xin; Yuan, Shuguo; Tan, Liangqiu; Gao, Lingjun; Ma, Shaochun; Zhang, Shebin; Ma, Zhanzhong; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Fenglian; Chen, Baofeng; Zhang, Beibei; Pang, Jungang; Huang, Xiuyan; Weng, Jiaqiang

    2016-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia causing high morbidity and mortality. While changing of the cellular calcium homeostasis plays a critical role in AF, the L-type calcium channel α1c protein has suggested as an important regulator of reentrant spiral dynamics and is a major component of AF-related electrical remodeling. Our computational modeling predicted that miRNA-223 may regulate the CACNA1C gene which encodes the cardiac L-type calcium channel α1c subunit. We found that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) cholesterol significantly up-regulates both the expression of miRNA-223 and L-type calcium channel protein. In contrast, knockdown of miRNA-223 reduced L-type calcium channel protein expression, while genetic knockdown of endogenous miRNA-223 dampened AF vulnerability. Transfection of miRNA-223 by adenovirus-mediated expression enhanced L-type calcium currents and promoted AF in mice while co-injection of a CACNA1C-specific miR-mimic counteracted the effect. Taken together, ox-LDL, as a known factor in AF-associated remodeling, positively regulates miRNA-223 transcription and L-type calcium channel protein expression. Our results implicate a new molecular mechanism for AF in which miRNA-223 can be used as an biomarker of AF rheumatic heart disease.

  8. Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL) Cholesterol Induces the Expression of miRNA-223 and L-type Calcium Channel Protein in Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    He, Fengping; Xu, Xin; Yuan, Shuguo; Tan, Liangqiu; Gao, Lingjun; Ma, Shaochun; Zhang, Shebin; Ma, Zhanzhong; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Fenglian; Chen, Baofeng; Zhang, Beibei; Pang, Jungang; Huang, Xiuyan; Weng, Jiaqiang

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia causing high morbidity and mortality. While changing of the cellular calcium homeostasis plays a critical role in AF, the L-type calcium channel α1c protein has suggested as an important regulator of reentrant spiral dynamics and is a major component of AF-related electrical remodeling. Our computational modeling predicted that miRNA-223 may regulate the CACNA1C gene which encodes the cardiac L-type calcium channel α1c subunit. We found that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) cholesterol significantly up-regulates both the expression of miRNA-223 and L-type calcium channel protein. In contrast, knockdown of miRNA-223 reduced L-type calcium channel protein expression, while genetic knockdown of endogenous miRNA-223 dampened AF vulnerability. Transfection of miRNA-223 by adenovirus-mediated expression enhanced L-type calcium currents and promoted AF in mice while co-injection of a CACNA1C-specific miR-mimic counteracted the effect. Taken together, ox-LDL, as a known factor in AF-associated remodeling, positively regulates miRNA-223 transcription and L-type calcium channel protein expression. Our results implicate a new molecular mechanism for AF in which miRNA-223 can be used as an biomarker of AF rheumatic heart disease. PMID:27488468

  9. Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL) Cholesterol Induces the Expression of miRNA-223 and L-type Calcium Channel Protein in Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    He, Fengping; Xu, Xin; Yuan, Shuguo; Tan, Liangqiu; Gao, Lingjun; Ma, Shaochun; Zhang, Shebin; Ma, Zhanzhong; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Fenglian; Chen, Baofeng; Zhang, Beibei; Pang, Jungang; Huang, Xiuyan; Weng, Jiaqiang

    2016-08-04

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia causing high morbidity and mortality. While changing of the cellular calcium homeostasis plays a critical role in AF, the L-type calcium channel α1c protein has suggested as an important regulator of reentrant spiral dynamics and is a major component of AF-related electrical remodeling. Our computational modeling predicted that miRNA-223 may regulate the CACNA1C gene which encodes the cardiac L-type calcium channel α1c subunit. We found that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) cholesterol significantly up-regulates both the expression of miRNA-223 and L-type calcium channel protein. In contrast, knockdown of miRNA-223 reduced L-type calcium channel protein expression, while genetic knockdown of endogenous miRNA-223 dampened AF vulnerability. Transfection of miRNA-223 by adenovirus-mediated expression enhanced L-type calcium currents and promoted AF in mice while co-injection of a CACNA1C-specific miR-mimic counteracted the effect. Taken together, ox-LDL, as a known factor in AF-associated remodeling, positively regulates miRNA-223 transcription and L-type calcium channel protein expression. Our results implicate a new molecular mechanism for AF in which miRNA-223 can be used as an biomarker of AF rheumatic heart disease.

  10. Oxidized Low-density Lipoprotein (ox-LDL) Cholesterol Induces the Expression of miRNA-223 and L-type Calcium Channel Protein in Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    He, Fengping; Xu, Xin; Yuan, Shuguo; Tan, Liangqiu; Gao, Lingjun; Ma, Shaochun; Zhang, Shebin; Ma, Zhanzhong; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Fenglian; Chen, Baofeng; Zhang, Beibei; Pang, Jungang; Huang, Xiuyan; Weng, Jiaqiang

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia causing high morbidity and mortality. While changing of the cellular calcium homeostasis plays a critical role in AF, the L-type calcium channel α1c protein has suggested as an important regulator of reentrant spiral dynamics and is a major component of AF-related electrical remodeling. Our computational modeling predicted that miRNA-223 may regulate the CACNA1C gene which encodes the cardiac L-type calcium channel α1c subunit. We found that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) cholesterol significantly up-regulates both the expression of miRNA-223 and L-type calcium channel protein. In contrast, knockdown of miRNA-223 reduced L-type calcium channel protein expression, while genetic knockdown of endogenous miRNA-223 dampened AF vulnerability. Transfection of miRNA-223 by adenovirus-mediated expression enhanced L-type calcium currents and promoted AF in mice while co-injection of a CACNA1C-specific miR-mimic counteracted the effect. Taken together, ox-LDL, as a known factor in AF-associated remodeling, positively regulates miRNA-223 transcription and L-type calcium channel protein expression. Our results implicate a new molecular mechanism for AF in which miRNA-223 can be used as an biomarker of AF rheumatic heart disease. PMID:27488468

  11. Arsenic induced neuronal apoptosis in guinea pigs is Ca2+ dependent and abrogated by chelation therapy: role of voltage gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Pachauri, Vidhu; Mehta, Ashish; Mishra, Deepshikha; Flora, Swaran J S

    2013-03-01

    Arsenic contaminated drinking water has affected more than 200 million people globally. Chronic arsenicism has also been associated with numerous neurological diseases. One of the prime mechanisms postulated for arsenic toxicity is reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated oxidative stress. In this study, we explored the kinetic relationship of ROS with calcium and attempted to dissect the calcium ion channels responsible for calcium imbalance after arsenic exposure. We also explored if mono- or combinational chelation therapy prevents arsenic-induced (25ppm in drinking water for 4 months) neuronal apoptosis in a guinea pig animal model. Results indicate that chronic arsenic exposure caused a significant increase in ROS followed by NO and calcium influx. This calcium influx is mainly dependent on L-type voltage gated channels that disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential, increase bax/bcl2 levels and caspase 3 activity leading to apoptosis. Interestingly, blocking of ROS could completely reduce calcium influx whereas calcium blockage partially reduced ROS increase. While in general mono- and combinational chelation therapies were effective in reversing arsenic induced alteration, combinational therapy of DMSA and MiADMSA was most effective. Our results provide evidence for the role of L-type calcium channels in regulating arsenic-induced calcium influx and DMSA+MiADMSA combinational therapy may be a better protocol than monotherapy in mitigating chronic arsenicosis.

  12. Arsenic induced neuronal apoptosis in guinea pigs is Ca2+ dependent and abrogated by chelation therapy: role of voltage gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Pachauri, Vidhu; Mehta, Ashish; Mishra, Deepshikha; Flora, Swaran J S

    2013-03-01

    Arsenic contaminated drinking water has affected more than 200 million people globally. Chronic arsenicism has also been associated with numerous neurological diseases. One of the prime mechanisms postulated for arsenic toxicity is reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated oxidative stress. In this study, we explored the kinetic relationship of ROS with calcium and attempted to dissect the calcium ion channels responsible for calcium imbalance after arsenic exposure. We also explored if mono- or combinational chelation therapy prevents arsenic-induced (25ppm in drinking water for 4 months) neuronal apoptosis in a guinea pig animal model. Results indicate that chronic arsenic exposure caused a significant increase in ROS followed by NO and calcium influx. This calcium influx is mainly dependent on L-type voltage gated channels that disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential, increase bax/bcl2 levels and caspase 3 activity leading to apoptosis. Interestingly, blocking of ROS could completely reduce calcium influx whereas calcium blockage partially reduced ROS increase. While in general mono- and combinational chelation therapies were effective in reversing arsenic induced alteration, combinational therapy of DMSA and MiADMSA was most effective. Our results provide evidence for the role of L-type calcium channels in regulating arsenic-induced calcium influx and DMSA+MiADMSA combinational therapy may be a better protocol than monotherapy in mitigating chronic arsenicosis. PMID:23376091

  13. Cardiac sodium/calcium exchanger preconditioning promotes anti-arrhythmic and cardioprotective effects through mitochondrial calcium-activated potassium channel

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Ying; Cheng, Kang; Lai, Dong; Kong, Ling-Heng; Shen, Min; Yi, Fu; Liu, Bing; Wu, Feng; Zhou, Jing-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reverse-mode of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) stimulation provides cardioprotective effects for the ischemic/reperfused heart during ischemic preconditioning (IP). This study was designed to test the hypothesis that pretreatment with an inhibitor of cardiac delayed-rectifying K+ channel (IKr), E4031, increases reverse-mode of NCX activity, and triggers preconditioning against infarct size (IS) and arrhythmias caused by ischemia/reperfusion injury through mitoKCa channels. Materials and methods: In the isolated perfused rat heart, myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury was created by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by 120 min reperfusion. Two cycles of coronary occlusion for 5 min and reperfusion were performed, or pretreatment with E4031 or sevoflurane (Sevo) before the 30 min occlusion with the reversed-mode of NCX inhibitor (KB-R7943) or not. Results: E4031 or Sevo preconditioning not only markedly decreased IS but also reduced arrhythmias, which was significantly blunted by KB-R7943. Furthermore, these effects of E4031 preconditioning on IS and arrhythmias were abolished by inhibition of the mitoKCa channels. Similarly, pretreatment with NS1619, an opener of the mitoKCa channels, for 10 min before occlusion reduced both the infarct size and arrhythmias caused by ischemia/reperfusion. However, these effects weren’t affected by blockade of the NCX with KB-R7943. Conclusion: Taken together, these preliminary results conclude that pretreatment with E4031 reduces infarct size and produces anti-arrhythmic effect via stimulating the reverse-mode NCX, and that the mitoKCa channels mediate the protective effects. PMID:26617732

  14. Mid1, a Mechanosensitive Calcium Ion Channel, Affects Growth, Development, and Ascospore Discharge in the Filamentous Fungus Gibberella zeae▿

    PubMed Central

    Cavinder, Brad; Hamam, Ahmed; Lew, Roger R.; Trail, Frances

    2011-01-01

    The role of Mid1, a stretch-activated ion channel capable of being permeated by calcium, in ascospore development and forcible discharge from asci was examined in the pathogenic fungus Gibberella zeae (anamorph Fusarium graminearum). The Δmid1 mutants exhibited a >12-fold reduction in ascospore discharge activity and produced predominately abnormal two-celled ascospores with constricted and fragile septae. The vegetative growth rate of the mutants was ∼50% of the wild-type rate, and production of macroconidia was >10-fold lower than in the wild type. To better understand the role of calcium flux, Δmid1 Δcch1 double mutants were also examined, as Cch1, an L-type calcium ion channel, is associated with Mid1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The phenotype of the Δmid1 Δcch1 double mutants was similar to but more severe than the phenotype of the Δmid1 mutants for all categories. Potential and current-voltage measurements were taken in the vegetative hyphae of the Δmid1 and Δcch1 mutants and the wild type, and the measurements for all three strains were remarkably similar, indicating that neither protein contributes significantly to the overall electrical properties of the plasma membrane. Pathogenicity of the Δmid1 and Δmid1Δcch1 mutants on the host (wheat) was not affected by the mutations. Exogenous calcium supplementation partially restored the ascospore discharge and vegetative growth defects for all mutants, but abnormal ascospores were still produced. These results extend the known roles of Mid1 to ascospore development and forcible discharge. However, Neurospora crassa Δmid1 mutants were also examined and did not exhibit defects in ascospore development or in ascospore discharge. In comparison to ion channels in other ascomycetes, Mid1 shows remarkable adaptability of roles, particularly with regard to niche-specific adaptation. PMID:21357477

  15. Ablation of the N-type calcium channel ameliorates diabetic nephropathy with improved glycemic control and reduced blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Shoko; Yokoi, Hideki; Mori, Kiyoshi; Kasahara, Masato; Kuwahara, Koichiro; Fujikura, Junji; Naito, Masaki; Kuwabara, Takashige; Imamaki, Hirotaka; Ishii, Akira; Saleem, Moin A.; Numata, Tomohiro; Mori, Yasuo; Nakao, Kazuwa; Yanagita, Motoko; Mukoyama, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological blockade of the N- and L-type calcium channel lessens renal injury in kidney disease patients. The significance of specific blockade of α1 subunit of N-type calcium channel, Cav2.2, in diabetic nephropathy, however, remains to be clarified. To examine functional roles, we mated Cav2.2−/− mice with db/db (diabetic) mice on the C57BLKS background. Cav2.2 was localized in glomeruli including podocytes and in distal tubular cells. Diabetic Cav2.2−/− mice significantly reduced urinary albumin excretion, glomerular hyperfiltration, blood glucose levels, histological deterioration and systolic blood pressure (SBP) with decreased urinary catecholamine compared to diabetic Cav2.2+/+ mice. Interestingly, diabetic heterozygous Cav2.2+/− mice also decreased albuminuria, although they exhibited comparable systolic blood pressure, sympathetic nerve activity and creatinine clearance to diabetic Cav2.2+/+ mice. Consistently, diabetic mice with cilnidipine, an N-/L-type calcium channel blocker, showed a reduction in albuminuria and improvement of glomerular changes compared to diabetic mice with nitrendipine. In cultured podocytes, depolarization-dependent calcium responses were decreased by ω-conotoxin, a Cav2.2-specific inhibitor. Furthermore, reduction of nephrin by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in podocytes was abolished with ω-conotoxin, cilnidipine or mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor. In conclusion, Cav2.2 inhibition exerts renoprotective effects against the progression of diabetic nephropathy, partly by protecting podocytes. PMID:27273361

  16. Calcium-sensing receptor activation contributed to apoptosis stimulates TRPC6 channel in rat neonatal ventricular myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yi-hua; Li, Yong-quan; Feng, Shan-li; Li, Bao-xin; Pan, Zhen-wei; Xu, Chang-qing; Li, Ting-ting; Yang, Bao-feng

    2010-04-16

    Capacitative calcium entry (CCE) refers to the influx of calcium through plasma membrane channels activated on depletion of endoplasmic sarcoplasmic/reticulum (ER/SR) Ca{sup 2+} stores, which is performed mainly by the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. TRP channels are expressed in cardiomyocytes. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is also expressed in rat cardiac tissue and plays an important role in mediating cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, there are no data regarding the link between CaR and TRP channels in rat heart. In this study, in rat neonatal myocytes, by Ca{sup 2+} imaging, we found that the depletion of ER/SR Ca{sup 2+} stores by thapsigargin (TG) elicited a transient rise in cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}), followed by sustained increase depending on extracellular Ca{sup 2+}. But, TRP channels inhibitor (SKF96365), not L-type channels or the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchanger inhibitors, inhibited [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} relatively high. Then, we found that the stimulation of CaR with its activator gadolinium chloride (GdCl{sub 3}) or by an increased extracellular Ca{sup 2+}([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o}) increased the concentration of intracelluar Ca{sup 2+}, whereas, the sustained elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} was reduced in the presence of SKF96365. Similarly, the duration of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase was also shortened in the absence of extracellular Ca{sup 2+}. Western blot analysis showed that GdCl{sub 3} increased the expression of TRPC6, which was reversed by SKF96365. Additionally, SKF96365 reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by GdCl{sub 3}. Our results suggested that CCE exhibited in rat neonatal myocytes and CaR activation induced Ca{sup 2+}-permeable cationic channels TRPCs to gate the CCE, for which TRPC6 was one of the most likely candidates. TRPC6 channel was functionally coupled with CaR to enhance the cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

  17. Functions of volume-sensitive and calcium-activated chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Else Kay; Holm, Niels Bjerre; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2014-04-01

    The review describes molecular and functional properties of the volume regulated anion channel and Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channels belonging to the anoctamin family with emphasis on physiological importance of these channels in regulation of cell volume, cell migration, cell proliferation, and programmed cell death. Finally, we discuss the role of Cl(-) channels in various diseases.

  18. Population Density and Moment-based Approaches to Modeling Domain Calcium-mediated Inactivation of L-type Calcium Channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Hardcastle, Kiah; Weinberg, Seth H; Smith, Gregory D

    2016-03-01

    We present a population density and moment-based description of the stochastic dynamics of domain [Formula: see text]-mediated inactivation of L-type [Formula: see text] channels. Our approach accounts for the effect of heterogeneity of local [Formula: see text] signals on whole cell [Formula: see text] currents; however, in contrast with prior work, e.g., Sherman et al. (Biophys J 58(4):985-995, 1990), we do not assume that [Formula: see text] domain formation and collapse are fast compared to channel gating. We demonstrate the population density and moment-based modeling approaches using a 12-state Markov chain model of an L-type [Formula: see text] channel introduced by Greenstein and Winslow (Biophys J 83(6):2918-2945, 2002). Simulated whole cell voltage clamp responses yield an inactivation function for the whole cell [Formula: see text] current that agrees with the traditional approach when domain dynamics are fast. We analyze the voltage-dependence of [Formula: see text] inactivation that may occur via slow heterogeneous domain [[Formula: see text

  19. Despite increased plasma concentration, inflammation reduces potency of calcium channel antagonists due to lower binding to the rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Sattari, Saeed; Dryden, William F; Eliot, Lise A; Jamali, Fakhreddin

    2003-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis reduces verapamil oral clearance thereby increases plasma concentration of the drug. This coincides with reduced drug effects through an unknown mechanism. The effect of interferon-induced acute inflammation on the pharmacokinetics and electrocardiogram of verapamil (20 mg kg−1, p.o.) and nifedipine (0.1 mg kg−1, i.v.) was studied in Sprague–Dawley rats. The effect of both acute and chronic inflammation on radioligand binding to cardiac L-type calcium channels was also investigated. Acute inflammation resulted in increased plasma concentration of verapamil but had no effect on that of nifedipine. Verapamil binding to plasma proteins was unaffected. As has been reported for humans, the increased verapamil concentration coincided with a reduction in the degree to which PR interval is prolonged by the drug. The effect of nifedipine on PR interval was also reduced by inflammation. Maximum binding of 3H-nitrendipine to cardiac cell membrane was significantly reduced from 63.2±2.5 fmol mg−1 protein in controls to 46.4±2.0 in acute inflammation and from 66.8±2.2 fmol mg−1 protein in controls to 42.2±2.0 in chronic inflammation. Incubation of the normal cardiac cell membranes with 100 and 1000 pg ml−1 of rat tissue necrosis factor-α did not influence the binding indices to the calcium channels. Our data suggest that the reduced calcium channel responsiveness is because of altered binding to channels. PMID:12839868

  20. Seeing the forest through the trees: towards a unified view on physiological calcium regulation of voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Van Petegem, Filip; Lobo, Paolo A; Ahern, Christopher A

    2012-12-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(V)s) underlie the upstroke of the action potential in the excitable tissues of nerve and muscle. After opening, Na(V)s rapidly undergo inactivation, a crucial process through which sodium conductance is negatively regulated. Disruption of inactivation by inherited mutations is an established cause of lethal cardiac arrhythmia, epilepsy, or painful syndromes. Intracellular calcium ions (Ca(2+)) modulate sodium channel inactivation, and multiple players have been suggested in this process, including the cytoplasmic Na(V) C-terminal region including two EF-hands and an IQ motif, the Na(V) domain III-IV linker, and calmodulin. Calmodulin can bind to the IQ domain in both Ca(2+)-bound and Ca(2+)-free conditions, but only to the DIII-IV linker in a Ca(2+)-loaded state. The mechanism of Ca(2+) regulation, and its composite effect(s) on channel gating, has been shrouded in much controversy owing to numerous apparent experimental inconsistencies. Herein, we attempt to summarize these disparate data and propose a novel, to our knowledge, physiological mechanism whereby calcium ions promote sodium current facilitation due to Ca(2+) memory at high-action-potential frequencies where Ca(2+) levels may accumulate. The available data suggest that this phenomenon may be disrupted in diseases where cytoplasmic calcium ion levels are chronically high and where targeted phosphorylation may decouple the Ca(2+) regulatory machinery. Many Na(V) disease mutations associated with electrical dysfunction are located in the Ca(2+)-sensing machinery and misregulation of Ca(2+)-dependent channel modulation is likely to contribute to disease phenotypes. PMID:23283222

  1. Plasma Membrane Cyclic Nucleotide Gated Calcium Channels Control Land Plant Thermal Sensing and Acquired Thermotolerance[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Finka, Andrija; Cuendet, America Farinia Henriquez; Maathuis, Frans J.M.; Saidi, Younousse; Goloubinoff, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Typically at dawn on a hot summer day, land plants need precise molecular thermometers to sense harmless increments in the ambient temperature to induce a timely heat shock response (HSR) and accumulate protective heat shock proteins in anticipation of harmful temperatures at mid-day. Here, we found that the cyclic nucleotide gated calcium channel (CNGC) CNGCb gene from Physcomitrella patens and its Arabidopsis thaliana ortholog CNGC2, encode a component of cyclic nucleotide gated Ca2+ channels that act as the primary thermosensors of land plant cells. Disruption of CNGCb or CNGC2 produced a hyper-thermosensitive phenotype, giving rise to an HSR and acquired thermotolerance at significantly milder heat-priming treatments than in wild-type plants. In an aequorin-expressing moss, CNGCb loss-of-function caused a hyper-thermoresponsive Ca2+ influx and altered Ca2+ signaling. Patch clamp recordings on moss protoplasts showed the presence of three distinct thermoresponsive Ca2+ channels in wild-type cells. Deletion of CNGCb led to a total absence of one and increased the open probability of the remaining two thermoresponsive Ca2+ channels. Thus, CNGC2 and CNGCb are expected to form heteromeric Ca2+ channels with other related CNGCs. These channels in the plasma membrane respond to increments in the ambient temperature by triggering an optimal HSR, leading to the onset of plant acquired thermotolerance. PMID:22904147

  2. Development and validation of a fluorescence-based HTS assay for the identification of P/Q-type calcium channel blockers.

    PubMed

    Mezler, Mario; Hermann, David; Swensen, Andrew M; Draguhn, Andreas; Terstappen, Georg C; Gross, Gerhard; Schoemaker, Hans; Freiberg, Gail; Pratt, Steve; Gopalakrishnan, Sujatha M; Nimmrich, Volker

    2012-06-01

    Dysfunction of P/Q-type calcium channels is thought to underlie a variety of neurological diseases. There is evidence that migraine, Alzheimer's disease, and epilepsy involve a gain-of-function of the channel, leading to abnormal presynaptic vesicle release. P/Q-channel blockers may normalize current flow and consequently lead to an alleviation of disease symptoms. Although the medical need is high, there are no such compounds on the market. Here we describe a high throughput screen (HTS) for P/Q-type calcium channel blockers and the confirmation of hits by automated electrophysiology. We generated a HEK293 cell line stably expressing the α1A subunit of the P/Q-type calcium channel under control of a tetracycline (Tet) promoter. The accessory β1.1 and α2δ1 subunits were co-expressed constitutively. The cell line was pharmacologically characterized by ion channel specific modulators, and revealed functional P/Q-type calcium currents. Using a fluorescence imaging plate reader (FLIPR), an assay for P/Q-type calcium channels was established based on a calcium sensitive dye. HTS of a 150,000 compound-containing sub-library led to the identification of 3262 hits that inhibited the fluorescence signal with potencies below 10 μM. Hit-to-lead (HTL) efforts identified 12,400 analogues. Compounds were clustered into 37 series, and 8 series of interest were prioritized. An electrophysiological secondary screen, providing a more direct measure of channel function, was implemented into the HTL process. 27 selected exemplars of different chemotypes were validated by automated whole-cell patch clamp analysis at inactivated channel state. The discovery of P/Q-channel blockers may foster the development of new therapeutics for a variety of neurological diseases.

  3. The tobacco-specific carcinogen-operated calcium channel promotes lung tumorigenesis via IGF2 exocytosis in lung epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Boo, Hye-Jin; Min, Hye-Young; Jang, Hyun-Ji; Yun, Hye Jeong; Smith, John Kendal; Jin, Quanri; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Liu, Diane; Kweon, Hee-Seok; Behrens, Carmen; Lee, J. Jack; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Lee, Euni; Hong, Waun Ki; Lee, Ho-Young

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) binding to the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) induces Ca2+ signalling, a mechanism that is implicated in various human cancers. In this study, we investigated the role of NNK-mediated Ca2+ signalling in lung cancer formation. We show significant overexpression of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in association with IGF-1R activation in human preneoplastic lung lesions in smokers. NNK induces voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC)-intervened calcium influx in airway epithelial cells, resulting in a rapid IGF2 secretion via the regulated pathway and thus IGF-1R activation. Silencing nAChR, α1 subunit of L-type VDCC, or various vesicular trafficking curators, including synaptotagmins and Rabs, or blockade of nAChR/VDCC-mediated Ca2+ influx significantly suppresses NNK-induced IGF2 exocytosis, transformation and tumorigenesis of lung epithelial cells. Publicly available database reveals inverse correlation between use of calcium channel blockers and lung cancer diagnosis. Our data indicate that NNK disrupts the regulated pathway of IGF2 exocytosis and promotes lung tumorigenesis. PMID:27666821

  4. Calcium-Activated SK Channels Influence Voltage-Gated Ion Channels to Determine the Precision of Firing in Globus Pallidus Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Deister, Christopher A.; Chan, C. Savio; Surmeier, D. James; Wilson, Charles J.

    2012-01-01

    Globus pallidus (GP) neurons fire rhythmically in the absence of synaptic input, suggesting that they may encode their inputs as changes in the phase of their rhythmic firing. Action potential afterhyperpolarization (AHP) enhances precision of firing by ensuring that the ion channels recover from inactivation by the same amount on each cycle. Voltage-clamp experiments in slices showed that the longest component of the GP neuron’s AHP is blocked by apamin, a selective antagonist of calcium-activated SK channels. Application of 100 nm apamin also disrupted the precision of firing in perforated-patch and cell-attached recordings. SK channel blockade caused a small depolarization in spike threshold and made it more variable, but there was no reduction in the maximal rate of rise during an action potential. Thus, the firing irregularity was not caused solely by a reduction in voltage-gated Na+ channel availability. Subthreshold voltage ramps triggered a large outward current that was sensitive to the initial holding potential and had properties similar to the A-type K+ current in GP neurons. In numerical simulations, the availability of both Na+ and A-type K+ channels during autonomous firing were reduced when SK channels were removed, and a nearly equal reduction in Na+ and K+ subthreshold-activated ion channel availability produced a large decrease in the neuron’s slope conductance near threshold. This change made the neuron more sensitive to intrinsically generated noise. In vivo, this change would also enhance the sensitivity of GP neurons to small synaptic inputs. PMID:19571136

  5. Cell Cycle-Dependent Localization of Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channels and the Mitotic Apparatus in a Neuroendocrine Cell Line(AtT-20)

    PubMed Central

    Loechner, Karen J.; Salmon, Wendy C.; Fu, Jie; Patel, Shipra; McLaughlin, James T.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in intracellular calcium are necessary for the successful progression of mitosis in many cells. Both elevation and reduction in intracellular calcium can disrupt mitosis by mechanisms that remain ill defined. In this study we explore the role of transmembrane voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV channels) as regulators of mitosis in the mouse corticotroph cell line (AtT-20). We report that the nifedipine-sensitive isoform CaV1.2 is localized to the “poleward side” of kinetechores during metaphase and at the midbody during cytokinesis. A second nifedipine-sensitive isoform, CaV1.3, is present at the mid-spindle zone in telophase, but is also seen at the midbody. Nifedipine reduces the rate of cell proliferation, and, utilizing time-lapse microscopy, we show that this is due to a block at the prometaphase stage of the cell cycle. Using Fluo-4 we detect calcium fluxes at sites corresponding to the mid-spindle zone and the midbody region. Another calcium dye, Fura PE3/AM, causes an inhibition of mitosis prior to anaphase that we attribute to a chelation of intracellular calcium. Our results demonstrate a novel, isoform-specific localization of CaV1 channels during cell division and suggest a possible role for these channels in the calcium-dependent events underlying mitotic progression in pituitary corticotrophs. PMID:20130814

  6. Calcium channel blockade with verapamil. Effects on blood pressure, renal, and myocardial adrenergic, cholinergic, and calcium channel receptors in inbred Dahl hypertension-sensitive (S/JR) and hypertension-resistant (R/JR) rats.

    PubMed

    McCaughran, J A; Juno, C J

    1988-07-01

    Verapamil HCl was chronically administered to inbred Dahl S/JR and R/JR rats maintained on a diet containing 8.0% NaCl (w/w) and the effects on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were investigated. Treatment over a 4-week period via implanted miniosmotic pumps attenuated but did not prevent the development of salt-induced hypertension (HT) in the S/JR rat. Elevated HR, possibly reflexive in origin, was observed in S/JR rats that received verapamil but not in similarly treated R/JR rats. Although verapamil retarded the development of HT in S/JR rats, BP rose to moderately hypertensive levels, and the ventricle/body weight ratio was elevated by the termination of the study. The effect of verapamil on the density and affinity of alpha 1-, alpha 2-, and beta-adrenergic, muscarinic cholinergic, and calcium channel receptors in renal and ventricular membranes was also assessed. The density of renal and ventricular alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptors was not affected by chronic drug treatment. The density of renal alpha 2- and beta-adrenoceptors was greater in the S/JR strain than in the R/JR strain, regardless of the treatment. The density of muscarinic cholinergic and calcium channel receptors in the ventricle was not affected by the treatment. The results of this study suggest that the long-term antihypertensive effects of verapamil in the S/JR rat do not involve an alteration in the binding characteristics of adrenergic, cholinergic, or calcium channel receptor sites in ventricular and renal membranes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. [Clinical efficacy of calcium channel blockers slow the third generation of lercanidipine in the treatment of patients with arterial hypertension and metabolic disorders (review)].

    PubMed

    Tabidze, G A; Gezeli, T D; Tsibadze, T A; Dolidze, N M

    2015-02-01

    Arterial hypertension is the most common risk factor in patients with metabolic disorders. In the selection of antihypertensive therapy it is necessary to consider not only the anti-hypertensive and organoprotective effects of drugs and their metabolic effects, which has prognostic value. Calcium antaginists, along. Lercanidipine related to the third generation dihydripyridine calcium antagonist, has been much more selective for the so-called slow calcium channels of vascular smooth muscle cells, which is associated with a good hypertensive, organo and metabolic action. Combination therapy with an ACE inhibitor and a calcium channel blocker is also a justified tactic for the management of patients with high-risk cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Attention is paid new fixed combinations, including angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and calcium antagonists.

  8. Angiotensin-II receptor antagonist combined with calcium channel blocker or diuretic for essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ishimitsu, Toshihiko; Numabe, Atsushi; Masuda, Toshihide; Akabane, Tomoyuki; Okamura, Atsushi; Minami, Junichi; Matsuoka, Hiroaki

    2009-11-01

    To achieve the target blood pressure recommended by the latest guidelines, multiple antihypertensive drugs are needed in most patients. In this study, the efficacy of treatment using an angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARB) combined with a calcium channel blocker (CCB) or a diuretic was compared from multiple perspectives in patients with hypertension. Twenty-nine patients with essential hypertension, who had failed to achieve their target blood pressure (<130/85 mm Hg for patients <65 years old and <140/90 mm Hg for those >/=65 years) when treated with the ARB olmesartan at 20 mg day(-1), were additionally given 8-16 mg day(-1) of the CCB azelnidipine or 1-2 mg day(-1) of trichlormethiazide (a thiazide diuretic) in a randomized crossover manner for 4 months each. At the end of each combination therapy period, blood and urine samples were collected and arterial stiffness was evaluated by measuring the cardio-ankle pulse wave velocity. Compared with monotherapy, the blood pressure was reduced similarly by adding azelnidipine (-12/-10 mm Hg) or trichlormethiazide (-14/-9 mm Hg). The heart rate was decreased with the CCB by 4 b.p.m. (P<0.05), whereas it was unchanged with the thiazide. Serum K, lipids and blood glucose were not significantly changed with either combination, whereas serum uric acid was increased with the thiazide (P<0.01) but was unchanged with azelnidipine. Plasma levels of renin, angiotensin II and aldosterone were also increased with the thiazide period, whereas high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and oxidized low-density lipoprotein were decreased with azelnidipine. In addition, the cardio-ankle vascular index, a parameter of arterial stiffness, was decreased with the azelnidipine period but was unchanged with the thiazide period (P<0.01). It is suggested that the combination of olmesartan and azelnidipine has advantages over the combination of olmesartan and a thiazide with respect to avoiding hyperuricemia, sympathetic activation, renin

  9. Urinary bladder instability induced by selective suppression of the murine small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK3) channel

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Gerald M; Pozo, Maria J; Zvara, Peter; Petkov, Georgi V; Bond, Chris T; Adelman, John P; Nelson, Mark T

    2003-01-01

    Small conductance, calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels have an important role in determining the excitability and contractility of urinary bladder smooth muscle. Here, the role of the SK isoform SK3 was examined by altering expression levels of the SK3 gene using a mouse model that conditionally overexpresses SK3 channels (SK3T/T). Prominent SK3 immunostaining was found in both the smooth muscle (detrusor) and urothelium layers of the urinary bladder. SK currents were elevated 2.4-fold in isolated myocytes from SK3T/T mice. Selective suppression of SK3 expression by dietary doxycycline (DOX) decreased SK current density in isolated myocytes, increased phasic contractions of isolated urinary bladder smooth muscle strips and exposed high affinity effects of the blocker apamin of the SK isoforms (SK1–3), suggesting an additional participation from SK2 channels. The role of SK3 channels in urinary bladder function was assessed using cystometry in conscious, freely moving mice. The urinary bladders of SK3T/T had significantly greater bladder capacity, and urine output exceeded the infused saline volume. Suppression of SK3 channel expression did not alter filling pressure, threshold pressure or bladder capacity, but micturition pressure was elevated compared to control mice. However, SK3 suppression did eliminate excess urine production and caused a marked increase in non-voiding contractions. The ability to examine bladder function in mice in which SK3 channel expression is selectively altered reveals that these channels have a significant role in the control of non-voiding contractions in vivo. Activation of these channels may be a therapeutic approach for management of non-voiding contractions, a condition which characterizes many types of urinary bladder dysfunctions including urinary incontinence. PMID:12813145

  10. Calcium ions open a selectivity filter gate during activation of the MthK potassium channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posson, David J.; Rusinova, Radda; Andersen, Olaf S.; Nimigean, Crina M.

    2015-09-01

    Ion channel opening and closing are fundamental to cellular signalling and homeostasis. Gates that control K+ channel activity were found both at an intracellular pore constriction and within the selectivity filter near the extracellular side but the specific location of the gate that opens Ca2+-activated K+ channels has remained elusive. Using the Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum homologue (MthK) and a stopped-flow fluorometric assay for fast channel activation, we show that intracellular quaternary ammonium blockers bind to closed MthK channels. Since the blockers are known to bind inside a central channel cavity, past the intracellular entryway, the gate must be within the selectivity filter. Furthermore, the blockers access the closed channel slower than the open channel, suggesting that the intracellular entryway narrows upon pore closure, without preventing access of either the blockers or the smaller K+. Thus, Ca2+-dependent gating in MthK occurs at the selectivity filter with coupled movement of the intracellular helices.

  11. Calcium ions open a selectivity filter gate during activation of the MthK potassium channel.

    PubMed

    Posson, David J; Rusinova, Radda; Andersen, Olaf S; Nimigean, Crina M

    2015-01-01

    Ion channel opening and closing are fundamental to cellular signalling and homeostasis. Gates that control K(+) channel activity were found both at an intracellular pore constriction and within the selectivity filter near the extracellular side but the specific location of the gate that opens Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels has remained elusive. Using the Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum homologue (MthK) and a stopped-flow fluorometric assay for fast channel activation, we show that intracellular quaternary ammonium blockers bind to closed MthK channels. Since the blockers are known to bind inside a central channel cavity, past the intracellular entryway, the gate must be within the selectivity filter. Furthermore, the blockers access the closed channel slower than the open channel, suggesting that the intracellular entryway narrows upon pore closure, without preventing access of either the blockers or the smaller K(+). Thus, Ca(2+)-dependent gating in MthK occurs at the selectivity filter with coupled movement of the intracellular helices.

  12. Calcium activated K⁺ channels in the electroreceptor of the skate confirmed by cloning. Details of subunits and splicing.

    PubMed

    King, Benjamin L; Shi, Ling Fang; Kao, Peter; Clusin, William T

    2016-03-01

    Elasmobranchs detect small potentials using excitable cells of the ampulla of Lorenzini which have calcium-activated K(+) channels, first described in 1974. A distinctive feature of the outward current in voltage clamped ampullae is its apparent insensitivity to voltage. The sequence of a BK channel α isoform expressed in the ampulla of the skate was characterized. A signal peptide is present at the beginning of the gene. When compared to human isoform 1 (the canonical sequence), the largest difference was absence of a 59 amino acid region from the S8-S9 intra-cellular linker that contains the strex regulatory domain. The ampulla isoform was also compared with the isoform predicted in late skate embryos where strex was also absent. The BK voltage sensors were conserved in both skate isoforms. Differences between the skate and human BK channel included alternative splicing. Alternative splicing occurs at seven previously defined sites that are characteristic for BK channels in general and hair cells in particular. Skate BK sequences were highly similar to the Australian ghost shark and several other vertebrate species. Based on alignment of known BK sequences with the skate genome and transcriptome, there are at least two isoforms of Kcnma1α expressed in the skate. One of the β subunits (β4), which is known to decrease voltage sensitivity, was also identified in the skate genome and transcriptome and in the ampulla. These studies advance our knowledge of BK channels and suggest further studies in the ampulla and other excitable tissues. PMID:26687710

  13. Hydrogen sulfide-induced itch requires activation of Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue-Long; Tian, Bin; Huang, Ya; Peng, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Li-Hua; Li, Jun-Cheng; Liu, Tong

    2015-01-01

    The contributions of gasotransmitters to itch sensation are largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the roles of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a ubiquitous gasotransmitter, in itch signaling. We found that intradermal injection of H2S donors NaHS or Na2S, but not GYY4137 (a slow-releasing H2S donor), dose-dependently induced scratching behavior in a μ-opioid receptor-dependent and histamine-independent manner in mice. Interestingly, NaHS induced itch via unique mechanisms that involved capsaicin-insensitive A-fibers, but not TRPV1-expressing C-fibers that are traditionally considered for mediating itch, revealed by depletion of TRPV1-expressing C-fibers by systemic resiniferatoxin treatment. Moreover, local application of capsaizapine (TRPV1 blocker) or HC-030031 (TRPA1 blocker) had no effects on NaHS-evoked scratching. Strikingly, pharmacological blockade and silencing of Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel by mibefradil, ascorbic acid, zinc chloride or Cav3.2 siRNA dramatically decreased NaHS-evoked scratching. NaHS induced robust alloknesis (touch-evoked itch), which was inhibited by T-type calcium channels blocker mibefradil. Compound 48/80-induced itch was enhanced by an endogenous precursor of H2S (L-cysteine) but attenuated by inhibitors of H2S-producing enzymes cystathionine γ-lyase and cystathionine β-synthase. These results indicated that H2S, as a novel nonhistaminergic itch mediator, may activates Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel, probably located at A-fibers, to induce scratching and alloknesis in mice. PMID:26602811

  14. Cilnidipine suppresses podocyte injury and proteinuria in metabolic syndrome rats: possible involvement of N-type calcium channel in podocyte

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yu-Yan; Kohno, Masakazu; Nakano, Daisuke; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Kobori, Hiroyuki; Diah, Suwarni; Ohashi, Naro; Hitomi, Hirofumi; Asanuma, Katsuhiko; Noma, Takahisa; Tomino, Yasuhiko; Fujita, Toshiro; Nishiyama, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Clinical studies have indicated the beneficial effect of an L/N-type calcium channel blocker (CCB), cilnidipine, on the progression of proteinuria in hypertensive patients compared with an L-type CCB, amlodipine. In the present study, we examined the effects of cilnidipine and amlodipine on the renal injury in spontaneously hypertensive rat/ND mcr-cp (SHR/ND) and their underlying mechanism. Methods and results SHR/ND were treated with vehicle (n = 10), cilnidipine [33 mg/kg per day, orally (p.o.); n = 11] or amlodipine (20 mg/kg per day, p.o.; n = 9) for 20 weeks. SHR/ND developed proteinuria in an age-dependent manner. Cilnidipine suppressed the proteinuria greater than amlodipine did. The immunohistochemical analysis showed that N-type calcium channel and Wilm’s tumor factor, a marker of podocyte, were co-expressed. SHR/ND had significantly greater desmin staining, an indicator of podocyte injury, with lower podocin and nephrin expression in the glomeruli than Wistar–Kyoto rat or SHR. Cilnidipine significantly prevented the increase in desmin staining and restored the glomerular podocin and nephrin expression compared with amlodipine. Cilnidipine also prevented the increase in renal angiotensin II content, the expression and membrane translocation of NADPH oxidase subunits and dihydroethidium staining in SHR/ND. In contrast, amlodipine failed to change these renal parameters. Conclusion These data suggest that cilnidipine suppressed the development of proteinuria greater than amlodipine possibly through inhibiting N-type calcium channel-dependent podocyte injury in SHR/ND. PMID:20411599

  15. Hydrogen sulfide-induced itch requires activation of Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Long; Tian, Bin; Huang, Ya; Peng, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Li-Hua; Li, Jun-Cheng; Liu, Tong

    2015-01-01

    The contributions of gasotransmitters to itch sensation are largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate the roles of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a ubiquitous gasotransmitter, in itch signaling. We found that intradermal injection of H2S donors NaHS or Na2S, but not GYY4137 (a slow-releasing H2S donor), dose-dependently induced scratching behavior in a μ-opioid receptor-dependent and histamine-independent manner in mice. Interestingly, NaHS induced itch via unique mechanisms that involved capsaicin-insensitive A-fibers, but not TRPV1-expressing C-fibers that are traditionally considered for mediating itch, revealed by depletion of TRPV1-expressing C-fibers by systemic resiniferatoxin treatment. Moreover, local application of capsaizapine (TRPV1 blocker) or HC-030031 (TRPA1 blocker) had no effects on NaHS-evoked scratching. Strikingly, pharmacological blockade and silencing of Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel by mibefradil, ascorbic acid, zinc chloride or Cav3.2 siRNA dramatically decreased NaHS-evoked scratching. NaHS induced robust alloknesis (touch-evoked itch), which was inhibited by T-type calcium channels blocker mibefradil. Compound 48/80-induced itch was enhanced by an endogenous precursor of H2S (L-cysteine) but attenuated by inhibitors of H2S-producing enzymes cystathionine γ-lyase and cystathionine β-synthase. These results indicated that H2S, as a novel nonhistaminergic itch mediator, may activates Cav3.2 T-type calcium channel, probably located at A-fibers, to induce scratching and alloknesis in mice. PMID:26602811

  16. Magnesium Sensitizes Slow Vacuolar Channels to Physiological Cytosolic Calcium and Inhibits Fast Vacuolar Channels in Fava Bean Guard Cell Vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Pei; Ward; Schroeder

    1999-11-01

    Vacuolar ion channels in guard cells play important roles during stomatal movement and are regulated by many factors including Ca(2+), calmodulin, protein kinases, and phosphatases. We report that physiological cytosolic and luminal Mg(2+) levels strongly regulate vacuolar ion channels in fava bean (Vicia faba) guard cells. Luminal Mg(2+) inhibited fast vacuolar (FV) currents with a K(i) of approximately 0.23 mM in a voltage-dependent manner at positive potentials on the cytoplasmic side. Cytosolic Mg(2+) at 1 mM also inhibited FV currents. Furthermore, in the absence of cytosolic Mg(2+), cytosolic Ca(2+) at less than 10 µM did not activate slow vacuolar (SV) currents. However, when cytosolic Mg(2+) was present, submicromolar concentrations of cytosolic Ca(2+) activated SV currents with a K(d) of approximately 227 nM, suggesting a synergistic Mg(2+)-Ca(2+) effect. The activation potential of SV currents was shifted toward physiological potentials in the presence of cytosolic Mg(2+) concentrations. The direction of SV currents could also be changed from outward to both outward and inward currents. Our data predict a model for SV channel regulation, including a cytosolic binding site for Ca(2+) with an affinity in the submicromolar range and a cytosolic low-affinity Mg(2+)-Ca(2+) binding site. SV channels are predicted to contain a third binding site on the vacuolar luminal side, which binds Ca(2+) and is inhibitory. In conclusion, cytosolic Mg(2+) sensitizes SV channels to physiological cytosolic Ca(2+) elevations. Furthermore, we propose that cytosolic and vacuolar Mg(2+) concentrations ensure that FV channels do not function as a continuous vacuolar K(+) leak, which would prohibit stomatal opening.

  17. Voltage-gated calcium channels: direct observation of the anomalous mole fraction effect at the single-channel level.

    PubMed Central

    Friel, D D; Tsien, R W

    1989-01-01

    Voltage-gated Ca channels are very efficient pores: even while exhibiting strong ionic selectivity, they are highly permeant to divalent cations. Studies of the mechanism of selectivity and ion permeation have demonstrated that whole-cell Ca channel current in mixtures of Ca and Ba ions can be smaller than with equimolar concentrations of either ion alone. This anomalous mole fraction effect (AMFE) has provided an important impetus for proposed mechanisms of ion selectivity and permeation that invoke multiple ion binding sites. However, recordings of unitary L-type Ca currents did not demonstrate the AMFE [Marban, E. & Yue, D.T. (1988) Biophys. J. 55, 594a (abstr.)], raising doubts about whether it is an expression of ion permeation through open Ca channels. We have made patch-clamp recordings from single L-type Ca channels in PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells. Our results demonstrate a significant AMFE at the single-channel level but also indicate that the AMFE can only be found under restrictive conditions of permeant ion concentration and membrane potential. While the AMFE is clear at 0 mV when permeant ions are present at 10 mM, it is not evident when the divalent cation concentration is increased to 110 mM or the membrane potential is hyperpolarized to -40 mV. We compared our experimental observations with predictions of a single-file, two-binding-site model of the Ca channel. The model accounts for our experimental results. It predicts an AMFE under conditions that favor ion-ion interactions, as long as the outer binding site is not saturated due to high permeant ion concentration or negative membrane potential. PMID:2544893

  18. Magnesium Sensitizes Slow Vacuolar Channels to Physiological Cytosolic Calcium and Inhibits Fast Vacuolar Channels in Fava Bean Guard Cell Vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Pei; Ward; Schroeder

    1999-11-01

    Vacuolar ion channels in guard cells play important roles during stomatal movement and are regulated by many factors including Ca(2+), calmodulin, protein kinases, and phosphatases. We report that physiological cytosolic and luminal Mg(2+) levels strongly regulate vacuolar ion channels in fava bean (Vicia faba) guard cells. Luminal Mg(2+) inhibited fast vacuolar (FV) currents with a K(i) of approximately 0.23 mM in a voltage-dependent manner at positive potentials on the cytoplasmic side. Cytosolic Mg(2+) at 1 mM also inhibited FV currents. Furthermore, in the absence of cytosolic Mg(2+), cytosolic Ca(2+) at less than 10 µM did not activate slow vacuolar (SV) currents. However, when cytosolic Mg(2+) was present, submicromolar concentrations of cytosolic Ca(2+) activated SV currents with a K(d) of approximately 227 nM, suggesting a synergistic Mg(2+)-Ca(2+) effect. The activation potential of SV currents was shifted toward physiological potentials in the presence of cytosolic Mg(2+) concentrations. The direction of SV currents could also be changed from outward to both outward and inward currents. Our data predict a model for SV channel regulation, including a cytosolic binding site for Ca(2+) with an affinity in the submicromolar range and a cytosolic low-affinity Mg(2+)-Ca(2+) binding site. SV channels are predicted to contain a third binding site on the vacuolar luminal side, which binds Ca(2+) and is inhibitory. In conclusion, cytosolic Mg(2+) sensitizes SV channels to physiological cytosolic Ca(2+) elevations. Furthermore, we propose that cytosolic and vacuolar Mg(2+) concentrations ensure that FV channels do not function as a continuous vacuolar K(+) leak, which would prohibit stomatal opening. PMID:10557247

  19. Successful reduction of off-target hERG toxicity by structural modification of a T-type calcium channel blocker.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeon Jae; Seo, Jae Hong; Shin, Kye Jung

    2014-02-01

    To obtain an optimized T-type calcium channel blocker with reduced off-target hERG toxicity, we modified the structure of the original compound by introducing a zwitterion and reducing the basicity of the nitrogen. Among the structurally modified compounds we designed, compounds 5 and 6, which incorporate amides in place of the original compound's amines, most appreciably alleviated hERG toxicity while maintaining T-type calcium channel blocking activity. Notably, the benzimidazole amide 5 selectively blocked T-type calcium channels without inhibiting hERG (hERG/T-type⩾220) and L-type channels (L-type/T-type=96), and exhibited an excellent pharmacokinetic profile in rats.

  20. Amazing T-type calcium channels: updating functional properties in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Nilius, Bernd; Carbone, Emilio

    2014-04-01

    T-type Ca(2+) channels have gained, 15 years after cloning, an immense interest as novel players in very unexpected cell functions, and its many relations to diseases have been discovered. This special issue provides a state-of-the-art overview on novel functional properties of T-type Ca(2+) channels, unexpected cellular functions, and most importantly will also summarizes and review the involvement of this "tiny, transient" type of Ca(2+) channels in several diseases. It is tried to bridge the gap between molecular biophysical properties of T-type Ca(2+) channels and diseases providing finally a translational view on this amazing ion channel. PMID:24563221

  1. Honeycomb chain-channel (HCC) signature in the calcium-induced Si(111)-(3 × 2) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallus, O.; Pillo, Th.; Starowicz, P.; Baer, Y.

    2002-12-01

    The electronic and structural properties of a calcium-induced chain system on Si(111) have been studied. Low-energy electron diffraction measurements clearly reveal a (3 × 2) periodicity and the Ca coverage is determined to be 1/6 monolayer. Angle-resolved photoemission measurements have been performed with two different light polarizations in order to study the symmetries of the surface states. In both polarizations no band crossing the Fermi level EF is found. The three detected surface state bands are in good agreement with theoretical calculations in the honeycomb chain-channel (HCC) model for an insulating case.

  2. Store-Operated Calcium Entry in Müller Glia Is Controlled by Synergistic Activation of TRPC and Orai Channels

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, Tünde; Yarishkin, Oleg; Iuso, Anthony; Barabas, Peter; Jones, Bryan; Marc, Robert E.; Phuong, Tam T.T.

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is at the epicenter of astrocyte Ca2+ signaling. We sought to identify the molecular mechanism underlying store-operated calcium entry that replenishes ER stores in mouse Müller cells. Store depletion, induced through blockade of sequestration transporters in Ca2+-free saline, induced synergistic activation of canonical transient receptor potential 1 (TRPC1) and Orai channels. Store-operated TRPC1 channels were identified by their electrophysiological properties, pharmacological blockers, and ablation of the Trpc1 gene. Ca2+ release-activated currents (ICRAC) were identified by ion permeability, voltage dependence, and sensitivity to selective Orai antagonists Synta66 and GSK7975A. Depletion-evoked calcium influx was initiated at the Müller end-foot and apical process, triggering centrifugal propagation of Ca2+ waves into the cell body. EM analysis of the end-foot compartment showed high-density ER cisternae that shadow retinal ganglion cell (RGC) somata and axons, protoplasmic astrocytes, vascular endothelial cells, and ER–mitochondrial contacts at the vitreal surface of the end-foot. The mouse retina expresses transcripts encoding both Stim and all known Orai genes; Müller glia predominantly express stromal interacting molecule 1 (STIM1), whereas STIM2 is mainly confined to the outer plexiform and RGC layers. Elimination of TRPC1 facilitated Müller gliosis induced by the elevation of intraocular pressure, suggesting that TRPC channels might play a neuroprotective role during mechanical stress. By characterizing the properties of store-operated signaling pathways in Müller cells, these studies expand the current knowledge about the functional roles these cells play in retinal physiology and pathology while also providing further evidence for the complexity of calcium signaling mechanisms in CNS astroglia. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Store-operated Ca2+ signaling represents a major signaling pathway and source of cytosolic Ca2+ in

  3. Different contributions of calcium channel subtypes to electrical excitability of chromaffin cells in rat adrenal slices.

    PubMed

    Albiñana, Elisa; Segura-Chama, Pedro; Baraibar, Andres M; Hernández-Cruz, Arturo; Hernández-Guijo, Jesus M

    2015-05-01

    We characterized the ionic currents underlying the cellular excitability and the Ca(2+) -channel subtypes involved in action potential (AP) firing of rat adrenal chromaffin cells (RCCs) preserved in their natural environment, the adrenal gland slices, through the perforated patch-clamp recording technique. RCCs prepared from adrenal slices exhibit a resting potential of -54 mV, firing spontaneous APs (2-3 spikes/s) generated by the opening of Na(+) and Ca(2+) -channels, and terminated by the activation of voltage and Ca(2+) -activated K(+) -channels (BK). Ca(2+) influx via L-type Ca(2+) -channels is involved in reaching threshold potential for AP firing, and is responsible for activation of BK-channels contributing to AP-repolarization and afterhyperpolarization, whereas P/Q-type Ca(2+) -channels are involved only in the repolarization phase. BK-channels carry total outward current during AP-repolarization. Blockade of L-type Ca(2+) -channels reduces BK-current ~60%, whereas blockade of N- or P/Q-type produces little effect. This study demonstrates that Ca(2+) influx through L-type Ca(2+) -channels plays a key role in modulating the threshold potential from RCCs in situ. This study demonstrates that Ca(2+) influx through L-type Ca(2+) channels plays a key role in modulating the threshold potential for action potential firing and activating BK channels contributing to repolarization and afterhyperpolarization from rat adrenal chromaffin cells in situ.

  4. Role of Calcium-activated Potassium Channels in Atrial Fibrillation Pathophysiology and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Diness, Jonas G; Bentzen, Bo H; Sørensen, Ulrik S; Grunnet, Morten

    2015-11-01

    Small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (SK) channels are relative newcomers within the field of cardiac electrophysiology. In recent years, an increased focus has been given to these channels because they might constitute a relatively atrial-selective target. This review will give a general introduction to SK channels followed by their proposed function in the heart under normal and pathophysiological conditions. It is revealed how antiarrhythmic effects can be obtained by SK channel inhibition in a number of species in situations of atrial fibrillation. On the contrary, the beneficial effects of SK channel inhibition in situations of heart failure are questionable and still needs investigation. The understanding of cardiac SK channels is rapidly increasing these years, and it is hoped that this will clarify whether SK channel inhibition has potential as a new anti-atrial fibrillation principle. PMID:25830485

  5. Role of Calcium-activated Potassium Channels in Atrial Fibrillation Pathophysiology and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Diness, Jonas G; Bentzen, Bo H; Sørensen, Ulrik S; Grunnet, Morten

    2015-11-01

    Small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (SK) channels are relative newcomers within the field of cardiac electrophysiology. In recent years, an increased focus has been given to these channels because they might constitute a relatively atrial-selective target. This review will give a general introduction to SK channels followed by their proposed function in the heart under normal and pathophysiological conditions. It is revealed how antiarrhythmic effects can be obtained by SK channel inhibition in a number of species in situations of atrial fibrillation. On the contrary, the beneficial effects of SK channel inhibition in situations of heart failure are questionable and still needs investigation. The understanding of cardiac SK channels is rapidly increasing these years, and it is hoped that this will clarify whether SK channel inhibition has potential as a new anti-atrial fibrillation principle.

  6. Computational modeling of anoctamin 1 calcium-activated chloride channels as pacemaker channels in interstitial cells of Cajal.

    PubMed

    Lees-Green, Rachel; Gibbons, Simon J; Farrugia, Gianrico; Sneyd, James; Cheng, Leo K

    2014-04-15

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) act as pacemaker cells in the gastrointestinal tract by generating electrical slow waves to regulate rhythmic smooth muscle contractions. Intrinsic Ca(2+) oscillations in ICC appear to produce the slow waves by activating pacemaker currents, currently thought to be carried by the Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channel anoctamin 1 (Ano1). In this article we present a novel model of small intestinal ICC pacemaker activity that incorporates store-operated Ca(2+) entry and a new model of Ano1 current. A series of simulations were carried out with the ICC model to investigate current controversies about the reversal potential of the Ano1 Cl(-) current in ICC and to predict the characteristics of the other ion channels that are necessary to generate slow waves. The model results show that Ano1 is a plausible pacemaker channel when coupled to a store-operated Ca(2+) channel but suggest that small cyclical depolarizations may still occur in ICC in Ano1 knockout mice. The results predict that voltage-dependent Ca(2+) current is likely to be negligible during the slow wave plateau phase. The model shows that the Cl(-) equilibrium potential is an important modulator of slow wave morphology, highlighting the need for a better understanding of Cl(-) dynamics in ICC.

  7. Phenotypical manifestations of mutations in the genes encoding subunits of the cardiac voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel

    PubMed Central

    Napolitano, Carlo; Antzelevitch, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The L-type Cardiac Calcium Channel (LTCC) plays a prominent role in the electrical and mechanical function of the heart. Mutations in the LTCC have been associated with a number of inherited cardiac arrhythmia syndromes, including Timothy, Brugada and Early Repolarization syndromes. Elucidation of the genetic defects associated with these syndromes has led to a better understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms and the development of novel therapeutic approaches to dealing with the arrhythmic manifestations. This review provides an overview of the molecular structure and function of the LTCC, the genetic defects in these channels known to contribute to inherited disorders and the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms contributing to the development of life-threatening arrhythmias. PMID:21372292

  8. Activation of TRPV2 and BKCa channels by the LL-37 enantiomers stimulates calcium entry and migration of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Guéguinou, Maxime; Chourpa, Igor; Fromont, Gaëlle; Bouchet, Ana Maria; Burlaud-Gaillard, Julien; Potier-Cartereau, Marie; Roger, Sébastien; Aucagne, Vincent; Chevalier, Stéphan; Vandier, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Expression of the antimicrobial peptide hCAP18/LL-37 is associated to malignancy in various cancer forms, stimulating cell migration and metastasis. We report that LL-37 induces migration of three cancer cell lines by activating the TRPV2 calcium-permeable channel and recruiting it to pseudopodia through activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Ca2+ entry through TRPV2 cooperated with a K+ efflux through the BKCa channel. In a panel of human breast tumors, the expression of TRPV2 and LL-37 was found to be positively correlated. The D-enantiomer of LL-37 showed identical effects as the L-peptide, suggesting that no binding to a specific receptor was involved. LL-37 attached to caveolae and pseudopodia membranes and decreased membrane fluidity, suggesting that a modification of the physical properties of the lipid membrane bilayer was the underlying mechanism of its effects. PMID:26993604

  9. Protein kinase A modulation of CaV1.4 calcium channels

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Lingjie; Dick, Ivy E.; Yue, David T.

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of L-type Ca2+ channels by protein kinase A (PKA) represents a crucial element within cardiac, skeletal muscle and neurological systems. Although much work has been done to understand this regulation in cardiac CaV1.2 Ca2+ channels, relatively little is known about the closely related CaV1.4 L-type Ca2+ channels, which feature prominently in the visual system. Here we find that CaV1.4 channels are indeed modulated by PKA phosphorylation within the inhibitor of Ca2+-dependent inactivation (ICDI) motif. Phosphorylation of this region promotes the occupancy of calmodulin on the channel, thus increasing channel open probability (PO) and Ca2+-dependent inactivation. Although this interaction seems specific to CaV1.4 channels, introduction of ICDI1.4 to CaV1.3 or CaV1.2 channels endows these channels with a form of PKA modulation, previously unobserved in heterologous systems. Thus, this mechanism may not only play an important role in the visual system but may be generalizable across the L-type channel family. PMID:27456671

  10. Protein kinase A modulation of CaV1.4 calcium channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Lingjie; Dick, Ivy E.; Yue, David T.

    2016-07-01

    The regulation of L-type Ca2+ channels by protein kinase A (PKA) represents a crucial element within cardiac, skeletal muscle and neurological systems. Although much work has been done to understand this regulation in cardiac CaV1.2 Ca2+ channels, relatively little is known about the closely related CaV1.4 L-type Ca2+ channels, which feature prominently in the visual system. Here we find that CaV1.4 channels are indeed modulated by PKA phosphorylation within the inhibitor of Ca2+-dependent inactivation (ICDI) motif. Phosphorylation of this region promotes the occupancy of calmodulin on the channel, thus increasing channel open probability (PO) and Ca2+-dependent inactivation. Although this interaction seems specific to CaV1.4 channels, introduction of ICDI1.4 to CaV1.3 or CaV1.2 channels endows these channels with a form of PKA modulation, previously unobserved in heterologous systems. Thus, this mechanism may not only play an important role in the visual system but may be generalizable across the L-type channel family.

  11. Identification and differential subcellular localization of the neuronal class C and class D L-type calcium channel alpha 1 subunits

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    To identify and localize the protein products of genes encoding distinct L-type calcium channels in central neurons, anti-peptide antibodies specific for the class C and class D alpha 1 subunits were produced. Anti-CNC1 directed against class C immunoprecipitated 75% of the L-type channels solubilized from rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Anti-CND1 directed against class D immunoprecipitated only 20% of the L-type calcium channels. Immunoblotting revealed two size forms of the class C L-type alpha 1 subunit, LC1 and LC2, and two size forms of the class D L-type alpha 1 subunit, LD1 and LD2. The larger isoforms had apparent molecular masses of approximately 200-210 kD while the smaller isoforms were 180-190 kD, as estimated from electrophoresis in gels polymerized from 5% acrylamide. Immunocytochemical studies using CNC1 and CND1 antibodies revealed that the alpha 1 subunits of both L-type calcium channel subtypes are localized mainly in neuronal cell bodies and proximal dendrites. Relatively dense labeling was observed at the base of major dendrites in many neurons. Staining in more distal dendritic regions was faint or undetectable with CND1, while a more significant level of staining of distal dendrites was observed with CNC1, particularly in the dentate gyrus and the CA2 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus. Class C calcium channels were concentrated in clusters, while class D calcium channels were generally distributed in the cell surface membrane of cell bodies and proximal dendrites. Our results demonstrate multiple size forms and differential localization of two subtypes of L-type calcium channels in the cell bodies and proximal dendrites of central neurons. The differential localization and multiple size forms may allow these two channel subtypes to participate in distinct aspects of electrical signal integration and intracellular calcium signaling in neuronal cell bodies. The preferential localization of these calcium channels in cell bodies and proximal

  12. Single Nisoldipine-Sensitive Calcium Channels in Smooth Muscle Cells Isolated from Rabbit Mesenteric Artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worley, Jennings F.; Deitmer, Joachim W.; Nelson, Mark T.

    1986-08-01

    Single smooth muscle cells were enzymatically isolated from the rabbit mesenteric artery. At physiological levels of external Ca, these cells were relaxed and contracted on exposure to norepinephrine, caffeine, or high levels of potassium. The patch-clamp technique was used to measure unitary currents through single channels in the isolated cells. Single channels were selective for divalent cations and exhibited two conductance levels, 8 pS and 15 pS. Both types of channels were voltage-dependent, and channel activity occurred at potentials positive to -40 mV. The activity of both channel types was almost completely inhibited by 50 nM nisoldipine. These channels appear to be the pathways for voltage-dependent Ca influx in vascular smooth muscle and may be the targets of the clinically used dihydropyridines.

  13. Blockade of calcium channels can prevent the onset of secondary hyperalgesia and allodynia induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin in rats.

    PubMed

    Sluka, K A

    1997-06-01

    Intradermal capsaicin injection in humans results in primary hyperalgesia to heat and mechanical stimuli applied near the injection site, as well as secondary mechanical hyperalgesia (increased pain from noxious stimuli) and mechanical allodynia (pain from innocuous stimuli) in an area surrounding the site of primary hyperalgesia. This study in rats tested the hypothesis that the secondary hyperalgesia and allodynia observed following intradermal injection of capsaicin was dependent upon activation of voltage sensitive calcium channels in the spinal cord. Responses to application of von Frey filaments of 10 mN and 90 mN bending forces were tested in all rats before and after injection of capsaicin into the plantar surface of a hindpaw. Animals were pretreated with L-type (nifedipine), N-type (omega-conotoxin GVIA) or P-type (omega-agatoxin IVA) calcium channels blockers through a microdialysis fiber implanted in the spinal dorsal horn prior to the injection of capsaicin. None of the calcium channel blockers had any affect on normal sensory or motor responses. However, all three blockers dose dependently prevented the development of secondary mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia. The threshold to mechanical stimulation with von Frey filaments was also increased significantly in animals treated with these calcium channel blockers when compared to articial cerebrospinal fluid control animals. These data suggest that calcium channels are important for the development of mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia that occurs following capsaicin injection. PMID:9211477

  14. Large conductance, calcium- and voltage-gated potassium (BK) channels: regulation by cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Dopico, Alejandro M.; Bukiya, Anna N.; Singh, Aditya K.

    2012-01-01

    Cholesterol (CLR) is an essential component of eukaryotic plasma membranes. CLR regulates the membrane physical state, microdomain formation and the activity of membrane-spanning proteins, including ion channels. Large conductance, voltage- and Ca2+-gated K+ (BK) channels link membrane potential to cell Ca2+ homeostasis. Thus, they control many physiological processes and participate in pathophysiological mechanisms leading to human disease. Because plasmalemma BK channels cluster in CLR-rich membrane microdomains, a major driving force for studying BK channel-CLR interactions is determining how membrane CLR controls the BK current phenotype, including its pharmacology, channel sorting, distribution, and role in cell physiology. Since both BK channels and CLR tissue levels play a pathophysiological role in human disease, identifying functional and structural aspects of the CLR-BK channel interaction may open new avenues for therapeutic intervention. Here, we review the studies documenting membrane CLR-BK channel interactions, dissecting out the many factors that determine the final BK current response to changes in membrane CLR content. We also summarize work in reductionist systems where recombinant BK protein is studied in artificial lipid bilayers, which documents a direct inhibition of BK channel activity by CLR and builds a strong case for a direct interaction between CLR and the BK channel-forming protein. Bilayer lipid-mediated mechanisms in CLR action are also discussed. Finally, we review studies of BK channel function during hypercholesterolemia, and underscore the many consequences that the CLR-BK channel interaction brings to cell physiology and human disease. PMID:22584144

  15. Arecoline inhibits intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in human glioblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    So, Edmund Cheung; Huang, Yan-Ming; Hsing, Chung-Hsi; Liao, Yu-Kai; Wu, Sheng-Nan

    2015-07-01

    Arecoline (ARE) is an alkaloid-type natural product from areca nut. This compound has numerous pharmacological and toxicological effects. Whether this agent interacts with ion channels to perturb functional activity of cells remains unknown. The effects of ARE on ionic currents were studied in glioma cell lines (U373 and U87MG) using patch-clamp technique. Like TRAM-34(1-[(2-chlorophenyl)-diphenylmethyl]pyrazole), ARE suppressed the amplitude of whole-cell voltage-gated K(+) currents in U373 cells elicited by a ramp voltage clamp. In cell-attached configuration, ARE did not modify the single-channel conductance of intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (IKCa) channels; however, it did reduce channel activity. Its inhibition of IKCa channels was accompanied by a significant lengthening in the slow component of mean closed time of IKCa channels. Based on minimal kinetic scheme, the dissociation constant (KD) required for ARE-mediated prolongation of mean closed time was 11.2µM. ARE-induced inhibition of IKCa channels was voltage-dependent. Inability of ARE to perturb the activity of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BKCa) channels was seen. Under current-clamp recordings, ARE depolarized the membrane of U373 cells and DCEBIO reversed ARE-induced depolarization. Similarly, ARE suppressed IKCa-channel activities in oral keratinocytes. This study provides the evidence that ARE block IKCa channels in a concentration, voltage and state-dependent manner. ARE-induced block of IKCa channels is unrelated to the binding of muscarinic receptors. The effects of ARE on these channels may partially be responsible for the underlying cellular mechanisms by which it influences the functional activities of glioma cells or oral keratinocytes, if similar findings occur in vivo.

  16. Tremorgenic indole alkaloids potently inhibit smooth muscle high-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Knaus, H G; McManus, O B; Lee, S H; Schmalhofer, W A; Garcia-Calvo, M; Helms, L M; Sanchez, M; Giangiacomo, K; Reuben, J P; Smith, A B

    1994-05-17

    Tremorgenic indole alkaloids produce neurological disorders (e.g., staggers syndromes) in ruminants. The mode of action of these fungal mycotoxins is not understood but may be related to their known effects on neurotransmitter release. To determine whether these effects could be due to inhibition of K+ channels, the interaction of various indole diterpenes with high-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ (maxi-K) channels was examined. Paspalitrem A, paspalitrem C, aflatrem, penitrem A, and paspalinine inhibit binding of [125I]charybdotoxin (ChTX) to maxi-K channels in bovine aortic smooth muscle sarcolemmal membranes. In contrast, three structurally related compounds, paxilline, verruculogen, and paspalicine, enhanced toxin binding. As predicted from the binding studies, covalent incorporation of [125I]ChTX into the 31-kDa subunit of the maxi-K channel was blocked by compounds that inhibit [125I]ChTX binding and enhanced by compounds that stimulate [125I]ChTX binding. Modulation of [125I]ChTX binding was due to allosteric mechanisms. Despite their different effects on binding of [125I]ChTX to maxi-K channels, all compounds potently inhibited maxi-K channels in electrophysiological experiments. Other types of voltage-dependent or Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels examined were not affected. Chemical modifications of paxilline indicate a defined structure-activity relationship for channel inhibition. Paspalicine, a deshydroxy analog of paspalinine lacking tremorgenic activity, also potently blocked maxi-K channels. Taken together, these data suggest that indole diterpenes are the most potent nonpeptidyl inhibitors of maxi-K channels identified to date. Some of their pharmacological properties could be explained by inhibition of maxi-K channels, although tremorgenicity may be unrelated to channel block. PMID:7514038

  17. Apo calmodulin binding to the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel Ca{sub v}1.2 IQ peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Lian Luyun . E-mail: lu-yun.lian@liverpool.ac.uk; Myatt, Daniel; Kitmitto, Ashraf . E-mail: ashraf.kitmitto@manchester.ac.uk

    2007-02-16

    The influx of calcium through the L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LTCCs) is the trigger for the process of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) from the sarcoplasmic recticulum, an essential step for cardiac contraction. There are two feedback mechanisms that regulate LTCC activity: calcium-dependent inactivation (CDI) and calcium-dependent facilitation (CDF), both of which are mediated by calmodulin (CaM) binding. The IQ domain (aa 1645-1668) housed within the cytoplasmic domain of the LTCC Ca{sub v}1.2 subunit has been shown to bind both calcium-loaded (Ca{sup 2+}CaM ) and calcium-free CaM (apoCaM). Here, we provide new data for the structural basis for the interaction of apoCaM with the IQ peptide using NMR, revealing that the apoCaM C-lobe residues are most significantly perturbed upon complex formation. In addition, we have employed transmission electron microscopy of purified LTCC complexes which shows that both apoCaM and Ca{sup 2+}CaM can bind to the intact channel.

  18. Spatial localization of calcium channels in giant fiber lobe neurons of the squid (Loligo opalescens).

    PubMed

    McFarlane, M B; Gilly, W F

    1996-05-14

    Whole-cell voltage clamp was used to investigate the properties and spatial distribution of fast-deactivating (FD) Ca channels in squid giant fiber lobe (GFL) neurons. Squid FD Ca channels are reversibly blocked by the spider toxin omega-Agatoxin IVA with an IC50 of 240-420 nM with no effect on the kinetics of Ca channel gating. Channels with very similar properties are expressed in both somatic and axonal domains of cultured GFL neurons, but FD Ca channel conductance density is higher in axonal bulbs than in cell bodies at all times in culture. Channels presumably synthesized during culture are preferentially expressed in the growing bulbs, but bulbar Ca conductance density remains constant while Na conductance density increases, suggesting that processes determining the densities of Ca and Na channels in this extrasomatic domain are largely independent. These observations suggest that growing axonal bulbs in cultured GFL neurons are not composed entirely of "axonal" membranes because FD Ca channels are absent from the giant axon in situ but, rather, suggest a potential role for FD Ca channels in mediating neurotransmitter release at the motor terminals of the giant axon.

  19. Spatial localization of calcium channels in giant fiber lobe neurons of the squid (Loligo opalescens).

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, M B; Gilly, W F

    1996-01-01

    Whole-cell voltage clamp was used to investigate the properties and spatial distribution of fast-deactivating (FD) Ca channels in squid giant fiber lobe (GFL) neurons. Squid FD Ca channels are reversibly blocked by the spider toxin omega-Agatoxin IVA with an IC50 of 240-420 nM with no effect on the kinetics of Ca channel gating. Channels with very similar properties are expressed in both somatic and axonal domains of cultured GFL neurons, but FD Ca channel conductance density is higher in axonal bulbs than in cell bodies at all times in culture. Channels presumably synthesized during culture are preferentially expressed in the growing bulbs, but bulbar Ca conductance density remains constant while Na conductance density increases, suggesting that processes determining the densities of Ca and Na channels in this extrasomatic domain are largely independent. These observations suggest that growing axonal bulbs in cultured GFL neurons are not composed entirely of "axonal" membranes because FD Ca channels are absent from the giant axon in situ but, rather, suggest a potential role for FD Ca channels in mediating neurotransmitter release at the motor terminals of the giant axon. PMID:8643530

  20. Three dimensional neuronal cell cultures more accurately model voltage gated calcium channel functionality in freshly dissected nerve tissue.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yinzhi; Cheng, Ke; Kisaalita, William

    2012-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that neuronal cells cultured on traditional flat surfaces may exhibit exaggerated voltage gated calcium channel (VGCC) functionality. To gain a better understanding of this phenomenon, primary neuronal cells harvested from mice superior cervical ganglion (SCG) were cultured on two dimensional (2D) flat surfaces and in three dimensional (3D) synthetic poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) and polystyrene (PS) polymer scaffolds. These 2D- and 3D-cultured cells were compared to cells in freshly dissected SCG tissues, with respect to intracellular calcium increase in response to high K(+) depolarization. The calcium increases were identical for 3D-cultured and freshly dissected, but significantly higher for 2D-cultured cells. This finding established the physiological relevance of 3D-cultured cells. To shed light on the mechanism behind the exaggerated 2D-cultured cells' functionality, transcriptase expression and related membrane protein distributions (caveolin-1) were obtained. Our results support the view that exaggerated VGCC functionality from 2D cultured SCG cells is possibly due to differences in membrane architecture, characterized by uniquely organized caveolar lipid rafts. The practical implication of use of 3D-cultured cells in preclinical drug discovery studies is that such platforms would be more effective in eliminating false positive hits and as such improve the overall yield from screening campaigns.

  1. Reciprocal Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species and Phospho-CREB Regulates Voltage Gated Calcium Channel Expression during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Selvakumar, Arti; Antony, Cecil; Singhal, Jhalak; Tiwari, Brijendra K.; Singh, Yogendra; Natarajan, Krishnamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Our previous work has demonstrated the roles played by L-type Voltage Gated Calcium Channels (VGCC) in regulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) survival and pathogenesis. Here we decipher mechanisms and pathways engaged by the pathogen to regulate VGCC expression in macrophages. We show that M. tb and its antigen Rv3416 use phospho-CREB (pCREB), Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), Protein Kinase C (PKC) and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) to modulate VGCC expression in macrophages. siRNA mediated knockdown of MyD88, IRAK1, IRAK2 or TRAF6 significantly inhibited antigen mediated VGCC expression. Inhibiting Protein Kinase C (PKC) or MEK-ERK1/2 further increased VGCC expression. Interestingly, inhibiting intracellular calcium release upregulated antigen mediated VGCC expression, while inhibiting extracellular calcium influx had no significant effect. siRNA mediated knockdown of transcription factors c-Jun, SOX5 and CREB significantly inhibited Rv3416 mediated VGCC expression. A dynamic reciprocal cross-regulation between ROS and pCREB was observed that in turn governed VGCC expression with ROS playing a limiting role in the process. Further dissection of the mechanisms such as the interplay between ROS and pCREB would improve our understanding of the regulation of VGCC expression during M. tb infection. PMID:24797940

  2. Are Orai1 and Orai3 channels more important than calcium influx for cell proliferation?

    PubMed

    Borowiec, Anne-Sophie; Bidaux, Gabriel; Tacine, Rachida; Dubar, Pauline; Pigat, Natascha; Delcourt, Philippe; Mignen, Olivier; Capiod, Thierry

    2014-02-01

    Transformed and tumoral cells share the characteristic of being able to proliferate even when external calcium concentration is very low. We have investigated whether Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells, human hepatoma cell Huh-7 and HeLa cells were able to proliferate when kept 72h in complete culture medium without external calcium. Our data showed that cell proliferation rate was similar over a range of external calcium concentration (2μM to 1.8mM). Incubation in the absence of external calcium for 72h had no significant effect on endoplasmic