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Sample records for calcium fluoride caf2

  1. Shock Compression Response of Calcium Fluoride (CaF2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Root, Seth

    2017-06-01

    The fluorite crystal structure is a textbook lattice that is observed for many systems, such as CaF2, Mg2 Si, and CeO2. Specifically, CaF2 is a useful material for studying the fluorite system because it is readily available as a single crystal. Under static compression, CaF2 is known to have at least three solid phases: fluorite, cotunnite, and a Ni2 In phase. Along the Hugoniot CaF2 undergoes a fluorite to cotunnite phase transition, however, at higher shock pressures it is unknown whether CaF2 undergoes another solid phase transition or melts directly from the cotunnite phase. In this work, we conducted planar shock compression experiments on CaF2 using Sandia's Z-machine and a two-stage light gun up to 900 GPa. In addition, we use density functional theory (DFT) based quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations to provide insight into the CaF2 state along the Hugoniot. In collaboration with: Michael Desjarlais, Ray Lemke, Patricia Kalita, Scott Alexander, Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL850.

  2. Fluoride rinse effect on retention of CaF2 formed on enamel/dentine by fluoride application.

    PubMed

    Falcão, Amanda; Masson, Nadia; Leitão, Tarcísio Jorge; Botelho, Juliana Nunes; Ferreira-Nóbilo, Naiara de Paula; Tabchoury, Cínthia Pereira Machado; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2016-01-01

    Calcium fluoride-like materials ("CaF2") formed on dental surfaces after professional fluoride application are unstable in the oral environment but can be retained longer with a daily NaF mouthrinse. We tested the effect of twice daily 0.05% NaF rinses on the retention of "CaF2" formed on enamel and dentine after applying acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF). "CaF2" formed on enamel/dentine by APF application significantly decreased after exposure to artificial saliva and the 0.05% NaF rinse was ineffective to avoid this reduction. These findings suggest that the combination of APF and 0.05% NaF is not clinically relevant, either for caries or dental hypersensitivity.

  3. Epitaxial growth of lithium fluoride on the (1 1 1) surface of CaF 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpp, St; Dabringhaus, H.

    1999-08-01

    Growth of lithium fluoride by molecular beam epitaxy on the (1 1 1) surface of calcium fluoride crystals was studied by TEM and LEED for crystal temperatures from 400 to 773 K and impinging lithium fluoride fluxes from 3×10 11 to 3×10 14 cm -2 s -1. Growth starts, usually, at the <1 1 0> steps on the (1 1 1) surface of CaF 2. For larger step distances and at later growth stages also growth on the terraces between the steps is found. Preferably, longish, roof-like crystallites are formed, which can be interpreted by growth of LiF(2 0 1¯)[0 1 0] parallel to CaF 2(1 1 1)[ 1¯ 0 1]. To a lesser extent square crystallites, i.e. growth with LiF(0 0 1), and, rarely, three-folded pyramidal crystallites, i.e. growth with LiF(1 1 1) parallel to CaF 2(1 1 1), are observed. While the pyramidal crystallites show strict epitaxial orientation with LiF[ 1¯ 0 1]‖CaF 2[ 1¯ 0 1] and LiF[ 1¯ 0 1]‖CaF 2[1 2¯ 1], only about 80% of the square crystallites exhibit an epitaxial alignment, where LiF[1 0 0]‖CaF 2[ 1¯ 0 1] is preferred to LiF[1 1 0]‖CaF 2[ 1¯ 0 1]. The epitaxial relationships are discussed on the basis of theoretically calculated adsorption positions of the lithium fluoride monomer and dimer on the terrace and at the steps of the CaF 2(1 1 1) surface.

  4. Fluoride Binding to Dental Biofilm Bacteria: Synergistic Effect with Calcium Questioned.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, Diego Figueiredo; Leitão, Tarcísio Jorge; Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló

    2018-06-06

    It has been suggested that fluoride binding to dental biofilm is enhanced when more bacterial calcium binding sites are available. However, this was only observed at high calcium and fluoride concentrations (i.e., when CaF2 precipitation may have occurred). We assessed fluoride binding to Streptococcus mutans pellets treated with calcium and fluoride at concentrations allowing CaF2 precipitation or not. Increasing calcium concentration resulted in a linear increase (p < 0.01) in fluoride concentration only in the pellets in which CaF2 precipitated. The results suggest that CaF2 precipitation, rather than bacterially bound fluoride, is responsible for the increase in fluoride binding to dental biofilm with the increase in calcium availability. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Characterization of nanoscopic calcium fluoride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehmer, A.; Kemnitz, E.

    2016-09-01

    Nano metal fluorides are appropriate materials for different applications e.g. heterogeneous catalysis, ceramic materials for laser applications and antireflective layers on glass, respectively. An easy way to synthesize such nano metal fluorides is the fluorolytic sol-gel synthesis which was developed some few years ago for HS-AlF3 [1] and MgF2.[2] CaF2 exhibits similar optical properties as MgF2, and thus, is a promising candidate for antireflective (AR) coatings. That means, CaF2 exhibits a lower refractive index (n500 = 1.44) as compared to common soda lime glass (n500 = 1.53). Hence, we present an easy synthesis approach toward nanoscaled CaF2 sols to fabricate finally AR-CaF2 films by dip coating. Irrespective of the choice of the calcium precursor, the CaF2 films are porous in comparison to thin dense CaF2 films which are generated by physical vapor deposition. The characterization of CaF2 films was performed by different analytical methods like HR-SEM, XPS, EDX, EP (ellipsometric porosimetry), DLS (dynamic light scattering) and CA (contact angle measurement). Beside the good optical and mechanical properties, we have investigated the surface properties of CaF2 films on glass and silicon wafer e.g. surface morphology with elemental composition, open porosity, zeta potentials at the surfaces as well as the free energy of interaction between water and the CaF2 film.

  6. No calcium-fluoride-like deposits detected in plaque shortly after a sodium fluoride mouthrinse.

    PubMed

    Vogel, G L; Tenuta, L M A; Schumacher, G E; Chow, L C

    2010-01-01

    Plaque 'calcium-fluoride-like' (CaF(2)-like) and fluoride deposits held by biological/bacterial calcium fluoride (Ca-F) bonds appear to be the source of cariostatic concentrations of fluoride in plaque fluid. The aim of this study was to quantify the amounts of plaque fluoride held in these reservoirs after a sodium fluoride rinse. 30 and 60 min after a 228 microg/g fluoride rinse, plaque samples were collected from 11 volunteers. Each sample was homogenized, split into 2 aliquots (aliquots 1 and 2), centrifuged, and the recovered plaque fluid combined and analyzed using microelectrodes. The plaque mass from aliquot 1 was retained. The plaque mass from aliquot 2 was extracted several times with a solution having the same fluoride, calcium and pH as the plaque fluid in order to extract the plaque CaF(2)-like deposits. The total fluoride in both aliquots was then determined. In a second experiment, the extraction completeness was examined by applying the above procedure to in vitro precipitates containing known amounts of CaF(2)-like deposits. Nearly identical fluoride concentrations were found in both plaque aliquots. The extraction of the CaF(2)-like precipitates formed in vitro removed more than 80% of these deposits. The results suggest that either CaF(2)-like deposits were not formed in plaque or, if these deposits had been formed, they were rapidly lost. The inability to form persistent amounts of CaF(2)-like deposits in plaque may account for the relatively rapid loss of plaque fluid fluoride after the use of conventional fluoride dentifrices or rinses. (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. No Calcium-Fluoride-Like Deposits Detected in Plaque Shortly after a Sodium Fluoride Mouthrinse

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, G.L.; Tenuta, L.M.A.; Schumacher, G.E.; Chow, L.C.

    2010-01-01

    Plaque ‘calcium-fluoride-like’ (CaF2-like) and fluoride deposits held by biological/bacterial calcium fluoride (Ca-F) bonds appear to be the source of cariostatic concentrations of fluoride in plaque fluid. The aim of this study was to quantify the amounts of plaque fluoride held in these reservoirs after a sodium fluoride rinse. 30 and 60 min after a 228 μg/g fluoride rinse, plaque samples were collected from 11 volunteers. Each sample was homogenized, split into 2 aliquots (aliquots 1 and 2), centrifuged, and the recovered plaque fluid combined and analyzed using microelectrodes. The plaque mass from aliquot 1 was retained. The plaque mass from aliquot 2 was extracted several times with a solution having the same fluoride, calcium and pH as the plaque fluid in order to extract the plaque CaF2-like deposits. The total fluoride in both aliquots was then determined. In a second experiment, the extraction completeness was examined by applying the above procedure to in vitro precipitates containing known amounts of CaF2-like deposits. Nearly identical fluoride concentrations were found in both plaque aliquots. The extraction of the CaF2-like precipitates formed in vitro removed more than 80% of these deposits. The results suggest that either CaF2-like deposits were not formed in plaque or, if these deposits had been formed, they were rapidly lost. The inability to form persistent amounts of CaF2-like deposits in plaque may account for the relatively rapid loss of plaque fluid fluoride after the use of conventional fluoride dentifrices or rinses. PMID:20185917

  8. Mechanical Properties of Calcium Fluoride-Based Composite Materials

    PubMed Central

    Kleczewska, Joanna; Pryliński, Mariusz; Podlewska, Magdalena; Sokołowski, Jerzy; Łapińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate mechanical properties of light-curing composite materials modified with the addition of calcium fluoride. The study used one experimental light-curing composite material (ECM) and one commercially available flowable light-curing composite material (FA) that were modified with 0.5–5.0 wt% anhydrous calcium fluoride. Morphology of the samples and uniformity of CaF2 distribution were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Mechanical properties were tested after 24-hour storage of specimens in dry or wet conditions. Stored dry ECM enriched with 0.5–1.0 wt% CaF2 showed higher tensile strength values, while water storage of all modified ECM specimens decreased their tensile strength. The highest Vickers hardness tested after dry storage was observed for 2.5 wt% CaF2 content in ECM. The addition of 2.0–5.0 wt% CaF2 to FA caused significant decrease in tensile strength after dry storage and overall tensile strength decrease of modified FA specimens after water storage. The content of 2.0 wt% CaF2 in FA resulted in the highest Vickers hardness tested after wet storage. Commercially available composite material (FA), unmodified with fluoride addition, demonstrated overall significantly higher mechanical properties. PMID:28004001

  9. The activity of calcium in calcium-metal-fluoride fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochifuji, Yuichiro; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka; Sano, Nobuo

    1995-08-01

    The standard Gibbs energy of reaction Ca (1) + O (mass pct, in Zr) = CaO (s) has been determined as follows by equilibrating molten calcium with solid zirconium in a CaO crucible: Δ G° = -64,300(±700) + 19.8(±3.5) T J/mol (1373 to 1623 K) The activities of calcium in the CaOsatd-Ca- MF2 ( M: Ca, Ba, Mg) and CaOsatd-Ca-NaF systems were measured as a function of calcium composition at high calcium contents at 1473 K on the basis of the standard Gibbs energy. The activities of calcium increase in the order of CaF2, BaF2, and MgF2 at the same calcium fraction of these fluxes. The observed activities are compared with those estimated by using the Temkin model for ionic solutions. Furthermore, the possibility of the removal of tramp elements such as tin, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, and lead from carbon-saturated iron by using calcium-metal-fluoride fluxes is discussed.

  10. Nanoscale “fluorescent stone”: Luminescent Calcium Fluoride Nanoparticles as Theranostic Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhanjun; Zhang, Yuanwei; Huang, Ling; Yang, Yuchen; Zhao, Yang; El-Banna, Ghida; Han, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Calcium Fluoride (CaF2) based luminescent nanoparticles exhibit unique, outstanding luminescent properties, and represent promising candidates as nanoplatforms for theranostic applications. There is an urgent need to facilitate their further development and applications in diagnostics and therapeutics as a novel class of nanotools. Here, in this critical review, we outlined the recent significant progresses made in CaF2-related nanoparticles: Firstly, their physical chemical properties, synthesis chemistry, and nanostructure fabrication are summarized. Secondly, their applications in deep tissue bio-detection, drug delivery, imaging, cell labeling, and therapy are reviewed. The exploration of CaF2-based luminescent nanoparticles as multifunctional nanoscale carriers for imaging-guided therapy is also presented. Finally, we discuss the challenges and opportunities in the development of such CaF2-based platform for future development in regard to its theranostic applications. PMID:27877242

  11. Process for converting magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride

    DOEpatents

    Kreuzmann, A.B.; Palmer, D.A.

    1984-12-21

    This invention is a process for the conversion of magnesium fluoride to calcium fluoride whereby magnesium fluoride is decomposed by heating in the presence of calcium carbonate, calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide. Magnesium fluoride is a by-product of the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride to form uranium metal and has no known commercial use, thus its production creates a significant storage problem. The advantage of this invention is that the quality of calcium fluoride produced is sufficient to be used in the industrial manufacture of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, steel mill flux or ceramic applications.

  12. The calcium fluoride effect on properties of cryolite melts feasible for low-temperature production of aluminum and its alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkacheva, O.; Dedyukhin, A.; Redkin, A.; Zaikov, Yu.

    2017-07-01

    The CaF2 effect on the liquidus temperature, electrical conductivity and alumina solubility in the potassium-sodium and potassium-lithium cryolite melts with cryolite ratio (CR = (nKF+nMF)/nAlF3, M = Li, Na) 1.3 was studied. The liquidus temperature in the quisi-binary system [KF-LiF-AlF3]-CaF2 changes with the same manner as in the [KF-NaF-AlF3]-CaF2. The electrical conductivity in the KF-NaF-AlF3-CaF2 melt decreases with increasing the CaF2 content, but it slightly raises with the first small addition of CaF2 into the KF-LiF-AlF3-CaF2 melts, enriched with KF, which was explained by the increased K+ ions mobility due to their relatively low ionic potential. The contribution of the Li+ cations in conductivity of the KF-LiF-AlF3-CaF2 electrolyte is not noteworthy. The Al2O3 solubility in the KF-NaF-AlF3 electrolyte rises with the increasing KF content, but the opposite tendency is observed in the cryolite mixtures containing CaF2. The insoluble compounds - KCaAl2F9 or KCaF3 - formed in the molten mixtures containing potassium and calcium ions endorse the increase of the liquidus temperature. The calcium fluoride effect on the side ledge formation in the electrolytic cell during low-temperature aluminum electrolysis is discussed.

  13. The displacement effect of a fluorine atom in CaF2 on the band structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, A.; Zaoui, A.; Bensaid, D.

    2018-05-01

    We obtained the results for each configuration [100], [110] and [111] and each configuration contains two atoms of calcium and four fluorine atoms with lattice type B. This study was made by a code that is based on the DFT called wien2k. The results obtained are in good agreement with the experiment. For CaF2, an important variation of the fluoride ions concentration in CaF2 after displacement has been observed on the map of e-Density. The interpretation of the results is based on the existence of an important number of defects which are created by changing the atomic positions inside of sub lattice.

  14. Antibacterial Properties of Calcium Fluoride-Based Composite Materials: In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Zarzycka, Beata; Grzegorczyk, Janina; Sokołowski, Krzysztof; Półtorak, Konrad; Sokołowski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate antibacterial activity of composite materials modified with calcium fluoride against cariogenic bacteria S. mutans and L. acidophilus. One commercially available conventional light-curing composite material containing fluoride ions (F2) and two commercially available flowable light-curing composite materials (Flow Art and X-Flow) modified with 1.5, 2.5, and 5.0 wt% anhydrous calcium fluoride addition were used in the study. Composite material samples were incubated in 0.95% NaCl at 35°C for 3 days; then dilution series of S. mutans and L. acidophilus strains were made from the eluates. Bacteria dilutions were cultivated on media afterwards. Colony-forming unit per 1 mL of solution (CFU/mL) was calculated. Composite materials modified with calcium fluoride highly reduced (p < 0.001) bacteria growth compared to commercially available composite materials containing fluoride compounds. The greatest reduction in bacteria growth was observed for composite materials modified with 1.5% wt. CaF2. All three tested composite materials showed statistically greater antibacterial activity against L. acidophilus than against S. mutans. PMID:28053976

  15. Combined Raman and SEM study on CaF2 formed on/in enamel by APF treatments.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, H; Jongebloed, W L; Stokroos, I; Arends, J

    1993-01-01

    Raman spectra containing the distinct band at 322 cm-1 due to CaF2 or CaF2-like material formed in/on fluoridated bovine enamel were recorded using a micro-Raman spectrograph. Due to increasing levels of background fluorescence with increasing thickness of enamel, the Raman measurements were carried out on thin regions of wedged enamel sections. The distribution of the CaF2 or CaF2-like material was estimated using a simple model. The results indicate that 1/3 of the total CaF2 was concentrated within the narrow depth < 2 microns with high CaF2 concentrations (> 10 wt%), and that the majority of the CaF2 was distributed over the depths up to 26 microns (1 wt% CaF2). SEM observations on fractured fluoridated enamel confirmed that morphological changes were present in the depth range comparable to that of the high CaF2 concentration region expected from the Raman analysis. In deeper regions where lower concentration (< 10%) but a large amount of CaF2 was still expected, the SEM images failed to distinguish between the normal and fluoridated enamel. After KOH treatment, the Raman spectra did not show evidence of the CaF2 peak and the SEM micrographs also confirmed the removal of globules. The peak position of the Raman band of the CaF2 formed by the fluoridation was identical to that of pure CaF2. However, the linewidth was 23 cm-1 (FWHM) and a factor of 2 broader than that of pure CaF2 (12 cm-1). This implies that the lattice dynamics of the CaF2 formed by fluoridation is different from of pure CaF2, and that the material formed is 'CaF2-like' or 'disordered CaF2'.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of CaF2:Dy nanophosphor for dosimetric application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadane, Mahesh S.; Patil, B. J.; Dahiwale, S. S.; Kulkarni, M. S.; Bhatt, B. C.; Bhoraskar, V. N.; Dhole, S. D.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, nanoparticles (NPs) of dysprosium doped calcium fluoride (CaF2:Dy) 1 mol % has been prepared using simple chemical co-precipitation method and its thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetric properties were studied. The synthesized nanoparticle sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the particle size of face centered cubic phase NPs was found around 30 nm. The shape, morphology and size were also observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). From gamma irradiated CaF2:Dy TL curves, it was observed that the total areas of all the glow peak intensities are dramatically changed with increase in annealing temperature. Further, TL glow curve of the CaF2:Dy at 183 °C annealed at 400 °C, showed very sharp linear response in the dose range from 1 Gy to 750 Gy. This linear response of CaF2:Dy nanophosphor as a function of gamma dose is very useful from radiation dosimetric point of view.

  17. Effect of high-energy electron irradiation in an electron microscope column on fluorides of alkaline earth elements (CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaichik, V. I.; Sobolev, B. P.; Zaporozhets, M. A.; Avilov, A. S.

    2012-03-01

    The effect of high-energy (150 eV) electron irradiation in an electron microscope column on crystals of fluorides of alkaline earth elements CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2 is studied. During structural investigations by electron diffraction and electron microscopy, the electron irradiation causes chemical changes in MF2 crystals such as the desorption of fluorine and the accumulation of oxygen in the irradiated area with the formation of oxide MO. The fluorine desorption rate increases significantly when the electron-beam density exceeds the threshold value of ˜2 × 103 pA/cm2). In BaF2 samples, the transformation of BaO into Ba(OH)2 was observed when irradiation stopped. The renewal of irradiation is accompanied by the inverse transformation of Ba(OH)2 into BaO. In the initial stage of irradiation of all MF2 compounds, the oxide phase is in the single-crystal state with a lattice highly matched with the MF2 matrix. When the irradiation dose is increased, the oxide phase passes to the polycrystalline phase. Gaseous products of MF2 destruction (in the form of bubbles several nanometers in diameter) form a rectangular array with a period of ˜20 nm in the sample.

  18. Cryogenic Temperature-Dependent Refractive Index Measurements of CaF2 and Infrasil 301

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Bradley J.; Leviton, Douglas B.; Madison, TImothy J.

    2007-01-01

    In order to enable high quality lens design using calcium fluoride (CaF2) and Heraeus Infrasil 30 (Infrasil) at cryogenic temperatures, we have measured the absolute refractive index of prisms of these two materials using the Cryogenic, High-Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, as a function of both wavelength and temperature. For CaF2, we report absolute refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) at temperatures ranging from 25 to 300 K at wavelengths from 0.4 to 5.6 micrometers; for Infrasil we cover temperatures ranging from 35 to 300K and wavelengths from 0.4 to 3.6 micrometers. We investigate the interspecimen variability between measurements of two unrelated samples of CaF2, and we also compare our results for Infrasil to previous measurements fo Corning 7980 fused silica. Finally, we provide temperature-dependent Sellmeier coefficients based on our data to allow accurate interpolation of index to other wavelengths and temperatures and compare those results to other data found in the literature.

  19. The cariostatic mechanisms of fluoride.

    PubMed

    Rošin-Grget, Kata; Peroš, Kristina; Sutej, Ivana; Bašić, Krešimir

    2013-11-01

    This article discusses the possible cariostatic mechanisms of the action of fluoride. In the past, fluoride inhibition of caries was ascribed to reduced solubility of enamel due to incorporation of fluoride (F-) into the enamel minerals. The present evidence from clinical and laboratory studies suggests that the caries-preventive mode of action of fluoride is mainly topical. There is convincing evidence that fluoride has a major effect on demineralisation and remineralisation of dental hard tissue. The source of this fluoride could either be fluorapatite (formed due to the incorporation of fluoride into enamel) or calcium fluoride (CaF2)-like precipitates, which are formed on the enamel and in the plaque after application of topical fluoride. Calcium fluoride deposits are protected from rapid dissolution by a phosphate -protein coating of salivary origin. At lower pH, the coating is lost and an increased dissolution rate of calcium fluoride occurs. The CaF2, therefore, act as an efficient source of free fluoride ions during the cariogenic challenge. The current evidence indicates that fluoride has a direct and indirect effect on bacterial cells, although the in vivo implications of this are still not clear. A better understanding of the mechanisms of the action of fluoride is very important for caries prevention and control. The effectiveness of fluoride as a cariostatic agent depends on the availability of free fluoride in plaque during cariogenic challenge, i.e. during acid production. Thus, a constant supply of low levels of fluoride in biofilm/saliva/dental interference is considered the most beneficial in preventing dental caries. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  20. Water Atomization of Barium Fluoride: Calcium Fluoride for Enhanced Flow Characteristics of PS304 Feedstock Powder Blend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    PS304 is a plasma spray deposited solid lubricant coating with feedstock composed of NiCr, Cr2O3, Ag, and BaF2-CaF2 powders. The effects of rounded BaF2-CaF2 particles on the gravity-fed flow characteristics of PS304 feedstock have been investigated. The BaF2-CaF2 powder was fabricated by water atomization using four sets of process parameters. Each of these powders was then characterized by microscopy and classified by screening to obtain 45 to 106 micron particles and added incrementally from 0 to 10 wt% to the other constituents of the PS304 feedstock, namely nichrome, chromia, and silver powders. The relationship between feedstock flow rate, measured with the Hall flowmeter, and concentration of fluorides was found to be linear in each case. The slopes of the lines were between those of the linear relationships previously reported using angular and spherical fluorides and were closer to the relationship predicted using the rule of mixtures. The results offer a fluoride fabrication technique potentially more cost-effective than gas atomization processes or traditional comminution processes.

  1. High precision processing CaF2 application research based on the magnetorheological finishing (MRF) technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xianyun; Fan, Bin; Wu, Fan

    2017-10-01

    Single crystal calcium fluoride (CaF2) is the excellent transparent optical substance that has extremely good permeability and refractive index from 120nm wavelength ultraviolet range to 12μm wavelength infrared range and it has widely used in the applications of various advanced optical instrument, such as infrared optical systems (IR), short wavelength optical lithography systems (DUV), as well as high power UV laser systems. Nevertheless, the characteristics of CaF2 material, including low fracture toughness, low hardness, low thermal conductivity and high thermal expansion coefficient, result in that the conventional pitch polishing techniques usually expose to lots of problems, such as subsurface damage, scratches, digs and so on. Single point diamond turning (SPDT) is a prospective technology for manufacture the brittle material, but the residual surface textures or artifacts of SPDT will cause great scattering losses. Meanwhile, the roughness also falls far short from the requirement in the short wavelength optical systems. So, the advanced processing technologies for obtaining the shape accuracy, roughness, surface flaw at the same time need to put forward. In this paper, the authors investigate the Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) technology for the high precision processing of CaF2 material. We finish the surface accuracy RMS λ/150 and roughness Rq 0.3nm on the concave aspheric from originate shape error 0.7λ and roughness 17nm by the SPDT. The studying of the MRF techniques makes a great effort to the processing level of CaF2 material for the state-of-the-art DUV lithography systems applications.

  2. Complex refractive index measurements for BaF 2 and CaF 2 via single-angle infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly-Gorham, Molly Rose K.; DeVetter, Brent M.; Brauer, Carolyn S.

    We have re-investigated the optical constants n and k for the homologous series of inorganic salts barium fluoride (BaF2) and calcium fluoride (CaF2) using a single-angle near-normal incidence reflectance device in combination with a calibrated Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Our results are in good qualitative agreement with most previous works. However, certain features of the previously published data near the reststrahlen band exhibit distinct differences in spectral characteristics. Notably, our measurements of BaF2 do not include a spectral feature in the ~250 cm-1 reststrahlen band that was previously published. Additionally, CaF2 exhibits a distinct wavelength shift relative to themore » model derived from previously published data. We confirmed our results with recently published works that use significantly more modern instrumentation and data reduction techniques« less

  3. High-temperature characteristics of advanced Ni-MH batteries using nickel electrodes containing CaF 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuezeng; Gong, Zhixin; Zhao, Shumei; Geng, Mingming; Wang, Yan; Northwood, Derek O.

    The high-temperature charge acceptance of Ni-MH batteries has been improved through the addition of calcium fluoride to the pasted nickel hydroxide electrode made using spherical Co(OH) 2-coated nickel hydroxide powder. The charge acceptance of the Ni-MH battery at 60 °C is over 95% at 1 C charge/discharge rates. The charge acceptance at 60 °C remains at over 90% through 10 cycles. The use of Co(OH) 2-coated Ni(OH) 2 plus a CaF 2 addition to the positive electrode also significantly improved the high-temperature stability in terms of reduced gas evolution.

  4. Enhancement of luminescence in white emitting strontium fluoride core @ calcium fluoride shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumam, Nandini; Singh, Ningthoujam Premananda; Singh, Laishram Priyobarta; Srivastava, Sri Krishna

    2015-09-01

    Synthesis of lanthanide-doped fluoride SrF2:3Dy and SrF2:3Dy@CaF2 nanoparticles with different ratios of core to shell (1:0.5, 1:1 and 1:2) has been carried out by employing ethylene glycol route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal that the structure of the prepared nanoparticles was of cubical shape, which is also evident in TEM images. The size of the nanoparticles for core (SrF2:3Dy) is found to increase when core is covered by shell (CaF2). It is also evident from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) that ethylene glycol successfully controls the growth and acts as a shape modifier by regulating growth rate. In the photoluminescence investigation, emission spectra of SrF2:3Dy is found to be highly enhanced when SrF2:3Dy is covered by CaF2 due to the decrease of cross relaxation amongst the Dy3+-Dy3+ ions. Such type of enhancement of luminescence in homonanostructure SrF2:3Dy@CaF2 (core@shell) has not been studied so far, to the best of the authors' knowledge. This luminescent material exhibits prominently white light emitting properties as shown by the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity diagram. The calculated correlate colour temperature (CCT) values for SrF2:3Dy, SrF2:3Dy@CaF2 (1:0.05), SrF2:3Dy@CaF2 (1:1) and SrF2:3Dy@CaF2 (1:2) are 5475, 5476, 5384 and 5525 K, respectively, which lie in the cold white region.

  5. Thermoluminescence dosimetry properties of new Cu doped CaF(2) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zahedifar, M; Sadeghi, E

    2013-12-01

    Nanoparticles of Cu-doped calcium fluoride were synthesised by using the hydrothermal method. The structure of the prepared nanomaterial was characterised by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and energy dispersive spectrometer. The particle size of 36 nm was calculated from the XRD data. Its shape and size were also observed by scanning electron microscope. Thermoluminescence (TL) and photoluminescence of the produced phosphor were also considered. The computerised glow curve deconvolution procedure was used to identify the number of glow peaks included in the TL glow curve of the CaF2:Cu nanoparticles. The TL glow curve contains two overlapping glow peaks at ∼413 and 451 K. The TL response of this phosphor was studied for different Cu concentrations and the maximum sensitivity was found at 1 mol% of Cu impurity. Other dosimetric characteristics of the synthesised nanophosphor are also presented and discussed.

  6. Fluoride varnishes containing calcium glycerophosphate: fluoride uptake and the effect on in vitro enamel erosion.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Thiago S; Bönecker, Marcelo; Altenburger, Markus J; Buzalaf, Marília A R; Sampaio, Fabio C; Lussi, Adrian

    2015-07-01

    Calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) was added to fluoride varnishes to analyze their preventive effect on initial enamel erosion and fluoride uptake: potassium hydroxide (KOH)-soluble and KOH-insoluble fluoride bound to enamel. This study was carried out in two parts. Part 1: 108 enamel samples were randomly distributed into six varnish groups: base varnish (no active ingredients); Duraphat® (2.26%NaF); Duofluorid® (5.63%NaF/CaF2); experimental varnish 1 (1%CaGP/5.63 NaF/CaF2); experimental varnish 2 (5%CaGP/5.63%NaF/CaF2); and no varnish. Cyclic demineralization (90 s; citric acid, pH = 3.6) and remineralization (4 h) was made once a day, for 3 days. Change in surface microhardness (SMH) was measured. Part 2: 60 enamel samples were cut in half and received no varnish (control) or a layer of varnish: Duraphat®, Duofluorid®, experimental varnishes 1 and 2. Then, KOH-soluble and KOH-insoluble fluoride were analyzed using an electrode. After cyclic demineralization, SMH decreased in all samples, but Duraphat® caused less hardness loss. No difference was observed between varnishes containing CaGP and the other varnishes. Similar amounts of KOH-soluble and insoluble fluoride was found in experimental varnish 1 and Duofluorid®, while lower values were found for experimental varnish 2 and Duraphat®. The addition of CaGP to fluoride varnishes did not increase fluoride bound to enamel and did not enhance their protection against initial enamel erosion. We observe that the fluoride varnishes containing CaGP do not promote greater amounts of fluoride bound to enamel and that fluoride bound to enamel may not be closely related to erosion prevention.

  7. Pyrochemical recovery of plutonium from calcium fluoride reduction slag

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, D.C.

    A pyrochemical method of recovering finely dispersed plutonium metal from calcium fluoride reduction slag is claimed. The plutonium-bearing slag is crushed and melted in the presence of at least an equimolar amount of calcium chloride and a few percent metallic calcium. The calcium chloride reduces the melting point and thereby decreases the viscosity of the molten mixture. The calcium reduces any oxidized plutonium in the mixture and also causes the dispersed plutonium metal to coalesce and settle out as a separate metallic phase at the bottom of the reaction vessel. Upon cooling the mixture to room temperature, the solid plutonium can be cleanly separated from the overlying solid slag, with an average recovery yield on the order of 96 percent.

  8. Hexamethyldisilazane Removal with Mesoporous Materials Prepared from Calcium Fluoride Sludge.

    PubMed

    Kao, Ching-Yang; Lin, Min-Fa; Nguyen, Nhat-Thien; Tsai, Hsiao-Hsin; Chang, Luh-Maan; Chen, Po-Han; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2018-05-01

    A large amount of calcium fluoride sludge is generated by the semiconductor industry every year. It also requires a high amount of fuel consumption using rotor concentrators and thermal oxidizers to treat VOCs. The mesoporous adsorbent prepared by calcium fluoride sludge was used for VOCs treatment. The semiconductor industry employs HMDS to promote the adhesion of photo-resistant material to oxide(s) due to the formation of silicon dioxide, which blocks porous adsorbents. The adsorption of HMDS (Hexamethyldisiloxane) was tested with mesoporous silica materials synthesized from calcium fluoride (CF-MCM). The resulting samples were characterized by XRD, XRF, FTIR, N2-adsorption-desorption techniques. The prepared samples possessed high specific surface area, large pore volume and large pore diameter. The crystal patterns of CF-MCM were similar with Mobil composite matter (MCM-41) from TEM image. The adsorption capacity of HMDS with CF-MCM was 40 and 80 mg g-1, respectively, under 100 and 500 ppm HMDS. The effects of operation parameters, such as contact time and mixture concentration, on the performance of CF-MCM were also discussed in this study.

  9. Effect of oral calcium and calcium + fluoride treatments on mouse bone properties during suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simske, S. J.; Luttges, M. W.; Allen, K. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The bone effects of oral dosages of calcium chloride with or without supplementary sodium fluoride were assessed in antiorthostatically suspended mice. Two calcium dosages were used to replace half (3.1 mM) or all(6.3 mM) of the dietary calcium lost due to reduced food intake by the suspended mice. Two groups of 6.3 mM CaCl2-treated mice were additionally treated with 0.25 or 2.5 mM NaF. The results indicate that supplementation of the mouse drinking water with calcium salts prevents bone changes induced by short-term suspension, while calcium salts in combination with fluoride are less effective as fluoride dosage increases. However, the calcium supplements change the relationship between the femur mechanical properties and the mineral composition of the bone. Because of this, it appears that oral calcium supplements are effective through a mechanism other than simple dietary supplementation and may indicate a dependence of bone consistency on systemic and local fluid conditions.

  10. The Role of Calcium in Ameliorating the Oxidative Stress of Fluoride in Rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, N E

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of fluoride toxicity on some biochemical, hormonal, and histological parameters of female rats and the protective role of calcium against such effects. Adult female albino rats were divided into five groups; control group received distilled water for 60 days, calcium group received calcium carbonate with dose of 50 mg/kg three times per week for 60 days, fluoride group received sodium fluoride with dose of 20 mg/kg three times per week for 60 days, calcium + fluoride group received calcium carbonate (50 mg/kg) then after 2 h received sodium fluoride (20 mg/kg) three times per week for 60 days, and fluoride + calcium group received sodium fluoride (20 mg/kg) three times per week for 30 days then received calcium carbonate (50 mg/kg) three times per week for another 30 days. The results showed that the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, parathormone, phosphorous, magnesium, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma glutamyl transferase were significantly increased in rats treated with fluoride while serum estradiol, calcium, and organ glutathione were significantly decreased. The histological examination of the femur bone revealed that fluoride treatment induced thinning of bone trabeculae with wilding of marrow space, demineralization, and loss of trabeculae interconnections. Also, the histological examination of hepatic and renal tissues of fluoride-treated rats showed some damages in these tissues while administration of calcium carbonate for 30 or 60 days during fluoride treatment minimized such damages. It could be concluded that administration of calcium to female rats can ameliorate the hazardous effects of fluoride observed in the biochemical, hormonal, and histological parameters.

  11. PHz current switching in calcium fluoride single crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Ojoon; Kim, D., E-mail: kimd@postech.ac.kr; Max Planck Center for Attosecond Science, Max Planck POSTECH/Korea Res. Init., Pohang 37673

    2016-05-09

    We demonstrate that a current can be induced and switched in a sub-femtosecond time-scale in an insulating calcium fluoride single crystal by an intense optical field. This measurement indicates that a sizable current can be generated and also controlled by an optical field in a dielectric medium, implying the capability of rapid current switching at a rate of optical frequency, PHz (10{sup 15} Hz), which is a couple of orders of magnitude higher than that of contemporary electronic signal processing. This demonstration may serve to facilitate the development of ultrafast devices in PHz frequency.

  12. Fluorides and non-fluoride remineralization systems.

    PubMed

    Amaechi, Bennett T; van Loveren, Cor

    2013-01-01

    Caries develops when the equilibrium between de- and remineralization is unbalanced favoring demineralization. De- and remineralization occur depending on the degree of saturation of the interstitial fluids with respect to the tooth mineral. This equilibrium is positively influenced when fluoride, calcium and phosphate ions are added favoring remineralization. In addition, when fluoride is present, it will be incorporated into the newly formed mineral which is then less soluble. Toothpastes may contain fluoride and calcium ions separately or together in various compounds (remineralization systems) and may therefore reduce demineralization and promote remineralization. Formulating all these compounds in one paste may be challenging due to possible premature calcium-fluoride interactions and the low solubility of CaF2. There is a large amount of clinical evidence supporting the potent caries preventive effect of fluoride toothpastes indisputably. The amount of clinical evidence of the effectiveness of the other remineralization systems is far less convincing. Evidence is lacking for head to head comparisons of the various remineralization systems. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. 78 FR 59731 - License Amendment Request for Closure of Calcium Fluoride Ponds at Honeywell Metropolis Works...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 40-3392; NRC-2011-0143] License Amendment Request for Closure of Calcium Fluoride Ponds at Honeywell Metropolis Works, Honeywell International, Inc. AGENCY... Federal Regulations (10 CFR) to approve the closure of the calcium fluoride ponds in-place, by...

  14. Fluoride varnishes with calcium glycerophosphate: fluoride release and effect on in vitro enamel demineralization.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Thiago Saads; Peters, Bianca Glerean; Rios, Daniela; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Sampaio, Fabio Correia; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Bönecker, Marcelo José Strazzeri

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to assess the amount of fluoride (F) released from varnishes containing calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) and (2) to assess the effect of the experimental varnishes on in vitro demineralization. Six test groups using 5 varnishes: base varnish (no active ingredients); Duraphat® (2.26% NaF); Duofluorid® (5.63% NaF/CaF2); experimental varnish 1 (1% CaGP/5.63% NaF/CaF2); experimental varnish 2 (5% CaGP/5.63% NaF/CaF2); and no varnish were set up. In stage 1, 60 acrylic blocks were randomly distributed into 6 groups (n = 10). Then 300 µg of each varnish was applied to each block. The blocks were immersed in deionized water, which was changed after 1, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Fluoride concentration in the water was analyzed using a fluoride electrode. In stage 2, 60 bovine enamel samples were distributed into 6 groups (n = 10), and treated with 300 µg of the respective varnish. After 6 h the varnish was removed and the samples were subjected to a 7-day in vitro pH cycle (6 h demineralization/18 h remineralization per day). The demineralization was measured using surface hardness. The results showed that both experimental varnishes released more fluoride than Duofluorid® and Duraphat® (p < 0.05), but Duraphat® showed the best preventive effect by decreasing enamel hardness loss (p < 0.05). Therefore, we conclude that even though (1) the experimental varnishes containing CaGP released greater amounts of F, (2) they did not increase in the preventive effect against enamel demineralization.

  15. Sintering mechanism of the CaF2 on hydroxyapatite by a 10.6-l microm CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Chei; Roan, Rong-Tai; Chen, Jeng-Huey

    2002-01-01

    Laser has been reported as a heat source for melting and re-crystallization. Occurring at about 1100 degrees C, the melting of surface dental enamel along with re-crystallization might have an assistant role in the therapy of hypersensitive tooth, apical sealing of endodontic surgery in dentistry, preventive dentistry for pit and fissure sealing, and fluoridation. For laser to be accepted in clinical applications, it is desired that, studies must show the incorporation of CaF(2) into hydroxyapatite could reduce the sintering temperature for the sake of safety. In this study, the Sharplan 20XJ CO(2) laser with 10.6- microm wavelength was set under the following parameters: power, 5 W; repetitive mode, 0.1 second; beam, focused. Fluorite was added to hydroxyapatite as a synthetic compound to lower the sintering temperature. Human dental enamel without caries was used for in vitro sintering test. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transforming infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric analysis (DAT/TGA) were used for the investigation of sintering mechanism of CaF(2). Fusion between hexagonal shape crystals and cubic shape crystals (CaF(2)) were observed under SEM study. Hexagonal shape crystals indicated the formation of fluorapatite under XRD analysis. Under FTIR study, we examined reductions of water (3445 cm(-1)) and hydroxyl bands (3567 and 627 cm(-1)) in irradiated compounds. From the DTA pattern of synthetic compound, it showed the endothermic reaction reaching its peak point around 1180 +/- 20 degrees C. It was attributed to the phase transformation and/or initial melting. In this study, we proposed the interrelationship of the eutectics between initiator (CaF(2)) and the reaction product (calcium hydroxide) that reduced the sintering temperature. It appeared that the co-eutectics interacted to reduce the sintering temperature of hydroxyapatite below 800 degrees C and that the key

  16. Synthesis of Multicolor Core/Shell NaLuF4:Yb3+/Ln3+@CaF2 Upconversion Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Hao, Shuwei; Yang, Chunhui; Chen, Guanying

    2017-01-01

    The ability to synthesize high-quality hierarchical core/shell nanocrystals from an efficient host lattice is important to realize efficacious photon upconversion for applications ranging from bioimaging to solar cells. Here, we describe a strategy to fabricate multicolor core @ shell α-NaLuF4:Yb3+/Ln3+@CaF2 (Ln = Er, Ho, Tm) upconversion nanocrystals (UCNCs) based on the newly established host lattice of sodium lutetium fluoride (NaLuF4). We exploited the liquid-solid-solution method to synthesize the NaLuF4 core of pure cubic phase and the thermal decomposition approach to expitaxially grow the calcium fluoride (CaF2) shell onto the core UCNCs, yielding cubic core/shell nanocrystals with a size of 15.6 ± 1.2 nm (the core ~9 ± 0.9 nm, the shell ~3.3 ± 0.3 nm). We showed that those core/shell UCNCs could emit activator-defined multicolor emissions up to about 772 times more efficient than the core nanocrystals due to effective suppression of surface-related quenching effects. Our results provide a new paradigm on heterogeneous core/shell structure for enhanced multicolor upconversion photoluminescence from colloidal nanocrystals. PMID:28336867

  17. Calcium mobilization and phosphoinositide turnover in fluoride-activated human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Strnad, C.F.; Wong, K.

    1986-05-01

    Fluoride ion, at concentrations above 10 mM, has been found to activate a superoxide production response in human neutrophils which is strongly dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium. In an attempt to further explore the calcium requirement of fluoride-induced neutrophil activation, intracellular calcium concentrations were monitored through use of the fluorescent calcium probe, Quin 2. Fluoride ion, at concentrations between 10 and 20 mM, was found to elicit a rise in intracellular calcium levels which was characterized by a lag period of 4 to 10 min and a prolonged duration of action (greater than 20 min). In contrast, themore » chemotactic peptide, formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP), induced a rise in intracellular calcium concentration which peaked within 1 min. Preincubation of cells with 1 ..mu..g/ml pertussis toxin resulted in inhibition of the FMLP-induced response, but not that elicited by fluoride. Furthermore, anion exchange chromatography indicated that inositol phosphate accumulation occurred in fluoride-treated cells in association with calcium mobilization. Recent evidence suggests that the FMLP receptor is coupled to phospholipase C and phosphoinositide turnover through a guanine nucleotide binding protein susceptible to inhibition by pertussis toxin. Present results suggest that fluoride ion may serve to activate this protein in a manner resistant to inhibition by pertussis toxin.« less

  18. 229Thorium-doped calcium fluoride for nuclear laser spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dessovic, P; Mohn, P; Jackson, R A; Winkler, G; Schreitl, M; Kazakov, G; Schumm, T

    2014-03-12

    The (229)thorium isotope presents an extremely low-energy isomer state of the nucleus which is expected around 7.8 eV, in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) regime. This unique system may bridge between atomic and nuclear physics, enabling coherent manipulation and precision spectroscopy of nuclear quantum states using laser light. It has been proposed to implant (229)thorium into VUV transparent crystal matrices to facilitate laser spectroscopy and possibly realize a solid-state nuclear clock. In this work, we validate the feasibility of this approach by computer modelling of thorium doping into calcium fluoride single crystals. Using atomistic modelling and full electronic structure calculations, we find a persistent large band gap and no additional electronic levels emerging in the middle of the gap due to the presence of the dopant, which should allow direct optical interrogation of the nuclear transition.Based on the electronic structure, we estimate the thorium nuclear quantum levels within the solid-state environment. Precision laser spectroscopy of these levels will allow the study of a broad range of crystal field effects, transferring Mössbauer spectroscopy into the optical regime.

  19. Lubricating Properties of Ceramic-Bonded Calcium Fluoride Coatings on Nickel-Base Alloys from 75 to 1900 deg F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1962-01-01

    The endurance life and the friction coefficient of ceramic-bonded calcium fluoride (CaF2) coatings on nickel-base alloys were determined at temperatures from 75 F to 1900 F. The specimen configuration consisted of a hemispherical rider (3/16-in. rad.) sliding against the flat surface of a rotating disk. Increasing the ambient temperature (up to 1500 F) or the sliding velocity generally reduced the friction coefficient and improved coating life. Base-metal selection was critical above 1500 F. For instance, cast Inconel sliding against coated Inconel X was lubricated effectively to 1500 F, but at 1600 F severe blistering of the coatings occurred. However, good lubrication and adherence were obtained for Rene 41 sliding against coated Rene 41 at temperatures up to 1900 F; no blisters developed, coating wear life was fairly good, and the rider wear rate was significantly lower than for the unlubricated metals. Friction coefficients were 0.12 at 1500 F, 0.15 at 1700 F, and 0.17 at 1800 F and 1900 F. Because of its ready availability, Inconel X appears to be the preferred substrate alloy for applications in which the temperature does not exceed 1500 F. Rene 41 would have to be used in applications involving higher temperatures. Improved coating life was derived by either preoxidizing the substrate metals prior to the coating application or by applying a very thin (less than 0.0002 in.) burnished and sintered overlay to the surface of the coating. Preoxidation did not affect the friction coefficient. The overlay generally resulted in a higher friction coefficient than that obtained without the overlay. The combination of both modifications resulted in longer coating life and in friction coefficients intermediate between those obtained with either modification alone.

  20. Intergranular fracture of lithium fluoride-22 percent calcium fluoride hypereutectic salt at 800 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Subramanium V.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Substantial strain-hardening was noted during the initial stages of deformation in constant-velocity compression tests conducted on as-cast samples of the LiF-22 mol pct CaF2 hypereutectic salt at 800 K. The deformed specimens exhibited extensive grain-boundary cracking and cavitation, suggesting that such cracking, in conjunction with interfacial sliding, is important for cavity nucleation at grain boundaries and at the LiF-CaF2 interfaces. Cavity growth and interlinkage occur through the preferential failure of the weaker LiF phase.

  1. Simulation and analysis of plasmonic sensor in NIR with fluoride glass and graphene layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Ankit Kumar; Sharma, Anuj K.

    2018-02-01

    A calcium fluoride (CaF2) prism based plasmonic biosensor with graphene layer is proposed in near infrared region (NIR) of operation. The stacking of multilayer graphene is considered with dielectric interlayer sandwiched between two graphene layers. Excellent optical properties of CaF2 glass and enhanced field at the graphene-analyte interface are intended to be exploited for proposed sensor structure in NIR spectral region. Performance parameters in terms of field enhancement at interface and figure of merit (FOM) are analyzed and compared with those of conventional SPR based sensor. It is demonstrated that the same sensor probe can also be used for gas sensing with nearly 3.5-4 times enhancement in FOM, compared with conventional sensor. The results show that CaF2 based SPR sensor provides much better sensitivity than that based on other glasses.

  2. Temperature-Dependent Refractive Index Measurements of Caf2, Suprasil 3001, and S-FTM16 for the Euclid Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Miller, Kevin H.; Quijada, Manuel A.; Grupp, Frank D.

    2015-01-01

    Using the Cryogenic High Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, we measured absolute refractive indices at temperatures from 100 to 310 K at wavelengths from 0.42 to 3.6 microns for CaF2, Suprasil 3001 fused silica, and S-FTM16 glass in support of lens designs for the Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer (NISP) for ESA's Euclid dark energy mission. We report absolute refractive index, dispersion (dn/d?), and thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) for these materials. In this study, materials from different melts were procured to understand index variability in each material. We provide temperature-dependent Sellmeier coefficients based on our data to allow accurate interpolation of index to other wavelengths and temperatures. For calcium fluoride (CaF2) and S-FTM16, we compare our current measurements with CHARMS measurements of these materials made in the recent past for other programs. We also compare Suprasil 3001's indices to those of other forms of fused silica we have measured in CHARMS.

  3. Fluoride in groundwater: toxicological exposure and remedies.

    PubMed

    Jha, S K; Singh, R K; Damodaran, T; Mishra, V K; Sharma, D K; Rai, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Fluoride is a chemical element that is found most frequently in groundwater and has become one of the most important toxicological environmental hazards globally. The occurrence of fluoride in groundwater is due to weathering and leaching of fluoride-bearing minerals from rocks and sediments. Fluoride when ingested in small quantities (<0.5 mg/L) is beneficial in promoting dental health by reducing dental caries, whereas higher concentrations (>1.5 mg/L) may cause fluorosis. It is estimated that about 200 million people, from among 25 nations the world over, may suffer from fluorosis and the causes have been ascribed to fluoride contamination in groundwater including India. High fluoride occurrence in groundwaters is expected from sodium bicarbonate-type water, which is calcium deficient. The alkalinity of water also helps in mobilizing fluoride from fluorite (CaF2). Fluoride exposure in humans is related to (1) fluoride concentration in drinking water, (2) duration of consumption, and (3) climate of the area. In hotter climates where water consumption is greater, exposure doses of fluoride need to be modified based on mean fluoride intake. Various cost-effective and simple procedures for water defluoridation techniques are already known, but the benefits of such techniques have not reached the rural affected population due to limitations. Therefore, there is a need to develop workable strategies to provide fluoride-safe drinking water to rural communities. The study investigated the geochemistry and occurrence of fluoride and its contamination in groundwater, human exposure, various adverse health effects, and possible remedial measures from fluoride toxicity effects.

  4. Loss on drying, calcium concentration and pH of fluoride dentifrices

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Arella Cristina Muniz; Dantas, Lívia Rocha; De Brito, André Luiz Fiquene; Muniz, Ana Cristina Silva; Ramos, Ianny Alves; Cardoso, Andreia Medeiros Rodrigues; Xavier, Alidianne Fábia Cabral; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fluoride dentifrices containing calcium carbonate have advantages such as control of dental plaque and progression of dental caries, also contributing to oral hygiene, represent most dentifrices marketed in Brazil. Aim: To evaluate the physicochemical properties of seven fluoride dentifrices containing calcium carbonate in relation to hydrogen potential (pH), loss on drying and calcium concentration. Materials and Methods: Data collection was performed using the potentiometric method for pH ranges, gravimetric analysis for loss on drying and atomic absorption spectrometry for the concentration of calcium ions. All tests were performed in triplicate and the analysis was performed entirely at random according to one-way analysis of variance at 5% significance level. Results: The pH values were alkaline and ranged from 8.67 (Oral-B 123®) to 10.03 (Colgate Máxima Proteção Anticáries®). The results of loss on drying ranged from 33.81% (Oral-B 123®) to 61.13% (Close Up®), with significant differences between brands tested. In relation to the calcium content, the highest and lowest concentrations were found in dentifrices Even® (155.55 g/kg) and Colgate Ultra Branco® (129 g/kg), respectively, with significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Fluoride dentifrices analyzed showed alkaline pH and high levels of loss on drying and calcium concentration. However, these physicochemical characteristics differed according to the different brands tested. PMID:25821380

  5. Plaque fluoride concentrations in a community without water fluoridation: effects of calcium and use of a fluoride or placebo dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Whitford, G M; Buzalaf, M A R; Bijella, M F B; Waller, J L

    2005-01-01

    The results of a recent study by Whitford et al. [Caries Res 2002;36:256-265] with subjects whose drinking water was fluoridated led to two major conclusions: (1) Compared to the use of a placebo dentifrice, plaque fluoride concentrations ([F]) throughout much of the day are not significantly increased by the use of an F dentifrice but (2) they are positively related to plaque [Ca] (p = 0.0001). The present double-blind, double-crossover study with 16 subjects used the same protocol and was done to: (1) determine the effects of the use of an F dentifrice on salivary and plaque [F] in a community without water fluoridation and (2) further examine the relationship between plaque [Ca] and [F]. Following the use of an F dentifrice or placebo for one week, whole saliva and plaque were collected 1.0 and 12 h after the last use of the products. The study was repeated to include rinsing with a 20 mmol/l CaCl(2) solution immediately before the use of the dentifrices. The CaCl(2) rinse had only minor effects on salivary [Ca] and [F] and none on the plaque concentrations. Unlike the results found in the fluoridated community, all salivary and plaque [F] associated with the use of the F dentifrice were significantly higher than those associated with the use of the placebo. The results suggest that the cariostatic effectiveness of an F dentifrice should be greater in areas without water fluoridation. As noted previously, plaque [F] were positively related to plaque [Ca] (p = 0.0001). Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Synthesis, characteristics and thermoluminescent dosimetry features of γ-irradiated Ce doped CaF2 nanophosphor.

    PubMed

    Zahedifar, M; Sadeghi, E; Mozdianfard, M R; Habibi, E

    2013-08-01

    Nanoparticles of cerium doped calcium fluoride (CaF2:Ce) were synthesized for the first time using the hydrothermal method. The formation of nanostructures was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, indicating cubic lattice structure for the particles produced. Their shape and size were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermoluminescence characteristics were studied by having the samples irradiated by gamma rays of (60)Co source. The optimum thermal treatment of 400 °C for 30 min was found for the produced nanoparticles. The Tm-Tstop and computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) methods, used to determine the number of component glow peaks and kinetic parameters, indicated seven overlapping glow peaks on the TL glow curve at approximately 394, 411, 425, 445, 556, 594 and 632 K. A linear dose response of up to 2000 Gy, was observed for the prepared nanoparticles. Maximum TL sensitivity was found at 0.4 mol% of Ce impurity. Other TL dosimetry features, including reusability and fading, were also presented and discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In situ evaluation of low-fluoride toothpastes associated to calcium glycerophosphate on enamel remineralization.

    PubMed

    Zaze, A C S F; Dias, A P; Amaral, J G; Miyasaki, M L; Sassaki, K T; Delbem, A C B

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of low-fluoride toothpastes with calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) on enamel remineralization in situ. Volunteers (n=10) wore palatal devices holding four bovine enamel blocks. The treatments involved 5 experimental phases of 3 days each according to the following toothpastes: placebo, 500 ppm F (500 NaF), 500 ppm F with 0.25% CaGP (500 NaF CaGP), 500 ppm F with 0.25% CaGP (500 MFP CaGP) and 1100 ppm F (1100; positive control). After this experimental period, the fluoride, calcium, and phosphorus ion concentrations from enamel were determined. Surface and cross-sectional hardness were also performed. Data were analysed by 1-way ANOVA, Student-Newman-Keuls' test and by Pearson's correlation. The addition of 0.25% CaGP improved the remineralization potential of low-fluoride toothpastes and the NaF as source of fluoride yielded the best results (p<0.001) as evidenced by the hardness analysis. The 1100 ppm F toothpaste provided higher presence of fluoride in the enamel after remineralization (p<0.001). The addition of CaGP to the NaF and MFP toothpastes led to similar calcium concentration in the enamel as the observed with the positive control (p=0.054). Toothpastes with 500 ppm F (NaF or MFP) and CaGP showed similar remineralization potential than 1100 ppm F toothpaste. Toothpastes containing 500 ppm F associated to CaGP, with both fluoride source (NaF or MFP), showed a potential of remineralization similar to commercial toothpaste. Although there is a need for confirmation in the clinical setting, these results point to an alternative for improving the risk-benefit relationship between fluorosis and dental caries in small children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluoride

    MedlinePlus

    Vortex® ... Fluoride is used to prevent tooth decay. It is taken up by teeth and helps to strengthen ... and block the cavity-forming action of bacteria. Fluoride usually is prescribed for children and adults whose ...

  9. The Interface Structure of FeSe Thin Film on CaF2 Substrate and its Influence on the Superconducting Performance.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wenbin; Ma, Zongqing; Patel, Dipak; Sang, Lina; Cai, Chuanbing; Shahriar Al Hossain, Mohammed; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Wang, Xiaolin; Dou, Shi Xue

    2017-10-25

    The investigations into the interfaces in iron selenide (FeSe) thin films on various substrates have manifested the great potential of showing high-temperature-superconductivity in this unique system. In present work, we obtain FeSe thin films with a series of thicknesses on calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) (100) substrates and glean the detailed information from the FeSe/CaF 2 interface by using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Intriguingly, we have found the universal existence of a calcium selenide (CaSe) interlayer with a thickness of approximate 3 nm between FeSe and CaF 2 in all the samples, which is irrelevant to the thickness of FeSe layers. A slight Se deficiency occurs in the FeSe layer due to the formation of CaSe interlayer. This Se deficiency is generally negligible except for the case of the ultrathin FeSe film (8 nm in thickness), in which the stoichiometric deviation from FeSe is big enough to suppress the superconductivity. Meanwhile, in the overly thick FeSe layer (160 nm in thickness), vast precipitates are found and recognized as Fe-rich phases, which brings about degradation in superconductivity. Consequently, the thickness dependence of superconducting transition temperature (T c ) of FeSe thin films is investigated and one of our atmosphere-stable FeSe thin film (127 nm) possesses the highest T c onset /T c zero as 15.1 K/13.4 K on record to date in the class of FeSe thin film with practical thickness. Our results provide a new perspective for exploring the mechanism of superconductivity in FeSe thin film via high-resolution STEM. Moreover, approaches that might improve the quality of FeSe/CaF 2 interfaces are also proposed for further enhancing the superconducting performance in this system.

  10. Deterioration of teeth and alveolar bone loss due to chronic environmental high-level fluoride and low calcium exposure.

    PubMed

    Simon, Maciej J K; Beil, Frank Timo; Riedel, Christoph; Lau, Grace; Tomsia, Antoni; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Koehne, Till; Ueblacker, Peter; Rüther, Wolfgang; Pogoda, Pia; Ignatius, Anita; Amling, Michael; Oheim, Ralf

    2016-12-01

    Health risks due to chronic exposure to highly fluoridated groundwater could be underestimated because fluoride might not only influence the teeth in an aesthetic manner but also seems to led to dentoalveolar structure changes. Therefore, we studied the tooth and alveolar bone structures of Dorper sheep chronically exposed to very highly fluoridated and low calcium groundwater in the Kalahari Desert in comparison to controls consuming groundwater with low fluoride and normal calcium levels within the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended range. Two flocks of Dorper ewes in Namibia were studied. Chemical analyses of water, blood and urine were performed. Mineralized tissue investigations included radiography, HR-pQCT analyses, histomorphometry, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction-analyses. Fluoride levels were significantly elevated in water, blood and urine samples in the Kalahari group compared to the low fluoride control samples. In addition to high fluoride, low calcium levels were detected in the Kalahari water. Tooth height and mandibular bone quality were significantly decreased in sheep, exposed to very high levels of fluoride and low levels of calcium in drinking water. Particularly, bone volume and cortical thickness of the mandibular bone were significantly reduced in these sheep. The current study suggests that chronic environmental fluoride exposure with levels above the recommended limits in combination with low calcium uptake can cause significant attrition of teeth and a significant impaired mandibular bone quality. In the presence of high fluoride and low calcium-associated dental changes, deterioration of the mandibular bone and a potential alveolar bone loss needs to be considered regardless whether other signs of systemic skeletal fluorosis are observed or not.

  11. Study on Treatment of acidic and highly concentrated fluoride waste water using calcium oxide-calcium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, T.; Gao, X. R.; Zheng, T.; Wang, P.

    2016-08-01

    There are problems with treating acidic waste water containing high concentration fluorine by chemical precipitation, including the low sludge setting velocity and the high difficulty of reaching the criterion. In Heilongjiang province, a graphite factory producing high-purity graphite generates acidic waste water with a high concentration of fluorine. In this paper, the effect of removals on the concentration of fluoride with the combined treatment of calcium oxide and calcium chloride were discussed with regard to acid waste water. The study improved the sludge characteristics by using polyacrylamide (PAM) and polymeric aluminum chloride (PAC). The effect of different coagulants on sludge was evaluated by the sludge settlement ratio (SV), sludge volume index (SVI) and sludge moisture content. The results showed that the optimal combination for 100 ml waste water was calcium oxide addition amount of 14 g, a calcium chloride addition amount of 2.5 g, a PAM addition amount of 350 mg/L, and the effluent fluoride concentration was below 6 mg/L. PAM significantly improved the sludge settling velocity. The sludge settlement ratio reduced from 87.6% to 60%. The process for wastewater treatment was easily operated and involved low expenditure.

  12. Effect of low-fluoride dentifrices supplemented with calcium glycerophosphate on enamel demineralization in situ.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, Jackeline Gallo; Sassaki, Kikue Takebayashi; Martinhon, Cleide Cristina Rodrigues; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate whether a low-fluoride dentifrice with calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) reduced the demineralization process in situ. A cross-over design with four treatment phases of 7 days each was used. Ten volunteers wore palatal devices containing four blocks of bovine dental enamel. The enamel was treated (ex-vivo) with a placebo, 500 microg-F/g (500), 500 microg-F/g with 0.25%CaGP (500 CaGP), and 1,100 microg-F/g (1,100) dentifrices (twice a day/1 minute) under cariogenic challenge from sucrose solution. To evaluate mineral loss, surface and cross-sectional hardness were performed. The fluoride, calcium, and phosphorus ion concentrations from enamel and dental plaque were determined. The insoluble extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) concentrations were also analyzed. The data were submitted to ANOVA (1-way) followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test (P < 0.05). The mineral loss and EPS concentration were lowest in the 500 CaGP and 1,100 dentifrice groups. The use of the 500 CaGP and 1,100 dentifrices resulted in similar fluoride, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations in the enamel and in dental plaque (P > 0.05). The ionic activities of calcium phosphate phases for the 500 CaGP and 1,100 dentifrices were similar (P > or = 0.492). The low-fluoride dentifrice with 0.25%CaGP demonstrated efficacy similar to that of the positive control (1,100 dentifrice) with respect to in situ demineralization.

  13. Report on the Study of Radiation Damage in Calcium Fluoride and Magnesium Fluoride Crystals for use in Excimer Laser Applications

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-10-04

    A study was performed to investigate the effects of radiation damage in calcium fluoride and magnesium fluoride crystals caused by gamma rays and UV photons from excimer lasers. The purpose was to study and correlate the damage caused by these two different mechanisms in various types of material used for fabricating optical elements in high power excimer lasers and lens systems of lithography tools. These optical systems are easily damaged by the laser itself, and it is necessary to use only the most radiation resistant materials for certain key elements. It was found that a clear correlation exists between the,more » radiation induced damage caused by high energy gamma rays and that produced by UV photons from the excimer laser. This correlation allows a simple procedure to be developed to select the most radiation resistant material at the ingot level, which would be later used to fabricate various components of the optical system. This avoids incurring the additional cost of fabricating actual optical elements with material that would later be damaged under prolonged use. The result of this screening procedure can result in a considerable savings in the overall cost of the lens and laser system.« less

  14. Efficacy of calcium- and fluoride-containing materials for the remineralization of primary teeth with early enamel lesion.

    PubMed

    Memarpour, Mahtab; Soltanimehr, Elham; Sattarahmady, Naghmeh

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of different products containing fluoride, calcium and phosphate for enamel remineralization in eroded primary teeth. A total of 90 sound primary canine teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups of 18 teeth each: 1) control (polished enamel), 2) 5% DuraShield sodium fluoride varnish, 3) 500 ppm fluoridated toothpaste, 4) casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) cream, and 5) Clinpro White varnish containing functionalized tri-calcium phosphate (fTCP). Enamel microhardness (EMH) was measured in all samples before and after demineralization and after 28 days of remineralization. Also 8 samples in groups 2 to 5 and four samples of sound and demineralized enamel were examined with atomic force microscopy (AFM). All data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA (p<0.05). Mean microhardness of demineralized enamel was significantly lower than in enamel at baseline (p<0.001). Remineralization significantly increased microharness in groups 2 to 5 compared to the control group (p<0.001). Percent EMH after remineralization with CPP-ACP was significantly higher than after fTCP (p=0.029), toothpaste (p< 0.001) or fluoride varnish (p<0.001); however, there was no significant difference between toothpaste and fluoride varnish (p=0.062). Microhardness increased more after fTCP treatment than after treatment with sodium fluoride varnish (p<0.001) or fluoridated toothpaste (p=0.045). AFM images showed that enamel roughness decreased most after treatment with fTCP, followed by CPP-ACP, toothpaste and fluoride varnish. The efficacy of CPP-ACP cream for remineralizing eroded enamel was greater than fluoride toothpaste, fluoride varnish or fTCP varnish. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Amelioration of chronic fluoride toxicity by calcium and fluoride-free water in rats.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Priyanka; Ghosh, Sudip; Bhaskarachary, K; Venkaiah, K; Khandare, Arjun L

    2013-07-14

    The study was undertaken to explore the amelioration of chronic fluoride (F) toxicity (with low and normal Ca) in rats. The study was conducted in two phases. In phase I (6 months), seventy-six Wistar, weanling male rats were assigned to four treatment groups: normal-Ca (0·5 %) diet (NCD), Ca+F - ; low-Ca (0·25 %) diet (LCD), Ca - F - ; NCD +100 parts per million (ppm) F water, Ca+F+; LCD +100 ppm F water, Ca - F+. In phase II (reversal experiment, 3 months), LCD was replaced with the NCD. Treatment groups Ca+F+ and Ca - F+ were divided into two subgroups to compare the effect of continuation v. discontinuation along with Ca supplementation on reversal of chronic F toxicity. In phase I, significantly reduced food efficiency ratio (FER), body weight gain (BWG), faecal F excretion, serum Ca and increased bone F deposition were observed in the treatment group Ca - F+. Reduced serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3, increased 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3 and up-regulation of Ca-sensing receptor, vitamin D receptor and S100 Ca-binding protein G (S100G) were observed in treatment groups Ca - F - and Ca - F+. In phase II (reversal phase), FER, BWG and serum Ca in treatment groups Ca - F+/Ca+F - and Ca - F+/Ca+F+ were still lower, as compared with other groups. However, other variables were comparable. Down-regulation of S100G was observed in F-fed groups (Ca+F+/Ca+F+ and Ca - F+/Ca+F+) in phase II. It is concluded that low Ca aggravates F toxicity, which can be ameliorated after providing adequate Ca and F-free water. However, chronic F toxicity can interfere with Ca absorption by down-regulating S100G expression irrespective of Ca nutrition.

  16. Erosion protection by calcium lactate/sodium fluoride rinses under different salivary flows in vitro.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alessandra B; Scaramucci, Taís; Lippert, Frank; Zero, Domenick T; Hara, Anderson T

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a calcium lactate prerinse on sodium fluoride protection in an in vitro erosion-remineralization model simulating two different salivary flow rates. Enamel and dentin specimens were randomly assigned to 6 groups (n = 8), according to the combination between rinse treatments - deionized water (DIW), 12 mM NaF (NaF) or 150 mM calcium lactate followed by NaF (CaL + NaF) - and unstimulated salivary flow rates - 0.5 or 0.05 ml/min - simulating normal and low salivary flow rates, respectively. The specimens were placed into custom-made devices, creating a sealed chamber on the specimen surface connected to a peristaltic pump. Citric acid was injected into the chamber for 2 min, followed by artificial saliva (0.5 or 0.05 ml/min) for 60 min. This cycle was repeated 4×/day for 3 days. Rinse treatments were performed daily 30 min after the 1st and 4th erosive challenges, for 1 min each time. Surface loss was determined by optical profilometry. KOH-soluble fluoride and structurally bound fluoride were determined in specimens at the end of the experiment. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α = 0.05). NaF and CaL + NaF exhibited significantly lower enamel and dentin loss than DIW, with no difference between them for normal flow conditions. The low salivary flow rate increased enamel and dentin loss, except for CaL + NaF, which presented overall higher KOH-soluble and structurally bound fluoride levels. The results suggest that the NaF rinse was able to reduce erosion progression. Although the CaL prerinse considerably increased F availability, it enhanced NaF protection against dentin erosion only under hyposalivatory conditions.

  17. Assessment of fluoride-induced changes on physicochemical and structural properties of bone and the impact of calcium on its control in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Subarayan Bothi; Viswanathan, Gopalan

    2012-03-01

    Bone deformities caused by the chronic intake of large quantities of fluoride and the beneficial effect of calcium on its control have been studied for many years, but only limited data are available on the quantitative effect of fluoride intake and the beneficial impact of calcium on fluoride-induced changes in bone at the molecular level. It is necessary to determine the degree of fluoride-induced changes in bone at different levels of fluoride intake to evaluate the optimum safe intake level of fluoride for maintaining bone health and quality. The ameliorative effect of calcium at different dose levels on minimizing fluoride-induced changes in bone is important to quantify the amount of calcium intake necessary for reducing fluoride toxicity. Thirty rabbits, 2 months old, were divided into five groups. Group I animals received 1 mg/l fluoride and 0.11% calcium diet; groups II and III received 10 mg/l fluoride and diet with 0.11% or 2.11% calcium, respectively; and groups IV and V received 150 mg/l fluoride and diet with 2.11% or 0.11% calcium, respectively. Analysis of bone density, ash content, fluoride, calcium, phosphorus, and Ca:P molar ratio levels after 6 months of treatment indicated that animals that received high fluoride with low-calcium diet showed significant detrimental changes in physicochemical properties of bone. Animals that received fluoride with high calcium intake showed notable amelioration of the impact of calcium on fluoride-induced changes in bone. The degree of fluoride-induced characteristic changes in structural properties such as crystalline size, crystallinity, and crystallographic "c"-axis length of bone apatite cells was also assessed by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared studies. X-ray images showed bone deformity changes such as transverse stress growth lines, soft tissue ossification, and calcification in different parts of bones as a result of high fluoride accumulation and the beneficial role of calcium

  18. Fluoride and calcium concentrations in the biofilm fluid after use of fluoridated dentifrices supplemented with polyphosphate salts.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Mariana Emi; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Hall, Kevin Bruce; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Pessan, Juliano Pelim

    2017-04-01

    The present study evaluated fluoride (F) and calcium (Ca) concentrations in the biofilm fluid formed in situ under cariogenic challenge after using F dentifrices supplemented or not with sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) or calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP). Volunteers (n = 12) were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the toothpastes used: placebo (without F, CaGP or TMP), 1100 ppm F (1100F) and low-fluoride dentifrice (LFD, 550 ppm F) with no supplementation (550F) or supplemented with 1 % TMP (550F-TMP) or 0.25 % CaGP (550F-CaGP). In each phase, volunteers wore palatal appliances containing 4 bovine enamel blocks. Cariogenic challenge was performed with 30 % sucrose solution, 6 times/day. On the morning of the eigth day, biofilm samples were collected 12 h and 1 h after brushing and cariogenic challenge. F and Ca analyses in the biofilm fluid were performed with the inverted electrode after buffering with TISAB III and using the Arsenazo III method, respectively. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA (repeated measures) and Student-Newman-Keuls test (p < 0.05). A dose-response relationship was verified between F concentrations in the dentifrices and in the biofilm fluid. Significant differences were observed among placebo, 550F, and 1100F only 1 h after brushing, without statistical differences among 550F, 550F-TMP, and 550F-CaGP. No defined trend was observed among the groups regarding Ca concentrations, with the highest values seen for placebo and 550F-CaGP. The anticaries effect of LFDs supplemented with CaGP or TMP cannot be related to an increased availability of F and Ca in the biofilm fluid. The better performance of LFDs containing CaGP or TMP shown in previous studies should be attributed to their ability to interact with tooth enamel and with the biofilm, rather to their effect on the biofilm fluid.

  19. CO2 laser irradiation enhances CaF2 formation and inhibits lesion progression on demineralized dental enamel-in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Zancopé, Bruna R; Rodrigues, Lívia P; Parisotto, Thais M; Steiner-Oliveira, Carolina; Rodrigues, Lidiany K A; Nobre-dos-Santos, Marinês

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated if Carbon dioxide (CO2) (λ 10.6 μm) laser irradiation combined with acidulated phosphate fluoride gel application (APF gel) enhances "CaF2" uptake by demineralized enamel specimens (DES) and inhibits enamel lesion progression. Thus, two studies were conducted and DES were subjected to APF gel combined or not with CO2 laser irradiation (11.3 or 20.0 J/cm(2), 0.4 or 0.7 W) performed before, during, or after APF gel application. In study 1, 165 DES were allocated to 11 groups. Fluoride as "CaF2 like material" formed on enamel was determined in 100 DES (n = 10/group), and the surface morphologies of 50 specimens were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) before and after "CaF2" extraction. In study 2, 165 DES (11 groups, n = 15), subjected to the same treatments as in study 1, were further subjected to a pH-cycling model to simulate a high cariogenic challenge. The progression of demineralization in DES was evaluated by cross-sectional microhardness and polarized light microscopy analyses. Laser at 11.3 J/cm(2) applied during APF gel application increased "CaF2" uptake on enamel surface. Laser irradiation and APF gel alone arrested the lesion progression compared with the control (p < 0.05). Areas of melting, fusion, and cracks were observed. CO2 laser irradiation, combined with a single APF application enhanced "CaF2" uptake on enamel surface and a synergistic effect was found. However, regarding the inhibition of caries lesion progression, no synergistic effect could be demonstrated. In conclusion, the results have shown that irradiation with specific laser parameters significantly enhanced CaF2 uptake by demineralized enamel and inhibited lesion progression.

  20. [Reference values of calcium, vitamin D, phosphorus, magnesium and fluoride for the Venezuelan population].

    PubMed

    Macías-Tomei, Coromoto; Palacios, Cristina; Mariño Elizondo, Mariana; Carías, Diamela; Noguera, Dalmacia; Chávez Pérez, José Félix

    2013-12-01

    The following micronutrients were considered together for their role in bone health: calcium, vitamin D, phosphorus, magnesium and fluoride. Calcium: not enough is known to change current recommendations. In adolescents and adults, limited data suggest that consuming the recommended level is associated with normal bone mass. In older adults, the limited data reported low consumption and a high rate of fractures but there is no information on whether the current values are adequate. Vitamin D: the limited data reported high deficiency in older adults, which was related to osteoporosis. Given the recent increase in North American recommendation for their contribution to bone health, we proposed to increase the recommendation to 400-600 IU/d for Venezuela. Phosphorus, magnesium and fluoride: the lack of local data does not support changing the latest recommendations. Therefore, it highlights the lack of local studies to assess current recommendations. Studies are needed to estimate the intake of these micronutrients in the population and evaluate their interaction and their relation to bone and overall health. Information of the adequacy of these nutrients in human milk for infants is needed. Alto, it is necessary to implement an effective nutrition surveillance system and implement interventions that maximize bone health from an early stage, including the design and implementation of a dairy policy that leads to an increase in production and consumption by the population.

  1. Addition of a Fluoride-containing Radiopacifier Improves Micromechanical and Biological Characteristics of Modified Calcium Silicate Cements.

    PubMed

    Antonijevic, Djordje; Jeschke, Anke; Colovic, Bozana; Milovanovic, Petar; Jevremovic, Danimir; Kisic, Danilo; vom Scheidt, Annika; Hahn, Michael; Amling, Michael; Jokanovic, Vukoman; Busse, Björn; Djuric, Marija

    2015-12-01

    Calcium silicate cements (CSCs) with the addition of nanohydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate play a critical role in dental applications. To further improve their properties, particularly radiopacity and biointeractivity, the fluoride-containing radiopacifier ytterbium trifluoride (YbF3) was added to their composition, and biological and mechanical characteristics were evaluated. YbF3 was added to 3 different CSCs: cement I (CSC + calcium carbonate), cement II (CSC + nanohydroxyapatite), and Portland cement. Material characterization encompassed measurements of pH, calcium, ytterbium, and fluoride ion release; radiopacity; setting time; porosity; microindentation properties; wettability; and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopic analyses. Osteoblast- and osteoclast-like cells were grown on the materials' surface to evaluate their adherence. The addition of calcium carbonate, nanohydroxyapatite, and 30 wt% of YbF3 improved radiopacity and the setting time of experimental cements. The pH values did not differ among the groups. The greatest ytterbium and fluoride releases occurred in the Portland cement + YbF3 group. Combined x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis showed the presence of calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrates. In addition, the presence of calcium ytterbium fluoride and ytterbium oxide proved that YbF3 reacted with cement compounds. Wettability of cement I + YbF3 was superior to other formulations, but its porosity and microindentation properties were weaker than in the Portland cement + YbF3 mixture. Cement II + YbF3 presented micromechanical indentation and porosity characteristics similar to the Portland-based cement formulation. Osteoclast- and osteoblast-like cells adhered to the cements' surfaces without alteration of the cell structural integrity. YbF3-containing CSCs with nanostructured hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate are well suited for

  2. Divalent europium doped CaF 2 and BaF 2 nanocrystals from ionic liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Anghel, Sergiu; Golbert, Sebastian; Meijerink, Andries; ...

    2016-10-11

    A new, facile and quick synthesis method for Eu 2+ doped the alkaline earth fluorides was developed using ionic liquids as solvent, precursor and capping agent. Reductive atmosphere and very high temperatures were avoided, while still attaining the desired structure, small particle sizes and divalent oxidation state of the lanthanide. Here, this opens the door for the development of new Ln 2+ doped nanomaterials. Here, the successful Eu 2+ incorporation was proven by optical spectroscopic measurements which showed the spin and parity allowed f-d transitions of Eu 2+ in CaF 2:Eu 2+/BaF 2:Eu 2+. 4f 7-4f 7 transitions could bemore » observed at low temperatures (7 K).« less

  3. Lubricating Properties of Some Bonded Fluoride and Oxide Coatings for Temperature to 1500 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E.

    1960-01-01

    The lubricating properties of some experimental ceramic coatings, diffusion-bonded fluoride coatings, and ceramic-bonded fluoride coatings were determined. The experiments were conducted in an air atmosphere at a sliding velocity of 430 feet per minute and at temperatures from 75 to 1500 F. Several ceramic coatings provided substantial reductions in friction coefficient and rider wear (compared with the unlubricated metals). For example, a cobaltous oxide (CoO) base coating gave friction coefficients of 0.24 to 0.36 within the temperature range of 75 to 1400 F; serious galling and welding of the metal surfaces were prevented. The friction coefficients were higher than the arbitrary maximum (0.2) usually considered for effective boundary lubrication. However, when a moderately high friction coefficient can be tolerated, this type of coating may be a useful antiwear composition. Diffusion-bonded calcium fluoride (CaF2) on Haynes Stellite 21 and on Inconel X gave friction coefficients of 0.1 to 0.2 at 1500 F. Endurance life was dependent on the thermal history of the coating; life improved with increased exposure time at elevated temperatures prior to running. Promising results were obtained with ceramic-bonded CaF2 on Inconel X. Effective lubrication and good adherence were obtained with a 3 to 1 ratio of CaF2 to ceramic. A very thin sintered and burnished film of CaF2 applied to the surface of this coating further improved lubrication, particularly above 1350 F. The friction coefficient was 0.2 at 500 F and decreased with increasing temperature to 0.06-at 1500 F. It was 0.25 at 75 F and 0.22 at 250 F.

  4. Photoemission study of CaF2- and SrF2-GaAs(110) interfaces formed at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, D.; Young, K.; Kahn, A.; Zanoni, R.; McKinley, J.; Margaritondo, G.

    1989-06-01

    Interfaces formed by evaporating CaF2 or SrF2 on room-temperature GaAs(110) are studied with synchrotron-radiation photoemission spectroscopy. The fluoride films grow uniformly on the GaAs surface. The deposition of CaF2 and SrF2 induces a large initial band bending on p-type GaAs (~0.9 eV) and a small initial band bending on n-type GaAs (~0.25 eV). The valence band is dominated by the F 2p peak which shifts toward high binding energies by ~1.5 eV after the deposition of >=16 Å fluoride. This shift reflects an increase in the valence-band offset between the two materials as the film forms. The final band offsets are estimated at 7.7 and 8.0 eV for CaF2 and SrF2, respectively, and are in qualitative agreement with those expected from the fluoride-Si data. Core-level measurements indicate that no reaction or decomposition of the MF2 molecule takes place at the interface. The F 2s core-level line shape and the increase in the binding-energy separation of F 2s and Ca 3p with increasing coverage suggest the presence of an interface F component. Contrary to the CaF2/Si case, no measurable Ca-substrate bonding effect is observed. The dissociative effect of uv irradiation on the CaF2 film is also investigated.

  5. Investigation of the kinetic mechanism of the demanganization reaction between carbon-saturated liquid iron and CaF2-CaO-SiO2-based slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Sheng-chao; Li, Chuang; Guo, Han-jie; Guo, Jing; Han, Shao-wei; Yang, Wen-sheng

    2018-04-01

    The demanganization reaction kinetics of carbon-saturated liquid iron with an eight-component slag consisting of CaO-SiO2-MgO-FeO-MnO-Al2O3-TiO2-CaF2 was investigated at 1553, 1623, and 1673 K in this study. The rate-controlling step (RCS) for the demanganization reaction with regard to the hot metal pretreatment conditions was studied via kinetics analysis based on the fundamental equation of heterogeneous reaction kinetics. From the temperature dependence of the mass transfer coefficient of a transition-metal oxide (MnO), the apparent activation energy of the demanganization reaction was estimated to be 189.46 kJ·mol-1 in the current study, which indicated that the mass transfer of MnO in the molten slag controlled the overall rate of the demanganization reaction. The calculated apparent activation energy was slightly lower than the values reported in the literature for mass transfer in a slag phase. This difference was attributed to an increase in the "specific reaction interface" (SRI) value, either as a result of turbulence at the reaction interface or a decrease of the absolute amount of slag phase during sampling, and to the addition of calcium fluoride to the slag.

  6. The effects of low-fluoride toothpaste supplemented with calcium glycerophosphate on enamel demineralization.

    PubMed

    Zaze, Ana Carolina Soares Fraga; Dias, Ana Paula; Sassaki, Kikue Takebayashi; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) in toothpastes with low-fluoride (low-F) concentrations on enamel demineralization by using a bovine enamel and pH cycling model. Experimental toothpastes containing 0 or 500 μg F/g (NaF) and CaGP concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 % were manufactured. A commercial toothpaste was used as a positive control (1,100 μg F/g). After polishing and hardness tests, enamel blocks were subjected to pH cycling for 5 days and toothpaste treatment twice daily. The treatment regimen involved soaking all blocks in the corresponding slurry for 1 min (2 ml/block). Surface and cross-sectional hardness and fluoride concentrations in enamel were analyzed. The hardness data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA followed by a Bonferroni post hoc test. Fluoride concentrations were analyzed using a Kruskal-Wallis followed by a Student-Newman-Keuls post hoc test. The mineral loss with the toothpaste containing 500 μg F/g and 0.25 % CaGP was lower than that in the other groups (p < 0.05). Fluoride concentrations in the enamel treated with 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 % CaGP toothpastes were similar to those in the enamel treated with the 500 μg F/g toothpaste (p > 0.05). A greater concentration of CaGP reduced the fluoride levels in enamel (p < 0.05). The results from the present in vitro study show that a low-F (500 μg F/g) toothpaste is capable of maintaining the efficacy of 1,100 μg F/g toothpaste when supplemented with 0.25 % of CaGP. The developed toothpaste prevents caries as a standard one and is safe for individuals of any age group.

  7. Selective separation of phosphate and fluoride from semiconductor wastewater.

    PubMed

    Warmadewanthi, B; Liu, J C

    2009-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) and phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) are widely used in semiconductor industry for etching and rinsing purposes. Consequently, significant amount of wastewater containing phosphate and fluoride is generated. Selective separation of phosphate and fluoride from the semiconductor wastewater, containing 936 mg/L of fluoride, 118 mg/L of phosphate, 640 mg/L of sulfate, and 26.7 mg/L of ammonia, was studied. Chemical precipitation and flotation reactions were utilized in the two-stage treatment processes. The first-stage reaction involved the addition of magnesium chloride (MgCl(2)) to induce selective precipitation of magnesium phosphate. The optimal condition was pH 10 and molar ratio, [Mg(2 + )]/[(PO(4) (3-))], of 3:1, and 66.2% of phosphate was removed and recovered as bobierrite (Mg(3)(PO(4))(2).8H(2)O). No reaction was found between MgCl(2) and fluoride. Calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) was used in the second-stage reaction to induce precipitation of calcium fluoride and calcium phosphate. The optimum molar ratio, [Ca(2 + )]/[F(-)], was 0.7 at pH 10, and residual fluoride concentration of 10.7 mg/L and phosphate concentration of lower than 0.5 mg/L was obtained. Thermodynamic equilibrium was modeled with PHREEQC and compared with experimental results. Sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) was an effective collector for subsequent solid-liquid removal via dispersed air flotation (DiAF). The study demonstrated that phosphate can be selectively recovered from the wastewater. Potential benefits include recovery of phosphate for reuse, lower required dosage of calcium for fluoride removal, and less amount of CaF(2) sludge.

  8. Effect of fluoride exposure on mRNA expression of cav1.2 and calcium signal pathway apoptosis regulators in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qiuxia; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xiaoyu; Nian, Weiwei; Ke, Lulu; Ouyang, Wei; Zhang, Zigui

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of fluoride exposure on the mRNA expression of Cav1.2 calcium signaling pathway and apoptosis regulatory molecules in PC12 cells. The viability of PC12 cell receiving high fluoride (5.0mM) and low fluoride (0.5mM) alone or fluoride combined with L-type calcium channel (LTCC) agonist/inhibitor (5umol/L FPL6417/2umol/L nifedipine) was detected using cell counting kit-8 at different time points (2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 10, and 24h). Changes in the cell configuration were observed after exposing the cells to fluoride for 24h. The expression levels of molecules related to the LTCC were examined, particularly, Cav1.2, c-fos, CAMK II, Bax, and Bcl-2. Fluoride poisoning induced severe cell injuries, such as decreased PC12 cell activity, enhanced cell apoptosis, high c-fos, CAMKII, and Bax mRNA expression levels. Bcl-2 expression level was also reduced. Meanwhile, high fluoride, high fluoride with FPL64176, and low fluoride with FPL64176 enhanced the Cav1.2 expression level. In contrast, low fluoride, high fluoride with nifedipine, and low fluoride with nifedipine reduced the Cav1.2 expression level. Thus, Cav1.2 may be an important molecular target for the fluorosis treatment, and the LTCC inhibitor nifedipine may be an effective drug for fluorosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental study and thermodynamic modelling of the calcium oxide-silicon oxide-aluminum oxide-calcium fluoride system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Geun

    Mould flux for the continuous casting process is a major concern for the steelmaking industry. Nowadays, more than 90 % of steel is being produced by the continuous casting process, which requires mould flux as an essential additive. The development of mould flux has been achieved by the conventional trial and error approach since it was first introduced in industry in the 1960s. Recently, the interest on the properties of fluorine has increased a lot since it is reported that fluorine has important functions such as playing a critical role on the crystallization behavior, and decreasing the melting point and viscosity of slag. However, the conventional way to find a suitable mould flux is not efficient to face the increasingly stringent requirements of the continuous casting process such as thin slab casting and higher casting speed. Therefore, fundamental phase diagram study on mould flux systems is clearly necessary, and thermodynamic modeling is the most effective way to design new mould flux in terms of time and money saving. The major components of mould flux, the CaO-SiO2-Al2O 3-CaF2 system, are investigated in this study as these four constituents will mostly affect the largest numbers of properties. Unfortunately, fluorine has high volatility at high temperature and high reactivity with other materials. Therefore, the results of previous experiments on F-containing systems are characterized by large discrepancies due to composition alteration and unexpected reactions during the experiment. As literature data show inconsistent results between each other, key phase diagram experiments were performed in this study. The phase diagram experiments were conducted with the quenching method in sealed Pt capsules to prevent fluorine loss during the experiment. The analyses were performed using a FE-SEM equipped with an EDS system, and a newly developed technique which produces more precise quantitative results for the equilibrium phase composition. The CaO liquidus of the CaO-CaF 2 binary system, which the literature data differ from each other by up to 50 mol %, was confirmed. The CaO solubility in solid CaF2 was found for the first time and reaches about 5 mol % at the eutectic temperature. The liquidus of the CaO-Al2O3-CaF2 and CaO-SiO 2-CaF2 systems were carefully studied and the miscibility gap in the CaO-Al2O3-CaF2 system was proved to be much smaller than that reported in literature. Also, thermal analysis was performed using DSC in a Pt crucible. The eutectic temperatures of the CaO-CaF2 and CaAl2O4-CaF2 systems were successfully measured and the alpha to beta-CaF2 polymorphic transition was confirmed. Based on the new experimental data and reliable literature data, thermodynamic modeling of the CaO-SiO2-Al 2O3-CaF2 system was also carried out. The results of thermodynamic calculation can be very beneficial for new mould flux design.

  10. The effect of supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, boron, and increased fluoride intake on bone mechanical properties and metabolic hormones in rat.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, G; Babaei, M; Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Mofid, M; Torkaman, G; Hedayati, M

    2014-04-01

    Evidence indicates that optimal nutrition plays a role in bone formation and maintenance. Besides major components of mineralization such as calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D, other nutrients like boron and fluoride have beneficial role, too. In this study, 34 male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control diet, fluoride, fluoride + boron, fluoride + calcium + vitamin D, and fluoride + boron + calcium + vitamin D. Boron equal to 1.23 mg, calcium and vitamin D equal to 210 mg + 55 IU and fluoride equal to 0.7 mg/rat/day was added to their drinking water for 8 weeks. Plasma blood samples and bones were collected. Findings are evidence that fluoride + boron intake revealed significant positive effects on bone mechanical properties and bone metabolic hormones. These findings suggest that combined intake of these two elements has beneficial effects on bone stiffness and breaking strength comparing to even calcium + vitamin D supplementation. This evidence dealing with health problems related to bone and skeletal system in humans should justify further investigation of the role of boron and fluoride with other elements in relation to bone.

  11. Effect of a calcium glycerophosphate fluoride dentifrice formulation on enamel demineralization in situ.

    PubMed

    Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Cenci, Maximiliano Sergio; Cury, Altair A Del Bel; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana; Tabchoury, Cínthia Pereira Machado; Moi, Gisele Pedroso; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate in situ the effect and mechanisms involved in the anticariogenic effect of a calcium glycerophosphate fluoride dentifrice. In a double-blind, crossover design, a non-F dentifrice (negative control), a F dentifrice and a F dentifrice containing 0.13% CaGP were compared regarding the inhibition of enamel demineralization. Both F dentifrices contained 1500 microg F/g (w/w) as sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP). Bovine enamel blocks were mounted in contact with a S. mutans test plaque, in palatal appliances worn by 10 volunteers. 30 minutes after treatment with the dentifrices, a sucrose rinse was performed and enamel demineralization was assessed after an additional 45 minutes. No significant difference was observed among groups in the calcium and inorganic phosphate concentrations in the fluid phase of the test plaque 30 minutes after the dentifrice use (P > 0.05), but F concentration was significantly higher for both F dentifrices (P < 0.05). Also, the dentifrices did not differ regarding the pH before or 5 minutes after the sugar challenge (P > 0.05). A higher mineral loss was observed for the non-F dentifrice group (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was observed between the F dentifrices containing CaGP or not (P > 0.05). Using this in situ model, the findings suggested that CaGP at the concentration tested did not enhance the inhibition of enamel demineralization promoted by F dentifrice.

  12. A numerical study on electrochemical transport of ions in calcium fluoride slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi-Sibaki, E.; Kharicha, A.; Wu, M.; Ludwig, A.

    2016-07-01

    Electrically resistive CaF 2-based slags are widely used in electroslag remelting (ESR) process to generate Joule heat for the melting of electrode. The electric current is conducted by ions (electrolyte) such as Ca +2 or F -, thus it is necessary to establish electrochemical models to study electrical behavior of slag. This paper presents a numerical model on electrochemical transport of ions in an arbitrary symmetrical (ZZ) and non-symmetrical (CaF2) stagnant electrolytes blocked by two parallel, planar electrodes. The dimensionless Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations are solved to model electro-migration and diffusion of ions. The ions are considered to be inert that no Faradic reactions occur. Spatial variations of concentrations of ions, charge density and electric potential across the electrolyte are analyzed. It is shown that the applied potential has significant influence on the system response. At high applied voltage, the anodic potential drop near the electrode is significantly larger than cathodic potential drop in fully dissociated CaF2 electrolyte.

  13. Divalent fluoride doped cerium fluoride scintillator

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.; Sparrow, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The use of divalent fluoride dopants in scintillator materials comprising cerium fluoride is disclosed. The preferred divalent fluoride dopants are calcium fluoride, strontium fluoride, and barium fluoride. The preferred amount of divalent fluoride dopant is less than about two percent by weight of the total scintillator. Cerium fluoride scintillator crystals grown with the addition of a divalent fluoride have exhibited better transmissions and higher light outputs than crystals grown without the addition of such dopants. These scintillators are useful in radiation detection and monitoring applications, and are particularly well suited for high-rate applications such as positron emission tomography (PET).

  14. Effect of high- or low-concentration bleaching agents containing calcium and/or fluoride on enamel microhardness.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Isabella Spinardi; Bridi, Enrico Coser; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho do; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate enamel microhardness following bleaching treatments using either high- or low-concentration hydrogen peroxide (HP) agents containing calcium and/or fluoride. Sixty enamel blocks were bleached with 1 of 6 different bleaching agents (n = 10). The high-concentration HP agents were Whiteness HP Maxx (35% HP), Whiteness HP Blue (35% HP, 2% calcium gluconate), Pola Office+ (37.5% HP, 5% potassium nitrate), and Opalescence Boost (38% HP, 1.1% fluoride ion, 3% potassium nitrate). The low-concentration HP agents evaluated were Pola Day (9.5% HP) and White Class (10% HP, potassium nitrate, calcium, fluoride). High-concentration agents were applied in 3 sessions, whereas low-concentration agents were applied for 14 days. Knoop microhardness measurements were taken on the surface of the enamel before bleaching, at various timepoints during bleaching, and 14 days after the final bleaching treatment. The 2-way analysis of variance test showed that microhardness values were significantly influenced by the bleaching agent (P < 0.001) and application time (P < 0.001). The Tukey test showed that enamel bleached with Whiteness HP Maxx or White Class presented lower microhardness values than did the enamel treated with the remaining products. There was a reduction in micro-hardness values up to the end of the treatment. The results showed that the composition, concentration, and application protocol for each bleaching agent influenced the enamel microhardness values in that the microhardness decreased over time, regardless of the agent used or the addition of calcium and/or fluoride.

  15. Calcium Prerinse before Fluoride Rinse Reduces Enamel Demineralization: An in situ Caries Study.

    PubMed

    Souza, João Gabriel S; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Del Bel Cury, Altair Antoninha; Nóbrega, Diego Figueiredo; Budin, Renan R; de Queiroz, Mateus X; Vogel, Gerald L; Cury, Jaime A

    2016-01-01

    A calcium (Ca) prerinse before a fluoride (F) rinse has been shown to increase oral F levels. We tested the anticaries effect of this combination in a dose-response in situ caries model. In a double-blind, crossover experiment, 10 volunteers carried enamel slabs in palatal appliances for 14 days, during which they rinsed twice/day with one of four rinse combinations: (1) a placebo prerinse (150 mM sodium lactate) followed by a distilled water rinse (negative control); (2) a placebo prerinse followed by a 250 ppm F rinse; (3) a placebo prerinse followed by a 1,000 ppm F rinse, or (4) a Ca prerinse (150 mM Ca, as calcium lactate) followed by a 250 ppm F rinse. Sucrose solution was dripped onto the slabs 8×/day to simulate a high cariogenic challenge. The percent surface hardness loss (%SHL) was significantly lower in the Ca prerinse used with the 250 ppm F rinse group (%SHL = 38.0 ± 21.0) when compared with the F rinse alone (%SHL = 59.5 ± 24.1) and similar to the 1,000 ppm F rinse group (%SHL = 42.0 ± 18.3). Compared with the 250 ppm F rinse, the Ca prerinse increased biofilm fluid F only twice (nonsignificant). However, it greatly increased F in biofilm solids (∼22×). The Ca prerinse had little effect on loosely or firmly bound enamel F. The results showed an increased level of protection against demineralization by the use of a Ca prerinse, which seems to be caused by the enhancement of F concentration in the biofilm. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Effect of fluoride dentifrice and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate cream with and without fluoride in preventing enamel demineralization in a pH cyclic study

    PubMed Central

    Sinfiteli, Priscila de Pinto; Coutinho, Thereza Christina Lopes; de Oliveira, Patrícia Regina Almeida; Vasques, Wesley Felisberto; Azevedo, Leandra Matos; Pereira, André Maues Brabo; Tostes, Monica Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) complexes are anticariogenic and capable of remineralizing the early stages of enamel lesions. The use of fluoride prevents dental decay and the association of CPP-ACP with fluoride can increase remineralization. Objective: To evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF creams associated with a fluoride dentifrice to prevent enamel demineralization in a pH cyclic model. Material and Methods: Previously selected by surface microhardness (SH) analysis, human enamel blocks (n = 56) were submitted to daily treatment with dentifrice in a pH-cycling model. The enamel blocks were divided into four groups; G1: Crest™ Cavity Protection - Procter & Gamble (1,100 ppmF of NaF); G2: Crest™ +MI Paste (MP) - Recaldent™ GC Corporation Tokyo, Japan); G3: Crest™ + MI Paste Plus (MPP) - Recaldent™ 900 ppm as NaF, GC Corporation Tokyo, Japan), and G4: control, saliva. Specimens were soaked alternatively in a demineralizing solution and in artificial saliva for 5 d. The fluoride dentifrice, with proportion of 1:3 (w/w), was applied three times for 60 s after the remineralization period. The undiluted MP and MPP creams were applied for 3 m/d. After cycling, SH was re-measured and cross section microhardness measurements were taken. Results: The SH values observed for the groups G3 (257±70), G1 (205±70), and G2 (208±84) differed from the G4 group (98±110) (one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test). There were no differences between the groups G1xG2, G2xG3, and G1xG3 for demineralization inhibition. The percentage of volume mineral showed that, when applied with fluoride dentifrice, MPP was the most effective in preventing enamel demineralization at 50 µ from the outer enamel surface (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney p<0.05). Conclusion: Fluoride dentifrice associated with CPP-ACPF inhibited subsurface enamel demineralization. PMID:29211281

  17. Effect of fluoride dentifrice and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate cream with and without fluoride in preventing enamel demineralization in a pH cyclic study.

    PubMed

    Sinfiteli, Priscila de Pinto; Coutinho, Thereza Christina Lopes; Oliveira, Patrícia Regina Almeida de; Vasques, Wesley Felisberto; Azevedo, Leandra Matos; Pereira, André Maues Brabo; Tostes, Monica Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) complexes are anticariogenic and capable of remineralizing the early stages of enamel lesions. The use of fluoride prevents dental decay and the association of CPP-ACP with fluoride can increase remineralization. To evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP and CPP-ACPF creams associated with a fluoride dentifrice to prevent enamel demineralization in a pH cyclic model. Previously selected by surface microhardness (SH) analysis, human enamel blocks (n = 56) were submitted to daily treatment with dentifrice in a pH-cycling model. The enamel blocks were divided into four groups; G1: Crest™ Cavity Protection - Procter & Gamble (1,100 ppmF of NaF); G2: Crest™ +MI Paste (MP) - Recaldent™ GC Corporation Tokyo, Japan); G3: Crest™ + MI Paste Plus (MPP) - Recaldent™ 900 ppm as NaF, GC Corporation Tokyo, Japan), and G4: control, saliva. Specimens were soaked alternatively in a demineralizing solution and in artificial saliva for 5 d. The fluoride dentifrice, with proportion of 1:3 (w/w), was applied three times for 60 s after the remineralization period. The undiluted MP and MPP creams were applied for 3 m/d. After cycling, SH was re-measured and cross section microhardness measurements were taken. The SH values observed for the groups G3 (257±70), G1 (205±70), and G2 (208±84) differed from the G4 group (98±110) (one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test). There were no differences between the groups G1xG2, G2xG3, and G1xG3 for demineralization inhibition. The percentage of volume mineral showed that, when applied with fluoride dentifrice, MPP was the most effective in preventing enamel demineralization at 50 µ from the outer enamel surface (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney p<0.05). Fluoride dentifrice associated with CPP-ACPF inhibited subsurface enamel demineralization.

  18. Primary prevention of dental erosion by calcium and fluoride: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zini, A; Krivoroutski, Y; Vered, Y

    2014-02-01

    Overviews of the current literature only provide summaries of existing relevant preventive strategies for dental erosion. To perform a systematic review according to the quantitative meta-analysis method of the scientific literature on prevention of dental erosion. The focused question will address primary prevention of dental erosion by calcium and fluoride. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) regarding dental erosion prevention. The search included five databases: Embase, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, PubMed (MEDLINE), FDA publication and Berman medical library of the Hebrew University. The search included data in the English language, with effect on preventing dental erosion always presented as mean enamel loss and measured by profilometer. Statistical meta-analysis was performed by StatsDirect program and PEPI statistical software. Fixed- and random-effect models were used to analyse the data. Heterogeneity tests were employed to validate the fixed-effect model assumption. A total of 475 articles on dental erosion prevention were located. A four-stage selection process was employed, and 10 RCT articles were found to be suitable for meta-analysis. The number of studies on prevention of dental erosion maintaining standards of evidence-based dentistry remains insufficient to reach any definite conclusions. The focused questions of this review cannot be addressed according to the existing literature. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Comparative evaluation of the remineralizing efficacy of calcium sodium phosphosilicate agent and fluoride based on quantitative and qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Mony, Saranya; Rao, Arathi; Shenoy, Ramya; Suprabha, Baranya Srikrishna

    2015-01-01

    Calcium sodium phosphosilicate (NovaMin) is an agent that is claimed to release calcium and phosphate ions intraorally to help the self-repair process of enamel. It is used extensively as a desensitizing agent, but the chemical reactions that occur may promote apatite formation enhancing remineralization. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of NovaMin to remineralize an experimentally induced demineralized lesion. The evaluation was done based on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of enamel over the period of 15 and 30 days. A sample of 120 noncarious premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were used for the study. Baseline data for hardness, Ca/PO 4 , and surface characteristics before and after demineralization process was obtained. All the teeth were brushed twice daily at 12 h interval with the test agents using a powered toothbrush for 2 min. The samples were tested on the 15 th and 30 th day. Calcium phosphate ratio and hardness in both the groups improved during the study period. Fluoride group showed higher values for Ca/PO 4 and hardness but was not statistically significant with the P > 0.05. Scanning electron microscope pictures showed that the deposition of the material over the decalcified enamel is more smoother and uniform with NovaMin and more irregular with fluoride. NovaMin is found to be as effective in improving the Ca/PO 4 ratio and hardness in a demineralized enamel as fluoride. Hence, it can be a new alternate material for remineralization of enamel with less toxic effects compared to fluorides.

  20. Evaluation of the remineralization potential of amorphous calcium phosphate and fluoride containing pit and fissure sealants using scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Prashant; Tandon, Shobha; Ganesh, M; Mehra, Anshul

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the remineralization potential of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (ACP) and Fluoride containing pit and Fissure Sealants using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Thirty maxillary first premolars were divided into three groups of ten each and were randomly selected for ACP containing (Aegis- Opaque White, Bosworth Co. Ltd.), Fluoride containing (Teethmate F1 Natural Clear, Kuraray Co. Ltd.), resin based (Concise- Opaque White, 3M ESPE Co. Ltd.) pit and fissure sealant applications. The Concise group served as a control. The teeth weresubjected to the pH-cycling regimen for a period of two weeks. After two weeks, the teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually into 4mm sections and were observed under Scanning Electron Microscope at 50X, 250X, 500X, 1000X and 1500X magnifications. The qualitative changes at the tooth surface and sealant interface were examined and presence of white zone at the interface was considered positive for remineralization. Both ACP containing (Aegis) and Fluoride containing (Teethmate F1) group showed white zone at the tooth surface-sealant interface. The resin based group (Concise) showed regular interface between the sealant and the tooth structure, but no clear cut white zone was observed. Both, Aegis and Teethmate F1 have the potential to remineralize. Release of Amorphous Calcium Phosphate molecules in Aegis group and formation of Fluoroapetite in Teethmate F1 group, were probably responsible for the remineralization.

  1. Reuse of hazardous calcium fluoride sludge from the integrated circuit industry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ping; Cao, Zhenbang; Ye, YiLi; Qian, Guangren; Lu, Bo; Zhou, Ming; Zhou, Jin

    2013-11-01

    The Chinese integrated circuit industry has been transformed from a small state-owned sector into a global competitor, but chip manufacturing produces large amounts of calcium fluoride sludges (CFS). In China, landfill is a current option for treating CFS. In order to solve the problem of unavailable landfill sites and prevent fluorine from dissolved CFS polluting water sources, CFS was tested as a component for a ceramic product made with sodium borate, sodium phosphate and waste alumina using a low-temperature sintering technology, and the effects of various factors on characteristics of the ceramic were investigated to optimize the process. The best sintering temperature was controlled at 700°C, and the optimal raw material ratio of the ceramic was 11% sodium borate, 54% sodium phosphate, 30% CFS and 5% waste alumina. The CFS ceramic was characterized by a morphological structure and X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that CFS was transformed into Na2Ca(PO4)F as an inert and a main crystalline phase in the ceramic, which was enclosed by the borophosphate glass. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, corrosion resistance and compressive strength tests verified CFS ceramic as a qualified construction ceramic material, and the fluorine from CFS was solidified in the inert crystalline phase, which would not be released to cause secondary pollution. This novel technology not only avoids the CFS hydrolyzing reaction forming harmful hydrofluoric acid gas at 800°C and above, but also produces high-performance ceramics as a construction material, in accordance with the concept of sustainable development.

  2. Fluoride-induced thyroid dysfunction in rats: roles of dietary protein and calcium level.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Yang, Z; Zhou, B; Gao, H; Yan, X; Wang, J

    2009-02-01

    To assess the roles of dietary protein (Pr) and calcium (Ca) level associated with excessive fluoride (F) intake and the impact of dietary Pr, Ca, and F on thyroid function, 144 30-day-old Wistar albino rats were randomly allotted to six groups of 24 (female:male = 1:1). The six groups were fed (1) a normal control (NC) diet (17.92% Pr, 0.85% Ca = NC group); (2) the NC diet and high F (338 mg NaF [=150 mg F ion]/L in their drinking water = NC+F group); (3) low Pr and low Ca diet (10.01% Pr, 0.24% Ca = LPrLCa group); (4) low Pr and low Ca diet plus high F = LPrLCa+F group; (5) high Pr and low Ca diet plus high F (25.52% Pr, 0.25% Ca = HPrLCa+F group); and (6) low Pr and high Ca diet plus high F (10.60% Pr, 1.93% Ca = LPrHCa+F group). The areas of thyroid follicles were determined by Image-Proplus 5.1, and triiodothyronine (T3), free T3 (FT3), thyroxine (T4), and free T4 (FT4) levels in serum were measured by radioimmunoassay. The histopathological study revealed obviously flatted follicular epithelia cells and hyperplastic nodules, consisting of thyroid parafollicular cells that appeared by excessive F ingestion, on the 120th day. Pr or Ca supplementation reverses the F-induced damage in malnutrition. The serum T3, FT3, T4, and FT4 levels in the NC+F group were significantly decreased and significantly increased in the LPrLCa+F group. Thus, excessive F administration induces thyroid dysfunction in rats; dietary Pr and Ca level play key roles in F-induced thyroid dysfunction.

  3. Pulp response to high fluoride releasing glass ionomer, silver diamine fluoride, and calcium hydroxide used for indirect pulp treatment: An in-vivo comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Korwar, Atish; Sharma, Sidhartha; Logani, Ajay; Shah, Naseem

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The study aims at determining pulp response of two high fluoride releasing materials silver diamine fluoride (SDF) and Type VII glass ionomer cement (GIC) when used as indirect pulp treatment (IPT) materials. Materials and Methods: Deep Class V cavities were made on four first premolars indicated for extraction for orthodontic reasons. SDF, Type VII GIC, and calcium hydroxide base are given in three premolars, and one is kept control. Premolars were extracted 6 weeks after the procedure and subjected to histopathological examination to determine the pulp response. The results were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: No inflammatory changes were observed in any of the groups. Significantly more number of specimens in SDF and Type VII GIC groups showed tertiary dentin deposition (TDD) when compared to control group. No significant difference was seen in TDD when intergroup comparison was made. Odontoblasts were seen as short cuboidal cells with dense basophilic nucleus in SDF and Type VII GIC group. Conclusion: The study demonstrated TDD inducing ability of SDF and Type VII GIC and also established the biocompatibility when used as IPT materials. PMID:26321822

  4. Fluoride toothpaste containing 1.5% arginine and insoluble calcium as a new standard of care in caries prevention.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, J M; Cummins, D

    2013-01-01

    In spite of obvious achievements in prevention, caries remains a prevalent disease. Fluorides are effective by inhibiting enamel and dentin demineralization and enhancing remineralization, but have little or no influence on bacterial processes in dental plaque. Dental caries is a continuum of stages from reversible, early lesions to irreversible, pre-cavitated lesions and, ultimately, to cavities. Prevention should focus on strengthening protective and reducing pathological factors, and careful monitoring of the disease state. While fluoride and the mineral aspects of caries have been in focus for decades, new insights into the etiology of caries have generated novel concepts and approaches to its prevention and treatment. The observation that some plaque bacteria can produce alkali metabolites and, thus, raise pH or neutralize acid formed in plaque has long been known. Such pH rise factors are related to caries susceptibility. Nourishing the plaque with substrates that encourage alkali-producing reactions is a protective factor in the caries continuum. This article reviews the results of clinical studies with a novel toothpaste containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound, and fluoride which have demonstrated superior remineralization of white spot enamel lesions and rehardening of root surface lesions, favorable effects on the de-/remineralization balance, as well as superior cavity prevention efficacy compared to toothpaste with fluoride alone. Studies have also confirmed formation of ammonia and elevated pH levels in subjects using the arginine-containing toothpaste. This novel toothpaste effectively combines the established effects of fluoride on de- and remineralization with reduction of caries-inducing pathological factors resulting from plaque metabolism.

  5. High fluoride and low calcium levels in drinking water is associated with low bone mass, reduced bone quality and fragility fractures in sheep.

    PubMed

    Simon, M J K; Beil, F T; Rüther, W; Busse, B; Koehne, T; Steiner, M; Pogoda, P; Ignatius, A; Amling, M; Oheim, R

    2014-07-01

    Chronic environmental fluoride exposure under calcium stress causes fragility fractures due to osteoporosis and bone quality deterioration, at least in sheep. Proof of skeletal fluorosis, presenting without increased bone density, calls for a review of fracture incidence in areas with fluoridated groundwater, including an analysis of patients with low bone mass. Understanding the skeletal effects of environmental fluoride exposure especially under calcium stress remains an unmet need of critical importance. Therefore, we studied the skeletal phenotype of sheep chronically exposed to highly fluoridated water in the Kalahari Desert, where livestock is known to present with fragility fractures. Dorper ewes from two flocks in Namibia were studied. Chemical analyses of water, blood and urine were executed for both cohorts. Skeletal phenotyping comprised micro-computer tomography (μCT), histological, histomorphometric, biomechanical, quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Analysis was performed in direct comparison with undecalcified human iliac crest bone biopsies of patients with fluoride-induced osteopathy. The fluoride content of water, blood and urine was significantly elevated in the Kalahari group compared to the control. Surprisingly, a significant decrease in both cortical and trabecular bones was found in sheep chronically exposed to fluoride. Furthermore, osteoid parameters and the degree and heterogeneity of mineralization were increased. The latter findings are reminiscent of those found in osteoporotic patients with treatment-induced fluorosis. Mechanical testing revealed a significant decrease in the bending strength, concurrent with the clinical observation of fragility fractures in sheep within an area of environmental fluoride exposure. Our data suggest that fluoride exposure with concomitant calcium deficit (i) may aggravate bone loss via reductions in mineralized trabecular and cortical bone

  6. Strontium hydroxyapatite and strontium carbonate as templates for the precipitation of calcium-phosphates in the absence and presence of fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternitzke, Vanessa; Janousch, Markus; Heeb, Michèle B.; Hering, Janet G.; Johnson, C. Annette

    2014-06-01

    The heterogeneous precipitation of calcium-phosphates on calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 or HAP) in the presence and absence of fluoride is important in the formation of bone and teeth, protection against tooth decay, dental and skeletal fluorosis and defluoridation of drinking water. Strontium hydroxyapatite (Sr10(PO4)6(OH)2 or SrHAP) and strontium carbonate (SrCO3) were used as calcium-free seed templates in precipitation experiments conducted with varying initial calcium-to-phosphate (Ca/P) or calcium-to-phosphate-to-fluoride (Ca/P/F) ratios. Suspensions of SrHAP or SrCO3 seed templates (which were calcium-limited for both templates and phosphate-limited in the case of SrCO3) were reacted at pH 7.3 (25 °C) over 3 days. The resulting solids were examined with Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES), and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Calcium apatite was the predominant phase identified by all techniques independent of the added Ca/P ratios and of the presence of fluoride. It was not possible to make an unambiguous distinction between HAP and fluorapatite (Ca10(PO4)6F2, FAP). The apatite was calcium-deficient and probably contained some strontium.

  7. Mechanisms of Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis in MC3T3-E1 Cells and Bone Tissues of Sprague-Dawley Rats Exposed to Fluoride.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiao-qin; Li, Yan-hui; Zhang, Xiu-yun; Zhao, Zhi-tao; Wang, Ying; Wang, Huan; Li, Guang-sheng; Jing, Ling

    2016-04-01

    Calcium homeostasis of osteoblasts (OBs) has an important role in the physiology and pathology of bone tissue. In order to study the mechanisms of intracellular calcium homeostasis, MC3T3-E1 cells and Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with different concentrations of fluoride. Then, we examined intracellular-free calcium ion ([Ca(2+)]i) in MC3T3-E1 cells as well as mRNA and protein levels of Cav1.2, the main subunit of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange carriers (NCS), and plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA), inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) channels, sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2b (SERCA2b)/ATP2A2 in vitro, and rat bone tissues in vivo. Our results showed that [Ca(2+)]i of fluoride-treated OBs increased in a concentration-dependent manner with an increase in the concentration of fluoride. We also found that the low dose of fluoride led to high expression levels of Cav1.2, NCS-1, and PMCA and low expression levels of IP3R and SERCA2b/ATP2A2, while the high dose of fluoride induced an increase in SERCA2b/ATP2A2 levels and decrease in Cav1.2, PMCA, NCS-1, and IP3R levels. These results demonstrate that calcium channels and calcium pumps of plasma and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes keep intracellular calcium homeostasis by regulating Cav1.2, NCS-1, PMCA, IP3R, and SERCA2b/ATP2A2 expression.

  8. Fluoride-containing nanoporous calcium-silicate MTA cements for endodontics and oral surgery: early fluorapatite formation in a phosphate-containing solution.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, M G; Taddei, P; Siboni, F; Modena, E; Ginebra, M P; Prati, C

    2011-10-01

    To test the chemical-physical properties and apatite-forming ability of experimental fluoride-doped calcium silicate cements designed to create novel bioactive materials for use in endodontics and oral surgery. A thermally treated calcium silicate cement (wTC) containing CaCl(2) 5%wt was modified by adding NaF 1%wt (FTC) or 10%wt (F10TC). Cements were analysed by environmental scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, IR and micro-Raman spectroscopy in wet conditions immediately after preparation or after ageing in a phosphate-containing solution (Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline). Calcium and fluoride release and pH of the storage solution were measured. The results obtained were analysed statistically (Tukey's HSD test and two-way anova). The formation of calcium phosphate precipitates (spherulites) was observed on the surface of 24 h-aged cements and the formation of a thick bone-like B-type carbonated apatite layer (biocoating) on 28 day-aged cements. The rate of apatite formation was FTC>F10TC>wTC. Fluorapatite was detected on FTC and F10TC after 1 day of ageing, with a higher fluoride content on F10TC. All the cements released calcium ions. At 5 and 24 h, the wTC had the significantly highest calcium release (P<0.001) that decreased significantly over the storage time. At 3-28 days, FTC and F10TC had significantly higher calcium release than wTC (P<0.05). The F10TC had the significantly highest fluoride release at all times (P<0.01) that decreased significantly over storage time. No significant differences were observed between FTC and wTC. All the cements had a strong alkalinizing activity (OH(-) release) that remained after 28 days of storage. The addition of sodium fluoride accelerated apatite formation on calcium silicate cements. Fluoride-doped calcium silicate cements had higher bioactivity and earlier formation of fluorapatite. Sodium fluoride may be introduced in the formulation of mineral trioxide aggregate cements to

  9. The impact of pH and calcium on the uptake of fluoride by tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Ruan, Jianyun; Ma, Lifeng; Shi, Yuanzhi; Han, Wenyan

    2004-01-01

    Tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.) accumulate large amounts of fluoride (F) from soils containing normal F concentrations. The present experiments examined the effects of pH and Ca on F uptake by this accumulating plant species. The effect of pH was assessed in two experiments, one using uptake solutions with different pHs, and the other using lime, as CaO, applied to the soil. The effect of Ca was examined by analysing F concentrations in plants supplied with varying amounts of Ca, as Ca(NO3)2, either in uptake solutions or through the soil. F uptake was highest at solution pH 5.5, and significantly lower at pH 4.0. In the soil experiment, leaf F decreased linearly with the amounts of lime, which raised the soil pH progressively from 4.32 to 4.91, 5.43, 5.89 and, finally, 6.55. Liming increased the water-soluble F content of the soil. Including Ca in the uptake solution or adding Ca to soil significantly decreased leaf F concentrations. The distribution pattern of F in tea plants was not altered by Ca treatment, with most F being allocated to leaves. The activity of F- in the uptake solution was unaffected and water-soluble F in the soil was sometimes increased by added Ca. F uptake by tea plants, which are inherently able to accumulate large quantities of F, was affected both by pH and by Ca levels in the medium. The reduced F uptake following Ca application appeared not to be due simply to the precipitation of CaF2 in solution and soil or to the complexing of Ca and F in roots, although these factors cannot be dismissed. It was more likely due to the effect of Ca on the properties of cell wall or membrane permeability in the solution experiments, and to alteration of F speciations and their quantities in soil solutions following Ca application.

  10. The Impact of pH and Calcium on the Uptake of Fluoride by Tea Plants (Camellia sinensis L.)

    PubMed Central

    RUAN, JIANYUN; MA, LIFENG; SHI, YUANZHI; HAN, WENYAN

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.) accumulate large amounts of fluoride (F) from soils containing normal F concentrations. The present experiments examined the effects of pH and Ca on F uptake by this accumulating plant species. • Methods The effect of pH was assessed in two experiments, one using uptake solutions with different pHs, and the other using lime, as CaO, applied to the soil. The effect of Ca was examined by analysing F concentrations in plants supplied with varying amounts of Ca, as Ca(NO3)2, either in uptake solutions or through the soil. • Key results F uptake was highest at solution pH 5·5, and significantly lower at pH 4·0. In the soil experiment, leaf F decreased linearly with the amounts of lime, which raised the soil pH progressively from 4·32 to 4·91, 5·43, 5·89 and, finally, 6·55. Liming increased the water‐soluble F content of the soil. Including Ca in the uptake solution or adding Ca to soil significantly decreased leaf F concentrations. The distribution pattern of F in tea plants was not altered by Ca treatment, with most F being allocated to leaves. The activity of F– in the uptake solution was unaffected and water‐soluble F in the soil was sometimes increased by added Ca. • Conclusions F uptake by tea plants, which are inherently able to accumulate large quantities of F, was affected both by pH and by Ca levels in the medium. The reduced F uptake following Ca application appeared not to be due simply to the precipitation of CaF2 in solution and soil or to the complexing of Ca and F in roots, although these factors cannot be dismissed. It was more likely due to the effect of Ca on the properties of cell wall or membrane permeability in the solution experiments, and to alteration of F speciations and their quantities in soil solutions following Ca application. PMID:14644914

  11. Combining casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with fluoride: synergistic remineralization potential of artificially demineralized enamel or not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayad, Iman; Sakr, Amal; Badr, Yahia

    2009-07-01

    Recaldent is a product of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP). The remineralizing potential of CPP-ACP per se, or when combined with 0.22% Fl gel on artificially demineralized enamel using laser florescence, is investigated. Mesial surfaces of 15 sound human molars are tested using a He-Cd laser beam at 441.5 nm with 18-mW power as an excitation source on a suitable setup based on a Spex 750-M monochromator provided with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) for detection of collected autofluorescence from sound enamel. Mesial surfaces are subjected to demineralization for ten days. The spectra from demineralized enamel are measured. Teeth are divided into three groups according to the remineralizing regimen: group 1 Recaldent per se, group 2 Recaldent combined with fluoride gel and ACP, and group 3 artificial saliva as a positive control. After following these protocols for three weeks, the spectra from the remineralized enamel are measured. The spectra of enamel autofluorescence are recorded and normalized to peak intensity at about 540 nm to compare spectra from sound, demineralized, and remineralized enamel surfaces. A slight red shift occurred in spectra from demineralized enamel, while a blue shift may occur in remineralized enamel. Group 2 shows the highest remineralizing potential. Combining fluoride and ACP with CPP-ACP can give a synergistic effect on enamel remineralization.

  12. Synthesis, characterization of CaF2 doped silicate glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Madeeha; Zia, Rehana; Mirza, Ambreen; Hussain, Tousif; Bashir, Farooq; Anjum, Safia

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of silicate glass-ceramics doped with (0-12mol%) CaF 2 . TGA-DSC analysis was carried out to determine the crystallization temperature and stability of glass measured by two glass parameters; Hruby parameter K H =(T x -T g )/(T L -T x ) and Weinberg parameter K W =(T c -T g )/T L . It was found that with CaF 2 doping improved sinterability at low temperature and provided stability to the glass. The XRD pattern exhibits a single phase of combeite and doping of CaF 2 cause increase in crystallite size. Microstructure of samples was also improved with CaF 2 addition, pores were significantly reduced. After 15days immersion in simulated body fluid all samples developed apatite layer onto its surface. Hence, the addition of CaF 2 provided bioactive glass-ceramic material having a low processing temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 2.4 μm diode-pumped Dy2+:CaF2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švejkar, Richard; Papashvili, Alexander G.; Šulc, Jan; Němec, Michal; Jelínková, Helena; Doroshenko, Maxim E.; Batygov, Sergei H.; Osiko, Vyacheslav V.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a cryogenic cooled, longitudinal diode-pumped Dy2+ :CaF2 laser was investigated for the first time. The temperature dependence of the spectroscopy and the laser properties of Dy2+ :CaF2 are presented. The tested Dy2+ :CaF2 crystal was a longitudinal pump in a near-IR region (926 nm) by laser diode radiation. The maximal mean output power and slope efficiency at 78 K during the pulse regime of the laser were 57.5 mW and 7%, respectively. Furthermore, the CW regime was successfully tested and a maximum output power of 0.37 W was obtained for the absorbed pumping power 5.7 W. The emission laser wavelength was 2367 nm.

  14. Concentration of Calcium, Phosphate and Fluoride Ions in Microbial Plaque and Saliva after Using CPP-ACP Paste in 6-9 year-old Children

    PubMed Central

    HR, Poureslami; Ra, Hoseinifar; Re, Hoseinifar; H, Sharifi; P, Poureslami

    2016-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Dental caries is one of the most common chronic diseases in children. The balance between demineralization and remineralization of the decayed teeth depends on the calcium and phosphate content of the tooth surface. Therefore, if a product such as casein phospho peptides - amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP- ACP) which can significantly increase the availability of calcium and phosphate in the plaque and saliva should have an anti-caries protective effect. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concentration of calcium, phosphate and fluoride in the plaque and saliva of children before and after applying the CPP-ACP paste. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 children aged between 6-9 years were selected for this clinical trial study. At first, 1 ml of unstimulated saliva was collected and then 1 mg of the plaque sample was collected from the buccal surfaces of the two first primary molars on the upper jaw. In the next step, CPP-ACP paste (GC Corp, Japan) was applied on the tooth surfaces and then the plaque and saliva sampling was performed after 60 minutes. The amount of calcium ions was measured by Ion meter instrument (Metrohm Co, Swiss) and the amounts of phosphate and fluoride ions were measured by Ion Chromatography instrument (Metrohm Co, Swiss). Data were analyzed using paired t-test at a p < 0.05 level of significance. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the calcium and phosphate concentration of the saliva and plaque before and after applying the CPP-ACP paste. There were also statistically significant differences in the fluoride levels of the plaque before and after applying the CPP-ACP paste. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the fluoride levels of the saliva before and after applying the CPP-ACP paste. Conclusions: In this study, the use of the CPP-ACP paste significantly increased the fluoride levels of the plaque and the calcium and phosphate levels of both

  15. Comparative evaluation of enamel remineralization potential of processed cheese, calcium phosphate-based synthetic agent, and a fluoride-containing toothpaste: An in situ study.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Navneet; Gumber, Samita; Kaur, Nirapjeet

    2017-01-01

    Enamel remineralization potential of variety of products has been established, but there is a lack of evidence of comparison of remineralization potential of natural versus synthetic products. The aim of this study was to compare the enamel remineralization potential of saliva, cheese, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP)-based synthetic agent, and fluoride toothpaste. In situ study was carried out on sixty individuals who wore an intraoral appliance containing demineralized enamel slabs for each agent. One out of six slabs was kept as a control so as to record the baseline values (neither subjected to demineralization nor remineralization). Experimental agents were applied on the designated enamel slabs on day 1, 4, 7, and 10 with a crossover wash out period of 7 days. Quantitative values of mineral content of slab were measured using energy dispersive X-ray and qualitative changes in surface topography of slab were seen under scanning electron microscope at ×20K magnification. Highly significant changes from baseline values were seen in calcium and phosphorus content of slabs treated with cheese and CPP-ACP-based agent whereas levels of fluoride were significantly higher in enamel slabs treated with fluoride-containing toothpaste. Cheese is an organic, economical, and user-friendly option over prescribed synthetic agents. A synergistic effect of fluoride-containing toothpaste with intake of cheese could be a good enamel remineralization protocol.

  16. The synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of nano calcium fluorapatite using tetra-butylammonium fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheykhan, Mehdi; Heydari, Akbar; Ma'mani, Leila; Badiei, Alireza

    2011-12-01

    Pure homogeneous nano sized biocompatible fluorapatite (FAp) particles were synthesized by a wet chemical procedure using water soluble tetra-butylammonium fluoride (TBAF) without using high temperatures and any purification processes. Combination of the Bragg's law and the plane-spacing equation for the two high intensity lines, namely, (0 0 2) and (3 0 0), gives a = 9.3531 Å, c = 6.8841 Å, confirms the identity of the highly crystalline synthetic material as well as its purity. The effect of various pH's in crystal formation and on their size was also evaluated. The calculated crystallinities were excellent with a rate around 5.0. The synthesized nano FAp was fully characterized by spectroscopic techniques (XRD, SEM, EDS, BET, FT-IR and ICP-AES). The nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm showed a type IV diagram and calculation of the surface area was investigated as well.

  17. Tensile properties of HA 230 and HA 188 after 400 and 2500 hour exposures to LiF-22CaF2 and vacuum at 1093 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    The solid-to-liquid phase transformation of the nominal LiF-20CaF2 eutectic at 1043 K is considered to be an ideal candidate thermal energy storage mechanism for a space based low temperature Brayton cycle solar dynamic system. Although Co, Fe, and Ni superalloys are thought to be suitable containment materials for LiF based salts, long term containment is of concern because molten fluorides are usually corrosive and Cr can be lost into space through evaporation. Two examples of commercially available superalloys in sheet form, the Ni-base material HA 230 and the Co-base material Ha 88, have been exposed to molten LiF-22CaF2, its vapor, and vacuum, at 1093 K, for 400 and 2500 hr. Triplicate tensile testing of specimens subjected to all three environments have been undertaken between 77 to 1200 K. Comparison of the weight gain data, microstructure, and tensile properties indicate that little, if any, difference in behavior can be ascribed to the exposure environment.

  18. Ultra-precision process of CaF2 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Guoju; Li, Shengyi; Xie, Xuhui; Zhou, Lin

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes a new chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process method for CaF2 single crystal to get ultraprecision surface. The CMP processes are improving polishing pad and using alkaline SiO2 polishing slurry with PH=8, PH=11 two phases to polish, respectively, and the roughness can be 0.181nm Rq (10μm×10μm). The CMP process can't get high surface figure, so we use ion beam figuring (IBF) technology to obtain high surface figure. However, IBF is difficult to improve the CaF2 surface roughness. We optimize IBF process to improve surface figure and keep good surface roughness too. Different IBF incident ion energy from 400ev to 800ev does not affect on the surface roughness obviously but the depth of material removal is reverse. CaF2 single crystal can get high precision surface figure (RMS=2.251nm) and still keep ultra-smooth surface (Rq=0.207nm) by IBF when removal depth is less than 200nm. The researches above provide important information for CaF2 single crystal to realize ultra-precision manufacture.

  19. Radiation damage in Tb-implanted CaF 2 observed by channeling and luminescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aono, K.; Kumagai, M.; Iwaki, M.; Aoyagi, Y.; Namba, S.

    1993-06-01

    The effects of 100 keV Tb ion implantation in CaF 2 single crystals have been investigated using Rutherford backscattering/channeling technique and luminescence spectra during ion implantation, depending on ion doses. Terbium ions were implanted into (111)-cut CaF 2 single crystals in random directions with doses ranging from 1 × 10 13 to 1 × 10 17 Tb +/cm 2 at -100°C, 25°C and 100°C. The luminescence signals were measured by 100 keV Ar ion beam irradiation at room temperature to Tb-implanted specimens in order to detect the ionic state of Tb. Two broad emission peaks (near 380 and 545 nm) in visible regions were observed, originating from Tb 3+ in CaF 2. The same luminescence was also observed even during Tb implantation to CaF 2. The luminescence near 380 nm is identified as an emission of 5D 3→ 7F 6 and that near 545 nm is 5D 4→ 7F 5. The emission peak intensities depend on ion dose. Channeling measurements suggest that most of the Tb atoms occupy substitutional lattice sites. Intensities of luminescence and Tb depth profiles depend on the target temperature. In conclusion, implanted Tb atoms occupy Ca lattice sites and emit green luminescence light.

  20. [Comparison of the therapeutic effect on skeletal fluorosis and impact on urine fluoride value among fire needle therapy, electroacupuncture and calcium carbonate D3].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tong; Yang, Xu-Guang; Wu, Zhong-Chao; Zhou, Jin-Cao; Chen, Zhong-Jie; Hu, Jing; Jiao, Yue; Zhao, Xiao-Guang

    2014-03-01

    To observe the impacts on skeletal fluorosis pain, joint motor dysfunction and urine fluoride excretion in the treatment with fire needle therapy, electroacupuncture and calcium carbonate D3. The randomized controlled trial was adopted. Ninety-five patients were randomized into a fire needle group (31 cases), an electroacupuncture group (33 cases) and a calcium carbonate D3 group (31 cases). In the fire needle group and the electroacupuncture group, Ashi points, Dazhui (GV 14), Geshu (BL 17), Quchi (LI 11), Hegu (LI 4), Xuehai (SP 10) points were selected and stimulated with fire needle and electroacupuncture separately, three times a week. In the calcium carbonate D3 group, calcium carbonate D3 tablets was prescribed for oral administration, 600 mg each time, twice a day. The duration of treatment was 2 months in the electroacupuncture group and calcium carbonate D3 group and 1 month in the fire needle group. VAS score, the range of motion (ROM) and urine fluoride value were compared before and after treatment in the patients of the three groups. After treatment, VAS value and ROM were improved significantly in the patients of the three groups (all P < 0.05), the difference was not significant in comparison of the three groups (all P > 0.05). After treatment, the urine fluoride value was increased significantly in the fire needle group [(7.89 +/- 3.61) mg/L vs (9.81 +/- 4.17) mg/L, P < 0.01] and was increased in the electroacupuncture group [(7.53 +/- 3.46) mg/L vs (8.97 +/- 4.21) mg/L, P < 0.05]. The difference was not significant in comparison before and after treatment in the calcium carbonate D3 group (P > 0.05). The fire needle therapy, electroacupuncture and calcium carbonate D3 all have the clinical value in the prevention and treatment of skeletal fluorosis and the difference in the therapeutic effect has not been discovered among them yet at present. But it has been found that the fire needle therapy and electroacupuncture display the active significance

  1. Removal of ammonium and heavy metals by cost-effective zeolite synthesized from waste quartz sand and calcium fluoride sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Lin, Bing; Hong, Junming; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2017-02-01

    This study focuses on the effectiveness of zeolite (10% CF-Z [0.5]) hydrothermally synthesized from waste quartz sand and calcium fluoride (CF) for ammonium ion and heavy metal removal. Zeolite was characterized through powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, micromeritics N 2 adsorption/desorption analysis, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The effects of CF addition, Si/Al ratio, initial ammonium concentration, solution pH, and temperature on the adsorption of ammonium on 10% CF-Z (0.5) were further examined. Results showed that 10% CF-Z (0.5) was a single-phase zeolite A with cubic-shaped crystals and 10% CF-Z (0.5) efficiently adsorbs ammonium and heavy metals. For instance, 91% ammonium (10 mg L -1 ) and 93% lead (10 mg L -1 ) are removed. The adsorption isotherm, kinetics, and thermodynamics of ammonium adsorption on 10% CF-Z (0.5) were also theoretically analyzed. The adsorption isotherm of ammonium and lead on 10% CF-Z (0.5) in single systems indicated that Freundlich model provides the best fit for the equilibrium data, whereas pseudo-second-order model best describes the adsorption kinetics. The adsorption degree of ions on 10% CF-Z (0.5) in mixed systems exhibits the following pattern: lead > ammonium > cadmium > chromium.

  2. Characterization of the tribological coating composition 77 wt % CaF2 - 23 wt % Li F fused to IN-750 alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Sliney, H. E.

    1986-01-01

    A coating composed of 77 wt % CaF2 - 23 wt % LiF fused on IN-750 nickel-based alloy was studied using SEM, XRD, EDX, and optical microscopic methods. The surfaces examined were the as-fused coating with no subsequent treatment, the coating after ultrasonic cleaning in water, and the uncoated polished and etched metal. It was found that the coating reacts during fusion with Ti and Nb rich inclusions in the alloy. Numerous small rectangular crystallites of Ca(Ti,Nb) oxide are formed beneath an overlay of fused fluoride composition. These crystallines are stubby and appear to be embedded in the metal substrate surface. It is known from previous studies that this coating-alloy system has good tribological properties in extreme conditions, such as liquid fluorine. It has been concluded from the present study that the short firmly embedded crystalline protuberances contribute to the coating adherence and thereby to enhanced coating wear life.

  3. Geochemical appraisal of fluoride-laden groundwater in Suri I and II blocks, Birbhum district, West Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Shreya; Nag, S. K.

    2017-09-01

    The present study has been carried out covering two blocks—Suri I and II in Birbhum district, West Bengal, India. The evaluation focuses on occurrence, distribution and geochemistry in 26 water samples collected from borewells spread across the entire study area homogeneously. Quantitative chemical analysis of groundwater samples collected from the present study area has shown that samples from two locations—Gangta and Dhalla contain fluoride greater than the permissible limit prescribed by WHO during both post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sampling sessions. Significant factor controlling geochemistry of groundwater has been identified to be rock-water interaction processes during both sampling sessions based on the results of Gibb's diagrams. Geochemical modeling studies have revealed that fluorite (CaF2) is, indeed, present as a significant fluoride-bearing mineral in the groundwaters of this study area. Calcite or CaCO3 is one of the most common minerals with which fluorite remains associated, and saturation index calculations have revealed that the calcite-fluorite geochemistry is the dominant factor controlling fluoride concentration in this area during both post- and pre-monsoon. High fluoride waters have also been found to be of `bicarbonate' type showing increase of sodium in water with decrease of calcium.

  4. The complexity of the CaF2:Yb system: evidence that CaF2:Yb2+ is not an impurity trapped exciton system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackeen, Cameron; Bridges, Frank; Kozina, Michael; Mehta, Apurva; Reid, M. F.; Wells, J.-P. R.; BarandiaráN, Zoila

    Fluorite crystal structures doped with rare-earth elements exhibit an anomalous redshifted luminescence upon UV excitation, generally attributed to the relaxation of impurity trapped excitons (ITE). We find that the intensity of this luminescence decreases as the total concentration of Yb 2+ increases in unexposed samples, which is in conflict with the currently accepted ITE model. Further, using x-ray absorption spectroscopy and UV-vis studies of CaF2:Yb, we find a large (but reversible) Yb valence reduction upon x-ray exposure at 200 K - from mostly 3+ to 2+. This valence reduction is stable for long time periods at low T < 50 K, but reverts to the initial state upon warming to 300 K. After reverting to the initial valence state of 3+ the anomalous luminescence does not reappear; only after annealing at 900 K do we again observe the anomalous emission below 150 K. To explore the mechanism at work, we employ extended x-ray fine-structure absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS) to probe local structure and its role in the anomalous luminescence. The x-ray and emission studies show that CaF2:Yb is not described by the ITE model; the data appear more consistent with an intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) model. It is likely that many similar ITE systems have also been misidentified.

  5. Evolving Role of Molecular Imaging with (18)F-Sodium Fluoride PET as a Biomarker for Calcium Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Raynor, William; Houshmand, Sina; Gholami, Saeid; Emamzadehfard, Sahra; Rajapakse, Chamith S; Blomberg, Björn Alexander; Werner, Thomas J; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul F; Baker, Joshua F; Alavi, Abass

    2016-08-01

    (18)F-sodium fluoride (NaF) as an imaging tracer portrays calcium metabolic activity either in the osseous structures or in soft tissue. Currently, clinical use of NaF-PET is confined to detecting metastasis to the bone, but this approach reveals indirect evidence for disease activity and will have limited use in the future in favor of more direct approaches that visualize cancer cells in the read marrow where they reside. This has proven to be the case with FDG-PET imaging in most cancers. However, a variety of studies support the application of NaF-PET to assess benign osseous diseases. In particular, bone turnover can be measured from NaF uptake to diagnose osteoporosis. Several studies have evaluated the efficacy of bisphosphonates and their lasting effects as treatment for osteoporosis using bone turnover measured by NaF-PET. Additionally, NaF uptake in vessels tracks calcification in the plaques at the molecular level, which is relevant to coronary artery disease. Also, NaF-PET imaging of diseased joints is able to project disease progression in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Further studies suggest potential use of NaF-PET in domains such as back pain, osteosarcoma, stress-related fracture, and bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw. The critical role of NaF-PET in disease detection and characterization of many musculoskeletal disorders has been clearly demonstrated in the literature, and these methods will become more widespread in the future. The data from PET imaging are quantitative in nature, and as such, it adds a major dimension to assessing disease activity.

  6. Ultralow-threshold Raman lasing with CaF2 resonators.

    PubMed

    Grudinin, Ivan S; Maleki, Lute

    2007-01-15

    We demonstrate efficient Raman lasing with CaF2 whispering-gallery-mode resonators. Continuous-wave emission threshold is shown to be possible below 1 microW with a 5mm cavity, which is to our knowledge orders of magnitude lower than in any other Raman source. Low-threshold lasing is made possible by the ultrahigh optical quality factor of the cavity, of the order of Q=5x10(10). Stokes components of up to the fifth order were observed at a pump power of 160 microW, and up to the eighth order at 1 mW. A lasing threshold of 15 microW was also observed in a 100 microm CaF2 microcavity. Potential applications are discussed.

  7. Diode-pumped femtosecond mode-locked Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Lijuan; Gao, Ziye; Wang, Junli; Wang, Zhaohua; Su, Liangbi; Zheng, Lihe; Wang, Jingya; Xu, Jun; Wei, Zhiyi

    2015-03-01

    A passively mode-locked femtosecond laser based on an Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 disordered crystal was demonstrated. The Y3+-codoping in Nd : CaF2 markedly suppressed the quenching effect and improved the fluorescence quantum efficiency and emission spectra. With a fiber-coupled laser diode as the pump source, the continuous wave tuning range covering from 1042 to 1076 nm was realized, while the mode-locked operation generated 264 fs pulses with an average output power of 180 mW at a repetition rate of 85 MHz. The experimental results show that the Nd, Y-codoped CaF2 disordered crystal has potential in a new generation diode-pumped high repetition rate chirped pulse amplifier.

  8. [Fluoride toxicity].

    PubMed

    Giachini, M; Pierleoni, F

    2004-04-01

    Many years have passed since domestic water fluoridation was adopted to reduce the incidence of caries in developed countries; however, since there is an additional dose of fluorides ingested with foods and drinks prepared with such waters, the problem has emerged of possible adverse effects on health associated to them, so that in some countries fluorine integrator selling is allowed only with preventive medical prescription. Owing to the affinity for calcifited tissues, fluorine has a powerful effect on bone cellular order (mediated by growth factors' upregulation system IGF-2, TGF-beta, PDGF, bFGF, EGF, BMP-2 and PTH), on function and length, since it can provoke chronic joints-pain, ligaments-calcification, osteosclerosis. Moreover, sodium-fluoride may cause adverse effects on testicular activity (connected to oxidative-stress depending on increased activity of peroxidases and catalases) due to inhibition of 2 androgenesis-regulator enzymes DELTA(5)b-HSD and 17beta-HSD. Furthermore, insoluble gut formed calcium-fluoride may be responsible for hypocalcemia inducing a secondary hyperparathyroidism with bone matrix resorption, osteoporosis, osteomalacia and, perhaps, lowered level of phosphorus. At encephalic level, then, high doses of fluorine cause the onset of neurological symptoms and of a decreased spontaneous motor activity due to a reduction in the number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Nevertheless, epidemiological studies about fluoride toxicity have established that such oligoelement may be safely used at odontoiatric dosages.

  9. Spectroscopie et fonctionnement laser de CaF{2}: Yb3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camy, P.; Doualan, J. L.; Petit, V.; Renard, S.; Thuau, M.; Moncorgé, R.

    2004-11-01

    CaF{2 }:Yb3+ est un cristal doté de propriétés optiques et thermiques qui en font un matériau de choix pour divers types de fonctionnement laser. Un fonctionnement laser continu accordable entre 1000 et 1060nm et un rendement de conversion de 25% (par rapport au rayonnement de pompage optique incident) ont été déjà obtenus.

  10. Refractive indices of CaF2 single crystals under elastic shock loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Zhou, X. M.; Liu, C. L.; Luo, S. N.

    2017-07-01

    Refractive indices and Hugoniots of CaF2 single crystals are investigated by laser displacement interferometry under shock loading below 5 GPa. Birefringence is observed for the [110] loading. We obtain the Hugoniot equation of states for [100], [110] and [111], and refractive indices for these orientations with consideration of their polarization. The measured refractive indices are in reasonable agreement with predictions based on the piezo-optic theory, and are used to refine the elasto-optic coefficients.

  11. Study of electronic sputtering of CaF2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Ratnesh K.; Kumar, Manvendra; Khan, Saif A.; Kumar, Tanuj; Tripathi, Ambuj; Avasthi, D. K.; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work thin films of CaF2 deposited on Si substrate by electron beam evaporation have been investigated for swift heavy ions induced sputtering and surface modifications. Glancing angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD) measurements show that the pristine films are polycrystalline in nature and the grain size increases with increase in film thickness. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) of pristine as well as irradiated films was performed to determine the sputter yield of CaF2 and a decrease in sputter yield has been observed with increase in film thickness. Thermal spike model has been applied to explain this. The confinement of energy in the grains having size smaller than the electron mean free path (λ) results in a higher sputtering yield. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of irradiated CaF2 thin films show formation of cracks on film surface at a fluence of 5 × 1012 ions/cm2. Also RBS results confirm the removal of film from the surface and more exposure of substrate with increasing dose of ions.

  12. Effect of fluoride and low versus high levels of dietary calcium on mRNA expression of osteoprotegerin and osteoprotegerin ligand in the bone of rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jun; Gao, Yanhui; Sun, Dianjun

    2013-06-01

    The ratio of osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL) to osteoprotegerin (OPG) determines the delicate balance between bone resorption and synthesis. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the possible role of OPGL and OPG in the bone metabolism of rats exposed to fluoride and the protective or aggravating effect of calcium (Ca). In a 6-month study, 270 weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing between 70 and 90 g were divided randomly into six groups of 45 rats in each group. Three groups (groups I, III, and V)served as controls and drank deionized water and were fed purified rodent diets containing either 1,000 mg Ca/kg (low Ca), 5,000 mg Ca/kg (normal Ca), or 20,000 mg Ca/kg (high Ca). The three experimental groups (groups II, IV, and VI) were given the same diets but they drank water containing 100 mg F ion/L (from NaF). Every 2 months 15 rats were randomly selected from each group and sacrificed for the study. The ratio of OPGL mRNA to OPG mRNA was significantly increased by the sixth month in the distal femur joints of the F-exposed rats. Serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and serum calcitonin activity in the F-exposed groups was increased, although changes were not apparent in the serum alkaline phosphatase or Gla-containing proteins, especially in the low calcium and high calcium diet F-exposed groups. The results indicated that OPG and OPGL may play important roles in skeletal fluorosis, and that fluoride may enhance osteoclast formation and induce osteoclastic bone destruction. A high Ca diet did not play a protective role, but rather may aggravate the damage of fluoride.

  13. In vitro effect of calcium-containing prescription-strength fluoride toothpastes on bovine enamel erosion under hyposalivation-simulating conditions.

    PubMed

    Scaramucci, Taís; Borges, Alessandra B; Lippert, Frank; Zero, Domenick T; Hara, Anderson T

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate the ability of calcium-containing prescription-strength fluoride (F) toothpastes in preventing enamel erosion under low salivary flow simulating conditions. Enamel and dentin bovine specimens were assigned to the following groups: A - placebo; B - 1,100 ppm F/NaF (Aquafresh Advanced); C - 5,000 ppm F/NaF (Prevident 5000 Booster); D - 5000 ppm F/NaF+calcium sodium phosphosilicate (Topex Renew); and E - 5,000 ppm F/NaF+tri-calcium phosphate (Clinpro 5000). Specimens were positioned in custom-made devices, creating a sealed chamber on the surface, connected to peristaltic pumps. Citric acid was injected into the chamber for 2 minutes, followed by artificial saliva (0.05 ml/minute), for 60 minutes, 4x/day, for 3 days. Aquafresh was also tested under normal salivary flow (0.5 ml/minute), as reference (Group F). Specimens were exposed to the toothpastes for 2 minutes, 2x/day. After cycling, surface loss (SL) and concentration of loosely- and firmly-bound F were determined. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Results: Group A (placebo) presented highest surface loss (SL), while Group F had the lowest, for both substrates. For enamel, none of the dentifrices differed from Group B or among each other. For dentin, none of the dentifrices differed from Group B, but Group E showed greater protection than Group C. Group E presented the highest F concentrations for both substrates, only matched by Group D for firmly-bound fluoride on enamel. All fluoridated dentifrices tested reduced SL, with no additional benefit from higher F concentrations. Some formulations, especially Clinpro 5000, increased F availability on the dental substrates, but no further erosion protection was observed.

  14. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... You'll also find calcium in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables (especially collard and turnip greens, ... can enjoy good sources of calcium such as dark green, leafy vegetables, broccoli, chickpeas, and calcium-fortified ...

  15. Effect of Silver Nitrate and Sodium Fluoride with Tri-Calcium Phosphate on Streptococcus mutans and Demineralised Dentine.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ollie Yiru; Zhao, Irene Shuping; Mei, May Lei; Lo, Edward Chin-Man; Chu, Chun-Hung

    2018-04-25

    This study investigated the effect of 25% silver nitrate (AgNO₃) and 5% sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish with functionalized tri-calcium phosphate (fTCP) on a Streptococcus mutans ( S. mutans ) biofilm and dentine caries lesion. Demineralised dentine specimens were treated with 25% AgNO₃ and 5% NaF + fTCP (Group 1), 25% AgNO₃ and 5% NaF (Group 2), 25% AgNO₃ (Group 3), or water (Group 4). The specimens were subjected to a S. mutans biofilm challenge after treatment. The biofilm was then studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and colony forming units (CFU). The specimens were assessed by micro-computed tomography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). SEM and CLSM revealed less biofilm in Groups 1 to 3. The log 10 CFU of Groups 1 to 4 were 4.5 ± 0.7, 4.4 ± 0.9, 4.4 ± 0.9, and 6.7 ± 1.0, respectively (Groups 1, 2, 3 < 4, p < 0.001). The lesion depths of Groups 1 to 4 were 212.6 ± 20.1 µm, 280.8 ± 51.6 µm, 402.5 ± 61.7 µm, and 497.4 ± 67.2 µm, respectively (Groups 1 < 2 < 3 < 4, p < 0.001). XRD demonstrated silver chloride formation in Groups 1, 2, and 3. FTIR found the amide I: HPO₄ 2− values of the four groups were 0.22 ± 0.05, 0.25 ± 0.05, 0.41 ± 0.12, and 0.64 ± 0.14, respectively (Groups 1, 2 < 3 < 4; p < 0.001). In conclusion, this study revealed that AgNO₃ and NaF + fTCP reduced the damage of dentine caries by cariogenic biofilm.

  16. Electronic sputtering of LiF, CaF2, LaF3 and UF4 with 197 MeV Au ions. Is the stoichiometry of atom emission preserved?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toulemonde, M.; Assmann, W.; Muller, D.; Trautmann, C.

    2017-09-01

    Sputtering experiments with swift heavy ions in the electronic energy loss regime were performed by using the catcher technique in combination with elastic recoil detection analysis. Four different fluoride targets, LiF, CaF2, LaF3 and UF4 were irradiated in the electronic energy loss regime using 197 MeV Au ions. The angular distribution of particles sputtered from the surface of freshly cleaved LiF and CaF2 single crystals is composed of a broad cosine distribution superimposed by a jet-like peak that appears perpendicular to the surface independent of the angle of beam incidence. For LiF, the particle emission in the entire angular distribution (jet plus broad cosine component) is stoichiometric, whereas for CaF2 the ratio of the sputtered F to Ca particles is at large angles by a factor of two smaller than the stoichiometry of the crystal. For single crystalline LaF3 no jet component is observed and the angular distribution is non-stoichiometric with the number of sputtered F particles being slightly larger than the number of sputtered La particles. In the case of UF4, the target was polycrystalline and had a much rougher surface compared to cleaved crystals. This destroys the appearance of a possible jet component leading to a broad angular distribution. The ratio of sputtered U atoms compared to F atoms is in the order of 1-2, i.e. the number of collected particles on the catcher is also non-stoichiometric. Such unlike behavior of particles sputtered from different fluoride crystals creates new questions.

  17. Decomposition pathways of polytetrafluoroethylene by co-grinding with strontium/calcium oxides.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jun; He, Xiaoman; Zhang, Qiwu; Liu, Xinzhong; Saito, Fumio

    2017-06-01

    Waste polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) could be easily decomposed by co-grinding with inorganic additive such as strontium oxide (SrO), strontium peroxide (SrO 2 ) and calcium oxide (CaO) by using a planetary ball mill, in which the fluorine was transformed into nontoxic inorganic fluoride salts such as strontium fluoride (SrF 2 ) or calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ). Depending on the kind of additive as well as the added molar ratio, however, the reaction mechanism of the decomposition was found to change, with different compositions of carbon compounds formed. CO gas, the mixture of strontium carbonate (SrCO 3 ) and carbon, only SrCO 3 were obtained as reaction products respectively with equimolar SrO, excess SrO and excess SrO 2 to the monomer unit CF 2 of PTFE were used. Excess amount of CaO was needed to effectively decompose PTFE because of its lower reactivity compared with strontium oxide, but it promised practical applications due to its low cost.

  18. An in vitro comparison of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate paste with fluoride and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate varnish on the inhibition of demineralization and promotion of remineralization of enamel.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Prachi Jayesh; Badakar, Chandrashekhar M; Hugar, Shivayogi M; Hallikerimath, Seema; Patel, Punit M; Shah, Parin

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine and compare the extent of inhibition of demineralization and promotion of remineralization of permanent molar enamel with and without application of three remineralizing agents. Forty extracted permanent molars were randomly divided into two groups 1 and 2, longitudinally sectioned into four and divided into subgroups A, B, C, and D. The sections were coated with nail varnish leaving a window of 3 mm × 3 mm. All sections of Group 1 were treated with their respective subgroup-specific agent: Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste for subgroup A, CPP-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride (ACPF) paste for subgroup B, CPP-ACPF varnish for subgroup C and subgroup D served as a control. The sections were then subjected to demineralization for 12 days following which lesional depth was measured under the stereomicroscope. All the sections of Group 2 were subjected to demineralization for 12 days, examined for lesional depth, then treated with their respective subgroup specific agents and immersed in artificial saliva for 7 days. The sections were then examined again under the stereomicroscope to measure the lesional depth. CPP-ACPF varnish caused significant inhibition of demineralization. All three agents showed significant remineralization of previously demineralized lesions. However, CPP-ACPF varnish showed the greatest remineralization, followed by CPP-ACPF paste and then CPP-ACP paste. This study shows that CPP-ACPF varnish is effective in preventing demineralization as well as promoting remineralization of enamel. Thus, it can be used as an effective preventive measure for pediatric patients where compliance with the use of tooth mousse may be questionable.

  19. Enrichment of fluoride in groundwater under the impact of saline water intrusion at the salt lake area of Yuncheng basin, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xubo; Wang, Yanxin; Li, Yilian; Guo, Qinghai

    2007-12-01

    Long-term intake of high-fluoride groundwater causes endemic fluorosis. This study, for the first time, discovered that the salt lake water intrusion into neighboring shallow aquifers might result in elevation of fluoride content of the groundwater. Two cross-sections along the groundwater flow paths were selected to study the geochemical processes controlling fluoride concentration in Yuncheng basin, northern China. There are two major reasons for the observed elevation of fluoride content: one is the direct contribution of the saline water; the other is the undersaturation of the groundwater with respect to fluorite due to salt water intrusion, which appears to be more important reason. The processes of the fluorine activity reduction and the change of Na/Ca ratio in groundwater induced by the intrusion of saline water favor further dissolution of fluorine-bearing mineral, and it was modeled using PHREEQC. With the increase in Na concentration (by adding NaCl or Na2SO4 as Na source, calcium content kept invariable), the increase of NaF concentration was rapid at first and then became slower; and the concentrations of HF, HF{2/-}, CaF+, and MgF+ were continuously decreasing. The geochemical conditions in the study area are advantageous to the complexation of F- with Na+ and the decline of saturation index of CaF2, regardless of the water type (Cl-Na or SO4-Na type water).

  20. White spot lesion remineralization by sugar-free chewing gum containing bio-available calcium and fluoride: A double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Miho; Kitasako, Yuichi; Sadr, Alireza; Shimada, Yasushi; Sumi, Yasunori; Tagami, Junji

    2016-11-01

    To assess the effect of chewing gum containing phosphoryl oligosaccharides of calcium (POs-Ca) and fluoride on white spot lesion (WSL) remineralization in comparison with POs-Ca or placebo (control) chewing gums, in double- blind, randomized, controlled trial. Thirty-seven healthy subjects, who had at least one WSL, with an ICDAS score of 2 or 1, were recruited for this study. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups (control, POs-Ca, POs-Ca+F) and chewed two slabs of each gum three times every day for 3 months. WSLs were assessed using ICDAS criteria and optical boundary depth (BD) by optical coherence tomography (OCT) system at a monthly recall. Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Wilcoxon signed rank test with Bonferroni corrections at 0.05 significance level. Visual score changes from ICDAS score 2 to score 1 over the course of the study were observed; control (30%), POs-Ca (48%) and POs-Ca+F (45%). Unlike the control gum, chewing POs-Ca and POs-Ca+F gums resulted in significant changes in the mean value of BD over the 3 months course of the study (p<0.05). There was a significant difference in mean value of BD after first month between POs-Ca+F and control groups (p<0.05). This study highlighted the importance of calcium and fluoride ion bioavailability in the reinforcement of demineralized enamel lesions by chewing gums. Furthermore, adding fluoride to POs-Ca might speed up the remineralization progress on natural WSL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Formation of H a - hydrogen centers upon additive coloration of alkaline-earth fluoride crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzhabov, E. A.; Egranov, A. V.; Shendrik, R. Yu.

    2017-06-01

    The mechanism of coloration of alkaline-earth fluoride crystals CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2 in calcium vapors in an autoclave with a cold zone is studied. It was found that the pressure in the autoclave upon constant evacuation by a vacuum pump within the temperature range of 500-800°C increases due to evaporation of metal calcium. In addition to the optical-absorption bands of color centers in the additively colored undoped crystals or to the bands of divalent ions in the crystals doped with rare-earth Sm, Yb, and Tm elements, there appear intense bands in the vacuum ultraviolet region at 7.7, 7.0, and 6.025 eV in CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2, respectively. These bands belong to the Ha - hydrogen centers. The formation of hydrogen centers is also confirmed by the appearance of the EPR signal of interstitial hydrogen atoms after X-ray irradiation of the additively colored crystals. Grinding of the outer edges of the colored crystals leads to a decrease in the hydrogen absorption-band intensity with depth to complete disappearance. The rate of hydrogen penetration inside the crystal is lower than the corresponding rate of color centers (anion vacancies) by a factor of tens. The visible color density of the outer regions of the hydrogen-containing crystals is several times lower than that of the inner region due to the competition between the color centers and hydrogen centers.

  2. New perspectives for undoped CaF2 scintillator as a threshold activation neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibczynski, Pawel; Dziedzic, Andrzej; Grodzicki, Krystian; Iwanowska-Hanke, Joanna; Moszyński, Marek; Swiderski, Lukasz; Syntfeld-Każuch, Agnieszka; Wolski, Dariusz; Carrel, Frédérick; Grabowski, Amélie; Hamel, Matthieu; Laine, Frederic; Sari, Adrien; Iovene, Alessandro; Tintori, Carlo; Fontana, Cristiano; Pino, Felix

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we present the prompt photofission neutron detection performance of undoped CaF2 scintillator using Threshold Activation Detection (TAD). The study is carried out in the frame of C-BORD Horizon 2020 project, during which an efficient toolbox for high volume freight non-intrusive inspection (NII) is under development. Technologies for radiation monitoring are the part of the project. Particularly, detection of various radiological threats on country borders plays an important significant role in Homeland Security applications. Detection of illegal transfer of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) - 235U, 233U and 239Pu - is particular due to the potential use for production of nuclear weapon as well as radiological dispersal device (RDD) V known also as a "dirty bomb". This technique relies on activation of 19F nuclei in the scintillator medium by fast neutrons and registration of high-energy β particles and γ-rays from the decay of reaction products. The radiation from SNM is detected after irradiation in order to avoid detector blinding. Despite the low 19F(n,α)16N or 19F(n,p)19O reaction cross-section, the method could be a good solution for detection of shielded nuclear material. Results obtained with the CaF2 detector were compared with the previous study done for BaF2 and 3He detector. These experimental results were obtained using 252Cf source and 9 MeV Varian Linatron M9 linear accelerator (LINAC). Finally, performance of the prompt neutron detection system based on CaF2 will be validated at Rotterdam Seaport during field trails in 2018.

  3. Fluoride mechanisms.

    PubMed

    ten Cate, J M; van Loveren, C

    1999-10-01

    This article discusses fluoride mechanisms in relation to dental caries. The authors specifically address firmly bound versus loosely bound fluoride; different fluoride active ingredients; fluoride and demineralization and remineralization; fluoride slow-release devices and F-releasing dental materials; antimicrobial effects of fluoride; the uptake of fluoride by oral bacteria; inhibition of enolase, protein-intruding ATPase and sugar transport; the various aspects of plaque as it relates to fluoride; and the rational use of fluoride.

  4. Relative validity of the Iowa Fluoride Study targeted nutrient semi-quantitative questionnaire and the block kids' food questionnaire for estimating beverage, calcium, and vitamin D intakes by children.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Teresa A; Eichenberger Gilmore, Julie M; Broffitt, Barbara; Stumbo, Phyllis J; Levy, Steven M

    2008-03-01

    Food frequency questionnaires are commonly developed and subsequently used to investigate relationships between dietary intake and disease outcomes; such tools should be validated in the population of interest. We investigated the relative validities of the Iowa Fluoride Study targeted nutrient semi-quantitative questionnaire and Block Kids' Food Questionnaire in assessing beverage, calcium, and vitamin D intakes using 3-day diaries for reference. Cross-sectional. Children who completed Iowa Fluoride Study nutrient questionnaire at age 9.0+/-0.7 years (n=223) and/or the Block Kids' Food Questionnaire at age 8.3+/-0.3 years (n=129) and 3-day diaries during similar time periods. Intakes of beverages, calcium, and vitamin D. Spearman correlation coefficients, weighted kappa statistics, and percentages of exact agreement were used to estimate relative validities. Correlations between milk intakes (r=0.572) reported on diaries and the Iowa Fluoride Study nutrient questionnaires were higher than correlations for 100% juice, juice drinks, soda pop, and water (r=0.252 to 0.379). Correlations between milk intakes (r=0.571) and 100% juice intakes (r=0.550) reported on diaries and Block Kids' Food Questionnaires were higher than correlations for other beverages (r=0.223 to 0.326). Correlations with diaries for calcium (r=0.462) and vitamin D (r=0.487) intakes reported on Iowa Fluoride Study nutrient questionnaires were similar to correlations with diaries for calcium (r=0.515) and vitamin D (r=0.512) reported on Block Kids' Food Questionnaires. Weighted kappa statistics were similar between the Iowa Fluoride Study nutrient questionnaires and the Block Kids' Food Questionnaires for milk, 100% juice, and vitamin D, but were higher on the Iowa Fluoride Study nutrient questionnaires than on the Block Kids' Food Questionnaires for calcium. Percentages of exact agreement were higher for calcium, but lower for vitamin D for intakes reported on the Iowa Fluoride Study nutrient

  5. Evaluation of the effect of a CO2 laser and fluoride on the reduction of carious lesions progression in primary teeth: an in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zancopé, Bruna R.; Cesar, Marina M. C.; Rodrigues, Lidiany K. A.; Nobre-dos-Santos, Marinês

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed at investigating if CO2 laser irradiation (λ =10.6μm - 11.3 J/cm2) combined with fluoridated products, enhances the CaF2 formation on enamel surface and inhibits lesion progression of demineralized primary enamel. Thus, 135 demineralized primary enamel specimens (DES) were allocated to 9 groups (n=15) as follows: 1- DES only, 2- DES + pH cycling (control), 3- 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride gel (APF), 4- 1.23% fluoride foam (FF), 5- 5% fluoride varnish (FV), 6- CO2 Laser (L), 7 - Laser during APF application, 8-Laser during FF application and 9-Laser during FV application. Except for the demineralized enamel group, all specimens were submitted to a 7 day pH cycling regime. The knoop hardness number (KHN) was determined by cross-sectional microhardness analysis. After treatments application, three specimens of each group had their surface examined for CaF2 formation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The data was analyzed by ANOVA and Student's t-test (α= 0.05). Enamel mineral loss (ΔS) for groups 1 to 9 were respectively,(8,676.28+/-1,077.46b),(12,419.54+/-1,050.21a),(8,156.80+/-1,279.90b),(8,081.32+/-1,019.69b),(8,820.86+/-1,805. 99b),(8,723.45+/-1,167.14b),(9,003.17+/-796.90b),(8.229,03+/-961.25b),(9,023.32+/-1,1069b). The results showed statistically significant difference between control and all treatments groups (p<0.05). However there was no difference among them (p>0.05). SEM observations showed evidences of melting, fusion and calcium fluoride formation on enamel surface. In conclusion, laser irradiation alone or combined with fluoridated products inhibited lesion progression of demineralized primary enamel surface. However, no synergistic effect was observed when CO2 laser irradiation and fluoridated products application were combined.

  6. Effect of surface treatments on self-trapped exciton luminescence in single-crystal CaF2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, L. P.; Cumby, T. D.; Leraas, J. A.; Langford, S. C.; Dickinson, J. T.

    2005-05-01

    We show that near-surface defects produced by mechanical treatments and electron irradiation can significantly enhance the intensity of luminescence due to the decay of self-trapped excitons (STEs) in single-crystal calcium fluoride during 157- and 193-nm irradiation. For example, polishing can double the intensity of the STE luminescence. Defects produced by mechanical indentation can either increase or decrease the luminescence intensity, depending on the indentation force. Electron irradiation also enhances subsequent STE luminescence. When electron-irradiated samples are annealed, additional increases in luminescence intensity are observed. Plausible mechanisms for the observed effects on STE luminescence intensity are discussed.

  7. Study on TL and OSL characteristics of indigenously developed CaF 2:Mn phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakshi, A. K.; Dhabekar, Bhushan; Rawat, N. S.; Singh, S. G.; Joshi, V. J.; Kumar, Vijay

    2009-02-01

    CaF 2:Mn phosphor is known for its high thermoluminescent sensitivity and dose linearity up to few kGy. In the present study CaF 2 phosphor with different concentration of Mn dopant was prepared and was characterized through different techniques. The phosphor was prepared through chemical root using CaCO 3, HF acid and MnCl 2 as raw materials following co-precipitation method. TL sensitivity of the prepared phosphor was compared with other well established phosphors used for radiation dosimetry. It was found that the TL sensitivity is higher by a factor of 10 with respect to LiF:Mg, Ti, TLD-100 and half to that of CaSO 4:Dy (0.05 mol%) phosphor. X-ray diffraction, TL emission spectrum and ESR spectrum taken of the prepared phosphor confirms the crystal structure, Mn 2+ emission and incorporation Mn in the crystal, respectively. No significant fading of the dosimetric peak was observed of the prepared phosphor for a storage period of 45 days. The dose linearity of the phosphor was found to be in the range of 50 Gy-3 kGy within an uncertainty of about 10%. An attempt was made to determine the kinetic parameters of TL glow curve and the parameters related to optically stimulated luminescence. In view of its long range of dose linearity, it can be used for the dosimetry of commercial irradiator generally used for the irradiation of food and grains in our country.

  8. Dynamic XRD, Shock and Static Compression of CaF2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, Patricia; Specht, Paul; Root, Seth; Sinclair, Nicholas; Schuman, Adam; White, Melanie; Cornelius, Andrew; Smith, Jesse; Sinogeikin, Stanislav

    2017-06-01

    The high-pressure behavior of CaF2 is probed with x-ray diffraction (XRD) combined with both dynamic compression, using a two-stage light gas gun, and static compression, using diamond anvil cells. We use XRD to follow the unfolding of a shock-driven, fluorite to cotunnite phase transition, on the timescale of nanoseconds. The dynamic behavior of CaF2 under shock loading is contrasted with that under static compression. This work leverages experimental capabilities at the Advanced Photon Source: dynamic XRD and shock experiments at the Dynamic Compression Sector, as well as XRD and static compression in diamond anvil cell at the High-Pressure Collaborative Access Team. These experiments and cross-platform comparisons, open the door to an unprecedented understanding of equations of state and phase transitions at the microstructural level and at different time scales and will ultimately improve our capability to simulate the behavior of materials at extreme conditions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of calcium: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for calcium ( ...

  10. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide – Amorphous calcium phosphate in reducing Streptococcus mutans counts in dental plaque of children: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Chandak, Shweta; Bhondey, Ashish; Bhardwaj, Amit; Pimpale, Jitesh; Chandwani, Manisha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the comparative efficacy of fluoride varnish and casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP–ACP) complex visa viz. Streptococcus mutans in plaque, and thereby the role that these two agents could play in the prevention of dental caries. Materials and Methods: A cluster sample of 120 caries inactive individuals belonging to moderate and high caries risk group were selected from 3–5-year-old age group based on the criteria given by Krassee and were randomized to four groups, namely, fluoride varnish – Group I, CPP–ACP complex – Group II, mixture of CPP–ACP complex –Gourp III, and fluoride and routine oral hygiene procedures as control – Group IV. The results thus obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. Results: A statistically significant difference in the pre and post-application scores of S. mutans (P < 0.01) count was observed in all the groups with CPP–ACP plus fluoride group being the most proficient. Conclusion: Materials such as fluoride varnish, CPP–ACP, and CPP–ACP plus fluoride protects the tooth structure, preserving the integrity of primary dentition, with the most encouraging results being with CPP–ACP plus fluoride. PMID:27891308

  11. Influence of substituting B2O3 for CaF2 on the bonding behaviour to bone of glass-ceramics containing apatite and wollastonite.

    PubMed

    Kitsugi, T; Yamamuro, T; Nakamura, T; Yoshii, S; Kokubo, T; Takagi, M; Shibuya, T

    1992-01-01

    Glass-ceramics containing crystalline oxy-fluoroapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(O,F2)) and wollastonite (CaSiO3) (designated AWGC) are reported to have a fairly high mechanical strength as well as the capability of forming a chemical bond with bone tissue. The chemical composition is MgO 4.6, CaO 44.9, SiO2 34.2, P2O5 16.3, and CaF2 0.5 in weight ratio. In this study the influence of substituting B2O3 for CaF2 on the bonding behaviour of glass-ceramics containing apatite and wollastonite to bone tissue was investigated. Two kinds of glass-ceramics containing apatite and wollastonite were prepared. CaF2 0.5 was replaced with B2O3 at 0.5 and 2.0 in weight ratio (designated AWGC-0.5B and AWGC-2.0B). Rectangular ceramic plates (15 x 10 x 2 mm, abraded with No. 2000 alumina powder) were implanted into a rabbit tibia. The failure load, when an implant detached from the bone, or the bone itself broke, was measured. The failure load of AWGC-0.5B was 8.00 +/- 1.82 kg at 10 weeks after implantation and 8.16 +/- 1.36 kg at 25 weeks after implantation. The failure load of AWGC-2B was 8.08 +/- 1.70 kg at 10 weeks after implantation and 9.92 +/- 2.46 kg at 25 weeks after implantation. None of the loads for the two kinds of glass-ceramics decreased as time passed. Giemsa surface staining and contact microradiography revealed direct bonding between glass-ceramics and bone. SEM-EPMA showed a calcium-phosphorus rich layer (reaction zone) at the interface of ceramics and bone tissue. The thickness of the reaction zone was 10 to -15 microns and did not increase as time passed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Fluoride and calcium-phosphate coated sponges of the magnesium alloy AX30 as bone grafts: a comparative study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lalk, Mareike; Reifenrath, Janin; Angrisani, Nina; Bondarenko, Alexandr; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Mueller, Peter P; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    Biocompatibility and degradation of magnesium sponges (alloy AX30) with a fluoride (MgF(2) sponge, n = 24, porosity 63 ± 6 %, pore size 394 ± 26 μm) and with a fluoride and additional calcium-phosphate coating (CaP sponge, n = 24, porosity 6 ± 4 %, pore size 109 ± 37 μm) were evaluated over 6, 12 and 24 weeks in rabbit femurs. Empty drill holes (n = 12) served as controls. Clinical and radiological examinations, in vivo and ex vivo μ-computed tomographies and histological examinations were performed. Clinically both sponge types were tolerated well. Radiographs and XtremeCT evaluations showed bone changes comparable to controls and mild gas formation. The μCT80 depicted a higher and more inhomogeneous degradation of the CaP sponges. Histomorphometrically, the MgF(2) sponges resulted in the highest bone and osteoid fractions and were integrated superiorly into the bone. Histologically, the CaP sponges showed more inflammation and lower vascularization. MgF(2) sponges turned out to be better biocompatible and promising, biodegradable bone replacements.

  13. X-ray excited optical luminescence of CaF2: A candidate for UV water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Ma, L.; Schaeffer, R.; Hoffmeyer, R.; Sham, T.; Belev, G.; Kasap, S.; Sammynaiken, R.

    2015-06-01

    Secondary optical processes are becoming more and more important in health and environmental applications. Ultraviolet produced from secondary emission or scintillation can damage DNA by direct photoexcitation or by the creation of reactive oxygen species. X-ray Excited Optical Luminescence (XEOL) and Time Resolved XEOL (TRXEOL) results for the fast emitter, CaF2:ZnO, that have been treated by heating in air and in vacuum, show that the scintillation from the Self Trapped Exciton (STE) emission of CaF2 at 282 nm is dominated by a slow process (>100 ns). A faster but weaker 10 ns component is also present. The ZnO and CaF2 show independent emission. The ZnO bandgap emission at 390 nm has dominant lifetimes of less than 1 ns.

  14. Dipole-relaxation parameters for Ce3+-Fint- complexes in CaF2:Ce and CaF2:Ce,Mn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassemnejad, B.; McKeever, S. W. S.

    1987-12-01

    Dipole-relaxation parameters for Ce3+-Fint- centers (C4v symmetry) in CaF2 are calculated using the method of ionic thermocurrents (ITC). The data indicate concentration-dependent effects if analyzed using the traditional ITC equation, assuming a single value for the reorientation activation energy. This analysis is unable to account for an observed broadening of the ITC peak as more Ce is added to the crystals. However, as has been published for other MF2:R3+ systems, we find that the broadening can be successfully accounted for by adopting a modified ITC equation which allows for a Gaussian distribution of activation energies about a mean value E0 and with a distribution width p. The parameter E0 is found to be independent of dipole content while p is found to increase with increasing dipole concentration. The data are consistent with a perturbation of the dipole-relaxation parameters due to interactions with other defects within the system. However, the strength of the observed effects is difficult to explain by invoking electrostatic dipole-dipole interactions only. Other perturbations, due perhaps to monopole-dipole interactions or elastic interactions, must be taking place. The data indicate that dipole concentrations calculated by ITC will be in error in the presence of such interactions due to a reduction in the mean contribution per dipole to the overall polarization density. For samples in which interaction effects are negligible, we calculate a dipole moment of 3.12×10-29 C m. The data further indicate that that the addition of Mn to the system causes a decrease in the interaction effects via a reduction in the Ce C4v center dipole moment. It appears that the broadening of the ITC curve is sensitive to the defect structure surrounding the dipoles.

  15. SiO2 and CaF2 Behavior During Shielded Metal Arc Welding and Their Effect on Slag Detachability of the CaO-CaF2-SiO2 Type ENiCrFe-7-Covered Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huang; Qin, Renyao; He, Guo

    2016-09-01

    The metallurgical behavior during shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and the slag detachability of the CaO-CaF2-SiO2 type ENiCrFe-7-covered electrodes was investigated. The results indicated that the slag detachability could be improved as the SiO2 in the flux coatings decreased. When the SiO2 in the flux coating was 10.9 pct, about 28.3 pct CaF2 resulted in the best slag detachability. The CaF2 and SiO2 in the flux coating interacted during SMAW to form gaseous SiF4 to be evacuated. In the reactions, one SiO2 consumed two CaF2, leading to the reduction of the ratio of CaF2/SiO2. After comparing the slag compositions, the best slag detachability was obtained at CaO:CaF2:SiO2 = 1.7:1.8:1, but the worst slag detachability appeared at CaO:CaF2:SiO2 = 1.3:0.9:1. The XRD analysis revealed that the oxides and fluorides in the slags preferred to gather together to form cuspidine and other complex phases. If the CaF2 was dominant in the slags, they intended to form homogenous porous microstructures that were relatively strong and would most likely detach from the weld metal in blocks, exhibiting good slag detachability. If the cuspidine phase was dominant, the slags exhibited a `rock strata'-like microstructure in the intergranular area. Such microstructure was very fragile and could be broken into fine powders that were easily embedded in the weld ripples, leading to slag adhesions. This work provides the researcher with a wealth of information and data, which will also be beneficial to the welding material producers and users.

  16. Birefringence and incipient plastic deformation in elastically overdriven [100] CaF2 under shock compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Zhou, X. M.; Cai, Y.; Liu, C. L.; Luo, S. N.

    2018-04-01

    [100] CaF2 single crystals are shock-compressed via symmetric planar impact, and the flyer plate-target interface velocity histories are measured with a laser displacement interferometry. The shock loading is slightly above the Hugoniot elastic limit to investigate incipient plasticity and its kinetics, and its effects on optical properties and deformation inhomogeneity. Fringe patterns demonstrate different features in modulation of fringe amplitude, including birefringence and complicated modulations. The birefringence is attributed to local lattice rotation accompanying incipient plasticity. Spatially resolved measurements show inhomogeneity in deformation, birefringence, and fringe pattern evolutions, most likely caused by the inhomogeneity associated with lattice rotation and dislocation slip. Transiently overdriven elastic states are observed, and the incubation time for incipient plasticity decreases inversely with increasing overdrive by the elastic shock.

  17. Coordination radii in diamond, zinc blende, and CaF2 structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, George L.

    1982-07-01

    The radii of all ''shells'' of atoms about any lattice point are given for these three structures, and for the zinc blende (AB) and CaF2 (AB2) structures it is shown that all shells about an A origin and all shells about a B origin are of pure type, i.e., contain only A's or only B's. The initial sequence (small radii) of shell types does not continue indefinitely and is broken according to rules completely specified. These results are analogous to those reported by Hall and Christy earlier for the NaCl and CsCl structures in which the ABABABṡṡṡ sequence for NaCl and the ABAABAABAAṡṡṡ for CsCl, both taken about an A origin, do not continue indefinitely. It is shown that Ferris-Prabhu's results for diamond violate theorem 1 of Hall and Christy.

  18. Physiologic conditions affect toxicity of ingested industrial fluoride.

    PubMed

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings.

  19. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings. PMID:23840230

  20. Experimental observation of charge-shift bond in fluorite CaF2.

    PubMed

    Stachowicz, Marcin; Malinska, Maura; Parafiniuk, Jan; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2017-08-01

    On the basis of a multipole refinement of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected using an Ag source at 90 K to a resolution of 1.63 Å -1 , a quantitative experimental charge density distribution has been obtained for fluorite (CaF 2 ). The atoms-in-molecules integrated experimental charges for Ca 2+ and F - ions are +1.40 e and -0.70 e, respectively. The derived electron-density distribution, maximum electron-density paths, interaction lines and bond critical points along Ca 2+ ...F - and F - ...F - contacts revealed the character of these interactions. The Ca 2+ ...F - interaction is clearly a closed shell and ionic in character. However, the F - ...F - interaction has properties associated with the recently recognized type of interaction referred to as `charge-shift' bonding. This conclusion is supported by the topology of the electron localization function and analysis of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules and crystals topological parameters. The Ca 2+ ...F - bonded radii - measured as distances from the centre of the ion to the critical point - are 1.21 Å for the Ca 2+ cation and 1.15 Å for the F - anion. These values are in a good agreement with the corresponding Shannon ionic radii. The F - ...F - bond path and bond critical point is also found in the CaF 2 crystal structure. According to the quantum theory of atoms in molecules and crystals, this interaction is attractive in character. This is additionally supported by the topology of non-covalent interactions based on the reduced density gradient.

  1. Separation of High Order Harmonics with Fluoride Windows

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, Tom; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Wright, Travis

    2010-08-02

    The lower orders produced in high order harmonic generation can be effciently temporally separated into monochromatic pulses by propagation in a Fluoride window while still preserving their femtosecond pulse duration. We present calculations for MgF2, CaF2, and LiF windows for the third, fifth, and seventh harmonics of 800 nm. We demonstrate the use of this simple and inexpensive technique in a femtosecond pump/probe experiment using the fifth harmonic.

  2. Surface assessment of CaF2 deep-ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet optical components by the quasi-Brewster angle technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jue; Maier, Robert L

    2006-08-01

    The requirements for optical components have drastically increased for the deep-ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet spectral regions. Low optical loss, high laser damage threshold, and long lifetime fluoride optics are required for microlithographic applications. A nondestructive quasi-Brewster angle technique (qBAT) has been developed for evaluating the quality of optical surfaces including both top surface and subsurface information. By using effective medium approximation, the negative quasi-Brewster angle shift at wavelengths longer than 200 nm has been used to model the distribution of subsurface damage, whereas the positive quasi-Brewster angle shift for wavelengths shorter than 200 nm has been explained by subsurface contamination. The top surface roughness depicted by the qBAT is consistent with atomic force microscopy measurements. The depth and the microporous structure of the subsurface damage measured by the qBAT has been confirmed by magnetorheological finishing. The technique has been extended to evaluate both polished and antireflection-coated CaF(2) components.

  3. Fluorine Kα X-Ray Emission Spectra of MgF2, CaF2, SrF2 and BaF2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Chikara; Konishi, Wataru; Shoji, Shizuko; Kojima, Shinjiro

    1990-11-01

    The fluorine Kα emission spectra in fluorescence from a series of alkaline-earth fluorides MF2 (M=Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) are measured with a high-resolution two-crystal vacuum spectrometer. An anomalously low intensity of the K1L1 satellite peak arising from 1s-1(2s2p)-1 initial states is observed for SrF2. The measured emission spectra are presented along with the UPS spectra of the F- 2p valence bands obtained by Poole et al. and the fluorine K absorption-edge spectra by Oizumi et al. By using these spectra, the first peak or shoulder in the fluorine K absorption-edge spectra is identified as being due to a core exciton which is formed below the bottom of the conduction band. The binding energy of the exciton is estimated to be 1.3(± 0.3), 1.1(± 0.2), 1.0(± 0.2) and 1.7(± 0.2) eV for MgF2, CaF2, SrF2 and BaF2, respectively.

  4. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with soft bones that you eat, such as ...

  5. The development and validation of a new technology, based upon 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound and fluoride, for everyday use in the prevention and treatment of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Cummins, D

    2013-08-01

    This paper briefly discusses caries prevalence, the multi-factorial nature of caries etiology, caries risk and the role and efficacy of fluoride. The paper also highlights research on bacterial metabolism which provided understanding of the mouth's natural defenses against caries and the basis for the development of a new technology for the everyday prevention and treatment of caries. Finally, evidence that the technology complements and enhances the anti-caries efficacy of fluoride toothpaste is summarized. Global data show that dental caries is a prevalent disease, despite the successful introduction of fluoride. Caries experience depends on the balance between consumption of sugars and oral hygiene and the use of fluoride. Three scientific concepts are fundamental to new measures to detect, treat and monitor caries: (1) dental caries is a dynamic process, (2) dental caries is a continuum of stages from reversible, pre-clinical to irreversible, clinically detectable lesions, and (3) the caries process is a balance of pathological and protective factors that can be modulated to manage caries. Fluoride functions as a protective factor by arresting and reversing the caries process, but fluoride does not prevent pathological factors that initiate the process. A novel technology, based upon arginine and an insoluble calcium compound, has been identified which targets dental plaque to prevent initiation of the caries process by reducing pathological factors. As the mechanisms of action of arginine and fluoride are highly complementary, a new dentifrice, which combines arginine with fluoride, has been developed and clinically proven to provide superior caries prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Suppression in the electrical hysteresis by using CaF2 dielectric layer for p-GaN MIS capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Liwen; Ren, Bing; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo; Sumiya, Masatomo

    2018-04-01

    The capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis in the bidirectional measurements of the p-GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitor is suppressed by using a CaF2 dielectric layer and a post annealing treatment. The density of trapped charge states at the CaF2/p-GaN interface is dramatically reduced from 1.3 × 1013 cm2 to 1.1 × 1011/cm2 compared to that of the Al2O3/p-GaN interface with a large C-V hysteresis. It is observed that the disordered oxidized interfacial layer can be avoided by using the CaF2 dielectric. The downward band bending of p-GaN is decreased from 1.51 to 0.85 eV as a result of the low-density oxides-related trap states. Our work indicates that the CaF2 can be used as a promising dielectric layer for the p-GaN MIS structures.

  7. FACTORS AFFECTING THE USE OF CAF2:MN THERMOLUMINESCENT DOSIMETERS FOR LOW-LEVEL ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    An investigation was made of factors affecting the use of commercially-produced CaF2:Mn thermoluminescent dosimeters for low level environmental radiation monitoring. Calibration factors and self-dosing rates were quantified for 150 thermoluminescent dosimeters. Laboratory studie...

  8. UV-vis spectroscopic studies of CaF2 photo-thermo-refractive glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Martina; Herrmann, Andreas; Hein, Joachim; Rüssel, Christian

    2016-12-01

    A photo-thermo-refractive glass based on the system Na2O/K2O/CaO/CaF2/Al2O3/ZnO/SiO2 doped with Ag2O, CeO2, SnO2, Sb2O3 and KBr was investigated. This glass undergoes a permanent refractive index change after UV irradiation and subsequent two step heat treatment at temperatures above Tg. This is due to the formation of Ag metal clusters which act as nucleation centers for CaF2 crystallization. Oxidation of Ce3+ by UV light is the initial reaction and acts as photosensitizer in the glass. The UV-vis absorption spectra during this photo-induced crystallization process were measured. The spectral components that form the absorption spectra of cerium were studied in detail by a band separation with Gaussian functions. Deconvolution of the cerium absorption bands shows an envelope of five spectral components for the trivalent cerium due to the 4f-5d transitions and two spectral components for the tetravalent cerium caused by charge transfer transitions. The effect of different dopants and melting conditions on the photo-thermal process were studied to investigate the influence of glass technology on the photoprocess.

  9. Multi-Phonon Relaxation of H^- Local Modes in CaF_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, C. P.; Happek, U.; Campbell, J. A.; Engholm, J. R.; Schwettman, H. A.

    1998-03-01

    Local modes play an important role in the relaxation of vibrational modes of small molecules in solids (J.R. Engholm, C.W. Rella, H.A. Schwettman, and U. Happek; Phys. Rev. Lett. 77), 1302 (1996)., but only few attempts have been reported to study the relaxation of these local modes. Here we report on experiments to investigate the non-radiative relaxation of H^- local modes in CaF_2. Using a pump-probe technique, saturation experiments on the H^- local modes, both interstitial and substitutional, were performed at the Stanford Free Electron Laser Center. At low temperature we find a relaxation time T1 of 45 psec for the substitutional H^- local mode, and a more rapid relaxation for the interstitial H^- local modes next to La^3+ and Lu^3+ impurities. Information on the decay channels of the local modes are obtained from the characteristic temperature dependence of the relaxation rates. This work is supported in part by the ONR, Grant No. N00014-94-1024.

  10. Effects of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium fluoride phosphate paste on white spot lesions and dental plaque after orthodontic treatment: a 3-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Beerens, M W; van der Veen, M H; van Beek, H; ten Cate, J M

    2010-12-01

    The effects of casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium fluoride phosphate (CPP-ACFP) paste vs. control paste on the remineralization of white spot caries lesions and on plaque composition were tested in a double-blind prospective randomized clinical trial. Fifty-four orthodontic patients, with multiple white spot lesions observed upon the removal of fixed appliances, were followed up for 3 months. Subjects were included and randomly assigned to either CPP-ACFP paste or control paste, for use supplementary to their normal oral hygiene. Caries regression was assessed on quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) images captured directly after debonding and 6 and 12 wk thereafter. The total counts and proportions of aciduric bacteria, Streptococcus mutans, and Lactobacillus spp. were measured in plaque samples obtained just before debonding, and 6 and 12 wk afterwards. A significant decrease in fluorescence loss was found with respect to baseline for both groups and no difference was found between groups. The size of the lesion area did not change significantly over time or between the groups. The percentages of aciduric bacteria and of S. mutans decreased from 47.4 to 38.1% and from 9.6 to 6.6%, respectively. No differences were found between groups. We observed no clinical advantage for use of the CPP-ACFP paste supplementary to normal oral hygiene over the time span of 12 wk. © 2010 Eur J Oral Sci.

  11. Component resolved bleaching study in natural calcium fluoride using CW-OSL, LM-OSL and residual TL glow curves after bleaching.

    PubMed

    Angeli, Vasiliki; Polymeris, George S; Sfampa, Ioanna K; Tsirliganis, Nestor C; Kitis, George

    2017-04-01

    Natural calcium fluoride has been commonly used as thermoluminescence (TL) dosimeter due to its high luminescence intensity. The aim of this work includes attempting a correlation between specific TL glow curves after bleaching and components of linearly modulated optically stimulated luminescence (LM-OSL) as well as continuous wave OSL (CW-OSL). A component resolved analysis was applied to both integrated intensity of the RTL glow curves and all OSL decay curves, by using a Computerized Glow-Curve De-convolution (CGCD) procedure. All CW-OSL and LM-OSL components are correlated to the decay components of the integrated RTL signal, apart from two RTL components which cannot be directly correlated with either LM-OSL or CW-OSL component. The unique, stringent criterion for this correlation deals with the value of the decay constant λ of each bleaching component. There is only one, unique bleaching component present in all three luminescence entities which were the subject of the present study, indicating that each TL trap yields at least three different bleaching components; different TL traps can indicate bleaching components with similar values. According to the data of the present work each RTL bleaching component receives electrons from at least two peaks. The results of the present study strongly suggest that the traps that contribute to TL and OSL are the same. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Swift heavy ion irradiation of CaF2 - from grooves to hillocks in a single ion track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Elisabeth; Salou, Pierre; Bergen, Lorenz; El Kharrazi, Mourad; Lattouf, Elie; Grygiel, Clara; Wang, Yuyu; Benyagoub, Abdenacer; Levavasseur, Delphine; Rangama, Jimmy; Lebius, Henning; Ban-d'Etat, Brigitte; Schleberger, Marika; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2016-10-01

    A novel form of ion-tracks, namely nanogrooves and hillocks, are observed on CaF2 after irradiation with xenon and lead ions of about 100 MeV kinetic energy. The irradiation is performed under grazing incidence (0.3°-3°) which forces the track to a region in close vicinity to the surface. Atomic force microscopy imaging of the impact sites with high spatial resolution reveals that the surface track consists in fact of three distinct parts: each swift heavy ion impacting on the CaF2 surface first opens a several 100 nm long groove bordered by a series of nanohillocks on both sides. The end of the groove is marked by a huge single hillock and the further penetration of the swift projectile into deeper layers of the target is accompanied by a single protrusion of several 100 nm in length slowly fading until the track vanishes. By comparing experimental data for various impact angles with results of a simulation, based on a three-dimensional version of the two-temperature-model (TTM), we are able to link the crater and hillock formation to sublimation and melting processes of CaF2 due to the local energy deposition by swift heavy ions.

  13. A clinical investigation of the efficacy of a dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine and 1450 ppm fluoride, as sodium monofluorophosphate in a calcium base, on primary root caries.

    PubMed

    Hu, D Y; Yin, W; Li, X; Feng, Y; Zhang, Y P; Cummins, D; Mateo, L R; Ellwood, R P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this six-month study was to assess the ability of a new dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound, and 1450 ppm fluoride, as sodium monofluorophosphate, to arrest and reverse primary root caries lesions in adults. Three test groups used dentifrices which contained either: 1) 1.5% arginine and 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate in a calcium base (experimental); 2) 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride in a silica base (positive control); or 3) no fluoride in a calcium base (negative control). The study participants were residents of the city of Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China. In order to take part, subjects had to have at least one non-cavitated primary root caries lesion. A total of 412 subjects completed the study. They were aged from 50 to 70 years (mean age 64 +/- 4.1 years) and 53.6% were female. Efficacy for arresting and reversal of primary root caries was assessed by clinical hardness measures and through the use of the Electrical Caries Monitor. After three months of product use, clinical hardness measures showed that 27.7%, 24.6%, and 13.1% of lesions had improved in the experimental, positive, and negative control groups, respectively, and 0.7%, 4.5%, and 16.8% had become worse, respectively. The differences in the distribution of lesion change between the negative control group and both the experimental (p < 0.001) and positive control (p = 0.001) were statistically significant. The Electrical Caries Monitor was also used as an objective measure of lesion severity. The end values increased from baseline to the three-month examinations, but none of the differences between the groups attained statistical significance. After six months, clinical hardness measures showed that only one lesion (0.7%) was worse than at the baseline examination-in the experimental group compared to 9.0% and 18.2% in the positive and negative control groups, respectively. In addition, 61.7%, 56.0%, and 27.0%, respectively

  14. Comparative evaluation of remineralization potential of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate fluoride on artificial enamel white spot lesion: an in vitro light fluorescence study.

    PubMed

    Mehta, R; Nandlal, B; Prashanth, S

    2013-01-01

    World-wide, the contribution of dental caries to the burden of oral diseases is about 10 times higher than that of periodontal disease, the other common oral condition. Owing to its globally high prevalence, dental caries is a "pandemic" disease characterized by a high percentage of untreated carious cavities causing pain, discomfort and functional limitations. Untreated carious cavities; furthermore, have a significant impact on the general health of children and on the social and economic well-being of communities. A surgical approach to the elimination of carious lesion was developed a century ago; this approach was necessary at that time, because there was no valid alternative. The focus in caries has recently shifted to the development of methodologies for the detection of the early stages of caries lesions and the non-invasive treatment of these lesions. The non-invasive treatment of early lesions by remineralization has the potential to be a major advance in the clinical management of the disease. Remineralization of white-spot lesions may be possible with a variety of currently available agents containing fluoride, bioavailable calcium and phosphate and phosphate. This concept bridges the traditional gap between prevention and surgical procedures, which is just what dentistry needs today. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and to compare the remineralization potential of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium fluoride phosphate (CPP-ACFP) on artificial white spot enamel lesions using the quantitative light fluorescence (QLF). A total of 45 caries-free extracted maxillary first premolars were embedded in acrylic resin. The samples were randomly divided into three groups namely control group, CPP-ACP group and CPP-ACFP group with 15 samples in each group. The samples of each group were subjected to demineralization process for a period of 96 h. The samples were then mounted in the

  15. Spectroscopic, luminescent and laser properties of nanostructured CaF2:Tm materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyapin, A. A.; Fedorov, P. P.; Garibin, E. A.; Malov, A. V.; Osiko, V. V.; Ryabochkina, P. A.; Ushakov, S. N.

    2013-08-01

    The laser quality transparent СаF2:Tm fluoride ceramics has been prepared by hot forming. Comparative study of absorption and emission spectra of СаF2:Tm (4 mol.% TmF3) ceramic and single crystal samples demonstrated that these materials possess almost identical spectroscopic properties. Laser oscillations of СаF2:Tm ceramics were obtained at 1898 nm under diode pumping, with the slope efficiency of 5.5%. Also, the continuous-wave (CW) laser have been obtained for СаF2:Tm single crystal at 1890 nm pumped by a diode laser was demonstrated.

  16. Synthesis of optically transparent ceramic of CaF2 doped with Mn and Ce for thermoluminescent dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Shashwati; Singh, S. G.; Patra, G. D.; Shinde, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Gadkari, S. C.

    2012-06-01

    Nano-particles of CaF2: Mn were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. Optically transparent ceramics were obtained by vacuum hot-pressing at 1000°C under 20 MPa pressure for 2 h. The duration of pressure and dehydration of the initial powder was found important to achieve the transparency. 50% transparency was observed for a polished disc of 1 mm thickness. SEM micrographs revealed the absence of voids in hot pressed samples. These samples were found to be highly sensitive and linear for TLD and can measure doses from mGy to kGy.

  17. Optical properties of YbF3-CaF2 composite thin films deposited by electron-beam evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Songlin; Mi, Gaoyuan; Zhang, Jianfu; Yang, Chongmin

    2018-03-01

    We studied electron-beam evaporated YbF3-CaF2 composite films on ZnS substrate at different deposition parameters. The optical properties of films have been fitted, the surface roughness have been measured by AFM. The results of experiments indicated that increased the refractive indices, extinction coefficients, and surface roughness at higher deposition rate. The refractive index of composite film deposited by electron-beam evaporation with assisted-ion source was obviously higher than it without assisted-ion source.

  18. Surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy of cytosine using gold film deposited on CaF2 substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naveen; Thomas, S.; Tokas, R. B.; Padma, N.; Kshirsagar, R. J.

    2018-04-01

    Surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) studies of cytosine adsorbed on the thermally evaporated gold film on CaF2 have been carried out in transmission mode. SEIRA spectrum down to 0.1 µM was observed owing to the plasmonic effect of the gold nano film. Cytosine molecules appear to adsorb on the film via C=O and NH groups as evidenced by the red shift observed in the stretching vibrations of the above groups. The molecules assume a perpendicular orientation with respect to the surface.

  19. Fluoride metabolism when added to salt.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Gary M

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the general characteristics of the metabolism of fluoride particularly as it occurs when ingested with fluoridated salt. Following the absorption of salt-borne fluoride from the stomach and intestines, its metabolism is identical to that of water-borne fluoride or other vehicles containing ionized fluoride. Because fluoridated salt is almost always ingested with food, however, absorption from the gastrointestinal tract may be delayed or reduced. Reports dealing with this subject have shown that fluoride absorption is delayed and, therefore, peak plasma concentrations are lower than when fluoride is ingested with water. The amount of ingested fluoride that is finally absorbed, however, is not appreciably affected unless the meal is composed mainly of components with high calcium concentrations. In this case, the extent of absorption can be reduced by as much as 50%. Fluoridated salt is also ingested less frequently than fluoridated water. Data are presented to show that the dose size and frequency of ingestion have only minor effects on fluoride retention in the body and on the concentrations in plasma, bone and enamel. Finally, calculations are presented to show that the risk of acute toxicity from fluoridated salt is virtually non-existent.

  20. Fluoride metabolism.

    PubMed

    Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Whitford, Gary Milton

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of all aspects of fluoride metabolism is essential for comprehending the biological effects of this ion in humans as well as to drive the prevention (and treatment) of fluoride toxicity. Several aspects of fluoride metabolism - including gastric absorption, distribution and renal excretion - are pH-dependent because the coefficient of permeability of lipid bilayer membranes to hydrogen fluoride (HF) is 1 million times higher than that of F(-). This means that fluoride readily crosses cell membranes as HF, in response to a pH gradient between adjacent body fluid compartments. After ingestion, plasma fluoride levels increase rapidly due to the rapid absorption from the stomach, an event that is pH-dependent and distinguishes fluoride from other halogens and most other substances. The majority of fluoride not absorbed from the stomach will be absorbed from the small intestine. In this case, absorption is not pH-dependent. Fluoride not absorbed will be excreted in feces. Peak plasma fluoride concentrations are reached within 20-60 min following ingestion. The levels start declining thereafter due to two main reasons: uptake in calcified tissues and excretion in urine. Plasma fluoride levels are not homeostatically regulated and vary according to the levels of intake, deposition in hard tissues and excretion of fluoride. Many factors can modify the metabolism and effects of fluoride in the organism, such as chronic and acute acid-base disturbances, hematocrit, altitude, physical activity, circadian rhythm and hormones, nutritional status, diet, and genetic predisposition. These will be discussed in detail in this review. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Dentifrice Fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakita, Philip E.

    2004-05-01

    The effectiveness of the fluoride ion in lowering the incidence of dental caries is a major factor in the field of dental health. Observations and research studies in the first half of the 20th century have lead to the widespread adoption of fluoridated water and the use of inorganic fluoride compounds in oral care products, such as toothpaste and dental rinses. This article provides a brief review of the types of compounds used and the chemistry involved.

  2. Antireflection coatings based on fluoride formulations for organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleimanov, S. Kh.; Berger, P.; Dyskin, V. G.; Dzhanklych, M. U.; Bugakov, A. G.; Dudko, O. A.; Kulagina, N. A.; Kim, M.

    2016-04-01

    An alloy of a mixture of fluorides MgF2 and AlF3 with CaF2 has been obtained in a 3-kW solar furnace. It was supposed that a minor CaF2 additive compensates for the tensile stresses appearing in thin MgF2 and AlF3 films, with their mechanical properties being thereby improved. The results of X-ray phase analysis demonstrated that both components of the mixture are present in the alloy, while the complex oxide CaAl4O7, the formation of which is attributed to the melting in air, is only identified in AlF3: CaF2 = 95: 5 (wt %). The increase in the transmittance of glass and polyethylene terephthalate upon deposition onto their surface of a thin film of the material synthesized in the study is due to the optical properties of AlF3 and MgF2.

  3. Casting of Halide and Fluoride Alloys for Laser Windows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-07-15

    mechanism leads to an inverse square root dependence of fracture strength on grain size. Since CaF2, SrFp and BaFp all exhibit at least microplastic ...flaws or microplasticity is the strength limiting factor is not known. 4.2.2 Solid-solution strengthening 4.2.2. 1 General If fracture in these...Temperature Microplasticity in SrF2 Single Crystals, " J. Appl. Phys. 41_(4) 1871 (1970). 12. T.S. Liu and C.H. Li, " Plasticity of Barium Fluoride

  4. Defect-induced wetting on BaF 2(111) and CaF 2(111) at ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardellach, M.; Verdaguer, A.; Fraxedas, J.

    2011-12-01

    The interaction of water with freshly cleaved (111) surfaces of isostructural BaF2 and CaF2 single crystals at ambient conditions (room temperature and under controlled humidity) has been studied using scanning force microscopy in different operation modes and optical microscopy. Such surfaces exhibit contrasting behaviors for both materials: while on BaF2(111) two-dimensional water layers are formed after accumulation at step edges, CaF2(111) does not promote the formation of such layers. We attribute such opposed behavior to lattice match (mismatch) between hexagonal water ice and the hexagonal (111) surfaces of BaF2(CaF2). Optical microscope images reveal that this behavior also determines the way the surfaces become wetted at a macroscopic level.

  5. Novel SiO2-deposited CaF2 substrate for vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) measurements of chemisorbed monolayers in an aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Padermshoke, Adchara; Konishi, Shouta; Ara, Masato; Tada, Hirokazu; Ishibashi, Taka-Aki

    2012-06-01

    A novel SiO(2)-deposited CaF(2) (SiO(2)/CaF(2)) substrate for measuring vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) spectra of silane-based chemisorbed monolayers in aqueous media has been developed. The substrate is suitable for silanization and transparent over a broad range of the infrared (IR) probe. The present work demonstrates the practical application of the SiO(2)/CaF(2) substrate and, to our knowledge, the first SFG spectrum at the solid/water interface of a silanized monolayer observed over the IR fingerprint region (1780-1400 cm(-1)) using a back-side probing geometry. This new substrate can be very useful for SFG studies of various chemisorbed organic molecules, particularly biological compounds, in aqueous environments.

  6. Directionally solidified Eu doped CaF2/Li3AlF6 eutectic scintillator for neutron detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Kei; Hishinuma, Kousuke; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Pejchal, Jan; Ohashi, Yuji; Yokota, Yuui; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2015-12-01

    Eu doped CaF2/Li3AlF6 eutectics were grown by μ-PD method. The directionally solidified eutectic with well-aligned 600 nm diameter Eu:CaF2 scintillator fibers surrounded with Li3AlF6 was prepared. The grown eutectics showed an emission peak at 422 nm ascribed to Eu2+ 4f-5d transition from Eu:CaF2 scintillation fiber. Li concentration in the Eu:CaF2-Li3AlF6 eutectic is around 0.038 mol/cm3,which is two times higher than that of LiCaAlF6 single crystal (0.016 mol/cm3). The light yield of Eu:CaF2-Li3AlF6 eutectic was around 7000 ph/neutron. The decay time was about 550 ns (89%) and 1450 ns (11%).

  7. An optical investigation of nano-crystalline CaF2 particles doped with Nd3+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dwyer, C.; James, H. J.; Cheu, B.; Jaque, F.; Han, T. P. J.

    2017-10-01

    Good crystalline quality CaF2 sub-micron size particles doped with neodymium ions have been produced by the co-precipitation process and their crystallinity have been further improved by thermal treatment at 500 °C. Core and surface related luminescence defect centres have been identified and the effects of Y3+ and Yb3+ codopants are also investigated. Core defects centres are associated with single-ion and multi-ion defect centres as observed in bulk single crystal whereas the origin of the surface or near surface defect, A‧, centre has been ascertained to be derived from a single-ion centre most probably charge compensated by a hydroxyl group.

  8. Superhyperfine Structure of the EPR Spectra of Nd3+ Impurity Ions in Fluorite CaF2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminov, L. K.; Gafurov, M. R.; Kurkin, I. N.; Malkin, B. Z.; Rodionov, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    EPR spectra of a CaF2 single crystal that was grown from melt containing a small addition of NdF3 were studied. Signals corresponding to tetragonal centers of Nd3+ ions and cubic centers of Er3+ and Yb3+ ions were found. Superhyperfine structure (SHFS) in the spectra of the Nd3+ ions was observed for the first time in this crystal; parameters of the superhyperfine interaction of the Nd3+ ions with the nearest nine fluorine ions were determined. The dependence of the resolution of the Nd3+ EPR spectrum SHFS on the incident microwave power at the temperature of T ≈ 6 K was studied. Obtained results are discussed and compared with the literature data.

  9. Chemical Conversion of Anhydrous Hydrogen Fluoride for Safe Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, Thomas A.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Bachmann, William J.

    A procedure for the safe conversion of a small (~ 1 gram) quantity of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride to calcium fluoride is described. The purpose of the conversion is to put the toxic, corrosive, gaseous compound into a chemical form that is a less toxic solid (calcium fluoride) and easier to dispose of. The hydrogen fluoride, which was contained in a 50 cc metal sample cylinder, was drawn by a small mechanical vacuum pump through an all-metal gas manifold and into a metal trap containing alternating layers of calcium oxide powder and Teflon turnings. The anhydrous hydrogen fluoride reacts with themore » calcium oxide to produce calcium fluoride and water vapor. Because some of the calcium oxide powder was drawn out of the trap and into the vacuum tubing, it was not possible to quantify the amount of anhydrous hydrogen fluoride converted to calcium fluoride. However, it was noted that there was a temperature rise in the trap when the gas was flowing through it, and no HF gas was detected at the vacuum pump exhaust at this time using a colorimetric Dräger tube. The trap was sealed and disposed of as solid chemical waste.« less

  10. Highly aqueous soluble CaF2:Ce/Tb nanocrystals: effect of surface functionalization on structural, optical band gap, and photoluminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Anees A; Parchur, Abdul K; Kumar, Brijesh; Rai, S B

    2016-12-01

    The design of nanostructured materials with highly stable water-dispersion and luminescence efficiency is an important concern in nanotechnology and nanomedicine. In this paper, we described the synthesis and distinct surface modification on the morphological structure and optical (optical absorption, band gap energy, excitation, emission, decay time, etc.) properties of highly crystalline water-dispersible CaF 2 :Ce/Tb nanocrystals (core-nanocrystals). The epitaxial growth of inert CaF 2 and silica shell, respectively, on their surface forming as CaF 2 :Ce/Tb@CaF 2 (core/shell) and CaF 2 :Ce/Tb@CaF 2 @SiO 2 (core/shell/SiO 2 ) nanoarchitecture. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope image shows that the nanocrystals were in irregular spherical phase, highly crystalline (~20 nm) with narrow size distribution. The core/shell nanocrystals confirm that the surface coating is responsible in the change of symmetrical nanostructure, which was determined from the band gap energy and luminescent properties. It was found that an inert inorganic shell formation effectively enhances the luminescence efficiency and silica shell makes the nanocrystals highly water-dispersible. In addition, Ce 3+ /Tb 3+ -co-doped CaF 2 nanocrystals show efficient energy transfer from Ce 3+ to Tb 3+ ion and strong green luminescence of Tb 3+ ion at 541 nm( 5 D 4 → 7 F 5 ). Luminescence decay curves of core and core/shell nanocrystals were fitted using mono and biexponential equations, and R 2 regression coefficient criteria were used to discriminate the goodness of the fitted model. The lifetime values for the core/shell nanocrystals are higher than core-nanocrystals. Considering the high stable water-dispersion and intensive luminescence emission in the visible region, these luminescent core/shell nanocrystals could be potential candidates for luminescent bio-imaging, optical bio-probe, displays, staining, and multianalyte optical sensing. A newly designed CaF 2 :Ce/Tb nanoparticles via metal complex decomposition rout shows high dispersibility in aqueous solvents with enhanced photoluminescence. The epitaxial growth of inert CaF 2 shell and further amorphous silica, respectively, enhanced their optical and luminescence properties, which is highly usable for luminescent biolabeling, and optical bioprobe etc.

  11. Ion release from, and fluoride recharge of a composite with a fluoride-containing bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Davis, Harry B; Gwinner, Fernanda; Mitchell, John C; Ferracane, Jack L

    2014-10-01

    Materials that are capable of releasing ions such as calcium and fluoride, that are necessary for remineralization of dentin and enamel, have been the topic of intensive research for many years. The source of calcium has most often been some form of calcium phosphate, and that for fluoride has been one of several metal fluoride or hexafluorophosphate salts. Fluoride-containing bioactive glass (BAG) prepared by the sol-gel method acts as a single source of both calcium and fluoride ions in aqueous solutions. The objective of this investigation was to determine if BAG, when added to a composite formulation, can be used as a single source for calcium and fluoride ion release over an extended time period, and to determine if the BAG-containing composite can be recharged upon exposure to a solution of 5000ppm fluoride. BAG 61 (61% Si; 31% Ca; 4% P; 3% F; 1% B) and BAG 81 (81% Si; 11% Ca; 4% P; 3% F; 1% B) were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The composite used was composed of 50/50 Bis-GMA/TEGDMA, 0.8% EDMAB, 0.4% CQ, and 0.05% BHT, combined with a mixture of BAG (15%) and strontium glass (85%) to a total filler load of 72% by weight. Disks were prepared, allowed to age for 24h, abraded, then placed into DI water. Calcium and fluoride release was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy and fluoride ion selective electrode methods, respectively, after 2, 22, and 222h. The composite samples were then soaked for 5min in an aqueous 5000ppm fluoride solution, after which calcium and fluoride release was again measured at 2, 22, and 222h time points. Prior to fluoride recharge, release of fluoride ions was similar for the BAG 61 and BAG 81 composites after 2h, and also similar after 22h. At the four subsequent time points, one prior to, and three following fluoride recharge, the BAG 81 composite released significantly more fluoride ions (p<0.05). Both composites were recharged by exposure to 5000ppm fluoride, although the BAG 81 composite was recharged more than the BAG

  12. Fluoridation Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... and School-Linked Dental Sealant Programs Coordinate Community Water Fluoridation Programs Targeted Clinical Preventive Services & Health Systems Changes State Oral Health Plans Research & Publications Oral Health In America: Summary of the ...

  13. Acute toxicity of ingested fluoride.

    PubMed

    Whitford, Gary Milton

    2011-01-01

    This chapter discusses the characteristics and treatment of acute fluoride toxicity as well as the most common sources of overexposure, the doses that cause acute toxicity, and factors that can influence the clinical outcome. Cases of serious systemic toxicity and fatalities due to acute exposures are now rare, but overexposures causing toxic signs and symptoms are not. The clinical course of systemic toxicity from ingested fluoride begins with gastric signs and symptoms, and can develop with alarming rapidity. Treatment involves minimizing absorption by administering a solution containing calcium, monitoring and managing plasma calcium and potassium concentrations, acid-base status, and supporting vital functions. Approximately 30,000 calls to US poison control centers concerning acute exposures in children are made each year, most of which involve temporary gastrointestinal effects, but others require medical treatment. The most common sources of acute overexposures today are dental products - particularly dentifrices because of their relatively high fluoride concentrations, pleasant flavors, and their presence in non-secure locations in most homes. For example, ingestion of only 1.8 ounces of a standard fluoridated dentifrice (900-1,100 mg/kg) by a 10-kg child delivers enough fluoride to reach the 'probably toxic dose' (5 mg/kg body weight). Factors that may influence the clinical course of an overexposure include the chemical compound (e.g. NaF, MFP, etc.), the age and acid-base status of the individual, and the elapsed time between exposure and the initiation of treatment. While fluoride has well-established beneficial dental effects and cases of serious toxicity are now rare, the potential for toxicity requires that fluoride-containing materials be handled and stored with the respect they deserve. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. In-situ x-ray diffraction of a shock-induced phase transition in fluorite, CaF2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glam, Benny; June Tracy, Sally; Turneaure, Stefan; Duffy, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    The difluorides are an important class of ionic compounds that show extensive polymorphism under both static and dynamic loading. In this study, the shock-induced phase transitions in CaF2 were investigated by in situ x-ray diffraction measurements in plate impact experiments carried out with the two-stage gas gun at the Dynamic Compression Sector of Argonne National Laboratory. Single-crystal samples in (100) and (111) orientations were shock loaded to pressures between 32 GPa to 70 GPa. The particle velocities at the interface between the sample and a LiF window were measured by VISAR and PDV. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction data were recorded at 153.4 ns intervals using a four-frame detector. The measured diffraction patterns show a high degree of sample texturing at all pressures. We observe evidence for a transition to a high-pressure phase followed by reverse transformation at late times during release. This study provides the first direct constraints on the high-pressure lattice structure of fluorite under shock compression.

  15. Energy deposition by heavy ions: Additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in hillock formation on CaF2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y. Y.; Grygiel, C.; Dufour, C.; Sun, J. R.; Wang, Z. G.; Zhao, Y. T.; Xiao, G. Q.; Cheng, R.; Zhou, X. M.; Ren, J. R.; Liu, S. D.; Lei, Y.; Sun, Y. B.; Ritter, R.; Gruber, E.; Cassimi, A.; Monnet, I.; Bouffard, S.; Aumayr, F.; Toulemonde, M.

    2014-01-01

    Modification of surface and bulk properties of solids by irradiation with ion beams is a widely used technique with many applications in material science. In this study, we show that nano-hillocks on CaF2 crystal surfaces can be formed by individual impact of medium energy (3 and 5 MeV) highly charged ions (Xe22+ to Xe30+) as well as swift (kinetic energies between 12 and 58 MeV) heavy xenon ions. For very slow highly charged ions the appearance of hillocks is known to be linked to a threshold in potential energy (Ep) while for swift heavy ions a minimum electronic energy loss per unit length (Se) is necessary. With our results we bridge the gap between these two extreme cases and demonstrate, that with increasing energy deposition via Se the Ep-threshold for hillock production can be lowered substantially. Surprisingly, both mechanisms of energy deposition in the target surface seem to contribute in an additive way, which can be visualized in a phase diagram. We show that the inelastic thermal spike model, originally developed to describe such material modifications for swift heavy ions, can be extended to the case where both kinetic and potential energies are deposited into the surface. PMID:25034006

  16. Energy deposition by heavy ions: additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in hillock formation on CaF2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Y; Grygiel, C; Dufour, C; Sun, J R; Wang, Z G; Zhao, Y T; Xiao, G Q; Cheng, R; Zhou, X M; Ren, J R; Liu, S D; Lei, Y; Sun, Y B; Ritter, R; Gruber, E; Cassimi, A; Monnet, I; Bouffard, S; Aumayr, F; Toulemonde, M

    2014-07-18

    Modification of surface and bulk properties of solids by irradiation with ion beams is a widely used technique with many applications in material science. In this study, we show that nano-hillocks on CaF2 crystal surfaces can be formed by individual impact of medium energy (3 and 5 MeV) highly charged ions (Xe(22+) to Xe(30+)) as well as swift (kinetic energies between 12 and 58 MeV) heavy xenon ions. For very slow highly charged ions the appearance of hillocks is known to be linked to a threshold in potential energy (Ep) while for swift heavy ions a minimum electronic energy loss per unit length (Se) is necessary. With our results we bridge the gap between these two extreme cases and demonstrate, that with increasing energy deposition via Se the Ep-threshold for hillock production can be lowered substantially. Surprisingly, both mechanisms of energy deposition in the target surface seem to contribute in an additive way, which can be visualized in a phase diagram. We show that the inelastic thermal spike model, originally developed to describe such material modifications for swift heavy ions, can be extended to the case where both kinetic and potential energies are deposited into the surface.

  17. A viscoplastic model with application to LiF-22 percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Walker, K. P.

    1990-01-01

    A viscoplastic model for class M (metal-like behavior) materials is presented. One novel feature is its use of internal variables to change the stress exponent of creep (where n is approximately = 5) to that of natural creep (where n = 3), in accordance with experimental observations. Another feature is the introduction of a coupling in the evolution equations of the kinematic and isotropic internal variables, making thermal recovery of the kinematic variable implicit. These features enable the viscoplastic model to reduce to that of steady-state creep in closed form. In addition, the hardening parameters associated with the two internal state variables (one scalar-valued, the other tensor-valued) are considered to be functions of state, instead of being taken as constant-valued. This feature enables each internal variable to represent a much wider spectrum of internal states for the material. The model is applied to a LiF-22 percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt, which is being considered as a thermal energy storage material for space-based solar dynamic power systems.

  18. Up-conversion white light of Tm 3+/Er 3+/Yb 3+ tri-doped CaF 2 phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chunyan; Qin, Weiping; Zhang, Jisen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Guofeng; Wei, Guodong; Zhu, Peifen; Wang, Lili; Jin, Longzhen

    2008-03-01

    Tm3+/Er3+/Yb3+ tri-doped CaF2 phosphors were synthesized using a hydrothermal method. The phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and up-conversion (UC) emission spectra. After annealing, the phosphors emitted white light under a 980 nm continuous wave diode laser (CW LD 2 W) excitation. As the excitation power density changed in the range of 20-260 W/cm2, the chromaticity coordinates of the UC light of the phosphor Ca0.885Tm0.005Er0.01Yb0.1F2 fell well in the white region of the 1931 CIE diagram. For the proportion of red, green and blue (RGB) in white light is strict, key factors for achieving UC white light, such as host materials, rare earth ions doping concentrations, annealing temperatures, as well as the excitation power densities, were investigated and discussed.

  19. Deposition and properties of Fe(Se,Te) thin films on vicinal CaF2 substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryja, Hagen; Hühne, Ruben; Iida, Kazumasa; Molatta, Sebastian; Sala, Alberto; Putti, Marina; Schultz, Ludwig; Nielsch, Kornelius; Hänisch, Jens

    2017-11-01

    We report on the growth of epitaxial Fe1+δ Se0.5Te0.5 thin films on 0°, 5°, 10°, 15° and 20° vicinal cut CaF2 single crystals by pulsed laser deposition. In situ electron and ex situ x-ray diffraction studies reveal a tilted growth of the Fe1+δ Se0.5Te0.5 films, whereby under optimized deposition conditions the c-axis alignment coincides with the substrate [001] tilted axis up to a vicinal angle of 10°. Atomic force microscopy shows a flat island growth for all films. From resistivity measurements in longitudinal and transversal directions, the ab- and c-axis components of resistivity are derived and the mass anisotropy parameter is determined. Analysis of the critical current density indicates that no effective c-axis correlated defects are generated by vicinal growth, and pinning by normal point core defects dominates. However, for H∣∣ab the effective pinning centers change from surface defects to point core defects near the superconducting transition due to the vicinal cut. Furthermore, we show in angular-dependent critical current density data a shift of the ab-planes maxima position with the magnetic field strength.

  20. REDUCTION OF FLUORIDE TO METAL

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, O.N.; Schmidt, F.A.; Spedding, F.H.

    1960-08-30

    A process is given for making yttrium metal by reducing yttrium fluoride with calcium plus magnesium. Calcium is added in an excess of from 10 to 20% and magnesium in a quantity to yield a magnesium--yttrium alloy containing from 12 to 25% magnesium when the reaction mass is heated in an inert atmosphere at from 900 to 1106 deg C, but preferably above the melting point of the alloy. Calcium chloride may be added so as to obtain a less viscous slag containing from 30 to 60% calcium chloride. After removal of the slag the alloy is vacuum-heated at about 1100 deg C for volatilization of the magnesium and calcium.

  1. Effect of cryogenic temperature on spectroscopic and laser properties of Er,La:SrF2-CaF2 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švejkar, Richard; Šulc, Jan; Němec, Michal; Jelínková, Helena; Doroshenko, Maxim E.; Nakladov, Andrei N.; Osiko, Vjatcheslav V.

    2016-03-01

    The laser and spectroscopic properties of crystal Er,La:SrF2-CaF2 at temperature range 80 - 300 K, which is appropriate for generation of radiation around 2.7 um is presented. The sample of Er,La:SrF2-CaF2 (concentration Er(0.04), La(0.12):Ca(0.77)Sr(0.07)) had plan-parallel face-polished faces without anti-reflection coatings (thickness 8.2 mm). During spectroscopy and laser experiments the Er,La:SrF2-CaF2 was attached to temperature controlled copper holder and it was placed in vacuum chamber. The transmission and emission spectra of Er,La:SrF2-CaF2 together with the fluorescence decay time were measured in dependence on temperature. The excitation of Er,La:SrF2-CaF2 was carried out by a laser diode radiation (pulse duration 5 ms, repetition rate 20 Hz, pump wavelength 973 nm). Laser resonator was hemispherical, 140 mm in length with at pumping mirror (HR @ 2.7 µm) and spherical output coupler (r = 150 mm, R = 95 % @ 2.5 - 2.8 µm). Tunability of laser at 80 K in range 2690 - 2765 nm was obtained using MgF2 birefringent filter. With decreasing temperature of sample the fluorescence lifetime of manifold 4I11/2 (upper laser level) became shorter and intensity of up-conversion radiation was increasing. The highest slope efficiency with respect to absorbed power was 2.3 % at 80 K. The maximum output of peak amplitude power was 0.3 W at 80 K, i.e. 1.5 times higher than measured this value at 300 K. The wavelength generated by Er,La:SrF2-CaF2 laser (2.7 µm) is relatively close to absorption peak of water (3 µm) and so, one of the possible usage should be in medicine and spectroscopy.

  2. Investigation on the interfacial chemical state and band alignment for the sputtering-deposited CaF2/p-GaN heterojunction by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kexiong; Liao, Meiyong; Sumiya, Masatomo; Koide, Yasuo; Sang, Liwen

    2016-11-01

    The interfacial chemical state and the band alignment of the sputtering-deposited CaF2/p-GaN hetero-structure were investigated by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The dependence of Ga 3p core-level positions on the collection angles proves that the downward band bending of p-GaN is reduced from 1.51 to 0.85 eV after the deposition of CaF2, which may be due to the reduction of Mg-Ga-O-related interface states by the oxygen-free deposition of CaF2. The band gap of sputtering-deposited CaF2 is estimated to be about 7.97 eV with a potential gradient of 0.48 eV obtained by the variation of the Ca 2p3/2 position on different collection angles. By taking into account the p-GaN surface band bending and potential gradient in the CaF2 layer, large valence and conduction band offsets of 2.66 ± 0.20 and 1.92 ± 0.20 eV between CaF2 and p-GaN are obtained. These results indicate that CaF2 is a promising gate dielectric layer on the p-GaN for the application of metal-insulator-semiconductor devices.

  3. Fluoridated Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... between people with osteosarcoma and people in a control group who had other malignant bone tumors ( 7 ). More recent population-based studies using cancer registry data found no evidence of an association ... for Disease Control and Prevention. Public Health Service report on fluoride ...

  4. Efficient continuous-wave, broadly tunable and passive Q-switching lasers based on a Tm3+:CaF2 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingjing; Zhang, Cheng; Zu, Yuqian; Fan, Xiuwei; Liu, Jie; Guo, Xinsheng; Qian, Xiaobo; Su, Liangbi

    2018-04-01

    Laser operations in the continuous-wave as well as in the pulsed regime of a 4 at.% Tm3+:CaF2 crystal are reported. For the continuous-wave operation, a maximum average output power of 1.15 W was achieved, and the corresponding slope efficiency was more than 64%. A continuous tuning range of about 160 nm from 1877-2036 nm was achieved using a birefringent filter. Using Argentum nanorods as a saturable absorber, the significant pulsed operation of a passively Q-switched Tm3+:CaF2 laser was observed at 1935.4 nm for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. A maximum output power of 385 mW with 41.4 µJ pulse energy was obtained under an absorbed pump power of 2.04 W. The present results indicate that the Tm3+:CaF2 lasers could be promising laser sources to operate in the eye-safe spectral region.

  5. Sol-Gel-Synthesis of Nanoscopic Complex Metal Fluorides

    PubMed Central

    Rehmer, Alexander; Scheurell, Kerstin; Scholz, Gudrun; Kemnitz, Erhard

    2017-01-01

    The fluorolytic sol-gel synthesis for binary metal fluorides (AlF3, CaF2, MgF2) has been extended to ternary and quaternary alkaline earth metal fluorides (CaAlF5, Ca2AlF7, LiMgAlF6). The formation and crystallization of nanoscopic ternary CaAlF5 and Ca2AlF7 sols in ethanol were studied by 19F liquid and solid state NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy, as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystalline phases of the annealed CaAlF5, Ca2AlF7, and LiMgAlF6 xerogels between 500 and 700 °C could be determined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and 19F solid state NMR spectroscopy. The thermal behavior of un-annealed nanoscopic ternary and quaternary metal fluoride xerogels was ascertained by thermal analysis (TG/DTA). The obtained crystalline phases of CaAlF5 and Ca2AlF7 derived from non-aqueous sol-gel process were compared to crystalline phases from the literature. The corresponding nanoscopic complex metal fluoride could provide a new approach in ceramic and luminescence applications. PMID:29099086

  6. Carbide-fluoride-silver self-lubricating composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A self-lubricating, friction and wear reducing composite material is described for use over a wide temperature spectrum from cryogenic temperature to about 900 C in a chemically reactive environment comprising silver, barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic, and metal bonded chromium carbide.

  7. Carbide/fluoride/silver self-lubricating composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, Harold E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A self-lubricating, friction and wear reducing composite material for use over a wide temperature spectrum from cryogenic temperature to about 900.degree. C. in a chemically reactive environment comprising silver, barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic, and metal bonded chromium carbide.

  8. Study on fluoride emission from soils at high temperature related to brick-making process.

    PubMed

    Xie, Z M; Wu, W H; Xu, J M

    2003-02-01

    Characteristics of fluoride emission from 12 soils at temperatures of 400-1,100 degrees C related to the brick-making process were studied. The results obtained in this study indicate that fluoride emission as gaseous HF and SiF4 was related to the firing temperature, soil total fluoride content, soil composition and calcium compounds added to soils. Soils began to release fluoride at temperatures between 500 and 700 degrees C. Marked increases of the average fluoride mission rate from 57.2% to 85.4% of soil total fluoride were noticed as the heating temperature was increased from 700 to 1,100 degrees C. It was found that the major proportion (over 50%) of the soil total fluoride was emitted from soils at approximate 800 degrees C. The amount of fluoride released into the atmosphere when heated depended on the total fluoride contents in the soils. Correlation analysis showed that the soil composition, such as cation exchange capacity, exchangeable calcium and CaCO3, had some influence on fluoride emission below 900 degrees C, but had no influence at temperatures above 900 degrees C. Addition of four calcium compounds (CaO, CaCO3, Ca(OH)2, and CaSO4) at 1.5% by weight raised the temperature at which fluoride began to be released to 700 degrees C. The greatest decrease in fluoride emission among the four calcium compound treatments was found with CaCO3.

  9. Fluoride in the environment and its metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Jha, Sunil Kumar; Mishra, Vinay Kumar; Sharma, Dinesh Kumar; Damodaran, Thukkaram

    2011-01-01

    The presence of environmental fluoride and its impact on human health is well documented. When consumed in adequate quantity, fluoride prevents dental caries, assists in the formation of dental enamels, and prevents deficiencies in bone mineralization. At excessive exposure levels, ingestion of fluoride causes dental fluorosis skeletal fluorosis, and manifestations such as gastrointestinal, neurological, and urinary problems. The distribution of fluoride in the environment is uneven and largely is believed to derive from geogenic causes. The natural sources of fluoride are fluorite, fluorapatite, and cryolite, whereas anthropogenic sources include coal burning, oil refining, steel production, brick-making industries, and phosphatic fertilizer plants, among others. Among the various sources of fluoride in the environment, those of anthropogenic origin have occasionally been considered to be major ones. The gourndwater is more susceptible to fluoride accumulation and contamination than are other environmental media, primarily because of its contact with geological substrates underneath. The high fluoride concentration in water usually reflects the solubility of fluoride (CaF₂). High concentrations are also often associated with soft, alkaline, and calcium-deficient waters. The fluoride compounds that occur naturally in drinking water are almost totally bioavailable (90%) and are completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. As a result, drinking water is considered to be the potential source of fluoride that causes fluorosis. Because the bioavailability of fluoride is generally reduced in humans when consumed with milk or a calcium-rich diet, it is highly recommended that the inhabitants of fluoride-contaminated areas should incorporate calcium-rich foods in their routine diet. Guidelines for limiting the fluoride intake from drinking water have been postulated by various authorities. Such limits are designed to protect public health and should reflect all

  10. Atomic force microscopic comparison of remineralization with casein-phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate paste, acidulated phosphate fluoride gel and iron supplement in primary and permanent teeth: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Nikita; Shashikiran, N. D.; Singla, Shilpy; Ravi, K. S.; Kulkarni, Vinaya Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Context: Demineralization of tooth by erosion is caused by frequent contact between the tooth surface and acids present in soft drinks. Aim: The present study objective was to evaluate the remineralization potential of casein-phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste, 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel and iron supplement on dental erosion by soft drinks in human primary and permanent enamel using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Materials and Methods: Specimens were made from extracted 15 primary and 15 permanent teeth which were randomly divided into three treatment groups: CPP-ACP paste, APF gel and iron supplement. AFM was used for baseline readings followed by demineralization and remineralization cycle. Results and Statistics: Almost all group of samples showed remineralization that is a reduction in surface roughness which was higher with CPP-ACP paste. Statistical analysis was performed using by one-way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U-test with P < 0.05. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the application of CPP-ACP paste is effective on preventing dental erosion from soft drinks. PMID:24808700

  11. Fluoride Alters Serum Elemental (Calcium, Magnesium, Copper, and Zinc) Homeostasis Along with Erythrocyte Carbonic Anhydrase Activity in Fluorosis Endemic Villages and Restores on Supply of Safe Drinking Water in School-Going Children of Nalgonda District, India.

    PubMed

    Khandare, Arjun L; Validandi, Vakdevi; Boiroju, Naveen

    2018-02-17

    The present study aimed to determine the serum trace elements (copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg)) along with erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity and effect of intervention with safe drinking water for 5 years in the school children of fluorosis endemic area. For this purpose, three categories of villages were selected based on drinking water fluoride (F): Category I (control, F = 1.68 mg/L), category II (affected F = 3.77 mg/L), and category III (intervention village) where initial drinking water F was 4.51 mg/L, and since the last 5 years, they were drinking water containing < 1.0 mg/L F. The results revealed that urinary F was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in category II compared to categories I and III. A significant (P < 0.05) increase in serum Cu and Mg was observed in category II compared to category I. Serum Zn and Ca was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased in categories II and III compared to category I. The erythrocyte CA activity was decreased in the category II compared to category I. However, in the category III, erythrocyte CA activity was comparable to the control group. In conclusion, F exposure altered elemental homeostasis which has restored to some extent on intervention by safe drinking water for 5 years in school-going children.

  12. The Effect of Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorf Calcium Phosphate and Acidulated Phosphate Fluoride Gel on Dental Erosion in Primary Teeth: An in Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Maden, Eda Arat; Acar, Özge; Altun, Ceyhan; Polat, Günseli Güven

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel and casein phosphopeptide/amorphous calciumphosphate (CPP-ACP) on the dental erosion produced by carbonated soft drink in primary teeth. This study evaluated by an in vitro model the effect of APF gel and CPP-ACP on the dental enamel previously subjected to erosive challenge with carbonated soft drink. Sixty sound human primary molars were prepared by embedding the crown sections in acrylic resin blocks leaving the enamel surfaces exposed. The surface roughness of the enamel was measured with prophilometry at baseline. Specimens were randomly divided into three treatment groups (n:20): artificial saliva, CPP-ACP, 1.23% APF gel. All specimens were then exposed to an erosive challenge of carbonated soft drink and artificial saliva for 20 cycles of 20 seconds each. Demineralization-remineralization cycles was repeated twice at eight-hour intervals and roughness values were measured. Enamel samples were treated with artificial saliva, CPP-ACP, 1.23% APF gel applied for 10 min after erosive challenge. The arithmetic average roughness (Ra) readings were recorded after remineralization agents were applied. The mean surface roughness in all groups increased significantly after erosion process and decreased after remineralization treatment. After treatment, the mean surface roughness of the 1.23% APF gel group was significantly less than the other groups and the mean surface roughness of the artificial saliva group was significantly more than the other groups. 1.23% APF gel showed the highest protective effect against erosive enamel loss. Under the conditions of this study, artificial saliva, CPP-ACP and 1.23% APF treatments were able to reduce erosive enamel loss produced by carbonated soft drink in primary teeth. However, 1.23% APF gel showed the highest protective effect against erosive enamel loss.

  13. Thermoluminescence Response of CaF2:Mn, CaFz:Dy and CaSO4:Tm to Protons and Alpha-Particles,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    TLD ) in diverse radiation fields, such as mixed neutron-gamma fields. TL responses of the detector may depend not only on the photon and neutron energy...response of three TLD materials: CaF 2 :Mn, CaF?:Dy and CaSO 4 :Tm. These three materials are commonly used in TLDs , because of their high sensitivities...and suitable readout temperatures. CaS04:Tm powder embedded in polyethylene was investiaged at DREO (Ref. (4)) as a combined neutron/gamma TLD , but

  14. Analysis of optical properties behaviour of CLEARCERAM, fused silica and CaF2 glasses exposed to simulated space conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, M.; Alvarado, C. G.; Núñez, A.; Álvarez-Herrero, A.

    2017-11-01

    Optical instrumentation on-board satellites suffer degradation due to the hostile conditions of space environment. Space conditions produce instrumentation performances changes causing a decrease or a cancellation of their features. Particularly, space environment conditions have a significant influence on the optical properties of glasses which are part of space optical systems. Space environment characteristics which effects on the optical system have to be taken into account are: outgassing, volatile components, gas or water vapor which form part of the spacecraft materials, vacuum, microgravity, micrometeorites, space debris, thermal, mechanical and radiation environment and effects of the high atmosphere [1]. This work is focused on analyzing temperature variations and ultraviolet (UV) and gamma radiation effects on the optical properties of several glasses used on space applications. Thermal environment is composed of radiation from the Sun, the albedo and the Earth radiation and the radiation from the spacecraft to deep space. Flux and influence of temperature on satellite materials depend on factors as the period of year or the position of them on the space system. Taking into account that the transfer mechanisms of heat are limited by the conduction and the radiation, high gradients of temperature are obtained in system elements which can cause changes of their optical properties, birefringence… Also, these thermal cycles can introduce mechanical loads into material structure due to the expansion and the contraction of the material leading to mechanical performances degradation [2]. However, it is the radiation environment the main cause of damage on optical properties of materials used on space instrumentation. This environment consists of a wide range of energetic particles between keV and MeV which are trapped by the geomagnetic field or are flux of particles that cross the Earth environment from the external of the Solar System [3]. The damage produced by the radiation environment on the optical materials can be classified in two types: ionizing or non-ionizing. This damage may produce continual or accumulative (dose) alterations on the optical material performances, or may produce alterations which not remain along the time (transitory effects). The effects of the radiation on optical materials can be summarized on changes of optical transmission and refractive index, variation of density and superficial degradation [4-6]. Two non-invasive and non-destructive techniques such as Optical Spectrum Analyzer and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry [7] have been used to characterize optically the three kinds of studied glasses, CaF2, Fused Silica and Clearceram. The study of the temperature and radiation effects on the glasses optical properties showed that the gamma radiation is the principal responsible of glasses optical degradation. The optical properties of the Clearceram glass have been affected by the gamma irradiation due to the absorption bands induced by the radiation in the visible spectral range (color centers). Therefore, an analysis about the behavior of these color centers with the gamma radiation total dose and with the time after the irradiation has been carried out in the same way that it is performed in [8].

  15. Graphitic carbon grown on fluorides by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Jerng, Sahng-Kyoon; Lee, Jae Hong; Kim, Yong Seung; Chun, Seung-Hyun

    2013-01-03

    We study the growth mechanism of carbon molecules supplied by molecular beam epitaxy on fluoride substrates (MgF2, CaF2, and BaF2). All the carbon layers form graphitic carbon with different crystallinities depending on the cation. Especially, the growth on MgF2 results in the formation of nanocrystalline graphite (NCG). Such dependence on the cation is a new observation and calls for further systematic studies with other series of substrates. At the same growth temperature, the NCG on MgF2 has larger clusters than those on oxides. This is contrary to the general expectation because the bond strength of the carbon-fluorine bond is larger than that of the carbon-oxygen bond. Our results show that the growth of graphitic carbon does not simply depend on the chemical bonding between the carbon and the anion in the substrate.

  16. Graphitic carbon grown on fluorides by molecular beam epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We study the growth mechanism of carbon molecules supplied by molecular beam epitaxy on fluoride substrates (MgF2, CaF2, and BaF2). All the carbon layers form graphitic carbon with different crystallinities depending on the cation. Especially, the growth on MgF2 results in the formation of nanocrystalline graphite (NCG). Such dependence on the cation is a new observation and calls for further systematic studies with other series of substrates. At the same growth temperature, the NCG on MgF2 has larger clusters than those on oxides. This is contrary to the general expectation because the bond strength of the carbon-fluorine bond is larger than that of the carbon-oxygen bond. Our results show that the growth of graphitic carbon does not simply depend on the chemical bonding between the carbon and the anion in the substrate. PMID:23286607

  17. Double cross-polarization MAS NMR in the assignment of abundant-spin resonances: ¹⁹F-{²⁹Si}-¹⁹F FBCP/MAS NMR of fluoride ions incorporated in calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) phases.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thuan T; Bildsøe, Henrik; Jakobsen, Hans J; Skibsted, Jørgen

    2012-08-01

    A new version of the double cross-polarization MAS NMR experiment, which transfers polarization Forth and Back (FBCP) between high- and low-γ spin nuclei, is presented. The pulse sequence is demonstrated by ¹⁹F-{²⁹Si}-¹⁹F and ¹⁹F-{¹³C}-¹⁹F FBCP NMR spectra of a mixture of cuspidine (Ca₄Si₂O₇F₂) and Teflon (-CF₂-)(n). The experiment is useful for assignment of the high-γ spin resonances, as demonstrated by ¹⁹F-{²⁹Si}-¹⁹F FBCP NMR of a fluoride-containing calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) phase, where the ¹⁹F resonance from fluoride ions incorporated in the interlayer structure of the C-S-H phase is identified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. X-ray Excitation Triggers Ytterbium Anomalous Emission in CaF2:Yb but Not in SrF2:Yb.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Currie, Rosa B; Ivanovskikh, Konstantin V; Wells, Jon-Paul R; Reid, Michael F; Gordon, Robert A; Seijo, Luis; Barandiarán, Zoila

    2017-03-16

    Materials that luminesce after excitation with ionizing radiation are extensively applied in physics, medicine, security, and industry. Lanthanide dopants are known to trigger crystal scintillation through their fast d-f emissions; the same is true for other important applications as lasers or phosphors for lighting. However, this ability can be seriously compromised by unwanted anomalous emissions often found with the most common lanthanide activators. We report high-resolution X-ray-excited optical (IR to UV) luminescence spectra of CaF 2 :Yb and SrF 2 :Yb samples excited at 8949 eV and 80 K. Ionizing radiation excites the known anomalous emission of ytterbium in the CaF 2 host but not in the SrF 2 host. Wave function-based ab initio calculations of host-to-dopant electron transfer and Yb 2+ /Yb 3+ intervalence charge transfer explain the difference. The model also explains the lack of anomalous emission in Yb-doped SrF 2 excited by VUV radiation.

  19. Tunable multicolor and enhanced red emission of monodisperse CaF2:Yb3+/Ho3+ microspheres via Mn2+ doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Yuan, Maohui; Zhang, Chaofan; Wang, Hongyan; Xu, Xiaojun

    2018-05-01

    Transition metal ions (e.g. Mn2+) and lanthanide co-doped upconversion (UC) materials have attracted wide attention in recent years due to their promising application in multicolor display. Here, we report the hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of Mn2+ doped monodisperse CaF2:Yb3+/Ho3+ microspheres. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that Mn2+ doping does not change the cubic phase of CaF2 material but will lead to diffraction peaks shifting slightly towards higher angle due to the substitution of larger Ca2+ by the relatively smaller Mn2+. Under the excitation of 980 nm continuous wave (CW) laser, these microspheres exhibit green-yellow-red tuning colors and remarkable enhancement of both red to green ratio (R/G) and red to blue ratio (R/B) when increasing Mn2+ concentration from 0 to 30 mol%. The energy migration process between Ho3+ and Mn2+ was proposed and supported by time-decay and power dependence measurements of Ho3+ UC emission. These upconversion materials may have potential applications in optical devices, color display, nanoscale lasers and biomedical imaging.

  20. Formation and investigation of ultrathin layers of Co2FeSi ferromagnetic alloy synthesized on silicon covered with a CaF2 barrier layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenyuk, G. S.; Gomoyunova, M. V.; Pronin, I. I.; Vyalikh, D. V.; Molodtsov, S. L.

    2016-03-01

    Ultrathin (∼2 nm) films of Co2FeSi ferromagnetic alloy were formed on silicon by solid-phase epitaxy and studied in situ. Experiments were carried out in an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) using substrates of Si(1 1 1) single crystals covered with a 5 nm thick CaF2 barrier layer. The elemental and phase composition as well as the magnetic properties of the synthesized films were analyzed by photoelectron spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation and by magnetic linear dichroism in photoemission of Fe 3p and Co 3p electrons. The study shows that the synthesis of the Co2FeSi ferromagnetic alloy occurs in the temperature range of 200-400 °C. At higher temperatures, the films become island-like and lose their ferromagnetic properties, as the CaF2 barrier layer is unable to prevent a mass transfer between the film and the Si substrate, which violates the stoichiometry of the alloy.

  1. Formation of metal nanoparticles in MgF2, CaF2 and BaF2 crystals under the electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkareva, Elizaveta S.; Sidorov, Alexander I.; Yurina, Uliana V.; Podsvirov, Oleg A.

    2017-07-01

    It is shown experimentally that electron beam action with electrons energies of 50 and 70 keV on MgF2, CaF2 and BaF2 crystals results in local formation in the crystal near-surface layer of Mg, Ca or Ba nanoparticles which possess plasmon resonance. In the case of MgF2 spheroidal nanoparticles are formed, in the cases of CaF2 and BaF2 - spherical. The formation of metal nanoparticles is confirmed by computer simulation in dipole quasistatic approximation. The dependence of absorption via electron irradiation dose is non-linear. It is caused by the increase of nanoparticles concentration and by the increase of nanoparticles sizes during irradiation. In the irradiated zones of MgF2 crystals, for irradiation doses less than 80 mC/cm2, the intense luminescence in a visible range appears. The practical application of fabricated composite materials for multilevel optical information recording is discussed.

  2. Efficacy of the injectable calcium phosphate ceramics suspensions containing magnesium, zinc and fluoride on the bone mineral deficiency in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Makoto; Oshinbe, Ayako; Legeros, Racquel Z; Tokudome, Yoshihiro; Ito, Atsuo; Otsuka, Kuniko; Higuchi, William I

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of a new calcium phosphate (CaP)-based formulation in improving the bone mineral deficiency in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The ions release experiments for CaP preparations (G2: 0.46% Mg, 5.78% Zn, and 2.5% F; G3:3.1% Mg, 0.03% Zn, and 3.01% F; G4: 1.25% Mg, 1.77% Zn, 1.35% F) and of a Zn-TCP (G1: 6.17% Zn) powders, the initial Mg and Zn ion release rates of MZF-CaPs were performed in acetate buffer at pH 4.5 (37 degrees C). Wistar rats were divided into six groups including a normal (not OVX) group (GN) and a control, OVX group (GC). Rats in groups GC, G1, G2, G3, G4 were OVX. Suspensions consisting of CaP preparations (G2, G3, G4) and of a Zn-TCP (G1) powders were injected in the right thighs of OVX rats in all groups except for GN and GC, once a week for 4 weeks. GN and GC rats were injected with saline solutions. Plasma was analyzed for Zn land alkaline phosphatase levels. The bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using DEXA and the bone (femur) strength determined using three-point-bending analysis. G1 and G2 groups showed high plasma Zn levels. The area under the curve of plasma Zn was significantly greater in the G1, G2, and GN groups than in the G3, G4, and GC groups (p < 0.05). The BMD and bone mechanical strength of the right femur were significantly higher in the G1, G2, G3, and G4 groups than GC group on day 28. The right femur had significantly greater BMD and bone mechanical strength than the left femur in G1, G2, G3, and G4 groups. However, there was no significant difference in the BMD of the right femur between the G1, G2, G3, and G4 groups. Results indicate that the new injectable CaP formulations are effective in improving bone properties of OVX rats and may be useful in osteoporosis therapy. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. In situ study of the anticariogenic potential of fluoride varnish combined with CO2 laser on enamel.

    PubMed

    Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Turssi, Cecília Pedroso; Colucci, Vivian; Tenuta, Lívia Maria Andaló; Serra, Mônica Campos; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2015-06-01

    This in situ study evaluated the effect of fluoride varnish combined with CO2 laser in controlling enamel demineralization caused by cariogenic challenges. In a crossover study conducted in 2 phases of 14 days each, 14 volunteers (n = 14) wore palatal appliances with bovine enamel slabs treated with fluoride varnish + CO2 laser (FV + CO2), fluoride varnish (FV), nonfluoride placebo varnish (PV) and nonfluoride placebo varnish + CO2 laser (PV + CO2). Drops of sucrose solution were dripped onto enamel slabs allowing the accumulation of biofilm. At the first phase, half of the volunteers received 4 enamel slabs treated with FV while the remainders received slabs exposed to the PV with and without CO2 laser. In the second phase, the vonlunteers were reversed treatments. The slabs were evaluated for cross-sectional microhardness (CSMH) and the concentration of loosely bound fluoride (CaF2) and firmly bound fluoride (FAp). The concentration of fluoride in biofilm were also determined. Two-way ANOVA showed that the CSMH values were higher in laser-irradiated enamel, regardless of the fluoride varnish. Friedman test showed that FV group presented significantly larger amount of fluoride in biofilm (P < 0.05). In the enamel, the largest amount of fluoride was found in the groups FV + CO2, which was not different from FV (P > 0.05). The synergistic effect of fluoride varnish and CO2 laser on enamel demineralization was not observed, however, CO2 laser reduces enamel demineralization. CO2 laser might reduce the demineralization of subsurface enamel, although its association with a high concentrated fluoride therapy may not result in a positive synergistic interaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. New observations on the pressure dependence of luminescence from Eu2+-doped MF2 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) fluorides.

    PubMed

    Su, Fu Hai; Chen, Wei; Ding, Kun; Li, Guo Hua

    2008-05-29

    The luminescence from Eu(2+) ions in MF2 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) fluorides has been investigated under the pressure range of 0-8 GPa. The emission band originating from the 4f(6)5d(1) --> 4f(7) transition of Eu(2+) ions in CaF2 and SrF2 shows the red-shift as increasing pressure with pressure coefficients of -17 meV/GPa for CaF2 and -18 meV/GPa for SrF2. At atmospheric pressure, the emission spectrum of BaF2:Eu(2+) comprises two peaks at 2.20 and 2.75 eV from the impurity trapped exciton (ITE) and the self-trapped exciton (STE), respectively. As the pressure is increased, both emission peaks shift to higher energies, and the shifting rate is slowed by the phase transition from the cubic to orthorhombic phase at 4 GPa. Due to the phase transition at 4-5 GPa pressure, the ITE emission disappears gradually, and the STE emission is gradually replaced by the 4f(6)5d(1) --> 4f(7) transition of Eu(2+). Above 5 GPa, the pressure behavior of the 4f(6)5d(1) --> 4f(7) transition of Eu(2+) in BaF2:Eu(2+) is the same as the normal emission of Eu(2+) in CaF2 and SrF2 phosphors.

  5. Nonstoichiometry in inorganic fluorides: I. Nonstoichiometry in MF m - RF n ( m < n ≤ 4) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, B. P.

    2012-05-01

    The manifestation of gross nonstoichiometry in MF m - RF n systems ( m < n ≤ 4) has been studied. Fluorides of 34 elements, in the systems of which phases of practical interest are formed, are chosen. To search for new phases of complex composition, a program for studying the phase diagrams of the condensed state (˜200 systems) has been carried out at the Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences. The main products of high-temperature interactions of the fluorides of elements with different valences ( m ≠ n) are grossly nonstoichiometric phases of two structural types: fluorite (CaF2) and tysonite (LaF3). Systems of fluorides of 27 elements ( M 1+ = Na, K; M 2+ = Ca, Sr, Ba, Cd, Pb; R 3+ = Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu; R 4+ = Zr, Hf, Th, U) are selected; nonstoichiometric M 1 - x R x F m(1 - x) + nx phases, which are of greatest practical interest, are formed in these systems. The gross nonstoichiometry in inorganic fluorides is most pronounced in 80 MF2 - RF3 systems ( M = Ca, Sr, Ba, Cd, Pb; R are rare earth elements). The problems related to the growth of single crystals of nonstoichiometric phases and basic fields of their application as new fluoride multicomponent materials, the properties of which are controlled by the defect structure, are considered.

  6. Grout formulation for disposal of low-level and hazardous waste streams containing fluoride

    DOEpatents

    McDaniel, E.W.; Sams, T.L.; Tallent, O.K.

    1987-06-02

    A composition and related process for disposal of hazardous waste streams containing fluoride in cement-based materials is disclosed. the presence of fluoride in cement-based materials is disclosed. The presence of fluoride in waste materials acts as a set retarder and as a result, prevents cement-based grouts from setting. This problem is overcome by the present invention wherein calcium hydroxide is incorporated into the dry-solid portion of the grout mix. The calcium hydroxide renders the fluoride insoluble, allowing the grout to set up and immobilize all hazardous constituents of concern. 4 tabs.

  7. Story of Fluoridation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Info Health Topics Fluoride Share The Story of Fluoridation It started as an observation, that ... this time using photospectrographic analysis, a more sophisticated technology than that used by McKay. Churchill asked an ...

  8. Effect of tip polarity on Kelvin probe force microscopy images of thin insulator CaF2 films on Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurtsever, Ayhan; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Fukumoto, Masaki; Abe, Masayuki; Morita, Seizo

    2012-08-01

    We investigate thin insulating CaF2 films on a Si (111) surface using a combination of noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Atomic-scale NC-AFM and KPFM images are obtained in different imaging modes by employing two different tip polarities. The KPFM image contrast and the distance-dependent variation of the local contact potential difference (LCPD) give rise to a tip-polarity-dependent contrast inversion. Ca2+ cations had a higher LCPD contrast than F- anions for a positively terminated tip, while the LCPD provided by a negatively charged tip gave a higher contrast for F- anions. Thus, this result implies that it is essential to determine the tip apex polarity to correctly interpret LCPD signals acquired by KPFM.

  9. Tensile properties of haynes alloy 230 and inconel 617 after long exposures to LiF-22CaF2 and vacuum at 1093 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.

    1994-12-01

    As a part of a study of a space-based thermal energy storage system utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the eutectic salt LiF-20CaF2 (mole%), the two wrought Ni-base superalloys Haynes alloy 230 and Inconel 617 were subjected to molten salt, its vapor, and vacuum for periods as long as 10,000 h at 1093 K. Following exposure, the microstructures were characterized, and samples from each superalloy were tensile tested between 77 and 1200 K. Neither the structure nor mechanical properties revealed evidence for additional degradation due to exposures to the salt. Although some loss in tensile properties was noted, particularly at 77 K, this reduction could be ascribed to the influence of simple aging at 1093 K.

  10. Temperature dependence of the elastic moduli and damping for polycrystalline LiF-22 pct CaF2 eutectic salt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfenden, A.; Lastrapes, G.; Duggan, M. B.; Raj, S. V.

    1991-01-01

    Young's and shear moduli and damping were measured for as-cast polycrystalline LiF-(22 mol pct)CaF2 eutectic specimens as a function of temperature using the piezoelectric ultrasonic composite oscillator technique. The shear modulus decreased with increasing temperature from about 40 GPa at 295 K to about 30 GPa at 1000 K, while the Young modulus decreased from about 115 GPa at 295 K to about 35 GPa at 900 K. These values are compared with those derived from the rule of mixtures using elastic moduli data for LiF and CaF2 single crystals. It is shown that, while the shear modulus data agree reasonably well with the predicted trend, there is a large discrepancy between the theoretical calculations and the Young modulus values, where this disagreement increases with increasing temperature.

  11. On the application of CaF2:Eu and SrF2:Eu phosphors in LED based phototherapy lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belsare, P. D.; Moharil, S. V.; Joshi, C. P.; Omanwar, S. K.

    2013-06-01

    In the last few years the interest of scientific community has been increased towards solid state lighting based on LEDs because of their superior advantages over the conventional fluorescent lamps. As the GaN based LEDs are easily available efforts of the researchers are now on making the new phosphors which are excitable in the near UV region (360-400nm) for solid state lighting. This paper reports the photoluminescence characteristics of CaF2:Eu and SrF2:Eu phosphor prepared by wet chemical method. The violet emission of these phosphors with near UV excitation can be useful in making a phototherapy lamp based on LEDs for treating various skin diseases like acne vulgaris and hyperbilirubinemia.

  12. YAG:Er3+, CaF2:Er3+, and Er2O3 Emission Spectra Under Laser and Laser Thermal Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchenko, V. M.

    2018-05-01

    Experimental luminescence and selective-emission (SE) spectra of YAG:Er3+ (10 at.%) and CaF2:Er3+ (1 at.%) single crystals and Er2O3 polycrystal under laser and laser thermal excitation of the Er3+-ion multiplets are compared. Luminescence spectra under resonant excitation are determined by multiplet population relaxation with the corresponding radiative and nonradiative probabilities. The form of the SE spectra is determined by the thermal population of the multiplets and the probabilities of only radiative transitions. The SE band at 800 nm (4I9/2 → 4I15/2) is an indicator of high-temperature thermal emission of Er3+ ions. The absence of this band in luminescence spectra is explained by the short lifetime of the τ(4I9/2) level of 53 ns at T = 300 K.

  13. Topographic assessment of human enamel surface treated with different topical sodium fluoride agents: Scanning electron microscope consideration.

    PubMed

    Brar, Gurlal Singh; Arora, Amandeep Singh; Khinda, Vineet Inder Singh; Kallar, Shiminder; Arora, Karuna

    2017-01-01

    Continuous balanced demineralization and remineralization are natural dynamic processes in enamel. If the balance is interrupted and demineralization process dominates, it may eventually lead to the development of carious lesions in enamel and dentine. Fluoride helps control decay by enhancing remineralization and altering the structure of the tooth, making the surface less soluble. One hundred and twenty sound human permanent incisors randomly and equally distributed into six groups as follows: Group I - Control, II - Sodium fluoride solution, III - Sodium fluoride gel, IV - Sodium fluoride varnish, V - Clinpro Tooth Crème (3M ESPE), and VI-GC Tooth Mousse Plus or MI Paste Plus. The samples were kept in artificial saliva for 12 months, and the topical fluoride agents were applied to the respective sample groups as per the manufacturer instructions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) evaluation of all the samples after 6 and 12 months was made. Morphological changes on the enamel surface after application of fluoride in SEM revealed the presence of globular precipitate in all treated samples. Amorphous, globular, and crystalline structures were seen on the enamel surface of the treated samples. Clear differences were observed between the treated and untreated samples. Globular structures consisting of amorphous CaF2precipitates, which acted as a fluoride reservoir, were observed on the enamel surface after action of different sodium fluoride agents. CPP-ACPF (Tooth Mousse) and Tricalcium phosphate with fluoride (Clinpro tooth crème) are excellent delivery vehicles available in a slow release amorphous form to localize fluoride at the tooth surface.

  14. Frequency of Fluoride Dentifrice Use and Caries Lesions Inhibition and Repair.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, Diego Figueiredo; Fernández, Constanza Estefany; Del Bel Cury, Altair Antoninha; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2016-01-01

    The clinical relevance of the frequency of fluoride dentifrice (FD) use on enamel caries is based on evidence. However, the relative effect of FD on reduction of demineralization or enhancement of remineralization is unknown and the effect of frequency on root dentine caries has not been explored. The aim of this double-blind, crossover, in situ study, which was conducted in 4 phases of 14 days each, was to evaluate the relationship between the frequency of FD use and enamel and root dentine de- and remineralization. Eighteen volunteers wore palatal appliances containing enamel and root dentine slabs, either sound or carious. Biofilm accumulation on the slab surface was allowed, and 20% sucrose solution was dripped 3 or 8 times per day on the carious and sound slabs, respectively. Volunteers used FD (1,100 μg F/g) in the frequencies 0 (fluoride-placebo dentifrice), 1, 2 and 3 times per day. The demineralization and remineralization that occurred in sound or carious slabs was estimated by the percentage of surface hardness loss (%SHL) or recovery (%SHR). Loosely (CaF2) and firmly (FAp) bound fluoride concentrations were also determined. The relationship between the variables was analyzed by linear regression. The %SHL, CaF2 and FAp concentrations were a function of the frequency of FD use for enamel and dentine, but the %SHR was a function of the frequency of FD use only for enamel (p < 0.05). The results suggest that demineralization in enamel and root dentine is reduced in proportion to the frequency of FD use, but for remineralization the effect of the frequency of FD use was relevant only to enamel. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Fluoride salts and container materials for thermal energy storage applications in the temperature range 973 to 1400 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Multicomponent fluoride salt mixtures were characterized for use as latent heat of fusion heat storage materials in advanced solar dynamic space power systems with operating temperatures in the range of 973 to 1400 K. The melting points and eutectic composition for many systems with published phase diagrams were verified, and several new eutectic compositions were identified. Additionally, the heats of fusion of several binary and ternary eutectics and congruently melting intermediate compounds were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The extent of corrosion of various metals by fluoride melts was estimated from thermodynamic considerations, and equilibrium conditions inside a containment vessel were calculated as functions of the initial moisture content of the salt and free volume above the molten salt. Preliminary experimental data on the corrosion of commercial, high-temperature alloys in LiF-19.5CaF2 and NaF-27CaF2-36MgF2 melts are presented and compared to the thermodynamic predictions.

  16. Fluoride salts and container materials for thermal energy storage applications in the temperature range 973 - 1400 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    1987-01-01

    Multicomponent fluoride salt mixtures were characterized for use as latent heat of fusion heat storage materials in advanced solar dynamic space power systems with operating temperatures in the range of 973 to 1400 K. The melting points and eutectic composition for many systems with published phase diagrams were verified, and several new eutectic compositions were identified. Additionally, the heats of fusion of several binary and ternary eutectics and congruently melting intermediate compounds were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The extent of corrosion of various metals by fluoride melts was estimated from thermodynamic considerations, and equilibrium conditions inside a containment vessel were calculated as functions of the initial moisture content of the salt and free volume above the molten salt. Preliminary experimental data on the corrosion of commercial, high-temperature alloys in LiF-19.5CaF2 and NaF-27CaF2-36MgF2 melts are presented and compared to the thermodynamic predictions.

  17. Effects of oral doses of fluoride on nestling European starlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Grue, C.E.; Schuler, C.A.; Bunck, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nestling European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), raised and fed by free-living adults, were given daily oral doses of either distilled water, 193 mg sodium as Na2CO3 per kg of body weight (sodium control group), or 6, 10, 13, 17,23, 30, 40, 80, 160 mg of the fluoride ion as NaF in distilled water per kg of body weight (mg/kg). Dosing began when nestlings were 24-48 hr old and continued for 16 days. The 24-hr LD50 of fluoride for day-old starlings was 50 mg/kg. The 16-day LD50 was 17 mg/kg. The sodium control group did not differ from the water control group with respect to any of the measured variables. Growth rates were significantly reduced in the 13 and 17 mg of fluoride/kg groups; weights of birds given higher dose levels were omitted from growth comparisons because of high, fluoride-induced mortality. Although pre-fledging weights for the 10, 13, and 17 mg of fluoride/kg groups averaged 3.6 to 8.6% less than controls at 17 days, this difference was not significant. Feather and bone growth of the fluoride and control groups were not different, except for keel length measured at 17 days of age which averaged less in the fluoride groups. Liver and spleen weights were not affected by fluoride treatments. No histological damage related to fluoride treatments was found in liver, spleen, or kidney. The logarithm of bone fluoride and magnesium concentration increased with the logarithm of increasing fluoride treatment levels and were significantly correlated with each other. Fluoride treatments had no effect on percent calcium or phosphorus in bone or plasma alkaline phosphatase activity. Oral doses of fluoride appear to be more toxic than equivalent dietary levels. Most birds probably acquire fluoride through their diet. Therefore, the results of the study may overestimate the potential effects of fluorides on songbirds living in fluoride-contaminated environments.

  18. Constraining Calcium Production in Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Pranjal; C. Fry, C. Wrede Team; A. Chen, J. Liang Collaboration; S. Bishop, T. Faestermann, D. Seiler Collaboration; R. Hertenberger, H. Wirth Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Calcium is an element that can be produced by thermonuclear reactions in the hottest classical novae. There are discrepancies between the abundance of Calcium observed in novae and expectations based on astrophysical models. Unbound states 1 MeV above the proton threshold affect the production of Calcium in nova models because they act as resonances in the 38 K(p , γ) 39 Ca reaction present. This work describes an experiment to measure the energies of the excited states of 39 Ca . We will bombard a thin target of 40 Ca with a beam of 22 MeV deuterons, resulting in tritons and 39Ca. We will use a Q3D magnetic spectrograph from the MLL in Garching, Germany to momenta analyze the tritons to observe the excitation energies of the resulting 39 Ca states. Simulations have been run to determine the optimal spectrograph settings. We decided to use a chemically stable target composed of CaF2 , doing so resulted in an extra contaminant, Fluorine, which is dealt with by measuring the background from a LiF target. These simulations have led to settings and targets that will result in the observation of the 39 Ca states of interest with minimal interference from contaminants. Preliminary results from this experiment will be presented. National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and U.S. National Science Foundation.

  19. SORBENTS FOR FLUORIDE, METAL FINISHING, AND PETROLEUM SLUDGE LEACHATE CONTAMINANT CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers the initial laboratory studies carried out to identify the most promising sorbents that may be used to significantly reduce the concentration of measurable contaminant in calcium fluoride sludge leachate, metal finishing sludge leachate, and petroleum sludge le...

  20. A health risk assessment for fluoride in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Fordyce, F M; Vrana, K; Zhovinsky, E; Povoroznuk, V; Toth, G; Hope, B C; Iljinsky, U; Baker, J

    2007-04-01

    Like many elements, fluorine (which generally occurs in nature as fluoride) is beneficial to human health in trace amounts, but can be toxic in excess. The links between low intakes of fluoride and dental protection are well known; however, fluoride is a powerful calcium-seeking element and can interfere with the calcified structure of bones and teeth in the human body at higher concentrations causing dental or skeletal fluorosis. One of the main exposure routes is via drinking water and the World Health Organisation currently sets water quality guidelines for the element. In Central Europe, groundwater resources that exceed the guideline value of 1.5 mg l-1 are widespread and effects on health of high fluoride in water have been reported. The aim of the current project was to develop a geographic information system (GIS) to aid the identification of areas where high-fluoride waters and fluorosis may be a problem; hence, where water treatment technologies should be targeted. The development of the GIS was based upon the collation and digitisation of existing information relevant to fluoride risk in Ukraine, Moldova, Hungary and Slovakia assembled for the first time in a readily accessible form. In addition, geochemistry and health studies to examine in more detail the relationships between high-fluoride drinking waters and health effects in the population were carried out in Moldova and Ukraine demonstrating dental fluorosis prevalence rates of 60-90% in adolescents consuming water containing 2-7 mg l-1 fluoride.

  1. Removal of fluoride ion by bone char produced from animal biomass.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Naohito; Ogata, Fumihiko; Tominaga, Hisato; Yamaguchi, Isao

    2009-01-01

    Bone char (BC) was prepared by carbonizing four types of animal biomass, and the adsorption of fluoride ions and elution of phosphate ions were investigated. It was found that the BC yield decreased as carbonization temperature increased, and that carbonization temperature had no significant effect on surface pH, base or acid consumptions. Fluoride ion adsorption was increased in BC produced at a low carbonization temperature. The adsorption mechanism of fluoride ion on BCs might be monolayer adsorption. BC can potentially be used to remove fluoride ions in drinking water. However, it was found that phosphate ions from BC are eluted due to adsorption of fluoride ions, and that ingestion of large amounts of phosphate ions inhibits reabsorption of calcium in the human body. Thus there is a need to study the elution behavior of phosphate ions. The adsorption mechanisms of fluoride ions onto BC would be a physical adsorption onto BC and phosphate ion in BC is exchanged to fluoride ion.

  2. Fluoride and Oral Health.

    PubMed

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M

    2016-06-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature.

  3. Fluoride and Water (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the label. The Controversy Over Fluoride Opponents of water fluoridation have questioned its safety and effectiveness; however, there has been little evidence to support these concerns. Scientific research continues to show the benefits of fluoride when ...

  4. Down-conversion emission of Ce3+-Tb3+ co-doped CaF2 hollow spheres and application for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yufei; Wang, Yongbo; Teng, Feng; Dong, Hua; Chen, Lida; Mu, Jianglong; Sun, Qian; Fan, Jun; Hu, Xiaoyun; Miao, Hui

    2018-03-01

    Luminescent downconversion is a promising way to harvest ultraviolet sunlight and transform it into visible light that can be absorbed by solar cells, and has potential to improve their photoelectric conversion efficiency. In this work, the uniform hollow spheres and well dispersed CaF2 phosphors doped with rare-earth Ce3+ and Tb3+ ions are prepared by a one-step hydrothermal synthesis method. Benefiting from the stronger ability of absorption and emission and excellent transparency property, we demonstrate that the application of the doped nanocrystals can efficiently improve visible light transmittance. The chosen phosphors are added in the SiO2 sols so as to get the anti-reflection coatings with wavelength conversion bi-functional films, promoting the optical transmittance in the visible and near-infrared range which matches with the range of the band gap energy of silicon semiconductor. Optimized photoelectric conversion efficiency of 14.35% and the external quantum efficiency over 70% from 450 to 950 nm are obtained through the silicon solar cells with 0.10 g phosphors coating. Compared with the pure glass devices, the photoelectric conversion efficiency is enhanced by 0.69%. This work indicates that fluorescent downconversion not only can serve as proof of principles for improving photoelectric conversion efficiency of solar cells but also may be helpful to practical application in the future.

  5. Fermi surfaces properties of AuAl2, AuGa2, and AuIn2 with the CaF2-type cubic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, K.; Kakihana, M.; Suzuki, F.; Yara, T.; Hedo, M.; Nakama, T.; Ōnuki, Y.; Harima, H.

    2018-05-01

    We grew high-quality single crystals of AuAl2, AuGa2, and AuIn2 with the fluorite (CaF2)-type cubic structure and determined the Fermi surface properties by the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) experiments using full-potential LAPW bad calculations. The Fermi surface and optical properties for three compounds were once studied from an interest of colors because AuAl2 has a striking bright reddish-purple color, whereas AuGa2 and AuIn2 are, respectively, neutral and bluish. The detected dHvA frequencies in the present study are found to be in a wide range of (0.1-13)×107 Oe. The main dHvA branches for three compounds are in excellent agreement with the theoretical ones, but some dHvA branches with small dHvA frequencies are slightly deviated from the theoretical ones, especially in AuGa2 and AuIn2.

  6. Development of very high J c in Ba(Fe 1-xCo x) 2As 2 thin films grown on CaF 2

    DOE PAGES

    Tarantini, C.; Kametani, F.; Lee, S.; ...

    2014-12-03

    Ba(Fe 1-xCo x) 2As 2 is the most tunable of the Fe-based superconductors (FBS) in terms of acceptance of high densities of self-assembled and artificially introduced pinning centres which are effective in significantly increasing the critical current density, J c. Moreover, FBS are very sensitive to strain, which induces an important enhancement in critical temperature,T c, of the material. In this study we demonstrate that strain induced by the substrate can further improve J c of both single and multilayer films by more than that expected simply due to the increase in T c. The multilayer deposition of Ba(Fe 1-xComore » x) 2As 2 on CaF 2 increases the pinning force density (F p=J c x μ₀H) by more than 60% compared to a single layer film, reaching a maximum of 84 GN/m 3 at 22.5 T and 4.2 K, the highest value ever reported in any 122 phase.« less

  7. High-resolution digital dosimetric system for spatial characterization of radiation fields using a thermoluminescent CaF2:Dy crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Atari, N.A.; Svensson, G.K.

    1986-05-01

    A high-resolution digital dosimetric system has been developed for the spatial characterization of radiation fields. The system comprises the following: 0.5-mm-thick, 25-mm-diam CaF2:Dy thermoluminescent crystal; intensified charge coupled device video camera; video cassette recorder; and a computerized image processing subsystem. The optically flat single crystal is used as a radiation imaging device and the subsequent thermally stimulated phosphorescence is viewed by the intensified camera for further processing and analysis. Parameters governing the performance characteristics of the system were measured. A spatial resolution limit of 31 +/- 2 microns (1 sigma) corresponding to 16 +/- 1 line pairs/mm measured at themore » 4% level of the modulation transfer function has been achieved. The full width at half maximum of the line spread function measured independently by the slit method or derived from the edge response function was found to be 69 +/- 4 microns (1 sigma). The high resolving power, speed of readout, good precision, wide dynamic range, and the large image storage capacity make the system suitable for the digital mapping of the relative distribution of absorbed doses for various small radiation fields and the edges of larger fields.« less

  8. Trace element analysis of synthetic mono- and poly-crystalline CaF 2 by ultraviolet laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at 266 and 193 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J.; Feldmann, I.; Hattendorf, B.; Günther, D.; Engel, U.; Jakubowski, N.; Bolshov, M.; Niemax, K.; Hergenröder, R.

    2002-06-01

    The analytical figures of merit for ultraviolet laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (UV-LA-ICP-MS) at 266 nm with respect to the trace element analysis of high-purity, UV-transmitting alkaline earth halides are investigated and discussed. Ablation threshold energy density values and ablation rates for mono- and poly-crystalline CaF 2 samples were determined. Furthermore, Pb-, Rb-, Sr-, Ba- and Yb-specific analysis was performed. For these purposes, a pulsed Nd:YAG laser operated at the fourth harmonic of the fundamental wavelength (λ=266 nm) and a double-focusing sector field ICP-MS detector were employed. Depending on the background noise and isotope-specific sensitivity, the detection limits typically varied from 0.7 ng/g for Sr to 7 ng/g in the case of Pb. The concentrations were determined using a glass standard reference material (SRM NIST612). In order to demonstrate the sensitivity of the arrangement described, comparative measurements by means of a commercial ablation system consisting of an ArF excimer laser (λ=193 nm) and a quadrupole-type ICP-MS (ICP-QMS) instrument were carried out. The accuracy of both analyses was in good agreement, whereas ablation at 266 nm and detection using sector-field ICP-MS led to a sensitivity that was one order of magnitude above that obtained at 193 nm with ICP-QMS.

  9. Syntheses of Eu-Activated Alkaline Earth Fluoride MF2 (M=Ca, Sr) Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Byung-Chul; Kawano, Katsuyasu

    2007-09-01

    The Eu2+ ion-activated CaF2 and SrF2 nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel technique assisted with the trifluoro-acetic acid (TFA), and were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), photoluminescence excitation (PLE) measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM) observation. A modified reducing method based on the thermal-carbon reducing atmosphere (TCRA) treatment using activated carbon was proposed to realize the effective reduction from Eu3+ to Eu2+ ions, in which the nanoparticles showed a strong and broad luminescence due to the parity allowed 4f7-4f65d1 transition. From the XRD results, it was found that the average particle size proportionally increased in the range of 15 to 120 nm and 10 to 100 nm for CaF2 and SrF2, respectively, with increasing sintering temperatures 300-700 °C. The surface images of nanoparticles obtained by the AFM revealed that the grains with high uniformity grew with increasing TCRA temperatures. It was confirmed that the reduced Eu2+ ions were homogeneously dispersed with the critical distance 16-17 Å in the fluoride nanoparticles from the concentration quenching results.

  10. Streptozotocin Aggravated Osteopathology and Insulin Induced Osteogenesis Through Co-treatment with Fluoride.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Zhang, Mengmeng; Li, Yagang; Wang, Yan; Mao, Weixian; Gao, Yuan; Xu, Hui

    2015-12-01

    The role of insulin in the mechanism underlying the excessive fluoride that causes skeletal lesion was studied. The in vitro bone marrow stem cells (BMSC) collected from Kunming mice were exposed to varying concentrations of fluoride with or without insulin. The cell viability and early differentiation of BMSC co-treated with fluoride and insulin were measured by using cell counting kit-8 and Gomori modified calcium-cobalt method, respectively. We further investigated the in vivo effects of varying dose of fluoride on rats co-treated with streptozotocin (STZ). Wistar rats were divided into six groups which included normal control, 10 mg fluoride/kg day group, 20 mg fluoride/kg day group, STZ control, STZ+10 mg fluoride/kg day group, and STZ+20 mg fluoride/kg day group. The rats were administered with sodium fluoride (NaF) by gavage with water at doses 10 and 20 mg fluoride/kg day for 2 months. In a period of one month, half of rats in every group were treated with streptozotocin (STZ) once through intraperitoneal injection at 52 mg/kg body weight. The serum glucose, HbA1c, and insulin were determined. Bone mineral content and insulin release were assessed. The results showed insulin combined with fluoride stimulated BMSC cell viability in vitro. The bone mineral content reduced in rats treated with higher dose of fluoride and decreased immensely in rat co-treated with fluoride and STZ. Similarly, a combination treatment of a high dose of fluoride and STZ decreased insulin sensitivity and activity. To sum up, these data indicated fluoride influenced insulin release, activity, and sensitivity. Furthermore, the insulin state in vivo interfered in the osteogenesis in turn and implied there was a close relation between insulin and bone pathogenesis in the mechanism of fluoride toxicity.

  11. PRODUCTION OF THORIUM FLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Zachariasen, W.H.

    1959-08-11

    A process is presented for producing anhydrous thorium fluoride comprising the step of contacting a saturated aqueous solution of thorium nitrate with an aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid having a concentration of about 45 to 50% by weight at a temperature above 70 deg C whereby anhydrous thorium fluoride precipitates.

  12. Oral fluoride retention after use of fluoride dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Duckworth, R M; Morgan, S N

    1991-01-01

    Fluoride is the only extensively clinically proven means of reducing dental caries. Despite a large body of epidemiological data on the effectiveness of fluoride, delivered in the form of dentifrices, mouthrinses, drinking water, etc., the precise mode of action of fluoride is not completely understood. The purpose of this paper is to report an investigation of the link between oral fluoride levels and applied fluoride dose from dentifrices. Human salivary fluoride clearance studies and equilibrium baseline studies of fluoride in saliva and plaque have been carried out with dentifrices which contained 1,000, 1,500 and 2,500 micrograms fluoride per gram as sodium monofluorophosphate. After a single brushing with a fluoride dentifrice, salivary fluoride decreased in two distinct phases: an initial rapid phase which lasted for 40-80 min, depending on the individual, and a second slow phase lasting for several hours. The latter phase is believed to be due to fluoride released from an oral fluoride reservoir. During regular repeated use of the test dentifrices, the equilibrium baseline fluoride concentration, attained in both saliva and plaque between one application and the next, increased significantly compared with placebo values. Such elevated baseline fluoride concentrations also increased with increasing Na2FPO3 content of the dentifrices. The present work supports the concept that labile fluoride, stored in an oral fluoride reservoir at the time of treatment application, may maintain a prolonged protective effect against dental caries.

  13. Clinical effectiveness of some fluoride-containing toothpastes*

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Comparisons were made of the clinical effectiveness of two small groups of fluoride-containing toothpastes on the basis of published and unpublished information available to the group. One comparison showed that particular sodium fluoride/silica and stannous fluoride/calcium pyrophosphate formulations were effective in reducing the incidence of dental caries in schoolchildren and that the former toothpaste was more effective than the latter. A separate comparison showed that certain toothpastes containing sodium monofluorophosphate formulated with either an alumina or an insoluble metaphosphate abrasive were also effective in reducing and controlling caries. The group recommended that there was a need for additional field trials in which direct comparisons could be made between a wide variety of formulations, and that further research should be carried out to develop improved formulations. Extension of the use of adequately formulated fluoride-containing toothpastes is recommended as a valuable public health measure to reduce the incidence of dental caries. PMID:6291796

  14. Estimated heats of fusion of fluoride salt mixtures suitable for thermal energy storage applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, A. K.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The heats of fusion of several fluoride salt mixtures with melting points greater than 973 K were estimated from a coupled analysis of the available thermodynamic data and phase diagrams. Simple binary eutectic systems with and without terminal solid solutions, binary eutectics with congruent melting intermediate phases, and ternary eutectic systems were considered. Several combinations of salts were identified, most notable the eutectics LiF-22CaF2 and NaF-60MgF2 which melt at 1039 and 1273 K respectively which posses relatively high heats of fusion/gm (greater than 0.7 kJ/g). Such systems would seemingly be ideal candidates for the light weight, high energy storage media required by the thermal energy storage unit in advanced solar dynamic power systems envisioned for the future space missions.

  15. Novel and easy access to highly luminescent Eu and Tb doped ultra-small CaF2, SrF2 and BaF2 nanoparticles - structure and luminescence.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Benjamin; Haida, Philipp; Fink, Friedrich; Krahl, Thoralf; Gawlitza, Kornelia; Rurack, Knut; Scholz, Gudrun; Kemnitz, Erhard

    2017-02-28

    A universal fast and easy access at room temperature to transparent sols of nanoscopic Eu 3+ and Tb 3+ doped CaF 2 , SrF 2 and BaF 2 particles via the fluorolytic sol-gel synthesis route is presented. Monodisperse quasi-spherical nanoparticles with sizes of 3-20 nm are obtained with up to 40% rare earth doping showing red or green luminescence. In the beginning luminescence quenching effects are only observed for the highest content, which demonstrates the unique and outstanding properties of these materials. From CaF 2 :Eu10 via SrF 2 :Eu10 to BaF 2 :Eu10 a steady increase of the luminescence intensity and lifetime occurs by a factor of ≈2; the photoluminescence quantum yield increases by 29 to 35% due to the lower phonon energy of the matrix. The fast formation process of the particles within fractions of seconds is clearly visualized by exploiting appropriate luminescence processes during the synthesis. Multiply doped particles are also available by this method. Fine tuning of the luminescence properties is achieved by variation of the Ca-to-Sr ratio. Co-doping with Ce 3+ and Tb 3+ results in a huge increase (>50 times) of the green luminescence intensity due to energy transfer Ce 3+ → Tb 3+ . In this case, the luminescence intensity is higher for CaF 2 than for SrF 2 , due to a lower spatial distance of the rare earth ions.

  16. Fluoride intake of infants living in non-fluoridated and fluoridated areas.

    PubMed

    Zohoori, F V; Whaley, G; Moynihan, P J; Maguire, A

    2014-01-01

    Data on fluoride exposure of infants are sparse. This study aimed to estimate total daily fluoride intake (TDFI) of infants aged 1-12 months, living in non-fluoridated and fluoridated areas in north-east England. Daily dietary fluoride intake was assessed using a three-day food diary coupled with analysis of fluoride content of food/drink consumed, using a F-ISE and diffusion method. A questionnaire with an interview was used to collect information on toothbrushing habits. TDFI was estimated from diet, plus fluoride supplements and dentifrice ingestion where used. Thirty-eight infants completed the study; 19 receiving fluoridated water (mean 0.97 mgF/l) and 19 receiving non-fluoridated water (mean 0.19 mgF/l). Mean (SD) TDFI for the infants living in fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas was 0.107 (0.054) and 0.024 (0.015) mg/kg body weight per day, respectively. Diet was the only fluoride source for 87% of infants and none used fluoride supplements. For infants for whom mouth/teeth cleaning was undertaken, dentifrice contribution to TDFI ranged from 24 to 78%. Infants living in fluoridated areas, in general, may receive a fluoride intake, from diet only, of more than the suggested optimal range for TDFI. This emphasises the importance of estimating TDFI at an individual level when recommendations for fluoride use are being considered.

  17. Impact of leather industries on fluoride dynamics in groundwater around a tannery cluster in South India.

    PubMed

    Sajil Kumar, P J

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the controls of leather industries on fluoride contamination in and around a tannery cluster in Vaniyambadi. Hydrochemical analysis, mineral saturation indices and statistical methods were used to evaluate the intervening factors that controls the contamination processes. Fluoride in groundwater is exceeded the WHO guideline value (1.5 mg/L), in 62 % of the samples, mostly with Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl type of water. Results of the principal component analysis grouped Na, F, HCO3 and NO3 under component 1. This result was in agreement with the cross plot indicating high positive correlation between F and Na (r (2)  = 0.87), HCO3 (r (2)  = 0.84) and NO3 (r (2)  = 0.55). Fluorite (CaF2) and Halite (NaCl) was undersaturated, while calcite (CaCO3) was oversaturated for all the samples. This suggest more dissolution of F-rich minerals under the active supports of Na. Bivariate plots of Na versus Cl and Na + K versus HCO3 showed a combined origin of Na from tannery effluent as well as silicate weathering. Two major clusters, based on the Na, HCO3 and F concentration showed that groundwater is affected by tanneries and silicate weathering. Fluoride concentration in 38 % of samples (n = 5) have significantly affected by the high Na concentration from tanneries.

  18. Hydrogeochemie und geogene Fluorid- und Borproblematik des Emschermergels im Münsterland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisotzky, Frank; Droste, Björn; Banning, Andre

    2017-03-01

    The hydrogeochemistry of the Cretaceous Emscher Fm. in northwest Germany was investigated, including analysis of 160 rock samples for carbon and sulfur content. Beneath a weathered zone, unweathered rocks containing pyrite were found. Groundwater data from the Emscher Fm. (580 analyses of house wells and additional literature data) were collected and evaluated. Some groundwater contains high fluoride and boron concentrations of up to 10 mg/l. Regionally, up to 30% of house wells show fluoride concentrations above 1.5 mg/l, and up to 50% above 1 mg/l boron. The spatial distribution depends on the presence of Quaternary cover sediments. Groundwater with high fluoride concentrations displays low Ca2+, and vice versa, indicating equilibrium with the mineral fluorite (CaF2). Concentrations above drinking water guidelines almost exclusively occur in ion exchange waters of the Na-HCO3 -(Cl) type with pH > 7.5. The main mobilization mechanism of both contaminants appears to be pH-triggered desorption from mineral surfaces.

  19. Effect of home-used water purifier on fluoride concentration of drinking water in southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Kheirmand, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fluoride in drinking water plays a key role in dental health. Due to the increasing use of water-purifier, the effect of these devices on fluoride concentration of drinking water was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Drinking water samples were collected before and after passing through a home water-purifier, from four different water sources. The fluoride, calcium and magnesium concentration of the samples were measured using the quantitative spectrophotometery technique. Data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon test. P value < 0.1 was considered as significant. Results: The result showed that the concentration of fluoride was 0.05-0.61 ppm before purification and was removed completely afterward. Furthermore, other ions reduced significantly after treatment by the water purifier. Conclusion: This study revealed that this device decreases the fluoride content of water, an issue which should be considered in low and high-fluoridated water sources. PMID:24130584

  20. Other Fluoride Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... and School-Linked Dental Sealant Programs Coordinate Community Water Fluoridation Programs Targeted Clinical Preventive Services & Health Systems Changes State Oral Health Plans Research & Publications Oral Health In America: Summary of the ...

  1. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    MedlinePlus

    ... and School-Linked Dental Sealant Programs Coordinate Community Water Fluoridation Programs Targeted Clinical Preventive Services & Health Systems Changes State Oral Health Plans Research & Publications Oral Health In America: Summary of the ...

  2. How Does Fluoride Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... when teeth are growing, it mixes with tooth enamel — that hard coating on your teeth. That prevents ... formed. It works with saliva to protect tooth enamel from plaque and sugars. By using fluoride toothpaste, ...

  3. Fluoride in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... broken through the gums have changes in the enamel that covers the teeth. Faint white lines or ... regarding fluoride intake from reconstituted infant formula and enamel fluorosis: a report of the American Dental Association ...

  4. Fluoride toothpastes and fluoride mouthrinses for home use.

    PubMed

    Rugg-Gunn, Andrew; Bánóczy, Jolán

    2013-11-01

    To provide a brief commentary review of fluoride-containing toothpastes and mouthrinses with emphasis on their use at home. Toothpastes and mouthrinses are just two of many ways of providing fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. The first investigations into incorporating fluoride into toothpastes and mouthrinses were reported in the middle 1940s. Unlike water fluoridation (which is 'automatic fluoridation'), fluoride-containing toothpastes and fluoridecontaining mouthrinses are, primarily, for home use and need to be purchased by the individual. By the 1960s, research indicated that fluoride could be successfully incorporated into toothpastes and clinical trials demonstrated their effectiveness. By the end of the 1970s, almost all toothpastes contained fluoride. The widespread use of fluoride- containing toothpastes is thought to be the main reason for much improved oral health in many countries. Of the many fluoride compounds investigated, sodium fluoride, with a compatible abrasive, is the most popular, although amine fluorides are used widely in Europe. The situation is similar for mouthrinses. Concentrations of fluoride (F), commonly found, are 1500 ppm (1500 μg F/g) for toothpastes and 225 ppm (225 μg F/ml) for mouthrinse. Several systematic reviews have concluded that fluoride-containing toothpastes and mouthrinses are effective, and that there is added benefit from their use with other fluoride delivery methods such as water fluoridation. Guidelines for the appropriate use of fluoride toothpastes and mouthrinses are available in many countries. Fluoride toothpastes and mouthrinses have been developed and extensive testing has demonstrated that they are effective and their use should be encouraged. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  5. Fluoride glass compositions

    SciTech Connect

    El-Bayoumi, O.

    1983-08-09

    This invention relates to Fluoride-based glasses that exhibit a high degree of transparency throughout the near ultraviolet visible and mid infrared portions of the spectrum. The glasses are composed of MgF2 and ZnF2 as essential compositional ingredients together with at least two other metallic fluorides from the group of YbF3, ThF4, PbF2, A1F3 and MnF2.

  6. Biogeochemistry of fluoride in a plant-solution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Grossl, P. R.; Bugbee, B. G.

    2003-01-01

    Fluoride (F-) pollutants can harm plants and the animals feeding on them. However, it is largely unknown how complexing and chelating agents affect F bioavailability. Two studies were conducted that measured F- bioavailability and uptake by rice (Oryza sativa L.). In the first study, rice was grown in solution culture (pH 5.0) with 0, 2, or 4 mM F- as KF to compare the interaction of F- with humic acid (HA) and with a conventional chelating agent, N-hydroxyethylenthylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA). In the second study, F was supplied at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM KF with an additional 2 mM F- treatment containing solution Ca at 2x (2 mM Ca) the level used in the first study, to test the effect added Ca had on F- availability and uptake. Total biomass was greatest with HEDTA and F- < 1 mM. Leaf and stem F concentrations increased exponentially as solution F- increased linearly, with nearly no F partitioning into the seed. Results suggest that F was taken up as HF0 while F- uptake was likely restricted. Additionally, F- competed with HA for Ca, thus preventing the formation of Ca-HA flocculents. The addition of soluble Ca resulted in the precipitation of CaF2 solids on the root surface, as determined by tissue analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  7. The influence of salivary variables on fluoride retention in dental plaque exposed to a mineral-enriching solution.

    PubMed

    Kato, K; Nakagaki, H; Arai, K; Pearce, E I F

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine interindividual differences in salivary variables related to plaque accumulation and to estimate their influence on the fluoride retention in plaque in vivo by a mineral-enriching solution. Two saliva samples were taken from 10 subjects, once after brushing and once after 24 h without brushing. Calcium, phosphate and monofluorophosphatase (MFPase) activity in the saliva samples were determined. The salivary flow rate and the debris index were also recorded. After plaque had formed over 3 days within in situ plaque-generating devices, subjects were instructed to rinse with a mineral-enriching mouthrinse three times a day on 4 consecutive days. Plaque exposed to distilled water plus flavoring agents served as a control. Fluoride-free dentifrice was used during the experimental period. Twenty-four hours after the last rinsing, the samples were removed from the mouth, and fluoride and mineral distributions in plaque analyzed using a method previously reported by the authors. Salivary flow, MFPase activity and calcium concentration in saliva were significantly higher after 24 h of plaque accumulation. Rinsing with the mineral-enriching solution produced retention of fluoride and phosphate in the outer and middle layers of plaque. Salivary calcium concentration had a direct effect on fluoride uptake in plaque, but no obvious relationship was found between other salivary variables and the plaque fluoride retention. The salivary calcium effect may be due to enhanced bacterial cell wall binding of fluoride via calcium bridging. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Phosphate reduction in a hydroxyapatite fluoride removal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egner, A.

    2012-12-01

    Fluorosis is a widespread disease that occurs as a result of excess fluoride consumption and can cause severe tooth and bone deformations. To combat fluorosis, several previous studies have examined the potential to replace traditional bone char filters with synthetic hydroxyapatite. Calcite particles with a synthetic hydroxyapatite coating have been shown to effectively removed fluoride, yet the low-cost method for forming these particles leaves high amounts of phosphate both in synthesis waste-water and in filter effluent. High phosphate in filter effluent is problematic because consumption of extremely high phosphate can leach calcium from bones, further exacerbating the fluoride effect. This study examines ways of reducing and reusing waste. In particular, a method of fluoride removal is explored in which fluorapatite coatings may be formed directly. In preliminary studies, batches of 4.1g of Florida limestone (<710 μm) were equilibrated with 100 mL of 10ppm fluoride. In a control batch containing lime but no added phosphate, 14% treatment was achieved, but with added phosphate, 100% treatment was achieved in all batches. Batches with lower levels of phosphate took longer to reach 100% treatment, ranging from less than 24 hours in the highest phosphate batches to approximately 42 hours in the lowest batches. The lower levels tested were well within reasonable levels for drinking water and reached 0ppm fluoride in 42 hours or less.

  9. Synthesis and the luminescent properties of the Nd3+ ions doped three kinds of fluoride nanocrystals in organic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhuo; Tian, Changyong; Bo, Shuhui; Liu, Xinhou; Zhen, Zhen

    2015-10-01

    Oleic acid (OA)-modified LaF3:Nd, NaYF4:Nd and CaF2:Nd nanocrystals (NCs) with the different Nd3+ ion concentration (2% and 5%) have been prepared. The structure and morphology of NCs were identified by XRD, TEM, FT-IR and TGA. The size of OA-modified NC is a mean diameter of 5-10 nm and can be dispersed in common organic solvents to form a transparent solution. The optical loss of NCs in organic solvent is the first time to discuss in this work. The luminescence properties of NCs were also characterized and studied by fluorescence spectrometer. The nanoparticles in solid and in the solution all exhibited the strong emission at the 1060 nm when the materials were excited around 800 nm. Compared with the LaF3 and CaF2 matrix, NaYF4 as the host can protect the Nd3+ ions more efficiently away from the nonradiative transitions. The longest luminescent lifetime of the solid NaYF4:2%Nd NCs was up to 136 μs, and the little difference of the fluorescence lifetime existed between the NCs in solid state and in solution. The low optical loss in organic solvent indicated that the Nd3+ ions-doped fluoride NCs are promising materials for optical amplification fields.

  10. Calcium Carbonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Maalox® (as a combination product containing Calcium Carbonate, Simethicone) ... Relief (as a combination product containing Calcium Carbonate, Simethicone) ... Plus (as a combination product containing Calcium Carbonate, Simethicone)

  11. An attempt to apply the inelastic thermal spike model to surface modifications of CaF2 induced by highly charged ions: comparison to swift heavy ions effects and extension to some others material.

    PubMed

    Dufour, C; Khomrenkov, V; Wang, Y Y; Wang, Z G; Aumayr, F; Toulemonde, M

    2017-03-08

    Surface damage appears on materials irradiated by highly charged ions (HCI). Since a direct link has been found between surface damage created by HCI with the one created by swift heavy ions (SHI), the inelastic thermal spike model (i-TS model) developed to explain track creation resulting from the electron excitation induced by SHI can also be applied to describe the response of materials under HCI which transfers its potential energy to electrons of the target. An experimental description of the appearance of the hillock-like nanoscale protrusions induced by SHI at the surface of CaF 2 is presented in comparison with track formation in bulk which shows that the only parameter on which we can be confident is the electronic energy loss threshold. Track size and electronic energy loss threshold resulting from SHI irradiation of CaF 2 is described by the i-TS model in a 2D geometry. Based on this description the i-TS model is extended to three dimensions to describe the potential threshold of appearance of protrusions by HCI in CaF 2 and to other crystalline materials (LiF, crystalline SiO 2 , mica, LiNbO 3 , SrTiO 3 , ZnO, TiO 2 , HOPG). The strength of the electron-phonon coupling and the depth in which the potential energy is deposited near the surface combined with the energy necessary to melt the material defines the classification of the material sensitivity. As done for SHI, the band gap of the material may play an important role in the determination of the depth in which the potential energy is deposited. Moreover larger is the initial potential energy and larger is the depth in which it is deposited.

  12. Formation of hydroxyapatite onto glasses of the CaO-MgO-SiO2 system with B2O3, Na2O, CaF2 and P2O5 additives.

    PubMed

    Agathopoulos, S; Tulyaganov, D U; Ventura, J M G; Kannan, S; Karakassides, M A; Ferreira, J M F

    2006-03-01

    New bioactive glasses with compositions based on the CaO-MgO-SiO(2) system and additives of B(2)O(3), P(2)O(5), Na(2)O, and CaF(2) were prepared. The in vitro mineralization behaviour was tested by immersion of powders or bulk glasses in simulated body fluid (SBF). Monitoring of ionic concentrations in SBF and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations at the surface of the glasses were conducted over immersion time. Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy shed light on the structural evolution occurring at the surface of the glasses that leads to formation of hydroxyapatite.

  13. MOLTEN FLUORIDE NUCLEAR REACTOR FUEL

    DOEpatents

    Barton, C.J.; Grimes, W.R.

    1960-01-01

    Molten-salt reactor fuel compositions consisting of mixtures of fluoride salts are reported. In its broadest form, the composition contains an alkali fluoride such as sodium fluoride, zirconium tetrafluoride, and a uranium fluoride, the latter being the tetrafluoride or trifluoride or a mixture of the two. An outstanding property of these fuel compositions is a high coeffieient of thermal expansion which provides a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity in reactors in which they are used.

  14. Effect of trimetaphosphate and fluoride association on hydroxyapatite dissolution and precipitation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Souza, José Antonio Santos; Zaze, Ana Carolina Soares Fraga; Takeshita, Eliana Mitsue; Sassaki, Kikue Takebayashi; Moraes, João Carlos Silos

    2014-01-01

    The present study analyzed the action of sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) and/or fluoride on hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite powder was suspended in different solutions: deionized water, 500 µg F/mL, 1,100 µg F/mL, 1%TMP, 3%TMP, 500 µg F/mL plus 1%TMP and 500 µg F/mL plus 3%TMP. The pH value of the solutions was reduced to 4.0 and after 30 min, raised to 7.0 (three times). After pH-cycling, the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The concentrations of calcium fluoride, fluoride, calcium and phosphorus were also determined. Adding 1% or 3% TMP to the solution containing 500 µg F/mL produced a higher quantity of calcium fluoride compared to samples prepared in a 1,100 µg F/mL solution. Regarding the calcium concentration, samples prepared in solutions of 1,100 µg F/mL and 500 µg F/mL plus TMP were statistically similar and showed higher values. Using solutions of 1,100 µg F/mL and 500 µg F/mL plus TMP resulted in a calcium/phosphorus ratio close to that of hydroxyapatite. It is concluded that the association of TMP and fluoride favored the precipitation of a more stable hydroxyapatite.

  15. Oral fluoride reservoirs and the prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Gerald Lee

    2011-01-01

    Current models for increasing the anti-caries effects of fluoride (F) agents emphasize the importance of maintaining a cariostatic concentration of F in oral fluids. The concentration of F in oral fluids is maintained by the release of this ion from bioavailable reservoirs on the teeth, oral mucosa and - most importantly, because of its association with the caries process - dental plaque. Oral F reservoirs appear to be of two types: (1) mineral reservoirs, in particular calcium fluoride or phosphate-contaminated 'calcium-fluoride-like' deposits; (2) biological reservoirs, in particular (with regard to dental plaque) F held to bacteria or bacterial fragments via calcium-fluoride bonds. The fact that all these reservoirs are mediated by calcium implies that their formation is limited by the low concentration of calcium in oral fluids. By using novel procedures which overcome this limitation, the formation of these F reservoirs after topical F application can be greatly increased. Although these increases are associated with substantive increases in salivary and plaque fluid F, and hence a potential increase in cariostatic effect, it is unclear if such changes are related to the increases in the amount of these reservoirs, or changes in the types of F deposits formed. New techniques have been developed for identifying and quantifying these deposits which should prove useful in developing agents that enhance formation of oral F reservoirs with optimum F release characteristics. Such research offers the prospect of decreasing the F content of topical agents while simultaneously increasing their cariostatic effect. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Fluoride release from fluoride varnishes under acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Lippert, F

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the in vitro fluoride release from fluoride varnishes under acidic conditions. Poly(methyl methacrylate) blocks (Perspex, n=3 per group) were painted with 80 ± 5 mg fluoride varnish (n=10) and placed into artificial saliva for 30 min. Then, blocks were placed into either 1% citric acid (pH 2.27) or 0.3% citric acid (pH 3.75) solutions (n=3 per solution and varnish) for 30 min with the solutions being replaced every 5 min. Saliva and acid solutions were analyzed for fluoride content. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA (varnish, solution, time). The three-way interaction was significant (p>0.0001). Fluoride release and release patterns varied considerably between varnishes. Fluoride release in saliva varied by a factor of more than 10 between varnishes. Some varnishes (CavityShield, Nupro, ProFluorid, Vanish) showed higher fluoride release in saliva than during the first 5 min of acid exposure, whereas other varnishes (Acclean, Enamel-Pro, MI Varnish, Vella) showed the opposite behavior. There was little difference between acidic solutions. Fluoride release from fluoride varnishes varies considerably and also depends on the dissolution medium. Bearing in mind the limitations of laboratory research, the consumption of acidic drinks after fluoride varnish application should be avoided to optimize the benefit/risk ratio.

  17. Small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists.

    PubMed

    Nelson, James W; Plummer, Mark S; Blount, Kenneth F; Ames, Tyler D; Breaker, Ronald R

    2015-04-23

    Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here, we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Small Molecule Fluoride Toxicity Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Nelson1, James W.; Plummer, Mark S.; Blount, Kenneth F.; Ames, Tyler D.; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch-reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride. PMID:25910244

  19. Ferrimyoglobin-Fluoride.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Steven O.; Hanania, George I. H.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an experiment which is designed to investigate the reaction of the protein ferrimyoglobin with fluoride. The activity uses readily available apparatus and the technique of optical absorbance for measurement of concentrations. Experimental design, procedures, and treatment of the equilibrium data are detailed. (CW)

  20. Fluorine (soluble fluoride)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Fluorine ( soluble fluoride ) ; CASRN 7782 - 41 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  1. Fluoride-dependent formation of mineralized layers in bovine dentin during demineralization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Damen, J J; Buijs, M J; ten Cate, J M

    1998-01-01

    Demineralization of dentin in the presence of fluoride produces lesions with a mineralized surface layer which becomes thicker and more mineralized with higher fluoride concentrations whereas the lesion depth is hardly affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the time of fluoride treatment and the amount of fluoride taken up on the properties of the mineralized layer. Discs of bovine dentin embedded in methylmethacrylate with one surface exposed were demineralized in 50 mM acetic acid, 2.2 mM CaCl2, 2.2 mM KH2PO4, pH 5.0. At the start and/or later during the demineralization period, the specimens were incubated individually for 1 or 2 days in 10 ml of the same demineralization solution supplemented with 0.5, 2.0 or 5.0 ppm fluoride, which was then assessed for changes in calcium and fluoride concentrations. After 2, 5 and 8 days, specimens were sectioned for microradiographic analysis so as to follow development of the lesions and the mineralized layers. The results were the following: While demineralization with fluoride present at the first day led to the formation of a surface layer, fluoride present only at a later day produced a subsurface layer, not at the lesion front but closer to the surface. This layer resulted from (re)precipitation and not from preservation of the original mineral. The 'integrated mineral content' of the surface layer increased linearly with the uptake of fluoride, which resulted in an apparent fluorapatite content of about 20 vol%. The profiles of the surface layers remained unchanged during continued demineralization in the absence of fluoride. It was concluded that in the presence of fluoride mineral loss is reduced as a result of the reprecipitation of dissolved mineral ions as a layer of fluoride-enriched apatite. This layer does not offer protection of underlying dentin against continued demineralization.

  2. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 1-2-612 Nuclear Environment Survivability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-24

    measurements. The area equal to the area of gamma dose sensitive electronics will be mapped using CaF2 (Mn) TLDs . The selection of each STT...October 2008 8 2.3.3 HEMP / SREMP Instrumentation / Dosimetry . Measurement Parameter Preferred Device Measurement Accuracy Current...Calcium Fluoride Manganese CaF2 (Mn) Thermoluminescent Dosimeter ( TLDs ) and Compton diodes, respectively. The measured gamma dose values will be

  3. Salt fluoridation and oral health.

    PubMed

    Marthaler, Thomas M

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to make known the potential of fluoridated salt in community oral health programs, particularly in South Eastern Europe. Since 1922, the addition of iodine to salt has been successful in Switzerland. Goiter is virtually extinct. By 1945, the caries-protective effect of fluorides was well established. Based on the success of water fluoridation, a gynecologist started adding of fluoride to salt. The sale of fluoridated salt began in 1956 in the Swiss Canton of Zurich, and several other cantons followed suit. Studies initiated in the early seventies showed that fluoride, when added to salt, inhibits dental caries. The addition of fluoride to salt for human consumption was officially authorized in 1980-82. In Switzerland 85% of domestic salt consumed is fluoridated and 67% in Germany. Salt fluoridation schemes are reaching more than one hundred million in Mexico, Colombia, Peru and Cuba. The cost of salt fluoridation is very low, within 0.02 and 0.05 € per year and capita. Children and adults of the low socio-economic strata tend to have substantially more untreated caries than higher strata. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method for improving oral health. Salt fluoridation has cariostatic potential like water fluoridation (caries reductions up to 50%). In Europe, meaningful percentages of users have been attained only in Germany (67%) and Switzerland (85%). In Latin America, there are more than 100 million users, and several countries have arrived at coverage of 90 to 99%. Salt fluoridation is by far the cheapest method of caries prevention, and billions of people throughout the world could benefit from this method. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  4. Hydrothermal fluoride and chloride complexation of indium: an EXAFS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loges, Anselm; Testemale, Denis; Huotari, Simo; Honkanen, Ari-Pekka; Potapkin, Vasily; Wagner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Indium (In) is one of the geochemically lesser studied ore metals, and the factors that control the hydrothermal transport and deposition are largely unknown. It has no ore deposits of its own and is commonly mined as a by-product of Zn ores, and there are very few minerals that contain In as an essential structural component. Recently, industrial application of In in touch screen devices has drastically increased demand, which is projected to exceed supply from the current sources in the near future. Since the most relevant In sources are hydrothermal sphalerite ores and to a lesser extent hydrothermal greisen-type deposits in evolved granitic plutons, the aqueous geochemistry of In is of particular interest for understanding its ore forming processes. As a first step towards a comprehensive model for hydrothermal In solubility and speciation, we have studied In speciation in fluoride and chloride bearing solutions at 30-400˚ C and 500 bar using X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) measurements. The experiments were conducted in a unique hydrothermal autoclave setup at beamline BM30B-FAME at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. Our results show that the complexation of In changes dramatically between 30 and 400˚ C. Below ca. 200˚ C, fluoride complexes are the most stable ones, but they break down at higher temperatures. Chloride complexes on the other hand become increasingly stable with increasing temperature. This behavior has interesting consequences for natural ore forming systems. In Cl-rich systems (e.g. massive sulfide ores formed in sea floor environments), cooling can be an effective precipitating mechanism. In F-rich systems, fluoride complexation can extend In mobility to low temperatures and In will only precipitate when F is effectively removed from the fluid, e.g. by mixing with a Ca-rich fluid and precipitation of fluorite (CaF2) as is commonly observed in skarn or greisen-type deposits. Due to In complexing with

  5. Health Effects Associated with Water Fluoridation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Virginia L.

    1979-01-01

    Discussion is presented concerning fluoridation of water supplies. Correlation between fluoride in drinking water and improved dental health is reviewed. Relationship is expressed between fluoridation and reduced tooth decay. Use of fluoride in treating skeletal disorders is discussed. Author advocates fluoridating water supplies. (SA)

  6. Water fluoridation and oral health.

    PubMed

    Harding, Máiréad Antoinette; O'Mullane, Denis Martin

    2013-11-01

    Water fluoridation, is the controlled addition of fluoride to the water supply, with the aim of reducing the prevalence of dental caries. Current estimates suggest that approximately 370 million people in 27 countries consume fluoridated water, with an additional 50 million consuming water in which fluoride is naturally occurring. A pre-eruptive effect of fluoride exists in reducing caries levels in pit and fissure surfaces of permanent teeth and fluoride concentrated in plaque and saliva inhibits the demineralisation of sound enamel and enhances the remineralisation of demineralised enamel. A large number of studies conducted worldwide demonstrate the effectiveness of water fluoridation. Objections to water fluoridation have been raised since its inception and centre mainly on safety and autonomy. Systematic reviews of the safety and efficacy of water fluoridation attest to its safety and efficacy; dental fluorosis identified as the only adverse outcome. Water fluoridation is an effective safe means of preventing dental caries, reaching all populations, irrespective of the presence of other dental services. Regular monitoring of dental caries and fluorosis is essential particularly with the lifelong challenge which dental caries presents. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  7. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; McKenzie, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

  8. Contemporary biological markers of exposure to fluoride.

    PubMed

    Rugg-Gunn, Andrew John; Villa, Alberto Enrique; Buzalaf, Marília Rabelo Afonso

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary biological markers assess present, or very recent, exposure to fluoride: fluoride concentrations in blood, bone surface, saliva, milk, sweat and urine have been considered. A number of studies relating fluoride concentration in plasma to fluoride dose have been published, but at present there are insufficient data on plasma fluoride concentrations across various age groups to determine the 'usual' concentrations. Although bone contains 99% of the body burden of fluoride, attention has focused on the bone surface as a potential marker of contemporary fluoride exposure. From rather limited data, the ratio surface-to-interior concentration of fluoride may be preferred to whole bone fluoride concentration. Fluoride concentrations in the parotid and submandibular/sublingual ductal saliva follow the plasma fluoride concentration, although at a lower concentration. At present, there are insufficient data to establish a normal range of fluoride concentrations in ductal saliva as a basis for recommending saliva as a marker of fluoride exposure. Sweat and human milk are unsuitable as markers of fluoride exposure. A proportion of ingested fluoride is excreted in urine. Plots of daily urinary fluoride excretion against total daily fluoride intake suggest that daily urinary fluoride excretion is suitable for predicting fluoride intake for groups of people, but not for individuals. While fluoride concentrations in plasma, saliva and urine have some ability to predict fluoride exposure, present data are insufficient to recommend utilizing fluoride concentrations in these body fluids as biomarkers of contemporary fluoride exposure for individuals. Daily fluoride excretion in urine can be considered a useful biomarker of contemporary fluoride exposure for groups of people, and normal values have been published. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Comparison of Fluoridated Miswak and Toothbrushing with Fluoridated Toothpaste on Plaque Removal and Fluoride Release.

    PubMed

    Baeshen, Hosam; Salahuddin, Sabin; Dam, Robel; Zawawi, Khalid H; Birkhed, Dowen

    2017-04-01

    Dental caries and periodontal diseases are all induced by oral biofilm (dental plaque). This study was conducted to evaluate if fluoride-impregnated miswak is as effective in plaque removal and fluoride release as toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste. This single-blind, randomized, crossover study was conducted at the Department of Cariology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, from February 2010 to January 2011. Fifteen healthy subjects participated in this study. The participants were instructed to use the following: (1) 0.5% NaF-impregnated miswak, (2) nonfluoridated miswak, (3) toothbrush with nonfluoride toothpaste, and (4) toothbrush with 1450 ppm fluoride toothpaste. Each method was used twice a day for 1 week after which plaque amount and fluoride concentration in resting saliva were measured. There was a 1-week washout period between each method. No significant difference between miswak and tooth-brushing was found regarding plaque removal on buccal and lingual surfaces. A somewhat higher fluoride concentration in resting saliva was found after using impregnated miswak when compared with toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste (p < 0.05). Miswak and toothbrushing showed the same plaque removing effect on buccal and lingual surfaces. Miswak impregnated with 0.5% NaF resulted in a higher concentration of fluoride in saliva than brushing with 1450 ppm fluoride toothpaste. Miswak impregnated with 0.5% NaF and toothbrushing results in comparable plaque removal and about the same fluoride concentration in saliva even it was somewhat higher for impregnated miswak.

  10. Physiology and toxicity of fluoride.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Vineet; Bhatnagar, Maheep

    2009-01-01

    Fluoride has been described as an essential element needed for normal development and growth of animals and extremely useful for human beings. Fluoride is abundant in the environment and the main source of fluoride to humans is drinking water. It has been proved to be beneficial in recommended doses, and at the same time its toxicity at higher levels has also been well established. Fluoride gets accumulated in hard tissues of the body and has been know to play an important role in mineralization of bone and teeth. At high levels it has been known to cause dental and skeletal fluorosis. There are suggested effects of very high levels of fluoride on various body organs and genetic material. The purpose of this paper is to review the various aspects of fluoride and its importance in human life.

  11. Calcium - ionized

    MedlinePlus

    ... diuretics Thrombocytosis (high platelet count) Tumors Vitamin A excess Vitamin D excess Lower-than-normal levels may be due to: Hypoparathyroidism Malabsorption Osteomalacia Pancreatitis Renal failure Rickets Vitamin D deficiency Alternative Names Free calcium; Ionized calcium ...

  12. [Water fluoridation and public health].

    PubMed

    Barak, Shlomo

    2003-11-01

    Fluoridation in Israel was first mooted in 1973 and finally incorporated into law in November 2002 obligating the Ministry of Health to add fluoride to the nation's water supply. Epidemiology studies in the USA have shown that the addition of one part per million of fluoride to the drinking water reduced the caries rate of children's teeth by 50% to 60% with no side effects. Both the WHO in 1994 and the American Surgeon General's report of 2000 declared that fluoridation of drinking water was the safest and most efficient way of preventing dental caries in all age groups and populations. Opposition to fluoridation has arisen from "antifluoridation" groups who object to the "pollution" of drinking water by the addition of chemicals and mass medication in violation of the "Patient's Rights" law and the Basic Law of Human Dignity and Liberty. A higher prevalence of hip fractures in elderly osteoporotic women and osteosarcoma in teenagers has been reported in areas where excess fluoride exists in the drinking water. However, none of the many independent professional committees reviewing the negative aspects of fluoridation have found any scientific evidence associating fluoridation with any ill-effects or health problems. In Israel, where dental treatment is not included in the basket of Health Services, fluoridation is the most efficient and cheapest way of reducing dental disease, especially for the poorer members of the population.

  13. Cross sections for He and Ne isotopes in natural Mg, Al, and Si, He isotopes in CaF2, Ar isotopes in natural Ca, and radionuclides in natural Al, Si, Ti, Cr, and stainless steel induced by 12- to 45-MeV protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J. R.; Heymann, D.; Yaniv, A.; Edgerley, D.; Rowe, M. W.

    1976-01-01

    Stacks of thin Mg, Al, Si, Ca, CaF2, Ti, and stainless steel foils were bombarded in twelve irradiations by a variable energy cyclotron. Cross sections are reported for He and Ne in natural Mg, Al, and Si, and for He in CaF2, and for Ar in natural Ca, as determined from mass spectrometer analysis of the inert gases. In addition, cross sections of Na-22 in natural Al and Si, of V-48 in natural Ti, and of Cr-51, Mn-52, and Co-57 in stainless steel are reported. From these were deduced Cr-51 and Mn-52 cross sections in natural Cr.

  14. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    Urinary Ca+2; Kidney stones - calcium in urine; Renal calculi - calcium in your urine; Parathyroid - calcium in urine ... A 24-hour urine sample is most often needed: On day 1, urinate into the toilet when you wake up in the morning. ...

  15. Synthesis, bioactivity and preliminary biocompatibility studies of glasses in the system CaO-MgO-SiO2-Na2O-P2O5-CaF2.

    PubMed

    Tulyaganov, D U; Agathopoulos, S; Valerio, P; Balamurugan, A; Saranti, A; Karakassides, M A; Ferreira, J M F

    2011-02-01

    New compositions of bioactive glasses are proposed in the CaO-MgO-SiO(2)-Na(2)O-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) system. Mineralization tests with immersion of the investigated glasses in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37°C showed that the glasses favour the surface formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) from the early stages of the experiments. In the case of daily renewable SBF, monetite (CaHPO(4)) formation competed with the formation of HA. The influence of structural features of the glasses on their mineralization (bioactivity) performance is discussed. Preliminary in vitro experiments with osteoblasts' cell-cultures showed that the glasses are biocompatible and there is no evidence of toxicity. Sintering and devitrification studies of glass powder compacts were also performed. Glass-ceramics with attractive properties were obtained after heat treatment of the glasses at relatively low temperatures (up to 850°C).

  16. Application of CaCO3, CaF2, SiO2, and TiO2 particles to silicone lens for enhancing angular color uniformity of white LED lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Anh Q. D.; Nguyen, Vinh H.

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we present an insightful investigation on optimal selection of scattering enhancement particles (SEP) to satisfy each specific optical property of white LEDs (WLEDs). The interested contenders include CaCO3, CaF2, SiO2, and TiO2, each of them is added with YAG:Ce phosphor compounding. The quality improvement on each considered property is demonstrated convincingly by applying Mie-scattering theory together with Monte Carlo simulation on a particular WLEDs which has the color temperature of 8500K. It is observed by simulation results that TiO2 particles provide the highest color uniformity among the SEP, as increasing TiO2 concentration. These results of this work can serve as a practical guideline for manufacturing high-quality WLEDs.

  17. Whole-Saliva Fluoride Levels and Saturation Indices in 65+ Elderly during Use of Four Different Toothpaste Regimens.

    PubMed

    Ekstrand, Kim Rud; Ekstrand, Mia Linding; Lykkeaa, Joan; Bardow, Allan; Twetman, Svante

    2015-01-01

    Elderly individuals suffering from subnormal saliva secretion combined with inadequate oral hygiene may develop rampant caries and caries in parts of the dentition not normally affected by caries if preventive measures are not undertaken. Such measures include elevating fluoride levels at the saliva/biofilm/tooth interface. To analyse whole-saliva fluoride levels and mineral saturation indices during different fluoride toothpaste regimens in home-living elderly. Whole saliva was collected from 27 subjects (7 males and 20 females, mean age 73.5±6.1 years) at ten time points covering the whole day during five 2-week periods. During the first period, participants used their normal toothpaste without instructions (baseline). This was followed by TP1: 1,450-ppm NaF toothpaste; TP2: 1,450-ppm monofluorophosphate (MFP) toothpaste with addition of calcium; TP3: 5,000-ppm NaF toothpaste, and TP4: the same toothpaste with additional 'smearing' of toothpaste on the teeth, twice daily. During TP1-TP4, the participants were instructed to brush 3 times per day using 1.5 g of toothpaste without rinsing. Salivary fluoride levels increased with toothpaste fluoride content (p<0.001), although major interindividual and intraindividual variations were observed. The highest fluoride values appeared in the morning and at night (p<0.001). Saturation indices for calcium fluoride were affected by the fluoride content in pastes (p<0.05). Concerning hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite, indices were highest with the MFP toothpaste and extra calcium (NS to p<0.05). Use of a high-fluoride toothpaste resulted in significantly increased fluoride levels in whole saliva and mineral saturation indices were indeed influenced by choice of toothpaste. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Method of repressing the precipitation of calcium fluozirconate

    DOEpatents

    Newby, B.J.; Rhodes, D.W.

    1973-12-25

    Boric acid or a borate salt is added to aqueous solutions of fluoride containing radioactive wastes generated during the reprocessing of zirconium alloy nuclear fuels which are to be converted to solid form by calcining in a fluidized bed. The addition of calcium nitrate to the aqueous waste solutions to prevent fluoride volatility during calcination, causes the precipitation of calcium fluozirconate, which tends to form a gel at fluoride concentrations of 3.0 M or greater. The boron containing species introduced into the solution by the addition of the boric acid or borate salt retard the formation of the calcium fluozirconate precipitate and prevent formation of the gel. These boron containing species can be introduced into the solution by the addition of a borate salt but preferably are introduced by the addition of an aqueous solution of boric acid. (Official Gazette)

  19. Characterisation of slab waveguides, fabricated in CaF2 and Er-doped tungsten-tellurite glass by MeV energy N+ ion implantation, using spectroscopic ellipsometry and m-line spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bányász, I.; Berneschi, S.; Lohner, T.; Fried, M.; Petrik, P.; Khanh, N. Q.; Zolnai, Z.; Watterich, A.; Bettinelli, M.; Brenci, M.; Nunzi-Conti, G.; Pelli, S.; Righini, G. C.; Speghini, A.

    2010-05-01

    Slab waveguides were fabricated in Er-doped tungsten-tellurite glass and CaF2 crystal samples via ion implantation. Waveguides were fabricated by implantation of MeV energy N+ ions at the Van de Graaff accelerator of the Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest, Hungary. Part of the samples was annealed. Implantations were carried out at energies of 1.5 MeV (tungsten-tellurite glass) and 3.5 MeV (CaF2). The implanted doses were between 5 x 1012 and 8 x 1016 ions/cm2. Refractive index profile of the waveguides was measured using SOPRA ES4G and Woollam M-2000DI spectroscopic ellipsometers at the Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Budapest. Functionality of the waveguides was tested using a home-made instrument (COMPASSO), based on m-line spectroscopy and prism coupling technique, which was developed at the Materials and Photonics Devices Laboratory (MDF Lab.) of the Institute of Applied Physics in Sesto Fiorentino, Italy. Results of both types of measurements were compared to depth distributions of nuclear damage in the samples, calculated by SRIM 2007 code. Thicknesses of the guiding layer and of the implanted barrier obtained by spectroscopic ellipsometry correspond well to SRIM simulations. Irradiationinduced refractive index modulation saturated around a dose of 8 x 1016 ions/cm2 in tungsten-tellurite glass. Annealing of the implanted waveguides resulted in a reduction of the propagation loss, but also reduced the number of supported guiding modes at the lower doses. We report on the first working waveguides fabricated in an alkali earth halide crystal implanted by MeV energy medium-mass ions.

  20. Water fluoridation and osteoporotic fracture.

    PubMed

    Hillier, S; Inskip, H; Coggon, D; Cooper, C

    1996-09-01

    Osteoporotic fractures constitute a major public health problem. These fractures typically occur at the hip, spine and distal forearm. Their pathogenesis is heterogeneous, with contributions from both bone strength and trauma. Water fluoridation has been widely proposed for its dental health benefits, but concerns have been raised about the balance of skeletal risks and benefits of this measure. Fluoride has potent effects on bone cell function, bone structure and bone strength. These effects are mediated by the incorporation of fluoride ions in bone crystals to form fluoroapatite, and through an increase in osteoblast activity. It is believed that a minimum serum fluoride level of 100 ng/ml must be achieved before osteoblasts will be stimulated. Serum levels associated with drinking water fluoridated to 1 ppm are usually several times lower than this value, but may reach this threshold at concentrations of 4 ppm in the drinking water. Animal studies suggest no effect of low-level (0-3 ppm) fluoride intake on bone strength, but a possible decrease at higher levels. Sodium fluoride has been used to treat established osteoporosis for nearly 30 years. Recent trials of this agent, prescribed at high doses, have suggested that despite a marked increase in bone mineral density, there is no concomitant reduction in vertebral fracture incidence. Furthermore, the increase in bone density at the lumbar spine may be achieved at the expense of bone mineral in the peripheral cortical skeleton. As a consequence, high dose sodium fluoride (80 mg daily) is not currently used to treat osteoporosis. At lower doses, recent trials have suggested a beneficial effect on both bone density and fracture. The majority of epidemiological evidence regarding the effect of fluoridated drinking water on hip fracture incidence is based on ecological comparisons. Although one Finnish study suggested that hip fracture rates in a town with fluoridated water were lower than those in a matching town

  1. Drinking water fluoridation and bone.

    PubMed

    Allolio, B; Lehmann, R

    1999-01-01

    Drinking water fluoridation has an established role in the prevention of dental caries, but may also positively or negatively affect bone. In bone fluoride is incorporated into hydroxylapatite to form the less soluble fluoroapatite. In higher concentrations fluoride stimulates osteoblast activity leading to an increase in cancellous bone mass. As optimal drinking water fluoridation (1 mg/l) is widely used, it is of great interest, whether long-term exposition to artificial water fluoridation has any impact on bone strength, bone mass, and -- most importantly -- fracture rate. Animal studies suggest a biphasic pattern of the effect of drinking water fluoridation on bone strength with a peak strength at a bone fluoride content of 1200 ppm followed by a decline at higher concentrations eventually leading to impaired bone quality. These changes are not paralleled by changes in bone mass suggesting that fluoride concentrations remain below the threshold level required for activation of osteoblast activity. Accordingly, in most epidemiological studies in humans bone mass was not altered by optimal drinking water fluoridation. In contrast, studies on the effect on hip fracture rate gave conflicting results ranging from an increased fracture incidence to no effect, and to a decreased fracture rate. As only ecological studies have been performed, they may be biased by unknown confounding factors -- the so-called ecological fallacy. However, the combined results of these studies indicate that any increase or decrease in fracture rate is likely to be small. It has been calculated that appropriately designed cohort studies to solve the problem require a sample size of >400,000 subjects. Such studies will not be performed in the foreseeable future. Future investigations in humans should, therefore, concentrate on the effect of long-term drinking water fluoridation on bone fluoride content and bone strength.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of fluoride toxicity.

    PubMed

    Barbier, Olivier; Arreola-Mendoza, Laura; Del Razo, Luz María

    2010-11-05

    Halfway through the twentieth century, fluoride piqued the interest of toxicologists due to its deleterious effects at high concentrations in human populations suffering from fluorosis and in in vivo experimental models. Until the 1990s, the toxicity of fluoride was largely ignored due to its "good reputation" for preventing caries via topical application and in dental toothpastes. However, in the last decade, interest in its undesirable effects has resurfaced due to the awareness that this element interacts with cellular systems even at low doses. In recent years, several investigations demonstrated that fluoride can induce oxidative stress and modulate intracellular redox homeostasis, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content, as well as alter gene expression and cause apoptosis. Genes modulated by fluoride include those related to the stress response, metabolic enzymes, the cell cycle, cell-cell communications and signal transduction. The primary purpose of this review is to examine recent findings from our group and others that focus on the molecular mechanisms of the action of inorganic fluoride in several cellular processes with respect to potential physiological and toxicological implications. This review presents an overview of the current research on the molecular aspects of fluoride exposure with emphasis on biological targets and their possible mechanisms of involvement in fluoride cytotoxicity. The goal of this review is to enhance understanding of the mechanisms by which fluoride affects cells, with an emphasis on tissue-specific events in humans. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. WET FLUORIDE SEPARATION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Gofman, J.W.; Stoughton, R.W.

    1958-11-25

    The separation of U/sup 233/ from thorium, protactinium, and fission products present in neutron-irradiated thorium is accomplished by dissolving the irradiated materials in aqueous nitric acid, adding either a soluble fluoride, iodate, phosphate, or oxalate to precipltate the thorium, separating the precipltate from the solution, and then precipitating uranlum and protactinium by alkalizing the solution. The uranium and protactinium precipitate is removcd from the solution and dissolved in nitric acid. The uranyl nitrate may then be extracted from the acid solution by means of ether, and the protactinium recovered from the aqueous phase.

  4. Effects of Different Levels of Calcium Intake on Brain Cell Apoptosis in Fluorosis Rat Offspring and Its Molecular Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Ke, Lulu; Zheng, Xiangren; Li, Tao; Ouyang, Wei; Zhang, Zigui

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the investigation is to reveal the influence of dietary calcium on fluorosis-induced brain cell apoptosis in rat offspring, as well as the underlying molecular mechanism. Sprague-Dawley (SD) female rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group, fluoride group, low calcium, low calcium fluoride group, and high calcium fluoride group. SD male rats were used for breeding only. After 3 months, male and female rats were mated in a 1:1 ratio. Subsequently, 18-day-old gestation rats and 14- and 28-day-old rats were used as experimental subjects. We determined the blood/urine fluoride, the blood/urine calcium, the apoptosis in the hippocampus, and the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes, namely Bcl-2, caspase 12, and JNK. Blood or blood/urine fluoride levels and apoptotic cells were found significantly increased in fluorosis rat offspring as compared to controls. Furthermore, the Bcl-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels significantly decreased, and caspase 12 mRNA levels significantly increased in each age group as compared to controls. Compared with the fluoride group, the blood/urine fluoride content and apoptotic cells evidently decreased in the high calcium fluoride group, Bcl-2 mRNA expression significantly increased and caspase 12 mRNA expression significantly decreased in each age group. All results showed no gender difference. Based on these results, the molecular mechanisms of fluorosis-induced brain cell apoptosis in rat offspring may include the decrease in Bcl-2 mRNA expression level and increase in caspase 12 mRNA expression signaling pathways. High calcium intake could reverse these gene expression trends. By contrast, low calcium intake intensified the toxic effects of fluoride on brain cells.

  5. Formation of Fluorohydroxyapatite with Silver Diamine Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Mei, M.L.; Nudelman, F.; Marzec, B.; Walker, J.M.; Lo, E.C.M.; Walls, A.W.; Chu, C.H.

    2017-01-01

    Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) is found to promote remineralization and harden the carious lesion. Hydroxyapatite crystallization is a crucial process in remineralization; however, the role of SDF in crystal formation is unknown. We designed an in vitro experiment with calcium phosphate with different SDF concentrations (0.38, 1.52, 2.66, 3.80 mg/mL) to investigate the effect of this additive on the nucleation and growth of apatite crystals. Two control groups were also prepared—calcium phosphate (CaCl2·2H2O + K2HPO4 in buffer solution) and SDF (Ag[NH3]2F in buffer solution). After incubation at 37 oC for 24 h, the shape and organization of the crystals were examined by bright-field transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Unit cell parameters of the obtained crystals were determined with powder X-ray diffraction. The vibrational and rotational modes of phosphate groups were analyzed with Raman microscopy. The transmission electron microscopy and selected-area electron diffraction confirmed that all solids precipitated within the SDF groups were crystalline and that there was a positive correlation between the increased percentage of crystal size and the concentration of SDF. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that fluorohydroxyapatite and silver chloride were formed in all the SDF groups. Compared with calcium phosphate control, a contraction of the unit cell in the a-direction but not the c-direction in SDF groups was revealed, which suggested that small localized fluoride anions substituted the hydroxyl anions in hydroxyapatite crystals. This was further evidenced by the Raman spectra, which displayed up-field shift of the phosphate band in all the SDF groups and confirmed that the chemical environment of the phosphate functionalities indeed changed. The results suggested that SDF reacted with calcium and phosphate ions and produced fluorohydroxyapatite. This preferential precipitation of fluorohydroxyapatite with reduced

  6. Topical fluoride for caries prevention

    PubMed Central

    Weyant, Robert J.; Tracy, Sharon L.; Anselmo, Theresa (Tracy); Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D.; Donly, Kevin J.; Frese, William A.; Hujoel, Philippe P.; Iafolla, Timothy; Kohn, William; Kumar, Jayanth; Levy, Steven M.; Tinanoff, Norman; Wright, J. Timothy; Zero, Domenick; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Meyer, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Background A panel of experts convened by the American Dental Association (ADA) Council on Scientific Affairs presents evidence-based clinical recommendations regarding professionally applied and prescription-strength, home-use topical fluoride agents for caries prevention. These recommendations are an update of the 2006 ADA recommendations regarding professionally applied topical fluoride and were developed by using a new process that includes conducting a systematic review of primary studies. Types of Studies Reviewed The authors conducted a search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library for clinical trials of professionally applied and prescription-strength topical fluoride agents—including mouthrinses, varnishes, gels, foams and pastes—with caries increment outcomes published in English through October 2012. Results The panel included 71 trials from 82 articles in its review and assessed the efficacy of various topical fluoride caries-preventive agents. The panel makes recommendations for further research. Practical Implications The panel recommends the following for people at risk of developing dental caries: 2.26 percent fluoride varnish or 1.23 percent fluoride (acidulated phosphate fluoride) gel, or a prescription-strength, home-use 0.5 percent fluoride gel or paste or 0.09 percent fluoride mouthrinse for patients 6 years or older. Only 2.26 percent fluoride varnish is recommended for children younger than 6 years. The strengths of the recommendations for the recommended products varied from “in favor” to “expert opinion for.” As part of the evidence-based approach to care, these clinical recommendations should be integrated with the practitioner's professional judgment and the patient's needs and preferences. PMID:24177407

  7. Fluoride-induced enhancement of diffusion in streptococcal model plaque biofilms.

    PubMed

    Rose, R K; Turner, S J

    1998-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that fluoride decreases the calcium-binding affinity of Streptococcus mutans and approximately doubles the calcium-binding capacity. To investigate the effect of this mechanism on calcium mobility in plaque, 45Ca flux was measured from a condensed films of S. mutans into tracer-free solution. Bacteria were suspended in pH 7.0 or 5.0 buffer including 0, 5, 10, 15 or 20 mmol/l Ca2+ carrier, with or without 5 mmol/l F- and with 45Ca and 3H-inulin. The appearance of 45Ca and 3H-inulin in carrier-containing but initially tracer-free buffer was measured and extracellular fraction (Ve) and bound calcium were calculated. As the ratio (R) of bound to free Ca2+ approached zero at high [Ca2+], the measured diffusion coefficient (rDe) approached the effective diffusion coefficient (De), such that: rDe = De/(1+R). Fluoride increased the rate of calcium diffusion by a reduction in the binding affinity. This work demonstrates that fluoride significantly increases mobility in plaque; this may increase the rate at which calcium is transported between plaque and an underlying lesion and so promote remineralization. This mechanism could also increase the penetration of bacteriocides and suggests a novel method for biofilm treatment.

  8. Urinary Fluoride Concentration in Children with Disabilities Following Long-Term Fluoride Tablet Ingestion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Hsiu-Yueh; Chen, Jung-Ren; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Hsiao, Szu-Yu; Huang, Shun-Te; Chen, Hong-Sen

    2011-01-01

    Urine is the most commonly utilized biomarker for fluoride excretion in public health and epidemiological studies. Approximately 30-50% of fluoride is excreted from urine in children. Urinary fluoride excretion reflects the total fluoride intake from multiple sources. After administering fluoride tablets to children with disabilities, urinary…

  9. Comparison of the incipient lesion enamel fluoride uptake from various prescription and OTC fluoride toothpastes and gels.

    PubMed

    Schemehorn, B R; DiMarino, J C; Movahed, N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to compare the fluoride uptake into incipient enamel lesions of a novel 970 ppm F- ion SnF2 over-the-counter (OTC) gel (Enamelon Preventive Treatment Gel) and a novel 1150 ppm F- ion OTC toothpaste (Enamelon), each delivering amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP), to the uptake from two different prescription strength, 5000 ppm F- ion dentifrices containing tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) and a prescription 900 ppm F- ion paste containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP). The test procedure followed method #40 in the US-FDA Anticaries Drug Products for OTC Human Use, Final Monograph testing procedures. Eight sets of twelve incisor enamel cores were mounted in Plexiglas rods and the exposed surfaces were polished. The indigenous fluoride levels of each specimen were determined prior to treatment. The treatments were performed using slurries of a negative control (water) and the following products applied to a set of sound enamel cores: 5000 ppm F- ion, sodium fluoride (NaF) prescription (Rx) dentifrice "A" containing TCP; 5000 ppm F- ion, NaF Rx dentifrice "B" containing TCP; 900 ppm F- ion, NaF Rx paste with CPP-ACP; 1150 ppm F- ion, NaF OTC toothpaste; 1150 ppm F- ion, stannous fluoride (SnF2) OTC toothpaste delivering ACP (Enamelon); 1100 ppm F- ion, SnF2 OTC toothpaste; and 970 ppm F- ion, SnF2 OTC gel delivering ACP (Enamelon Preventive Treatment Gel). The twelve specimens of each group were immersed into 25 ml of their assigned slurry with constant stirring (350 rpm) for 30 minutes. Following treatment, one layer of enamel was removed from each specimen and analyzed for fluoride and calcium. The pre-treatment fluoride (indigenous) level of each specimen was subtracted from the post-treatment value to determine the change in enamel fluoride due to the test treatment. The increase in the average fluoride uptake for treated enamel cores was: 10,263 ± 295 ppm for the 970 ppm F- ion, Enamelon Preventive

  10. Ion release, fluoride charge of and adhesion of an orthodontic cement paste containing microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Burbank, Brant D; Slater, Michael; Kava, Alyssa; Doyle, James; McHale, William A; Latta, Mark A; Gross, Stephen M

    2016-02-01

    Dental materials capable of releasing calcium, phosphate and fluoride are of great interest for remineralization. Microencapsulated aqueous solutions of these ions in orthodontic cement demonstrate slow, sustained release by passive diffusion through a permeable membrane without the need for dissolution or etching of fillers. The potential to charge a dental material formulated with microencapsulated water with fluoride by toothbrushing with over the counter toothpaste and the effect of microcapsules on cement adhesion to enamel was determined. Orthodontic cements that contained microcapsules with water and controls without microcapsules were brushed with over-the-counter toothpaste and fluoride release was measured. Adhesion measurements were performed loading orthodontic brackets to failure. Cements that contained microencapsulated solutions of 5.0M Ca(NO3)2, 0.8M NaF, 6.0MK2HPO4 or a mixture of all three were prepared. Ion release profiles were measured as a function of time. A greater fluoride charge and re-release from toothbrushing was demonstrated compared to a control with no microcapsules. Adhesion of an orthodontic cement that contained microencapsulated remineralizing agents was 8.5±2.5MPa compared to the control without microcapsules which was of 8.3±1.7MPa. Sustained release of fluoride, calcium and phosphate ions from cement formulated with microencapsulated remineralizing agents was demonstrated. Orthodontic cements with microcapsules show a release of bioavailable fluoride, calcium, and phosphate ions near the tooth surface while having the ability to charge with fluoride and not effect the adhesion of the material to enamel. Incorporation of microcapsules in dental materials is promising for promoting remineralization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned in...

  12. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned in...

  13. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned in...

  14. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned in...

  15. 49 CFR 173.163 - Hydrogen fluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydrogen fluoride. 173.163 Section 173.163... Hydrogen fluoride. (a) Hydrogen fluoride (hydrofluoric acid, anhydrous) must be packaged as follows: (1) In... filling ratio of 0.84. (b) A cylinder removed from hydrogen fluoride service must be condemned in...

  16. Fluoride and phosphate release from carbonate-rich fluorapatite during managed aquifer recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, David; Donn, Michael; Atteia, Olivier; Sun, Jing; MacRae, Colin; Raven, Mark; Pejcic, Bobby; Prommer, Henning

    2018-07-01

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) is increasingly used as a water management tool to enhance water availability and to improve water quality. Until now, however, the risk of fluoride release during MAR with low ionic strength injectate has not been recognised or examined. In this study we analyse and report the mobilisation of fluoride (up to 58 μM) and filterable reactive phosphorus (FRP) (up to 55 μM) during a field groundwater replenishment experiment in which highly treated, deionised wastewater (average TDS 33 mg/L) was injected into a siliciclastic Cretaceous aquifer. In the field experiment, maximum concentrations, which coincided with a rise in pH, exceeded background groundwater concentrations by an average factor of 3.6 for fluoride and 24 for FRP. The combined results from the field experiment, a detailed mineralogical characterisation and geochemical modelling suggested carbonate-rich fluorapatite (CFA: Ca10(PO4)5(CO3,F)F2) to be the most likely source of fluoride and phosphate release. An anoxic batch experiment with powdered CFA-rich nodules sourced from the target aquifer and aqueous solutions of successively decreasing ionic strength closely replicated the field-observed fluoride and phosphate behaviour. Based on the laboratory experiment and geochemical modelling, we hypothesise that the release of fluoride and phosphate results from the incongruent dissolution of CFA and the simultaneous formation of a depleted layer that has hydrated di-basic calcium phosphate (CaHPO4·nH2O) composition at the CFA-water interface. Disequilibrium caused by calcium removal following breakthrough of the deionised injectate triggered the release of fluoride and phosphate. Given the increasing use of highly treated, deionised water for MAR and the ubiquitous presence of CFA and fluorapatite (Ca10(PO4)6F2) in aquifer settings worldwide, the risk of fluoride and phosphate release needs to be considered in the MAR design process.

  17. Determination of fluorine concentrations using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometry to analyze fluoride precipitates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. A.; Lee, J.; Kwon, E.; Kim, D.; Yoon, H. O.

    2015-12-01

    In recent times, fluorine has been receiving increasing attention due to the possibility for chemical (HF) leakage accidents and its high toxicity to human and environment. In this respect, a novel approach for the determination of fluorine concentrations in water samples using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometry was investigated in this study. The main disadvantage of WDXRF technique for fluorine analysis is low analytical sensitivity for light elements with atomic number (Z) less than 15. To overcome this problem, we employed the precipitation reaction which fluoride is reacted with cation such as Al3+ and/or Ca2+ prior to WDXRF analysis because of their high analytical sensitivity. The cation was added in fluoride solutions to form precipitate (AlF3 and/or CaF2) and then the solution was filtered through Whatman filter. After drying at 60 °C for 5 min, the filter was coated with X-ray film and directly analyzed using WDXRF spectrometry. Consequently, we analyzed the cation on filter and subsequently fluorine concentration was calculated inversely based on chemical form of precipitate. This method can improve the analytical sensitivity of WDXRF technique for fluorine analysis and be applicable to various elements that can make precipitate.

  18. Estimated dietary fluoride intake for New Zealanders.

    PubMed

    Cressey, Peter; Gaw, Sally; Love, John

    2010-01-01

    Existing fluoride concentration and consumption data were used to estimate fluoride intakes from the diet and toothpaste use, for New Zealand subpopulations, to identify any population groups at risk of high-fluoride intake. For each sub-population, two separate dietary intake estimates were made--one based on a non-fluoridated water supply (fluoride concentration of 0.1 mg/L), and the other based on a water supply fluoridated to a concentration of 1.0 mg/L. Fluoride concentration data were taken from historical surveys, while food consumption data were taken from national 24-hour dietary recall surveys or from simulated diets. Mean and 95th percentile estimations of dietary fluoride intake were well below the upper level of intake (UL), whether intakes were calculated on the basis of a non-fluoridated or fluoridated water supply. The use of fluoride-containing toothpastes provides additional fluoride intake. For many of the population groups considered, mean fluoride intakes were below the adequate intake (AI) level for caries protection, even after inclusion of the fluoride contribution from toothpaste. Intake of fluoride was driven by consumption of dietary staples (bread, potatoes),beverages (particularly tea, soft drinks, and beer), and the fluoride status of drinking water. Estimates of fluoride intake from the diet and toothpaste did not identify any groups at risk of exceeding the UL, with the exception of infants (6-12 months) living in areas with fluoridated water supplies and using high-fluoride toothpaste. In contrast, much of the adult population may be receiving insufficient fluoride for optimum caries protection from these sources, as represented by the AI.

  19. Fluorination utilizing thermodynamically unstable fluorides and fluoride salts thereof

    DOEpatents

    Bartlett, Neil; Whalen, J. Marc; Chacon, Lisa

    2000-12-12

    A method for fluorinating a carbon compound or cationic carbon compound utilizes a fluorination agent selected from thermodynamically unstable nickel fluorides and salts thereof in liquid anhydrous hydrogen fluoride. The desired carbon compound or cationic organic compound to undergo fluorination is selected and reacted with the fluorination agent by contacting the selected organic or cationic organic compound and the chosen fluorination agent in a reaction vessel for a desired reaction time period at room temperature or less.

  20. Calcium waves.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Lionel F

    2008-04-12

    Waves through living systems are best characterized by their speeds at 20 degrees C. These speeds vary from those of calcium action potentials to those of ultraslow ones which move at 1-10 and/or 10-20 nm s(-1). All such waves are known or inferred to be calcium waves. The two classes of calcium waves which include ones with important morphogenetic effects are slow waves that move at 0.2-2 microm s(-1) and ultraslow ones. Both may be propagated by cycles in which the entry of calcium through the plasma membrane induces subsurface contraction. This contraction opens nearby stretch-sensitive calcium channels. Calcium entry through these channels propagates the calcium wave. Many slow waves are seen as waves of indentation. Some are considered to act via cellular peristalsis; for example, those which seem to drive the germ plasm to the vegetal pole of the Xenopus egg. Other good examples of morphogenetic slow waves are ones through fertilizing maize eggs, through developing barnacle eggs and through axolotl embryos during neural induction. Good examples of ultraslow morphogenetic waves are ones during inversion in developing Volvox embryos and across developing Drosophila eye discs. Morphogenetic waves may be best pursued by imaging their calcium with aequorins.

  1. Private Well Water and Fluoride

    MedlinePlus

    ... and School-Linked Dental Sealant Programs Coordinate Community Water Fluoridation Programs Targeted Clinical Preventive Services & Health Systems Changes State Oral Health Plans Research & Publications Oral Health In America: Summary of the ...

  2. Do Fluoride Ions Protect Teeth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Begins with the procedure and results from an investigation on the effect of fluoride on the reaction between eggshell (substitute teeth) and dilute ethanoic acid. Describes an elegantly modified and improvised apparatus. (DDR)

  3. Fluoride glass: Crystallization, surface tension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doremus, R. H.

    1988-01-01

    Fluoride glass was levitated acoustically in the ACES apparatus on STS-11, and the recovered sample had a different microstructure from samples cooled in a container. Further experiments on levitated samples of fluoride glass are proposed. These include nucleation, crystallization, melting observations, measurement of surface tension of molten glass, and observation of bubbles in the glass. Ground experiments are required on sample preparation, outgassing, and surface reactions. The results should help in the development and evaluation of containerless processing, especially of glass, in the development of a contaminent-free method of measuring surface tensions of melts, in extending knowledge of gas and bubble behavior in fluoride glasses, and in increasing insight into the processing and properties of fluoride glasses.

  4. Tuning the surface properties of novel ternary iron(III) fluoride-based catalysts using the template effect of the matrix.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ying; Lippitz, Andreas; Saftien, Paul; Unger, Wolfgang E S; Kemnitz, Erhard

    2015-03-21

    Sol-gel prepared ternary FeF3-MgF2 materials have become promising heterogeneous catalysts due to their porosity and surface Lewis/Brønsted acidity (bi-acidity). Despite the good catalytic performance, nanoscopic characterisations of this type of material are still missing and the key factors controlling the surface properties have not yet been identified, impeding both a better understanding and further development of ternary fluoride catalysts. In this study, we characterised the interaction between the bi-acidic component (FeF3) and the matrix (MgF2) on the nano-scale. For the first time, the formation pathway of FeF3-MgF2 was profiled and the template effect of MgF2 during the synthesis process was discovered. Based on these new insights two novel materials, FeF3-CaF2 and FeF3-SrF2, were established, revealing that with decreasing the atomic numbers (from Sr to Mg), the ternary fluorides exhibited increasing surface acidity and surface area but decreasing pore size. These systematic changes gave rise to a panel of catalysts with tuneable surface and bulk properties either by changing the matrix alkaline earth metal fluoride or by adjusting their ratios to Fe or both. The template effect of the alkaline earth metal fluoride matrix was identified as the most probable key factor determining the surface properties and further influencing the catalytic performance in ternary fluoride based catalysts, and paves the way to targeted design of next-generation catalysts with tunable properties.

  5. Fluoride in the drinking water and the geographical variation of coronary heart disease in Finland.

    PubMed

    Kaipio, Juhana; Näyhä, Simo; Valtonen, Ville

    2004-02-01

    Fluoride in drinking water prevents dental disease, which in turn has been reported to increase the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Since mortality from CHD in Finland is high in the north-east where the fluoride content of drinking water is low, the association was examined here in more detail. Mortality from CHD during the period 1961-1995 in 365 rural areas of Finland (188 888 deaths) was linked with 2131 drinking water fluoride determinations performed in 1958 using negative binomial regression, adjustments being made for sex, age, mean income of the resident commune and drinking water magnesium and calcium. An inverse J-shaped relationship was found between drinking water fluoride and CHD, the association being most pronounced in the 1960s and levelling off consistently as a function of time. In 1961-1970, the adjusted mortality from CHD was 22% (95% confidence interval 18-27%) lower in the fourth quintile of fluoride (0.15-0.30 mg/l) than in the first quintile (0.00-0.06 mg/l) but this deficit reduced to 13% (7-18%) in 1991-1995. Although causality cannot be asserted, the geographical pattern of CHD in Finland is consistent with the concentration of fluoride in drinking water. One mechanism could be that fluoride prevents dental infections, which in turn reduces mortality from CHD. The more widespread use of fluoridated toothpastes, soft drinks and certain food items since the 1960s may have reduced the significance of drinking water as a source of fluoride.

  6. Mid-infrared ultra-high-Q resonators based on fluoride crystalline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecaplain, C.; Javerzac-Galy, C.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Kippenberg, T. J.

    2016-11-01

    The unavailability of highly transparent materials in the mid-infrared has been the main limitation in the development of ultra-sensitive molecular sensors or cavity-based spectroscopy applications. Whispering gallery mode microresonators have attained ultra-high-quality (Q) factor resonances in the near-infrared and visible. Here we report ultra-high Q factors in the mid-infrared using polished alkaline earth metal fluoride crystals. Using an uncoated chalcogenide tapered fibre as a high-ideality coupler in the mid-infrared, we study via cavity ringdown technique the losses of BaF2, CaF2, MgF2 and SrF2 microresonators. We show that MgF2 is limited by multiphonon absorption by studying the temperature dependence of the Q factor. In contrast, in SrF2 and BaF2 the lower multiphonon absorption leads to ultra-high Q factors at 4.5 μm. These values correspond to an optical finesse of , the highest value achieved for any type of mid-infrared resonator to date.

  7. Mid-infrared ultra-high-Q resonators based on fluoride crystalline materials

    PubMed Central

    Lecaplain, C.; Javerzac-Galy, C.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Kippenberg, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    The unavailability of highly transparent materials in the mid-infrared has been the main limitation in the development of ultra-sensitive molecular sensors or cavity-based spectroscopy applications. Whispering gallery mode microresonators have attained ultra-high-quality (Q) factor resonances in the near-infrared and visible. Here we report ultra-high Q factors in the mid-infrared using polished alkaline earth metal fluoride crystals. Using an uncoated chalcogenide tapered fibre as a high-ideality coupler in the mid-infrared, we study via cavity ringdown technique the losses of BaF2, CaF2, MgF2 and SrF2 microresonators. We show that MgF2 is limited by multiphonon absorption by studying the temperature dependence of the Q factor. In contrast, in SrF2 and BaF2 the lower multiphonon absorption leads to ultra-high Q factors at 4.5 μm. These values correspond to an optical finesse of , the highest value achieved for any type of mid-infrared resonator to date. PMID:27869119

  8. Mid-infrared ultra-high-Q resonators based on fluoride crystalline materials.

    PubMed

    Lecaplain, C; Javerzac-Galy, C; Gorodetsky, M L; Kippenberg, T J

    2016-11-21

    The unavailability of highly transparent materials in the mid-infrared has been the main limitation in the development of ultra-sensitive molecular sensors or cavity-based spectroscopy applications. Whispering gallery mode microresonators have attained ultra-high-quality (Q) factor resonances in the near-infrared and visible. Here we report ultra-high Q factors in the mid-infrared using polished alkaline earth metal fluoride crystals. Using an uncoated chalcogenide tapered fibre as a high-ideality coupler in the mid-infrared, we study via cavity ringdown technique the losses of BaF 2 , CaF 2 , MgF 2 and SrF 2 microresonators. We show that MgF 2 is limited by multiphonon absorption by studying the temperature dependence of the Q factor. In contrast, in SrF 2 and BaF 2 the lower multiphonon absorption leads to ultra-high Q factors at 4.5 μm. These values correspond to an optical finesse of , the highest value achieved for any type of mid-infrared resonator to date.

  9. Influence of heat treatments upon the mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity of ZrO2-toughened MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan-Cai; Wang, Dian-Gang; Meng, Xiang-Guo; Chen, Chuan-Zhong

    2014-09-01

    Zirconia-toughened MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass-ceramics are prepared using sintering techniques, and a series of heat treatment procedures are designed to obtain a glass-ceramic with improved properties. The crystallization behavior, phase composition, and morphology of the glass-ceramics are characterized. The bending strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, and microhardness of the glass-ceramics are investigated, and the effect mechanism of heat treatments upon the mechanical properties is discussed. The bioactivity of glass-ceramics is then evaluated using the in vitro simulated body fluid (SBF) soaking test, and the mechanism whereby apatite forms on the glass-ceramic surfaces in the SBF solution is discussed. The results indicate that the main crystal phase of the G-24 sample undergoing two heat treatment procedures is Ca5(PO4)3F (fluorapatite), and those of the G-2444 sample undergoing four heat treatment procedures are Ca5(PO4)3F and β-CaSiO3 (β-wollastonite). The heat treatment procedures are found to greatly influence the mechanical properties of the glass-ceramic, and an apatite layer is induced on the glass-ceramic surface after soaking in the SBF solution.

  10. Effect of ZrO(2) additions on the crystallization, mechanical and biological properties of MgO-CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) bioactive glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Li, H C; Wang, D G; Meng, X G; Chen, C Z

    2014-06-01

    A series of ZrO(2) doped MgO-CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) bioactive glass-ceramics were obtained by sintering method. The crystallization behavior, phase composition, morphology and structure of glass-ceramics were characterized. The bending strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, micro-hardness and thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of glass-ceramics were investigated. The in vitro bioactivity and cytotoxicity tests were used to evaluate the bioactivity and biocompatibility of glass-ceramics. The sedimentation mechanism and growth process of apatites on sample surface were discussed. The results showed that the mainly crystalline phases of glass-ceramics were Ca(5)(PO4)3F (fluorapatite) and β-CaSiO(3). (β-wollastonite). m-ZrO(2) (monoclinic zirconia) declined the crystallization temperatures of glasses. t-ZrO(2) (tetragonal zirconia) increased the crystallization temperature of Ca(5)(PO4)(3)F and declined the crystallization temperature of β-CaSiO(3). t-ZrO(2) greatly increased the fracture toughness, bending strength and micro-hardness of glass-ceramics. The nanometer apatites were induced on the surface of glass-ceramic after soaking 28 days in SBF (simulated body fluid), indicating the glass-ceramic has good bioactivity. The in vitro cytotoxicity test demonstrated the glass-ceramic has no toxicity to cell. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mechanical properties of Haynes Alloy 188 after exposure to LiF-22CaF2, air, and vacuum at 1093 K for periods up to 10,000 hours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    As part of a program to provide reassurance that the cobalt-base superalloy Haynes Alloy 188 can adequately contain a LiF-CaF2 eutectic thermal energy storage salt, 4900- and 10,000-hr exposures of Haynes Alloy 188 to LiF-22CaF2, its vapor, vacuum, and air at 1093 K have been undertaken. Following such exposures, the microstructure has been characterized and the 77 to 1200 K tensile properties measured. In addition, 1050 K vacuum creep-rupture testing of as-received and molten salt- and vacuum-exposed samples has been undertaken. Although slight degradation of the mechanical properties of Haynes Alloy 188 due to prior exposure was observed, basically none of the losses could be ascribed to a particular environment. Hence, observed decreases in properties are due to thermal aging effects, not corrosive attack. In view of these findings, Haynes Alloy 188 is still deemed to be suitable for containment of the eutectic LiF-CaF2 thermal energy storage media.

  12. In vitro investigations on CoO doped CaF2sbnd CaOsbnd B2O3sbnd P2O5-MO bioactive glasses by means of spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobhanachalam, P.; Ravi Kumar, V.; Raghavaiah, B. V.; Ravi Kumar, Valluri; Sahaya Baskaran, G.; Gandhi, Y.; Syam Prasad, P.; Veeraiah, N.

    2017-11-01

    In this investigation we have synthesized CaF2sbnd CaOsbnd B2O3sbnd P2O5: CoO glasses mixed with different therapeutically active ions viz., Ba2+, Sr2+, Mg2+ and Zn2+ (that play a vital role in the normal functioning of human body) and performed in vitro bioactivity studies by immersing them in simulated body fluid (SBF) for a period of about a month and the obtained results were analyzed using spectroscopic studies. Due to immersion in SBF solution, a thin layer of hydroxy apatite (HAp) is developed on the surface of the samples. The results of XRD, SEM and also IR spectra have confirmed that the layer deposited on the surface of the samples is crystalline HAp mixed with cobalt ions. The quantitative analysis of the results in vitro bioactive studies with the help of optical absorption and IR spectral studies have indicated that BaO is an efficient modifier in accelerating the HAp growth. The cobalt ions are found to be in tetrahedral positions and participated in the glass network with BO4 and PO4 structural units in larger quantities in CoZn and CoMg glasses and such occupancy is found to be the reason for the relatively low bioactive efficiency of these glasses when compared with that of CoBa glass.

  13. LPE growth of crack-free PbSe layers on Si(100) using MBE-Grown PbSe/BaF2CaF2 buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strecker, B. N.; McCann, P. J.; Fang, X. M.; Hauenstein, R. J.; O'Steen, M.; Johnson, M. B.

    1997-05-01

    Crack-free PbSe on (100)-oriented Si has been obtained by a combination of liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) techniques. MBE is employed first to grow a PbSe/BaF2/CaF2 buffer structure on the (100)-oriented Si. A 2.5 μm thick PbSe layer is then grown by LPE. The LPE-grown PbSe displays excellent surface morphology and is continuous over the entire 8×8 mm2 area of growth. This result is surprising because of the large mismatch in thermal expansion coefficients between PbSe and Si. Previous attempts to grow crack-free PbSe by MBE alone using similar buffer structures on (100)-oriented Si have been unsuccessful. It is speculated that the large concentration of Se vacancies in the LPE-grown PbSe layer may allow dislocation climb along higher order slip planes, providing strain relaxation.

  14. Fluoride enrichment in groundwater of semi-arid urban area: Khan Younis City, southern Gaza Strip (Palestine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Jabal, Mohamed Shaban; Abustan, Ismail; Rozaimy, Mohd Remy; Al-Najar, Hussam

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine fluoride enhancement in the groundwater of semi-arid urban area of Khan Younis City, southern Gaza Strip. Physicochemical data for a total of 200 groundwater samples were analyzed. The fluoride concentrations were varied from 0.3 to 6.45 mg/L with average value of 2.87 mg/L. Correlations between fluorides with other measured ions were relatively observed, negative correlation with calcium and the positive correlation with pH, bicarbonate and sodium increase the dissolution/solubility of fluoride bearing minerals, leading to fluoride leaching into the groundwater. Fluoride enrichment in the groundwater of the area is due to water hydrochemistry, mineral-water interaction (mainly calcite and fluorite), fluorite resulted from fluorapatite dissolution. The saturation indexes evaluation indicated that 42% of the samples are over saturated with respect to calcite and 35.5% under saturated with respect to fluorite, while 40.5% approached equilibrium with respect to both calcite and fluorite. At fluoride concentrations of less than 2.2 mg/L fluorite saturation indexes show under-saturation condition for fluorite and at higher fluoride concentrations show near saturation condition.

  15. Urinary fluoride excretion in preschool children after intake of fluoridated milk and use of fluoride-containing toothpaste.

    PubMed

    Norman, M; Twetman, S; Hultgren Talvilahti, A; Granström, E; Stecksén-Blicks, C

    2017-03-01

    To assess the urinary fluoride excretion in preschool children after drinking fluoridated milk with 0.185 mg F and 0.375 mg F and to study the impact of use of fluoride toothpaste. Double-blind cross-over study. Nine healthy children, 2.5-4.5 years of age. In a randomized order, participants drank 1.5 dl milk once daily for 7 days with no fluoride added (control), 0.185 mg fluoride added and 0.375 mg fluoride added. The experiment was performed twice with (Part I) and without (Part II) parental tooth brushing with 1,000 ppm fluoride toothpaste. The fluoride content in the piped drinking water was 0.5 mg F/L. Urinary fluoride excretion. The 24-hour urinary fl uoride excretion/kg body weight varied from 0.014 mg F for the placebo intervention and non-fluoride toothpaste to 0.027 mg F for the 0.375 mg intervention with use of 1,000 ppm fluoride toothpaste. The difference compared with the placebo intervention was not statistically significant for any of the interventions when fluoride toothpaste was used (p⟩0.05) while it was statistically significantly different when non-fluoride toothpaste was used (p⟨0.05). All sources of fluoride must be considered when designing community programs. With 0.5 mg F/L in the drinking water and daily use of fluoride toothpaste, most children had a fluoride intake optimal for dental health. In this setting, additional intake of fluoride milk was within safe limits up to 0.185 mg/day while conclusions about the safety of 0.375 mg/day were uncertain. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd

  16. Environmental hazards of fluoride in volcanic ash: a case study from Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Shane J.; Neall, V. E.; Lecointre, J. A.; Hedley, M. J.; Loganathan, P.

    2003-03-01

    The vent-hosted hydrothermal system of Ruapehu volcano is normally covered by a c. 10 million m 3 acidic crater lake where volcanic gases accumulate. Through analysis of eruption observations, granulometry, mineralogy and chemistry of volcanic ash from the 1995-1996 Ruapehu eruptions we report on the varying influences on environmental hazards associated with the deposits. All measured parameters are more dependent on the eruptive style than on distance from the vent. Early phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruption phases from crater lakes similar to that on Ruapehu are likely to contain the greatest concentrations of environmentally significant elements, especially sulphur and fluoride. These elements are contained within altered xenolithic material extracted from the hydrothermal system by steam explosions, as well as in residue hydrothermal fluids adsorbed on to particle surfaces. In particular, total F in the ash may be enriched by a factor of 6 relative to original magmatic contents, although immediately soluble F does not show such dramatic increases. Highly soluble NaF and CaSiF 6 phases, demonstrated to be the carriers of 'available' F in purely magmatic eruptive systems, are probably not dominant in the products of phreatomagmatic eruptions through hydrothermal systems. Instead, slowly soluble compounds such as CaF 2, AlF 3 and Ca 5(PO 4) 3F dominate. Fluoride in these phases is released over longer periods, where only one third is leached in a single 24-h water extraction. This implies that estimation of soluble F in such ashes based on a single leach leads to underestimation of the F impact, especially of a potential longer-term environmental hazard. In addition, a large proportion of the total F in the ash is apparently soluble in the digestive system of grazing animals. In the Ruapehu case this led to several thousand sheep deaths from fluorosis.

  17. Calcium Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, M M H; Rashid, I S; Qinna, N A; Jaber, A M; Badwan, A A

    2016-01-01

    Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3 formed by three main elements: carbon, oxygen, and calcium. It is a common substance found in rocks in all parts of the world (most notably as limestone), and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, coal balls, pearls, and eggshells. CaCO3 exists in different polymorphs, each with specific stability that depends on a diversity of variables. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Chronic Fluoride Toxicity: Dental Fluorosis

    PubMed Central

    DenBesten, Pamela; Li, Wu

    2012-01-01

    Dental fluorosis occurs as a result of excess fluoride ingestion during tooth formation. Enamel fluorosis and primary dentin fluorosis can only occur when teeth are forming, and therefore fluoride exposure (as it relates to dental fluorosis) occurs during childhood. In the permanent dentition, this would begin with the lower incisors, which complete mineralization at approximately 2–3 years of age, and end after mineralization of the third molars. The white opaque appearance of fluorosed enamel is caused by a hypomineralized enamel subsurface; with more severe dental fluorosis, pitting and a loss of the enamel surface occurs, leading to secondary staining (appearing as a brown color). Many of the changes caused by fluoride are related to cell/matrix/mineral interactions as the teeth are forming. At the early maturation stage, the relative quantity of amelogenin protein is increased in fluorosed enamel in a dose-related manner. This appears to result from a delay in the removal of amelogenins as the enamel matures. In vitro, when fluoride is incorporated into the mineral, more protein binds to the forming mineral, and protein removal by proteinases is delayed. This suggests that altered protein/mineral interactions are in part responsible for retention of amelogenins and the resultant hypomineralization that occurs in fluorosed enamel. Fluoride also appears to enhance mineral precipitation in forming teeth, resulting in hypermineralized bands of enamel, which are then followed by hypomineralized bands. Enhanced mineral precipitation with local increases in matrix acidity may affect maturation stage ameloblast modulation, potentially explaining the doserelated decrease in cycles of ameloblast modulation from ruffleended to smooth-ended cells that occur with fluoride exposure in rodents. Specific cellular effects of fluoride have been implicated, but more research is needed to determine which of these changes are relevant to the formation of fluorosed teeth. As

  19. Chronic fluoride toxicity: dental fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Denbesten, Pamela; Li, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Dental fluorosis occurs as a result of excess fluoride ingestion during tooth formation. Enamel fluorosis and primary dentin fluorosis can only occur when teeth are forming, and therefore fluoride exposure (as it relates to dental fluorosis) occurs during childhood. In the permanent dentition, this would begin with the lower incisors, which complete mineralization at approximately 2-3 years of age, and end after mineralization of the third molars. The white opaque appearance of fluorosed enamel is caused by a hypomineralized enamel subsurface. With more severe dental fluorosis, pitting and a loss of the enamel surface occurs, leading to secondary staining (appearing as a brown color). Many of the changes caused by fluoride are related to cell/matrix interactions as the teeth are forming. At the early maturation stage, the relative quantity of amelogenin protein is increased in fluorosed enamel in a dose-related manner. This appears to result from a delay in the removal of amelogenins as the enamel matures. In vitro, when fluoride is incorporated into the mineral, more protein binds to the forming mineral, and protein removal by proteinases is delayed. This suggests that altered protein/mineral interactions are in part responsible for retention of amelogenins and the resultant hypomineralization that occurs in fluorosed enamel. Fluoride also appears to enhance mineral precipitation in forming teeth, resulting in hypermineralized bands of enamel, which are then followed by hypomineralized bands. Enhanced mineral precipitation with local increases in matrix acidity may affect maturation stage ameloblast modulation, potentially explaining the dose-related decrease in cycles of ameloblast modulation from ruffle-ended to smooth-ended cells that occur with fluoride exposure in rodents. Specific cellular effects of fluoride have been implicated, but more research is needed to determine which of these changes are relevant to the formation of fluorosed teeth. As further

  20. Calcium orthophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. This type of materials is of special significance for human beings, because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and antlers) and pathological (i.e., those appearing due to various diseases) calcified tissues of mammals. For example, atherosclerosis results in blood vessel blockage caused by a solid composite of cholesterol with calcium orthophosphates, while dental caries and osteoporosis mean a partial decalcification of teeth and bones, respectively, that results in replacement of a less soluble and harder biological apatite by more soluble and softer calcium hydrogenphosphates. Therefore, the processes of both normal and pathological calcifications are just an in vivo crystallization of calcium orthophosphates. Similarly, dental caries and osteoporosis might be considered an in vivo dissolution of calcium orthophosphates. Thus, calcium orthophosphates hold a great significance for humankind, and in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided. PMID:23507744

  1. Health effects of groundwater fluoride contamination.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Bishwajit; Roy, Madan Mohan; Das, Bhaskar; Pal, Arup; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; De, Shankar Prasad; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2009-04-01

    The people in Berhait block, Sahibganj district, Jharkhand state, India, have been exposed chronically to fluoridecontaminated groundwater. Hereby, we report the clinical effects of chronic exposure to fluoride. The study population was a convenience sample of 342 adults and 258 children living in the affected area. All volunteers filled out questionnaires and were examined. Well water from the six affected villages and urine samples were analyzed for fluoride using an ion-sensitive electrode. Twenty nine percent of 89 well water samples had fluoride concentrations above the Indian permissible limit of fluoride in drinking water. Eighty-five children and 72 adults had clinical fluorosis. Urine fluoride concentrations in children were 0.758-2.88 mg/L whereas in adults they were 0.331-10.36 mg/L. Clinical effects of fluoride included abnormal tooth enamel in children; adults had joint pain and deformity of the limbs and spine, along with ligamentous calcifications and exostosis formations in seven patients. Elevated urine fluoride concentrations supported the clinical diagnosis of fluorosis. Owing to insufficient fluoride-safe wells and lack of awareness of the danger of fluoride toxicity, villagers often drink fluoride-contaminated water. Villagers of Berhait block, including children, are at risk from chronic fluoride toxicity. To combat the situation, villagers need fluoride-safe water, education, and awareness of the danger about fluoride toxicity.

  2. Fluoride bioavailability in saliva and plaque

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Different fluoride formulations may have different effects on caries prevention. It was the aim of this clinical study to assess the fluoride content, provided by NaF compared to amine fluoride, in saliva and plaque. Methods Eight trained volunteers brushed their teeth in the morning for 3 minutes with either NaF or amine fluoride, and saliva and 3-day-plaque-regrowth was collected at 5 time intervals during 6 hours after tooth brushing. The amount of collected saliva and plaque was measured, and the fluoride content was analysed using a fluoride sensitive electrode. All subjects repeated all study cycles 5 times, and 3 cycles per subject underwent statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results Immediately after brushing the fluoride concentration in saliva increased rapidly and dropped to the baseline level after 360 minutes. No difference was found between NaF and amine fluoride. All plaque fluoride levels were elevated after 30 minutes until 120 minutes after tooth brushing, and decreasing after 360 minutes to baseline. According to the highly individual profile of fluoride in saliva and plaque, both levels of bioavailability correlated for the first 30 minutes, and the fluoride content of saliva and plaque was back to baseline after 6 hours. Conclusions Fluoride levels in saliva and plaque are interindividually highly variable. However, no significant difference in bioavailability between NaF and amine fluoride, in saliva, or in plaque was found. PMID:22230722

  3. Fluoride content of tank water in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, N J; Hopcraft, M S; Tong, A C; Thean, H l; Thum, Y S; Tong, D E; Wen, J; Zhao, S C; Stanton, D P; Yuan, Y; Shen, P; Reynolds, E C

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this study were to: (1) analyse the fluoride content of tank water; (2) determine whether the method of water collection or storage influenced fluoride content; and (3) survey participant attitudes towards water fluoridation. Plastic tubes and a questionnaire were distributed through dentists to households with water tanks in Victoria. A midstream tank water sample was collected and fluoride analysed in triplicate using ion chromatography All samples (n = 123) contained negligible amounts of fluoride, with a mean fluoride concentration of <0.01 ppm (range: <0.01-0.18 ppm). No statistically significant association was found between fluoride content and variables investigated such as tank material, tank age, roof material and gutter material. Most people did not know whether their tank water contained fluoride and 40.8% preferred to have access to fluoridated water. The majority thought fluoride was safe and more than half of the respondents supported fluoridation. Fluoride content of tank water was well below the optimal levels for caries prevention. People who rely solely on tank water for drinking may require additional exposure to fluoride for optimal caries prevention. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  4. Structural Studies of the Initial Stages of Fluoride Epitaxy on Silicon and GERMANIUM(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denlinger, Jonathan David

    The epitaxial growth of ionic insulators on semiconductor substrates is of interest due to fundamental issues of interface bonding and structure as well as to potential technological applications. The initial stages of Group IIa fluoride insulator growth on (111) Si and Ge substrates by molecular beam epitaxy are studied with the in situ combination of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Diffraction (XPD). While XPS probes the electronic structure, XPD reveals atomic structure. In addition, low energy electron diffraction (LEED) is used to probe surface order and a separate study using X-ray standing wave (XSW) fluorescence reveals interface cation bonding sites. Following the formation of a chemically-reacted interface layer in CaF_2 epitaxy on Si(111), the morphology of the subsequent bulk layers is found to be dependent on substrate temperature and incident flux rate. At temperatures >=600 ^circC a transition from three -dimensional island formation at low flux to laminar growth at higher flux is observed with bulk- and interface-resolved XPD. At lower substrate temperatures, laminar growth is observed at all fluxes, but with different bulk nucleation behavior due to changes in the stoichiometry of the interface layer. This new observation of kinetic effects on the initial nucleation in CaF_2 epitaxy has important ramifications for the formation of thicker heterostructures for scientific or device applications. XPS and XPD are also used to identify for the first time, surface core-level species of Ca and F, and a secondary interface-shifted F Auger component arising from a second-layer site directly above interface-layer Ca atoms. The effects of lattice mismatch (from -3% to 8%) are investigated with various growths of Ca_{rm x}Sr _{rm 1-x}F_2 on Si and Ge (111) substrates. Triangulation of (111) and (220) XSW indicates a predominance of 3-fold hollow Sr bonding sites coexisting with 4-fold top sites for monolayers of SrF_2 on Si. XSW and LEED reveal a

  5. Exposure to water fluoridation and caries increment.

    PubMed

    Spencer, A J; Armfield, J M; Slade, G D

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this cohort study was to examine the association between exposure to water fluoridation and the increment of dental caries in two Australian states: Queensland (Qld)--5 per cent fluoridation coverage; and South Australia (SA)--70 per cent fluoridation coverage. Stratified random samples were drawn from fluoridated Adelaide and the largely non-fluoridated rest-of-state in SA, and fluoridated Townsville and non-fluoridated Brisbane in Qld. Children were enrolled between 1991 and 1992 (SA: 5-15 yrs old, n = 9,980; Qld: 5-12 yrs old, n = 10,695). Follow-up caries status data for 3 years (+/- 1/2 year) were available on 8,183 children in SA and 6,711 children in Qld. Baseline data on lifetime exposure to fluoridated water, use of other fluorides and socio-economic status (SES) were collected by questionnaire, and tooth surface caries status by dental examinations in school dental service clinics. Higher per cent lifetime exposure to fluoridated water (6 categories: 0;1-24; 25-49; 50-74; 75-99; 100 per cent) was a significant predictor (ANOVA, p < 0.01) of lower annualised Net Caries Increment (NCI) for the deciduous dentition in SA and Qld, but only for Qld in the permanent dentition. These associations persisted in multiple linear regression analyses controlling for age, gender, exposure to other fluorides and SES (p < 0.05). Water fluoridation was effective in reducing caries increment, even in the presence of a dilution effect from other fluorides. The effect of fluoridated water consumption was strongest in the deciduous dentition and where diffusion of food and beverages from fluoridated to non-fluoridated areas was less likely.

  6. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Aweke; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet; Whiting, Susan J; Kassaw, Melkitu; Zeru, Tesfaye; Tessema, Masresha; Kjellevold, Marian

    2016-07-26

    An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F) in drinking water (~5 mg F/L). The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60) and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F) content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220). Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages) all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L) the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed.

  7. Dietary Fluoride Intake and Associated Skeletal and Dental Fluorosis in School Age Children in Rural Ethiopian Rift Valley

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Aweke; Retta, Negussie; Abuye, Cherinet; Whiting, Susan J.; Kassaw, Melkitu; Zeru, Tesfaye; Tessema, Masresha; Kjellevold, Marian

    2016-01-01

    An observational study was conducted to determine dietary fluoride intake, diet, and prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis of school age children in three fluorosis endemic districts of the Ethiopian Rift Valley having similar concentrations of fluoride (F) in drinking water (~5 mg F/L). The duplicate plate method was used to collect foods consumed by children over 24 h from 20 households in each community (n = 60) and the foods, along with water and beverages, were analyzed for fluoride (F) content. Prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was determined using presence of clinical symptoms in children (n = 220). Daily dietary fluoride intake was at or above tolerable upper intake level (UL) of 10 mg F/day and the dietary sources (water, prepared food and beverages) all contributed to the daily fluoride burden. Urinary fluoride in children from Fentale and Adamitulu was almost twice (>5 mg/L) the concentration found in urine from children from Alaba, where rain water harvesting was most common. Severe and moderate dental fluorosis was found in Alaba and Adamitulu, the highest severity and prevalence being in the latter district where staple foods were lowest in calcium. Children in all three areas showed evidence of both skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. Our data support the hypothesis that intake of calcium rich foods in addition to using rain water for household consumption and preparation of food, may help in reducing risk of fluorosis in Ethiopia, but prospective studies are needed. PMID:27472351

  8. High-fluoride groundwater.

    PubMed

    Rao, N Subba

    2011-05-01

    Fluoride (F(-)) is essential for normal bone growth, but its higher concentration in the drinking water poses great health problems and fluorosis is common in many parts of India. The present paper deals with the aim of establishment of facts of the chemical characteristics responsible for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater, after understanding the chemical behavior of F(-) in relation to pH, total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), carbonate hardness (CH), non-carbonate hardness (NCH), and excess alkalinity (EA) in the groundwater observed from the known areas of endemic fluorosis zones of Andhra Pradesh that have abundant sources of F(-)-bearing minerals of the Precambrians. The chemical data of the groundwater shows that the pH increases with increase F(-); the concentration of TH is more than the concentration of TA at low F(-) groundwater, the resulting water is represented by NCH; the TH has less concentration compared to TA at high F(-) groundwater, causing the water that is characterized by EA; and the water of both low and high concentrations of F(-) has CH. As a result, the F(-) has a positive relation with pH and TA, and a negative relation with TH. The operating mechanism derived from these observations is that the F(-) is released from the source into the groundwater by geochemical reactions and that the groundwater in its flowpath is subjected to evapotranspiration due to the influence of dry climate, which accelerates a precipitation of CaCO(3) and a reduction of TH, and thereby a dissolution of F(-). Furthermore, the EA in the water activates the alkalinity in the areas of alkaline soils, leading to enrichment of F(-). Therefore, the alkaline condition, with high pH and EA, and low TH, is a more conducive environment for the higher concentration of F(-) in the groundwater.

  9. Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride electrolyte battery. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1972-06-26

    It is an object of the invention to provide a primary cell or battery using ammonium fluoride--anhydrous hydrogen fluoride electrolyte having improved current and power production capabilities at low temperatures. It is operable at temperatures substantially above the boiling point of hydrogen fluoride. (GRA)

  10. A Manual for Rural School Fluoridation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprouse, Larman W.; Brooks, John

    The product of a 1972 Dental Health Branch contract with the U.S. Public Health Service, this manual is designed to aid in the development of school fluoridation programs and presents: background information on general concepts relating to the action of fluoride on teeth; discussions dealing with community and school fluoridation studies; and the…

  11. The Effect of Fluoride in Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlund, L. R.; Gallagher, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the effect of fluoride on bone tissue and the possible role of fluoride in the treatment of osteoporosis. At present, fluoride treatment should be restricted to clinical trials until its risks and benefits have been further evaluated. (Author/MT)

  12. Effect of concentration variation on 2.0 µm emission of Ho3+-doped SiO2-Al2O3-Na2CO3-SrF2-CaF2 oxyfluorosilicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelija, Devarajulu; Borelli, Deva Prasad Raju

    2018-02-01

    The concentration variation of Ho3+ ion-doped SiO2-Al2O3-Na2CO3-SrF2-CaF2 glasses has been prepared by conventional melt quenching method. The thermal stability of 1 mol % of Ho3+-doped oxyfluorosilicate glass has been calculated using the differential thermal analysis (DTA) spectra. The phenomenological Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ωλ ( λ = 2, 4 and 6) were calculated for all concentrations of Ho3+ ions. The luminescence spectra in visible region of Ho3+ ion-doped glasses were recorded under the excitation wavelength of 452 nm. The spectra consists of several intense emission bands (5F4, 5S2) → 5I8 (547 nm), 5F3 → 5I8 (647 nm), 5F5 → 5I7 (660 nm) and (5F4, 5S2) → 5I7 (750 nm) in the range 500-780 nm. The fluorescence emission at ˜2.0 µm (5I7 → 5I8) was observed under the excitation of 488 nm Ar-ion laser. The stimulated emission cross section for 5I7 → 5I8 transition (˜2.0 µm) varies from 8.46 to 9.52 × 10-21 cm2, as calculated by the Fuchtbauer-Ladenburg (FL) theory. However, Mc-Cumber theory was used to calculate emission cross section values about 4.24-5.75 × 10-21 cm2 for the 5I7 → 5I8 transition in all concentrations of Ho3+-doped oxyfluorosilicate glasses. Therefore, these results reveal that the 0.5 mol % of Ho3+-doped oxyfluorosilicate glasses, exhibiting higher emission cross section, has potentially been used for laser applications at ˜ 2.0 µm.

  13. Effect of Alumina Incorporation on the Surface Mineralization and Degradation of a Bioactive Glass (CaO-MgO-SiO2-Na2O-P2O5-CaF2)-Glycerol Paste

    PubMed Central

    Abdukayumov, Khasan; Ruzimuradov, Olim; Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos; Riedel, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the dissolution behavior as well as the surface biomineralization in simulated body fluid (SBF) of a paste composed of glycerol (gly) and a bioactive glass in the system CaO-MgO-SiO2-Na2O-P2O5-CaF2 (BG). The synthesis of the bioactive glass in an alumina crucible has been shown to significantly affect its bioactivity due to the incorporation of aluminum (ca. 1.3–1.4 wt %) into the glass network. Thus, the kinetics of the hydroxyapatite (HA) mineralization on the glass prepared in the alumina crucible was found to be slower than that reported for the same glass composition prepared in a Pt crucible. It is considered that the synthesis conditions lead to the incorporation of small amount of aluminum into the BG network and thus delay the HA mineralization. Interestingly, the BG-gly paste was shown to have significantly higher bioactivity than that of the as-prepared BG. Structural analysis of the paste indicate that glycerol chemically interacts with the glass surface and strongly alter the glass network architecture, thus generating a more depolymerized network, as well as an increased amount of silanol groups at the surface of the glass. In particular, BG-gly paste features early intermediate calcite precipitation during immersion in SBF, followed by hydroxyapatite formation after ca. seven days of SBF exposure; whereas the HA mineralization seems to be suppressed in BG, probably a consequence of the incorporation of aluminum into the glass network. The results obtained within the present study reveal the positive effect of using pastes based on bioactive glasses and organic carriers (here alcohols) which may be of interest not only due to their advantageous visco-elastic properties, but also due to the possibility of enhancing the glass bioactivity upon surface interactions with the organic carrier. PMID:29156541

  14. Influence of strontium on structure, sintering and biodegradation behaviour of CaO-MgO-SrO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, Ashutosh; Rajagopal, Raghu R.; Ferreira, Jose M.

    The present study investigates the influence of SrO on structure, apatite forming ability, physico-chemical degradation and sintering behaviour of melt-quenched bioactive glasses with composition: mol.% (36.07 – x) CaO – x SrO - 19.24 MgO – 5.61 P2O5 – 38.49 SiO2 – 0.59 CaF2, where x varies between 0 – 10. The detailed structural analysis of glasses has been made by infra red spectroscopy (FTIR) and magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS-NMR). Silicon was predominantly present as Q2 (Si) species while phosphorus was found in orthophosphate type environment in all the investigated glasses. The apatite forming ability of glassesmore » was investigated by immersion of glass powders in simulated body fluid (SBF) for time durations varying between 1 h – 7 days. While increasing Sr2+/Ca2+ ratio in glasses did not affect the structure of glasses significantly, their apatite forming ability was decreased considerably. Further, physico-chemical degradation of glasses has been studied in accordance with ISO 10993-14 “Biological evaluation of medical devices – Part 14: Identification and quantification of degradation products from ceramics” in Tris HCl and citric acid buffer and the possible implications of ion release profile from glasses in different solutions has been discussed. The addition of strontium in glasses led to a 7-fold decrease in chemical degradation of glasses in Tris-HCl. The sintering of glass powders rendered glass-ceramics (GCs) with varying degree of crystallinity and good flexural strength (98-131 MPa) where the mechanical properties depend on the nature and amount of crystalline phases present in GCs.« less

  15. SBIR-Long fluoride fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Raymond E.; Vacha, Lubos J.

    1987-08-01

    This report summarizes results obtained under a program aimed at developing new techniques for fabricating long lengths of heavy metal fluoride glass (HMFG) optical fiber. A new method for overcladding conventional HMFG preforms with a low melting oxide glass was developed, and improvements in the rotational casting method were made to increase preform length. The resulting composite glass canes consist of a fluoride glass overcoat layer to enhance strength and chemical durability. To show feasibility, prototype optical fiber preforms up to 1.6 cm in diameter with lengths of 22 cm were fabricated. These were drawn into optical fibers with lengths up to 900 meters.

  16. Fluorine uptake into the human enamel surface from fluoride-containing sealing materials during cariogenic pH cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhiro, Matsuda; Katsushi, Okuyama; Hiroko, Yamamoto; Hisanori, Komatsu; Masashi, Koka; Takahiro, Sato; Naoki, Hashimoto; Saiko, Oki; Chiharu, Kawamoto; Hidehiko, Sano

    2015-04-01

    To prevent the formation of caries and reduce dentin hypersensitivity, sealing materials, either with or without fluoride, are generally applied on the tooth in clinical practice. Application of fluoride-free sealing materials results in the formation of an acid-resistant layer on the tooth surface. On the other hand, fluoride-containing sealing materials might not only form an acid-resistant layer but could possibly further provide fluoride to enhance remineralization and reduce demineralization. In this study, the demineralization prevention ability and fluorine uptake rate in human enamel of fluoride-containing sealing materials ["MS coats F" (MSF)] and fluoride-free sealing materials ("hybrid coats 2" [HI]) were evaluated using an automatic pH cycling system. Each material was applied to the original tooth surface, the cut surfaces were covered with sticky wax, and the automatic pH-cycling system simulated daily acid changes (pH 6.8-4.5) occurring in the oral cavity for 4 weeks. Caries progression was analyzed using transverse microradiography (TMR) taken pre and post the 4 weeks of pH cycling. The fluorine and calcium distributions in the carious lesion in each specimen were evaluated using the proton-induced gamma emission (PIGE) and proton-induced X-ray (PIXE) techniques, respectively. TMR analysis showed that both MSF and HI had a caries-preventing effect after 4 weeks of pH cycling. PIGE/PIXE analysis demonstrated that only MSF resulted in fluoride uptake in the enamel surface. Therefore, MSF can help to form an acid-resistant layer and provide fluoride to the enamel surface. The presence of fluoride on the enamel surface suggested that MSF could prevent demineralization, even if the acid-resistant layer was removed, in clinical settings. The data obtained using the PIGE and PIXE techniques are useful for understanding the benefits of the use of a fluoride-containing sealing material for preventing caries.

  17. Onsite defluoridation system for drinking water treatment using calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Wong, Elaine Y; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2018-06-15

    Fluoride in drinking water has several effects on teeth and bones. At concentrations of 1-1.5 mg/L, fluoride can strengthen enamel, improving dental health, but at concentrations above 1.5 to 4 mg/L can cause dental fluorosis. At concentrations of 4-10 mg/L, skeletal fluorosis can occur. There are many areas of the world that have excessive fluoride in drinking water, such as China, India, Sri Lanka, and the Rift Valley countries in Africa. Treatment solutions are needed, especially in poor areas where drinking water treatment plants are not available. On-site or individual treatment alternatives can be attractive if constructed from common materials and if simple enough to be constructed and maintained by users. Advanced on-site methods, such as under sink reserve osmosis units, can remove fluoride but are too expensive for developing areas. This paper investigates calcium carbonate as a cost effective sorbent for an onsite defluoridation drinking water system. Batch and column experiments were performed to characterize F - removal properties. Fluoride sorption was described by a Freundlich isotherm model, and it was found that the equilibrium time was approximately 3 h. Calcium carbonate was found to have comparable F - removal abilities as the commercial ion exchange resins and possessed higher removal effectiveness compared to calcium containing eggshells and seashells. It was also found that the anion Cl- did not compete with F - at typical drinking water concentrations, having little impact on the effectiveness of the treatment system. A fluoride removal system is proposed that can be used at home and can be maintained by users. Through this work, we can be a step closer to bringing safe drinking water to those that do not have access to it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Potable groundwater quality in some villages of Haryana, India: focus on fluoride.

    PubMed

    Bishnoi, Mukul; Arora, Shalu

    2007-04-01

    The fluoride concentration in ground water was determined in ten villages of Rohtak district of Haryana state (India). The fluoride concentration in the underground water of these villages varied from 0.034-2.09 mg/l. Various other water quality parameters, viz., pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved salts, total hardness, total alkalinity sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride and sulfate were also measured. A systematic calculation of correlation coefficients among different physicochemical parameters indicated considerable variations among the analyzed samples with respect to their chemical composition. Majority of the samples do not comply with Indian as well as WHO standards for most of the water quality parameters measured. Overall water quality was found unsatisfactory for drinking purposes. Fluoride content was higher than permissible limit in 50% samples.

  19. Ion release and in vitro enamel fluoride uptake associated with pit and fissure sealants containing microencapsulated remineralizing agents.

    PubMed

    Burbank, Brant D; Cooper, Ryan L; Kava, Alyssa; Hartjes, Jennifer M; McHale, William A; Latta, Mark A; Gross, Stephen M

    2017-04-01

    To determine if pit-and-fissure sealants with microencapsulated remineralizing agents with sustained release of fluoride, calcium and phosphate ions could promote enamel fluoride uptake by demineralized tooth structure. Sealants that contained 5 w/w% microcapsules with aqueous solutions of 5M Ca(NO3)2 or 0.8M NaF or 6.0M K2HPO4 or a mixture of all three were prepared. Ion release profiles were measured as a function of time. Enamel fluoride uptake by demineralized tooth structure was determined. Sustained release of fluoride, calcium and phosphate ions from a sealant was demonstrated. Fluoride uptake by demineralized enamel was significantly increased compared to a control sealant manufactured without microcapsules (P< 0.01). Bovine enamel that contained 2.2±2.1 µg F/g of enamel prior to exposure to a sealant without microcapsules had 2.3±0.5 after 90 days. Enamel exposed to sealant with 5w/% NaF microcapsules went from 3.5±3.5 µg F/g of enamel prior to exposure to 148±76 after 90 days. Enamel exposed to sealant with 2 w/w% NaF, 2 w/w% Ca(NO3)2 and 1 w/w% K2HPO4 microcapsules went from 1.7±0.7 µg F/g of enamel prior to exposure to 190±137 after 90 days. Sealants with encapsulated remineralizing agents were capable of releasing biologically available fluoride, calcium, and phosphate ions. Incorporation of these microcapsules in pit and fissure sealants is a promising method for remineralization determined by enamel fluoride uptake measurements.

  20. Toxic effects of fluoride on organisms.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Huan; Chen, Liang; Kong, Ming; Qiu, Lipeng; Lü, Peng; Wu, Peng; Yang, Yanhua; Chen, Keping

    2018-04-01

    Accumulation of excess fluoride in the environment poses serious health risks to plants, animals, and humans. This endangers human health, affects organism growth and development, and negatively impacts the food chain, thereby affecting ecological balance. In recent years, numerous studies focused on the molecular mechanisms associated with fluoride toxicity. These studies have demonstrated that fluoride can induce oxidative stress, regulate intracellular redox homeostasis, and lead to mitochondrial damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress and alter gene expression. This paper reviews the present research on the potential adverse effects of overdose fluoride on various organisms and aims to improve our understanding of fluoride toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Thirty years of fluoridation: a review.

    PubMed

    Richmond, V L

    1985-01-01

    Fluoride contributes to stability of both teeth and bones and to reduction of caries, especially if ingested before eruption of teeth. Reduction of caries continues at about 60% in persons drinking fluoridated water only as long as fluoride washes over teeth. One-half the population of the US does not have access to water with an optimal fluoride concentration of about 1 mg/L. Misinformation about fluoridation contributes to reluctance of communities to supplement the natural but inadequate fluoride of those water supplies. Fluoridation of water has no positive or negative effect on incidence or mortality rates due to cancer, heart disease, intracranial lesions, nephritis, cirrhosis, mongoloid births, or from all causes together. The collective decision to increase the natural fluoride content of water supplies is not an infringement of civil rights, nor does it establish a precedent in the binding sense of the law. Supplemental fluoride in water makes it available to all members of the community in a safe, practical, economical and reliable manner. Fluoridation saves money in dental costs and time lost from work. Fluoridation is an appropriate action of government in promoting the health and welfare of society.

  2. Special Report: Fluoridation of Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hileman, Bette

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the controversy regarding water fluoridation in the United States during the last 50 years. Discusses the current status; benefits; and health risks including skeletal fluorosis, kidney disease, hypersensitivity, mutagenic effects, birth defects, and cancer. Presents statistics and anecdotal accounts. (CW)

  3. The effect of fluoridation and its discontinuation on fluoride profiles in the alveolar bone of rat.

    PubMed

    Ohmi, Kyohei; Nakagaki, Haruo; Tsuboi, Shinji; Okumura, Akihiro; Sugiyama, Tomoko; Thuy, Tran Thu; Robinson, Colin

    2005-10-01

    We investigated the effect of fluoridation and its discontinuation on fluoride content in the alveolar portion of the mandible in rats. Drinking water with three different fluoride contents (0, 50, 100 ppmF) was given to rats for three different periods (4, 13 and 25 weeks). Fluoride concentrations were measured in the crest, the middle, and the apical parts of the alveolar bone and in the body of the mandible. Furthermore, after fluoridated drinking water was given to rats for 4 or 13 weeks, distilled water was given to them for 21 or 12 weeks respectively; and the effect of the discontinuation on fluoride profiles was investigated. Layer samples were analyzed by abrasive microsampling. Fluoride and phosphorus concentrations were determined by ion-specific electrode and colorimetric procedures, respectively. There was an increase in fluoride concentrations in the mandible in proportion to the fluoride content in the drinking water and the duration of fluoridation. After fluoridation was discontinued, fluoride concentrations in the surface layers of the mandible presented a decrease. Among the four different parts of the mandible, the upper part of the alveolar bone and the alveolar crest part presented the highest rates of reduction. The relative reduction rate of fluoride concentration was closely related to the duration of discontinuation. The alveolar crest was affected most by the discontinuation of fluoridation, presenting the greatest reduction.

  4. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054) mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084) mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010) and 0.018 (SD 0.008) mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day) the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake. These results showed that

  5. Determining the optimal fluoride concentration in drinking water for fluoride endemic regions in South India.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Gopalan; Jaswanth, A; Gopalakrishnan, S; Siva Ilango, S; Aditya, G

    2009-10-01

    Fluoride ion in drinking water is known for both beneficial and detrimental effects on health. The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the intake of large quantities of fluoride through drinking water owing to more than 90% bioavailability. The objective of this study is to predict optimal fluoride level in drinking water for fluoride endemic regions by comprising the levels of fluoride and other water quality parameters in drinking water, prevalence of fluorosis, fluoride intake through water, food and beverages such as tea and coffee and also considering the progressive accumulation of fluoride in animal bones, by comparing with non fluoride endemic areas comprise of the same geological features with the aid of regression analysis. Result of this study shows that increase of fluoride level above 1.33 mg/l in drinking water increases the community fluorosis index (CFI) value more than 0.6, an optimum index value above which fluorosis is considered to be a public health problem. Regression plot between water fluoride and bone fluoride levels indicates that, every increase of 0.5mg/l unit of water fluoride level increases the bone fluoride level of 52 mg/kg unit within 2 to 3 years. Furthermore, the consumption of drinking water containing more than 0.65 mg/l of fluoride can raise the total fluoride intake per day more than 4 mg, which is the optimum fluoride dose level recommended for adults by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. From the result, the people in fluoride endemic areas in South India are advised to consume drinking water with fluoride level within the limit of 0.5 to 0.65 mg/l to avoid further fluorosis risk.

  6. Bioactivity of Sodium Free Fluoride Containing Glasses and Glass-Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaojing; Chen, Xiaohui; Brauer, Delia S.; Wilson, Rory M.; Hill, Robert G.; Karpukhina, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The bioactivity of a series of fluoride-containing sodium-free calcium and strontium phosphosilicate glasses has been tested in vitro. Glasses with high fluoride content were partially crystallised to apatite and other fluoride-containing phases. The bioactivity study was carried out in Tris and SBF buffers, and apatite formation was monitored by XRD, FTIR and solid state NMR. Ion release in solutions has been measured using ICP-OES and fluoride-ion selective electrode. The results show that glasses with low amounts of fluoride that were initially amorphous degraded rapidly in Tris buffer and formed apatite as early as 3 h after immersion. The apatite was identified as fluorapatite by 19F MAS-NMR after 6 h of immersion. Glass degradation and apatite formation was significantly slower in SBF solution compared to Tris. On immersion of the partially crystallised glasses, the fraction of apatite increased at 3 h compared to the amount of apatite prior to the treatment. Thus, partial crystallisation of the glasses has not affected bioactivity significantly. Fast dissolution of the amorphous phase was also indicated. There was no difference in kinetics between Tris and SBF studies when the glass was partially crystallised to apatite before immersion. Two different mechanisms of apatite formation for amorphous or partially crystallised glasses are discussed. PMID:28788139

  7. Preparation of fly ash based zeolite for removal of fluoride from drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Laxmidhar; Kar, Biswabandita; Dash, Subhakanta

    2018-05-01

    Fluoride contamination of drinking water is a worldwide phenomenon and scientists are working relentlessly to find ways to remove fluoride from drinking water. Out of the different methods employed for removal fluoride from drinking water adsorption process is the most suitable because in this process the adsorbent is regenerated and the process is cost effective. In the present study fly ash is used as the raw material, which is treated with alkali (NaOH) to form NaP1 zeolite. This zeolite is then subjected to characterization by standard procedures. It is found that the synthesized zeolite has more crystalline character than the raw fly ash and has also more voids and channels on its surface. The surface of the synthesized zeolite is modified with calcium chloride and the same is employed for removal of fluoride under varying pH, contact time, initial concentration of fluoride, temperature and adsorbent dose etc so as to assess the suitably or otherwise of the synthesized product.

  8. Amelogenin-assisted ex vivo remineralization of human enamel: effects of supersaturation degree and fluoride concentration

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yuwei; Nelson, James R.; Alvarez, Jason R.; Hagan, Joseph; Berrier, Allison; Xu, Xiaoming

    2011-01-01

    The formation of organized nanocrystals that resemble enamel is crucial for successful enamel remineralization. Calcium, phosphate and fluoride ions and amelogenin are important ingredients for the formation of organized hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystals in vitro. However, the effects of these remineralization agents on the enamel crystal morphology have not been thoroughly studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fluoride ions, supersaturation degree and amelogenin on the crystal morphology and organization of ex vivo remineralized human enamel. Extracted third molars were sliced thin and acid-etched to provide the enamel surface for immersion in different remineralization solutions. The crystal morphology and mineral phase of the remineralized enamel surface were analyzed by FE-SEM, ATR-FTIR and XRD. The concentration of fluoride and supersaturation degree of hydroxyapatite had significant effects on the crystal morphology and crystal organization, which varied from plate-like loose crystals to rod-like densely packed nanocrystal arrays. Densely packed arrays of fluoridated hydroxyapatite nanorods were observed under the following conditions: σ(HAP) = 10.2±2.0 with fluoride 1.5±0.5 mg/L and amelogenin 40±10 µg/mL, pH 6.8±0.4. A phase diagram summarized the conditions that form dense or loose hydroxyapatite nanocrystal structures. This study provides the basis for the development of novel dental materials for caries management. PMID:21256987

  9. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used... fluoride resins consist of basic resins produced by the polymerization of vinylidene fluoride. (b) The...

  10. Development of a sustained fluoride delivery system.

    PubMed

    Baturina, Olga; Tufekci, Eser; Guney-Altay, Ozge; Khan, Shadeed M; Wnek, Gary E; Lindauer, Steven J

    2010-11-01

    To develop a novel delivery system by which fluoride incorporated into elastomeric rings, such as those used to ligate orthodontic wires, will be released in a controlled and constant manner. Polyethylene co-vinyl acetate (PEVA) was used as the model elastomer. Samples (N = 3) were prepared by incorporating 0.02 to 0.4 g of sodium fluoride (NaF) into previously prepared PEVA solution. Another group of samples prepared in the same manner were additionally dip-coated in PEVA to create an overcoat. Fluoride release studies were conducted in vitro using an ion selective electrode over a period of 45 days. The amount of fluoride released was compared to the optimal therapeutic dose of 0.7 microg F(-)/ring/d. Only coated samples with the highest fluoride content (group D, 0.4 g of NaF) were able to release fluoride at therapeutic levels. When fluoride release from coated and uncoated samples with the same amount of NaF were compared, it was shown that the dip-coating technique resulted in a fluoride release in a controlled manner while eliminating the initial burst effect. This novel fluoride delivery matrix provided fluoride release at a therapeutically effective rate and profile.

  11. Focus on Fluorides: Update on the Use of Fluoride for the Prevention of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Clifton M.

    2014-01-01

    Declarative Title: Improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies reduces dental caries and lowers fluoride exposure. Background Fluoride is delivered to the teeth systemically or topically to aid in the prevention of dental caries. Systemic fluoride from ingested sources is in blood serum and can be deposited only in teeth that are forming in children. Topical fluoride is from sources such as community water, processed foods, beverages, toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, foams, and varnishes. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Dental Association (ADA) have proposed changes in their long standing recommendations for the amount of fluoride in community drinking water in response to concerns about an increasing incidence of dental fluorosis in children. Current research is focused on the development of strategies to improve fluoride efficacy. The purpose of this update is to inform the reader about new research and policies related to the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Methods Reviews of the current research and recent evidence based systematic reviews on the topics of fluoride are presented. Topics discussed include: updates on community water fluoridation research and policies; available fluoride in dentifrices; fluoride varnish compositions, use, and recommendations; and other fluoride containing dental products. This update provides insights into current research and discusses proposed policy changes for the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Conclusions The dental profession is adjusting their recommendations for fluoride use based on current observations of the halo effect and subsequent outcomes. The research community is focused on improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies thus reducing dental caries and lowering the amount of fluoride required for efficacy. PMID:24929594

  12. Focus on fluorides: update on the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Carey, Clifton M

    2014-06-01

    Improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies reduces dental caries and lowers fluoride exposure. Fluoride is delivered to the teeth systemically or topically to aid in the prevention of dental caries. Systemic fluoride from ingested sources is in blood serum and can be deposited only in teeth that are forming in children. Topical fluoride is from sources such as community water, processed foods, beverages, toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, foams, and varnishes. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Dental Association (ADA) have proposed changes in their long standing recommendations for the amount of fluoride in community drinking water in response to concerns about an increasing incidence of dental fluorosis in children. Current research is focused on the development of strategies to improve fluoride efficacy. The purpose of this update is to inform the reader about new research and policies related to the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Reviews of the current research and recent evidence based systematic reviews on the topics of fluoride are presented. Topics discussed include: updates on community water fluoridation research and policies; available fluoride in dentifrices; fluoride varnish compositions, use, and recommendations; and other fluoride containing dental products. This update provides insights into current research and discusses proposed policy changes for the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. The dental profession is adjusting their recommendations for fluoride use based on current observations of the halo effect and subsequent outcomes. The research community is focused on improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies thus reducing dental caries and lowering the amount of fluoride required for efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Eukaryotic resistance to fluoride toxicity mediated by a widespread family of fluoride export proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Sanshu; Smith, Kathryn D; Davis, Jared H; Gordon, Patricia B; Breaker, Ronald R; Strobel, Scott A

    2013-11-19

    Fluorine is an abundant element and is toxic to organisms from bacteria to humans, but the mechanisms by which eukaryotes resist fluoride toxicity are unknown. The Escherichia coli gene crcB was recently shown to be regulated by a fluoride-responsive riboswitch, implicating it in fluoride response. There are >8,000 crcB homologs across all domains of life, indicating that it has an important role in biology. Here we demonstrate that eukaryotic homologs [renamed FEX (fluoride exporter)] function in fluoride export. FEX KOs in three eukaryotic model organisms, Neurospora crassa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans, are highly sensitized to fluoride (>200-fold) but not to other halides. Some of these KO strains are unable to grow in fluoride concentrations found in tap water. Using the radioactive isotope of fluoride, (18)F, we developed an assay to measure the intracellular fluoride concentration and show that the FEX deletion strains accumulate fluoride in excess of the external concentration, providing direct evidence of FEX function in fluoride efflux. In addition, they are more sensitive to lower pH in the presence of fluoride. These results demonstrate that eukaryotic FEX genes encode a previously unrecognized class of fluoride exporter necessary for survival in standard environmental conditions.

  14. Eukaryotic resistance to fluoride toxicity mediated by a widespread family of fluoride export proteins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sanshu; Smith, Kathryn D.; Davis, Jared H.; Gordon, Patricia B.; Breaker, Ronald R.; Strobel, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorine is an abundant element and is toxic to organisms from bacteria to humans, but the mechanisms by which eukaryotes resist fluoride toxicity are unknown. The Escherichia coli gene crcB was recently shown to be regulated by a fluoride-responsive riboswitch, implicating it in fluoride response. There are >8,000 crcB homologs across all domains of life, indicating that it has an important role in biology. Here we demonstrate that eukaryotic homologs [renamed FEX (fluoride exporter)] function in fluoride export. FEX KOs in three eukaryotic model organisms, Neurospora crassa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida albicans, are highly sensitized to fluoride (>200-fold) but not to other halides. Some of these KO strains are unable to grow in fluoride concentrations found in tap water. Using the radioactive isotope of fluoride, 18F, we developed an assay to measure the intracellular fluoride concentration and show that the FEX deletion strains accumulate fluoride in excess of the external concentration, providing direct evidence of FEX function in fluoride efflux. In addition, they are more sensitive to lower pH in the presence of fluoride. These results demonstrate that eukaryotic FEX genes encode a previously unrecognized class of fluoride exporter necessary for survival in standard environmental conditions. PMID:24173035

  15. 76 FR 37129 - Determination That SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (Sodium Fluoride F-18) Injection, 10 to 200 Millicuries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ...] Determination That SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 (Sodium Fluoride F-18) Injection, 10 to 200 Millicuries per Milliliter... FLUORIDE F 18 (sodium fluoride F-18) injection, 10 to 200 millicuries per milliliter (mCi/mL), was not... abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for SODIUM FLUORIDE F 18 injection, 10 to 200 mCi/mL, if all other...

  16. Silicon oxidation in fluoride solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sancier, K. M.; Kapur, V.

    1980-01-01

    Silicon is produced in a NaF, Na2SiF6, and Na matrix when SiF4 is reduced by metallic sodium. Hydrogen is evolved during acid leaching to separate the silicon from the accompanying reaction products, NaF and Na2SiF6. The hydrogen evolution reaction was studied under conditions simulating leaching conditions by making suspensions of the dry silicon powder in aqueous fluoride solutions. The mechanism for the hydrogen evolution is discussed in terms of spontaneous oxidation of silicon resulting from the cooperative effects of (1) elemental sodium in the silicon that reacts with water to remove a protective silica layer, leaving clean reactive silicon, and (2) fluoride in solution that complexes with the oxidized silicon in solution and retards formation of a protective hydrous oxide gel.

  17. DISSOLUTION OF LANTHANUM FLUORIDE PRECIPITATES

    DOEpatents

    Fries, B.A.

    1959-11-10

    A plutonium separatory ore concentration procedure involving the use of a fluoride type of carrier is presented. An improvement is given in the derivation step in the process for plutonium recovery by carrier precipitation of plutonium values from solution with a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate and subsequent derivation from the resulting plutonium bearing carrier precipitate of an aqueous acidic plutonium-containing solution. The carrier precipitate is contacted with a concentrated aqueous solution of potassium carbonate to effect dissolution therein of at least a part of the precipitate, including the plutonium values. Any remaining precipitate is separated from the resulting solution and dissolves in an aqueous solution containing at least 20% by weight of potassium carbonate. The reacting solutions are combined, and an alkali metal hydroxide added to a concentration of at least 2N to precipitate lanthanum hydroxide concomitantly carrying plutonium values.

  18. Contamination of fluoride in groundwater and its effect on human health: a case study in hard rock aquifers of Siddipet, Telangana State, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narsimha, A.; Sudarshan, V.

    2017-09-01

    Hydrogeochemical investigation has been carried out in the granitic terrain of Siddipet area, Medak district, Telangana State, India with an aim to understand the distribution of fluoride in the groundwater and to understand the relationship of fluoride with other major ions, and also to identify the high fluoride-bearing groundwater zones. 104 groundwater samples were analyzed in the study area for fluoride and other major ions like calcium, magnesium, chloride, carbonate, bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, sulfate, and nitrate in addition to pH and electrical conductivity. The studies revealed that the concentration of fluoride in groundwater is ranging from 0.2 to 2.2 mg L-1 with a mean of 1.1 mg L-1. Nearly 22 % of groundwater has more than the permissible limit of fluoride (1.5 mg L-1), which is responsible for the endemic dental fluorosis in the area concerned. Geochemical classification of groundwater shows that Na-HCO3, Ca-Cl, and Ca-HCO3-Na are the dominant hydrochemical facies. Gibbs diagram shows rock-water interaction dominance and evaporation dominance, which are responsible for the change in the quality of water in the hard rock aquifer of the study area. The groundwater in villages and its environs are affected by fluoride contamination, and consequently majority of the population living in these villages suffer from dental fluorosis. Hence, they are advised to consume drinking water which has less than 1.5 mg L-1 fluoride to avoid further fluorosis risks.

  19. Fluoride Supplementation Adherence and Barriers in a Community Without Water Fluoridation.

    PubMed

    Flood, Shannon; Asplund, Karin; Hoffman, Benjamin; Nye, Allison; Zuckerman, Katharine E

    2017-04-01

    To prevent early childhood caries, the American Dental Association recommends oral fluoride supplementation for children in communities lacking water fluoridation who are at high caries risk. However, patient adherence to oral fluoride supplementation has not been studied in this population. This study assessed adherence to oral fluoride and barriers to adherence in a community lacking water fluoridation. A self-administered survey was completed in a systematic sample of 209 parents of children aged 6 months to 4 years, during a primary care visit in an urban academic medical center. Participants reported frequency of administering oral fluoride to their children, as well as agreement or disagreement with proposed barriers to supplementation. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess adherence with oral supplementation and the association of barriers to supplementation and child receipt of fluoride on the day before. More than half of parents either had not or did not know if their child had received fluoride on the day before. Approximately 1 in 4 of parents had given fluoride in 0 of the previous 7 days. Difficulty remembering to give fluoride and agreeing that the child does not need extra fluoride were associated with not receiving fluoride on the day before. Adherence to oral fluoride supplementation in the primary care setting is low. Difficulty remembering to give fluoride daily is the greatest barrier to adherence. Further research on interventions to reduce common barriers is needed to increase fluoride administration and reduce early childhood caries in communities lacking water fluoridation. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Versatile fluoride substrates for Fe-based superconducting thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, F.; Reich, E.; Hänisch, J.; Ichinose, A.; Tsukada, I.; Hühne, R.; Trommler, S.; Engelmann, J.; Schultz, L.; Holzapfel, B.; Iida, K.

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate the growth of Co-doped BaFe2As2 (Ba-122) thin films on CaF2 (001), SrF2 (001), and BaF2 (001) single crystal substrates using pulsed laser deposition. All films are grown epitaxially despite of a large misfit of -10.6% for BaF2 substrate. For all films, a reaction layer is formed at the interface confirmed by X-ray diffraction and for the films grown on CaF2 and BaF2 additionally by transmission electron microscopy. The superconducting transition temperature of the film on CaF2 is around 27 K, whereas the corresponding values of the films on SrF2 and BaF2 are around 22 K and 21 K, respectively. The Ba-122 on CaF2 shows almost identical crystalline quality and superconducting properties as films on Fe-buffered MgO.

  1. Fluoride-Containing Metabolites after Methoxyflurane Anesthesia,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Methoxyflurane (2,2-dichloro-1,1-difluoroethyl methyl ether) has been used for about 12 years for analgesia and anesthesia in surgery and obstetrics...Interest in methoxyflurane fluorometabolites arose when markedly elevated serum fluoride concentrations in a nephrotoxic patient were traced to the...use of methoxyflurane anesthesia for surgery. These high fluoride levels were peculiar in that the ionselective fluoride electrode did not detect a

  2. FLUORIDATION CHEMISTRY: EQUILIBRIA AND KINETICS OF FLUORIDE AND FLUORO-COMPLEXES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most common fluoridating agents used by major American waterworks are hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6) and sodium hexxafluorosilicate (Na2SiF6). According to the 1992 Water Fluoridation Census where 10,002 utilities responded affirmatively to fluoridating their water, 59
    % ...

  3. Application of response surface methodology for optimization of biosorption of fluoride from groundwater using Shorea robusta flower petal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, G.; Kumari, M.; Adhikari, K.; Dutta, S.

    2017-12-01

    Fluoride pollution in groundwater is a major concern in rural areas. The flower petal of Shorea robusta, commonly known as sal tree, is used in the present study both in its native form and Ca-impregnated activated form to eradicate excess fluoride from simulated wastewater. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for experimental designing and analyzing optimum condition for carbonization vis-à-vis calcium impregnation for preparation of adsorbent. During carbonization, temperature, time and weight ratio of calcium chloride to sal flower petal (SFP) have been considered as input factors and percentage removal of fluoride as response. Optimum condition for carbonization has been obtained as temperature, 500 °C; time, 1 h and weight ratio, 2.5 and the sample prepared has been termed as calcium-impregnated carbonized sal flower petal (CCSFP). Optimum condition as analyzed by one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method is initial fluoride concentration, 2.91 mg/L; pH 3 and adsorbent dose, 4 g/L. CCSFP shows maximum removal of 98.5% at this condition. RSM has also been used for finding out optimum condition for defluoridation considering initial concentration, pH and adsorbent dose as input parameters. The optimum condition as analyzed by RSM is: initial concentration, 5 mg/L; pH 3.5 and adsorbent dose, 2 g/L. Kinetic and equilibrium data follow Ho pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Freundlich isotherm model, respectively. Adsorption capacity of CCSFP has been found to be 5.465 mg/g. At optimized condition, CCSFP has been found to remove fluoride (80.4%) efficiently from groundwater collected from Bankura district in West Bengal, a fluoride-contaminated province in India.

  4. Efficacy of Concomitant Therapy with Fluoride and Chlorhexidine Varnish on Remineralization of Incipient Lesions in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Shobha; Nayak, Rashmi; Ratnanag, P Venkat; Prajapati, Deepesh; Kamath, Namitha

    2016-01-01

    Aim To assess the effect of combined use of chlorhexidine and fluoride varnish on the remineralization of incipient carious lesions in young children. Materials and methods Twenty caries-active children (80 lesions) were randomly divided into four groups and subjected to initial examination. Caries status was assessed visually and with the aid of DIAGNOdent. Baseline enamel biopsies were obtained. Subjects of groups I and II received fluoride and chlorhexidine varnish respectively. Group III received both fluoride and chlorhexidine varnish alternatively, for a period of 4 weeks. Group IV served as the control. At 3-month follow-up, the incipient lesions were assessed again with DIAGNOdent and enamel biopsy. Results Increased calcium, phosphate, and fluoride levels were noticed in groups I, II, III compared to group IV, at the 3-month follow-up (p < 0.001). Conclusion The combined therapy with fluoride and chlorhex-idine varnish may be considered an alternative therapy for early reversal of incipient lesions. How to cite this article Naidu S, Tandon S, Nayak R, Ratnanag PV, Prajapati D, Kamath N. Efficacy of Concomitant Therapy with Fluoride and Chlorhexidine Varnish on Remineralization of Incipient Lesions in Young Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):296-302. PMID:28127159

  5. Fluoride occurrence in the groundwater in a coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Subba; Rao, P. Surya; Dinakar, A.; Rao, P. V. Nageswara; Marghade, Deepali

    2017-06-01

    Fluoride (F-) content varies from 0.60 to 1.80 mg/L in the coastal region between Chirala and Ongole of Andhra Pradesh, India. It exceeds the threshold limit of 1.20 mg/L in 20 % of the total groundwater samples. The aim of the present study is to assess the controlling factors of F- content. The study area experiences a dry climate and is underlain by Charnockite Group of rocks over which the river and coastal alluvium occur. The results of the study identify the four factors that control the high F- content. First one is related to alkalinity, leading to active dissolution and leaching of F--bearing minerals, which supports the positive correlation of F- with pH and HCO3 -. A longer water residence time in the clays is the second factor, which activates not only solubility and dissolution of F--bearing minerals, but also anion exchange between F- and OH-. Third factor is a result of higher Na+ due to impact of saline water, ion exchange between Na+ and Ca2+, and precipitation of CaCO3. This reduces the Ca2+ content, causing dissolution of CaF2 to maintain the chemical equilibria, which is supported by positive correlation between Na2+ and F-. The influence of anthropogenic activities is the last factor, which acts as an additional source of F-. Thus, the shallow groundwater shows higher content of F- and the hydrogeochemical facies also support this hypothesis. The study suggests the remedial measures to reduce the F- content.

  6. Fluoride barriers in Nb/Pb Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, H.; Tanabe, K.; Michikami, O.; Igarashi, M.; Beasley, M. R.

    1985-03-01

    Josephson tunnel junctions are fabricated using a new class of artificial barriers, metal fluorides (Al fluoride and Zr fluoride). These fluoride barriers are deposited on the surface of a Nb base electrode, which are previously cleaned using a CF4 cleaning process, and covered by a Pb counterelectrode. The junctions with both Al fluoride and Zr fluoride barriers exhibit good tunneling characteristics and have low specific capacitance. In the case of Zr fluoride, it is observed that reasonable resistances are obtained even at thickness greater than 100 A. This phenomenon might be explained by tunneling via localized states in Zr fluoride.

  7. Fluorescent Sensing of Fluoride in Cellular System

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yang; Zhu, Baocun; Chen, Jihua; Duan, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride ions have the important roles in a lot of physiological activities related with biological and medical system, such as water fluoridation, caries treatment, and bone disease treatment. Great efforts have been made to develop new methods and strategies for F- detection in the past decades. Traditional methods for the detection of F- including ion chromatography, ion-selective electrodes, and spectroscopic techniques have the limitations in the biomedicine research. The fluorescent probes for F- are very promising that overcome some drawbacks of traditional fluoride detection methods. These probes exhibit high selectivity, high sensitivity as well as quick response to the detection of fluoride anions. The review commences with a brief description of photophysical mechanisms for fluorescent probes for fluoride, including photo induced electron transfer (PET), intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). Followed by a discussion about common dyes for fluorescent fluoride probes, such as anthracene, naphalimide, pyrene, BODIPY, fluorescein, rhodamine, resorufin, coumarin, cyanine, and near-infrared (NIR) dyes. We divide the fluorescent probes for fluoride in cellular application systems into nine groups, for example, type of hydrogen bonds, type of cleavage of Si-O bonds, type of Si-O bond cleavage and cylization reactions, etc. We also review the recent reported carriers in the delivery of fluorescent fluoride probes. Seventy-four typical fluorescent fluoride probes are listed and compared in detail, including quantum yield, reaction medium, excitation and emission wavelengths, linear detection range, selectivity for F-, mechanism, and analytical applications. Finally, we discuss the future challenges of the application of fluorescent fluoride probes in cellular system and in vivo. We wish that more and more excellent fluorescent fluoride probes will be developed

  8. Calcium source (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  9. Calcium and bones (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  10. Calcium and Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... A calcium-rich diet (including dairy, nuts, leafy greens and fish) helps to build and protect your bones. Calcium is a mineral that is necessary for life. In addition to building bones and keeping them healthy, calcium enables our ...

  11. Fluoride and apatite formation in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Aoba, Takaaki; Shimazu, Yoshihito; Taya, Yuji; Soeno, Yuuichi; Sato, Kaori; Miake, Yasuo

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, the biomineralization process has attracted much interest from academics and industries for potential technological application. The rule in biomineralization is to have a variety of interfaces and surfaces which can act as nucleators. The ultimate step in any biomineralization process, i.e. the deposition of mineral, must conform to the driving forces operating on the system. A new paradigm in the assessment of the driving force for biomineralization is that a variety of ions existing in the mineralizing milieu are not a bystander, but are instead an active player that directly regulates the precipitation process and nature of biogenic apatites. Thus, the most putative stoichiometric model of a biomineral is (Ca)(5-x)(Mg)q(Na)u(HPO4)v(CO3)w(PO4)(3-y)(OH,F)(1-z). Fluoride participates in many aspects of calcium phosphate formation in vivo and has enormous effects on its process and on the nature and properties of the final products. In the development of biogenic apatites, fluoride ion in the mineralizing media is supposed to accelerate the hydrolysis of acidic precursor(s) and increase the growth rates by augmenting the driving force for precipitation. Inhibitory activities of ions and molecules are related to their adsorption onto the apatite surfaces. From theoretical and practical points of view, it is of paramount importance to elucidate and predict the effect and outcome of fluoride (accelerator) and inhibitors of biological relevance, because of their use in combination for healthcare in dentistry and medicine, e.g. prevention of dental caries and calculus deposition and in the formulation of antiosteoporosis treatments.

  12. Geochemistry of fluoride in the Black Creek aquifer system of Horry and Georgetown Counties, South Carolina--and its physiological implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zack, Allen L.

    1980-01-01

    High concentrations of fluoride in ground-water supplies in certain areas of Horry and Georgetown Counties, S.C., have been the cause of dental fluorosis (tooth mottling) among persons who have lived in these areas and have ingested the water as children. Geochemical evidence and laboratory experiments demonstrate that fluorapatite in the form of fossil shark teeth is the source of fluoride, and that the fluoride ions are liberated to the ground-water system through anion exchange, rather than by dissolution. Calcite-cemented quartz sand in the upper third of the Black Creek Formation of Late Cretaceous age contains the fossil shark teeth. As ground water progresses downdip, the calcite matrix dissolves and hydrolyzes, releasing bicarbonate, hydroxyl, and calcium ions. The calcium ions are immediately exchanged for sodium ions adsorbed on sodium-rich clays, and the bicarbonate ions accumulate. As the shark teeth are exposed, the hydroxyl ions in solution exchange with fluoride ions on fluorapatite surfaces. Experiments using fossil shark teeth show that sodium chloride in solution inhibits the rate of exchange of fluoride ions from tooth surfaces for hydroxyl ions in solution. The amount of fluoride removed from water and exchanged for hydroxyl ions in the presence of pure hydroxylapatite (hog teeth) was greater in saline water than in freshwater.

  13. Fluoride effects: the two faces of janus.

    PubMed

    Gazzano, E; Bergandi, L; Riganti, C; Aldieri, E; Doublier, S; Costamagna, C; Bosia, A; Ghigo, D

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of fluoride ions in the human organism is a classic example of double-edged sword. On the one hand the daily supplementation with fluoride is undoubtedly an important preventing factor in protecting teeth from caries, and, as an important mitogenic stimulus for osteoblasts, it may enhance mineral deposition in bone, but on the other hand fluoride, above a threshold concentration, has been demonstrated to be toxic. We present here a brief review of fluoride metabolism and exposure, its use in caries prevention and its effects on bone, followed by an updating about the main hypotheses concerning its mechanism of action and toxicity. The effects of fluoride have been related mainly to its ability to evoke the activation of G proteins and the inhibition of phosphotyrosine phosphatases, leading to an intracellular increase of tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and its capacity to cause generation of reactive oxygen species. We present also a unifying hypothesis accounting for these apparently different effects, although the available experimental models and conditions are highly variable in the literature. A lot of experiments still need to be performed to clarify the positive and negative effects of fluoride. Finding the mechanisms accounting for fluoride toxicity is an important point: indeed, the use of fluoride has been proposed in the preparation of new biomaterials to be inserted in the bone, in order to improve their stable and safe integration.

  14. Method of making porous ceramic fluoride

    DOEpatents

    Reiner, Robert H.; Holcombe, Cressie E.

    1990-01-01

    A process for making a porous ceramic composite where fumed silica particles are coated with a nitrate, preferably aluminum nitrate. Next the nitrate is converted to an oxide and formed into a desired configuration. This configuration is heated to convert the oxide to an oxide silicate which is then react with HF, resulting in the fluoride ceramic, preferably aluminum fluoride.

  15. The effect on human salivary fluoride concentration of consuming fluoridated salt-containing baked food items.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, L M; Stephen, K W

    2001-10-01

    Salt fluoridation is recognised world-wide as a proven and viable alternative means of consumer choice-related, community-based fluoridation where water fluoridation is either technically or politically impossible. However, as most salt consumed is contained within cooked food products, rather than sprinkled over prepared food at the table, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on salivary fluoride concentration of consuming baked food products prepared with 250 and 350 ppm fluoridated salt (as KF). Six food items were baked with (a) normal non-fluoridated salt, (b) 250 mg F/kg salt and (c) 350 mg F/kg salt. Eleven adult volunteers consumed these foodstuffs on separate occasions and salivary samples were collected for fluoride analyses before and at various time points (1-30 min) after eating. For most foodstuffs, small but significant increases in salivary fluoride concentration occurred for at least 5 min after ingestion of the fluoridated salt-containing items. Salivary fluoride concentrations peaked 1 or 2 min after eating, with highest values for the six test foods ranging from 0.16 to 0.25 ppm F, and from 0.18 to 0.44 ppm F for the 250 and 350 mg F/kg salt products, respectively. In all cases, salivary fluoride concentrations had returned to baseline by 20 min. The clinical significance of such small, short-term increases in salivary fluoride is uncertain, but the findings suggest that a more frequent intake of foods with fluoridated salt substituted for normal salt could help sustain slightly elevated salivary fluoride concentrations for more prolonged periods of the day, and might thus potentiate the cariostatic effects of saliva on tooth mineral.

  16. Discovery of Interstellar Hydrogen Fluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; Schilke, Peter; Phillips, Thomas G.

    1997-01-01

    We report the first detection of interstellar hydrogen fluoride. Using the Long Wavelength Spectrometer of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), we have detected the 121.6973 micron J = 2-1 line of HF in absorption toward the far-infrared continuum source Sagittarius B2. The detection is statistically significant at the 13 sigma level. On the basis of our model for the excitation of HF in Sgr B2, the observed line equivalent width of 1.0 nm implies a hydrogen fluoride abundance of about 3 x 10 (exp -10) relative to H, If the elemental abundance of fluorine in Sgr B2 is the same as that in the solar system, then HF accounts for about 2% of the total number of fluorine nuclei. We expect hydrogen fluoride to be the dominant reservoir of gas-phase fluorine in Sgr B2, because it is formed rapidly in exothermic reactions of atomic fluorine with either water or molecular hydrogen; thus, the measured HF abundance suggests a substantial depletion of fluorine onto dust grains. Similar conclusions regarding depletion have previously been reached for the case of chlorine in dense interstellar clouds. We also find evidence at a lower level of statistical significance (about 5 sigma) for an emission feature at the expected position of the 4(sub 32)-4(sub 23) 121.7219 micron line of water. The emission-line equivalent width of 0.5 mm for the water feature is consistent with the water abundance of 5 x 10(exp -6) relative to H, that has been inferred previously from observations of the hot core of Sgr B2.

  17. Discovery of Interstellar Hydrogen Fluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas; Schilke, Peter; Phillips, Thomas G.

    1997-01-01

    We report the first detection of interstellar hydrogen fluoride. Using the Long Wavelength Spectrometer of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), we have detected the 121.6973 micron J = 2-1 line of HF in absorption toward the far-infrared continuum source Sagittarius B2. The detection is statistically significant at the 13 sigma level. On the basis of our model for the excitation of HF in Sgr B2, the observed line equivalent width of 1.0 nm implies a hydrogen fluoride abundance of approximately 3 x 10(exp -10) relative to H2. If the elemental abundance of fluorine in Sgr B2 is the same as that in the solar system, then HF accounts for approximately 2% of the total number of fluorine nuclei. We expect hydrogen fluoride to be the dominant reservoir of gas-phase fluorine in Sgr B2, because it is formed rapidly in exothermic reactions of atomic fluorine with either water or molecular hydrogen; thus, the measured HF abundance suggests a substantial depletion of fluorine onto dust grains. Similar conclusions regarding depletion have previously been reached for the case of chlorine in dense interstellar clouds. We also find evidence at a lower level of statistical significance (approximately 5 sigma) for an emission feature at the expected position of the 4(sub 32)-4(sub 23) 121.7219 micron line of water. The emission-line equivalent width of 0.5 nm for the water feature is consistent with the water abundance of 5 x 10(exp -6) relative to H2 that has been inferred previously from observations of the hot core of Sgr B2.

  18. An Assessment of Bone Fluoride and Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, F.M.; Hayes, C.; Williams, P.L.; Whitford, G.M.; Joshipura, K.J.; Hoover, R.N.; Douglass, C.W.

    2011-01-01

    The association between fluoride and risk for osteosarcoma is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine if bone fluoride levels are higher in individuals with osteosarcoma. Incident cases of osteosarcoma (N = 137) and tumor controls (N = 51) were identified by orthopedic physicians, and segments of tumor-adjacent bone and iliac crest bone were analyzed for fluoride content. Logistic regression adjusted for age and sex and potential confounders of osteosarcoma was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). There was no significant difference in bone fluoride levels between cases and controls. The OR adjusted for age, gender, and a history of broken bones was 1.33 (95% CI: 0.56-3.15). No significant association between bone fluoride levels and osteosarcoma risk was detected in our case-control study, based on controls with other tumor diagnoses. PMID:21799046

  19. Sodium fluoride in otosclerosis treatment: review.

    PubMed

    Cruise, A S; Singh, A; Quiney, R E

    2010-06-01

    To review the current literature on the use of sodium fluoride in the treatment of otosclerosis. A literature review was conducted, searching the Medline and PubMed database from 1966 to 2009, using the terms 'otosclerosis' and 'fluoride'. Article abstracts were reviewed and relevant full articles acquired. There has been only one double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the use of sodium fluoride in otosclerosis patients, and this found a reduced incidence of deterioration in hearing after two years in the treatment group. Several case-control series have described a hearing benefit in the sodium fluoride treated group. Treatment doses vary greatly, and there is no evidence regarding the optimum duration of treatment. There is low quality evidence suggesting that sodium fluoride may be of benefit to preserve hearing and reduce vestibular symptoms in patients with otosclerosis.

  20. Operating experiences with electrolytes containing lithium fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, Günther

    1971-12-01

    Additions of lithium salts to the cryolite bath of horizontal stud Soederberg cells have been tested for the last 10 years, at first with some pilot cells and then with full potlines of 35 and 40 kamp cells. Under special conditions, economic benefits result. Voltage, power, anode paste, and fluorine electrolyte consumptions are lower; current efficiency is increased. On the other hand, more attention is necessary in pot operations because the alumina solubility is reduced. The addition of a readily soluble alumina is advantageous. The LiF-content in the electrolyte seems to be limited according to type of pot to 2 to 5 pct. Type and method of adding the lithium salts affect the consumption of lithium salts. The influence of supplementary additions, as CaF2, KF, MgF2, and NaCl, will be discussed.

  1. Analysis of Phone Calls Regarding Fluoride Exposure made to New Jersey Poison Control Center from 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sneha; Quek, Samuel; Ruck, Bruce

    2016-02-01

    ,671). Based on the data, there were no reports of lethality or toxicity due to acute fluoride exposure in New Jersey from 2010 through 2012. Symptomatic reports and informational inquiries were few. All adverse outcomes due to excessive fluoride intake were remedied with calcium as the antidote. Dental hygienists should educate patients on safety measures of fluoride-containing products and evaluate overall fluoride exposure prior to making recommendations. However, findings in this study suggest that levels of fluoride in available commercial products will not produce life-threatening events, even if taken in doses higher than recommended. Copyright © 2016 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  2. Experimental Determination of Sulfur Partition Ratio in the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-CaF2-MgO Slag and Liquid Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinzhu, Z.; Yunsheng, Y.; Wei, F.; Jialiang, Z.; Yi, Z.

    2017-09-01

    The external desulphurization of molten iron has become an important step in the production of steel and iron. The desulfurization degree of the high calcium slag, which was mainly taken from Shougang Shuicheng Iron and Steel (Group) Co. Limited, was investigated on basis of the fundamental theory of slag metal equilibrium reaction. The initial content of sulfur in the slag was adjusted to 2.60% mass perdent by adding analytical reagent CaS. The results show that the desulfurization degree of the high calcium slag increases obviously with the increase of temperature in the range 1593-1743K, and so the sulfur partition ratio. When the holding time of the hot metal and slag at controlled temperature was extended from 120 min to 180 min in the furnace, both the sulfur partition ratio and the desulfurization degree increased markedly.

  3. [Content of fluoride and magnesium in permanent teeth of children and adolescents with constitutional delay of growth and development].

    PubMed

    Bandura, Marzena; Opalko, Krystyna

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the content of fluorides and magnesium in permanent teeth of children and adolescents with constitutional delay of growth and development (CDGD) and to correlate the findings with susceptibility to caries. Our study group consisting of 20 patients with CDGD, aged 11 to 20 years, was compared with an age-matched control group of 20 normal subjects. Dentition status was assessed according to the average DMFs score. Acid biopsy of enamel on the labial surface of incisors was done to measure the content of calcium, magnesium, and fluorides. CDGD patients demonstrated a higher average DFs value and less permanent teeth than their normal counterparts. Microanalyses of enamel showed that the depth of the acid biopsy was similar in all subjects. The content of fluorides and magnesium in enamel was lower in patients with CDGD.

  4. Evaluation of salivary fluoride retention from a new high fluoride mouthrinse.

    PubMed

    Mason, Stephen C; Shirodaria, Soha; Sufi, Farzana; Rees, Gareth D; Birkhed, Dowen

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate salivary fluoride retention from a new high fluoride daily use mouthrinse over a 120 min period. Sixteen subjects completed a randomised single-blind, four-treatment cross-over trial. Sensodyne® Pronamel® mouthrinse (A) contained 450 ppm fluoride; reference products were Colgate® Fluorigard® (B), Listerine® Total Care (C) and Listerine Softmint Sensation (D) containing 225, 100 and 0 ppm fluoride respectively. Salivary fluoride retention was monitored ex vivo after a single supervised use of test product (10 mL, 60 s). Samples were collected at 0, 1, 3, 5, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min post-rinse, generating fluoride clearance curves from which the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Differences in salivary fluoride concentrations for each product were analysed using ANCOVA at each time point using a 5% significance level, as well as lnAUC for the periods 0-120, 0-1, 1-15, 15-60 and 60-120 min. Pairwise comparisons between all treatment groups were performed. Salivary fluoride levels for A-C peaked immediately following use. Fluoride levels were statistically significantly higher for A versus B-D (p≤ 0.004), linear dose responses were apparent. AUC(0-120) was statistically significantly greater for A than for B (p = 0.035), C (p< 0.0001) and D (p< 0.0001). Post-hoc comparisons of lnAUC for the remaining time domains showed fluoride retention from A was statistically significantly greater versus B-D (p< 0.0001). Single-use treatment with the new mouthrinse containing 450 ppm fluoride resulted in statistically significantly higher salivary fluoride levels throughout the 120 min test period. Total fluoride retention (AUC(0-120)) was also statistically significantly greater versus comparator rinse treatments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Arsenic and fluoride removal from groundwater by electrocoagulation using a continuous filter-press reactor.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Athziri; Nava, José L; Coreño, Oscar; Rodríguez, Israel; Gutiérrez, Silvia

    2016-02-01

    We investigated simultaneous arsenic and fluoride removal from ground water by electrocoagulation (EC) using aluminum as the sacrificial anode in a continuous filter-press reactor. The groundwater was collected at a depth of 320 m in the Bajío region in Guanajuato Mexico (arsenic 43 µg L(-1), fluoride 2.5 mg L(-1), sulfate 89.6 mg L(-1), phosphate 1.8 mg L(-1), hydrated silica 112.4 mg L(-1), hardness 9.8 mg L(-1), alkalinity 31.3 mg L(-1), pH 7.6 and conductivity 993 µS cm(-1)). EC was performed after arsenite was oxidized to arsenate by addition of 1 mg L(-1) hypochlorite. The EC tests revealed that at current densities of 4, 5 and 6 mA cm(-2) and flow velocities of 0.91 and 1.82 cm s(-1), arsenate was abated and residual fluoride concentration satisfies the WHO standard (CF < 1.5 mg L(-1)). Spectrometric analyses performed on aluminum flocs indicated that these are mainly composed of aluminum-silicates of calcium and magnesium. Arsenate removal by EC involves adsorption on aluminum flocs, while fluoride replaces a hydroxyl group from aluminum aggregates. The best EC was obtained at 4 mA cm(-2) and 1.82 cm s(-1) with electrolytic energy consumption of 0.34 KWh m(-3). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of fluoride on screech owl reproduction: Teratological evaluation, growth, and blood chemistry in hatchlings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Pattee, O.H.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1985-01-01

    The effects on reproduction in screech owls (Otus asio) of chronic dietary sodium fluoride administration at 0, 40, and 200 ppm were examined. Fluoride at 40 ppm resulted in a significantly smaller egg volume, while 200 ppm also resulted in lower egg weights and lengths. Day-one hatchlings in the 200 ppm group weighed almost 10% less than controls and had shorter crown-rump lengths. No gross abnormalities were apparent. Skeletal clearing and staining revealed significantly shorter tibiotarsus lengths in the 40 ppm and 200 ppm groups and a shorter radius-ulna length in the 200 ppm group. By 7 days of age, body weights and lengths did not differ from controls, but the tibiotarsus in the 200 ppm group remained shorter. No significant differences were detected in hematocrit, hemoglobin, plasma calcium or alkaline phosphatase. Plasma phosphorus levels were higher in the 40 ppm group than in controls. These results, in combination with the findings of Pattee et al. [25], revealed significant impairment of overall reproduction, suggesting that sodium fluoride could cause slight to moderate reproduction disorders in owls in fluoride-polluted areas.

  7. Fluoridation and Defluoridation. Training Module 2.230.2.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, L. D.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with fluoridation and fluoride feeding equipment. Enclosed are objectives, an instructor guide, student handouts and transparency masters. The module considers the principles and purposes of fluoridation, methods of feeding fluoride,…

  8. 21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. 175.270 Section 175... Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.270 Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. Poly(vinyl fluoride... the purpose of this section, poly(vinyl fluoride) resins consist of basic resins produced by the...

  9. Fluoride Programs in the School Setting: Preventive Dental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebich, Theodore, Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Two types of school-based programs that increase students' use of fluoride for preventive dental health are described. In fluoride mouthrinse programs, teachers give their students a fluoride solution once a week in a paper cup. In areas where the level of fluoride in the water supply is insufficient, the flouride tablet program is used. (JN)

  10. 21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. 175.270 Section 175... Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.270 Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. Poly(vinyl fluoride... the purpose of this section, poly(vinyl fluoride) resins consist of basic resins produced by the...

  11. Design Manual: Removal of Fluoride from Drinking Water ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document is an updated version of the Design Manual: Removal of Fluoride from Drinking Water Supplies by Activated Alumina (Rubel, 1984). The manual is an in-depth presentation of the steps required to design and operate a fluoride removal plant using activated alumina (AA), which is a reliable and cost-effective process for treating excess fluoride from drinking water supplies. Design Manual on removing fluoride from drinking water to support the fluoride MCL - manual

  12. PROCESS FOR TREATING VOLATILE METAL FLUORIDES

    DOEpatents

    Rudge, A.J.; Lowe, A.J.

    1957-10-01

    This patent relates to the purification of uranium hexafluoride, made by reacting the metal or its tetrafluoride with fluorine, from the frequently contained traces of hydrofluoric acid. According to the present process, UF/sub 6/ containing as an impurity a small amount of hydrofluoric acid, is treated to remove such impurity by contact with an anhydrous alkali metal fluoride such as sodium fluoride. In this way a non-volatile complex containing hydrofluoric acid and the alkali metal fluoride is formed, and the volatile UF /sub 6/ may then be removed by distillation.

  13. Fluoride releasing and enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets by fluoride-releasing composite containing nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Melo, Mary A S; Morais, Weslanny A; Passos, Vanara F; Lima, Juliana P M; Rodrigues, Lidiany K A

    2014-05-01

    Fluoride-containing materials have been suggested to control enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets during the treatment with fixed appliances. The improvement of their properties has been made through innovations, such as the application of nanotechnology by incorporation of nanofillers. This in vitro study evaluated the capacity of fluoride releasing and enamel demineralization inhibition of fluoride-releasing nanofilled cement around orthodontic brackets using an artificial caries biofilm model. Forty bovine enamel discs were selected by evaluating surface microhardness and randomized into four groups (n = 10): non-fluoride-releasing microfilled composite, fluoride-releasing microfilled composite, resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGI), and fluoride-releasing nanofilled composite (FN). After brackets bonding in each disc, the specimens were subjected to a cariogenic challenge through a Streptococcus mutans biofilm model. After the experimental period, the biofilm formed around the brackets was collected for fluoride analysis and the mineral loss around the brackets was determined by integrated demineralization via cross-sectional microhardness measurement at 20 and 70 μm from the bracket margin. Additionally, samples of each group were subjected to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis examined under a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). ANOVA followed by Tukey test were applied for fluoride concentration and mineral loss data, respectively. At both distances, only RMGI statistically differed from the other groups presenting the lowest demineralization, although there was a trend to a lower demineralization of enamel around brackets in FN group. Similar condition was found to fluoride concentration and EDX/SEM analysis. Under the cariogenic exposure condition of this study, the fluoride-releasing nanofilled material had similar performance to fluoride-releasing microfilled materials. The presence of nanofillers in the fluoride

  14. Fluoride exposure and indicators of thyroid functioning in the Canadian population: implications for community water fluoridation.

    PubMed

    Barberio, Amanda M; Hosein, F Shaun; Quiñonez, Carlos; McLaren, Lindsay

    2017-10-01

    There are concerns that altered thyroid functioning could be the result of ingesting too much fluoride. Community water fluoridation (CWF) is an important source of fluoride exposure. Our objectives were to examine the association between fluoride exposure and (1) diagnosis of a thyroid condition and (2) indicators of thyroid functioning among a national population-based sample of Canadians. We analysed data from Cycles 2 and 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Logistic regression was used to assess associations between fluoride from urine and tap water samples and the diagnosis of a thyroid condition. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between fluoride exposure and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level (low/normal/high). Other available variables permitted additional exploratory analyses among the subset of participants for whom we could discern some fluoride exposure from drinking water and/or dental products. There was no evidence of a relationship between fluoride exposure (from urine and tap water) and the diagnosis of a thyroid condition. There was no statistically significant association between fluoride exposure and abnormal (low or high) TSH levels relative to normal TSH levels. Rerunning the models with the sample constrained to the subset of participants for whom we could discern some source(s) of fluoride exposure from drinking water and/or dental products revealed no significant associations. These analyses suggest that, at the population level, fluoride exposure is not associated with impaired thyroid functioning in a time and place where multiple sources of fluoride exposure, including CWF, exist. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Fluoride exposure and indicators of thyroid functioning in the Canadian population: implications for community water fluoridation

    PubMed Central

    Barberio, Amanda M; Hosein, F Shaun; Quiñonez, Carlos; McLaren, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Background There are concerns that altered thyroid functioning could be the result of ingesting too much fluoride. Community water fluoridation (CWF) is an important source of fluoride exposure. Our objectives were to examine the association between fluoride exposure and (1) diagnosis of a thyroid condition and (2) indicators of thyroid functioning among a national population-based sample of Canadians. Methods We analysed data from Cycles 2 and 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS). Logistic regression was used to assess associations between fluoride from urine and tap water samples and the diagnosis of a thyroid condition. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between fluoride exposure and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level (low/normal/high). Other available variables permitted additional exploratory analyses among the subset of participants for whom we could discern some fluoride exposure from drinking water and/or dental products. Results There was no evidence of a relationship between fluoride exposure (from urine and tap water) and the diagnosis of a thyroid condition. There was no statistically significant association between fluoride exposure and abnormal (low or high) TSH levels relative to normal TSH levels. Rerunning the models with the sample constrained to the subset of participants for whom we could discern some source(s) of fluoride exposure from drinking water and/or dental products revealed no significant associations. Conclusion These analyses suggest that, at the population level, fluoride exposure is not associated with impaired thyroid functioning in a time and place where multiple sources of fluoride exposure, including CWF, exist. PMID:28839078

  16. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers. PMID:27042093

  17. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers.

  18. Fluoride content of infant formulas prepared with deionized, bottled mineral and fluoridated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Buzalaf, M A; Granjeiro, J M; Damante, C A; de Ornelas, F

    2001-01-01

    Usually infant milk formula is the major source of fluoride in infancy. Fluoride concentrations in ten samples of powdered milk formulas, prepared with deionized, bottled mineral, and fluoridated drinking water were determined after HMDS-facilitated diffusion, using a fluoride ion specific electrode(Orion 9609). Fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.75 ppm; from 0.02 to 1.37 ppm and from 0.91 to 1.65 ppm for formulas prepared with deionized, bottled mineral (0.02 to 0.69 ppm F) and fluorinated drinking water (0.9 ppm F), respectively. Possible fluoride ingestion per Kg body mass ws estimated. With deionized water, only the soy-based- formulas should provide a daily fluoride intake of above the suggested threshold for fluorosis. With water containing 0.9 ppm F, however, all of them would provide it. Hence, to limit fluoride intakes to amounts <0.1 mg/kg/day, it is necessary to avoid use fo fluoridated water (around 1 ppm) to dilute powdered infant formulas.

  19. The incorporation of fluoride and strontium in hydroxyapatite affects the composition, structure, and mechanical properties of human cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Christoph; Zimmermann, Elizabeth A; Zustin, Jozef; Niecke, Manfred; Amling, Michael; Grynpas, Marc; Busse, Björn

    2017-02-01

    Strontium ranelate and fluoride salts are therapeutic options to reduce fracture risk in osteoporosis. Incorporation of these elements in the physiological hydroxyapatite matrix of bone is accompanied by changes in bone remodeling, composition, and structure. However, a direct comparison of the effectiveness of strontium and fluoride treatment in human cortical bone with a focus on the resulting mechanical properties remains to be established. Study groups are composed of undecalcified specimens from healthy controls, treatment-naïve osteoporosis cases, and strontium ranelate or fluoride-treated osteoporosis cases. Concentrations of both elements were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Backscattered electron imaging was carried out to investigate the calcium content and the cortical microstructure. In comparison to osteoporotic patients, fluoride and strontium-treated patients have a lower cortical porosity indicating an improvement in bone microstructure. Mechanical properties were assessed via reference point indentation as a measure of bone's resistance to deformation. The strontium-incorporation led to significantly lower total indentation distance values compared to osteoporotic cases; controls have the highest resistance to indentation. In conclusion, osteoporosis treatment with strontium and fluoride showed positive effects on the microstructure and the mechanical characteristics of bone in comparison to treatment-naïve osteoporotic bone. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 433-442, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Materials corrosion in molten lithium fluoride-sodium fluoride-potassium fluoride eutectic salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Luke Christopher

    Static corrosion studies were undertaken to determine the compatibility of several candidate high temperature materials for a heat transfer loop in a molten alkali fluoride eutectic salt, LiF-NaF-KF: 46.5-11.5-42 mol % (commonly referred to as FLiNaK), as well as a molten chloride near eutectic salt, KCl-MgCl2: 68-32 mol %. Several high temperature alloys: Hastelloy-N, Hastelloy-X, Haynes-230, Inconel-617, and Incoloy-800H, Nb-1Zr, a nearly pure Ni alloy Ni-201, and a C/SiSiC ceramic were exposed to molten FLiNaK at 850°C for 500 h in sealed graphite crucibles under an argon cover gas. Corrosion occurred predominantly from dealloying of Cr from the Cr bearing alloys, an effect that was particularly pronounced at the grain boundaries. Corrosion was noted to occur from selective attack of the Si phase in the C/SiSiC ceramic. Alloy weight-loss/area due to molten fluoride salt exposure correlated with the initial Cr-content of the alloys, and was consistent with the Cr-content measured in the salts after corrosion tests. The alloys' weight-loss/area was also found to correlate to the concentration of carbon present in the nominally 20% Cr containing alloys, due to the formation of chromium carbide phases at the grain boundaries. The corrosion mechanisms for the chloride based salt were found to be similar to those observed in FLiNaK, but the chemical attack was found to be less aggressive. Sulfamate Ni electroplating and Mo plasma spraying of Fe-Ni-Cr alloy coupons was investigated to mitigate Cr dissolution. A chemical vapor deposited pyrolytic carbon and SiC coating was also investigated to protect the C/SiSiC composites. Results indicate that Ni-plating has the potential to provide protection against alloy corrosion in molten fluoride salts. Furthermore, the presence of a chromium-oxide interlayer at the interface of the Ni-plating and alloy substrate can further improve the efficacy of the Ni-plating. The pyrolytic carbon and SiC coating on the C/SiSiC composites

  1. In situ clinical effects of new dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine and fluoride on enamel de- and remineralization and plaque metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cantore, R; Petrou, I; Lavender, S; Santarpia, P; Liu, Z; Gittins, E; Vandeven, M; Cummins, D; Sullivan, R; Utgikar, N

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of the three studies reported in this paper was to evaluate the effects of new dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound, and fluoride for their ability to promote remineralization of demineralized enamel, and to prevent mineral loss from sound enamel specimens. A secondary objective was to determine the effects on plaque metabolism with respect to the conversion of arginine to ammonia and sucrose to lactic acid. In Study 1, an intraoral remineralization/demineralization clinical model was used to assess the ability to promote remineralization of enamel of two dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine and 1450 ppm fluoride, as sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP), relative to a positive control with dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (Dical) and 1450 ppm fluoride, and a negative control with Dical and 250 ppm fluoride. One of the arginine-containing dentifrices contained Dical, and the other contained calcium carbonate as the source of insoluble calcium. Microradiography and image analysis were used to measure mineral changes. The study used a double-blind crossover design with a two-week treatment period. Each treatment period was preceded by a one-week washout period. Each product was used twice a day for two weeks. In the two other studies, the ability of dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine and fluoride to prevent demineralization of sound enamel blocks was assessed using an intraoral demineralization/remineralization clinical model and a double-blind crossover design with a five-day treatment period. A one-week minimum washout period preceded each treatment phase. Microhardness was used to assess mineral changes. Cariogenic challenges were administered by dipping each intraoral retainer into a 10% sucrose solution four times per day. Each product was used twice per day during the treatment period. Plaque was harvested from the specimens to measure the ability of the plaque to convert arginine to ammonia (Studies 2 and 3) and

  2. Study of fluoride corrosion of nickel alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, W. H.; Steindler, M. J.

    1969-01-01

    Report contains the results of an investigation of the corrosion resistance of nickel and nickel alloys exposed to fluorine, uranium hexafluoride, and volatile fission product fluorides at high temperatures. Survey of the unclassified literature on the subject is included.

  3. Materials processing apparatus development for fluoride glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Guy A.; Kosten, Sue; Workman, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Fluoride glasses have great potential for optical fiber communications due to the high transmittance when no microcrystallites occur during drawing operations. This work has developed apparatus to test the occurrence of microcrystallites during recrystallization in reduced gravity on the KC-135. The apparatus allows fluoride glass fiber, such as ZBLAN, to be melted and recrystallized during both the low and high g portions the parabolic flight.

  4. APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Pak, D.

    2011-08-10

    current activities are concerned with the removal of the halide ions associated with plutonium trifluoride (PuF{sub 3}), plutonium tetrafluoride (PuF{sub 4}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). This report discusses non-radioactive testing of small-scale and pilot-scale systems and radioactive testing of a small-scale system. Experiments focused on demonstrating the chemistry for halide removal and addressing the primary engineering questions associated with a change in the process chemistry.« less

  5. The epidemic of obesity and changes in food intake: the Fluoride Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Bray, George A

    2004-08-01

    The epidemic of obesity is worldwide. It will be followed by an epidemic of diabetes. Although there is a genetic basis for obesity and diabetes, the current epidemic reflects the failure of our ancient genes to cope with a modern toxic environment. To put it another way, the genetic background loads the gun, but the environment pulls the trigger. Diet, lifestyle and exercise are the cornerstones of current approaches to treating obesity. However, these approaches that depend on individuals making lifestyle changes have been ineffective in preventing the epidemic. An alternative model views obesity as an epidemiological disease with food(s) and other environmental agents acting on the host to produce disease. The consumption patterns for many foods have changed over the past 30 years, but the increase in the consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) for soft drinks is far and away the largest. Moreover, the rise in HFCS intake is an environmental insult that has occurred at exactly the same time as obesity began to increase in prevalence. Rising soft drink consumption is associated with a decrease in milk consumption and a decrease in calcium intake, which has an inverse relationship to body mass index (BMI). To combat the epidemic of obesity, we need new strategies that flow from the epidemiological model. The Fluoride Hypothesis for obesity proposes that we can make environmental changes that when made, will reduce the epidemic of obesity, in much the same way as fluoride reduced the incidence of dental disease. Fluoride-like strategies can work without the personal effort required by changes in lifestyle. In this context, fluoride is also an acronym for treatment and prevention of obesity: For Lowering Universal Obesity Rates are Implement ideas that Don't demand Effort (FLUORIDE).

  6. Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for the systems 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane + hydrogen fluoride, 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane + hydrogen fluoride, and chlorodifluoromethane + hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.W.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1997-03-01

    Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for the three binary systems (1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane + hydrogen fluoride, 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane + hydrogen fluoride, and chlorodifluoromethane + hydrogen fluoride) have been measured. The experimental data for the binary systems are correlated with the NRTL equation with the vapor-phase association model for the mixtures containing hydrogen fluoride, and the relevant parameters are presented. All of the systems form minimum boiling heterogeneous azeotropes.

  7. Drinking water quality and fluoride concentration.

    PubMed

    Frazão, Paulo; Peres, Marco A; Cury, Jaime A

    2011-10-01

    This paper aimed to analyze the fluoride concentration in drinking water, taking into account the balance between the benefits and risks to health, in order to produce scientific backing for the updating of the Brazilian legislation. Systematic reviews studies, official documents and meteorological data were examined. The temperatures in Brazilian state capitals indicate that fluoride levels should be between 0.6 and 0.9 mg F/l in order to prevent dental caries. Natural fluoride concentration of 1.5 mg F/l is tolerated for consumption in Brazil if there is no technology with an acceptable cost-benefit ratio for adjusting/removing the excess. Daily intake of water with a fluoride concentration > 0.9 mg F/l presents a risk to the dentition among children under the age of eight years, and consumers should be explicitly informed of this risk. In view of the expansion of the Brazilian water fluoridation program to regions with a typically tropical climate, Ordinance 635/75 relating to fluoride added to the public water supply should be revised.

  8. Inhibition of cholinesterases by fluoride in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Cimasoni, Giorgio

    1966-01-01

    1. Series of colorimetric dynamic assays allowed the study of the inhibition of cholinesterases by F− ions in vitro, by using, as sources of enzyme, whole human blood, human serum, homogenized rat brain and two preparations of red blood cells (human and bovine) whose enzymic purity was ascertained. 2. The first evidence of inhibition of human serum pseudocholinesterase by fluoride was noticed at 15–25μm-fluoride. Ten times as much fluoride was needed to start inhibition of acetylcholinesterase of the red blood cells. 3. The action of fluoride on the enzymic reaction was immediate. The reversibility of the inhibition was shown by dialysis and dilution. 4. Kinetic measurements showed that the inhibition under study was not dependent on the substrate concentration and was of the uncompetitive type, similar to that observed in the presence of a heavy metal (cadmium). 5. The activity of serum cholinesterase did not change in the absence of Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. Fluoride was shown to inhibit the enzyme in the absence of these ions as well as of phosphate. 6. Fluoride could inhibit cholinesterases in the presence of three different substrates and had no action on the non-enzymic hydrolysis. 7. It is thought that the halide is bound reversibly to the enzyme molecule, with the probable exclusion of the active site, but no firm conclusion could be reached on this point. PMID:6007454

  9. Debating Water Fluoridation Before Dr. Strangelove

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the 1930s, scientists learned that small amounts of fluoride naturally occurring in water could protect teeth from decay, and the idea of artificially adding fluoride to public water supplies to achieve the same effect arose. In the 1940s and early 1950s, a number of studies were completed to determine whether fluoride could have harmful effects. The research suggested that the possibility of harm was small. In the early 1950s, Canadian and US medical, dental, and public health bodies all endorsed water fluoridation. I argue in this article that some early concerns about the toxicity of fluoride were put aside as evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of water fluoridation mounted and as the opposition was taken over by people with little standing in the scientific, medical, and dental communities. The sense of optimism that infused postwar science and the desire of dentists to have a magic bullet that could wipe out tooth decay also affected the scientific debate. PMID:26066938

  10. Fluoride loaded polymeric nanoparticles for dental delivery.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Sanko; Escudero, Carlos; Sediqi, Nadia; Smistad, Gro; Hiorth, Marianne

    2017-06-15

    The overall aim of the present paper was to develop fluoride loaded nanoparticles based on the biopolymers chitosan, pectin, and alginate, for use in dental delivery. First, the preparation of nanoparticles in the presence of sodium fluoride (NaF) as the active ingredient by ionic gelation was investigated followed by an evaluation of their drug entrapment and release properties. Chitosan formed stable, spherical, and monodisperse nanoparticles in the presence of NaF and tripolyphoshate as the crosslinker, whereas alginate and pectin were not able to form any definite nanostructures in similar conditions. The fluoride loading capacity was found to be 33-113ppm, and the entrapment efficiency 3.6-6.2% for chitosan nanoparticles prepared in 0.2-0.4% (w/w) NaF, respectively. A steady increase in the fluoride release was observed for chitosan nanoparticles prepared in 0.2% NaF both in pH5 and 7 until it reached a maximum at time point 4h and maintained at this level for at least 24h. Similar profiles were observed for formulations prepared in 0.4% NaF; however the fluoride was released at a higher level at pH5. The low concentration, but continuous delivery of fluoride from the chitosan nanoparticles, with possible expedited release in acidic environment, makes these formulations highly promising as dental delivery systems in the protection against caries development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Well waters fluoride in Enugu, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogbu, I Si; Okoro, O Io; Ugwuja, E I

    2012-04-01

    Abnormal fluoride levels in drinking water have been associated with adverse health effects. To determine the fluoride content of well waters in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria, water samples from 50 artisan wells chosen by multistage sampling procedure from the 5 zones of Enugu municipality were analyzed in duplicates for their fluoride content. The zonal mean values were 0.60, 0.70, 0.62, 0.62, and 0.63 mg/L for Abakpa Nike, Achara Layout, Obiagu/ Ogui, Trans Ekulu and Uwani, respectively (p<0.05). The mean value for the whole city was 0.63 mg/L. Although, the mean level of fluoride recorded in this study is currently within safe limits (1.5 mg/L, WHO 2011), it is important to monitor continuously the fluoride content of well waters in the municipality in view of the increasing industrial activities going on in the city and heavy reliance on well water for domestic purposes and the widespread use of consumer products containing fluoride.

  12. The effective use of fluorides in public health.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sheila; Burt, Brian A.; Petersen, Poul Erik; Lennon, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Dental caries remain a public health problem for many developing countries and for underprivileged populations in developed countries. This paper outlines the historical development of public health approaches to the use of fluoride and comments on their effectiveness. Early research and development was concerned with waterborne fluorides, both naturally occurring and added, and their effects on the prevalence and incidence of dental caries and dental fluorosis. In the latter half of the 20th century, the focus of research was on fluoride toothpastes and mouth rinses. More recently, systematic reviews summarizing these extensive databases have indicated that water fluoridation and fluoride toothpastes both substantially reduce the prevalence and incidence of dental caries. We present four case studies that illustrate the use of fluoride in modern public health practice, focusing on: recent water fluoridation schemes in California, USA; salt fluoridation in Jamaica; milk fluoridation in Chile; and the development of "affordable" fluoride toothpastes in Indonesia. Common themes are the concern to reduce demands for compliance with fluoride regimes that rely upon action by individuals and their families, and the issue of cost. We recommend that a community should use no more than one systemic fluoride (i.e. water or salt or milk fluoridation) combined with the use of fluoride toothpastes, and that the prevalence of dental fluorosis should be monitored in order to detect increases in or higher-than-acceptable levels. PMID:16211158

  13. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  14. Vacuum ultraviolet thin films. I - Optical constants of BaF2, CaF2, LaF3, MgF2, Al2O3, HfO2, and SiO2 thin films. II - Vacuum ultraviolet all-dielectric narrowband filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zukic, Muamer; Torr, Douglas G.; Spann, James F.; Torr, Marsha R.

    1990-01-01

    An iteration process matching calculated and measured reflectance and transmittance values in the 120-230 nm VUV region is presently used to ascertain the optical constants of bulk MgF2, as well as films of BaF2, CaF2, LaF3, MgF2, Al2O3, HfO2, and SiO2 deposited on MgF2 substrates. In the second part of this work, a design concept is demonstrated for two filters, employing rapidly changing extinction coefficients, centered at 135 nm for BaF2 and 141 nm for SiO2. These filters are shown to yield excellent narrowband spectral performance in combination with narrowband reflection filters.

  15. Oral fluoride levels 1 h after use of a sodium fluoride rinse: effect of sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Gerald L; Schumacher, Gary E; Chow, Laurence C; Tenuta, Livia M A

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the concentration of free fluoride in oral fluids is an important goal in the use of topical fluoride agents. Although sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is a common dentifrice ingredient, the influence of this ion on plaque fluid and salivary fluid fluoride has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SLS on these parameters and to examine the effect of this ion on total (or whole) plaque fluoride, an important source of plaque fluid fluoride after a sufficient interval following fluoride administration, and on total salivary fluoride, a parameter often used as a surrogate measure of salivary fluid fluoride. Ten subjects accumulated plaque for 48 h before rinsing with a 12 mmol/l NaF (228 µg/g F) rinse containing or not containing 0.5% (w/w) SLS. SLS had no statistically significant effect on total plaque and total saliva fluoride but significantly increased salivary fluid and plaque fluid fluoride (by 147 and 205%, respectively). These results suggest that the nonfluoride components of topical agents can be manipulated to improve the fluoride release characteristics from oral fluoride reservoirs and that statistically significant change may be observed in plaque fluid and salivary fluid fluoride concentrations that may not be observed in total plaque and total saliva fluoride concentrations.

  16. Widespread genetic switches and toxicity resistance proteins for fluoride.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jenny L; Sudarsan, Narasimhan; Weinberg, Zasha; Roth, Adam; Stockbridge, Randy B; Breaker, Ronald R

    2012-01-13

    Most riboswitches are metabolite-binding RNA structures located in bacterial messenger RNAs where they control gene expression. We have discovered a riboswitch class in many bacterial and archaeal species whose members are selectively triggered by fluoride but reject other small anions, including chloride. These fluoride riboswitches activate expression of genes that encode putative fluoride transporters, enzymes that are known to be inhibited by fluoride, and additional proteins of unknown function. Our findings indicate that most organisms are naturally exposed to toxic levels of fluoride and that many species use fluoride-sensing RNAs to control the expression of proteins that alleviate the deleterious effects of this anion.

  17. Widespread Genetic Switches and Toxicity Resistance Proteins for Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Zasha; Roth, Adam; Stockbridge, Randy B.; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2014-01-01

    Most riboswitches are metabolite-binding RNA structures located in bacterial messenger RNAs where they control gene expression. We have discovered a riboswitch class in many bacterial and archaeal species whose members are selectively triggered by fluoride but reject other small anions, including chloride. These fluoride riboswitches activate expression of genes that encode putative fluoride transporters, enzymes that are known to be inhibited by fluoride, and additional proteins of unknown function. Our findings indicate that most organisms are naturally exposed to toxic levels of fluoride and that many species use fluoride-sensing RNAs to control the expression of proteins that alleviate the deleterious effects of this anion. PMID:22194412

  18. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  19. Calcium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... best source. Milk and dairy products such as yogurt, cheeses, and buttermilk contain a form of calcium ... the amount of calcium in a dairy product. Yogurt, most cheeses, and buttermilk are excellent sources of ...

  20. Influence of the method of fluoride administration on toxicity and fluoride concentrations in Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Schuler, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Young Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were administered NaF for 16 d either in their diet or by esophageal intubation. Based on the total fluoride ion (Emg F-) intake over the l6-d experimental period, fluoride administered by intubation was at least six times more toxic than that fed in the diet. Dietary concentrations of 1,000 ppm F- (Emg F- for 16 d = approx. 144) produced no mortality, whereas intubated doses produced 73% or greater mortality in all groups administered 54 mg F- /kg/d or more (Emg F- for 16 d _ approx. 23 mg). GraphIc companson of the regression of log F- ppm in femurs/mg F- intake showed that fluoride levels in the femurs of quail administered fluoride by intubation were higher than in those administered fluoride in the diet.

  1. Mechanism of Electrophilic Fluorination with Pd(IV): Fluoride Capture and Subsequent Oxidative Fluoride Transfer†, ‡

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Jochen R.; Lee, Eunsung; Boursalian, Gregory B.

    2013-01-01

    Electrophilic fluorinating reagents derived from fluoride are desirable for the synthesis of 18F-labeled molecules for positron emission tomography (PET). Here, we study the mechanism by which a Pd(IV)-complex captures fluoride and subsequently transfers it to nucleophiles. The intermediate Pd(IV)-F is formed with high rates even at the nano- to micromolar fluoride concentrations typical for radiosyntheses with 18F due to fast formation of an outer-sphere complex between fluoride and Pd(IV). The subsequent fluorine transfer from the Pd(IV)-F complex is proposed to proceed through an unusual SET/fluoride transfer/SET mechanism. The findings detailed in this manuscript provide a theoretical foundation suitable for addressing a more general approach for electrophilic fluorination with high specific activity 18F PET imaging. PMID:24376910

  2. Calcium and Mitosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  3. Bi-material crystalline whispering gallery mode microcavity structure for thermo-opto-mechanical stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itobe, Hiroki; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Mizumoto, Yuta; Kangawa, Hiroi; Kakinuma, Yasuhiro; Tanabe, Takasumi

    2016-05-01

    We fabricated a calcium fluoride (CaF2) whispering gallery mode (WGM) microcavity with a computer controlled ultra-precision cutting process. We observed a thermo-opto-mechanical (TOM) oscillation in the CaF2 WGM microcavity, which may influence the stability of the optical output when the cavity is employed for Kerr comb generation. We studied experimentally and numerically the mechanism of the TOM oscillation and showed that it is strongly dependent on cavity diameter. In addition, our numerical study suggests that a microcavity structure fabricated with a hybrid material (i.e. CaF2 and silicon), which is compatible with an ultra-high Q and high thermal conductivity, will allow us to reduce the TOM oscillation and stabilize the optical output.

  4. Calcium Blood Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your health care provider may order a calcium test if you have a pre-existing condition that may affect your calcium levels. These include: Kidney disease Thyroid disease Malnutrition Certain types of cancer What happens during a calcium blood test? A health care professional will take a blood ...

  5. Initial deposition of calcium phosphate ceramic on polystyrene and polytetrafluoroethylene by rf magnetron sputtering deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddes, B.; Wolke, J. G. C.; Jansen, J. A.; Vredenberg, A. M.

    2003-03-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings can be applied to improve the biological performance of polymeric medical implants. A strong interfacial bond between ceramic and polymer is required for clinical applications. Because the chemical structure of an interface plays an important role in the adhesion of a coating, we studied the formation of the interface between CaP and polystyrene (PS) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The coating was deposited in a radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering deposition system. Prior to the deposition, some samples received an oxygen plasma pretreatment. We found that the two substrates show a strongly different reactivity towards CaP. On PS a phosphorus and oxygen enrichment is present at the interface. This is understood from POx complexes that are able to bind to the PS. The effects of the plasma pretreatment are overruled by the deposition process itself. On PTFE, a calcium enrichment and an absence of phosphorus is found at the interface. The former is the result of CaF2-like material being formed at the interface. The latter may be the result of phosphorus reacting with escaping fluorine to a PF3 molecule, which than escapes from the material as a gas molecule. We found that the final structure of the interface is mostly controlled by the bombardment of energetic particles escaping either from the plasma or from the sputtering target. The work described here can be used to understand and improve the adhesion of CaP coatings deposited on medical substrates.

  6. Chronologic Trends in Studies on Fluoride Mechanisms of Action.

    PubMed

    Oh, H J; Oh, H W; Lee, D W; Kim, C H; Ahn, J Y; Kim, Y; Shin, H B; Kim, C Y; Park, S H; Jeon, J G

    2017-11-01

    Fluoride has been widely used for the prevention of dental caries since the mid-20th century. The aim of this study was to investigate the chronologic trends in studies on fluoride mechanisms of action against dental caries during the years 1950 to 2015. To this aim, queries such as "fluoride," "fluoride and demineralization," "fluoride and remineralization," "fluoride and (plaque or biofilms)," and "fluoride and (bacteria or microbials)" were submitted to PubMed to collect research article information, including titles, abstracts, publication dates, author affiliations, and publication journals. The article information that PubMed produced was then collected by an automatic web crawler and examined through informetrics and linguistic analyses. We found that the number of articles concerned with fluoride mechanisms of action against dental caries was 6,903 and gradually increased over time during the years 1950 to 2015. They were published by 1,136 journals-most notably, Caries Research and Journal of Dental Research. Of the articles published, those related to bacteria/microbials had a higher percentage (44%) than those dealing with plaque/biofilms, demineralization, and remineralization. With regard to the geographic distribution of authors, Europe and North America accounted for 65% of the articles during the years 1987 to 2015, although the number of authors in Asia sharply increased in recent years. Among the fluoride compounds, NaF was mentioned more frequently than SnF 2 , Na 2 PO 3 F, amine fluoride, and acidulated phosphate fluoride during the years 1986 to 2015. Water fluoridation received the most attention among the various fluoride application methods (toothpastes, mouthwashes, fluoride varnishes, and fluoride gels) during the same period. These results, obtained from employing informetrics and linguistic analyses, suggest that in studies on fluoride mechanisms of action, 1) the unbalanced geographic distribution of articles and 2) the heavy

  7. Fluoride content of still bottled water in Australia.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, N J; Saranathan, S; Morgan, M V; Dashper, S G

    2006-09-01

    Recently there has been a considerable increase in the consumption of bottled water in Australia. Overseas studies have found the fluoride levels in many bottled waters are well below levels considered optimal for preventing dental caries. This raises the concern that if bottled water is regularly consumed an effective means of preventing dental caries is unavailable. The aim of this study was to determine the fluoride concentration in 10 popular brands of still bottled water currently sold in Australia. The fluoride content of water samples were determined using an ion analyser and compared to a fluoride standard. The fluoride concentration of all bottled waters was less than 0.08 ppm. Only three of the 10 brands indicated the fluoride content on their labels. Melbourne reticulated water was found to be fluoridated at 1.02 ppm. All bottled waters tested contained negligible fluoride which justifies the concern that regular consumption of bottled water may reduce the benefits gained from water fluoridation. It is recommended that all bottled water companies should consider stating their fluoride content on their labels. This will inform consumers and dental care providers of the levels of fluoride in bottled water and allow an informed decision regarding consumption of fluoridated versus non-fluoridated drinking water.

  8. Changes in the Concentration of Ions in Saliva and Dental Plaque after Application of CPP-ACP with and without Fluoride among 6-9 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Poureslami, H.; Hoseinifar, Ra.; Khazaeli, P.; Hoseinifar, Re.; Sharifi, H.; Poureslami, P.

    2017-01-01

    Statement of Problem: The casein phospho peptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with or without fluoride (CPP-ACPF and CPP-ACP respectively) are of considerably new materials which are highly recommended for prevention of dental caries. However, there is a shortage in literature on how they affect the ion concentration of saliva or dental plaque. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of calcium, phosphate and fluoride in the plaque and saliva of children with Early Childhood Caries (ECC) after applying the CPP-ACP paste in comparison with the use of CPP-ACPF paste. Materials and Methods: One ml of un-stimulated saliva of 25 preschool children was collected and then 1 mg of the plaque sample was collected from the buccal surfaces of the two first primary molars on the upper jaw. CPP-ACP as well as CPP-ACPF pastes were applied on the tooth surfaces in two separate steps. In steps, plaque and saliva sampling was performed after 60 minutes. The amount of calcium ions was measured by Atomic Absorption Device and the amount of phosphate and fluoride ions was measured by Ion Chromatography instrument. Data were analyzed using Repeated Measurements ANOVA at a p < 0.05 level of significance. Results: Application of both CPP-ACPF and CPP-ACP significantly increased the concentration of calcium, phosphate, and fluoride in both saliva and dental plaque. Moreover, significantly higher salivary fluoride concentration was seen after application of CPP-ACPF compared to CPP-ACP. No other significant difference was observed between these two materials. Conclusions: CPP-ACPF can be more useful than CPP-ACP in protecting the primary teeth against caries process, especially when there is poor hygiene. PMID:28959766

  9. Changes in the Concentration of Ions in Saliva and Dental Plaque after Application of CPP-ACP with and without Fluoride among 6-9 Year Old Children.

    PubMed

    Poureslami, H; Hoseinifar, Ra; Khazaeli, P; Hoseinifar, Re; Sharifi, H; Poureslami, P

    2017-03-01

    The casein phospho peptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with or without fluoride (CPP-ACPF and CPP-ACP respectively) are of considerably new materials which are highly recommended for prevention of dental caries. However, there is a shortage in literature on how they affect the ion concentration of saliva or dental plaque. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of calcium, phosphate and fluoride in the plaque and saliva of children with Early Childhood Caries (ECC) after applying the CPP-ACP paste in comparison with the use of CPP-ACPF paste. One ml of un-stimulated saliva of 25 preschool children was collected and then 1 mg of the plaque sample was collected from the buccal surfaces of the two first primary molars on the upper jaw. CPP-ACP as well as CPP-ACPF pastes were applied on the tooth surfaces in two separate steps. In steps, plaque and saliva sampling was performed after 60 minutes. The amount of calcium ions was measured by Atomic Absorption Device and the amount of phosphate and fluoride ions was measured by Ion Chromatography instrument. Data were analyzed using Repeated Measurements ANOVA at a p < 0.05 level of significance. Application of both CPP-ACPF and CPP-ACP significantly increased the concentration of calcium, phosphate, and fluoride in both saliva and dental plaque. Moreover, significantly higher salivary fluoride concentration was seen after application of CPP-ACPF compared to CPP-ACP. No other significant difference was observed between these two materials. CPP-ACPF can be more useful than CPP-ACP in protecting the primary teeth against caries process, especially when there is poor hygiene.

  10. Emissions of fluorides from welding processes.

    PubMed

    Szewczyńska, Małgorzata; Pągowska, Emilia; Pyrzyńska, Krystyna

    2015-11-01

    The levels of fluoride airborne particulates emitted from welding processes were investigated. They were sampled with the patented IOM Sampler, developed by J. H. Vincent and D. Mark at the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM), personal inhalable sampler for simultaneous collection of the inhalable and respirable size fractions. Ion chromatography with conductometric detection was used for quantitative analysis. The efficiency of fluoride extraction from the cellulose filter of the IOM sampler was examined using the standard sample of urban air particle matter SRM-1648a. The best results for extraction were obtained when water and the anionic surfactant N-Cetyl-N-N-N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used in an ultrasonic bath. The limits of detection and quantification for the whole procedure were 8μg/L and 24μg/L, respectively. The linear range of calibration was 0.01-10mg/L, which corresponds to 0.0001-0.1mg of fluorides per m(3) in collection of a 20L air sample. The concentration of fluorides in the respirable fraction of collected air samples was in the range of 0.20-1.82mg/m(3), while the inhalable fraction contained 0.23-1.96mg/m(3) of fluorides during an eight-hour working day in the welding room. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The Northland fluoridation advocacy programme: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Sunitha; Thomas, David R

    2008-12-01

    On 20 July 2006, the Far North District Council resolved to fluoridate Kaitaia and Kaikohe. This was the first such initiative by any Territorial Local Authority (TLA) in New Zealand for 23 years, and resulted from a fluoridation advocacy programme. This paper describes the programme implementation, assesses its consistency with the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi, and critically examines the collaboration between the fluoride advocate and the key stakeholders. Process evaluation identified three main categories of programme implementation: policy advocacy, community action projects, and media advocacy. The collaboration of iwi, Maori health providers and the community suggests that the programme was consistent with the principles (partnership, participation and protection) ofthe Treaty ofWaitangi. Media advocacy played an important role in reflecting and engaging community views on fluoridation, and it influenced decision-making by the Far North District Council. The simultaneous, combined 'top-down and bottom-up' approach was an effective and successful strategy for fluoridation advocacy in the community. Less integrated approaches implemented on their own (such as the 'top down' approach in Whangarei and the 'bottom-up' approach in Dargaville) were not effective.

  12. Gramicidin D enhances the antibacterial activity of fluoride.

    PubMed

    Nelson, James W; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Breaker, Ronald R

    2014-07-01

    Fluoride is a toxic anion found in many natural environments. One of the major bacterial defenses against fluoride is the cell envelope, which limits passage of the membrane-impermeant fluoride anion. Accordingly, compounds that enhance the permeability of bacterial membranes to fluoride should also enhance fluoride toxicity. In this study, we demonstrate that the pore-forming antibiotic gramicidin D increases fluoride uptake in Bacillus subtilis and that the antibacterial activity of this compound is potentiated by fluoride. Polymyxin B, another membrane-targeting antibiotic with a different mechanism of action, shows no such improvement. These results, along with previous findings, indicate that certain compounds that destabilize bacterial cell envelopes can enhance the toxicity of fluoride. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Potential fluoride toxicity from oral medicaments: A review.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Rizwan; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Shahani, Nazish

    2017-08-01

    The beneficial effects of fluoride on human oral health are well studied. There are numerous studies demonstrating that a small amount of fluoride delivered to the oral cavity decreases the prevalence of dental decay and results in stronger teeth and bones. However, ingestion of fluoride more than the recommended limit leads to toxicity and adverse effects. In order to update our understanding of fluoride and its potential toxicity, we have described the mechanisms of fluoride metabolism, toxic effects, and management of fluoride toxicity. The main aim of this review is to highlight the potential adverse effects of fluoride overdose and poorly understood toxicity. In addition, the related clinical significance of fluoride overdose and toxicity has been discussed.

  14. Removing Fluoride Ions with Continously Fed Activated Alumina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yeun C.; Itemaking, Isara Cholapranee

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the mathematical basis for determining fluoride removal during water treatment with activated alumina. The study indicates that decreasing particle size decreases the pore diffusion effect and increases fluoride removal. (AS)

  15. Global water fluoridation: what is holding us back?

    PubMed

    Botchey, Sally-Ann; Ouyang, Jing; Vivekanantham, Sayinthen

    2015-01-01

    Artificial water fluoridation was introduced more than 60 y ago as a public health intervention to control dental caries. Despite wide recommendations for its use from the World Health Organization (WHO) and studies showing the benefits of water fluoridation, many countries have opted out. Currently, only 25 countries, including the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia have schemes for artificial water fluoridation. The issues faced in efforts to promote the global uptake of water fluoridation and the factors that affect the decision to implement it are unique in both developed and developing countries and must be explored. This article addresses the benefits and challenges of artificial water fluoridation. Further, it tackles the complexities faced with uptake of water fluoridation globally, such as ethical and political controversies and the use of alternative fluoride therapies. Potential future strategies to encourage the uptake of artificial water fluoridation are also discussed.

  16. Kinetics of fluoride bioavailability in supernatant saliva and salivary sediment.

    PubMed

    Naumova, E A; Sandulescu, T; Bochnig, C; Gaengler, P; Zimmer, S; Arnold, W H

    2012-07-01

    The assessment of the fluoride kinetics in whole saliva as well as in the different salivary phases (supernatant saliva and sediment) is essential for the understanding of fluoride bioavailability. To assess the fluoride content, provided by sodium fluoride and amine fluoride, in the supernatant saliva and in salivary sediment. Seven trained volunteers were randomly attributed to 2 groups in a cross-over design and brushed their teeth in the morning for 3 min with a product containing either sodium fluoride or amine fluoride. Saliva was collected before, immediately after tooth brushing and 30, 120, and 360 min later and measured. The samples were centrifuged 10 min at 3024 × g. Fluoride content of the supernatant saliva and of the sediment was analysed using a fluoride sensitive electrode. All subjects repeated the study cycles 2 times, and statistical analyses were made using the nonparametric sign test for related samples, the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney-test for independent samples. There was a significant increase in fluoride immediately after tooth brushing in both groups in saliva and sediment. The distribution of fluoride between salivary sediment and supernatant saliva (ratio) varied considerably at the different collection times: decreased from 17.87 in baseline samples of saliva to 0.07 immediately and to 0.86 half an hour after tooth brushing in the sodium fluoride group and from 14.33 to 2.85 and to 3.09 in the amine fluoride group. Furthermore after 120 min and after 360 min after tooth brushing the ratio increased from 17.6 to 31.6 in the sodium fluoride group and from 20.5 to 25.76 in the amine fluoride group. No difference was found in the sediment-supernatant saliva ratio between the sodium fluoride and the amine fluoride groups 360 min after tooth brushing. For the assessment of fluoride kinetics in whole saliva it is necessary to pay attention to at least four factors: fluoride formulation, time after fluoride application, fluoride concentration in

  17. Promotion of beta-glucan synthase activity in corn microsomal membranes by calcium and protein phosphorylation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paliyath, G.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1988-01-01

    Regulation of the activity of beta-glucan synthase was studied using microsomal preparations from corn coleoptiles. The specific activity as measured by the incorporation of glucose from uridine diphospho-D-[U-14C]glucose varied between 5 to 15 pmol (mg protein)-1 min-1. Calcium promoted beta-glucan synthase activity and the promotion was observed at free calcium concentrations as low as 1 micromole. Kinetic analysis of substrate-velocity curve showed an apparent Km of 1.92 x 10(-4) M for UDPG. Calcium increased the Vmax from 5.88 x 10(-7) mol liter-1 min-1 in the absence of calcium to 9.52 x 10(-7) mol liter-1 min-1 and 1.66 x 10(-6) mol liter-1 min-1 in the presence of 0.5 mM and 1 mM calcium, respectively. The Km values remained the same under these conditions. Addition of ATP further increased the activity above the calcium-promoted level. Sodium fluoride, a phosphoprotein phosphatase inhibitor, promoted glucan synthase activity indicating that phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are involved in the regulation of the enzyme activity. Increasing the concentration of sodium fluoride from 0.25 mM to 10 mM increased glucan synthase activity five-fold over the + calcium + ATP control. Phosphorylation of membrane proteins also showed a similar increase under these conditions. Calmodulin, in the presence of calcium and ATP stimulated glucan synthase activity substantially, indicating that calmodulin could be involved in the calcium-dependent phosphorylation and promotion of beta-glucan synthase activity. The role of calcium in mediating auxin action is discussed.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of calcium-bismuth alloys determined by emf measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H; Boysen, DA; Bradwell, DJ

    2012-01-15

    The thermodynamic properties of Ca-Bi alloys were determined by electromotive force (emf) measurements to assess the suitability of Ca-Bi electrodes for electrochemical energy storage applications. Emf was measured at ambient pressure as a function of temperature between 723 K and 1173 K using a Ca(s)vertical bar CaF2(s)vertical bar Ca(in Bi) cell for twenty different Ca-Bi alloys spanning the entire range of composition from chi(Ca) = 0 to 1. Reported are the temperature-independent partial molar entropy and enthalpy of calcium for each Ca-Bi alloy. Also given are the measured activities of calcium, the excess partial molar Gibbs energy of bismuth estimatedmore » from the Gibbs-Duhem equation, and the integral change in Gibbs energy for each Ca-Bi alloy at 873 K, 973 K, and 1073 K. Calcium activities at 973 K were found to be nearly constant at a value a(Ca) = 1 x 10(-8) over the composition range chi(Ca) = 0.32-0.56, yielding an emf of similar to 0.77 V. Above chi(Ca) = 0.62 and coincident with Ca5Bi3 formation, the calcium activity approached unity. The Ca-Bi system was also characterized by differential scanning calorimetry over the entire range of composition. Based upon these data along with the emf measurements, a revised Ca-Bi binary phase diagram is proposed. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.« less

  19. Fluoride release, recharge and mechanical property stability of various fluoride-containing resin composites.

    PubMed

    Naoum, S; Ellakwa, A; Martin, F; Swain, M

    2011-01-01

    To determine the fluoride release and recharge of three fluoride-containing resin composites when aged in deionized water (pH 6.5) and lactic acid (pH 4.0) and to assess mechanical properties of these composites following aging. Three fluoride-containing resin composites were analyzed in this study; a new giomer material named Beautifil II, Gradia Direct X, and Tetric EvoCeram. A glass ionomer cement, Fuji IX Extra, was also analyzed for comparison. Specimens were fabricated for two test groups: group 1 included 10 disc specimens initially aged 43 days in deionized water (five specimens) and lactic acid (five specimens). The fluoride release from these specimens was measured using a fluoride-specific electrode on nine specific test days during the aging period. Following 49 days of aging, each specimen was recharged in 5000 ppm neutral sodium fluoride solution for 5 minutes. Specimen recharge was then repeated on a weekly basis for 3 weeks. The subsequent fluoride rerelease was measured at 1, 3, and 7 days after each recharge episode. Group 2 included six disc specimens aged for 3 months in deionized water (three specimens) and lactic acid (three specimens). The hardness and elastic modulus of each specimen was measured using nano-indentation at intervals of 24 hours, 1 month, and 3 months after fabrication. Two-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc (Tukey) testing was used to assess the influence of storage media (two levels) and composite type (three levels) on the fluoride release, fluoride rerelease, hardness, and elastic modulus of the assessed materials. The level of significance was set at p=0.05. All three composites demonstrated fluoride release and recharge when aged in both deionized water and lactic acid. The cumulative fluoride released from Beautifil II into both media was substantially greater than the fluoride released from Gradia Direct X and Tetric EvoCeram after 43 days aging and was significantly (p<0.05, ANOVA, Tukey test

  20. Estimated fluoride doses from toothpastes should be based on total soluble fluoride.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria José L; Martins, Carolina C; Paiva, Saul M; Tenuta, Livia M A; Cury, Jaime A

    2013-11-01

    The fluoride dose ingested by young children may be overestimated if based on levels of total fluoride (TF) rather than levels of bioavailable fluoride (total soluble fluoride-TSF) in toothpaste. The aim of the present study was to compare doses of fluoride intake based on TF and TSF. Fluoride intake in 158 Brazilian children aged three and four years was determined after tooth brushing with their usual toothpaste (either family toothpaste (n = 80) or children's toothpaste (n = 78)). The estimated dose (mg F/day/Kg of body weight) of TF or TSF ingested was calculated from the chemical analysis of the toothpastes. Although the ingested dose of TF from the family toothpastes was higher than that from the children's toothpastes (0.074 ± 0.007 and 0.039 ± 0.003 mg F/day/Kg, respectively; p < 0.05), no difference between types of toothpaste was found regarding the ingested dose based on TSF (0.039 ± 0.005 and 0.039 ± 0.005 mg F/day/Kg, respectively; p > 0.05). The fluoride dose ingested by children from toothpastes may be overestimated if based on the TF of the product. This finding suggests that the ingested dose should be calculated based on TSF. Dose of TSF ingested by children is similar whether family or children's toothpaste is used.

  1. The effects of sodium fluoride and stannous fluoride on the surface roughness of intraoral magnet systems.

    PubMed

    Obatake, R M; Collard, S M; Martin, J; Ladd, G D

    1991-10-01

    Four types of intraoral magnets used for retention of overdentures and maxillofacial prostheses were exposed in vitro to SnF2 and NaF to determine the effects of fluoride rinses on surface roughness. The surface roughness (Ra) was measured, after simulated 1, 2, and 5 years' clinical exposure to fluoride (31, 62, and 155 hours). The mean change in Ra was calculated for each period of simulated exposure to fluoride for each magnet type. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare mean change in Ra between magnets within fluorides, and between fluorides within magnets. Paired t tests were used to compare mean change in Ra within fluorides within magnets. The mean change in Ra increased for all magnets after simulated 1, 2, and 5 years of exposure to SnF2 and NaF (p less than 0.03). Using the change in Ra as an indicator for corrosion, PdCo encapsulated SmCo5 magnets and their keepers demonstrated the least corrosion with either fluoride.

  2. FLUORIDE: A REVIEW OF USE AND EFFECTS ON HEALTH.

    PubMed

    Kanduti, Domen; Sterbenk, Petra; Artnik, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Appropriate oral health care is fundamental for any individual's health. Dental caries is still one of the major public health problems. The most effective way of caries prevention is the use of fluoride. The aim of our research was to review the literature about fluoride toxicity and to inform physicians, dentists and public health specialists whether fluoride use is expedient and safe. Data we used in our review were systematically searched and collected from web pages and documents published from different international institutions. Fluoride occurs naturally in our environment but we consume it in small amounts. Exposure can occur through dietary intake, respiration and fluoride supplements. The most important factor for fluoride presence in alimentation is fluoridated water. Methods, which led to greater fluoride exposure and lowered caries prevalence, are considered to be one of the greatest accomplishments in the 20th century`s public dental health. During pregnancy, the placenta acts as a barrier. The fluoride, therefore, crosses the placenta in low concentrations. Fluoride can be transmitted through the plasma into the mother's milk; however, the concentration is low. The most important action of fluoride is topical, when it is present in the saliva in the appropriate concentration. The most important effect of fluoride on caries incidence is through its role in the process of remineralization and demineralization of tooth enamel. Acute toxicity can occur after ingesting one or more doses of fluoride over a short time period which then leads to poisoning. Today, poisoning is mainly due to unsupervised ingestion of products for dental and oral hygiene and over-fluoridated water. Even though fluoride can be toxic in extremely high concentrations, it`s topical use is safe. The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) recommends a preventive topical use of fluoride supplements because of their cariostatic effect.

  3. METHOD FOR DISSOLVING LANTHANUM FLUORIDE CARRIER FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Koshland, D.E. Jr.; Willard, J.E.

    1961-08-01

    A method is described for dissolving lanthanum fluoride precipitates which is applicable to lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitation processes for recovery of plutonium values from aqueous solutions. The lanthanum fluoride precipitate is contacted with an aqueous acidic solution containing dissolved zirconium in the tetravalent oxidation state. The presence of the zirconium increases the lanthanum fluoride dissolved and makes any tetravalent plutonium present more readily oxidizable to the hexavalent state. (AEC)

  4. Pharmacokinetics of Fluoride in Toddlers After Application of 5% Sodium Fluoride Dental Varnish

    PubMed Central

    Taves, Donald M.; Kim, Amy S.; Watson, Gene E.; Horst, Jeremy A.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries (tooth decay) among preschool children is increasing, driven partially by an earlier age of onset of carious lesions. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends application of 5% sodium fluoride varnish at intervals increasing with caries risk status, as soon as teeth are present. However, the varnishes are marketed for treatment of tooth sensitivity and are regulated as medical devices rather than approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for prevention of dental caries (tooth decay). The objective of this research is to examine the safety of use in toddlers by characterizing the absorption and distribution profile of a currently marketed fluoride varnish. We measured urinary fluoride for 5 hours after application of fluoride varnish to teeth in 6 toddlers aged 12 to 15 months. Baseline levels were measured on a separate day. The urine was extracted from disposable diapers, measured by rapid diffusion, and extrapolated to plasma levels. The mean estimated plasma fluoride concentration was 13 μg/L (SD, 9 μg/L) during the baseline visit and 21 μg/L (SD, 8 μg/L) during the 5 hours after treatment. Mean estimated peak plasma fluoride after treatment was 57 μg/L (SD, 22 μg/L), and 20 μg/kg (SD, 4 μg/L) was retained on average. Retained fluoride was 253 times lower than the acute toxic dose of 5 mg/kg. Mean plasma fluoride after placement of varnish was within an SD of control levels. Occasional application of fluoride varnish following American Academy of Pediatrics guidance is safe for toddlers. PMID:25136045

  5. Topography, wetting, and corrosion responses of electrodeposited hydroxyapatite and fluoridated hydroxyapatite on magnesium.

    PubMed

    Assadian, Mahtab; Jafari, Hassan; Ghaffari Shahri, Seyed Morteza; Idris, Mohd Hasbullah; Almasi, Davood

    2016-08-12

    In this study, different types of calcium-phosphate phases were coated on NaOH pre-treated pure magnesium. The coating was applied by electrodeposition method in order to provide higher corrosion resistance and improve biocompatibility for magnesium. Thickness, surface morphology and topography of the coatings were analyzed using optical, scanning electron and atomic-force microscopies, respectively. Composition and chemical bonding, crystalline structures and wettability of the coatings were characterized using energy-dispersive and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and contact angle measurement, respectively. Degradation behavior of the coated specimens was also investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and immersion tests. The experiments proved the presence of a porous coating dominated by dicalcium-phosphate dehydrate on the specimens. It was also verified that the developed hydroxyapatite was crystallized by alkali post-treatment. Addition of supplemental fluoride to the coating electrolyte resulted in stable and highly crystallized structures of fluoridated hydroxyapatite. The coatings were found effective to improve biocompatibility combined with corrosion resistance of the specimens. Noticeably, the fluoride supplemented layer was efficient in lowering corrosion rate and increasing surface roughness of the specimens compared to hydroxyapatite and dicalcium-phosphate dehydrates layers.

  6. Efficacy of fluoride varnishes for preventing enamel demineralization after interproximal enamel reduction. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation

    PubMed Central

    González Paz, Belén Manuela; García López, José

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate quantitatively and qualitatively the changes produced to enamel after interproximal reduction and subjected to demineralization cycles, after applying a fluoride varnish (Profluorid) and a fluoride varnish containing tricalcium phosphate modified by fumaric acid (Clinpro White). Materials and methods 138 interproximal dental surfaces were divided into six groups: 1) Intact enamel; 2) Intact enamel + demineralization cycles (DC); 3) Interproximal Reduction (IR); 4) IR + DC; 5) IR + Profluorid + DC; 6) IR + Clinpro White + DC. IR was performed with a 0.5 mm cylindrical diamond bur. The weight percentage of calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P) and fluoride (F) were quantified by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Samples were examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results The weight percentage of Ca was significantly higher (p<0.05) in Groups 1, 2 and 5 than Groups 4 and 6. No significant differences were detected in the weight percentage of Ca between Group 3 and the other groups (p>0.05). The weight percentage of P was similar among all six groups (p>0.05). F was detected on 65% of Group 6 surfaces. SEM images of Groups 4 and 6 showed signs of demineralization, while Group 5 did not. Conclusions Profluorid application acts as a barrier against the demineralization of interproximally reduced enamel. PMID:28430810

  7. Fluoride in drinking water and its removal.

    PubMed

    Meenakshi; Maheshwari, R C

    2006-09-01

    Excessive fluoride concentrations have been reported in groundwaters of more than 20 developed and developing countries including India where 19 states are facing acute fluorosis problems. Various technologies are being used to remove fluoride from water but still the problem has not been rooted out. In this paper, a broad overview of the available technologies for fluoride removal and advantages and limitations of each one have been presented based on literature survey and the experiments conducted in the laboratory with several processes. It has been concluded that the selection of treatment process should be site specific as per local needs and prevailing conditions as each technology has some limitations and no one process can serve the purpose in diverse conditions.

  8. Quantitative analysis of fluoride-induced hypermineralization of developing enamel in neonatal hamster tooth germs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tros, G. H. J.; Lyaruu, D. M.; Vis, R. D.

    1993-10-01

    A procedure was developed for analysing the effect of fluoride on mineralization in the enamel of neonatal hamster molars during amelogenesis by means of the quantitative determination of the mineral content. In this procedure the distribution of calcium and mineral concentration was determined in sections containing developing tooth enamel mineral embedded in an organic epoxy resin matrix by means of the micro-PIXE technique. This allowed the determination of the calcium content along preselected tracks with a spatial resolution of 2 μm using a microprobe PIXE setup with a 3 MeV proton beam of 10 to 50 pA with a spot size of 2 μm in the track direction. In this procedure the X-ray yield is used as a measure for the calcium content. The thickness of each sample section is determined independently by measuring the energy loss of α-particles from a calibration source upon passing through the sample. The sample is considered as consisting of two bulk materials, allowing the correction for X-ray self-absorption and the calculation of the calcium concentration. The procedure was applied for measuring the distribution of mineral concentration in 2 μm thick sections taken from tooth germs of hamsters administered with NaF. The measurements indicated that a single intraperitoneal administration of 20 mg NaF/kg body weight to 4-to-5-day-old hamsters leads within 24 h to hypermineralization of certain focal enamel surface areas containing cystic lesions under transitional and early secretory ameloblasts. The mineral concentration there is substantially increased due to the fluoride treatment (35%, instead of 5 to 10% as in the controls), indicating that the normal mineralization process has been seriously disturbed. Furthermore it is found that using this technique the mineral concentration peaks at about 70% at the dentine-enamel junction, which is comparable to that reported for human dentine using other techniques.

  9. KINETIC MODEL OF FLUORIDE METABOLISM IN THE RABBIT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sodium fluoride, in small doses, was given to rabbits intravenously or by stomach tube, and the appearance of fluoride in the blood and urine was then monitored frequently over the next 10 hours. Compartmental analysis of the data yielded a kinetic model of fluoride metabolism co...

  10. 40 CFR 60.232 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.232 Section... Industry: Triple Superphosphate Plants § 60.232 Standard for fluorides. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 100 g/megagram (Mg) of equivalent P2O5 feed (0.20 lb...

  11. 40 CFR 60.242 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.242 Section... Industry: Granular Triple Superphosphate Storage Facilities § 60.242 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 0.25 g/hr/megagram...

  12. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated use...

  13. 40 CFR 60.232 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.232 Section... Industry: Triple Superphosphate Plants § 60.232 Standard for fluorides. On and after the date on which the... gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 100 g/megagram (Mg) of equivalent P2O5 feed (0.20 lb...

  14. 40 CFR 60.222 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.222 Section... Industry: Diammonium Phosphate Plants § 60.222 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and after the date on which... facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 30 g/megagram (Mg) of equivalent P2O5 feed (0...

  15. 40 CFR 60.212 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.212 Section... Industry: Superphosphoric Acid Plants § 60.212 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and after the date on which... facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 5.0 g/megagram (Mg) of equivalent P2O5 feed...

  16. 40 CFR 60.222 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.222 Section... Industry: Diammonium Phosphate Plants § 60.222 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and after the date on which... facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 30 g/megagram (Mg) of equivalent P2O5 feed (0...

  17. 40 CFR 60.212 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.212 Section... Industry: Superphosphoric Acid Plants § 60.212 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and after the date on which... facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 5.0 g/megagram (Mg) of equivalent P2O5 feed...

  18. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated use...

  19. 40 CFR 60.242 - Standard for fluorides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for fluorides. 60.242 Section... Industry: Granular Triple Superphosphate Storage Facilities § 60.242 Standard for fluorides. (a) On and... atmosphere from any affected facility any gases which contain total fluorides in excess of 0.25 g/hr/megagram...

  20. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated use...

  1. COMPLEX FLUORIDES OF PLUTONIUM AND AN ALKALI METAL

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-08-01

    A method is given for precipitating alkali metal plutonium fluorides. such as KPuF/sub 5/, KPu/sub 2/F/sub 9/, NaPuF/sub 5/, and RbPuF/sub 5/, from an aqueous plutonium(IV) solution by adding hydrogen fluoride and alkali-metal- fluoride.

  2. 21 CFR 177.2510 - Polyvinylidene fluoride resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. 177.2510 Section... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2510 Polyvinylidene fluoride resins. Polyvinylidene fluoride resins may be safely used as articles or components of articles intended for repeated use...

  3. Infrared Optics Hot Pressed From Fluoride Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turk, R. R.

    1982-02-01

    Optical figured surfaces were formed directly by hot pressing a fluoride glass in a closed die of tungsten carbide. Microduplication of the surface finish was also obtained. A glass composed of the fluorides of barium, thorium and zirconium or hafnium, and transmitting into the infrared out to 8 microns was press formed into an optical flat above its softening temperature and below its crystallization temperature. Also, small vitreous pieces were consolidated into larger pieces under moderate heat and pressure, thus avoiding the crystallization which occurs in large batches cooled from the melt.

  4. Longitudinal evaluation of fluoride levels in nails of 18-30-month-old children that were using toothpastes with 500 and 1100 μg F/g.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Jackeline G; Freire, Isabelle R; Valle-Neto, Eduardo F R; Cunha, Robson F; Martinhon, Cleide C R; Delbem, Alberto C B

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the fluoride concentration in the fingernails and toenails of children aged 18-30 months during use of fluoride-containing toothpastes supplemented with calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) or sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP). According to the toothpaste used, children (n = 56) were randomly assigned into three groups: 500 μg F/g with 1% TMP, 500 μg F/g with 0.25% CaGP, and 1100 μg F/g. Fingernails and toenails were collected monthly over a period of 330 days, from the beginning of toothpaste use. Fluoride concentration in the water consumed by the volunteers and fluoride intake from diet and toothpaste were also determined. Fluoride analyses were performed with the electrode after hexamethyldisiloxane-facilitated diffusion or by the direct method, according to the samples. Data passed normality and homoscedasticity tests and were analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance (anova) and 1-way anova followed by Student-Newman-Keuls test (P < 0.05). Fluoride levels in the fingernails and toenails as well as fluoride intake from toothpaste were similar for the groups treated with 500 μg F/g with 1% TMP and 500 μg F/g with 0.25% CaGP toothpastes, but significantly lower than the 1100 μg F/g group (P < 0.05). No significant differences were noted among the groups regarding fluoride intake from diet and that by water consumed by the volunteers (P > 0.05). The results of the longitudinal study suggest that the level of fluoride present in nails was lower with the use of toothpastes with a low fluoride concentration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Reconstructing temporal variation of fluoride uptake in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus) from a high-fluoride area by analysis of fluoride distribution in dentine.

    PubMed

    Kierdorf, Horst; Rhede, Dieter; Death, Clare; Hufschmid, Jasmin; Kierdorf, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Trace element profiling in the incrementally formed dentine of mammalian teeth can be applied to reconstruct temporal variation of incorporation of these elements into the tissue. Using an electron microprobe, this study analysed fluoride distribution in dentine of first and third mandibular molars of free-ranging eastern grey kangaroos inhabiting a high-fluoride area, to assess temporal variation in fluoride uptake of the animals. Fluoride content in the early-formed dentine of first molars was significantly lower than in the late-formed dentine of these teeth, and was also lower than in both, the early and the late-formed dentine of third molars. As early dentine formation in M1 takes place prior to weaning, this finding indicates a lower dentinal fluoride uptake during the pre-weaning compared to the post-weaning period. This is hypothetically attributed to the action of a partial barrier to fluoride transfer from blood to milk in lactating females and a low bioavailability of fluoride ingested together with milk. Another factor contributing to lower plasma fluoride levels in juveniles compared to adults is the rapid clearance of fluoride from blood plasma in the former due to their intense skeletal growth. The combined action of these mechanisms is considered to explain why in kangaroos from high-fluoride areas, the (early-formed) first molars are not affected by dental fluorosis while the (later-formed) third and fourth molars regularly exhibit marked to severe fluorotic lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations of the Anticalculus Effect of a Novel Stabilized Stannous Fluoride Dentifrice.

    PubMed

    He, Tao; Anastasia, Mary Kay; Zsiska, Marianne; Farmer, Teresa; Schneiderman, Eva; Milleman, Jeffery L

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of a novel stannous fluoride dentifrice with zinc citrate on calculus inhibition using both in vitro and clinical models. Each investigation tested a novel stabilized 0.454% stannous fluoride dentifrice with zinc citrate as an anticalculus agent (Crest® Pro-Health™ smooth formula) compared to a negative control fluoride dentifrice. The in vitro study used the modified Plaque Growth and Mineralization Model (mPGM). Plaque biofilms were prepared and mineralized by alternate immersion of glass rods in human saliva and artificial mineralization solution. Treatments of 25% w/w dentifrice/water slurries were carried out for 60 seconds daily for 6 days, between saliva and mineralization solution immersions. Plaque calcium levels were determined by digestion and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Student's t-test (p < 0.05) was used for statistical analysis. The clinical study was a parallel group, double-blind, randomized, and controlled trial. Following a dental prophylaxis, subjects entered a two-month run-in phase. At the end, they received a Volpe-Manhold Index (V-MI) calculus examination. Eighty (80) qualified subjects who had formed at least 9 mm of calculus on the linguals of the mandibular anterior teeth were re-prophied and randomly assigned to either the stannous fluoride dentifrice or the negative control. Subjects brushed twice daily, unsupervised, during the three-month test period, returning at Weeks 6 and 12 for safety and V-MI examinations. Statistical analyses were via ANCOVA. In vitro mPGM: The stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice showed 20% less in vitro tartar formation, measured as calcium accumulation normalized by biofilm mass, versus the negative control (106.95 versus 133.04 µg Ca/mg biofilm, respectively, p < 0.05). Clinical Trial: Seventy-eight (78) subjects completed with fully evaluable data. The stannous fluoride dentifrice group had 15.1% less adjusted mean calculus at Week 6 compared to

  7. APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE FROM LEGACY FISSILE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.

    2011-11-01

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) HB-Line Facility designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a production-scale system for the distillation of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Subsequent efforts adapted the vacuum salt distillation (VSD) technology for the removal of chloride and fluoride from less-volatile halide salts at the same process temperature and vacuum. Calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and plutonium fluoride (PuF{sub 3}) were of particular concern. To enable the use of the same operating conditions for themore » distillation process, SRNL employed in situ exchange reactions to convert the less-volatile halide salts to compounds that facilitated the distillation of halide without removal of plutonium. SRNL demonstrated the removal of halide from CaCl{sub 2}, CaF{sub 2} and PuF{sub 3} below 1000 C using VSD technology.« less

  8. Atmospheric chemistry of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Meng -Dawn

    In this study, the atmospheric chemistry, emissions, and surface boundary layer transport of hydrogen fluoride (HF) is summarized. Although HF is known to be chemically reactive and highly soluble, both factors affect transport and removal in the atmosphere, we suggest that the chemistry can be ignored when the HF concentration is at a sufficiently low level (e.g., 10 ppmv). At a low concentration, the capability for HF to react in the atmosphere is diminished and therefore the species can be mathematically treated as inert during the transport. At a sufficiently high concentration of HF (e.g., kg/s release rate and thousandsmore » of ppm), however, HF can go through a series of rigorous chemical reactions including polymerization, depolymerization, and reaction with water to form molecular complex. As such, the HF species cannot be considered as inert because the reactions could intimately influence the plume s thermodynamic properties affecting the changes in plume temperature and density. The atmospheric residence time of HF was found to be less than four (4) days, and deposition (i.e., atmosphere to surface transport) is the dominant mechanism that controls the removal of HF and its oligomers from the atmosphere. The literature data on HF dry deposition velocity was relatively high compared to many commonly found atmospheric species such as ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, etc. The global average of wet deposition velocity of HF was found to be zero based on one literature source. Uptake of HF by rain drops is limited by the acidity of the rain drops, and atmospheric particulate matter contributes negligibly to HF uptake. Finally, given that the reactivity of HF at a high release rate and elevated mole concentration cannot be ignored, it is important to incorporate the reaction chemistry in the near-field dispersion close to the proximity of the release source, and to incorporate the deposition mechanism in the far-field dispersion away from the

  9. Atmospheric chemistry of hydrogen fluoride

    DOE PAGES

    Cheng, Meng -Dawn

    2017-04-11

    In this study, the atmospheric chemistry, emissions, and surface boundary layer transport of hydrogen fluoride (HF) is summarized. Although HF is known to be chemically reactive and highly soluble, both factors affect transport and removal in the atmosphere, we suggest that the chemistry can be ignored when the HF concentration is at a sufficiently low level (e.g., 10 ppmv). At a low concentration, the capability for HF to react in the atmosphere is diminished and therefore the species can be mathematically treated as inert during the transport. At a sufficiently high concentration of HF (e.g., kg/s release rate and thousandsmore » of ppm), however, HF can go through a series of rigorous chemical reactions including polymerization, depolymerization, and reaction with water to form molecular complex. As such, the HF species cannot be considered as inert because the reactions could intimately influence the plume s thermodynamic properties affecting the changes in plume temperature and density. The atmospheric residence time of HF was found to be less than four (4) days, and deposition (i.e., atmosphere to surface transport) is the dominant mechanism that controls the removal of HF and its oligomers from the atmosphere. The literature data on HF dry deposition velocity was relatively high compared to many commonly found atmospheric species such as ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, etc. The global average of wet deposition velocity of HF was found to be zero based on one literature source. Uptake of HF by rain drops is limited by the acidity of the rain drops, and atmospheric particulate matter contributes negligibly to HF uptake. Finally, given that the reactivity of HF at a high release rate and elevated mole concentration cannot be ignored, it is important to incorporate the reaction chemistry in the near-field dispersion close to the proximity of the release source, and to incorporate the deposition mechanism in the far-field dispersion away from the

  10. Determination of fluoride in oxides with the fluoride-ion activity electrode.

    PubMed

    Peters, M A; Ladd, D M

    1971-07-01

    The application of the fluoride-ion activity electrode to the determination of fluoride in various samples has been studied. Samples are decomposed by fusion and the fluoride concentration is determined by a standard-addition or a direct method. The standard-addition method is unsuitable, owing to a positive bias. The direct method, however, is rapid, accurate and precise. The fluoride content of exploration ores, fluorspar, opal glass, phosphate rock and various production samples, has been successfully determined. The success of the direct method depends on the effectiveness of the system used to buffer pH and ionic strength and complex possible interferences (Al(3+), Ca(2+), Fe(3+)). The effect of interferences has been studied and found to be minimal. The procedures are rapid and accurate and may be substituted for the traditional Willard and Winter or pyro hydrolysis methods, with considerable saving of time.

  11. Do Environmental Fluoride Exposure and ESRα Genetic Variation Modulate Methylation Modification on Bone Changes in Chinese Farmers?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanli; Huang, Hui; Gong, Biao; Duan, Leizhen; Sun, Long; He, Tongkun; Cheng, Xuemin; Li, Zhiyuan; Cui, Liuxin; Ba, Yue

    2017-06-19

    Although increasing evidence suggests that estrogen receptor α (ESRα) genetic variation could modify bone damage caused by environmental fluoride exposure, little is known about epigenetic mechanisms in relation to bone changes. A case-control study was conducted among farmers aged 18-55 years in Henan Province, China. X-ray was used to detect bone changes. Methylation status was determined by methylation-specific PCR. Genotypes were identified by Taqman probe and real-time PCR. In this study, we found that methylation status in the promoter region of the ESRα gene was lower in bone change cases than that in controls, which was only observed in male farmers after stratification by gender. Furthermore, methylation level was negatively associated with the urinary fluoride concentration in male farmers. No significant association was found between the distribution of ESRα rs2941740 genotypes and the risk of bone changes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that after adjusting for age and gender, increased serum calcium and methylation status were protective factors for bone changes. No interaction effect was observed between fluoride exposure and ESRα rs2941740 polymorphism on bone changes. In conclusion, the current work suggests that bone changes are associated with methylation status, which might be modulated by fluoride exposure in male farmers. Methylation status and bone changes were not modified by ESRα gene rs2941740 polymorphism in the promoter region.

  12. Fluoride: a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease?

    PubMed

    Follin-Arbelet, Benoit; Moum, Bjørn

    2016-09-01

    Although the association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and oral hygiene has been noticed before, there has been little research on prolonged fluoride exposure as a possible risk factor. In the presented cases, exposure to fluoride seems indirectly associated with higher incidence of IBD. Fluoride toxicology and epidemiology documents frequent unspecific chronic gastrointestinal symptoms and intestinal inflammation. Efflux genes that confer resistance to environmental fluoride may select for IBD associated gut microbiota and therefore be involved in the pathogenesis. Together these multidisciplinary results argue for further investigation on the hypothesis of fluoride as a risk factor for IBD.

  13. PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF AMMONIUM URANIUM FLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, A.S.; Mooney, R.B.

    1953-08-25

    This patent relates to the preparation of ammonium uranium fluoride. The process comprises adding a water soluble fluoride to an aqueous solution of a uranous compound containing an ammonium salt, and isolating the resulting precipitate. This patent relates to the manufacture of uranium tetnafluoride from ammonium uranium fluoride, NH/sub 4/UF/sub 5/. Uranium tetrafluoride is prepared by heating the ammonium uranium fluoride to a temperature at which dissociation occurs with liberation of ammonium fluoride. Preferably the process is carried out under reduced pressure, or in a current of an inert gas.

  14. Effect of fluoride ion on the stability of DNA hairpin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Zhai, Weili; Gong, Hongling; Liu, Yanhui; Chen, Hu

    2017-06-01

    Fluoride prevents tooth decay as an additive in oral hygiene products, while high dose intake of fluoride from contaminated drinking water leads to fluorosis. Here we studied the effect of fluoride ion on the stability of DNA double helix using magnetic tweezers. The equilibrium critical force decreases with increasing concentration of fluoride in the range from 1 mM to 100 mM. Our results give the first quantitative measurement of DNA stability in the presence of fluoride ion, which might disturb DNA-related biological processes to cause fluorosis.

  15. Combining CPP-ACP with fluoride: a synergistic remineralization potential of artificially demineralized enamel or not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayad, I. I.; Sakr, A. K.; Badr, Y. A.

    2008-08-01

    Background and objective: Minimal intervention dentistry (MID) calls for early detection and remineralization of initial demineralization. Laser fluorescence is efficient in detecting changes in mineral tooth content. Recaldent is a product of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP- ACP) which delivers calcium and phosphate ions to enamel. A new product which also contains fluoride is launched in United States. The remineralizing potential of CPP- ACP per se, or when combined with 0.22% Fl supplied in an oral care gel on artificially demineralised enamel using laser fluorescence was investigated. Methods: Fifteen sound human molars were selected. Mesial surfaces were tested using He-Cd laser beam at 441.5nm with 18mW power as excitation source on a suitable set-up based on Spex 750 M monochromator provided with PMT for detection of collected auto-fluorescence from sound enamel. Mesial surfaces were subjected to demineralization for ten days. The spectra from demineralized enamel were measured. Teeth were then divided according to the remineralizing regimen into three groups: group I recaldent per se, group II recaldent combined with fluoride gel and group III artificial saliva as a positive control. After following these protocols for three weeks, the spectra from remineralized enamel from the three groups were measured. The spectra of enamel auto-fluorescence were recorded and normalized to peak intensity at about 540 nm to compare between spectra from sound, demineralized and remineralized enamel surfaces. Results: A slight red shift was noticed in spectra from demineralized enamel, while a blue shift may occur in remineralized enamel. Group II showed the highest remineralizing potential. Conclusions: Combining fluoride with CPP-ACP had a synergistic effect on enamel remineralization. In addition, laser auto-fluorescence is an accurate technique for assessment of changes in tooth enamel minerals.

  16. Fluoride geochemistry of thermal waters in Yellowstone National Park: I. Aqueous fluoride speciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deng, Y.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine

    2011-01-01

    Thermal water samples from Yellowstone National Park (YNP) have a wide range of pH (1–10), temperature, and high concentrations of fluoride (up to 50 mg/l). High fluoride concentrations are found in waters with field pH higher than 6 (except those in Crater Hills) and temperatures higher than 50 °C based on data from more than 750 water samples covering most thermal areas in YNP from 1975 to 2008. In this study, more than 140 water samples from YNP collected in 2006–2009 were analyzed for free-fluoride activity by ion-selective electrode (ISE) method as an independent check on the reliability of fluoride speciation calculations. The free to total fluoride concentration ratio ranged from <1% at low pH values to >99% at high pH. The wide range in fluoride activity can be explained by strong complexing with H+ and Al3+ under acidic conditions and lack of complexing under basic conditions. Differences between the free-fluoride activities calculated with the WATEQ4F code and those measured by ISE were within 0.3–30% for more than 90% of samples at or above 10−6 molar, providing corroboration for chemical speciation models for a wide range of pH and chemistry of YNP thermal waters. Calculated speciation results show that free fluoride, F−, and major complexes (HF(aq)0">HF(aq)0, AlF2+, AlF2+">AlF2+and AlF30">AlF30) account for more than 95% of total fluoride. Occasionally, some complex species like AlF4-">AlF4-, FeF2+, FeF2+">FeF2+, MgF+ and BF2(OH)2-">BF2(OH)2- may comprise 1–10% when the concentrations of the appropriate components are high. According to the simulation results by PHREEQC and calculated results, the ratio of main fluoride species to total fluoride varies as a function of pH and the concentrations and ratios of F and Al.

  17. The Superior Anti-caries Efficacy of Fluoride Toothpaste Containing 1.5% Arginine.

    PubMed

    Cummins, D

    2016-06-01

    Innovation in the dental caries area and the development of new superior efficacy treatments to prevent dental caries are as important today as they have ever been, because caries remains a highly prevalent disease globally. Appropriately designed and well-conducted, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are best-in-class evidence of the effectiveness of a new intervention in medicine and dentistry, and traditional two- to threeyear caries clinical trials are currently the gold standard for proof of superior caries prevention efficacy. Based upon a detailed understanding of plaque metabolism and the importance of pH rise factors in the prevention of caries, a novel toothpaste containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound, and fluoride has been developed, and its superior efficacy compared to toothpaste with fluoride alone has been validated in an unprecedented series of ten RCTs. The results of these RCTs are summarized, and some of the details of the procedures used in the studies are clarified in order to provide an opportunity for objective assessment of their quality. In addition, the results of studies which explored the mechanism of action of this toothpaste are summarized. The arginine-containing fluoride toothpaste offers its users the opportunity to supplement mechanical plaque control with a new technology that helps maintain the natural oral flora in a state that is compatible with health, so as to retain the beneficial effects of the natural flora while significantly reducing the risk of dental caries compared to conventional fluoride toothpaste. Copyright© by the YES Group, Inc.

  18. Acute Symptoms in Firefighters who Participated in Collection Work after the Community Hydrogen Fluoride Spill Accident

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to analyze the relationship between clinical status and work characteristics of firefighters and other public officers who engaged on collection duties in the site of the hydrogen fluoride spill that occurred on September 27, 2012, in Gumi City, South Korea. Methods We investigated the clinical status, personal history, and work characteristics of the study subjects and performed physical examination and several clinical examinations, including chest radiography, echocardiography, pulmonary function test, and blood testing in 348 firefighters, police officers, volunteer firefighters, and special warfare reserved force who worked at the hydrogen fluoride spill area. Results The subjects who worked near the accident site more frequently experienced eye symptoms (p = 0.026), cough (p = 0.017), and headache (p = 0.003) than the subjects who worked farther from the accident site. The longer the working hours at the accident area, the more frequently the subjects experienced pulmonary (p = 0.027), sputum (p = 0.043), and vomiting symptoms (p = 0.003). The subjects who did not wear respiratory protective devices more frequently experienced dyspnea than those who wore respiratory protective devices (p = 0.013). In the pulmonary function test, the subjects who worked near the accident site had a higher decease in forced vital capacity than the subjects who worked farther from the site (p = 0.019); however, no statistical association was found between serum calcium/phosphate level, echocardiography result, chest radiographic result, and probation work characteristics. Conclusions The subjects who worked near the site of the hydrogen fluoride spill, worked for an extended period, or worked without wearing respiratory protective devices more frequently experienced upper/lower respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological symptoms. Further follow-up examination is needed for the workers who were exposed to hydrogen

  19. Acute fluoride poisoning associated with an on-site fluoridator in a Vermont elementary school

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R.L.; Witherell, L.; LaRue, D.

    On August 30 1980, an outbreak of minor illnesses consisting of nausea and vomiting affected 22 individuals attending a farmers market at a school. Illness was associated with the consumption of beverages made from school water (Xc2 . 65.6, p less than .0001); analysis of the water showed high levels of fluoride (1,041 mg/l). The most likely source of the contamination was the school fluoridator, which had accidentally been left on continuous operation.

  20. Calcium-based biomaterials for diagnosis, treatment, and theranostics.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chao; Lin, Jing; Fu, Lian-Hua; Huang, Peng

    2018-01-22

    Calcium-based (CaXs) biomaterials including calcium phosphates, calcium carbonates, calcium silicate and calcium fluoride have been widely utilized in the biomedical field owing to their excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. In recent years, CaXs biomaterials have been strategically integrated with imaging contrast agents and therapeutic agents for various molecular imaging modalities including fluorescence imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging or multimodal imaging, as well as for various therapeutic approaches including chemotherapy, gene therapy, hyperthermia therapy, photodynamic therapy, radiation therapy, or combination therapy, even imaging-guided therapy. Compared with other inorganic biomaterials such as silica-, carbon-, and gold-based biomaterials, CaXs biomaterials can dissolve into nontoxic ions and participate in the normal metabolism of organisms. Thus, they offer safer clinical solutions for disease theranostics. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art progress in CaXs biomaterials, which covers from their categories, characteristics and preparation methods to their bioapplications including diagnosis, treatment, and theranostics. Moreover, the current trends and key problems as well as the future prospects and challenges of CaXs biomaterials are also discussed at the end.

  1. Review on fluoride-releasing restorative materials--fluoride release and uptake characteristics, antibacterial activity and influence on caries formation.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Annette; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Attin, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the fluoride release and recharge capabilities, and antibacterial properties, of fluoride-releasing dental restoratives, and discuss the current status concerning the prevention or inhibition of caries development and progression. Information from original scientific full papers or reviews listed in PubMed (search term: fluoride release AND (restorative OR glass-ionomer OR compomer OR polyacid-modified composite resin OR composite OR amalgam)), published from 1980 to 2004, was included in the review. Papers dealing with endodontic or orthodontic topics were not taken into consideration. Clinical studies concerning secondary caries development were only included when performed in split-mouth design with an observation period of at least three years. Fluoride-containing dental materials show clear differences in the fluoride release and uptake characteristics. Short- and long-term fluoride releases from restoratives are related to their matrices, setting mechanisms and fluoride content and depend on several environmental conditions. Fluoride-releasing materials may act as a fluoride reservoir and may increase the fluoride level in saliva, plaque and dental hard tissues. However, clinical studies exhibited conflicting data as to whether or not these materials significantly prevent or inhibit secondary caries and affect the growth of caries-associated bacteria compared to non-fluoridated restoratives. Fluoride release and uptake characteristics depend on the matrices, fillers and fluoride content as well as on the setting mechanisms and environmental conditions of the restoratives. Fluoride-releasing materials, predominantly glass-ionomers and compomers, did show cariostatic properties and may affect bacterial metabolism under simulated cariogenic conditions in vitro. However, it is not proven by prospective clinical studies whether the incidence of secondary caries can be significantly reduced by the fluoride release of

  2. Appropriate uses of fluorides for children: guidelines from the Canadian Workshop on the Evaluation of Current Recommendations Concerning Fluorides.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, D C

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prevent fluorosis caused by excessive fluoride ingestion by revising recommendations for fluoride intake by children. OPTIONS: Limiting fluoride ingestion from fluoridated water, fluoride supplements and fluoride dentifrices. OUTCOMES: Reduction in the prevalence of dental fluorosis and continued prevention of dental caries. EVIDENCE: Before the workshop, experts prepared comprehensive literature reviews of fluoride therapies, fluoride ingestion and the prevalence and causes of dental fluorosis. The papers, which were peer-reviewed, revised and circulated to the workshop participants, formed the basis of the workshop discussions. VALUES: Recommendations to limit fluoride intake were vigorously debated before being adopted as the consensus opinion of the workshop group. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: Decrease in the prevalence of dental fluorosis with continuing preventive effects of fluoride use. The only significant cost would be in preparing new, low-concentration fluoride products for distribution. RECOMMENDATIONS: Fluoride supplementation should be limited to children 3 years of age and older in areas where there is less than 0.3 ppm of fluoride in the water supply. Children in all areas should use only a "pea-sized" amount of fluoride dentifrice no more than twice daily under the supervision of an adult. VALIDATION: These recommendations are almost identical to changes to recommendations for the use of fluoride supplements recently proposed by a group of European countries. SPONSORS: The workshop was organized by Dr. D. Christopher Clark, of the University of British Columbia, and Drs. Hardy Limeback and Ralph C. Burgess, of the University of Toronto, and funded by Proctor and Gamble Inc., Toronto, the Medical Research Council of Canada and Health Canada (formerly the Department of National Health and Welfare). The recommendations were formally adopted by the Canadian Dental Association in April 1993. PMID:8261348

  3. Anticaries Potential of a Sodium Monofluorophosphate Dentifrice Containing Calcium Sodium Phosphosilicate: Exploratory in situ Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Charles R; Siddiqi, Muhammad; Mason, Stephen; Lippert, Frank; Hara, Anderson T; Zero, Domenick T

    2017-01-01

    Calcium sodium phosphosilicate (CSPS) is a bioactive glass material that alleviates dentin hypersensitivity and is postulated to confer remineralization of caries lesions. This single-centre, randomized, single (investigator)-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, in situ study explored whether the addition of 5% CSPS to a nonaqueous fluoride (F) such as sodium monofluorophosphate (SMFP)-containing dentifrice affects its cariostatic ability. Seventy-seven subjects wore 4 gauze-covered enamel specimens with preformed lesions (2 surface-softened and 2 subsurface) placed buccally on their mandibular bilateral dentures for up to 4 weeks. Subjects brushed twice daily with 1 of the 5 study dentifrices: 927 ppm F/5% CSPS, 927 ppm F/0% CSPS, 250 ppm F/0% CSPS, 0 ppm F/5% CSPS, or 0 ppm F/0% CSPS. Specimens were retrieved after either 21 (surface-softened lesions; analyzed by Knoop surface microhardness [SMH]) or 28 days (subsurface lesions; analyzed by transverse microradiography). The enamel fluoride uptake was determined for all specimens using a microbiopsy technique. The concentrations of fluoride and calcium in gauze-retrieved plaque were also evaluated. Higher dentifrice fluoride concentrations led to greater remineralization and fluoridation of both lesion types and increased plaque fluoride concentrations. CSPS did not improve the cariostatic properties of SMFP; there were no statistically significant differences between 927 ppm F/5% CSPS and 927 ppm F/0% CSPS in percent SMH recovery (p = 0.6788), change in integrated mineral loss (p = 0.5908), or lesion depth (p = 0.6622). Likewise, 0 ppm F/5% CSPS did not provide any benefits in comparison to 0 ppm F/0% CSPS. In conclusion, CSPS does not negatively impact nor does it improve the ability of an SMFP dentifrice to affect remineralization of caries lesions. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Dental caries and dental fluorosis at varying water fluoride concentrations.

    PubMed

    Heller, K E; Eklund, S A; Burt, B A

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between caries experience and dental fluorosis at different fluoride concentrations in drinking water. The impact of other fluoride products also was assessed. This study used data from the 1986-87 National Survey of US School-children. Fluoride levels of school water were used as an indicator of the children's water fluoride exposure. The use of fluoride drops, tablets, professional fluoride treatments, and school fluoride rinses were ascertained from caregiver questionnaires. Only children with a single continuous residence (n = 18,755) were included in this analysis. The sharpest declines in dfs and DMFS were associated with increases in water fluoride levels between 0 and 0.7 ppm F, with little additional decline between 0.7 and 1.2 ppm F. Fluorosis prevalence was 13.5 percent, 21.7 percent, 29.9 percent, and 41.4 percent for children who consumed < 0.3, 0.3 to < 0.7, 0.7 to 1.2, and > 1.2 ppm F water. In addition to fluoridated water, the use of fluoride supplements was associated with both lower caries and increased fluorosis. A suitable trade-off between caries and fluorosis appears to occur around 0.7 ppm F. Data from this study suggest that a reconsideration of the policies concerning the most appropriate concentrations for water fluoridation might be appropriate for the United States.

  5. Calcium Channel Blockers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Certain calcium channel blockers interact with grapefruit products. Kaplan NM, et al. Treatment of hypertension: Drug therapy. In: Kaplan's Clinical Hypertension. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Wolters Kluwer ...

  6. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement thickening products, and many ...

  7. New insight on the response of bacteria to fluoride.

    PubMed

    Breaker, R R

    2012-01-01

    Fluoride has been used for decades to prevent caries and it is well established that this anion can inhibit the growth of bacteria. However, the precise effects that fluoride has on bacteria and the mechanisms that bacteria use to overcome fluoride toxicity have largely remained unexplored. Recently, my laboratory reported the discovery of biological systems that bacteria use to sense fluoride and reduce fluoride toxicity. These sensors and their associated genes are very widespread in biology, which has implications for a number of issues that are central to the use of fluoride for dental care. Below I provide a summary of our findings, comment on some of the key prospects for expanding our understanding of fluoride's effects on biology, and propose some future uses of this knowledge. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. New Insight on the Response of Bacteria to Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Breaker, R.R.

    2012-01-01

    Fluoride has been used for decades to prevent caries and it is well established that this anion can inhibit the growth of bacteria. However, the precise effects that fluoride has on bacteria and the mechanisms that bacteria use to overcome fluoride toxicity have largely remained unexplored. Recently, my laboratory reported the discovery of biological systems that bacteria use to sense fluoride and reduce fluoride toxicity. These sensors and their associated genes are very widespread in biology, which has implications for a number of issues that are central to the use of fluoride for dental care. Below I provide a summary of our findings, comment on some of the key prospects for expanding our understanding of fluoride's effects on biology, and propose some future uses of this knowledge. PMID:22327376

  9. Zirconium fluoride glass - Surface crystals formed by reaction with water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doremus, R. H.; Bansal, N. P.; Bradner, T.; Murphy, D.

    1984-01-01

    The hydrated surfaces of a zirconium barium fluoride glass, which has potential for application in optical fibers and other optical elements, were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Crystalline zirconium fluoride was identified by analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns of the surface crystals and found to be the main constituent of the surface material. It was also found that hydrated zirconium fluorides form only in highly acidic fluoride solutions. It is possible that the zirconium fluoride crystals form directly on the glass surface as a result of its depletion of other ions. The solubility of zirconium fluoride is suggested to be probably much lower than that of barium fluoride (0.16 g/100 cu cm at 18 C). Dissolution was determined to be the predominant process in the initial stages of the reaction of the glass with water. Penetration of water into the glass has little effect.

  10. FLUORIDE CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SOY MILK PRODUCTS IN THAILAND.

    PubMed

    Rirattanapong, Opas; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In Thailand, the consumption of soy milk products is common but there is limited data about their fluoride content. The purpose of this study was to es- timate the fluoride content of soy milk products available in Thailand. Fluoride content was determined for 76 brands of soy milk using a F-ion-specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.78 μg/ml. The fluoride content was not related to sugar content, soy bean content or the sterilization process. Among 3 brands of soy milk containing tea powder extract, the fluoride content was high (1.25 to 3.78 μg/ml). Most brands of soy milk tested in our study had fluoride content below the optimal daily intake but brands containing tea powder extract if consumed by children may increase their risk for fluorosis.

  11. Geological sources of fluoride and acceptable intake of fluoride in an endemic fluorosis area, southern Iran.

    PubMed

    Battaleb-Looie, Sedigheh; Moore, Farid; Jacks, Gunnar; Ketabdari, Mohammad Reza

    2012-10-01

    The present study is the first attempt to put forward possible source(s) of fluoride in the Dashtestan area, Bushehr Province, southern Iran. In response to reports on the high incidence of dental fluorosis, 35 surface and groundwater samples were collected and analysed for fluoride. The results indicate that dissolved fluoride in the study area is above the maximum permissible limit recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). An additional 35 soil and rock samples were also collected and analysed for fluoride, and rock samples were subjected to petrographic investigations and X-ray diffraction. The results of these analyses show that the most likely source for fluoride in the groundwater is from clay minerals (chlorite) and micas (muscovite, sericite, and biotite) in the soils and rocks in the area. We also note that due to the high average temperatures all year round and excessive water consumption in the area, the optimum fluoride dose level should be lower than that recommended by the WHO.

  12. Estimated Fluoride Doses from Toothpastes Should be Based on Total Soluble Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Maria José L.; Martins, Carolina C.; Paiva, Saul M.; Tenuta, Livia M. A.; Cury, Jaime A.

    2013-01-01

    The fluoride dose ingested by young children may be overestimated if based on levels of total fluoride (TF) rather than levels of bioavailable fluoride (total soluble fluoride—TSF) in toothpaste. The aim of the present study was to compare doses of fluoride intake based on TF and TSF. Fluoride intake in 158 Brazilian children aged three and four years was determined after tooth brushing with their usual toothpaste (either family toothpaste (n = 80) or children’s toothpaste (n = 78)). The estimated dose (mg F/day/Kg of body weight) of TF or TSF ingested was calculated from the chemical analysis of the toothpastes. Although the ingested dose of TF from the family toothpastes was higher than that from the children’s toothpastes (0.074 ± 0.007 and 0.039 ± 0.003 mg F/day/Kg, respectively; p < 0.05), no difference between types of toothpaste was found regarding the ingested dose based on TSF (0.039 ± 0.005 and 0.039 ± 0.005 mg F/day/Kg, respectively; p > 0.05). The fluoride dose ingested by children from toothpastes may be overestimated if based on the TF of the product. This finding suggests that the ingested dose should be calculated based on TSF. Dose of TSF ingested by children is similar whether family or children’s toothpaste is used. PMID:24189183

  13. Fluoride concentration in urine after silver diamine fluoride application on tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, D. L.; Bahar, A.; Gunawan, H. A.; Adiatman, M.; Rahardjo, A.; Maharani, D. A.; Toptanci, I. R.; Yavuz, I.

    2017-08-01

    Silver Diammine Fluoride (SDF), which contains fluoride, is known to inhibit tooth enamel demineralization and increase fluoride concentrations in saliva and urine. The aim of this study is to analyze the fluoride concentration in urine after application of SDF on tooth enamel. Urine from four subjects was collected prior to, 30 minutes after, and two and three hours after the application of SDF, and an ion-selective electrode was used to measure the fluoride concentrations. There was no significant difference between time 1 and time 2, time 1 and time 3, time 1 and time 4, time 2 and 3 (p > 0.05), and there was a significant difference between time 2 and time 4 as well as time 3 and time 4 (p < 0.05). There was a decrease in the concentration of fluoride ions in urine from the baseline to 30 minutes after application, and an increase from baseline to two and three hours after the application of SDF.

  14. Solid electrolytes for fluoride ion batteries: ionic conductivity in polycrystalline tysonite-type fluorides.

    PubMed

    Rongeat, Carine; Reddy, M Anji; Witter, Raiker; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2014-02-12

    Batteries based on a fluoride shuttle (fluoride ion battery, FIB) can theoretically provide high energy densities and can thus be considered as an interesting alternative to Li-ion batteries. Large improvements are still needed regarding their actual performance, in particular for the ionic conductivity of the solid electrolyte. At the current state of the art, two types of fluoride families can be considered for electrolyte applications: alkaline-earth fluorides having a fluorite-type structure and rare-earth fluorides having a tysonite-type structure. As regard to the latter, high ionic conductivities have been reported for doped LaF3 single crystals. However, polycrystalline materials would be easier to implement in a FIB due to practical reasons in the cell manufacturing. Hence, we have analyzed in detail the ionic conductivity of La(1-y)Ba(y)F(3-y) (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.15) solid solutions prepared by ball milling. The combination of DC and AC conductivity analyses provides a better understanding of the conduction mechanism in tysonite-type fluorides with a blocking effect of the grain boundaries. Heat treatment of the electrolyte material was performed and leads to an improvement of the ionic conductivity. This confirms the detrimental effect of grain boundaries and opens new route for the development of solid electrolytes for FIB with high ionic conductivities.

  15. THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INDIGENOUS FLUORIDE FILTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given that an essential component of the design is that it can be adapted for use throughout the world, the potential media investigated are those available in the regions containing fluoride contaminated groundwater. From the literature, wood charcoal, bone char, laterite and...

  16. Beryllium fluoride film protects beryllium against corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O donnell, P. M.; Odonnell, P. M.

    1967-01-01

    Film of beryllium fluoride protects beryllium against corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in water containing chloride ion concentrations. The film is formed by exposing the beryllium to fluorine gas at 535 degrees C or higher and makes beryllium suitable for space applications.

  17. A ditopic fluorescent sensor for potassium fluoride.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Suvi J M; Fyles, Thomas M; James, Tony D

    2005-02-21

    The addition of potassium fluoride 'switches on' the fluorescence of sensors and while potassium chloride and bromide cause no fluorescence change; the fluorescence can be 'switched off' by removing the potassium cation from the benzocrown ether receptors of sensors and through the addition of [2.2.2]-cryptand and restored by the addition of the potassium cation as potassium chloride.

  18. Aqueous vinylidene fluoride polymer coating composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartoszek, Edward J. (Inventor); Christofas, Alkis (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A water-based coating composition which may be air dried to form durable, fire resistant coatings includes dispersed vinylidene fluoride polymer particles, emulsified liquid epoxy resin and a dissolved emulsifying agent for said epoxy resin which agent is also capable of rapidly curing the epoxy resin upon removal of the water from the composition.

  19. Polyvinylidene fluoride film as a capacitor dielectric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dematos, H. V.

    1981-01-01

    Thin strips of polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF) with vacuum deposited electrodes were made into capacitors by conventional winding and fabrication techniques. These devices were used to identify and evaluate the performance characteristics offered by the PVDF in metallized film capacitors. Variations in capacitor parameters with temperature and frequence were evaluated and compared with other dielectric films. Their impact on capacitor applications is discussed.

  20. Xenon fluorides show potential as fluorinating agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernick, C. L.; Shieh, T. C.; Yang, N. C.

    1967-01-01

    Xenon fluorides permit the controlled addition of fluorine across an olefinic double bond. They provide a series of fluorinating agents that permit ready separation from the product at a high purity. The reactions may be carried out in the vapor phase.