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  1. Calcium metabolism and correcting calcium deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Emkey, Ronald D; Emkey, Gregory R

    2012-09-01

    Calcium is the most abundant cation in the human body, of which approximately 99% occurs in bone, contributing to its rigidity and strength. Bone also functions as a reservoir of Ca for its role in multiple physiologic and biochemical processes. This article aims to provide a thorough understanding of the absorptive mechanisms and factors affecting these processes to enable one to better appreciate an individual's Ca needs, and to provide a rationale for correcting Ca deficiencies. An overview of Ca requirements and suggested dosing regimens is presented, with discussion of various Ca preparations and potential toxicities of Ca treatment.

  2. Calcium deficiency cannot induce obesity in rats.

    PubMed

    Paradis, S; Cabanac, M

    2005-06-30

    If intake of a required nutrient--here calcium--affects body weight, the effect must be mediated by a change in the body weight set-point. Thus, the controversial 'anti-obesity' influence of high calcium intake should decrease the body weight set-point. Diets differing in calcium content were assigned to three groups of rats. The effects of the diets on body weight, BMI, fat content, plasma calcium, body weight set-point, food intake, and preference for various calcium solutions were measured after 6 weeks of calcium deprivation or supplementation, and again after a further 6 weeks of recovery on a regular diet. After 6 weeks, the low-calcium diet had induced calcium deficiency but had failed to raise the body weight set-point. Nor had it produced obesity or fat accumulation. After 6 weeks of recovery, body weight and fat content were no higher in calcium-deprived rats than in the control or supplemented rats. In this experiment, low-calcium intake failed to cause obesity and did not raise the body weight set-point. The results indicate that calcium intake probably does not affect body weight.

  3. The bioavailability of calcium in spinach and calcium-oxalate to calcium-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Kikunaga, S; Arimori, M; Takahashi, M

    1988-04-01

    We estimated the utilization of calcium in spinach and calcium-oxalate to calcium-deficient rats, and the effect of oxalic acid on absorption of dietary calcium by using calcium-deficient rats. The body weight gain of the calcium-deficient rats for 8 days receiving a calcium-deficient diet supplemented with raw-powdered spinach (R-sp), boiled-powdered spinach (B-sp), or calcium-oxalate (Ca-ox), and a control diet supplemented with oxalic acid (OX-C) were 4.8, 2.8, 4.9, and 5.1 g, respectively. The calcium content in the liver and kidney of the rats receiving R-sp, B-sp, Ca-ox, and OX-C diets significantly increased as compared with the calcium-deficient rats. Significant differences in the liver calcium levels were not observed among the rats receiving various additional diets, though the content in the kidneys of the rats receiving R-sp, B-sp, Ca-ox, and OX-C diets were 28.0, 21.5, 0.11, and 0.59 mg, respectively. An especially large amount of calcium was accumulated in the kidneys of the rats receiving R-sp and B-sp diets. The calcium concentration in the serum of the rats receiving Ca-ox and OX-C diets was higher than the calcium concentration in the serum of the R-sp, B-sp, and calcium-deficient rats. The calcium content in the left tibiae of the rats receiving Ca-ox and OX-C diets was higher than that of the rats receiving R-sp and B-sp diets. The breaking force of the right tibiae of the rats was highest in the OX-C group, and higher in the R-sp and Ca-ox groups than the breaking force of the right tibiae of the rats fed on B-sp diet. The alkaline phosphatase activity in the small intestines of the rats rose in the order of the R-sp, B-sp, and Ca-ox groups, although significant differences of the activity were not observed between the Ca-ox and the OX-C groups. The calcium retention of the rats receiving the calcium-deficient, R-sp, B-sp, Ca-ox, and OX-C diets was -18.5, 35.2, 25.6, 41.6, and 45.8%, respectively. About 35% of the calcium in the spinach was

  4. Potassium, magnesium, and calcium deficiency symptoms

    Treesearch

    Edward I. Sucoff

    1961-01-01

    A loblolly pine or Virginia pine tree that shows visible symptoms of nutrient deficiency is sick. This means that the life processes of the tree are malfunctioning and that, among other things, the growth rate is probably less than normal, and the life of the tree may be threatened. However, if the deficiency can be identified, treatment with the proper fertilizer may...

  5. Genetic contribution to iron status: SNPs related to iron deficiency anaemia and fine mapping of CACNA2D3 calcium channel subunit.

    PubMed

    Baeza-Richer, Carlos; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Toxqui, Laura; Remacha, Angel; Vaquero, M Pilar; López-Parra, Ana M

    2015-12-01

    Numerous studies associate genetic markers with iron- and erythrocyte-related parameters, but few relate them to iron-clinical phenotypes. Novel SNP rs1375515, located in a subunit of the calcium channel gene CACNA2D3, is associated with a higher risk of anaemia. The aim of this study is to further investigate the association of this SNP with iron-related parameters and iron-clinical phenotypes, and to explore the potential role of calcium channel subunit region in iron regulation. Furthermore, we aim to replicate the association of other SNPs reported previously in our population. We tested 45 SNPs selected via systematic review and fine mapping of CACNA2D3 region, with haematological and biochemical traits in 358 women of reproductive age. Multivariate analyses include back-step logistic regression and decision trees. The results replicate the association of SNPs with iron-related traits, and also confirm the protective effect of both A allele of rs1800562 (HFE) and G allele of rs4895441 (HBS1L-MYB). The risk of developing anaemia is increased in reproductive age women carriers of A allele of rs1868505 (CACNA2D3) and/or T allele of rs13194491 (HIST1H2BJ). Association of SNPs from fine mapping with ferritin and serum iron suggests that calcium channels could be a potential pathway for iron uptake in physiological conditions.

  6. Calcium Deficiency Reduces Circulating Levels of FGF23

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Ortiz, María E.; Lopez, Ignacio; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R.; Martinez-Moreno, Julio M.; Ramírez, Alan Peralta; Pineda, Carmen; Canalejo, Antonio; Jaeger, Philippe; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolastico; Felsenfeld, Arnold; Almaden, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 inhibits calcitriol production, which could exacerbate calcium deficiency or hypocalcemia unless calcium itself modulates FGF23 in this setting. In Wistar rats with normal renal function fed a diet low in both calcium and vitamin D, the resulting hypocalcemia was associated with low FGF23 despite high parathyroid hormone (PTH) and high calcitriol levels. FGF23 correlated positively with calcium and negatively with PTH. Addition of high dietary phosphorus to this diet increased FGF23 except in rats with hypocalcemia despite high PTH levels. In parathyroidectomized rats, an increase in dietary calcium for 10 days increased serum calcium, with an associated increase in FGF23, decrease in calcitriol, and no change in phosphorus. Also in parathyroidectomized rats, FGF23 increased significantly 6 hours after administration of calcium gluconate. Taken together, these results suggest that hypocalcemia reduces the circulating concentrations of FGF23. This decrease in FGF23 could be a response to avoid a subsequent reduction in calcitriol, which could exacerbate hypocalcemia. PMID:22581996

  7. On the composition and atomic arrangement of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite: An ab-initio analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zahn, Dirk Hochrein, Oliver

    2008-08-15

    A systematic study of defect constellations in calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite is reported. Along this line, we explore different arrangements for charge compensation, including cationic vacancies and substitutional defects. The overall defect constellation is governed by both the different proton affinity of the anions or energy costs related to vacancy formation and minimization of the Coulomb energy which implies small distances of the anionic and cationic defects. Depending on the type of the calcium-deficient site, this gives rise to two specific defect arrangements. Among these, the calcium ions forming triangles which embed the OH{sup -} ions of hydroxyapatite are most likely to be deficient. The resulting charge is compensated by protonation of the OH{sup -} ion within the deficient calcium-triangle and protonation of a PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} ion in the nearest neighbourhood of the vacant calcium site. The strong energetic favouring of such constellations indicates that the commonly used chemical formulae Ca{sub 10-x}(HPO{sub 4}){sub x}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6-x}(OH){sub 2-x}(H{sub 2}O){sub x} (0calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite. - Graphical abstract: Preferred constellation of a Ca vacancy in hydroxyapatite, accompanied by a H{sub 2}O defect and a HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} defect adjacent to the deficient Ca site. The preferential defect arrangement reflects a compromise of local charge compensation, different proton affinities of the anions and hydrogen bonding.

  8. Influences of calcium deficiency and cerium on growth of spinach plants.

    PubMed

    Chao, Liu; Bofu, Pan; Weiqian, Cao; Yun, Lu; Hao, Huang; Liang, Chen; Xiaoqing, Liu; Xiao, Wu; Fashui, Hong

    2008-03-01

    The main aim of the study was to determine the role of cerium in the amelioration of calcium-deficiency effects in spinach plants. Spinach plants were cultivated in Hoagland's solution. They were subjected to calcium-deficiency and to cerium chloride administered in the calcium-present Hoagland's media and calcium-deficient Hoagland's media. Within 3 weeks, young leaves developed distinct calcium-deficient symptoms, and plant growth significantly inhibited to calcium deprivation as would be expected; cerium-treated groups grown in the same conditions did not develop calcium-deficient symptoms; fresh weight, dry weight and chlorophyll content of spinach plants were increased by 35.9, 45 and 64.05% compared to those of plants cultivated in calcium-deficient media. In addition, calcium deprivation in spinach plants caused the reduction of photosynthetic rate, oxygen evolution rate and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity. The reduction of activities of nitrate reductase, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamate synthase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase was observed under calcium-deficient media. However, cerium treatment under calcium-deficient media could significantly improve photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism of spinach plants. This is viewed as evidence that cerium added to calcium-deficient media in the spinach plants could substitute for calcium and improve spinach growth.

  9. Marked increase of calcium uptake in the ATP-depleted red cells of patients with iron deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Shimoda, M.; Yawata, Y.

    1985-05-01

    Calcium (Ca) uptake was markedly increased in ATP-depleted red cells of patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) compared to ATP- depleted normal red cells. The extent of increased Ca uptake was related to the severity of iron deficiency as judged by decreased mean cell volume. Moreover, the increased Ca uptake returned to normal levels after oral iron supplementation therapy. The net calcium content of fresh red cells from iron-deficient individuals was the same as in red cells from normal subjects. Sodium influx and ferric ion uptake appeared to be virtually unaffected in the iron deficient red cells.

  10. Dietary Calcium and Framingham Risk Score in Vitamin D Deficient Male (KNHANES 2009-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung-Jin; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Park, Soo-Jung; Choi, Beomhee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The association between excess calcium intake and cardiovascular mortality has already been reported. In the present study, we investigated the relation between dietary calcium intake and Framingham Risk Score (FRS) according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status. Materials and Methods A total of 7809 subjects (3452 males and 4357 female) aged over 40 years were selected for this cross-sectional study from data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011). Daily dietary calcium intake was categorized into <300, 300-600, 600-900, 900-1200, and >1200 mg/day and serum 25(OH)D concentration classified into <50, 50-75, >75 mmol/L. The FRS was compared by the daily dietary calcium intake categories according to 25(OH)D concentration after adjustment with relevant variables in both genders. Results Higher FRS was observed in males with both <300 mg and >1200 mg of dietary calcium intake and females with <300 mg of dietary calcium intake without adjustment. The significantly higher FRS remained in the <300 mg and >1200 mg of dietary calcium intake groups in both genders after adjustments for relevant variables. FRS was significantly higher in the group with >1200 mg of dietary calcium intake and serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L, which was the male only vitamin D deficient group. Conclusion Very low (<300 mg/day) and excess (>1200 mg/day) dietary calcium intake were related with higher FRS in both genders. In particular, higher FRS was observed in the excess (>1200 mg/day) dietary calcium intake male group under vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L). PMID:25837195

  11. [Calcium deficiency: a problem in growing and adult dogs: two case reports].

    PubMed

    Becker, N; Kienzle, E; Dobenecker, B

    2012-04-24

    Two case reports demonstrate the consequences of a deficient calcium supply in dogs. The first case describes an adult dog with a history of food allergy. The dog had been fed with an unbalanced elimination diet (no minerals and vitamins supplemented) over many years and was referred with the diagnosis of osteomalacia (rubber jaw) for optimization of his ration. The second case refers to a puppy which was fed a homemade diet without supplementing the missing minerals and vitamins and suffered a femur fracture after moderate physical impact. In both cases, the computer-aided ration calculation showed a suboptimal to severely deficient supply for several minerals and vitamins, in particular calcium whereas serum calcium levels were normal. Both dogs recovered after being fed a complete and balanced diet. In conclusion, a survey of the feeding using ration calculation is essential especially in the case of potential nutrition-related skeletal disorders. Serum calcium levels cannot be used as a tool to diagnose nutritional calcium deficiency.

  12. Use of reflectance spectroscopy for early detection of calcium deficiency in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bingqing; Wah, Liew Oi; Asundi, Anand K.

    2005-04-01

    This article investigates calcium deficiency symptoms of the plants grown under hydroponics conditions. Leaf reflectance data were collected from plants, and then transformed to L*, a*, b* values, which provide color information of the leaves. After comparing the color information of deficient plants to control plants, a set of deficiency criterion was established for early detection of calcium deficiency in the plants. Calcium deficiency could be detected as early as two days from the onset of stress in mature plants when optical data were collected from terminal young leaves. Young plants subjected to calcium stress for 9 days could not be distinguished from nutrient sufficient plants.

  13. Calcium-deficiency assessment and biomarker identification by an integrated urinary metabonomics analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Calcium deficiency is a global public-health problem. Although the initial stage of calcium deficiency can lead to metabolic alterations or potential pathological changes, calcium deficiency is difficult to diagnose accurately. Moreover, the details of the molecular mechanism of calcium deficiency remain somewhat elusive. To accurately assess and provide appropriate nutritional intervention, we carried out a global analysis of metabolic alterations in response to calcium deficiency. Methods The metabolic alterations associated with calcium deficiency were first investigated in a rat model, using urinary metabonomics based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis. Correlations between dietary calcium intake and the biomarkers identified from the rat model were further analyzed to confirm the potential application of these biomarkers in humans. Results Urinary metabolic-profiling analysis could preliminarily distinguish between calcium-deficient and non-deficient rats after a 2-week low-calcium diet. We established an integrated metabonomics strategy for identifying reliable biomarkers of calcium deficiency using a time-course analysis of discriminating metabolites in a low-calcium diet experiment, repeating the low-calcium diet experiment and performing a calcium-supplement experiment. In total, 27 biomarkers were identified, including glycine, oxoglutaric acid, pyrophosphoric acid, sebacic acid, pseudouridine, indoxyl sulfate, taurine, and phenylacetylglycine. The integrated urinary metabonomics analysis, which combined biomarkers with regular trends of change (types A, B, and C), could accurately assess calcium-deficient rats at different stages and clarify the dynamic pathophysiological changes and molecular mechanism of calcium deficiency in detail. Significant correlations between calcium intake and two biomarkers, pseudouridine (Pearson

  14. Relative carnitine deficiency in autism.

    PubMed

    Filipek, Pauline A; Juranek, Jenifer; Nguyen, Minh T; Cummings, Christa; Gargus, J Jay

    2004-12-01

    A random retrospective chart review was conducted to document serum carnitine levels on 100 children with autism. Concurrently drawn serum pyruvate, lactate, ammonia, and alanine levels were also available in many of these children. Values of free and total carnitine (p < 0.001), and pyruvate (p = 0.006) were significantly reduced while ammonia and alanine levels were considerably elevated (p < 0.001) in our autistic subjects. The relative carnitine deficiency in these patients, accompanied by slight elevations in lactate and significant elevations in alanine and ammonia levels, is suggestive of mild mitochondrial dysfunction. It is hypothesized that a mitochondrial defect may be the origin of the carnitine deficiency in these autistic children.

  15. Multi-Functions of Carbonated Calcium Deficient Hydroxyapatite (CDHA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huan

    Natural bone is a complex composite mainly constituted of inorganic minerals and organic collagen molecules. Calcium phosphate (CaP) based materials have been proposed as the predominant bone substitute for bone tissue engineering applications due to their chemical similarity to bone mineral. Amorphous carbonated calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) is an important compound among CaP materials because of the amorphous crystallite structure. The presence of extra ions in its lattice structure not only influences cell attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts, but also helps in bone metabolism. Biomimetic coating approach is the most widely used approach to produce CDHA coatings to implant. It is a process using simulated body fluid (SBF) to deposit bone-like CDHA coating to various material surfaces. The CDHA formation mechanism, SBF compositions and reacting conditions of biomimetic coating have already been sufficiently studied and compared in the past 20 years. It is an attempt in this thesis to explore new applications of SBF in biomedical research, focusing on different biomaterial applications: 1) based on the low temperature reaction condition of SBF, bisphosphonate incorporated CDHA coatings were deposited onto Ti6Al4V surface for the treatment of osteoporosis; 2) amorphous calcium phosphate nanospheres with extra elements in the lattice structure were prepared by a novel microwave assisted approach, providing a new potential of CaP materials production; 3) CDHA particles formed in SBF can be used as great fillers with biopolymers for preparing biocomposites for biomedical applications; 4) based on the high activity of CDHA amorphous structure and the stabilization ability of ethanol, yttrium and europium doped calcium phosphates were prepared using CDHA as a sacrificing template. In the end, future work based on these observations in the thesis is addressed, including areas of drug delivery, biocomposite fabrication and preparation of functionalized

  16. The effects of isomaltulose-based oligomers feeding and calcium deficiency on mineral retention in rats.

    PubMed

    Kashimura, J; Kimura, M; Itokawa, Y

    1996-02-01

    We examined the effects of isomaltulose-based oligomers (IBOs) on the mineral content of the whole blood, kidney, liver and tibia in calcium deficient and calcium sufficient rats. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were divided equally into 4 groups and fed with the following diets ad libitum for 4 weeks: (1) calcium sufficient diet (Ca+, IBOs-), (2) calcium-sufficient-IBOs supply diet (Ca+, IBOs+), (3) calcium-deficient diet (Ca-, IBOs-), (4) calcium-deficient-IBOs supply diet (Ca-, IBOs+). There were no significant differences in final body weights among the groups. Food consumption in the calcium-deficient groups was higher than that in the calcium-sufficient groups. The tibia weight was significantly decreased, and the calcium, magnesium and phosphorous contents significantly decreased, and iron content was significantly increased in the tibia of calcium-deficient rats. On the other hand, in IBOs feeding rats, tibia weight, and calcium, magnesium and phosphorous contents were significantly increased, and iron content was significantly decreased. These findings suggest that IBOs feeding improves mineral retention especially in a state of calcium deficiency.

  17. The transport of indole-3-acetic Acid in boron- and calcium-deficient sunflower hypocotyl segments.

    PubMed

    Tang, P M; Dela Fuente, R K

    1986-06-01

    Transfer of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv Russian Mammoth) seedlings from complete nutrient solution to solutions deficient in either boron or calcium resulted in a steady decline in the rate of auxin transport, compared to seedlings that remained in the complete solution. In seedlings transferred to solutions deficient in both B and Ca, the decline in auxin transport was greater than seedlings deficient in only one element. The transfer of B- or Ca-deficient seedlings back to the complete solution prevented further decline in auxin transport, but auxin transport did not increase to the same level as seedlings maintained in complete solution. The significant reduction in auxin transport during the early stages of B or Ca deficiency was not related to (a) reduced growth rate of the hypocotyl, (b) increased acropetal movement of auxin, or (c) lack of respiratory substrates in the hypocotyl. In addition, no difference was found in the water-extractable total and ionic Ca in B-deficient and control nondeficient hypocotyls, indicating a direct effect of B on auxin transport, rather than indirectly by affecting Ca absorption. The rate of auxin transport in hypocotyls deficient in either B or Ca, was inversely correlated with K(+) leakage and rate of respiration. The data presented strongly support the view that there are separate sites for B and Ca in the basipetal transport of the plant hormone indoleacetic acid.

  18. Vegetable Bitterness is Related to Calcium Content

    PubMed Central

    Tordoff, Michael G.; Sandell, Mari A.

    2009-01-01

    In the U.S. and Europe, most people do not consume the recommended amounts of either calcium or vegetables. We investigated whether there might be a connection; specifically, whether the taste of calcium in vegetables contributes to their bitterness and thus acceptability. We found a strong correlation between the calcium content of 24 vegetables, based on USDA Nutrient Database values, and bitterness, based on the average ratings of 35 people (r = 0.93). Correlations between the content of other nutrients and bitterness were lower and most were not statistically significant. To assess whether it is feasible that humans can detect calcium in vegetables we tested two animal models known to display a calcium appetite. Previous work indicates that calcium solutions are preferentially ingested by PWK/PhJ mice relative to C57BL/6J mice, and by rats deprived of dietary calcium relative to replete controls. In choice tests between collard greens, a high-calcium vegetable, and cabbage, a low-calcium vegetable, the calcium-favoring animals had higher preferences for collard greens than did controls. These observations raise the possibility that the taste of calcium contributes to the bitterness and thus acceptability of vegetables. PMID:19260165

  19. Analysis of vitamin D deficiency in calcium stone-forming patients.

    PubMed

    Girón-Prieto, María Sierra; Del Carmen Cano-García, María; Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Ángel; Poyatos-Andujar, Antonio; Quesada-Charneco, Miguel; de Haro-Muñoz, Tomás; Arias-Santiago, Salvador; Arrabal-Martín, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the percentage of hypovitaminosis D, as well as its relationship with the various parameters of calcium-phosphate metabolism. A case control study was conducted on 366 patients, divided into two groups: Group 1: 127 non-stone-forming patients, and Group 2: 239 calcium stone forming. A study was performed on calcium-phosphate metabolism and urinary lithogenic factors. The percentage of vitamin D deficiency (25-OH-vitamin D levels <20 ng/ml) between the groups was analysed and compared. The SPSS 20.0 statistics program was used for the analysis, with a p ≤ .05 being considered significant. The mean age of Group 1 was 52.1 years compared to 49.6 years in Group 2, with no significant differences (p = .07). Vitamin D levels were lower in Group 2 compared to Group 1 (25.7 vs. 28.4 ng/ml, p = .02). A vitamin D deficiency was observed in 28 % of the Group 2 stone-forming patients versus 15.7 % in Group 1 (p = .009), with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.09 (95 % CI; 1.19-3.63). In the stone-forming patients with a vitamin D deficiency, the only difference observed was the higher levels of iPTH compared to those stone-formers with a normal vitamin D (56.9 vs. 45.5 pg/ml, respectively; p = .0001). Calcium stone-forming patients have lower mean levels of vitamin D and a higher percentage of hypovitaminosis D than in non-stone-forming patients. This was only related to increased iPTH levels, with urine calcium and other lithogenic parameters having no obvious effect.

  20. Dietary calcium deficiency in laying ducks impairs eggshell quality by suppressing shell biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhao, Fei; Tian, Zhi Mei; Zhang, Han Xing; Ruan, Dong; Li, Yan; Wang, Shuang; Zheng, Chun Tian; Lin, Ying Cai

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary calcium deficiency on the process of shell formation. Four hundred and fifty female ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) at 22 weeks were randomly assigned to three groups. Ducks were fed one of two calcium-deficient diets (containing 1.8% or 0.38% calcium, respectively) or a calcium-adequate control diet (containing 3.6% calcium) for 67 days (depletion period) and then all ducks were fed a calcium-adequate diet for an additional 67 days (repletion period). Compared with the calcium-adequate control, the average shell thickness, egg shell weight, breaking strength, mammillae density and mammillary knob thickness of shell from ducks that consumed the diet with 0.38% calcium were significantly decreased (P<0.05) during the depletion period, accompanied by reduced tibia quality. The mRNA expression of both secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) and carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2) in the uterus was decreased after feeding calcium-deficient diets (1.8% or 0.38% calcium). mRNA transcripts of calbindin 1 (CALB1), an important protein responsible for calcium transport, and the matrix protein genes ovocalyxin-32 (OCX-32) and ovocleidin-116 (OC-116) were reduced in ducks fed 0.38% calcium but not 1.8% calcium. Plasma estradiol concentration was decreased by both of the calcium-deficient diets (P<0.05). The impaired shell quality and suppressed functional proteins involved in shell formation could be reversed by repletion of dietary calcium. The results of the present study suggest that dietary calcium deficiency negatively affects eggshell quality and microarchitecture, probably by suppressing shell biomineralization. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Glutathione homeostasis as an important and novel factor controlling blossom-end rot development in calcium-deficient tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Mestre, Teresa C; Garcia-Sanchez, Francisco; Rubio, Francisco; Martinez, Vicente; Rivero, Rosa M

    2012-11-15

    Based on previous results in which oxidative metabolism was suggested as a possible inducer of blossom-end rot (BER), the main questions addressed here were whether calcium deficiency is the main factor that induces BER or whether this physiological disorder a general stress-related phenomenon? Tomato plants were grown under optimal or deficient calcium concentrations. Only the application of 0.1mM calcium resulted in BER induction, although only half of the fruits grown under this treatment had this disorder. Having fruits showing or not showing BER in the same plant and treatment provided us with a powerful tool that we used to investigate whether calcium deficiency operates alongside another mechanism in the induction of BER. Whether or not this other mechanism was the one controlling BER incidence was also investigated. We performed a complete study of the oxidative metabolism in the pericarp of healthy fruits and in the healthy portion of BER-affected fruits. Calcium deficiency led to an induction of NADPH oxidase, superoxide dismutase, dehydro- and monodehydroascorbate reductase, and to an inhibition of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, with a concomitant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and an increase in lipid peroxidation. While the ascorbate redox state was not affected by calcium deficiency, the glutathione redox state was markedly reduced. We conclude that calcium deficiency fundamentally affected the activity of the ascorbate-glutathione enzymes, with special importance to the inhibition of GR, which lead to a reduction of the glutathione redox state. This could cause the breakdown of cellular homeostasis, the inhibition of other enzymes responsible for H(2)O(2) detoxification, and ultimately an increase of lipid peroxidation. Therefore, BER is defined here as the visual symptom of a massive lipid peroxidation event caused by the breakdown of cellular glutathione homeostasis.

  2. Reproductive defects are corrected in vitamin d-deficient female rats fed a high calcium, phosphorus and lactose diet.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Laura E; DeLuca, Hector F

    2002-08-01

    Vitamin D-deficient female rats are capable of reproduction; however, vitamin D deficiency reduces their overall reproductive capacity. It was previously suggested that the reduction in reproductive performance is a direct result of a lack of vitamin D rather than an effect of the hypocalcemia or hypophosphatemia that can be associated with vitamin D deficiency. In the present study, rats were fed one of three diets: 1) 0.47% Ca(+2) and 0.3% phosphorus (P(i)) with vitamin D; 2) 0.47% Ca(+2) and 0.3% P(i) without vitamin D; and 3) 20% lactose, 2% Ca(+2) and 1.25% P(i) without vitamin D. Their reproductive capacity was monitored. Vitamin D-deficient rats fed the high calcium, high phosphorus, 20% lactose diet had normal serum calcium (2.2 +/- 0.16 mmol/L), slightly lower phosphorus (1.5 +/- 0.3 mmol/L), and undetectable 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3). The decrease in reproductive capacity, as indicated by the fertility ratio and pup number per litter previously seen in vitamin D-deficient rats was completely corrected when serum calcium and phosphorus levels were normalized relative to vitamin D-replete rats. It appears likely that the diminished reproductive performance attributed to vitamin D deficiency is the result of hypocalcemia and/or hypophosphatemia caused by vitamin D deficiency.

  3. Early detection of calcium deficiency in plants using red edge position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bingqing; Liew, Oi Wah; Asundi, Anand K.

    2005-11-01

    Brassica chinensis var parachinensis was grown in a recirculating water culture system until the '6-leaf stage' when the plants were separated into two groups: a 'Control' group where plant growth was continued in complete nutrient solution and a '-Ca' group in which the plants were grown in calcium-deficient nutrient solution. Leaf reflectance data was collected daily for eight days, starting from the day before the two treatments were imposed. No visual difference was found between 'Control' and '-Ca' groups during the experimental period. Total calcium content in '-Ca' plants decreased significantly from about 20,000 ppm to steady-state levels at 5,000 ppm by Day 5 while leaf chlorophyll levels in both 'Control' and '-Ca' were relatively similar. However, as the plants matured in the two nutrient solutions, the position of the red edge inflection point (REIP defined as the maximum first derivative of the reflectance spectrum in the 680 nm to 750 nm region) in 'Control' plants shifted towards longer wavelengths, while that in the '-Ca' plants remained relatively unchanged. Good correlation was found between Δ[Ca] and Δ[REIP] of 'Control' and '-Ca' plants. Our results showed that monitoring REIP shifts can provide invaluable spectral cues for pre-visual diagnosis of calcium deficiency in plants.

  4. Deficiency of calcium and magnesium induces apoptosis via scavenger receptor BI

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hong; Guo, Ling; Gao, Haiqing; Li, Xiang-An

    2011-01-01

    Aims Cell undergoes apoptosis in stressed status such as intracellular calcium overload or extracellular calcium/magnesium deficiency. The mechanisms of how deficiency of the divalent metal ions induces apoptosis remain to be defined. Scavenger receptor BI (SRBI) is a high density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor. Recent studies demonstrated that SR-BI is a stress response molecule which induces apoptosis upon serum deprivation. In this study, we assessed our hypothesis that the deficiency of calcium/magnesium induces apoptosis via SR-BI apoptotic pathway. Main methods We employed CHO cell lines expressing vector and SR-BI to test the effect of SR-BI on apoptosis induced by deficiency of calcium, magnesium and zinc in culture medium. The regain of different metal ions in deficient medium was also performed, respectively. Cell death was detected by morphological changes and quantified by LDH cytotoxicity assay. Apoptosis was also assessed by DNA ladder assay and DNA condensation assay. The SR-BIC323G mutant cells which lack the apoptotic activity of SR-BI were employed to verify the SR-BI-dependent effect on calcium/magnesium induced apoptosis. Key findings The deficiency of calcium/magnesium induced cell apoptosis CHO-SR-BI cells, but not in CHO-vector cells. Moreover, no apoptotic cell death was observed in SR-BIC323G mutant cells, indicating that the deficiency of divalent metal ions induces apoptosis in a SR-BI-dependent manner. Furthermore, the restoration of calcium or magnesium, but not zinc, protected CHO-SR-BI cells from apoptotic cell death, in a dose-dependent fashion. Significance These findings extend our understanding about how calcium and magnesium deficiency induces apoptosis. PMID:21291896

  5. Effects of high calcium intake on bone metabolism in magnesium-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, H; Katsumata, S I; Uehara, M; Suzuki, K; Nakamura, K

    2005-06-01

    We examined the effects of high calcium (Ca) intake on bone metabolism in magnesium (Mg)-deficient rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups, with each group having a similar mean body weight, and fed a control diet (control group), a Mg-deficient diet (Mg-deficient group) or a Mg-deficient Ca-supplemented diet (Mg-deficient Ca-supplemented group) for 14 d. Femoral Ca content was significantly lower in the Mg-deficient Ca-supplemented group than in the control group and Mg-deficient group. Femoral Mg content was significantly lower in the Mg-deficient group and Mg-deficient Ca-supplemented group than in the control group. Furthermore, femoral Mg content was significantly lower in the Mg-deficient Ca-supplemented group than in the Mg-deficient group. Serum osteocalcin levels (a biochemical marker of bone formation) were significantly lower in the two Mg-deficient groups than in the control group. As a biochemical marker of bone resorption, urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion was significantly higher in the Mg-deficient Ca-supplemented group than in the control group and Mg-deficient group. The results in the present study suggest that high Ca intake had no preventive effect on alteration of bone metabolism in Mg-deficient rats.

  6. Comparative histological study of the effects of high calcium diet and vitamin D supplements on epiphyseal plates of vitamin-D-deficient chicks.

    PubMed

    Jande, S S; Dickson, I R

    1980-01-01

    A comparative histological and microradiographic study of the tibial epiphyseal plates of chickens raised on: (1) a vitamin-D-deficient diet; (2) a vitamin-D-deficient diet supplemented with cholecalciferol, and (3) a vitamin-D-deficient diet to which extra calcium had been added, has revealed that a high-calcium diet did not normalize the epiphyseal plates completely. However, it restored the normal length and chondrocyte arrangement to the proliferative zone. The degenerative zone became elongated and this seems to be related to the hypophosphataemic condition which has developed as a result of the special diet.

  7. Calcium deficiency induces expression of cartilage-like phenotype in chick embryonic calvaria.

    PubMed

    Jacenko, O; Tuan, R S

    1986-05-01

    A detailed histological study of the chick embryonic calvarium was carried out to characterize the effect of calcium deficiency on cell differentiation during embryonic bone formation. Calcium deficiency on cell differentiation during embryonic bone formation. Calcium deficient chick embryos, produced by means of long-term shell-less (SL) culture, developed skeletal anomalies. In addition to reduced mineralization as detected by alizarin staining, significant changes were also observed in the extracellular matrix of the embryonic bones. First, the undermineralized matrix of the calvaria of SL embryos appeared to be more acidic as shown by more intense hematoxylin staining of the trabecular regions compared to controls. Secondly, the presence of sulfated proteoglycans was suggested by specific Alcian blue staining of the calvaria of Day 14 SL embryos. In addition, indirect fluorescence immunohistochemistry confirmed the developmental appearance of type II collagen in calcium-deficient calvaria, and localized it to undermineralized regions of the bone. These observations demonstrate the emergence of a chondrogenic phenotype in a typically osteogenic tissue during, and perhaps in response to, severe systemic calcium deficiency in the developing chick embryo.

  8. IMPACT OF VITAMIN D AND CALCIUM DEFICIENCY IN THE BONES OF PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    CABRAL, Jefry Alberto Vargas; de SOUZA, Gabriela Pereira; NASCIMENTO, Juliana de Almeida; SIMONETI, Luis Fernando; MARCHESE, Carolina; SALES-PERES, Silvia Helena de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Bariatric surgery is considered the most effective tool in the control and treatment of severe obesity, but patients undergoing this procedure are at increased risk of developing nutritional deficiencies by limiting the intake and absorption of many nutrients. Objective: To assess the impact of vitamin D deficiency and calcium in bone in patients after gastric bypass in Roux-en-Y, pointing directly at the type of administration, doses and effects after surgery. Method: Was conducted a systematic review with articles related to the topic of the last 10 years searched in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, Medline, Lilacs, Scielo and Cochrane using the headings "bariatric surgery", "bone", "obesity", "vitamin D '', "calcium" AND "absorption". Exclusion criteria to research on animals, smokers, pregnant women and patient treated with bisphosphonates. Results: Five articles were included in this review. All refer that bariatric surgery can lead to nutritional deficiencies and poor absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins and other micronutrients such as calcium. Conclusion: Patients submitted to RYGB should make use of multivitamins and minerals especially vitamin D and calcium to prevent bone fractures. Monitoring, treatment and control of risk factors are essential to prevent complications after this operation. PMID:27683792

  9. Effect of substrate nature on the electrochemical deposition of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualdrón-Reyes, A. F.; Domínguez-Vélez, V.; Morales-Morales, J. A.; Cabanzo, R.; Meléndez, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Calcium phosphates were obtained by reducing nitrate ions to produce hydroxide ions on TiO2/stainless steel and TiO2/titanium electrodes. TiO2 coatings on metallic substrates were prepared by sol-gel dip-coating method. The morphology of deposits was observed by FESEM. Chemical nature of calcium phosphate deposits was identified by Raman micro-spectroscopy and FESEM/EDS microanalysis. Electrochemical behavior of nitrate and nitrite reduction on stainless steel and titanium electrodes was studied by linear sweep voltammetry. In addition, voltammetric study of the calcium phosphate electrodeposition on both electrodes was performed. From these measurements was selected the potential to form a calcium phosphate. A catalytic current associated to nitrate reduction reaction was obtained for stainless steel electrode, leading to significant deposition of calcium phosphate. Ca/P ratio for both substrates was less than 1.67. The formation of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy.

  10. Adverse effects of a high-glucose diet on body weight and plasma calcium and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 levels in calcium-deficient growing rats.

    PubMed

    Clark, S A; Boass, A; Toverud, S U

    1989-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that dietary calcium would lead to greater impairment of body weight gain and calcium homeostasis if rats are fed a diet with a high glucose content compared with our standard diet in which the carbohydrate is supplied by whole wheat flour. Groups of female rats at 21 days of age were given either of two equivalent calcium-deficient diets with carbohydrate supplied either by glucose (LCaG) or by wheat flour (LCaW). Control rats were fed the wheat-flour diet containing 0.4% calcium. Since previous studies indicated divergent effects of glucose-based and flour-based diets on body weight in vitamin D-deficient rats, we designed a parallel study with vitamin D-deprived rats. Compared with rats fed the LCaW diet, the rats fed the LCaG diet had inferior body weight gain and more severe hypocalcemia (1-2 mg/ml lower) over a 40-day period, and no significant elevation of the plasma 1,25(OH)2D3 level at 61 days of age. Rats fed the LCaW diet maintained a 3-fold elevation of plasma 1,25(OH)2D3 relative to the level of control rats fed the 0.4% calcium diet. The dry weight and percent ash of tibias were similarly reduced in the two calcium-restricted groups compared to the control group. Among the vitamin D-deprived rats, those fed the glucose diet had poorer weight gain than those fed the wheat flour diet. However, both groups had similarly depressed serum calcium level, tibia ash content and 1,25(OH)2D3 level. Thus, a glucose diet combined with calcium restriction or vitamin D deprivation appears to accentuate the impairment of body weight gain and, when combined with calcium restriction, it also accentuates the impairment of calcium homeostasis and interferes with the adaptive increase in plasma 1,25(OH)2D3.

  11. Rickets of premature infants induced by calcium deficiency. A case report.

    PubMed

    Tsai, J R; Yang, P H

    1997-06-01

    Rickets of prematurity is not uncommon in neonatal intensive care units. Nutritional rickets in childhood is usually caused by vitamin D deficiency, but the rickets of prematurity is mainly attributable to calcium and phosphorus deficiencies. We present a premature infant with sequelae of necrotizing enterocolitis who needed prolonged administration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN), and who sustained ricketic fracture. After high calcium-fortified TPN supplementation the fracture healed well, and serum alkaline phosphatase dropped. This finding shows (1) serum calcium and phosphorus levels are of predictive value regarding rickets, (2) regular follow-ups of alkaline phosphatase levels combined with radiography in high-risk groups of premature infants are good tools for monitoring rickets, and (3) prolonged TPN administration needs to contain higher calcium and phosphorus concentrations in prematurity than in childhood.

  12. Calcium-regulating hormones, bone mineral content, breaking load and trabecular remodeling are altered in growing pigs fed calcium-deficient diets.

    PubMed

    Eklou-Kalonji, E; Zerath, E; Colin, C; Lacroix, C; Holy, X; Denis, I; Pointillart, A

    1999-01-01

    Studies on calcium nutrition in appropriate large animal models can be directly relevant to humans. We have examined the effect of dietary Ca deficiency on various bone and bone-related variables, including plasma markers, histomorphometry, mineral content and breaking strength in pigs. Three groups of eight 38-d-old female pigs were fed adequate (0.9%; control), low (0.4%; LCa) or very low (0.1%; VLCa) Ca diets for 32 d. Plasma Ca significantly decreased over time only in the VLCa-deficient pigs. The concentrations of the parathyroid hormones (PTH) and calcitriol increased as Ca deficiency developed, and the plasma PTH and calcitriol levels varied inversely with dietary Ca. The total bone ash contents, bending moments, trabecular bone volume and the mineral apposition rate all decreased as the calcium intake decreased. The osteoclast surface areas were greater than those of controls in both Ca-deficient groups, whereas the osteoblast surface areas were greater only in the VLCa group. The plasma osteoblast-related markers (alkaline phosphatase, carboxy-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen and osteocalcin) were either greater or unaffected in the Ca-deficient pigs. The results indicate that deficient bone mineralization combined with an increased bone resorption led to bone loss and fragility. The differences in the changes in bone cells (number and activity) between LCa and VLCa groups might be due to differences (time and extent) of circulating PTH and calcitriol. The defective mineralization in both Ca-depleted groups resulted mainly from the lack of Ca because their osteoblast activity was either maintained or stimulated. The results also underline the progressive sensitivity of pigs to Ca supply and the usefulness of this model.

  13. Aromatase Deficient Female Mice Demonstrate Altered Expression of Molecules Critical for Renal Calcium Reabsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öz, Orhan K.; Hajibeigi, Asghar; Cummins, Carolyn; van Abel, Monique; Bindels, René J.; Kuro-o, Makoto; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Zerwekh, Joseph E.

    2007-04-01

    The incidence of kidney stones increases in women after the menopause, suggesting a role for estrogen deficiency. In order to determine if estrogen may be exerting an effect on renal calcium reabsorption, we measured urinary calcium excretion in the aromatase-deficient female mouse (ArKO) before and following estrogen therapy. ArKO mice had hypercalciuria that corrected during estrogen administration. To evaluate the mechanism by which estrogen deficiency leads to hypercalciuria, we examined the expression of several proteins involved in distal tubule renal calcium reabsorption, both at the message and protein levels. Messenger RNA levels of TRPV5, TRPV6, calbindin-D28K, the Na+/Ca++ exchanger (NCX1), and the plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA1b) were significantly decreased in kidneys of ArKO mice. On the other hand, klotho mRNA levels were elevated in kidneys of ArKO mice. ArKO renal protein extracts had lower levels of calbindin-D28K but higher levels of the klotho protein. Immunochemistry demonstrated increased klotho expression in ArKO kidneys. Estradiol therapy normalized the expression of TRPV5, calbindin-D28K, PMCA1b and klotho. Taken together, these results demonstrate that estrogen deficiency produced by aromatase inactivation is sufficient to produce a renal leak of calcium and consequent hypercalciuria. This may represent one mechanism leading to the increased incidence of kidney stones following the menopause in women.

  14. Harnessing Finger Millet to Combat Calcium Deficiency in Humans: Challenges and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Swati; Kam, Jason; Sahu, Pranav P.; Yadav, Rama; Srivastava, Rakesh K.; Ojulong, Henry; Yadav, Rattan

    2017-01-01

    Humans require more than 20 mineral elements for healthy body function. Calcium (Ca), one of the essential macromineral, is required in relatively large quantities in the diet for maintaining a sound overall health. Young children, pregnant and nursing women in marginalized and poorest regions of the world, are at highest risk of Ca malnutrition. Elderly population is another group of people most commonly affected by Ca deficiency mainly in the form of osteoporosis and osteopenia. Improved dietary intake of Ca may be the most cost-effective way to meet such deficiencies. Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.], a crop with inherently higher Ca content in its grain, is an excellent candidate for understanding genetic mechanisms associated with Ca accumulation in grain crops. Such knowledge will also contribute toward increasing Ca contents in other staple crops consumed on daily basis using plant-breeding (also known as biofortification) methods. However, developing Ca-biofortified finger millet to reach nutritional acceptability faces various challenges. These include identifying and translating the high grain Ca content to an adequately bioavailable form so as to have a positive impact on Ca malnutrition. In this review, we assess some recent advancements and challenges for enrichment of its Ca value and present possible inter-disciplinary prospects for advancing the actual impact of Ca-biofortified finger millet. PMID:28798761

  15. Harnessing Finger Millet to Combat Calcium Deficiency in Humans: Challenges and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Puranik, Swati; Kam, Jason; Sahu, Pranav P; Yadav, Rama; Srivastava, Rakesh K; Ojulong, Henry; Yadav, Rattan

    2017-01-01

    Humans require more than 20 mineral elements for healthy body function. Calcium (Ca), one of the essential macromineral, is required in relatively large quantities in the diet for maintaining a sound overall health. Young children, pregnant and nursing women in marginalized and poorest regions of the world, are at highest risk of Ca malnutrition. Elderly population is another group of people most commonly affected by Ca deficiency mainly in the form of osteoporosis and osteopenia. Improved dietary intake of Ca may be the most cost-effective way to meet such deficiencies. Finger millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn.], a crop with inherently higher Ca content in its grain, is an excellent candidate for understanding genetic mechanisms associated with Ca accumulation in grain crops. Such knowledge will also contribute toward increasing Ca contents in other staple crops consumed on daily basis using plant-breeding (also known as biofortification) methods. However, developing Ca-biofortified finger millet to reach nutritional acceptability faces various challenges. These include identifying and translating the high grain Ca content to an adequately bioavailable form so as to have a positive impact on Ca malnutrition. In this review, we assess some recent advancements and challenges for enrichment of its Ca value and present possible inter-disciplinary prospects for advancing the actual impact of Ca-biofortified finger millet.

  16. Calcium homeostasis and cell death in Sol8 dystrophin-deficient cell line in culture.

    PubMed

    Marchand, E; Constantin, B; Vandebrouck, C; Raymond, G; Cognard, C

    2001-02-01

    Abnormalities of calcium homeostasis are involved in the process of cell injuries such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy characterized by the absence of the protein dystrophin. But how the absence of dystrophin leads to cytosolic calcium overload is as yet poorly understood. This question has been addressed with skeletal muscle cells from human DMD muscles or mdx mice. Although easier to obtain than human muscles, mdx muscle cells have provided controversial data concerning the resting intracellular calcium level ([Ca2+](i)). This work describes the culture of Sol8 cell line that expresses neither dystrophin nor adhalin, a dystrophin-associated protein. The [Ca2+](i)and intracellular calcium transients induced by different stimuli (acetylcholine, caffeine and high potassium) are normal during the first days of culture. At later stages, calcium homeostasis exhibits drastic alterations with a breaking down of the calcium responses and a large [Ca2+](i)elevation. Concomitantly, Sol8 cells exhibit morphological signs of cell death like cytoplasmic shrinkage and incorporation of propidium iodide. Cell death could be significantly reduced by blocking the activity of calpains, a type of calcium-regulated proteases. These results suggest that Sol8 cell line provides an alternative model of dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle cells for which a clear disturbance of the calcium homeostasis is observed in culture in association with calpain-dependent cell death. It is shown that transfection with a plasmid cDNA permits the forced expression of dystrophin in Sol8 myotubes as well as a correct sorting of the protein. This approach could be used to explore possible interactions between dystrophin deficiency, calcium homeostasis alteration, and dystrophic cell death. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  17. High-calcium diet enhances vasorelaxation in nitric oxide-deficient hypertension.

    PubMed

    Jolma, P; Kalliovalkama, J; Tolvanen, J P; Kööbi, P; Kähönen, M; Hutri-Kähönen, N; Wu, X; Pörsti, I

    2000-09-01

    Because the effects of calcium supplementation on arterial tone in nitric oxide-deficient hypertension are unknown, we investigated the influence of elevating dietary calcium from 1.1 to 3.0% in Wistar rats treated with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 20 mg. kg(-1). day(-1)) for 8 wk. A high-calcium diet attenuated the development of hypertension induced by L-NAME and abrogated the associated impairments of endothelium-independent mesenteric arterial relaxations to nitroprusside, isoproterenol, and cromakalim. Endothelium-dependent relaxations to acetylcholine during nitric oxide synthase inhibition in vitro were decreased in L-NAME rats and improved by calcium supplementation. The inhibition of cyclooxygenase by diclofenac augmented the responses to acetylcholine in L-NAME rats but not in calcium + L-NAME rats. When hyperpolarization of smooth muscle was prevented by KCl precontraction, the responses to acetylcholine during combined nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase inhibition were similar in all groups. Furthermore, superoxide dismutase enhanced the acetylcholine-induced relaxations in L-NAME rats but not in calcium + L-NAME rats. In conclusion, calcium supplementation reduced blood pressure during chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition and abrogated the associated impairments in endothelium-dependent and -independent arterial relaxation. The augmented vasorelaxation after increased calcium intake in L-NAME hypertension may be explained by enhanced hyperpolarization and increased sensitivity to nitric oxide in arterial smooth muscle and decreased vascular production of superoxide and vasoconstrictor prostanoids.

  18. Dietary calcium and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status in relation to bone mineral density among US adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A higher calcium intake is still the primary recommendation for the prevention of osteoporosis, while vitamin D deficiency is often not addressed. To study the relative importance of dietary calcium intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status in regard to hip bone mineral density (BMD) in ...

  19. Vitamin E deficiency reduced lumbar bone calcium content in female rats.

    PubMed

    Norazlina, M; Chua, C W; Ima-Nirwana, S

    2004-12-01

    Vitamin E deficiency has been found to impair bone calcification. This study was done to determine the effects of vitamin E deficiency and supplementation on parathyroid hormone, i.e. the hormone involved in bone regulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: 1) normal rat chow (RC), 2) vitamin E deficiency (VED), vitamin E deficient rats supplemented with 3) 60 mg/kg alpha-tocotrienol (ATT) and 4) 60 mg/kg (alpha-tocopherol (ATF). Treatment was carried out for 3 months. Vitamin E deficiency caused hypocalcaemia during the first month of the treatment period, increased the parathyroid hormone level in the second month and decreased the bone calcium content in the 4th lumbar bone at the end of the treatment. Vitamin E supplementation (ATT and ATF) failed to improve these conditions. The bone formation marker, osteocalcin, and the bone resorption marker, deoxypyridinoline did not change throughout the study period. In conclusion vitamin E deficiency impaired bone calcium homeostasis with subsequent secondary hyperparathyroidism and vertebral bone loss. Replacing the vitamin E with pure ATF or pure ATT alone failed to correct the changes seen.

  20. Calcium bioavailability and its relation to osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C M

    1992-06-01

    The balance of data suggests that calcium intake has a positive influence on bone mass in premenopausal women and has a preventive effect on the rate of bone loss in postmenopausal women. Even small advantages in bone mass provide great reductions in fracture rates. However, the majority of studies have tested the relationship of calcium intake and bone mass using calcium supplements. Few intervention studies have manipulated calcium intake through foods. Calcium is only useful to the skeleton once it is absorbed. Therefore, the bioavailability of dietary calcium becomes important in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Isotopic tracer techniques have only recently been employed in the labeling of foods with calcium isotopes for evaluation of calcium absorption. Milk calcium is usually the referent food which is typically absorbed at 20-40% depending on the calcium status of the subject. The absorptive efficiency of most vegetable sources is as good or better than for dairy foods, unless they have high concentrations of oxalic acid (spinach, for example) or phytic acid (wheat bran cereal, for example). Few vegetable sources are concentrated sources of calcium. Therefore, it would be difficult to obtain adequate intakes of calcium to protect against osteoporosis without liberal use of dairy products in the diet. Alternately, calcium supplements provide concentrated amounts of absorbable calcium, but they do not provide other nutrients necessary for skeletal growth and maintenance.

  1. Parkin deficiency disrupts calcium homeostasis by modulating phospholipase C signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sandebring, Anna; Dehvari, Nodi; Perez-Manso, Monica; Thomas, Kelly Jean; Karpilovski, Elena; Cookson, Mark R.; Cowburn, Richard F.; Cedazo-Mínguez, Angel

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin cause early onset autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism (ARJP) presumably by having lack of function that alter the level, activity, aggregation or localization of its substrates. We recently reported that phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCγ1) is a substrate for parkin. Here, we show that parkin mutants and siRNA parkin knockdown cells have enhanced levels of PLCγ1 phosphorylation, basal phosphoinositide hydrolysis and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). The protein levels of Ca2+ regulated Protein Kinase C α (PKCα) were decreased in ARJP parkin mutant cells. Neomycin and dantrolene decreased [Ca2+]i levels in parkin mutants to those seen in wild-type (WT) parkin cells, suggesting that differences were a consequence of altered PLC activity. The protection of WT parkin against 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA) toxicity could also be established in ARJP mutants when pretreating with dantrolene, implying that balancing Ca2+ release from ryanodine-sensitive stores is decreasing the toxic effects from 6OHDA. Our findings suggests parkin as an important factor for maintaining Ca2+ homeostasis and that parkin deficiency leads to a PLC-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i levels that makes cells more vulnerable to neurotoxins such as 6OHDA. PMID:19663908

  2. Calcium imaging in gentamicin ototoxicity: increased intracellular calcium relates to oxidative stress and late apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jiwon; Yang, Ji Yun; Choi, June; Jung, Hak Hyun; Im, Gi Jung

    2011-12-01

    To estimate intracellular calcium changes in gentamicin (GM) ototoxicity using calcium imaging. To investigate GM-induced physiologic changes in auditory cells including cell viability, apoptosis, and oxidative stress. Varying concentrations of GM were applied to the HEI-OC1 cochlear cell line. Calcium imaging tracked changes in intracellular calcium concentration during GM cytotoxicity. Cell viability and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels also were measured. Little change in calcium levels occurred in HEI-OC1 cells exposed to less than 35 mM GM. However, calcium rose continuously in cells exposed to more than 60 mM GM. With administration of intermediate concentrations of 40 or 50 mM GM, calcium increased variably in different cells, returning to baseline in some cases, or rising continuously in others. Upon increase of GM concentration, intracellular calcium concentration and ROS were increased, and cell viability was decreased due to late apoptosis. This study shows that GM increased intracellular calcium, ROS, and late apoptosis of HEI-OC1 cells derived from cochlear tissue. Increase of intracellular calcium is related to GM-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress. Calcium imaging can be used to determine change of intracellular calcium concentrations and apoptosis in GM ototoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of ammonium carbonate on formation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite through double-step hydrothermal processing.

    PubMed

    Parthiban, S Prakash; Kim, Ill Yong; Kikuta, Koichi; Ohtsuki, Chikara

    2011-02-01

    Double-step hydrothermal processing is a process where powder compacts of calcium phosphates are exposed to vapor of solvent solution, followed by being immersed in the solution. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ammonium carbonate on formation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) through double-step hydrothermal processing. The synthesized CDHA has high crystallinity when the solution has relatively low concentration of the ammonium carbonate ranging from 0.01 to 0.25 mol dm(-3). Carbonate content in the prepared samples were distinctly increased with increasing the concentration of ammonium carbonate to indicate formation of carbonate-containing calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CHAp) with low crystallinity. Morphology of the CHAp formed on the compacts varied progressively from rods and rosette-like shape to irregular shape with increase in the initial concentration of the ammonium carbonate in the solution. Application of ammonium carbonate in the double-step hydrothermal processing allows fabrication of irregular-shaped CDHA containing carbonate ions in both phosphate and hydroxide site, with low crystallinity, when the initial concentration of ammonium carbonate was 0.5 mol dm(-3) and more.

  4. Reducing iron deficiency anemia in Bolivian school children: calcium and iron combined versus iron supplementation alone.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Melissa; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Pizarro, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of combined calcium and iron versus single iron supplementation on iron status in Bolivian schoolchildren. Children ages 6 to 10 y old (N = 195), were randomly assigned to receive either 700 mg Ca (as calcium carbonate) plus 30 mg Fe (as ferrous sulfate) (Ca + Fe group) or 30 mg Fe (as ferrous sulfate) (Fe group). The doses were administered daily, from Monday to Friday, between meals at school over 3 mo. Iron status was assessed at baseline and after intervention. Additionally, overall nutritional status was assessed by anthropometry and an estimation of dietary intake. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia in the Ca + Fe group and the Fe group were 15% and 21.5%, respectively. After 3 mo follow-up, the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia dropped significantly (P < 0.001) to 3% in both groups (χ(2) = NS). Iron dietary intake was within recommended levels, but calcium intake only covered 39% of the Recommended Daily Intake. Combined calcium and iron supplementation is equally as effective as single iron supplementation in reducing the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in Bolivian school children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vitamin B12 Deficiency Induced by the Use of Gastric Acid Inhibitors: Calcium Supplements as a Potential Effect Modifier.

    PubMed

    Presse, N; Perreault, S; Kergoat, M-J

    2016-01-01

    Use of gastric acid inhibitors has emerged as a risk factor of vitamin B12 deficiency, especially in older adults. Calcium supplements could be an effect modifier of this relationship by its role in the absorption process of vitamin B12. The aim of this study is to examine whether the use of calcium supplements could be an effect modifier of the association between gastric acid inhibitors and vitamin B12 deficiency. Cross-sectional study based on medical chart reviews. Geriatric Assessment Unit (GAU) of a university-affiliated hospital. The study included 172 patients discharged from the GAU between 2008 and 2012. Cases of vitamin B12 deficiency were identified as those who had received a diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency, and/or were receiving a treatment for vitamin B12 deficiency. Use of gastric acid inhibitors and calcium supplements at admission was determined from the pharmacist report. Associations between medications and vitamin B12 status were investigated using logistic regression models. Seventy-one patients (41%) had vitamin B12 deficiency. At admission, 42% were taking gastric acid inhibitors and 45% calcium supplements. After adjustment for covariates, analyses revealed that vitamin B12 deficiency was more likely among users of gastric acid inhibitors who did not concomitantly received calcium supplements [OR=3.12; P=0.01]. Conversely, no significant association was observed in patients using both, gastric acid inhibitors and calcium supplements [OR=1.30; P=0.59]. The present study provides the very first evidence that the use of calcium supplements could be an effect modifier of the association between gastric acid inhibitors and vitamin B12 deficiency. Failure to consider calcium supplements as an effect modifier could have led to biased risk estimates in previous published studies.

  6. Dietary calcium and zinc deficiency risks are decreasing but remain prevalent.

    PubMed

    Kumssa, Diriba B; Joy, Edward J M; Ander, E Louise; Watts, Michael J; Young, Scott D; Walker, Sue; Broadley, Martin R

    2015-06-22

    Globally, more than 800 million people are undernourished while >2 billion people have one or more chronic micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs). More than 6% of global mortality and morbidity burdens are associated with undernourishment and MNDs. Here we show that, in 2011, 3.5 and 1.1 billion people were at risk of calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) deficiency respectively due to inadequate dietary supply. The global mean dietary supply of Ca and Zn in 2011 was 684 ± 211 and 16 ± 3 mg capita(-1) d(-1) (± SD) respectively. Between 1992 and 2011, global risk of deficiency of Ca and Zn decreased from 76 to 51%, and 22 to 16%, respectively. Approximately 90% of those at risk of Ca and Zn deficiency in 2011 were in Africa and Asia. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of dietary Ca deficiency risks based on food supply. We conclude that continuing to reduce Ca and Zn deficiency risks through dietary diversification and food and agricultural interventions including fortification, crop breeding and use of micronutrient fertilisers will remain a significant challenge.

  7. Dietary calcium and zinc deficiency risks are decreasing but remain prevalent

    PubMed Central

    Kumssa, Diriba B.; Joy, Edward J. M.; Ander, E. Louise; Watts, Michael J.; Young, Scott D.; Walker, Sue; Broadley, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, more than 800 million people are undernourished while >2 billion people have one or more chronic micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs). More than 6% of global mortality and morbidity burdens are associated with undernourishment and MNDs. Here we show that, in 2011, 3.5 and 1.1 billion people were at risk of calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) deficiency respectively due to inadequate dietary supply. The global mean dietary supply of Ca and Zn in 2011 was 684 ± 211 and 16 ± 3 mg capita−1 d−1 (±SD) respectively. Between 1992 and 2011, global risk of deficiency of Ca and Zn decreased from 76 to 51%, and 22 to 16%, respectively. Approximately 90% of those at risk of Ca and Zn deficiency in 2011 were in Africa and Asia. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of dietary Ca deficiency risks based on food supply. We conclude that continuing to reduce Ca and Zn deficiency risks through dietary diversification and food and agricultural interventions including fortification, crop breeding and use of micronutrient fertilisers will remain a significant challenge. PMID:26098577

  8. Dietary calcium and zinc deficiency risks are decreasing but remain prevalent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumssa, Diriba B.; Joy, Edward J. M.; Ander, E. Louise; Watts, Michael J.; Young, Scott D.; Walker, Sue; Broadley, Martin R.

    2015-06-01

    Globally, more than 800 million people are undernourished while >2 billion people have one or more chronic micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs). More than 6% of global mortality and morbidity burdens are associated with undernourishment and MNDs. Here we show that, in 2011, 3.5 and 1.1 billion people were at risk of calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn) deficiency respectively due to inadequate dietary supply. The global mean dietary supply of Ca and Zn in 2011 was 684 ± 211 and 16 ± 3 mg capita-1 d-1 (±SD) respectively. Between 1992 and 2011, global risk of deficiency of Ca and Zn decreased from 76 to 51%, and 22 to 16%, respectively. Approximately 90% of those at risk of Ca and Zn deficiency in 2011 were in Africa and Asia. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of dietary Ca deficiency risks based on food supply. We conclude that continuing to reduce Ca and Zn deficiency risks through dietary diversification and food and agricultural interventions including fortification, crop breeding and use of micronutrient fertilisers will remain a significant challenge.

  9. Overexpression of Sly41 suppresses COPII vesicle–tethering deficiencies by elevating intracellular calcium levels

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Indrani; Barlowe, Charles

    2016-01-01

    SLY41 was identified as a multicopy suppressor of loss of Ypt1, a Rab GTPase essential for COPII vesicle tethering at the Golgi complex. SLY41 encodes a polytopic membrane protein with homology to a class of solute transporter proteins, but how overexpression suppresses vesicle-tethering deficiencies is not known. Here we show that Sly41 is efficiently packaged into COPII vesicles and actively cycles between the ER and Golgi compartments. SLY41 displays synthetic negative genetic interactions with PMR1, which encodes the major Golgi-localized Ca2+/Mn2+ transporter and suggests that Sly41 influences cellular Ca2+ and Mn2+ homeostasis. Experiments using the calcium probe aequorin to measure intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in live cells reveal that Sly41 overexpression significantly increases cytosolic calcium levels. Although specific substrates of the Sly41 transporter were not identified, our findings indicate that localized overexpression of Sly41 to the early secretory pathway elevates cytosolic calcium levels to suppress vesicle-tethering mutants. In vitro SNARE cross-linking assays were used to directly monitor the influence of Ca2+ on tethering and fusion of COPII vesicles with Golgi membranes. Strikingly, calcium at suppressive concentrations stimulated SNARE-dependent membrane fusion when vesicle-tethering activity was reduced. These results show that calcium positively regulates the SNARE-dependent fusion stage of ER–Golgi transport. PMID:27030673

  10. Calcium uptake and ATPase activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from control and selenium deficient lambs.

    PubMed

    Tripp, M J; Whanger, P D; Schmitz, J A

    1993-06-01

    The calcium uptake and ATPase activity were studied using fragmented sarcoplasmic reticulum (FSR) vesicles from normal and selenium (vitamin E)--deficient lambs. The latter group was suffering from white muscle disease (WMD). The calcium uptake of FSR vesicles from muscle of WMD lambs was reduced 10-fold as compared to those from normal lambs. An inverse relationship was found with the calcium uptake ability of the FSR vesicles and the severity of WMD. ATPase activity was nonsignificantly lower in vesicles from WMD lambs. The most active FSR vesicles from both normal and WMD lambs banded at 27% when purified on linear sucrose density gradients. The number of protein bands appearing in acrylamide gels of the purified vesicles appeared to be directly proportional to the severity of WMD. The 75Se cosedimented with the calcium uptake and ATPase activity when FSR vesicles from a lamb injected with 75Se-selenite were subjected to linear sucrose density gradient centrifugation, suggesting that selenium is incorporated into these vesicles. Injection of selenium into WMD lambs resulted in significantly greater calcium uptake activity in vesicles 18 and 38 days later as compared with untreated WMD lambs. Injection of selenium in WMD lambs resulted in a marked decrease in plasma CPK activity and a significant increase of glutathione peroxidase activity in the blood.

  11. Catechin-rich oil palm leaf extract enhances bone calcium content of estrogen-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Bakhsh, Ahdab; Mustapha, Noordin Mohamed; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2013-04-01

    Postmenopausal estrogen deficiency often causes bone density loss and osteoporosis. This study evaluated the effects of an oral administration of oil palm leaf extract (OPL) on bone calcium content and structure, bone density, ash weights, and serum total alkaline phosphatase (T-ALP) of estrogen-deficient ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five experimental groups: 1) intact (normal control); 2) ovariectomized (OVX control), and OVX rats supplemented with 3) 2% (w/v) green tea (OVX + GT), 4) OPL 150 mg/kg of body weight, or 5) OPL 300 mg/kg of body weight in the drinking water. After 3 mo, the OVX control rats had significantly decreased femur and tibia masses (-5% and -3%, respectively), ash (-15% and -10%), calcium content (-0.5% and -2.7%), and bone density and T-ALP concentrations (-40%) compared with intact rats. The catechin-rich OPL dose dependently increased the OVX bone density and structure, femur and tibia masses (by +8% and +12% respectively), ash (by +30% and +20% respectively), calcium (by +3% and +5%), and T-ALP concentrations (by +76%) compared with the OVX rats. The increases by OPL were higher than that in OVX + GT and control intact rats. The catechin-rich OPL increased the bone mass in estrogen-deficient rats by increasing osteoblast activities to higher levels than in normal rats and those supplemented with GT. This was shown by the modulation of serum T-ALP levels, bone calcium content, total mineral content, and bone histologic structure. The OPL is a potential inexpensive ingredient for protection against osteoporosis and influences bone metabolism by encouraging bone formation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relative nutritional deficiencies associated with centrally acting monoamines

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Marty; Stein, Alvin; Uncini, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Two primary categories of nutritional deficiency exist. An absolute nutritional deficiency occurs when nutrient intake is not sufficient to meet the normal needs of the system, and a relative nutritional deficiency exists when nutrient intake and systemic levels of nutrients are normal, while a change occurs in the system that induces a nutrient intake requirement that cannot be supplied from diet alone. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the primary component of chronic centrally acting monoamine (serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine) disease is a relative nutritional deficiency induced by postsynaptic neuron damage. Materials and methods Monoamine transporter optimization results were investigated, reevaluated, and correlated with previous publications by the authors under the relative nutritional deficiency hypothesis. Most of those previous publications did not discuss the concept of a relative nutritional deficiency. It is the purpose of this paper to redefine the etiology expressed in these previous writings into the realm of relative nutritional deficiency, as demonstrated by monoamine transporter optimization. The novel and broad range of amino acid precursor dosing values required to address centrally acting monoamine relative nutritional deficiency properly is also discussed. Results Four primary etiologies are described for postsynaptic neuron damage leading to a centrally acting monoamine relative nutritional deficiency, all of which require monoamine transporter optimization to define the proper amino acid dosing values of serotonin and dopamine precursors. Conclusion Humans suffering from chronic centrally acting monoamine-related disease are not suffering from a drug deficiency; they are suffering from a relative nutritional deficiency involving serotonin and dopamine amino acid precursors. Whenever low or inadequate levels of monoamine neurotransmitters exist, a relative nutritional deficiency is present

  13. Effect of manganese and calcium deficiency on the growth and oxygen exchange of Scenedesmus intermedius cultured for successive generations.

    PubMed

    Adam, M S; Issa, A A

    2000-01-01

    The green alga Scenedesmus intermedius was grown in synchronous culture under manganese or calcium deficiency for six successive generations. The growth rate, pigment and protein contents gradually decreased in comparison with the control. In Mn-deficient cells, the rate of oxygen evolution was sharply decreased. This inhibition was restored to normal in less than 1 h (40-60 min) by adding Mn salt to the suspension medium. In Ca-deficient cells, the inhibition of photosynthesis appears to be irreversible.

  14. Vitamin D treatment in calcium-deficiency rickets: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Thacher, Tom D; Fischer, Philip R; Pettifor, John M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether children with calcium-deficiency rickets have a better response to treatment with vitamin D and calcium than with calcium alone. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. Population Nigerian children with active rickets treated with calcium carbonate as limestone (approximately 938 mg elemental calcium twice daily) were, in addition, randomised to receive either oral vitamin D2 50 000 IU (Ca+D, n=44) or placebo (Ca, n=28) monthly for 24 weeks. Main outcome measure Achievement of a 10-point radiographic severity score ≤1.5 and serum alkaline phosphatase ≤350 U/L. Results The median (range) age of enrolled children was 46 (15–102) months, and baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. Mean (±SD) 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was 30.2±13.2 nmol/L at baseline, and 29 (43%) had values <30 nmol/L. Baseline alkaline phosphatase and radiographic scores were unrelated to vitamin D status. Of the 68 children (94% of original cohort) who completed 24 weeks of treatment, 29 (67%) in the Ca+D group and 11 (44%) in the Ca group achieved the primary outcome (p=0.06). Baseline 25(OH)D did not alter treatment group effects (p=0.99 for interaction). At the end of 24 weeks, 25(OH)D values were 55.4±17.0 nmol/L and 37.9±20.0 nmol/L in the Ca+D and Ca groups, respectively, (p<0.001). In the Ca+D and Ca groups, the final 25(OH)D concentration was greater in those who achieved the primary outcome (56.4±17.2 nmol/L) than in those who did not (37.7±18.5 nmol/L, p<0.001). Conclusions In children with calcium-deficiency rickets, there is a trend for vitamin D to improve the response to treatment with calcium carbonate as limestone, independent of baseline 25(OH)D concentrations. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00949832. PMID:24748637

  15. IMPACT OF VITAMIN D AND CALCIUM DEFICIENCY IN THE BONES OF PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Jefry Alberto Vargas; Souza, Gabriela Pereira de; Nascimento, Juliana de Almeida; Simoneti, Luis Fernando; Marchese, Carolina; Sales-Peres, Silvia Helena de Carvalho

    Bariatric surgery is considered the most effective tool in the control and treatment of severe obesity, but patients undergoing this procedure are at increased risk of developing nutritional deficiencies by limiting the intake and absorption of many nutrients. To assess the impact of vitamin D deficiency and calcium in bone in patients after gastric bypass in Roux-en-Y, pointing directly at the type of administration, doses and effects after surgery. Was conducted a systematic review with articles related to the topic of the last 10 years searched in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, Medline, Lilacs, Scielo and Cochrane using the headings "bariatric surgery", "bone", "obesity", "vitamin D '', "calcium" AND "absorption". Exclusion criteria to research on animals, smokers, pregnant women and patient treated with bisphosphonates. Five articles were included in this review. All refer that bariatric surgery can lead to nutritional deficiencies and poor absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins and other micronutrients such as calcium. Patients submitted to RYGB should make use of multivitamins and minerals especially vitamin D and calcium to prevent bone fractures. Monitoring, treatment and control of risk factors are essential to prevent complications after this operation. A cirurgia bariátrica é considerada o tratamento mais eficaz no controle e tratamento da obesidade severa; porém, indivíduos submetidos a este procedimento apresentam maior risco de desenvolver deficiências nutricionais pela limitação na ingestão e absorção de muitos nutrientes. Avaliar o impacto da deficiência de vitamina D e do cálcio ósseo de pacientes após gastroplastia em Y-de-Roux, relacionando tipo de administração, dose e efeito pós-cirúrgico. Realizou-se revisão sistemática com artigos relacionados ao tema dos últimos 10 anos e pesquisados na PubMed (US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, Medline, Lilacs

  16. Increased red cell calcium, decreased calcium adenosine triphosphatase, and altered membrane proteins during fava bean hemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient (Mediterranean variant) individuals.

    PubMed

    Turrini, F; Naitana, A; Mannuzzu, L; Pescarmona, G; Arese, P

    1985-08-01

    RBCs from four glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient (Mediterranean variant) subjects were studied during fava bean hemolysis. In the density-fractionated RBC calcium level, Ca2+-ATPase activity, reduced glutathione level, and ghost protein pattern were studied. In the bottom fraction, containing most heavily damaged RBCs, calcium level ranged from 143 to 244 mumol/L RBCs (healthy G6PD-deficient controls: 17 +/- 5 mumol/L RBCs). The Ca2+-ATPase activity ranged from 0.87 to 1.84 mumol ATP consumed/g Hb/min (healthy G6PD-deficient controls: 2.27 +/- 0.4). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of ghosts showed: (1) the presence of high mol wt aggregates (in three cases they were reduced by dithioerythritol; in one case, only partial reduction was possible); (2) the presence of multiple, scattered new bands; and (3) the reduction of band 3. Oxidant-mediated damage to active calcium extrusion, hypothetically associated with increased calcium permeability, may explain the large increase in calcium levels. They, in turn, could activate calcium-dependent protease activity, giving rise to the profound changes in the ghost protein pattern.

  17. Self-hardening calcium deficient hydroxyapatite/gelatine foams for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Montufar, Edgar B; Traykova, Tania; Schacht, Etienne; Ambrosio, Luigi; Santin, Matteo; Planell, Josep A; Ginebra, Maria-Pau

    2010-03-01

    In this work gelatine was used as multifunctional additive to obtain injectable self-setting hydroxyapatite/gelatine composite foams for bone regeneration. The foaming and colloidal stabilization properties of gelatine are well known in food and pharmaceutical applications. Solid foams were obtained by foaming liquid gelatine solutions at 50 degrees C, followed by mixing them with a cement powder consisting of alpha tricalcium phosphate. Gelatine addition improved the cohesion and injectability of the cement paste. After setting the foamed paste transformed into a calcium deficient hydroxyapatite. The final porosity, pore interconnectivity and pore size were modulated by modifying the gelatine content in the liquid phase.

  18. Mice deficient in GEM GTPase show abnormal glucose homeostasis due to defects in beta-cell calcium handling.

    PubMed

    Gunton, Jenny E; Sisavanh, Mary; Stokes, Rebecca A; Satin, Jon; Satin, Leslie S; Zhang, Min; Liu, Sue M; Cai, Weikang; Cheng, Kim; Cooney, Gregory J; Laybutt, D Ross; So, Trina; Molero, Juan-Carlos; Grey, Shane T; Andres, Douglas A; Rolph, Michael S; Mackay, Charles R

    2012-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from beta-cells is a tightly regulated process that requires calcium flux to trigger exocytosis of insulin-containing vesicles. Regulation of calcium handling in beta-cells remains incompletely understood. Gem, a member of the RGK (Rad/Gem/Kir) family regulates calcium channel handling in other cell types, and Gem over-expression inhibits insulin release in insulin-secreting Min6 cells. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Gem in insulin secretion. We hypothesised that Gem may regulate insulin secretion and thus affect glucose tolerance in vivo. Gem-deficient mice were generated and their metabolic phenotype characterised by in vivo testing of glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance and insulin secretion. Calcium flux was measured in isolated islets. Gem-deficient mice were glucose intolerant and had impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Furthermore, the islets of Gem-deficient mice exhibited decreased free calcium responses to glucose and the calcium oscillations seen upon glucose stimulation were smaller in amplitude and had a reduced frequency. These results suggest that Gem plays an important role in normal beta-cell function by regulation of calcium signalling.

  19. Mice Deficient in GEM GTPase Show Abnormal Glucose Homeostasis Due to Defects in Beta-Cell Calcium Handling

    PubMed Central

    Gunton, Jenny E.; Sisavanh, Mary; Stokes, Rebecca A.; Satin, Jon; Satin, Leslie S.; Zhang, Min; Liu, Sue M.; Cai, Weikang; Cheng, Kim; Cooney, Gregory J.; Laybutt, D. Ross; So, Trina; Molero, Juan-Carlos; Grey, Shane T.; Andres, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims and Hypothesis Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from beta-cells is a tightly regulated process that requires calcium flux to trigger exocytosis of insulin-containing vesicles. Regulation of calcium handling in beta-cells remains incompletely understood. Gem, a member of the RGK (Rad/Gem/Kir) family regulates calcium channel handling in other cell types, and Gem over-expression inhibits insulin release in insulin-secreting Min6 cells. The aim of this study was to explore the role of Gem in insulin secretion. We hypothesised that Gem may regulate insulin secretion and thus affect glucose tolerance in vivo. Methods Gem-deficient mice were generated and their metabolic phenotype characterised by in vivo testing of glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance and insulin secretion. Calcium flux was measured in isolated islets. Results Gem-deficient mice were glucose intolerant and had impaired glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Furthermore, the islets of Gem-deficient mice exhibited decreased free calcium responses to glucose and the calcium oscillations seen upon glucose stimulation were smaller in amplitude and had a reduced frequency. Conclusions These results suggest that Gem plays an important role in normal beta-cell function by regulation of calcium signalling. PMID:22761801

  20. Withania somnifera improves bone calcification in calcium-deficient ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Nagareddy, Prabhakara Reddy; Lakshmana, M

    2006-04-01

    Osteoporosis, characterized by reduction in bone density, is a significant source of mortality among the elderly, particularly in oestrogen-deficient women. We studied the effect of Withania somnifera (WS) root extract (ethanolic), which contains oestrogen-like withanolides for anti-osteoporotic activity. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were either sham operated (n = 12) or ovariectomized (n = 12) and treated with WS/vehicle (65 mg kg(-1)), orally for 16 weeks (n = 12). All rats were allowed free access to a calcium-deficient diet (0.04% Ca) and distilled water. At termination, urinary excretion of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) and serum levels of Ca, P and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured. Femur and tibia bones were processed for histological (histology), morphological (scanning electron microscopy, SEM), biomechanical strength (impact test) and mineral composition (ash) analysis. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats showed a significant increase in serum ALP levels and urinary Ca and P excretion. Histological findings revealed narrowed, and disappearance of, trabeculae with widened medullary spaces in the OVX group. Ash analysis showed a reduction in ash weight, percent ash, ash Ca, ash P and ash magnesium levels in the OVX group. Further, SEM examination revealed metaphyseal bone loss in femurs and impact test showed a reduction in biomechanical strength of tibias in OVX rats. WS treatment markedly prevented the above changes in OVX rats and thus may be a potential agent in the treatment of osteoporosis.

  1. Formation and properties of composites comprised of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatites and ethyl alanate polyphosphazenes.

    PubMed

    Greish, Y E; Sturgeon, J L; Singh, A; Krogman, N R; Touny, A H; Sethuraman, S; Nair, L S; Laurencin, C T; Allcock, H R; Brown, P W

    2008-09-01

    Composites comprised of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (HAp) and biodegradable polyphosphazenes were formed via cement-type reactions at physiologic temperature. The composite precursors were produced by blending particulate hydroxyapatite precursors with 10 wt% polymer using a solvent/non-solvent technique. HAp precursors having calcium-to-phosphate ratios of 1.5 (CDH) and 1.6 (CDS) were used. The polymeric constituents were poly[bis(ethyl alanato)phosphazene] (PNEA) and poly[(ethyl alanato)(1) (p-phenylphenoxy)(1) phosphazene] (PNEA(50)PhPh(50)). The effect of incorporating the phenyl phenoxy group was evaluated as a means of increasing the mechanical properties of the composites without retarding the rates of HAp formation. Reaction kinetics and mechanistic paths were characterized by pH determination, X-ray diffraction analyses, scanning electron microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The mechanical properties were analyzed by compression testing. These analyses indicated that the presence of the polymers slightly reduced the rate HAp formation. However, surface hydrolysis of polymer ester groups permitted the formation of calcium salt bridges that provide a mechanism for bonding with the HAp. The compressive strengths of the composites containing PNEA(50)PhPh(50) were superior to those containing PNEA, and were comparable to those of HAp produced in the absence of polymer. The current composites more closely match the structure of bone, and are thus strongly recommended to be used as bone cements where high loads are not expected.

  2. [Bone and calcium metabolism in life-style related diseases].

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Ippei; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2016-03-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that life-style related diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia are associated with bone and calcium metabolism. Patients with diabetes mellitus have increased fracture risks, independently of bone mineral density, with abnormality of parathyroid hormone secretion and impaired osteoblastic function. On the other hand, osteocalcin secreted from bone is reported to regulate glucose metabolism. Thus, bone, calcium and glucose metabolism may be deeply associated with each other. In this review, we describe the association between life-style related diseases, especially diabetes mellitus, and metabolism of bone and calcium.

  3. Relation of Urinary Calcium and Magnesium Excretion to Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Kesteloot†, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J.; Chan, Queenie; Wijeyesekera, Anisha; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Zhao, Liancheng; Dyer, Alan R.; Unwin, Robert J.; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Data indicate an inverse association between dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and blood pressure (BP); however, much less is known about associations between urinary calcium and magnesium excretion and BP in general populations. The authors assessed the relation of BP to 24-hour excretion of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40–59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) comprised 10,067 persons aged 20–59 years from 52 samples around the world. Timed 24-hour urine collections, BP measurements, and nutrient data from four 24-hour dietary recalls (INTERMAP) were collected. In multiple linear regression analyses, urinary calcium excretion was directly associated with BP. After adjustment for multiple confounders (including weight, height, alcohol intake, calcium intake, urinary sodium level, and urinary potassium intake), systolic BP was 1.9 mm Hg higher per each 4.1 mmol per 24 hours (2 standard deviations) of higher urinary calcium excretion (associations were smaller for diastolic BP) in INTERMAP. Qualitatively similar associations were observed in INTERSALT analyses. Associations between magnesium excretion and BP were small and nonsignificant for most of the models examined. The present data suggest that altered calcium homoeostasis, as exhibited by increased calcium excretion, is associated with higher BP levels. PMID:21624957

  4. Calcium and vitamin-D deficiency marginally impairs fracture healing but aggravates posttraumatic bone loss in osteoporotic mice.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Verena; Haffner-Luntzer, Melanie; Prystaz, Katja; Scheidt, Annika Vom; Busse, Björn; Schinke, Thorsten; Amling, Michael; Ignatius, Anita

    2017-08-03

    Calcium and vitamin-D (Ca/VitD) deficiency is a major risk factor for osteoporosis. It may also contribute to the compromised bone healing frequently observed in osteoporotic patients, since calcium is essential for fracture-callus mineralization. Additionally, clinical data suggest systemic bone loss following fracture, which may aggravate osteoporosis and thus increase the risk for fragility fractures in osteoporotic patients further. However, the role of Ca/VitD in fracture healing and posttraumatic bone turnover has to date been poorly investigated. Here, we studied bone regeneration and posttraumatic bone turnover in C57BL/6 J mice with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. Mice were fed a standard or a Ca/VitD-deficient diet. Notably, fracture healing was only marginally disturbed in Ca/VitD-deficient mice. However, deficient mice displayed significantly increased serum parathyroid hormone levels and osteoclast activity, as well as reduced bone mass in the intact skeleton post-fracture, suggesting considerably enhanced calcium mobilization from the intact skeleton during bone regeneration. Ca/VitD supplementation initiated post-fracture prevented posttraumatic bone loss by reducing bone resorption and furthermore improved bone repair. These results imply that adequate Ca/VitD supply post-fracture is essential to provide sufficient calcium for callus-mineralization in order to prevent posttraumatic bone loss and to reduce the risk for secondary fractures in osteoporotic patients with Ca/VitD deficiency.

  5. Vitamin D and/or calcium deficient diets may differentially affect muscle fiber neuromuscular junction innervation.

    PubMed

    Gifondorwa, David J; Thompson, Tyran D; Wiley, June; Culver, Alexander E; Shetler, Pamela K; Rocha, Guilherme V; Ma, Yanfei L; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bryant, Henry U

    2016-12-01

    There is evidence that supports a role for Vitamin D (Vit. D) in muscle. The exact mechanism by which Vit. D deficiency impairs muscle strength and function is not clear. Three-week-old mice were fed diets with varied combinations of Vit. D and Ca(2+) deficiency. Behavioral testing, genomic and protein analysis, and muscle histology were performed with a focus on neuromuscular junction (NMJ) -related genes. Vit. D and Ca(2+) deficient mice performed more poorly on given behavioral tasks than animals with Vit. D deficiency alone. Genomic and protein analysis of the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles revealed changes in several Vit. D metabolic, NMJ-related, and protein chaperoning and refolding genes. These data suggest that detrimental effects of a Vit. D deficient or a Vit. D and Ca(2+) deficient diet may be a result of differential alterations in the structure and function of the NMJ and a lack of a sustained stress response in muscles. Muscle Nerve 54: 1120-1132, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [Pseudothrombotic microangiopathy related to vitamin B(12) deficiency].

    PubMed

    Abourazzak, S; Chaouki, S; Idrissi, M; Atmani, S; Hida, M

    2012-06-01

    Vitamin B(12), or cobalamin, deficiency is often unrecognized because the clinical manifestations are subtle; they are also potentially serious. We report a case of pseudothrombotic microangiopathy related to cobalamin deficiency. Vitamin B(12) deficiency, which is more commonly recognized in the context of malnutrition, should be considered in the context of microangiopathy.

  7. Increased asynchronous release and aberrant calcium channel activation in amyloid precursor protein deficient neuromuscular synapses.

    PubMed

    Yang, L; Wang, B; Long, C; Wu, G; Zheng, H

    2007-11-23

    Despite the critical roles of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, its physiological function remains poorly established. Our previous studies implicated a structural and functional activity of the APP family of proteins in the developing neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Here we performed comprehensive analyses of neurotransmission in mature neuromuscular synapse of APP deficient mice. We found that APP deletion led to reduced paired-pulse facilitation and increased depression of synaptic transmission with repetitive stimulation. Readily releasable pool size and total releasable vesicles were not affected, but probability of release was significantly increased. Strikingly, the amount of asynchronous release, a measure sensitive to presynaptic calcium concentration, was dramatically increased, and pharmacological studies revealed that it was attributed to aberrant activation of N- and L-type Ca(2+) channels. We propose that APP modulates synaptic transmission at the NMJ by ensuring proper Ca(2+) channel function.

  8. [The separate and combined effects of calcium pantothenate deficiency and cadmium intoxication on rat reproductive function].

    PubMed

    Tyshko, N V; Seliaskin, K E; Mel'nik, E A; Pashorina, V A; Zhminchenko, V M

    2012-01-01

    The publication presents investigation evaluated of separate and combined effects of calcium pantothenate deficiency and cadmium (Cd2+) intoxication on rat reproductive function. The experi-ments were performed on 280 adult and 890 offspring of Wistar rats. Reproductive function was estimated by fertility study, prenatal and postnatal development of offspring. The separate and combined effects of and cadmium intoxication during the mating period and pregnancy had no effect on fertility and fecundity of rats, pre-and postimplantation loss, the survival of offspring, and not caused the abnormal development of skeleton and internal organs. However, in prenatal ontogeny of this effect was manifested by lower body weight and fetal growth, postnatal - underdevelopment of rat pups in all morphological and functional studied parameters and increasing number of stillbirths in the offspring.

  9. Prevention and Treatment of Vitamin D and Calcium Deficiency in Children and Adolescents: Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Khadilkar, Anuradha; Khadilkar, Vaman; Chinnappa, Jagdish; Rathi, Narendra; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Balasubramanian, S; Parekh, Bakul; Jog, Pramod

    2017-07-15

    Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is being increasingly reported from India from all age-groups. Reports suggest that VDD affects all age groups, from neonates to adolescents. Further, habitually low calcium intakes are also reported in Indian children. Given the multiple guidelines, peculiarities of Indian circumstances, changing lifestyles, and lack of fortification, the Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP) felt the need for a Practice Guideline for Pediatricians for the prevention and treatment of vitamin D and calcium deficiency in children and adolescents. The 'Guideline for Vitamin D and Calcium in Children' committee was formed by the IAP in September 2016. A consultative committee meeting was held in November 2016 in Mumbai. Evidence from Indian and international studies and other previous published recommendations, which were pertinent to the Indian circumstances, were collated for the preparation of these guidelines. To present a practice guideline for pediatricians for the prevention and treatment of deficiency of vitamin D and calcium in the Indian context. For the prevention of rickets in premature infants, 400 IU of vitamin D and 150-220 mg/kg of calcium, and in neonates, 400 IU of vitamin D and 200 mg of calcium are recommended daily. For prevention of rickets and hypocalcemia in infants (after neonatal period) upto 1 year of age, and from 1-18 years, 400 IU and 600 IU vitamin D/day and 250-500 mg/day and 600-800 mg/day of calcium, respectively, are recommended. For treatment of rickets in premature neonates, infants upto 1 year and from 1-18 years, 1000 IU, 2000 IU and 3000-6000 IU of vitamin D daily, respectively, and elemental calcium of 70-80 mg/kg/day in premature neonates and 500-800 mg daily for all children over that age are recommended. Larger doses of vitamin D may be given from 3 months to 18 years of age as 60,000 IU/week for 6 weeks.

  10. Calcium.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert J P

    2002-01-01

    This chapter describes the chemical and biological value of the calcium ion. In calcium chemistry, our main interest is in equilibria within static, nonflowing systems. Hence, we examined the way calcium formed precipitates and complex ions in solution. We observed thereafter its uses by humankind in a vast number of materials such as minerals, e.g., marble, concrete, mortars, which parallel the biological use in shells and bones. In complex formation, we noted that many combinations were of anion interaction with calcium for example in the uses of detergents and medicines. The rates of exchange of calcium from bound states were noted but they had little application. Calcium ions do not act as catalysts of organic reactions. In biological systems, interest is in the above chemistry, but extends to the fact that Ca2+ ions can carry information by flowing in one solution or from one solution to another through membranes. Hence, we became interested in the details of rates of calcium exchange. The fast exchange of this divalent ion from most organic binding sites has allowed it to develop as the dominant second messenger. Now the flow can be examined in vitro as calcium binds particular isolated proteins, which it activates as seen in physical mechanical changes or chemical changes and this piece-by-piece study of cells is common. Here, however, we have chosen to stress the whole circuit of Ca2+ action indicating that the cell is organized both at a basal and an activated state kinetic level by the steady state flow of the ion (see Fig. 11). Different time constants of exchange utilizing very similar binding constants lead to: 1) fast responses as in the muscle of an animal; or 2) slower change as in differentiation of an egg or seed. Many other changes of state may relate to Ca2+ steady-state levels of flow in the circuitry and here we point to two: 1) dormancy in reptiles and animals; and 2) sporulation in both bacteria and lower plants. In the other chapters of

  11. Recent developments in calcium-related obesity research.

    PubMed

    Major, G C; Chaput, J-P; Ledoux, M; St-Pierre, S; Anderson, G H; Zemel, M B; Tremblay, A

    2008-09-01

    The influence of calcium and dairy food intake on energy balance is the object of a growing scientific literature. This manuscript presents the information discussed by subject experts during a symposium on calcium and obesity, initially planned to document in a comprehensive manner the role of calcium and dairy food on energy balance and body composition. This manuscript is organized into 13 propositions statements which either resume the presentation of an invited speaker or integrate recent developments in calcium-related obesity research. More specifically, the effects of calcium and dairy consumption on body weight and adiposity level, appetite, weight loss intervention outcome, lipid-lipoprotein profile and the risk to develop metabolic syndrome are discussed together with the metabolic mechanisms proposed to explain these effects. Taken together, the observations presented in this manuscript suggest that calcium and dairy food intake can influence many components of energy and fat balance, indicating that inadequate calcium/dairy intake may increase the risk of positive energy balance and of other health problems.

  12. Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Calcium Homeostasis in Saudi Children

    PubMed Central

    Al Shaikh, Adnan M.; Abaalkhail, Bahaa; Soliman, Ashraf; Kaddam, Ibrahim; Aseri, Khalid; Al Saleh, Yousef; Al Qarni, Ali; Al Shuaibi, Ahmed; Al Tamimi, Waleed; Mukhtar, Abdel Moniem

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and vitamin D insufficiency (VDI) are significant health problems all over the world. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of VDD and VDI in children and adolescents residing in 8 provinces in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to also investigate calcium homeostasis in these subjects. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2110 participants aged between 6 and 15 years. Information on socio-demographic status, anthropometric measurements, knowledge about vitamin D, color of the skin, dietary intake, sun exposure experience, smoking, and physical activity were collected through a questionnaire given to the parents of all subjects. The subjects were divided into three groups as vitamin D deficient, vitamin D insufficient, and vitamin sufficient according to their blood level of vitamin D [VDD ≤25 nmol/L (25 hydroxy vitamin D), VDI >25-50 nmol/L, and VDS >50 nmol/L]. Results: VDD was highly prevalent in this group of children. 95.3 of the subjects had either VDD (45.5%) or VDI (49.9%). The prevalence rate of VDD combined with VDI was higher in females (97.8%) compared to males (92.8%) (p<0.001). Only 1.6% had significant hypocalcaemia. Children with dark skin had lower concentrations of vitamin D and higher concentrations of parathormone. A positive correlation was observed between 25 hydroxy vitamin D level and serum calcium, inorganic phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations. Conclusion: The results showed a high prevalence of VDD and VDI in Saudi children with significantly higher prevalence in girls. These findings necessitate the set-up of a national program for vitamin D supplementation and health education for this vulnerable group. PMID:27476528

  13. Premixed, injectable PLA-modified calcium deficient apatite biocement (cd-AB) with washout resistance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fan; Ngothai, Yung; Wei, Jie; Liu, Changsheng; O'Neill, Brian; Wu, Yuequn

    2012-04-01

    By using a non-aqueous solution as the mixing liquid, the washout resistance of the calcium deficient apatite biocement (cd-AB) was significantly improved, over that of the conventional method of using cd-AB with water as the liquid phase. In this study, premixed and injectable cd-AB was prepared, which had the advantage of being stable in the syringe and hardens only after being delivered to the defect area. The cd-AB powder with a Ca/P ratio of 1.5 consists of a mixture of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP) and dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA). A solution of polylactide (PLA) in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) was used as the liquid phase of the premixed cd-AB. The premixed cd-AB paste injected into an aqueous environment exhibited excellent washout resistance. The premixed cd-AB had longer setting time and lower compressive strength than conventional cd-AB. The hydration products of premixed cd-AB were a mixture of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (cd-HA) and PLA. In vitro Tris-HCl immersion tests demonstrated that the premixed cd-AB could be degradable. The results revealed that the premixed cd-AB was cytocompatible and had no adverse effects on the attachment and proliferation of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells in vitro. The most distinct advantages of premixed and injectable PLA-modified cd-AB were its excellent washout resistance and in vitro degradability, suggesting that it may be a promising candidate for bone repair.

  14. Calcium in Gluten-Free Life: Health-Related and Nutritional Implications

    PubMed Central

    Krupa-Kozak, Urszula; Drabińska, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Calcium deficiency and metabolic bone diseases are a frequent co-morbidity of coeliac disease (CD). Gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only effective treatment of CD. However, CD patients on the strict GFD consume less than the recommended amounts of calcium. In this review, the main etiological factors responsible for calcium deficiency in CD were presented. Additionally, the research on the application of calcium supplements in the gluten-free breadmaking was reviewed, and its effect on the technological and sensory properties of baked products was indicated. Calcium-fortified gluten-free products could increase the calcium content in the diet of CD patients, supplying the amount of calcium they need for prophylactic or therapeutic use. Apart from this, the consumption of the naturally GF products as well as functional ingredients beneficially affecting calcium absorption need to be encouraged. PMID:28231146

  15. Behavior of osteoblast-like cells on calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite ceramics composed of particles with different shapes and sizes.

    PubMed

    Kamitakahara, Masanobu; Uno, Yuika; Ioku, Koji

    2014-01-01

    In designing the biomaterials, it is important to control their surface morphologies, because they affect the interactions between the materials and cells. We previously reported that porous calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics composed of rod-like particles had advantages over sintered porous HA ceramics; however, the effects of the surface morphology of calcium-deficient HA ceramics on cell behavior have remained unclear. Using a hydrothermal process, we successfully prepared porous calcium-deficient HA ceramics with different surface morphologies, composed of plate-like particles of 200-300, 500-800 nm, or 2-3 μm in width and rod-like particles of 1 or 3-5 μm in width, respectively. The effects of these surface morphologies on the behavior of osteoblast-like cells were examined. Although the numbers of cells adhered to the ceramic specimens did not differ significantly among the specimens, the proliferation rates of cells on the ceramics decreased with decreasing particle size. Our results reveal that controlling the surface morphology that is governed by particle shape and size is important for designing porous calcium-deficient HA ceramics.

  16. Biomimetic Synthesis of Calcium-Deficient Hydroxyapatite in a Natural Hydrogel

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchens, Stacy A; Benson, Roberto S.; Evans, Barbara R; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Rawn, Claudia J

    2006-01-01

    A novel composite material consisting of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CdHAP) biomimetically deposited in a bacterial cellulose hydrogel was synthesized and characterized. Cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter hansenii was purified and sequentially incubated in solutions of calcium chloride followed by sodium phosphate dibasic. A substantial amount of apatite (50-90% of total dry weight) was homogeneously incorporated throughout the hydrogel after this treatment. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that CdHAP crystallites had formed in the cellulose. XRD further demonstrated that the CdHAP was comprised of 10-50nm anisotropic crystallites elongated in the c-axis, similar to natural bone apatite. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy demonstrated that hydroxyl IR bands of the cellulose shifted to lower wave numbers indicating that a coordinate bond had possibly formed between the CdHAP and the cellulose hydroxyl groups. FTIR also suggested that the CdHAP had formed from an octacalcium phosphate precursor similar to physiological bone. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images confirmed that uniform ?1 mm spherical CdHAP particles comprised of nanosized crystallites with a lamellar morphology had formed in the cellulose. The synthesis of the composite mimics the natural biomineralization of bone indicating that bacterial cellulose can be used as a template for biomimetic apatite formation. This composite may have potential use as an orthopedic biomaterial.

  17. Biomimetic synthesis of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite in a natural hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Hutchens, Stacy A; Benson, Roberto S; Evans, Barbara R; O'Neill, Hugh M; Rawn, Claudia J

    2006-09-01

    A novel composite material consisting of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CdHAP) biomimetically deposited in a bacterial cellulose hydrogel was synthesized and characterized. Cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter hansenii was purified and sequentially incubated in solutions of calcium chloride followed by sodium phosphate dibasic. A substantial amount of apatite (50-90% of total dry weight) was homogeneously incorporated throughout the hydrogel after this treatment. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) showed that CdHAP crystallites had formed in the cellulose. XRD further demonstrated that the CdHAP was comprised of 10-50 nm anisotropic crystallites elongated in the c-axis, similar to natural bone apatite. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy demonstrated that hydroxyl IR bands of the cellulose shifted to lower wave numbers indicating that a coordinate bond had possibly formed between the CdHAP and the cellulose hydroxyl groups. FTIR also suggested that the CdHAP had formed from an octacalcium phosphate precursor similar to physiological bone. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images confirmed that uniform approximately 1 microm spherical CdHAP particles comprised of nanosized crystallites with a lamellar morphology had formed in the cellulose. The synthesis of the composite mimics the natural biomineralization of bone indicating that bacterial cellulose can be used as a template for biomimetic apatite formation. This composite may have potential use as an orthopedic biomaterial.

  18. Cell behavior of human mesenchymal stromal cells in response to silica/collagen based xerogels and calcium deficient culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Alena-Svenja; Glenske, Kristina; Henß, Anja; Kruppke, Benjamin; Rößler, Sina; Hanke, Thomas; Moritz, Andreas; Rohnke, Marcus; Kressin, Monika; Arnhold, Stefan; Schnettler, Reinhard; Wenisch, Sabine

    2017-07-04

    Herein, we aim to elucidate osteogenic effects of two silica-based xerogels with different degrees of bioactivity on human bone-derived mesenchymal stromal cells by means of scanning electron microscopy, quantitative PCR enhanced osteogenic effects and the formation of an extracellular matrix which could be ascribed to the sample with lower bioactivity. Given the high levels of bioactivity, the cells revealed remarkable sensitivity to extremely low calcium levels of the media. Therefore, additional experiments were performed to elucidate cell behavior under calcium deficient conditions. The results refer to capacity of the bone-derived stromal cells to overcome calcium deficiency even though proliferation, migration and osteogenic differentiation capabilities were diminished. One reason for the differences of the cellular response (on tissue culture plates versus xerogels) to calcium deficiency seems to be the positive effect of silica. The silica could be detected intracellularly as shown by time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry after cultivation of primary cells for 21 days on the surfaces of the xerogels. Thus, the present findings refer to different osteogenic differentiation potentials of the xerogels according to the different degrees of bioactivity, and to the role of silica as a stimulator of osteogenesis. Finally, the observed pattern of connexin-based hemichannel gating supports the assumption that connexin 43 is a key factor for calcium-mediated osteogenesis in bone-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

  19. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of the Response to Zinc, Magnesium, and Calcium Deficiency in Specific Cell Types of Arabidopsis Roots

    PubMed Central

    Fukao, Yoichiro; Kobayashi, Mami; Zargar, Sajad Majeed; Kurata, Rie; Fukui, Risa; Mori, Izumi C.; Ogata, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The proteome profiles of specific cell types have recently been investigated using techniques such as fluorescence activated cell sorting and laser capture microdissection. However, quantitative proteomic analysis of specific cell types has not yet been performed. In this study, to investigate the response of the proteome to zinc, magnesium, and calcium deficiency in specific cell types of Arabidopsis thaliana roots, we performed isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics using GFP-expressing protoplasts collected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Protoplasts were collected from the pGL2-GFPer and pMGP-GFPer marker lines for epidermis or inner cell lines (pericycle, endodermis, and cortex), respectively. To increase the number of proteins identified, iTRAQ-labeled peptides were separated into 24 fractions by OFFGFEL electrophoresis prior to high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis. Overall, 1039 and 737 proteins were identified and quantified in the epidermal and inner cell lines, respectively. Interestingly, the expression of many proteins was decreased in the epidermis by mineral deficiency, although a weaker effect was observed in inner cell lines such as the pericycle, endodermis, and cortex. Here, we report for the first time the quantitative proteomics of specific cell types in Arabidopsis roots. PMID:28248212

  20. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of the Response to Zinc, Magnesium, and Calcium Deficiency in Specific Cell Types of Arabidopsis Roots.

    PubMed

    Fukao, Yoichiro; Kobayashi, Mami; Zargar, Sajad Majeed; Kurata, Rie; Fukui, Risa; Mori, Izumi C; Ogata, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-12

    The proteome profiles of specific cell types have recently been investigated using techniques such as fluorescence activated cell sorting and laser capture microdissection. However, quantitative proteomic analysis of specific cell types has not yet been performed. In this study, to investigate the response of the proteome to zinc, magnesium, and calcium deficiency in specific cell types of Arabidopsis thaliana roots, we performed isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics using GFP-expressing protoplasts collected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Protoplasts were collected from the pGL2-GFPer and pMGP-GFPer marker lines for epidermis or inner cell lines (pericycle, endodermis, and cortex), respectively. To increase the number of proteins identified, iTRAQ-labeled peptides were separated into 24 fractions by OFFGFEL electrophoresis prior to high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis. Overall, 1039 and 737 proteins were identified and quantified in the epidermal and inner cell lines, respectively. Interestingly, the expression of many proteins was decreased in the epidermis by mineral deficiency, although a weaker effect was observed in inner cell lines such as the pericycle, endodermis, and cortex. Here, we report for the first time the quantitative proteomics of specific cell types in Arabidopsis roots.

  1. Influences of calcium deficiency and cerium on the conversion efficiency of light energy of spinach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Liu, Xiaoqing; Qu, Chunxiang; Liu, Chao; Chen, Liang; Hong, Fashui

    2008-10-01

    Chloroplast absorbs light energy and transforms it into electron energy, and then converts it into active chemical energy and stable chemical energy. In the present paper, we investigated the effects of Ce(3+), which has the most significant catalytic effects and similar characteristics with Ca(2+), on light energy conversion of spinach chloroplasts under Ca(2+)-deficient stress. The results illuminated that the Hill reaction activity, electron flow both photosystems and photophosphorylation rate of spinach chloroplasts reduced significantly under Ca(2+)-deficient condition, and activities of Mg(2+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase on the thylakoid membrane were severely inhibited. Meanwhile, the activity of Rubisco, which is the key enzyme of photosynthetic carbon assimilation, was also prohibited. However, Ce(3+) decreased the inhibition of calcium deprivation the electron transport rate, the oxygen evolution rate, the cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation, the activities of Mg(2+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase and Rubisco of spinach chloroplasts. All above implied that Ca(2+)-depletion could disturb light energy conversion of chloroplasts strongly, which could be reversed by Ce(3+).

  2. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... You'll also find calcium in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables (especially collard and turnip greens, ... can enjoy good sources of calcium such as dark green, leafy vegetables, broccoli, chickpeas, and calcium-fortified ...

  3. Dopamine D(3) receptor deficiency sensitizes mice to iron deficiency-related deficits in motor learning.

    PubMed

    Klinker, F; Hasan, K; Dowling, P; Paulus, W; Liebetanz, D

    2011-07-07

    Iron deficiency is a widespread form of malnutrition and is known to interfere with cognitive performance and development. To elucidate the role of dopamine D3 and iron deficiency (ID) in inducing cognitive deficits, we studied wildtype and D3 knockout mice on normal or iron-deficient diets subjected to a running wheel-based motor skill sequence. Surprisingly, ID alone had no effect on motor learning in this study, whereas combined ID and dopamine D(3) receptor (D3R)-deficiency significantly interfered with the acquisition of motor skills. Reduced D3R function may serve as a predisposing factor towards ID-related effects on motor learning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of serum copper, magnesium, zinc and calcium levels between G6PD deficient and normal Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Chen, B H; Tsai, J L; Tsai, L Y; Chao, M C

    1999-11-01

    Minerals are important for normal hematopoiesis and may play a role in acute hemolytic anemia induced by G6PD deficiency. To compare serum magnesium, copper, zinc and calcium levels between G6PD deficiency and normal control adults, we investigated 69 G6PD deficient (28 male, 41 female) and 61 age- matched G6PD normal adults (26 male, 35 female). Serum magnesium, copper, zinc and calcium levels were determined by atomic absorbance spectrometry. Our results revealed that male adults with G6PD deficiency had significantly higher serum copper and magnesium levels than those of the control group (P < 0.01, < 0.05, respectively). In G6PD normal adults, serum copper levels were significantly lower in males than in females (P < 0.01). In the group of G6PD deficiency adults, serum copper levels in males (103.0 +/- 10.4 ug/dL) were significantly lower than those in females (139.0 +/- 34.3 ug/dL) (P < 0.01). Serum magnesium values and zinc values in males (2.42 +/- 0.38 mEq/L and 102.2 +/- 26.5 ug/dL) were significantly higher than those in females (2.07 +/- 0.20 mEq/L and 87.0 +/- 14.9 ug/dL) (P all < 0.01). Female adults with G6PD deficiency had significantly higher serum calcium levels and lower magnesium levels than those of the control group (P all < 0.01). The significantly higher levels of serum copper and magnesium in G6PD deficient male adults may play some role concerning red blood cells in resistance to plasmodium falciparum.

  5. Ion reactivity of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite in standard cell culture media.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, J; Ginebra, M P; Engel, E; Planell, J

    2011-12-01

    Solution-mediated surface reactions occur for most calcium phosphate-based biomaterials and may influence cellular response. A reasonable extrapolation of such processes observed in vitro to in vivo performance requires a deep understanding of the underlying mechanisms. We therefore systematically investigated the nature of ion reactivity of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) by exposing it for different periods of time to standard cell culture media of different chemical composition (DMEM and McCoy medium, with and without osteogenic supplements and serum proteins). Kinetic ion interaction studies of principal extracellular ions revealed non-linear sorption of Ca²⁺ (∼50% sorption) and K⁺ (∼8%) as well as acidification of all media during initial contact with CDHA (48h). Interestingly, inorganic phosphorus (P(i)) was sorbed from McCoy medium (∼50%) or when using osteogenic media containing β-glycerophosphate, but not from DMEM medium. Non-linear sorption data could be perfectly described by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order sorption models. At longer contact time (21 days), and with frequent renewal of culture medium, sorption of Ca²⁺ remained constant throughout the experiment, while sorption of P(i) gradually decreased in McCoy medium. In great contrast, CDHA began to release P(i) slowly with time when using DMEM medium. Infrared spectra showed that CDHA exposed to culture media had a carbonated surface chemistry, suggesting that carbonate plays a key role in the ion reactivity of CDHA. Our data show that different compositions of the aqueous environment may provoke opposite ion reactivity of CDHA, and this must be carefully considered when evaluating the osteoinductive potential of the material.

  6. Calcium and its regulating hormones in patients with graves disease: sex differences and relation to postoperative tetany.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, H; Noguchi, S; Murakami, T; Uchino, S; Watanabe, S; Ohshima, A; Kawamoto, H; Toda, M; Yamashita, H

    2000-12-01

    To find out why female sex is the most important risk factor for tetany, as calcium and bone metabolism may differ between the sexes. Prospective study. Thyroid centre, Japan. 45 men (mean age 35 years, SD 13) and 178 women (mean age 33 years, SD 12) with Graves disease treated by subtotal thyroidectomy. Measurement of serum concentrations of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), calcium, electrolytes, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25 (OH) 2D). Mean values of these substances, together with reductions in serum calcium concentration, relative youth, increased alkaline phosphatase activity, large goitre, and increased serum TSH binding inhibitory globulin concentration. Women had significantly lower calcium concentrations than men (mean (SD) 2.37 (0.13) compared with 2.43 (0.07), p = 0.003). Serum calcium concentrations correlated significantly with concentrations of 25 (OH) D (p < 0.001). 121 of the women (68%) compared with 13 (29%) of men had vitamin D deficiency as defined as 25 (OH) D < 25 nmol/l (p < 0.05). 15 patients (8%) developed tetany postoperatively compared with I man (2%, p = 0.2). Women with Graves disease are more susceptible to calcium and vitamin D deficiency than men, which may account for the higher incidence of postoperative tetany among women with the disease.

  7. Rapid coating of AZ31 magnesium alloy with calcium deficient hydroxyapatite using microwave energy.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yufu; Zhou, Huan; Nabiyouni, Maryam; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2015-04-01

    Due to their unique biodegradability, magnesium alloys have been recognized as suitable metallic implant materials for degradable bone implants and bioresorbable cardiovascular stents. However, the extremely high degradation rate of magnesium alloys in physiological environment has restricted its practical application. This paper reports the use of a novel microwave assisted coating technology to improve the in vitro corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of Mg alloy AZ31. Results indicate that a dense calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) layer was uniformly coated on a AZ31 substrate in less than 10min. Weight loss measurement and SEM were used to evaluate corrosion behaviors in vitro of coated samples and of non-coated samples. It was seen that CDHA coatings remarkably reduced the mass loss of AZ31 alloy after 7days of immersion in SBF. In addition, the prompt precipitation of bone-like apatite layer on the sample surface during immersion demonstrated a good bioactivity of the CDHA coatings. Proliferation of osteoblast cells was promoted in 5days of incubation, which indicated that the CDHA coatings could improve the cytocompatibility of the AZ31 alloy. All the results suggest that the CDHA coatings, serving as a protective layer, can enhance the corrosion resistance and biological response of magnesium alloys. Furthermore, this microwave assisted coating technology could be a promising method for rapid surface modification of biomedical materials.

  8. A Resorbable Calcium-Deficient Hydroxyapatite Hydrogel Composite for Osseous Regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchens, Stacy A; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Benson, Roberto S.; Evans, Barbara R; Rawn, Claudia J

    2009-01-01

    It was previously discovered that the unique structure and chemistry of bacterial cellulose (BC) permits the formation of calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CdHAP) nanocrystallites under aqueous conditions at ambient pH and temperature. In this study, BC was chemically modified via a limited periodate oxidation reaction to render the composite degradable and thus more suitable for bone regeneration. While native BC does not degrade in mammalian systems, periodate oxidation yields dialdehyde cellulose which breaks down at physiological pH. The composite was characterized by tensile testing, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction showed that oxidized BC retains its structure and could biomimetically form CdHAP. Degradation behavior was analyzed by incubating the samples in simulated physiological fluid (pH 7.4) at 37 C under static and dynamic conditions. The oxidized BC and oxidized BC-CdHAP composites both lost significant mass after exposure to the simulated physiological environment. Examination of the incubation solutions by UV-Vis spectrophotometric analysis demonstrated that, while native BC released only small amounts of soluble cellulose fragments, oxidized cellulose releases carbonyl containing degradation products as well as soluble cellulose fragments. By entrapping CdHAP in a degradable hydrogel carrier, this composite should elicit bone regeneration then resorb over time to be replaced by new osseous tissue.

  9. Degradable biocomposite of nano calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite-multi(amino acid) copolymer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Gong, Min; Yang, Aiping; Ma, Jian; Li, Xiangde; Yan, Yonggang

    2012-01-01

    Background and methods A nano calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (n-CDHA)-multi(amino acid) copolymer (MAC) composite bone substitute biomaterial was prepared using an in situ polymerization method. The composition, structure, and compressive strength of the composite was characterized, and the in vitro degradability in phosphate-buffered solution and preliminary cell responses to the composite were investigated. Results The composite comprised n-CDHA and an amide linkage copolymer. The compressive strength of the composite was in the range of 88–129 MPa, varying with the amount of n-CDHA in the MAC (ranging from 10 wt% to 50 wt%). Weight loss from the composite increased (from 32.2 wt% to 44.3 wt%) with increasing n-CDHA content (from 10 wt% to 40 wt%) in the MAC after the composite was soaked in phosphate-buffered solution for 12 weeks. The pH of the soaking medium varied from 6.9 to 7.5. MG-63 cells with an osteogenic phenotype were well adhered and spread on the composite surface. Viability and differentiation increased with time, indicating that the composite had no negative effects on MG-63 cells. Conclusion The n-CDHA-MAC composite had good cytocompatibility and has potential to be used as a bone substitute. PMID:22457591

  10. Effects of vitamin D deficiency and daily calcium intake on bone mineral density and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal woman

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Seung Joo; Koh, Yae Kyu; Heo, Jin Young; Lee, Jinae; Kim, Min Kyoung; Yun, Bo Hyon; Lee, Byung Seok

    2017-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the combined effects of vitamin D and daily calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study consisting of 1,921 Korean postmenopausal women aged 45 to 70 years without thyroid dysfunction, from the 2008–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were classified into six groups according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and daily calcium intake. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at femur and at lumbar spine, and the serum vitamin D levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results The BMD divided according to serum 25(OH)D and daily calcium intakes were not statistically different among the groups. However, when both daily calcium intake and serum 25(OH)D were not sufficient, risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis showed significant increase in both femur neck and lumbar spine (odds ratio [OR] 2.242, P=0.006; OR 3.044, P=0.001; respectively). Although daily calcium intake was sufficient, risks of osteopenia and osteoporosis significantly increased in lumbar spine group if serum 25(OH)D is <20 ng/mL (OR 2.993, P=0.006). Conclusion The combined effects of insufficient daily calcium intake and vitamin D deficiency may cause low BMD and increase in prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women aged 45 to 70 years. PMID:28217672

  11. Active vitamin D deficiency mediated by extracellular calcium and phosphorus results in male infertility in young mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weiwei; Chen, Lulu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Rong; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2015-01-01

    We used mice with targeted deletion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 α-hydroxylase [1α(OH)ase(-/-)] to investigate whether 1,25(OH)2D3 deficiency results in male infertility mediated by 1,25(OH)2D3 or extracellular calcium and phosphorus. Male 1α(OH)ase(-/-) and their wild-type littermates fed either a normal diet or a rescue diet from weaning were mated at 6-14 wk of age with female wild-type mice on the same diet. The fertility efficiency of females was analyzed, and the reproductive phenotypes of males were evaluated by histopathological and molecular techniques. Hypocalcemic and hypophosphatemic male 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice on a normal diet developed infertility characterized by hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, with downregulation of testicular calcium channels, lower intracellular calcium levels, decreased sperm count and motility, and histological abnormalities of the testes. The proliferation of spermatogenic cells was decreased with downregulation of cyclin E and CDK2 and upregulation of p53 and p21 expression, whereas apoptosis of spermatogenic cells was increased with upregulation of Bax and p-caspase 3 expression and downregulation of Bcl-xl expression. When serum calcium and phosphorus were normalized by the rescue diet, the defective reproductive phenotype in the male 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice, including the hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, decreased sperm count and motility, histological abnormalities of testis, and defective spermatogenesis, was reversed. These results indicate that the infertility seen in male 1,25(OH)2D3-deficient mice is not a direct effect of active vitamin D deficiency on the reproductive system but is an indirect effect mediated by extracellular calcium and phosphorus. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Alcohol and B1 vitamin deficiency-related stillbirths.

    PubMed

    Bâ, Abdoulaye

    2009-05-01

    The present study attempts to determine whether prenatal thiamine (B1 vitamin) deficiency and prenatal alcohol exposure are risk factors for stillbirths. From conception to parturition, Wistar rat dams were exposed to the following treatments: (1) Rat dams consuming a thiamine-deficient diet; (2) 12% alcohol/water drinking mothers; (3) mothers drinking 12% alcohol/water + thiamine hydrochloride mixture. Appropriate pair-fed controls and ad libitum controls were assessed. Gestation outcome and fetal parameters, including spontaneous abortion, still-born fetuses, litter size and birth weight, were assessed from the dams of each experimental group. Both alcohol and thiamine deficiency during pregnancy increased fetal death (48.26%vs. 84.47%), reduced litter size (44.54%vs. 72.7%), respectively, and lowered birth weight. Thiamine administration reversed the effects of alcohol-induced fetal death, suggesting that a part of deleterious actions of alcohol on fetal death was mediated by thiamine deficiency. Prenatal thiamine deficiency increased singularly spontaneous abortion with abundant bleeding (40%), rising the occurrence of stillbirth. Such a pathology was not observed in alcohol group. The results indexed thiamine deficiency as a potent risk factor for stillbirths. The vitamin supply during pregnancy prevents stillbirths related to chronic alcoholism and different facets of malnutrition.

  13. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... in luck if you like sardines and canned salmon with bones. Almond milk. previous continue Working Calcium ... drinks, and cereals. Other Considerations for Building Bones Vitamin D is essential for calcium absorption, so it's ...

  14. Vitamin D deficiency and supplementation and relation to cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Vacek, James L; Vanga, Subba Reddy; Good, Mathew; Lai, Sue Min; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya; Howard, Patricia A

    2012-02-01

    Recent evidence supports an association between vitamin D deficiency and hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, coronary artery disease, and heart failure. The effect of vitamin D supplementation, however, has not been well studied. We examined the associations between vitamin D deficiency, vitamin D supplementation, and patient outcomes in a large cohort. Serum vitamin D measurements for 5 years and 8 months from a large academic institution were matched to patient demographic, physiologic, and disease variables. The vitamin D levels were analyzed as a continuous variable and as normal (≥30 ng/ml) or deficient (<30 ng/ml). Descriptive statistics, univariate analysis, multivariate analysis, survival analysis, and Cox proportional hazard modeling were performed. Of 10,899 patients, the mean age was 58 ± 15 years, 71% were women (n = 7,758), and the average body mass index was 30 ± 8 kg/m(2). The mean serum vitamin D level was 24.1 ± 13.6 ng/ml. Of the 10,899 patients, 3,294 (29.7%) were in the normal vitamin D range and 7,665 (70.3%) were deficient. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with several cardiovascular-related diseases, including hypertension, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and diabetes (all p <0.05). Vitamin D deficiency was a strong independent predictor of all-cause death (odds ratios 2.64, 95% confidence interval 1.901 to 3.662, p <0.0001) after adjusting for multiple clinical variables. Vitamin D supplementation conferred substantial survival benefit (odds ratio for death 0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.277 to 0.534, p <0.0001). In conclusion, vitamin D deficiency was associated with a significant risk of cardiovascular disease and reduced survival. Vitamin D supplementation was significantly associated with better survival, specifically in patients with documented deficiency.

  15. Calcium-deficient apatite: influence of granule size and consolidation mode on release and in vitro activity of vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Obadia, L; Amador, G; Daculsi, G; Bouler, J-M

    2003-03-01

    The use of dynamic compaction and isostatic compression to consolidate calcium phosphate powder loaded with a therapeutic agent avoids a sintering step that could destroy the drug. The present study applied these consolidation methods to vancomycin-loaded calcium-deficient apatite powder, using three granulometric fractions (40-80, 80-200 and 200-500 micrometer). In vitro release profiles were determined via an original system derived from low-pressure liquid chromatography. The biological activity of vancomycin was measured by an in vitro standardized bacteriologic assay, which showed that the drug is completely active after association with calcium phosphate. Regardless of the consolidation method and granulometric fraction used, release profiles were not significantly different and therefore adaptable to injectable suspensions.

  16. Osteocyte-derived RANKL is a critical mediator of the increased bone resorption caused by dietary calcium deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jinhu; Piemontese, Marilina; Thostenson, Jeff D.; Weinstein, Robert S.; Manolagas, Stavros C.; O’Brien, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) excess stimulates bone resorption. This effect is associated with increased expression of the osteoclastogenic cytokine receptor activator of nuclear factor кB ligand (RANKL) in bone. However, several different cell types, including bone marrow stromal cells, osteocytes, and T lymphocytes, express both RANKL and the PTH receptor and it is unclear whether RANKL expression by any of these cell types is required for PTH-induced bone loss. Here we have used mice lacking the RANKL gene in osteocytes to determine whether RANKL produced by this cell type is required for the bone loss caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism induced by dietary calcium deficiency in adult mice. Thirty days of dietary calcium deficiency caused bone loss in control mice, but this effect was blunted in mice lacking RANKL in osteocytes. The increase in RANKL expression in bone and the increase in osteoclast number caused by dietary calcium deficiency were also blunted in mice lacking RANKL in osteocytes. These results demonstrate that RANKL produced by osteocytes contributes to the increased bone resorption and the bone loss caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism, strengthening the evidence that osteocytes are an important target cell for hormonal control of bone remodeling. PMID:24933342

  17. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as canned sardines and salmon Calcium-enriched foods such as breakfast cereals, fruit juices, soy and rice drinks, and tofu. Check the product labels. The exact amount of calcium you need depends on your age and other factors. Growing children and teenagers need more calcium than ...

  18. EFFECTS OF CALCIUM DEFICIENCY AND EXCESS ON TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIALS IN FROG HEART.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    increased about 20 percent during calcium deprivation and fell a similar amount during high calcium perfusion; however, the membrane potential at the...moment of maximum depolarization rate was unchanged from normal by either experimental solution. High calcium augmented the ’spike’ and ’plateau

  19. Coronary Calcification Is Reversely Related with Bone and Hair Calcium: The Relationship among Different Calcium Pools in Body

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hoon; Park, Soo-Jung; Kim, Kyu-Nam; Cho, Doo-Yeoun; Kim, Young-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Background With aging, calcium efflux from bone is increased with age-related bone loss, and it can reduce bone mineral density (BMD). On the contrary, age-related calcium adoption into arterial wall progressively stiffens blood vessels. Theses process insinuates shift of calcium among different pools in body. However, their relationships have not been elucidated yet. So we investigated the correlation among calcium contents in different body pools, such as hair, bone, and blood vessels in women. Methods We analyzed 50 females retrospectively who measured Agatston coronary artery calcium score (CACS), BMD, and hair calcium concentration at a regular health check-up in a university hospital. CACS was achieved by coronary multidetector computed tomography, BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in the lumbar spine and femur, and hair calcium level was checked by hair tissue mineral analysis. Results CACS inversely correlated with BMD (r=-0.280, P=0.049 with lumbar vertebrae 1-4, r=-0.310, P=0.028 with femur neck, r=-0.333, P=0.018 with femur total) and hair calcium concentration (r=-0.352, P=0.012). Conclusions CACS has negative correlation with BMD and hair calcium level in women. Different body calcium pools such as bone, hair and blood vessel significantly correlated each other. PMID:27965940

  20. Diagnosis and assessment of skeletal related disease using calcium 41

    DOEpatents

    Hillegonds, Darren J [Oakland, CA; Vogel, John S [San Jose, CA; Fitzgerald, Robert L [Encinitas, CA; Deftos, Leonard J [Del Mar, CA; Herold, David [Del Mar, CA; Burton, Douglas W [San Diego, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of determining calcium metabolism in a patient comprises the steps of administering radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca to the patient, allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and reaction of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca by the patient, obtaining a sample of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca from the patient, isolating the calcium content of the sample in a form suitable for precise measurement of isotopic calcium concentrations, and measuring the calcium content to determine parameters of calcium metabolism in the patient.

  1. Diagnosis and assessment of skeletal related disease using calcium 41

    DOEpatents

    Hillegonds, Darren J.; Vogel, John S.; Fitzgerald, Robert L.; Deftos, Leonard J.; Herold, David; Burton, Douglas W.

    2013-03-05

    A method of determining calcium metabolism in a patient comprises the steps of administering radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca to the patient, allowing a period of time to elapse sufficient for dissemination and reaction of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca by the patient, obtaining a sample of the radioactive calcium isotope .sup.41Ca from the patient, isolating the calcium content of the sample in a form suitable for precise measurement of isotopic calcium concentrations, and measuring the calcium content to determine parameters of calcium metabolism in the patient.

  2. Chronic maternal calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in Wistar rats programs abnormal hepatic gene expression leading to hepatic steatosis in female offspring.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sona S; Jangale, Nivedita M; Harsulkar, Abhay M; Gokhale, Medha K; Joshi, Bimba N

    2017-02-08

    Importance of calcium and vitamin D deficiency is well established in adult dyslipidemia. We hypothesized that maternal calcium and vitamin D deficiency could alter offspring's lipid metabolism. Our objective was to investigate the effect of maternal dietary calcium and vitamin D deficiency on lipid metabolism and liver function of the F1 generation offspring. intergenerational calcium-deficient (CaD) and vitamin D-deficient (VDD) models were developed by mating normal male rats with deficient females and continuing maternal-deficient diets through pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were fed on control diet post-weaning and studied till 30 weeks. Lipid profile, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), calcium and vitamin D levels were analyzed. Liver fat deposition, omega-3 fatty acids level and mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), interleukin 6 (IL-6), superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD-1) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) were determined. Low serum vitamin D levels with an increase in SGPT and TG levels in CaD and VDD female offspring were observed. Severe liver steatosis with down-regulation of PPAR-α and UCP2 and up-regulation of SREBP-1c, IL-6 and SOD-1 was observed in the female offspring born to deficient dams. CaD and VDD male offspring showed mild steatosis and down-regulation of UCP2 and SOD-1. We conclude that maternal calcium and vitamin D deficiency programs abnormal lipid metabolism and hepatic gene expression in the F1 generation female offspring leading to hepatic steatosis, despite feeding them on control diet post-weaning.

  3. Porosity-strength relation in calcium aluminate cement pastes

    SciTech Connect

    Matusinovic, T.; Sipusic, J.; Vrbos, N

    2003-11-01

    The compressive strength and the volume porosity of calcium aluminate cement pastes have been studied in order to connect their relationship. The influence of mass fraction of lithium carbonate on compressive strength and porosity of calcium aluminate cement (CAC) has been investigated at different water-cement (w/c) ratios. The functions proposed in the literature for different technical materials were tested on obtained strength and porosity data. Those functions have been a base for further development of more general functional dependence of strength and porosity for cement materials. Thus, we propose the following equation to relate the strength and porosity for CAC pastes:{sigma}={sigma}{sub P0}1-PP{sub 0}{sup 2}.

  4. The Abnormal Phenotypes of Cartilage and Bone in Calcium-Sensing Receptor Deficient Mice Are Dependent on the Actions of Calcium, Phosphorus, and PTH

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Chunxiang; Ding, Guoxian; Karaplis, Andrew; Brown, Edward; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2011-01-01

    Patients with neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT) are homozygous for the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) mutation and have very high circulating PTH, abundant parathyroid hyperplasia, and severe life-threatening hypercalcemia. Mice with homozygous deletion of CaR mimic the syndrome of NSHPT. To determine effects of CaR deficiency on skeletal development and interactions between CaR and 1,25(OH)2D3 or PTH on calcium and skeletal homeostasis, we compared the skeletal phenotypes of homozygous CaR–deficient (CaR−/−) mice to those of double homozygous CaR– and 1α(OH)ase–deficient [CaR−/−1α(OH)ase−/−] mice or those of double homozygous CaR– and PTH–deficient [CaR−/−PTH−/−] mice at 2 weeks of age. Compared to wild-type littermates, CaR−/− mice had hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, and severe skeletal growth retardation. Chondrocyte proliferation and PTHrP expression in growth plates were reduced significantly, whereas trabecular volume, osteoblast number, osteocalcin-positive areas, expression of the ALP, type I collagen, osteocalcin genes, and serum ALP levels were increased significantly. Deletion of 1α(OH)ase in CaR−/− mice resulted in a longer lifespan, normocalcemia, lower serum phosphorus, greater elevation in PTH, slight improvement in skeletal growth with increased chondrocyte proliferation and PTHrP expression, and further increases in indices of osteoblastic bone formation. Deletion of PTH in CaR−/− mice resulted in rescue of early lethality, normocalcemia, increased serum phosphorus, undetectable serum PTH, normalization in skeletal growth with normal chondrocyte proliferation and enhanced PTHrP expression, and dramatic decreases in indices of osteoblastic bone formation. Our results indicate that reductions in hypercalcemia play a critical role in preventing the early lethality of CaR−/− mice and that defects in endochondral bone formation in CaR−/− mice result from effects of the

  5. Developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism reduce phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II in the rat entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Hou, Yi; Dong, Jing; Xu, Hongde; Gong, Jian; Chen, Jie

    2010-12-01

    Iodine is essential for the synthesis of triiodothyronine (T₃) and thyroxine (T₄). Iodine deficiency leads to inadequate thyroid hormone. Hypothyroidism induced by iodine deficiency during gestation and postnatal period leads to cognitive deficits in learning and memory. However, the mechanism underlying these deficits is unclear. Calcium-dependent calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) known as a potential memory molecule regulates important neuronal functions including learning and memory. Recent studies have shown that hypothyroidism alters phosphorylation of CaMKII in hippocampus or even in sympathetic ganglia of rats. Though the entorhinal cortex (EC) is an important functional structure within the neuronal network responsible for learning and memory, little is known about the effect of hypothyroidism on phosphorylation of CaMKII in the EC. Here, we report that iodine deficiency and propylthiouracil treatment through gestation and lactation reduce phosphorylation of CaMKII in the EC of pups. The increase of calcineurin, as well as reduction of neurogranin and calmodulin, may account for the reduced phosphorylation of CaMKII induced by developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism. These findings in the EC may contribute to understanding the mechanisms that underlie impairment of learning and memory induced by developmental iodine deficiency and hypothyroidism.

  6. Deficient for endoplasmic reticulum calcium sensors Stim1 and Stim2 affects aberrant antibody affinity maturation in B cells

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xuhua; Zhang, Jianfeng; Han, Yue; Luan, Chao; Hu, Yu; Hao, Zhimin; Chen, Min

    2016-01-01

    Antigen specific B cells undergo a process termed affinity maturation in the germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs where B cells with high affinity receptors are selected to mature into antibody-producing cells or to the memory B cell pool. It is known that B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling plays pivotal role in this selection process. Calcium influx is an essential component of BCR signaling. The current report is to determine the effect of calcium influx on antibody affinity maturation. In our studies, mice deficient for both endoplasmic reticulum calciumsensor Stim1 and Stim2 was immunized with T-cell dependent and independent antigens. Antibody affinity was measured by ELISA. We demonstrated that Stim1 &Stim2 deficient B cells exhibit accelerated pace of affinity maturation compared to wild type controls while the overall antibody production was not dramatically impaired to T-independent antigen immunization. In conclusion, calcium influx plays an important role in antibody affinity maturation in humoral immune responses. The knowledge can be used in manipulate humoral immune response for the design of effective vaccines. PMID:27572320

  7. Influence of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Induced by Low Dietary Calcium, Vitamin D Deficiency, and Renal Failure on Circulating Rat PTH Molecular Forms.

    PubMed

    D'Amour, Pierre; Rousseau, Louise; Hornyak, Stephen; Yang, Zan; Cantor, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Rats(r) with secondary hyperparathyroidism were studied to define the relationship between vitamin D metabolites and rPTH levels measured by 3 different rat ELISAs. Controls and renal failure (RF) rats were on a normal diet, while 2 groups on a low-calcium (-Ca) or a vitamin D-deficient (-D) diet. RF was induced surgically. Mild RF rats had normal calcium and 25(OH)D but reduced 1,25(OH)(2)D levels (P < .001) with a 2.5-fold increased in rPTH (P < .001). Severe RF rats and those on a -Ca or -D diet had reduced calcium (P < .01) and 25(OH)D levels (P < .05), with rPTH increased by 2 (-Ca diet; P < .05), 4 (-D diet; P < .001), and 20-folds (RF; P < .001) while 1,25(OH)(2)D was high (-Ca diet: P < .001) or low (-D diet, RF: P < .001). 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)(2)D were positively and negatively related on the -Ca and -D diets, respectively. rPTH molecular forms behaved as expected in RF and on -Ca diet, but not on -D diet with more C-rPTH fragments when less were expected. This may be related to the short-time course of this study compared to prior studies.

  8. Deficiencies in extrusion of the second polar body due to high calcium concentrations during in vitro fertilization in inbred C3H/He mice.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yuki; Nagao, Yoshikazu; Minami, Naojiro; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Kito, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    Successful in vitro fertilization (IVF) of all inbred strains of laboratory mice has not yet been accomplished. We have previously shown that a high calcium concentration improved IVF in various inbred mice. However, we also found that in cumulus-free ova of C3H/He mice such IVF conditions significantly increased the deficiency of extrusion of the second polar body (PBII) in a dose-dependent manner (2% at 1.71 mM and 29% at 6.84 mM, P < 0.05) and that PBII extrusion was affected by high calcium levels at 2-3 h post-insemination. While developmental competence of ova without PBII extrusion to blastocysts after 96 h culture was not affected, a significant reduction in the nuclear number of the inner cell mass was observed in blastocyst fertilized under high calcium condition. We also examined how high calcium concentration during IVF affects PBII extrusion in C3H/He mice. Cumulus cells cultured under high calcium conditions showed a significantly alleviated deficient PBII extrusion. This phenomenon is likely to be specific to C3H/He ova because deficient PBII extrusion in reciprocal fertilization between C3H and BDF1 gametes was observed only in C3H/He ova. Sperm factor(s) was still involved in deficient PBII extrusion due to high calcium concentrations, as this phenomenon was not observed in ova activated by ethanol. The cytoskeletal organization of ova without PBII extrusion showed disturbed spindle rotation, incomplete formation of contractile ring and disturbed localization of actin, suggesting that high calcium levels affect the anchoring machinery of the meiotic spindle. These results indicate that in C3H/He mice high calcium levels induce abnormal fertilization, i.e. deficient PBII extrusion by affecting the cytoskeletal organization, resulting in disturbed cytokinesis during the second meiotic division. Thus, use of high calcium media for IVF should be avoided for this strain.

  9. Duodenal histopathology and laboratory deficiencies related to bone metabolism in coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Posthumus, Lotte; Al-Toma, Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Coeliac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated small intestine enteropathy precipitated by gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Adult presentation is often atypical and malabsorption of vitamins and minerals is common, with a consequent disturbance of bone metabolism. We aim to evaluate laboratory deficiencies related to bone metabolism and the relationship between severity of histological damage and degree of bone mass loss at diagnosis of CD. A retrospective cross-sectional study of 176 adult coeliac patients was carried out. All patients fulfilled the histopathological criteria for CD. Biochemical data were analysed (calcium/phosphate/alkaline-phosphatase/vitamin D/parathormone). Duodenal histology was classified according to the Marsh classification. Bone mass density (BMD) at the lumbar and femoral regions measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. No correlation was found between the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms and the Marsh histopathological stage (P>0.05). Vitamin D deficiency was most common (44.5%), whereas only 5.7% had hypocalcaemia. Calcium was lower (P<0.05) and parathormone was higher (P=0.01) in patients with Marsh III. These patients had lower lumbar T-score (P<0.05). Although low BMD occurred in all age groups, most osteoporotic patients were aged 45-49 years (81.8%). A multiple regression analysis showed that the Marsh histopathological stage could be a predictor of lower lumbar BMD (r=0.322, B=-1.146, P<0.05). Laboratory deficiencies and decreased BMD could be severe and unrelated to the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. At diagnosis, the Marsh histopathological stage could predict the occurrence of low BMD, which carries a risk of developing into osteoporosis. In coeliac patients older than 30 years, evaluation of bone biomarkers and dual X-ray absorptiometry examination should be considered.

  10. Tuning bipolar resistive switching by forming defect dipoles in A-site-deficient perovskite calcium titanate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Wei; Hu, Wei; Zou, Lilan; Chen, Ruqi; Li, Baojun; Bao, Dinghua

    2015-04-01

    If we intentionally make the A-site in an ABO3 perovskite structure deficient, it is possible to tune the resistive switching effect by forming defect dipoles. In this study, an A-site-deficient calcium titanate (Ca0.95TiO3, CTO) thin film was fabricated on a Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate as an active layer for resistive random-access memory. The Pt/CTO/Pt device exhibited stable bipolar resistive switching performance with good endurance and long retention. The resistive switching may be attributable to the formation and rupture of the conduction filaments due to the O vacancies and defect dipoles resulting from the interaction between the Ca and O vacancies.

  11. On the relation between malaria and G-6-PD deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Bottini, E.; Gloria-Bottini, F.; Maggioni, G.

    1978-01-01

    On the basis of the hypothesis that in the regions where favism is present a high correlation exists between endemic malaria and the frequency of G-6-PD deficiency, Huheey and Martin (1975) in a recent paper suggest that the haemolytic event in a malarial environment is a favourable selective factor. Therefore, the fitness of the G-6-PD-deficient individual who shows haemolysis is higher than that of those who do not show haemolysis. Modiano (1976) also suggested that haemolysis may not be a negative component of the selective forces which act on the G-6-PD-deficient variants. In this paper, some facts which make these hypotheses unlikely are considered. Other, more promising, lines for the analysis of the complex relation between malaria and G-6-PD deficiency are suggested. In Sardinia and in the area of the Po Delta, even though favism is present, there is a very low correlation between the frequency of G-6-PD deficiency and past malarial morbidity. Therefore, the situation is similar to that observed in other parts of the world, in which malaria is highly endemic, but where favism is absent. The following facts seem to be in contrast with the possibility that haemolysis could `by itself' be a favourable event: (1) In the hemizygous male, haemolysis due to favism is generally severe and there is a high mortality rate; (2) In the heterozygous female, the erythrocytes with G-6-PD deficiency seem to show a low parasite rate compared to normal cells, and it is just these erythrocytes that are destroyed during the haemolytic crisis; (3) In malarial environments, enzymopenic variants associated with continuous haemolysis have not been selected. A positive selection of such variants would be expected if haemolysis was `by itself' a positive factor. Several observations suggest that the G-6-PD system interacts with various factors, both genetical (thalassaemia, erythrocyte acid phosphatase, adenosine deaminase) and environmental (Vicia Faba, altitude, viral and protozoal

  12. Use of electron microprobe x-ray analysis for determination of low calcium concentrations across leaves deficient in calcium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, D. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    An electron microprobe with wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (WDS) was found to be useful for the determination of Ca concentrations in leaf tissue deficient in Ca. WDS effectively detected Ca concentrations as low as 0.2 mg/g dry wt in the presence of high levels of K and Mg (120 and 50 mg/g dry wt, respectively). Leaf specimens were prepared for analysis by quick-freezing in liquid nitrogen and freeze-drying at -20 degrees C to maintain elemental integrity within the tissue. Because dry material was analyzed, sample preparation was simple and samples could be stored for long periods before analysis. A large beam diameter of 50 gm was used to minimize tissue damage under the beam and analyze mineral concentrations within several cells at one time. Beam penetration was between 50 and 55 microns, approximately one-third of the thickness of the leaf. For analysis of concentrations in interveinal areas, analyses directed into the abaxial epidermis were found most useful. However, because of limited beam penetration, analyses of veinal areas would require use of cross sections [correction of crosssections]. Solid mineral standards were used for instrument standardization. To prevent measurement errors resulting from differences between the matrix of the mineral standards and the analyzed tissue, concentrations in leaves were corrected using gelatin standards prepared and analyzed under the same conditions. WDS was found to be useful for documenting that very low Ca levels occur in specific areas of lettuce leaves exhibiting the Ca deficiency injury termed tipburn.

  13. Use of electron microprobe x-ray analysis for determination of low calcium concentrations across leaves deficient in calcium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, D. J.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    An electron microprobe with wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (WDS) was found to be useful for the determination of Ca concentrations in leaf tissue deficient in Ca. WDS effectively detected Ca concentrations as low as 0.2 mg/g dry wt in the presence of high levels of K and Mg (120 and 50 mg/g dry wt, respectively). Leaf specimens were prepared for analysis by quick-freezing in liquid nitrogen and freeze-drying at -20 degrees C to maintain elemental integrity within the tissue. Because dry material was analyzed, sample preparation was simple and samples could be stored for long periods before analysis. A large beam diameter of 50 gm was used to minimize tissue damage under the beam and analyze mineral concentrations within several cells at one time. Beam penetration was between 50 and 55 microns, approximately one-third of the thickness of the leaf. For analysis of concentrations in interveinal areas, analyses directed into the abaxial epidermis were found most useful. However, because of limited beam penetration, analyses of veinal areas would require use of cross sections [correction of crosssections]. Solid mineral standards were used for instrument standardization. To prevent measurement errors resulting from differences between the matrix of the mineral standards and the analyzed tissue, concentrations in leaves were corrected using gelatin standards prepared and analyzed under the same conditions. WDS was found to be useful for documenting that very low Ca levels occur in specific areas of lettuce leaves exhibiting the Ca deficiency injury termed tipburn.

  14. Development and characterization of an injectable cement of nano calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/multi(amino acid) copolymer/calcium sulfate hemihydrate for bone repair.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaotong; Li, Hong; Qiao, Bo; Li, Weichao; Hao, Xinyan; Wu, Jun; Su, Bao; Jiang, Dianming

    2013-01-01

    A novel injectable bone cement was developed by integration of nano calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/multi(amino acid) copolymer (n-CDHA/MAC) and calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH; CaSO4 · 1/2H2O). The structure, setting time, and compressive strength of the cement were investigated. The results showed that the cement with a liquid to powder ratio of 0.8 mL/g exhibited good injectability and appropriate setting time and mechanical properties. In vitro cell studies indicated that MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite spread well and showed a good proliferation state. The alkaline phosphatase activity of the MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite was significantly higher than that of the cells on pure CSH at 4 and 7 days of culture. The n-CDHA/MAC/CSH cement was implanted into critical size defects of the femoral condyle in rabbits to evaluate its biocompatibility and osteogenesis in vivo. Radiological and histological results indicated that introduction of the n-CDHA/MAC into CSH enhanced new bone formation, and the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH cement exhibited good biocompatibility and degradability. In conclusion, the injectable n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite cement has a significant clinical advantage over pure CSH cement, and may be a promising bone graft substitute for the treatment of bone defects.

  15. Development and characterization of an injectable cement of nano calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/multi(amino acid) copolymer/calcium sulfate hemihydrate for bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xiaotong; Li, Hong; Qiao, Bo; Li, Weichao; Hao, Xinyan; Wu, Jun; Su, Bao; Jiang, Dianming

    2013-01-01

    A novel injectable bone cement was developed by integration of nano calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/multi(amino acid) copolymer (n-CDHA/MAC) and calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH; CaSO4 · 1/2H2O). The structure, setting time, and compressive strength of the cement were investigated. The results showed that the cement with a liquid to powder ratio of 0.8 mL/g exhibited good injectability and appropriate setting time and mechanical properties. In vitro cell studies indicated that MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite spread well and showed a good proliferation state. The alkaline phosphatase activity of the MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite was significantly higher than that of the cells on pure CSH at 4 and 7 days of culture. The n-CDHA/MAC/CSH cement was implanted into critical size defects of the femoral condyle in rabbits to evaluate its biocompatibility and osteogenesis in vivo. Radiological and histological results indicated that introduction of the n-CDHA/MAC into CSH enhanced new bone formation, and the n-CDHA/MAC/CSH cement exhibited good biocompatibility and degradability. In conclusion, the injectable n-CDHA/MAC/CSH composite cement has a significant clinical advantage over pure CSH cement, and may be a promising bone graft substitute for the treatment of bone defects. PMID:24293996

  16. Effect of iron deficiency on the digestive utilization of iron, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in rats.

    PubMed

    Pallarés, I; Lisbona, F; Aliaga, I L; Barrionuevo, M; Alférez, M J; Campos, M S

    1993-09-01

    The influence of the source of dietary Fe (ferric citrate alone or mixed with bovine blood at a proportion of 1:1 (v/v)) on the digestive utilization of Fe, P, Ca and Mg, and on haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE) was investigated in control and Fe-deficient rats. Diet A contained (by analysis) 43.5 mg Fe/kg diet (as ferric citrate), and diet B contained 44.3 mg Fe/kg diet (ferric citrate-bovine blood). In Fe-deficient rats fed on diet A or B the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of Fe increased by 42.3 and 45.7% respectively. The ADC of Ca and Mg decreased significantly in Fe-deficient rats regardless of the source of dietary Fe. The HRE increased by 72.9% in Fe-deficient rats fed on diet A, and by 91.1% in Fe-deficient animals fed on diet B. In Fe-deficient rats fed on Fe for 10 d the values of haematological variables approached normality. However, serum Fe remained low, indicating that Fe reserves were still depleted. A deficient dietary supply of Fe for 30 d did not significantly modify the numbers of circulating leucocytes.

  17. Effects of iron replenishment on iron, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium metabolism in iron-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Pallarés, I; López-Aliaga, I; Lisbona, F; Moratalla, A; Gómez-Ayala, A E; Barrionuevo, M; Hartiti, S; Alférez, M J; Campos, M S

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Fe deficiency on the nutritive utilization of Fe, Ca, P and Mg in rats. Aside from the well known depletion of Fe in liver, femur and sternum with low values of Hb, Fe deficiency impaired Ca, P and Mg metabolism at different degrees. Iron deficiency altered Mg absorption, lowered the concentration of Ca in the liver, femur and sternum, raised the concentration of P and Mg in the liver, and decreased P in the femur. The altered status was not completely rectified by iron supplementation as the animals were still slightly anemic at the end of the study. The second purpose of the study was to evaluate the ability of three iron compounds (ferric citrate, ferrous sulfate and ferrous ascorbate) to correct the undesirable effects of Fe deficiency. Ten days after treatment with these diets, Fe-deficient rats still had reduced Mg absorption, especially those fed ferric citrate. The concentrations of hemoglobin approached normal values in all groups; however, serum Fe remained low, indicating that Fe reserves were still depleted. Hepatic and femoral Fe concentrations were also lower in all Fe-deficient groups regardless of the diet given, compared with their respective controls, whereas Fe concentrations in the sternum increased significantly with all three diets, suggesting an increase in erythropoiesis. The concentration of Ca, P and Mg in liver approached normal values, and appeared to normalize in the femur, except that Ca and P concentrations remained low with the citrate diet. In the sternum, a site assumed to have higher requirements for these minerals, the concentrations of Ca, P and Mg also increased. These findings indicate that Fe is involved in the bone mineralization, and that in physiological terms, Fe interacts favorably with Ca, P and Mg metabolism, since Fe deficiency altered the status of these metals. These findings also suggest that ferrous ascorbate and ferrous sulfate were more effectively absorbed than was ferric citrate.

  18. Deficient Glutathione in the Pathophysiology of Mycotoxin-Related Illness

    PubMed Central

    Guilford, Frederick T.; Hope, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Evidence for the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of mycotoxin-related illness is increasing. The glutathione antioxidant and detoxification systems play a major role in the antioxidant function of cells. Exposure to mycotoxins in humans requires the production of glutathione on an “as needed” basis. Research suggests that mycotoxins can decrease the formation of glutathione due to decreased gene expression of the enzymes needed to form glutathione. Mycotoxin-related compromise of glutathione production can result in an excess of oxidative stress that leads to tissue damage and systemic illness. The review discusses the mechanisms by which mycotoxin-related deficiency of glutathione may lead to both acute and chronic illnesses. PMID:24517907

  19. [Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis on peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) plants under calcium deficiency stress].

    PubMed

    Gao, Li-Li; Wang, Sheng-Feng; Han, Ya; Liu, Zi-Fei; Huang, Jin-Sheng; Hilman; Liu, Rong-Le; Wang, Hong

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to reveal different tolerance of peanut plants to Ca deficiency by determining Ca uptake and Fourier transform infrared spectral (FTIR) differences of two peanut cultivars grown in nutrition solution. Peanut cultivars LH11 and YZ9102 were selected. Seedlings at the first leaf stage were cultivated for 28 days in nutrient solution with 0, 0.01 and 2.0 mmol x L(-1) Ca treatments, respectively. The results showed that under 0 and 0.01 mmol x L(-1) Ca supply, YZ9102 did not show Ca deficiency symptoms and the plant biomass did not change, whereas LH11 exhibited shoot-tip necrosis, smaller plant size, more lateral branches, and plant dry matter weights decreased significantly. YZ9102 had higher plant Ca concentration and Ca accumulation than LH11. Besides, for LH11, Ca was mainly accumulated in roots, while for YZ9102 mainly in leaves. As compared with plants cultivated in 2.0 mol x L(-1) Ca nutrition, root, stem and leaf of LH11 plants under Ca deficiency stress showed higher transmittance at peaks 1 060, 1 380, 1 655, 2 922, and 3 420 cm(-1) in FTIR spectra, indicating that the contents of protein, sugar and lipid decreased obviously in LH11 plants in condition that Ca supply was limited. However, the FTIR spectra of YZ9102 were less affected by Ca deficiency. It is suggested that YZ9102 might be more tolerant to Ca deficiency.

  20. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Burton, Rachel A.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  1. Probing the limit of magnesium uptake by β-tricalcium phosphate in biphasic mixtures formed from calcium deficient apatites

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, P. Nandha; Mishra, Sandeep K.; Kannan, S.

    2015-11-15

    A series of magnesium doped non-stoichiometric calcium deficient apatites were synthesized through an aqueous precipitation route. The resultant structural changes during heat treatment were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy and Rietveld refinement. The results confirmed the formation of biphasic mixtures comprising Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} and β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} after heat treatment at 1000 °C with the preferential occupancy of Mg{sup 2+} at the crystal lattice of β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}. The concentration of Mg{sup 2+} uptake in β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} is limited till reaching the stoichiometric ratio of (Ca+Mg)/P=1.67 and beyond this stoichiometric value [(Ca+Mg)/P>1.67], Mg{sup 2+} precipitates as Mg(OH){sub 2} and thereafter gets converted to MgO during heat treatment. Any kind of Mg{sup 2+} uptake in the crystal lattice of Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} is discarded from the investigation. - Highlights: • Aqueous co-precipitation of calcium deficient apatites with excess magnesium (Mg{sup 2+}) additions. • Heat treatments beyond 800 °C results in the formation of biphasic apatite mixtures. • Mg{sup 2+} gets accommodated at the β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} lattice of biphasic mixtures. • Mg{sup 2+} additions exceeding stoichiometric value (Ca/P>1.67) results in its formation as MgO. • Mg{sup 2+} occupancy at β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} lattice delays its allotropic conversion α-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} till 1350 °C.

  2. Ectopic expression of a maize calreticulin mitigates calcium deficiency-like disorders in "sCAX1"-expressing tobacco and tomato

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Deregulated expression of an Arabidopsis H(+)/Ca(2+) antiporter (sCAX1) in agricultural crops increases total calcium (Ca(2+)) but may result in yield losses due to Ca(2+) deficiency-like symptoms. Here we demonstrate that co-expression of a maize calreticulin (CRT, a Ca(2+) binding protein located ...

  3. Calcium-deficient apatite synthesized by ammonia hydrolysis of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate: influence of temperature, time, and pressure.

    PubMed

    Obadia, Laetitia; Rouillon, Thierry; Bujoli, Bruno; Daculsi, Guy; Bouler, Jean Michel

    2007-01-01

    In this work, calcium-deficient apatites (CDA) were synthesized by ammonia hydrolysis reaction of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD; CaHPO4 x 2 H2O) to obtain biphasic calcium phosphates (BCP) without any extraionic substitution. The influence of three parameters was studied: temperature of the reaction (70 and 100 degrees C), time of the reaction (4 and 18 h), and the pressure (open and closed system). Experiments were made according to a factorial design method (FDM) allowing optimization of the number of samples as well as statistical analysis of results. Moreover, the influence of temperature (until 200 degrees C) was investigated. The crystal size of CDA was determined according to the Scherrer's formula and from Rietveld refinements taking the CDA anisotropy into account. The last method seems to be a reliable method to determine crystallite sizes of CDA, since crystallite sizes of CDA along <00l> and directions were accessible. The results describe the hydroxyapatite % (HA%) in BCP by a first-order polynomial equation in the experimental area studied and the HA content was found to increase by raising time and temperature of the reaction. Moreover, the type of reaction system (open/closed vessel) appeared to have little influence on HA%.

  4. Reversible Axonal Dystrophy by Calcium Modulation in Frataxin-Deficient Sensory Neurons of YG8R Mice.

    PubMed

    Mollá, Belén; Muñoz-Lasso, Diana C; Riveiro, Fátima; Bolinches-Amorós, Arantxa; Pallardó, Federico V; Fernandez-Vilata, Angel; de la Iglesia-Vaya, María; Palau, Francesc; Gonzalez-Cabo, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is a peripheral neuropathy involving a loss of proprioceptive sensory neurons. Studies of biopsies from patients suggest that axonal dysfunction precedes the death of proprioceptive neurons in a dying-back process. We observed that the deficiency of frataxin in sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of the YG8R mouse model causes the formation of axonal spheroids which retain dysfunctional mitochondria, shows alterations in the cytoskeleton and it produces impairment of axonal transport and autophagic flux. The homogenous distribution of axonal spheroids along the neurites supports the existence of continues focal damages. This lead us to propose for FRDA a model of distal axonopathy based on axonal focal damages. In addition, we observed the involvement of oxidative stress and dyshomeostasis of calcium in axonal spheroid formation generating axonal injury as a primary cause of pathophysiology. Axonal spheroids may be a consequence of calcium imbalance, thus we propose the quenching or removal extracellular Ca(2+) to prevent spheroids formation. In our neuronal model, treatments with BAPTA and o-phenanthroline reverted the axonal dystrophy and the mitochondrial dysmorphic parameters. These results support the hypothesis that axonal pathology is reversible in FRDA by pharmacological manipulation of intracellular Ca(2+) with Ca(2+) chelators or metalloprotease inhibitors, preventing Ca(2+)-mediated axonal injury. Thus, the modulation of Ca(2+) levels may be a relevant therapeutic target to develop early axonal protection and prevent dying-back neurodegeneration.

  5. Eats roots and leaves. Can edible horticultural crops address dietary calcium, magnesium and potassium deficiencies?

    PubMed

    Broadley, Martin R; White, Philip J

    2010-11-01

    Human individuals require at least 20 inorganic elements ('minerals') for normal functioning. However, much of the world's population is probably deficient in one or more essential minerals and at increased risk of physiological disorders. Addressing these 'hidden hungers' is a challenge for the nutrition and agriculture sectors. Mineral deficiencies among populations are typically identified from dietary surveys because (1) minerals are acquired primarily from dietary sources and (2) (bio)assays of mineral status can be unreliable. While dietary surveys are likely to under-report energy intakes, surveys show that 9% of all UK and US adults consume Ca and Mg, and 14% of adults consume K, at quantities below the UK lower reference nutrient intake, and are therefore at risk of deficiency. Low dietary Ca, Mg and K intakes can be caused by energy-malnourishment and by cultural and economic factors driving dietary conservatism. For example, cereal grains routinely displace vegetables and fruits in the diet. Cereal grains have low concentrations of several minerals, notably Ca, as a consequence of their physiology. Low grain mineral concentrations are compounded when cereal crops are grown in soils of low mineral phytoavailability and when grain is processed. In this paper, the impact of increased vegetable consumption and horticultural biofortification, i.e. enhancing crop mineral content through breeding and agronomy, on intakes of the major minerals Ca, Mg and K is assessed. Despite low energy intake from horticultural crops generally, increased vegetable consumption and biofortification would significantly improve dietary intakes of Ca, Mg and K.

  6. Morphogenesis and Fine Structure of Leucothrix mucor and Effects of Calcium Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Snellen, James E.; Raj, H. D.

    1970-01-01

    Phenotypic expressions of morphogenesis and fine structure of Leucothrix mucor were determined when the organism was grown with and without added CaCl2 in a synthetic seawater medium. Evidence is presented to show that a bulb can form in the absence of a knot formation and that a bulb may give rise to a “germ-tube.” In comparison with normal cells, which show transverse septa at right angles to the axis in dividing cells, the bulbs exhibited transverse septa at odd angles, which may explain the mechanism of bulb formation. The most striking morphological feature due to Ca++ deficiency was the absence of rosettes; instead, the culture showed an extremely filamentous morphology and a peculiar cord formation. Also, the Ca++-deficient cells contained heavily stained intracytoplasmic granules which possibly represent tight packing of the smaller particles of ribonucleoprotein. Various bulbous forms observed in the Ca++-deficient culture showed more pronounced elaboration of mesosomes as intracytoplasmic structures than those seen in the complete medium. Images PMID:5411751

  7. Prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 production in nitric oxide-deficient hypertension in vivo. Effects of high calcium diet and angiotensin receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Alanko, Juha; Jolma, Pasi; Kööbi, Peeter; Riutta, Asko; Kalliovalkama, Jarkko; Tolvanen, Jari Petteri; Pörsti, Ilkka

    2003-11-01

    The effects of chronic nitric oxide deficiency on prostacyclin and thromboxane A(2) production in vivo are unknown. Therefore, we treated rats with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), and used losartan and high calcium diet as antihypertensive treatments. Forty eight Wistar rats were divided into six groups: control; losartan (20mgkg(-1)day(-1)); high calcium diet (dietary calcium elevated from 1.1% to 3%); L-NAME (20mgkg(-1)day(-1)); losartan+L-NAME and high calcium diet+L-NAME. Prostacyclin and thromboxane A(2) production were measured after eight weeks as urinary 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1alpha) and 11-dehydro-TXB(2), respectively. Both the high calcium diet and losartan reduced blood pressure in L-NAME hypertension. Chronic nitric oxide deficiency did not modulate prostacyclin production but it nearly doubled thromboxane A(2) production in vivo. This effect was not influenced by lowering of blood pressure by blockade of angiotensin II type 1 receptors. Independent of the level of blood pressure and blockade of nitric oxide synthesis the high calcium diet decreased prostacyclin production by one third and increased thromboxane A(2) production almost two-fold in vivo.

  8. Calcium and phosphor intake in preterm infants: sensitivity and specifity of 6-hour urine samples to detect deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mihatsch, W; Trotter, A; Pohlandt, F

    2012-03-01

    Aim of the present study was to test whether six-hour (6 h) urine specimens predict the 24-hour (24 h) mineral homeostasis in individual infants born preterm. Urinary Calcium (Ca) and Phosphate (P) concentrations were studied in 60 stable infants; gestational age 34 (25-42) weeks. In 58 infants four 6 h urine specimens and in 2 infants all spot urine specimens obtained within 24 h were analyzed. In 39 infants born preterm coefficients of variation were 0.42 (SD 0.26) and 0.41 (SD 0.26) for Ca and P measurements in the four 6 h urine specimens obtained within 24 h, respectively, The mineral homeostasis of the infants was defined as Ca or P surplus homeostasis if the 24 h urinary concentrations were ≥1 mmol/l. The sensitivity, specificity, and PPV of a 6 h urinary specimen to predict Ca deficiency homeostasis (24 h urinary Ca <1 mmol/l) were 0.93 (0.77-0.98; 95%CI), 0.72 (0.43-0.90) and 0.90 (0.74-0.96). The sensitivity, specificity and PPV for urinary P were 0.8 (0.38-0.96), 0.97 (0.85-0.995), and 0.8 (0.38-0.96). In conclusion, in infants born preterm on regular 3 or 4 h feedings, 6 h urine sampling is sufficiently precise for prediction of Ca and P mineral deficiency homeostasis (PPV 0.92 and 0.83). However, measurements at regular intervals (twice weekly) are recommended not to miss any infant in mineral deficiency homeostasis.

  9. Preservation and promotion of bone formation in the mandible as a response to a novel calcium-phosphate based biomaterial in mineral deficiency induced low bone mass male versus female rats

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Kritika; Naula, Diana P.; Mijares, Dindo Q.; Janal, Malvin N.; LeGeros, Raquel Z.; Zhang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Calcium and other trace mineral supplements have previously demonstrated to safely improve bone quality. We hypothesize that our novel calcium-phosphate based biomaterial (SBM) preserves and promotes mandibular bone formation in male and female rats on mineral deficient diet (MD). Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive one of three diets (n = 10): basic diet (BD), MD or mineral deficient diet with 2% SBM. Rats were sacrificed after 6 months. Micro-Computed Tomography (μCT) was used to evaluate bone volume and 3D-microarchitecture while microradiography (Faxitron) was used to measure bone mineral density from different sections of the mandible. Results showed that bone quality varied with region, gender and diet. MD reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and volume and increased porosity. SBM preserved BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) in the alveolar bone and condyle in both genders. In the alveolar crest and mandibular body, while preserving more bone in males, SBM also significantly supplemented female bone. Results indicate that mineral deficiency leads to low bone mass in skeletally immature rats, comparatively more in males. Furthermore, SBM administered as a dietary supplement was effective in preventing mandibular bone loss in all subjects. This study suggests that the SBM preparation has potential use in minimizing low peak bone mass induced by mineral deficiency and related bone loss irrespective of gender. PMID:26914814

  10. Magnesium deficiency and metabolic syndrome: stress and inflammation may reflect calcium activation.

    PubMed

    Rayssiguier, Yves; Libako, Patrycja; Nowacki, Wojciech; Rock, Edmond

    2010-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg) intake is inadequate in the western diet and metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in populations around the world. Epidemiological studies suggest that high Mg intake may reduce the risk but the possibility of confounding factors exists, given the strong association between Mg and other beneficial nutriments (vegetables, fibers, cereals). The concept that metabolic syndrome is an inflammatory condition may explain the role of Mg.Mg deficiency results in a stress effect and increased susceptibility to physiological damage produced by stress. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system. The activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is a factor in the development of insulin resistance by increasing oxidative stress. In both humans and rats, aldosteronism results in an immunostimulatory state and leads to an inflammatory phenotype. Stress response induces the release of large quantities of excitatory amino acids and activates the nuclear factor NFkappaB, promoting translation of molecules involved in cell regulation, metabolism and apoptosis. The rise in neuropeptides is also well documented. Stress-induced HPA activation has been identified to play an important role in the preferential body fat accumulation but evidence that Mg is involved in body weight regulation is lacking. One of the earliest events in the acute response to stress is endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial cells actively contribute to inflammation by elaborating cytokines, synthesizing chemical mediators and expressing adhesion molecules. Experimental Mg deficiency in rats induces a clinical inflammatory syndrome characterized by leukocyte and macrophage activation, synthesis of inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins, extensive production of free radicals. An increase in extracellular Mg concentration decreases inflammatory effects, while reduction in extracellular Mg results in cell activation. The

  11. Simultaneous exposure of excess fluoride and calcium deficiency alters VDR, CaR, and calbindin D 9 k mRNA levels in rat duodenal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, S; Gupta, S K; Kumar, K; Trivedi, R; Godbole, M M

    2004-10-01

    Fluoride ingestion reduces intestinal calcium absorption; its molecular basis has not been studied. We studied the mRNA expression of calcium-sensing receptor (CaR), vitamin D receptor (VDR) and calbindin D 9 k (D 9 k) by northern blot analysis in the duodenal mucosa of rats. Weanling pups fed with chow diet containing adequate calcium (0.5% w/w) and drinking water (NaF < 1 ppm) served as controls (Group I) and were studied at 9 and 15 weeks. The pups, born to rats fed with a calcium-deficient diet (0.03%) and excess fluoride water (NaF 50 ppm), were continued on the same diet and water (Group II) until 9 weeks of age. Subsequently, Group II rats were divided into 4 subgroups; 3 subgroups with fluoride free water [II-A adequate calcium, II-B excess calcium (Ca 2%) and II-D calcium deficient], whereas II-C received fluorinated water and adequate calcium diet until 15 weeks. At 9 weeks, as compared to group-I, group-II had decreased VDR (P < 0.001) and D 9 k mRNA (P < 0.001), whereas CaR mRNA levels increased (P < 0.05). At 15 weeks, as compared to group-I, VDR mRNA further reduced in group II-D (P < 0.001) and II-C (P < 0.001), whereas it increased in group II-A. Removal of fluoride ingestion and calcium replenishment increased D 9 k mRNA expression, maximally in adequate calcium group (P < 0.001), while it was further reduced in group II-C (P < 0.001). CaR expression decreased significantly in all the groups. We conclude that excess fluoride reduces the mRNA levels of VDR and D 9 k in the duodenal mucosa of rats, thereby possibly reducing calcium absorption. Calcium supplementation with simultaneous fluoride removal improves their expression.

  12. Association between vitamin deficiency and metabolic disorders related to obesity.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Tostes, Maria das Graças V; Anunciação, Pamella C; da Silva, Bárbara P; Sant'Ana, Helena M Pinheiro

    2017-10-13

    Inappropriate food behavior contributes to obesity and leads to vitamin deficiency. This review discusses the nutritional status of water- and fat-soluble vitamins in obese subjects. We verified that most vitamins are deficient in obese individuals, especially the fat-soluble vitamins, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin C. However, some vitamins have been less evaluated in cases of obesity. The adipose tissue is considered a metabolic and endocrine organ, which in excess leads to changes in body homeostasis, as well as vitamin deficiency which can aggravate the pathological state. Therefore, the evaluation of vitamin status is of fundamental importance in obese individuals.

  13. Recent topics related to testosterone deficiency syndrome in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimura, Akira; Nonomura, Norio

    2011-01-01

    Androgens, the levels of which decrease with ageing, play many physiological roles in various organs. Testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) has received widespread attention in the last several years. First-line treatment for TDS should be testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), which is reported to improve several TDS symptoms. Recently, a clinical practice manual for TDS was written and published by a collaborative team from the Japanese Urological Association and the Japanese Society for the Study of the Aging Male to recommend standard procedures for the diagnosis, treatment, prevention and monitoring of adverse reactions to TRT and for post-treatment assessment. In this manual, intramuscular injection of testosterone enanthate or human chorionic gonadotropin and the testosterone gel ‘Glowmin' were recommended as TRT. Currently, two topics related to TDS are being focused on in Japan: the relationship between TDS and metabolic syndrome and treatment options for eugonadal patients with TDS symptoms. In this review, the possibility of TRT for metabolic syndrome as well as the relationship between testosterone and adiponectin, which is a key molecule in metabolic syndrome, is discussed. Finally, the possibility of herbal medicines as a treatment option for patients with TDS is addressed, especially for eugonadal patients, because eugonadal men with TDS symptoms account for approximately 30% of the general population. The increase in the levels of several cytokines, such as IL-8, IL-13, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, after herbal medicine treatment may be the reason for this efficacy. PMID:21460860

  14. Ion microscopic imaging of calcium transport in the intestinal tissue of vitamin D-deficient and vitamin D-replete chickens: A sup 44 Ca stable isotope study

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, S.; Fullmer, C.S.; Smith, C.A.; Wasserman, R.H.; Morrison, G.H. )

    1990-08-01

    The intestinal absorption of calcium includes at least three definable steps; transfer across the microvillar membrane, movement through the cytosolic compartment, and energy-dependent extrusion into the lamina propria, Tracing the movement of calcium through the epithelium has been hampered by lack of suitable techniques and, in this study, advantage was taken of ion microscopy in conjunction with cryosectioning and use of the stable isotope 44Ca to visualize calcium in transit during the absorptive process. The effect of vitamin D, required for optimal calcium absorption, was investigated. Twenty millimolar 44Ca was injected into the duodenal lumen in situ of vitamin D-deficient and vitamin D-replete chickens. At 2.5, 5.0, and 20.0 min after injection, duodenal tissue was obtained and processed for ion microscopic imaging. At 2.5 min. 44Ca was seen to be concentrated in the region subjacent to the microvillar membrane in tissue from both groups. At 5.0 and 20.0 min, a similar pattern of localization was evident in D-deficient tissues. In D-replete tissues, the distribution of 44Ca became more homogenous, indicating that vitamin D increased the rate of transfer of Ca2+ from the apical to the basolateral membrane, a function previously ascribed to the vitamin D-induced calcium-binding protein (28-kDa calbindin-D). Quantitative aspects of the calcium absorptive process were determined in parallel experiments with the radionuclide 47Ca. Complementary information on the localization of the naturally occurring isotopes of calcium (40Ca) and potassium (39K) is also described.

  15. Effect of amorphous phases during the hydraulic conversion of α-TCP into calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Hurle, Katrin; Neubauer, Juergen; Bohner, Marc; Doebelin, Nicola; Goetz-Neunhoeffer, Friedlinde

    2014-09-01

    Powders of α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP), which readily react with water to form calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA), are frequently used in bone cements. As, for clinical applications, it is important to adjust the setting reaction of the cements to a reasonable reaction time, exact knowledge of the hydration mechanism is essential. It is known that prolonged milling results in partial amorphization of α-TCP powders and that dissolution of the amorphous phase significantly accelerates the hydration, but it is not clear yet when the amorphous phase reacts in comparison to the crystalline α-TCP. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the development of quantitative phase content of α-TCP samples during hydration. For this purpose, three α-TCP powders, containing 0, 16 and 71wt.% of amorphous phase (ATCP), were mixed with either deionized water or a 0.1M Na2HPO4 aqueous solution. The crystalline evolution of the paste was assessed quantitatively during the first 48h of hydration at 23°C by G-factor quantification. The present investigations demonstrate that ATCP reacted earlier than crystalline α-TCP. The results also suggest the formation of an X-ray amorphous phase during the hydraulic conversion formation of α-TCP into CDHA.

  16. Self-selection of a high calcium diet by vitamin D-deficient lactating rats increases food consumption and milk production.

    PubMed

    Brommage, R; DeLuca, H F

    1984-08-01

    Lactating and nonlactating rats, both deficient and replete in cholecalciferol, were allowed a free selection among three diets containing 0.47% Ca, 0.3% P (normal Ca, normal P diet); 2.0% Ca, 0.3% P (high Ca diet); and 0.47% Ca, 1.0% P (high P diet). An additional group of vitamin D-deficient lactating rats was fed only the normal Ca, normal P diet. Vitamin D-deficient rats showed a strong selection preference for the high Ca diet but avoided the high P diet, whereas cholecalciferol-replete rats consumed the normal Ca, normal P diet predominantly. Compared to the nonselecting rats, the selection of the high Ca diet by the lactating rats deficient in vitamin D resulted in an increase in plasma calcium levels, hypophosphatemia, a doubling of food consumption, a reduction in maternal body weight loss and a stimulation of milk production as indicated by pup growth. These results demonstrate that vitamin D-deficient rats select a high Ca diet and that the decrease in milk production found in vitamin D deficiency results from a decrease in food consumption and that this anorexia is at least partially dependent on the hypocalcemia normally occurring in vitamin D deficiency.

  17. Relationship of intracellular calcium and oxygen radicals to Cisplatin-related renal cell injury.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Yoshiko; Nakao, Takafumi; Kunimura, Naoshi; Kohda, Yuka; Gemba, Munekazu

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular calcium in nephrotoxicity related to an antitumor agent, cisplatin. In this study, we employed cultured renal epithelial cells (LLC-PK1). Cisplatin at 500 microM significantly increased the production of ROS 5 h and caused cell injury. This agent significantly increased the intracellular calcium level ([Ca2+]i) in a dose-dependent manner 1 h or more after exposure. DPPD (N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine), an antioxidant, inhibited a cisplatin-related increase in active oxygen production and cell injury but did not inhibit an early increase in the [Ca2+]i level. An intracellular calcium-chelating compound BAPTA-AM (1,2-bis(O-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetra(acetoxymethyl) ester) inhibited an increase in ROS production and cell injury induced by cisplatin. Furthermore, BAPTA-AM suppressed the rise of [Ca2+]i level in 1 h after exposure; however, an extracellular calcium chelator EGTA and a calcium antagonist nicardipine did not inhibit the rise in [Ca2+]i level in the early phase. An NADPH oxidase inhibitor inhibited a cisplatin-related increase in ROS production and cell disorder. These results suggest that cisplatin-related calcium release from the site of intracellular calcium storage in the early phase causes oxidative stress in renal tubular epithelial cells. Cisplatin may increase the intracellular production of ROS via NADPH oxidase.

  18. Reversing Sports-Related Iron and Zinc Deficiencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loosli, Alvin R.

    1993-01-01

    Many active athletes do not consume enough zinc or iron, which are important for oxygen activation, electron transport, and injury healing. Subclinical deficiencies may impair performance and impair healing times. People who exercise regularly need counseling about the importance of adequate dietary intake of iron and zinc. (SM)

  19. Reversing Sports-Related Iron and Zinc Deficiencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loosli, Alvin R.

    1993-01-01

    Many active athletes do not consume enough zinc or iron, which are important for oxygen activation, electron transport, and injury healing. Subclinical deficiencies may impair performance and impair healing times. People who exercise regularly need counseling about the importance of adequate dietary intake of iron and zinc. (SM)

  20. Effects of a high-calcium diet on serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in magnesium-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Kajita, Yasutaka; Miwa, Misao

    2012-01-01

    In order to clarify the effects of a high-calcium (Ca) diet on bone formation in magnesium (Mg)-deficient rats, this study focused on the effects of a high-Ca diet on serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels. Male rats were randomized by weight into four groups, and fed one of four experimental diets containing two different Mg concentrations (0.05% (normal-Mg) or Mg-free (Mg-deficient)), and two different Ca concentrations (0.5% (normal-Ca) or 1.0% (high-Ca)) for 14 days. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin and IGF-1 were significantly lower in rats fed the Mg-deficient diet than in rats fed the normal-Mg diet. On the other hand, dietary Ca concentration had no significant influence on serum concentrations of osteocalcin and IGF-1. This study suggested that: 1) a high-Ca diet has no preventive effects on the decreased bone formation seen in Mg-deficient rats; and 2) a high-Ca diet does not enhance serum IGF-1 levels in Mg-deficient rats. Moreover, unchanged serum IGF-1 concentrations may contribute to the decreased bone formation seen in Mg-deficient rats receiving a high-Ca diet.

  1. [Establishment of a rat model of low calcium diet related hyperoxaluria].

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Guo, Hong-qian; Sun, Xi-zhao; Sun, Ze-yu; Lu, De-sheng

    2012-04-01

    To establish a rat model of low calcium diet related hyperoxaluria and explore its features. By means of randomized blocks design, totally 24 SD male rats were divided into low calcium diet group, medium calcium diet group, and high calcium diet group. Each group was sequentially fed on different calcium diets for 3 days. The urinary volume within 24 hours was recorded, the consistency of urinary oxalate by high-efficiency liquid chromatography, and the consistency of urine creatinine by automatic biochemical analyzer. The consistency was corrected to the output of urinary oxalate of rats in 24 hours, and the results were evaluated by repeated measurement of variance analysis and multivariate analysis of variance. The output of urinary oxalate of rats in 24 hours varied with time (F=7.893, P0.05). The output of urinary oxalate of rats in 24 hours varied with group division (F=3.565, P<0.05). The output of urinary oxalate in 24 hours in three groups on the third day was significantly higher than that on the first day (P<0.05). By controlling the calcium intake, we successfully established the model of low calcium diet related hyperoxaluria in rat.

  2. Deficiency of Calcium-Independent Phospholipase A2 Beta Induces Brain Iron Accumulation through Upregulation of Divalent Metal Transporter 1

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Goichi; Shinzawa, Koei; Hayakawa, Hideki; Baba, Kousuke; Yasuda, Toru; Sumi-Akamaru, Hisae; Tsujimoto, Yoshihide; Mochizuki, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in PLA2G6 have been proposed to be the cause of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation type 2. The present study aimed to clarify the mechanism underlying brain iron accumulation during the deficiency of calcium-independent phospholipase A2 beta (iPLA2β), which is encoded by the PLA2G6 gene. Perl’s staining with diaminobenzidine enhancement was used to visualize brain iron accumulation. Western blotting was used to investigate the expression of molecules involved in iron homeostasis, including divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and iron regulatory proteins (IRP1 and 2), in the brains of iPLA2β-knockout (KO) mice as well as in PLA2G6-knockdown (KD) SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, mitochondrial functions such as ATP production were examined. We have discovered for the first time that marked iron deposition was observed in the brains of iPLA2β-KO mice since the early clinical stages. DMT1 and IRP2 were markedly upregulated in all examined brain regions of aged iPLA2β-KO mice compared to age-matched wild-type control mice. Moreover, peroxidized lipids were increased in the brains of iPLA2β-KO mice. DMT1 and IRPs were significantly upregulated in PLA2G6-KD cells compared with cells treated with negative control siRNA. Degeneration of the mitochondrial inner membrane and decrease of ATP production were observed in PLA2G6-KD cells. These results suggest that the genetic ablation of iPLA2β increased iron uptake in the brain through the activation of IRP2 and upregulation of DMT1, which may be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26506412

  3. A Calcium-Deficient Diet in Rat Dams during Gestation and Nursing Affects Hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 Expression in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Takaya, Junji; Yamanouchi, Sohsaku; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2014-01-01

    Background Prenatal malnutrition can affect the phenotype of offspring by changing epigenetic regulation of specific genes. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that calcium (Ca) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance syndrome. We hypothesized that pregnant female rats fed a Ca-deficient diet would have offspring with altered hepatic glucocorticoid-related gene expression and that lactation would modify these alterations. Methodology We determined the effects of Ca deficiency during pregnancy and/or lactation on hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (Hsd11b1) expression in offspring. Female Wistar rats consumed either a Ca-deficient (D: 0.008% Ca) or control (C: 0.90% Ca) diet ad libitum from 3 weeks preconception to 21 days postparturition. On postnatal day 1, pups were cross-fostered to the same or opposite dams and divided into the following four groups: CC, DD, CD, and DC (first letter: original mother's diet; second letter: nursing mother's diet). All offspring were fed a control diet beginning at weaning (day 21) and were killed on day 200±7. Serum insulin and adipokines in offspring were measured using ELISA kits. Principal Findings In males, mean levels of insulin, glucose, and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were higher in the DD and DC groups than in the CC group. We found no difference in HOMA-IR between the CC and CD groups in either males or females. Expression of Hsd11b1 was lower in male DD rats than in CC rats. Hsd11b1 expression in male offspring nursed by cross-fostered dams was higher than that in those nursed by dams fed the same diet; CC vs. CD and DD vs. DC. In females, Hsd11b1 expression in DC rats was higher than that in CC rats. Conclusions These findings indicated that maternal Ca restriction during pregnancy and/or lactation alters postnatal growth, Hsd11b1 expression, and insulin resistance in a sex-specific manner. PMID:24427280

  4. Controlled environment life support system: Calcium-related leaf injuries on plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    A calcium related injury in lettuce termed tipburn was the focus of this study. It affects the young developing leaves as they become enclosed during head formation. It is a good model system to study because the injury can be induced with good predictability and lettuce is one of the crops chosen by the CELSS program for concentrated study. Investigations were undertaken to study a number of different procedures, that would have the potential for encouraging movement of calcium into the young developing leaves and to study the time course and pattern of calcium accumulation in developing leaves to provide a basis for developing effective control procedures for this injury.

  5. Copper deficiency-related bone marrow changes secondary to long-term total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Oo, Thein Hlaing; Hu, Shimin

    2017-02-01

    Total parenteral nutrition can be complicated by the marrow sea-blue histiocytes as well as copper deficiency-related bone marrow changes. Cytoplasmic vacuoles in the erythroid and myeloid precursors raise the possibility of copper deficiency anemia. If the diagnosis is delayed, the clinical course can be complicated by neurologic deficits.

  6. Study of relation between crystal structure and laser damage of calcium flouride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azumi, Minako; Nakahata, Eiichiro

    2010-11-01

    The artificially grown calcium fluoride is one of key materials for microlithography and used for excimer laser optics etc. Such calcium fluoride is required high laser durability and laser induced bulk damage threshold (LIDT). However, the artificially grown calcium fluoride is not a complete crystal, and there are a lot of sub-grain boundaries inside the crystal that have the possibility of causing degradation of laser durability and LIDT. Moreover, mechanical properties of calcium fluoride are different according to the crystal axis, therefore there is a possibility that mechanical properties influences LIDT. In this study, we examined the relation between crystal structure and LIDT. First, we examined the relation between the crystal axis and LITD of single crystal calcium fruoride. The relation between the crystallographic axis and LIDT that the laser enters was examined. The ArF excimer laser and the fifth high harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser at 213nm were used for the irradiation source of light. We prepared samples that optical axes were <111>, <110> and <001> from the same crystal. From the result of this examination, when the laser irradiated in <111> axis, LIDT was the highest. Next, we observed the damage with polarizing microscope and optical microscope. The result of this observation suggested that the laser damage of calcium fluoride was related to the crystal orientation. Finally, we investigated the damage mechanism of calcium fluoride. It is thought that the laser irradiation induced stress is relaxed most easily when the optical axis is <111>. Therefore, LIDT of calcium fluoride is supposed to be highest when the optical axis is <111>.

  7. Scanning electron microscopy of thin and soft shells induced by feeding calcium-deficient or vitamin D-deficient diets to laying hens.

    PubMed

    Narbaitz, R; Tsang, C P; Grunder, A A; Soares, J H

    1987-02-01

    A scanning electron microscopic study was conducted on shells from eggs laid by four groups of hens maintained on different types of diets: a) control, b) vitamin D3-deficient, c) Ca-deficient, and d) vitamin D3-deficient supplemented with 1,25-(OH)2D3. After 1 week for Ca-deficient hens and after 4 weeks for vitamin D3-deficient hens, the thickness of the shell decreased abruptly and numerous thin-shelled and soft-shelled eggs were laid. The study showed that with both Ca-deficient and vitamin D3-deficient diets, the outer layers of the shell (cuticle and spongy) were reduced or absent but the mammillary layer was present even in the thinnest soft-shelled egg. The order in which layers disappeared as treatment progressed was exactly the reverse of the order in which these layers are formed in normal eggs. No eggs were found without mammillary knobs, which suggests that the hens stop laying before Ca concentrations in blood become too low for the formation of the mammillary knobs. Uncalcified portions of the shell organic matrix were never found, suggesting that Ca deposition and matrix formation were inhibited simultaneously. The relationship between fibers of the shell membrane and mammillary knobs was preserved in all cases. The eggshells from hens on 1,25-(OH)2D3-supplemented diets were ultrastructurally indistinguishable from those of hens on diets adequate in vitamin D3.

  8. Longitudinal calcium intake is negatively related to children's body fat indexes.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Jean D; Bounds, Wendy; Carruth, Betty Ruth; Ziegler, Paula

    2003-12-01

    To determine if dietary calcium was negatively related to children's body fat (BF), if BF indexes and calcium intakes changed over time, and to identify variables related to BF and calcium intake. Percent BF and kg BF were assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in 8-year-old children. In a prospective design, height, weight, dietary intakes, and related variables were monitored longitudinally from ages 2 months to 8 years during in-home interviews. Fifty-two white children, (n=25 boys, 27 girls) participated in a longitudinal study with their mothers. At 8 years of age, mean BMI was 17.3+/-2.1 (standard deviation) for boys and 17.1+/-2.5 for girls. Regression analysis of all variables, followed by further regression analysis on selected models. At 8 years, percent BF was 22.7+/-6.7 for boys and 26.2+/-7.9 for girls, as assessed by DEXA. Dietary calcium (mg) and polyunsaturated fat intake (g) were negatively related to percent BF (P=.02 to.04) in 3 statistical models, which predicted 28% to 34% of the variability in BF among children. Variables positively associated with percent BF were total dietary fat (g) or saturated fat (g), female gender, sedentary activity (hours/day), father's BMI, and mothers' percent BF. Calcium intakes were significantly correlated over time. Dietary variety was positively related to calcium intake, and intakes of carbonated beverages and other sweetened beverages were negatively related. Children should be strongly encouraged to regularly include calcium-rich foods and beverages in their diets.

  9. Maternal marginal iodine deficiency affects the expression of relative proteins during brain development in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuhui; Zhang, Le; Li, Jing; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2013-04-01

    Marginal iodine deficiency is a major health problem in pregnant women, but its impact on nerve and intelligence development in offspring has been rarely reported. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal marginal iodine deficiency on nerve and cognitive development in offspring and the related mechanisms. Marginal iodine-deficient rats were given 3  μg iodine per day, while normal control rats were given 4  μg iodine daily. Western blot was used to detect the amounts of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) in the hippocampus of each group. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure c-jun and c-fos expression in the hippocampal CA1 region. Finally, the water maze method was used to measure spatial performance. Free thyroxine (FT₄) levels in marginal iodine-deficient rats decreased by about 30%. Seven days after birth, EGR1 and BDNF protein levels significantly decreased in the hippocampus of marginal iodine deficiency rats compared with the normal control group. In addition, c-jun and c-fos expression in the hippocampus of 40-day-old rats was decreased in marginal iodine-deficient rats, compared with control. The spatial learning and memory ability of 40-day-old marginal iodine-deficient rats had a downward trend compared with the normal control group. FT₄ significantly decreased after pregnancy in rats with marginal iodine deficiency, affecting the expression of related proteins in the brain of offspring.

  10. Reduced nerve growth factor levels in stress-related brain regions of folate-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Eckart, S; Hörtnagl, H; Kronenberg, G; Gertz, K; Hörster, H; Endres, M; Hellweg, R

    2013-08-15

    Folate deficiency has been linked to neurodegenerative and stress-related diseases such as stroke, dementia and depression. The role of the neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) in stress-related disorders and neurodegeneration has garnered increasing attention in recent years. Uracil misincorporation is involved in the neuropsychiatric dysfunction induced by experimental folate deprivation. However, the effects of folate deficiency on the expression of NGF and NT-3 in brain tissue have not yet been investigated. In a 2×2 design, aged mice lacking uracil-DNA N-glycosylase (Ung(-/-)) versus wild-type (Ung(+/+)) controls were subjected to a folate-deficient diet versus a regular diet for three months. Independent of genotype, folate deficiency led to decreased NGF protein levels in the frontal cortex and amygdala. In the hippocampus, NGF levels were increased in UNG(-/-) mice on the normal diet, but not under folate deficiency, while in UNG(+/+) mice, folate deprivation did not affect hippocampal NGF content. NT-3 protein concentrations were neither affected by genotype nor by folate deficiency. Altogether, the results of our study show that folate deficiency affects NGF levels in the frontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus. The decrease in NGF content in the hippocampus in response to folate deficiency in Ung(-/-) mice may contribute to their phenotype of enhanced anxiety and despair-like behavior as well as to selective hippocampal neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Controlled environment life support system: Calcium-related leaf injuries on plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.

    1986-01-01

    Calcium related injuries to plants grown in controlled environments under conditions which maximize plant growth rates are described. Procedures to encourage movement of calcium into developing leaves of lettuce plants were investigated. The time course and pattern of calcium accumulation was determined to develop effective control procedures for this injury, termed tipburn. Procedures investigated were: (1) increasing the relative humidity to saturation during the dark period and altering root temperatures, (2) maximizing water stress during light and minimizing water stress during dark periods, (3) shortening the light-dark cycle lengths in combination with elevated moisture levels during the dark cycles, (4) reducing nutrient concentrations and (5) vibrating the plants. Saturated humidities at night increased the rate of growth and the large fluctuation in plant water potential encouraged calcium movement to the young leaves and delayed tipburn. Root temperature regulation between 15 and 26 C was not effective in preventing tipburn. Attempts to modulate water stress produced little variation, but no difference in tipburn development. Variations in light-dark cycle lengths also had no effect on calcium concentrations within developing leaves and no variation in tipburn development. Low concentrations of nutrient solution delayed tipburn, presumably because of greater calcium transport in the low concentration plants. Shaking of the plants did not prevent tipburn, but did delay it slightly.

  12. High sulfur related thiamine deficiency in cattle: A field study

    PubMed Central

    Gooneratne, S. Ravi; Olkowski, Andrzej A.; Klemmer, Robert G.; Kessler, Gerald A.; Christensen, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Following development of polioencephalomalacia in one of 105 cattle in a farm in southeastern Saskatchewan, a study was initiated to monitor thiamine (B1) and copper (Cu) status, and to evaluate interactive nutritional factors which may have been responsible for this occurrence. It was evident that a combination of high sulfur (S) and low Cu intake was responsible for the depletion of blood B1 and plasma Cu. Supplementation with trace minerals alone resulted in a significant (p<0.05) improvement in both B1 and Cu status of the herd. We recommend that herds exposed to high intakes of S be supplemented with Cu up to 50 mg/kg feed dry matter to alleviate potential deficiencies of B1 and Cu. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17423233

  13. Calcium and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Nordin, B E

    1997-01-01

    Calcium is an essential nutrient that is involved in most metabolic processes and the phosphate salts of which provide mechanical rigidity to the bones and teeth, where 99% of the body's calcium resides. The calcium in the skeleton has the additional role of acting as a reserve supply of calcium to meet the body's metabolic needs in states of calcium deficiency. Calcium deficiency is easily induced because of the obligatory losses of calcium via the bowel, kidneys, and skin. In growing animals, it may impair growth, delay consolidation of the skeleton, and in certain circumstances give rise to rickets but the latter is more often due to deficiency of vitamin D. In adult animals, calcium deficiency causes mobilization of bone and leads sooner or later to osteoporosis, i.e., a reduction in the "amount of bone in the bone" or apparent bone density. The effects of calcium deficiency and oophorectomy (ovariectomy) are additive. In humans, osteoporosis is a common feature of aging. Loss of bone starts in women at the time of the menopause and in men at about age 55 and leads to an increase in fracture rates in both sexes. Individual fracture risk is inversely related to bone density, which in turn is determined by the density achieved at maturity (peak bone density) and the subsequent rate of bone loss. At issue is whether either or both of these variables is related to calcium intake. The calcium requirement of adults may be defined as the mean calcium intake needed to preserve calcium balance, i.e., to meet the significant obligatory losses of calcium through the gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, and skin. The calcium allowance is the higher intake recommended for a population to allow for individual variation in the requirement. The mean requirement defined in this way, calculated from balance studies, is about 20 mmol (800 mg) a day on Western diets, implying an allowance of 25 mmol (1000 mg) or more. Corresponding requirements and allowances have been calculated for

  14. Exogenous oestrogen affects calcium metabolism differently from exogenous testosterone in ovariectomized or orchiectomized rats fed a high fructose diet severely deficient in magnesium.

    PubMed

    Koh, E T; Owen, W L; Om, A S

    1996-03-01

    To investigate interactions between sex hormones, dietary fructose, and a severe magnesium deficiency on calcium metabolism, 10 week old ovariectomized (OVX) female, and orchiectomized (ORX) males rats were studied. The OVX and ORX animals were divided into two groups: one half of the animals in each group was injected with beta-oestradiol-3-benzoate dissolved in sesame oil twice a week; the other half was injected with testosterone cypionate in sesame oil twice a week. All animals were pari-fed a severely magnesium-deficient fructose diet. After a 4 week experimental period, a 24 h urine sample was collected for measurements of cAMP, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus. Blood was collected for determination of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, 25-hydroxy- and 1.25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D, 1.25(OH)2D], and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Femurs were used for measurements of bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD). Oestrogen treatment produced hypercalcaemia and hypercalciuria, and, further, this was higher in female than in male rats. In contrast, testosterone treatment produced hypocalcaemia and hypocalciuria. Hypocalcaemia in testosterone-treated animals may stimulate secretion of PTH. Testosterone-treated animals had significantly lower BMD than oestrogen-treated animals. High circulating PTH seemed to cause bone loss in the testosterone group. High PTH may stimulate hydroxylation of 25(OH) D to 1.25(OH)2D in the kidneys, and high circulating 1.25(OH)2D would antagonize bone formation. Either endogenous or exogenous oestrogen increased kidney calcification. The study indicates that oestrogen-fructose-magnesium interaction on calcium metabolism was significantly different from that of testosterone.

  15. Attenuation of cardiac contractility in Na,K-ATPase alpha1 isoform-deficient hearts under reduced calcium conditions.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Amy E; Cougnon, Marc H; Grupp, Ingrid L; El Schultz, Jo; Lingrel, Jerry B

    2004-11-01

    We have previously reported that genetic reduction of the Na,K-ATPase alpha1 isoform (alpha1(+/-)) results in a hypocontractile cardiac phenotype. This observation was surprising and unexpected. In order to determine if calcium overload contributes to the depressed phenotype, cardiac performance was examined by perfusing the hearts with buffer containing 2 or 1.5 mM calcium. At 2 mM calcium, +dP/dt for the alpha1(+/-) hearts (1374 +/- 180) was significantly less than that of wild-type (2656 +/- 75, P < 0.05). At 1.5 mM calcium, a larger decrease in +dP/dt occurred (vs. 2 mM calcium) for the alpha1(+/-) hearts (517 +/- 92) compared to wild-type (2238 +/- 157). At 2 mM calcium, -dP/dt was 50% lower in alpha1(+/-) hearts (-1903 +/- 141) than wild-type (-982 +/- 143). At 1.5 mM calcium relaxation was further reduced in alpha1(+/-) compared to wild-type (-443 +/- 56 vs. - 1691 +/- 109). We also tested whether the compensatory upregulation of the Na,K-ATPase alpha2 isoform in the alpha1(+/-) hearts contributes to the hypocontractile phenotype. At 8 x 10(-6) M ouabain, that would completely inhibit the alpha2 isoform, a 30% increase in contractility was obtained in alpha1(+/-) hearts compared to no ouabain treatment, while a 63% faster time-to-peak (TTP) and 67% faster half-time-to-relaxation (RT(1/2)) were observed in alpha1(+/-) hearts treated with ouabain. These results suggest that upregulation of the alpha2 isoform may play a role in slower TTP and RT(1/2) in the alpha1(+/-) hearts. Furthermore, lowering extracellular calcium in the perfusate did not alleviate the depressed contractile phenotype in the alpha1(+/-) hearts and resulted in further depressed cardiac contractility suggesting that these hearts are not calcium overloaded.

  16. Consumers’ Health-Related Motive Orientations and Reactions to Claims about Dietary Calcium

    PubMed Central

    Hoefkens, Christine; Verbeke, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Health claims may contribute to better informed and healthier food choices and to improved industrial competitiveness by marketing foods that support healthier lifestyles in line with consumer preferences. With the more stringent European Union regulation of nutrition and health claims, insights into consumers’ health-related goal patterns and their reactions towards such claims are needed to influence the content of lawful claims. This study investigated how consumers’ explicit and implicit health-related motive orientations (HRMOs) together with the type of calcium-claim (nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim) influence perceived credibility and purchasing intention of calcium-enriched fruit juice. Data were collected in April 2006 through a consumer survey with 341 Belgian adults. The findings indicate that stronger implicit HRMOs (i.e., indirect benefits of calcium for personal health) are associated with higher perceived credibility, which is not (yet) translated into a higher purchasing intention. Consumers’ explicit HRMOs, which refer to direct benefits or physiological functions of calcium in the body—as legally permitted in current calcium-claims in the EU—do not associate with reactions to the claims. Independently of consumers’ HRMOs, the claim type significantly affects the perceived credibility and purchasing intention of the product. Implications for nutrition policy makers and food industries are discussed. PMID:23306190

  17. Calcium handling in Sparus auratus: effects of water and dietary calcium levels on mineral composition, cortisol and PTHrP levels.

    PubMed

    Abbink, Wout; Bevelander, Gideon S; Rotllant, Josep; Canario, Adelino V M; Flik, Gert

    2004-11-01

    Juvenile gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.; 10-40 g body mass) were acclimatized in the laboratory to full strength (34 per thousand) or dilute (2.5 per thousand) seawater and fed normal, calcium-sufficient or calcium-deficient diet for nine weeks. Mean growth rate, whole-body calcium and phosphorus content and accumulation rates were determined, as well as plasma levels of ionic and total calcium, cortisol and parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP; a hypercalcemic hormone in fish). When confronted with limited calcium access (low salinity and calcium-deficient diet), sea bream show growth arrest. Both plasma cortisol and PTHrP increase when calcium is limited in water or diet, and a positive relationship was found between plasma PTHrP and plasma ionic calcium (R(2)=0.29, N=18, P<0.05). Furthermore, a strong correlation was found between net calcium and phosphorus accumulation (R(2)=0.92, N=16, P<0.01) and between body mass and whole-body calcium (R(2)=0.84, N=25, P<0.01) and phosphorus (R(2)=0.88, N=24, P<0.01) content. Phosphorus accumulation is strongly calcium dependent, as phosphorus accumulation decreases in parallel to calcium accumulation when the diet is calcium deficient but phosphorus sufficient. We conclude that PTHrP and cortisol are involved in the regulation of the hydromineral balance of these fish, with growth-related calcium accumulation as an important target.

  18. Increased maternofetal calcium flux in parathyroid hormone-related protein-null mice

    PubMed Central

    Bond, H; Dilworth, M R; Baker, B; Cowley, E; Requena Jimenez, A; Boyd, R D H; Husain, S M; Ward, B S; Sibley, C P; Glazier, J D

    2008-01-01

    The role of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in fetal calcium homeostasis and placental calcium transport was examined in mice homozygous for the deletion of the PTHrP gene (PTHrP−/− null; NL) compared to PTHrP+/+ (wild-type; WT) and PTHrP+/− (heterozygous; HZ) littermates. Fetal blood ionized calcium was significantly reduced in NL fetuses compared to WT and HZ groups at 18 days of pregnancy (dp) with abolition of the fetomaternal calcium gradient. In situ placental perfusion of the umbilical circulation at 18 dp was used to measure unidirectional clearance of 45Ca across the placenta in maternofetal (CaKmf) and fetoplacental (CaKfp) directions; CaKfp was < 5% of CaKmf for all genotypes. At 18 dp, CaKmf across perfused placenta and intact placenta (CaKmf(intact)) were similar and concordant with net calcium accretion rates in vivo. CaKmf was significantly raised in NL fetuses compared to WT and HZ littermates. Calcium accretion was significantly elevated in NL fetuses by 19 dp. Placental calbindin-D9K expression in NL fetuses was marginally enhanced (P < 0.07) but expression of TRPV6/ECaC2 and plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA) isoforms 1 and 4 were unaltered. We conclude that PTHrP is an important regulator of fetal calcium homeostasis with its predominant effect being on unidirectional maternofetal transfer, probably mediated by modifying placental calbindin-D9K expression. In situ perfusion of mouse placenta is a robust methodology for allowing detailed dissection of placental transfer mechanisms in genetically modified mice. PMID:18258656

  19. Iron deficiency chlorosis in plants as related to Fe sources in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, I.; Delgado, A.; de Santiago, A.; del Campillo, M. C.; Torrent, J.

    2012-04-01

    Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) is a relevant agricultural problem in many areas of the World where calcareous soils are dominant. Although this problem has been traditionally ascribed to the pH-buffering effect of soil carbonates, the content and type of Fe oxides in soil contribute to explain Fe uptake by plants and the incidence of this problem. During the last two decades, it has been demonstrated Fe extraction with oxalate, related to the content of poorly crystalline Fe oxides, was well-correlated with the chlorophyll content of plants and thus with the incidence of IDC. This reveals the contribution of poorly crystalline Fe oxides in soil to Fe availability to plants in calcareous soils, previously shown in microcosm experiments using ferrihydrite as Fe source in the growing media. In order to supply additional information about the contribution of Fe sources in soil to explain the incidence of IDC and to perform accurate methods to predict it, a set of experiments involving different methods to extract soil Fe and plant cultivation in pots to correlate amounts of extracted Fe with the chlorophyll content of plants (measured using the SPAD chlorophyll meter) were performed. The first experiment involved 21 soils and white lupin cultivation, sequential Fe extraction in soil to study Fe forms, and single extractions (DTPA, rapid oxalate and non-buffered hydroxylamine). After that, a set of experiments in pot involving growing of grapevine rootstocks, chickpea, and sunflower were performed, although in this case only single extractions in soil were done. The Fe fraction more closely related to chlorophyll content in plants (r = 0.5, p < 0.05) was the citrate + ascorbate (CA) extraction, which was the fraction that releases most of the Fe related to poorly crystalline Fe oxides, thus revealing the key role of these compounds in Fe supply to plants. Fe extracted with CA was more correlated with chlorophyll content in plants that oxalate extractable Fe, probably

  20. Vitamin D deficiency and placental calcification in low-risk obstetric population: are they related?

    PubMed

    Bedir Findik, Rahime; Ersoy, Ali Ozgur; Fidanci, Vildan; Tasci, Yasemin; Helvacioglu, Yeksin; Karakaya, Jale

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to evaluate the relationship between placental calcification and maternal and cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 [25(OH)D] and calcium concentrations in low-risk obstetric population at term and their consequences. Sixty non-complicated pregnant women at term admitted to maternity clinic were included in this prospective case-control study and classified into one of two groups according to grade of placental calcification by defined the Grannum classification: Group 1 (n=30), with Grade 3 placenta and Group 2 (n=30), the control group, no placental calcification noted. Baseline characteristics, maternal serum and umbilical cord 25(OH)D and calcium levels were compared between groups. The mean age of subjects was 26.4 ± 5.7 years. The mean serum 25(OH)D concentration of women (n=60) was 9.3 ± 3.4 (range 5.59-15.48) ng/mL. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D <20 ng/mL] was 100%. Maternal serum and cord blood calcium levels were significantly higher in Group 1 (p=0.036; p=0.037, respectively). In Group 2, maternal serum and cord blood 25(OH)D levels were higher than Group 1 (11.35 ± 6.54 and 10.22 ± 3.59 versus 9.6 ± 4.2 and 9.07 ± 2.43 ng/mL); but the difference is not statistically significant. Higher maternal calcium and lower 25(OH)D levels detected in patients with Grade 3 placental calcification indicated the importance of placenta on vitamin D regulation.

  1. Effect of strontium ions substitution on gene delivery related properties of calcium phosphate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hanifi, A; Fathi, M H; Mir Mohammad Sadeghi, H

    2010-09-01

    Gene therapy has been considered a strategy for delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids to a specific site. Calcium phosphates are one gene delivery vector group of interest. However, low transfection efficiency has limited the use of calcium phosphate in gene delivery applications. Present work aims at studying the fabrication of strontium substituted calcium phosphate nanoparticles with improved gene delivery related properties. Strontium substituted calcium phosphate was prepared using a simple sol gel method. X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, specific surface area analysis, zeta potential measurement and ion release evaluation were used to characterize the samples. This characterization showed strontium and carbonate co-substituted calcium phosphate which resulted in nano size particles with low crystallinity, high specific surface area, positive surface charge, and a high dissolution rate. These improved properties could increase the DNA concentration on the vector as well as the endosomal escape of the complex that leads to higher transfection efficiency of this novel gene delivery vector.

  2. Relative quantification of membrane-associated calcium in red spruce mesophyll cells

    Treesearch

    Catherine H. Borer; Paul Schaberg; Jonathan R. Cumming

    1997-01-01

    We describe a method for localizing and comparing relative amounts of plasma membrane-associated calcium ions (mCa) in complex tissues and verify the procedure for mesophyll cells of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) needles. This technique incorporates epifluorescence microscopy using the fluorescent probe chlorotetracycline (CTC) with computer image...

  3. Haploidentical Related Donor Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for DOCK8 Deficiency Using Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nirali N; Freeman, Alexandra F; Su, Helen; Cole, Kristen; Parta, Mark; Moutsopoulos, Niki M; Baris, Safa; Karakoc-Aydiner, Elif; Hughes, Thomas E; Kong, Heidi H; Holland, Steve M; Hickstein, Dennis D

    2017-03-10

    Dedicator-of-Cytokinesis-8 (DOCK8) deficiency, a primary immunodeficiency disease, can be reversed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT); however, there are few reports describing the use of alternative donor sources for HSCT in DOCK8 deficiency. We describe HSCT for patients with DOCK8 deficiency who lack a matched related or unrelated donor using bone marrow from haploidentical related donors and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT/CY) for GVHD prophylaxis. Seven patients with DOCK8 deficiency (median age 20 years, range 7-25 years) received a haploidentical related donor HSCT. The conditioning regimen included 2 days of low-dose cyclophosphamide, 5 days of fludarabine, three days of busulfan, and 200 cGy TBI. Graft-versus host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis consisted of post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT/CY) 50 mg/kg/day on days +3 and +4, and tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil starting at day +5. The median times to neutrophil and platelet engraftment were 15 and 19 days, respectively. All patients attained >90% donor engraftment by day +30. Four subjects developed acute GVHD (one with maximum grade 3). No patient developed chronic GVHD. With a median follow-up time of 20.6 months (range 9.5 - 31.7 months), 6 of 7 patients are alive and disease-free. Haploidentical related donor HSCT with PT/CY represents an effective therapeutic approach for patients with DOCK8 deficiency who lack a matched related or unrelated donor.

  4. Location of Release Sites and Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels Relative to Calcium Channels at the Photoreceptor Ribbon Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, A. J.; Rabl, K.; Riccardi, G. E.; Brecha, N. C.; Stella, S. L.

    2011-01-01

    Vesicle release from photoreceptor ribbon synapses is regulated by L-type Ca2+ channels, which are in turn regulated by Cl− moving through calcium-activated chloride [Cl(Ca)] channels. We assessed the proximity of Ca2+ channels to release sites and Cl(Ca) channels in synaptic terminals of salamander photoreceptors by comparing fast (BAPTA) and slow (EGTA) intracellular Ca2+ buffers. BAPTA did not fully block synaptic release, indicating some release sites are <100 nm from Ca2+ channels. Comparing Cl(Ca) currents with predicted Ca2+ diffusion profiles suggested that Cl(Ca) and Ca2+ channels average a few hundred nanometers apart, but the inability of BAPTA to block Cl(Ca) currents completely suggested some channels are much closer together. Diffuse immunolabeling of terminals with an antibody to the putative Cl(Ca) channel TMEM16A supports the idea that Cl(Ca) channels are dispersed throughout the presynaptic terminal, in contrast with clustering of Ca2+ channels near ribbons. Cl(Ca) currents evoked by intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) elevation through flash photolysis of DM-nitrophen exhibited EC50 values of 556 and 377 nM with Hill slopes of 1.8 and 2.4 in rods and cones, respectively. These relationships were used to estimate average submembrane [Ca2+]i in photoreceptor terminals. Consistent with control of exocytosis by [Ca2+] nanodomains near Ca2+ channels, average submembrane [Ca2+]i remained below the vesicle release threshold (∼400 nM) over much of the physiological voltage range for cones. Positioning Ca2+ channels near release sites may improve fidelity in converting voltage changes to synaptic release. A diffuse distribution of Cl(Ca) channels may allow Ca2+ influx at one site to influence relatively distant Ca2+ channels. PMID:21084687

  5. Housing interventions and control of injury-related structural deficiencies: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Jacobs, David E; Phelan, Kieran J; Mickalide, Angela D; Ormandy, David

    2010-01-01

    Subject matter experts systematically reviewed evidence on the effectiveness of housing interventions that affect safety and injury outcomes, such as falls, fire-related injuries, burns, drowning, carbon monoxide poisoning, heat-related deaths, and noise-related harm, associated with structural housing deficiencies. Structural deficiencies were defined as those deficiencies for which a builder, landlord, or home-owner would take responsibility (ie, design, construction, installation, repair, monitoring). Three of the 17 interventions reviewed had sufficient evidence for implementation: installed, working smoke alarms; 4-sided isolation pool fencing; and preset safe hot water temperature. Five interventions needed more field evaluation, 8 needed formative research, and 1 was found to be ineffective. This evidence review shows that housing improvements are likely to help reduce burns and scalds, drowning in pools, and fire-related deaths and injuries.

  6. Housing Interventions and Control of Injury-Related Structural Deficiencies: A Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Jacobs, David E.; Phelan, Kieran J.; Mickalide, Angela; Ormandy, David

    2010-01-01

    Subject matter experts systematically reviewed evidence on the effectiveness of housing interventions that affect safety and injury outcomes, such as falls, fire-related injuries, burns and drowning, carbon monoxide poisoning, heat-related deaths, and noise-related harm, associated with structural housing deficiencies. Structural deficiencies were defined as those deficiencies for which a builder, landlord, or homeowner would take responsibility (ie, design, construction, installation, repair, monitoring). Three of the 17 interventions reviewed had sufficient evidence for implementation: installed, working smoke alarms; 4-sided isolation pool fencing; and preset safe hot water temperature. Five interventions needed more field evaluation, 8 needed formative research, and 1 was found to be ineffective. This evidence review shows that housing improvements are likely to help reduce burns and scalds, drowning in pools, and fire-related deaths and injuries. PMID:20689373

  7. Altered calcium pump and secondary deficiency of γ-sarcoglycan and microspan in sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes isolated from δ-sarcoglycan knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Solares-Pérez, Alhondra; Álvarez, Rocío; Crosbie, Rachelle H.; Vega-Moreno, Jesús; Medina-Monares, Joel; Estrada, Francisco J.; Ortega, Alicia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoglycans (SGs) and sarcospan (SSPN) are transmembrane proteins of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. Mutations in the genes encoding SGs cause many inherited forms of muscular dystrophy. In this study, using purified membranes of wild-type (WT) and δ-SG knockout (KO) mice, we found the specific localization of the SG-SSPN isoforms in transverse tubules (TT) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes. Immunoblotting revealed that the absence of δ-SG isoforms in TT and SR results in a secondary deficiency of γ-SG and µSPN. Our results showed augmented ATP hydrolytic activity, ATP-dependent calcium uptake and passive calcium efflux, probably through SERCA1 in KO compared to WT mice. Furthermore, we found a conformational change in SERCA1 isolated from KO muscle as demonstrated by calorimetric analysis. Following these alterations with mechanical properties, we found an increase in force in KO muscle with the same rate of fatigue but with a decreased fatigue recovery compared to WT. Together our observations suggest, for the first time, that the δ-SG isoforms may stabilize the expression of γ-SG and µSPN in the TT and SR membranes and that this possible complex may play a role in the maintenance of a stable level of resting cytosolic calcium concentration in skeletal muscle. PMID:20638123

  8. Altered calcium pump and secondary deficiency of gamma-sarcoglycan and microspan in sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes isolated from delta-sarcoglycan knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Solares-Pérez, Alhondra; Alvarez, Rocío; Crosbie, Rachelle H; Vega-Moreno, Jesús; Medina-Monares, Joel; Estrada, Francisco J; Ortega, Alicia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón

    2010-07-01

    Sarcoglycans (SGs) and sarcospan (SSPN) are transmembrane proteins of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. Mutations in the genes encoding SGs cause many inherited forms of muscular dystrophy. In this study, using purified membranes of wild-type (WT) and delta-SG knockout (KO) mice, we found the specific localization of the SG-SSPN isoforms in transverse tubules (TT) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes. Immunoblotting revealed that the absence of delta-SG isoforms in TT and SR results in a secondary deficiency of gamma-SG and microSPN. Our results showed augmented ATP hydrolytic activity, ATP-dependent calcium uptake and passive calcium efflux, probably through SERCA1 in KO compared to WT mice. Furthermore, we found a conformational change in SERCA1 isolated from KO muscle as demonstrated by calorimetric analysis. Following these alterations with mechanical properties, we found an increase in force in KO muscle with the same rate of fatigue but with a decreased fatigue recovery compared to WT. Together our observations suggest, for the first time, that the delta-SG isoforms may stabilize the expression of gamma-SG and microSPN in the TT and SR membranes and that this possible complex may play a role in the maintenance of a stable level of resting cytosolic calcium concentration in skeletal muscle. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary calcium and vitamin D intake in an adult Middle Eastern population: food sources and relation to lifestyle and PTH.

    PubMed

    Gannagé-Yared, Marie-Hélène; Chemali, Rana; Sfeir, Cynthia; Maalouf, Ghassan; Halaby, Georges

    2005-07-01

    animal/total calcium intake ratio, and high BMI, are independent predictors of hyperparathyroidism. The deficient nutritional status of vitamin D and calcium in Lebanon justify the implementation of dietary public health measures. People at most risk for secondary hyperparathyroidism should be advised to increase their dietary calcium (mostly animal calcium) and vitamin D, to take supplements, or to increase their sun exposure.

  10. A cardiac muscle model relating sarcomere dynamics to calcium kinetics.

    PubMed

    Negroni, J A; Lascano, E C

    1996-05-01

    A muscle model establishing the link between cross-bridge dynamics and intracellular Ca2+ kinetics was assessed by simulation of experiments performed in isolated cardiac muscle. The model is composed by the series arrangement of muscle units formed by inextensible thick and thin filaments in parallel with an elastic element. Attached cross-bridges act as independent force generators whose force is linearly related to the elongation of their elastic structure. Ca2+ kinetics is described by a four-state system of sites on the thin filament associated with troponin C: sites with free troponin C (T), sites with Ca2+ bound to troponin C (TCa); sites with Ca2+ bound to troponin C and attached cross-bridges (TCa*); and sites with troponin C not associated with Ca2+ and attached cross-bridges (T*). The intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]) is controlled solely by the sarcoplasmic reticulum through an inflow function and a saturated outflow pump function. All the simulations were performed using the same set of parameters. The model was able to reproduce the following experiments in cardiac muscle: (a) time course of isometric force (peak force: 46.5 mN/mm2), intracellular [Ca2+] (peak [Ca2+]: 1.5 microM); (b) force-length-[Ca2+] relations; (c) transient response of force to step changes in length; (d) force-velocity relation (maximum velocity: 3 microns/s); (e) the force response to length pulses to estimate the time course of [TCa]; (f) force response to quick releases showing the superactivating and deactivating effects of shortening; (g) stiffness response to sinusoidal length changes; and (h) time course of active state. The good accordance of the simulations with experimental results indicates that the model is an adequate representation of the link between cross-bridge dynamic behaviour and Ca2+ kinetics.

  11. Daily intake of magnesium and calcium from drinking water in relation to myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Rosenlund, Mats; Berglind, Niklas; Hallqvist, Johan; Bellander, Tom; Bluhm, Gösta

    2005-07-01

    A decreased risk for cardiovascular disease has been related to the hardness of drinking water, particularly high levels of magnesium. However, the evidence is still uncertain, especially in relation to individual intake from water. We used data from the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program, a population-based case-control study conducted during 1992-1994, to study the association between myocardial infarction and the daily intake of drinking water magnesium and calcium. Our analyses are based on 497 cases age 45-70 years, and 677 controls matched on age, sex, and hospital catchment area. Individual data on magnesium, calcium, and hardness of the domestic drinking water were assessed from waterwork registers or analyses of well water. After adjustment for the matching variables and smoking, hypertension, socioeconomic status, job strain, body mass index, diabetes, and physical inactivity, the odds ratio for myocardial infarction was 1.09 (95% confidence interval = 0.81-1.46) associated with a tap water hardness above the median (>4.4 German hardness degrees) and 0.88 (0.67-1.15) associated with a water magnesium intake above the median (>1.86 mg/d). There was no apparent sign of any exposure-response pattern related to water intake of magnesium or calcium. This study does not support previous reports of a protective effect on myocardial infarction associated with consumption of drinking water with higher levels of hardness, magnesium, or calcium.

  12. Immunoglobulin E in Immunologic Deficiency Diseases. I. RELATION OF IGE AND IGA TO RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASE IN ISOLATED IGE DEFICIENCY, IGA DEFICIENCY, AND ATAXIA TELANGIECTASIA

    PubMed Central

    Polmar, Stephen H.; Waldmann, Thomas A.; Balestra, Suellen T.; Jost, Margaret C.; Terry, William D.

    1972-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin E concentration was studied in normal children and adults, in 25 patients with isolated IgA deficiency, and in 44 patients with ataxia telangiectasia using a double antibody radioimmunoassay. The geometric mean IgE level of the normal adult population studied was 105 ng/ml, with a broad 95% interval (5-2045 ng/ml). Individuals with concentrations less than 15 ng/ml were considered to be IgE deficient. IgE deficiency, defined in this way, was observed in 7 of 73 normal adults and was not found to be associated with respiratory tract disease. 80% (35 of 44) of patients with ataxia telangiectasia (AT) were IgE deficient, 66% were IgA deficient, and 57% had combined IgE and IgA deficiencies. Although 45% of the patients with AT had respiratory tract disease, there was no correlation found between IgE deficiency or combined IgE and IgA deficiency and respiratory tract disease in these patients. 11 of 25 individuals with isolated IgA deficiency were also IgE deficient. All 11 patients with both IgA and IgE deficiency were uniformly asymptomatic. However, there was an extremely high incidence (71%) of respiratory tract disease in IgA-deficient individuals who were not IgE deficient. These data fail to support the concept of a protective role for IgE in respiratory tract immunity. The possible role of IgE in the pathogenesis of respiratory tract disease in IgA-deficient patients is discussed. PMID:5009116

  13. Calcium homeostasis alterations in a mouse model of the Dynamin 2-related centronuclear myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Fraysse, Bodvaël; Guicheney, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy (CNM) is a rare congenital myopathy characterized by centrally located nuclei in muscle fibers. CNM results from mutations in the gene encoding dynamin 2 (DNM2), a large GTPase involved in endocytosis, intracellular membrane trafficking, and cytoskeleton regulation. We developed a knock-in mouse model expressing the most frequent DNM2-CNM mutation; i.e. the KI-Dnm2R465W model. Heterozygous (HTZ) KI-Dnm2 mice progressively develop muscle atrophy, impairment of contractile properties, histopathological abnormalities, and elevated cytosolic calcium concentration. Here, we aim at better characterizing the calcium homeostasis impairment in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles from adult HTZ KI-Dnm2 mice. We demonstrate abnormal contractile properties and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in EDL but not soleus muscles showing that calcium impairment is correlated with muscle weakness and might be a determinant factor of the spatial muscle involvement. In addition, the elevated cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in EDL muscles is associated with an increased sarcolemmal permeability to Ca2+ and releasable Ca2+ content from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. However, amplitude and kinetics characteristics of the calcium transient appear unchanged. This suggests that calcium defect is probably not a primary cause of decreased force generation by compromised sarcomere shortening but may be involved in long-term deleterious consequences on muscle physiology. Our results highlight the first pathomechanism which may explain the spatial muscle involvement occurring in DNM2-related CNM and open the way toward development of a therapeutic approach to normalize calcium content. PMID:27870637

  14. Calcium homeostasis alterations in a mouse model of the Dynamin 2-related centronuclear myopathy.

    PubMed

    Fraysse, Bodvaël; Guicheney, Pascale; Bitoun, Marc

    2016-11-15

    Autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy (CNM) is a rare congenital myopathy characterized by centrally located nuclei in muscle fibers. CNM results from mutations in the gene encoding dynamin 2 (DNM2), a large GTPase involved in endocytosis, intracellular membrane trafficking, and cytoskeleton regulation. We developed a knock-in mouse model expressing the most frequent DNM2-CNM mutation; i.e. the KI-Dnm2(R465W) model. Heterozygous (HTZ) KI-Dnm2 mice progressively develop muscle atrophy, impairment of contractile properties, histopathological abnormalities, and elevated cytosolic calcium concentration. Here, we aim at better characterizing the calcium homeostasis impairment in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles from adult HTZ KI-Dnm2 mice. We demonstrate abnormal contractile properties and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in EDL but not soleus muscles showing that calcium impairment is correlated with muscle weakness and might be a determinant factor of the spatial muscle involvement. In addition, the elevated cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in EDL muscles is associated with an increased sarcolemmal permeability to Ca(2+) and releasable Ca(2+) content from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. However, amplitude and kinetics characteristics of the calcium transient appear unchanged. This suggests that calcium defect is probably not a primary cause of decreased force generation by compromised sarcomere shortening but may be involved in long-term deleterious consequences on muscle physiology. Our results highlight the first pathomechanism which may explain the spatial muscle involvement occurring in DNM2-related CNM and open the way toward development of a therapeutic approach to normalize calcium content. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Calcium carbide related ocular burn injuries during mango ripening season of West Bengal, eastern India.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, S; Saha, M; Biswas, S; Ranjan, A; Naskar, A K; Bandyopadhyay, L

    2013-01-01

    Calcium carbide used in fruit ripening industry as a cheap alternative to natural plant hormone ethylene produces highly inflammable acetylene gas. Inadvertent ignition of this gas can cause severe ocular burn injury with unilateral or bilateral blindness. To determine the characteristics and visual outcome of ocular burn injuries from calcium carbide during mango ripening season of West Bengal, eastern India. A prospective study of all cases of calcium carbide related ocular burn injury attending a tertiary care hospital during mango ripening season was carried out. The demographic features, characteristics of the injury, management and outcomes were recorded. Fifty five eyes of 33 patients were studied. Males were more commonly affected (20 patients, 60.6%) than females. The injury was bilateral in 22 patients (66.66%). Seventeen patients (51.51%) were below 20 years of age. Ten eyes had open globe injuries and 45 eyes had closed globe injuries. One eye of a patient had to be enucleated (3%). Children below 14 years of age were mainly injured while playing with indigenous fireworks of shooting carbide. Middle aged women were affected particularly during ignition of evening lamps. Carbide lamp was another source of injury. Males are more commonly affected by calcium carbide related ocular injuries. Children and young adults are the common victims. Such injuries can involve both the eyes and cause a permanent visual disability. © NEPjOPH.

  16. The High Calcium, High Phosphorus Rescue Diet Is Not Suitable to Prevent Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Vitamin D Receptor Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Grundmann, Sarah M; Brandsch, Corinna; Rottstädt, Daniela; Kühne, Hagen; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2017-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockout (KO) mouse is a common model to unravel novel metabolic functions of vitamin D. It is recommended to feed these mice a high calcium (2%), high phosphorus (1.25%) diet, termed rescue diet (RD) to prevent hypocalcaemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism. First, we characterized the individual response of VDR KO mice to feeding a RD and found that the RD was not capable of normalizing the parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations in each VDR KO mouse. In a second study, we aimed to study whether RD with additional 1 and 2% calcium (in total 3 and 4% of the diet) is able to prevent secondary hyperparathyroidism in the VDR KO mice. Wild type (WT) mice and VDR KO mice that received a normal calcium and phosphorus diet (ND) served as controls. Data demonstrated that the RD was no more efficient than the ND in normalizing PTH levels. An excessive dietary calcium concentration of 4% was required to reduce serum PTH concentrations in the VDR KO mice to PTH levels measured in WT mice. This diet, however, resulted in higher concentrations of circulating intact fibroblast growth factor 23 (iFGF23). To conclude, the commonly used RD is not suitable to normalize the serum PTH in VDR KO mice. Extremely high dietary calcium concentrations are necessary to prevent secondary hyperthyroidism in these mice, with the consequence that iFGF23 concentrations are being raised. Considering that PTH and iFGF23 exert numerous VDR independent effects, data obtained from VDR KO mice cannot be attributed solely to vitamin D.

  17. Gestational vitamin D deficiency and autism-related traits: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Vinkhuyzen, A A E; Eyles, D W; Burne, T H J; Blanken, L M E; Kruithof, C J; Verhulst, F; Jaddoe, V W; Tiemeier, H; McGrath, J J

    2016-11-29

    There is intense interest in identifying modifiable risk factors associated with autism-spectrum disorders (ASD). Autism-related traits, which can be assessed in a continuous fashion, share risk factors with ASD, and thus can serve as informative phenotypes in population-based cohort studies. Based on the growing body of research linking gestational vitamin D deficiency with altered brain development, this common exposure is a candidate modifiable risk factor for ASD and autism-related traits. The association between gestational vitamin D deficiency and a continuous measure of autism-related traits at ~6 years (Social Responsiveness Scale; SRS) was determined in a large population-based cohort of mothers and their children (n=4229). 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was assessed from maternal mid-gestation sera and from neonatal sera (collected from cord blood). Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25OHD concentrations less than 25 nmol l(-1). Compared with the 25OHD sufficient group (25OHD>50 nmol l(-1)), those who were 25OHD deficient had significantly higher (more abnormal) SRS scores (mid-gestation n=2866, β=0.06, P<0.001; cord blood n=1712, β=0.03, P=0.01). The findings persisted (a) when we restricted the models to offspring with European ancestry, (b) when we adjusted for sample structure using genetic data, (c) when 25OHD was entered as a continuous measure in the models and (d) when we corrected for the effect of season of blood sampling. Gestational vitamin D deficiency was associated with autism-related traits in a large population-based sample. Because gestational vitamin D deficiency is readily preventable with safe, cheap and accessible supplements, this candidate risk factor warrants closer scrutiny.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 29 November 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.213.

  18. Effects of duodenal redox status on calcium absorption and related genes expression in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ying; Cui, Jue; Shi, Yong-Hui; Sun, Jin; Wang, Zhou-Ping; Le, Guo-Wei

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether duodenal redox imbalance induced by high-fat diet (HFD) influenced expression of genes involved in transcellular calcium absorption, thus leading to reduced intestinal calcium absorption. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to one of four groups with eight mice in each group. The control group consumed an ordinary diet (4.9% fat, w/w). The other three groups were fed a HFD (21.2% fat), the HFD plus 0.1% lipoic acid, or the HFD plus an additional 0.9% calcium supplement. After 9 wk, plasma and duodenal oxidative stress biomarkers including malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio, and reactive oxygen species were examined. The intestinal calcium absorption state was evaluated through examining the calcium balance, bone mineral density, and calcium metabolism biomarkers. Furthermore, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was carried out to analyze the changes in expression of transcellular calcium absorption-related genes. The HFD induced marked decreases in intestinal calcium absorption and bone mineral density of the whole body, accompanied by redox imbalance and increased oxidative damage in duodenum; duodenal expression of calbindin-D(9K), plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA(1b)), and sodium-calcium exchanger was significantly down-regulated by 1.9-, 2.7-, and 1.5-fold, respectively. Furthermore, duodenal glutathione and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratios were strongly positively correlated with the apparent calcium absorption rate and the expression of PMCA(1b) and Calbindin-D(9K), whereas reactive oxygen species levels were negatively correlated with them. Our results demonstrated that a HFD-induced duodenal oxidation state could significantly down-regulate expression of calbindin-D(9K), PMCA(1b), and sodium-calcium exchanger, thus causing an inhibitory effect on intestinal calcium absorption. Copyright © 2010

  19. ON THE RELATION OF TETANY TO THE PARATHYROID GLANDS AND TO CALCIUM METABOLISM

    PubMed Central

    MacCallum, W. G.; Voegtlin, Carl

    1909-01-01

    important relation of the calcium salts to the excitability of the central nervous system. Their withdrawal leaves the nerve cells in a state of hyperexcitability which can be made to disappear by supplying them with a solution of a calcium salt. 8. Tetany may be regarded as an expression of hyperexcitability of the nerve cells from some such cause. 9. The injection of a solution of a salt of calcium into the circulation of an animal in tetany promptly checks all the symptoms and restores the animal to an apparently normal condition. 10. Injections of magnesium salts probably have a similar effect but these effects are masked by the toxic action of the salt. 11. The injection of sodium or potassium salts has no such beneficial effect but rather tends to intensify the symptoms. This is true also of the alkaline salts of sodium which were studied especially in respect to their basic properties. 12. The effect of calcium is of value in human therapeutics in combating the symptoms of spontaneous forms of tetany and in relieving the symptoms in cases of operative tetany and thus tiding over the period of acute parathyroid insufficiency until remnants of parathyroid tissue can recover their function or new parathyroid tissue can be transplanted. It is in this way an important and convenient ally of the method of injecting parathyroid extract. 13. Studies of the metabolism in parathyroidectomized animals show: 1. A marked reduction in the calcium content of the tissues especially of the blood and brain, during tetany. 2. An increased output of calcium in the urine and fæces on the development of tetany. 3. An increased output of nitrogen in the urine. 4. An increased output of ammonia in the urine with 4a. an increased ammonia ratio in the urine. 5. An increased amount of ammonia in the blood. Much of this affords evidence of the existence of some type of acid intoxication. Its effects are, however, not neutralized by the introduction of alkaline sodium salts and may perhaps be

  20. [Prevalence of iodine deficiency and related factors in 4 year-old schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Serra-Prat, Mateu; Díaz, Eva; Verde, Yolanda; Gost, Jordi; Serra, Eugènia; Puig Domingo, Manel

    2003-03-01

    Iodine deficiency in early years of life can cause important disorders in body growth and development. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency in 4 year-old schoolchildren from the town of Mataró (Barcelona, Spain) and to know the factors associated with this nutritional deficiency. A population-based cross-sectional study was designed, which included all 4 year-old schoolchildren of this town. A physicians team performed a basic physical examination and collected urine samples for iodine determination. Parents were asked to answer a nutritional habits questionnaire. Eight hundred and sixty urine samples were obtained from 987 participants. Mean urinary iodine levels were 214.1 g/l (SD = 103.3 g/l) and the median was 189.0 g/l. Prevalence of iodine deficiency was 7.8% at a 100 g/l cut-off point and 1.2% at a 50 g/l cut-off point. Statistical differences in the prevalence of iodine deficiency were observed between ethnic groups: while natives had a prevalence of 7.0%, in Magrebins it was 18.4%, Subsaharians 20.0% and other ethnical groups 14.3% (p = 0.016). Schoolchildren in Mataró have adequate urinary iodine levels according to WHO recommendations with a relatively low prevalence of iodine deficiency. However, even after adjustments for the knowledge of the existence of iodized salt, iodine deficiency correlates with the child's ethnic origin (native or immigrant).

  1. Elevated relative humidity increases the incidence of boron deficiency in bedding plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High relative humidity (RH) can cause lower concentrations of B accumulating in plants. The common greenhouse practice of controlling excess temperatures by applying mist irrigation to youngplants (plugs) results in elevated RH levels. Reports of boron (B) deficiency have become more prevalent ove...

  2. Demographic and health-related risk factors of subclinical vitamin A deficiency in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Demissie, Tsegaye; Ali, Ahmed; Mekonnen, Yared; Haider, Jemal; Umeta, Melaku

    2009-10-01

    The study was conducted to determine the demographic and health-related risk factors of subclinical vitamin A deficiency in Ethiopia. Blood samples were collected from 996 children in 210 clusters across the nation for analysis of serum retinol. Interviews were conducted with the respective mothers of the 996 children on presumed risk factors of vitamin A deficiency. A higher subclinical vitamin A deficiency was associated with: not receiving vitamin A supplement over the year, having been ill during the two weeks preceding the survey, no or incomplete vaccination, belonging to a mother with high parity, and low levels of awareness of vitamin A. Moreover, being from Muslim household was strongly associated with higher levels of subclinical vitamin A deficiency. Among the risk factors identified, low levels of vaccination, high parity, and low levels of maternal awareness of vitamin A contributed to higher risks of vitamin A deficiency among Muslim children. The findings underscore the need for creation of strengthened awareness of family planning and importance of vitamin A, promotion of vaccination and child health, intensification of vitamin A supplementation, and in-depth investigation on factors contributing to increased vulnerability of Muslim children.

  3. Ethnic differences in relative risk of idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis in North America.

    PubMed

    Mente, Andrew; Honey, R John D'A; McLaughlin, John R; Bull, Shelley B; Logan, Alexander G

    2007-11-01

    Data on susceptibility to kidney stone disease are sparse in individuals of nonEuropean ancestry residing in North America. We determined the relative risk of calcium nephrolithiasis among people of different ethnic backgrounds living in the same geographic region. Using a cross-sectional design 1,128 consecutive patients with idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis 18 to 50 years old were recruited from a population based Kidney Stone Center in Toronto. Age and gender adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by logistic regression using the 2001 Canada Census population data. Compared to Europeans the relative risk of calcium nephrolithiasis was significantly higher in individuals of Arabic (OR 3.8, 2.7-5.2), West Indian (OR 2.5, 1.8-3.4), West Asian (OR 2.4, 1.7-3.4) and Latin American (OR 1.7, 1.2-2.4) origin, and significantly lower in those of East Asian (OR 0.4, 0.3-0.5) and African (OR 0.7, 0.5-0.9) background. Several ethnic groups had kidney stone risk factors that were significantly different from those of the European group including higher urinary uric acid, urea excretion and estimated protein intake, and lower urinary citrate, potassium, magnesium and phosphate excretion. However, none was consistent with the variation in relative risk of stone disease overall. The propensity for the development of calcium nephrolithiasis differed markedly among ethnic groups in North America. While environmental factors could not be completely ruled out, this variability may reflect the influence of genetic susceptibility because there was no dominant environmental factor to account for the differences in relative risk of stone disease.

  4. Calcium dependent protein kinase (CDPK) expression during fruit development in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) under Ca²⁺-sufficient and -deficient growth regimens.

    PubMed

    Jain, Mukesh; Pathak, Bhuvan P; Harmon, Alice C; Tillman, Barry L; Gallo, Maria

    2011-12-15

    Adequate soil calcium (Ca²⁺) levels are crucial for sustained reproductive development of peanut (Arachis hypogaea). A role for calcium dependent protein kinase was evaluated during peanut fruit development under sufficient and deficient soil Ca²⁺ conditions. Quantitative RT-PCR and protein gel blot analyses confirmed transcriptional upregulation of CDPK in seeds developing under inadequate soil Ca²⁺ regimen, as well as spatiotemporal regulation of CDPK expression during early mitotic growth and later during the storage phase of seed development. However, a consistent basal level of CDPK was present during similar developmental stages of pod tissue, irrespective of the soil Ca²⁺ status. Immunolocalization data showed CDPK decoration primarily in the outer most cell layers of the pericarp and around vascular bundles linked by lateral connections in developing pods, as well as the single vascular trace supplying nutrients to the developing seed. Finally, carbohydrate analyses and qRT-PCR data are provided for peanut genes encoding enzymes involved in sucrose cleavage (orthologs of Vicia faba, VfCWI1 and VfCWI2) and utilization (AhSuSy and AhSpS), and oleosin gene transcripts (AhOleo17.8 and AhOleo18.5) validating a role for CDPK in the establishment and maintenance of sink strength, and subsequent onset of storage product biosynthetic phase during seed maturation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Preventive effects of the plant isoflavones, daidzin and genistin, on bone loss in ovariectomized rats fed a calcium-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Ishida, H; Uesugi, T; Hirai, K; Toda, T; Nukaya, H; Yokotsuka, K; Tsuji, K

    1998-01-01

    The effects of the plant isoflavones, daidzin and genistin, on bone loss in ovariectomized (ovx) rats fed a calcium-deficient diet were investigated. Daidzin and genistin were orally administered to ovx rats for 4 weeks. The femurs of these rats showed significantly lower density, strength (breaking forces), ash weight and calcium and phosphorus content (p<0.01) in comparison with those of sham-operated rats. These changes were largely prevented in animals receiving oral daidzin or genistin for 4 weeks at a dose of 50 mg/kg/d and in animals receiving subcutaneous estrone (7.5 microg/kg/d) as a positive control. Ovariectomy caused atrophy of the uterus and increased the ratio of the urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline to endogenous creatinine excretion. This was prevented by administration of daidzin or estrone, but, interestingly, not genistin. The preventive effect of daidzin treatment on bone loss in ovariectomized rats appears to be due to suppression of bone turnover. Genistin has a different mechanism of action from daidzin.

  6. Effects of Biotin Deficiency on Biotinylated Proteins and Biotin-Related Genes in the Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Masahiro; Aoyama, Yuki; Shimada, Ryoko; Sawamura, Hiromi; Ebara, Shuhei; Negoro, Munetaka; Fukui, Toru; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that functions as a cofactor for biotin-dependent carboxylases. The biochemical and physiological roles of biotin in brain regions have not yet been investigated sufficiently in vivo. Thus, in order to clarify the function of biotin in the brain, we herein examined biotin contents, biotinylated protein expression (e.g. holocarboxylases), and biotin-related gene expression in the brain of biotin-deficient rats. Three-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into a control group, biotin-deficient group, and pair-fed group. Rats were fed experimental diets from 3 wk old for 8 wk, and the cortex, hippocampus, striatum, hypothalamus, and cerebellum were then collected. In the biotin-deficient group, the maintenance of total biotin and holocarboxylases, increases in the bound form of biotin and biotinidase activity, and the expression of an unknown biotinylated protein were observed in the cortex. In other regions, total and free biotin contents decreased, holocarboxylase expression was maintained, and bound biotin and biotinidase activity remained unchanged. Biotin-related gene (pyruvate carboxylase, sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter, holocarboxylase synthetase, and biotinidase) expression in the cortex and hippocampus also remained unchanged among the dietary groups. These results suggest that biotin may be related to cortex functions by binding protein, and the effects of a biotin deficiency and the importance of biotin differ among the different brain regions.

  7. Evidence of relative iron deficiency in platelet- and plasma-pheresis donors correlates with donation frequency.

    PubMed

    Li, Huihui; Condon, Frances; Kessler, Debra; Nandi, Vijay; Rebosa, Mark; Westerman, Mark; Shaz, Beth H; Ginzburg, Yelena

    2016-12-01

    The loss of iron stores and resulting iron deficiency is well documented in whole blood or red blood cell donors. We hypothesized that relative iron deficiency also occurs as a result of more frequent platelet- and plasma-pheresis (apheresis) donation. To test this hypothesis, we proposed a pilot cross-sectional study to analyze erythropoiesis- and iron-related parameters in white male apheresis donors: (1) relative to controls, (2) in correlation with apheresis donation frequency, and (3) in correlation with pre-donation platelet count. Fifty eligible apheresis donors and eight controls were enrolled in the study. Apheresis donors were found to have a lower serum ferritin and serum hepcidin and exhibited evidence of iron restricted erythropoiesis relative to controls. Furthermore, among donors, lower MCV, CH(r) , hepcidin concentration, and serum ferritin were observed in more frequent apheresis donors. Correlations between donation frequency and hepcidin and ferritin were noted in apheresis donors. This pilot study demonstrates that apheresis donors are relatively iron deficient compared to controls and supports the premise that frequent apheresis donation correlates with relatively iron restricted erythropoiesis. An analysis of iron- and erythropoiesis-related parameters in a broader population of frequent apheresis donors (i.e., female and non-white donors) may demonstrate larger deficits and an even greater potential benefit of iron replacement. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:551-558, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Duodenal active transport of calcium and phosphate in vitamin D-deficient rats: effects of nephrectomy, Cestrum diurnum, and 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Walling, M W; Kimberg, D V; Wasserman, R H; Feinberg, R R

    1976-05-01

    Both the methanol:chloroform extractable material from the leaves of the Solanaceous plant, Cestrum diurnum (C.d.), and a 270 ng dose of 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1alpha,25-(OH)2D3) increased the active absorption of calcium and phosphate across the proximal duodenum, studied in vitro, from sham-operated and nephrectomized (NPX) vitamin D-deficient rats. In these studies, conducted 24 h after surgery, the uremic state in the NPX animals markedly diminished the intestinal transport response to 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3 and also lowered baseline transport values across duodenum from the NPX vitamin D-deficient controls. Both C.d. and 1alpha, 25-(OH)2D3 elevated plasma Ca levels equally well in the sham-operated and NPX groups. The stimulation of intestinal Ca absorption in NPX animals indicates that, like the leaves of the South American plant, Solanum glaucophyllum, C.d. contains materials which can function in an analogous manner to compounds in the vitamin D group that have either a 1alpha hydroxyl group or its steric equivalent.

  9. Vitamin D deficiency in neovascular versus nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Itty, Sujit; Day, Shelley; Lyles, Kenneth W; Stinnett, Sandra S; Vajzovic, Lejla M; Mruthyunjaya, Prithvi

    2014-09-01

    To compare 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NVAMD) with patients with nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration and control patients. Medical records of all patients diagnosed with age-related macular degeneration and tested for serum 25OHD level at a single medical center were reviewed. Control patients were selected from patients diagnosed with pseudophakia but without age-related macular degeneration. The lowest 25OHD level available for each patient was recorded. Two hundred sixteen patients with nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration, 146 with NVAMD, and 100 non-age-related macular degeneration control patients were included. The levels of 25OHD (mean ± SD) were significantly lower in NVAMD patients (26.1 ± 14.4 ng/mL) versus nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration (31.5 ± 18.2 ng/mL, P = 0.003) and control (29.4 ± 10.1 ng/mL, P = 0.049) patients. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (<30 ng/mL 25OHD), deficiency (<20 ng/mL), and severe deficiency (<10 ng/mL) were highest in the NVAMD group. The highest quintile of 25OHD was associated with a 0.35 (95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.68) odds ratio for NVAMD. This is the largest study to compare 25OHD levels in patients with the different clinical forms of age-related macular degeneration. Mean 25OHD levels were lower and vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent in NVAMD patients. These associations suggest that further research is necessary regarding vitamin D deficiency as a potentially modifiable risk factor for the development of NVAMD.

  10. Evidence for cross-tolerance to nutrient deficiency in three disjunct populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. lyrata in response to substrate calcium to magnesium ratio.

    PubMed

    Veatch-Blohm, Maren E; Roche, Bernadette M; Campbell, Maryjean

    2013-01-01

    Species with widespread distributions that grow in varied habitats may consist of ecotypes adapted to a particular habitat, or may exhibit cross-tolerance that enables them to exploit a variety of habitats. Populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. lyrata (L.) O'Kane & Al-Shehbaz grow in a wide variety of edaphic settings including serpentine soil, limestone sand, and alluvial flood plains. While all three of these environments share some stressors, a crucial difference among these environments is soil calcium to magnesium ratio, which ranges from 25:1 in the limestone sand to 0.2:1 in serpentine soil. The three populations found on these substrates were subjected to three different Ca to Mg ratios under controlled environmental conditions during germination and rosette growth. Response to Ca to Mg ratio was evaluated through germination success and radicle growth rate, rosette growth rate, and the content of Ca and Mg in the rosette. All three populations were particularly efficient in fueling growth under nutrient deficiency, with the highest nutrient efficiency ratio for Ca under Ca deficiency and for Mg under Mg deficiency. Although the serpentine population had significantly higher leaf Ca to Mg ratio than the limestone or flood plain populations under all three Ca to Mg ratios, this increase did not result in any advantage in growth or appearance of the serpentine plants, during early life stages before the onset of flowering, even in the high Mg substrate. The three populations showed no population by substrate interaction for any of the parameters measured indicating that these populations may have cross-tolerance to substrate Ca to Mg ratio.

  11. Evidence for Cross-Tolerance to Nutrient Deficiency in Three Disjunct Populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. lyrata in Response to Substrate Calcium to Magnesium Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Veatch-Blohm, Maren E.; Roche, Bernadette M.; Campbell, MaryJean

    2013-01-01

    Species with widespread distributions that grow in varied habitats may consist of ecotypes adapted to a particular habitat, or may exhibit cross-tolerance that enables them to exploit a variety of habitats. Populations of Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. lyrata (L.) O’Kane & Al-Shehbaz grow in a wide variety of edaphic settings including serpentine soil, limestone sand, and alluvial flood plains. While all three of these environments share some stressors, a crucial difference among these environments is soil calcium to magnesium ratio, which ranges from 25∶1 in the limestone sand to 0.2∶1 in serpentine soil. The three populations found on these substrates were subjected to three different Ca to Mg ratios under controlled environmental conditions during germination and rosette growth. Response to Ca to Mg ratio was evaluated through germination success and radicle growth rate, rosette growth rate, and the content of Ca and Mg in the rosette. All three populations were particularly efficient in fueling growth under nutrient deficiency, with the highest nutrient efficiency ratio for Ca under Ca deficiency and for Mg under Mg deficiency. Although the serpentine population had significantly higher leaf Ca to Mg ratio than the limestone or flood plain populations under all three Ca to Mg ratios, this increase did not result in any advantage in growth or appearance of the serpentine plants, during early life stages before the onset of flowering, even in the high Mg substrate. The three populations showed no population by substrate interaction for any of the parameters measured indicating that these populations may have cross-tolerance to substrate Ca to Mg ratio. PMID:23650547

  12. Age-related changes in laboratory values used in the diagnosis of anemia and iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yip, R; Johnson, C; Dallman, P R

    1984-03-01

    Laboratory results from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II) were used to define age-related changes in laboratory values that are related to the diagnosis of anemia and iron deficiency. Analyses included Hb, hematocrit, red blood cell count, red cell indices, iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and erythrocyte protoporphyrin. Computation of median values and 95% ranges by age and sex for each laboratory test were performed on 15,093 subjects between 1 and 74 yr of age who had complete laboratory data on venous blood, after excluding those subjects with an abnormality in one or more of three other laboratory tests. Age-related changes in laboratory measurements, such as those described herein, must be taken into consideration in order to optimize the identification of individuals with anemia and iron deficiency.

  13. Review: mechanisms for boron deficiency-mediated changes in plant water relations.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Monika A; Eichert, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Boron (B) is an essential microelement for plants and is constantly needed throughout the plant life due to its function as a structural element of the plant cell wall. B deficiency is a wide-spread problem in agricultural areas world-wide, and management of B nutrition is challenged by sudden occurrences of B deficiency or inconsistent effects of foliar B application. The effects of insufficient B supply on different structures relevant for the plant water status have been heavily researched, but the resulting conclusions are contradictory and no clear picture has so far emerged that fully explains the inconsistencies. B deficiency can affect water uptake by inhibition of root and shoot growth and by upregulation of water channels. Structural damage to xylem vessels can limit water transport to arial plant parts, while water loss can be altered by impaired barrier functions of leaf surfaces and reduced photosynthesis. In consequence of all these effects, transpiration is reduced in B-deficient plants under well-watered conditions. Under drought conditions, the responsiveness of stomata is impaired. Possible consequences of damaged vasculature for plant B nutrition include the reduced effectiveness of foliar B fertilization, especially in species with high B phloem mobility. Changes in leaf surface properties can further reduce B uptake after foliar application. In species with low B phloem mobility, weakened xylem vessels may not be able to supply sufficient B to arial parts under conditions of increased B demand, such as during bud development of trees. Since structural damage to vessels is hardly reversible, these effects could be permanent, even if B deficiency was only transient. Another consequence of reduced water status is the higher susceptibility of B-deficient plants to other abiotic stresses, which also impair water relations, especially drought. Since damage to vasculature can occur before visible symptoms of B deficiency appear in shoots, the

  14. Effects of Factor XIII Deficiency on Thromboelastography. Thromboelastography with Calcium and Streptokinase Addition is more Sensitive than Solubility Tests.

    PubMed

    Martinuzzo, M; Barrera, L; Altuna, D; Baña, F Tisi; Bieti, J; Amigo, Q; D'Adamo, M; López, M S; Oyhamburu, J; Otaso, J C

    2016-01-01

    Homozygous or double heterozygous factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency is characterized by soft tissue hematomas, intracranial and delayed spontaneous bleeding. Alterations of thromboelastography (TEG) parameters in these patients have been reported. The aim of the study was to show results of TEG, TEG Lysis (Lys 60) induced by subthreshold concentrations of streptokinase (SK), and to compare them to the clot solubility studies results in samples of a 1-year-old girl with homozygous or double heterozygous FXIII deficiency. A year one girl with a history of bleeding from the umbilical cord. During her first year of life, several hematomas appeared in soft upper limb tissue after punctures for vaccination and a gluteal hematoma. One additional sample of a heterozygous patient and three samples of acquired FXIII deficiency were also evaluated. Clotting tests, von Willebrand factor (vWF) antigen and activity, plasma FXIII-A subunit (pFXIII-A) were measured by an immunoturbidimetric assay in a photo-optical coagulometer. Solubility tests were performed with Ca(2+)-5 M urea and thrombin-2% acetic acid. Basal and post-FXIII concentrate infusion samples were studied. TEG was performed with CaCl2 or CaCl2 + SK (3.2 U/mL) in a Thromboelastograph. Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time, fibrinogen, factor VIIIc, vWF, and platelet aggregation were normal. Antigenic pFXIII-A subunit was < 2%. TEG, evaluated at diagnosis and post FXIII concentrate infusion (pFXIII-A= 37%), presented a normal reaction time (R), 8 min, prolonged k (14 and 11min respectively), a low Maximum-Amplitude (MA) ( 39 and 52 mm respectively), and Clot Lysis (Lys60) slightly increased (23 and 30% respectively). In the sample at diagnosis, clot solubility was abnormal, 50 and 45 min with Ca-Urea and thrombin-acetic acid, respectively, but normal (>16 hours) 1-day post-FXIII infusion. Analysis of FXIII deficient and normal plasma mixtures (< 2-102% of pFXIII-A), showed

  15. Wood formation of trees in relation to potassium and calcium nutrition.

    PubMed

    Fromm, Jörg

    2010-09-01

    Potassium and calcium are essential for tree metabolism and various physiological processes related to growth. In recent years, special interest was therefore accorded to the effect of both cations on cambial activity and xylem development. Various studies revealed a distinct correlation between potassium as well as calcium nutrition and wood formation. When poplar trees were grown under low K(+) or Ca²(+) regimes, the cambial activity as well as the seasonal rate of wood increment and the vessel size were significantly reduced. Molecular, biochemical and electrophysiological investigations indicate (i) a strong involvement of specific K(+) channels in the regulation of xylem cell expansion and (ii) a significant influence of Ca²(+) on the onset of cambial reactivation after winter dormancy as well as on wood structure and chemistry. These studies highlight the important role of potassium as well as calcium in xylogenesis. Based on that knowledge, further research will be directed towards a better understanding of the mechanisms governing K(+)- as well as Ca²(+)-dependent wood formation.

  16. Effect of calcium, bicarbonate, and albumin on capacitation-related events in equine sperm.

    PubMed

    Macías-García, B; González-Fernández, L; Loux, S C; Rocha, A M; Guimarães, T; Peña, F J; Varner, D D; Hinrichs, K

    2015-01-01

    Repeatable methods for IVF have not been established in the horse, reflecting the failure of standard capacitating media to induce changes required for fertilization capacity in equine sperm. One important step in capacitation is membrane cholesterol efflux, which in other species is triggered by cholesterol oxidation and is typically enhanced using albumin as a sterol acceptor. We incubated equine sperm in the presence of calcium, BSA, and bicarbonate, alone or in combination. Bicarbonate induced an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was abolished by the addition of calcium or BSA. Bicarbonate induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PY), even in the presence of calcium or BSA. Incubation at high pH enhanced PY but did not increase ROS production. Notably, no combination of these factors was associated with significant cholesterol efflux, as assessed by fluorescent quantitative cholesterol assay and confirmed by filipin staining. By contrast, sperm treated with methyl-β-cyclodextrin showed a significant reduction in cholesterol levels, but no significant increase in PY or ROS. Presence of BSA increased sperm binding to bovine zonae pellucidae in all three stallions. These results show that presence of serum albumin is not associated with a reduction in membrane cholesterol levels in equine sperm, highlighting the failure of equine sperm to exhibit core capacitation-related changes in a standard capacitating medium. These data indicate an atypical relationship among cholesterol efflux, ROS production, and PY in equine sperm. Our findings may help to elucidate factors affecting failure of equine IVF under standard conditions.

  17. Clinicopathological and molecular characterization of SMARCA4-deficient thoracic sarcomas with comparison to potentially related entities.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Eisuke; Kubo, Takashi; Kodaira, Makoto; Motoi, Toru; Motoi, Noriko; Yonemori, Kan; Ohe, Yuichiro; Watanabe, Shun-Ichi; Kawai, Akira; Kohno, Takashi; Kishimoto, Hiroshi; Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Hiraoka, Nobuyoshi

    2017-03-03

    A growing number of studies suggest critical tumor suppressor roles of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex in a variety of human cancers. The recent discovery of SMARCA4-deficient thoracic sarcomas has added to the list of tumor groups with the SMARCA4 inactivating mutation. To better characterize these tumors and establish their nosological status, we undertook a clinicopathological and molecular analysis of 12 SMARCA4-deficient thoracic sarcomas and compared them with three potentially related disease entities. Eleven men and one woman with SMARCA4-deficient thoracic sarcomas (aged 27-82 years, median 39 years) were included in the study. Most of the patients had heavy smoking exposure and pulmonary emphysema/bullae. The primary tumors were large and involved the thoracic region in all cases and simultaneously affected the abdominal cavity in 3 cases. The patients followed a rapid course, with a median survival of 7 months. Histologically, all tumors showed diffuse sheets of mildly dyscohesive, relatively monotonous, and undifferentiated epithelioid cells with prominent nucleoli. Immunohistochemically, all tumors demonstrated a complete absence (8 cases) or diffuse severe reduction (4 cases) of SMARCA4 expression. Cytokeratin, CD34, SOX2, SALL4, and p53 were expressed in 6/12, 10/12, 10/12, 10/12, and 7/10 cases, respectively. SMARCA2 expression was deficient in 11/12 cases, and none (0/8) expressed claudin-4. Targeted sequencing was performed in 5 cases and demonstrated the inactivating SMARCA4 mutation in each case and uncovered alterations in TP53 (5/5), NF1 (2/5), CDKN2A (2/5), KRAS (1/5), and KEAP1 (1/5), among others. Comparative analysis supported the distinctiveness of SMARCA4-deficient thoracic sarcomas as they were distinguishable from 13 malignant rhabdoid tumors, 15 epithelioid sarcomas, and 12 SMARCA4-deficient lung carcinomas based on clinicopathological and immunohistochemical grounds. SMARCA4-deficient thoracic sarcomas constitute a unique

  18. MCPIP1 Deficiency in Mice Results in Severe Anemia Related to Autoimmune Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhou; Miao, Ruidong; Huang, Shengping; Elder, Brandon; Quinn, Tim; Papasian, Christopher J.; Zhang, Jifeng; Fan, Daping; Chen, Y. Eugene; Fu, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune gastritis is an organ-specific autoimmune disease of the stomach associated with pernicious anemia. The previous work from us and other groups identified MCPIP1 as an essential factor controlling inflammation and immune homeostasis. MCPIP1-/- developed severe anemia. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenotype remain unclear. In the present study, we found that MCPIP1 deficiency in mice resulted in severe anemia related to autoimmune mechanisms. Although MCPIP1 deficiency did not affect erythropoiesis per se, the erythropoiesis in MCPIP1-/- bone marrow erythroblasts was significantly attenuated due to iron and vitamin B12 (VB12) deficiency, which was mainly resulted from autoimmunity-associated gastritis and parietal cell loss. Consistently, exogenous supplement of iron and VB12 greatly improved the anemia phenotype of MCPIP1-/- mice. Finally, we have evidence suggesting that autoimmune hemolysis may also contribute to anemia phenotype of MCPIP1-/- mice. Taken together, our study suggests that MCPIP1 deficiency in mice leads to the development of autoimmune gastritis and pernicious anemia. Thus, MCPIP1-/- mice may be a good mouse model for investigating the pathogenesis of pernicious anemia and testing the efficacy of some potential drugs for treatment of this disease. PMID:24324805

  19. Gestational iron deficiency and the related anaemia in northern zone of Ebonyi State.

    PubMed

    Obasi, I O; Nwachukwu, N

    2013-10-15

    Iron is one instrumental micronutrient to any healthy pregnancy. Its deficiency (with or without overt anaemia) remains a significant risk factor to gestational complications. In the present study, 307 pregnant women were prospectively recruited from Northern zone of Ebonyi State to assess their gestational iron status. The iron status of the subjects was determined with serum iron level and heamoglobin concentration, using atomic absorption (flame) spectrometric and Drabkin's methods respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using the computer software: "Statistical Program for Social Sciences" (SPSS for windows version 15.0). The result showed that 177 (59.8%) of the pregnant women were iron deficient, while 45.6% of them was at the risk of iron deficiency anaemia. Parity, educational level, occupation and living accommodation showed significant (p < 0.05) influence on the iron status of the subjects. It could be concluded that gestational iron deficiency with its related anaemia was yet to be effectively brought under control in our society; with parity and economic status implicated as risk factors.

  20. Reconstitution of the NF1 GAP-related domain in NF1-deficient human Schwann cells

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Stacey L.; Deadwyler, Gail D.; Tang, Jun; Stubbs, Evan B.; Muir, David; Hiatt, Kelly K. . E-mail: George.Devries@med.va.gov

    2006-09-29

    Schwann cells derived from peripheral nerve sheath tumors from individuals with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) are deficient for the protein neurofibromin, which contains a GAP-related domain (NF1-GRD). Neurofibromin-deficient Schwann cells have increased Ras activation, increased proliferation in response to certain growth stimuli, increased angiogenic potential, and altered cell morphology. This study examined whether expression of functional NF1-GRD can reverse the transformed phenotype of neurofibromin-deficient Schwann cells from both benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. We reconstituted the NF1-GRD using retroviral transduction and examined the effects on cell morphology, growth potential, and angiogenic potential. NF1-GRD reconstitution resulted in morphologic changes, a 16-33% reduction in Ras activation, and a 53% decrease in proliferation in neurofibromin-deficient Schwann cells. However, NF1-GRD reconstitution was not sufficient to decrease the in vitro angiogenic potential of the cells. This study demonstrates that reconstitution of the NF1-GRD can at least partially reverse the transformation of human NF1 tumor-derived Schwann cells.

  1. Calcium sensitivity and the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart are increased in titin N2B region-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Peng, Jun; Radke, Michael; Gotthardt, Michael; Granzier, Henk L

    2010-09-01

    Previous work suggests that titin-based passive tension is a factor in the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart, by increasing length-dependent activation (LDA) through an increase in calcium sensitivity at long sarcomere length. We tested this hypothesis in a mouse model (N2B KO model) in which titin-based passive tension is elevated as a result of the excision of the N2B element, one of cardiac titin's spring elements. LDA was assessed by measuring the active tension-pCa (-log[Ca(2+)]) relationship at sarcomere length (SLs) of 1.95, 2.10, and 2.30 microm in WT and N2B KO skinned myocardium. LDA was positively correlated with titin-based passive tension due to an increase in calcium sensitivity at the longer SLs in the KO. For example, at pCa 6.0, the KO:WT tension ratio was 1.28+/-0.07 and 1.42+/-0.04 at SLs of 2.1 and 2.3 microm, respectively. There was no difference in protein expression or total phosphorylation of sarcomeric proteins. We also measured the calcium sensitivity after PKA treating the skinned muscle and found that titin-based passive tension was also now correlated with LDA, with a slope that was significantly increased compared to no PKA treatment. Finally, we performed isolated heart experiments and measured the Frank-Starling relation (slope of developed wall stress-LV volume relation) as well as diastolic stiffness (slope of diastolic wall stress-volume relation). The FSM was more pronounced in the N2B KO hearts and the slope of the FSM correlated with diastolic stiffness. These findings support that titin-based passive tension triggers an increase in calcium sensitivity at long sarcomere length, thereby playing an important role in the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart.

  2. Calcium sensitivity and the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart are increased in titin N2B region deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Peng, Jun; Radke, Michael; Gotthardt, Michael; Granzier, Henk L

    2010-01-01

    Previous work suggests that titin-based passive tension is a factor in the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart, by increasing length-dependent activation (LDA) through an increase in calcium sensitivity at long sarcomere length. We tested this hypothesis in a mouse model (N2B KO model) in which titin-based passive tension is elevated as a result of the excision of the N2B element, one of cardiac titin’s spring elements. LDA was assessed by measuring the active tension-pCa (−log[Ca2+]) relationship at sarcomere length (SLs) of 1.95, 2.10 and 2.30 µm in WT and N2B KO skinned myocardium. LDA was positively correlated with titin-based passive tension, due to an increase in calcium sensitivity at the longer SLs in the KO. For example, at pCa 6.0 the KO:WT tension ratio was 1.28 ± 0.07 and 1.42 ± 0.04 at SLs of 2.1 and 2.3 µm, respectively. There was no difference in protein expression or phosphorylation of sarcomeric proteins. We also measured the calcium sensitivity after PKA treating the skinned muscle and found that titin-based passive tension was also now correlated with LDA, with a slope that was significantly increased compared to no PKA treatment. Finally, we performed isolated heart experiments and measured the Frank-Starling relation (slope of developed wall stress-LV volume relation) as well as diastolic stiffness (slope of diastolic wall stress – volume relation). The FSM was more pronounced in the N2B KO hearts and the slope of the FSM correlated with diastolic stiffness. These findings support that titin-based passive tension triggers an increase in calcium sensitivity at long sarcomere length, thereby playing an important role in the Frank-Starling mechanism of the heart. PMID:20507834

  3. On the relation between filament overlap and the number of calcium-binding sites on glycerinated muscle fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, F

    1978-01-01

    The formation of rigor complexes between the thick and thin filaments of glycerinated rabbit psoas muscle fibers causes the fibers to bind more calcium at any given level of free calcium. I studied the maximum amount of calcium bound as a function of filament overlap under rigor conditions. Fibers stretched to zero filament overlap (sarcomere length greater than 3.8 micron) bound exactly 75% as much calcium as fibers with maximum overlap. Between these extremes a linear relationship was found between maximum bound calcium and the length of the overlap zone. The results support the hypothesis that in the intact filament lattice one of the four calcium-binding sites of troponin depends for its existence on attachment between myosin and actin. In addition, the linear relation between maximum bound calcium and filament overlap is consistent with the assumption that the cooperative effect of rigor complex formation on calcium binding is limited to the binding site in the immediate vicinity of the rigor complex. PMID:630044

  4. Megacell phenotype and its relation to metabolic alterations in transketolase deficient strain of Bacillus pumilus.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Rajesh K; Jaiswal, Richa; Panda, Dulal; Wangikar, Pramod P

    2009-04-01

    Fermentation with transketolase (tkt) deficient strain of Bacillus is the only reported industrially viable process for production of D-ribose, a commercially important pentose sugar. In addition to direct effects of tkt deficiency, the mutation in non-oxidative part of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is known to display several unexpected physiological characteristics such as decreased ability to utilize D-glucose, altered carbon catabolite repression, lack of motility, etc. Here we demonstrate the morphological plasticity of tkt deficient strain of Bacillus pumilus ATCC 21951 and its possible relation with D-ribose productivity, a measure of carbon flux through PPP. The bacilli divide normally in nutrient rich media such as Luria-Bertani (LB) broth while showing cell elongation of up to 20-fold without a visible septum accompanied by moderate to high extracellular D-ribose accumulation in glucose-rich media. The cells stained with DAPI (4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and anti FtsZ antibody showed nucleoid separation and Z-ring formation in LB broth but not in glucose-rich media. FtsZ protein is known to localize at the future division site forming a ring, called Z-ring, at an early stage in cytokinesis. The strain experiences inhibition or delay in Z-ring formation resulting in cell elongation, possibly due to its altered cell membrane composition resulting from tkt deficiency. We hypothesize that the lack of PPP intermediates may have two effects on the strain: (i) altered the cell membrane leading to delay in Z-ring formation and cell elongation; and (ii) induction of genes of the oxidative part of PPP resulting in D-ribose accumulation. Nutrient rich media such as LB broth may alleviate these metabolite deficiencies thereby restoring normal cell division and inhibiting excessive D-ribose accumulation. The D-ribose productivity and cell elongation may therefore be co-morbid. The results have implications in designing optimal media and monitoring strategy based

  5. Relation of aortic valve calcium to chronic kidney disease (from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study).

    PubMed

    Guerraty, Marie A; Chai, Boyang; Hsu, Jesse Y; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Gao, Yanlin; Yang, Wei; Keane, Martin G; Budoff, Matthew J; Mohler, Emile R

    2015-05-01

    Although subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at markedly increased risk for cardiovascular mortality, the relation between CKD and aortic valve calcification has not been fully elucidated. Also, few data are available on the relation of aortic valve calcification and earlier stages of CKD. We sought to assess the relation of aortic valve calcium (AVC) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors, and markers of bone metabolism in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. All patients who underwent aortic valve scanning in the CRIC study were included. The relation between AVC and eGFR, traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors, and markers of calcium metabolism were analyzed using both unadjusted and adjusted regression models. A total of 1,964 CRIC participants underwent computed tomography for AVC quantification. Decreased renal function was independently associated with increased levels of AVC (eGFR 47.11, 44.17, and 39 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively, p<0.001). This association persisted after adjusting for traditional, but not novel, AVC risk factors. Adjusted regression models identified several traditional and novel risk factors for AVC in patients with CKD. There was a difference in AVC risk factors between black and nonblack patients. In conclusion, our study shows that eGFR is associated in a dose-dependent manner with AVC in patients with CKD, and this association is independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Factor XIII Deficiency on Thromboelastography. Thromboelastography with Calcium and Streptokinase Addition is more Sensitive than Solubility Tests

    PubMed Central

    Martinuzzo, M.; Barrera, L.; Altuna, D.; Baña, F. Tisi; Bieti, J.; Amigo, Q.; D’Adamo, M.; López, M.S.; Oyhamburu, J.; Otaso, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Homozygous or double heterozygous factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency is characterized by soft tissue hematomas, intracranial and delayed spontaneous bleeding. Alterations of thromboelastography (TEG) parameters in these patients have been reported. The aim of the study was to show results of TEG, TEG Lysis (Lys 60) induced by subthreshold concentrations of streptokinase (SK), and to compare them to the clot solubility studies results in samples of a 1-year-old girl with homozygous or double heterozygous FXIII deficiency. Case A year one girl with a history of bleeding from the umbilical cord. During her first year of life, several hematomas appeared in soft upper limb tissue after punctures for vaccination and a gluteal hematoma. One additional sample of a heterozygous patient and three samples of acquired FXIII deficiency were also evaluated. Materials and Methods Clotting tests, von Willebrand factor (vWF) antigen and activity, plasma FXIII-A subunit (pFXIII-A) were measured by an immunoturbidimetric assay in a photo-optical coagulometer. Solubility tests were performed with Ca2+-5 M urea and thrombin-2% acetic acid. Basal and post-FXIII concentrate infusion samples were studied. TEG was performed with CaCl2 or CaCl2 + SK (3.2 U/mL) in a Thromboelastograph. Results Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time, fibrinogen, factor VIIIc, vWF, and platelet aggregation were normal. Antigenic pFXIII-A subunit was < 2%. TEG, evaluated at diagnosis and post FXIII concentrate infusion (pFXIII-A= 37%), presented a normal reaction time (R), 8 min, prolonged k (14 and 11min respectively), a low Maximum-Amplitude (MA) ( 39 and 52 mm respectively), and Clot Lysis (Lys60) slightly increased (23 and 30% respectively). In the sample at diagnosis, clot solubility was abnormal, 50 and 45 min with Ca-Urea and thrombin-acetic acid, respectively, but normal (>16 hours) 1-day post-FXIII infusion. Analysis of FXIII deficient and normal

  7. Aging-associated formaldehyde-induced norepinephrine deficiency contributes to age-related memory decline.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yufei; Jiang, Chun; Wan, You; Lv, Jihui; Jia, Jianping; Wang, Xiaomin; Yang, Xu; Tong, Zhiqian

    2015-08-01

    A norepinephrine (NE) deficiency has been observed in aged rats and in patients with Alzheimer's disease and is thought to cause cognitive disorder. Which endogenous factor induces NE depletion, however, is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of aging-associated formaldehyde (FA) on the inactivation of NE in vitro and in vivo, and on memory behaviors in rodents. The results showed that age-related DNA demethylation led to hippocampal FA accumulation, and when this occurred, the hippocampal NE content was reduced in healthy male rats of different ages. Furthermore, biochemical analysis revealed that FA rapidly inactivated NE in vitro and that an intrahippocampal injection of FA markedly reduced hippocampal NE levels in healthy adult rats. Unexpectedly, an injection of FA (at a pathological level) or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, a NE depletor) can mimic age-related NE deficiency, long-term potentiation (LTP) impairments, and spatial memory deficits in healthy adult rats. Conversely, an injection of NE reversed age-related deficits in both LTP and memory in aged rats. In agreement with the above results, the senescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mice also exhibited a severe deficit in LTP and memory associated with a more severe NE deficiency and FA accumulation, when compared with the age-matched, senescence-resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice. Injection of resveratrol (a natural FA scavenger) or NE into SAMP8 mice reversed FA accumulation and NE deficiency and restored the magnitude of LTP and memory. Collectively, these findings suggest that accumulated FA is a critical endogenous factor for aging-associated NE depletion and cognitive decline.

  8. ADAR2-dependent RNA editing of GluR2 is involved in thiamine deficiency-induced alteration of calcium dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) causes mild impairment of oxidative metabolism and region-selective neuronal loss in the central nervous system (CNS). TD in animals has been used to model aging-associated neurodegeneration in the brain. The mechanisms of TD-induced neuron death are complex, and it is likely multiple mechanisms interplay and contribute to the action of TD. In this study, we demonstrated that TD significantly increased intracellular calcium concentrations [Ca2+]i in cultured cortical neurons. Results TD drastically potentiated AMPA-triggered calcium influx and inhibited pre-mRNA editing of GluR2, a Ca2+-permeable subtype of AMPA receptors. The Ca2+ permeability of GluR2 is regulated by RNA editing at the Q/R site. Edited GluR2 (R) subunits form Ca2+-impermeable channels, whereas unedited GluR2 (Q) channels are permeable to Ca2+ flow. TD inhibited Q/R editing of GluR2 and increased the ratio of unedited GluR2. The Q/R editing of GluR2 is mediated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2). TD selectively decreased ADAR2 expression and its self-editing ability without affecting ADAR1 in cultured neurons and in the brain tissue. Over-expression of ADAR2 reduced AMPA-mediated rise of [Ca2+]i and protected cortical neurons against TD-induced cytotoxicity, whereas down-regulation of ADAR2 increased AMPA-elicited Ca2+ influx and exacerbated TD-induced death of cortical neurons. Conclusions Our findings suggest that TD-induced neuronal damage may be mediated by the modulation of ADAR2-dependent RNA Editing of GluR2. PMID:21110885

  9. Daily calcium intake and its relation to blood pressure, blood lipids, and oxidative stress biomarkers in hypertensive and normotensive subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Bu, So Young

    2012-01-01

    Several studies revealed that low calcium intake is related to high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension is high in Koreans along with their low dietary calcium consumption. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the status of calcium intake between the hypertension and normotension groups and to investigate the correlation between dietary calcium intake and blood pressure, blood lipid parameters, and blood/urine oxidative stress indices. A total of 166 adult subjects participated in this study and were assigned to one of two study groups: a hypertension group (n = 83) who had 140 mmHg or higher in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or 90 mmHg or higher in diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and an age- and sex-matched normotension group (n = 83, 120 mmHg or less SBP and 80 mmHg or less DBP). The hypertension group consumed 360.5 mg calcium per day, which was lower than that of the normotension group (429.9 mg) but not showing significant difference. In the hypertension group, DBP had a significant negative correlation with plant calcium (P < 0.01) after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and energy intake. In the normotension group, total calcium and animal calcium intake were significantly and positively correlated with serum triglycerides. No significant relationship was found between calcium intake and blood/urine oxidative stress indices in both groups. Overall, these data suggest reconsideration of food sources for calcium consumption in management of the blood pressure or blood lipid profiles in both hypertensive and normotensive subjects. PMID:23198021

  10. Deficient auditory processing in children with Asperger Syndrome, as indexed by event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Ceponiene, Rita; Kielinen, Marko; Suominen, Kalervo; Jäntti, Ville; Linna, Sirkka Liisa; Moilanen, Irma; Näätänen, Risto

    2003-03-06

    Asperger Syndrome (AS) is characterized by normal language development but deficient understanding and use of the intonation and prosody of speech. While individuals with AS report difficulties in auditory perception, there are no studies addressing auditory processing at the sensory level. In this study, event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded for syllables and tones in children with AS and in their control counterparts. Children with AS displayed abnormalities in transient sound-feature encoding, as indexed by the obligatory ERPs, and in sound discrimination, as indexed by the mismatch negativity. These deficits were more severe for the tone stimuli than for the syllables. These results indicate that auditory sensory processing is deficient in children with AS, and that these deficits might be implicated in the perceptual problems encountered by children with AS.

  11. Effects of dietary boron and phytase supplementation on growth performance and mineral profile of broiler chickens fed on diets adequate or deficient in calcium and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Çinar, M; Küçükyilmaz, K; Bozkurt, M; Çatli, A U; Bintaş, E; Akşit, H; Konak, R; Yamaner, Ç; Seyrek, K

    2015-01-01

    1. Two experiments were designed to determine the effect of dietary boron (B) in broiler chickens. In Experiment 1, a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effect of dietary calcium (Ca) and available phosphorus (aP) (adequate or deficient) and supplemental B (0, 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg diet). In Experiment 2, B, at 20 mg/kg, and phytase (PHY) (500 FTU/kg diet) were incorporated into a basal diet deficient in Ca and aP, either alone or in combination. 2. The parameters that were measured were growth performance indices, serum biochemical activity as well as ash and mineral (i.e. Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu and Zn) content of tibia, breast muscle and liver. 3. Results indicated that both supplemental B and dietary Ca and aP had marginal effects on performance indices of chickens grown for 42 d. 4. There were positive correlations (linear effect) between B concentrations of serum, bone, breast muscle and liver and the amount of B consumed. 5. Serum T3 and T4 activities increased linearly with higher B supplementation. 6. Increasing supplemental B had significant implications on breast muscle and liver mineral composition. Lowering dietary Ca and aP level increased Cu content in liver and both Fe and Zn retention in breast muscle. Tibia ash content and mineral composition did not respond to dietary modifications with either Ca-aP or B. 7. The results also suggested that dietary contents of Ca and aP do not affect the response to B regarding tissue mineral profile. Dietary combination with B and PHY did not create a synergism with regard to growth performance and bioavailability of the minerals.

  12. Selective cognitive deficits and reduced hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in small-conductance calcium-activated K+ channel deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, J P R; Redrobe, J P; Hansen, H H; Petersen, S; Bond, C T; Adelman, J P; Mikkelsen, J D; Mirza, N R

    2009-09-29

    Small-conductance calcium-activated K(+) channels 1-3 (SK1-3) are important for neuronal firing regulation and are considered putative CNS drug targets. For instance non-selective SK blockers improve performance in animal models of cognition. The SK subtype(s) involved herein awaits identification and the question is difficult to address pharmacologically due to the lack of subtype-selective SK-channel modulators. In this study, we used doxycycline-induced conditional SK3-deficient (T/T) mice to address the cognitive consequences of selective SK3 deficiency. In T/T mice SK3 protein is near-eliminated from the brain following doxycycline treatment. We tested T/T and wild type (WT) littermate mice in five distinct learning and memory paradigms. In Y-maze spontaneous alternations and five-trial inhibitory avoidance the performance of T/T mice was markedly inferior to WT mice. In contrast, T/T and WT mice performed equally well in passive avoidance, object recognition and the Morris water maze. Thus, some aspects of working/short-term memory are disrupted in T/T mice. Using in situ hybridization, we further found the cognitive deficits in T/T mice to be paralleled by reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression in the dentate gyrus and CA3 of the hippocampus. BDNF mRNA levels in the frontal cortex were not affected. BDNF has been crucially implicated in many cognitive processes. Hence, the biological substrate for the cognitive impairments in T/T mice could conceivably entail reduced trophic support of the hippocampus.

  13. Performance of the BODE index in patients with α1-antitrypsin deficiency-related COPD.

    PubMed

    Thabut, Gabriel; Mornex, Jean-François; Pison, Christophe; Cuvelier, Antoine; Balduyck, Malika; Pujazon, Marie-Christine; Fournier, Michel; AitIlalne, Brahim; Porcher, Raphaël

    2014-07-01

    The BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnoea and exercise capacity) index is used to decide on referral and transplantation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The BODE index has not been validated in patients with α1-antitrypsin deficiency, who account for 15% of COPD patients undergoing lung transplantation. We sought to validate the BODE index in α1-antitrypsin deficiency-related COPD. We assessed the prognostic value of the BODE index in 191 patients followed from 2006 to 2012 in a French prospective cohort of patients with α1-antitrypsin deficiency. 20 patients died during follow-up and 22 underwent lung transplantation. Survival (95% CI) was 93.0% (91.7-94.3%) at 3 years and 76.0% (72.9-79.1%) at 5 years. The 3-year survival was 97.4% (96.6-98.2%), 98.0% (96.7-99.3%), 87.7% (84.5-90.9%) and 75.3% (66.0-84.6%) for patients with BODE index 0-2, 3-4, 5-6 and 7-10, respectively. Survival discrimination of the BODE index was better than with both forced expiratory volume in 1 s and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease classification. Regarding calibration, expected survival by BODE index was noticeably lower than observed survival. The BODE index showed very good survival discrimination in patients with α1-antitrypsin deficiency-related COPD. Larger studies are needed to support its use to drive patient referral for lung transplantation.

  14. Changes in microtubule-related proteins and autophagy in long-term vitamin E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Fukui, K; Masuda, A; Hosono, A; Suwabe, R; Yamashita, K; Shinkai, T; Urano, S

    2014-06-01

    Vitamin E deficiency induces neuronal dysfunction and while oxidative stress is likely to be involved in mediating this process, the detailed mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Previously, we found axonal degeneration in the hippocampal CA1 region in vitamin E-deficient mice of 6 months of age (long-term). However, 3 month-old (short-term) vitamin E-deficient mice did not exhibit axonal degeneration in same region. In order to characterize the mechanisms involved in axonal degeneration in long-term vitamin E-deficient mice, we examined changes in microtubule-related proteins. Long-term vitamin E-deficiency led to significantly increased expression of the phosphorylated form of collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP)-2 compared to short-term deficiency. It is well known that CRMP-2 plays a crucial role in the maintenance of neurite function. Similarly, long-term vitamin E-deficiency significantly decreased the expression of silent mating type information regulation (SIRT)-2 mRNA compared to short-term deficiency. SIRT-2 belongs to a family of class III histone deacetylases (HDACs) and functions in the deacetylation of tubulins. Furthermore, the expression of microtubule-associated protein light chain (MAP-LC)3-2, which is a key autophagy protein was significantly higher in the short-term vitamin E-deficiency than the long-term deficiency. These results indicate that the mechanisms of axonal injury in long-term vitamin E-deficient mice are related to dysfunction in microtubules assembly via alterations in microtubule-related proteins and autophagy.

  15. Differences in peripartal plasma parameters related to calcium homeostasis of dairy sheep and goats in comparison with cows.

    PubMed

    Wilkens, Mirja R; Liesegang, Annette; Richter, Julia; Fraser, David R; Breves, Gerhard; Schröder, Bernd

    2014-08-01

    Recently it has been demonstrated that there are differences between sheep and goats in respect to adaptation to a calcium-restricted diet. It was the aim of the present study to evaluate whether species-specific peculiarities also occur when calcium homoeostasis is challenged by lactation. Therefore, we investigated the time courses of plasma parameters related to calcium homoeostasis (calcium, phosphate, calcitriol, the bone resorption marker CrossLaps and the bone formation marker osteocalcin) during the transition period in multiparous animals of both species and compared the results to data from a former study carried out with dairy cows. As in cows, plasma calcium and the ratio of bone formation to bone resorption decreased at parturition in goats while plasma calcitriol increased. On day 10 post partum the bone parameters of goats reached prepartum values again, which was not the case in cows. Sheep were found to experience a challenge of calcium homoeostasis already 10 d before parturition, reflected by a very low ratio of bone formation to bone resorption, which was not accompanied by an increase in plasma calcitriol. Additionally, sheep and goats which had been in milk for 3 months were sampled, dried-off and sampled again 6 weeks later. In dried-off animals there were no detectable differences in parameters of bone metabolism. In conclusion we could show that the contribution of bone mobilisation to the compensation for the enhanced calcium demand due to lactation differs between the three ruminant species.

  16. Age-Related Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated with Reduced Macular Ganglion Cell Complex: A Cross-Sectional High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography Study

    PubMed Central

    Uro, Mathieu; Beauchet, Olivier; Cherif, Mehdi; Graffe, Alix; Milea, Dan; Annweiler, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency is associated with smaller volume of optic chiasm in older adults, indicating a possible loss of the visual axons and their cellular bodies. Our objective was to determine whether vitamin D deficiency in older adults is associated with reduced thickness of the ganglion cell complex(GCC) and of the retinal nerve fibre layer(RNFL), as measured with high-definition optical coherence tomography(HD-OCT). Methods Eighty-five French older community-dwellers without open-angle glaucoma and patent age-related macular degeneration(mean, 71.1±4.7years; 45.9%female) from the GAIT study were separated into 2 groups according to serum 25OHD level(i.e., deficient≤25nmol/L or sufficient>25nmol/L). Measurements of GCC and RNFL thickness were performed using HD-OCT. Age, gender, body mass index, number of comorbidities, dementia, functional autonomy, intracranial volume, visual acuity, serum calcium concentration and season of testing were considered as potential confounders. Results Mean serum 25OHD concentration was 58.4±26.8nmol/L. Mean logMAR visual acuity was 0.03±0.06. Mean visual field mean deviation was -1.25±2.29dB. Patients with vitamin D deficiency(n=11) had a reduced mean GCC thickness compared to those without vitamin D deficiency(72.1±7.4μm versus 77.5±7.5μm, P=0.028). There was no difference of the mean RNFL thickness in these two groups(P=0.133). After adjustment for potential confounders, vitamin D deficiency was associated with reduced GCC thickness(ß=-5.12, P=0.048) but not RNFL thickness(ß=-9.98, P=0.061). Specifically, vitamin D deficiency correlated with the superior medial GCC area(P=0.017) and superior temporal GCC area(P=0.010). Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency in older patients is associated with reduced mean GCC thickness, which can represent an early stage of optic nerve damage, prior to RNFL loss. PMID:26090872

  17. Nutritional status of iron in children from 6 to 59 months of age and its relation to vitamin A deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sales, Márcia Cristina; Paiva, Adriana de Azevedo; de Queiroz, Daiane; Araújo França Costa, Renata; Lins da Cunha, Maria Auxiliadora; Figueroa Pedraza, Dixis

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the iron nutritional status of children from 6 to 59 months of age and its relation to vitamin A deficiency. Cross-sectional study involving 100 children, living in nine cities in the state of Paraíba, which were selected for convenience to form two study groups: children with vitamin A deficiency (serum retinol < 0.70 μmol/L; n = 50) and children without vitamin A deficiency (serum retinol ≥ 0.70 μmol/L; n = 50). The iron nutritional status was evaluated by biochemical, haematological and hematimetric indices. The cases of subclinical infection (C-Reactive Protein ≥ 6 mg/L) were excluded. Children with vitamin A deficiency had serum iron values statistically lower than the corresponding values in children without deficiency. The other iron nutritional status indices showed no statistical difference according to presence/absence of vitamin A deficiency. The interaction between iron and vitamin A deficiencies was evidenced in the case of circulating iron deficiency (serum iron), suggesting failure in the transport mechanisms of the mineral in children with vitamin A deficiency. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. A prospective, randomized controlled preclinical trial to evaluate different formulations of biphasic calcium phosphate in combination with a hydroxyapatite collagen membrane to reconstruct deficient alveolar ridges.

    PubMed

    Nevins, Myron; Nevins, Marc L; Schupbach, Peter; Kim, Soo-Woo; Lin, Zhao; Kim, David M

    2013-04-01

    Many patients and clinicians would prefer a synthetic particulate bone replacement graft, but most available alloplastic biomaterials have limited osteogenic potential. An alloplast with increased regenerative capacity would be advantageous for the treatment of localized alveolar ridge defects. This prospective, randomized controlled preclinical trial utilized 6 female foxhounds to analyze the osteogenic impact of different formulations of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) in combination with an hydroxyapatite-collagen membrane and their ability to reconstruct deficient alveolar ridges for future implant placement. The grafted sites were allowed to heal 3 months, and then trephine biopsies were obtained to perform light microscopic and histomorphometric analyses. All treated sites healed well with no early membrane exposure or adverse soft tissue responses during the healing period. The grafted sites exhibited greater radiopacity than the surrounding native bone with BCP particles seen as radiopaque granules. The graft particles appeared to be well-integrated and no areas of loose particles were observed. Histologic evaluation demonstrated BCP particles embedded in woven bone with dense connective tissue/marrow space. New bone growth was observed around the graft particles as well as within the structure of the graft particulate. There was intimate contact between the graft particles and newly formed bone, and graft particles were bridged by the newly formed bone in all biopsies from the tested groups. The present study results support the potential of these BCP graft particulates to stimulate new bone formation. Clinical studies are recommended to confirm these preclinical findings.

  19. T-type calcium channel Cav3.2 deficient mice show elevated anxiety, impaired memory and reduced sensitivity to psychostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Laffray, Sophie; Bourinet, Emmanuel; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The fine-tuning of neuronal excitability relies on a tight control of Ca2+ homeostasis. The low voltage-activated (LVA) T-type calcium channels (Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 isoforms) play a critical role in regulating these processes. Despite their wide expression throughout the central nervous system, the implication of T-type Cav3.2 isoform in brain functions is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigate the effect of genetic ablation of this isoform in affective disorders, including anxiety, cognitive functions as well as sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Using a wide range of behavioral assays we show that genetic ablation of the cacna1h gene results in an anxiety-like phenotype, whereas novelty-induced locomotor activity is unaffected. Deletion of the T-type channel Cav3.2 also triggers impairment of hippocampus-dependent recognition memories. Acute and sensitized hyperlocomotion induced by d-amphetamine and cocaine are dramatically reduced in T-type Cav3.2 deficient mice. In addition, the administration of the T-type blocker TTA-A2 prevented the expression of locomotor sensitization observed in wildtype mice. In conclusion, our data reveal that physiological activity of this specific Ca2+ channel is required for affective and cognitive behaviors. Moreover, our work highlights the interest of T-type channel blockers as therapeutic strategies to reverse drug-associated alterations. PMID:24672455

  20. Ectopic expression of a maize calreticulin mitigates calcium deficiency-like disorders in sCAX1-expressing tobacco and tomato.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qingyu; Shigaki, Toshiro; Han, Jeung-Sul; Kim, Chang Kil; Hirschi, Kendal D; Park, Sunghun

    2012-12-01

    Deregulated expression of an Arabidopsis H⁺/Ca²⁺ antiporter (sCAX1) in agricultural crops increases total calcium (Ca²⁺) but may result in yield losses due to Ca²⁺ deficiency-like symptoms. Here we demonstrate that co-expression of a maize calreticulin (CRT, a Ca²⁺ binding protein located at endoplasmic reticulum) in sCAX1-expressing tobacco and tomato plants mitigated these adverse effects while maintaining enhanced Ca²⁺ content. Co-expression of CRT and sCAX1 could alleviate the hypersensitivity to ion imbalance in tobacco plants. Furthermore, blossom-end rot (BER) in tomato may be linked to changes in CAX activity and enhanced CRT expression mitigated BER in sCAX1 expressing lines. These findings suggest that co-expressing Ca²⁺ transporters and binding proteins at different intracellular compartments can alter the content and distribution of Ca²⁺ within the plant matrix.

  1. Myeloid-related protein-14 deficiency promotes inflammation in staphylococcal pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Achouiti, Ahmed; Vogl, Thomas; Van der Meer, Anne J; Stroo, Ingrid; Florquin, Sandrine; de Boer, Onno J; Roth, Johannes; Zeerleder, Sacha; van 't Veer, Cornelis; de Vos, Alex F; van der Poll, Tom

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus has evolved as an important cause of pneumonia in both hospital and community settings. Staphylococcal lung infection can lead to overwhelming pulmonary inflammation. During infection, neutrophils release complexes of myeloid-related protein (MRP)8 and MRP14 (MRP8/14). MRP8/14 has been shown to exert pro-inflammatory and chemotactic activity, and to assist in the killing of S. aureus. In the current study we sought to determine the role of MRP8/14 in the host response during S. aureus pneumonia.Pneumonia was induced in wildtype and MRP14-deficient mice (mice unable to form MRP8/14) by intranasal inoculation of 1×10(7) CFU of S. aureus USA300. Mice were sacrificed at 6, 24, 48 or 72 h after infection for analyses.S. aureus pneumonia was associated with a strong rise in MRP8/14 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Surprisingly, MRP14 deficiency had a limited effect on bacterial clearance and was associated with increased cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and aggravated lung histopathology. MRP14 deficiency in addition was associated with a diminished transmigration of neutrophils into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at late time-points after infection together with reduced release of nucleosomes.MRP8/14 serves in an unexpected protective role for the lung in staphylococcal pneumonia.

  2. Cathepsin G deficiency reduces peri-aortic calcium chloride injury-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Sukhova, Galina K.; Liu, Jian; Ozaki, Keith; Lesner, Adam; Libby, Peter; Kovanen, Petri T.; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cathepsin G (CatG) is a serine protease that mediates angiotensin-I (Ang-I) to angiotensin-II (Ang-II) conversion and is highly expressed in human abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). However, it remains untested whether this protease participates in the pathogenesis of AAA. Methods and Results Immunofluorescent double staining demonstrated the expression of CatG in smooth-muscle cells (SMCs), macrophages, and endothelial cells (ECs) in human AAA lesions (n=12), but not in AAA-free aortas (n=10). While inflammatory cytokines induced CatG expression, high glucose increased CatG activity in producing Ang-II and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in SMCs, which could be fully blocked by a CatG-selective inhibitor or its siRNA. To test whether CatG contributes to AAA development, we generated CatG and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) double deficient (Ldlr−/−Ctsg−/−) mice and their littermate controls (Ldlr−/−Ctsg+/+). Absence of CatG did not affect Ang-II infusion-induced AAAs. In contrast, in Ang-II-independent AAAs induced by peri-aortic CaCl2 injury (n=12 per group), CatG deficiency significantly reduced aortic diameter increase (58.33%±6.83% vs. 31.67%±5.75%, P=0.007), aortic lesion area (0.35±0.04 mm2 vs. 0.21±0.02 mm2, P=0.005), and aortic wall elastin fragmentation grade (2.75±0.18 vs. 1.58±0.17, P=0.002) along with reduced lesion collagen content grade (2.80±0.17 vs. 2.12±0.17, P=0.009) without affecting indices of lesion inflammation, angiogenesis, cell proliferation, or apoptosis. In vitro elastin degradation assays demonstrated that CaCl2-induced AAA lesions from Ldlr−/−Ctsg−/− mice contained much lower elastinolytic activity than in those from littermate control mice. Gelatin gel zymogram assay suggested that absence of CatG in CaCl2-induced AAA lesions also reduced the activity of elastinolytic matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Conclusion CatG may contribute to CaCl2-induced experimental AAAs directly

  3. Protective effect of melatonin against human leukocyte apoptosis induced by intracellular calcium overload: relation with its antioxidant actions.

    PubMed

    Espino, Javier; Bejarano, Ignacio; Paredes, Sergio D; Barriga, Carmen; Rodríguez, Ana B; Pariente, José A

    2011-09-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death plays a critical role in both inflammatory and immune responses. Recent evidence demonstrates that control of leukocyte apoptosis is one of the most striking immune system-related roles of melatonin. For this reason, this study evaluated the protective effects of melatonin on human leukocyte apoptosis induced by sustained cytosolic calcium increases. Such protective effects are likely mediated by melatonin's free-radical scavenging actions. Treatments with the specific inhibitor of cytosolic calcium re-uptake, thapsigargin (TG), and/or the calcium-mobilizing agonist, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP), induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, caspase activation as well as DNA fragmentation in human leukocytes. Also, TG- and/or FMLP-induced apoptosis was dependent on both cytosolic calcium increases and calcium uptake into mitochondria, because when cells were preincubated with the cytosolic calcium chelator, dimethyl BAPTA, and the inhibitor of mitochondrial calcium uptake, Ru360, TG- and FMLP-induced apoptosis was largely inhibited. Importantly, melatonin treatment substantially prevented intracellular ROS production, reversed caspase activation, and forestalled DNA fragmentation induced by TG and FMLP. Similar results were obtained by preincubating the cells with another well-known antioxidant, i.e., N-acetyl-L-cysteine. To sum up, depletion of intracellular calcium stores induced by TG and/or FMLP triggers different apoptotic events in human leukocytes that are dependent on calcium signaling. The protective effects resulting from melatonin administration on leukocyte apoptosis likely depend on melatonin's antioxidant action because we proved that this protection is melatonin receptor independent. These findings help to understand how melatonin controls apoptosis in cells of immune/inflammatory relevance. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Brain Activity Changes in Somatosensory and Emotion-Related Areas With Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Masaru; Tadenuma, Taku; Kumahashi, Nobuyuki; Uchio, Yuji

    2017-08-11

    Patellar instability with medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) deficiency is a common sports injury among young people. Although nonoperative and surgical treatment can provide stability of the patella, patients often have anxiety related to the knee. We speculate that neural dysfunction may be related to anxiety in these patients; however, the mechanism in the brain that generates this anxiety remains unknown. (1) How does brain activity in patients with MPFL deficiency change in the areas related to somatic sensation against lateral shift of the patella? (2) How does patella instability, which can lead to continuous fear or apprehension for dislocation, influence brain activity in the areas related to emotion? Nineteen patients with MPFL deficiency underwent surgical reconstruction in our hospital from April 2012 to March 2014. Excluding seven patients with osteochondral lesions, 12 patients (five males and seven females; mean age, 20 years) with MPFL deficiency were sequentially included in this study. Eleven control subjects (four males and seven females; mean age, 23 years) were recruited from medical students who had no history of knee injury. Diagnosis of the MPFL deficiency was made with MR images, which confirmed the rupture, and by proving the instability with a custom-made biomechanical device. Brain activity during passive lateral stress to the patella was assessed by functional MRI. Functional and anatomic images were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping. Differences in functional MRI outcome measures from the detected activated brain regions between the patients with MPFL deficiency and controls were assessed using t tests. Intergroup analysis showed less activity in several sensorimotor cortical areas, including the contralateral primary somatosensory areas (% signal change for MPFL group 0.49% versus 1.1% for the control group; p < 0.001), thalamus (0.2% versus 0.41% for the MPFL versus control, respectively; p < 0.001), ipsilateral

  5. Calcium, calcification, and melatonin biosynthesis in the human pineal gland: a postmortem study into age-related factors.

    PubMed

    Schmid, H A; Requintina, P J; Oxenkrug, G F; Sturner, W

    1994-05-01

    It is believed that pineal calcification may be age-associated and that the well-demonstrated age-related decline in melatonin biosynthesis may be an expression of an alteration in calcium homeostasis in the pinealocyte. Prior correlations of melatonin to calcium deposition and age were made on the basis of radiological or semiquantitative analysis. In this postmortem study of 33 subjects (age range 3 months to 65 years) calcium deposits measured by atomic absorption spectrometry correlated positively with age in day and night samples (day: r = 0.56, P < 0.05; night: r = 0.818, P < 0.001). Nighttime (2200 h to 0800 h) pineal melatonin content (HPLC fluorometry) was higher than daytime melatonin levels (nighttime 3.80 +/- 0.3 vs. daytime 0.85 +/- 0.4 ng/mg protein). Nighttime calcium levels in the supernatant correlated negatively with melatonin content (r = -0.59, P < 0.05).

  6. Iodine deficiency in Egyptian autistic children and their mothers: relation to disease severity.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Rasha T; Hewedi, Doaa H; Sallam, Mahmoud T

    2013-10-01

    Because autism may be a disease of early fetal brain development, maternal hypothyroxinemia (HT) in early pregnancy secondary to iodine deficiency (ID) may be related to etiology of autism. The aim of the study was to assess the iodine nutritional status in Egyptian autistic children and their mothers and its relationship with disease characteristics. Fifty autistic children and their mothers were studied in comparison to 50 controls. All subjects were subjected to clinical evaluation, measurement of urinary iodine (UI), free triiodothyronine (fT3), free tetraiodothyronine (fT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) along with measurement of thyroid volume (TV). In addition, electroencephalography (EEG) and intelligence quotient (IQ) assessment were done for all autistic children. Of autistic children and their mothers, 54% and 58%, respectively, were iodine deficient. None of the control children or their mothers was iodine deficient. UI was lower among autistic patients (p <0.001) and their mothers (p <0.001). Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) score correlated negatively with UI (r = -0.94, p <0.001). Positive correlations were detected between autistic patients and their mothers regarding UI (r = 0.88, p <0.001), fT3 (r = 0.79, p = 0.03), fT4 (r = 0.91, p <0.001) and TSH (r = 0.69, p = 0.04). Autism had a significant risk for association with each of low UI (OR: 9.5, 95% CI: 2.15-33.8, p = 0.02) and intake of noniodized salt (OR: 6.82, 95% CI = 1.36-34.27, p = 0.031). ID is prevalent in Egyptian autistic children and their mothers and was inversely related to disease severity and could be related to its etiology. Copyright © 2013 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fungal genes related to calcium homeostasis and signalling are upregulated in symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhiza interactions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne; Arnould, Christine; Wipf, Daniel; Zhao, Bin; van Tuinen, Diederik

    2013-01-01

    Fluctuations in intracellular calcium levels generate signalling events and regulate different cellular processes. Whilst the implication of Ca(2+) in plant responses during arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) interactions is well documented, nothing is known about the regulation or role of this secondary messenger in the fungal symbiont. The spatio-temporal expression pattern of putatively Ca(2+)-related genes of Glomus intraradices BEG141 encoding five proteins involved in membrane transport and one nuclear protein kinase, was investigated during the AM symbiosis. Expression profiles related to successful colonization of host roots were observed in interactions of G. intraradices with roots of wild-type Medicago truncatula (line J5) compared to the mycorrhiza-defective mutant dmi3/Mtsym13. Symbiotic fungal activity was monitored using stearoyl-CoA desaturase and phosphate transporter genes. Laser microdissection based-mapping of fungal gene expression in mycorrhizal root tissues indicated that the Ca(2+)-related genes were differentially upregulated in arbuscules and/or in intercellular hyphae. The spatio-temporal variations in gene expression suggest that the encoded proteins may have different functions in fungal development or function during symbiosis development. Full-length cDNA obtained for two genes with interesting expression profiles confirmed a close similarity with an endoplasmic reticulum P-type ATPase and a Vcx1-like vacuolar Ca(2+) ion transporter functionally characterized in other fungi and involved in the regulation of cell calcium pools. Possible mechanisms are discussed in which Ca(2+)-related proteins G. intraradices BEG141 may play a role in mobilization and perception of the intracellular messenger by the AM fungus during symbiotic interactions with host roots. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relation of Risk Factors and Abdominal Aortic Calcium to Progression of Coronary Artery Calcium (from the Framingham Heart Study).

    PubMed

    Onuma, Oyere K; Pencina, Karol; Qazi, Saadia; Massaro, Joseph M; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Chuang, Michael L; Fox, Caroline S; Hoffmann, Udo; O'Donnell, Christopher J

    2017-05-15

    Coronary artery calcium (CAC) and abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) permit assessment of the presence and burden of coronary and systemic atherosclerosis. Risk factors for progression of CAC and AAC and the association of AAC with CAC progression have not been well characterized in a community-dwelling cohort. We studied 1,959 asymptomatic participants from the Framingham Heart Study who underwent serial MDCT scans with a median interval of 6.1 years. Primary outcomes were (a) the incidence of CAC and AAC (CAC >0 and AAC >0 with baseline CAC = 0 and AAC = 0) and (b) absolute progression of CAC (CAC > baseline CAC and AAC > baseline AAC). Covariates were collected at adjacent cycle examinations and included age, gender, use of antihypertensive therapy, use of lipid-lowering therapy, cigarette smoking, and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Predictors for CAC and AAC progression included baseline CAC, baseline AAC, lipid-lowering therapy, diabetes, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, BMI, and serum creatinine. Multivariable stepwise logistic and linear regression models were used to test the association of these risk factors with CAC and AAC. Those who developed incident CAC on follow-up scanning comprised 18.8% of 1,124 participants, and 84.9% of 780 participants, with detectable baseline CAC, had further progression. Baseline AAC was a predictor of both CAC incidence and progression, independent of other risk factors. In stepwise models, addition of baseline AAC slightly improved the area under the curve from 0.72 (0.68 to 0.76) to 0.74 (0.70 to 0.78). In conclusion, standard cardiovascular disease risk factors are associated with incidence and progression of CAC and AAC, and AAC augments CAC incidence and progression above cardiovascular disease risk factors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Genomic Analysis of Storage Protein Deficiency in Genetically Related Lines of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Pandurangan, Sudhakar; Diapari, Marwan; Yin, Fuqiang; Munholland, Seth; Perry, Gregory E.; Chapman, B. Patrick; Huang, Shangzhi; Sparvoli, Francesca; Bollini, Roberto; Crosby, William L.; Pauls, Karl P.; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    A series of genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) integrate a progressive deficiency in major storage proteins, the 7S globulin phaseolin and lectins. SARC1 integrates a lectin-like protein, arcelin-1 from a wild common bean accession. SMARC1N-PN1 is deficient in major lectins, including erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (PHA-E) but not α-amylase inhibitor, and incorporates also a deficiency in phaseolin. SMARC1-PN1 is intermediate and shares the phaseolin deficiency. Sanilac is the parental background. To understand the genomic basis for variations in protein profiles previously determined by proteomics, the genotypes were submitted to short-fragment genome sequencing using an Illumina HiSeq 2000/2500 platform. Reads were aligned to reference sequences and subjected to de novo assembly. The results of the analyses identified polymorphisms responsible for the lack of specific storage proteins, as well as those associated with large differences in storage protein expression. SMARC1N-PN1 lacks the lectin genes pha-E and lec4-B17, and has the pseudogene pdlec1 in place of the functional pha-L gene. While the α-phaseolin gene appears absent, an approximately 20-fold decrease in β-phaseolin accumulation is associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism converting a G-box to an ACGT motif in the proximal promoter. Among residual lectins compensating for storage protein deficiency, mannose lectin FRIL and α-amylase inhibitor 1 genes are uniquely present in SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 50-fold increase in α-amylase inhibitor like protein accumulation is associated with multiple polymorphisms introducing up to eight potential positive cis-regulatory elements in the proximal promoter specific to SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 7-fold increase in accumulation of 11S globulin legumin is not associated with variation in proximal promoter sequence, suggesting that the identity of individual proteins involved in proteome rebalancing might

  10. Genomic Analysis of Storage Protein Deficiency in Genetically Related Lines of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Pandurangan, Sudhakar; Diapari, Marwan; Yin, Fuqiang; Munholland, Seth; Perry, Gregory E; Chapman, B Patrick; Huang, Shangzhi; Sparvoli, Francesca; Bollini, Roberto; Crosby, William L; Pauls, Karl P; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    A series of genetically related lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) integrate a progressive deficiency in major storage proteins, the 7S globulin phaseolin and lectins. SARC1 integrates a lectin-like protein, arcelin-1 from a wild common bean accession. SMARC1N-PN1 is deficient in major lectins, including erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (PHA-E) but not α-amylase inhibitor, and incorporates also a deficiency in phaseolin. SMARC1-PN1 is intermediate and shares the phaseolin deficiency. Sanilac is the parental background. To understand the genomic basis for variations in protein profiles previously determined by proteomics, the genotypes were submitted to short-fragment genome sequencing using an Illumina HiSeq 2000/2500 platform. Reads were aligned to reference sequences and subjected to de novo assembly. The results of the analyses identified polymorphisms responsible for the lack of specific storage proteins, as well as those associated with large differences in storage protein expression. SMARC1N-PN1 lacks the lectin genes pha-E and lec4-B17, and has the pseudogene pdlec1 in place of the functional pha-L gene. While the α-phaseolin gene appears absent, an approximately 20-fold decrease in β-phaseolin accumulation is associated with a single nucleotide polymorphism converting a G-box to an ACGT motif in the proximal promoter. Among residual lectins compensating for storage protein deficiency, mannose lectin FRIL and α-amylase inhibitor 1 genes are uniquely present in SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 50-fold increase in α-amylase inhibitor like protein accumulation is associated with multiple polymorphisms introducing up to eight potential positive cis-regulatory elements in the proximal promoter specific to SMARC1N-PN1. An approximately 7-fold increase in accumulation of 11S globulin legumin is not associated with variation in proximal promoter sequence, suggesting that the identity of individual proteins involved in proteome rebalancing might

  11. Vitamin B12 deficiency might be related to sarcopenia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Esra Ates; Soysal, Pinar; Aydin, Ali Ekrem; Dokuzlar, Ozge; Kocyigit, Suleyman Emre; Isik, Ahmet Turan

    2017-09-01

    Sarcopenia and dynapenia are related to repeated falls, mobility restriction, depression, frailty, increased mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between vitamin B12 deficiency and sarcopenia in older adults. 403 patients, who attended to outpatient clinic and underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment, were included study. All cases' skeletal muscle mass (SMM), walking speed and hand grip strength were recorded by bioimpedance, 4meter walking test and hand dynamometer respectively. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was defined according to the criteria of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Sarcopenia was accepted low SMM with low handgrip strength or low physical performance. Dynapenia was defined as handgrip strength <30kg (men) and <20kg (women). The prevalence of sarcopenia and dynapenia was 24.8% and 32.0%, respectively. In the patients with sarcopenia, mean age, osteoporosis and frailty were higher, and MMSE, and instrumental ADL scores were lower than the patients without sarcopenia (p<0.05). The frequency of sarcopenia and dynapenia were 31.6% and 35.4%, respectively, in patients with vitamin B12 levels <400pg/mL. In addition lean body mass, total skeletal mass and skeletal muscle mass index were lower in the patients with vitamin B12 levels <400pg/mL compared to higher than 400pg/mL (p<0.05). Sarcopenia, which results in lots of negative clinical outcomes in older adults, might be related to vitamin B12 deficiency. Therefore, these patients should be periodically examined for vitamin B12 deficiency due to the potential negative clinical outcomes such as sarcopenia in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of (210)Po in calcium supplements and the possible related dose assessment to the consumers.

    PubMed

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this pioneer study was to investigate the most popular calcium supplements as a potential additional source of polonium (210)Po in human diet. The analyzed calcium pharmaceutics contained organic or inorganic calcium compounds; some from natural sources as mussels' shells, fish extracts, or sedimentary rocks. The objectives of this research were to investigate the naturally occurring (210)Po activity concentrations in calcium supplements, find the correlations between (210)Po concentration in medicament and calcium chemical form, and calculate the effective radiation dose connected to analyzed calcium supplement consumption. As results showed, (210)Po concentrations in natural origin calcium supplements (especially sedimentary rocks) were higher than the other analyzed. Also the results of (210)Po analysis obtained for inorganic forms of calcium supplements were higher. The highest (210)Po activity concentrations were determined in mineral tablets made from sedimentary rocks: dolomite and chalk - 3.88 ± 0.22 and 3.36 ± 0.10 mBq g(-1) respectively; while the lowest in organic calcium compounds: calcium lactate and calcium gluconate - 0.07 ± 0.02 and 0.17 ± 0.01 mBq g(-1). The annual effective radiation doses from supplements intake were estimated as well. The highest annual radiation dose from (210)Po taken with 1 tablet of calcium supplement per day was connected to sample made from chalk - 2.5 ± 0.07 μSv year(-1), while the highest annual radiation dose from (210)Po taken with 1 g of pure calcium per day was connected to dolomite - 12.7 ± 0.70 μSv year(-1).

  13. The Effects of Calcium, Vitamins D and K co-Supplementation on Markers of Insulin Metabolism and Lipid Profiles in Vitamin D-Deficient Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karamali, Maryam; Ashrafi, Mahnaz; Razavi, Maryamalsadat; Jamilian, Mehri; Kashanian, Maryam; Akbari, Maryam; Asemi, Zatollah

    2017-04-13

    Data on the effects of calcium, vitamins D and K co-supplementation on markers of insulin metabolism and lipid profiles among vitamin D-deficient women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are scarce. This study was done to determine the effects of calcium, vitamins D and K co-supplementation on markers of insulin metabolism and lipid profiles in vitamin D-deficient women with PCOS. This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 55 vitamin D-deficient women diagnosed with PCOS aged 18-40 years old. Subjects were randomly assigned into 2 groups to intake either 500 mg calcium, 200 IU vitamin D and 90 µg vitamin K supplements (n=28) or placebo (n=27) twice a day for 8 weeks. After the 8-week intervention, compared with the placebo, joint calcium, vitamins D and K supplementation resulted in significant decreases in serum insulin concentrations (-1.9±3.5 vs. +1.8±6.6 µIU/mL, P=0.01), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (-0.4±0.7 vs. +0.4±1.4, P=0.01), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated b cell function (-7.9±14.7 vs. +7.0±30.3, P=0.02) and a significant increase in quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0.01±0.01 vs. -0.008±0.03, P=0.01). In addition, significant decreases in serum triglycerides (-23.4±71.3 vs. +9.9±39.5 mg/dL, P=0.03) and VLDL-cholesterol levels (-4.7±14.3 vs. +2.0±7.9 mg/dL, P=0.03) was observed following supplementation with combined calcium, vitamins D and K compared with the placebo. Overall, calcium, vitamins D and K co-supplementation for 8 weeks among vitamin D-deficient women with PCOS had beneficial effects on markers of insulin metabolism, serum triglycerides and VLDL-cholesterol levels.

  14. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D serum level in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, but not Graves' disease is relatively deficient.

    PubMed

    Ke, Wencai; Sun, Tiange; Zhang, Yanan; He, Leqi; Wu, Qiang; Liu, Jun; Zha, Bingbing

    2017-06-29

    Vitamin D is a modulator of both the innate and adaptive immune system. As vitamin D deficiency was a risk factor for some autoimmune diseases, we aimed to evaluate the serum vitamin D levels in autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) including Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and investigated the association between serum vitamin D levels and AITD. 175 AITD patients including 51 GD, 61 euthyroid HT (mild HT), 63 euthyroid HT patients with hypothyroidism receiving hormone therapy (treated HT) were recruited from the outpatient department. 51 controls were from the physical checkup center of the hospital. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels, thyroid function, antithyroid antibodies, IL-4, IL-17, and TNF-α were determined. Compared with the controls, treated and mild HT patients had significantly lower 25(OH)D levels (45.77±3.48 vs. 83.49±6.24 nmol/L, p<0.001) and (55.25±3.88 vs. 83.49±6.24 nmol/L, p<0.001), respectively. However, GD patients had similar 25(OH)D levels (81.77±5.60 vs. 83.49±6.24 nmol/L, p=0.808). Compared to 24.1% controls with prevalent vitamin D deficiency, mild HT and treated HT patients were significantly different (55.4%, p<0.001) and (70.3%, p<0.001), respectively; no difference was seen in the GD patients (22.9%, p=0.797). Serum 25(OH)D levels were not associated with thyroid function, antithyroid antibodies, and serum cytokines IL-4, IL-17, and TNF-α in patients with AITD. We observed relatively low vitamin D level in mild and treated HT patients, while GD patients had similar 25(OH)D levels to those of healthy individuals. Further studies are imperative to explore the complex etiology of vitamin D deficiency in AITD.

  15. The Effects of Vitamin D-K-Calcium Co-Supplementation on Endocrine, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Vitamin D-Deficient Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Razavi, M; Jamilian, M; Karamali, M; Bahmani, F; Aghadavod, E; Asemi, Z

    2016-07-01

    The current study was conducted to assess the effects of vitamin D-K-calcium co-supplementation on endocrine, inflammation, and oxidative stress biomarkers in vitamin D-deficient women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 60 vitamin D-deficient women diagnosed with PCOS aged 18-40 years old. Participants were randomly allocated into 2 groups to intake either 200 IU vitamin D, 90 μg vitamin K plus, 500 mg calcium supplements (n=30), or placebo (n=30) twice a day for 8 weeks. Endocrine, inflammation, and oxidative stress biomarkers were quantified at the beginning and the end of the study. After 8 weeks of intervention, compared with the placebo, vitamin D-K-calcium co-supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in serum-free testosterone (- 2.1±1.6 vs.+0.1±1.0 pg/ml, p<0.001) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels (- 0.8±1.0 vs.-0.1±0.5 μg/ml, p=0.006). In addition, a significant increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (+ 75.7±126.1 vs.-80.4±242.8 mmol/l, p=0.005) and a significant difference in plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations (+ 0.03±0.6 vs.+1.4±2.4 μmol/l, p=0.005) was observed following the supplementation with vitamin D-K-calcium compared with the placebo. A trend toward a greater decrease in luteinizing hormone was observed in vitamin D-K-calcium co-supplement group compared to placebo group (- 7.0 vs.-1.2 IU/l, p=0.09). We did not find any significant effect of vitamin D-K-calcium co-supplementation on prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, 17-OH progesterone, inflammatory markers, and glutathione levels. Overall, vitamin D-K-calcium co-supplementation for 8 weeks among vitamin D-deficient women with PCOS had beneficial effects on serum DHEAS, free testosterone, plasma TAC, and MDA levels. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Calcium intake is not related to breast cancer risk among Singapore Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingmei; Koh, Woon-Puay; Jin, Ai-Zhen; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.; Butler, Lesley M.

    2013-01-01

    There is experimental evidence that calcium protects against breast cancer development. Prospective epidemiologic studies supporting a protective effect of calcium on breast cancer risk have mainly been limited to Western populations. We examined the association between calcium intake and breast cancer risk in the Singapore Chinese Health Study, a large population-based prospective cohort. Calcium intake and supplement use was assessed by in-person interviewer using a validated food frequency questionnaire. After a mean follow-up of 14.2±3.5 years, 823 cohort participants developed invasive breast cancer. Multivariate proportional hazards regression models were fitted to examine the associations between calcium intake and breast cancer risk. Vegetables were the primary food source of calcium in this study population, followed by dairy products, grains and soy foods. Calcium intake was not associated with breast cancer risk, comparing highest quartile (>345.6 mg/1000 kcal/day) to lowest quartile (<204.5mg/1000 kcal/day) of intake. There was no evidence of effect modification by menopausal status, body mass index, dietary vitamin D or stage of disease at diagnosis. Our findings do not support a hypothesis for calcium in breast cancer chemoprevention, contrary to findings from previous studies among Western populations with higher calcium intake primarily from dairy products and supplements. PMID:23319293

  17. The evaluation of iron deficiency and anemia in male blood donors with other related factors

    PubMed Central

    Yousefinejad, Vahid; Darvishi, Nazila; Arabzadeh, Masoumeh; Soori, Masoumeh; Magsudlu, Mahtab; Shafiayan, Madjid

    2010-01-01

    Aims and Background: Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide and blood donation may cause iron depletion. Limited studies with large sample size have been done on male donors. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among male donors in the Kurdistan Organization of Blood Transfusion in Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Sample size was 1184 blood donors selected by systematic random sampling. Hemoglobin, serum iron, serum ferritin, total iron banding capacity (TIBC) and transferin saturation were measured in donors. Iron depletion, lack of iron stores, iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia and anemia were evaluated among them. Data was analyzed with SPSS software and X2, one-way ANOVA, and LSD test. Results: Iron deficiency, anemia, iron deficiency anemia, iron depletion and lack of iron resources were seen in 2.3, 4.08, 2.14, 22.76 and 4.66 percent respectively. There was a significant relationship of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia with instances of donation and interval from last donation (P < 0.05). A significant relationship was seen between iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among blood donors with more than ten times blood donation (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study showed regular male donors require especial attention. Therefore, serum ferritin is recommended as a more adequate index to use for iron deficiency screening and planning purposes for iron supplementation among them. PMID:20859513

  18. Neuroaxonal dystrophy in calcium-independent phospholipase A2β deficiency results from insufficient remodeling and degeneration of mitochondrial and presynaptic membranes.

    PubMed

    Beck, Goichi; Sugiura, Yuki; Shinzawa, Koei; Kato, Shinsuke; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Tsujimoto, Yoshihide; Sakoda, Saburo; Sumi-Akamaru, Hisae

    2011-08-03

    Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the widespread presence of axonal swellings (spheroids) in the CNS and PNS and is caused by gene abnormality in PLA2G6 [calcium-independent phospholipase A(2)β (iPLA(2)β)], which is essential for remodeling of membrane phospholipids. To clarify the pathomechanism of INAD, we pathologically analyzed the spinal cords and sciatic nerves of iPLA(2)β knock-out (KO) mice, a model of INAD. At 15 weeks (preclinical stage), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive granules were frequently observed in proximal axons and the perinuclear space of large neurons, and these were strongly positive for a marker of the mitochondrial outer membrane and negative for a marker of the inner membrane. By 100 weeks (late clinical stage), PAS-positive granules and spheroids had increased significantly in the distal parts of axons, and ultrastructural examination revealed that these granules were, in fact, mitochondria with degenerative inner membranes. Collapse of mitochondria in axons was accompanied by focal disappearance of the cytoskeleton. Partial membrane loss at axon terminals was also evident, accompanied by degenerative membranes in the same areas. Imaging mass spectrometry showed a prominent increase of docosahexaenoic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine in the gray matter, suggesting insufficient membrane remodeling in the presence of iPLA(2)β deficiency. Prominent axonal degeneration in neuroaxonal dystrophy might be explained by the collapse of abnormal mitochondria after axonal transportation. Insufficient remodeling and degeneration of mitochondrial inner membranes and presynaptic membranes appear to be the cause of the neuroaxonal dystrophy in iPLA(2)β-KO mice.

  19. Vitamin D, PTH, and calcium in relation to survival following prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Brändstedt, Johan; Almquist, Martin; Manjer, Jonas; Malm, Johan

    2016-05-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that low levels of vitamin D constitute a risk factor for prostate cancer. However, the results are conflicting, perhaps because prostate cancer is a very heterogeneous disease. More recent studies have focused on cancer progression and mortality. Vitamin D is closely related to both calcium metabolism and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, and all three factors have been implicated in prostate cancer. We examined the associations between pre-diagnostic serum levels of vitamin D (25OHD), PTH, and calcium and mortality among 943 participants within the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, who were diagnosed with prostate cancer. The mean time from diagnosis until the end of followup was 9.1 years (SD 4.5), and the mean time from inclusion until end of follow-up was 16.6 years (SD 4.9). The analytes were divided into quartiles, and the risk of death from prostate cancer was analyzed using Cox proportional hazard analysis, yielding hazards ratios (HR) with 95 % confidence intervals. The models were adjusted for season and year of inclusion, age at baseline, age at diagnosis, body mass index (BMI), and tumor characteristics (TNM and Gleason score). We observed a trend toward a lower prostate-specific mortality with 25OHD >85 nmol/L in the unadjusted analysis. This became statistically significantly in the third quartile of 25OHD (85-102 nmol/L) compared to the first (<68 nmol/L), HR 0.54 (0.34-0.85) when adjusting for age, time of inclusion, and BMI. The association was further strengthened when adjusted for age at diagnosis, Gleason score, and TNM classification with a HR in Q3 0.36 (0.22-0.60). p for trend was 0.03. Regarding calcium, there was a significantly lower HR for the second quartile (2.35-2.39 mmol/L) compared to the first (≤2.34 mmol/L) with a HR of 0.54 (0.32-0.86) in the unadjusted analysis. However, this association disappeared when adjusting for tumor characteristics. There were no associations between levels of PTH and

  20. Vertebrate extracellular calcium-sensing receptor evolution: selection in relation to life history and habitat.

    PubMed

    Herberger, Amanda L; Loretz, Christopher A

    2013-03-01

    Ionic calcium (Ca(2+)) supports essential functions within physiological systems, and consequently its concentration is homeostatically regulated within narrow bounds in the body fluids of animals through endocrine effects at ion-transporting osmoregulatory tissues. In vertebrates, extracellular Ca(2+) is detected at the cell surface by the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. Interestingly, the taxonomic distribution of CaSRs is restricted to vertebrates, with some CaSR-like receptors apparently present in non-vertebrate chordates. Since bone is a known Ca(2+) storage site and is characteristically restricted to the vertebrate lineage, we hypothesized a functional association of CaSR with vertebrate skeleton that may have an ancient origin. Protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate CaSRs and related GPCRs of the glutamate receptor-like family expose similarities and indel differences among these receptors, and reveal the evolutionary history of CaSRs. Evolutionary selection was tested statistically by evaluating the relationship between non-synonymous (replacement, dN) versus synonymous (silent, dS) amino acid substitution rates (as dN/dS) of protein-coding DNA sequences among branches of the estimated protein phylogeny. On a background of strong purifying selection (dN/dS<1) in the CaSR phylogeny, statistical evidence for adaptive evolution (dN/dS>1) was detected on some branches to major clades in the CaSR phylogeny, especially to the tetrapod vertebrate CaSRs and chordate CaSR-like branches. Testing also revealed overall purifying selection at the codon level. At some sites relaxation from strong purifying selection was seen, but evidence for adaptive evolution was not detected for individual sites. The results suggest purifying selection of CaSRs, and of adaptive evolution among some major vertebrate clades, reflecting clade specific differences in natural history

  1. Expanding the Phenotype Associated with NAA10-Related N-Terminal Acetylation Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Saunier, Chloé; Støve, Svein Isungset; Popp, Bernt; Gérard, Bénédicte; Blenski, Marina; AhMew, Nicholas; de Bie, Charlotte; Goldenberg, Paula; Isidor, Bertrand; Keren, Boris; Leheup, Bruno; Lampert, Laetitia; Mignot, Cyril; Tezcan, Kamer; Mancini, Grazia M S; Nava, Caroline; Wasserstein, Melissa; Bruel, Ange-Line; Thevenon, Julien; Masurel, Alice; Duffourd, Yannis; Kuentz, Paul; Huet, Frédéric; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; van Slegtenhorst, Marjon; Faivre, Laurence; Piton, Amélie; Reis, André; Arnesen, Thomas; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Zweier, Christiane

    2016-08-01

    N-terminal acetylation is a common protein modification in eukaryotes associated with numerous cellular processes. Inherited mutations in NAA10, encoding the catalytic subunit of the major N-terminal acetylation complex NatA have been associated with diverse, syndromic X-linked recessive disorders, whereas de novo missense mutations have been reported in one male and one female individual with severe intellectual disability but otherwise unspecific phenotypes. Thus, the full genetic and clinical spectrum of NAA10 deficiency is yet to be delineated. We identified three different novel and one known missense mutation in NAA10, de novo in 11 females, and due to maternal germ line mosaicism in another girl and her more severely affected and deceased brother. In vitro enzymatic assays for the novel, recurrent mutations p.(Arg83Cys) and p.(Phe128Leu) revealed reduced catalytic activity. X-inactivation was random in five females. The core phenotype of X-linked NAA10-related N-terminal-acetyltransferase deficiency in both males and females includes developmental delay, severe intellectual disability, postnatal growth failure with severe microcephaly, and skeletal or cardiac anomalies. Genotype-phenotype correlations within and between both genders are complex and may include various factors such as location and nature of mutations, enzymatic stability and activity, and X-inactivation in females.

  2. Is the deficiency of vitamin B12 related to oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in Parkinson's patients?

    PubMed

    Qureshi, G Ali; Qureshi, Aftab A; Devrajani, Bika Ram; Chippa, M A; Syed, S Ali

    2008-02-01

    This review deals with the results showing the relation between vitamin B(12) deficiency and neurotoxicity of homocysteine and nitrite (a metabolite of nitric oxide) in Parkinson's patients treated with levodopa (L-Dopa). We have already reported a linear relationship between the CSF levels of nitrite with glutamic acid and homocysteine suggesting that the production of nitrite is interrelated with the neurotoxic level of homocysteine. The levels of nitrite and homocysteine resulting in the deficiency of vitamin B(12) are some of the factors promoting degeneration in Parkinson's disease. This review emphasizes the importance of these parameters in designing suitable drug therapy for Parkinson disease. Additionally, there is evidence that increased homocysteine levels might accelerate dopaminergic cell death in Parkinson disease (PD), through neurotoxic effects. Furthermore, levodopa (L-Dopa) treatment of PD results in hyperhomocysteinemia as a consequence of L-Dopa methylation by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). Therefore, higher dietary intakes of folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 might decrease the risk of PD through decreasing plasma homocysteine.

  3. Expanding the Phenotype Associated with NAA10‐Related N‐Terminal Acetylation Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Saunier, Chloé; Støve, Svein Isungset; Popp, Bernt; Gérard, Bénédicte; Blenski, Marina; AhMew, Nicholas; de Bie, Charlotte; Goldenberg, Paula; Isidor, Bertrand; Keren, Boris; Leheup, Bruno; Lampert, Laetitia; Mignot, Cyril; Tezcan, Kamer; Mancini, Grazia M.S.; Nava, Caroline; Wasserstein, Melissa; Bruel, Ange‐Line; Thevenon, Julien; Masurel, Alice; Duffourd, Yannis; Kuentz, Paul; Huet, Frédéric; Rivière, Jean‐Baptiste; van Slegtenhorst, Marjon; Faivre, Laurence; Piton, Amélie; Reis, André; Thauvin‐Robinet, Christel; Zweier, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT N‐terminal acetylation is a common protein modification in eukaryotes associated with numerous cellular processes. Inherited mutations in NAA10, encoding the catalytic subunit of the major N‐terminal acetylation complex NatA have been associated with diverse, syndromic X‐linked recessive disorders, whereas de novo missense mutations have been reported in one male and one female individual with severe intellectual disability but otherwise unspecific phenotypes. Thus, the full genetic and clinical spectrum of NAA10 deficiency is yet to be delineated. We identified three different novel and one known missense mutation in NAA10, de novo in 11 females, and due to maternal germ line mosaicism in another girl and her more severely affected and deceased brother. In vitro enzymatic assays for the novel, recurrent mutations p.(Arg83Cys) and p.(Phe128Leu) revealed reduced catalytic activity. X‐inactivation was random in five females. The core phenotype of X‐linked NAA10‐related N‐terminal‐acetyltransferase deficiency in both males and females includes developmental delay, severe intellectual disability, postnatal growth failure with severe microcephaly, and skeletal or cardiac anomalies. Genotype–phenotype correlations within and between both genders are complex and may include various factors such as location and nature of mutations, enzymatic stability and activity, and X‐inactivation in females. PMID:27094817

  4. Quantum chemical and spectroscopic analysis of calcium hydroxyapatite and related materials

    SciTech Connect

    Khavryuchenko, V.D. Khavryuchenko, O.V. Lisnyak, V.V.

    2007-02-15

    Amorphous calcium hydroxyapatite was examined by vibrational spectroscopy (Raman and infra-red (IR)) and quantum chemical simulation techniques. The structures and vibrational (IR, Raman and inelastic neutron scattering) spectra of PO{sub 4} {sup 3-} ion, Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, [Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}]{sub 3}, Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}OH, CaHPO{sub 4}, [CaHPO{sub 4}]{sub 2}, Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O, Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O and Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}.3H{sub 2}O clusters were quantum chemically simulated at ab initio and semiempirical levels of approximation. A complete coordinate analysis of the vibrational spectra was performed. The comparison of the theoretically simulated spectra with the experimental ones allows to identify correctly the phase composition of the amorphous calcium hydroxyapatite and related materials. The shape of the bands in the IR spectra of the hydroxoapatite can be used in order to characterize the structural properties of the material, e.g., the PO{sub 4} {sup 3-} ion status, the degree of hydrolysis of the material and the presence of hydrolysis products. - Graphical abstract: The structure of the quantum chemically optimized Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}(OH) cluster, which was used for vibrations spectra simulation.

  5. Calcium biofortification of crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    More than half of the world's population is deficient in calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se), or zinc (Zn). The consumption of plants, directly or via livestock, containing inadequate concentrations of particular minerals causes these deficiencies. Agronomic and geneti...

  6. Neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide mediate complementary functions of hyperphagia and reduced energy expenditure in leptin receptor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Luo, Na; Marcelin, Genevieve; Liu, Shun Mei; Schwartz, Gary; Chua, Streamson

    2011-03-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related peptide (AGRP) can produce hyperphagia, reduce energy expenditure, and promote triglyceride deposition in adipose depots. As these two neuropeptides are coexpressed within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and mediate a major portion of the obesity caused by leptin signaling deficiency, we sought to determine whether the two neuropeptides mediated identical or complementary actions. Because of separate neuropeptide receptors and signal transduction mechanisms, there is a possibility of distinct encoding systems for the feeding and energy expenditure aspects of leptin-regulated metabolism. We have genetically added NPY deficiency and/or AGRP deficiency to LEPR deficiency isolated to AGRP cells. Our results indicate that the obesity of LEPR deficiency in AGRP/NPY neurons can produce obesity with either AGRP or NPY alone with AGRP producing hyperphagia while NPY promotes reduced energy expenditure. The absence of both NPY and AGRP prevents the development of obesity attributable to isolated LEPR deficiency in AGRP/NPY neurons. Operant behavioral testing indicated that there were no alterations in the reward for a food pellet from the AGRP-specific LEPR deficiency.

  7. Potassium deficiency alters growth, photosynthetic performance, secondary metabolites content, and related antioxidant capacity in Sulla carnosa grown under moderate salinity.

    PubMed

    Hafsi, Chokri; Falleh, Hanen; Saada, Mariem; Ksouri, Riadh; Abdelly, Chedly

    2017-09-01

    Salinity and K(+) deficiency are two environmental constraints that generally occur simultaneously under field conditions, resulting in severe limitation of plant growth and productivity. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of salinity, either separately applied or in combination with K(+) deficiency, on growth, photosynthetic performance, secondary metabolites content, and related antioxidant capacity in Sulla carnosa. Seedlings were grown hydroponically under sufficient (6000 μM) or low (60 μM) K(+) supply with 100 mM NaCl (C + S and D + S treatments, respectively). Either alone or combined with K(+) deficiency, salinity significantly restricted the plant growth. K(+) deficiency further increased salt impact on the photosynthetic activity of S. carnosa, but this species displayed mechanisms that play a role in protecting photosynthetic machinery (including non photochemical quenching and antioxidant activity). In contrast to plants subjected to salt stress alone, higher accumulation of phenolic compounds was likely related to antioxidative defence mechanism in plants grown under combined effects of two stresses. As a whole, these data suggest that K(+) deficiency increases the deleterious effects of salt stress. The quantitative and qualitative alteration of phenolic composition and the enhancement of related antioxidant capacity may be of crucial significance for S. carnosa plants growing under salinity and K(+) deficient conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Rankings of iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes in relation to maternal characteristics of pregnant Canadian women.

    PubMed

    Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Weiler, Hope A; Dubois, Lise; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Dodds, Linda; Massarelli, Isabelle; Vigneault, Michel; Arbuckle, Tye E; Fraser, William D

    2016-07-01

    Iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes in the prenatal period are important determinants of maternal and fetal health. The objective of this study was to examine iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes from diet and supplements in relation to maternal characteristics. Data were collected in a subsample of 1186 pregnant women from the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study, a cohort study including pregnant women recruited from 10 Canadian sites between 2008 and 2011. A food frequency questionnaire was administered to obtain rankings of iron, calcium, and vitamin D intake (16-21 weeks of pregnancy). Intakes from supplements were obtained from a separate questionnaire (6-13 weeks of pregnancy). Women were divided into 2 groups according to the median total intake of each nutrient. Supplement intake was an important contributor to total iron intake (median 74%, interquartile range (IQR) 0%-81%) and total vitamin D intake (median 60%, IQR 0%-73%), while the opposite was observed for calcium (median 18%, IQR 0%-27%). Being born outside of Canada was significantly associated with lower total intakes of iron, vitamin D, and calcium (p ≤ 0.01 for all). Consistent positive indicators of supplement use (iron, vitamin D, and calcium) were maternal age over 30 years and holding a university degree. In conclusion, among Canadian women, the probability of having lower iron, vitamin D, and calcium intakes is higher among those born outside Canada; supplement intake is a major contributor to total iron and vitamin D intakes; and higher education level and age over 30 years are associated with supplement intake.

  9. Is immune system-related hypertension associated with ovarian hormone deficiency?

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Kathryn; Ji, Hong; Einstein, Gillian; Au, April; Hay, Meredith

    2017-01-01

    The immune system is known to contribute to the development of high blood pressure in males. However, the role of the immune system in the development of high blood pressure in females and the role of ovarian hormones has only recently begun to be studied. In animal studies, both the sex of the host and the T cell are critical biological determinants of susceptibility and resistance to hypertension induced by angiotensin II. In women, natural menopause is known to result in significant changes in the expression of genes regulating the immune system. Likewise, in animal models, ovariectomy results in hypertension and an upregulation in T-cell tumour necrosis factor-α-related genes. Oestrogen replacement results in decreases in inflammatory genes in the brain regions involved in blood pressure regulation. Together, these studies suggest that the response of the adaptive immune system to ovarian hormone deficiency is a significant contributor to hypertension in women. PMID:26419911

  10. Iron Deficiency Anemia Coexists with Cancer Related Anemia and Adversely Impacts Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Kanuri, Giridhar; Sawhney, Ritica; Varghese, Jeeva; Britto, Madonna; Shet, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Cancer related anemia (CRA) adversely affects patient Quality of Life (QoL) and overall survival. We prospectively studied the prevalence, etiology and the impact of anemia on QoL in 218 Indian cancer patients attending a tertiary referral hospital. The study used the sTfR/log Ferritin index to detect iron deficiency anemia and assessed patient QoL using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Anemia (FACT-An) tool, standardized for language. Mean patient age was 51±13 years and 60% were female. The prevalence of cancer related anemia in this setting was 64% (n = 139). As expected, plasma ferritin did not differ significantly between anemic (n = 121) and non-anemic cancer patients (n = 73). In contrast, plasma sTfR levels were significantly higher in anemic cancer patients compared to non-anemic cancer patients (31 nmol/L vs. 24 nmol/L, p = 0.002). Among anemic cancer patients, using the sTfR/log Ferritin index, we found that 60% (n = 83) had iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Interestingly, plasma sTfR levels were significantly higher in cancer patients with CRA+IDA (n = 83) compared with patients having CRA (n = 38) alone (39 nmol/L vs. 20 nmol/L, p<0.001). There was a significant linear correlation between Hb and QoL (Spearman ρ = 0.21; p = 0.001) and multivariate regression analysis revealed that every gram rise in Hb was accompanied by a 3.1 unit increase in the QoL score (95% CI = 0.19–5.33; p = 0.003). The high prevalence of anemia in cancer patients, a major portion of which is due to iron deficiency anemia, the availability of sensitive and specific biomarkers of iron status to detect IDA superimposed on anemia of inflammation, suggests an urgent need to diagnose and treat such patients. Despite the potential negative consequences of increasing metabolically available plasma iron in cancer, our clinical data suggest that detecting and treating IDA in anemic cancer patients will have important consequences to their QoL and overall survival. Clinical

  11. Light-potentiation of acoustic startle response (ASR) and monoamine efflux related to fearfulness in Fyn-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Hironaka, Naoyuki; Yagi, Takeshi; Niki, Hiroaki

    2002-01-31

    Fyn tyrosine kinase deficient mice are known to show increased fearfulness. We investigated the fear response of these mice using the light-potentiation of the acoustic startle response (ASR) and examined its neurochemical correlates using in vivo microdialysis. Female homozygous Fyn-deficient mice showed an enhancement of the startle amplitude under a bright light while heterozygotes and wild-types did not show such a change. Along with these behavioral findings, the homozygous Fyn-deficient mice showed an increase in extracellular serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in the prefrontal cortex and 5-HT in the hippocampus when they were exposed to bright light, while heterozygous and wild-type mice did not show such changes. These results suggest that the increased fearfulness of Fyn-deficient mice is related to enhanced serotonergic and dopaminergic activity in the prefrontal cortex and limbic system.

  12. EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM ION DEFICIENCY ON ESCHERICHIA COLI AND POSSIBLE RELATION TO THE MODE OF ACTION OF NOVOBIOCIN

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Thomas D.

    1962-01-01

    Brock, Thomas D. (Indiana University, Bloomington). Effects of magnesium ion deficiency on Escherichia coli and possible relation to the mode of action of novobiocin. J. Bacteriol. 84:679–682. 1962.—Cells of Escherichia coli ML35 grew in magnesium-deficient medium at an arithmetic rate for 4 to 5 hr. In the later stages of this period, the viability of the cells decreased, ribonucleic acid was lost, and the cells became able to hydrolyze o-nitro-phenyl-β-d-galactoside at a much increased rate. Further, the cells became filamentous and stained less intensely with methylene blue. Since magnesium ions are known to stabilize cell membranes, the changes are interpreted as due to alterations in membrane integrity. Novobiocin induced the same changes as magnesium ion deficiency, providing further support for the hypothesis that novobiocin acts by inducing a magnesium ion deficiency. PMID:14015626

  13. Arginine vasopressin, copeptin, and the development of relative AVP deficiency in hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Sims, Carrie A; Guan, Yuxia; Bergey, Meredith; Jaffe, Rebecca; Holmes-Maguire, Lilias; Martin, Niels; Reilly, Patrick

    2017-06-24

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is critical for maintaining vasomotor tone and low levels have been associated with the development of irreversible shock. We investigated the clinical relationship between AVP, copeptin (the C-terminal fragment of the AVP precursor), and the development of relative AVP deficiency following hemorrhagic shock. A prospective, observational study of 21 hypotensive (SBP<90 mmHg X 2) or presumptively bleeding trauma patients was conducted. Demographics, mechanism of injury, vital signs, laboratory values, transfusions, crystalloid volume, and blood samples were collected on arrival and serially for 48 h. AVP and copeptin were measured post hoc. AVP and copeptin levels were markedly elevated on admission, but decreased rapidly over time (p < 0.001). AVP and copeptin levels were positively correlated on admission (r = 0.769, p < 0.001), in the ICU (r = 0.768, p < 0.001), and at 48 h (r = 0.537, p = 0.02). Initial AVP and copeptin levels predicted the need for ≥10 unit blood product transfusion (AUC = 81% and 87%, respectively). The development of a relative AVP deficiency occurred frequently and was associated with an increased need for blood product transfusion. Copeptin correlates well with AVP and initial values predict the need for massive transfusion in trauma patients. Copeptin demonstrates promise as a clinical biomarker in hemorrhagic shock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Laminin α2 Deficiency-Related Muscular Dystrophy Mimicking Emery-Dreifuss and Collagen VI related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Isabelle; Stojkovic, Tanya; Allamand, Valérie; Leturcq, France; Bécane, Henri-Marc; Babuty, Dominique; Toutain, Annick; Béroud, Christophe; Richard, Pascale; Romero, Norma B.; Eymard, Bruno; Ben Yaou, Rabah; Bonne, Gisèle

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Laminin α2 deficient congenital muscular dystrophy, caused by mutations in the LAMA2 gene, is characterized by early muscle weakness associated with abnormal white matter signal on cerebral MRI. Objective: To report on 4 patients with LAMA2 gene mutations whose original clinical features complicated the diagnosis strategy. Methods: Clinical, electrophysiological, muscle imaging and histopathological data were retrospectively collected from all patients. DNA samples were analysed by next-generation sequencing or direct gene sequencing. Laminin α2 was analysed by western-blot and immunohistochemistry. Results: The four patients achieved independent walking. All had proximal muscle weakness with scapular winging and prominent joint contractures without peripheral neuropathy. During follow-up, two patients suffered from refractory epilepsy associated with brain leukoencephalopathy in one, polymicrogyria and lissencephaly without white matter changes in the other. In two patients, the distribution of fatty infiltration resembles that of collagen-VI related myopathies. Dilated cardiomyopathy contstartabstractwith conduction defects, suggestive of Emery-Dreifuss myopathy, emerged in two of them within the 4th decade. Molecular diagnosis remained elusive for many years. Finally, targeted capture-DNA sequencing unveiled the involvement of the LAMA2 gene in two families, and led us to further identify LAMA2 mutations in the remaining family using Sanger sequencing. Conclusions: This report extends the clinical and radiological features of partial Laminin α2 deficiency since patients showed atypical manifestations including dilated cardiomyopathy with conduction defects in 2, epilepsy in 2, one of whom also had sole cortical brain abnormalities. Importantly, clinical findings and muscle imaging initially pointed to collagen-VI related disorders and Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. PMID:27858741

  15. Betaine deficiency in maize: Metabolic basis and relation to osmotic adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, D. ); Hanson, A.D. ); Lerma, C.; Bolanos, J.

    1990-05-01

    A single recessive gene causes betaine deficiency in certain maize inbred lines. As betaine may act as a cytosolic osmolyte, deficiency might be expected to reduce osmotic adjustment. Two near-isogenic maize lines differing for betaine, as well as groups of diverse betaine-containing and deficient inbreds, were tested under field water-stress conditions. The betaine-deficient isogenic line, and the group of deficient inbreds as a whole, showed significantly (P<0.05) less osmotic adjustment than their respective betaine-containing counterparts. When leaves from field-grown plants of the isogenic lines were supplied with ({sup 14}C)choline, the betaine-containing line produced ({sup 14}C)betaine whereas the deficient line did not.

  16. [Study on inhibitory effect of EGCG on Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rats and its related mechanism].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Wang, Shuo; Tang, Chun-bo

    2015-04-01

    In the study, the inhibitory effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and its possible mechanism were investigated. The rat Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis model was induced through the combined oral administration of ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride, which was intervened with EGCG. Rat blood samples were collected to detect blood creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and blood calcium. Rat urine samples were collected to observe and compare 24-hour urine volume, oxalic acid (Ox) and calcium in urine. Renal samples were collected to prepare tissue slices and observe the pathological changes in Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. The expression of osteopontin (OPN) in renal tissues was evaluated by Real-time PCR and Western blot. According to the results, compared with normal rats, rats in the nephrolithiasis model showed significant increases in Cr, BUN, urine Calcium, urine Ox and renal OPN expression (P < 0.05), but obvious decrease in 24-hour urine volume (P < 0.05); Compared with rats with nephrolithiasis, those processed with EGCG revealed remarkable declines in Cr, BUN, urine Calcium and urine Ox (P < 0.05), with significant rise in 24-hour urine volume (P < 0.05) in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, compared with the control group, nephrolithiasis rats showed significant pathological changes in Calcium oxalate calculus. After ECCG treatment, the renal pathological changes and OPN expression attenuated significantly in a concentration-dependent manner. The results showed that EGCG inhibits the formation of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis in rats and shows a notable protective effect on renal functions.

  17. The Relation Between Variability of Intact Parathyroid Hormone, Calcium, and Cardiac Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Sukru; Ozkan, Gulsum; Guvercin, Beyhan; Yavuz, Adnan

    2016-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-BMD) is a condition known to be associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The relation between calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) variability in HD patients and cardiac mortality is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between variability in these parameters and cardiac mortality. Baseline demographic and biochemical parameters of 218 HD patients together with Ca values corrected with albumin and P values measured on a monthly basis and iPTH levels measured at 3-monthly intervals were recorded over 2 years. Standard deviation (SD) and smoothness index (SI) for each parameter were calculated to assess Ca, P, and iPTH variability. The relations between all parameters and cardiac mortality were then analyzed. Cardiac mortality was observed in 38 patients in the 2-year study period. Nonsurviving patients' ages, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (HsCRP) levels, mean iPTH, and SD iPTH were significantly higher than those of surviving patients, while albumin levels, SI iPTH and SI Ca were significantly lower. Age, low albumin, high DBP, SI iPTH, and SI Ca were identified as independent predictors of cardiac mortality at multivariate analysis. Our study shows that Ca and iPTH variability affect cardiac mortality independently of mean and baseline values. When supported by further studies, the relation between Ca and iPTH variability and cardiac mortality in HD patients can lead to a new perspective in terms of prognosis and treatment planning.

  18. Sleep Related Changes in Blood Pressure in Hypocretin-Deficient Narcoleptic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bastianini, Stefano; Silvani, Alessandro; Berteotti, Chiara; Elghozi, Jean-Luc; Franzini, Carlo; Lenzi, Pierluigi; Lo, Martire Viviana; Zoccoli, Giovanna

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although blood pressure during sleep and the difference in blood pressure between sleep and wakefulness carry prognostic information, little is known on their central neural mechanisms. Hypothalamic neurons releasing hypocretin (orexin) peptides control wake-sleep behavior and autonomic functions and are lost in narcolepsy-cataplexy. We investigated whether chronic lack of hypocretin signaling alters blood pressure during sleep. Design: Comparison of blood pressure as a function of the wake-sleep behavior between 2 different hypocretin-deficient mouse models and control mice with the same genetic background. Setting: N/A. Subjects: Hypocretin-ataxin3 transgenic mice with genetic ablation of hypocretin neurons (TG, n = 12); hypocretin gene knock-out mice (KO, n = 8); congenic wild-type controls (WT, n = 10). Interventions: Instrumentation with electrodes for sleep recordings and a telemetric blood pressure transducer. Measurements and Results: Blood pressure was significantly higher in either TG or KO than in WT during non–rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS; 4 ± 2 and 7 ± 2 mm Hg, respectively) and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS; 11 ± 2 and 12 ± 3 mm Hg, respectively), whereas it did not differ significantly between groups during wakefulness. Accordingly, the decrease in blood pressure between either NREMS or REMS and wakefulness was significantly blunted in TG and KO with respect to WT. Conclusions: Chronic lack of hypocretin signaling may entail consequences on blood pressure that are potentially adverse and that vary widely among wake-sleep states. Citation: Bastianini S; Silvani A; Berteotti C; Elghozi JL; Franzini C; Lenzi P; Lo Martire V; Zoccoli G. Sleep related changes in blood pressure in hypocretin-deficient narcoleptic mice. SLEEP 2011;34(2):213-218. PMID:21286242

  19. Biochemical basis of prolidase deficiency. Polypeptide and RNA phenotypes and the relation to clinical phenotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Endo, F; Tanoue, A; Kitano, A; Arata, J; Danks, D M; Lapière, C M; Sei, Y; Wadman, S K; Matsuda, I

    1990-01-01

    Cultured skin fibroblasts or lymphoblastoid cells from eight patients with clinical symptoms of prolidase deficiency were analyzed in terms of enzyme activity, presence of material crossreacting with specific antibodies, biosynthesis of the polypeptide, and mRNA corresponding to the enzyme. There are at least two enzymes that hydrolyze imidodipeptides in these cells and these two enzymes could be separated by an immunochemical procedure. The specific assay for prolidase showed that the enzyme activity was virtually absent in six cell strains and was markedly reduced in two (less than 3% of controls). The activities of the labile enzyme that did not immunoprecipitate with the anti-prolidase antibody were decreased in the cells (30-60% of controls). Cell strains with residual activities of prolidase had immunological polypeptides crossreacting with a Mr 56,000, similar to findings in the normal enzyme. The polypeptide biosynthesis in these cells and the controls was similar. Northern blot analyses revealed the presence of mRNA in the polypeptide-positive cells, yet it was absent in the polypeptide-negative cells. The substrate specificities analyzed in the partially purified enzymes from the polypeptide-positive cell strains differed, presumably due to different mutations. Thus, there seems to be a molecular heterogeneity in prolidase deficiency. There was no apparent relation between the clinical symptoms and the biochemical phenotypes, except that mental retardation was present in the polypeptide-negative patients. The activities of the labile enzyme may not be a major factor in modifying the clinical symptoms. Images PMID:1688567

  20. Wernicke's Encephalopathy, Wet Beriberi, and Polyneuropathy in a Patient with Folate and Thiamine Deficiency Related to Gastric Phytobezoar

    PubMed Central

    Huertas-González, Nuria; Hernando-Requejo, Virgilio; Luciano-García, Zaida; Cervera-Rodilla, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Background. Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) is an acute neurological disorder resulting from thiamine deficiency. It is mainly related to alcohol abuse but it can be associated with other conditions such as gastrointestinal disorders. This vitamin deficiency can also present with cardiovascular symptoms, called “wet beriberi.” Association with folate deficit worsens the clinical picture. Subject. A 70-year-old man with gastric phytobezoar presented with gait instability, dyspnoea, chest pain associated with right heart failure and pericarditis, and folate deficiency. Furosemide was administered and cardiac symptoms improved but he soon developed vertiginous syndrome, nystagmus, diplopia, dysmetria, and sensitive and motor deficit in all four limbs with areflexia. Results. A cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed typical findings of WE. He was immediately treated with thiamine. Neurological symptoms improved in a few days and abnormal signals disappeared in a follow-up MRI two weeks later. Conclusion. Patients with malabsorption due to gastrointestinal disorders have an increased risk of thiamine deficiency, and folate deficiency can make this vitamin malabsorption worse. An established deficiency mainly shows neurological symptoms, WE, or rarely cardiovascular symptoms, wet beriberi. Early vitamin treatment in symptomatic patients improves prognosis. We recommend administration of prophylactic multivitamins supplements in patients at risk as routine clinical practice. PMID:26697247

  1. Interactions of iron with manganese, zinc, chromium, and selenium as related to prophylaxis and treatment of iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bjørklund, Geir; Aaseth, Jan; Skalny, Anatoly V; Suliburska, Joanna; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Tinkov, Alexey A

    2017-05-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is considered as the most common nutritional deficiency. Iron deficiency is usually associated with low Fe intake, blood loss, diseases, poor absorption, gastrointestinal parasites, or increased physiological demands as in pregnancy. Nutritional Fe deficiency is usually treated with Fe tablets, sometimes with Fe-containing multimineral tablets. Trace element interactions may have a significant impact on Fe status. Existing data demonstrate a tight interaction between manganese (Mn) and Fe, especially in Fe-deficient state. The influence of Mn on Fe homeostasis may be mediated through its influence on Fe absorption, circulating transporters like transferrin, and regulatory proteins. The existing data demonstrate that the influence of zinc (Zn) on Fe status may be related to their competition for metal transporters. Moreover, Zn may be involved in regulation of hepcidin production. At the same time, human data on the interplay between Fe and Zn especially in terms of Fe-deficiency and supplementation are contradictory, demonstrating both positive and negative influence of Zn on Fe status. Numerous data also demonstrate the possibility of competition between Fe and chromium (Cr) for transferrin binding. At the same time, human data on the interaction between these metals are contradictory. Therefore, while managing hypoferremia and Fe-deficiency anemia, it is recommended to assess the level of other trace elements in parallel with indices of Fe homeostasis. It is supposed that simultaneous correction of trace element status in Fe deficiency may help to decrease possible antagonistic or increase synergistic interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Relation of Dietary Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load to Coronary Artery Calcium in Asymptomatic Korean Adults.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yuni; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Kim, Mi Kyung; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Jung Eun; Sung, Eunju; Kim, Boyoung; Ahn, Jiin; Kim, Chan-Won; Rampal, Sanjay; Zhao, Di; Zhang, Yiyi; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lima, Joao A C; Chung, Eun Chul; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-08-15

    The relation between glycemic index, glycemic load, and subclinical coronary atherosclerosis is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the associations between energy-adjusted glycemic index, glycemic load, and coronary artery calcium (CAC). This study was cross-sectional analysis of 28,429 asymptomatic Korean men and women (mean age 41.4 years) without a history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. All participants underwent a health screening examination between March 2011 and April 2013, and dietary intake over the preceding year was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cardiac computed tomography was used for CAC scoring. The prevalence of detectable CAC (CAC score >0) was 12.4%. In multivariable-adjusted models, the CAC score ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of glycemic index and glycemic load were 1.74 (1.08 to 2.81; p trend = 0.03) and 3.04 (1.43 to 6.46; p trend = 0.005), respectively. These associations did not differ by clinical subgroups, including the participants at low cardiovascular risk. In conclusion, these findings suggest that high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load were associated with a greater prevalence and degree of CAC, with glycemic load having a stronger association.

  3. Were kinetics of Archean calcium carbonate precipitation related to oxygen concentration?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumner, D. Y.; Grotzinger, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    Archean carbonates commonly contain decimetre- to metre-thick beds consisting entirely of fibrous calcite and neomorphosed fibrous aragonite that precipitated in situ on the sea floor. The fact that such thick accumulations of precipitated carbonate are rare in younger marine carbonates suggests an important change in the modes of calcium carbonate precipitation through time. Kinetics of carbonate precipitation depend on the concentration of inhibitors to precipitation that reduce crystallization rates and crystal nuclei formation, leading to kinetic maintenance of supersaturated solutions. Inhibitors also affect carbonate textures by limiting micrite precipitation and promoting growth of older carbonate crystals on the sea floor. Fe2+, a strong calcite-precipitation inhibitor, is thought to have been present at relatively high concentrations in Archean seawater because oxygen concentrations were low. The rise in oxygen concentration at 2.2-1.9 Ga led to the removal of Fe2+ from seawater and resulted in a shift from Archean facies, which commonly include precipitated beds, to Proterozoic facies, which contain more micritic sediment and only rare precipitated beds.

  4. Mutations in the calcium-related gene IL1RAPL1 are associated with autism.

    PubMed

    Piton, Amélie; Michaud, Jacques L; Peng, Huashan; Aradhya, Swaroop; Gauthier, Julie; Mottron, Laurent; Champagne, Nathalie; Lafrenière, Ronald G; Hamdan, Fadi F; Joober, Ridha; Fombonne, Eric; Marineau, Claude; Cossette, Patrick; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Haghighi, Pejmun; Drapeau, Pierre; Barker, Philip A; Carbonetto, Salvatore; Rouleau, Guy A

    2008-12-15

    In a systematic sequencing screen of synaptic genes on the X chromosome, we have identified an autistic female without mental retardation (MR) who carries a de novo frameshift Ile367SerfsX6 mutation in Interleukin-1 Receptor Accessory Protein-Like 1 (IL1RAPL1), a gene implicated in calcium-regulated vesicle release and dendrite differentiation. We showed that the function of the resulting truncated IL1RAPL1 protein is severely altered in hippocampal neurons, by measuring its effect on neurite outgrowth activity. We also sequenced the coding region of the close related member IL1RAPL2 and of NCS-1/FREQ, which physically interacts with IL1RAPL1, in a cohort of subjects with autism. The screening failed to identify non-synonymous variant in IL1RAPL2, whereas a rare missense (R102Q) in NCS-1/FREQ was identified in one autistic patient. Furthermore, we identified by comparative genomic hybridization a large intragenic deletion of exons 3-7 of IL1RAPL1 in three brothers with autism and/or MR. This deletion causes a frameshift and the introduction of a premature stop codon, Ala28GlufsX15, at the very beginning of the protein. All together, our results indicate that mutations in IL1RAPL1 cause a spectrum of neurological impairments ranging from MR to high functioning autism.

  5. Deep carbon cycle recorded by calcium-silicate rocks (rodingites) in a subduction-related ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, J. G.; Wang, C. S.; Liu, S. A.; Qian, X. Y.; Zhu, D. C.; Ke, S.

    2016-11-01

    Carbon cycling in subduction zones remains poorly constrained due to the lack of relevant geological records. Here we report magnesium isotope data (δ26MgDSM3) from calcium-silicate rocks (rodingites) from the Xigaze ophiolite, southern Tibet, which is thought to represent remnants of Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. Behaviors of immobile trace elements in rodingites resemble those of their mafic dike protoliths, showing subduction-related signatures. The majority of rodingites exhibits low δ26Mg values of -0.72‰ to -0.33‰ with a weighted average of -0.47 ± 0.11‰ (2 SD), significantly lighter than that of their protoliths (-0.31 ± 0.03‰). This difference likely reflects the interaction of the protolith with isotopically light carbonate fluids. Modeling indicates that this hypothesis requires the input of 5 to 15 wt % carbonates during rodingitization. Our study suggests that rodingite may represent a previously unrecognized reservoir of dissolved Ca from subducted carbonates.

  6. Correction of the abnormal mineral ion homeostasis with a high-calcium, high-phosphorus, high-lactose diet rescues the PDDR phenotype of mice deficient for the 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1).

    PubMed

    Dardenne, O; Prud'homme, J; Hacking, S A; Glorieux, F H; St-Arnaud, R

    2003-04-01

    Mutations in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase gene (CYP27B1; 1alpha-OHase) cause pseudo vitamin D deficiency rickets (PDDR), while mutations in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) cause hereditary vitamin D resistance rickets. Animal models of both diseases have been engineered. The bone phenotype of VDR-ablated mice can be completely rescued by feeding the animals with a high-calcium, high-phosphorus, high-lactose diet. We have attempted to rescue the PDDR phenotype of mice deficient for the 1alpha-OHase gene by feeding them with the high-calcium diet. The rescue regimen consisted of feeding a diet containing 2% calcium, 1.25% phosphorus, 20% lactose (rescue diet) from 3 weeks of age until sacrifice at 8.5 weeks of age. Blood biochemistry analysis revealed that the rescue diet corrected the hypocalcemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Despite the restoration of normocalcemia, 1alpha-OHase(-/-) (and 1alpha-OHase(+/-)) animals fed the rescue diet initially gained weight less rapidly than control mice fed normal mouse chow. Although 1alpha-OHase(-/-) mice fed the rescue diet eventually reached the same weight as control animals, the treatment did not entirely correct bone growth, as femur size remained significantly smaller than that of control. Bone histology and histomorphometry confirmed that the rickets and osteomalacia were cured. The rescue diet also restored the biomechanical properties of the bone tissue within normal parameters. These results demonstrate that correction of the abnormal mineral ion homeostasis by feeding with a high-calcium rescue diet is effective to rescue the PDDR phenotype of 1alpha-OHase mutant mice. This treatment, however, does not appear as effective as 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) replacement therapy since bone growth remained impaired.

  7. [Paternity analysis in deficiency cases with related putative fathers: simulation of a deficiency analysis in 27 families].

    PubMed

    von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Mályusz, Victoria; Simeoni, Eva; Oehmichen, Manfred; Lignitz, Eberhard; Lüdcke, Christina; Repenning, Antje; Poetsch, Micaela

    2004-01-01

    During the last few years, the number of privately ordered paternity investigations has increased considerably. Probably due to financial reasons in more and more cases only the putative father and the child are investigated. Additionally, very often only one method, such as STR analysis, is employed. This raises the question whether such a reduced analysis leads to reliable and clear results when investigating cases with related putative fathers. We investigated 165 individuals from 27 families using the AmpFlSTRIdentifiler multiplex PCR and calculated the paternity probabilities of the children to their biological fathers, uncles, grand fathers and other relatives. In more than 30% less than three exclusions between child and relative were detected. In five cases no exclusions were found between child and uncle, always leading to paternity probabilities >99.9%. These results show that the calculation of high probabilities (>99.9%) does not necessarily lead to the accurate conclusion of fatherhood. In many of our cases misleadingly the brother of the real father or another close relative would have been declared to be the biological father.

  8. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  9. Relative fat-free mass deficiency and left ventricular adaptation to obesity: the Strong Heart Study.

    PubMed

    de Simone, Giovanni; Pasanisi, Fabrizio; Ferrara, Aldo L; Roman, Mary J; Lee, Elisa T; Contaldo, Franco; Howard, Barbara V; Devereux, Richard B

    2013-09-30

    Relative fat-free mass (FFM) deficiency (RFFMD) can also occur in obesity, but the impact on left ventricular (LV) mass is unknown. We assessed relations among reduced FFM, obesity and LV mass in a population with high prevalence of obesity. Echocardiograms were performed in 2625 participants (1694 women, 1199 non-obese) of the Strong Heart Study cohort, free of prevalent cardiovascular disease and kidney failure. FFM was estimated by bioelectric impedance and analyzed in the non-obese subpopulation in relation with sex, BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). RFFMD was estimated in the obese subpopulation as the percent of observed/predicted FFM<20th percentile of the non-obese distribution. RFFMD was more frequent in women than men. LV mass indices (by either height(2.7) or FFM) were greater in obese with than in those without RFFMD, even after adjusting for sex and diabetes (both p<0.0001). The greater LV mass index in obesity with RFFMD was related mostly to increased LV diastolic dimension paralleling increased stroke index and cardiac index, in the presence of normal ejection fraction. RFFMD remained associated with greater LV mass index (p<0.0001) even independently of older age, greater BMI, higher systolic and lower diastolic blood pressure (all p<0.007), with negligible effect of sex, waist/hip ratio and diabetes. In obese SHS participants, RFFMD is associated with higher levels of LV mass, an effect related to adiposity more than central fat distribution and typical of female gender. Biological mechanisms of this association have to be better explored. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Boron deficiency increases the levels of cytosolic Ca(2+) and expression of Ca(2+)-related genes in Arabidopsis thaliana roots.

    PubMed

    Quiles-Pando, Carlos; Rexach, Jesús; Navarro-Gochicoa, M Teresa; Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan J; Herrera-Rodríguez, M Begoña; González-Fontes, Agustín

    2013-04-01

    Boron (B) deficiency affects the expressions of genes involved in major physiological processes. However, signal transduction pathway through which plants are able to sense and transmit B-deprivation signal to the nucleus is unknown. The aim of this work was to research in Arabidopsis thaliana roots whether the short-term B deficiency affects cytosolic Ca(2+) levels ([Ca(2+)]cyt) as well as expression of genes involved in Ca(2+) signaling. To visualize in vivo changes in root [Ca(2+)]cyt, Arabidopsis seedlings expressing Yellow Cameleon (YC) 3.6 were grown in a nutrient solution supplemented with 2 μM B and then transferred to a B-free medium for 24 h. Root [Ca(2+)]cyt was clearly higher in B-deficient seedlings upon 6 and 24 h of B treatments when compared to controls. Transcriptome analyses showed that transcript levels of Ca(2+) signaling-related genes were affected by B deprivation. Interestingly, Ca(2+) channel (CNGC19, cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel) gene was strongly upregulated as early as 6 h after B deficiency. Expression levels of Ca(2+) transporter (ACA, autoinhibited Ca(2+)-ATPase; CAX, cation exchanger) genes increased when seedlings were subjected to B deficiency. Gene expressions of calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs) and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) were also overexpressed upon exposure to B starvation. Our results suggest that B deficiency causes early responses in the expression of CNGC19 Ca(2+)-influx channel, ACA- and CAX-efflux, and Ca(2+) sensor genes to regulate Ca(2+) homeostasis. It is the first time that changes in the levels of in vivo cytosolic Ca(2+) and expression of Ca(2+) channel/transporter genes are related with short-term B deficiency in Arabidopsis roots. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Calcium dynamics and buffering in oculomotor neurones from mouse that are particularly resistant during amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related motoneurone disease

    PubMed Central

    Vanselow, Bodo K; Keller, Bernhard U

    2000-01-01

    Motoneurones are particularly vulnerable both in human forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and corresponding animal models of the disease. While most motoneurone populations are selectively impaired, oculomotor neurones are essentially resistant to ALS-related damage. Motoneurone vulnerability has been closely linked to disruptions of calcium signalling. To investigate underlying events, we performed a quantitative analysis of calcium homeostasis in oculomotor neurones from mice by simultaneous patch-clamp recordings in sliced tissue and microfluorometric-calcium measurements. Somatic calcium dynamics were investigated by using a computer-controlled microfluorometric system. In oculomotor neurones, basal calcium concentrations were around 80 nm and depolarisation-induced calcium responses were observed for membrane voltages positive to −40 mV. Endogenous calcium homeostasis was quantified by using the ‘added buffer’ approach. The recovery phase of depolarisation-induced calcium transients was well approximated by a mono-exponential function with a decay time constant that showed a linear dependence on dye concentration. The extrapolated time constant in the absence of indicator dye was 1.7 ± 0.2 s (n = 11 cells, 21°C). Endogenous calcium binding ratios (κs) were found to be 264 ± 25 (n = 11 cells), indicating that 99.6 % of cytosolic calcium ions were taken up by endogenous buffers. Recovery of calcium transients was characterised by an ‘effective’ extrusion rate γ= 156 ± 20 s−1 (n = 11 cells, 21 °C). Endogenous calcium binding ratios in oculomotor neurones were 5- to 6-fold larger compared with those of more vulnerable motoneurones in the nucleus hypoglossus and spinal cord. In a first order approximation, they reduced the volume of local calcium elevations around open calcium channels, lowered peak amplitudes of global calcium transients for a given influx and prolonged calcium recovery times for a given set of uptake and extrusion

  12. Retinol status and expression of retinol-related proteins in methionine-choline deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Takitani, Kimitaka; Koh, Maki; Inoue, Akiko; Kishi, Kanta; Tamai, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Retinol and its derivative, retinoic acid, have pleiotropic functions including vision, immunity, hematopoiesis, reproduction, cell differentiation/growth, and development. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common diseases in developed countries and encompasses a broad spectrum of forms, ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis, which develops further to cirrhosis. Retinol status has an important role in liver homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the retinol status and expression of retinol-related proteins, including enzymes and binding proteins, in methionine-choline deficient (MCD) rats as a model of NAFLD. We examined retinol levels in the plasma and liver and gene expression for β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (BCMO), lecithIn: retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), ALDH1A2, and cellular retinol binding protein (CRBP)-I in MCD rats. The plasma retinol levels in MCD rats were lower than those in the controls, whereas hepatic retinol levels in MCD rats were higher. BCMO expression in the intestine and liver in MCD rats was lower, whereas that in the testes and the kidneys was higher than in control rats. Expression of LRAT, CRBP-I, ALDH1A1, and ALDH1A2 in the liver of MCD rats was also higher. Altered expression of retinol-related proteins may affect retinol status in NAFLD.

  13. Is immune system-related hypertension associated with ovarian hormone deficiency?

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Kathryn; Ji, Hong; Einstein, Gillian; Au, April; Hay, Meredith

    2016-03-01

    What is the topic of this review? This review summarizes recent data on the role of ovarian hormones and sex in inflammation-related hypertension. What advances does it highlight? The adaptive immune system has recently been implicated in the development of hypertension in males but not in females. The role of the immune system in the development of hypertension in women and its relationship to ovarian hormone production are highlighted. The immune system is known to contribute to the development of high blood pressure in males. However, the role of the immune system in the development of high blood pressure in females and the role of ovarian hormones has only recently begun to be studied. In animal studies, both the sex of the host and the T cell are critical biological determinants of susceptibility and resistance to hypertension induced by angiotensin II. In women, natural menopause is known to result in significant changes in the expression of genes regulating the immune system. Likewise, in animal models, ovariectomy results in hypertension and an upregulation in T-cell tumour necrosis factor-α-related genes. Oestrogen replacement results in decreases in inflammatory genes in the brain regions involved in blood pressure regulation. Together, these studies suggest that the response of the adaptive immune system to ovarian hormone deficiency is a significant contributor to hypertension in women. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  14. Lead phytotoxicity in soils and nutrient solutions is related to lead induced phosphorus deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cheyns, Karlien; Peeters, Sofie; Delcourt, Dorien; Smolders, Erik

    2012-05-01

    This study was set up to relate lead (Pb) bioavailability with its toxicity to plants in soils. Tomato and barley seedlings were grown in six different PbCl(2) spiked soils (pH: 4.7-7.4; eCEC: 4.2-41.7 cmol(c)/kg). Soils were leached and pH corrected after spiking to exclude confounding factors. Plant growth was halved at 1600-6500 mg Pb/kg soil for tomato and at 1900-8300 mg Pb/kg soil for barley. These soil Pb threshold were unrelated to soil pH, organic carbon, texture or eCEC and neither soil solution Pb nor Pb(2+) ion activity adequately explained Pb toxicity among soils. Shoot phosphorus (P) concentrations significantly decreased with increasing soil Pb concentrations. Tomato grown in hydroponics at either varying P supply or at increasing Pb (equal initial P) illustrated that shoot P explained growth response in both scenarios. The results suggest that Pb toxicity is partially related to Pb induced P deficiency, likely due to lead phosphate precipitation.

  15. Deep Carbon Cycle Recorded by Calcium-Enriched Rodingite in the Subduction-Related Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, J.; Wang, C.; Shengao, L.; Zhu, D. C.; Ke, S.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from subduction zones influences both the present and ancient Earth's atmosphere. However, carbon cycling in subduction zones remains poorly constrained because of the lacking of related geological records. Here we report magnesium isotope data (δ26MgDSM3) for calcium-enriched rodingites from the Xigaze ophiolite, southern Tibet, which was thought to represent remnants of Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere. Behaviors of immobile trace elements of rodingites resemble those of mafic dikes of their protoliths, showing subduction-related signatures. The majority of rodingites exhibits low δ26Mg values of -0.72‰ to -0.33‰ with a weight average of -0.47 ± 0.11‰ (2sd) significantly lighter than that of their protolith (-0.31± 0.01‰). This difference likely reflects the interaction of their protoliths with isotopically light carbonate fluids. Modeling indicates that this requires the input of 0.6 to 15 wt.% carbonates during the rodingitization, corresponding to total weight percent of 0.04% to 0.89% carbonates involved into the mantle wedge given 5.9% of rodingites in the mantle. The substantial involvement of marine carbonates along the Neo-Tethyan subduction zones into the mantle wedge, which were subsequently released via volcanism, might have been a critical factor that contributed to late Cretaceous global Greenhouse. Our study suggests that rodingites in ophiolites might be one of potential reservoirs for dissolved CaCO3 that has not been recognized so far.

  16. Effects of Radix Astragali and Its Split Components on Gene Expression Profiles Related to Water Metabolism in Rats with the Dampness Stagnancy due to Spleen Deficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ning; Jiang, Hai-Qiang; Han, Xiao-Chun; Han, Bing-Bing; Wang, Tong

    2017-01-01

    Radix Astragali (RA) with slight sweet and warm property is a significant “qi tonifying” herb; it is indicated for the syndrome of dampness stagnancy due to spleen deficiency (DSSD). The purpose of this research was to explore effects of RA and its split components on gene expression profiles related to water metabolism in rats with the DSSD syndrome for identifying components representing property and flavor of RA. The results indicated that RA and its split components, especially polysaccharides component, significantly increased the body weight and the urine volume and decreased the water load index of model rats. Our data also indicated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to water metabolism involved secretion, ion transport, water homeostasis, regulation of body fluid levels, and water channel activity; the expression of AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, AQP6, and AQP8 was improved; calcium, cAMP, MAPK, PPAR, AMPK, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway may be related to water metabolism. In general, results indicate that RA and its split components could promote water metabolism in rats with the DSSD syndrome via regulating the expression of AQPs, which reflected sweet-warm properties of RA. Effects of the polysaccharides component are better than others. PMID:28607573

  17. Effects of Radix Astragali and Its Split Components on Gene Expression Profiles Related to Water Metabolism in Rats with the Dampness Stagnancy due to Spleen Deficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Xiao; Cui, Ning; Jiang, Hai-Qiang; Ji, Xu-Ming; Han, Xiao-Chun; Han, Bing-Bing; Wang, Tong; Wang, Shi-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Radix Astragali (RA) with slight sweet and warm property is a significant "qi tonifying" herb; it is indicated for the syndrome of dampness stagnancy due to spleen deficiency (DSSD). The purpose of this research was to explore effects of RA and its split components on gene expression profiles related to water metabolism in rats with the DSSD syndrome for identifying components representing property and flavor of RA. The results indicated that RA and its split components, especially polysaccharides component, significantly increased the body weight and the urine volume and decreased the water load index of model rats. Our data also indicated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to water metabolism involved secretion, ion transport, water homeostasis, regulation of body fluid levels, and water channel activity; the expression of AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, AQP6, and AQP8 was improved; calcium, cAMP, MAPK, PPAR, AMPK, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway may be related to water metabolism. In general, results indicate that RA and its split components could promote water metabolism in rats with the DSSD syndrome via regulating the expression of AQPs, which reflected sweet-warm properties of RA. Effects of the polysaccharides component are better than others.

  18. B-cell memory and primary immune deficiencies: interleukin-21 related defects.

    PubMed

    Desjardins, Marylin; Mazer, Bruce D

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe recent advances in our understanding of the role of interleukin-21 (IL-21) in B-cell maturation, and how defects in IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) signalling pathways (IL-21R/γc/JAK3/STAT3) are related to primary immune deficiencies. Abnormal signalling through IL-21R/γc/JAK3/STAT3 pathway has been related to decreased specific antibody responses following vaccination, and to increased susceptibility to encapsulated bacterial infections. This is manifested in the hyper-IgE syndrome, X-linked and JAK3-related severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and loss-of-function mutations in the IL-21R gene. Common variable immunodeficiency is associated with impaired in-vitro development of peripheral blood mononuclear cells or purified B-cells into memory or CD38 B-cells following addition of IL-21. IL-21 is a key cytokine in development of B-cells into immunoglobulin-secreting cells. Abnormal signalling through the IL-21R/γc/JAK3/STAT3 pathway leads to defective humoral immune responses to both T-dependent and T-independent antigens and impairs the establishment of long-lasting B-cell memory. Studies involving patients with hyper-IgE syndrome demonstrated the nonredundant role of STAT3 in B-cell production of high-affinity specific antibodies, while total serum immunoglobulins could be maintained through STAT3-independent activation of AID (activation-induced cytidine-deaminase). IL-21 related defects may also be associated with reduced natural killer (NK)-cell cytotoxicity and TH17 cytokine production, indicating that abnormalities in the IL-21-IL-21R pathway have profound effects on crucial immune responses.

  19. Anti-epileptic drugs delay age-related loss of spiral ganglion neurons via T-type calcium channel.

    PubMed

    Lei, Debin; Gao, Xia; Perez, Philip; Ohlemiller, Kevin K; Chen, Chien-Chang; Campbell, Kevin P; Hood, Aizhen Yang; Bao, Jianxin

    2011-08-01

    Loss of spiral ganglion neurons is a major cause of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis). Despite being the third most prevalent condition afflicting elderly persons, there are no known medications to prevent presbycusis. Because calcium signaling has long been implicated in age-related neuronal death, we investigated T-type calcium channels. This family is comprised of three members (Ca(v)3.1, Ca(v)3.2, and Ca(v)3.3), based on their respective main pore-forming alpha subunits: α1G, α1H, and α1I. In the present study, we report a significant delay of age-related loss of cochlear function and preservation of spiral ganglion neurons in α1H null and heterozygous mice, clearly demonstrating an important role for Ca(v)3.2 in age-related neuronal loss. Furthermore, we show that anticonvulsant drugs from a family of T-type calcium channel blockers can significantly preserve spiral ganglion neurons during aging. To our knowledge, this is the first report of drugs capable of diminishing age-related loss of spiral ganglion neurons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Anti-Epileptic Drugs Delay Age-Related Loss of Spiral Ganglion Neurons via T-type Calcium Channel

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Debin; Gao, Xia; Perez, Philip; Ohlemiller, Kevin K; Chen, Chien-Chang; Campbell, Kevin P.; Hood, Aizhen Yang; Bao, Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Loss of spiral ganglion neurons is a major cause of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis). Despite being the third most prevalent condition afflicting elderly persons, there are no known medications to prevent presbycusis. Because calcium signaling has long been implicated in age-related neuronal death, we investigated T-type calcium channels. This family is comprised of three members (Cav3.1, Cav3.2, and Cav3.3), based on their respective main pore-forming alpha subunits: α1G, α1H, and α1I. In the present study, we report a significant delay of age-related loss of cochlear function and preservation of spiral ganglion neurons in α1H null and heterozygous mice, clearly demonstrating an important role for Cav3.2 in age-related neuronal loss. Furthermore, we show that anticonvulsant drugs from a family of T-type calcium channel blockers can significantly preserve spiral ganglion neurons during aging. To our knowledge, this is the first report of drugs capable of diminishing age-related loss of spiral ganglion neurons. PMID:21640179

  1. Mechanisms of arrhythmogenesis related to calcium-driven alternans in a model of human atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kelly C.; Trayanova, Natalia A.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with progressive changes in the calcium handling system of atrial myocytes. Calcium cycling instability has been implicated as an underlying mechanism of electrical alternans observed in patients who experience AF. However, the extent to which calcium-induced alternation of electrical activity in the atria contributes to arrhythmogenesis is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of calcium-driven alternans (CDA) on arrhythmia susceptibility in a biophysically detailed, 3D computer model of the human atria representing electrical and structural remodeling secondary to chronic AF. We found that elevated propensity to CDA rendered the atria vulnerable to ectopy-induced arrhythmia. It also increased the complexity and persistence of arrhythmias induced by fast pacing, with unstable scroll waves meandering and frequently breaking up to produce multiple wavelets. Our results suggest that calcium-induced electrical instability may increase arrhythmia vulnerability and promote increasing disorganization of arrhythmias in the chronic AF-remodeled atria, thus playing an important role in the progression of the disease. PMID:27812021

  2. Mechanisms of arrhythmogenesis related to calcium-driven alternans in a model of human atrial fibrillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kelly C.; Trayanova, Natalia A.

    2016-11-01

    The occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with progressive changes in the calcium handling system of atrial myocytes. Calcium cycling instability has been implicated as an underlying mechanism of electrical alternans observed in patients who experience AF. However, the extent to which calcium-induced alternation of electrical activity in the atria contributes to arrhythmogenesis is unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of calcium-driven alternans (CDA) on arrhythmia susceptibility in a biophysically detailed, 3D computer model of the human atria representing electrical and structural remodeling secondary to chronic AF. We found that elevated propensity to CDA rendered the atria vulnerable to ectopy-induced arrhythmia. It also increased the complexity and persistence of arrhythmias induced by fast pacing, with unstable scroll waves meandering and frequently breaking up to produce multiple wavelets. Our results suggest that calcium-induced electrical instability may increase arrhythmia vulnerability and promote increasing disorganization of arrhythmias in the chronic AF-remodeled atria, thus playing an important role in the progression of the disease.

  3. Calcium transport into the cells of the sea urchin larva in relation to spicule formation

    DOE PAGES

    Vidavsky, Netta; Addadi, Sefi; Schertel, Andreas; ...

    2016-10-24

    We investigated the manner in which the sea urchin larva takes up calcium from its body cavity into the primary mesenchymal cells (PMCs) that are responsible for spicule formation. We used the membrane-impermeable fluorescent dye calcein and alexa-dextran, with or without a calcium channel inhibitor, and imaged the larvae in vivo with selective-plane illumination microscopy. Both fluorescent molecules are taken up from the body cavity into the PMCs and ectoderm cells, where the two labels are predominantly colocalized in particles, whereas the calcium-binding calcein label is mainly excluded from the endoderm and is concentrated in the spicules. The presence ofmore » vesicles and vacuoles inside the PMCs that have openings through the plasma membrane directly to the body cavity was documented using high-resolution cryo-focused ion beam-SEM serial imaging. Some of the vesicles and vacuoles are interconnected to form large networks. We suggest that these vacuolar networks are involved in direct sea water uptake. We conclude that the calcium pathway from the body cavity into cells involves nonspecific endocytosis of sea water with its calcium.« less

  4. FGF23 Is Not Associated With Age-Related Changes in Phosphate, but Enhances Renal Calcium Reabsorption in Girls.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Deborah M; Jüppner, Harald; Burnett-Bowie, Sherri-Ann M

    2017-04-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)23 is a critical determinant of phosphate homeostasis. The role of FGF23, however, in regulating physiologic changes in serum phosphate and renal phosphate handling across childhood is not well described. In addition, animal models have suggested a role for FGF23 in regulating renal calcium excretion. To assess changes in FGF23 concentrations across childhood in relation to changes in mineral ions and hormones of mineral ion homeostasis. This was a cross-sectional study. The study was conducted at a Clinical Research Center at a tertiary care hospital. Ninety healthy girls ages 9 to 18 years were recruited from the surrounding community. The associations of intact and C-terminal FGF23 concentrations with measures of mineral ion homeostasis were determined by univariable and multivariable linear regression. Serum phosphate and renal phosphate excretion varied with age, as expected (R = -0.49, P < 0.001 and R = -0.48, P < 0.001, respectively). Neither intact nor C-terminal FGF23 varied with age, and FGF23 was not correlated with serum or urinary phosphate. Intact FGF23 was positively correlated with serum calcium (R = 0.39, P < 0.001) and negatively correlated with urinary calcium/creatinine ratio (R = -0.27, P = 0.011). The changes in serum and urinary phosphate handling across childhood do not appear to be determined by alterations in FGF23 concentrations. These data may point to a role for FGF23 in calcium regulation in human physiology.

  5. The relative contribution of calcium, zinc and oxidation-based cross-links to the stiffness of Arion subfuscus glue.

    PubMed

    Braun, M; Menges, M; Opoku, F; Smith, A M

    2013-04-15

    Metal ions are present in many different biological materials, and are capable of forming strong cross-links in aqueous environments. The relative contribution of different metal-based cross-links was measured in the defensive glue produced by the terrestrial slug Arion subfuscus. This glue contains calcium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, iron and copper. These metals are essential to the integrity of the glue and to gel stiffening. Removal of all metals caused at least a 15-fold decrease in the storage modulus of the glue. Selectively disrupting cross-links involving hard Lewis acids such as calcium reduced the stiffness of the glue, while disrupting cross-links involving borderline Lewis acids such as zinc did not. Calcium is the most common cation bound to the glue (40 mmol l(-1)), and its charge is balanced primarily by sulphate at 82-84 mmol l(-1). Thus these ions probably play a primary role in bringing polymers together directly. Imine bonds formed as a result of protein oxidation also contribute substantially to the stiffness of the glue. Disrupting these bonds with hydroxylamine caused a 33% decrease in storage modulus of the glue, while stabilizing them by reduction with sodium borohydride increased the storage modulus by 40%. Thus a combination of metal-based bonds operates in this glue. Most likely, cross-links directly involving calcium play a primary role in bringing together and stabilizing the polymer network, followed by imine bond formation and possible iron coordination.

  6. Effects of Fe deficiency on the protein profiles and lignin composition of stem tissues of Medicago truncatula in absence and presence of calcium carbonate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Iron deficiency is a yield-limiting factor with major implications for crop production, especially in soils with high CaCO3. Because stems are essential for the delivery of nutrients to the shoots, the aim of this work was to study the effects of Fe deficiency on the stem proteome of Medicago trunca...

  7. The immunophenotypic fingerprint of patients with primary antibody deficiencies is partially present in their asymptomatic first-degree relatives

    PubMed Central

    Bogaert, Delfien J.A.; De Bruyne, Marieke; Debacker, Veronique; Depuydt, Pauline; De Preter, Katleen; Bonroy, Carolien; Philippé, Jan; Bordon, Victoria; Lambrecht, Bart N.; Kerre, Tessa; Cerutti, Andrea; Vermaelen, Karim Y.; Haerynck, Filomeen; Dullaers, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    The etiology of primary antibody deficiencies is largely unknown. Beside rare monogenic forms, the majority of cases seem to have a more complex genetic basis. Whereas common variable immunodeficiency has been investigated in depth, there are only a few reports on milder primary antibody deficiencies such as idiopathic primary hypogammaglobulinemia and IgG subclass deficiency. We performed flow cytometric immunophenotyping in 33 patients with common variable immunodeficiency, 23 with idiopathic primary hypogammaglobulinemia and 21 with IgG subclass deficiency, as well as in 47 asymptomatic first-degree family members of patients and 101 unrelated healthy controls. All three groups of patients showed decreased memory B- and naïve T-cell subsets and decreased B-cell activating factor receptor expression. In contrast, circulating follicular helper T-cell frequency and expression of inducible T-cell co-stimulator and chemokine receptors were only significantly altered in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Asymptomatic first-degree family members of patients demonstrated similar, albeit intermediate, alterations in naïve and memory B- and T-cell subsets. About 13% of asymptomatic relatives had an abnormal peripheral B-cell composition. Furthermore, asymptomatic relatives showed decreased levels of CD4+ recent thymic emigrants and increased central memory T cells. Serum IgG and IgM levels were also significantly lower in asymptomatic relatives than in healthy controls. We conclude that, in our cohort, the immunophenotypic landscape of primary antibody deficiencies comprises a spectrum, in which some alterations are shared between all primary antibody deficiencies whereas others are only associated with common variable immunodeficiency. Importantly, asymptomatic first-degree family members of patients were found to have an intermediate phenotype for peripheral B- and T-cell subsets. PMID:27634199

  8. The immunophenotypic fingerprint of patients with primary antibody deficiencies is partially present in their asymptomatic first-degree relatives.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Delfien J A; De Bruyne, Marieke; Debacker, Veronique; Depuydt, Pauline; De Preter, Katleen; Bonroy, Carolien; Philippé, Jan; Bordon, Victoria; Lambrecht, Bart N; Kerre, Tessa; Cerutti, Andrea; Vermaelen, Karim Y; Haerynck, Filomeen; Dullaers, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    The etiology of primary antibody deficiencies is largely unknown. Beside rare monogenic forms, the majority of cases seem to have a more complex genetic basis. Whereas common variable immunodeficiency has been investigated in depth, there are only a few reports on milder primary antibody deficiencies such as idiopathic primary hypogammaglobulinemia and IgG subclass deficiency. We performed flow cytometric immunophenotyping in 33 patients with common variable immunodeficiency, 23 with idiopathic primary hypogammaglobulinemia and 21 with IgG subclass deficiency, as well as in 47 asymptomatic first-degree family members of patients and 101 unrelated healthy controls. All three groups of patients showed decreased memory B- and naïve T-cell subsets and decreased B-cell activating factor receptor expression. In contrast, circulating follicular helper T-cell frequency and expression of inducible T-cell co-stimulator and chemokine receptors were only significantly altered in patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Asymptomatic first-degree family members of patients demonstrated similar, albeit intermediate, alterations in naïve and memory B- and T-cell subsets. About 13% of asymptomatic relatives had an abnormal peripheral B-cell composition. Furthermore, asymptomatic relatives showed decreased levels of CD4(+) recent thymic emigrants and increased central memory T cells. Serum IgG and IgM levels were also significantly lower in asymptomatic relatives than in healthy controls. We conclude that, in our cohort, the immunophenotypic landscape of primary antibody deficiencies comprises a spectrum, in which some alterations are shared between all primary antibody deficiencies whereas others are only associated with common variable immunodeficiency. Importantly, asymptomatic first-degree family members of patients were found to have an intermediate phenotype for peripheral B- and T-cell subsets.

  9. Vitamin D, calcium homeostasis and aging

    PubMed Central

    Veldurthy, Vaishali; Wei, Ran; Oz, Leyla; Dhawan, Puneet; Jeon, Yong Heui; Christakos, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitecture deterioration of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and consequent increase in fracture risk. Evidence is accumulating for an important role of calcium deficiency as the process of aging is associated with disturbed calcium balance. Vitamin D is the principal factor that maintains calcium homeostasis. Increasing evidence indicates that the reason for disturbed calcium balance with age is inadequate vitamin D levels in the elderly. In this article, an overview of our current understanding of vitamin D, its metabolism, and mechanisms involved in vitamin D-mediated maintenance of calcium homeostasis is presented. In addition, mechanisms involved in age-related dysregulation of 1,25(OH)2D3 action, recommended daily doses of vitamin D and calcium, and the use of vitamin D analogs for the treatment of osteoporosis (which remains controversial) are reviewed. Elucidation of the molecular pathways of vitamin D action and modifications that occur with aging will be an active area of future research that has the potential to reveal new therapeutic strategies to maintain calcium balance. PMID:27790378

  10. Osteoporosis in experimental postmenopausal polyarthritis: the relative contributions of estrogen deficiency and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Jochems, Caroline; Islander, Ulrika; Erlandsson, Malin; Verdrengh, Margareta; Ohlsson, Claes; Carlsten, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Generalized osteoporosis in postmenopausal rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is caused both by estrogen deficiency and by the inflammatory disease. The relative importance of each of these factors is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish a murine model of osteoporosis in postmenopausal RA, and to evaluate the relative importance and mechanisms of menopause and arthritis-related osteoporosis. To mimic postmenopausal RA, DBA/1 mice were ovariectomized, followed by the induction of type II collagen-induced arthritis. After the mice had been killed, paws were collected for histology, one femur for bone mineral density (BMD) and sera for analyses of markers of bone resorption (RatLaps; type I collagen cross-links, bone formation (osteocalcin) and cartilage destruction (cartilage oligomeric matrix protein), and for the evaluation of antigen-specific and innate immune responsiveness. Ovariectomized mice displayed more severe arthritis than sham-operated controls. At termination of the experiment, arthritic control mice and non-arthritic ovariectomized mice displayed trabecular bone losses of 26% and 22%, respectively. Ovariectomized mice with arthritis had as much as 58% decrease in trabecular BMD. Interestingly, cortical BMD was decreased by arthritis but was not affected by hormonal status. In addition, markers of bone resorption and cartilage destruction were increased in arthritic mice, whereas markers of bone formation were increased in ovariectomized mice. This study demonstrates that the loss of endogenous estrogen and inflammation contribute additively and equally to osteoporosis in experimental postmenopausal polyarthritis. Markers of bone remodeling and bone marrow lymphocyte phenotypes indicate different mechanisms for the development of osteoporosis caused by ovariectomy and arthritis in this model. PMID:15987485

  11. Exopolysaccharide dispelled by calcium hydroxide with volatile vehicles related to bactericidal effect for root canal medication

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Lei; Shao, Meiying; Yang, Yan; Mao, Mengying; Yang, Yingming; Hu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Enterococcus faecalis is the dominant microbial species responsible for persistent apical periodontitis with ability to deeply penetrate into the dentin. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) contribute to the pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance of E. faecalis. Our aim was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide (CH), camphorated parachlorophenol (CMCP), and chlorhexidine (CHX) against E. faecalis in dentinal tubules. Material and Methods: Decoronated single-canal human teeth and semicylindrical dentin blocks were incubated with E. faecalis for 3 weeks. Samples were randomly assigned to six medication groups for 1 week (n=10 per group): CH + 40% glycerin-water solution (1:1, wt/vol); CMCP; 2% CHX; CH + CMCP (1:1, wt/vol); CH + CMCP (2:3, wt/vol); and saline. Bacterial samples were collected and assayed for colony-forming units. After dentin blocks were split longitudinally, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to assess the proportion of viable bacteria and EPS production in dentin. Results: CMCP exhibited the best antimicrobial activity, while CH was the least sensitive against E. faecalis (p<0.05). CHX showed similar antimicrobial properties to CH + CMCP (1:1, wt/vol) (p>0.05). CH combined with CMCP inhibited EPS synthesis by E. faecalis, which sensitized biofilms to antibacterial substances. Moreover, increasing concentrations of CMCP decreased EPS matrix formation, which effectively sensitized biofilms to disinfection agents. Conclusion: The EPS matrix dispelled by CH paste with CMCP may be related to its bactericidal effect; the visualization and analysis of EPS formation and microbial colonization in dentin may be a useful approach to verify medicaments for antimicrobial therapy. PMID:27812619

  12. Effect of growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GRH) on plasma GH in relation to magnitude and duration of GH deficiency in 26 children and adults with isolated GH deficiency or multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies: evidence for hypothalamic GRH deficiency.

    PubMed

    Schriock, E A; Lustig, R H; Rosenthal, S M; Kaplan, S L; Grumbach, M M

    1984-06-01

    Synthetic, amidated, 44 amino acid GH-releasing hormone ( GRH -44) was administered iv at a dose of 5 micrograms/kg to 20 patients with severe GH deficiency (GHD), 6 children and adolescents with partial GHD, and 6 non-GH deficient ( NGHD ) children and adolescents. The 17 patients with severe GHD that responded to GRH -44 had lower peak concentrations of plasma GH than the NGHD individuals (5.0 +/- 1.2 (SEM) vs. 27.2 +/- 3.5 ng/ml; P less than 0.0001). The children and adolescents with severe GHD tended to have higher peak GH responses to GRH -44 than the GHD adults (6.9 +/- 1.7 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.3 ng/ml) although the difference was not significant. The peak GH concentration was attained earlier in the GHD children and adolescents than in the GHD adults (28 +/- 4.7 vs. 69.3 +/- 13 min, P less than 0.004). There was a negative correlation between chronological age and peak plasma GH response to GRH in the children and adolescents with severe GHD (r = -0.758, P less than 0.02). Children and adolescents with partial GHD had a higher mean peak concentration of plasma GH (13. 1 +/- 1.8 ng/ml) than the children, adolescents, and adults with severe GHD (P less than 0.04), but one lower than the NGHD children and adolescents (P less than 0.05). In both severe and partial GHD the GH response to GRH was greater than that elicited by standard pharmacological tests. Serum somatomedin-C did not increase after a single pulse of GRH -44 in the 12 GHD patients studied. PRL increased minimally 30 min after 5 micrograms/kg iv GRH -44 in patients with multiple hypothalamic-pituitary hormone deficiencies but not in patients with isolated GHD or in NGHD individuals. The GH responses to GRH suggest that the majority of patients with isolated GHD as well as those with multiple hypothalamic-pituitary hormone deficiencies have deficiency of hypothalamic GRH . Lack of a GH response to a single pulse of GRH does not exclude GRH deficiency as priming of the somatotrope with multiple pulses of

  13. Costs and health-related quality of life in Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficient COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Karl, Florian M; Holle, Rolf; Bals, Robert; Greulich, Timm; Jörres, Rudolf A; Karch, Annika; Koch, Armin; Karrasch, Stefan; Leidl, Reiner; Schulz, Holger; Vogelmeier, Claus; Wacker, Margarethe E

    2017-04-17

    Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency (AATD) is an economically unexplored genetic disease. Direct and indirect costs (based on self-reported information on healthcare utilization) and health-related quality of life (HRQL, as assessed by SGRQ, CAT, and EQ-5D-3 L) were compared between 131 AATD patients (106 with, 25 without augmentation therapy (AT)) and 2,049 COPD patients without AATD participating in the COSYCONET COPD cohort. The medication costs of AT were excluded from all analyses to reveal differences associated with morbidity profiles. The association of AATD (with/without AT) with costs or HRQL was examined using generalized linear regression modelling (GLM) adjusting for age, sex, GOLD grade, BMI, smoking status, education and comorbidities. Adjusted mean direct annual costs were €6,099 in AATD patients without AT, €7,117 in AATD patients with AT (excluding costs for AT), and €7,460 in COPD patients without AATD. AATD with AT was significantly associated with higher outpatient (+273%) but lower inpatient (-35%) and medication costs (-10%, disregarding AT) compared with COPD patients without AATD. There were no significant differences between groups regarding indirect costs and HRQL. Apart from AT costs, AATD patients tended to have lower, though not significant, overall costs and similar HRQL compared to COPD patients without AATD. AT was not associated with lower costs or higher HRQL. NCT01245933.

  14. Moderate vitamin D deficiency and inflammation related markers in overweight/obese schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Andrés, Pedro; Ortega, Rosa M

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with vitamin D deficiency and increased oxidative stress, which can lead to the dysregulation of adipokines and inflammation. The aim of the present work was to examine the association of vitamin D status [25(OH)D] on inflammatory related markers in overweight/obese children. A total of 137 Spanish schoolchildren between 9 and 12 years of age (31.4% with overweight/obesity) were studied. Being overweight was defined as BMI≥85th percentile and obesity as BMI≥97th percentile using the reference tables of Hernández. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by chemiluminescent assay. Plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured by immunoenzyme assay. Serum adiponectin was determined using an ELISA kit. Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-PCR) was tested by immunonephelometry. IL-6 concentrations were higher in the overweight/obese children with deficient serum 25(OH)D (<20 ng/mL) than in those in this group but whose serum 25(OH)D concentrations were adequate (≥20 ng/mL). Serum 25(OH)D was inversely associated with IL-6 concentrations in the overweight/obese subjects taking into account different covariates; thus, for every 1 ng/mL rise in the former, the latter fell by 0.160 pg/mL (β=-0.160±0.068; R2=0.131; p=0.023). The obese subjects with concentrations of ≥25 ng/mL had lower hs-CRP values compared to those with concentrations of <25 ng/mL (0.053±0.035 vs. 0.356±0.613 mg/dL; p=0.035). Low serum 25(OH)D was significantly associated high serum IL-6 in overweight/obese children, and with increased hs-CRP in obese children.

  15. Scientific research related to calcium channel blockers poisoning: Bibliometric analysis in Scopus, 1968-2012.

    PubMed

    Zyoud, S H; Al-Jabi, S W; Sweileh, W M; Waring, W S

    2015-11-01

    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) were the most common agents associated with a significant morbidity and mortality rate. The main objective of this study was to examine the publication pattern related to CCBs poisoning at the global level using bibliometric analysis of articles published in SciVerse Scopus online database. Data were searched for documents that contained specific words regarding CCB poisoning as keywords in the title. No time period limitations were specified in the search regarding the starting year. The ending date of the search was 31 December 2012. The criteria were met by 713 publications from 53 countries. The largest number of articles associated with CCBs was from the United States (30%), followed by the United Kingdom (7.4%), Japan (6%), and Germany (5.6%). No data related to CCBs were published from 159 (75%) of 212 countries registered in World Bank online database. There was no correlation between the number of published articles in the country and its population size (r = 0.03, p > 0.926). United Kingdom and Australia were the leading countries in terms of number of CCBs publications per million inhabitants (0.83 and 0.82 articles per million inhabitants, respectively), followed by the United States (0.68). Countries with a large population, such as India, tended to rank relatively low (0.01 articles per million inhabitants). The total number of citations at the time of data analysis (23 October 2014) was 6462, with an average of 9.1 citations per document. The highest median (interquartile range) number of citations was 8 (8-18) for the United States, followed by 6 (1-21) for Australia, 5 (1-15) for the United Kingdom, and 5 (1-24) for Canada. The h-index of the retrieved documents was 37. Scientific production on CCBs poisoning is increasing; nonetheless, the international collaboration is still rare. The amount of CCBs-based research activity was low or not available in most countries. More regional epidemiological studies are

  16. Four-colour photometry of hydrogen-deficient stars and related objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, H. J.; Kilkenny, D.

    1980-01-01

    Stromgren uvby photometry of hydrogen deficient and helium-weak stars suggests that the 'extreme helium' (= 'hydrogen deficient') stars which have been well observed are all variable, probably in a complex way. Previously observed short-term variability of HD 160641 and long-term variability of HD 168476 are confirmed. There is no evidence for variability in the intermediate helium stars or the helium-weak stars.

  17. Iron deficiency enhances the levels of ascorbate, glutathione, and related enzymes in sugar beet roots.

    PubMed

    Zaharieva, Tatiana B; Abadía, Javier

    2003-06-01

    The effects of Fe deficiency stress on the levels of ascorbate and glutathione, and on the activities of the enzymes ferric chelate reductase, glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2), ascorbate free-radical reductase (EC 1.6.5.4) and ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11), have been investigated in sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.) roots. Plasma membrane vesicles and cytosolic fractions were isolated from the roots of the plants grown in nutrient solutions in the absence or presence of Fe for two weeks. Plants responded to Fe deficiency not only with a 20-fold increase in root ferric chelate reductase activity, but also with moderately increased levels of the general reductants ascorbate (2-fold) and glutathione (1.6-fold). The enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in roots were also affected by Fe deficiency. Glutathione reductase activity was enhanced 1.4-fold with Fe deficiency, associated to an increased ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione, from 3.1 to 5.2. The plasma membrane fraction from iron-deficient roots showed 1.7-fold higher ascorbate free-radical reductase activity, whereas in the cytosolic fraction the enzyme activity was not affected by Fe deficiency. The activity of the cytosolic hemoprotein ascorbate peroxidase decreased approximately by 50% with Fe deprivation. These results show that sugar beet responds to Fe deficiency with metabolic changes affecting components of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle in root cells. This suggests that the ascorbate-glutathione cycle would play certain roles in the general Fe deficiency stress responses in strategy I plants.

  18. Vitamin D Deficiency among Female Nurses of Children's Medical Center Hospital and Its Related Factors.

    PubMed

    Rajebi, Hamid; Khodadad, Ahmad; Fahimi, Golshan; Abolhassani, Hassan

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is one of the most preventable challenges worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among female nurses working at Children's Medical Center Hospital in Tehran, Iran, due to the risk factor of being a notably long period indoors and the fact that their health status may have consequences on the process of patients' treatment. A total of 114 female nurses who were at least 20 years old entered the study voluntarily, and a questionnaire was applied to collect information on lifestyle and other factors associated with vitamin D deficiency. A sample of blood was taken to measure 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and cut off value to indicate deficiency was considered below 10 ng/ml, and the amounts of 10-29 ng/ml were declared insufficient. The mean of 25-OHD was 11.7±9.3 ng/ml. A total of 79 subjects (69.3%) had a deficient level of vitamin D, 28 subjects (24.6%) had an insufficient level and only 7 subjects (6.1%) had sufficient level of vitamin D. The deficiency was more noticeable in the age group of 26-35 years old. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency had a significant correlation with younger subjects (P<0.001). There was no significant association among other factors such as body mass index (BMI), health status complications, regular exercise, and duration of sun exposure. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the study population leads to emphasise the need to screen health care workers for vitamin D levels.

  19. Iatrogenic nutritional deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Young, R C; Blass, J P

    1982-01-01

    This article catalogs the nutritional deficiencies inadvertently introduced by certain treatment regimens. Specifically, the iatrogenic effects on nutrition of surgery, hemodialysis, irradiation, and drugs are reviewed. Nutritional problems are particularly frequent consequences of surgery on the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric surgery can lead to deficiencies of vitamin B12, folate, iron, and thiamine, as well as to metabolic bone disease. The benefits of small bowel bypass are limited by the potentially severe nutritional consequences of this procedure. Following bypass surgery, patients should be monitored for signs of possible nutritional probems such as weight loss, neuropathy, cardiac arrhythmias, loss of stamina, or changes in mental status. Minimal laboratory tests should include hematologic evaluation, B12, folate, iron, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, sodium, potassium, chloride, and carbon dioxide levels. Roentgenologic examination of the bone should also be obtained. Loss of bone substance is a major consequence of many forms of treatment, and dietary supplementation with calcium is warranted. Patients undergoing hemodialysis have shown carnitine and choline deficiencies, potassium depletion, and hypovitaminosis, as well as osteomalacia. Chronic drug use may alter intake, synthesis, absorption, transport, storage, metabolism, or excretion of nutrients. Patients vary markedly in the metabolic effects of drugs, and recommendations for nutrition must be related to age, sex, reproductive status, and genetic endowment. Moreover, the illness being treated can itself alter nutritional requirements and the effect of the treatment on nutrient status. The changes in nutritional levels induced by use of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives (OCs) are obscure; however, the effects on folate matabolism appear to be of less clinical import than previously suggested. Reduction in pyridoxine and serum vitamin B12 levels has been

  20. The Unravelling of the Genetic Architecture of Plasminogen Deficiency and its Relation to Thrombotic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Fernandez, Laura; Marco, Pascual; Corrales, Irene; Pérez, Raquel; Ramírez, Lorena; López, Sonia; Vidal, Francisco; Soria, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Although plasminogen is a key protein in fibrinolysis and several mutations in the plasminogen gene (PLG) have been identified that result in plasminogen deficiency, there are conflicting reports to associate it with the risk of thrombosis. Our aim was to unravel the genetic architecture of PLG in families with plasminogen deficiency and its relationship with spontaneous thrombotic events in these families. A total of 13 individuals from 4 families were recruited. Their genetic risk profile of thromboembolism was characterized using the Thrombo inCode kit. Only one family presented genetic risk of thromboembolism (homozygous carrier of F12 rs1801020 and F13A1 rs5985). The whole PLG was tested using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and 5 putative pathogenic mutations were found (after in silico predictions) and associated with plasminogen deficiency. Although we can not find genetic risk factors of thrombosis in 3 of 4 families, even the mutations associated with plasminogen deficiency do not cosegregated with thrombosis, we can not exclude plasminogen deficiency as a susceptibility risk factor for thrombosis, since thrombosis is a multifactorial and complex disease where unknown genetic risk factors, in addition to plasminogen deficiency, within these families may explain the thrombotic tendency. PMID:27976734

  1. Dose-Dependent ATP Depletion and Cancer Cell Death following Calcium Electroporation, Relative Effect of Calcium Concentration and Electric Field Strength

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Emilie Louise; Sozer, Esin Bengisu; Romeo, Stefania; Frandsen, Stine Krog; Vernier, P. Thomas; Gehl, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Background Electroporation, a method for increasing the permeability of membranes to ions and small molecules, is used in the clinic with chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer treatment (electrochemotherapy). Electroporation with calcium causes ATP (adenosine triphosphate) depletion and cancer cell death and could be a novel cancer treatment. This study aims at understanding the relationship between applied electric field, calcium concentration, ATP depletion and efficacy. Methods In three human cell lines — H69 (small-cell lung cancer), SW780 (bladder cancer), and U937 (leukaemia), viability was determined after treatment with 1, 3, or 5 mM calcium and eight 99 μs pulses with 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4 or 1.6 kV/cm. Fitting analysis was applied to quantify the cell-killing efficacy in presence of calcium. Post-treatment intracellular ATP was measured in H69 and SW780 cells. Post-treatment intracellular ATP was observed with fluorescence confocal microscopy of quinacrine-labelled U937 cells. Results Both H69 and SW780 cells showed dose-dependent (calcium concentration and electric field) decrease in intracellular ATP (p<0.05) and reduced viability. The 50% effective cell kill was found at 3.71 kV/cm (H69) and 3.28 kV/cm (SW780), reduced to 1.40 and 1.15 kV/cm (respectively) with 1 mM calcium (lower EC50 for higher calcium concentrations). Quinacrine fluorescence intensity of calcium-electroporated U937 cells was one third lower than in controls (p<0.0001). Conclusions Calcium electroporation dose-dependently reduced cell survival and intracellular ATP. Increasing extracellular calcium allows the use of a lower electric field. General Significance This study supports the use of calcium electroporation for treatment of cancer and possibly lowering the applied electric field in future trials. PMID:25853661

  2. Boron deficiency and transcript level changes.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan J; Rexach, Jesús; Herrera-Rodríguez, M Begoña; Navarro-Gochicoa, M Teresa; González-Fontes, Agustín

    2011-08-01

    Boron (B) is an essential element for plant growth whose deficiency causes an alteration in the expression of a wide range of genes involved in several physiological processes. However, our understanding of the signal transduction pathways that trigger the B-deficiency responses in plants is still poor. The aims of this review are (i) to summarize the genes whose transcript levels are affected by B deficiency and (ii) to provide an update on recent findings that could help to understand how the signal(s) triggered by B deficiency is transferred to the nucleus to modulate gene expression. In this contribution we review the effects of B deficiency on the transcript level of genes related to B uptake and translocation, maintenance of cell wall and membrane function, nitrogen assimilation and stress response. In addition, we discuss the possible mediation of calcium, arabinogalactan-proteins and other cis-diol containing compounds in the signaling mechanisms that transfer the signal of B deficiency to nuclei. Finally, we conclude that the advance in the knowledge of the molecular basis of B deficiency response in plants will allow improving the tolerance of crops to B deficiency stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Core-Shell Collagen Peptide Chelated Calcium/Calcium Alginate Nanoparticles from Fish Scales for Calcium Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Honghui; Hong, Zhuan; Yi, Ruizao

    2015-07-01

    We report simple methods for preparing collagen peptide chelated calcium (cpcc) and a novel cpcc-loaded nanoparticle from marine fish scales for calcium supplementation. Cpcc nanoparticles have an average diameter of approximately 150 nm and a calcium content of up to 130.4 g/kg. Calcium alginate was selected to encapsulate cpcc for the preparation of core-shell cpcc/calcium alginate nanoparticles. The core-shell nanoparticles were mainly 200 to 500 nm in diameter. The ratio of calcium to sulfur was approximately 1.6:1. In vivo experiments indicated both cpcc and core-shell cpcc were able to improve calcium absorption and prevent calcium deficiency. Especially core-shell cpcc worked well to increase femur bone mineral density and femur calcium content in rats significantly. The study demonstrated that cpcc and core-shell cpcc nanoparticles were ideal for calcium supplementation. Calcium deficiency has become an increasingly relevant health concern in the food industry. There is an urgent need for new effective calcium supplements. This study consisted of preparing and characterizing alginate nanoparticles loaded with collagen peptide chelated calcium. These nanoparticles can enhance calcium absorption significantly and prevent calcium deficiency. The data presented in this study can aid the food industry in developing a new ideal calcium supplement. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Effects of leptin deficiency and replacement on cerebellar response to food-related cues.

    PubMed

    Berman, Steven M; Paz-Filho, Gilberto; Wong, Ma-Li; Kohno, Milky; Licinio, Julio; London, Edythe D

    2013-02-01

    Leptin affects eating behavior partly by altering the response of the brain to food-related stimuli. The effects of leptin on brain structure have been observed in the cerebellum, where leptin receptors are most densely expressed, but the function of leptin in the cerebellum remains unclear. We performed a nonrandomized, prospective interventional study of three adults with genetically mediated leptin deficiency. FMRI was recorded three times each year during years 5 and 6 of leptin replacement treatment. Session 1 of each year occurred after 10 months of continuous daily replacement, session 2 after 33-37 days without leptin, and session 3 at 14-23 days after daily replacement was restored. Statistical parametric mapping software (SPM5) was employed to contrast the fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent response to images of high-calorie foods versus images of brick walls. Covariate analyses quantified the effects of the duration of leptin replacement and concomitant changes in body mass on the cerebral responses. Longer duration of replacement was associated with more activation by food images in a ventral portion of the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, while simultaneous decreases in body mass were associated with decreased activation in a more dorsal portion of the same lobe. These findings indicate that leptin replacement reversibly alters neural function within the posterior cerebellum and modulates plasticity-dependent brain physiology in response to food cues. The results suggest an underexplored role for the posterior cerebellum in the regulation of leptin-mediated processes related to food intake.

  5. Endochondral bone growth, bone calcium accretion, and bone mineral density: how are they related?

    PubMed

    Wongdee, Kannikar; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2012-07-01

    Endochondral bone growth in young growing mammals or adult mammals with persistent growth plates progresses from proliferation, maturation and hypertrophy of growth plate chondrocytes to mineralization of cartilaginous matrix to form an osseous tissue. This complex process is tightly regulated by a number of factors with different impacts, such as genetics, endocrine/paracrine factors [e.g., PTHrP, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), IGF-1, FGFs, and prolactin], and nutritional status (e.g., dietary calcium and vitamin D). Despite a strong link between growth plate function and elongation of the long bone, little is known whether endochondral bone growth indeed determines bone calcium accretion, bone mineral density (BMD), and/or peak bone mass. Since the process ends with cartilaginous matrix calcification, an increase in endochondral bone growth typically leads to more calcium accretion in the primary spongiosa and thus higher BMD. However, in lactating rats with enhanced trabecular bone resorption, bone elongation is inversely correlated with BMD. Although BMD can be increased by factors that enhance endochondral bone growth, the endochondral bone growth itself is unlikely to be an important determinant of peak bone mass since it is strongly determined by genetics. Therefore, endochondral bone growth and bone elongation are associated with calcium accretion only in a particular subregion of the long bone, but do not necessarily predict BMD and peak bone mass.

  6. Rickets–vitamin D deficiency and dependency

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Manisha; Sahay, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Rickets is an important problem even in countries with adequate sun exposure. The causes of rickets/osteomalacia are varied and include nutritional deficiency, especially poor dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Non-nutritional causes include hypophosphatemic rickets primarily due to renal phosphate losses and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis. In addition, some varieties are due to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism and are called vitamin D dependent rickets. This chapter highlights rickets/osteomalacia related to vitamin D deficiency or to inherited defects in vitamin D metabolism. Hypophosphatemic rickets and rickets due to renal tubular acidosis are discussed in other sections of the journal. PMID:22470851

  7. The Effects of Annatto Tocotrienol on Bone Biomechanical Strength and Bone Calcium Content in an Animal Model of Osteoporosis Due to Testosterone Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Gengatharan, Dhivakaran; Mohd Nasru, Fadlin Sakina; Khairussam, Rehan Amalia; Ern, Sherlyn Lai Hui; Aminuddin, Siti Aina Wahidah; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis reduces the skeletal strength and increases the risk for fracture. It is an underdiagnosed disease in men. Annatto tocotrienol has been shown to improve bone structural indices and increase expression of bone formation genes in orchidectomized rats. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of annatto tocotrienol on biomechanical strength and calcium content of the bone in orchidectomized rats. Thirty three-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to five groups. The baseline control (BC) group was sacrificed at the onset of the study. The sham-operated group (SHAM) received olive oil (the vehicle of tocotrienol) orally daily and peanut oil (the vehicle of testosterone) intramuscularly weekly. The remaining rats were orchidectomized and treated with three different regimens, i.e., (1) daily oral olive oil plus weekly intramuscular peanut oil injection; (2) daily oral annatto tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg plus weekly intramuscular peanut oil injection; (3) daily oral olive oil plus weekly intramuscular testosterone enanthate injection at 7 mg/kg. Blood, femur and tibia of the rats were harvested at the end of the two-month treatment period for the evaluation of serum total calcium and inorganic phosphate levels, bone biomechanical strength test and bone calcium content. Annatto-tocotrienol treatment improved serum calcium level and tibial calcium content (p < 0.05) but it did not affect femoral biomechanical strength (p > 0.05). In conclusion, annatto-tocotrienol at 60 mg/kg augments bone calcium level by preventing calcium mobilization into the circulation. A longer treatment period is needed for annatto tocotrienol to exert its effects on bone strength. PMID:27983628

  8. [Calcium supplementation in the menopause--unnecessary, advisable, or necessary?].

    PubMed

    Burckhardt, P

    2007-05-01

    With the menopause, the multiple positive effects of estrogens on bone come to an end, which leads to an increased bone turnover an accelerated bone loss and an increased fracture risk. Although the antifracture effect of calcium alone is questionable, several observations justify the recommendation to avoid calcium deficiency in this age: Very low Calcium intake is related to low BMD and higher hip fracture incidence in several studies; regular Calcium supplementation lowers fracture incidence, when observed over years. Calcium from dairy products, mineral waters and supplements is almost equally well absorbed. But the former contain also other nutrients with positive effects on bone, such as proteins, phosphorus, bicarbonates. The choice goes for the nutrient or supplement with the best acceptance by a given individual.

  9. Chronic diabetic states worsen Alzheimer neuropathology and cognitive deficits accompanying disruption of calcium signaling in leptin-deficient APP/PS1 mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuai; Chai, Rui; Yang, Ying-Ying; Guo, Shi-Qi; Wang, Shan; Guo, Tian; Xu, Shuang-Feng; Zhang, Yan-Hui; Wang, Zhan-You; Guo, Chuang

    2017-01-01

    The coincidences between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are so compelling that it is attractive to speculate that diabetic conditions might aggravate AD pathologies by calcium dysfunction, although the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved remains elusive. The present work was undertaken to investigate whether calcium dyshomeostasis is associated with the exacerbated Alzheimer-like cognitive dysfunction observed in diabetic conditions in APP/PS1-ob/ob mice, which were generated by crossing ob/ob mice with APP/PS1 mice. We confirmed that the diabetic condition can aggravate not only Aβ deposition but also tau phosphorylation, synaptic loss, neuronal death, and inflammation, exacerbating cognitive impairment in AD mice. More importantly, we found that the diabetic condition dramatically elevated calcium levels in APP/PS1 mice, thereby stimulating the phosphorylation of the calcium-dependent kinases. Our findings suggest that controlling over-elevation of intracellular calcium may provide novel insights for approaching AD in diabetic patients and delaying AD progression. PMID:28467789

  10. Age-Related Decline in Rod Phototransduction Sensitivity in Rhesus Monkeys Fed an n-3 Fatty Acid Deficient Diet

    PubMed Central

    Jeffrey, Brett G; Neuringer, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an n-3 fatty acid is the major polyunsaturate in rod outer segments. The effect of long term n-3 fatty acid deficiency on rod and cone phototransduction was investigated in the rhesus monkey. Methods From birth to ≅ 9 years rhesus monkeys were fed an n-3 deficient diet (n=9) known to reduce retinal DHA by 80%. Monkeys in the control group (n=12) received either 8% α-linolenic acid (ALA) or 0.6% DHA both of which support normal retinal DHA levels. None of the diets contained carotenoids. Photoactivation kinetics were assessed from the rate of increase, and a P3 model fit of the ERG a-wave. Maximal cone amplitude and sensitivity were measured from the cone a-wave at 4 ms. The rod photoresponse and rod recovery were derived using a paired flash method. Results Rod sensitivity was reduced by 40% in the n-3 deficient monkeys at 9 but not 4.5 years. The onset of the rising phase of the photoresponse was significantly delayed (p<0.004) at 9 years. Rod recovery was delayed by 20% in n-3 deficient monkeys at both ages, but only for bright saturating flashes. Cone phototransduction was not altered by n-3 deficiency Conclusions Long-term dietary n-3 deficiency in the rhesus monkey was associated with two changes in retinal function. First, there was a delay in rod recovery that has remained relatively constant throughout life. Second, there was an age dependent loss in rod phototransduction sensitivity; the lack of dietary carotenoids may have contributed to this decline. PMID:19369246

  11. The Role of Calcium in Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaney, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Osteoporosis results from several factors. Calcium deficiency is only one, and high calcium intake will prevent only those cases in which calcium is the limiting factor. Calcium cannot reverse, but only arrest, bone loss. A high calcium intake for every member of the population is advocated. (Author/MT)

  12. The Role of Calcium in Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaney, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Osteoporosis results from several factors. Calcium deficiency is only one, and high calcium intake will prevent only those cases in which calcium is the limiting factor. Calcium cannot reverse, but only arrest, bone loss. A high calcium intake for every member of the population is advocated. (Author/MT)

  13. Relation of serum fetuin-A levels to coronary artery calcium in African-American patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Sijie; de Las Fuentes, Lisa; Bierhals, Andrew; Ash-Bernal, Rachel; Spence, Karen; Slatopolsky, Eduardo; Davila-Roman, Victor G; Delmez, James

    2009-01-01

    Vascular calcium deposition in end-stage renal disease occurs commonly, but its relation to cardiovascular risk factors and fetuin-A levels in African Americans is not known. Compliant African American patients who were undergoing hemodialysis (HD; n = 17) agreed to undergo 64-slice multidetector computed tomography for the assessment of coronary artery calcium score (CACS). The relation between traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age; gender; dialysis vintage; history of diabetes; means of the previous 3 years of weekly predialysis blood pressure values and hemoglobin levels; means of monthly values of calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid; and albumin; and means of quarterly measurements of parathyroid hormone and lipids) and fetuin-A levels and CACS was explored using univariate analyses. Serum phosphorus levels over the previous 3 years were well controlled. The CACS range was 0 to 3,877 Agatston units (mean 996, median 196). Among the tested variables, only fetuin-A was significantly and inversely associated with CACS (standardized beta = -0.64, 95% confidence interval -18.09 to -3.62, p = 0.006). There was no association between age and fetuin-A level (standardized beta = -0.02, 95% confidence interval -0.10 to 0.23). In conclusion, African-American patients who were undergoing long-term hemodialysis and with good phosphorus control exhibited a strong inverse correlation between fetuin-A level and CACS that was independent of age.

  14. Trauma exposure relates to heightened stress, altered amygdala morphology and deficient extinction learning: Implications for psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Cacciaglia, Raffaele; Nees, Frauke; Grimm, Oliver; Ridder, Stephanie; Pohlack, Sebastian T; Diener, Slawomira J; Liebscher, Claudia; Flor, Herta

    2017-02-01

    Stress exposure causes a structural reorganization in neurons of the amygdala. In particular, animal models have repeatedly shown that both acute and chronic stress induce neuronal hypertrophy and volumetric increase in the lateral and basolateral nuclei of amygdala. These effects are visible on the behavioral level, where stress enhances anxiety behaviors and provokes greater fear learning. We assessed stress and anxiety levels in a group of 18 healthy human trauma-exposed individuals (TR group) compared to 18 non-exposed matched controls (HC group), and related these measurements to amygdala volume. Traumas included unexpected adverse experiences such as vehicle accidents or sudden loss of a loved one. As a measure of aversive learning, we implemented a cued fear conditioning paradigm. Additionally, to provide a biological marker of chronic stress, we measured the sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis using a dexamethasone suppression test. Compared to the HC, the TR group showed significantly higher levels of chronic stress, current stress and trait anxiety, as well as increased volume of the left amygdala. Specifically, we observed a focal enlargement in its lateral portion, in line with previous animal data. Compared to HC, the TR group also showed enhanced late acquisition of conditioned fear and deficient extinction learning, as well as salivary cortisol hypo-suppression to dexamethasone. Left amygdala volumes positively correlated with suppressed morning salivary cortisol. Our results indicate differences in trauma-exposed individuals which resemble those previously reported in animals exposed to stress and in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. These data provide new insights into the mechanisms through which traumatic stress might prompt vulnerability for psychopathology.

  15. Age-related dystrophic changes in corneal endothelium from DNA repair–deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Danny S.; Du, Yiqin; Gabriele, Michelle L.; Robinson, Andria R.; Niedernhofer, Laura J.; Funderburgh, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The corneal endothelium (CE) is a single layer of cells lining the posterior face of the cornea providing metabolic functions essential for maintenance of corneal transparency. Adult CE cells lack regenerative potential, and the number of CE cells decreases throughout life. To determine whether endogenous DNA damage contributes to the age-related spontaneous loss of CE, we characterized CE in Ercc1−/Δ mice, which have impaired capacity to repair DNA damage and age prematurely. Eyes from 4.5- to 6-month-old Ercc1−/Δ mice, age-matched wild-type (WT) litter-mates, and old WT mice (24- to 34-month-old) were compared by spectral domain optical coherence tomography and corneal confocal microscopy. Histopathological changes in CE were further identified in paraffin tissue sections, whole-mount immunostaining, and scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The CE of old WT mice displayed polymorphism and polymegathism, polyploidy, decreased cell density, increased cell size, increases in Descemet’s thickness, and the presence of posterior projections originating from the CE toward the anterior chamber, similar to changes documented for aging human corneas. Similar changes were observed in young adult Ercc1−/Δ mice CE, demonstrating spontaneous premature aging of the CE of these DNA repair–deficient mice. CD45+ immune cells were associated with the posterior surface of CE from Ercc1−/Δ mice and the tissue expressed increased IL-1α, Cxcl2, and TNFα, proinflammatory proteins associated with senescence-associated secretory phenotype. These data provide strong experimental evidence that DNA damage can promote aging of the CE and that Ercc1−/Δ mice offer a rapid and accurate model to study CE pathogenesis and therapy. PMID:23927039

  16. Increased Prevalence of Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw with Vitamin D Deficiency in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hokugo, Akishige; Christensen, Russell; Chung, Evelyn M; Sung, Eric C; Felsenfeld, Alan L; Sayre, James W; Garrett, Neal; Adams, John S; Nishimura, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Necrotic bone exposure in the oral cavity has recently been reported in patients treated with nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates as part of their therapeutic regimen for multiple myeloma or metastatic cancers to bone. It has been postulated that systemic conditions associated with cancer patients combined with tooth extraction may increase the risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). The objective of this study was to establish an animal model of bisphosphonate-related ONJ by testing the combination of these risk factors. The generation of ONJ lesions in rats resembling human disease was achieved under the confluence of intravenous injection of zoledronate (ZOL; 35 µg/kg every 2 weeks), maxillary molar extraction, and vitamin D deficiency [VitD(−)]. The prevalence of ONJ in the VitD(−)/ZOL group was 66.7%, which was significantly higher (p < .05, Fisher exact test) than the control (0%), VitD(−) (0%), and ZOL alone (14.3%) groups. Similar to human patients, rat ONJ lesions prolonged the oral exposure of necrotic bone sequestra and were uniquely associated with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. The number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate–biotin nick-end label–positive (TUNEL+) osteoclasts significantly increased on the surface of post–tooth extraction alveolar bone of the VitD(−)/ZOL group, where sustained inflammation was depicted by [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose micro-positron emission tomography (µPET). ONJ lesions were found to be associated with dense accumulation of mixed inflammatory/immune cells. These cells, composed of neutrophils and lymphocytes, appeared to juxtapose apoptotic osteoclasts. It is suggested that the pathophysiologic mechanism(s) underpinning ONJ may involve the interaction between bisphosphonates and compromised vitamin D functions in the realm of skeletal homeostasis and innate immunity. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:20200938

  17. Age-related dystrophic changes in corneal endothelium from DNA repair-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Roh, Danny S; Du, Yiqin; Gabriele, Michelle L; Robinson, Andria R; Niedernhofer, Laura J; Funderburgh, James L

    2013-12-01

    The corneal endothelium (CE) is a single layer of cells lining the posterior face of the cornea providing metabolic functions essential for maintenance of corneal transparency. Adult CE cells lack regenerative potential, and the number of CE cells decreases throughout life. To determine whether endogenous DNA damage contributes to the age-related spontaneous loss of CE, we characterized CE in Ercc1(-/Δ) mice, which have impaired capacity to repair DNA damage and age prematurely. Eyes from 4.5- to 6-month-old Ercc1(-/Δ) mice, age-matched wild-type (WT) littermates, and old WT mice (24- to 34-month-old) were compared by spectral domain optical coherence tomography and corneal confocal microscopy. Histopathological changes in CE were further identified in paraffin tissue sections, whole-mount immunostaining, and scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. The CE of old WT mice displayed polymorphism and polymegathism, polyploidy, decreased cell density, increased cell size, increases in Descemet's thickness, and the presence of posterior projections originating from the CE toward the anterior chamber, similar to changes documented for aging human corneas. Similar changes were observed in young adult Ercc1(-/Δ) mice CE, demonstrating spontaneous premature aging of the CE of these DNA repair-deficient mice. CD45(+) immune cells were associated with the posterior surface of CE from Ercc1(-/Δ) mice and the tissue expressed increased IL-1α, Cxcl2, and TNFα, pro-inflammatory proteins associated with senescence-associated secretory phenotype. These data provide strong experimental evidence that DNA damage can promote aging of the CE and that Ercc1(-/Δ) mice offer a rapid and accurate model to study CE pathogenesis and therapy.

  18. Regulation of anaphase chromosome motion in Tradescantia stamen hair cells by calcium and related signaling agents

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Several lines of evidence support the idea that increases in the intracellular free calcium concentration [( Ca2+]i) regulate chromosome motion. To directly test this we have iontophoretically injected Ca2+ or related signaling agents into Tradescantia stamen hair cells during anaphase and measured their effect on chromosome motion and on the Ca2+ levels. Ca2+ at (+)1 nA for 10 s (approximately 1 microM) causes a transient (20 s) twofold increase in the rate of chromosome motion, while at higher levels it slows or completely stops motion. Ca2+ buffers, EGTA, and 5,5'-dibromo-1,2- bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane- N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, which transiently suppress the ion level, also momentarily stop motion. Injection of K+, Cl-, or Mg2+, as controls, have no effect on motion. The injection of GTP gamma S, and to a lesser extent GTP, enhances motion similarly to a low level of Ca2+. However, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, ATP gamma S, ATP, and GDP beta S have no effect. Measurement of the [Ca2+]i with indo-1 reveals that the direct injections of Ca2+ produce the expected increases. GTP gamma S, on the other hand, causes only a small [Ca2+]i rise, which by itself is insufficient to increase the rate of chromosome motion. Further studies reveal that any negative ion injection, presumably through hyperpolarization of the membrane potential, generates a similar small pulse of Ca2+, yet these agents have no effect on motion. Two major conclusions from these studies are as follows. (a) Increased [Ca2+]i can enhance the rate of motion, if administered in a narrow physiological window around 1 microM; concentrations above 1 microM or below the physiological resting level will slow or stop chromosomes. (b) GTP gamma S enhances motion by a mechanism that does not cause a sustained uniform rise of [Ca2+]i in the spindle; this effect may be mediated through very localized [Ca2+]i changes or Ca2(+)-independent effectors. PMID:2114409

  19. Transaldolase deficiency in two new patients with a relative mild phenotype.

    PubMed

    Tylki-Szymańska, Anna; Stradomska, Teresa J; Wamelink, Mirjam M C; Salomons, Gajja S; Taybert, Joanna; Pawłowska, Joanna; Jakobs, Cornelis

    2009-05-01

    Transaldolase (TALDO) deficiency is a recently described inborn error of metabolism of the pentose phosphate pathway that so far has been diagnosed in only eight patients. In this article, we report the clinical course and biochemical findings of two newly identified patients with TALDO deficiency-two sons of consanguineous parents from Polish origin, presenting with neonatal onset of bleeding diathesis, haemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and hepatosplenomegaly. Subsequently the patients had persistent thrombocytopenia, a bleeding tendency, impaired liver function and fibrosis. Their physical and psychomotor development progressed normally.

  20. Macrophage Paraoxonase 2 regulates calcium homeostasis and cell survival under Endoplasmic Reticulum stress conditions and is sufficient to prevent the development of aggravated atherosclerosis in Paraoxonase 2 deficiency/apoE−/− mice on a Western diet

    PubMed Central

    Devarajan, Asokan; Grijalva, Victor R; Bourquard, Noam; Meriwether, David; Imaizumi, Satoshi; Shin, Bo-Chul; Devaskar, Sherin U.; Reddy, Srinivasa T.

    2012-01-01

    Paraoxonase 2 deficiency (PON2-def) alters mitochondrial function and exacerbates the development of atherosclerosis in mice. PON2 overexpression protects against ER stress in cell culture. In this paper, we examined the role of PON2 in the unexplored link between ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction and tested whether restoration of PON2 in macrophages is sufficient to reduce aggravated atherosclerosis in PON2-def/apoE−/− mice on a Western diet. ER stress response genes, intracellular calcium levels, and apoptotic nuclei were significantly elevated in PON2-def/apoE−/− macrophages compared to apoE−/− macrophages in response to ER stressors, but not at the basal level. In contrast, PON2-def/apoE−/− macrophages exhibited greater mitochondrial stress at the basal level, which was further worsened in response to ER stressors. There was no difference in ER stress response genes and apoptotic nuclei between apoE−/− and PON2-def/apoE−/− macrophages when pretreated with xestospongin (which blocks the release of calcium from ER) suggesting that PON2 modulates cell survival and ER stress by maintaining calcium homeostasis. Treatment with a mitochondrial calcium uptake inhibitor, RU360, attenuated ER stressor mediated mitochondrial dysfunction in PON2-def/apoE−/− macrophages. CHOP expression (ER stress marker) and apoptotic nuclei were significantly higher in aortic lesions of PON2-def/apoE−/− mice compared to apoE−/− mice fed a Western diet. Restoration of PON2 in macrophage reduced ER stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in response to ER stressors. Furthermore, restoration of PON2 in macrophages reduced lesional apoptosis and atherosclerosis in PON2-def/apoE−/− mice on a Western diet. Our data suggest that macrophage PON2 modulates mechanisms that link ER stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:22864055

  1. The Effects of Hydrazines and Related Compounds on Calcium Calmodulin Regulated Synaptic Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    1REPORT NUMBER 2.GOVT ACCESSION NO. S. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUM0ER 4.TTE(and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED The Effects of Hydrazines and...4F -631 0 1984 E IS. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side if necessary and identify by block nunmber) Calmodulin, protein kinase, adenylate cyclase...hydrazines, organophosphates, C) calcium, synaptic processes, protein phosphorylation. 20. BSTRACT (Continue an reverse side it necessary mid Identify

  2. How abnormal calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone relate to cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bro, Susanne

    2003-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease tends to develop prematurely in patients who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). The physiological changes that specifically arise from this disease likely account for the resulting high incidence of cardiovascular mortality. Recent studies indicate that abnormal calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are associated with cardiovascular disease in CKD. This new evidence suggests that an intensive approach to the prevention and treatment of these imbalances may contribute to improved survival of patients with CKD.

  3. Age-Related Loss of Calcium Buffering and Selective Neuronal Vulnerability in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Riascos, David; de Leon, Dianne; Baker-Nigh, Alaina; Nicholas, Alexander; Yukhananov, Rustam; Bu, Jing; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Geula, Changiz

    2011-01-01

    The reasons for the selective vulnerability of distinct neuronal populations in neurodegenerative disorders are unknown. The cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain are vulnerable to pathology and loss early in Alzheimer’s disease and in a number of other neurodegenerative disorders of the elderly. In the primate, including man, these neurons are rich in the calcium buffer calbindin-D28K. Here we confirm that these neurons undergo a substantial loss of calbindin in the course of normal aging and report a further loss of calbindin in Alzheimer’s disease both at the level of RNA and protein. Significantly, cholinergic neurons that had lost their calbindin in the course of normal aging were those that selectively degenerated in Alzheimer’s disease. Furthermore, calbindin containing neurons were virtually resistant to the process of tangle formation, a hallmark of the disease. We conclude that the loss of calcium buffering capacity in these neurons and the resultant pathological increase in intracellular calcium are permissive to tangle formation and degeneration. PMID:21874328

  4. Integumentary loss of calcium.

    PubMed

    Chu, J Y; Margen, S; Calloway, D H; Costa, F M

    1979-08-01

    Integumentary calcium loss was studied in 16 healthy young men. The daily loss by the 16 ambulatory but relatively sedentary young men in 52 determinations of 6-day periods each was 8.7 +/- 1.9 mg/m2 per day (average 15.8 mg/man per day). The amount lost was not influenced by calcium intake (0.1 to 2.3 g/day). In contrast to urinary calcium excretion, which is directly related to protein intake, there was no significant change in integumentary calcium loss with varying protein intakes (1 to 96 g nitrogen per day). No compensatory relationship between urinary and integumentary calcium excretion was noted. During strenuous exercise calcium loss increased to an average of 25 mg in 40 min. There was no compensatory decrease in urinary excretion on the day of strenuous exercise. It was also noted that integumentary calcium loss was not affected by general calcium balance.

  5. Osteopenic disease in growing pigs: diagnostic methods using serum and urine calcium and phosphorus values, parathoromone assay, and bone analysis.

    PubMed

    Hagemoser, W A; Goff, J P; Sanderson, T P; Haynes, J S

    2000-11-01

    This research was performed to evaluate the utility of several serum and urine parameters as well as bone ash and plasma parathormone assay to diagnose and monitor diet-related osteopenia in growing pigs. Five diets were tested as follows: calcium-deficient, phosphorus-replete; moderate-deficiency of calcium and phosphorus; marked deficiency of calcium and phosphorus; calcium replete, phosphorus deficient; and vitamin D deficient. Parameters monitored included serum calcium and phosphorus as well as ratios of urine calcium to creatinine, phosphorus to creatinine, calcium to phosphorus, and percent fractional excretions of calcium and phosphorus. Plasma parathormone (PTH) levels were monitored in 2 of 3 experiments. Osteopenic bone differences at necropsy were evaluated by bone density, percent ash, ash per milliliter bone, calcium per milliliter bone, and phosphorus per milliliter bone. Marked change in urine mineral parameters, especially the calcium-to-phosphorus ratio, typically occurred within 1 to 2 days of treatment and preceded significant change in serum mineral or plasma PTH by 2 to 3 weeks. When monitored, plasma PTH levels were elevated following treatment, which confirms the hyperparathyroid state induced by the test diets. Significant differences in bone mineralization between control and treatment diets at necropsy were generally observed. The results of this study indicate that the analysis of urine minerals offers an early, noninvasive technique to investigate diet-associated osteopenic disease in growing pigs, which can be supported further by bone mineral analysis at postmortem using techniques herein described. Several urine mineral reference intervals for application to field investigations are included. Research into application of similar techniques to evaluate calcium and phosphorus homeostasis in pigs of all ages, including gestating and lactating gilts and sows, appears warranted.

  6. Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Dijcker, J C; Hagen-Plantinga, E A; Everts, H; Bosch, G; Kema, I P; Hendriks, W H

    2012-07-14

    This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in cross-over design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related factors associated with these urine parameters were identified. Spot urine samples were collected from privately owned dogs (n=141) and cats (n=50). The RCT determined the effect of a commercial raw meat diet versus a dry diet on Uox and Uca excretion rate in 23 dogs. In the cohort study, Uox excretion ranged from 21.1 to 170.6 mmol oxalate/mol creatinine in dogs and 27.5 to 161.6 in cats. Urinary calcium excretion ranged from 3.4 to 462.8 mmol calcium/mol creatinine in dogs and 10.1 to 128.0 in cats. In dogs, increased Uox and Uca excretion was associated with (1) the intake of a dry diet as the primary source of energy, (2) receiving no snacks and (3) breed. Increased Uox excretion was associated with males as well. In cats, urine collection in anaesthetised subjects was identified as a confounder. In the RCT, feeding the dry diet resulted in higher Uox (P<0.001) and Uca (P=0.021) excretion rates in dogs.

  7. Maternal hypothyroxinaemia during the first half of gestation in an iodine deficient area with endemic cretinism and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Vermiglio, F; Lo Presti, V P; Scaffidi Argentina, G; Finocchiaro, M D; Gullo, D; Squatrito, S; Trimarchi, F

    1995-04-01

    % in area B, F = 20.7, P < 0.0005) in both areas. At 20 weeks, average FT4 levels were lower in area A than in area B (11.5 +/- 2.5 vs 14.3 +/- 2.4 pmol/l, t = 2.7 P < 0.01) and were below the normal range in 2/16 and borderline-low in 6/16 pregnant women. FT4 serum levels were inversely related to TSH concentrations (r = -0.54, P < 0.0001) which progressively increased, in area A, during the whole study period (F = 6.0, P < 0.01) and were abnormally high in the two women with low FT4, but not in area B. Also in area A (F = 3.4, P < 0.05) a significant T3/T4 molar ratio increase was observed. Iodine deficiency induces in early pregnancy a series of events (reduced synthesis of maternal T4, TBG desaturation by T4, critical decrease of FT4 levels with consequent TSH increase) responsible for overt or marginal biochemical hypothyroidism in about 50% of pregnant women. It is hypothesized that the imbalance of maternal thyroid hormone homeostasis during pregnancy as a consequence of endemic iodine deficiency may be responsible for the impaired psychoneurological development observed in children from that area so appropriate iodine and/or thyroxine prophylaxis to women in that region may prevent the neurobehavioural, cognitive and motor compromise of the population.

  8. Interaction between cytotoxic effects of gamma-radiation and folate deficiency in relation to choline reserves.

    PubMed

    Batra, Vipen; Devasagayam, Thomas Paul Asir

    2009-01-08

    The search for non-toxic radio-protective drugs has yielded many potential agents but most of these compounds have certain amount of toxicity. Recent studies have indicated that bio-molecules such as folate and choline might be of radio-protective value as they are, within broad dose ranges, non-toxic to humans and experimental animals. The objective of the present study was to investigate choline dependent adaptive response to potential synergistic cytotoxic effect of folate deficiency and gamma-radiation. Male Swiss mice maintained on folate sufficient diet (FSD) and folate free diet (FFD) based on AIN-93M formula, were subjected to 1-4Gy total body gamma-irradiation. To investigate liver DNA damage, apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites) were quantified. A significant increase in liver DNA AP sites with concomitant depletion of liver choline reserves was observed when gamma-radiation was combined with folate deficiency. Further work in this direction suggested that cytotoxic interaction between folate deficiency and gamma radiation might induce utilization of choline and choline containing moieties by modifying levels of key regulatory enzymes dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and choline oxidase (ChoOx). Another major finding of these studies is that significant liver damage at higher doses of radiation (3-4Gy), might release considerable amounts of choline reserves to serum. In conclusion, a plausible interpretation of the present studies is that folate deprivation and gamma-radiation interact to mobilize additional choline reserves of hepatic tissue, for redistribution to other organs, which could not be utilized by folate deficiency alone. Present results clearly indicated a distinct choline pool in liver and kidney tissues that could be utilized by folate deficient animals only under radiation stress conditions.

  9. Relative atrial natriuretic peptide deficiency and inadequate renin and angiotensin II suppression in obese hypertensive men.

    PubMed

    Asferg, Camilla L; Nielsen, Søren J; Andersen, Ulrik B; Linneberg, Allan; Møller, Daniel V; Hedley, Paula L; Christiansen, Michael; Goetze, Jens P; Esler, Murray; Jeppesen, Jørgen L

    2013-07-01

    Obesity is a strong risk factor for hypertension, but the mechanisms by which obesity leads to hypertension are incompletely understood. On this background, we assessed dietary sodium intake, serum levels of natriuretic peptides (NPs), and the activity of the renin-angiotensin system in 63 obese hypertensive men (obeseHT: body mass index, ≥30.0 kg/m(2); 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, ≥130/80 mm Hg), in 40 obese normotensive men (obeseNT: body mass index, ≥30.0 kg/m(2); 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, <130/80 mm Hg), and in 27 lean normotensive men (leanNT: body mass index, 20.0-24.9 kg/m(2); 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, <130/80 mm Hg). All study subjects were medication free. As a surrogate estimate for dietary sodium intake, we measured sodium excretion in a 24-hour urine collection and we measured serum levels of midregional proatrial NP and plasma levels of renin and angiotensin II. The obese men had higher mean (±SD) urinary sodium excretion (obeseHT, 213.6±85.2 mmol; obeseNT, 233.0±70.0 mmol) than the lean normotensive men (leanNT, 155.5±51.7 mmol; P=0.003). ObeseHT had lower (median [interquartile range]) serum midregional proatrial NP levels (49.2 [37.3-64.7] pmol/L) than leanNT (69.3 [54.3-82.9] pmol/L; P=0.003), whereas obeseNT had midregional proatrial NP levels in between (54.1 [43.2-64.7] pmol/L); obeseNT had lower (median [interquartile range]) plasma levels of renin (5.0 [3.0-8.0] mIU/L versus 9.0 [4.0-18.0]) and angiotensin II (2.4 [1.5-3.5] pmol/L versus 4.2 [2.2-7.9]) than obeseHT (P≤0.049), whereas obeseHT had similar plasma levels of renin and angiotensin II as leanNT (P≥0.19). Thus, despite a high sodium intake and a high blood pressure, obese hypertensive men have a relative NP deficiency and an inadequate renin-angiotensin system suppression.

  10. Anaemia and related nutrient deficiencies after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Ting-Chia; Chang, Chia-Hsuin; Dong, Yaa-Hui; Chang, Yi-Cheng; Chuang, Lee-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To obtain a pooled risk estimate on the long-term impact of anaemia and related nutritional deficiencies in patients receiving Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched to identify English reports published before 16 May 2014. Eligibility criteria Articles with case numbers >100, follow-up period >12 months, and complete data from both before and after surgery were selected. Outcomes of interest were changes in baseline measurements of proportion of patients with anaemia, by haemoglobin, haematocrit, ferritin, iron, vitamin B12 and folate levels. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently reviewed data and selected six prospective and nine retrospective studies with a total of 5909 patients. A random effect model with inverse variance weighting was used to calculate summary estimates of outcomes at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months postoperatively. Results Proportion of patients with anaemia was 12.2% at baseline, which, respectively, increased to 20.9% and 25.9% at 12 and 24 months follow-up, consistent with decreases in haemoglobin and haematocrit levels. Although the serum iron level did not change substantially after surgery, the frequency of patients with ferritin deficiency increased from 7.9% at baseline to 13.4% and 23.0% at 12 and 24 months, respectively, postoperation. Vitamin B12 deficiency increased from 2.3% at baseline to 6.5% at 12 months after surgery in those subjects receiving RYGB. There was no obvious increase in folate deficiency. Conclusions RYGB surgery is associated with an increased risk of anaemia and deficiencies of iron and vitamin B12, but not folate. Ferritin is more sensitive when serum iron level is within normal range. PMID:26185175

  11. The IOC consensus statement: beyond the Female Athlete Triad--Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S).

    PubMed

    Mountjoy, Margo; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Burke, Louise; Carter, Susan; Constantini, Naama; Lebrun, Constance; Meyer, Nanna; Sherman, Roberta; Steffen, Kathrin; Budgett, Richard; Ljungqvist, Arne

    2014-04-01

    Protecting the health of the athlete is a goal of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). The IOC convened an expert panel to update the 2005 IOC Consensus Statement on the Female Athlete Triad. This Consensus Statement replaces the previous and provides guidelines to guide risk assessment, treatment and return-to-play decisions. The IOC expert working group introduces a broader, more comprehensive term for the condition previously known as 'Female Athlete Triad'. The term 'Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport' (RED-S), points to the complexity involved and the fact that male athletes are also affected. The syndrome of RED-S refers to impaired physiological function including, but not limited to, metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis, cardiovascular health caused by relative energy deficiency. The cause of this syndrome is energy deficiency relative to the balance between dietary energy intake and energy expenditure required for health and activities of daily living, growth and sporting activities. Psychological consequences can either precede RED-S or be the result of RED-S. The clinical phenomenon is not a 'triad' of the three entities of energy availability, menstrual function and bone health, but rather a syndrome that affects many aspects of physiological function, health and athletic performance. This Consensus Statement also recommends practical clinical models for the management of affected athletes. The 'Sport Risk Assessment and Return to Play Model' categorises the syndrome into three groups and translates these classifications into clinical recommendations.

  12. Extraintestinal calcium uptake in the killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer-Gostan, N.; Bornancin, M.; DeRenzis, G.; Naon, R.; Yee, J.A.; Shew, R.L.; Pang, P.K.

    1983-09-01

    Extraintestinal calcium influxes were measured in the killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, in solutions with different calcium concentrations, from distilled water level (near 0) to seawater level (approximately 12 mM). The extraintestinal influx is modified by the concentration of calcium in the medium during the adaptive period. In freshwater-adapted fish, calcium depletion resulted in an increase in calcium uptake. Such an adaptation was not observed in calcium-depleted fish in artificial calcium-deficient seawater. Calcium depletion in either medium seems to increase the calcium permeability. No correlation was found between Ca-ATPase activity in the gill tissue and calcium uptake.

  13. Fluctuating asymmetry in great tit nestlings in relation to diet quality, calcium availability and pollution exposure.

    PubMed

    Sillanpää, Saila; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Eeva, Tapio

    2010-07-15

    Stress during development may cause fluctuating asymmetry (FA), i.e. non-directional and random deviations from perfect symmetry in otherwise symmetrical morphological traits. These deviations affect the phenotypic quality of an individual. We manipulated the diet of nestling great tits, Parus major, to investigate how food quality and quantity affect FA in the length and mass of the outermost tail feathers of great tit nestlings in a polluted and an unpolluted area. High carotenoid diet groups and the control group had higher FA in tail feather length compared to a mealworm-supplemented (low carotenoid) group. This suggests that high carotenoid content in the diet may either directly or indirectly induce higher FA in tail feather length. Calcium is an essential element for birds and important component of feathers. The less calcium there was in the diet, the higher was the FA in tail feather length, which suggests that calcium availability may be an important determinant of the developmental stability of tail feather length. In the control group, in which nestlings were fully dependent upon natural food resources provided by their parents, FA in feather mass was higher in polluted than in unpolluted sites. Diet quality and quantity seemed to differentially affect FA in tail feather length and mass between the polluted and the unpolluted areas. FA in tail feather length in the control group was unaltered by pollution, while FA in tail feather mass was lower in the control group in the unpolluted than in the polluted area. Our study also demonstrates for the first time that the developmental stability of tail feather length and mass are affected by different factors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dangerous nutrition? Calcium, vitamin D, and shark cartilage nutritional supplements and cancer-related hypercalcemia.

    PubMed

    Lagman, Ruth; Walsh, Declan

    2003-04-01

    The use of nutritional supplements in the general population and in cancer patients has become very popular. These supplements are not perceived as medications and are presumed to be safe by cancer patients, who may however be at risk for hypercalcemia. We note that many of our patients who have developed symptomatic hypercalcemia were taking vitamin D, calcium, or shark cartilage supplements. We report eight cases of hypercalcemia in cancer patients seen at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation in whom these nutritional supplements may have contributed to the prevalence or severity of hypercalcemia.

  15. Calcium bodies of Titanethes albus (Crustacea: Isopoda): molt-related structural dynamics and calcified matrix-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Vittori, Miloš; Kostanjšek, Rok; Znidaršič, Nada; Zagar, Kristina; Ceh, Miran; Strus, Jasna

    2012-10-01

    Crustaceans form a variety of calcium deposits in which they store calcium necessary for the mineralization of their exoskeletons. Calcium bodies, organs containing large amounts of calcium, have been reported in some terrestrial isopod crustaceans, but have not yet been extensively studied. We analyzed the architecture of these organs during the molt cycle in the isopod Titanethes albus. Two pairs of calcium bodies are positioned ventrolaterally in posterior pereonites of T. albus. Individual organs are epithelial sacs that contain material arranged in concentric layers delimited by thin laminae. As demonstrated by electron microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization, abundant bacteria are present within the calcium bodies. Regardless of the molt cycle stage, crystalline concretions are present in the central areas of the calcium bodies. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry of the concretions demonstrated that they are composed predominantly of calcium and phosphorus and selected area electron diffraction indicated the presence of hydroxyapatite. In molting animals, a glassy layer of mineralized matrix is formed between the envelope and the outermost lamina of the calcium body. This layer consists of an amorphous calcium mineral which contains less phosphorus than the central concretions and is resorbed after molt. Since changes in the mineralized matrix are synchronized with the molt cycle, the calcium bodies likely function as a storage compartment that complements sternal deposits as a source of calcium for the mineralization of the exoskeleton. Bacteria associated with the mineralized matrix of calcium bodies are evidently involved in calcium dynamics.

  16. Unilateral vestibular deafferentation-induced changes in calcium signaling-related molecules in the rat vestibular nuclear complex.

    PubMed

    Masumura, Chisako; Horii, Arata; Mitani, Kenji; Kitahara, Tadashi; Uno, Atsuhiko; Kubo, Takeshi

    2007-03-23

    Inquiries into the neurochemical mechanisms of vestibular compensation, a model of lesion-induced neuronal plasticity, reveal the involvement of both voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCC) and intracellular Ca(2+) signaling. Indeed, our previous microarray analysis showed an up-regulation of some calcium signaling-related genes such as the alpha2 subunit of L-type calcium channels, calcineurin, and plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase 1 (PMCA1) in the ipsilateral vestibular nuclear complex (VNC) following unilateral vestibular deafferentation (UVD). To further elucidate the role of calcium signaling-related molecules in vestibular compensation, we used a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to confirm the microarray results and investigated changes in expression of these molecules at various stages of compensation (6 h to 2 weeks after UVD). We also investigated the changes in gene expression during Bechterew's phenomenon and the effects of a calcineurin inhibitor on vestibular compensation. Real-time PCR showed that genes for the alpha2 subunit of VGCC, PMCA2, and calcineurin were transiently up-regulated 6 h after UVD in ipsilateral VNC. A subsequent UVD, which induced Bechterew's phenomenon, reproduced a complete mirror image of the changes in gene expressions of PMCA2 and calcineurin seen in the initial UVD, while the alpha2 subunit of VGCC gene had a trend to increase in VNC ipsilateral to the second lesion. Pre-treatment by FK506, a calcineurin inhibitor, decelerated the vestibular compensation in a dose-dependent manner. Although it is still uncertain whether these changes in gene expression are causally related to the molecular mechanisms of vestibular compensation, this observation suggests that after increasing the Ca(2+) influx into the ipsilateral VNC neurons via up-regulated VGCC, calcineurin may be involved in their synaptic plasticity. Conversely, an up-regulation of PMCA2, a brain-specific Ca(2+) pump, would increase an efflux of Ca

  17. Current status of iodine deficiency-related disorders prophylaxis in Slovakia - the life's work of Julian Podoba remained unfinished.

    PubMed

    Podoba, J; Racova, K; Urbankova, H; Srbecky, M

    2016-01-01

    Prophylaxis of iodine deficiency-related disorders with iodized salt in Slovakia was introduced in 1951. This prophylactic measure yielded remarkably good results. Endemic goiter and endemic cretinism disappeared. Sufficient iodine intake, mainly in children and adolescents, was confirmed in several local and international studies carried out in the period 1991-95. Unfortunately, since seventies, there has been no institution which would have dealt with iodine prophylaxis in such an extent as this important measure of Slovak preventive medicine would require. Neither systematic monitoring of iodine intake nor systematic population epidemiological studies have been carried out. We do not have any data on the iodine intake in pregnant women, the most vulnerable population group in relation to the iodine deficiency. During the period June 2014 - October 2015, we examined iodine excretion in 426 probands from three regions of Slovakia with an emphasis on the pregnant women. Iodine intake was found to be sufficient, even more than adequate, in all age groups of Slovak population. The only population group with iodine intake borderline or very mild iodine deficiency are pregnant women. 1/ Iodine nutrition in Slovakia is generally sufficient, even oversteps the requirement, with the exception of pregnant women. Iodine intake in pregnant women should be fortified by iodine containing multivitamin preparations. 2/ We recommend to include the examination of urinary iodine into the screening of thyropathies in early pregnancy. 3/ It is not enough to implement the iodine deficiency-related disorders prevention programs, it is also necessary to stabilize such programs over time and balance the benefits with possible side effects of this program.

  18. Zinc-deficient sprouting blight potatoes and their possible relation with neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Ulman, Cevval; Taneli, Fatma; Oksel, Figen; Hakerlerler, Huseyin

    2005-01-01

    Maternal nutritional zinc deficiency is blamed in the pathogenesis of neural tube defects. In animal and plant domains zinc is required for growth and development. The objective of the present study was to show that sprouting blighted potato tuber is zinc deficient. In five potato varieties, zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in wet-ashed paired slices of edible potato tuber and in its peel, in blighted potato tuber and in its sprout. Zinc contents were measured as the mean (+/- SEM) and the following values were found, 0.388 +/- 0.036, 0.623 +/- 0.059, 0.550 +/- 0.030 and 1.089 +/- 0.181 mg per 100 g wet weight, respectively. In conclusion, we believe that long-term consumption of zinc-depleted, blight potato tuber by pregnant woman could be potentially teratogenic with the consequent birth of a baby with neural tube defects.

  19. Age-Related Differences in Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: Effects of Estrogen Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Korzick, D.H.; Lancaster, T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite conflicting evidence for the efficacy of hormone replacement therapy in cardioprotection of postmenopausal women, numerous studies have demonstrated reductions in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury following chronic or acute exogenous estradiol (E2) administration in adult male and female, gonad-intact and gonadectomized animals. It has become clear that ovariectomized adult animals may not accurately represent the combined effects of age and E2 deficiency on reductions in ischemic tolerance seen in the postmenopausal females. E2 is known to regulate the transcription of several cardioprotective genes. Acute, non-genomic E2 signaling can also activate many of the same signaling pathways recruited in cardioprotection. Alterations in cardioprotective gene expression or cardioprotective signal transduction are therefore likely to result within the context of aging and E2 deficiency, and may help explain the reduced ischemic tolerance and loss of cardioprotection in the senescent female heart. Quantification of the mitochondrial proteome as it adapts to advancing age and E2 deficiency may also represent a key experimental approach to uncover proteins associated with disruptions in cardiac signaling contributing to age-associated declines in ischemic tolerance. These alterations have important ramifications for understanding the increased morbidity and mortality due to ischemic cardiovascular disease seen in postmenopausal females. Functional perturbations that occur in mitochondrial respiration and Ca2+ sensitivity with age-associated E2 deficiency may also allow for the identification of alternative therapeutic targets for reducing I/R injury and treatment of the leading cause of death in postmenopausal women. PMID:23525672

  20. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide-Induced Calcium Alginate Gel Combined with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Differentiating to Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chang-Zhi; Yang, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Da-Cheng; Sun, Yi-Gong; Dai, Xing-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has been confirmed with induction osteoblastic differentiation, but if it can make the three-dimensional culture of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) to the osteoblastic differentiation, thus constructing tissue-engineered bone rare reports. To investigate the feasibility of exogenous CGRP-induced calcium alginate gel combined with ADSCs from rabbits in three-dimensional condition to construct tissue-engineered bone. ADSCs were obtained by collagenase I digestion of the subcutaneous adipose tissue of inguinal region of New Zealand rabbits. At the third passage, cells were mixed with sodium alginate to prepare calcium alginate gel, and the cells were assigned into two-group cultivates in 24 orifice plates. ADSCs in the control group were treated with DMEM/F-12 medium supplemented with 10(-2) mol/L β-glycerophosphate sodium, 10(-7)mol/L dexamethasone, 50 mg/L ascorbic acid, 0.1 % volume fraction of fetal bovine serum. ADSCs in the experimental group were incubated with the same medium as above, and in addition 1.5 µg/L CGRP was added. The cells proliferation and the mRNA expressions of collagen I and osteocalcin were detected by MTT and RT-PCR assays, respectively and alkaline phosphatase(ALP)and calcium concentration at different induction time were detected. The cell proliferation curves were S shaped. The OD values of experimental group were higher than those of control group at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 days after osteogenic induction (P < 0.05). ALP and alizarin red stains of ADSCs were all positive, but golden round nodes became bigger and more in the experimental group compared with the control group after 2 weeks. At 7 and 14 days, collagen I and osteocalcin mRNA expression were greater in the experimental group than the control group. ALP and calcium concentration of experimental group were higher than that of control group at 1, 2, 3, 4 weeks after osteogenic induction (P < 0.05). Thus, these results show

  1. Superoxide production is inversely related to complex I activity in inherited complex I deficiency.

    PubMed

    Verkaart, Sjoerd; Koopman, Werner J H; van Emst-de Vries, Sjenet E; Nijtmans, Leo G J; van den Heuvel, Lambertus W P J; Smeitink, Jan A M; Willems, Peter H G M

    2007-03-01

    Deficiency of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase or complex I (CI) is the most common cause of disorders of the oxidative phosphorylation system in humans. Using life cell imaging and blue-native electrophoresis we quantitatively compared superoxide production and CI amount and activity in cultured skin fibroblasts of 7 healthy control subjects and 21 children with inherited isolated CI deficiency. Thirteen children had a disease causing mutation in one of the nuclear-encoded CI subunits, whereas in the remainder the genetic cause of the disease is not yet established. Superoxide production was significantly increased in all but two of the patient cell lines. An inverse relationship with the amount and residual activity of CI was observed. In agreement with this finding, rotenone, a potent inhibitor of CI activity, dose-dependently increased superoxide production in healthy control cells. Also in this case an inverse relationship with the residual activity of CI was observed. In sharp contrast, however, rotenone did not decrease the amount of CI. The data presented show that superoxide production is increased in inherited CI deficiency and that this increase is primarily a consequence of the reduction in cellular CI activity and not of a further leakage of electrons from mutationally malformed complexes.

  2. Biotin deficiency and liver metabolism in relation to fatty liver and kidney syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J; Balnave, D

    1978-07-01

    Varying degrees of biotin deficiency were induced by adding freeze-dried, raw egg white to the diet of broiler chicks. Aspects of liver metabolism were studied with reference to fatty liver and kidney syndrome. Mortality was low with 11.8 g egg white/kg diet, or less, but with 17.7 g/kg or more, mortality was very high. High mortality was observed with less than 0.33 microgram biotin/g liver. Associated with low concentrations of liver biotin were substantial increases in liver weight and lipid content in starved birds. The increased liver lipid content was not observed in birds fed ad libitum. The increased liver lipid content in biotin-deficient, starved birds was not reflected in the specific activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes or hepatic lipogenesis in vivo measured by the incorporation of tritium from 3H-labelled water into liver lipid. Biotin deficiency affected the specific activities of the biotin-requiring enzymes, pyruvate carboxylase and acetyl CoA carboxylase, differently; the latter was unaffected whereas the former decreased concomitantly with liver biotin concentration.

  3. Furazolidone-induced cardiomyopathy in turkeys. Association with a relative alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Staley, N A; Noren, G R; Bandt, C M; Sharp, H L

    1978-06-01

    A naturally occurring cardiomyopathy (round heart disease) which is potentiated by inbreeding and a cardiomyopathy produced by furazolidone, a nitrofuran derivative, were studied for an associated alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency in two flocks of turkeys (one inbred for round heart disease and a commercial flock). At 4 weeks of age, the furazolidone-fed birds of both flocks demonstrated a marked increase in mortality and cardiac dilatation associated with disordered hepatic metabolism when compared with controls. Although PAS-positive, diastase-resistant globules were observed in the livers of both strains of turkeys fed furazolidone, these globules were present in lysosomes and not in the rough endoplasmic reticulum as in alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. The control inbred birds with round heart disease did not demonstrate histologic or biochemical evidence of an alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. It is proposed that furazolidone in the turkey produces primary hepatic damage that is reflected in lowered total serum proteins, including trypsin inhibitory capacity, and that the alterations produced by furazolidone are superimposed on round heart disease in the inbred flock.

  4. Furazolidone-induced cardiomyopathy in turkeys. Association with a relative alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Staley, N. A.; Noren, G. R.; Bandt, C. M.; Sharp, H. L.

    1978-01-01

    A naturally occurring cardiomyopathy (round heart disease) which is potentiated by inbreeding and a cardiomyopathy produced by furazolidone, a nitrofuran derivative, were studied for an associated alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency in two flocks of turkeys (one inbred for round heart disease and a commercial flock). At 4 weeks of age, the furazolidone-fed birds of both flocks demonstrated a marked increase in mortality and cardiac dilatation associated with disordered hepatic metabolism when compared with controls. Although PAS-positive, diastase-resistant globules were observed in the livers of both strains of turkeys fed furazolidone, these globules were present in lysosomes and not in the rough endoplasmic reticulum as in alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. The control inbred birds with round heart disease did not demonstrate histologic or biochemical evidence of an alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. It is proposed that furazolidone in the turkey produces primary hepatic damage that is reflected in lowered total serum proteins, including trypsin inhibitory capacity, and that the alterations produced by furazolidone are superimposed on round heart disease in the inbred flock. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:148846

  5. Genetic ablation of calcium-independent phospholipase A2gamma leads to alterations in mitochondrial lipid metabolism and function resulting in a deficient mitochondrial bioenergetic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, David J; Sims, Harold F; Han, Xianlin; Jenkins, Christopher M; Guan, Shao Ping; Yang, Kui; Moon, Sung Ho; Pietka, Terri; Abumrad, Nada A; Schlesinger, Paul H; Gross, Richard W

    2007-11-30

    Previously, we identified a novel calcium-independent phospholipase, designated calcium-independent phospholipase A(2) gamma (iPLA(2)gamma), which possesses dual mitochondrial and peroxisomal subcellular localization signals. To identify the roles of iPLA(2)gamma in cellular bioenergetics, we generated mice null for the iPLA(2)gamma gene by eliminating the active site of the enzyme through homologous recombination. Mice null for iPLA(2)gamma display multiple bioenergetic dysfunctional phenotypes, including 1) growth retardation, 2) cold intolerance, 3) reduced exercise endurance, 4) greatly increased mortality from cardiac stress after transverse aortic constriction, 5) abnormal mitochondrial function with a 65% decrease in ascorbate-induced Complex IV-mediated oxygen consumption, and 6) a reduction in myocardial cardiolipin content accompanied by an altered cardiolipin molecular species composition. We conclude that iPLA(2)gamma is essential for maintaining efficient bioenergetic mitochondrial function through tailoring mitochondrial membrane lipid metabolism and composition.

  6. Phase transformation of calcium oxalate dihydrate-monohydrate: Effects of relative humidity and new spectroscopic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Claudia; Casati, Marco; Colombo, Chiara; Realini, Marco; Brambilla, Luigi; Zerbi, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    New data on vibrational properties of calcium oxalates and their controversial transformation mechanism are presented. We have focused on whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O) and weddellite [CaC2O4·(2 + x) H2O], the most common phases of calcium oxalate; these compounds occur in many organisms, in kidney stones and in particular kinds of films found on the surface of many works of art. Low temperature experiments carried out by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy have highlighted both the high structural order in the crystalline state of whewellite and the disordered distribution of the zeolitic water molecules in weddellite. The synthesised nanocrystals of weddellite have been kept under different hygrometric conditions in order to study, by X-ray powder diffraction, the role of “external” water molecules on their stability. Moreover, in order to identify the different kinds of water molecules, a re-investigation, supported by quantum chemical calculations, of the observed vibrational spectra (IR and Raman) of whewellite has been conducted.

  7. Age-related changes in cellular electrophysiology and calcium handling for atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guo-Jun; Gan, Tian-Yi; Tang, Bao-Peng; Chen, Zu-Heng; Jiang, Tao; Song, Jian-Guo; Guo, Xia; Li, Jin-xin

    2013-01-01

    This study was to investigate whether or not the dysfunction of atrial repolarization and abnormality of the intracellular Ca2+ handling protein was augmented with ageing. Four groups of dogs were studied, adult and aged dogs in sinus rhythm (SR) and atrial fibrillation (AF) induced by rapid atrial pacing. We used whole cell patch clamp recording techniques to measure L-type Ca2+ current in cardiomyocytes dispersed from the left atria. Expressions of the Ca2+ handling protein were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot methods. Cardiomyocytes from old atria showed longer action potential (AP) duration to 90% repolarization, lower AP plateau potential and peak L-type Ca2+ current densities at both age groups in SR. AF led to a higher maximum diastolic potential, an increase of amplitude of phase 0, decreases of AP duration to 90% repolarization, plateau potential and peak L-type Ca2+ current densities. Compared to the adult group, mRNA and protein expressions of the L-type calcium channel a1c were decreased, whereas expressions of calcium adenosine triphosphatase were increased in the aged group. Compared to SR group, expressions of Ca2+ handling protein except for phospholamban were significantly decreased in both age groups with AF. We conclude that these ageing-induced electrophysiological and molecular changes showed that general pathophysiological adaptations might provide a substrate conducive to AF. PMID:23837844

  8. Changes in bone mass, biomechanical properties, and microarchitecture of calcium- and iron-deficient rats fed diets supplemented with inulin-type fructans.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Alexandre R; Cocato, Maria Lucia; Jorgetti, Vanda; de Sá, Lílian R M; Nakano, Eduardo Y; Colli, Célia

    2009-12-01

    Feeding mineral-deficient diets enhances absorptive efficiency as an attempt of the body to compensate for the lack of an essential nutrient. Under certain circumstances, it does not succeed; and nutritional deficiency is produced. Our hypothesis was that inulin-type fructans (ITF), which are known to affect mineral absorption, could increase Ca and Fe bioavailability in Ca- and Fe-deficient rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 48, 4 weeks old) were assigned to 1 of 8 groups derived from 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design with 2 levels of added Fe (0 and 35 mg/kg), Ca (0 and 5 g/kg), and ITF (0 and 100 g/kg) for 33 days. The Fe status (hemoglobin, serum Fe, total Fe-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, liver minerals) was evaluated. Tibia minerals (Ca, Mg, and Zn), bone strength, and histomorphometry were determined. In nondeficient rats, ITF supplementation did not affect Fe status or organ minerals, with the exception of tibia Mg. Moreover, ITF improved bone resilience and led to a reduction in eroded surface per body surface and number of osteoclasts per area. In Ca-deficient rats, ITF increased liver (Fe and Zn) and tibia (Zn) mineral levels but impaired tibia Mg, yield load, and resilience. In conclusion, ITF worsened the tibia Mg levels and elastic properties when supplemented in Ca-deficient diets. In contrast, although bone Ca was not affected in nondeficient rats under the present experimental conditions, bone quality improved, as demonstrated by a moderate reduction in femur osteoclast resorption and significant increases in tibia Mg content and elasticity.

  9. Iron uptake and homeostasis related genes in potato cultivated in vitro under iron deficiency and overload.

    PubMed

    Legay, Sylvain; Guignard, Cédric; Ziebel, Johanna; Evers, Danièle

    2012-11-01

    Potato is one of the most important staple food in the world because it is a good source of vitamin C, vitamin B6 but also an interesting source of minerals including mainly potassium, but also magnesium, phosphorus, manganese, zinc and iron to a lesser extent. The lack of iron constitutes the main form of micronutrient deficiency in the world, namely iron deficiency anemia, which strongly affects pregnant women and children from developing countries. Iron biofortification of major staple food such as potato is thus a crucial issue for populations from these countries. To better understand mechanisms leading to iron accumulation in potato, we followed in an in vitro culture experiment, by qPCR, in the cultivar Désirée, the influence of media iron content on the expression of genes related to iron uptake, transport and homeostasis. As expected, plantlets grown in a low iron medium (1 mg L(-1) FeNaEDTA) displayed a decreased iron content, a strong induction of iron deficiency-related genes and a decreased expression of ferritins. Inversely, plantlets grown in a high iron medium (120 mg L(-1) FeNaEDTA) strongly accumulated iron in roots; however, no significant change in the expression of our set of genes was observed compared to control (40 mg L(-1) FeNaEDTA).

  10. The Deterioration Seen in Myelin Related Morphophysiology in Vanadium Exposed Rats is Partially Protected by Concurrent Iron Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Usende, Ifukibot Levi; Leitner, Dominque F; Neely, Elizabeth; Connor, James R; Olopade, James O

    2016-08-30

    Oligodendrocyte development and myelination occurs vigorously during the early post natal period which coincides with the period of peak mobilization of iron. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are easily disturbed by any agent that affects iron homeostasis and its assimilation into these cells. Environmental exposure to vanadium, a transition metal can disrupt this iron homeostasis. We investigated the interaction of iron deficiency and vanadium exposure on the myelination infrastructure and its related neurobehavioural phenotypes, and neurocellular profiles in developing rat brains. Control group (C) dams were fed normal diet while Group 2 (V) dams were fed normal diet and pups were injected with 3mg/kg body weight of sodium metavanadate daily from postnatal day (PND) 1-21. Group 3 (I+V) dams were fed iron deficient diet after delivery and pups injected with 3mg/kg body weight sodium metavanadate from PND1-21. Body and brain weights deteriorated in I+V relative to C and V while neurobehavioral deficit occurred more in V. Whereas immunohistochemical staining shows more astrogliosis and microgliosis indicative of neuroinflammation in I+V, more intense OPCs depletion and hypomyelination were seen in the V, and this was partially protected in I+V. In in vitro studies, vanadium induced glial cells toxicity was partially protected only at the LD 50 dose with the iron chelator, desferroxamine. The data indicate that vanadium promotes myelin damage and iron deficiency in combination with vanadium partially protects this neurotoxicological effects of vanadium.

  11. Imbalanced Diet Deficient in Calcium and Vitamin D- Induced Juvenile Osteopenia in Rats; the Potential Therapeutic Effect of Egyptian Moghat Roots Water Extract (Glossostemon bruguieri).

    PubMed

    Ghareeb, Doaa A; El-Rashidy, Fatma H; El-Mallawany, Sherif

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore and validate a new juvenile osteopenic (JO) rat model then examine the efficacy of moghat (Glossostemon bruguieri) as an alternative reversal therapy for JO. Phytochemical screening analysis showed that moghat contains 5.8% alkaloids, 1.5% flavonoids and 13.2% total phenols. Juvenile osteopenia was induced in 15 days old Sprague- Dawley female rats by feeding them free Ca and vitamin D synthetic diet for 21 days. Osteopenic rats were either treated with moghat (0.8 g dried plant tissue/Kg body weight, orally), or with a reference nutritional supplements of calcium chloride (14 mg Ca/Kg) and vitamin D3 (7 IU/Kg), for extra 21 days. Both untreated and treated groups were compared to a control group that fed a regular pelleted food. Our results showed that osteopenic rats lost normal bone tissue architecture, 30 % of body mass, 54 % of bone mass and finally 93% of bone calcium mass. Furthermore, these rats showed a markedly increase in serum phosphate, PTH, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase activities and creatinine level as compared to the control group. Moghat administration was successfully reversed osteopenia by normalizing body and bone masses to the reference ranges, increased the bone calcium mass by 17 fold without any detectable side effects on liver and kidney physiological performance. Therefore, moghat could be considered as potent safe -JO- reversal extract.

  12. In vivo evaluation of teicoplanin- and calcium sulfate-loaded PMMA bone cement in preventing implant-related osteomyelitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Tuzuner, T; Sencan, I; Ozdemir, D; Alper, M; Duman, S; Yavuz, T; Yildirim, M

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of teicoplanin- and calcium sulphate-loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cements in preventing experimental implant-related osteomyelitis in rats. Four groups of antibiotic-loaded rods were prepared and were implanted into the lateral condylus of the rat femur after inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus. The effectiveness of these were assessed microbiologically, radiographically, and histopathologically. Radiographic evaluation revealed a significant reduction of periostal reaction and osteolysis in rats that received calcium sulphate- and teicoplanin-loaded rods. Histopathological evaluation confirmed these results. Acute infection and bone necrosis were found to be significantly lower in rats that had received calcium sulphate- and teicoplanin-loaded rods. The addition of calcium sulfate to teicoplanin-loaded PMMA bone cement appeared satisfactory as an antibiotic-carrying system for prophylaxis of experimental implant-related osteomyelitis, but further investigations are needed to reach definitive statements for clinical applications.

  13. Effects of zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation on homocysteine levels and related enzyme expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Jing, Mingyan; Rech, Leslie; Wu, Yinghong; Goltz, Douglas; Taylor, Carla G; House, James D

    2015-04-01

    Methionine synthase (MS) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) are both zinc (Zn)-dependent methyltransferases and involved in the methylation of homocysteine. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary Zn supply on homocysteine levels and expression of the two enzymes in growing rats. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned randomly to four dietary groups (n=8/group) for 3 weeks: Zn deficient (ZD; <1mg Zn/kg); Zn control (ZC; 30mg Zn/kg); Zn supplemented (ZS; 300mg Zn/kg); pair fed (PF; 30mg Zn/kg) to the ZD group. Serum and femur Zn concentrations were 83% and 58% lower in ZD, and 49% and 62% higher in ZS compared to ZC (P<0.001), respectively. The ZD rats had lower feed intake (37%), body weight gains (45%), liver (43%) and kidney (31%) weights than those of ZC (P<0.001), but these parameters in ZD were not significantly different from the PF controls. Serum homocysteine concentrations were 65% higher in ZD compared to PF (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference in serum folate levels between ZD and PF groups. The mRNA expression of liver and kidney MS was 57% and 38% lower in ZD than PF (P<0.001), respectively. Hepatic and renal BHMT mRNA levels were not altered in ZD compared to controls. The aforementioned measurements were not significantly different between ZS and ZC groups, except Zn levels. These results demonstrated that homocysteine homeostasis appeared to be disturbed by Zn deficiency but not Zn supplementation, and elevated serum homocysteine might be due to reduced expression of MS during Zn deficiency.

  14. Identification of gene fragments related to nitrogen deficiency in Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae).

    PubMed

    Fu, Minghui; Jiang, Lihua; Li, Yuanmei; Yan, Guohua; Zheng, Lijun; Jinping, Peng

    2014-12-01

    Eichhornia crassipes is an aquatic plant native to the Amazon River Basin. It has become a serious weed in freshwater habitats in rivers, lakes and reservoirs both in tropical and warm temperate areas worldwide. Some research has stated that it can be used for water phytoremediation, due to its strong assimilation of nitrogen and phosphorus, and the accumulation of heavy metals, and its growth and spread may play an important role in environmental ecology. In order to explore the molecular mechanism of E. crassipes to responses to nitrogen deficiency, we constructed forward and reversed subtracted cDNA libraries for E. crassipes roots under nitrogen deficient condition using a suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. The forward subtraction included 2,100 clones, and the reversed included 2,650 clones. One thousand clones were randomly selected from each library for sequencing. About 737 (527 unigenes) clones from the forward library and 757 (483 unigenes) clones from the reversed library were informative. Sequence BlastX analysis showed that there were more transporters and adenosylhomocysteinase-like proteins in E. crassipes cultured in nitrogen deficient medium; while, those cultured in nitrogen replete medium had more proteins such as UBR4-like e3 ubiquitin-protein ligase and fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein 8-like, as well as more cytoskeletal proteins, including actin and tubulin. Cluster of Orthologous Group (COG) analysis also demonstrated that in the forward library, the most ESTs were involved in coenzyme transportation and metabolism. In the reversed library, cytoskeletal ESTs were the most abundant. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis categories demonstrated that unigenes involved in binding, cellular process and electron carrier were the most differentially expressed unigenes between the forward and reversed libraries. All these results suggest that E. crassipes can respond to different nitrogen status by efficiently regulating and controlling

  15. Relation of aortic valve calcium detected by cardiac computed tomography to all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Blaha, Michael J; Budoff, Matthew J; Rivera, Juan J; Khan, Atif N; Santos, Raul D; Shaw, Leslee J; Raggi, Paolo; Berman, Daniel; Rumberger, John A; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram

    2010-12-15

    Aortic valve calcium (AVC) can be quantified on the same computed tomographic scan as coronary artery calcium (CAC). Although CAC is an established predictor of cardiovascular events, limited evidence is available for an independent predictive value for AVC. We studied a cohort of 8,401 asymptomatic subjects (mean age 53 ± 10 years, 69% men), who were free of known coronary heart disease and were undergoing electron beam computed tomography for assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis. The patients were followed for a median of 5 years (range 1 to 7) for the occurrence of mortality from any cause. Multivariate Cox regression models were developed to predict all-cause mortality according to the presence of AVC. A total of 517 patients (6%) had AVC on electron beam computed tomography. During follow-up, 124 patients died (1.5%), for an overall survival rate of 96.1% and 98.7% for those with and without AVC, respectively (hazard ratio 3.39, 95% confidence interval 2.09 to 5.49). After adjustment for age, gender, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and a family history of premature coronary heart disease, AVC remained a significant predictor of mortality (hazard ratio 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 2.98). Likelihood ratio chi-square statistics demonstrated that the addition of AVC contributed significantly to the prediction of mortality in a model adjusted for traditional risk factors (chi-square = 5.03, p = 0.03) as well as traditional risk factors plus the presence of CAC (chi-square = 3.58, p = 0.05). In conclusion, AVC was associated with increased all-cause mortality, independent of the traditional risk factors and the presence of CAC. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Relation of Iliac Artery Calcium With Adiposity Measures and Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jane J; Pedley, Alison; Weinberg, Ido; Britton, Kathryn A; Massaro, Joseph M; Hoffmann, Udo; Manders, Emily; Fox, Caroline S; Murabito, Joanne M

    2017-04-15

    Arterial calcification is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To improve the understanding of the pathogenesis involved with iliac artery calcium (IAC), we sought to examine the associations between the burden of IAC with adiposity measures and peripheral artery disease (PAD). Participants (n = 1,236, 52% women, mean age 60 years) were drawn from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort who underwent multidetector computed tomography. The extent of IAC was quantified based on calcified atherosclerotic plaques detected in the iliac arteries. High IAC was defined based on gender-specific 90th percentile cut-off points from a healthy referent subsample. PAD is defined as an ankle-brachial index < 0.9, intermittent claudication, and/or history of lower extremity revascularization. The association between PAD and IAC was assessed using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. The burden of high IAC was 20.5% in women and 25.5% in men. High IAC was not associated with generalized (body mass index) or area-specific (waist circumference, and volumes of thoracic periaortic, abdominal subcutaneous, and visceral adipose tissue) adiposity measures (all p ≥0.22). High IAC was associated with increased odds of PAD (odds ratio 10.36, 95% confidence interval 4.28 to 25.09). This association persisted even after additionally adjusting for coronary artery calcium (odds ratio 11.25, 95% confidence interval 4.29 to 29.53). Burden of IAC was associated with an increased risk of PAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Currents related to the sodium-calcium exchange in squid giant axon.

    PubMed

    Caputo, C; Bezanilla, F; DiPolo, R

    1989-11-27

    We report the measurement of a Cai-activated membrane current in dialyzed squid axon under membrane potential control with a low-noise voltage clamp. Two additional voltage clamp systems were used to clamp the external guard plates to a value that prevented the establishment of potential differences between the central and lateral compartments of the experimental chamber. This reduced to a minimum the contribution of membrane currents generated at the axon ends to the current measured in the central pool. This latter current was reduced by using internal and external solutions designed to diminish at a maximum membrane currents, while maintaining the conditions for optimal operation of the Na+-Ca2+ exchange. Thus TTX was used to block Na+ channels and prolonged exposure to K+-free media was used to eliminate K+ conductance. The maximum concentration of external sodium was 200 mM. The addition of fixed amounts of free ionic calcium to the internal solution, activated a current whose direction and magnitude depended on the thermodynamic driving forces for calcium and sodium. When the experimental conditions determined an inwardly directed current, this depended on the presence of external sodium, and lithium could not substitute for it. The Cai-activated current, was blocked by external lanthanum and showed a high temperature dependence. In experiments in which the reversal potential was measured for the Cai-activated current, it was found to be strikingly similar to the value calculated according to Er = 3ENa - 2ECa, suggesting that the current is the electrical manifestation of the Na+-Ca2+ exchange operating with an stoichiometry of 3Na+:1Ca2+.

  18. Deficiency of Parkinson's disease-related gene Fbxo7 is associated with impaired mitochondrial metabolism by PARP activation

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Camprubi, Marta; Esteras, Noemi; Soutar, Marc PM; Plun-Favreau, Helene; Abramov, Andrey Y

    2017-01-01

    The Parkinson's disease (PD)-related protein F-box only protein 7 (Fbxo7) is the substrate-recognition component of the Skp1-Cullin-F-box protein E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. We have recently shown that PD-associated mutations in Fbxo7 disrupt mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy), suggesting a role for Fbxo7 in modulating mitochondrial homeostasis. Here we report that Fbxo7 deficiency is associated with reduced cellular NAD+ levels, which results in increased mitochondrial NADH redox index and impaired activity of complex I in the electron transport chain. Under these conditions of compromised respiration, mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP contents are reduced, and cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is increased. ROS activates poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity in Fbxo7-deficient cells. PARP inhibitor restores cellular NAD+ content and redox index and ATP pool, suggesting that PARP overactivation is cause of decreased complex I-driven respiration. These findings bring new insight into the mechanism of Fbxo7 deficiency, emphasising the importance of mitochondrial dysfunction in PD. PMID:27689878

  19. Calcium supplementation reducing the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and related problems: A meta-analysis of multicentre randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    An, Li-bin; Li, Wen-tao; Xie, Tie-nan; Peng, Xin; Li, Bo; Xie, Shu-hong; Xu, Jing; Zhou, Xiao-hua; Guo, Shao-ning

    2015-05-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are closely related to maternal mortality and morbidity. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy seems to reduce the risk of hypertensive disorders. No systematic review on multicentre RCTs of calcium supplementation during pregnancy has been published. The purpose of this study was to report a quantitative systematic review of the effectiveness of calcium supplementation during pregnancy on reducing the risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and related problems. Publications over the years of 1991-2012 were searched through PubMed, Science Direct, EMBASE, CINAHL and Web of Science. The literatures were selected of the multicentre RCTs on calcium supplementation during pregnancy in prevention of hypertensive disorders and related problems. Reference lists from the studies were also examined for additional references. Studies were critically appraised by three independent reviewers, and the Cochrane Handbook was used to assess the quality of those included trials. Four studies were included in this systematic review. All included studies were high quality, with low risk of bias. There was an observed risk reduction in hypertension in calcium group. However, there was no reduction in the risk of severe gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, severe pre-eclampsia, preterm birth and low birthweight. Calcium supplementation appears to reduce the risk of hypertension in pregnancy.

  20. Cytodifferentiation of the postnatal mouse stomach in normal and Huntingtin-interacting protein 1-related-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Keeley, Theresa M.

    2010-01-01

    Huntingtin-interacting protein 1-related (Hip1r) is highly expressed in gastric parietal cells, where it participates in vesicular trafficking associated with acid secretion. Hip1r-deficient mice have a progressive remodeling of the mucosa, including apoptotic loss of parietal cells, glandular hypertrophy, mucous cell metaplasia, and reduced numbers of zymogenic cells. In this study, we characterized gastric gland development in wild-type and Hip1r-deficient mice to define normal development, as well as the timing and sequence of the cellular transformation events in the mutant stomach. Postnatal (newborn to 8-wk-old) stomachs were examined by histological and gene expression analysis. At birth, gastric glands in wild-type and mutant mice were rudimentary and mature gastric epithelial cells were not apparent, although marker expression was detected for most cell lineages. Interestingly, newborns exhibited unusual cell types, including a novel surface cell filled with lipid and cells that coexpressed markers of mature mucous neck and zymogenic cells. Glandular morphogenesis proceeded rapidly in both genotypes, with gastric glands formed by weaning at 3 wk of age. In the Hip1r-deficient stomach, epithelial cell remodeling developed in a progressive manner. Initially, in the perinatal stomach, cellular changes were limited to parietal cell apoptosis. Other epithelial cell changes, including apoptotic loss of zymogenic cells and expansion of metaplastic mucous cells, emerged several weeks later when the glands were morphologically mature. Thus, parietal cell loss appeared to be the initiating event in Hip1r-deficient mice, with secondary remodeling of the other gastric epithelial cells. PMID:20813912

  1. Dietary and supplemental calcium intakes in relation to mortality from cardiovascular diseases in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qian; Murphy, Rachel A; Houston, Denise K.; Harris, Tamara B.; Chow, Wong-Ho; Park, Yikyung

    2013-01-01

    Background Calcium intake has been promoted due to its proposed benefit on bone health, particularly among the older population. However, concerns have been raised about the potential adverse effect of high calcium intake on cardiovascular health. Methods Dietary and supplemental calcium intakes were assessed at baseline (1995–96) in 388,229 men and women aged 50–71 years in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)–AARP Diet and Health Study. Supplemental calcium intake included calcium from multivitamins and individual calcium supplements. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths were ascertained using the National Death Index. Multivariate Cox Proportional hazard models adjusted for demographic, lifestyle and dietary variables were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results During an average of 12 years of follow-up, 7904 and 3874 CVD deaths in men and women, respectively, were identified. Supplements containing calcium were used by 51% of men and 70% of women. In men supplemental calcium intake was associated with an elevated risk of CVD death (RR>1000 vs. 0 mg/day =1.20, 95% CI: 1.05–1.36), more specifically with heart disease death (RR=1.19, 95% CI: 1.03–1.37), but not significantly with cerebrovascular disease death (RR=1.14, 95% CI: 0.81–1.61). In women, supplemental calcium intake was not associated with CVD death (RR= 1.06, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.18), heart disease death (RR=1.05, 95% CI: 0.93–1.18) or cerebrovascular disease death (RR=1.08, 95% CI: 0.87–1.33). Dietary calcium intake was not related to CVD death in either men or women. Conclusion Our finding suggests that high intake of supplemental calcium is associated with an excess risk of CVD death in men, but not in women. Additional studies are needed to investigate the effect of supplemental calcium use beyond bone health. PMID:23381719

  2. Effect of calcium-deficiency upon physical properties of La0.6Ca0.4MnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walha, I.; Cheikh-Rouhou, A.; Ehrenberg, H.; Fuess, H.

    2006-09-01

    Structural and magnetic properties of the calcium-defect La0.6Ca0.4-xxMnO3 (0 x 0.2) perovskite manganites have been investigated. Our powder samples have been prepared by the conventional solid state reaction technique at high temperature. Rietveld analysis show that all our synthesized samples crystallize in the orthorhombic perovskite structure with Pnma space group. The Mn atom is coordinated by six oxygen atoms forming an irregular octahedron. With decreasing Ca content the unit cell volume increases. Magnetic measurements as a function of temperature show that all our samples exhibit a paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transition with decreasing temperature.

  3. C. elegans whole-genome sequencing reveals mutational signatures related to carcinogens and DNA repair deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Bettina; Cooke, Susanna L.; Weiss, Joerg; Bailly, Aymeric P.; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Marshall, John; Raine, Keiran; Maddison, Mark; Anderson, Elizabeth; Stratton, Michael R.; Campbell, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Mutation is associated with developmental and hereditary disorders, aging, and cancer. While we understand some mutational processes operative in human disease, most remain mysterious. We used Caenorhabditis elegans whole-genome sequencing to model mutational signatures, analyzing 183 worm populations across 17 DNA repair-deficient backgrounds propagated for 20 generations or exposed to carcinogens. The baseline mutation rate in C. elegans was approximately one per genome per generation, not overtly altered across several DNA repair deficiencies over 20 generations. Telomere erosion led to complex chromosomal rearrangements initiated by breakage–fusion–bridge cycles and completed by simultaneously acquired, localized clusters of breakpoints. Aflatoxin B1 induced substitutions of guanines in a GpC context, as observed in aflatoxin-induced liver cancers. Mutational burden increased with impaired nucleotide excision repair. Cisplatin and mechlorethamine, DNA crosslinking agents, caused dose- and genotype-dependent signatures among indels, substitutions, and rearrangements. Strikingly, both agents induced clustered rearrangements resembling “chromoanasynthesis,” a replication-based mutational signature seen in constitutional genomic disorders, suggesting that interstrand crosslinks may play a pathogenic role in such events. Cisplatin mutagenicity was most pronounced in xpf-1 mutants, suggesting that this gene critically protects cells against platinum chemotherapy. Thus, experimental model systems combined with genome sequencing can recapture and mechanistically explain mutational signatures associated with human disease. PMID:25030888

  4. Reduced inotropic heart response in selenium-deficient mice relates with inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Ricardo M; Levander, Orville A; Sterin-Borda, Leonor

    2003-02-01

    Atria from mice fed a selenium-deficient (Se(-)) diet have a diminished beta-adrenoceptor-inotropic cardiac response to isoproterenol or norepinephrine compared with atria from mice fed the same diet supplemented with 0.2 mg/kg Se as sodium selenite (Se(+)). This diminished response could be reversed by feeding Se(-) mice the Se(+) diet for 1 wk or by pretreatment with nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors such as N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine or aminopyridine. Elevated serum concentrations of nitrite/nitrate as well as a threefold increase in the atrial NOS activity were seen in the Se(-) versus Se(+) mice. Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence indicated an enhanced expression of inducible NOS in hearts from Se(-) mice. Increased expression and activity of NOS and increased nitrite/nitrate levels from Se(-) mice correlated with an impaired response to beta-adrenoceptor inotropic cardiac stimulation. Elevated nitric oxide levels may account for some of the pathophysiological effects of Se deficiency on the heart.

  5. Establishment of HeLa Cell Mutants Deficient in Sphingolipid-Related Genes Using TALENs

    PubMed Central

    Yamaji, Toshiyuki; Hanada, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Sphingolipids are essential components in eukaryotes and have various cellular functions. Recent developments in genome-editing technologies have facilitated gene disruption in various organisms and cell lines. We here show the disruption of various sphingolipid metabolic genes in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells by using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). A TALEN pair targeting the human CERT gene (alternative name COL4A3BP) encoding a ceramide transport protein induced a loss-of-function phenotype in more than 60% of HeLa cells even though the cell line has a pseudo-triploid karyotype. We have isolated several loss-of-function mutant clones for CERT, UGCG (encoding glucosylceramide synthase), and B4GalT5 (encoding the major lactosylceramide synthase), and also a CERT/UGCG double-deficient clone. Characterization of these clones supported previous proposals that CERT primarily contributes to the synthesis of SM but not GlcCer, and that B4GalT5 is the major LacCer synthase. These newly established sphingolipid-deficient HeLa cell mutants together with our previously established stable transfectants provide a ‘sphingolipid-modified HeLa cell panel,’ which will be useful to elucidate the functions of various sphingolipid species against essentially the same genomic background. PMID:24498430

  6. [Maternal Crohn's disease-related vitamin B12 deficient megaloblastic anemia in an infant].

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Wataru; Yamaoka, Masayoshi; Yokoi, Kentaro; Iwahashi, Megumi; Inage, Yuka; Arihiro, Seiji; Koganei, Kazutaka; Sugita, Akira; Ida, Hiroyuki; Akiyama, Masaharu

    2016-01-01

    We report an 11-month-old breast-fed boy with feeding difficulties, lethargy, and developmental delay. Blood examination showed pancytopenia and decreased serum levels of vitamin B12. Anisocytosis and poikilocytes were detected in his peripheral blood, and increased megaloblastosis without leukemic cells was detected in his bone marrow. After the diagnosis of megaloblastic anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency, symptoms were improved by vitamin B12 administration. Further investigation of the mother identified Crohn's disease and suggested that the supply of vitamin B12 from the mother to the infant, via the placenta during pregnancy and via breast milk after birth, was decreased due to impaired absorption of vitamin B12 in the mother's small intestine. Magnetic resonance imaging of the boy's brain on admission showed cerebral cortex atrophy which had improved by the age of 1 year and 10 months after vitamin B12 treatment, though developmental delay was still evident at the age of 3 years. Infantile vitamin B12 deficiency often presents with nonspecific manifestations, such as developmental delay and failure to thrive, in addition to anemia and is thus not easily diagnosed. To prevent severe neurological sequelae, this condition must be rapidly diagnosed, because a prolonged duration increases the risk of permanent disabilities.

  7. Lead, calcium uptake, and related genetic variants in association with renal cell carcinoma risk in a cohort of male Finnish smokers.

    PubMed

    Southard, Emily B; Roff, Alanna; Fortugno, Tracey; Richie, John P; Kaag, Matthew; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius; Weinstein, Stephanie; Wilson, Robin Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Lead is classified as a probable human carcinogen. However, its role in renal cell cancer (RCC) has not been established. Calcium and vitamin D may off-set toxicity in vivo. In this nested case-control study, whole blood lead, total serum calcium, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured in blood drawn prior to diagnosis among male smokers participating in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in five genes (CALB1, TRPV5, TRPV6, VDR, and ALAD) related to lead toxicity or calcium transport were genotyped. Logistic and linear regressions were used to determine RCC risk and time to diagnosis (respectively), adjusting for other risk factors. Among 154 newly diagnosed cases and 308 matched controls, RCC was associated with higher whole blood lead [OR = 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-3.9; quartile 4 (Q4) vs. Q1, P(trend) = 0.022] and CALB1 rs1800645 (P(trend) = 0.025, minor 'T' allele frequency = 0.34). Higher total serum calcium (P(trend) ≤ 0.001) was associated with reduced RCC risk. Total serum calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels did not alter the association observed with lead. Time from enrollment to RCC diagnosis was positively associated with serum calcium (P(trend) = 0.002) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (P(trend) = 0.054) among cases. Higher blood lead concentrations, below the 10 μg/dL level of concern, were associated with RCC, independent from serum calcium and CALB1 promoter polymorphism. Increased risk of RCC is associated with lower serum calcium and higher whole blood lead in smokers. The clinical prognostic value of serum calcium and vitamin D in RCC should be further investigated.

  8. Lead, calcium uptake, and related genetic variants in association with renal cell carcinoma risk in a cohort of male Finnish smokers

    PubMed Central

    Southard, Emily B.; Roff, Alanna; Fortugno, Tracey; Richie, John P.; Kaag, Matthew; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius; Weinstein, Stephanie; Wilson, Robin Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Background Lead (Pb) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. However, its role in renal cell cancer (RCC) has not been established. Calcium and vitamin D may off-set toxicity in vivo. Methods In this nested case-control study, whole blood lead (Pb), total serum calcium, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured in blood drawn prior to diagnosis among male smokers participating in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five genes (CALB1, TRPV5, TRPV6, VDR, and ALAD) related to lead toxicity or calcium transport were genotyped. Logistic and linear regression were used to determine RCC risk and time to diagnosis (respectively), adjusting for other risk factors. Results Among 154 newly diagnosed cases and 308 matched controls, RCC was associated with higher whole blood lead (OR=2.0, 95% CI:1.0,3.9; quartile 4 (Q4) v. Q1, Ptrend=0.022) and CALB1 rs1800645 (Ptrend=0.025, minor ‘T’ allele frequency=0.34). Higher total serum calcium (Ptrend=<0.001) was associated with reduced RCC risk. Total serum calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels did not alter the association observed with lead. Time from enrollment to RCC diagnosis was positively associated with serum calcium (Ptrend=0.002) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (Ptrend=0.054) among cases. Conclusions Higher blood lead concentrations, below the 10 ug/dL level of concern, were associated with RCC, independent from serum calcium and CALB1 promoter polymorphism. Impact Increased risk of RCC is associated with lower serum calcium and higher whole blood lead in smokers. The clinical prognostic value of serum calcium and vitamin D in RCC should be further investigated. PMID:22086884

  9. Incremental cost-utility of sevelamer relative to calcium carbonate for treatment of hyperphosphatemia among pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hai V; Bose, Saideep; Finkelstein, Eric

    2016-04-28

    Sevelamer is an alternative to calcium carbonate for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia among non-dialysis dependent patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although some studies show that it may reduce mortality and delay the onset of dialysis when compared to calcium carbonate, it is also significantly more expensive. Prior studies looking at the incremental cost-effectiveness of sevelamer versus calcium carbonate in pre-dialysis patients are based on data from a single clinical trial. The goal of our study is to use a wider range of clinical data to achieve a more contemporary and robust cost-effectiveness analysis. We used a Markov model to estimate the lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained for treatment with sevelamer versus calcium carbonate. The model simulated transitions among three health states (CKD not requiring dialysis, end-stage renal disease, and death). Data on transition probabilities and utilities were obtained from the published literature. Costs were calculated from a third party payer perspective and included medication, hospitalization, and dialysis. Sensitivity analyses were also run to encompass a wide range of assumptions about the dose, costs, and effectiveness of sevelamer. Over a lifetime, the average cost per patient treated with sevelamer is S$180,724. The estimated cost for patients treated with calcium carbonate is S$152,988. A patient treated with sevelamer gains, on average, 6.34 QALYs relative to no treatment, whereas a patient taking calcium carbonate gains 5.81 QALYs. Therefore, sevelamer produces an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of S$51,756 per QALY gained relative to calcium carbonate. Based on established benchmarks for cost-effectiveness, sevelamer is cost effective relative to calcium carbonate for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia among patients with chronic kidney disease initially not on dialysis.

  10. Calcium Carbonate

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  11. Intracellular study of calcium-related events in cat magnocellular neuroendocrine cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, M; Andrew, R D

    1991-01-01

    1. Magnocellular neuroendocrine cells (MNCs) in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of mammals synthesize vasopressin or oxytocin and release these hormones systemically from their neurohypophysial axon terminals. In the rat, release is facilitated by bursts of action potentials generated by the MNC. However MNC units in the intact cat discharge more slowly and do not display the repetitive bursts (phasic firing) that promote vasopressin secretion. The reasons why these cat endocrine neurones differ so dramatically in their firing behaviour from the rat model were examined using intracellular recording. 2. Cat and rat MNCs displayed similar mean resting potentials approximating -60 mV, and were usually linear in their voltage-current relationship in the hyperpolarizing direction. However cat MNCs displayed a higher mean cell input resistance (301 M omega; n = 56) than those of rat (150 M omega; n = 105). 3. Calcium influx to cat MNCs during firing appeared comparable to rat based on (a) the similar range of action potential broadening observed during a spike train, (b) the shoulder on the action potential's falling phase which was blocked in low-Ca2+ saline, and (c) the ability to evoke tetrodotoxin (TTX)-insensitive spiking and non-synaptic depolarizing potentials, both calcium-mediated events observed in the rat. 4. In cat MNCs, a depolarizing current pulse (100-500 ms; 0.1-0.3 nA) elicited a train of action potentials followed by a prominent after-hyperpolarization (AHP) several times the duration of its counterpart in the rat. The AHP reversed near the equilibrium potential for K+, was not voltage dependent and represented an increased membrane conductance. It was suppressed in low-Ca2+ saline and completely eliminated by the calcium-activated potassium current (IK(Ca)) blockers apamin (100 nM) or d-tubocurarine (50-200 microM). Both blockers decreased spike frequency adaptation but did not induce bursting. Therefore the cat AHP probably represents a Ca(2+)-activated

  12. Ileum and colon perforation following peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis and high-dose calcium polystyrene sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chih-Chin; Tsai, Yi-Chiun; Chiang, Wen-Chih; Mao, Tsui-Lien; Kao, Tze-Wah

    2015-10-01

    A rare but severe complication, intestinal necrosis, has been reported after sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS; Kayexalate) and sorbitol intake. Some case reports described bowel perforation following calcium polystyrene sulfonate (CPS; Kalimate) administration. We report a case of ileum and colon perforation following peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis and high-dose Kalimate in a 59-year-old female patient. The patient had a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). During hospitalization for peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis, she developed hyperkalemia, and Kalimate was administered orally. However, severe abdominal distension and pain occurred just one day after Kalimate intake. An urgent surgery disclosed several perforations in the ileum and sigmoid colon. Pathology of the resected gut showed transmural necrosis and perforation with basophilic angulated crystals. The patient finally expired during hospitalization due to refractory septic shock.

  13. Relationship of calcium absorption with 25(OH)D and calcium intake in children with rickets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nutritional rickets has long been considered a disease caused by vitamin D deficiency, but recent data indicate that inadequate dietary calcium intake is an important cause of rickets, particularly in tropical countries. Children with rickets due to calcium deficiency do not have very low 25(OH) D c...

  14. Serum calcium level is related to both intima-media thickness and carotid atherosclerosis: a neglect risk factor in obese/overweight subjects.

    PubMed

    Montalcini, Tiziana; Gorgone, Gaetano; Pujia, Arturo

    2012-06-06

    Experimental studies suggested that high serum calcium may be important in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Since calcium seems to affect specifically the cerebrovascular district, aim of this study was to determine the relation between serum calcium levels, within normal range, and subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries, in a population of obese/overweight subjects. In our retrospective study we included 472 subjects (59% female) with body mass index equal to or more than 25 kg/m2. They underwent a physical examination, a biochemical assessment (including calcium evaluation) and a B-mode ultrasonography of the extracranial carotid arteries to detect carotid atherosclerosis presence and to measure intima-media thickness. Mean age of the population was 50 ±12 years. Prevalence of the Carotid atherosclerosis was 40%. Mean carotid intima-media thickness was 0,66 ± 0,18 mm. The univariate and multivariate analysis showed an association between calcium and carotid intima-media thickness (p = 0,035). We divided the population in serum calcium tertiles. We found an higher carotid atherosclerosis prevalence in the III tertile in comparison to that of the I tertile (p = 0,039). In this study we found a positive relation between serum calcium levels, within normal range, and subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries, in a population of obese/overweight subjects. It is important to consider the impact of the serum calcium levels in the overall risk assessment of patients, at least in obese subjects.

  15. Serum calcium level is related to both intima-media thickness and carotid atherosclerosis: a neglect risk factor in obese/overweight subjects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Experimental studies suggested that high serum calcium may be important in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Since calcium seems to affect specifically the cerebrovascular district, aim of this study was to determine the relation between serum calcium levels, within normal range, and subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries, in a population of obese/overweight subjects. Methods In our retrospective study we included 472 subjects (59% female) with body mass index equal to or more than 25 kg/m2. They underwent a physical examination, a biochemical assessment (including calcium evaluation) and a B-mode ultrasonography of the extracranial carotid arteries to detect carotid atherosclerosis presence and to measure intima-media thickness. Results Mean age of the population was 50 ±12 years. Prevalence of the Carotid atherosclerosis was 40%. Mean carotid intima-media thickness was 0,66 ± 0,18 mm. The univariate and multivariate analysis showed an association between calcium and carotid intima-media thickness (p = 0,035). We divided the population in serum calcium tertiles. We found an higher carotid atherosclerosis prevalence in the III tertile in comparison to that of the I tertile (p = 0,039). Conclusions In this study we found a positive relation between serum calcium levels, within normal range, and subclinical atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries, in a population of obese/overweight subjects. It is important to consider the impact of the serum calcium levels in the overall risk assessment of patients, at least in obese subjects. PMID:22672668

  16. Interleukin-18 deficiency reduces neuropeptide gene expressions in the mouse amygdala related with behavioral change.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuta; Tanahashi, Toshihito; Katsuura, Sakurako; Kurokawa, Ken; Nishida, Kensei; Kuwano, Yuki; Kawai, Tomoko; Teshima-Kondo, Shigetada; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Tsuruo, Yoshihiro; Sei, Hiroyoshi; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2010-12-15

    In this study, we examined the effects of IL-18 deficiency on behaviors and gene expression profiles in 6 brain regions. IL-18(-/-) mice reduced depressive-like behavior and changed gene expressions predominantly in the amygdala compared with wild-type mice. Pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes ranked behavior as the top-scored biological function. Of note, the absence of IL-18 decreased Avp, Hcrt, Oxt, and Pmch mRNA levels and the number of arginine vasopressin- and oxytocin-positive cells in the amygdala, but not in the hypothalamus. Our results suggest that IL-18-dependent vasopressinergic and oxytocinergic circuitry in the amygdala may regulate depressive-like behaviors in mice.

  17. Tea and coffee consumption in relation to vitamin D and calcium levels in Saudi adolescents.

    PubMed

    Al-Othman, Abdulaziz; Al-Musharaf, Sara; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Yakout, Sobhy; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Saleh, Yousef; Al-Attas, Omar S; Alokail, Majed S; Moharram, Osama; Sabico, Shaun; Kumar, Sudhesh; Chrousos, George P

    2012-08-20

    Coffee and tea consumption was hypothesized to interact with variants of vitamin D-receptor polymorphisms, but limited evidence exists. Here we determine for the first time whether increased coffee and tea consumption affects circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a cohort of Saudi adolescents. A total of 330 randomly selected Saudi adolescents were included. Anthropometrics were recorded and fasting blood samples were analyzed for routine analysis of fasting glucose, lipid levels, calcium, albumin and phosphorous. Frequency of coffee and tea intake was noted. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Improved lipid profiles were observed in both boys and girls, as demonstrated by increased levels of HDL-cholesterol, even after controlling for age and BMI, among those consuming 9-12 cups of coffee/week. Vitamin D levels were significantly highest among those consuming 9-12 cups of tea/week in all subjects (p-value 0.009) independent of age, gender, BMI, physical activity and sun exposure. This study suggests a link between tea consumption and vitamin D levels in a cohort of Saudi adolescents, independent of age, BMI, gender, physical activity and sun exposure. These findings should be confirmed prospectively.

  18. Mechanochemical dissociation of calcium carbonate: laboratory data and relation to natural emissions of CO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Giovanni; Plescia, Paolo

    2004-05-01

    This paper investigates the possible role of mechanochemical CO 2 production due to stimulation from the action of friction on calcite. This experimentation has two objectives: firstly, to obtain information on the effect of the mechanical disassociation of carbon dioxide from the carbonates and, secondly, to simulate the conditions that may arise during a tectonic action. The action of disassociation has been observed on pure calcium carbonate from analyses ground at different times in a ring-roller mill. The ring-roller mill is a grinding system that mainly works through friction and, to a lesser extent, by non-hydrostatic compression. It has been observed that the grinding action determines an abundant release of carbon dioxide, with a non-linear trend that emulates the trend in the decrease in crystallinity. This indicates a close connection between crystallinity and the dissociation of carbonate. The Authors hypothesize a carbon dioxide release mechanism linked to the factures induced by the friction and the increase in the structural disorder induced in the lattice by the plastic sliding. This mechanism could play an important role in the natural release of CO 2, along with the other carbon dioxide sources that are already known of.

  19. Cadmium toxicity in tadpoles of Rhinella arenarum in relation to calcium and humic acids.

    PubMed

    Mastrángelo, Martina; Afonso, María Dos Santos; Ferrari, Lucrecia

    2011-08-01

    Bioassays were carried out to study the differences in cadmium (Cd) toxicity to premetamorphic tadpoles of Rhinella arenarum, in aqueous solutions with variable contents of calcium in the presence and absence of humic acids, and to analyze the relationship between the free Cd(2+) ion concentrations calculated by chemical modeling and the biological results. The correlation analysis of the free Cd(2+) concentration calculated by chemical speciation and the analytical Cd yielded a direct relationship between the degree of toxicity and the slope value. The lowest slope was obtained from the treatments with lowest free Cd(2+) ion concentration and lowest toxicity, whereas the highest slope was obtained from the most toxic treatment. At comparable concentrations of free Cd(2+), intralarval Cd increased as the Ca in the solution decreased. At equal contents of Ca, in the presence of humic acids, the content of Cd in larvae was higher and the toxicity values lower. The results obtained in this study show that waterborne Ca could offer some protection from metal uptake and accumulation by competitive inhibition in the uptake mechanism that involves active transport via cell membrane. In the systems with humic materials, a certain proportion of the Cd present in the solution was associated to them and thus became less bioavailable.

  20. Decreased agonist-stimulated mitochondrial ATP production caused by a pathological reduction in endoplasmic reticulum calcium content in human complex I deficiency.

    PubMed

    Visch, Henk-Jan; Koopman, Werner J H; Leusink, Anouk; van Emst-de Vries, Sjenet E; van den Heuvel, Lambertus W P J; Willems, Peter H G M; Smeitink, Jan A M

    2006-01-01

    Although a large number of mutations causing malfunction of complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) of the OXPHOS system is now known, their cell biological consequences remain obscure. We previously showed that the bradykinin (Bk)-induced increase in mitochondrial [ATP] ([ATP](M)) is significantly reduced in primary skin fibroblasts from a patient with an isolated complex I deficiency. The present work addresses the mechanism(s) underlying this impaired response. Luminometry of fibroblasts from 6 healthy subjects and 14 genetically characterized patients expressing mitochondria targeted luciferase revealed that the Bk-induced increase in [ATP](M) was significantly, but to a variable degree, decreased in 10 patients. The same variation was observed for the increases in mitochondrial [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)](M)), measured with mitochondria targeted aequorin, and cytosolic [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)](C)), measured with fura-2, and for the Ca(2+) content of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), calculated from the increase in [Ca(2+)](C) evoked by thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the ER Ca(2+) ATPase. Regression analysis revealed that the increase in [ATP](M) was directly proportional to the increases in [Ca(2+)](C) and [Ca(2+)](M) and to the ER Ca(2+) content. Our findings provide evidence that a pathological reduction in ER Ca(2+) content is the direct cause of the impaired Bk-induced increase in [ATP](M) in human complex I deficiency.

  1. Bisphosphonates and tetracycline: experimental models for their evaluation in calcium-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Cohen, H; Solomon, V; Alferiev, I S; Breuer, E; Ornoy, A; Patlas, N; Eidelman, N; Hägele, G; Golomb, G

    1998-04-01

    This work was aimed at synthesizing novel bisphosphonates (BPs) and examining them in comparison to clinically used BPs such as pamidronate and alendronate, and to tetracycline, in order to evaluate their potential as anticalcification and antiresorption agents. The correlation between the various models was examined in order to establish facile experimental models for pre-screening of potential compounds. Nitrogen-containing heterocyclic, novel BPs such as 2-(3-methylimidazolio) ethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonic acid betaine (VS-5b), 2-(2-dimethylamino-4-pyrazinio)ethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonic acid betaine (VS-6b), and 2-(2-alpha-pyridylethylthio) ethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonic acid (ISA-225), were synthesized and evaluated in comparison to clinically used BPs, in various experimental models of resorption and calcification. The physicochemical properties of the novel compounds are slightly different than the BPs in clinical use: the pKa values are lower, the affinity for hydroxyapatite is lower and the solubilities of the calcium salts are higher. The anticalcification potencies of the novel compounds were high and ranked as follows: alendronate = pamidronate > VS-6b = VS-5b = ISA-225 > tetracycline. The in vivo antiresorption activity of VS-5b and VS-6b in comparison to that of the clinically employed, pamidronate, was shown to be similar and higher, respectively. The anticalcification activity of the novel compounds as well as that of tetracycline was lower than that of alendronate. The antiresorption activity of VS-6b was similar to that of pamidronate. A good correlation between the different models was found, enabling the facile screening of novel compounds. The activities of tetracycline and EDTA highlight the distinct behavior of BPs as "crystal poison." In addition, tetracycline was found to be a potent anticalcification agent in the ectopic calcification model.

  2. Chronic imaging of movement-related Purkinje cell calcium activity in awake behaving mice

    PubMed Central

    Gaffield, Michael A.; Amat, Samantha B.; Bito, Haruhiko

    2015-01-01

    Purkinje cells (PCs) are a major site of information integration and plasticity in the cerebellum, a brain region involved in motor task refinement. Thus PCs provide an ideal location for studying the mechanisms necessary for cerebellum-dependent motor learning. Increasingly, sophisticated behavior tasks, used in combination with genetic reporters and effectors of activity, have opened up the possibility of studying cerebellar circuits during voluntary movement at an unprecedented level of quantitation. However, current methods used to monitor PC activity do not take full advantage of these advances. For example, single-unit or multiunit electrode recordings, which provide excellent temporal information regarding electrical activity, only monitor a small population of cells and can be quite invasive. Bolus loading of cell-permeant calcium (Ca2+) indicators is short-lived, requiring same-day imaging immediately after surgery and/or indicator injection. Genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators (GECIs) overcome many of these limits and have garnered considerable use in many neuron types but only limited use in PCs. Here we employed these indicators to monitor Ca2+ activity in PCs over several weeks. We could repeatedly image from the same cerebellar regions across multiple days and observed stable activity. We used chronic imaging to monitor PC activity in crus II, an area previously linked to licking behavior, and identified a region of increased activity at the onset of licking. We then monitored this same region after training tasks to initiate voluntary licking behavior in response to different sensory stimuli. In all cases, PC Ca2+ activity increased at the onset of rhythmic licking. PMID:26561609

  3. Extracellular calcium transients and action potential configuration changes related to post-stimulatory potentiation in rabbit atrium.

    PubMed

    Hilgemann, D W

    1986-05-01

    Extracellular calcium transients were monitored with 2 mM tetramethylmurexide at low calcium (250 microM total, 130 microM free), and action potentials were monitored together with developed tension at normal calcium (1.3 mM) during the production and decay of post-stimulatory potentiation in rabbit left atrial strips. At normal calcium, the contractile potentiation produced by a brief burst of 4 Hz stimulation is lost in three to five post-stimulatory excitations, which correlate with a negative staircase of the late action potential. At low calcium, stimulation at 4 Hz for 3-8 s results in a net extracellular calcium depletion of 5-15 microM. At the subsequent potentiated contraction (1-45 s rest), total extracellular calcium increases by 4-8 microM. The contractile response at a second excitation is greatly suppressed and results in little or no further calcium shift; the sequence can be repeated immediately thereafter. Reducing external sodium to 60 mM (sucrose replacement) enhances post-rest contractions, suppresses the late action potential, nearly eliminates loss of contractility and net calcium efflux at post-rest excitations, and markedly reduces extracellular calcium depletion during rapid stimulation. 4-Aminopyridine (1 mM) markedly suppresses the rapid early repolarization of this preparation at post-rest excitations and the loss of contractility at post-rest stimulation from the rested state; during a post-stimulatory potentiation sequence at low calcium, replenishment of extracellular calcium takes several post-stimulatory excitations. Ryanodine (10 nM to 5 microM) abolishes the post-stimulatory contraction at rest periods of greater than 5 s. If the initial repolarization is rapid, ryanodine suppresses the late action potential, calcium efflux during quiescence is greatly accelerated, and subsequent excitations do not result in an accumulation of extracellular calcium. A positive staircase of the early action potential correlates with the magnitude

  4. Smad3 Deficiency Ameliorates Hepatic Fibrogenesis through the Expression of Senescence Marker Protein-30, an Antioxidant-Related Protein

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Da-Hee; Hwang, Meeyul; Park, Jin-Kyu; Goo, Moon-Jung; Hong, Il-Hwa; Ki, Mi-Ran; Ishigami, Akihito; Kim, Ah-Young; Lee, Eun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Joo; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2013-01-01

    Smad3 is a key mediator of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 signaling pathway that plays central role in inflammation and fibrosis. In present study, we evaluated the effect of Smad3 deficiency in Smad3−/− mice with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. The animals were received CCl4 or olive oil three times a week for 4 weeks. Histopathological analyses were performed to evaluate the fibrosis development in the mice. Alteration of protein expression controlled by Smad3 was examined using a proteomic analysis. CCl4-induced liver fibrosis was rarely detected in Smad3−/− mice compared to Smad3+/+. Proteomic analysis revealed that proteins related to antioxidant activities such as senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30), selenium-binding proteins (SP56) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) were up-regulated in Smad3−/− mice. Western blot analysis confirmed that SMP30 protein expression was increased in Smad3−/− mice. And SMP30 levels were decreased in CCl4-treated Smad3+/+ and Smad3−/− mice. These results indicate that Smad3 deficiency influences the proteins level related to antioxidant activities during early liver fibrosis. Thus, we suggest that Smad3 deteriorate hepatic injury by inhibitor of antioxidant proteins as well as mediator of TGF-β1 signaling. PMID:24304543

  5. Complex I deficiency related to T10158C mutation ND3 gene: A further definition of the clinical spectrum.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Salvatore; Carluccio, Maria Alessandra; Cardaioli, Elena; Cerase, Alfonso; Malandrini, Alessandro; Romano, Chiara; Federico, Antonio; Dotti, Maria Teresa

    2017-03-01

    Complex I deficiency is the most common energy generation disorder which may clinically present at any age with a wide spectrum of symptoms and signs. The T10158C mutation ND3 gene is rare and occurs in patients showing an early rapid neurological deterioration invariably leading to death after a few months. We report a 9year-old boy with a mtDNA T10158C mutation showing a mild MELAS-like phenotype and brain MRI features congruent with both MELAS and Leigh syndrome. Epilepsia partialis continua also occurred in the clinical course and related to a mild cortical atrophy of the left perisylvian area. The present case confirms that the clinical spectrum of Complex I deficiency related to T10158C mutation ND3 gene is wider than previously described. Our observation further suggests that testing mutation in the MT-ND3 gene should be included in the diagnostic work-up of patients presenting with epilepsia partialis continua accompanied by suspicion of mitochondrial disorder. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Relation of plasma calcium to total protein and albumin in African grey (Psittacus erithacus) and Amazon (Amazona spp.) parrots.

    PubMed

    Lumeij, J T

    1990-10-01

    A significant correlation was found between total calcium and albumin concentration in the plasma of 70 African grey parrots (r=0.37; P<0.05). A correlation formula for plasma calcium concentration in the African grey parrot was derived on the basis of the concentration of albumin: Adjusted Ca (mmol/1) = Ca (mmol/1) - 0.015 Albumin (g/1) + 0.4. About 14% of the variability in calcium was attributable to the change in the concentration of plasma albumin concentration (R2=0.137). The correlation between calcium and total protein in African greys and between calcium and albumin and calcium and total protein in Amazons was not significant.

  7. Highly efficient ketone body treatment in multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency-related leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Gautschi, Matthias; Weisstanner, Christian; Slotboom, Johannes; Nava, Esmeralda; Zürcher, Theres; Nuoffer, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency- (MADD-), also called glutaric aciduria type 2, associated leukodystrophy may be severe and progressive despite conventional treatment with protein- and fat-restricted diet, carnitine, riboflavin, and coenzyme Q10. Administration of ketone bodies was described as a promising adjunct, but has only been documented once. We describe a Portuguese boy of consanguineous parents who developed progressive muscle weakness at 2.5 y of age, followed by severe metabolic decompensation with hypoglycaemia and coma triggered by a viral infection. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed diffuse leukodystrophy. MADD was diagnosed by biochemical and molecular analyses. Clinical deterioration continued despite conventional treatment. Enteral sodium D,L-3-hydroxybutyrate (NaHB) was progressively introduced and maintained at 600 mg/kg BW/d (≈ 3% caloric need). Follow up was 3 y and included regular clinical examinations, biochemical studies, and imaging. During follow up, the initial GMFC-MLD (motor function classification system, 0 = normal, 6 = maximum impairment) level of 5-6 gradually improved to 1 after 5 mo. Social functioning and quality of life recovered remarkably. We found considerable improvement of MR imaging and spectroscopy during follow up, with a certain lag behind clinical recovery. There was some persistent residual developmental delay. NaHB is a highly effective and safe treatment that needs further controlled studies.

  8. [Relation between parathyroid hormone and cardiovascular risk in patients with vitamin D deficiency].

    PubMed

    Casado Cerrada, Jesús; Parra Caballero, Pedro; Vega Piris, Lorena; Suárez Fernández, Carmen

    2013-10-05

    Vitamin D deficiency and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk and arterial stiffness. The aim of our study is to compare the cardiovascular risk in subjects with low vitamin D, attending to the PTH concentration, as well as evaluating the response after administration of vitamin D. Prospective study of patients with a concentration of 25(OH)-vitamin D below 30nmol/l. We evaluated vascular risk parameters as blood pressure, arterial stiffness, lipid profile and glucose metabolism. Patients received vitamin D supplements for 3 months, after which the previous parameters were reassessed. A total of 32 patients were included. Those with PTH over 65pg/ml were older, had worse renal function, higher systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and arterial stiffness. Treatment with vitamin D showed a statistically significant trend to lower blood pressure and pulse wave velocity. The increase in PTH in patients with low vitamin D involves poor control of blood pressure and increased vascular stiffness. Vitamin D replacement shows a tendency to reduce these parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced head-twitch response to 5-HT-related agonists in thiamine-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Nakagawasai, O; Murata, A; Arai, Y; Ohba, A; Wakui, K; Mitazaki, S; Niijima, F; Tan-No, K; Tadano, T

    2007-01-01

    While many studies suggest an involvement of brain serotonergic systems in neuro-psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression, their role in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) remains unclear. Since dietary thiamine deficiency (TD) in mice is considered as a putative model of WKS, it was used in the present study to investigate the function of serotonergic neurons in this disorder. After 20 days of TD feeding, the intensity of tryptophan hydroxylase immunofluorescence was found to be significantly decreased in the dorsal and medial raphe nuclei. In addition, the head-twitch response (HTR) elicited by the intracerebroventricular administration of the 5-HT(2A) agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride (DOI) was significantly increased in TD versus control mice, whereas the injection of ketanserin, a 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist, prevented this enhancement. A single injection of thiamine HCl on the 19th day of TD feeding did not reduce the enhanced DOI-induced HTR. On the other hand, the administration of d-fenfluramine, a 5-HT releaser, did not enhance the HTR in TD mice. Together, our results indicate that TD causes a super-sensitivity of 5-HT(2A) receptors by reducing presynaptic 5-HT synthesis derived from degenerating neurons projecting from the raphe nucleus.

  10. The effects of phytase on growth performance and intestinal transit time of broilers fed nutritionally adequate diets and diets deficient in calcium and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Watson, B C; Matthews, J O; Southern, L L; Shelton, J L

    2006-03-01

    Five experiments (Exp.) were conducted to determine the effects of phytase on growth performance and intestinal transit time in chicks fed nutritionally adequate diets and diets deficient in Ca and nonphytate P (nPP). In Exp. 1 and 2, chicks were fed a nutritionally adequate diet from 0 to 6 d or from 0 to 4 d posthatching; assay periods were 8 or 10 d; average initial BW were 98 or 79 g; and average final BW were 371 or 369 g, respectively. Treatments were replicated with 12 pens of 5 chicks each. Corn-soybean meal (C-SBM) diets were adequate in all nutrients except Ca and nPP where appropriate. The treatments were 1) C-SBM, 1.0% Ca, and 0.45% nPP; 2) C-SBM, 0.80% Ca, and 0.25% nPP; 3) Diet 1 + 600 phytase units/kg of diet; 4) Diet 2 + 600 phytase units/kg of diet. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 were conducted to determine the effects of phytase on intestinal transit time in broilers. Broilers were fed the same nutritionally adequate diet from 0 to 18, 27, or 23 d posthatching, and the assay periods were 7 d. Treatments were replicated with 18 individually penned broilers. Average initial BW were 768, 1,108, or 838 g, and average final BW were 1,299, 1,704, or 1,392 g in Exp. 3 to 5, respectively. Transit time data were collected on d 1 and 7 of the Exp. Diets were 1) C-SBM, 0.9% Ca, and 0.35% nPP; 2) C-SBM, 0.80% Ca, and 0.25% nPP + 600 phytase units/kg of diet. Transit time was calculated as the difference between the time feed was first ingested and the time of first appearance of solid feces. In Exp. 1 and 2, the reduction in dietary Ca and nPP reduced (P < 0.01) average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain:feed. Phytase addition increased (P < 0.02) ADG and ADFI in diets deficient in Ca and nPP and in the nutritionally adequate diets. In Exp. 2, the reduction in Ca and nPP reduced (P < 0.01) toe and tibia ash percentage, but phytase addition increased (P < 0.01) toe and tibia ash percentage. The increase in toe ash percentage was greater in

  11. Nutritional deficiencies in bariatric surgery candidates.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Chaya; Weiss, Ram; Berry, Elliot; Keidar, Andrei

    2010-02-01

    To assess the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies amongst people who suffer from morbid obesity and are candidates for bariatric surgery and to evaluate the relations between pre-operative nutritional deficiencies and demographic data and co-morbidities. Preoperative blood tests of 114 patients (83 women and 31 men) were collected. The blood tests included plasma chemistry (including albumin, total protein, iron, ferritin, vitamin B12, folic acid, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, and phosphorous) and a blood count (for hemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume (MCV)). Demographic and socio-economic details were collected from all patients. Mean age, weight, and BMI of the patients were 38 years (15-77), 122.9 kg (87-250), and 44.3 kg/m(2) (35.3-74.9), respectively. The prevalence of pre-operative nutritional deficiencies were: 35% for iron, 24% for folic acid, 24% for ferritin, 3.6% for vitamin B12, 2% for phosphorous, and 0.9% for calcium, Hb and MCV level was low in 19%. High levels of PTH were found among 39% of the patients. No hypoalbuminemia was encountered. Low iron was more common in females relative to men (40.8 vs.14.3%, p = 0.04) as well as ferritin levels (31.8 vs. 0%, p = 0.001). Men showed a greater prevalence of anemia (35.5% and 12% respectively, p = 0.01) relative to women. Patients with BMI > 50 kg/m(2) were at greater risk for low folic acid (OR = 14.57, 95% CI:1.4-151.34). Patients with high income were less likely to have iron deficiency (OR = 0.19, 95% CI:0.038-0.971). A high prevalence of nutritional deficiencies was found amongst bariatric surgery candidates suffering from morbid obesity.

  12. [Calcium absorption by the rat from various milks in relation to their total phosphorus and lactose contents].

    PubMed

    Fournier, P; Dupuis, Y; Fournier, A

    1976-01-01

    The absorption of calcium corresponds to a strictly determined mechanism inhibited by phosphates and activited by carbohydrates. We investigate in what extent the absorption of milk calcium from various species has the same proceeding. 4 months old rats are given orally solutions of CaCl2 alone or in combination with sodium dihydrogen phosphate or lactose or these both compounds. We compare calcium absorption of these solutions to that of milk from woman, cow or sow, or to dilutions of these two latter milks. All these fluids are dosed so that they correspond each other by their respective content in total calcium, total phosphorus and lactose. Each solution contains 45Ca. Blood samples 1,30, 4, 6 and 24 hours after ingestion allow establishing the variations of plasma radioactivity. Rats are sacrified after 24 hours. In certain cases, samples from digestive tube contents and feces provide a coefficient of calcium absorption. The osseous retention is obtained from femur radioactivity. In breif, we may consider that milks from cow and sow provide calcium the absorption of which is settled after their respective content of total phosphorus and lactose. Opposed effects of these inhibitors and activators of calcium absorption compensate so that calcium from these milks is just a little better utilized by adult rat than calcium from an isocalcic solution of CaCl2. Calcium from woman milk, rich in carbohydrates, poor in total phosphorus is better absorbed than that from the two latters, however less than we might expect from its high lactose content. We may wonder that calcium utilization from cow milk is as moderate as that of a solution of CaCl2. But skeleton mineralization which may be fulfilled by milk is made better because of that: it is not chloride but calcium phosphate which ensures this mineralization, a phosphate which alone would impair this mineralization without the compensative role of lactose.

  13. The addition of a Buttiauxella sp. phytase to lactating sow diets deficient in phosphorus and calcium reduces weight loss and improves nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Wealleans, A L; Bold, R M; Dersjant-Li, Y; Awati, A

    2015-11-01

    Improving the efficiency of P use by pigs is especially important for lactating sows, whose metabolic requirements for P and Ca are high. The effect of a sp. phytase on lactating sow performance and nutrient digestibility was investigated using the combined data set for 6 studies. Treatments included a nutritionally adequate positive control diet (PC), a negative control diet (NC; with an average reduction of 0.16% available phosphorous and 0.15% Ca vs. PC), and NC supplemented with a sp. phytase at 250, 500, 1,000 or 2,000 phytase unit (FTU)/kg, respectively. Phosphorus and Ca deficiency in the NC resulted in significantly higher BW loss compared with the PC. All phytase treatments maintained BW loss at the same level as the PC. Increasing doses of phytase significantly ( < 0.05) reduced sow BW loss and increased energy intake, with improvements most apparent in sows older than parity 5. The positive effects on BW and energy intake were not observed in first-parity sows. This may be a consequence of fewer first parity sows in the data set. The apparent total tract digestibility of DM, OM, and CP were not affected by phytase supplementation. Digestible P and Ca were significantly improved (linear, < 0.0001; quadratic, < 0.0001) by increasing the dose of phytase supplementation. Significantly lower apparent total tract digestibility of energy, Ca, and P was found in the NC treatment vs. the PC treatment, whereas no significant differences were found between phytase treatment and the PC treatment. In conclusion, phytase supplementation at a level of 250 FTU/kg can replace 0.16% available phosphorous and 0.15% Ca; however, increasing the phytase dose can further reduce BW loss in sows fed P- and Ca- deficient diets.

  14. Vitamin D deficiency, self-reported physical activity and health-related quality of life: the Comprehensive Dialysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaysen, George A.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Johansen, Kirsten L.; Grimes, Barbara; Dalrymple, Lorien S.; Kurella Tamura, Manjula

    2011-01-01

    Background. As research has identified a wide array of biological functions of vitamin D, the consequences of vitamin D deficiency in persons with chronic kidney disease has attracted increased attention. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH vitamin D) deficiency and its associations with self-reported physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among participants of the Comprehensive Dialysis Study (CDS). Methods. The nutrition substudy of the CDS enrolled patients new to dialysis from 68 dialysis units throughout the USA. Baseline 25-OH vitamin D concentration was measured using the Direct Enzyme Immunoassay (Immunodiagnostic Systems Inc.). Physical activity was measured with the Human Activity Profile (HAP); the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12 (SF-12) was employed to measure HRQoL. Results. Mean age of the participants (n = 192) was 62 years. There were 124 participants (65%) with 25-OH vitamin D concentrations < 15 ng/mL, indicating deficiency, and 64 (33%) with 25-OH vitamin D≥ 15 to <30 ng/mL, indicating insufficiency. After adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, diabetes, season and center, lower 25-OH vitamin D concentrations were independently associated with lower scores on the HAP and on the Mental Component Summary of the SF-12 (P < 0.05 for both), but not with the Physical Component Summary of the SF-12. Conclusion. In a well-characterized cohort of incident dialysis patients, lower 25-OH vitamin D concentrations were associated with lower self-reported physical activity and poorer self-reported mental health. PMID:21430182

  15. Relation between playing position and coronary artery calcium scores in retired National Football League players.

    PubMed

    Basra, Sukhdeep Singh; Pokharel, Yashashwi; Hira, Ravi S; Bandeali, Salman J; Nambi, Vijay; Deswal, Anita; Nasir, Khurram; Martin, Seth S; Vogel, Robert A; Roberts, Arthur J; Ballantyne, Christie M; Virani, Salim S

    2014-12-15

    Retired National Football League (NFL) linemen have an increased prevalence of risk factors for atherosclerosis and have an increased risk of cardiovascular death compared with nonlinemen and the general population. We evaluated whether playing in lineman position is independently associated with an increased risk of the presence and severity of subclinical atherosclerosis. Players were categorized as linemen if they reported playing on the offensive or defensive line during their careers. Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed using coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores in 931 retired NFL players (310 linemen, 621 nonlinemen). CAC scores were evaluated for absence of subclinical atherosclerosis (CAC = 0), presence of mild subclinical atherosclerosis (CAC 1 to 100), and moderate to severe subclinical atherosclerosis (CAC ≥100). We performed multivariate logistic regression to determine whether the lineman position is independently associated with the presence and severity of subclinical atherosclerosis. Linemen were noted to have a lesser likelihood of absence of subclinical atherosclerosis (CAC = 0, 33.8% vs 41.7%, p = 0.02), a similar likelihood of mild subclinical atherosclerosis (CAC 1 to 100, 33.2% vs 31.8%, p = 0.7), and a greater likelihood of moderate to severe subclinical atherosclerosis (CAC >100, 32.9% vs 26.4%, p = 0.04) compared with nonlinemen. Adjusting for demographic and metabolic covariates, lineman status remained independently associated with mild subclinical atherosclerosis (CAC 1 to 100, odds ratio [OR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05 to 2.2, p = 0.04) and moderate to severe subclinical atherosclerosis (CAC ≥100, OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.2). The association was attenuated after adjustment for race (CAC 1 to 100, OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.8; CAC >100, OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.49). In conclusion, lineman status in retired NFL players is associated with presence and severity of subclinical atherosclerosis, which is partly

  16. Loading-related regulation of gene expression in bone in the contexts of estrogen deficiency, lack of estrogen receptor α and disuse

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Gul; Saxon, Leanne K.; Sunters, Andrew; Hilton, Helen; Underhill, Peter; Williams, Debbie; Price, Joanna S.; Lanyon, Lance E.

    2010-01-01

    Loading-related changes in gene expression in resident cells in the tibia of female mice in the contexts of normality (WT), estrogen deficiency (WT-OVX), absence of estrogen receptor α (ERα−/−) and disuse due to sciatic neurectomy (WT-SN) were established by microarray. Total RNA was extracted from loaded and contra-lateral non-loaded tibiae at selected time points after a single, short period of dynamic loading sufficient to engender an osteogenic response. There were marked changes in the expression of many genes according to context as well as in response to loading within those contexts. In WT mice at 3, 8, 12 and 24 h after loading the expression of 642, 341, 171 and 24 genes, respectively, were differentially regulated compared with contra-lateral bones which were not loaded. Only a few of the genes differentially regulated by loading in the tibiae of WT mice have recognized roles in bone metabolism or have been linked previously to osteogenesis (Opn, Sost, Esr1, Tgfb1, Lrp1, Ostn, Timp, Mmp, Ctgf, Postn and Irs1, BMP and DLX5). The canonical pathways showing the greatest loading-related regulation were those involving pyruvate metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, calcium-induced apoptosis, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, aryl hydrocarbon receptor and oxidative phosphorylation. In the tibiae from WT-OVX, ERα−/− and WT-SN mice, 440, 439 and 987 genes respectively were differentially regulated by context alone compared to WT. The early response to loading in tibiae of WT-OVX mice involved differential regulation compared to their contra-lateral non-loaded pair of fewer genes than in WT, more down-regulation than up-regulation and a later response. This was shared by WT-SN. In tibiae of ERα−/− mice, the number of genes differentially regulated by loading was markedly reduced at all time points. These data indicate that in resident bone cells, both basal and loading-related gene expression is substantially modified by context. Many of the genes

  17. Iron deficiency in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Fleming, A F

    1982-06-01

    Iron in food is classified as belonging to the haem pool, the nonhaem pool, and extraneous sources. Haem iron is derived from vegetable and animal sources with varying bioavailability. Hookworm infestation of the intestinal tract affects 450 million people in the tropics. Schistosoma mansoni caused blood loss in 7 Egyptian patients of 7.5- 25.9 ml/day which is equivalent to a daily loss of iron of .6-7.3 mg daily urinary loss of iron in 9 Egyptian patients. Trichuris trichiura infestation by whipworm is widespread in children with blood loss of 5 ml/day/worm. The etiology of anemia in children besides iron deficiency includes malaria, bacterial or viral infections, folate deficiency and sickle-cell disease. Severe infections cause profound iron-deficiency anemia in children in central American and Malaysia. Plasmodium falciparum malaria-induced anaemia in tropical Africa lowers the mean haemoglobin concentration in the population by 2 g/dI, causing profound anaemia in some. The increased risk of premature delivery, low birthweight, fetal abnormalities, and fetal death is directly related to the degree of maternal anemia. Perinatal mortality was reduced from 38 to 4% in treated anemic mothers. Mental performance was significantly lower in anemic school children and improved after they received iron. Supplements of iron, soy-protein, calcium, and vitamins given to villagers with widespread malnutrition, iron deficiency, and hookworm infestation in Colombia reduced enteric infections in children. Severe iron-deficiency anemia was treated in adults in northern Nigeria by daily in Ferastral 10 ml, which is equivalent to 500 mg of iron per day. Choloroquine, folic acid, rephenium hydroxynaphthoate, and tetrachlorethylene treat adults with severe iron deficiency from hookworm infestation in rural tropical Africa. Blood transfusion is indicated if the patient is dying of anaemia or is pregnant with a haemoglobin concentration 6 gm/dl. In South East Asia, mg per day

  18. An investigation of the relative efficacy of Buckley's Formocresol and calcium hydroxide in primary molar vital pulp therapy.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, P J; Nunn, J H; Whitworth, J M

    2000-01-08

    To compare the clinical and radiological outcomes following two different, single visit vital pulp therapy techniques, in cariously exposed primary molar teeth. A paediatric dental clinic within the Dental Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. Fifty two child patients were sequentially enrolled in the clinical investigation, 26 males and 26 females with an age range of 3.3-12.5 years. Primary molar teeth requiring vital pulp therapy were randomly allocated to either the formocresol group (F) or the calcium hydroxide group (C). The total number of teeth treated was 84. Recruitment was on the basis of strict inclusion criteria. Coronal pulp amputation was prescribed only in teeth with vital, cariously exposed pulp tissue. Treatment was undertaken between October 1994 and December 1996. All cases were reviewed using predefined clinical and radiological criteria. The statistical tests used were logistic regression of a triple nested data structure, chi-squared analysis of equality of treatment and probability of success with relation to subject age. Eighty-four cariously exposed primary molars required vital pulp therapy. Forty six (55%) teeth were included in the F group and 38 (45%) allocated to the C group. Five teeth were lost to follow-up, leaving 79 teeth: forty four (56%) in group F and 35 (44%) in group C. Eighty four percent (37/44) of teeth treated with formocresol and 77 percent (27/35) treated with calcium hydroxide were classed as clinically and radiographically successful at the cut-off date, December 1997, after a mean clinical review of 22.5 months (range 6.1-38.5 months) and a mean radiographic review of 18.9 months (range 1.3-36.9 months). This investigation confirms the clinical efficacy of a one-fifth dilution of Buckley's Formocresol as an agent in pulp treatment of cariously exposed, vital primary molar teeth. However, calcium hydroxide in its pure, powder form is a clinically acceptable alternative when combined with strict selection criteria for

  19. Vitamin D deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Gani, Linsey Utami; How, Choon How

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common and may contribute to osteopenia, osteoporosis and falls risk in the elderly. Screening for vitamin D deficiency is important in high-risk patients, especially for patients who suffered minimal trauma fractures. Vitamin D deficiency should be treated according to the severity of the deficiency. In high-risk adults, follow-up serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration should be measured 3–4 months after initiating maintenance therapy to confirm that the target level has been achieved. All patients should maintain a calcium intake of at least 1,000 mg for women aged ≤ 50 years and men ≤ 70 years, and 1,300 mg for women > 50 years and men > 70 years. PMID:26311908

  20. Serum lipids in rats as related to modifications in dietary fat, fiber, and sodium with magnesium deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, C.A.; Kubena, K.S. )

    1991-03-11

    Recommendations to modify dietary intake to attenuate risk of cardiovascular disease have been released by numerous governmental and health organizations. Since magnesium is associated with lipid metabolism and normal cardiovascular function, this study was designed to determine the effect of modifications in dietary fat, fiber, and sodium with magnesium deficiency on serum lipids and tissue minerals. The control (C) diet was based upon the AIN-76 diet formulation; the American (A) diet included average fat, fiber, and sodium levels in the US; and the recommended (R) diet was lower in fat and sodium and higher in fiber. Diets contained either 1,000 or 150 (L) mg Mg/kg diet. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of the diets (C, CL, A, Al, R, RL) for six weeks. Levels of tissue Mg, Ca, Zn, and P were determined. Neither initial nor final body weights varied between groups. Serum levels of triglyceride were higher in the C and Cl groups than in the others. Serum cholesterol was lower in the R and Rl groups than in the Cl and A groups. Animals which were fed the diet modified with regard to fat, fiber, and sodium had lower serum cholesterol levels than did those fed the American diet. Magnesium deficiency was not consistently related to serum lipid levels.

  1. In utero physiology: role in nutrient delivery and fetal development for calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Only limited aspects of the transfer of calcium across the placenta to the fetus are known. Clinical outcome studies suggest that bone mineral mass in newborn infants is related to maternal size and dairy intake. Available data indicate that vitamin D deficiency may also limit in utero fetal bone mi...

  2. DAILY PATTERNS OF CLOCK AND COGNITION-RELATED FACTORS ARE MODIFIED IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS OF VITAMIN A-DEFICIENT RATS

    PubMed Central

    Golini, Rebeca S.; Delgado, Silvia M.; Navigatore Fonzo, Lorena S.; Ponce, Ivana T.; Lacoste, María G.; Anzulovich, Ana C.

    2012-01-01

    The circadian expression of clock and clock-controlled cognition-related genes in the hippocampus would be essential to achieve an optimal daily cognitive performance. There is some evidence that retinoid nuclear receptors (RARs and RXRs) can regulate circadian gene expression in different tissues. In this study, Holtzman male rats from control and vitamin A-deficient groups were sacrificed throughout a 24-h period and hippocampus samples were isolated every 4 or 5 h. RARα and RXRβ expression level was quantified and daily expression patterns of clock BMAL1, PER1, RORα and REVERB genes, RORα and REVERB proteins, as well as temporal expression of cognition-related RC3 and BDNF genes were determined in the hippocampus of the two groups of rats. Our results show significant daily variations of BMAL1, PER1, RORα and REVERB genes, RORα and REVERB proteins and, consequently, daily oscillating expression of RC3 and BDNF genes in the rat hippocampus. Vitamin A deficiency reduced RXRβ mRNA level as well as the amplitude of PER1, REVERB gene and REVERB protein rhythms, and phase-shifted the daily peaks of BMAL1 and RORα mRNA, RORα protein and RC3 and BDNF mRNA levels. Thus, nutritional factors, such as vitamin A and its derivatives the retinoids, might modulate daily patterns of BDNF and RC3 expression in the hippocampus and they could be essential to maintain an optimal daily performance at molecular level in this learning-and-memory-related brain area. PMID:22434687

  3. Daily patterns of clock and cognition-related factors are modified in the hippocampus of vitamin A-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Golini, Rebeca S; Delgado, Silvia M; Navigatore Fonzo, Lorena S; Ponce, Ivana T; Lacoste, María G; Anzulovich, Ana C

    2012-08-01

    The circadian expression of clock and clock-controlled cognition-related genes in the hippocampus would be essential to achieve an optimal daily cognitive performance. There is some evidence that retinoid nuclear receptors (RARs and RXRs) can regulate circadian gene expression in different tissues. In this study, Holtzman male rats from control and vitamin A-deficient groups were sacrificed throughout a 24-h period and hippocampus samples were isolated every 4 or 5 h. RARα and RXRβ expression level was quantified and daily expression patterns of clock BMAL1, PER1, RORα, and REVERB genes, RORα and REVERB proteins, as well as temporal expression of cognition-related RC3 and BDNF genes were determined in the hippocampus of the two groups of rats. Our results show significant daily variations of BMAL1, PER1, RORα, and REVERB genes, RORα and REVERB proteins and, consequently, daily oscillating expression of RC3 and BDNF genes in the rat hippocampus. Vitamin A deficiency reduced RXRβ mRNA level as well as the amplitude of PER1, REVERB gene, and REVERB protein rhythms, and phase-shifted the daily peaks of BMAL1 and RORα mRNA, RORα protein, and RC3 and BDNF mRNA levels. Thus, nutritional factors, such as vitamin A and its derivatives the retinoids, might modulate daily patterns of BDNF and RC3 expression in the hippocampus, and they could be essential to maintain an optimal daily performance at molecular level in this learning-and-memory-related brain area.

  4. Folate Deficiency Triggered Apoptosis of Synoviocytes: Role of Overproduction of Reactive Oxygen Species Generated via NADPH Oxidase/Mitochondrial Complex II and Calcium Perturbation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hung-Chih; Chang, Wen-Ming; Wu, Jin-Yi; Huang, Chin-Chin; Lu, Fung-Jou; Chuang, Yi-Wen; Chang, Pey-Jium; Chen, Kai-Hua; Hong, Chang-Zern; Yeh, Rang-Hui; Liu, Tsan-Zon; Chen, Ching-Hsein

    2016-01-01

    Despite a plethora of literature has documented that osteoarthritis (OA) is veritably associated with oxidative stress-mediated chondrocyte death and matrix degradation, yet the possible involvement of synoviocyte abnormality as causative factor of OA has not been thoroughly investigated. For this reason, we conduct the current studies to insight into how synoviocytes could respond to an episode of folate-deprived (FD) condition. First, when HIG-82 synoviocytes were cultivated under FD condition, a time-dependent growth impediment was observed and the demise of these cells was demonstrated to be apoptotic in nature mediated through FD-evoked overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and drastically released of cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) concentrations. Next, we uncovered that FD-evoked ROS overproduction could only be strongly suppressed by either mitochondrial complex II inhibitors (TTFA and carboxin) or NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitors (AEBSF and apocynin), but not by mitochondrial complex I inhibitor (rotenone) and mitochondrial complex III inhibitor (antimycin A). Interestingly, this selective inhibition of FD-evoked ROS by mitochondrial complex II and NOX inhibitors was found to correlate excellently with the suppression of cytosolic Ca2+ release and reduced the magnitude of the apoptotic TUNEL-positive cells. Taken together, we present the first evidence here that FD-triggered ROS overproduction in synoviocytes is originated from mitochondrial complex II and NOX. Both elevated ROS in tandem with cytosolic Ca2+ overload serve as final arbitrators for apoptotic lethality of synoviocytes cultivated under FD condition. Thus, folate supplementation may be beneficial to patients with OA.

  5. New 6-O-acyl isoflavone glycosides from soybeans fermented with Bacillus subtilis (natto). I. 6-O-succinylated isoflavone glycosides and their preventive effects on bone loss in ovariectomized rats fed a calcium-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Toda, T; Uesugi, T; Hirai, K; Nukaya, H; Tsuji, K; Ishida, H

    1999-11-01

    Three new 6-O-acylated isoflavone glycosides were isolated from soybeans fermented with Bacillus subtilis (natto) and identified as daidzein 7-O-beta-(6''-O-succinyl)-D-glucoside (1), genistein 7-O-beta-(6''-O-succinyl)-D-glucoside (2), and glycitein 7-O-beta-(6''-O-succinyl)-D-glucoside (3) on the basis of spectral data and chemical transformations. During fermentation, the content of the isoflavone glycosides first decreased and then increased, whereas the corresponding 6''-O-succinyl derivatives first accumulated and then decreased, in either soybeans or soybean cooking solution. These changes suggest that enzymatic interconversion of isoflavone glycosides and the corresponding 6''-O-succinylated derivatives occurs in these media during fermentation. The 6-O-succinylated isoflavone glycosides 1, 2 and 3 accounted for 4.8, 7.2 and 0.6%, respectively, of the total isoflavones in commercial fermented soybeans (Japanese natto). Oral administration of 1 or 2 alone for 4 weeks at a dose of 50 mg/kg/d prevented bone loss in ovariectomized (ovx) rats fed a calcium-deficient diet, being as effective as the positive controls, daidzin and genistin, respectively. Compound 1 seems to be proestrogenic, like daidzin, which suppresses bone resorption to prevent bone loss after ovariectomy by directly acting on bone sites, while 2 appears to have a different mechanism of action, like that of genistin.

  6. Effect of relative humidity and additives on the reaction of sulfur dioxide with calcium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz-Alsop, R.N.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of process variables and additives on the reaction rate of Ca(OH)/sub 2/ with SO/sub 2/ at conditions similar to these encountered in the bag filters used to collect solids following flue gas desulfurization by spray drying. The effect of Ca(OH)/sub 2/ loading, temperature, relative humidity, and inlet SO/sub 2/ concentration were investigated. Of these variables, relative humidity showed the greatest impact on the reaction rate. The effect of small amounts of additives were also investigated. Of the additives tried (buffer acids, organic deliquescents, and inorganic deliquescents) deliquescent salts were the only additives that improved reactivity. A shrinking core model with zero order kinetics in SO/sub 2/ was used to model experimental data. An empirical correlation was included in the model to account for shape and surface roughness of the Ca(OH)/sub 2/ particles. The diffusion coefficient of the SO/sub 2/ through the product layer was found to increase linearly with relative humidity, and the kinetic rate constant increases exponentially with relative humidity. With a few exceptions the model was able to predict the experimental data within the margin of experimental error (+/- 10%). At high relative humidity and/or high SO/sub 2/ concentration, reaction kinetics control the overall reaction rate, while at low relative humidity and/or low SO/sub 2/ concentration, SO/sub 2/ diffusion through the product layer controls the rate. The reaction solids were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, powder x-ray diffraction, Coulter counter size distribution BET (N/sub 2/) surface area, energy dispersive spectrometry, and differential scanning calorimetry.

  7. Calcium dysregulation and neuroinflammation: Discrete and integrated mechanisms for age-related synaptic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sama, Diana M.; Norris, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Some of the best biomarkers of age-related cognitive decline are closely linked to synaptic function and plasticity. This review highlights several age-related synaptic alterations as they relate to Ca2+ dyshomeostasis, through elevation of intracellular Ca2+, and neuroinflammation, through production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Though distinct in many ways, Ca2+ and neuroinflammatory signaling mechanisms exhibit extensive cross-talk and bidirectional interactions. For instance, cytokine production in glial cells is strongly dependent on the Ca2+ dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin, which shows elevated activity in animal models of aging and disease. In turn, pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF, can augment the expression/activity of L-type voltage sensitive Ca2+ channels in neurons, leading to Ca2+ dysregulation, hyperactive calcineurin activity, and synaptic depression. Thus, in addition to discussing unique contributions of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and neuroinflammation, this review emphasizes how these processes interact to hasten age-related synaptic changes. PMID:23751484

  8. Bipolar and Related Disorders Induced by Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate in a Male Adolescent with Bile Salt Export Pump Deficiency Disease

    PubMed Central

    Simonetti, Giulia; Pirillo, Martina; Taruschio, Gianfranco; Andreone, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Bile Salt Export Pump (BSEP) Deficiency disease, including Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis type 2 (PFIC2), is a rare disease, usually leading within the first ten years to portal hypertension, liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma. Often liver transplantation is needed. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PB) seems to be a potential therapeutic compound for PFIC2. Psychiatric side effects in the adolescent population are little known and little studied since the drug used to treat children and infants. So we described a case of Caucasian boy, suffering from a late onset PFIC2, listed for a liver transplant when he was sixteen and treated with 4-FB (200 mg per kilogram of body weight per day). The drug was discontinued for the onset of bipolar and related disorders. This case illustrates possible psychiatric side effects of the drug. PMID:27757140

  9. Bipolar and Related Disorders Induced by Sodium 4-Phenylbutyrate in a Male Adolescent with Bile Salt Export Pump Deficiency Disease.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Giovanni; Simonetti, Giulia; Pirillo, Martina; Taruschio, Gianfranco; Andreone, Pietro

    2016-09-01

    Bile Salt Export Pump (BSEP) Deficiency disease, including Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis type 2 (PFIC2), is a rare disease, usually leading within the first ten years to portal hypertension, liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma. Often liver transplantation is needed. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PB) seems to be a potential therapeutic compound for PFIC2. Psychiatric side effects in the adolescent population are little known and little studied since the drug used to treat children and infants. So we described a case of Caucasian boy, suffering from a late onset PFIC2, listed for a liver transplant when he was sixteen and treated with 4-FB (200 mg per kilogram of body weight per day). The drug was discontinued for the onset of bipolar and related disorders. This case illustrates possible psychiatric side effects of the drug.

  10. The effect of continuous subcutaneous recombinant PTH (1-34) infusion during pregnancy on calcium homeostasis - a case report.

    PubMed

    Ilany, Jacob; Vered, Iris; Cohen, Ohad

    2013-09-01

    We describe calcium homeostasis during pregestation and gestation in a woman with iatrogenic hypoparathyroidism, treated with continuous subcutaneous recombinant parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1-34) infusion. The requirement for PTH did not fluctuate much during pregnancy and was essential for maintaining normal calcium and phosphorus serum levels. This study documents the insufficiency of PTH-related protein (PTHrP) or other gestation-related hormones to compensate for PTH deficiency in hypoparathyroid women, and the successful utilization of continuous subcutaneous recombinant PTH (1-34) infusion to achieve normal calcium homeostasis during gestation. Clinical trials with PTH replacement in such circumstances are warranted.

  11. Influence of acidifying or alkalinizing diets on bone mineral density and urine relative supersaturation with calcium oxalate and struvite in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Bartges, Joseph W; Kirk, Claudia A; Cox, Sherry K; Moyers, Tamberlyn D

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the influence of acidifying or alkalinizing diets on bone mineral density and urine relative supersaturation (URSS) with calcium oxalate and struvite in healthy cats. 6 castrated male and 6 spayed female cats. 3 groups of 4 cats each were fed diets for 12 months that differed only in acidifying or alkalinizing properties (alkalinizing, neutral, and acidifying). Body composition was estimated by use of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and 48-hour urine samples were collected for URSS determination. Urine pH differed significantly among diet groups, with the lowest urine pH values in the acidifying diet group and the highest values in the alkalinizing diet group. Differences were not observed in other variables except urinary ammonia excretion, which was significantly higher in the neutral diet group. Calcium oxalate URSS was highest in the acidifying diet group and lowest in the alkalinizing diet group; struvite URSS was not different among groups. Diet was not significantly associated with bone mineral content or density. Urinary undersaturation with calcium oxalate was achieved by inducing alkaluria. Feeding an alkalinizing diet was not associated with URSS with struvite. Bone mineral density and calcium content were not adversely affected by diet; therefore, release of calcium from bone caused by feeding an acidifying diet may not occur in healthy cats.

  12. Bone, Calcium and Spaceflight: A Living Systems Experiment Relating Animals and Plants the Effects of Calcium on Plant Growth and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss-Bubenheim, D.; Navarro, B.J.; Morey-Holton, E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This NASA-sponsored educational outreach activity provided local students with information about Ames Research Center's (ARC) role in conducting life sciences research in space. Students were introduced to the scientific method while conducting a plant experiment that correlated with the Spacelab Life Sciences-2 (SLS-2) flight animal experiment of Dr. Emily Morey-Holton entitled "Bone, Calcium and Spaceflight". Students made daily observations, collected data and reported on their findings. Students also had the opportunity to witness the STS-58 landing at Edwards Air Force Base in southern California and attended a briefing given by the Payload Commander, Dr. Rhea Seddon at ARC last month. This classroom experiment providing a hands-on learning opportunity about terrestrial and space biology and, hopefully, introduced the students to new fields of study for future endeavors.

  13. Accelerated features of age-related bone loss in zmpste24 metalloproteinase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Daniel; Li, Wei; Akter, Rahima; Henderson, Janet E; Duque, Gustavo

    2009-10-01

    Age-related bone loss is associated with changes in bone cellularity, which include marrow fat infiltration and decreasing levels of osteoblastogenesis. The mechanisms that explain these changes remain unclear. Although nuclear lamina alterations occur in premature aging syndromes that include changes in body fat and severe osteoporosis, the role of proteins of the nuclear lamina in age-related bone loss remains unknown. Using the Zmpste24-null progeroid mice (Zmpste24(-/-)), which exhibit nuclear lamina defects and accumulate unprocessed prelamin A, we identified several alterations in bone cellularity in vivo. We found that defective prelamin A processing induced accelerated features of age-related bone loss including lower osteoblast and osteocyte numbers and higher levels of marrow adipogenesis. In summary, processing of prelamin A could become a new approach to regulate osteoblastogenesis and bone turnover and thus for the prevention and treatment of senile osteoporosis.

  14. Vascular calcification and secondary hyperparathyroidism of severe chronic kidney disease and its relation to serum phosphate and calcium levels.

    PubMed

    Terai, K; Nara, H; Takakura, K; Mizukami, K; Sanagi, M; Fukushima, S; Fujimori, A; Itoh, H; Okada, M

    2009-04-01

    Various complications consequent on disordered calcium and phosphate homeostasis occur frequently in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Particularly, vascular calcification has high morbidity and mortality rates. There is a clear need for a better CKD model to examine various aspects of this disordered homeostasis. Oral dosing with adenine induced CKD in rats in only 10 days. Serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone were measured and calcification in aorta was assessed histologically. The effects of varying phosphorus content of diet or treatment with phosphate binders or active vitamin D(3) on these parameters were examined. After adenine dosing, significant hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism (2HPT) were observed during the experimental period of 15 weeks. Aortic calcification was detected in only some of the animals even at 15 weeks (approximately 40%). Treatment with vitamin D(3) for 18 days, even at a low dose (100 ng x kg(-1), 3-4 times week(-1), p.o), caused aortic calcification in all animals and increases in serum calcium levels up to the normal range. The vitamin D(3)-induced calcification was significantly inhibited by phosphate binders which lowered serum phosphate levels and the calcium x phosphate product, although serum calcium levels were elevated. These data suggest that rats dosed orally with adenine provide a more useful model for analysing calcium/phosphate homeostasis in severe CKD. Controlling serum calcium/phosphate levels with phosphate binders may be better than vitamin D(3) treatment in hyperphosphatemia and 2HPT, to avoid vascular calcification.

  15. Collagen peptide and vitamin C additively attenuate age-related skin atrophy in Sod1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Shuichi; Ozawa, Yusuke; Toda, Toshihiko; Watanabe, Kenji; Tometsuka, Chisa; Ogura, Takayuki; Koyama, Yoh-ichi; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2014-01-01

    Age-related skin thinning is correlated with a decrease in the content of collagen in the skin. Accumulating evidence suggests that collagen peptide (CP) and vitamin C (VC) transcriptionally upregulate type I collagen in vivo. However, the additive effects of CP and VC on age-related skin changes remain unclear. We herein demonstrate that CP and a VC derivative additively corrected age-related skin thinning via reduced oxidative damage in superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1)-deficient mice. Co-treatment with these compounds significantly normalized the altered gene expression of Col1a1, Has2, and Ci1, a proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter, in Sod1(-/-) skin. The in vitro analyses further revealed that collagen oligopeptide, a digestive product of ingested CP, significantly promoted the bioactivity of the VC derivative with respect to the migration and proliferation of Sod1(-/-) fibroblasts. These findings suggest that combined treatment with CP and VC is effective in cases of age-related skin pathology.

  16. Chronic tension-type headache with vitamin D deficiency: casual or causal association?

    PubMed

    Prakash, Sanjay; Shah, Nilima D

    2009-09-01

    The prevalence of tension-type headache and vitamin D deficiency are both very high in the general population. The inter-relations between the two have not been explored in the literature. We report 8 patients with chronic tension-type headache and vitamin D deficiency (osteomalacia). All the patients responded poorly to conventional therapy for tension headache. The headache and osteomalacia of each of the 8 patients responded to vitamin D and calcium supplementation. The improvement in the headache was much earlier than the improvements in the symptom complex of osteomalacia. We also speculate on the possible mechanisms for headache in the patients with vitamin D deficiency.

  17. The effect of feeding calcium- and phosphorus-deficient diets to broiler chickens during the starting and growing-finishing phases on carcass quality.

    PubMed

    Driver, J P; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Edwards, H M

    2006-11-01

    There is considerable data on the effect of reducing inorganic Ca and P in broiler finisher diets on carcass quality. However, there is limited information on the effect of reducing dietary Ca and P during the different phases of growout. Two experiments were conducted from 0 to 35 d in floor pens. In both experiments, at least 4 replicates per treatment (50 chicks per replicate) were used. Corn-soybean meal and soybean oil-based diets deficient in Ca and P were fed. During the starter phase (ST), from 0 to 18 d, chicks were fed a 23% CP diet containing 0.60% Ca and 0.47% total P (tP). During the grower-finisher phase (GF), from 19 to 35 d, birds were fed a 19% CP diet containing 0.30% Ca and 0.37% tP. A combination of 1,000 phytase units/kg of Natuphos phytase and 5 microg/kg of 1alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (P + 1alpha) was supplemented to some of the feed during the ST and GF. Diets containing adequate Ca and P were also fed during the ST (0.90% Ca and 0.68% tP) and GF (0.80% Ca and 0.67% tP). The level of tibia ash and the incidence of bone disease were measured at 18 and 35 d. At the end of the experiments, birds were processed and evaluated for muscle hemorrhages and broken bones. In both experiments, broilers fed diets that were not P + 1alpha supplemented demonstrated poor bone mineralization, considerable leg problems, and a high incidence of broken bones after processing. Broilers fed P + 1alpha throughout had more broken clavicles and femurs compared with birds fed the adequate diets. Day-18 tibia ash was significantly correlated to broken tibias and femurs during processing. Day-35 tibia ash was better correlated to bloody breast meat than to broken bones. It is concluded that carcass quality depends on the levels of Ca and P fed and the age of the bird. Tibia ash, traditionally used as an indication of bone strength, was better correlated to the incidence of bloody breasts.

  18. Calcium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperthyroidism Sarcoidosis Tuberculosis Prolonged immobilization Excess vitamin D intake Thiazide diuretics Kidney transplant HIV/AIDS Low total calcium (hypocalcemia) The most common cause of low total calcium is: Low blood protein levels, especially a low level of albumin , which ...

  19. Engineered Troponin C Constructs Correct Disease-related Cardiac Myofilament Calcium Sensitivity*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Lee, Ryan S.; Biesiadecki, Brandon J.; Tikunova, Svetlana B.; Davis, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity is commonly observed with multiple cardiac diseases, especially familial cardiomyopathies. Although the etiology of the cardiomyopathies remains unclear, improving cardiac muscle Ca2+ sensitivity through either pharmacological or genetic approaches shows promise of alleviating the disease-related symptoms. Due to its central role as the Ca2+ sensor for cardiac muscle contraction, troponin C (TnC) stands out as an obvious and versatile target to reset disease-associated myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity back to normal. To test the hypothesis that aberrant myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity and its related function can be corrected through rationally engineered TnC constructs, three thin filament protein modifications representing different proteins (troponin I or troponin T), modifications (missense mutation, deletion, or truncation), and disease subtypes (familial or acquired) were studied. A fluorescent TnC was utilized to measure Ca2+ binding to TnC in the physiologically relevant biochemical model system of reconstituted thin filaments. Consistent with the pathophysiology, the restrictive cardiomyopathy mutation, troponin I R192H, and ischemia-induced truncation of troponin I (residues 1–192) increased the Ca2+ sensitivity of TnC on the thin filament, whereas the dilated cardiomyopathy mutation, troponin T ΔK210, decreased the Ca2+ sensitivity of TnC on the thin filament. Rationally engineered TnC constructs corrected the abnormal Ca2+ sensitivities of the thin filament, reconstituted actomyosin ATPase activity, and force generation in skinned trabeculae. Thus, the present study provides a novel and versatile therapeutic strategy to restore diseased cardiac muscle Ca2+ sensitivity. PMID:22511780

  20. Relative importance of calcium and magnesium in hardness-based modification of copper toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, P.G.; Lipton, J.; Chapman, G.A.; Podrabsky, T.L.

    2000-06-01

    Because of the relationship between water hardness and the toxicity of many metals, total hardness is used as a model parameter to calculate ambient water quality criteria for copper and other metals. However, the relative contribution of the Ca and Mg components of total hardness as modifiers of metals toxicity is not considered in the water quality criteria. Acute Cu toxicity was measured in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) swim-up fry in laboratory waters that were formulated to have similar total hardness and alkalinity but different Ca and Mg concentrations. Experiments were performed at nominal total hardness values of 40 and 90 mg/L (as CaCO{sub 3}). In four paired toxicity tests, acute Cu toxicity was significantly lower, i.e., 96-h LC50s were higher, in laboratory waters containing proportionately more Ca (Ca:Mg molar ratios of 1.5--5.2) than in waters containing less Ca (Ca:Mg molar ratios of 0.2--0.8). the relative increase in the 96-h Cu LC50 at higher Ca concentrations, but similar total hardness concentrations, was between 29 and 86% when the low Ca treatment was similar to American Society for Testing and Materials laboratory water. Failure to account for differences in Ca when matching or adjusting for total hardness thus exerts an important influence on the prediction of metal toxicity. These differences must be addressed in water-effect ratio testing in which paired tests with laboratory and site waters are conducted.

  1. Growth hormone deficiency in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy: relation to gross motor function and degree of spasticity.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Rasha T; Ismail, Mona A; Hamed, Amira I

    2011-04-01

    Children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) often have poor linear growth during childhood with short final height. Thus, we aimed to assess serum growth hormone (GH), insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels among CP patients and their relation to each of gross motor function and degree of spasticity. Fifty CP children and adolescents were studied in comparison to 50 healthy age-, sex- and pubertal stage-matched children and adolescents. All subjects were subjected to clinical evaluation, Intelligence Quotient (IQ) assessment and measurement of serum GH, IGF-1 and IGFBP-3. All auxological and hormonal parameters were significantly lower among cases. Fifty two% of cases were GH-deficient and 62% had reduced IGF-land IGFBP-3 levels. Gross Motor Function Measure- 88 (GMFM-88) score correlated negatively with each of basal (r = -0.71, p = 0.02) and peak stimulated GH (r =-0.88, p = <0.001); IGF-1 (r = -0.64, p = 0.04) and IGFBP-3 (r = -0.69, p = 0.031). There were significant negative correlations between the degree of spasticity assessed by Modified Ashworth Scale and each of basal (r = -0.61, p = 0.032) and peak stimulated GH (r = -0.78, p = 0.01); IGF-1 (r = -0.65, p = 0.041) and IGFBP-3 (r = -0.62, p = 0.035). Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) is prevalent in children with CP and could be one of the causes of their short stature.

  2. Scope and severity index: a metric for quantifying nursing home survey deficiency number, scope, and severity adjusted for the state-related measurement bias.

    PubMed

    Antonova, Evgeniya; Zimmerman, David

    2012-02-01

    To develop a metric (scope and severity index [SSI]) to measure nursing home deficiency number, scope, and severity adjusted for the state-related bias and to test its convergent and predictive validity. We assigned scope and severity weights to each level of scope and severity (A-L). SSI was calculated as a sum of all weights per survey which was further corrected for the state-level bias by dividing by the state average number of health deficiencies and multiplying by the national average number of health deficiencies. Data source - National Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting system. All Medicare/Medicaid-certified skilled nursing facilities. We correlated SSI with nursing home staffing levels (convergent validity) and denial of payment for new admissions (predictive validity). The expert panel reached agreement on the scope and severity weights: Level A = 5, B = 10, C = 15, D = 20, E = 30, F = 40, G = 35, H = 50, I = 65, J = 55, K = 75, and L = 100 points. Scope and severity per deficiency was positively correlated with the number of deficiencies in that survey. SSI contained almost no state-related bias, but yet related state-level variability. It demonstrated strong face, convergent, and predictive validity. SSI rendered a valuable metric to conduct quantitative analyses of nursing home deficiency number, scope, and severity across states. Future research should investigate the positive relationship between scope and severity of deficiencies and their number. Better understanding and correction of other factors introducing systematic bias to the survey results (e.g. regional impact) can further improve the accuracy of survey result evaluation. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adrenoleukodystrophy-related protein can compensate functionally for adrenoleukodystrophy protein deficiency (X-ALD): implications for therapy.

    PubMed

    Netik, A; Forss-Petter, S; Holzinger, A; Molzer, B; Unterrainer, G; Berger, J

    1999-05-01

    Inherited defects in the peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ALDP) lead to the lethal peroxisomal disorder X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), for which no efficient treatment has been established so far. Three other peroxisomal ABC transporters currently are known: adrenoleukodystrophy-related protein (ALDRP), 70 kDa peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP70) and PMP70- related protein. By using transient and stable overexpression of human cDNAs encoding ALDP and its closest relative ALDRP, we could restore the impaired peroxisomal beta-oxidation in fibroblasts of X-ALD patients. The pathognomonic accumulation of very long chain fatty acids could also be prevented by overexpression of ALDRP in immortalized X-ALD cells. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that the functional replacement of ALDP by ALDRP was not due to stabilization of the mutated ALDP itself. Moreover, we were able to restore the peroxisomal beta-oxidation defect in the liver of ALDP-deficient mice by stimulation of ALDRP and PMP70 gene expression through a dietary treatment with the peroxisome proliferator fenofibrate. These results suggest that a correction of the biochemical defect in X-ALD could be possible by drug-induced overexpression or ectopic expression of ALDRP.

  4. Calpain 1 inhibitor BDA-410 ameliorates α-klotho-deficiency phenotypes resembling human aging-related syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Nabeshima, Yoko; Washida, Miwa; Tamura, Masaru; Maeno, Akiteru; Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Imura, Akihiro; Razzaque, M. Shawkat; Nabeshima, Yo-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Taking good care of elderly is a major challenge of our society, and thus identification of potential drug targets to reduce age-associated disease burden is desirable. α-klotho-/- (α-kl) is a short-lived mouse model that displays multiple phenotypes resembling human aging-related syndromes. Such ageing phenotype of α-kl-/- mice is associated with activation of a proteolytic enzyme, Calpain-1. We hypothesized that uncontrolled activation of calpain-1 might be causing age-related phenotypes in α-kl-deficient mice. We found that daily administration of BDA-410, a calpain-1 inhibitor, strikingly ameliorated multiple aging-related phenotypes. Treated mice showed recovery of reproductive ability, increased body weight, reduced organ atrophy, and suppression of ectopic calcifications, bone mineral density reduction, pulmonary emphysema and senile atrophy of skin. We also observed ectopic expression of FGF23 in calcified arteries of α-kl-/- mice, which might account for the clinically observed association of increased FGF23 level with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. These findings allow us to propose that modulation of calpain-1 activity is a potential therapeutic option for delaying age-associated organ pathology, particularly caused by the dysregulation of mineral ion homeostasis. PMID:25080854

  5. Effects of relative humidity and root temperature on calcium concentration and tipburn development in lettuce.

    PubMed

    Collier, G F; Tibbitts, T W

    1984-03-01

    Growth chamber studies were undertaken with a tipburn-sensitive cultivar of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Lobjoits Green Cos) grown under a photosynthetic photon flux density of 320 micromoles s-1 m-2 for 16 hours; light and dark temperatures were 26.0 degrees and 12.5 degrees C, respectively. As the relative humidity (RH) during the light period was decreased from 74% to 51%, growth was retarded, Ca concentration increased, and the onset of tipburn delayed. Decreasing RH during the dark period from 95% to 90% reduced growth and resulted in lower Ca concentrations and earlier tipburn development. Further decreases from 90% to 65% caused no additional change in growth or tipburn response. Root temperatures of 23.5 degrees, compared with 15.0 degrees, slightly increased Ca concentration but induced earlier tipburn development. Ca concentrations were increased and tipburn delayed by humidity conditions which provided large diurnal fluctuations in water potential in the plant and which encouraged root pressure flow during the dark period. Elevated root temperatures did not provide expected increases in Ca accumulation in young leaves.

  6. Cloning and sequencing of parafusin, a calcium-dependent exocytosis-related phosphoglycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, S V; Wyroba, E; Andersen, A P; Satir, B H

    1994-01-01

    A cDNA for parafusin, an evolutionarily conserved phosphoglycoprotein involved in exocytosis, has been cloned and sequenced from a unicellular eukaryote, Paramecium tetraurelia. A Paramecium cDNA library was screened with an oligonucleotide probe synthesized to an internal amino acid sequence of isolated parafusin. The insert was 3 kb long with an open reading frame of 1.75 kb. Data base searches of the deduced amino acid sequence showed that Paramecium parafusin had a 50.7% sequence identity to rabbit muscle phosphoglucomutase, although no detectable phosphoglucomutase activity has been detected in isolated parafusin. The deduced parafusin amino acid sequence had four inserts and two deletions, which might confer on the protein specific functions in signal transduction events related to exocytosis. Furthermore, searches for potential phosphorylation sites showed the presence of a protein kinase C site (KDFSFR) specific to parafusin. Southern blot analysis with probes specific for parafusin and phosphoglucomutase suggested that these proteins were products of different genes. We propose that parafusin and phosphoglucomutase are members of a superfamily that conserve homologies important for the tertiary structure of the molecules. Images PMID:7937900

  7. Accelerated age-related cognitive decline and neurodegeneration, caused by deficient DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Borgesius, Nils Z; de Waard, Monique C; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Omrani, Azar; Zondag, Gerben C M; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Melton, David W; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Jaarsma, Dick; Elgersma, Ype

    2011-08-31

    Age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases are a growing challenge for our societies with their aging populations. Accumulation of DNA damage has been proposed to contribute to these impairments, but direct proof that DNA damage results in impaired neuronal plasticity and memory is lacking. Here we take advantage of Ercc1(Δ/-) mutant mice, which are impaired in DNA nucleotide excision repair, interstrand crosslink repair, and double-strand break repair. We show that these mice exhibit an age-dependent decrease in neuronal plasticity and progressive neuronal pathology, suggestive of neurodegenerative processes. A similar phenotype is observed in mice where the mutation is restricted to excitatory forebrain neurons. Moreover, these neuron-specific mutants develop a learning impairment. Together, these results suggest a causal relationship between unrepaired, accumulating DNA damage, and age-dependent cognitive decline and neurodegeneration. Hence, accumulated DNA damage could therefore be an important factor in the onset and progression of age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Relative and combined effects of ethanol and protein deficiency on bone manganese and copper.

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, José M; González-Reimers, Emilio; DeLaVega-Prieto, María José; Durán-Castellón, María del Carmen; Viña-Rodríguez, José; Galindo-Martín, Luis; Alvisa-Negrín, Julio; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco

    2012-06-01

    Both manganese and copper may affect bone synthesis. Bone content of both metals can be altered in alcoholics, although controversy exists regarding this matter. To analyse the relative and combined effects of ethanol and a low protein diet on bone copper and manganese, and their relationships with bone structure and metabolism, including trabecular bone mass (TBM), osteoid area (OA), osteocalcin (OCN), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), parathyroid hormone (PTH), urinary hydroxyproline (uHP) and vitamin D. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. The control rats received a 18% protein-containing diet; a second group, an isocaloric, 2% protein-containing diet; a third one, an isocaloric, 36% ethanol-containing diet and a fourth, an isocaloric diet containing 2% protein and 36% ethanol. After sacrifice, TBM and OA were histomorphometrically assessed; bone and serum manganese and copper were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and serum OCN, IGF-1, PTH, uHP and vitamin D by radioimmunoassay. Ethanol-fed rats showed decreased TBM and bone manganese. Significant relationships existed between bone manganese and TBM, serum IGF-1 and OCN. Ethanol leads to a decrease in bone manganese, related to decreased bone mass and bone synthesis. No alterations were found in bone copper.

  9. Accident investigation reporting deficiencies related to organizational factors in machinery space fires and explosions.

    PubMed

    Schröder-Hinrichs, Jens U; Baldauf, Michael; Ghirxi, Kevin T

    2011-05-01

    Careful accident investigation provides opportunities to review safety arrangements in socio-technical systems. There is consensus that human intervention is involved in the majority of accidents. Ever cautious of the consequences attributed to such a claim vis-à-vis the apportionment of blame, several authors have highlighted the importance of investigating organizational factors in this respect. Specific regulations to limit what were perceived as unsuitable organizational influences in shipping operations were adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Guidance is provided for the investigation of human and organizational factors involved in maritime accidents. This paper presents a review of 41 accident investigation reports related to machinery space fires and explosions. The objective was to find out if organizational factors are identified during maritime accident investigations. An adapted version of the Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) with minor modifications related to machinery space features was used for this review. The results of the review show that organizational factors were not identified by maritime accident investigators to the extent expected had the IMO guidelines been observed. Instead, contributing factors at the lower end of organizational echelons are over-represented.

  10. The Absence of the Calcium-buffering Protein Calbindin is Associated with Faster Age-related Decline in Hippocampus Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, Nesha S.; Vela-Duarte, Daniel; Masciotti, James; Hua, Fan; Fenton, André A.; Schwaller, Beat; Small, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Although reductions in the expression of the calcium-buffering proteins calbindin D-28K (CB) and parvalbumin (PV) have been observed in the aging brain, it is unknown whether these changes contribute to age-related hippocampal dysfunction. To address this issue, we measured basal hippocampal metabolism and hippocampal structure across the lifespan of C57BL/6J, calbindin D-28k knockout (CBKO) and parvalbumin knockout (PVKO) mice. Basal metabolism was estimated using steady state relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), which is a variant of fMRI that provides the highest spatial resolution, optimal for the analysis of individual subregions of the hippocampal formation. We found that like primates, normal aging in C57BL/6J mice is characterized by an age-dependent decline in rCBV-estimated dentate gyrus metabolism. Although abnormal hippocampal fMRI signals were observed in CBKO and PVKO mice, only CBKO mice showed accelerated age-dependent decline of rCBV-estimated metabolism in the dentate gyrus. We also found age-independent structural changes in CBKO mice, which included an enlarged hippocampus and neocortex as well as global brain hypertrophy. These metabolic and structural changes in CBKO mice correlated with a deficit in hippocampus-dependent learning in the active place avoidance task. Our results suggest that the decrease in CB that occurs during normal aging is involved in age-related hippocampal metabolic decline. Our findings also illustrate the value of using multiple MRI techniques in transgenic mice to investigate mechanisms involved in the functional and structural changes that occur during aging. PMID:21630373

  11. Relation of Fasting Triglyceride-Rich Lipoprotein Cholesterol to Coronary Artery Calcium Score (from the ELSA-Brasil Study).

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Marcio S; Santos, Raul D; Staniak, Henrique; Sharovsky, Rodolfo; Kondapally, Rao; Vallejo-Vaz, Antonio J; Ray, Kausik K; Bensenor, Isabela; Lotufo, Paulo

    2017-05-01

    Although low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is widely accepted as the principal lipid fraction associated with atherosclerosis, emerging evidence suggests a causal relation between lifelong elevations in triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol (TRL-C) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in genetic studies. To provide further evidence for the potential relevance of TRL-C and atherosclerosis, we have evaluated the relation between TRL-C and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. We included 3,845 subjects (49.9 ± 8.4 years, 54% women) who had no history of CVD, were not using lipid-lowering medications, and underwent CAC evaluation. We assessed the relation between increasing fasting TRL-C and the graded increase in CAC and to what extent TRL-C were independently associated with CAC over and above LDL-C using logistic regression models. Overall, 973 (25%) of the participants had a CAC >0 and 308 (8%) had a CAC >100. The median TRL-C level was 22 mg/dL (IQR 16 to 32). Subjects with CAC >0 had higher TRL-C levels than those with CAC = 0 (p <0.001). Similarly, subjects with CAC >0 had higher levels of LDL-C, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (all p <0.001). After multivariate adjustment, log-transformed TRL-C remained associated with the presence and severity of CAC (all p <0.05). When TRL-C was added to models that contained demographic factors and conventional lipids, it significantly improved the model to predict the presence of CAC >0 (p = 0.01). In conclusion, in a large cohort of asymptomatic subjects, TRL-C was associated with subclinical atherosclerosis supporting a potentially causal role in CVD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA4): A housekeeper for RT-PCR relative quantification of polytopic membrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Calcagno, Anna Maria; Chewning, Katherine J; Wu, Chung-Pu; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2006-01-01

    Background Although relative quantification of real-time RT-PCR data can provide valuable information, one limitation remains the selection of an appropriate reference gene. No one gene has emerged as a universal reference gene and much debate surrounds some of the more commonly used reference genes, such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). At this time, no gene encoding for a plasma membrane protein serves as a reference gene, and relative quantification of plasma membrane proteins is performed with genes encoding soluble proteins, which differ greatly in quantity and in targeting and trafficking from plasma membrane proteins. In this work, our aim was to identify a housekeeping gene, ideally one that codes for a plasma membrane protein, whose expression remains the same regardless of drug treatment and across a wide range of tissues to be used for relative quantification of real-time RT-PCR data for ATP binding cassette (ABC) plasma membrane transporters. Results In studies evaluating the expression levels of two commonly used reference genes coding for soluble proteins and two genes coding for membrane proteins, one plasma membrane protein, plasma membrane calcium-ATPase 4 (PMCA4), was comparable to the two reference genes already in use. In addition, PMCA4 expression shows little variation across eight drug-treated cell lines and was found to be superior to GAPDH and HPRT1, commonly used reference genes. Finally, we show PMCA4 used as a reference gene for normalizing ABC transporter expression in a drug-resistant lung carcinoma cell line. Conclusion We have found that PMCA4 is a good housekeeping gene for normalization of gene expression for polytopic membrane proteins including transporters and receptors. PMID:16978418

  13. Interferon-gamma deficiency protects against aging-related goblet cell loss

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Eugene A.; Henriksson, Johanna Tukler; Wang, Changjun; Barbosa, Flavia L.; Zaheer, Mahira; Zhang, Xiaobo; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; de Paiva, Cintia S.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a well-recognized risk factor for dry eye. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) has been implicated in conjunctival keratinization and goblet cell loss in dry eye. We investigated the role of IFN-γ in age-related dry eye by evaluating young (8 weeks) and aged (15 months; 15M) C57BL/6 (B6) and IFN-γKO mice. Age effects on the conjunctiva and cornea epithelium were assessed with PAS staining and corneal staining, respectively. Expression of T cell-related cytokines (IL-17A, IFN-γ), chemokines (CXCL10 and CCL20), in the ocular surface epithelium was evaluated by real time PCR. A significant decrease in filled goblet cells was noted in 15M B6 mice and this was significantly lower than age and sex-matched IFN-γKO mice. Aged male B6 had significantly higher IFN-γ, and CXCL10 mRNA in their conjunctiva than female B6 mice. Aged IFN-γKO females had significantly higher IL-17A mRNA in conjunctiva than IFN-γKO males and B6 mice. Corneal barrier dysfunction was observed in 15M female B6 and aged IFN-γKO mice of both sexes; however it was significantly higher in IFN-γKO compared to B6 mice. While there was a significant increase in IL 17A, and CCL20 in corneas of aged female B6 and IFN-γKO mice compared to males, these changes were more evident in aged female IFN-γKO group. Partial resistance of IFN-γKO mice to aging-induced goblet cell loss indicates IFN-γ is involved in the age-related decline in conjunctival goblet cells. Increased corneal IL-17A expression paralleled corneal barrier disruption in aging female of both strains. IFN-γ appears to suppress IL-17A on the ocular surface. PMID:27623073

  14. Activation of phosphorylase by anoxia and dinitrophenol in rabbit colon smooth muscle: relation to release of calcium from mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, G

    1983-05-01

    The effect of anoxia or 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) on the phosphorylase a activity and the calcium content in subcellular fractions from rabbit colon smooth muscle was studied. Anoxia for 15 min. as well as DNP (6.6 X 10(-5) M) for 5 min. increased the phosphorylase a activity. The calcium content in the mitochondrial subfraction, prepared from the anoxic- or DNP-treated intact muscle and determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, was reduced. The calcium content in the nuclear and the microsomal fractions was not changed in preparations with a normal Ca-content. When the muscle was incubated for 60 min. in a Ca2+-free medium containing 2.0 mM EGTA, the calcium content in the mitochondrial fraction was reduced to 38% of the control. This calcium level was still further reduced and the phosphorylase a activity was increased by DNP in this "Ca-poor" muscle. In these preparations the Ca-content of the microsomal + supernatant fraction increased. Only when the muscle was incubated, initially, in an anoxic medium containing 0.1 mM Ca2+ for 120 min. and, subsequently, in an oxygenated medium containing 0.1 mM Ca2+ for 20 min., DNP failed to activate phosphorylase and to decrease the calcium content in the mitochondrial fraction. These results indicate that mitochondrial Ca2+ release is one of the regulatory factors of the anoxic-induced glycogenolysis.

  15. Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.

    1991-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

  16. Caveolin-1 Deficiency May Predispose African Americans to Systemic Sclerosis–Related Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Charles; Perry, Beth; Heywood, Jonathan; Bonner, Michael; Visconti, Richard P.; Lee, Rebecca; Hatfield, Corey M.; Silver, Richard M.; Hoffman, Stanley; Tourkina, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Objective Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the leading cause of death in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma). Although SSc-related ILD is more common and severe in African Americans than in Caucasians, little is known about factors underlying this significant health disparity. The aim of this study was to examine the role that low expression of caveolin-1 might play in susceptibility to ILD among African Americans. Methods Assays of monocyte migration toward stromal cell–derived factor 1 (SDF-1) were performed using monocytes from Caucasian and African American healthy donors and patients with SSc. For fibrocyte differentiation studies, total peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells were incubated on fibronectin-coated plates. Protein expression was evaluated by immuno-histochemistry and Western blotting. Results Monocytes from healthy African American donors and those from patients with SSc had low caveolin-1 levels, enhanced migration toward the CXCR4 ligand SDF-1, and enhanced differentiation to fibrocytes. Enhanced migration and differentiation of monocytes from African Americans and patients with SSc appeared to be attributable to the lack of caveolin-1, because restoring caveolin-1 function using a caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide inhibited these processes. Although they differed from monocytes from Caucasians, monocytes from both African Americans and patients with SSc were not identical, because SSc monocytes showed major increases from baseline in ERK, JNK, p38, and Smad2/3 activation, while monocytes from African Americans showed only limited ERK activation and no activation of JNK, p38, or Smad2/3. In contrast, SDF-1 exposure caused no additional ERK activation in SSc monocytes but did cause significant additional activation in monocytes from African Americans. Conclusion African Americans may be predisposed to SSc-related ILD due to low baseline caveolin-1 levels in their monocytes, potentially affecting signaling, migration, and

  17. Caveolin-1 deficiency may predispose African Americans to systemic sclerosis-related interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Reese, Charles; Perry, Beth; Heywood, Jonathan; Bonner, Michael; Visconti, Richard P; Lee, Rebecca; Hatfield, Corey M; Silver, Richard M; Hoffman, Stanley; Tourkina, Elena

    2014-07-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the leading cause of death in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma). Although SSc-related ILD is more common and severe in African Americans than in Caucasians, little is known about factors underlying this significant health disparity. The aim of this study was to examine the role that low expression of caveolin-1 might play in susceptibility to ILD among African Americans. Assays of monocyte migration toward stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) were performed using monocytes from Caucasian and African American healthy donors and patients with SSc. For fibrocyte differentiation studies, total peripheral blood mononuclear cells were incubated on fibronectin-coated plates. Protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Monocytes from healthy African American donors and those from patients with SSc had low caveolin-1 levels, enhanced migration toward the CXCR4 ligand SDF-1, and enhanced differentiation to fibrocytes. Enhanced migration and differentiation of monocytes from African Americans and patients with SSc appeared to be attributable to the lack of caveolin-1, because restoring caveolin-1 function using a caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide inhibited these processes. Although they differed from monocytes from Caucasians, monocytes from both African Americans and patients with SSc were not identical, because SSc monocytes showed major increases from baseline in ERK, JNK, p38, and Smad2/3 activation, while monocytes from African Americans showed only limited ERK activation and no activation of JNK, p38, or Smad2/3. In contrast, SDF-1 exposure caused no additional ERK activation in SSc monocytes but did cause significant additional activation in monocytes from African Americans. African Americans may be predisposed to SSc-related ILD due to low baseline caveolin-1 levels in their monocytes, potentially affecting signaling, migration, and fibrocyte differentiation. The monocytes of

  18. Crystal Structure of Pure and Aluminous Calcium Silicate Perovskites at Mantle Related Pressure and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Shim, S. H.; Leinenweber, K. D.; Meng, Y.; Prakapenka, V.

    2015-12-01

    CaSiO3-perovskite (CaPv) is believed to be the third most abundant mineral (5 wt%) in the Earth's lower mantle (LM). Subducted slabs contain 23 wt% CaPv at the LM related pressure (P) and temperature (T), where Al2O3 could be incorporated into the crystal structure of CaPv (AlCaPv). However, there remains important discrepancy between computations and experiments on the crystal structure of CaPv at high P and low T. Some computations have predicted a tetragonal I4/mcm structure with a pseudo-cubic axial ratio (cp/ap) greater than 1, while X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies have suggested a tetragonal P4/mmm structure with cp/ap ~ 0.995. Using Ne as a pressure medium, we conducted in-situ XRD of CaSiO3 and 5 wt% Al-bearing CaSiO3 in the laser heated diamond anvil cell at the GSECARS and HPCAT sectors of the Advanced Photon Source. Rietveld refinements are performed on the diffraction patterns of CaPv at 300 K and 20-60 GPa. Similar to previous studies, we observed splitting of the 200 and 211 peaks after T-quench in pure CaPv. However, unlike previous experiments, diffraction patterns were more consistent with a tetragonal I4/mcm structure with cp/ap ~ 1.005 than P4/mmm. All the previous diffraction patterns have been measured with an Ar or MgO medium, or even without a medium, while we used more hydrostatic Ne medium. Considering the small free energy differences among different perovskite structures, the crystal structure of CaPv may be very sensitive to non-hydrostatic stresses. In runs with AlCaPv, asymmetrical 200 peaks are found up to 60 GPa and 2200 K, showing