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Sample records for calcium pump stimulation

  1. The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1983-01-01

    Three aspect of cellular calcium metabolism in animal cells was discussed including the importance of the plasma membrane in calcium homeostasis, experiments dealing with the actual mechanism of the calcium pump, and the function of the pump in relationship to the mitochondria and to the function of calmodulin in the intact cell.

  2. Phosphatidylethanol stimulates the plasma-membrane calcium pump from human erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Suju, M; Davila, M; Poleo, G; Docampo, R; Benaim, G

    1996-01-01

    Phosphatidylethanol is formed by "transphosphatidylation' of phospholipids with ethanol catalysed by phospholipase D and can be accumulated in the plasma membrane of mammalian cells after treatment of animals with ethanol. In the present work we show that phosphatidylalcohols, such as phosphatidylethanol and phosphatidylbutanol, produced a twofold stimulation of the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity of human erythrocytes. This stimulation occurs with the purified, solubilized enzyme as well as with ghost preparations, where the enzyme is in its natural lipidic environment and is different to that obtained with other acidic phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine. Addition of either phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanol or phosphatidylbutanol to the purified Ca(2+)-ATPase, or to ghosts preparations, increased the affinity of the enzyme for Ca2+ and the maximal velocity of the reaction as compared with controls in the absence of acidic phospholipids. However, in contrast with what occurs with phosphatidylserine, simultaneous addition of phosphatidyl-alcohols and calmodulin increased the affinity of the enzyme for Ca2+ to a greater extent than each added separately. When ethanol was added to either the purified erythrocyte Ca(2+)-ATPase or to erythrocyte-ghost preparations in the presence of acidic phospholipids, an additive effect was observed. There was an increase in the affinity for Ca2+ and in the maximal velocity of the reaction, well above the values obtained with ethanol or with the acidic phospholipids tested separately. These findings could have pharmacological importance. It is conceivable that the decrease in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration that has been reported in erythrocytes as a result of ethanol intoxication could be due to the stimulation of the Ca(2+)-ATPase by the accumulated phosphatidylethanol, to a direct effect of ethanol on the enzyme or to an additive combination of both. PMID:8760385

  3. Calcium pumps in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Mata, Ana M; Sepúlveda, M Rosario

    2005-09-01

    Two families of Ca2+ transport ATPases are involved in the maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis in the nervous system, the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase that pumps Ca2+ to the extracellular medium and the intracellular sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase that transports Ca2+ from the cytosol to the endoplasmic reticulum. Both types of calcium pumps show precise regulatory properties and they are localized in specific subcellular regions. In this review, we describe the functional and regulatory properties of both families of calcium pumps, their distribution in nerve cells, and their involvement in neurological disorders. The functional characterization of neuronal calcium pumps is very important in order to understand the biochemical processes involved in the maintenance of intracellular calcium in synaptic terminals.

  4. A calcium-dependent protein kinase can inhibit a calmodulin-stimulated Ca2+ pump (ACA2) located in the endoplasmic reticulum of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, I.; Sze, H.; Harper, J. F.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The magnitude and duration of a cytosolic Ca(2+) release can potentially be altered by changing the rate of Ca(2+) efflux. In plant cells, Ca(2+) efflux from the cytoplasm is mediated by H(+)/Ca(2+)-antiporters and two types of Ca(2+)-ATPases. ACA2 was recently identified as a calmodulin-regulated Ca(2+)-pump located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we show that phosphorylation of its N-terminal regulatory domain by a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase (CDPK isoform CPK1), inhibits both basal activity ( approximately 10%) and calmodulin stimulation ( approximately 75%), as shown by Ca(2+)-transport assays with recombinant enzyme expressed in yeast. A CDPK phosphorylation site was mapped to Ser(45) near a calmodulin binding site, using a fusion protein containing the N-terminal domain as an in vitro substrate for a recombinant CPK1. In a full-length enzyme, an Ala substitution for Ser(45) (S45/A) completely blocked the observed CDPK inhibition of both basal and calmodulin-stimulated activities. An Asp substitution (S45/D) mimicked phosphoinhibition, indicating that a negative charge at this position is sufficient to account for phosphoinhibition. Interestingly, prior binding of calmodulin blocked phosphorylation. This suggests that, once ACA2 binds calmodulin, its activation state becomes resistant to phosphoinhibition. These results support the hypothesis that ACA2 activity is regulated as the balance between the initial kinetics of calmodulin stimulation and CDPK inhibition, providing an example in plants for a potential point of crosstalk between two different Ca(2+)-signaling pathways.

  5. Do proton pump inhibitors decrease calcium absorption?

    PubMed

    Hansen, Karen E; Jones, Andrea N; Lindstrom, Mary J; Davis, Lisa A; Ziegler, Toni E; Penniston, Kristina L; Alvig, Amy L; Shafer, Martin M

    2010-12-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) increase osteoporotic fracture risk presumably via hypochlorhydria and consequent reduced fractional calcium absorption (FCA). Existing studies provide conflicting information regarding the direct effects of PPIs on FCA. We evaluated the effect of PPI therapy on FCA. We recruited women at least 5 years past menopause who were not taking acid suppressants. Participants underwent three 24-hour inpatient FCA studies using the dual stable isotope method. Two FCA studies were performed 1 month apart to establish baseline calcium absorption. The third study occurred after taking omeprazole (40 mg/day) for 30 days. Each participant consumed the same foods during all FCA studies; study meals replicated subjects' dietary habits based on 7-day diet diaries. Twenty-one postmenopausal women ages 58 ± 7 years (mean ± SD) completed all study visits. Seventeen women were white, and 2 each were black and Hispanic. FCA (mean ± SD) was 20% ± 10% at visit 1, 18% ± 10% at visit 2, and 23% ± 10% following 30 ± 3 days of daily omeprazole (p = .07, ANOVA). Multiple linear regression revealed that age, gastric pH, serum omeprazole levels, adherence to omeprazole, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were unrelated to changes in FCA between study visits 2 and 3. The 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) level at visit 2 was the only variable (p = .049) associated with the change in FCA between visits 2 and 3. PPI-associated hypochlorhydria does not decrease FCA following 30 days of continuous use. Future studies should focus on identifying mechanisms by which PPIs increase the risk of osteoporotic fracture.

  6. Assessing cardiac pumping capability by exercise testing and inotropic stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, L B; Bain, R J; Littler, W A

    1989-01-01

    In heart failure both functional capacity and prognosis are primarily determined by the degree of pump dysfunction. Although data on haemodynamic function at rest may indicate impaired cardiac function, they do not assess the capacity of the heart to respond to stress. Maximal bicycle ergometry and incremental intravenous inotropic stimulation in 31 patients with moderately severe heart failure were evaluated as methods of stressing the heart to determine cardiac pumping capability, which is defined as the cardiac power obtained during maximal stimulation. There was good agreement between the cardiac pumping capabilities assessed by these two methods. Maximal cardiac power output was better than maximal cardiac output and left ventricular stroke work index in representing cardiac pumping capability, because it was less dependent on the type of stimulation used during evaluation. Inotropic challenge is at least as effective as exercise testing in assessing cardiac pumping capability in heart failure, and may be a better method in patients who find physical exercise difficult. PMID:2757870

  7. Extracellular calcium and cholinergic stimulation of isolated canine parietal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Soll, A H

    1981-01-01

    The role of calcium gating in cholinergic stimulation of the function of parietal cells was studied using cells isolated from canine fundic mucosa by treatment with collagenase and EDTA and enriched by velocity separation in an elutriator rotor. Monitoring the accumulation of [14C[ aminopyrine as an index of parietal cell response, stimulation by carbachol, but not by histamine, was highly dependent upon the concentration of extracellular calcium. Incubation of parietal cells in 0-.1 mM calcium, rather than the usual 1.8 mM concentration, reduced the response to 100 microM carbachol by 92 +/- 2%, whereas histamine stimulation was impaired by 28 +/- 5%. A similar reduction in extracellular calcium suppressed the response to gastrin (100 nM) by 67 +/- 7%. The impairment of cholinergic stimulation found at low extracellular calcium concentrations was rapidly reversed with the readdition of calcium. Lanthanum, which blocks calcium movement across membranes, caused a similar pattern of effects on secretagogue stimulation of aminopyrine accumulation, with 100 microM lanthanum suppressing carbachol stimulation by 83 +/- 2%. This concentration of lanthanum suppressed gastrin stimulation by 40 +/- 7% and histamine stimulation by only 12 +/- 9%. Carbachol, but not histamine nor gastrin, stimulated 45Ca++ uptake. The magnitude of carbachol-stimulated calcium uptake correlated with the parietal cell content of the fractions examined (r = 0.88), and was dose responsive over carbachol concentrations from 1 microM to 1 mM. Atropine (100 nM) caused surmountable inhibition, and these effects of carbachol and atropine on calcium uptake correlated with their effects on oxygen consumption (r = 0.93) and [14C]-aminopyrine accumulation (r = 0.90). Cells preloaded with 45Ca++ lost cellular calcium in a time-dependent fashion; however, this rate of egress was not accelerated by treatment with histamine, gastrin, or carbachol, thus failing to implicate mobilization of intracellular calcium

  8. Transient Effects And Pump Depletion In Stimulated Raman Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsten, J. L.; Wenzel, R. G...; Druhl, K.

    1983-11-01

    Stimulated rotational Raman scattering in a 300-K multipass cell filled with para-H2 with a single-mode CO2-pumped laser is studied using a frequency-narrowed optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a probe laser at the Stokes frequency for the So(0) transition. Amplification and pump depletion are examined as a function of incident pump energy. The pump depletion shows clear evidence of transient behavior. A theoretical treatment of transient stimulated Raman scattering, including effects of both pump depletion and medium saturation is presented. In a first approximation, diffraction effects are neglected, and only plane-wave interactions are considered. The theoretical results are compared to the experimental pulse shapes.

  9. Calcium Activation Profile In Electrically Stimulated Intact Rat Heart Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geerts, Hugo; Nuydens, Rony; Ver Donck, Luc; Nuyens, Roger; De Brabander, Marc; Borgers, Marcel

    1988-06-01

    Recent advances in fluorescent probe technology and image processing equipment have made available the measurement of calcium in living systems on a real-time basis. We present the use of the calcium indicator Fura-2 in intact normally stimulated rat heart cells for the spatial and dynamic measurement of the calcium excitation profile. After electric stimulation (1 Hz), the activation proceeds from the center of the myocyte toward the periphery. Within two frame times (80 ms), the whole cell is activated. The activation is slightly faster in the center of the cell than in the periphery. The mean recovery time is 200-400 ms. There is no difference along the cell's long axis. The effect of a beta-agonist and of a calcium antagonist is described.

  10. Stimulation of renin release by intrarenal calcium infusion.

    PubMed

    Lahera, V; Fiksen-Olsen, M J; Romero, J C

    1990-02-01

    The effects of intrarenal infusions of calcium gluconate (10 and 100 micrograms Ca/kg/min) on renin secretion were studied in anesthetized mongrel dogs. In one group, the two doses of calcium were infused for 30 minutes each (1 ml/min). In a second group, the same doses were administered 30 minutes after the start of infusion of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors (indomethacin 10 micrograms/kg/min intrarenal or injection of meclofenamate 5 mg/kg i.v. bolus). Mean arterial pressure, renal blood flow, and glomerular filtration rate remained unchanged during the infusion of calcium in both groups. The infusion of 10 micrograms Ca/kg/min increased renin secretion 77% and sodium excretion 123%. During the infusion of 100 micrograms Ca/kg/min, renin secretion was not different from precalcium values, whereas urinary 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, urine flow, sodium, potassium, and calcium excretion rates were increased (p less than 0.05). During the administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors, the urinary 6-keto-PGF1 alpha levels were reduced, and the infusion of 10 micrograms Ca/kg/min failed to increase renin secretion, sodium excretion, or 6-keto-PGF1 alpha excretion rates. The infusion of 100 micrograms Ca/kg/min during prostaglandin synthesis inhibition did not modify urine flow or sodium excretion; however, potassium and calcium excretions increased. It is concluded that 1) the intrarenal infusion of small doses of calcium gluconate is capable of stimulating renin secretion through a prostaglandin-mediated mechanism, and 2) the stimulation of renin secretion as well as the increase in sodium excretion induced by calcium are independent of hemodynamic alterations.

  11. Calcium imaging of infrared-stimulated activity in rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Cayce, Jonathan Matthew; Bouchard, Matthew B; Chernov, Mykyta M; Chen, Brenda R; Grosberg, Lauren E; Jansen, E Duco; Hillman, Elizabeth M C; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2014-04-01

    Infrared neural stimulation (INS) is a promising neurostimulation technique that can activate neural tissue with high spatial precision and without the need for exogenous agents. However, little is understood about how infrared light interacts with neural tissue on a cellular level, particularly within the living brain. In this study, we use calcium sensitive dye imaging on macroscopic and microscopic scales to explore the spatiotemporal effects of INS on cortical calcium dynamics. The INS-evoked calcium signal that was observed exhibited a fast and slow component suggesting activation of multiple cellular mechanisms. The slow component of the evoked signal exhibited wave-like properties suggesting network activation, and was verified to originate from astrocytes through pharmacology and 2-photon imaging. We also provide evidence that the fast calcium signal may have been evoked through modulation of glutamate transients. This study demonstrates that pulsed infrared light can induce intracellular calcium modulations in both astrocytes and neurons, providing new insights into the mechanisms of action of INS in the brain.

  12. Calcium pump kinetics determined in single erythrocyte ghosts by microphotolysis and confocal imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Kubitscheck, U; Pratsch, L; Passow, H; Peters, R

    1995-01-01

    The activity of the plasma membrane calcium pump was measured in single cells. Human red blood cell ghosts were loaded with a fluorescent calcium indicator and either caged calcium and ATP (protocol A) or caged ATP and calcium (protocol B). In a suitably modified laser scanning microscope either calcium or ATP were released by a short UV light pulse. The time-dependent fluorescence intensity of the calcium indicator was then followed in single ghosts by repetitive confocal imaging. The fluorescence intensity was converted into calcium concentration, which in turn was used to derive the kinetic parameters of the calcium pump, the Michaelis-Menten constant Km, and the maximal transport rate vmax. Km and vmax values derived in this manner were 24 +/- 14 microM and 1.0 +/- 0.6 microM/(ghost s) for protocol A, and 4 +/- 3 microM and 1.0 +/- 0.6 microM/(ghost s) for protocol B, respectively. The difference between A and B is presumably caused by calmodulin, which is inactive in the experiments with protocol A. The possibilities to extend the new method to living nucleus-containing cells transiently transfected with mutants of the plasma membrane calcium pump are discussed. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 PMID:7669907

  13. ATP stimulates calcium influx in primary astrocyte cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, J.T.; van Breemen, C.; Forster, E.; Norenberg, L.O.; Norenberg, M.D.

    1988-12-30

    The effect of ATP and other purines on /sup 45/Ca uptake was studied in primary cultures of rat astrocytes. Treatment of the cells with ATP for 1 to 30 min brought about an increase in cellular /sup 45/Ca. Stimulation of calcium influx by ATP was investigated using a 90 sec exposure to /sup 45/Ca and over a concentration range of 0.1 nM to 3 mM; a biphasic dose-response curve was obtained with EC50 values of 0.3 nM and 9 uM, indicating the presence of low and high affinity purinergic binding sites. Similar levels of /sup 45/Ca influx at 90 sec were observed with ATP, ADP and adenosine (all at 100 uM). Prior treatment of the cultures with LaCl3 blocked the purine-induced /sup 45/Ca influx. These findings indicate that one pathway for calcium entry in astrocytes involves purinergic receptor-operated, calcium channels.

  14. Calcium-stimulated autophosphorylation site of plant chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sathyanarayanan, P. V.; Siems, W. F.; Jones, J. P.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2001-01-01

    The existence of two molecular switches regulating plant chimeric Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK), namely the C-terminal visinin-like domain acting as Ca(2+)-sensitive molecular switch and calmodulin binding domain acting as Ca(2+)-stimulated autophosphorylation-sensitive molecular switch, has been described (Sathyanarayanan, P. V., Cremo, C. R., and Poovaiah, B. W. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 30417-30422). Here we report the identification of Ca(2+)-stimulated autophosphorylation site of CCaMK by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight-mass spectrometry. Thr(267) was confirmed as the Ca(2+)-stimulated autophosphorylation site by post-source decay experiments and by site-directed mutagenesis. The purified T267A mutant form of CCaMK did not show Ca(2+)-stimulated autophosphorylation, autophosphorylation-dependent variable calmodulin affinity, or Ca(2+)/calmodulin stimulation of kinase activity. Sequence comparison of CCaMK from monocotyledonous plant (lily) and dicotyledonous plant (tobacco) suggests that the autophosphorylation site is conserved. This is the first identification of a phosphorylation site specifically responding to activation by second messenger system (Ca(2+) messenger system) in plants. Homology modeling of the kinase and calmodulin binding domain of CCaMK with the crystal structure of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1 suggests that the Ca(2+)-stimulated autophosphorylation site is located on the surface of the kinase and far from the catalytic site. Analysis of Ca(2+)-stimulated autophosphorylation with increasing concentration of CCaMK indicates the possibility that the Ca(2+)-stimulated phosphorylation occurs by an intermolecular mechanism.

  15. Calcium Extrusion Pump PMCA4: A New Player in Renal Calcium Handling?

    PubMed

    van Loon, Ellen P M; Little, Robert; Prehar, Sukhpal; Bindels, René J M; Cartwright, Elizabeth J; Hoenderop, Joost G J

    2016-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) is vital for multiple processes in the body, and maintenance of the electrolyte concentration is required for everyday physiological function. In the kidney, and more specifically, in the late distal convoluted tubule and connecting tubule, the fine-tuning of Ca2+ reabsorption from the pro-urine takes place. Here, Ca2+ enters the epithelial cell via the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor type 5 (TRPV5) channel, diffuses to the basolateral side bound to calbindin-D28k and is extruded to the blood compartment via the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 1 (NCX1) and the plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA). Traditionally, PMCA1 was considered to be the primary Ca2+ pump in this process. However, in recent studies TRPV5-expressing tubules were shown to highly express PMCA4. Therefore, PMCA4 may have a predominant role in renal Ca2+ handling. This study aimed to elucidate the role of PMCA4 in Ca2+ homeostasis by characterizing the Ca2+ balance, and renal and duodenal Ca2+-related gene expression in PMCA4 knockout mice. The daily water intake of PMCA4 knockout mice was significantly lower compared to wild type littermates. There was no significant difference in serum Ca2+ level or urinary Ca2+ excretion between groups. In addition, renal and duodenal mRNA expression levels of Ca2+-related genes, including TRPV5, TRPV6, calbindin-D28k, calbindin-D9k, NCX1 and PMCA1 were similar in wild type and knockout mice. Serum FGF23 levels were significantly increased in PMCA4 knockout mice. In conclusion, PMCA4 has no discernible role in normal renal Ca2+ handling as no urinary Ca2+ wasting was observed. Further investigation of the exact role of PMCA4 in the distal convoluted tubule and connecting tubule is required.

  16. Calcium and pancreatic secretion-dynamics of subcellur calcium pools in resting and stimulated acinar cells.

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, F; Meldolesi, J

    1975-01-01

    1 Pulse-chase experiments were carried out on pancreatic tissue lobules incubated in vitro, with 45Ca as the tracer, in order to shed some light on the functional significance of the calcium pools associated with the various cell organelles of the acinar cell, especially in relation to stimulus-secretion coupling. 2 The kinetics of tracer uptake and release which were observed in the intact lobules suggest the existence of a number of intracellular pools, whose rate of exchange is slower than that across teh plasmalemma. 3 The various subcellular fractions accumulate the tracer in different amounts: some (rough microsomes and postmicrosomal supernatant) showed little radioactivity and some (smooth microsomes and zymogen granule membranes) were heavily labelled; mitochondria and zymogen granules showed intermediate values. 4 The fractions are heterogeneous also in relation to the time course of uptake and release of the tracer: in rough and smooth microsomes and, especially, in the postmicrosomal supernatant both rates were fast; zymogen granules and zymogen granule membranes showed slow rates of uptake and little release during chase; intermediate rates were found in mitochondria. 5 In agreement with previous findings we observed that in 45Ca preloaded lobules, stimulation of secretion (brought about by the secretagogue polypeptide caerulein) results in an increase of the tracer release which seems to be due primarily to the rise of the intracellular concentration of free Ca2+ and to the consequent increase of the transmembrane Ca2+ efflux. Among the cell fractions isolated from stimulated lobules only the mitochondria exhibited a significantly lower 45Ca level relative to the unstimulated controls. 6 It is concluded that, of the organelle-bound calcium pools, that associated with the mitochondria might be involved in the regulation of the calcium-dependent functions, including stimulus-secretion coupling; the calcium associated with the zymogen granule content

  17. Altered Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium Pump Expression during Breast Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Béla; Brouland, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis is involved in several essential cell functions including cell proliferation, protein synthesis, stress responses or secretion. Calcium uptake into the endoplasmic reticulum is performed by Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPases (SERCA enzymes). In order to study endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis in situ in mammary tissue, in this work SERCA3 expression was investigated in normal breast and in its benign and malignant lesions in function of the cell type, degree of malignancy, and histological and molecular parameters of the tumors. Our data indicate, that although normal breast acinar epithelial cells express SERCA3 abundantly, its expression is strongly decreased already in very early non-malignant epithelial lesions such as adenosis, and remains low in lobular carcinomas. Whereas normal duct epithelium expresses significant amounts of SERCA3, its expression is decreased in several benign ductal lesions, as well as in ductal adenocarcinoma. The loss of SERCA3 expression is correlated with Elston-Ellis grade, negative hormone receptor expression or triple negative status in ductal carcinomas. The concordance between decreased SERCA3 expression and several histological, as well as molecular markers of ductal carcinogenesis indicates that endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis is remodeled during tumorigenesis in the breast epithelium. PMID:21863130

  18. Stimulated emission in optically pumped atomic-copper vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Jin Joong Kim; Nackchin Sung

    1987-11-01

    We have observed, for the first time to our knowledge, stimulated emission in atomic-copper vapor that is excited by a resonant tunable laser beam. One of the important and interesting results obtained in this experiment is that excitation of the /sup 2/P/sub 1/2/ level of the copper atoms generates strong amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) for both /sup 2/P/sub 1/2/--/sup 2/D/sub 3/2/ and /sup 2/P/sub 3/2/--/sup 2/D/sub 5/2/ transitions. This is the first reported direct experimental evidence observed for collisional mixing between the /sup 2/P/sub 1/2/ and /sup 2/P/sub 3/2/ levels in a copper-vapor laser. Excitation of the /sup 2/P/sub 3/2/ level induces substantially weaker ASE for the /sup 2/P/sub 1/2/--/sup 2/D/sub 3/2/ transition. In addition, we observed collision-induced ASE for both transitions over a wide range of detuning of the pump frequency. The preliminary results of the experiment are presented, and the implications of the results for high-pressure copper-vapor lasers are discussed.

  19. Importance of calcium in the actions of some drugs that stimulate the isolated hypodynamic frog heart.

    PubMed

    BROADBENT, J L

    1962-08-01

    Eight drugs that stimulate the isolated hypodynamic frog heart have been tested for their ability to stimulate hearts freshly perfused in calcium-free Ringer solution. Ouabain and digitoxigenin regularly caused stimulation, veratridine did so occasionally. Hydrogen peroxide, tannic acid, paullinia tannin (from Paullinia pinnata, Linn.), sodium oleate and sodium caprylate did not stimulate. The stimulant action of ouabain could be prevented or greatly reduced by prior perfusion with either of the two tannins or with hydrogen peroxide. Hearts perfused for 3 to 4 hr with calcium-free Ringer solution, or hearts perfused for shorter periods of time with calcium-free Ringer solution containing the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid, behave unusually in that when perfusion with low-calcium Ringer solution is resumed twitch tension does not return for periods ranging from 10 to 90 min. Ouabain is unable to stimulate these "calcium-depleted" hearts. It is suggested that hydrogen peroxide, the two tannins, oleate and caprylate stimulate by causing the heart to increase the uptake of calcium from the perfusion fluid to a superficial site where calcium is necessary for the propagation of excitation from the cell membrane inwards. A special feature of the action of cardiac glycosides may be their ability to enable the heart to utilize in a similar way the intracellular stores of calcium.

  20. The physical mechanism of calcium pump regulation in the heart.

    PubMed Central

    Voss, J; Jones, L R; Thomas, D D

    1994-01-01

    The Ca-ATPase in the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane is regulated by an amphipathic transmembrane protein, phospholamban. We have used time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy to detect the microsecond rotational dynamics, and thereby the self-association, of the Ca-ATPase as a function of phospholamban phosphorylation and physiologically relevant calcium levels. The phosphorylation of phospholamban increases the rotational mobility of the Ca-ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum bilayer, due to a decrease in large-scale protein association, with a [Ca2+] dependence parallel to that of enzyme activation. These results support a model in which phospholamban phosphorylation or calcium free the enzyme from a kinetically unfavorable associated state. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:7918987

  1. Plasma-membrane calcium pumps and hereditary deafness.

    PubMed

    Brini, M; Di Leva, F; Domi, T; Fedrizzi, L; Lim, D; Carafoli, E

    2007-11-01

    In mammals, four different genes encode four PMCA (plasma-membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase) isoforms. PMCA1 and 4 are expressed ubiquitously, and PMCA2 and 3 are expressed predominantly in the central nervous system. More than 30 variants are generated by mechanisms of alternative splicing. The physiological meaning of the existence of so many isoforms is not clear, but evidently it must be related to the cell-specific demands of Ca(2+) homoeostasis. Recent studies suggest that the alternatively spliced regions in PMCA are responsible for specific targeting to plasma membrane domains, and proteins that bind specifically to the pumps could contribute to further regulation of Ca(2+) control. In addition, the combination of proteins obtained by alternative splicing occurring at two different sites could be responsible for different functional characteristics of the pumps.

  2. Na+-K+ pump stimulation improves contractility in damaged muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Torben

    2005-12-01

    Skeletal muscles have a high content of Na+-K+-ATPase, an enzyme that is identical to the Na+-K+ pump, a transport system mediating active extrusion of Na+ from the cells and accumulation of K+ in the cells. The major function of the Na+-K+ pumps is to maintain the concentration gradients for Na+ and K+ across the plasma membrane. This generates the resting membrane potential, allowing the propagation of action potentials, excitation-contraction coupling and force development. Muscles exposed to (1) high extracellular K+ or (2) low extracellular Na+ show a considerable loss of force. A similar force decline is elicited by (3) increasing Na+ permeability or (4) decreasing K+ permeability. Under all of these four conditions, stimulation of the Na+-K+ pumps can restore contractility. Following exposure to electroporation or fatiguing stimulation, muscle cell membranes develop leaks to Na+ and K+ and a partially reversible loss of force. The restoration of force is abolished by blocking the Na+-K+ pumps and markedly improved by stimulating the Na+-K+ pumps with beta 2-agonists, calcitonin gene-related peptide, or dbcAMP. These observations indicate that the Na+-K+ pumps are important for the functional compensation of the commonly occurring loss of muscle cell integrity. Stimulation of the Na+-K+ pumps with beta 2-agonists or other agents may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of muscle cell damage induced by electrical shocks, prolonged exercise, burns, or bruises.

  3. Stimulated Brillouin scattering in the field of a two-dimensionally localized pumping wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solikhov, D. K.; Dvinin, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering of electromagnetic waves in the field of a two-dimensionally localized pump wave at arbitrary scattering angles in the regime of forward scattering is analyzed. Spatial variations in the amplitudes of interacting waves are studied for different values of the pump field and different dimensions of the pump wave localization region. The intensity of scattered radiation is determined as a function of the scattering angle and the dimensions of the pump wave localization region. It is shown that the intensity increases with increasing scattering angle.

  4. Stimulation of phosphatidic acid of calcium influx and cyclic GMP synthesis in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ohsako, S; Deguchi, T

    1981-11-10

    Phosphatidic acid added to the medium markedly elevated intracellular cyclic GMP content in cultured neuroblastoma N1E 115 cells. There was a significant elevation of cyclic GMP with 1 micrograms/ml and a maximum (70-fold) elevation with 100 micrograms/ml of phosphatidic acid. Other natural phospholipids did not increase, or increased only slightly, the cyclic GMP content in the cells. The elevation of cyclic GMP content by phosphatidic acid was absolutely dependent on extracellular calcium. Phosphatidic acid stimulated the influx of calcium into neuroblastoma cells 2- to 5-fold. The pattern of the calcium influx induced by phosphatidic acid was comparable to that of cyclic GMP elevation. The stimulation of calcium influx by phosphatidic acid was also observed in cultured heart cells, indicating that phosphatidic acid acts as a calcium ionophore or opens a specific calcium-gate in a variety of cell membranes. Treatment of neuroblastoma cells with phospholipase C increased 32Pi labeling of phosphatidic acid, stimulated the influx of calcium, and elevated the cyclic GMP content in the cells. Thus exogenous as well as endogenous phosphatidic acid stimulates the translocation of calcium across cell membranes and, as a consequence, induces the synthesis of cyclic GMP in the neuroblastoma cells.

  5. The impact of calcium current reversal on neurotransmitter release in the electrically stimulated retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werginz, Paul; Rattay, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Objective. In spite of intense theoretical and experimental investigations on electrical nerve stimulation, the influence of reversed ion currents on network activity during extracellular stimulation has not been investigated so far. Approach. Here, the impact of calcium current reversal on neurotransmitter release during subretinal stimulation was analyzed with a computational multi-compartment model of a retinal bipolar cell (BC) that was coupled with a four-pool model for the exocytosis from its ribbon synapses. Emphasis was laid on calcium channel dynamics and how these channels influence synaptic release. Main results. Stronger stimulation with anodic pulses caused transmembrane voltages above the Nernst potential of calcium in the terminals and, by this means, forced calcium ions to flow in the reversed direction from inside to the outside of the cell. Consequently, intracellular calcium concentration decreased resulting in a reduced vesicle release or preventing release at all. This mechanism is expected to lead to a pronounced ring-shaped pattern of exocytosis within a group of neighbored BCs when the stronger stimulated cells close to the electrode fail in releasing vesicles. Significance. Stronger subretinal stimulation causes failure of synaptic exocytosis due to reversal of calcium flow into the extracellular space in cells close to the electrode.

  6. Synergistic effect of fluconazole and doxycycline against Candida albicans biofilms resulting from calcium fluctuation and downregulation of fluconazole-inducible efflux pump gene overexpression.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Hui; Liu, Shuyuan; Zhang, Xiang; Sun, Shujuan

    2014-07-01

    Candida albicans biofilms are intrinsically resistant to antimicrobial agents. Previous work demonstrated that the antifungal activity of fluconazole against C. albicans biofilms is notably enhanced by doxycycline. In order to explore the synergistic mechanism of fluconazole and doxycycline, we investigated the changes of efflux pump gene expression, intracellular calcium concentration and cell cycle distribution after drug intervention in this study. The expression levels of CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1 were determined by real-time PCR, and the results showed that fluconazole alone could stimulate the high expression of CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1, and the combination of doxycycline and fluconazole downregulated the gene overexpression induced by fluconazole. Intracellular calcium concentration was determined using Fluo-3/AM by observing the fluorescence with flow cytometry. A calcium fluctuation, which started 4 h and peaked 8 h after the treatment with fluconazole, was observed. The combined drugs also initiated a calcium fluctuation after 4 h treatment and showed a peak at 16 h, and the peak was higher than that stimulated by fluconazole alone. The cell cycle was measured using flow cytometry. Fluconazole alone and the combined drugs both induced a reduction in the percentages of S-phase cells and an elevation in the percentages of cells in the G2/M phase. The results of this research showed that the synergism of fluconazole and doxycycline against C. albicans biofilms is associated with blockade of the efflux pump genes CDR1, CDR2 and MDR1, and stimulation of high intracellular calcium concentration. The findings of this study are of great significance in the search for new antifungal mechanisms.

  7. Importance of calcium in the inotropic effect of hyperosomotic agents, norepinephrine, paired electrical stimulation, and treppe.

    PubMed

    Willerson, J T; Crie, J S; Adcock, R C; Templeton, G H; Wildenthal, K

    1975-01-01

    The data obtained from these studies demonstrate that the inotropic effect of hyperosmolar mannitol and sucrose and of paired electrical stimulation is critically influenced by extracellular calcium concentration. The inotropic effect of norepinephrine is not prevented by maximal functional extracellular calcium concentrations. Inhibition of systolic calcium flux at the cell membrane by D600 does not prevent the inotropic effect of hyperosmolar mannitol or of paired electrical stimulation but it does prevent the inotropic effect of hyperosmolar intropic effect of treppe. Thus, intracellular calcium regulation appears to be of major importance in the inotropic effect in isolated cardiac muscle of mannitol and paired pacing while systolic calcium flux at the cell membrane appears to be of major importance in the inotropic effect of treppe.

  8. A calcium ionophore stimulating the secretion of catecholamines from the cat adrenal.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, A G; Kirpekar, S M; Prat, J C

    1975-01-01

    1. Experiments were performed on perfused cat adrenal glands to examine the effect of a calcium ionophore A-23187 in the secretion of catecholamines. 2. Ionophore (1-10 muM) caused a dose-dependent release of catecholamines and the output was about 100-fold greater at 10 mum than at 1 mum. 3. Release of catecholamines by the ionophore was dependent on the calcium concentration of the perfusion medium. Omission of calcium blocked the response to the ionophore while excess calcium facilitated it. 4. Magnesium antagonized the secretory response to the ionophore. Excess calcium overcame the inhibitory effect of magnesium. 5. The ionophore did not modify release of catecholamines by induced splanchnic nerve stimulation. 6. The results suggest that the ionophore, like depolarization, introduces calcium into the chromaffin cell to cause release of catecholamines. PMID:1091727

  9. Investigating potential sources of Mercury's exospheric Calcium: Photon-stimulated desorption of Calcium Sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Chris J.; McLain, Jason L.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Gann, Reuben D.; DeSimone, Alice; Orlando, Thomas M.

    2016-02-01

    Ground-based and MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging observations detected Ca0 and Ca+ in the exosphere of Mercury as well as unexpectedly high levels of sulfur on Mercury's surface. The mineral oldhamite ((Mg,Ca)S) could be a predominant component of the Mercury surface, particularly within the hollows identified within craters, and could therefore serve as a source of the observed exospheric calcium. Laboratory measurements on the photon-stimulated desorption (PSD) of CaS powder (an analog for oldhamite) at a wavelength of λ = 355 nm have been conducted, utilizing resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry to determine the yields and velocity distributions of Ca0. The desorbing Ca0 could be fit using two Maxwell-Boltzmann components: a 600 (±30) K thermal component and a 1389 (±121) K nonthermal component, the latter accounting for ~25% of the observed signal. Cross sections for PSD using 3.4 eV photons were found to be 1.1 (±0.7) × 10-20 cm2 for Ca0 and 3.2 (±0.9) × 10-24 cm2 for Ca+. Adopting these cross sections, a Monte Carlo model of the release of Ca0 by PSD from the Tyagaraja crater finds the neutral microexosphere created from this process to be substantial even if only 1% CaS is assumed in the hollows. Diffuse reflectance UV-visible measurements were made on the CaS powder to determine a bandgap, Eg, of 2.81 (±0.14) eV via the Tauc method.

  10. UHF electromagnetic emission stimulated by HF pumping of the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grach, S. M.; Fridman, V. M.; Lifshits, L. M.; Podstrigach, T. S.; Sergeev, E. N.; Snegirev, S. D.

    2002-10-01

    UHF electromagnetic emission (with a frequency near 600 MHz) from the F-region of the ionosphere pumped by an HF powerful radio wave is revealed. Possible mechanisms of the emission excitation, such as plasma mode con-version, scattering or Earth thermal noise emission off the plasma density irregularities, bremsstrahlung and excitation of high Rydberg states of the neutral particles by the accelerated electrons are discussed.

  11. Simulation and measurement of threshold pump powers for the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in ytterbium-doped double-clad CW fiber amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahi, M.; Bagheri Harouni, M.; Hekmat, M. J.; Fakhari, M.; Shahriari, N.; Kanani, M.; Normohamadi, H.

    2016-11-01

    By considering propagation equations of Stokes-waves for different orders of the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) together with propagation-rate equations of Ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber amplifiers, we numerically analyze steady-state characteristics of these amplifiers such as Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) and threshold pump power and parameters which have influence over it such as pumping configuration, pumping wavelength, input signal wavelength, input signal power, input signal bandwidth and amplifier geometry. Also in an experimental setup threshold pump powers under both forward and backward pumping configurations are measured. Our results are of prime importance for applications such as nonlinear frequency generation.

  12. Enhanced electron-hole plasma stimulated emission in optically pumped gallium nitride nanopillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, M.-H.; Cheng, Y.-J.; Kuo, H.-C.; Wang, S.-C.

    2011-03-01

    An enhanced stimulated emission was observed in optically pumped GaN nanopillars. The nanopillars were fabricated from an epitaxial wafer by patterned pillar etching followed by crystalline regrowth. Under optical excitation, a strong redshifted stimulated emission peak emerged from a broad spontaneous emission background. The emission is attributed to the electron-hole plasma gain at high carrier density. The emission slope efficiency was greatly enhanced by 20 times compared with a GaN substrate under the same pumping condition. The enhancement is attributed to the better photon and gain interaction from the multiple scattering of photons among nanopillars.

  13. Partial purification of the ATP-driven calcium pump of Streptococcus sanguis

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, A.R.; Rosen, B.P.

    1986-05-01

    ATP-dependent transport of calcium has been observed in several species of streptococci as uptake of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ into everted membrane vesicles. Membranes from Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus faecalis were solubilized with octyl-..beta..-D-glucoside or Triton X-100, and the extracts reconstituted into proteoliposomes containing Escherichia coli or soybean phospholipid. Calcium transport in reconstituted proteoliposomes was insensitive to the ionophores nigericin and valinomycin and was unaffected by the F/sub 0/F/sub 1/ inhibitor N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. Uptake was inhibited by ortho-vanadate with a K/sub i/ in the micromolar range. These results demonstrate that the reconstituted transport activities are not the result of ATP-driven proton pumping via the F/sub 0/F/sub 1/ coupled to a calcium/proton antiporter and suggest that existence of a calcium translocating ATPase. Partial purification of the transport activity from Streptococcus sanguis has been achieved using density gradient centrifugation and FPLC.

  14. Ca2+ signalling in cardiovascular disease: the role of the plasma membrane calcium pumps.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Elizabeth J; Oceandy, Delvac; Austin, Clare; Neyses, Ludwig

    2011-08-01

    The plasma membrane calcium ATPases (PMCA) are a family of genes which extrude Ca(2+) from the cell and are involved in the maintenance of intracellular free calcium levels and/or with Ca(2+) signalling, depending on the cell type. In the cardiovascular system, Ca(2+) is not only essential for contraction and relaxation but also has a vital role as a second messenger in signal transduction pathways. A complex array of mechanisms regulate intracellular free calcium levels in the heart and vasculature and a failure in these systems to maintain normal Ca(2+) homeostasis has been linked to both heart failure and hypertension. This article focuses on the functions of PMCA, in particular isoform 4 (PMCA4), in the heart and vasculature and the reported links between PMCAs and contractile function, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac rhythm and sudden cardiac death, and blood pressure control and hypertension. It is becoming clear that this family of calcium extrusion pumps have essential roles in both cardiovascular health and disease.

  15. Differential Effects of G- and F-Actin on the Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump Activity

    PubMed Central

    Vanagas, Laura; de La Fuente, María Candelaria; Dalghi, Marianela; Ferreira-Gomes, Mariela; Rossi, Rolando C.; Strehler, Emanuel E.; Rossi, Juan P. F. C.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) pump activity is affected by the membrane protein concentration (Vanagas et al., Biochim Biophys Acta 1768:1641–1644, 2007). Results show evidences for the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton. In this study, we explored the relationship between the polymerization state of actin and its effects on purified PMCA activity. Our results show that PMCA associates with the actin cytoskeleton and this interaction causes a modulation of the catalytic activity involving the phosphorylated intermediate of the pump. The state of actin polymerization determines whether it acts as an activator or an inhibitor of the pump: G-actin and/or short oligomers activate the pump, while F-actin inhibits it. The effects of actin on PMCA are the consequence of direct interaction as demonstrated by immunoblotting and cosedimentation experiments. Taken together, these findings suggest that interactions with actin play a dynamic role in the regulation of PMCA-mediated Ca2+ extrusion through the membrane. Our results provide further evidence of the activation–inhibition phenomenon as a property of many cytoskeleton-associated membrane proteins where the cytoskeleton is no longer restricted to a mechanical function but is dynamically involved in modulating the activity of integral proteins with which it interacts. PMID:23152090

  16. Intracellular calcium rise is not a necessary step for the stimulated actin polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Yassin, R.

    1986-03-01

    Stimulation of rabbit peritoneal neutrophils by many chemotactic (formyl Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine (fMLP), Leukotriene B/sub 4/ (LTB/sub 4/)) and non-chemotactic (phorbol 12-myristate, 13-acetate (PMA), platelet activating factor (PAF), and the calcium ionophore A23187) factors produces rapid and dose dependent increases in the amount of actin associated with the cytoskeleton. The stimulated increase in cytoskeletal actin does not appear to require a rise in the intracellular concentration of free calcium. The increase in cytoskeletal actin produced by A23187 is transient and does not depend on the presence of calcium in the suspending medium. In the presence of extracellular calcium, the effect of the ionophore is biphasic with respect to concentration. The increases in actin association with cytoskeletal produced by fMLP, LTB/sub 4/, and A23187 but not by PMA, are inhibited by hyperosmolarity and pertussis toxin pretreatment. On the other hand, the addition of hyperosmolarity or pertussis toxin has small effect on the rise in the intracellular calcium produced by A23187. The results presented here suggest that an increase in the intracellular concentration of free calcium is not necessary for the stimulated increases in cytoskeletal actin.

  17. Localization of calcium stimulated adenosine triphosphatase activity in blood vessels of the skeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.

    1985-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found in bone forming cells which decreases in certain bones as a result of hypogravity or non-weight bearing. This enzyme can also hydrolyze adenosine triphosphate. Therefore, an effort was made to localize calcium-stimulated ATPase by cytochemistry to determine whether altered bone cell activity might be related to changing calcium levels which occur during hypogravity. The results indicate that Ca(++)-ATPase is largely found along the endothelium and basal lamina of blood vessels, and not found in bone forming cells. This suggests that calcium regulation in the vicinity of bone formation may be modulated by the vasculature of the area.

  18. Cytokinin stimulates dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium uptake in moss protoplasts.

    PubMed Central

    Schumaker, K S; Gizinski, M J

    1993-01-01

    Ca2+ influx through dihydropyridine (DHP)-sensitive Ca2+ channels is thought to be an early event in cytokinin-induced bud formation in moss protonema because DHP antagonists inhibit bud formation in the presence of cytokinin and DHP agonists stimulate bud formation in the absence of cytokinin [Conrad, P. A. & Helper, P. K. (1988) Plant Physiol. 86, 684-687]. In the present study, we established the presence of a DHP-sensitive Ca2+ transport system by measuring 45Ca2+ influx into moss protoplasts. Ca2+ influx was stimulated by external KCl (up to 5 mM), indicating that transport is voltage-dependent. K(+)-induced Ca2+ influx was DHP-sensitive with > 50% inhibition at 500 nM nifedipine. Ca2+ influx was stimulated by increasing concentrations of the DHP Ca2+ channel agonist Bay K8644 with half-maximal effects at 25 nM; this stimulation was seen only in the absence of K+, suggesting that the agonist works preferentially on polarized membranes. Ca2+ influx was also inhibited by phenylalkylamines (verapamil) and benzothiazepines (diltiazem). The phytohormone 6-benzylaminopurine consistently stimulated Ca2+ influx with a Km value of 1 nM, whereas adenine, indoleacetic acid, and gibberellic acid had no effect on Ca2+ transport. The cytokinins kinetin and trans-zeatin caused a greater stimulation of Ca2+ influx and induced more bud formation than did 6-benzylaminopurine. These results indicate that Ca2+ is taken up into moss protoplasts through voltage-dependent DHP-sensitive Ca2+ channels on the plasma membrane and that one of the cytokinin effects in the induction of bud formation is regulation of this plasma membrane Ca2+ channel. PMID:7504288

  19. Origins of intracellular calcium mobilization evoked by infrared laser stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsovsky, Cory A.; Tolstykh, Gleb P.; Ibey, Bennett L.; Beier, Hope T.

    2015-03-01

    Cellular delivery of pulsed IR laser energy has been shown to stimulate action potentials in neurons. The mechanism for this stimulation is not completely understood. Certain hypotheses suggest the rise in temperature from IR exposure could activate temperature- or pressure-sensitive channels, or create pores in the cellular outer membrane. Studies using intensity-based Ca2+-responsive dyes show changes in Ca2+ levels after various IR stimulation parameters; however, determination of the origin of this signal proved difficult. An influx of larger, typically plasma-membrane-impermeant ions has been demonstrated, which suggests that Ca2+ may originate from the external solution. However, activation of intracellular signaling pathways, possibly indicating a more complex role of increasing Ca2+ concentration, has also been shown. By usingCa2+ sensitive dye Fura-2 and a high-speed ratiometric imaging system that rapidly alternates the excitation wavelengths, we have quantified the Ca2+ mobilization in terms of influx from the external solution and efflux from intracellular organelles. CHO-K1 cells, which lack voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, and NG-108 neuroblastoma cells, which do not produce action potentials in an early undifferentiated state, are used to determine the origin of the Ca2+ signals and investigate the role these mechanisms may play in IR neural stimulation.

  20. Mechanism of low-threshold hypersonic cavitation stimulated by broadband laser pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunkin, N. F.; Lobeyev, A. V.; Lyakhov, G. A.; Ninham, B. W.

    1999-08-01

    A low threshold acoustic cavitation regime was observed for the excitation of hypersonic waves due to a stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) mechanism, when the optical pump lies within the uv frequency range. Cavitation occurs if the optical pump bandwidth Δ+>>Ω0, where Ω0 is the Stokes frequency shift (the hypersonic frequency). In the opposite case (Δ+<<Ω0), cavitation does not occur despite the fact that the hypersonic wave intensity is much higher. The effect is associated with the stimulation of a broad frequency spectrum of hypersonic pressure in a field provided by the broadband optical pump. In contrast, for a monochromatic optical pump, the hypersonic wave is of single-frequency character. Induction of cavitation at the low intensities of acoustic pressure is attributed to nanobubbles of fixed size that occur in the liquid. The resonant frequency of the nanobubbles coincides with the frequency of some spectral component of hypersound present in the broadband SBS process. That conclusion is reinforced by the further observation that at the same intensity of broadband pumping the cavitation vanishes after degassing the liquid. In parallel experiments on four-photon polarization Rayleigh wing spectroscopy, it was also demonstrated that spectral lines exist in ordinary (not degassed) water, which can be ascribed to resonances of radial vibrations of nanobubbles. Those lines are absent in the degassed water spectrum.

  1. Mathematical Modeling of Calcium Waves Induced by Mechanical Stimulation in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yasuaki; Sanno, Yumi; Sakai, Akihiko; Sawabu, Yusuke; Tsutsumi, Moe; Goto, Makiko; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Nakata, Satoshi; Kumamoto, Junichi; Denda, Mitsuhiro; Nagayama, Masaharu

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the behavior of calcium in the epidermis is closely related to the conditions of the skin, especially the differentiation of the epidermal keratinocytes and the permeability barrier function, and therefore a correct understanding of the calcium dynamics is important in explaining epidermal homeostasis. Here we report on experimental observations of in vitro calcium waves in keratinocytes induced by mechanical stimulation, and present a mathematical model that can describe the experimentally observed wave behavior that includes finite-range wave propagation and a ring-shaped pattern. A mechanism of the ring formation hypothesized by our model may be related to similar calcium propagation patterns observed during the wound healing process in the epidermis. We discuss a possible extension of our model that may serve as a tool for investigating the mechanisms of various skin diseases. PMID:24663805

  2. Method of successive approximations in the theory of stimulated Raman scattering of a randomly modulated pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krochik, G. M.

    1980-02-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering of a randomly modulated pump is investigated by the method of successive approximations. This involves expanding solutions in terms of small parameters, which are ratios of the correlation scales of random effects to other characteristic dynamic scales of the problem. Systems of closed equations are obtained for the moments of the amplitudes of the Stokes and pump waves and of the molecular vibrations. These describe the dynamics of the process allowing for changes in the pump intensity and statistics due to a three-wave interaction. By analyzing equations in higher-order approximations, it is possible to establish the conditions of validity of the first (Markov) and second approximations. In particular, it is found that these are valid for pump intensities JL both above and below the critical value Jcr near which the gain begins to increase rapidly and reproduction of the pump spectrum by the Stokes wave is initiated. Solutions are obtained for average intensities of the Stokes wave and molecular vibrations in the first approximation in a constant pump field. It is established that, for JLgtrsimJcr, the Stokes wave undergoes rapid nonsteady-state amplification which is associated with an increase in the amplitude of the molecular vibrations. The results of the calculations show good agreement with known experimental data.

  3. Stimulation of root elongation and curvature by calcium.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Scott, T K; Suge, H

    1992-01-01

    Ca2+ has been proposed to mediate inhibition of root elongation. However, exogenous Ca2+ at 10 or 20 millimolar, applied directly to the root cap, significantly stimulated root elongation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings. Furthermore, Ca2+ at 1 to 20 millimolar, applied unilaterally to the caps of Alaska pea roots, caused root curvature away from the Ca2+ source, which was caused by an acceleration of elongation growth on the convex side (Ca2+ side) of the roots. Roots of an agravitropic pea mutant, ageotropum, responded to a greater extent. Roots of Merit and Silver Queen corn also responded to Ca2+ in similar ways but required a higher Ca2+ concentration than that of pea roots. Roots of all other cultivars tested (additional four cultivars of pea and one of corn) curved away from the unilateral Ca2+ source as well. The Ca(2+)-stimulated curvature was substantially enhanced by light. A Ca2+ ionophore, A23187, at 20 micromolar or abscisic acid at 0.1 to 100 micromolar partially substituted for the light effect and enhanced the Ca(2+)-stimulated curvature in the dark. Unilateral application of Ca2+ to the elongation zone of intact roots or to the cut end of detipped roots caused either no curvature or very slight curvature toward the Ca2+. Thus, Ca2+ action on root elongation differs depending on its site of application. The stimulatory action of Ca2+ may involve an elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ in root cap cells and may partipate in root tropisms.

  4. Stimulation of root elongation and curvature by calcium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, H.; Scott, T. K.; Suge, H.

    1992-01-01

    Ca2+ has been proposed to mediate inhibition of root elongation. However, exogenous Ca2+ at 10 or 20 millimolar, applied directly to the root cap, significantly stimulated root elongation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings. Furthermore, Ca2+ at 1 to 20 millimolar, applied unilaterally to the caps of Alaska pea roots, caused root curvature away from the Ca2+ source, which was caused by an acceleration of elongation growth on the convex side (Ca2+ side) of the roots. Roots of an agravitropic pea mutant, ageotropum, responded to a greater extent. Roots of Merit and Silver Queen corn also responded to Ca2+ in similar ways but required a higher Ca2+ concentration than that of pea roots. Roots of all other cultivars tested (additional four cultivars of pea and one of corn) curved away from the unilateral Ca2+ source as well. The Ca(2+)-stimulated curvature was substantially enhanced by light. A Ca2+ ionophore, A23187, at 20 micromolar or abscisic acid at 0.1 to 100 micromolar partially substituted for the light effect and enhanced the Ca(2+)-stimulated curvature in the dark. Unilateral application of Ca2+ to the elongation zone of intact roots or to the cut end of detipped roots caused either no curvature or very slight curvature toward the Ca2+. Thus, Ca2+ action on root elongation differs depending on its site of application. The stimulatory action of Ca2+ may involve an elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ in root cap cells and may partipate in root tropisms.

  5. Effects of pump recycling technique on stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold: a theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Al-Asadi, H A; Al-Mansoori, M H; Ajiya, M; Hitam, S; Saripan, M I; Mahdi, M A

    2010-10-11

    We develop a theoretical model that can be used to predict stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold in optical fibers that arises through the effect of Brillouin pump recycling technique. Obtained simulation results from our model are in close agreement with our experimental results. The developed model utilizes single mode optical fiber of different lengths as the Brillouin gain media. For 5-km long single mode fiber, the calculated threshold power for SBS is about 16 mW for conventional technique. This value is reduced to about 8 mW when the residual Brillouin pump is recycled at the end of the fiber. The decrement of SBS threshold is due to longer interaction lengths between Brillouin pump and Stokes wave.

  6. Cell stimulation and calcium mobilization by picosecond electric pulses.

    PubMed

    Semenov, Iurii; Xiao, Shu; Kang, Dongkoo; Schoenbach, Karl H; Pakhomov, Andrei G

    2015-10-01

    We tested if picosecond electric pulses (psEP; 190 kV/cm, 500 ps at 50% height), which are much shorter than channel activation time, can activate voltage-gated (VG) channels. Cytosolic Ca(2+) was monitored by Fura-2 ratiometric imaging in GH3 and NG108 cells (which express multiple types of VG calcium channels, VGCC), and in CHO cells (which express no VGCC). Trains of up to 100 psEP at 1 kHz elicited no response in CHO cells. However, even a single psEP significantly increased Ca(2+) in both GH3 (by 114 ± 48 nM) and NG108 cells (by 6 ± 1.1 nM). Trains of 100 psEP amplified the response to 379 ± 33 nM and 719 ± 315 nM, respectively. Ca(2+) responses peaked within 2-15s and recovered for over 100 s; they were 80-100% inhibited by verapamil and ω-conotoxin, but not by the substitution of Na(+) with N-methyl-D-glucamine. There was no response to psEP in Ca(2+)-free medium, but adding external Ca(2+) even 10s later evoked Ca(2+) response. We conclude that electrical stimuli as short as 500 ps can cause long-lasting opening of VGCC by a mechanism which does not involve conventional electroporation, heating (which was under 0.06 K per psEP), or membrane depolarization by opening of VG Na(+) channels.

  7. Cell stimulation and calcium mobilization by picosecond electric pulses

    PubMed Central

    Semenov, Iurii; Xiao, Shu; Kang, Dongkoo; Schoenbach, Karl H.; Pakhomov, Andrei G.

    2015-01-01

    We tested if picosecond electric pulses (psEP; 190 kV/cm, 500 ps at 50% height), which are much shorter than channel activation time, can activate voltage-gated (VG) channels. Cytosolic Ca2+ was monitored by Fura-2 ratiometric imaging in GH3 and NG108 cells (which express multiple types of VG calcium channels, VGCC), and in CHO cells (which express no VGCC). Trains of up to 100 psEP at 1 kHz elicited no response in CHO cells. However, even a single psEP significantly increased Ca2+ in both GH3 (by 114+/−48 nM) and NG108 cells (by 6 +/−1.1 nM). Trains of 100 psEP amplified the response to 379+/−33 nM and 719+/−315 nM, respectively. Ca2+ responses peaked within 2–15 s and recovered for over 100 s; they were 80–100% inhibited by verapamil and ω-conotoxin, but not by the substitution of Na+ with N-methyl-D-glucamine. There was no response to psEP in Ca2+-free medium, but adding external Ca2+ even 10 s later evoked Ca2+ response. We conclude that electrical stimuli as short as 500 ps can cause long-lasting opening of VGCC by a mechanism which does not involve conventional electroporation, heating (which was under 0.06 °K per psEP), or membrane depolarization by opening of VG Na+ channels. PMID:26011130

  8. Wave packet theory of dynamic stimulated Raman spectra in femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhigang; Jin, Zhongqi; Lu, J; Zhang, Dong H; Lee, Soo-Y

    2007-05-07

    The quantum theory for stimulated Raman spectroscopy from a moving wave packet using the third-order density matrix and polarization is derived. The theory applies, in particular, to the new technique of femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS). In the general case, a femtosecond actinic pump pulse first prepares a moving wave packet on an excited state surface which is then interrogated with a coupled pair of picosecond Raman pump pulse and a femtosecond Raman probe pulse and the Raman gain in the direction of the probe pulse is measured. It is shown that the third-order polarization in the time domain, whose Fourier transform governs the Raman gain, is given simply by the overlap of a first-order wave packet created by the Raman pump on the upper electronic state with a second-order wave packet on the initial electronic state that is created by the coupling of the Raman pump and probe fields acting on the molecule. Calculations are performed on model potentials to illustrate and interpret the FSRS spectra.

  9. Characterization of the plasma-membrane calcium pump from Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    Benaim, G; Moreno, S N; Hutchinson, G; Cervino, V; Hermoso, T; Romero, P J; Ruiz, F; de Souza, W; Docampo, R

    1995-01-01

    Despite previous reports [McLaughlin (1985) Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 15, 189-201; Ghosh, Ray, Sarkar and Bhaduri (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 11345-11351; Mazumder, Mukherjee, Ghosh, Ray and Bhaduri (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 18440-18446] suggesting that the plasma-membrane Ca(2+)-ATPases of different trypanosomatids differ from the Ca2+ pumps present in mammalian cells, Trypanosoma cruzi plasma-membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase shares several characteristics with the Ca2+ pumps present in other systems. This enzyme could be partially purified from epimastigote plasma-membrane vesicles using calmodulin-agarose affinity chromatography. The activity of the partially purified enzyme was stimulated by T. cruzi or bovine brain calmodulin. In addition, the enzyme cross-reacted with antiserum and monoclonal antibody 5F10 raised against human red-blood-cell Ca(2+)-ATPase, has a molecular mass of 140 kDa and forms Ca(2+)-dependent hydroxylamine-sensitive phosphorylated intermediates. These results, together with its high sensitivity to vanadate, indicate that this enzyme belongs to the P-type class of ionic pumps. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7532400

  10. Influence of calcium on the inotropic actions of hyperosmotic agents, norepinephrine, paired electrical stimulation, and treppe.

    PubMed

    Willerson, J T; Crie, J S; Adcock, R C; Templeton, G H; Wildenthal, K

    1974-10-01

    To analyze the interaction of calcium ion concentration with hypertonic agents and with other inotropic interventions, isolated right ventricular cat papillary muscles were studied under isometric conditions in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution. Extracellular calcium concentrations were varied between 2.5 and 11.0 mM. Maximal inotropic effects occurred between 5 and 8.0 mM calcium and further elevation to 11.0 mM was without additional influence. The effect of hyperosmotic sucrose and mannitol on papillary muscle performance was compared with that of 10(-6) M norepinephrine at calcium concentrations of 2.5 and 10.0 mM and with paired electrical stimulation in 10.0 mM calcium. Both norepinephrine and the hyperosmotic agents produced significant increases in developed tension and in the maximal rate of tension rise (dT/dt) in Krebs-Ringer in 2.5 and 4.0 mM calcium. In 10 mM calcium norepinephrine increased developed tension and dT/dt, but sucrose and mannitol caused no change or small reductions in both. Paired electrical stimulation, like hyperosmolality, caused no increase in dT/dt in 10 mM calcium. The presence of a potent pharmacological inhibitor of systolic calcium transfer across the cell membrane (D600, 10(-6) M) reduced developed tension and dT/dt by 76+/-2.7 and 74+/-2.0%, respectively, and prevented and in fact reversed the expected increase in dT/dt associated with an increase in rate of stimulation (treppe). However, hypertonic mannitol and paired pacing persisted in causing marked increases in developed tension and dT/dt even in the presence of D600, suggesting that their inotropic effects are not dependent on increased intracellular transfer of calcium during systole through cell membrane channels in which D600 acts as a competitive inhibitor. The results of these studies suggest that apparent functional saturation of intracellular calcium receptor sites eliminates any additional inotropic effect of hyperosmolality or paired pacing. The data are

  11. Influence of Calcium on the Inotropic Actions of Hyperosmotic Agents, Norepinephrine, Paired Electrical Stimulation, and Treppe

    PubMed Central

    Willerson, James T.; Crie, J. Stanley; Adcock, Robert C.; Templeton, Gordon H.; Wildenthal, Kern

    1974-01-01

    To analyze the interaction of calcium ion concentration with hypertonic agents and with other inotropic interventions, isolated right ventricular cat papillary muscles were studied under isometric conditions in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution. Extracellular calcium concentrations were varied between 2.5 and 11.0 mM. Maximal inotropic effects occurred between 5 and 8.0 mM calcium and further elevation to 11.0 mM was without additional influence. The effect of hyperosmotic sucrose and mannitol on papillary muscle performance was compared with that of 10-6 M norepinephrine at calcium concentrations of 2.5 and 10.0 mM and with paired electrical stimulation in 10.0 mM calcium. Both norepinephrine and the hyperosmotic agents produced significant increases in developed tension and in the maximal rate of tension rise (dT/dt) in Krebs-Ringer in 2.5 and 4.0 mM calcium. In 10 mM calcium norepinephrine increased developed tension and dT/dt, but sucrose and mannitol caused no change or small reductions in both. Paired electrical stimulation, like hyperosmolality, caused no increase in dT/dt in 10 mM calcium. The presence of a potent pharmacological inhibitor of systolic calcium transfer across the cell membrane (D600, 10-6 M) reduced developed tension and dT/dt by 76±2.7 and 74±2.0%, respectively, and prevented and in fact reversed the expected increase in dT/dt associated with an increase in rate of stimulation (treppe). However, hypertonic mannitol and paired pacing persisted in causing marked increases in developed tension and dT/dt even in the presence of D600, suggesting that their inotropic effects are not dependent on increased intracellular transfer of calcium during systole through cell membrane channels in which D600 acts as a competitive inhibitor. The results of these studies suggest that apparent functional saturation of intracellular calcium receptor sites eliminates any additional inotropic effect of hyperosmolality or paired pacing. The data are compatible

  12. Stimulated scattering effects in gold-nanorod-water samples pumped by 532 nm laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiulin; Wu, Haopeng; Liu, Juan; Li, Shujing; He, Xingdao

    2015-01-01

    Stimulated scattering in gold-nanorod-water samples has been investigated experimentally. The scattering centers are impurity particles rather than the atoms or molecules of conventional homogeneous scattering media. The pump source for exciting stimulated scattering is a pulsed and narrow linewidth second-harmonic Nd: YAG laser, with 532 nm wavelength, ~8 ns pulse duration, and 10 Hz repetition rate. Experimental results indicate that SMBS, SBS and STRS can be generated in gold-nanorod-water samples under appropriate pump and absorption conditions. The incident pump energy has to be larger than a certain threshold value before stimulated scattering can be detected. The absorption coefficient of samples at 532 nm wavelength depends on the one of characteristic absorption bands of gold nanorods located around 530 nm. A critical absorption coefficient can be determined for the transition from SBS to STRS. Also, the spectral-line-broadening effects of STRS have been observed, the line-shape presents a pseudo-Voigt profile due to the random thermal motion of molecules and strong particle collision. PMID:26173804

  13. Stimulated scattering effects in gold-nanorod-water samples pumped by 532 nm laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jiulin; Wu, Haopeng; Liu, Juan; Li, Shujing; He, Xingdao

    2015-07-01

    Stimulated scattering in gold-nanorod-water samples has been investigated experimentally. The scattering centers are impurity particles rather than the atoms or molecules of conventional homogeneous scattering media. The pump source for exciting stimulated scattering is a pulsed and narrow linewidth second-harmonic Nd: YAG laser, with 532 nm wavelength, ~8 ns pulse duration, and 10 Hz repetition rate. Experimental results indicate that SMBS, SBS and STRS can be generated in gold-nanorod-water samples under appropriate pump and absorption conditions. The incident pump energy has to be larger than a certain threshold value before stimulated scattering can be detected. The absorption coefficient of samples at 532 nm wavelength depends on the one of characteristic absorption bands of gold nanorods located around 530 nm. A critical absorption coefficient can be determined for the transition from SBS to STRS. Also, the spectral-line-broadening effects of STRS have been observed, the line-shape presents a pseudo-Voigt profile due to the random thermal motion of molecules and strong particle collision.

  14. Stimulated scattering effects in gold-nanorod-water samples pumped by 532 nm laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiulin; Wu, Haopeng; Liu, Juan; Li, Shujing; He, Xingdao

    2015-07-15

    Stimulated scattering in gold-nanorod-water samples has been investigated experimentally. The scattering centers are impurity particles rather than the atoms or molecules of conventional homogeneous scattering media. The pump source for exciting stimulated scattering is a pulsed and narrow linewidth second-harmonic Nd: YAG laser, with 532 nm wavelength, ~8 ns pulse duration, and 10 Hz repetition rate. Experimental results indicate that SMBS, SBS and STRS can be generated in gold-nanorod-water samples under appropriate pump and absorption conditions. The incident pump energy has to be larger than a certain threshold value before stimulated scattering can be detected. The absorption coefficient of samples at 532 nm wavelength depends on the one of characteristic absorption bands of gold nanorods located around 530 nm. A critical absorption coefficient can be determined for the transition from SBS to STRS. Also, the spectral-line-broadening effects of STRS have been observed, the line-shape presents a pseudo-Voigt profile due to the random thermal motion of molecules and strong particle collision.

  15. Conformational Changes Produced by ATP Binding to the Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump*

    PubMed Central

    Mangialavori, Irene C.; Ferreira-Gomes, Mariela S.; Saffioti, Nicolás A.; González-Lebrero, Rodolfo M.; Rossi, Rolando C.; Rossi, Juan Pablo F. C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the plasma membrane calcium pump (PMCA) reaction cycle by characterizing conformational changes associated with calcium, ATP, and vanadate binding to purified PMCA. This was accomplished by studying the exposure of PMCA to surrounding phospholipids by measuring the incorporation of the photoactivatable phosphatidylcholine analog 1-O-hexadecanoyl-2-O-[9-[[[2-[125I]iodo-4-(trifluoromethyl-3H-diazirin-3-yl)benzyl]oxy]carbonyl]nonanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine to the protein. ATP could bind to the different vanadate-bound states of the enzyme either in the presence or in the absence of Ca2+ with high apparent affinity. Conformational movements of the ATP binding domain were determined using the fluorescent analog 2′(3′)-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine 5′-triphosphate. To assess the conformational behavior of the Ca2+ binding domain, we also studied the occlusion of Ca2+, both in the presence and in the absence of ATP and with or without vanadate. Results show the existence of occluded species in the presence of vanadate and/or ATP. This allowed the development of a model that describes the transport of Ca2+ and its relation with ATP hydrolysis. This is the first approach that uses a conformational study to describe the PMCA P-type ATPase reaction cycle, adding important features to the classical E1-E2 model devised using kinetics methodology only. PMID:24025327

  16. Conformational changes produced by ATP binding to the plasma membrane calcium pump.

    PubMed

    Mangialavori, Irene C; Ferreira-Gomes, Mariela S; Saffioti, Nicolás A; González-Lebrero, Rodolfo M; Rossi, Rolando C; Rossi, Juan Pablo F C

    2013-10-25

    The aim of this work was to study the plasma membrane calcium pump (PMCA) reaction cycle by characterizing conformational changes associated with calcium, ATP, and vanadate binding to purified PMCA. This was accomplished by studying the exposure of PMCA to surrounding phospholipids by measuring the incorporation of the photoactivatable phosphatidylcholine analog 1-O-hexadecanoyl-2-O-[9-[[[2-[(125)I]iodo-4-(trifluoromethyl-3H-diazirin-3-yl)benzyl]oxy]carbonyl]nonanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine to the protein. ATP could bind to the different vanadate-bound states of the enzyme either in the presence or in the absence of Ca(2+) with high apparent affinity. Conformational movements of the ATP binding domain were determined using the fluorescent analog 2'(3')-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine 5'-triphosphate. To assess the conformational behavior of the Ca(2+) binding domain, we also studied the occlusion of Ca(2+), both in the presence and in the absence of ATP and with or without vanadate. Results show the existence of occluded species in the presence of vanadate and/or ATP. This allowed the development of a model that describes the transport of Ca(2+) and its relation with ATP hydrolysis. This is the first approach that uses a conformational study to describe the PMCA P-type ATPase reaction cycle, adding important features to the classical E1-E2 model devised using kinetics methodology only.

  17. Immunohistochemical localization of a calcium pump and calbindin-D28k in the oviduct of the laying hen.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, R H; Smith, C A; Smith, C M; Brindak, M E; Fullmer, C S; Krook, L; Penniston, J T; Kumar, R

    1991-01-01

    The localization of a plasma membrane calcium pump in the oviduct of the laying hen was investigated by immunohistochemical techniques, utilizing a monoclonal antibody (5F10) produced against the human erythrocyte calcium pump. This antibody was shown to react with an epitope of the pump in oviductal tissue, and prominent staining was observed on the microvilli of the tubular gland cells of the hen shell gland (uterus) and the isthmus. The Ca2+ pump was not detectable in the infundibulum or the magnum. Calbindin-D28k, also localized by immunohistochemical means, was observed to be present in the tubular gland cells of the shell gland and the distal isthmus (adjacent to shell gland) but not in either the proximal isthmus (adjacent to the magnum), the magnum or the infundibulum. The localization of the Ca2+ pump in the oviduct corresponds to known sites of mineral deposition during egg shell formation. The distribution of calbindin-D28k differed, co-localizing with the Ca2+ pump in the shell gland and distal isthmus but not in the proximal isthmus. This might reflect a greater rate of active Ca2+ secretion in the distal isthmus and shell gland as compared to the proximal isthmus.

  18. Increases in cellular calcium concentration stimulate pepsinogen secretion from dispersed chief cells

    SciTech Connect

    Raufman, J.P.; Berger, S.; Cosowsky, L.; Straus, E.

    1986-05-29

    Intracellular calcium concentration ((Ca)i) and pepsinogen secretion from dispersed chief cells from guinea pig stomach were determined before and after stimulation with calcium ionophores. (Ca)i was measured using the fluorescent probe quin2. Basal (Ca)i was 105 +/- 4 nM. Pepsinogen secretion was measured with a new assay using /sup 125/I-albumin substrate. This assay is 1000-fold more sensitive than the widely-used spectrophotometric assay, technically easy to perform, rapid, and relatively inexpensive. The kinetics and stoichiometry of ionophore-induced changes in (Ca)i and pepsinogen secretion were similar. These data support a role for calcium as a cellular mediator of pepsinogen secretion.

  19. Calcium transport in vesicles from carrot cells: Stimulation by calmodulin and phosphatidylserine. [Daucus carota cv. Danvers

    SciTech Connect

    Wenling Hsieh; Sze, Heven )

    1991-05-01

    The transport properties of Ca-pumping ATPases from carrot (Daucus carota cv. Danvers) tissue culture cells were studied. ATP dependent Ca transport in vesicles that comigrated with an ER marker, was stimulated 3-4 fold by calmodulin. Cyclopiazonic acid (a specific inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca-ATPase) partially inhibited oxalate-stimulated Ca transport activity; however, it had little or not effect on calmodulin-stimulated Ca uptake. The results suggested the presence of two types of Ca ATPases, and ER- and a plasma membrane-type. Incubation of membranes with (gamma{sup 32}P)ATP resulted in the formation of a single acyl ({sup 32}P) phosphoprotein of 120 kDa. Formation of this phosphoprotein was dependent on Ca, and enhanced by La {sup 3+}, characteristic of the plasma membrane CaATPase. Acidic phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, stimulated Ca transport, similar to their effect on the erythrocyte plasma membrane CaATPase. These results would indicate that the calmodulin-stimulated Ca transport originated in large part from a plasma membrane-type Ca pump of 120 kDa.

  20. All solid-state diode pumped Nd:YAG MOPA with stimulated Brillouin phase conjugate mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offerhaus, H. L.; Godfried, H. P.; Witteman, W. J.

    1996-02-01

    At the Nederlands Centrum voor Laser Research (NCLR) a 1 kHz diode-pumped Nd:YAG Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) chain with a Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) Phase Conjugate mirror is designed and operated. A small Brewster angle Nd:YAG slab (2 by 2 by 20 mm) is side pumped with 200 μs diode pulses in a stable oscillator. The oscillator is Q-switched and injection seeded with a commercial diode pumped single frequency CW Nd:YAG laser. The output consists of single-transverse, single-longitudinal mode 25 ns FWHM-pulses at 1064 nm. The oscillator slab is imaged on a square aperture that transmits between 3 and 2 mJ (at 100 and 400 Hz, resp.) The aperture is subsequently imaged four times in the amplifier. The amplifier is a 3 by 6 by 60 mm Brewster angle zig-zag slab, pumped by an 80-bar diode stack with pulses up to 250 μs. After the second pass the light is focused in two consecutive cells containing Freon-113 for wave-front reversal in an oscillator/amplifier-setup with a reflectivity of 60%. The light then passes through the amplifier twice more to produce 20 W (at 400 Hz) of output with near diffraction limited beam quality. To increase the output to 50 W at 1 kHz thermal lensing in the oscillator will be reduced.

  1. Human milk effects on neutrophil calcium metabolism: blockade of calcium influx after agonist stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chacon-Cruz, E; Oelberg, D G; Buescher, E S

    1999-08-01

    Neutrophils are the predominant cellular mediators of acute inflammation, and human milk suppresses multiple neutrophil functions. We sought to determine whether these effects were mediated through disruption of normal intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Exposure of human neutrophils to human milk, followed by washing, resulted in altered Ca2+ transient responses to formyl-peptide stimulation in which the peak cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([free Ca]) was the same as in unexposed cells, but the postpeak decline in [free Ca] was more rapid. This effect was observed after human milk exposures as brief as 10 s, persisted for up to 4 h after human milk removal, and was concentration dependent. On the basis of experiments examining Ca2+-free conditions followed by Ca2+ supplementation, and experiments examining spontaneous and stimulated manganese and barium influx into neutrophils, the human milk effect was due to blockade of Ca2+ influx. Decreased Ca2+ transient responses to other physiologic stimuli (IL-8, opsonized Staphylococcus aureus, and immune complexes) were observed after human milk exposures. Rat intestinal epithelial cells and HL-60 cells failed to show these effects, suggesting a selective effect on mature inflammatory cells. Characterization of the Ca2+-blocking activity showed it was heat and acid stable in human milk with a molecular mass between 30-100 kD. Commercial human milk lactoferrin exhibited Ca2+ influx blockade activity, but recombinant human lactoferrin showed none. Separation of the activity by heparin affinity chromatography showed that it was distinct from lactoferrin. Human milk-induced blockade of Ca2+ influx provides a potential mechanism for broad suppression of neutrophil functions that may contribute to the antiinflammatory properties of human milk.

  2. Nanosecond pulse pumped, narrow linewidth all-fiber Raman amplifier with stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Rongtao; Zhou, Pu; Wang, Xiaolin; Lü, Haibin; Xu, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    We report on a narrow linewidth nanosecond all-fiber Raman amplifier core pumped by a pulsed laser at approximately 1030 nm. The Raman amplifier was based on a standard single-mode fiber with a length of ∼1 km, and stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) was suppressed by employing pulses with a short pulse width. 1083 nm pulses with an average power of 32.6 mW, a repetition rate of 2 MHz, and pulse widths of ∼7.2 ns were achieved. A maximum slope efficiency of 46.1% and a gain of 31 dB were obtained. The output Raman power can be scaled further by using fiber with shorter lengths and pump pulses with a higher power.

  3. Nonlinear Absorption and Low-Threshold Multiphoton Pumped Stimulated Emission from All-Inorganic Perovskite Nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Xin; Xiao, Lian; Zeng, Haibo; Sun, Handong

    2016-01-13

    Halide perovskite materials have attracted intense research interest due to the striking performance in photoharvesting photovoltaics as well as photoemitting applications. Very recently, the emerging CsPbX3 (X = Cl, Br, I) perovskite nanocrystals have been demonstrated to be efficient emitters with photoluminescence quantum yield as high as ∼90%, room temperature single photon sources, and favorable lasing materials. Herein, the nonlinear optical properties, in particular, the multiphoton absorption and resultant photoluminescence of the CsPbBr3 nanocrystals, were investigated. Notably, a large two-photon absorption cross-section of up to ∼1.2 × 10(5) GM is determined for 9 nm sized CsPbBr3 nanocrystals. Moreover, low-threshold frequency-upconverted stimulated emission by two-photon absorption was observed from the thin film of close-packed CsPbBr3 nanocrystals. The stimulated emission is found to be photostable and wavelength-tunable. We further realize the three-photon pumped stimulated emission in green spectra range from colloidal nanocrystals for the first time. Our results reveal the strong nonlinear absorption in the emerging CsPbX3 perovskite nanocrystals and suggest these nanocrystals as attractive multiphoton pumped optical gain media, which would offer new opportunities in nonlinear photonics and revive the nonlinear optical devices.

  4. Extracellular calcium sensing receptor stimulation in human colonic epithelial cells induces intracellular calcium oscillations and proliferation inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rey, Osvaldo; Young, Steven H; Jacamo, Rodrigo; Moyer, Mary P; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2010-10-01

    The extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaR) is increasingly implicated in the regulation of multiple cellular functions in the gastrointestinal tract, including secretion, proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells. However, the signaling mechanisms involved remain poorly defined. Here we examined signaling pathways activated by the CaR, including Ca(2+) oscillations, in individual human colon epithelial cells. Single cell imaging of colon-derived cells expressing the CaR, including SW-480, HT-29, and NCM-460 cells, shows that stimulation of this receptor by addition of aromatic amino acids or by an elevation of the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration promoted striking intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations. The intracellular calcium oscillations in response to extracellular Ca(2+) were of sinusoidal pattern and mediated by the phospholipase C/diacylglycerol/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway as revealed by a biosensor that detects the accumulation of diacylglycerol in the plasma membrane. The intracellular calcium oscillations in response to aromatic amino acids were of transient type, that is, Ca(2+) spikes that returned to baseline levels, and required an intact actin cytoskeleton, a functional Rho, Filamin A and the ion channel TRPC1. Further analysis showed that re-expression and stimulation of the CaR in human epithelial cells derived from normal colon and from colorectal adenocarcinoma inhibits their proliferation. This inhibition was associated with the activation of the signaling pathway that mediates the generation of sinusoidal, but not transient, intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations. Thus, these results indicate that the CaR can function in two signaling modes in human colonic epithelial cells offering a potential link between gastrointestinal responses and food/nutrients uptake and metabolism.

  5. On the mechanism of parathyroid hormone stimulation of calcium uptake by mouse distal convoluted tubule cells.

    PubMed Central

    Gesek, F A; Friedman, P A

    1992-01-01

    PTH stimulates transcellular Ca2+ absorption in renal distal convoluted tubules. The effect of PTH on membrane voltage, the ionic basis of the change in voltage, and the relations between voltage and calcium entry were determined on immortalized mouse distal convoluted tubule cells. PTH (10(-8) M) significantly increased 45Ca2+ uptake from basal levels of 2.81 +/- 0.16 to 3.88 +/- 0.19 nmol min-1 mg protein-1. PTH-induced 45Ca2+ uptake was abolished by the dihydropyridine antagonist, nifedipine (10(-5) M). PTH did not affect 22Na+ uptake. Intracellular calcium activity ([Ca2+]i) was measured in cells loaded with fura-2. Control [Ca2+]i averaged 112 +/- 21 nM. PTH increased [Ca2+]i over the range of 10(-11) to 10(-7) M. Maximal stimulation to 326 +/- 31 nM was achieved at 10(-8) M PTH. Resting membrane voltage measured with the potential sensitive dye DiO6(3) averaged -71 +/- 2 mV. PTH hyperpolarized cells by 19 +/- 4 mV. The chloride-channel blocker NPPB prevented PTH-induced hyperpolarization. PTH decreased and NPPB increased intracellular chloride, measured with the fluorescent dye SPQ. Chloride permeability was estimated by measuring the rate of 125I- efflux. PTH increased 125I- efflux and this effect was blocked by NPPB. Clamping voltage with K+/valinomycin; depolarizing membrane voltage by reducing extracellular chloride; or addition of NPPB prevented PTH-induced calcium uptake. In conclusion, PTH increases chloride conductance in distal convoluted tubule cells leading to decreased intracellular chloride activity, membrane hyperpolarization, and increased calcium entry through dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels. PMID:1522230

  6. Resonant femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy with an intense actinic pump pulse: Application to conical intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, B. Jayachander; Gelin, Maxim F.; Domcke, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    We theoretically investigate the feasibility of characterizing conical intersections with time-resolved resonant femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) using an intense actinic pump pulse. We perform nonperturbative numerical simulations of FSRS signals for a three-electronic-state two-vibrational-mode model, which is inspired by the S 2 ( π π * )- S 1 ( n π * ) conical intersection in pyrazine. Our results show that moderately strong actinic pulses increase the intensity of vibrational fingerprint lines in FSRS transients. They facilitate the extraction of useful spectroscopic information by enhancing peaks revealing the coupling and tuning modes of the conical intersection.

  7. Resonant femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy with an intense actinic pump pulse: Application to conical intersections.

    PubMed

    Rao, B Jayachander; Gelin, Maxim F; Domcke, Wolfgang

    2017-02-28

    We theoretically investigate the feasibility of characterizing conical intersections with time-resolved resonant femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) using an intense actinic pump pulse. We perform nonperturbative numerical simulations of FSRS signals for a three-electronic-state two-vibrational-mode model, which is inspired by the S2(ππ(*))-S1(nπ(*)) conical intersection in pyrazine. Our results show that moderately strong actinic pulses increase the intensity of vibrational fingerprint lines in FSRS transients. They facilitate the extraction of useful spectroscopic information by enhancing peaks revealing the coupling and tuning modes of the conical intersection.

  8. Compact Diode-Side-Pumped Stimulated Raman Laser Based on a KGW:Nd Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezyazychnaya, T. V.; Bogdanovich, M. V.; Grigor'ev, A. V.; Lantsov, K. I.; Lebiadok, Y. V.; Leptchenkov, K. V.; Ryabtsev, A. G.; Ryabtsev, G. I.; Shpak, P. V.; Schemelev, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    We have studied an all solid-state diode-side-pumped laser which lases in the nominally eye-safe spectral range of ~1.5-1.6 μm. The optical configuration of the laser is based on using a potassium gadolinium tungstate crystal doped with neodymium ions, in which lasing occurs at a wavelength of λ = 1.351 μm and stimulated Raman selfconversion occurs to the first Stokes component (λ = 1.538 μm). The maximum output pulse energy was 17 mJ and 7 mJ for repetition frequencies of respectively 1 Hz and 10 Hz.

  9. Treatment with alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone preserves calcium regulatory proteins in rat heart allografts.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Gualtiero; Sordi, Andrea; Lonati, Caterina; Carlin, Andrea; Turcatti, Flavia; Leonardi, Patrizia; Gatti, Stefano; Catania, Anna

    2008-08-01

    Prevention of graft dysfunction is a major objective in transplantation medicine. Previous research on experimental heart transplantation indicated that treatment with the immunomodulatory peptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) improves histopathology, prolongs allograft survival, and reduces expression of the main tissue injury mediators. Because calcium-handling is critical in heart graft function, we determined the effects of transplantation injury and influences of alpha-MSH treatment on representative calcium regulatory proteins in rat heart allografts. Hearts from Brown Norway rats were transplanted heterotopically into MHC incompatible Lewis rats. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), protein kinase C epsilon (PKC epsilon), sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase 2 (SERCA2a), arrestin-beta1 (Arrb1), cholinergic receptor M2 (Chrm2), and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 1 (InsP(3)R1) were examined in: (1) non-transplanted donor hearts; (2) allografts from saline-treated rats; and (3) allografts from rats treated with the synthetic alpha-MSH analog Nle4-DPhe7-alpha-MSH (NDP-alpha-MSH) (100 microg i.p. every 12h). Transplantation injury was associated with severe reduction in calcium regulatory protein transcription and expression level. NDP-alpha-MSH administration partly reversed inhibition of protein transcription and almost completely prevented protein loss. Finally, because certain effects of cyclic 3'-5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling on calcium handling in cardiac myocytes depend on activation of exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1 (Epac1), we determined Epac1 mRNA and protein expression in heart allografts. Transplantation injury markedly reduced Epac1. NDP-alpha-MSH treatment significantly preserved both Epac1 protein and mRNA in the allografts. Administration of alpha-MSH or related melanocortins could reduce transplantation-induced dysfunction through protection of heart calcium

  10. Imaging the response of the retina to electrical stimulation with genetically encoded calcium indicators.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Andrew C; Behrend, Matthew R; Lee, Nan Sook; Klein, Ronald L; Chiodo, Vince A; Hauswirth, William W; Humayun, Mark S; Weiland, James D; Chow, Robert H

    2013-04-01

    Epiretinal implants for the blind are designed to stimulate surviving retinal neurons, thus bypassing the diseased photoreceptor layer. Single-unit or multielectrode recordings from isolated animal retina are commonly used to inform the design of these implants. However, such electrical recordings provide limited information about the spatial patterns of retinal activation. Calcium imaging overcomes this limitation, as imaging enables high spatial resolution mapping of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) activity as well as simultaneous recording from hundreds of RGCs. Prior experiments in amphibian retina have demonstrated proof of principle, yet experiments in mammalian retina have been hindered by the inability to load calcium indicators into mature mammalian RGCs. Here, we report a method for labeling the majority of ganglion cells in adult rat retina with genetically encoded calcium indicators, specifically GCaMP3 and GCaMP5G. Intravitreal injection of an adeno-associated viral vector targets ∼85% of ganglion cells with high specificity. Because of the large fluorescence signals provided by the GCaMP sensors, we can now for the first time visualize the response of the retina to electrical stimulation in real-time. Imaging transduced retinas mounted on multielectrode arrays reveals how stimulus pulse shape can dramatically affect the spatial extent of RGC activation, which has clear implications in prosthetic applications. Our method can be easily adapted to work with other fluorescent indicator proteins in both wild-type and transgenic mammals.

  11. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... You'll also find calcium in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables (especially collard and turnip greens, ... can enjoy good sources of calcium such as dark green, leafy vegetables, broccoli, chickpeas, and calcium-fortified ...

  12. Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.W.; Abdul.Hye, A.B.M.

    1983-10-25

    A pump for injecting chemicals into a well employs a pivot arm for synchronous movement with a well pump. The pivot arm causes reciprocation of a plunger within the body of the chemical pump. The plunger, during its upward stroke causes the entry of chemicals from an outside source into the pump body and, during its downward stroke, causes the exiting of the chemicals into the well. (2 claims.

  13. Neuronal regeneration in C. elegans requires subcellular calcium release by ryanodine receptor channels and can be enhanced by optogenetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lin; Shay, James; McLoed, Melissa; Roodhouse, Kevin; Chung, Samuel H; Clark, Christopher M; Pirri, Jennifer K; Alkema, Mark J; Gabel, Christopher V

    2014-11-26

    Regulated calcium signals play conserved instructive roles in neuronal repair, but how localized calcium stores are differentially mobilized, or might be directly manipulated, to stimulate regeneration within native contexts is poorly understood. We find here that localized calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum via ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels is critical in stimulating initial regeneration following traumatic cellular damage in vivo. Using laser axotomy of single neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans, we find that mutation of unc-68/RyR greatly impedes both outgrowth and guidance of the regenerating neuron. Performing extended in vivo calcium imaging, we measure subcellular calcium signals within the immediate vicinity of the regenerating axon end that are sustained for hours following axotomy and completely eliminated within unc-68/RyR mutants. Finally, using a novel optogenetic approach to periodically photo-stimulate the axotomized neuron, we can enhance its regeneration. The enhanced outgrowth depends on both amplitude and temporal pattern of excitation and can be blocked by disruption of UNC-68/RyR. This demonstrates the exciting potential of emerging optogenetic technology to beneficially manipulate cell physiology in the context of neuronal regeneration and indicates a link to the underlying cellular calcium signal. Taken as a whole, our findings define a specific localized calcium signal mediated by RyR channel activity that stimulates regenerative outgrowth, which may be dynamically manipulated for beneficial neurotherapeutic effects.

  14. MagR Alone Is Insufficient to Confer Cellular Calcium Responses to Magnetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Keliang; You, He; Chen, Yanbo; Chu, Pengcheng; Hu, Meiqin; Shen, Jianying; Guo, Wei; Xie, Can; Lu, Bai

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic manipulation of cell activity offers advantages over optical manipulation but an ideal tool remains elusive. The MagR protein was found through its interaction with cryptochrome (Cry) and the protein in solution appeared to respond to magnetic stimulation (MS). After we initiated an investigation on the specific role of MagR in cellular response to MS, a subsequent study claimed that MagR expression alone could achieve cellular activation by MS. Here we report that despite systematically testing different ways of measuring intracellular calcium and different MS protocols, it was not possible to detect any cellular or neuronal responses to MS in MagR-expressing HEK cells or primary neurons from the dorsal root ganglion and the hippocampus. By contrast, in neurons co-expressing MagR and channelrhodopin, optical but not MS increased calcium influx in hippocampal neurons. Our results indicate that MagR alone is not sufficient to confer cellular magnetic responses. PMID:28360843

  15. Plasma membrane calcium ATPases: From generic Ca(2+) sump pumps to versatile systems for fine-tuning cellular Ca(2.).

    PubMed

    Strehler, Emanuel E

    2015-04-24

    The plasma membrane calcium ATPases (PMCAs) are ATP-driven primary ion pumps found in all eukaryotic cells. They are the major high-affinity calcium extrusion system for expulsion of Ca(2+) ions from the cytosol and help restore the low resting levels of intracellular [Ca(2+)] following the temporary elevation of Ca(2+) generated during Ca(2+) signaling. Due to their essential role in the maintenance of cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis they were initially thought to be "sump pumps" for Ca(2+) removal needed by all cells to avoid eventual calcium overload. The discovery of multiple PMCA isoforms and alternatively spliced variants cast doubt on this simplistic assumption, and revealed instead that PMCAs are integral components of highly regulated multi-protein complexes fulfilling specific roles in calcium-dependent signaling originating at the plasma membrane. Biochemical, genetic, and physiological studies in gene-manipulated and mutant animals demonstrate the important role played by specific PMCAs in distinct diseases including those affecting the peripheral and central nervous system, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. Human PMCA gene mutations and allelic variants associated with specific disorders continue to be discovered and underline the crucial role of different PMCAs in particular cells, tissues and organs.

  16. Spectroscopic Study on Ultrafast Carrier Dynamics and Terahertz Amplified Stimulated Emission in Optically Pumped Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuji, Taiichi; Boubanga-Tombet, Stephane; Satou, Akira; Suemitsu, Maki; Ryzhii, Victor

    2012-08-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in spectroscopic study on ultrafast carrier dynamics and terahertz (THz) stimulated emission in optically pumped graphene. The gapless and linear energy spectra of electrons and holes in graphene can lead to nontrivial features such as negative dynamic conductivity in the THz spectral range, which may lead to the development of new types of THz lasers. First, the non-equilibrium carrier relaxation/recombination dynamics is formulated to show how photoexcited carriers equilibrate their energy and temperature via carrier-carrier and carrier-phonon scatterings and in what photon energies and in what time duration the dynamic conductivity can take negative values as functions of temperature, pumping photon energy/intensity, and carrier relaxation rates. Second, we conduct time-domain spectroscopic studies using an optical pump and a terahertz probe with an optical probe technique at room temperature and show that graphene sheets amplify an incoming terahertz field. Two different types of samples are prepared for the measurement; one is an exfoliated monolayer graphene on SiO2/Si substrate and the other is a heteroepitaxially grown non-Bernal stacked multilayer graphene on a 3C-SiC/Si epi-wafer.

  17. Investigation of pre-pulse pumping laser for preserving temporal waveform of stimulated Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junchi; Su, Hongpeng; Peng, Yujie; Guo, Xiaoyang; Wang, Zhanshan; Leng, Yuxin

    2017-01-01

    A modified polarized beam combination technique is proposed for preserving the temporal waveforms of stimulated Raman scattering. 1064 nm pre-pulse pumping lasers prior to the main pumping laser with a delay time are generated and injected into a Ba(NO3)2 Raman medium to excite the crystal firstly. The influences of pre-pulse lasers with various energy levels on the temporal shapes of Raman lasers are investigated, and it is demonstrated that the temporal waveforms of the Raman laser are distorted once the energies of the pre-pulse are below and above the required energy for preserving the temporal shapes of Stokes radiation. It is also discovered that the temporal shape of the 1197 nm Raman laser cannot be perfectly preserved if the energy of the 1064 nm main laser is too low or the relative delay time is too large. Moreover, the optical conversion efficiency and Stokes laser energy obtained under pumping lasers with single and double intensity peaks are compared.

  18. Investigation of ionospheric stimulated Brillouin scatter generated at pump frequencies near electron gyroharmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudian, A.; Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Fu, H.; Briczinski, S. J.; McCarrick, M. J.

    2013-11-01

    Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions (SEEs), secondary electromagnetic waves excited by high power electromagnetic waves transmitted into the ionosphere, produced by the Magnetized Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (MSBS) process are investigated. Data from four recent research campaigns at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility is presented in this work. These experiments have provided additional quantitative interpretation of the SEE spectrum produced by MSBS to yield diagnostic measurements of the electron temperature and ion composition in the heated ionosphere. SEE spectral emission lines corresponding to ion acoustic (IA) and electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) mode excitation were observed with a shift in frequency up to a few tens of Hz from the pump frequency for heating near the third harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency 3fce. The threshold of each emission line has been measured by changing the pump wave power. The excitation threshold of IA and EIC emission lines originating at the reflection and upper hybrid altitudes is measured for various beam angles relative to the magnetic field. Variation of strength of MSBS emission lines with pump frequency relative to 3fce and 4fce is also studied. A full wave solution has been used to estimate the amplitude of the electric field at the interaction altitude. The estimated instability threshold using the theoretical model is compared with the threshold of MSBS lines in the experiment and possible diagnostic information for the background ionospheric plasma is discussed. Simultaneous formation of artificial field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) and suppression of the MSBS process is investigated. This technique can be used to estimate the growth time of artificial FAIs which may result in determination of plasma waves and physical process involved in the formation of FAIs.

  19. Excitation threshold of Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions SEEs generated at pump frequency near the third electron gyroharmonic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudian, A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Scales, W.

    2012-12-01

    The High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) in Gakona, Alaska provides effective radiated powers in the megawatt range that have allowed researchers to study many non-linear effects of wave-plasma interactions. Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) is of interest to the ionospheric community for its diagnostic purposes. In recent HAARP heating experiments, it has been shown that during the Magnetized Stimulated Brillouin Scattering MSBS instability, the pumped electromagnetic wave may decay into an electromagnetic wave and a low frequency electrostatic wave (either ion acoustic IA wave or electrostatic ion cyclotron EIC wave). Using Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) spectral features, side bands which extend above and below the pump frequency can yield significant diagnostics for the modified ionosphere. It has been shown that the IA wave frequency offsets can be used to measure electron temperature in the heated ionosphere and EIC wave offsets can be used as a sensitive method to determine the ion species by measuring ion mass using the ion gyro-frequency offset. The threshold of each emission line has been measured by changing the amplitude of pump wave. The experimental results aimed to show the threshold for transmitter power to excite IA wave propagating along the magnetic field lines as well as for EIC wave excited at an oblique angle relative to the background magnetic field. Another parametric decay instability studied is the ion Bernstein decay instability that has been attributed to the simultaneous parametric decay of electron Bernstein waves into multiple electron Bernstein and ion Bernstein waves. The SIB process is thought to involve mode conversion from EM to EB waves followed by parametric decay of the EB wave to multiple EB and IB waves. The parametric decay instability of ion Bernstein modes has been observed simultaneously for the first time at the third electron gyroharmonics during 2011 Summer Student Research

  20. The Role of Parvalbumin, Sarcoplasmatic Reticulum Calcium Pump Rate, Rates of Cross-Bridge Dynamics, and Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Current on Peripheral Muscle Fatigue: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Verena

    2016-01-01

    A biophysical model of the excitation-contraction pathway, which has previously been validated for slow-twitch and fast-twitch skeletal muscles, is employed to investigate key biophysical processes leading to peripheral muscle fatigue. Special emphasis hereby is on investigating how the model's original parameter sets can be interpolated such that realistic behaviour with respect to contraction time and fatigue progression can be obtained for a continuous distribution of the model's parameters across the muscle units, as found for the functional properties of muscles. The parameters are divided into 5 groups describing (i) the sarcoplasmatic reticulum calcium pump rate, (ii) the cross-bridge dynamics rates, (iii) the ryanodine receptor calcium current, (iv) the rates of binding of magnesium and calcium ions to parvalbumin and corresponding dissociations, and (v) the remaining processes. The simulations reveal that the first two parameter groups are sensitive to contraction time but not fatigue, the third parameter group affects both considered properties, and the fourth parameter group is only sensitive to fatigue progression. Hence, within the scope of the underlying model, further experimental studies should investigate parvalbumin dynamics and the ryanodine receptor calcium current to enhance the understanding of peripheral muscle fatigue. PMID:27980606

  1. The Role of Parvalbumin, Sarcoplasmatic Reticulum Calcium Pump Rate, Rates of Cross-Bridge Dynamics, and Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Current on Peripheral Muscle Fatigue: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Röhrle, Oliver; Neumann, Verena; Heidlauf, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A biophysical model of the excitation-contraction pathway, which has previously been validated for slow-twitch and fast-twitch skeletal muscles, is employed to investigate key biophysical processes leading to peripheral muscle fatigue. Special emphasis hereby is on investigating how the model's original parameter sets can be interpolated such that realistic behaviour with respect to contraction time and fatigue progression can be obtained for a continuous distribution of the model's parameters across the muscle units, as found for the functional properties of muscles. The parameters are divided into 5 groups describing (i) the sarcoplasmatic reticulum calcium pump rate, (ii) the cross-bridge dynamics rates, (iii) the ryanodine receptor calcium current, (iv) the rates of binding of magnesium and calcium ions to parvalbumin and corresponding dissociations, and (v) the remaining processes. The simulations reveal that the first two parameter groups are sensitive to contraction time but not fatigue, the third parameter group affects both considered properties, and the fourth parameter group is only sensitive to fatigue progression. Hence, within the scope of the underlying model, further experimental studies should investigate parvalbumin dynamics and the ryanodine receptor calcium current to enhance the understanding of peripheral muscle fatigue.

  2. Calcium induces tobramycin resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by regulating RND efflux pumps.

    PubMed

    Khanam, Sharmily; Guragain, Manita; Lenaburg, Dirk L; Kubat, Ryan; Patrauchan, Marianna A

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic multidrug resistant pathogen causing severe chronic infections. Our previous studies showed that elevated calcium (Ca(2+)) enhances production of several virulence factors and plant infectivity of the pathogen. Here we show that Ca(2+) increases resistance of P. aeruginosa PAO1 to tobramycin, antibiotic commonly used to treat Pseudomonas infections. LC-MS/MS-based comparative analysis of the membrane proteomes of P aeruginosa grown at elevated versus not added Ca(2+), determined that the abundances of two RND (resistance-nodulation-cell division) efflux pumps, MexAB-OprM and MexVW-OprM, were increased in the presence of elevated Ca(2+). Analysis of twelve transposon mutants with disrupted RND efflux pumps showed that six of them (mexB, muxC, mexY, mexJ, czcB, and mexE) contribute to Ca(2+)-induced tobramycin resistance. Transcriptional analyses by promoter activity and RT-qPCR showed that the expression of mexAB, muxABC, mexXY, mexJK, czcCBA, and mexVW is increased by elevated Ca(2+). Disruption of mexJ, mexC, mexI, and triA significantly decreased Ca(2+)-induced plant infectivity of the pathogen. Earlier, our group showed that PAO1 maintains intracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)in) homeostasis, which mediates Ca(2+) regulation of P. aeruginosa virulence, and identified four putative Ca(2+) transporters involved in this process (Guragain et al., 2013). Here we show that three of these transporters (PA2435, PA2092, PA4614) play role in Ca(2+)-induced tobramycin resistance and one of them (PA2435) contributes to Ca(2+) regulation of mexAB-oprM promoter activity. Furthermore, mexJ, czcB, and mexE contribute to the maintenance of Ca(2+)in homeostasis. This provides the first evidence that Ca(2+)in homeostasis mediates Ca(2+) regulation of RND transport systems, which contribute to Ca(2+)-enhanced tobramycin resistance and plant infectivity in P. aeruginosa.

  3. Further characteristics of the ATP-stimulated uptake of calcium into chromaffin granules.

    PubMed

    Burger, A; Niedermaier, W; Langer, R; Bode, U

    1984-09-01

    The ATP-stimulated uptake of 45Ca2+ [and [3H](-)-noradrenaline ([3H]NA)] into chromaffin granules and that into mitochondria are driven by a protonic gradient delta mu H+, composed of the components delta pH (concentration gradient of protons) and delta psi (electrical potential difference). The granular ATPase pumps protons into the matrix (delta pH inside acid, delta psi positive), but the mitochondrial ATPase ejects protons from the matrix (delta pH alkaline, delta psi negative inside). To show different driving forces of uptake, the rate of the ATP-stimulated uptake of 45Ca2+ (and [3H]NA) into chromaffin granules was compared with the rate of the ATP-stimulated uptake of 45Ca2+ into mitochondria (adrenomedullary or rat liver). In the presence of nitrate, the rate of the ATP-stimulated uptake of 45Ca2+ into chromaffin granules is higher than in the presence of acetate, because the lyotropic anion nitrate stimulates the granular ATPase and increases delta pH (acid inside). Compared with nitrate, the rate of the ATP-stimulated uptake of 45Ca2+ into mitochondria is higher in the presence of the proton-carrying anion acetate, which, after permeation, provides protons for ejection by the ATPase. In the absence of ATP, a valinomycin-mediated potassium influx (delta psi inside positive) stimulates the granular uptake of [3H]NA, which has an electrogenic component, but not the granular uptake of 45Ca2+, which is electroneutral. The electrogenic uptake of 45Ca2+ into mitochondria is stimulated by a valinomycin-mediated potassium efflux (delta psi negative inside). The ATP-stimulated uptake of 45Ca2+ into chromaffin granules is sensitive to ruthenium red, suggesting a carrier-mediated mechanism of uptake, and it is sensitive to atractyloside, indicating the simultaneous uptake of ATP. After collapse of delta pH by ammonia, the ATP-stimulated uptake of 45Ca2+ into chromaffin granules is abolished, but not that into mitochondria. In the presence of ammonia, the rate of the

  4. Calcium signalling and calcium channels: evolution and general principles.

    PubMed

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Parpura, Vladimir

    2014-09-15

    Calcium as a divalent cation was selected early in evolution as a signaling molecule to be used by both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Its low cytosolic concentration likely reflects the initial concentration of this ion in the primordial soup/ocean as unicellular organisms were formed. As the concentration of calcium in the ocean subsequently increased, so did the diversity of homeostatic molecules handling calcium. This includes the plasma membrane channels that allowed the calcium entry, as well as extrusion mechanisms, i.e., exchangers and pumps. Further diversification occurred with the evolution of intracellular organelles, in particular the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, which also contain channels, exchanger(s) and pumps to handle the homeostasis of calcium ions. Calcium signalling system, based around coordinated interactions of the above molecular entities, can be activated by the opening of voltage-gated channels, neurotransmitters, second messengers and/or mechanical stimulation, and as such is all-pervading pathway in physiology and pathophysiology of organisms.

  5. Basic calcium phosphate crystal-induced Egr-1 expression stimulates mitogenesis in human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Xiao R.; Sun Yubo; Wenger, Leonor; Cheung, Herman S. . E-mail: hcheung@med.miami.edu

    2005-05-13

    Previously, we have reported that basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals stimulate mitogenesis and synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases in cultured human foreskin and synovial fibroblasts. However, the detailed mechanisms involved are still unclear. In the present study, using RT-PCR and Egr-1 promoter analysis we showed that BCP crystals could stimulate early growth response gene Egr-1 transcription through a PKC{alpha}-dependent p44/p42 MAPK pathway. Using a retrovirus gene expression system (Clontech) to overexpress Egr-1 in human fibroblast BJ-1 cells resulted in promotion of mitogenesis measured either by MTT cell proliferation analysis or by direct cell counting. The results demonstrate that Egr-1 may play a key role in mediating BCP crystal-induced synovial fibroblast mitogenesis.

  6. Atomistic Characterization of the First Step of Calcium Pump Activation Associated with Proton Countertransport.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Salinas, G Lizbeth; Espinoza-Fonseca, L Michel

    2015-08-25

    The calcium pump [sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA)] transports Ca(2+) from the cytosol to the SR lumen at the expense of ATP hydrolysis and proton countertransport, thus playing a central role in Ca(2+) homeostasis and muscle contractility. Proton countertransport via deprotonation of transport site residue Glu309 is a critical first step in SERCA activation because it accelerates the E2-E1 structural transition. Previous studies have suggested that flipping of Glu309 toward the cytosol constitutes the primary mechanism for Glu309 deprotonation, but no conclusive data to support this hypothesis have been published. Therefore, we performed three independent 1 μs molecular dynamics simulations of the E2 state protonated at transport site residues Glu309, Glu771, and Glu908. Structural analysis and pKa calculations showed that Glu309 deprotonation occurs by an inward-to-outward side-chain transition. We also found that Glu309 deprotonation and proton countertransport occur through transient (~113 ps) water wires connecting Glu309 with the cytosol. Although both mechanisms are operational, we found that transient water wire formation, and not Glu309 flipping, is the primary mechanism for Glu309 deprotonation and translocation of protons to the cytosol. The outward-to-inward transition of protonated Glu309 and the presence of water wires suggest that protons from the cytosol might be passively transported to the lumen via Glu309. However, structural analysis indicates that passive SR proton leakage into the lumen unlikely occurs through Glu309 in the E2 state. These findings provide a time-resolved visualization of the first step in the molecular mechanism of SERCA activation and proton transport across the SR.

  7. Stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors inhibits calcium-dependent potassium-channels in mouse macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Rosati, C.; Hannaert, P.; Dausse, J.P.; Braquet, P.; Garay, R.

    1986-12-01

    K/sup +/ efflux in mouse macrophages exhibited a rate constant (k/sub k/) of 0.67 +/- 0.04 (h)/sup -1/. This was strongly stimulated by increasing concentrations of the Ca/sup 2 +/ ionophore A23187 up to a maximal value of 4.01 +/- 0.25 (h)/sup -1/ with an IC/sub 50/ of 7.6 +/- 1.9 ..mu..M. Similar results were obtained with the Ca/sup 2 +/ ionophore ionomycin. Binding experiments with /sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol revealed a high density of beta-adrenergic receptors with apparent dissociation constant of 2.03 +/- 0.06 nM. Isoproterenol at a concentration of 10/sup -6/ -10/sup -5/ M induced a two- to threefold stimulation of endogenous levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP). A23187-stimulated K/sup +/ efflux was partially inhibited by (i) stimulation of adenylate cyclase with isoproterenol, forskolin or, PGE/sub 1/; (ii) exogenous cAMP; and (iii) inhibition of phosphodiesterase with MIX (1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine). Maximal inhibition of K/sup +/ efflux was obtained by simultaneous addition of isoproterenol and MIX. In dose-response curves, the isoproterenol-sensitive K/sup +/ efflux was half-maximally inhibited (IC/sub 50/) with 2-5 x 10/sup -10/ M of isoproterenol concentration. Propranolol was able to completely block the effect of isoproterenol, with an IC/sub 50/ of about 1-2 x 10/sup -7/ M. Isoproterenol and MIX did not inhibit A23187-stimulated K/sup +/ efflux in an incubation medium where NaCl was replaced by sucrose (or choline), suggesting the involvement of an Na/sup +/:Ca/sup 2 +/ exchange mechanism. The results show that stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors in mouse macrophages counter balances the opening of K/sup +/ channels induced by the calcium ionophore A23187. This likely reflects a decrease in cytoslic free calcium content via a cAMP-mediated stimulation of Na/sup +/:Ca/sup 2 +/ exchange.

  8. H+-Pumping Driven by the Plasma Membrane ATPase in Membrane Vesicles from Radish: Stimulation by Fusicoccin 1

    PubMed Central

    Rasi-Caldogno, Franca; De Michelis, Maria I.; Pugliarello, Maria C.; Marrè, Erasmo

    1986-01-01

    The effect of fusicoccin on Mg:ATP-dependent H+-pumping in microsomal vesicles from 24-hour-old radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seedlings was investigated by measuring the initial rate of decrease in the absorbance of the ΔpH probe acridine orange. Fusicoccin stimulated Mg:ATP-dependent H+-pumping when the pH of the assay medium was in the range 7.0 to 7.6 while no effect of fusicoccin was detected between pH 6.6 and pH 6.0. Both basal and fusicoccin-stimulated H+-pumping were completely inhibited by vanadate and almost unaffected by nitrate. Fusicoccin did not change membrane permeability to protons and fusicoccin-induced stimulation of Mg:ATP-dependent H+-pumping was not affected by changes in the buffer capacity of the incubation medium. Deacetylfusicoccin stimulated H+-pumping as much as fusicoccin, while the physiologically inactive derivative 8-oxo-9-epideacetylfusicoccin did not. Stimulation of H+-pumping was saturated by 100 nanomolar fusicoccin. These data indicate that fusicoccin activates the plasma membrane H+-ATPase by acting at the membrane level independently of the involvement of other cell components. The percent stimulation by fusicoccin was the same at all ATP concentrations tested (0.5-5.0 millimolar), thus suggesting that with fusicoccin there is an increase in Vmax of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase rather than a decrease in its apparent Km for Mg:ATP. PMID:16664978

  9. A novel calcium-sensing receptor antagonist transiently stimulates parathyroid hormone secretion in vivo.

    PubMed

    Arey, Brian J; Seethala, Ramakrishna; Ma, Zhengping; Fura, Aberra; Morin, Jennifer; Swartz, Joann; Vyas, Viral; Yang, Wu; Dickson, John K; Feyen, Jean H M

    2005-04-01

    Circulating calcium (Ca(2+)) is a primary regulator of bone homeostasis through its action on PTH secretion. Extracellular Ca(2+) modulates PTH secretion through a cell surface G protein-coupled receptor, the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR). The expression of the CaR suggests a critical role in cellular regulation by calcium in various organs, including parathyroid gland, bone, and kidney. Despite an obvious pharmacological utility for CaR antagonists in the treatment of disease, only a limited number of such classes of compounds exist. We have identified a novel class of small molecules with specific activity at the CaR. This class of compounds is represented by compound 1. It possesses potent antagonist activity at the human CaR with IC(50) values of 64 nm and 230 nm in inhibiting intracellular Ca(2+) flux and inositol phosphate generation in vitro, respectively. When administered to male rats in vivo, compound 1 robustly increased serum PTH levels. The stimulation of PTH secretion was rapid and transient when administered either iv or orally. The pharmacokinetic profile of compound 1 after oral administration revealed that maximal plasma levels of compound were reached within 1 h and the half-life of the compound to be approximately 2 h in rats. These data describe a representative compound of a novel chemical class than previously described allosteric modulators that offer a new avenue for the development of improved treatments of osteoporosis.

  10. Hypergravity stimulation induces changes in intracellular calcium concentration in Arabidopsis seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyota, M.; Furuichi, T.; Tatsumi, H.; Sokabe, M.

    Gravity affects growth and morphogenesis in higher plants. Recently, it has become clear that hypergravity induces morphological changes such as inhibition of elongation growth and promotion of lateral growth. Some indirect evidence suggests that changes in the cytoplasmic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]c) play an important role in these hypergravity-induced modifications of growth. However, the hypothetical changes in [Ca2+]c under hypergravity have not been examined. Here, we report the measurement of the [Ca2+]c changes induced by hypergravity stimuli in Arabidopsis seedlings expressing the calcium reporter, aequorin. When the seedlings are subjected to 20g-hypergravity produced by centrifugation, [Ca2+]c transiently increased and decayed exponentially during the hypergravity stimulation. Larger [Ca2+]c-increase was observed when the magnitude of hypergravity was increased up to 300g. The [Ca2+]c-response showed a strong desensitization, and it could not be elicited even 45 min after the cessation of the first stimulation. The [Ca2+]c-increase was inhibited by externally applied La3+ or Gd3+, potential mechanosensitive Ca2+-permeable channel inhibitors, suggesting that the hypergravity-induced [Ca2+]c-increase is mediated by the activation of Ca2+-permeable channels in the plasma membrane.

  11. A structural model of the complex formed by phospholamban and the calcium pump of sarcoplasmic reticulum obtained by molecular mechanics.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Michael C; Krebs, Joachim; Meiler, Jens; Griesinger, Christian; Carafoli, Ernesto; Helms, Volkhard

    2002-12-02

    Phospholamban (PLN) is an intrinsic membrane protein of 52 amino acids that modulates the activity of the reticular Ca(2+) ion pump. We recently solved the three-dimensional structure of chemically synthesized, unphosphorylated, monomeric PLN (C41F) by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in chloroform/methanol. The structure is composed of two alpha-helical regions connected by a beta turn (Type III). We used this structure and the crystallographic structure of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA) recently determined by Toyoshima and co-workers and modeled into its E(2) form by Stokes (1KJU) or by Toyoshima (1FQU). We applied restrained and unrestrained energy optimizations and used the AMBER molecular mechanics force field to model the complex formed between PLN and the pump. The results indicate that transmembrane helix 6 (M6) of the SERCA pump is energetically favored, with respect to the other transmembrane helices, as the PLN binding partner within the membrane and is the only one of these helices that also permits contact between the N-terminal residues of PLN and the critical cytosolic binding loop region of the pump. This result is in agreement with published biochemical data and with the predictions of previous mutagenesis work on the membrane sector of the pump. The model reveals that PLN does not span the entire width of the membrane, that is, its hydrophobic C-terminal end is located near the center of the transmembrane region of the SERCA pump. The model also shows that interaction with M6 is stabilized by additional contacts made by PLN to M4. The contact between the N-terminal portion of PLN and the pump is stabilized by a number of salt and hydrogen-bond bridges, which may be abolished by phosphorylation of PLN. The contacts between the cytosolic portions of PLN and the pump are only observed in the E(2) conformation of the pump. Our model of the complex also offers a plausible structural explanation for the preference

  12. Localized and stationary dynamic gratings via stimulated Brillouin scattering with phase modulated pumps.

    PubMed

    Antman, Y; Primerov, N; Sancho, J; Thevenaz, L; Zadok, A

    2012-03-26

    A novel technique for the localization of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) interaction is proposed, analyzed and demonstrated experimentally. The method relies on the phase modulation of two counter-propagating optical waves by a common pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS), these waves being spectrally detuned by the Brillouin frequency shift. The PRBS symbol duration is much shorter than the acoustic lifetime. The interference between the two modulated waves gives rise to an acoustic grating that is confined to narrow correlation peaks, as short as 1.7 cm. The separation between neighboring peaks, which is governed by the PRBS length, can be made arbitrarily long. The method is demonstrated in the generation and applications of dynamic gratings in polarization maintaining (PM) fibers. Localized and stationary acoustic gratings are induced by two phase modulated pumps that are polarized along one principal axis of the PM fiber, and interrogated by a third, readout wave which is polarized along the orthogonal axis. Using the proposed technique, we demonstrate the variable delay of 1 ns-long readout pulses by as much as 770 ns. Noise due to reflections from residual off-peak gratings and its implications on the potential variable delay of optical communication data are discussed. The method is equally applicable to the modulation of pump and probe waves in SBS over standard fibers.

  13. Increased extracellular pressure stimulates tumor proliferation by a mechanosensitive calcium channel and PKC-β.

    PubMed

    Basson, Marc D; Zeng, Bixi; Downey, Christina; Sirivelu, Madhu P; Tepe, Jetze J

    2015-02-01

    Large tumors exhibit high interstitial pressure heightened by growth against the constraining stroma. Such pressures could stimulate tumor proliferation via a mechanosensitive ion channel. We studied the effects of 0-80 mmHg increased extracellular pressure for 24 h on proliferation of SW620, Caco-2, and CT-26 colon; MCF-7 breast; and MLL and PC3 prostate cancer cells, and delineated its mechanism in SW620 cells with specific inhibitors and siRNA. Finally, we compared NF-kB, phospho-IkB and cyclin D1 immunoreactivity in the high pressure centers and low pressure peripheries of human tumors. Pressure-stimulated proliferation in all cells. Pressure-driven SW620 proliferation required calcium influx via the T-type Ca(2+) channel Cav3.3, which stimulated PKC-β to invoke the IKK-IkB-NF-kB pathway to increase proliferation and S-phase fraction. The mitotic index and immunoreactivity of NF-kB, phospho-IkB, and cyclin D1 in the center of 28 large human colon, lung, and head and neck tumors exceeded that in tumor peripheries. Extracellular pressure increases [Ca(2+)]i via Cav3.3, driving a PKC-β- IKK- IkB-NF-kB pathway that stimulates cancer cell proliferation. Rapid proliferation in large stiff tumors may increase intratumoral pressure, activating this pathway to stimulate further proliferation in a feedback cycle that potentiates tumor growth. Targeting this pathway may inhibit proliferation in large unresectable tumors.

  14. Comparison of side effects of pentagastrin test and calcium stimulation test in patients with increased basal calcitonin concentration: the gender-specific differences.

    PubMed

    Ubl, Philipp; Gincu, Tatiana; Keilani, Mohammad; Ponhold, Lothar; Crevenna, Richard; Niederle, Bruno; Hacker, Marcus; Li, Shuren

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the side effects of the pentagastrin test and the calcium stimulation test in patients with increased basal calcitonin concentration, especially the gender-specific differences of side effects. A total of 256 patients (123 females and 133 males, mean age of 56 ± 27 years, range 21-83 years) had both pentagastrin and calcium stimulation tests. All patients filled in a questionnaire regarding the side effects within 30 min after completion of the stimulation tests. The differences of side effects between female and male patients as well as between the pentagastrin stimulation test and the calcium stimulation test were evaluated. Warmth feeling was the most frequent occurring side effect in all patients who had both pentagastrin and calcium stimulation tests, followed by nausea, altered gustatory sensation, and dizziness. The incidences of urgency to micturate (p < 0.05) and dizziness (p < 0.05) were significantly increased in the female patients as compared to male patients by calcium stimulation test. Significant higher incidences of urgency to micturate (p < 0.05) and warmth feeling (p < 0.05) were found by calcium stimulation test as compared with those by pentagastrin test in female patients. The incidences of nausea (p < 0.05) and abdominal cramping (p < 0.05) in male patients were significantly higher by pentagastrin stimulation test than by calcium stimulation test. There is a significant gender-specific difference in side effects induced by calcium stimulation test. Female patients have fewer side effects by pentagastrin test than by calcium stimulation test. Male patients may tolerate the calcium stimulation test better than the pentagastrin test.

  15. PUMPS

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, J.D.

    1959-03-24

    A pump is described for conveving liquids, particure it is not advisable he apparatus. The to be submerged in the liquid to be pumped, a conduit extending from the high-velocity nozzle of the injector,and means for applying a pulsating prcesure to the surface of the liquid in the conduit, whereby the surface oscillates between positions in the conduit. During the positive half- cycle of an applied pulse liquid is forced through the high velocity nozzle or jet of the injector and operates in the manner of the well known water injector and pumps liquid from the main intake to the outlet of the injector. During the negative half-cycle of the pulse liquid flows in reverse through the jet but no reverse pumping action takes place.

  16. The plasma membrane calcium pumps: focus on the role in (neuro)pathology.

    PubMed

    Brini, Marisa; Carafoli, Ernesto; Calì, Tito

    2017-02-19

    The plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA pump) is a member of the superfamily of P-type pumps. It is organized in the plasma membrane with ten transmembrane helices and two main cytosolic loops, one of which contains the catalytic center. It also contains a long C-terminal tail that houses the binding site for calmodulin, the main regulator of the activity of the pump. The pump also contains a number of other regulators, among them acidic phospholipids, kinases, and numerous protein interactors. Separate genes code for 4 basic pump isoforms in mammals, additional isoform complexity being generated by the alternative splicing of primary transcripts. Pumps 1 and 4 are expressed ubiquitously, pumps 2 and 3 are tissue restricted, with preference for the nervous system. In essentially all cells, the pump coexists with much more powerful systems that clear Ca(2+) from the cytosol, e.g. the SERCA pump and the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Its role in the global regulation of cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis is thus quantitatively marginal: its main function is the regulation of Ca(2+) signaling in selected sub-plasma membrane microdomains where Ca(2+) modulated interactors also reside. Malfunctions of the pump linked to genetic mutations are now described with increasing frequency, the disease phenotypes being especially severe in the nervous system where isoforms 2 and 3 predominate. The analysis of the pump defects suggests that the disease phenotypes are likely to be related to the imperfect modulation of Ca(2+) signaling in selected sub-plasma membrane microdomains, leading to the defective control of the activity of important Ca(2+) dependent interactors.

  17. Bile acids stimulate chloride secretion through CFTR and calcium-activated Cl- channels in Calu-3 airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Siobhán M; Mroz, Magdalena S; Greene, Catherine M; Keely, Stephen J; Harvey, Brian J

    2014-09-01

    Bile acids resulting from the aspiration of gastroesophageal refluxate are often present in the lower airways of people with cystic fibrosis and other respiratory distress diseases. Surprisingly, there is little or no information on the modulation of airway epithelial ion transport by bile acids. The secretory effect of a variety of conjugated and unconjugated secondary bile acids was investigated in Calu-3 airway epithelial cells grown under an air-liquid interface and mounted in Ussing chambers. Electrogenic transepithelial ion transport was measured as short-circuit current (Isc). The taurine-conjugated secondary bile acid, taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), was found to be the most potent modulator of basal ion transport. Acute treatment (5 min) of Calu-3 cells with TDCA (25 μM) on the basolateral side caused a stimulation of Isc, and removal of extracellular Cl(-) abolished this response. TDCA produced an increase in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-dependent current that was abolished by pretreatment with the CFTR inhibitor CFTRinh172. TDCA treatment also increased Cl(-) secretion through calcium-activated chloride (CaCC) channels and increased the Na(+)/K(+) pump current. Acute treatment with TDCA resulted in a rapid cellular influx of Ca(2+) and increased cAMP levels in Calu-3 cells. Bile acid receptor-selective activation with INT-777 revealed TGR5 localized at the basolateral membrane as the receptor involved in TDCA-induced Cl(-) secretion. In summary, we demonstrate for the first time that low concentrations of bile acids can modulate Cl(-) secretion in airway epithelial cells, and this effect is dependent on both the duration and sidedness of exposure to the bile acid.

  18. Surfactant modulates calcium response of neutrophils to physiologic stimulation via cell membrane depolarization.

    PubMed

    Chacon-Cruz, E; Buescher, E S; Oelberg, D G

    2000-03-01

    Pulmonary surfactant (PS) reduces inflammation in the lung by poorly understood mechanisms. We have observed that surfactant-associated proteins (SAP) insert monovalent cation channels in artificial membranes. Neutrophils are primary mediators of acute pulmonary inflammation, and their functions are activated by increases in cytosolic ionized calcium concentration ([Ca2+]) and by changes in membrane potential. We hypothesize that PS inserts SAP-dependent cation channels in neutrophils, causing membrane depolarization, altered [Ca2+] response, and depressed activation. Human neutrophils were isolated, exposed to PS+SAP (1% Survanta), PS-SAP (1% Exosurf), or buffer, and washed before activating with selected stimulants. PS+SAP reduced phorbol ester- and formyl peptide-stimulated adherence and aggregation by 38% (p < 0.05) and 54% (p < 0.02), respectively. PS+SAP also inhibited the formyl peptide-induced [Ca2+] response of neutrophils (p < 0.01), but only in the presence of external Ca2+. Further characterization of this inhibition demonstrated that PS+SAP blocked formyl peptide-induced influx of both Ca2+ and Mn2+, and that this inhibition was present during activation by other neutrophil stimulants (IL-8, immune complexes). Prior depolarization of neutrophils with gramicidin-D similarly inhibited the [Ca2+] response of neutrophils to formyl peptide, and analysis of neutrophil membrane potential by 3,3'-dipentyloxaearbocyanine iodide (diOC5(3)) fluorescence revealed that PS+SAP induced rapid neutrophil depolarization. In contrast, PS-SAP exhibited little effect on neutrophil function, [Ca2+], or membrane potential. We conclude that PS+SAP decreases neutrophil adherence and aggregation responses, blocks Ca2+ influx after physiologic stimulation, and decreases membrane potential. We speculate that these effects are caused by membrane depolarization via SAP-dependent cation channel insertion, and that all of these effects contribute to the antiinflammatory properties of

  19. Rapid intracellular release of calcium in human platelets by stimulation of 5-HT2-receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Erne, P.; Pletscher, A.

    1985-01-01

    The concentration of intracellular free Ca2+ ( [Ca2+]i) in human blood platelets was measured by use of the fluorescent probe quin-2. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) caused a rapid increase of [Ca2+]i in the presence or absence of Ca2+ in the medium. The [Ca2+]i-rise was less marked in the absence of Ca2+ and could be antagonized by 8-(N,N-diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate-hydrochloride (TMB-8), an inhibitor of calcium release from internal stores. 5-HT induced a shape change reaction in the presence or absence of extracellular Ca2+, but the pEC50 of 5-HT was slightly higher in the presence of the cation. Shape change reaction and [Ca2+]i-rise showed similar time courses. Various 5-HT-agonists caused a rise of [Ca2+]i, whereas 5-HT-antagonists, but not the 5-HT-uptake inhibitor desmethylimipramine and the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine, counteracted the 5-HT-induced rise of the cation in a stereospecific manner. The antagonists were more potent than the agonists. The orders of potencies of the drugs affecting [Ca2+]i and platelet shape were similar. It is concluded that stimulation of 5-HT2-receptors of platelets causes a rapid release of intracellular calcium which, by activation of the contractile system, mediates the shape change reaction. PMID:3156650

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase pump is up-regulated in calcium-transporting dental enamel cells: a non-housekeeping role for SERCA2b.

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, I K; Winz, R A; Hubbard, M J

    2001-01-01

    Dental enamel-forming cells face a major challenge to avoid the cytotoxic effects of excess calcium. We have characterized sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase pumps (SERCA) in rat enamel cells to address the proposal that non-mitochondrial calcium stores play a dominant role in transcellular calcium transport. A single major isoform, SERCA2b, was detected during the protein-secretory and calcium-transport stages of enamel formation using reverse-transcriptase PCR, cDNA cloning, Northern analysis and immunoblotting. Most importantly, SERCA2b exhibited a specific 3-fold up-regulation to high expression levels during calcium transport, as determined by quantitative immunoblotting and ATPase assays. Sensitivity of the calcium-dependent ATPase to thapsigargin and three other SERCA inhibitors was characterized. These findings indicate that enamel cells are well-equipped to sequester calcium in endoplasmic reticulum stores and so protect against calcium toxicity, associate SERCA with transcellular calcium transport for the first time, and establish SERCA2b as a molecular and pharmacological target for future investigations of calcium transcytosis. The observed physiological regulation in enamel cells contradicts the widespread perception that SERCA2b is restricted to general housekeeping duties. PMID:11485570

  1. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Stimulated-emission wavelength switching in optically pumped InGaAs/AlGaInAs laser heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronov, Aleksandr A.; Nozdrin, Yu N.; Okomel'kov, A. V.; Yablonskii, A. N.; Marmalyuk, Aleksandr A.; Ryaboshtan, Yu L.

    2009-03-01

    We report stimulated near-IR emission in optically pumped InGaAs/AlGaInAs heterostructures and stimulated- emission wavelength switching from 1.9 to 1.5 and then to 1.2 μm with increasing optical pump intensity. The wavelength switching behaviour of the heterostructures depends on their geometry (band-gap profile) and the competition between stimulated emissions at different frequencies in different parts of the system.

  2. Factor Xa stimulates fibroblast procollagen production, proliferation, and calcium signaling via PAR{sub 1} activation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc-Brude, Olivier P. . E-mail: olivier.blanc-brude@larib.inserm.fr; Archer, Fabienne; Leoni, Patricia; Derian, Claudia; Bolsover, Steven; Laurent, Geoffrey J.; Chambers, Rachel C.

    2005-03-10

    Fibroblast proliferation and procollagen production are central features of tissue repair and fibrosis. In addition to its role in blood clotting, the coagulation cascade proteinase thrombin can contribute to tissue repair by stimulating fibroblasts via proteolytic activation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR{sub 1}). During hemostasis, the coagulation cascade proteinase factor X is converted into factor Xa. We have previously shown that factor Xa upregulates fibroblast proliferation via production of autocrine PDGF. In this study, we further examined the effects of factor Xa on fibroblast function and aimed to identify its signaling receptor. We showed that factor Xa stimulates procollagen promoter activity and protein production by human and mouse fibroblasts. This effect was independent of PDGF and thrombin production, but dependent on factor Xa proteolytic activity. We also showed that PAR{sub 1}-deficient mouse fibroblasts did not upregulate procollagen production, mobilize cytosolic calcium, or proliferate in response to factor Xa. Desensitization techniques and PAR{sub 1}-specific agonists and inhibitors were used to demonstrate that PAR{sub 1} mediates factor Xa signaling in human fibroblasts. This is the first report that factor Xa stimulates extracellular matrix production. In contrast with endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts appear to be the only cell type in which the effects of factor Xa are mediated mainly via PAR{sub 1} and not PAR{sub 2}. These findings are critical for our understanding of tissue repair and fibrotic mechanisms, and for the design of novel approaches to inhibit the profibrotic effects of the coagulation cascade without compromising blood hemostasis.

  3. PAR-1-Stimulated Factor IXa Binding to a Small Platelet Subpopulation Requires a Pronounced and Sustained Increase of Cytoplasmic Calcium

    PubMed Central

    London, Fredda S.; Marcinkiewicz, Mariola; Walsh, Peter N.

    2008-01-01

    We previously reported that only a subpopulation of PAR-1-stimulated platelets binds coagulation factor IXa, since confirmed by other laboratories. Since calcium changes have been implicated in exposure of procoagulant aminophospholipids, we have now examined calcium fluxes in this subpopulation by measuring fluorescence changes in Fura Red/AM-loaded platelets following PAR-1 stimulation. While fluorescence changes in all platelets indicated calcium release from internal stores and influx of external calcium, a subpopulation of platelets displayed a pronounced increase in calcium transients by 15 seconds and positive factor IXa binding by 2 minutes, with calcium transients sustained for 45 minutes. Pretreatment of platelets with Xestospongin C to inhibit IP3-mediated dense tubule calcium release, and the presence of impermeable calcium channel blockers nifedipine, SKF96365 or LaCl3, inhibited PAR-1-induced development of a subpopulation with pronounced calcium transients, factor IXa binding, and platelet support of FXa generation, suggesting the importance of both release of calcium from internal stores and influx of extracellular calcium. When platelets were stimulated in EDTA for 5 to 20 minutes before addition of calcium, factor IXa binding sites developed on a smaller subpopulation but with unchanged rate indicating sustained opening of calcium channels and continued availability of signaling elements required for binding site exposure. While pretreatment of platelets with 100 μM BAPTA/AM (Kd 160 nM) had minimal effects, 100 μM 5, 5′-dimethylBAPTA/AM (Kd 40 nM) completely inhibited the appearance and function of the platelet subpopulation, indicating the importance of minor increases of cytoplasmic calcium. We conclude that PAR-1-stimulated development of factor IXa binding sites in a subpopulation of platelets is dependent upon release of calcium from internal stores leading to sustained and pronounced calcium transients. PMID:16752917

  4. Axis-switching transitions and the stimulated emission pumping spectrum of HCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonas, David M.; Yang, Xueming; Wodtke, Alec M.

    1992-08-01

    Six of the 14 unidentified bands in the stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectrum of HCN are shown to be forbidden transitions to l`=1 e parity levels of the ground state. The band origins agree with predictions within the error of the anharmonic expansion; the rotational constants, when corrected for rotational-l doubling, agree within experimental error. Rotational-l resonance between l`=0 and l`=2 is found in highly excited bending levels, confirming the extrapolation of the rotational-l resonance and doubling constant q2 from microwave and infrared measurements to 17 000 cm-1. The rotational intensity of the l`=1 bands due to the axis-switching mechanism of Hougen and Watson [Can. J. Phys. 43, 298 (1965)] is shown to be greater than some of the observed allowed rotational transitions to l`=2 when laser polarization effects are taken into account. A qualitative Franck-Condon analysis of the SEP spectrum provides unusually strong evidence for the axis-switching mechanism. The eight remaining unassigned bands are evidently perturbed and are assigned based on agreement between sums of observed rotational constants and sums of zero-order (unperturbed) rotational constants predicted by the anharmonic expansion, the magnitude of the rotational-l resonance, and the expected Franck-Condon factors.

  5. An investigation on the role of vacuolar-type proton pumps and luminal acidity in calcium sequestration by nonmitochondrial and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive intracellular calcium stores in clonal insulin-secreting cells.

    PubMed

    Bode, H P; Eder, B; Trautmann, M

    1994-06-15

    To test whether in RINm5F rat insulinoma cells luminal acidity and the activity of a vacuolar-type proton pump are involved in calcium sequestration by intracellular calcium stores sensitive to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) we examined the effects of various proton-conducting ionophores and ammonium chloride, and of bafilomycin, a specific inhibitor of vacuolar proton pumps, on this parameter. Bafilomycin in concentrations up to 1 microM did not affect calcium sequestration by nonmitochondrial, InsP3-sensitive stores at all; 50 microM carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, 50 microM monensin and 30 mM NH4Cl, which are diverse ways to dissipate transmembrane pH gradients, did not inhibit calcium sequestration. This argues against signficant involvement of internal acidity and vacuolar proton pumps in calcium sequestration by InsP3-sensitive stores in RINm5F cells. The proton-potassium-exchanging ionophore nigericin (20-100 microM), however, inhibited calcium sequestration by nonmitochondrial and InsP3-sensitive stores. This effect was dependent on the presence of potassium and could be reversed by inclusion of carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone or acetate in the incubation medium. Thus, the inhibitory effect of nigericin appears to be based on proton extrusion coupled to potassium influx across the membrane of calcium stores in RINm5F cells, creating an internal alkalinization of these stores. The effect of nigericin implies the continuous maintenance of an outside-to-inside potassium concentration gradient by nonmitochondrial calcium stores in RINm5F cells. This feature will be of potential interest in the identification of InsP3-sensitive calcium-storing organelles.

  6. Effect of calmodulin antagonists on calcium pump of ram spermatozoa plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Breitbart, H; Rubinstein, S

    1988-01-01

    Plasma membranes isolated from ram spermatozoa contain calmodulin, which represents approximately 0.03% of the total sperm calmodulin and 0.025% of the membrane protein. When membranes were isolated in the presence of ethylene glycol (beta-aminoethyl ether) N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), the amount of calmodulin associated with the plasma membranes was reduced by only 20%. The ATP-dependent calcium transport activity of the isolated plasma membranes is not enhanced by adding calmodulin and not inhibited by the calmodulin antagonists trifluoperazinc (TFP), compound 48/80, or calmidazolium. In fact, there is an enhancement of calcium uptake by the calmodulin antagonists and this enhancement can be blocked by the Ca2+-channel blocker D-600. It is suggested that the ATP-dependent calcium transport activity in the plasma membrane of ram spermatozoa is not regulated by calmodulin.

  7. Stimulated rotational Raman scattering at multiwavelength under tea CO2 laser pumping with a multiple-pass cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D. J.; Yang, G. L.; Chen, F.; Xie, J. J.; Zhang, L. M.; Guo, J.; Shao, C. L.; Peng, Z. Q.; Lu, Q. P.

    2012-05-01

    Stimulated rotational Raman scattering (SRRS) at multiwavelength pumped by TEA CO2 laser was demonstrated in this paper. Raman mediums were cooled by liquid-N2 and a multiple-pass cell (MPC) with 25 passes was designed and used. When the para-H2 was pumped by single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) circular polarized TEA CO2 laser on 10P(20), 9P(20), and 10R(20), 50 mJ 16.95 μm, 350 mJ 14.44 μm, and 536 mJ 16.9 μm radiations were obtained, corresponding to energy conversion efficiency of 1.2, 11.7, and 13.4%, respectively. When the ortho-D2 was pumped by CO2 laser on 10R(18), 108 mJ 12.57 μm Raman laser was obtained with energy conversion efficiency of 2.9%.

  8. The Role of Calcium in the Response of Osteoblasts to Mechanical Stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R. L.; Farach-Carson, M. C.; Pavalko, F. M.

    1999-01-01

    A major biomedical concern in the exploration and development of space is the rapid loss of bone associated with extended periods of spaceflight. Mineral content, bone formation, matrix protein production and total body calcium are all reduced during long-term periods of weightlessness. These effects of weightlessness appears to be due to decreases in the anabolic function of osteoblasts and osteocytes rather than changes in the resorptive activity of osteoclasts. Conversely, subjecting the skeleton to exogenous mechanical loading increases matrix protein synthesis and bone formation rate, a process which also appears mediated through osteogenic cells. Osteoblasts have been shown to respond to a number of types of mechanical stimulation. However recently we have demonstrated that osteoblasts respond to fluid shear, but not physiologic levels of mechanical strain, with increases in expression of the matrix protein, osteopontin. We have also shown similar responses in other markers for the anabolic response in bone. The expression of the early response gene, c-fos, and the inducible-isoform of the prostaglandin synthetic enzyme, cyclooygenase-2 (COX-2), both increase rapidly in response to fluid shear, but not strain. How osteoblasts and osteocytes perceive mechanical stimuli and convert this stimulus into a biochemical event within the cell is still unknown. However, examination of the cellular events following mechanical stimulation indicate that two of the earliest responses are a rapid increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](sub i)) and a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. The increase in [Ca(2+)](sub i) is dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca(2+), suggesting the activation of membrane Ca(2+) channel. We have previously characterized a mechanosensitive, cation-selective channel (MSCC) in osteoblast-like clonal cells, which we postulate is important in this early response to mechanical loading. Using an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide strategy

  9. The membrane topology of the amino-terminal domain of the red cell calcium pump.

    PubMed Central

    Castello, P. R.; González Flecha, F. L.; Caride, A. J.; Fernández, H. N.; Delfino, J. M.; Rossi, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    A systematic study of the membrane-associated regions in the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump of erythrocytes has been performed by hydrophobic photolabeling. Purified Ca2+ pump was labeled with 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)-diazirine ([125I]TID), a generic photoactivatable hydrophobic probe. These results were compared with the enzyme labeled with a strictly membrane-bound probe, [3H]bis-phosphatidylethanolamine (trifluoromethyl) phenyldiazirine. A significant light-dependent labeling of an M(r) 135,000-140,000 peptide, corresponding to the full Ca2+ pump, was observed with both probes. After proteolysis of the pump labeled with each probe and isolation of fragments by SDS-PAGE, a common pattern of labeled peptides was observed. Similarly, labeling of the Ca2+ pump with [125I]TID, either in isolated red blood cell membranes or after the enzyme was purified, yields a similar pattern of labeled peptides. Taken together, these results validate the use of either probe to study the lipid interface of the membrane-embedded region of this protein, and sustain the notion that the conformation of the pump is maintained throughout the procedures of solubilization, affinity purification, and reconstitution into proteoliposomes. In this work, we put special emphasis on a detailed analysis of the N-terminal domain of the Ca2+ pump. A labeled peptide of M(r) 40,000 belonging to this region was purified and further digested with V8 protease. The specific incorporation of [125I]TID to proteolytic fragments pertaining to the amino-terminal region indicates the existence of two transmembrane stretches in this domain. A theoretical analysis based on the amino acid sequence 1-322 predicts two segments with high probability of membrane insertion, in agreement with the experimental data. Each segment shows a periodicity pattern of hydrophobicity and variability compatible with alpha-helical structure. These results strongly suggest the existence of a transmembrane helical hairpin

  10. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... milligrams) of calcium each day. Get it from: Dairy products. Low-fat milk, yogurt, cheese, and cottage ... lactase that helps digest the sugar (lactose) in dairy products, and may have gas, bloating, cramps, or ...

  11. Arterial Calcium Stimulation with Hepatic Venous Sampling in the Localization Diagnosis of Endogenous Hyperinsulinism

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Moreno, Paloma; Alhambra-Expósito, María Rosa; Palomares-Ortega, Rafel; Zurera-Tendero, Luis; Espejo Herrero, Juan José; Gálvez-Moreno, María Angeles

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of arterial calcium stimulation with hepatic venous sampling (ASVS) in the localization diagnosis of endogenous hyperinsulinism. Patients and Methods. A retrospective descriptive study was performed including patients with endogenous hyperinsulinism who underwent ASVS. The histopathological diagnosis in patients who underwent a surgical procedure was used as the reference for the statistical study of the accuracy of this technique. Results. 30 patients were included with endogenous hyperinsulinism and nonconclusive imaging diagnosis was included. ASVS was performed in all cases. Surgery was performed in 20 cases. Insulinoma was removed in 19 patients; the location of all cases was detected in the ASVS. All cases of endogenous hyperinsulinism had a positive result for the ASVS, with this association being statistically significant (χ2 = 15.771; p < 0.001). A good and statistically significant agreement was obtained between histopathologic diagnosis and ASVS results (K = 0.518, p < 0.001). Conclusions. ASVS is a useful procedure in the localization diagnosis of endogenous hyperinsulinism undetected by other imaging tests. This technique allows the localization of intrapancreatic insulinomas and represents useful tool for the diagnosis and surgical management of these tumors. PMID:27795707

  12. The calcium pump plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase 2 (PMCA2) regulates breast cancer cell proliferation and sensitivity to doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Amelia A.; Milevskiy, Michael J. G.; Lee, Wei C.; Curry, Merril C.; Smart, Chanel E.; Saunus, Jodi M.; Reid, Lynne; da Silva, Leonard; Marcial, Daneth L.; Dray, Eloise; Brown, Melissa A.; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J.; Monteith, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of Ca2+ transport is vital in physiological processes, including lactation, proliferation and apoptosis. The plasmalemmal Ca2+ pump isoform 2 (PMCA2) a calcium ion efflux pump, was the first protein identified to be crucial in the transport of Ca2+ ions into milk during lactation in mice. In these studies we show that PMCA2 is also expressed in human epithelia undergoing lactational remodeling and also report strong PMCA2 staining on apical membranes of luminal epithelia in approximately 9% of human breast cancers we assessed. Membrane protein expression was not significantly associated with grade or hormone receptor status. However, PMCA2 mRNA levels were enriched in Basal breast cancers where it was positively correlated with survival. Silencing of PMCA2 reduced MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell proliferation, whereas silencing of the related isoforms PMCA1 and PMCA4 had no effect. PMCA2 silencing also sensitized MDA-MB-231 cells to the cytotoxic agent doxorubicin. Targeting PMCA2 alone or in combination with cytotoxic therapy may be worthy of investigation as a therapeutic strategy in breast cancer. PMCA2 mRNA levels are also a potential tool in identifying poor responders to therapy in women with Basal breast cancer. PMID:27148852

  13. Phosphorylation of rat kidney Na-K pump at Ser938 is required for rapid angiotensin II-dependent stimulation of activity and trafficking in proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Massey, Katherine J; Li, Quanwen; Rossi, Noreen F; Keezer, Susan M; Mattingly, Raymond R; Yingst, Douglas R

    2016-02-01

    How angiotensin (ANG) II acutely stimulates the Na-K pump in proximal tubules is only partially understood, limiting insight into how ANG II increases blood pressure. First, we tested whether ANG II increases the number of pumps in plasma membranes of native rat proximal tubules under conditions of rapid activation. We found that exposure to 100 pM ANG II for 2 min, which was previously shown to increase affinity of the Na-K pump for Na and stimulate activity threefold, increased the amount of the Na-K pump in plasma membranes of native tubules by 33%. Second, we tested whether previously observed increases in phosphorylation of the Na-K pump at Ser(938) were part of the stimulatory mechanism. These experiments were carried out in opossum kidney cells, cultured proximal tubules stably coexpressing the ANG type 1 (AT1) receptor, and either wild-type or a S938A mutant of rat kidney Na-K pump under conditions found by others to stimulate activity. We found that 10 min of incubation in 10 pM ANG II stimulated activity of wild-type pumps from 2.3 to 3.5 nmol K · mg protein(-1) · min(-1) and increased the amount of the pump in the plasma membrane by 80% but had no effect on cells expressing the S938A mutant. We conclude that acute stimulation of Na-K pump activity in native rat proximal tubules includes increased trafficking to the plasma membrane and that phosphorylation at Ser(938) is part of the mechanism by which ANG II directly stimulates activity and trafficking of the rat kidney Na-K pump in opossum kidney cells.

  14. Purinergic stimulation of rabbit ciliated airway epithelia: control by multiple calcium sources.

    PubMed Central

    Korngreen, A; Priel, Z

    1996-01-01

    1. Simultaneous measurements of average intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and ciliary beat frequency (CBF) were carried out on ciliated rabbit tracheal cells in order to determine quantitatively the role of calcium in the regulation of mucus-transporting cilia. 2. Extracellular ATP caused a rapid increase in both [Ca2+]i and CBF in the 0.1-1000 microM concentration range. The rise in [Ca2+]i levelled off to an elevated [Ca2+]i plateau while the cilia remained in a high activation state. The magnitude of the rise in [Ca2+]i and CBF as well as the value of the elevated [Ca2+]i plateau and the value of the sustained CBF were dependent on the concentration of ATP in the solution. 3. No correlation was found between the mean values of [Ca2+]i and CBF at rest but a sigmoidal relationship was found to exist between the maximal rises of these parameters following excitation with extracellular ATP. This sigmoidal correlation incorporated the experiments where [Ca2+]i rise was induced by depletion of internal calcium stores with thapsigargin or by entry of calcium induced by ionomycin. 4. Extracellular ATP caused both the release of calcium from internal stores and calcium influx from the extracellular solution. The release of calcium was identified as originating from a thapsigargin-sensitive and a thapsigargin-insensitive calcium store. It is suggested that the release of calcium from these stores induces the initial rise in CBF. 5. The sustained activation of the cilia and elevated calcium plateau were found to be the result of the extracellular ATP-induced calcium influx. This calcium influx was insensitive to the voltage-gated calcium channel inhibitors verapamil and diltiazem, but was completely eliminated by lowering the extracellular calcium concentration to 0.1 microM. 6. We propose that the initial jump in the CBF is mediated by the calcium released from a thapsigargin-insensitive calcium store adjacent to the cilia, while the later, and longer, rise in

  15. New portable time-resolved photometer for monitoring the calcium dynamics of osteoblasts under mechanical and zero-gravity stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struckmeier, Jens; Tenbosch, Jochen; Klopp, Erk; Born, Matthias; Hofmann, Martin R.; Jones, David B.

    2000-04-01

    We introduce a compact and portable photometric system for measurements of the calcium dynamics in cells. The photometer is designed for applications in centrifuges or in zero-gravity environment and thus extremely compact and reliable. It operates with the calcium-sensitive dye Indo-1. The excitation wavelength of 345nm is generated by frequency doubling of a laser diode. Two compact photomultiplier tubes detect the fluorescent emission. The electronics provides the sensitivity of photon counting combined with simultaneous measurement of the temperature, of air pressure, and of gravitational force. Internal data storage during the experiment is possible. A newly developed cell chamber stabilizes the cell temperature to 37.0 percent C +/- 0.1 degree C and includes a perfusion system to supply the cells with medium. The system has a modular set-up providing the possibility to change light source and detectors for investigation of other ions than calcium. Quantitative measurements of the intracellular calcium concentration are based on a comprehensive calibration of our system. First experiments show that the calcium dynamics of osteosarcoma cells stimulated by parathyroid hormone is observable.

  16. Calcium-dependent modulation by ethanol of mouse synaptosomal pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase activity under basal and K(+)-stimulated conditions.

    PubMed

    Mayas, M D; Ramírez-Expósito, M J; García, M J; Tsuboyama, G; Ramírez, M; Martínez-Martos, J M

    2000-11-03

    We studied the in vitro effects of ethanol (25, 50 and 100 mM) on pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase activity (pGluAP), which has been reported as thyrotrophin-releasing-hormone-degrading activity. pGluAP was measured in presence or absence of calcium, under basal and K(+)-stimulated conditions, in synaptosomes and their incubation supernatant, using pyroglutamyl-beta-naphthylamide as substrate. In basal conditions, in synaptosomes, pGluAP was inhibited by ethanol in a calcium-independent way. In the supernatant, the response differed depending on the concentration of ethanol. Depolarization with K(+) modified pGluAP in synaptosomes and supernatant depending on the presence or not of calcium. In synaptosomes, in absence of calcium, the activity was inhibited at the highest concentrations of ethanol. In contrast, in the supernatant, under depolarizing conditions, ethanol increases pGluAP in absence of calcium. These changes may be in part responsible of the behavioural changes associated to alcohol intake.

  17. D1/D5 dopamine receptors stimulate intracellular calcium release in primary cultures of neocortical and hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Lezcano, Nelson; Bergson, Clare

    2002-04-01

    D1/D5 dopamine receptors in basal ganglia, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex modulate motor, reward, and cognitive behavior. Previous work with recombinant proteins revealed that in cells primed with heterologous G(q/11)-coupled G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists, the typically G(s)-linked D1/D5 receptors can stimulate robust release of calcium from internal stores when coexpressed with calcyon. To learn more about the intracellular signaling mechanisms underlying these D1/D5 receptor regulated behaviors, we explored the possibility that endogenous receptors stimulate internal release of calcium in neurons. We have identified a population of neurons in primary cultures of hippocampus and neocortex that respond to D1/D5 dopamine receptor agonists with a marked increase in intracellular calcium (Ca) levels. The D1/D5 receptor stimulated responses occurred in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) indicating the rises in Ca involve release from internal stores. In addition, the responses were blocked by D1/D5 receptor antagonists. Further, the D1/D5 agonist-evoked responses were state dependent, requiring priming with agonists of G(q/11)-coupled glutamate, serotonin, muscarinic, and adrenergic receptors or with high external K(+) solution. In contrast, D1/D5 receptor agonist-evoked Ca(2+) responses were not detected in neurons derived from striatum. However, D1/D5 agonists elevated cAMP levels in striatal cultures as effectively as in neocortical and hippocampal cultures. Further, neither forskolin nor 8-Br-cAMP stimulation following priming was able to mimic the D1/D5 agonist-evoked Ca(2+) response in neocortical neurons indicating that increased cAMP levels are not sufficient to stimulate Ca release. Our data suggest that D1-like dopamine receptors likely modulate neocortical and hippocampal neuronal excitability and synaptic function via Ca(2+) as well as cAMP-dependent signaling.

  18. Efficient ionisation of calcium, strontium and barium by resonant laser pumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    Efficient ionization has been observed when an atomic vapor of strontium, barium or calcium was illuminated with a long pulse tunable laser at the frequency of the atomic resonance line. The variation in the degree of ionization with neutral density and laser intensity has been measured using the 'hook' method. The maximum ionization observed was 94%. Excited state populations were measured yielding an excitation temperature (depending on exact experimental conditions) in the region of 0.4 eV. The decay of ion density after the laser pulse was monitored and the recombination coefficients determined. The results are interpreted in terms of an electron heating model.

  19. Cortisol stimulates calcium transport across cultured gill epithelia from freshwater rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Scott P; Wood, Chris M

    2008-01-01

    The effect of cortisol on calcium (Ca(2+)) transport across cultured rainbow trout gill epithelia composed of both pavement cells (PVCs) and mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs) was examined. Under symmetrical culture conditions (L15 media apical/L15 media basolateral), cortisol had subtle effects on gill epithelial preparations. Both control and cortisol treated epithelia exhibited Ca(2+) influx and efflux rates (measured radioisotopically using (45)Ca) that were approximately balanced, with a slight inwardly directed net Ca(2+) flux. Ussing flux ratio analysis indicated active Ca(2+) transport in the inward direction across epithelia bathed symmetrically regardless of hormone treatment. In contrast, under asymmetrical conditions (freshwater apical/L15 media basolateral) control epithelia exhibited active Ca(2+) transport in the outward direction (basolateral to apical) throughout experiments conducted over a 24-h period, whereas cortisol-treated preparations exhibited active transport in the inward direction (apical to basolateral) during the early stages of an asymmetrical culture period (e.g., T0-6 h) and passive transport during the later stages (e.g., T18-24 h). When soft freshwater (with tenfold lower [Ca(2+)]) was used for asymmetrical culture instead of freshwater, control epithelia developed outwardly directed active Ca(2+) transport properties, whereas cortisol-treated preparations did not. The results of this study support a hypercalcemic role for cortisol in rainbow trout and demonstrate that treating cultured gill epithelia composed of both PVCs and MRCs with cortisol can stimulate active Ca(2+) uptake under circumstances that more closely resemble natural conditions for fish gills (i.e., freshwater bathing the apical side of the epithelium).

  20. Perturbation Facilitated Dispersed Fluorescence and Stimulated Emission Pumping Spectroscopies of HCP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Haruki; Muramoto, Yasuhiko; Namai, Masahito; Mikami, Naohiko

    2011-06-01

    Perturbations among molecular rovibronic levels provide us with mainly two benefits. Perturbations themselves are characteristic features of structure and dynamics of molecules. We have been investigating dynamics of highly excited vibrational levels of HCP in the tilde{X} ^1Σ^+ state by dispersed fluorescence (DF) and stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectroscopies of the tilde{C} ^1A^' - tilde{X} ^1Σ^+ transition. In the case of tilde{X} ^1Σ^+ HCP, its vibrational dynamics is well described by the Fermi resonance between the bend and the CP stretch modes. Based on the analysis of the Fermi resonance, we have succeeded in revealing the change in character of the bending motion in highly excited vibrational levels. In addition, perturbations enable us to explore rovibrational levels into much wider region that cannot be accessed under limits of selection rules. Jacobson and Child showed that the Coriolis interaction becomes very strong in the highly excited levels near and the above the CPH barrier. For the experimental confirmation of their prediction, the observation of the VCH≠0 and the ℓ'' ≠ 0 levels are necessary. However, due to the selection rules and the Franck-Condon selectivity, only the VCH=0 and the ℓ''=0 levels had been observed. In the course of our study, we have found a perturbed level in the tilde{C} state. In general, a very clear even-v_2 progression appears in the DF spectra of HCP. However, in the DF spectra measured by using the perturbed level as the intermediate both the odd- and even-v_2 levels are observed. Moreover, several VCH=1 levels are observed in the spectra. The perturbation-facilitated DF and SEP spectroscopies are very powerful tools to exploring the highly excited vibrational levels of HCP. Details of the perturbation-facilitated DF and SEP spectroscopies are presented in the paper. H. Ishikawa, et al. J. Chem. Phys. 109, 492 (1998); H. Ishikawa, et al. Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 50, 443 (1999). M. P. Jacobson and M. S

  1. Contribution of cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 to prostanoid formation by human enterocytes stimulated by calcium ionophore and inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Longo, W E; Panesar, N; Mazuski, J; Kaminski, D L

    1998-08-01

    The stimulation of intestinal epithelial cell cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes with inflammatory agents and the inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes has the potential to increase understanding of the role of these enzymes in intestinal inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the contributions of COX-1 and -2 to the production of specific prostanoids by unstimulated and stimulated intestinal epithelial cells. Cultured enterocytes were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-1 (IL-1)beta (IL-1 beta), and calcium ionophore (Ca Ion), with and without COX inhibitors. Valerylsalicylic acid (VSA) was employed as the COX-1 inhibitor, and SC-58125 and NS398 were used as the COX-2 inhibitors. Prostanoids were quantitated by Elisa assay. Western immunoblotting demonstrated the presence of constitutive COX-1 and inducible COX-2 enzyme. Unstimulated prostanoid formation was not decreased by the COX-1 inhibitor. All of the stimulants evaluated increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Only Ca Ion stimulated prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) production while IL-1 beta, and Ca Ion, but not LPS, increased prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) formation. Ca Ion-stimulated prostanoid formation was uniformly inhibited by COX-2, but not COX-1, inhibitors. IL-1 beta-stimulated PGE2 and PGE2 alpha formation was significantly decreased by both COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors. VSA, in a dose-dependent manner, significantly decreased IL-1 beta-stimulated PGE2 and PGF2 alpha production. Unstimulated prostanoid formation was not dependent on constitutive COX-1 activity. The stimulation of intestinal epithelial cells by Ca Ion seemed to uniformly produce prostanoids through COX-2 activity. There was no uniform COX-1 or COX-2 pathway for PGE and PGF2 alpha formation stimulated by the inflammatory agents, suggesting that employing either a COX-1 or COX-2 inhibitor therapeutically will have varying effects on intestinal epithelial cells dependent on the prostanoid species and the

  2. Effect of proton pump inhibitors on the secretion of bicarbonates and pepsinogen induced by chemical stimulation of the gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Zolotarev, V A; Khropycheva, R P

    2013-02-01

    Proton pump inhibitors were shown to affect the sensitivity of the gastric mucosa to chemical agents. This effect is associated with inhibition of proton back-diffusion and increase in the permeability of the gastric epithelium. We studied the effect of omeprazole on gastric secretion of bicarbonates and pepsinogen induced by irritation of the gastric mucosa in narcotized rats with a hypertonic solution of high acidity (500 mM NaCl, pH 2.0). Irritation of the gastric mucosa increased the basal secretion of bicarbonates and potentiated the secretion of HCO3(-)and pepsinogen induced by electrostimulation of the vagus nerve. Omeprazole stimulated the prostaglandin-induced increase in the basal secretion of HCO3(-)and pepsinogen. By contrast, bicarbonate production in response to vagal stimulation was suppressed in the presence of omeprazole. Our results indicate that proton pump blockade has a modulatory effect on gastric secretion of bicarbonates and pepsinogen induced by chemical stimulation of the gastric mucosa.

  3. Depolarization-stimulated contractility of gastrointestinal smooth muscle in calcium-free solution: a review.

    PubMed

    Evans, Emily D; Mangel, Allen W

    2011-01-01

    The membrane of most gastrointestinal smooth muscles shows slow waves, slow rhythmic changes in membrane potential. Slow waves serve to bring the membrane potential of smooth muscle cells to a threshold level that elicits a second electrical event known as the spike or action potential. The inward current of the spike, in most gastrointestinal smooth muscle preparations, is carried, at least in part, by calcium. Indeed, considering the narrow diameter of smooth muscle cells, some have hypothesized that the influx of calcium during the spike is sufficient for activation of the contractile machinery. Findings consistent with this include marked reduction in contractility during exposure of muscle segments to blockers of L-type calcium channels or following reductions in external calcium levels. However, it has also been observed that following exposure of muscle segments to external bathing solutions containing no added calcium plus 5 mM EGTA to remove any remaining extracellular calcium, contractions can be triggered following membrane depolarization. It is noteworthy that in isolated smooth muscle cells or in small muscle segments, during incubation in calcium-free solution, depolarization does not induce contractions. The present paper discusses the evidence in support of depolarization-mediated contractions occurring in gastrointestinal smooth muscle segments during incubation in solutions devoid of calcium.

  4. Activation of PAC1 Receptors in Rat Cerebellar Granule Cells Stimulates Both Calcium Mobilization from Intracellular Stores and Calcium Influx through N-Type Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Basille-Dugay, Magali; Vaudry, Hubert; Fournier, Alain; Gonzalez, Bruno; Vaudry, David

    2013-01-01

    High concentrations of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and a high density of PACAP binding sites have been detected in the developing rat cerebellum. In particular, PACAP receptors are actively expressed in immature granule cells, where they activate both adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of PACAP to induce calcium mobilization in cerebellar granule neurons. Administration of PACAP-induced a transient, rapid, and monophasic rise of the cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), while vasoactive intestinal peptide was devoid of effect, indicating the involvement of the PAC1 receptor in the Ca2+ response. Preincubation of granule cells with the Ca2+ ATPase inhibitor, thapsigargin, or the d-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor antagonist, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, markedly reduced the stimulatory effect of PACAP on [Ca2+]i. Furthermore, addition of the calcium chelator, EGTA, or exposure of cells to the non-selective Ca2+ channel blocker, NiCl2, significantly attenuated the PACAP-evoked [Ca2+]i increase. Preincubation of granule neurons with the N-type Ca2+ channel blocker, ω-conotoxin GVIA, decreased the PACAP-induced [Ca2+]i response, whereas the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, nifedipine, and the P- and Q-type Ca2+ channel blocker, ω-conotoxin MVIIC, had no effect. Altogether, these findings indicate that PACAP, acting through PAC1 receptors, provokes an increase in [Ca2+]i in granule neurons, which is mediated by both mobilization of calcium from IP3-sensitive intracellular stores and activation of N-type Ca2+ channel. Some of the activities of PACAP on proliferation, survival, migration, and differentiation of cerebellar granule cells could thus be mediated, at least in part, through these intracellular and/or extracellular calcium fluxes. PMID:23675369

  5. Biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor by cultured rat Kupffer cells stimulated with calcium ionophore A23187.

    PubMed Central

    Chao, W; Siafaka-Kapadai, A; Olson, M S; Hanahan, D J

    1989-01-01

    Cultured rat Kupffer cells synthesize and release platelet-activating factor (PAF) when stimulated with calcium ionophore A23187. The production of PAF is concentration- and time-dependent and, based upon [3H]serotonin release assays, approx. 1.0 pmol of PAF is formed per 8 x 10(6) cells during 10 min of ionophore stimulation. It is suggested that Kupffer cells are important cellular components which produce and release PAF in order to facilitate communication between hepatic sinusoidal and parenchymal cells. Further, it is suggested that such mediator production in response to reticulo-endothelial cell stimulation causes the hepatic glycogenolytic response previously in the isolated perfused rat liver. PMID:2494988

  6. ESCRT components regulate the expression of the ER/Golgi calcium pump gene PMR1 through the Rim101/Nrg1 pathway in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunying; Du, Jingcai; Xiong, Bing; Xu, Huihui; Jiang, Linghuo

    2013-10-01

    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) complexes function to form multivesicular bodies for sorting of proteins destined for the yeast vacuole or the mammalian lysosome. ESCRT components are well conserved in eukaryotes, and their mutations cause neurodegenerative diseases and other cellular pathologies in humans. PMR1 is the orthologous gene of two human genes for calcium pumps secretory pathway Ca(2+)-ATPase (SPCA1, ATP2C1) and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA, ATP2A2), which are mutated in Hailey-Hailey and Darier genetic diseases, respectively. Here we show that deletion mutation of ESCRT components Snf7, Snf8, Stp22, Vps20, Vps25, Vps28, or Vps36 activates the calcium/calcineurin signaling in yeast cells, but surprisingly leads to a nearly 50% reduction in expression of the ER/Golgi calcium pump gene PMR1 independent of calcium stress. These ESCRT mutants are known to have a defect in Rim101 activation. Ectopic expression of a constitutively active form of Rim101 or further deletion of NRG1 in these mutants partially suppresses their calcium hypersensitivity. Deletion of NRG1 also completely rescues the expression of PMR1 in these mutants to the level of the wild type. Promoter mutagenesis, gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrate that Nrg1 binds to two motifs in the PMR1 promoter. In addition, expression of PMR1 under the control of its promoters with mutated Nrg1-binding motifs suppresses the calcium hypersensitivity of these ESCRT mutants. Collectively, these data have uncovered a function of ESCRT components in regulating PMR1 expression through the Nrg1/Rim101 pathway. Our findings provide important clues for understanding human diseases related to calcium homeostasis.

  7. Growth Inhibition and Stimulation of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 by Surfactants and Calcium Polysulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Kathryn L.; Tilton, Fred A.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Ergas, Sarina J.; Marshall, Matthew J.; Miracle, Ann L.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2012-06-14

    Foam delivery technology (FDT) uses surfactant based foam to immobilize subsurface contaminants in situ. Where traditional approaches are impractical, FDT has the potential to overcome many of the technical challenges facing the remediation of contaminated deep vadose zone environments. However, little is known about the effects these reactive chemicals may have on microorganisms inhabiting the contaminated subsurface. In addition, there are currently no standard assays to assess microbial responses to subsurface remedial treatments while these agents are under development. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid laboratory assay to assess the potential growth inhibition and/or stimulation of microorganisms following exposure to candidate FDT components. Calcium polysulfide (CPS) and several surfactants (i.e. sodium laureth sulfate (SLES), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and NINOL40-CO) have diverse chemistries and are candidate components of FDT. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cultures were exposed to a range of concentrations of these chemicals to determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and the growth and viability potential of these components. Concentrations of SDS higher than 700 {micro}M were toxic to S. oneidensis MR-1 growth over the course of four days of exposure. The relative acute toxicity order for these compounds was SDS>>CPS>>NINOL40-CO>SLES-CAPB. Dose dependent growth decreases (20 to 100 mM) were observed in the CAPB and SLES treated cultures and both CPS and NINOL 40-CO were toxic at all concentrations tested (1.45 to 7.25 mM CPS). Both SLES (20 to 100 mM) and SDS at lower concentrations (20 to 500 {micro}M) were stimulatory to S. oneidensis MR-1 indicating a capacity to be used as a carbon source. These studies also identified potentially key component characteristics, such as precipitate formation and oxygen availability, which may prove valuable in assessing the response of subsurface

  8. Growth inhibition and stimulation of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 by surfactants and calcium polysulfide.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kathryn L; Tilton, Fred; Jansik, Danielle P; Ergas, Sarina J; Marshall, Matthew J; Miracle, Ann L; Wellman, Dawn M

    2012-06-01

    Foam delivery technology (FDT) uses surfactant based foam to immobilize subsurface contaminants in situ. Where traditional approaches are impractical, FDT has the potential to overcome many of the technical challenges facing the remediation of contaminated deep vadose zone environments. However, little is known about the effects these reactive chemicals may have on microorganisms inhabiting the contaminated subsurface. In addition, there are currently no standard assays to assess microbial responses to subsurface remedial treatments while these agents are under development. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid laboratory assay to assess the potential growth inhibition and/or stimulation of microorganisms following exposure to candidate FDT components. Calcium polysulfide (CPS) and several surfactants (i.e. sodium laureth sulfate (SLES), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and NINOL40-CO) have diverse chemistries and are candidate components of FDT. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cultures were exposed to a range of concentrations of these chemicals to determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and the growth and viability potential of these components. Concentrations of SDS higher than 700 μM were toxic to S. oneidensis MR-1 growth over the course of four days of exposure. The relative acute toxicity order for these compounds was SDS > CPS > NINOL 40-CO>SLES≥CAPB. Dose dependent growth decreases (20-100mM) were observed in the CAPB and SLES treated cultures and both CPS and NINOL 40-CO were toxic at all concentrations tested (1.45-7.25 mM CPS). Both SLES (20-100mM) and SDS at lower concentrations (20-500 μM) were stimulatory to S. oneidensis MR-1 indicating a capacity to be used as a carbon source. These studies also identified potentially key component characteristics, such as precipitate formation and oxygen availability, which may prove valuable in assessing the response of subsurface microorganisms. This benchtop

  9. Extracellular zinc stimulates a calcium-activated chloride conductance through mobilisation of intracellular calcium in renal inner medullary collecting duct cells.

    PubMed

    Linley, J E; Simmons, N L; Gray, M A

    2007-01-01

    We have used the perforated patch clamp and fura-2 fluorescence techniques to study the effect of extracellular Zn(2+) on whole-cell Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents (I (CLCA)) in mouse inner medullary collecting duct cells (mIMCD-3). I (CLCA) was spontaneously active in 74% of cells under basal conditions and displayed time and voltage-independent kinetics and an outwardly rectifying current/voltage relationship (I/V). Addition of zinc chloride (10-400 microM) to the bathing solution resulted in a dose-dependent increase in I (CLCA) with little change in Cl(-) selectivity or biophysical characteristics, whereas gadolinium chloride (30 microM) and lanthanum chloride (100 microM) had no significant effect on the whole-cell current. Using fura-2-loaded mIMCD-3 cells, extracellular Zn(2+) (400 microM) stimulated an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) to an elevated plateau. The Zn(2+)-stimulated [Ca(2+)](i) increase was inhibited by thapsigargin (200 nM), the IP(3) receptor antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (10 microM) and removal of bath Ca(2+). Pre-exposure to Zn(2+) (400 microM) markedly attenuated the ATP (100 microM)-stimulated [Ca(2+)](i) increase. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that extracellular Zn(2+) stimulates an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) by a release of calcium from thapsigargin/IP(3) sensitive stores. A possible physiological role for a divalent metal ion receptor, distinct from the extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor, in IMCD cells is discussed.

  10. Vitamin D and intestinal calcium absorption.

    PubMed

    Christakos, Sylvia; Dhawan, Puneet; Porta, Angela; Mady, Leila J; Seth, Tanya

    2011-12-05

    The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase calcium absorption from the intestine. Calcium is absorbed by both an active transcellular pathway, which is energy dependent, and by a passive paracellular pathway through tight junctions. 1,25Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) the hormonally active form of vitamin D, through its genomic actions, is the major stimulator of active intestinal calcium absorption which involves calcium influx, translocation of calcium through the interior of the enterocyte and basolateral extrusion of calcium by the intestinal plasma membrane pump. This article reviews recent studies that have challenged the traditional model of vitamin D mediated transcellular calcium absorption and the crucial role of specific calcium transport proteins in intestinal calcium absorption. There is also increasing evidence that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) can enhance paracellular calcium diffusion. The influence of estrogen, prolactin, glucocorticoids and aging on intestinal calcium absorption and the role of the distal intestine in vitamin D mediated intestinal calcium absorption are also discussed.

  11. Stimulation of high affinity gamma-aminobutyric acidB receptors potentiates the depolarization-induced increase of intraneuronal ionized calcium content in cerebellar granule neurons.

    PubMed

    De Erausquin, G; Brooker, G; Costa, E; Wojcik, W J

    1992-09-01

    In the treatment of spasticity, the therapeutic cerebrospinal fluid levels of (+/-)-baclofen, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)B receptor agonist, are below 1 microM. However, the mechanism of the therapeutic action of (+/-)-baclofen remains unknown, because, for the most part, the action of (+/-)-baclofen on GABAB receptors requires micromolar concentrations. Using fura-2 fluorescence microscopy, intracellular ionized calcium was measured in cerebellar granule neurons. Stimulation of a high affinity GABAB receptor potentiated by 2-3-fold the rise in intracellular calcium observed after depolarization of the cell with a Krebs Ringer's buffered solution containing 40 mM K+. Both GABA (100 nM) and (+/-)-baclofen (10-100 nM) stimulated this high affinity receptor. The potentiation of the depolarization-induced rise in intracellular calcium by (+/-)-baclofen (100 nM) was completely blocked by the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP 35348 (200 microM). Also, the intracellular calcium response induced by the activation of high affinity GABAB receptors was prevented by dantrolene (10 microM). The cerebellar granule neurons contained calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) stores. Caffeine (3 mM) and ryanodine (100 microM) potentiated the depolarization-induced rise in intracellular calcium, and this response to both drugs was blocked by dantrolene (10 microM). Because dantrolene does not prevent the rise in intracellular calcium after cell depolarization (this calcium originated from the influx of extracellular calcium), (+/-)-baclofen acting via the high affinity GABAB receptor indirectly activates the CICR stores, allowing the influx of extracellular calcium to trigger the release of calcium from these dantrolene-sensitive CICR stores. Thus, this high affinity GABAB receptor might become activated during persistent depolarization caused by pathological states and could be a mechanism to be studied for the therapeutic action of (+/-)-baclofen in spasticity.

  12. Nonlinear relationship between alpha 1-adrenergic receptor occupancy and norepinephrine-stimulated calcium flux in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Colucci, W.S.; Brock, T.A.; Gimbrone, M.A. Jr.; Alexander, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    To determine the relationship between vascular alpha 1-adrenergic receptor occupancy and receptor-coupled calcium flux, the authors have studied (/sup 3/H)prazosin binding and l-norepinephrine-induced /sup 45/Ca efflux in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells isolated from the rabbit aorta. In a crude cellular homogenate, (/sup 3/H)prazosin bound to a single high affinity site, whereas l-norepinephrine (NE) binding was best described by a two-site model. NE-stimulated /sup 45/Ca efflux was concentration-dependent (EC/sup 50/ = 108 nM) and potently inhibited by prazosin (IC/sup 50/ = 0.15 nM). For the total receptor pool identified by (/sup 3/H)prazosin binding, the relationship between receptor occupancy by NE and NE-stimulated /sup 45/Ca efflux was markedly nonlinear, such that 50% of maximum NE-stimulated efflux occurred with occupancy of only approximately 7% of receptors. These two experimental approaches provide direct evidence for the presence in cultured rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells of a sizable pool of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors in excess of those needed for maximum NE-stimulated /sup 45/Ca efflux. This evidence of ''spare'' receptors, together with the finding of two affinity states of agonist binding, raises the possibility of functional heterogeneity of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors in this system.

  13. Cdc42 and Rac stimulate exocytosis of secretory granules by activating the IP(3)/calcium pathway in RBL-2H3 mast cells.

    PubMed

    Hong-Geller, E; Cerione, R A

    2000-02-07

    We have expressed dominant-active and dominant-negative forms of the Rho GTPases, Cdc42 and Rac, using vaccinia virus to evaluate the effects of these mutants on the signaling pathway leading to the degranulation of secretory granules in RBL-2H3 cells. Dominant-active Cdc42 and Rac enhance antigen-stimulated secretion by about twofold, whereas the dominant-negative mutants significantly inhibit secretion. Interestingly, treatment with the calcium ionophore, A23187, and the PKC activator, PMA, rescues the inhibited levels of secretion in cells expressing the dominant-negative mutants, implying that Cdc42 and Rac act upstream of the calcium influx pathway. Furthermore, cells expressing the dominant-active mutants exhibit elevated levels of antigen-stimulated IP(3) production, an amplified antigen-stimulated calcium response consisting of both calcium release from internal stores and influx from the extracellular medium, and an increase in aggregate formation of the IP(3) receptor. In contrast, cells expressing the dominant-negative mutants display the opposite phenotypes. Finally, we are able to detect an in vitro interaction between Cdc42 and PLCgamma1, the enzyme immediately upstream of IP(3) formation. Taken together, these findings implicate Cdc42 and Rac in regulating the exocytosis of secretory granules by stimulation of IP(3) formation and calcium mobilization upon antigen stimulation.

  14. Effects of deoxynivalenol on calcium homeostasis of concanavalin A--Stimulated splenic lymphocytes of chickens in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhihua; Wang, Yachao; Deng, Huidan; Deng, Youtian; Deng, Junliang; Zuo, Zhicai; Wang, Ya; Peng, Xi; Cui, Hengmin; Shen, Liuhong; Yu, Shumin; Cao, Suizhong

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the in vitro effects of the treatment of concanavalin A (Con A)--stimulated splenic lymphocytes with DON were examined. Splenic lymphocytes isolated from chickens were stimulated with 12.5 μg/mL Con A and exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON) (0-50 μg/mL) for 48 h. The intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), pH, calmodulin (CaM) mRNA levels, and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities were detected. With the DON exposure concentrations increased, the [Ca(2+)]i and CaM mRNA levels gradually increased in a dose-dependent manner, and all the evaluated conconcentrations affected ATPase activity to the same extent. There were significant differences (P<0.05 or P<0.01) between the treatment groups and the control group. These results indicate that an imbalance in calcium homeostasis and intracellular acidification are components of DON cytotoxicity in chicken lymphocytes.

  15. Mechanisms of pyrethroid insecticide-induced stimulation of calcium influx in neocortical neurons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pyrethroid insecticides bind to voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) and modify their gating kinetics, thereby disrupting neuronal function. Pyrethroids have also been reported to alter the function of other channel types, including activation of voltage-gated Ca2+ calcium chann...

  16. Construction and use of a zebrafish heart voltage and calcium optical mapping system, with integrated electrocardiogram and programmable electrical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Eric; Craig, Calvin; Lamothe, Marcel; Sarunic, Marinko V.; Beg, Mirza Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Zebrafish are increasingly being used as a model of vertebrate cardiology due to mammalian-like cardiac properties in many respects. The size and fecundity of zebrafish make them suitable for large-scale genetic and pharmacological screening. In larger mammalian hearts, optical mapping is often used to investigate the interplay between voltage and calcium dynamics and to investigate their respective roles in arrhythmogenesis. This report outlines the construction of an optical mapping system for use with zebrafish hearts, using the voltage-sensitive dye RH 237 and the calcium indicator dye Rhod-2 using two industrial-level CCD cameras. With the use of economical cameras and a common 532-nm diode laser for excitation, the rate dependence of voltage and calcium dynamics within the atrial and ventricular compartments can be simultaneously determined. At 140 beats/min, the atrial action potential duration was 36 ms and the transient duration was 53 ms. With the use of a programmable electrical stimulator, a shallow rate dependence of 3 and 4 ms per 100 beats/min was observed, respectively. In the ventricle the action potential duration was 109 ms and the transient duration was 124 ms, with a steeper rate dependence of 12 and 16 ms per 100 beats/min. Synchronous electrocardiograms and optical mapping recordings were recorded, in which the P-wave aligns with the atrial voltage peak and R-wave aligns with the ventricular peak. A simple optical pathway and imaging chamber are detailed along with schematics for the in-house construction of the electrocardiogram amplifier and electrical stimulator. Laboratory procedures necessary for zebrafish heart isolation, cannulation, and loading are also presented. PMID:25740339

  17. Three-dimensional distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons analyzed by in vivo calcium imaging.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Kazuhiko; Matsumura, Shinji; Taniguchi, Wataru; Uta, Daisuke; Furue, Hidemasa; Ito, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn.

  18. The role of sodium pump activity in the hyperpolarization and in subsequent depolarization of smooth muscle in response to stimulation of post-synaptic alpha 1-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Török, T L; Vizi, E S

    1980-01-01

    The electrical and mechanical activities of guinea pig taenia coli smooth muscle were measured by a "sucrose gap" technique. Under the same experimental conditions the ionic content of smooth muscle was also measured. The mean value of the resting potential was 56.9 +/- 1.1 mV (S.E.M.; n = 46). In normal Krebs solution immediately after dissection intracellular sodium amounted to 30.1, and intracellular calcium to 1.5 mmole x kg-1 wet weight. In response to adrenaline administration there was a Ca-dependent hyperpolarization (peak, 6.8 +/- 0.3 mV S.E.M.; n = 5) and an increased Na efflux with a rate constant (k) of 0.16 min-1 (60'). Removal of adrenaline was followed by so-called "postadrenaline depolarization" i.e. the decrease of the membrane potential was greater than the initial rise, an effect enhanced by ouabain (2 X 10(-5) M). Clonidine (5.3 X 10(-6) M), a selective presynaptic-adrenoceptor (alpha 2-receptor) stimulant failed to produce hyperpolarization, however, phenylephrine (5 X 10(-5) M) a pure postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptor (alpha 1-receptor) stimulant produced a similar effect as adrenaline. In addition, yohimbine (1.4 X 10(-6) M), a typical presynaptic alpha-adrenoceptor inhibitor failed to affect the action of adrenaline or phenylephrine. These facts indicate that the alpha 1-adrenoceptors present on the smooth muscle are different from those situated presynaptically on the cholinergic nerve terminals modulating the release of acetylcholine. The effect of ouabain to lower membrane potential proved to be Ca2+-dependent. The intracellular sodium content was enhanced by ouabain from 30.1 to 90.9 +/- 4.7 mmole x kg-1 wet weight (60'). On washing out ouabain, hyperpolarization "post-ouabain hyperpolarization" was detected, i.e. the rise of membrane potential was greater than the initial fall. It is suggested that the sodium pump plays a significant role in the post-ouabain hyperpolarization. Direct calculation of sodium movements suggests that the

  19. Stimulation of H(2)O(2) generation by calcium in brain mitochondria respiring on alpha-glycerophosphate.

    PubMed

    Tretter, Laszlo; Takacs, Katalin; Kövér, Kinga; Adam-Vizi, Vera

    2007-11-15

    It has been reported recently (Tretter et al., 2007b) that in isolated guinea pig brain mitochondria supported by alpha-glycerophosphate (alpha-GP) reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced through the reverse electron transport (RET) in the respiratory chain and by alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (alpha-GPDH). We studied the effect of calcium on the generation of H(2)O(2) as measured by the Amplex Red fluorescent assay in this model. H(2)O(2) production in alpha-GP-supported mitochondria was increased significantly in the presence of 100, 250, and 500 nM Ca(2+), respectively. In addition, Ca(2+) enhanced the membrane potential, the rate of oxygen consumption, and the NAD(P)H autofluorescence in these mitochondria. Direct measurement of alpha-GPDH activity showed that Ca(2+) stimulated the enzyme by decreasing the Km for alpha-GP. In those mitochondria where RET was eliminated by the Complex I inhibitor rotenone (2 microM) or due to depolarization by ADP (1 mM), the rate of H(2)O(2) formation was smaller and the stimulation of H(2)O(2) generation by Ca(2+) was prevented partly, but the stimulatory effect of Ca(2+) was still significant. These data indicate that in alpha-GP-supported mitochondria activation of alpha-GPDH by Ca(2+) leads to an accelerated RET-mediated ROS generation as well as to a stimulated ROS production by alpha-GPDH.

  20. Calcium transients in single fibers of low-frequency stimulated fast-twitch muscle of rat.

    PubMed

    Carroll, S; Nicotera, P; Pette, D

    1999-12-01

    Ca(2+) transients were investigated in single fibers isolated from rat extensor digitorum longus muscles exposed to chronic low-frequency stimulation for different time periods up to 10 days. Approximately 2.5-fold increases in resting Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]) were observed 2 h after stimulation onset and persisted throughout the stimulation period. The elevated [Ca(2+)] levels were in the range characteristic of slow-twitch fibers from soleus muscle. In addition, we noticed a transitory elevation of the integral [Ca(2+)] per pulse with a maximum ( approximately 5-fold) after 1 day. Steep decreases in rate constant of [Ca(2+)] decay could be explained by an immediate impairment of Ca(2+) uptake and, with longer stimulation periods, by an additional loss of cytosolic Ca(2+) binding capacity resulting from a decay in parvalbumin content. A partial recovery of the rate constant of [Ca(2+)] decay in 10-day stimulated muscle could be explained by an increasing mitochondrial contribution to Ca(2+) sequestration.

  1. Collagen Stimulators: Poly-L-Lactic Acid and Calcium Hydroxyl Apatite.

    PubMed

    Breithaupt, Andrew; Fitzgerald, Rebecca

    2015-11-01

    Over the last decade, many studies of the structural changes observed in the aging face (in bone, fat pads, facial ligaments, muscle, skin) have increased our understanding that facial rejuvenation is more complex and nuanced than simply filling lines and folds or cutting and lifting soft tissue and skin. This, in addition to the many new products introduced to the marketplace over the same period, has fueled the evolution of panfacial rejuvenation and restoration using fillers. This article discusses current techniques used with calcium hydroxylapatite and poly-l-lactic acid to safely and effectively address changes observed in the aging face.

  2. Activation of TRPV2 and BKCa channels by the LL-37 enantiomers stimulates calcium entry and migration of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Guéguinou, Maxime; Chourpa, Igor; Fromont, Gaëlle; Bouchet, Ana Maria; Burlaud-Gaillard, Julien; Potier-Cartereau, Marie; Roger, Sébastien; Aucagne, Vincent; Chevalier, Stéphan; Vandier, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Expression of the antimicrobial peptide hCAP18/LL-37 is associated to malignancy in various cancer forms, stimulating cell migration and metastasis. We report that LL-37 induces migration of three cancer cell lines by activating the TRPV2 calcium-permeable channel and recruiting it to pseudopodia through activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Ca2+ entry through TRPV2 cooperated with a K+ efflux through the BKCa channel. In a panel of human breast tumors, the expression of TRPV2 and LL-37 was found to be positively correlated. The D-enantiomer of LL-37 showed identical effects as the L-peptide, suggesting that no binding to a specific receptor was involved. LL-37 attached to caveolae and pseudopodia membranes and decreased membrane fluidity, suggesting that a modification of the physical properties of the lipid membrane bilayer was the underlying mechanism of its effects. PMID:26993604

  3. Reconstitution and Characterization of a Calmodulin-Stimulated Ca2+-Pumping ATPase Purified from Brassica oleracea L. 1

    PubMed Central

    Askerlund, Per; Evans, David E.

    1992-01-01

    Purification and functional reconstitution of a calmodulin-stimulated Ca2+-ATPase from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) is described. Activity was purified about 120-fold from a microsomal fraction using calmodulin-affinity chromatography. The purified fraction showed a polypeptide at 115 kD, which formed a phosphorylated intermediate in the presence of Ca2+, together with a few polypeptides with lower molecular masses that were not phosphorylated. The ATPase was reconstituted into liposomes by 3-([cholamidopropyl]-dimethylammonio-)1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) dialysis. The proteoliposomes showed ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake and ATPase activity, both of which were stimulated about 4-fold by calmodulin. Specific ATPase activity was about 5 μmol min−1 (mg protein)−1, and the Ca2+/ATP ratio was 0.1 to 0.5 when the ATPase was reconstituted with entrapped oxalate. The purified, reconstituted Ca2+-ATPase was inhibited by vanadate and erythrosin B, but not by cyclopiazonic acid and thapsigargin. Activity was supported by ATP (100%) and GTP (50%) and had a pH optimum of about 7.0. The effect of monovalent and divalent cations (including Ca2+) on activity is described. Assay of membranes purified by two-phase partitioning indicated that approximately 95% of the activity was associated with intracellular membranes, but only about 5% with plasma membranes. Sucrose gradient centrifugation suggests that the endoplasmic reticulum is the major cellular location of calmodulin-stimulated Ca2+-pumping ATPase in Brassica oleracea inflorescences. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16653183

  4. Stimulation of calcium-sensing receptors induces endothelium-dependent vasorelaxations via nitric oxide production and activation of IKCa channels

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Harry Z.E.; Shi, Jian; Jahan, Kazi S.; Martinucci, Matthew C.; Gilbert, Steven J.; Vanessa Ho, W.-S.; Albert, Anthony P.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulation of vascular calcium-sensing receptors (CaSRs) is reported to induce both constrictions and relaxations. However, cellular mechanisms involved in these responses remain unclear. The present study investigates the effect of stimulating CaSRs on vascular contractility and focuses on the role of the endothelium, nitric oxide (NO) and K+ channels in these responses. In wire myography studies, increasing [Ca2 +]o from 1 mM to 6 mM induced concentration-dependent relaxations of methoxamine pre-contracted rabbit mesenteric arteries. [Ca2 +]o-induced relaxations were dependent on a functional endothelium, and were inhibited by the negative allosteric CaSR modulator Calhex-231. [Ca2 +]o-induced relaxations were reduced by inhibitors of endothelial NO synthase, guanylate cyclase, and protein kinase G. CaSR activation also induced NO production in freshly isolated endothelial cells (ECs) in experiments using the fluorescent NO indicator DAF-FM. Pre-treatment with inhibitors of large (BKCa) and intermediate (IKCa) Ca2 +-activated K+ channels (iberiotoxin and charybdotoxin), and Kv7 channels (linopirdine) also reduced [Ca2 +]o-induced vasorelaxations. Increasing [Ca2 +]o also activated IKCa currents in perforated-patch recordings of isolated mesenteric artery ECs. These findings indicate that stimulation of CaSRs induces endothelium-dependent vasorelaxations which are mediated by two separate pathways involving production of NO and activation of IKCa channels. NO stimulates PKG leading to BKCa activation in vascular smooth muscle cells, whereas IKCa activity contributes to endothelium-derived hyperpolarisations. PMID:26772767

  5. Manganese Redistribution by Calcium-stimulated Vesicle Trafficking Bypasses the Need for P-type ATPase Function*

    PubMed Central

    García-Rodríguez, Néstor; Manzano-López, Javier; Muñoz-Bravo, Miguel; Fernández-García, Elisabet; Muñiz, Manuel; Wellinger, Ralf Erik

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of intracellular ion homeostasis is essential for eukaryotic cell physiology. An example is provided by loss of ATP2C1 function, which leads to skin ulceration, improper keratinocyte adhesion, and cancer formation in Hailey-Hailey patients. The yeast ATP2C1 orthologue PMR1 codes for a Mn2+/Ca2+ transporter that is crucial for cis-Golgi manganese supply. Here, we present evidence that calcium overcomes the lack of Pmr1 through vesicle trafficking-stimulated manganese delivery and requires the endoplasmic reticulum Mn2+ transporter Spf1 and the late endosome/trans-Golgi Nramp metal transporter Smf2. Smf2 co-localizes with the putative Mn2+ transporter Atx2, and ATX2 overexpression counteracts the beneficial impact of calcium treatment. Our findings suggest that vesicle trafficking promotes organelle-specific ion interchange and cytoplasmic metal detoxification independent of calcineurin signaling or metal transporter re-localization. Our study identifies an alternative mode for cis-Golgi manganese supply in yeast and provides new perspectives for Hailey-Hailey disease treatment. PMID:25713143

  6. Profound regulation of Na/K pump activity by transient elevations of cytoplasmic calcium in murine cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fang-Min; Deisl, Christine; Hilgemann, Donald W

    2016-01-01

    Small changes of Na/K pump activity regulate internal Ca release in cardiac myocytes via Na/Ca exchange. We now show conversely that transient elevations of cytoplasmic Ca strongly regulate cardiac Na/K pumps. When cytoplasmic Na is submaximal, Na/K pump currents decay rapidly during extracellular K application and multiple results suggest that an inactivation mechanism is involved. Brief activation of Ca influx by reverse Na/Ca exchange enhances pump currents and attenuates current decay, while repeated Ca elevations suppress pump currents. Pump current enhancement reverses over 3 min, and results are similar in myocytes lacking the regulatory protein, phospholemman. Classical signaling mechanisms, including Ca-activated protein kinases and reactive oxygen, are evidently not involved. Electrogenic signals mediated by intramembrane movement of hydrophobic ions, such as hexyltriphenylphosphonium (C6TPP), increase and decrease in parallel with pump currents. Thus, transient Ca elevation and Na/K pump inactivation cause opposing sarcolemma changes that may affect diverse membrane processes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19267.001 PMID:27627745

  7. Comparison of three methods of solution to the inverse problem of groundwater hydrology for multiple pumping stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudici, Mauro; Casabianca, Davide; Comunian, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The basic classical inverse problem of groundwater hydrology aims at determining aquifer transmissivity (T ) from measurements of hydraulic head (h), estimates or measures of source terms and with the least possible knowledge on hydraulic transmissivity. The theory of inverse problems shows that this is an example of ill-posed problem, for which non-uniqueness and instability (or at least ill-conditioning) might preclude the computation of a physically acceptable solution. One of the methods to reduce the problems with non-uniqueness, ill-conditioning and instability is a tomographic approach, i.e., the use of data corresponding to independent flow situations. The latter might correspond to different hydraulic stimulations of the aquifer, i.e., to different pumping schedules and flux rates. Three inverse methods have been analyzed and tested to profit from the use of multiple sets of data: the Differential System Method (DSM), the Comparison Model Method (CMM) and the Double Constraint Method (DCM). DSM and CMM need h all over the domain and thus the first step for their application is the interpolation of measurements of h at sparse points. Moreover, they also need the knowledge of the source terms (aquifer recharge, well pumping rates) all over the aquifer. DSM is intrinsically based on the use of multiple data sets, which permit to write a first-order partial differential equation for T , whereas CMM and DCM were originally proposed to invert a single data set and have been extended to work with multiple data sets in this work. CMM and DCM are based on Darcy's law, which is used to update an initial guess of the T field with formulas based on a comparison of different hydraulic gradients. In particular, the CMM algorithm corrects the T estimate with ratio of the observed hydraulic gradient and that obtained with a comparison model which shares the same boundary conditions and source terms as the model to be calibrated, but a tentative T field. On the other hand

  8. Sodium–calcium exchanger contributes to membrane hyperpolarization of intact endothelial cells from rat aorta during acetylcholine stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Bondarenko, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The role of sodium–calcium exchanger in acetylcholine (Ach)-induced hyperpolarization of intact endothelial cells was studied in excised rat aorta. The membrane potential was recorded using perforated patch-clamp technique. The mean resting potential of endothelial cells was −44.1±1.4 mV. A selective inhibitor of sodium–calcium exchanger benzamil (100 μM) had no significant effect on resting membrane potential, but reversibly decreased the amplitude of sustained Ach-induced endothelial hyperpolarization from 20.9±1.4 to 5.7±1.1 mV when applied during the plateau phase. The blocker of reversed mode of the exchanger KB-R7943 (2-[2-[4-(4-nitrobenzyloxy)phenyl]ethyl]isothiourea methanesulfonate, 20 μM) reversibly decreased the amplitude of sustained Ach-induced hyperpolarization from 20.5±2.9 to 7.5±1.8 mV. Introduction of tetraethylammonium (10 mM) in the continuous presence of Ach decreased the sustained phase of hyperpolarization from 17.9±1.5 by 12.9±0.9 mV. Subsequent addition of 20 μM KB-R7943 further depolarized endothelial cells by 4.8±1.1 mV. Substituting external sodium with N-methyl D-glucamine during the plateau phase of Ach-evoked hyperpolarization reversibly decreased the hyperpolarization from −61.8±2.7 to −54.2±1.9 mV. In the majority of preparations, the initial response to removal of external sodium was a transient further rise in the membrane potential of several mV. Sodium ionophore monensin hyperpolarized endothelium by 10.3±0.7 mV. The inhibitory effect of benzamil on Ach-induced endothelial sustained hyperpolarization was observed in endothelium mechanically isolated from smooth muscle. These results suggest that the sodium–calcium exchanger of intact endothelial cells is able to operate in reverse following stimulation by Ach, contributing to sustained hyperpolarization. Myoendothelial electrical communications do not mediate the effect of blockers of sodium–calcium exchanger. PMID:15289290

  9. Human papillomavirus type 59 immortalized keratinocytes express late viral proteins and infectious virus after calcium stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lehr, Elizabeth E; Qadadri, Brahim; Brown, Calla R; Brown, Darron R

    2003-09-30

    Human papillomavirus type 59 (HPV 59) is an oncogenic type related to HPV 18. HPV 59 was recently propagated in the athymic mouse xenograft system. A continuous keratinocyte cell line infected with HPV 59 was created from a foreskin xenograft grown in an athymic mouse. Cells were cultured beyond passage 50. The cells were highly pleomorphic, containing numerous abnormally shaped nuclei and mitotic figures. HPV 59 sequences were detected in the cells by DNA in situ hybridization in a diffuse nuclear distribution. Southern blots were consistent with an episomal state of HPV 59 DNA at approximately 50 copies per cell. Analysis of the cells using a PCR/reverse blot strip assay, which amplifies a portion of the L1 open reading frame, was strongly positive. Differentiation of cells in monolayers was induced by growth in F medium containing 2 mM calcium chloride for 10 days. Cells were harvested as a single tissue-like sheet, and histologic analysis revealed a four-to-six cell-thick layer. Transcripts encoding involucrin, a cornified envelope protein, and the E1/E4 and E1/E4/L1 viral transcripts were detected after several days of growth in F medium containing 2 mM calcium chloride. The E1/E4 and L1 proteins were detected by immunohistochemical analysis, and virus particles were seen in electron micrographs in a subset of differentiated cells. An extract of differentiated cells was prepared by vigorous sonication and was used to infect foreskin fragments. These fragments were implanted into athymic mice. HPV 59 was detected in the foreskin xenografts removed 4 months later by DNA in situ hybridization and PCR/reverse blot assay. Thus, the complete viral growth cycle, including production on infectious virus, was demonstrated in the HPV 59 immortalized cells grown in a simple culture system.

  10. Melatonin plus porcine bone on discrete calcium deposit implant surface stimulates osteointegration in dental implants.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Guirado, José Luis; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Barone, Antonio; Cutando, Antonio; Alcaraz-Baños, Miguel; Chiva, Fernando; López-Marí, Laura; Guardia, Javier

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the topical application of melatonin mixed with collagenized porcine bone to accelerate the osteointegration on the rough discrete calcium deposit (DCD) surface implants in Beagle dogs 3 months after their insertion. In preparation for subsequent insertion of dental implants, lower premolars and molars were extracted from 12 Beagle dogs. Each mandible received three parallel wall implants with discrete calcium deposit (DCD) surface of 4 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length. The implants were randomly assigned to the distal sites on each side of the mandible in three groups: group I implants alone, group II implants with melatonin and group III implants with melatonin and porcine bone. Prior to implanting, 5 mg lyophylized powdered melatonin was applied to one bone hole at each side of the mandible. None was applied at the control sites. Ten histological sections per implant were obtained for histomorphometric studies. After a 4-wk treatment period, melatonin significantly increased the perimeter of bone that was in direct contact with the treated implants (P < 0.0001), bone density (P < 0.0001), new bone formation (P < 0.0001) in comparison with control implants. Topical application of melatonin on DCD surface may act as a biomimetic agent in the placement of endo-osseous dental implants and enhance the osteointegration. Melatonin combined with porcine bone on DCD implants reveals more bone to implant contact at 12 wk (84.5 +/- 1.5%) compared with melatonin treated (75.1 +/- 1.4%) and nonmelatonin treated surface implants (64 +/- 1.4%).

  11. A functional calcium-transporting ATPase encoded by chlorella viruses

    PubMed Central

    Bonza, Maria Cristina; Martin, Holger; Kang, Ming; Lewis, Gentry; Greiner, Timo; Giacometti, Sonia; Van Etten, James L.; De Michelis, Maria Ida; Thiel, Gerhard; Moroni, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Calcium-transporting ATPases (Ca2+ pumps) are major players in maintaining calcium homeostasis in the cell and have been detected in all cellular organisms. Here, we report the identification of two putative Ca2+ pumps, M535L and C785L, encoded by chlorella viruses MT325 and AR158, respectively, and the functional characterization of M535L. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses place the viral proteins in group IIB of P-type ATPases even though they lack a typical feature of this class, a calmodulin-binding domain. A Ca2+ pump gene is present in 45 of 47 viruses tested and is transcribed during virus infection. Complementation analysis of the triple yeast mutant K616 confirmed that M535L transports calcium ions and, unusually for group IIB pumps, also manganese ions. In vitro assays show basal ATPase activity. This activity is inhibited by vanadate, but, unlike that of other Ca2+ pumps, is not significantly stimulated by either calcium or manganese. The enzyme forms a 32P-phosphorylated intermediate, which is inhibited by vanadate and not stimulated by the transported substrate Ca2+, thus confirming the peculiar properties of this viral pump. To our knowledge this is the first report of a functional P-type Ca2+-transporting ATPase encoded by a virus. PMID:20573858

  12. A functional calcium-transporting ATPase encoded by chlorella viruses.

    PubMed

    Bonza, Maria Cristina; Martin, Holger; Kang, Ming; Lewis, Gentry; Greiner, Timo; Giacometti, Sonia; Van Etten, James L; De Michelis, Maria Ida; Thiel, Gerhard; Moroni, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Calcium-transporting ATPases (Ca(2+) pumps) are major players in maintaining calcium homeostasis in the cell and have been detected in all cellular organisms. Here, we report the identification of two putative Ca(2+) pumps, M535L and C785L, encoded by chlorella viruses MT325 and AR158, respectively, and the functional characterization of M535L. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses place the viral proteins in group IIB of P-type ATPases even though they lack a typical feature of this class, a calmodulin-binding domain. A Ca(2+) pump gene is present in 45 of 47 viruses tested and is transcribed during virus infection. Complementation analysis of the triple yeast mutant K616 confirmed that M535L transports calcium ions and, unusually for group IIB pumps, also manganese ions. In vitro assays show basal ATPase activity. This activity is inhibited by vanadate, but, unlike that of other Ca(2+) pumps, is not significantly stimulated by either calcium or manganese. The enzyme forms a (32)P-phosphorylated intermediate, which is inhibited by vanadate and not stimulated by the transported substrate Ca(2+), thus confirming the peculiar properties of this viral pump. To our knowledge this is the first report of a functional P-type Ca(2+)-transporting ATPase encoded by a virus.

  13. Ethanol exerts dual effects on calcium homeostasis in CCK-8-stimulated mouse pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Sánchez, Marcela; del Castillo-Vaquero, Angel; Salido, Ginés M; González, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Background A significant percentage of patients with pancreatitis often presents a history of excessive alcohol consumption. Nevertheless, the patho-physiological effect of ethanol on pancreatitis remains poorly understood. In the present study, we have investigated the early effects of acute ethanol exposure on CCK-8-evoked Ca2+ signals in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Changes in [Ca2+]i and ROS production were analyzed employing fluorescence techniques after loading cells with fura-2 or CM-H2DCFDA, respectively. Results Ethanol, in the concentration range from 1 to 50 mM, evoked an oscillatory pattern in [Ca2+]i. In addition, ethanol evoked reactive oxygen species generation (ROS) production. Stimulation of cells with 1 nM or 20 pM CCK-8, respectively led to a transient change and oscillations in [Ca2+]i. In the presence of ethanol a transformation of 20 pM CCK-8-evoked physiological oscillations into a single transient increase in [Ca2+]i in the majority of cells was observed. Whereas, in response to 1 nM CCK-8, the total Ca2+ mobilization was significantly increased by ethanol pre-treatment. Preincubation of cells with 1 mM 4-MP, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, or 10 μM of the antioxidant cinnamtannin B-1, reverted the effect of ethanol on total Ca2+ mobilization evoked by 1 nM CCK-8. Cinnamtannin B-1 blocked ethanol-evoked ROS production. Conclusion ethanol may lead, either directly or through ROS generation, to an over stimulation of pancreatic acinar cells in response to CCK-8, resulting in a higher Ca2+ mobilization compared to normal conditions. The actions of ethanol on CCK-8-stimulation of cells create a situation potentially leading to Ca2+ overload, which is a common pathological precursor that mediates pancreatitis. PMID:19878551

  14. Glutamate-induced calcium signals stimulate CO production in piglet astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Qi; Tcheranova, Dilyara; Basuroy, Shyamali; Parfenova, Helena; Jaggar, Jonathan H.

    2011-01-01

    Glutamate-stimulated, astrocyte-derived carbon monoxide (CO) causes cerebral arteriole dilation by activating smooth muscle cell large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels. Here, we examined the hypothesis that glutamate activates heme oxygenase (HO)-2 and CO production via the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i)/Ca2+-calmodulin signaling pathway in newborn pig astrocytes. The major findings are: 1) glutamate stimulated Ca2+ transients and increased steady-state [Ca2+]i in cerebral cortical astrocytes in primary culture, 2) in astrocytes permeabilized with ionomycin, elevation of [Ca2+]i concentration-dependently increased CO production, 3) glutamate did not affect CO production at any [Ca2+]i when the [Ca2+]i was held constant, 4) thapsigargin, a sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase blocker, decreased basal CO production and blocked glutamate-induced increases in CO, and 5) calmidazolium, a calmodulin inhibitor, blocked CO production induced by glutamate and by [Ca2+]i elevation. Taken together, our data are consistent with the hypothesis that glutamate elevates [Ca2+]i in astrocytes, leading to Ca2+- and calmodulin-dependent HO-2 activation, and CO production. PMID:21572018

  15. Intracellular calcium mobilization and phospholipid degradation in sphingosylphosphorylcholine-stimulated human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Orlati, S; Porcelli, A M; Hrelia, S; Lorenzini, A; Rugolo, M

    1998-01-01

    Extracellular sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) caused a remarkable elevation in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in immortalized human airway epithelial cells (CFNP9o-). An increase in total inositol phosphates formation was determined; however, the dose responses for [Ca2+]i elevation and inositol phosphates production were slightly different and, furthermore, PMA and pertussis toxin almost completely inhibited [Ca2+]i mobilization by SPC, whereas inositol phosphates production was only partially reduced. The possible direct interaction of SPC with Ca2+ channels of intracellular stores was determined by experiments with permeabilized cells, where SPC failed to evoke Ca2+ release, whereas lysophosphatidic acid was shown to be effective. The level of phosphatidic acid was increased by SPC only in the presence of AACOCF3, a specific inhibitor of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and blocked by both pertussis toxin and R59022, an inhibitor of diacylglycerol kinase. R59022 enhanced diacylglycerol production by SPC and also significantly reduced [Ca2+]i mobilization. Only polyunsaturated diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid were generated by SPC. Lastly, SPC caused stimulation of arachidonic acid release, indicating the involvement of PLA2. Taken together, these data suggest that, after SPC stimulation, phospholipase C-derived diacylglycerol is phosphorylated by a diacylglycerol kinase to phosphatidic acid, which is further hydrolysed by PLA2 activity to arachidonic and lysophosphatidic acids. We propose that lysophosphatidic acid might be the intracellular messenger able to release Ca2+ from internal stores. PMID:9729473

  16. Calmodulin activation of an endoplasmic reticulum-located calcium pump involves an interaction with the N-terminal autoinhibitory domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, I.; Harper, J. F.; Liang, F.; Sze, H.

    2000-01-01

    To investigate how calmodulin regulates a unique subfamily of Ca(2+) pumps found in plants, we examined the kinetic properties of isoform ACA2 identified in Arabidopsis. A recombinant ACA2 was expressed in a yeast K616 mutant deficient in two endogenous Ca(2+) pumps. Orthovanadate-sensitive (45)Ca(2+) transport into vesicles isolated from transformants demonstrated that ACA2 is a Ca(2+) pump. Ca(2+) pumping by the full-length protein (ACA2-1) was 4- to 10-fold lower than that of the N-terminal truncated ACA2-2 (Delta2-80), indicating that the N-terminal domain normally acts to inhibit the pump. An inhibitory sequence (IC(50) = 4 microM) was localized to a region within valine-20 to leucine-44, because a peptide corresponding to this sequence lowered the V(max) and increased the K(m) for Ca(2+) of the constitutively active ACA2-2 to values comparable to the full-length pump. The peptide also blocked the activity (IC(50) = 7 microM) of a Ca(2+) pump (AtECA1) belonging to a second family of Ca(2+) pumps. This inhibitory sequence appears to overlap with a calmodulin-binding site in ACA2, previously mapped between aspartate-19 and arginine-36 (J.F. Harper, B. Hong, I. Hwang, H.Q. Guo, R. Stoddard, J.F. Huang, M.G. Palmgren, H. Sze inverted question mark1998 J Biol Chem 273: 1099-1106). These results support a model in which the pump is kept "unactivated" by an intramolecular interaction between an autoinhibitory sequence located between residues 20 and 44 and a site in the Ca(2+) pump core that is highly conserved between different Ca(2+) pump families. Results further support a model in which activation occurs as a result of Ca(2+)-induced binding of calmodulin to a site overlapping or immediately adjacent to the autoinhibitory sequence.

  17. Calcium signalling and calcium channels: Evolution and general principles

    PubMed Central

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Parpura, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Calcium as a divalent ion was selected early in evolution as a signaling molecule to be used by both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Its low cytosolic concentration likely reflects the initial concentration of this ion in the primordial soup/ocean as unicellular organisms were formed. As the concentration of calcium in the ocean subsequently increased, so did the diversity of homeostatic molecules. This includes the plasma membrane channels that allowed the calcium entry, as well as extrusion mechanisms, i.e., exchangers and pumps. Further diversification occurred with the evolution of intracellular organelles, in particular the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, which also contain channels, exchanger(s) and pumps to handle the homeostasis of calcium ions. Calcium signalling system, based around coordinated interactions of the above molecular entities, can be activated by the opening of voltage-gated channels, by neurotransmitters, by second messengers and/or mechanical stimulation, and as such is all-pervading pathway in physiology and pathophysiology of organisms. PMID:24291103

  18. Bradykinin-stimulated calcium influx in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, W.P.; Ritchie, A.K.; Navarro, L.T.; Eskin, S.G. Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston )

    1988-08-01

    Bradykinin (BK)-stimulated release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor has been linked to a rise in cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} concentration and a change of K{sup +} permeability of the endothelial cell. In the present study, measurement of BK-induced changes in fura-2 fluorescence and {sup 86}Rb{sup +} efflux were used to monitor changes in cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} and K{sup +} permeability in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells. In the presence of normal extracellular Ca{sup 2+}, BK induced a fourfold increase in cytosolic Ca{sup 2+}, which peaked at 20 s and declined within 1 min to a value that was 50% of the peak level. Subsequently, cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} decreased and approached basal levels within 8 min. In the absence of Ca{sup 2+}, BK produced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} that peaked within 20 s and declined to basal levels within 2 min. Addition of Ca{sup 2+} to the Ca-free reaction buffer 3-5 min after addition of BK resulted in a two-to three-fold increase in cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} that declined slowly back to basal levels. Thus Ca{sup 2+} influx can occur in response to BK at a time when there is minimal elevation of cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} above the resting level. Under all conditions tested, {sup 86}Rb{sup +} efflux paralleled changes in the cytosolic Ca{sup 2+}, suggesting that efflux occurred through Ca{sup 2+}-activated K{sup +} channels. Isosmotic substitution of Na{sup +} with N-methyl-D-glucamine did not affect the BK-stimulated changes in cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} or {sup 86}Rb{sup +} efflux, suggesting that Na{sup +}-Ca{sup 2+} exchange plays little role in the BK response. These results suggest that BK stimulates Ca{sup 2+} influx via a BK receptor-operated channel or a channel activated by some internal messenger other than Ca{sup 2+}.

  19. Long persistent and optically stimulated luminescence behaviors of calcium aluminates with different trap filling processes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Buhao; Xu, Xuhui; Li, Qianyue; Wu, Yumei; Qiu, Jianbei; Yu, Xue

    2014-09-15

    Properties of long persistent luminescence (LPL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}, R{sup 3+} (R=Nd, Dy, Tm) materials were investigated. The observed phenomenon indicates that R{sup 3+} ions (R=Nd, Dy, Tm) have different effects on trap properties of CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}. The greatly improved LPL performance was observed in Nd{sup 3+} co-doped samples, which indicates that the incorporation of Nd{sup 3+} creates suitable traps for LPL. While co-doping Tm{sup 3+} ions, the intensity of high temperature of thermoluminescence band in CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors is enhanced for the formation of the most suitable traps which benefits the intense and stable OSL. These results suggest that the effective traps contributed to the LPL/OSL are complex, of which could be an aggregation formation with shallow and deep traps other than simple traps from co-doped R{sup 3+} ions. The mechanism presented in the end potentially provides explanations of why the OSL of CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}, R{sup 3+} exhibits different read-in/read-out performance as well. - Graphical abstract: OSL emission spectra of Ca{sub 0.995}Al{sub 2}O{sub 4}:0.0025Eu{sup 2+}, 0.0025R{sup 3+} (R=Nd, Dy, Tm) taken under varying stimulation time (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 s). Inset: Blue emission pictures under varying stimulation time. - Highlights: • The LPL and OSL properties of CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}, R{sup 3+} were investigated. • An alternative approach to control the trap depth of CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor was proposed. • A new oxide ETM phosphor exhibiting intense and stable OSL was explored.

  20. Stimulated electromagnetic emission and plasma line during pump wave frequency stepping near 4th electron gyroharmonic at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grach, Savely; Sergeev, Evgeny; Shindin, Alexey; Mishin, Evgeny; Watkins, Brenton

    Concurrent observations of stimulated (secondary) electromagnetic emissions (SEE) and incoherent plasma line (PL) backscatter from the MUIR radar during HF pumping of the ionosphere by the HAARP heating facility (62.4(°) °N, 145.15(°) W, magnetic inclination α = 75.8^circ) with the pump wave (PW) frequency sweeps about the fourth electron gyroharmonic (4f_c) are presented. The PW frequency f0 was changed every 0.2 s in a 1-kHz step, i.e. with the rate of r_{f_0}=5 kHz/s. PW was transmitted at the magnetic zenith (MZ). Prior to sweeping, PW was transmitted continuously (CW) during 2 min at f_0 = 5730 kHz <4f_c to create the “preconditioned” ionosphere with small-scale magnetic field-aligned irregularities. During CW pumping, a typical SEE spectrum for f_0<4f_c, containing the prominent downshifted maxiμm (DM) shifted by Delta f_{DM} = f_{DM}-f_0approx-9 kHz, developed in 5-10 s after PW turn on. The PL echoes were observed during 2-3 s from the range dsim 220 km corresponding to the altitude slightly above PW reflection height. After sim5 s the PL echoes descended to dsim 210-212 km corresponding to the height h = d / (sinalpha) by sim 7 km below the height where f_0 = 4f_c. During frequency sweeps, two upshifted features appeared in the SEE spectrum for f_0> 4f_c, namely BUM_S and BUM_D. The former (stationary broad upshifted maxiμm) peaks at Delta f_{BUMs} approx f0 - nfc (d) + 15-20 kHz and is a typical SEE spectral feature. The latter, the dynamic BUM_D at smaller Delta f, is observed only at high pump powers (ERP=1.7 GW) and corresponds to artificial descending plasma layers created in the F-region ionosphere [1]. In the experiment in question, the BUM_D was present for f_0> f^*, where f^* was 5805-5815 kHz during stepping up and sim 10 kHz less for stepping down, and located 8-10 km below the background F-layer. The miniμm DM which indicated that f_0=4f_c=f_{uh} in the background ionospheric plasma, was sim 5760 kHz. The PL was observed only for f_0

  1. Computational modeling of neurons: intensity-duration relationship of extracellular electrical stimulation for changes in intracellular calcium.

    PubMed

    Adams, Robert D; Willits, Rebecca K; Harkins, Amy B

    2016-01-01

    In many instances of extensive nerve damage, the injured nerve never adequately heals, leaving lack of nerve function. Electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to increase the rate and orient the direction of neurite growth, and is a promising therapy. However, the mechanism in which ES affects neuronal growth is not understood, making it difficult to compare existing ES protocols or to design and optimize new protocols. We hypothesize that ES acts by elevating intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) via opening voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs). In this work, we have created a computer model to estimate the ES Ca(2+) relationship. Using COMSOL Multiphysics, we modeled a small dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron that includes one Na(+) channel, two K(+) channels, and three VDCCs to estimate [Ca(2+)]i in the soma and growth cone. As expected, the results show that an ES that generates action potentials (APs) can efficiently raise the [Ca(2+)]i of neurons. More interestingly, our simulation results show that sub-AP ES can efficiently raise neuronal [Ca(2+)]i and that specific high-voltage ES can preferentially raise [Ca(2+)]i in the growth cone. The intensities and durations of ES on modeled growth cone calcium rise are consistent with directionality and orientation of growth cones experimentally shown by others. Finally, this model provides a basis to design experimental ES pulse parameters, including duration, intensity, pulse-train frequency, and pulse-train duration to efficiently raise [Ca(2+)]i in neuronal somas or growth cones.

  2. Computational modeling of neurons: intensity-duration relationship of extracellular electrical stimulation for changes in intracellular calcium

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Robert D.; Willits, Rebecca K.

    2015-01-01

    In many instances of extensive nerve damage, the injured nerve never adequately heals, leaving lack of nerve function. Electrical stimulation (ES) has been shown to increase the rate and orient the direction of neurite growth, and is a promising therapy. However, the mechanism in which ES affects neuronal growth is not understood, making it difficult to compare existing ES protocols or to design and optimize new protocols. We hypothesize that ES acts by elevating intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) via opening voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs). In this work, we have created a computer model to estimate the ES Ca2+ relationship. Using COMSOL Multiphysics, we modeled a small dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron that includes one Na+ channel, two K+ channels, and three VDCCs to estimate [Ca2+]i in the soma and growth cone. As expected, the results show that an ES that generates action potentials (APs) can efficiently raise the [Ca2+]i of neurons. More interestingly, our simulation results show that sub-AP ES can efficiently raise neuronal [Ca2+]i and that specific high-voltage ES can preferentially raise [Ca2+]i in the growth cone. The intensities and durations of ES on modeled growth cone calcium rise are consistent with directionality and orientation of growth cones experimentally shown by others. Finally, this model provides a basis to design experimental ES pulse parameters, including duration, intensity, pulse-train frequency, and pulse-train duration to efficiently raise [Ca2+]i in neuronal somas or growth cones. PMID:26510759

  3. Combinatorial incorporation of fluoride and cobalt ions into calcium phosphates to stimulate osteogenesis and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Birgani, Zeinab Tahmasebi; Gharraee, Nazli; Malhotra, Angad; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Habibovic, Pamela

    2016-02-29

    Bone healing requires two critical mechanisms, angiogenesis and osteogenesis. In order to improve bone graft substitutes, both mechanisms should be addressed simultaneously. While the individual effects of various bioinorganics have been studied, an understanding of the combinatorial effects is lacking. Cobalt and fluoride ions, in appropriate concentrations, are known to individually favor the vascularization and mineralization processes, respectively. This study investigated the potential of using a combination of fluoride and cobalt ions to simultaneously promote osteogenesis and angiogenesis in human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). Using a two-step biomimetic method, wells of tissue culture plates were coated with a calcium phosphate (CaP) layer without or with the incorporation of cobalt, fluoride, or both. In parallel, hMSCs were cultured on uncoated well plates, and cultured with cobalt and/or fluoride ions within the media. The results revealed that cobalt ions increased the expression of angiogenic markers, with the effects being stronger when the ions were added as a dissolved salt in cell medium as compared to incorporation into CaP. Cobalt ions generally suppressed the ALP activity, the expression of osteogenic genes, and the level of mineralization, regardless of delivery method. Fluoride ions, individually or in combination with cobalt, significantly increased the expression of many of the selected osteogenic markers, as well as mineral deposition. This study demonstrates an approach to simultaneously target the two essential mechanisms in bone healing: angiogenesis and osteogenesis. The incorporation of cobalt and fluoride into CaPs is a promising method to improve the biological performance of fully synthetic bone graft substitutes.

  4. Calcium-sensing receptor activation contributed to apoptosis stimulates TRPC6 channel in rat neonatal ventricular myocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yi-hua; Li, Yong-quan; Feng, Shan-li; Li, Bao-xin; Pan, Zhen-wei; Xu, Chang-qing; Li, Ting-ting; Yang, Bao-feng

    2010-04-16

    Capacitative calcium entry (CCE) refers to the influx of calcium through plasma membrane channels activated on depletion of endoplasmic sarcoplasmic/reticulum (ER/SR) Ca{sup 2+} stores, which is performed mainly by the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. TRP channels are expressed in cardiomyocytes. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is also expressed in rat cardiac tissue and plays an important role in mediating cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, there are no data regarding the link between CaR and TRP channels in rat heart. In this study, in rat neonatal myocytes, by Ca{sup 2+} imaging, we found that the depletion of ER/SR Ca{sup 2+} stores by thapsigargin (TG) elicited a transient rise in cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}), followed by sustained increase depending on extracellular Ca{sup 2+}. But, TRP channels inhibitor (SKF96365), not L-type channels or the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchanger inhibitors, inhibited [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} relatively high. Then, we found that the stimulation of CaR with its activator gadolinium chloride (GdCl{sub 3}) or by an increased extracellular Ca{sup 2+}([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub o}) increased the concentration of intracelluar Ca{sup 2+}, whereas, the sustained elevation of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} was reduced in the presence of SKF96365. Similarly, the duration of [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase was also shortened in the absence of extracellular Ca{sup 2+}. Western blot analysis showed that GdCl{sub 3} increased the expression of TRPC6, which was reversed by SKF96365. Additionally, SKF96365 reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by GdCl{sub 3}. Our results suggested that CCE exhibited in rat neonatal myocytes and CaR activation induced Ca{sup 2+}-permeable cationic channels TRPCs to gate the CCE, for which TRPC6 was one of the most likely candidates. TRPC6 channel was functionally coupled with CaR to enhance the cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

  5. Decay of calcium transients after electrical stimulation in rat fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, S L; Klein, M G; Schneider, M F

    1997-01-01

    1. Calcium transients were calculated from fura-2 fluorescence signals (corrected for kinetic delays in the Ca(2+)-fura-2 reaction) from single rat skeletal muscle fibres, either fully dissociated from the fast-twitch flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) muscle or in small bundles from the slow-twitch soleus muscle. Fibres or bundles were embedded in agarose gel to inhibit movement and stimulated by single or trains of 1-2 ms electrical pulses (100 Hz, 2-400 ms train duration). 2. The rate constant of decay of [Ca2+] determined from single-exponential fits to the final decay phase of [Ca2+] after a single action potential was considerably faster in FDB fibres than in soleus fibres. As the stimulation duration increased, the rate constant of [Ca2+] decay decreased for both the FDB and soleus fibres, but the effect was greater in FDB than in soleus fibres. 3. Using the magnitude of the decline in the rate constant of [Ca2+] decay with increasing stimulation duration as an index of relative contribution of the saturable Ca2+ binding sites on parvalbumin, subpopulations termed 'high', 'medium' and 'low', referring to estimated parvalbumin content, were determined within each group of FDB and soleus fibres. In fibres assigned to the 'high' and 'medium' groups, parvalbumin was the major contributor (50-73%) to the [Ca2+] decay rate constant after a single action potential. In fibres in the 'low' group, parvalbumin contributed only 0-28% to the rate constant of [Ca2+] decay. 4. Fluorescence recordings using mag-fura-2, a lower-affinity Ca2+ indicator expected to be in equilibrium with myoplasmic Ca2+, gave similar values for both the [Ca2+] decay rate constant after a single action potential and the decrease in this rate constant with increased stimulation duration, as found for the fura-2 [Ca2+] transients from FDB and soleus fibres. Thus, the observed differences in decay rate of Ca2+ were not introduced by kinetic correction of the fura-2 recordings, but are attributed to

  6. Effect of electrical stimulation of the lower esophageal sphincter in gastroesophageal reflux disease patients refractory to proton pump inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Soffer, Edy; Rodríguez, Leonardo; Rodriguez, Patricia; Gómez, Beatriz; Neto, Manoel G; Crowell, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of lower esophageal sphincter (LES)-electrical stimulation therapy (EST) in a subgroup of patients that reported only partial response to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) therapy, compared to a group of patient with complete response. METHODS: Bipolar stitch electrodes were laparoscopically placed in the LES and connected to an implantable pulse generator (EndoStim BV, the Hague, the Netherlands), placed subcutaneously in the anterior abdominal wall. Stimulation at 20 Hz, 215 μsec, 3-8 mAmp in 30 min sessions was delivered starting on day 1 post-implant. Patients were evaluated using gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-HRQL, symptom diaries; esophageal pH and esophageal manometry before and up to 24 mo after therapy and results were compared between partial and complete responders. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients with GERD on LES-EST were enrolled and received continuous per-protocol stimulation through 12 mo and 21 patients completed 24 mo of therapy. Of the 23 patients, 16 (8 male, mean age 52.1 ± 12 years) had incomplete response to PPIs prior to LES-EST, while 7 patients (5 male, mean age 52.7 ± 4.7) had complete response to PPIs. In the sub-group with incomplete response to PPIs, median (IQR) composite GERD-HRQL score improved significantly from 9.5 (9.0-10.0) at baseline on-PPI and 24.0 (20.8-26.3) at baseline off-PPI to 2.5 (0.0-4.0) at 12-mo and 0.0 (0.0-2.5) at 24-mo follow-up (P < 0.05 compared to on-and off-PPI at baseline). Median (IQR) % 24-h esophageal pH < 4.0 at baseline in this sub-group improved significantly from 9.8% (7.8-11.5) at baseline to 3.0% (1.9-6.3) at 12 mo (P < 0.001) and 4.6% (2.0-5.8) at 24 mo follow-up (P < 0.01). At their 24-mo follow-up, 9/11 patients in this sub-group were completely free of PPI use. These results were comparable to the sub-group that reported complete response to PPI therapy at baseline. No unanticipated implantation or stimulation-related adverse events, or any untoward sensation

  7. Temperature and Input Energy Dependence of the 946-nm Stimulated Emission Cross Section of Nd3+:YAG Pumped by a Flashlamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyed Ebrahim, Pourmand; Noriah, Bidin; Hazri, Bakhtiar

    2012-03-01

    The thermal effect on the laser transition at 946 nm is investigated. The temperature of the cooling system is verified in the range 2-60°C. A Nd:YAG laser crystal is utilized as a gain medium and is pumped by a newly developed flashlamp. The variable pumping energy is accomplished within the 5-40 J range. The stimulated emission cross section of the 946-nm line is estimated based on the fluorescence spectrum of the Nd:YAG laser. The stimulated emission cross section of the 946-nm line is found to be inversely proportional to the temperature and to the input energy due to the increase of the thermal population at the ground level.

  8. Allergens stimulate store-operated calcium entry and cytokine production in airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Jairaman, Amit; Maguire, Chelsea H.; Schleimer, Robert P.; Prakriya, Murali

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant immune responses to environmental allergens including insect allergens from house dust mites and cockroaches contribute to allergic inflammatory diseases such as asthma in susceptible individuals. Airway epithelial cells (AECs) play a critical role in this process by sensing the proteolytic activity of allergens via protease-activated receptors (PAR2) to initiate inflammatory and immune responses in the airway. Elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ is an important signaling event in this process, yet the fundamental mechanism by which allergens induce Ca2+ elevations in AECs remains poorly understood. Here we find that extracts from dust mite and cockroach induce sustained Ca2+ elevations in AECs through the activation of Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels encoded by Orai1 and STIM1. CRAC channel activation occurs, at least in part, through allergen mediated stimulation of PAR2 receptors. The ensuing Ca2+ entry then activates NFAT/calcineurin signaling to induce transcriptional production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8. These findings highlight a key role for CRAC channels as regulators of allergen induced inflammatory responses in the airway. PMID:27604412

  9. Stimulated calcium entry and constitutive RhoA kinase activity cause stretch-induced detrusor contraction.

    PubMed

    Poley, Rainer N; Dosier, Christopher R; Speich, John E; Miner, Amy S; Ratz, Paul H

    2008-12-03

    Urinary bladder wall muscle (i.e., detrusor smooth muscle; DSM) contracts in response to a quick-stretch, but this response is neither fully characterized, nor completely understood at the subcellular level. Strips of rabbit DSM were quick-stretched (5 ms) and held isometric for 10 s to measure the resulting peak quick-stretch contractile response (PQSR). The ability of selective Ca(2+) channel blockers and kinase inhibitors to alter the PQSR was measured, and the phosphorylation levels of myosin light chain (MLC) and myosin phosphatase targeting regulatory subunit (MYPT1) were recorded. DSM responded to a quick-stretch with a biphasic response consisting of an initial contraction peaking at 0.24+/-0.02-fold the maximum KCl-induced contraction (F(o)) by 1.48+/-0.17 s (PQSR) before falling to a weaker tonic (10 s) level (0.12+/-0.03-fold F(o)). The PQSR was dependent on the rate and degree of muscle stretch, displayed a refractory period, and was converted to a sustained response in the presence of muscarinic receptor stimulation. The PQSR was inhibited by nifedipine, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), 100 microM gadolinium and Y-27632, but not by atropine, 10 microM gadolinium, LOE-908, cyclopiazonic acid, or GF-109203X. Y-27632 and nifedipine abolished the increase in MLC phosphorylation induced by a quick-stretch. Y-27632, but not nifedipine, inhibited basal MYPT1 phosphorylation, and a quick-stretch failed to increase phosphorylation of this rhoA kinase (ROCK) substrate above the basal level. These data support the hypothesis that constitutive ROCK activity is required for a quick-stretch to activate Ca(2+) entry and cause a myogenic contraction of DSM.

  10. Sigma-1 receptor stimulation attenuates calcium influx through activated L-type Voltage Gated Calcium Channels in purified retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Brett H; Park, Yong; Daudt, Donald R; Ma, Hai-Ying; Akopova, Irina; Stankowska, Dorota L; Clark, Abbot F; Yorio, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Sigma-1 receptors (σ-1rs) exert neuroprotective effects on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) both in vivo and in vitro. This receptor has unique properties through its actions on several voltage-gated and ligand-gated channels. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role that σ-1rs play in regulating cell calcium dynamics through activated L-type Voltage Gated Calcium Channels (L-type VGCCs) in purified RGCs. RGCs were isolated from P3-P7 Sprague-Dawley rats and purified by sequential immunopanning using a Thy1.1 antibody. Calcium imaging was used to measure changes in intracellular calcium after depolarizing the cells with potassium chloride (KCl) in the presence or absence of two σ-1r agonists [(+)-SKF10047 and (+)-Pentazocine], one σ-1r antagonist (BD1047), and one L-type VGCC antagonist (Verapamil). Finally, co-localization studies were completed to assess the proximity of σ-1r with L-type VGCCs in purified RGCs. VGCCs were activated using KCl (20 mM). Pre-treatment with a known L-type VGCC blocker demonstrated a 57% decrease of calcium ion influx through activated VGCCs. Calcium imaging results also demonstrated that σ-1r agonists, (+)-N-allylnormetazocine hydrochloride [(+)-SKF10047] and (+)-Pentazocine, inhibited calcium ion influx through activated VGCCs. Antagonist treatment using BD1047 demonstrated a potentiation of calcium ion influx through activated VGCCs and abolished all inhibitory effects of the σ-1r agonists on VGCCs, implying that these ligands were acting through the σ-1r. An L-type VGCC blocker (Verapamil) also inhibited KCl activated VGCCs and when combined with the σ-1r agonists there was not a further decline in calcium entry suggesting similar mechanisms. Lastly, co-localization studies demonstrated that σ-1rs and L-type VGCCs are co-localized in purified RGCs. Taken together, these results indicated that σ-1r agonists can inhibit KCl induced calcium ion influx through activated L-type VGCCs in purified RGCs. This is the

  11. Fibronectin-induced VEGF receptor and calcium channel transactivation stimulate GLUT-1 synthesis and trafficking through PPARγ and TC10 in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Suh, Han Na; Han, Ho Jae

    2013-05-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) mediates interactions between integrin and growth factor receptor (GFR) or ion channel. Although this crosstalk promotes integration of the downstream signal pathways and then regulates cellular function, the effect of ECM on glucose transporter (GLUT) in stem cells has not been elucidated. Therefore, we examined the effect of fibronectin on GLUT-1 expression, trafficking, and its related signal pathways in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Fibronectin increased 2-deoxyglucose (DG) uptake and GLUT-1 protein expression that were blocked by transcription or translation inhibitors. Integrin α5β1-bound fibronectin increased 2-DG uptake through cluster formation with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 2, and then activated Ras and PI3K/Akt. In another pathway, integrin α5β1 displayed structural and functional interactions with calcium channels, and stimulated 2-DG uptake through calcium influx and PKC activation. Akt and PKC-induced PPARγ phosphorylation enhanced the decreased expression of PPARγ protein, and subsequently increased GLUT-1 protein synthesis and 2-DG uptake. Fibronectin stimulated TC10 activity and cytoskeleton (F-actin) rearrangement, followed by GLUT-1 trafficking. In conclusion, integrin-bound fibronectin stimulates GLUT-1 synthesis through VEGFR2/Ras/PI3K/Akt and calcium channel/Ca(2+)/PKC, which are merged at PPARγ and GLUT-1 trafficking through TC10 and F-actin.

  12. Decreased calcium pump expression in human erythrocytes is connected to a minor haplotype in the ATP2B4 gene.

    PubMed

    Zámbó, Boglárka; Várady, György; Padányi, Rita; Szabó, Edit; Németh, Adrienn; Langó, Tamás; Enyedi, Ágnes; Sarkadi, Balázs

    2017-02-03

    Plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPases are key calcium exporter proteins in most tissues, and PMCA4b is the main calcium transporter in the human red blood cells (RBCs). In order to assess the expression level of PMCA4b, we have developed a flow cytometry and specific antibody binding method to quantitatively detect this protein in the erythrocyte membrane. Interestingly, we found several healthy volunteers showing significantly reduced expression of RBC-PMCA4b. Western blot analysis of isolated RBC membranes confirmed this observation, and indicated that there are no compensatory alterations in other PMCA isoforms. In addition, reduced PMCA4b levels correlated with a lower calcium extrusion capacity in these erythrocytes. When exploring the potential genetic background of the reduced PMCA4b levels, we found no missense mutations in the ATP2B4 coding regions, while a formerly unrecognized minor haplotype in the predicted second promoter region closely correlated with lower erythrocyte PMCA4b protein levels. In recent GWA studies, SNPs in this ATP2B4 haplotype have been linked to reduced mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations (MCHC), and to protection against malaria infection. Our data suggest that an altered regulation of gene expression is responsible for the reduced RBC-PMCA4b levels that is probably linked to the development of human disease-related phenotypes.

  13. Mathematical Modeling of Loop Heat Pipes with Multiple Capillary Pumps and Multiple Condensers. Part 1; Stead State Stimulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoang, Triem T.; OConnell, Tamara; Ku, Jentung

    2004-01-01

    Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) have proven themselves as reliable and robust heat transport devices for spacecraft thermal control systems. So far, the LHPs in earth-orbit satellites perform very well as expected. Conventional LHPs usually consist of a single capillary pump for heat acquisition and a single condenser for heat rejection. Multiple pump/multiple condenser LHPs have shown to function very well in ground testing. Nevertheless, the test results of a dual pump/condenser LHP also revealed that the dual LHP behaved in a complicated manner due to the interaction between the pumps and condensers. Thus it is redundant to say that more research is needed before they are ready for 0-g deployment. One research area that perhaps compels immediate attention is the analytical modeling of LHPs, particularly the transient phenomena. Modeling a single pump/single condenser LHP is difficult enough. Only a handful of computer codes are available for both steady state and transient simulations of conventional LHPs. No previous effort was made to develop an analytical model (or even a complete theory) to predict the operational behavior of the multiple pump/multiple condenser LHP systems. The current research project offered a basic theory of the multiple pump/multiple condenser LHP operation. From it, a computer code was developed to predict the LHP saturation temperature in accordance with the system operating and environmental conditions.

  14. Stimulation and inhibition of the sodium pump by cardioactive steroids in relation to their binding sites and their inotropic effect on guinea-pig isolated atria.

    PubMed

    Ghysel-Burton, J; Godfraind, T

    1979-06-01

    1 The actions of ouabain, ouabagenin and dihydroouabain on the contractility and on the ionic content have been investigated in left guinea-pig atria stimulated at 3.3 Hz. The specific binding of ouabain and its displacement by the other cardenolides have been determined. 2 The action of either ouabain or ouabagenin on Na and K content was qualitatively different according to the concentration employed. Low doses evoked a reduction of Nai whereas high doses produced an increase. Dihydroouabain evoked only a Nai gain. 3 The increase of KCl concentration from 2.7 to 12 mM decreased Nai in untreated atria and displaced ouabain dose-effect curves to the right. 4 ED50 values for the positive inotropic effect were lower than ED50 values for the inhibition of the pump and were not similarly affected by an increase in KCl concentration. 5 The specific binding of ouabain occurred at high and low affinity sites, related to Na pump stimulation and inhibition respectively. 6 The increase in KCl reduced the affinity of the two groups of sites for ouabain and increased the capacity of the high-affinity sites whereas the capacity of the other sites remained unchanged. 7 The results confirm the existence of two specific binding sites for ouabain in guinea-pig heart and suggest that the inhibition of the Na pump is not the only mechanism responsible for the positive inotropic effect of cardiac glycosides.

  15. Stimulation and inhibition of the sodium pump by cardioactive steroids in relation to their binding sites and their inotropic effect on guinea-pig isolated atria.

    PubMed Central

    Ghysel-Burton, J.; Godfraind, T.

    1979-01-01

    1 The actions of ouabain, ouabagenin and dihydroouabain on the contractility and on the ionic content have been investigated in left guinea-pig atria stimulated at 3.3 Hz. The specific binding of ouabain and its displacement by the other cardenolides have been determined. 2 The action of either ouabain or ouabagenin on Na and K content was qualitatively different according to the concentration employed. Low doses evoked a reduction of Nai whereas high doses produced an increase. Dihydroouabain evoked only a Nai gain. 3 The increase of KCl concentration from 2.7 to 12 mM decreased Nai in untreated atria and displaced ouabain dose-effect curves to the right. 4 ED50 values for the positive inotropic effect were lower than ED50 values for the inhibition of the pump and were not similarly affected by an increase in KCl concentration. 5 The specific binding of ouabain occurred at high and low affinity sites, related to Na pump stimulation and inhibition respectively. 6 The increase in KCl reduced the affinity of the two groups of sites for ouabain and increased the capacity of the high-affinity sites whereas the capacity of the other sites remained unchanged. 7 The results confirm the existence of two specific binding sites for ouabain in guinea-pig heart and suggest that the inhibition of the Na pump is not the only mechanism responsible for the positive inotropic effect of cardiac glycosides. PMID:465868

  16. The erythrocyte calcium pump is inhibited by non-enzymic glycation: studies in situ and with the purified enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    González Flecha, F L; Castello, P R; Caride, A J; Gagliardino, J J; Rossi, J P

    1993-01-01

    In a previous paper we demonstrated that incubation of either intact erythrocytes or erythrocytes membranes with glucose decreases the activity of the membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase [González Flecha, Bermúdez, Cédola, Gagliardino and Rossi (1990) Diabetes 39, 707-711]. The aim of the present work was to obtain information about the mechanism of this inhibition. For this purpose, experiments were carried out with purified Ca(2+)-ATPase, inside-out vesicles and membranes from human erythrocytes. Incubation of the purified Ca(2+)-ATPase with glucose led to a decay in the enzyme activity of up to 50% of the control activity under the conditions used. The decrease in ATPase activity was concomitant with labelling by [6-3H]glucose of the purified Ca2+ pump; the kinetic properties of both processes were almost identical, suggesting that inhibition is a consequence of the incorporation of glucose into the Ca(2+)-ATPase molecule. In inside-out vesicles, glucose also promoted inhibition of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity as well as of active Ca2+ transport. Arabinose, xylose, mannose, ribose, fructose and glucose 6-phosphate (but not mannitol) were also able to inactive the ATPase. The activation energy for both the decrease in ATPase activity by glucose and the labelling of the pump with [6-3H]glucose was about 65 kJ/mol. Furthermore, inorganic phosphate enhanced the inactivation of the Ca(2+)-ATPase by glucose. This evidence strongly suggests that inhibition is a non-enzymically catalysed process. Inactivation of the Ca(2+)-ATPase by glucose was enhanced by reductive alkylation with sodium borohydride. Aminoguanidine, an inhibitor of the formation of the advanced end products of glycosylation, did not prevent the deleterious effect of glucose on the enzyme activity. Therefore it is concluded that inactivation of the Ca2+ pump is a consequence of the glycation of this protein. PMID:8393658

  17. Suppression of the endoplasmic reticulum calcium pump during zebrafish gastrulation affects left-right asymmetry of the heart and brain.

    PubMed

    Kreiling, Jill A; Balantac, Zaneta L; Crawford, Andrew R; Ren, Yuexin; Toure, Jamal; Zchut, Sigalit; Kochilas, Lazaros; Creton, Robbert

    2008-01-01

    Vertebrate embryos generate striking Ca(2+) patterns, which are unique regulators of dynamic developmental events. In the present study, we used zebrafish embryos as a model system to examine the developmental roles of Ca(2+) during gastrulation. We found that gastrula stage embryos maintain a distinct pattern of cytosolic Ca(2+) along the dorsal-ventral axis, with higher Ca(2+) concentrations in the ventral margin and lower Ca(2+) concentrations in the dorsal margin and dorsal forerunner cells. Suppression of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump with 0.5 microM thapsigargin elevates cytosolic Ca(2+) in all embryonic regions and induces a randomization of laterality in the heart and brain. Affected hearts, visualized in living embryos by a subtractive imaging technique, displayed either a reversal or loss of left-right asymmetry. Brain defects include a left-right reversal of pitx2 expression in the dorsal diencephalon and a left-right reversal of the prominent habenular nucleus in the brain. Embryos are sensitive to inhibition of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump during early and mid gastrulation and lose their sensitivity during late gastrulation and early segmentation. Suppression of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump during gastrulation inhibits expression of no tail (ntl) and left-right dynein related (lrdr) in the dorsal forerunner cells and affects development of Kupffer's vesicle, a ciliated organ that generates a counter-clockwise flow of fluid. Previous studies have shown that Ca(2+) plays a role in Kupffer's vesicle function, influencing ciliary motility and translating the vesicle's counter-clockwise flow into asymmetric patterns of gene expression. The present results suggest that Ca(2+) plays an additional role in the formation of Kupffer's vesicle.

  18. Calcium transporters: From fields to the table

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium transporters regulate calcium fluxes within cells. Plants, like all organisms, contain channels, pumps, and exchangers to carefully modulate intracellular calcium levels. This review presents a summary of the recent advances in cloning and characterizing of these transporters and highlight...

  19. Near-infrared diode-pumped white-light emission from erbium-doped calcium fluoride crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culp, Mical; Edwards, Vernessa M.; Reddi, B. Rami

    2016-02-01

    CaF2 is a cubic material and Erbium enters the lattice in triply ionized state. Erbium occupies Ca sites in the material. Defects occur in the material because a trivalent dopant ion replaces a divalent host ion. Er3+ occupies several different sites. Absorption spectrum of Er3+-doped CaF2 revealed absorption peaks at 255, 365, 379, 407, 441, 449, 487, 522, 539, 652 and 798 nm. When the sample was excited with an 800 nm near-infrared laser it revealed emissions at 390, 415, 462, 555, 665 and 790 nm. The absorption and emission peaks are identified with Er3+ spectral transitions. The sample color appears to be either white or green under near-infrared laser excitation. Emission color was found to be dependent on the pump laser wavelength used and laser power. Excitation spectral recordings were made by tuning the pump laser wavelength. The sample emission appears to be white under near-infrared excitation as well as violet laser excitation. Excited state lifetimes are measured to analyze the data. Our studies indicate that this sample is useful in solid state lighting applications.

  20. Clodronate stimulates bone formation as well as inhibits bone resorption and increases bone mineral density in rats fed a low-calcium diet.

    PubMed

    Horie, Daisuke; Takahashi, Mariko; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Ohya, Keiichi

    2003-03-01

    The pharmacological actions of bisphosphonates are due to the inhibitory effects on bone resorption, but little is known about the bisphosphonate action on bone formation. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the actions of bisphosphonates, clodronate, on bone formation in the experimental in vivo and in vitro rat models. The bone mineral density (BMD) was decreased in the rats fed a low-calcium diet (0.05% Ca) for 6 days compared with the rats fed a normal-calcium diet (0.5% Ca). The decrease in BMD was suppressed in the 2 mgP/day and the 4 mgP/day clodronate administrations. Bone formation rate (BFR) in rats fed a low-calcium diet was significantly increased compared with the rats fed a normal-calcium diet, and the 2 mgP clodronate administration further increased the BFR. In the cultured rat bone marrow cells, the area of mineralized nodules was significantly increased at 10(-7) and 10(-6) M clodronate, but high concentration of clodronate decreased the area. From these results, it is concluded that clodronate stimulates bone formation when the drug was given to a rat with a relatively lower dose that is sufficient to prevent bone resorption and that this effect may be due to the stimulatory effect on the differentiation process of osteoblasts.

  1. Presence of a thapsigargin-sensitive calcium pump in Trypanosoma evansi: Immunological, physiological, molecular and structural evidences.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gordones, M C; Serrano, M L; Rojas, H; Martínez, J C; Uzcanga, G; Mendoza, M

    2015-12-01

    In higher eukaryotes, the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) is characterized for its high sensitivity to low concentrations of thapsigargin (TG), a very specific inhibitor. In contrast, SERCA-like enzymes with different sensitivities to TG have been reported in trypanosomatids. Here, we characterized a SERCA-like enzyme from Trypanosoma evansi and evaluated its interaction with TG. Confocal fluorescence microscopy using BODIPY FL TG and specific anti-SERCA antibodies localized the T. evansi SERCA-like enzyme in the ER and confirmed its direct interaction with TG. Moreover, the use of either 1 μM TG or 25 μM 2',5'-di (tert-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone prevented the reuptake of Ca(2+) and consequently produced a small increase in the parasite cytosolic calcium concentration in a calcium-free medium, which was released from the ER pool. A 3035 bp-sequence coding for a protein with an estimated molecular mass of 110.2 kDa was cloned from T. evansi. The corresponding gene product contained all the invariant residues and conserved motifs found in other P-type ATPases but lacked the calmodulin binding site. Modeling of the three-dimensional structure of the parasite enzyme revealed that the amino acid changes found in the TG-SERCA binding pocket do not compromise the interaction between the enzyme and the inhibitor. Therefore, we concluded that T. evansi possesses a SERCA-like protein that is inhibited by TG.

  2. Investigation of the S1/ICT equilibrium in fucoxanthin by ultrafast pump-dump-probe and femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Redeckas, Kipras; Voiciuk, Vladislava; Vengris, Mikas

    2016-05-01

    Time-resolved multi-pulse spectroscopic methods-pump-dump-probe (PDP) and femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy-were used to investigate the excited state photodynamics of the carbonyl group containing carotenoid fucoxanthin (FX). PDP experiments show that S1 and ICT states in FX are strongly coupled and that the interstate equilibrium is rapidly (<5 ps) reestablished after one of the interacting states is deliberately depopulated. Femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering experiments indicate that S1 and ICT are vibrationally distinct species. Identification of the FSRS modes on the S1 and ICT potential energy surfaces allows us to predict a possible coupling channel for the state interaction.

  3. Isolated secretion granules from parotid glands of chronically stimulated rats possess an alkaline internal pH and inward-directed H/sup +/ pump activity

    SciTech Connect

    Arvan, P.; Castle, J.D.

    1986-10-01

    Secretion granules have been isolated from the parotid glands of rats that have been chronically stimulated with the ..beta..-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. These granules are of interest because they package a quantitatively different set of secretory proteins in comparison with granules from the normal gland. Polypeptides enriched in proline, glycine, and glutamine, which are known to have pI's >10, replace ..cap alpha..-amylase (pI's = 6.8) as the principal content species. The internal pH of granules from the treated rats changes from 7.8 in a potassium sulfate medium to 6.9 in a choline chloride medium. The increased pH over that of normal parotid granules (approx.6.8) appears to protect the change in composition of the secretory contents. Whereas normal mature parotide granules have practically negligible levels of H/sup +/ pumping ATPase activity, the isolated granules from isoproterenol-treated rats undergo a time-dependent internal acidification that requires the presence of ATP and is abolished by an H/sup +/ ionophore. Additionally, an inside-positive granule transmembrane potential develops after ATP addition that depends upon ATP hydrolysis. Two independent methods have been used that exclude the possibility that contaminating organelles are the source of the H/sup +/-ATPase activity. Together these data provide clear evidence for the presence of an H/sup +/ pump in the membranes of parotid granules from chronically stimulated rats. However, despite the presence of H/sup +/-pump activity, fluorescence microscopy with the weak base, acridine orange, reveals that the intragranular pH in live cells is greater than that of the cytoplasm.

  4. A novel strontium(II)-modified calcium phosphate bone cement stimulates human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, M; Lode, A; Helth, A; Gelinsky, M

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, the in vitro effects of novel strontium-modified calcium phosphate bone cements (SrCPCs), prepared using two different approaches on human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), were evaluated. Strontium ions, known to stimulate bone formation and therefore already used in systemic osteoporosis therapy, were incorporated into a hydroxyapatite-forming calcium phosphate bone cement via two simple approaches: incorporation of strontium carbonate crystals and substitution of Ca(2+) by Sr(2+) ions during cement setting. All modified cements released 0.03-0.07 mM Sr(2+) under in vitro conditions, concentrations that were shown not to impair the proliferation or osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Furthermore, strontium modification led to a reduced medium acidification and Ca(2+) depletion in comparison to the standard calcium phosphate cement. In indirect and direct cell culture experiments with the novel SrCPCs significantly enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation were observed. In conclusion, the SrCPCs described here could be beneficial for the local treatment of defects, especially in the osteoporotic bone.

  5. The calcium ionophore A23187 is a potent stimulator of the vitamin D3-25 hydroxylase in hepatocytes isolated from normocalcaemic vitamin D-depleted rats.

    PubMed Central

    Benbrahim, N; Dubé, C; Vallieres, S; Gascon-Barré, M

    1988-01-01

    The role played by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and/or by calcium on the C-25 hydroxylation of vitamin D3 (D3) was studied in hepatocytes isolated from D-depleted rats which were divided into four treatment groups: Group 1 served as controls, Group 2 received calcium gluconate, Groups 3 and 4 were infused with 1,25(OH)2D3 at 7 and 65 pmol/24 h x 7 days respectively. The treatments normalized serum calcium in all but the controls which remained hypocalcaemic, while serum 1,25(OH)2D3 remained low in Groups 1 and 2 but increased to physiologic and supraphysiologic levels in Groups 3 and 4. The data show that basal D3-25 hydroxylase activities were not significantly affected by any of the treatments. Addition of CaCl2, EGTA, or Quin-2 in vitro revealed that relative to basal values, EGTA strongly inhibited the enzyme activity in all groups (P less than 0.0001), except in G 1; Quin-2 and CaCl2 had no significant effect on the activity of the enzyme in any of the groups. Addition of 1,25(OH)2D3 or A23187 in vitro in the presence of CaCl2 revealed that 1,25(OH)2D3 did not significantly affect enzyme activity, while A23187 was found to stimulate its activity in vitamin D-depleted animals, but most specifically in Group 2 (P less than 0.001); low serum calcium (Group 1) dampened (P less than 0.01), and 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment in vivo totally blunted (P less than 0.001) the response to A23187. The data suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 supplementation in vivo has per se little or no effect on the basal D3-25 hydroxylase activity. The data show, however, that the magnitude of the response to various challenges in vitro is greatly influenced by the conditioning in vivo of the animals. They also show that A23187 can be a potent stimulator of the enzyme activity, which allowed us to demonstrate a significant reserve for the C-25 hydroxylation of D3 which is well expressed in hepatocytes obtained from D-depleted calcium-supplemented rats. PMID:2848514

  6. Chronic ethanol intake modifies pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase activity in mouse frontal cortex synaptosomes under resting and K+ -stimulated conditions: role of calcium.

    PubMed

    Mayas, María Dolores; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; García-López, María Jesús; Carrera, María Pilar; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2008-07-04

    Pyrrolidon carboxypeptidase (Pcp) is an omega peptidase that removes pyroglutamyl N-terminal residues of peptides such as thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH), which is one of the neuropeptides that has been localized into many areas of the brain and acts as an endogenous neuromodulator of several parameters related to ethanol (EtOH) consumption. In this study, we analysed the effects of chronic EtOH intake on Pcp activity on mouse frontal cortex synaptosomes and their corresponding supernatant under basal and K+ -stimulated conditions, in presence and absence of calcium (Ca2+) to know the regulation of Pcp on TRH. In basal conditions, chronic EtOH intake significantly decreased synaptosomes Pcp activity but only in absence of Ca2+. However, supernatant Pcp activity is also decreased in presence and absence of calcium. Under K+-stimulated conditions, chronic EtOH intake decreased synaptosomes Pcp activity but only in absence of Ca2+, whereas supernatant Pcp activity was significantly decreased only in presence of Ca2+. The general inhibitory effect of chronic EtOH intake on Pcp activity suggests an inhibition of TRH metabolism and an enhancement of TRH neurotransmitter/neuromodulator functions, which could be related to putative processes of tolerance to EtOH in which TRH has been involved. Our data may also indicate that active peptides and their degrading peptidases are released together to the synaptic cleft to regulate the neurotransmitter/neuromodulator functions of these peptides, through a Ca2+ -dependent mechanism.

  7. Sonic hedgehog stimulates the proliferation of rat gastric mucosal cells through ERK activation by elevating intracellular calcium concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Osawa, Hiroyuki; Ohnishi, Hirohide . E-mail: hohnishi@jichi.ac.jp; Takano, Koji; Noguti, Takasi; Mashima, Hirosato; Hoshino, Hiroko; Kita, Hiroto; Sato, Kiichi; Matsui, Hirofumi; Sugano, Kentaro

    2006-06-02

    Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), a member of hedgehog peptides family, is expressed in gastric gland epithelium. To elucidate Shh function to gastric mucosal cells, we examined the effect of Shh on the proliferation of a rat normal gastric mucosal cell line, RGM-1. RGM-1 cells express essential components of Shh receptor system, patched-1, and smoothened. Shh enhanced DNA synthesis in RGM-1 cells and elevated intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}). In addition, Shh as well as calcium ionophore A32187 rapidly activated ERK. However, Shh failed to activate ERK under calcium-free culture condition. Pretreatment of cells with PD98059 attenuated the DNA synthesis promoted by Shh. Moreover, when cells were pretreated with cyclopamine, Shh could not elevate [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}, activate ERK or promote DNA synthesis. On the other hand, although Shh induced Gli-1 nuclear accumulation in RGM-1 cells, Shh activated ERK even in cells pretreated with actinomycin D. These results indicate that Shh promotes the proliferation of RGM-1 cells through an intracellular calcium- and ERK-dependent but transcription-independent pathway via Patched/Smoothened receptor system.

  8. Low-Level Vagus Nerve Stimulation Reverses Cardiac Dysfunction and Subcellular Calcium Handling in Rats With Post-Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunhe; Chen, Ao; Song, Lei; Li, Min; Luo, Zhangyuan; Zhang, Wenzan; Chen, Yingmin; He, Ben

    2016-05-25

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), targeting the imbalanced autonomic nervous system, is a promising therapeutic approach for chronic heart failure (HF). Moreover, calcium cycling is an important part of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling (ECC), which also participates in the antiarrhythmic effects of VNS. We hypothesized that low-level VNS (LL-VNS) could improve cardiac function by regulation of intracellular calcium handling properties. The experimental HF model was established by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups as follows; control group (sham operated without coronary ligation, n = 10), HF-VNS group (HF rats with VNS, n = 12), and HF-SS group (HF rats with sham nerve stimulation, n = 10). After 8 weeks of treatment, LL-VNS significantly improved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and attenuated myocardial interstitial fibrosis in the HF-VNS group compared with the HF-SS group. Elevated plasma norepinephrine and dopamine, but not epinephrine, were partially reduced by LL-VNS. Additionally, LL-VNS restored the protein and mRNA levels of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA2a), Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger 1 (NCX1), and phospholamban (PLB) whereas the expression of ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) as well as mRNA level was unaffected. Thus, our study results suggest that the improvement of cardiac performance by LL-VNS is accompanied by the reversal of dysfunctional calcium handling properties including SERCA2a, NCX1, and PLB which may be a potential molecular mechanism of VNS for HF.

  9. Pancreatic β-cell-specific ablation of TASK-1 channels augments glucose-stimulated calcium entry and insulin secretion, improving glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Dadi, Prasanna K; Vierra, Nicholas C; Jacobson, David A

    2014-10-01

    Calcium entry through voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (VDCCs) is required for pancreatic β-cell insulin secretion. The 2-pore-domain acid-sensitive potassium channel (TASK-1) regulates neuronal excitability and VDCC activation by hyperpolarizing the plasma membrane potential (Δψp); however, a role for pancreatic β-cell TASK-1 channels is unknown. Here we examined the influence of TASK-1 channel activity on the β-cell Δψp and insulin secretion during secretagogue stimulation. TASK-1 channels were found to be highly expressed in human and rodent islets and localized to the plasma membrane of β-cells. TASK-1-like currents of mouse and human β-cells were blocked by the potent TASK-1 channel inhibitor, A1899 (250nM). Although inhibition of TASK-1 currents did not influence the β-cell Δψp in the presence of low (2mM) glucose, A1899 significantly enhanced glucose-stimulated (14mM) Δψp depolarization of human and mouse β-cells. TASK-1 inhibition also resulted in greater secretagogue-stimulated Ca(2+) influx in both human and mouse islets. Moreover, conditional ablation of mouse β-cell TASK-1 channels reduced K2P currents, increased glucose-stimulated Δψp depolarization, and augmented secretagogue-stimulated Ca(2+) influx. The Δψp depolarization caused by TASK-1 inhibition resulted in a transient increase in glucose-stimulated mouse β-cell action potential (AP) firing frequency. However, secretagogue-stimulated β-cell AP duration eventually increased in the presence of A1899 as well as in β-cells without TASK-1, causing a decrease in AP firing frequency. Ablation or inhibition of mouse β-cell TASK-1 channels also significantly enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, which improved glucose tolerance. Conversely, TASK-1 ablation did not perturb β-cell Δψp, Ca(2+) influx, or insulin secretion under low-glucose conditions (2mM). These results reveal a glucose-dependent role for β-cell TASK-1 channels of limiting glucose-stimulated

  10. Efficient self-stimulated Raman scattering with simultaneously self-mode-locking in a diode-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser.

    PubMed

    Li, Zuohan; Peng, Jiying; Yao, Jianquan; Han, Ming; Jiang, Linghong

    2016-11-10

    We demonstrated an efficient diode-pumped picosecond self-Raman Nd:GdVO4 laser with the simultaneous processes of stimulated Raman scattering and self-mode-locking in the same crystal. The design of self-mode-locked was theoretically analyzed, and a compact and feasible dual-concave cavity was adopted. The maximum output power of the first-Stokes Raman laser was 736 mW with the repetition rate of 1.51 GHz. In addition, the second-harmonic generation of a yellow laser at 586.5 nm is accomplished with an external LiB3O5 crystal.

  11. Optimization of a Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier based on dual-order stimulated Raman scattering using a single-pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaohui; Zhao, Chun-Liu; Wen, Yang Jing; Lu, Chao; Wang, Yixin; Chen, Jian

    2006-09-01

    Based on dual-order stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of a single 1395 nm Raman fiber laser in 75 km single mode fiber and its corresponding dispersion compensation module, a hybrid Raman/Erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) for long wavelength band (L-band) amplification is realized by inserting a segment of EDF within the span. By comparing the performance of gain and noise in four hybrid amplifiers with different span configurations, we find that the distribution of the secondary L-band amplification obtained from the EDF along the link has a great influence on the performance of the hybrid amplifier. Both gain and noise performance of hybrid amplifier can be improved significantly by optimizing the location of the EDF. Moreover, we can extend the flat gain bandwidth from L-band to central wavelength band (C-band) plus L-band by recycling the residual first-order SRS to pump a segment of EDF with proper length.

  12. Optical polarization control of photo-pumped stimulated emissions at 238 nm from AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser structures on AlN substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachab, Mohamed; Sun, WenHong; Jain, Rakesh; Dobrinsky, Alex; Gaevski, Mikhail; Rumyantsev, Sergey; Shur, Michael; Shatalov, Max

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the capability to control the optical polarization of room-temperature stimulated emissions (SEs) at 238-239 nm from optically pumped AlGaN multiple-quantum-well (MQW) heterostructures on bulk AlN. The results of structural and optical characterizations provided evidence that altering the strain state in the pseudomorphically grown MQW laser structures enabled the switching of the polarization direction of the SE from predominantly transverse electric (TE) at 238 nm to predominantly transverse magnetic (TM) at 239 nm. The SE observed at 238 nm represents the shortest peak wavelength with TE polarization yet reported for AlGaN materials grown on any type of substrate.

  13. Observation of Coriolis Coupling between nu(2) + 4nu(4) and 7nu(4) in Acetylene &Xtilde;(1)Sigma(+)(g) by Stimulated Emission Pumping Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Moss; Duan; Jacobson; O'Brien; Field

    2000-02-01

    Stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectroscopy has been used to examine a low energy region (E(vib) approximately 4400 cm(-1)) of &Xtilde;(1)Sigma(+)(g) acetylene at higher resolution than was possible in previous dispersed fluorescence studies. The expected bright state, nu(2) + 4nu(4), is observed to be coupled to the nearly degenerate 7nu(4) state by a Coriolis mechanism. A least-squares analysis yields values for zero-order vibrational energies, rotational constants, and a Coriolis-coupling coefficient that are all consistent with expectations. Calculated relative intensities of SEP transitions, accounting for interference due to axis-switching effects, are also consistent with observations. Implications of the observed Coriolis resonance with regard to global acetylene vibrational dynamics are also discussed. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  14. Regulation of the beta-stimulation of the Na(+)-K+ pump current in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes by a cAMP-dependent PKA pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, J; Cohen, I S; Mathias, R T; Baldo, G J

    1994-01-01

    1. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was employed with the free intracellular [Ca2+] fixed at 1.4 microM in order to study the isoprenaline (Iso)-induced increase in the Na(+)-K+ pump current (Ip) in acutely isolated guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. 2. The non-specific protein kinase inhibitor, H-7, eliminated the stimulatory effect of Iso, suggesting a phosphorylation step is involved in the beta-agonist stimulation of Ip. 3. H-7 or the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A individually had no effect on basal Ip; however, when Ip was first increased by Iso, H-7 inhibited and calyculin A further increased Ip. This suggests phosphorylation is not important to the basal regulation of Ip, but does have an effect during beta-stimulation. 4. The Iso-induced increase in Ip could be mimicked by adding the membrane-permanent cAMP analogue chlorophenylthio-cAMP, blocking cAMP degradation with IBMX or stimulating cAMP production with forskolin. Alternatively the protein kinase A inhibitor PKI blocked the stimulatory effect of Iso. This suggests the Iso-induced phosphorylation responsible for increasing Ip is mediated by cAMP, which then activates protein kinase A (PKA). 5. We conclude that the beta-agonist-induced increase in Ip in the presence of high intracellular [Ca2+] is mediated by a phosphorylation step via the cAMP-dependent PKA pathway. During beta-stimulation, this increase in active Na(+)-K+ transport can serve to offset the effects of increases in passive membrane conductances. PMID:7932227

  15. Sources of variability in cytosolic calcium transients triggered by stimulation of homogeneous uro-epithelial cell monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Appleby, Peter A.; Shabir, Saqib; Southgate, Jennifer; Walker, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tissue structure is the emergent outcome of the interactions between large numbers of individual cells. Experimental cell biology offers an important tool to unravel these complex interactions, but current methods of analysis tend to be limited to mean field approaches or representation by selected subsets of cells. This may result in bias towards cells that respond in a particular way and/or neglect local, context-specific cell responses. Here, an automated algorithm was applied to examine in detail the individual calcium transients evoked in genetically homogeneous, but asynchronous populations of cultured non-immortalized normal human urothelial cells when subjected to either the global application of an external agonist or a localized scratch wound. The recorded calcium transients were classified automatically according to a set of defined metrics and distinct sub-populations of cells that responded in qualitatively different ways were observed. The nature of this variability in the homogeneous cell population was apportioned to two sources: intrinsic variation in individual cell responses and extrinsic variability due to context-specific factors of the environment, such as spatial heterogeneity. Statistically significant variation in the features of the calcium transients evoked by scratch wounding according to proximity to the wound edge was identified. The manifestation of distinct sub-populations of cells is considered central to the coordination of population-level response resulting in wound closure. PMID:25694543

  16. Deletion of the Intestinal Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump, Isoform 1, Atp2b1, in Mice is Associated with Decreased Bone Mineral Density and Impaired Responsiveness to 1, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Zachary C.; Craig, Theodore A.; Filoteo, Adelaida G.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Cartwright, Elizabeth J.; Neyses, Ludwig; Strehler, Emanuel E.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    The physiological importance of the intestinal plasma membrane calcium pump, isoform 1, (Pmca1, Atp2b1), in calcium absorption and homeostasis has not been previously demonstrated in vivo. Since global germ-line deletion of the Pmca1 in mice is associated with embryonic lethality, we selectively deleted the Pmca1 in intestinal absorptive cells. Mice with loxP sites flanking exon 2 of the Pmca1 gene (Pmca1fl/fl) were crossed with mice expressing Cre recombinase in the intestine under control of the villin promoter to give mice in which the Pmca1 had been deleted in the intestine (Pmca1EKO mice). Pmca1EKO mice were born at a reduced frequency and were small at the time of birth when compared to wild-type (Wt) litter mates. At two months of age, Pmca1EKO mice fed a 0.81% calcium, 0.34% phosphorus, normal vitamin D diet had reduced whole body bone mineral density (P <0.037), and reduced femoral bone mineral density (P <0.015). There was a trend towards lower serum calcium and higher serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) concentrations in Pmca1EKO mice compared to Wt mice but the changes were not statistically significant. The urinary phosphorus/creatinine ratio was increased in Pmca1EKO mice (P <0.004). Following the administration of 200 ng of 1α,25(OH)2D3 intraperitoneally to Wt mice, active intestinal calcium transport increased ∼2-fold, whereas Pmca1EKO mice administered an equal amount of 1α,25(OH)2D3 failed to show an increase in active calcium transport. Deletion of the Pmca1 in the intestine is associated with reduced growth and bone mineralization, and a failure to up-regulate calcium absorption in response to 1α,25(OH)2D3. PMID:26392310

  17. Stimulation by leukotriene D4 of increases in the cytosolic concentration of calcium in dimethylsulfoxide-differentiated HL-60 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Baud, L; Goetzl, E J; Koo, C H

    1987-01-01

    The C6-sulfidopeptide leukotrienes C4 (LTC4) and D4 (LTD4) evoked increases in the cytosolic concentration of intracellular calcium ([Ca+2]i) in dimethylsulfoxide-differentiated HL-60 cells, as assessed by the fluorescence of quin-2. The increases in [Ca+2]i reached a peak within 15-90 s, attained 50% of the maximum level at 1.2 nM LTD4 and 60 nM LTC4, were greater in maximal magnitude for LTD4 than LTC4, and subsided in 5-7 min. Flow cytometric evaluation of the LTD4-induced increases in [Ca+2]i, reflected in increases in the fluorescence of intracellular indo-1, revealed that a mean of 77% of differentiated HL-60 cells responded, as contrasted with lesser increases in only 50% of undifferentiated HL-60 cells. The capacity of pretreatment of HL-60 cells with LTD4 to prevent subsequent responses of [Ca+2]i to LTC4 and LTD4, and the finding that the serine-borate inhibitor of conversion of LTC4 to LTD4 suppressed concurrently both LTC4-induced rises in [Ca+2]i and increases in adherence to Sephadex G-25 indicated that the responses of HL-60 cells to LTC4 required conversion to LTD4. That pertussis toxin and a chemical antagonist of LTD4 reduced the [Ca+2]i response suggested a dependence on LTD4 receptors. The LTD4-induced increases in [Ca+2]i were dependent on extracellular calcium and diminished by lanthanum, but not affected by nifedipine nor associated with changes in membrane potential, as measured with the fluorescent probe 3,3'-dipentyloxacarbocyanine. Thus, the increase in [Ca+2]i in HL-60 cells, which is coupled to an increase in adherence, appears to involve LTD4 receptor-specific and voltage-independent calcium channels in the plasma membrane. PMID:3477571

  18. Lipoxin A4 Stimulates Calcium-Activated Chloride Currents and Increases Airway Surface Liquid Height in Normal and Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alawi, Mazen; Costello, Richard W.; McNally, Paul; Chiron, Raphaël; Harvey, Brian J.; Urbach, Valérie

    2012-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease characterised by a deficit in epithelial Cl− secretion which in the lung leads to airway dehydration and a reduced Airway Surface Liquid (ASL) height. The endogenous lipoxin LXA4 is a member of the newly identified eicosanoids playing a key role in ending the inflammatory process. Levels of LXA4 are reported to be decreased in the airways of patients with CF. We have previously shown that in normal human bronchial epithelial cells, LXA4 produced a rapid and transient increase in intracellular Ca2+. We have investigated, the effect of LXA4 on Cl− secretion and the functional consequences on ASL generation in bronchial epithelial cells obtained from CF and non-CF patient biopsies and in bronchial epithelial cell lines. We found that LXA4 stimulated a rapid intracellular Ca2+ increase in all of the different CF bronchial epithelial cells tested. In non-CF and CF bronchial epithelia, LXA4 stimulated whole-cell Cl− currents which were inhibited by NPPB (calcium-activated Cl− channel inhibitor), BAPTA-AM (chelator of intracellular Ca2+) but not by CFTRinh-172 (CFTR inhibitor). We found, using confocal imaging, that LXA4 increased the ASL height in non-CF and in CF airway bronchial epithelia. The LXA4 effect on ASL height was sensitive to bumetanide, an inhibitor of transepithelial Cl− secretion. The LXA4 stimulation of intracellular Ca2+, whole-cell Cl− currents, conductances and ASL height were inhibited by Boc-2, a specific antagonist of the ALX/FPR2 receptor. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence for a novel role of LXA4 in the stimulation of intracellular Ca2+ signalling leading to Ca2+-activated Cl− secretion and enhanced ASL height in non-CF and CF bronchial epithelia. PMID:22662206

  19. 65-kilodalton protein phosphorylated by interleukin 2 stimulation bears two putative actin-binding sites and two calcium-binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zu, Youli; Shigesada, Katsuya; Hanaoka, Masao; Namba, Yuziro ); Nishida, Eisuke ); Kubota, Ichiro ); Kohno, Michiaki )

    1990-09-11

    The authors have previously characterized a 65-kilodalton protein (p65) as an interleukin 2 stimulated phosphoprotein in human T cells and showed that three endopeptide sequences of p65 are present in the sequence of l-plastin. In this paper, they present the complete primary structure of p65 based on the cDNA isolated from a human T lymphocyte (KUT-2) cDNA library. Analysis of p65 sequences and the amino acid composition of cleaved p65 N-terminal peptide indicated that the deduced p65 amino acid sequence exactly coincides with that of l-plastin over the C-terminal 580 residues and has a 57-residue extension at the N-terminus to l-plastin. Computer-assisted structural analysis revealed that p65 is a multidomain molecule involving at least three intriguing functional domains: two putative calcium-binding sites along the N-terminal 80 amino acid residues; a putative calmodulin-binding site following the calcium-binding region; and two tandem repeats of putative actin-binding domains in its middle and C-terminal parts, each containing approximately 240 amino acid residues. These results suggest that p65 belongs to actin-binding proteins.

  20. Coordinate High-Frequency Pattern of Stimulation and Calcium Levels Control the Induction of LTP in Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonsi, Paola; De Persis, Cristiano; Calabresi, Paolo; Bernardi, Giorgio; Pisani, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Current evidence appoints a central role to cholinergic interneurons in modulating striatal function. Recently, a long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission has been reported to occur in these neurons. The relationship between the pattern of cortico/thalamostriatal fibers stimulation, the consequent changes in the intracellular calcium…

  1. Small-molecule activators of TMEM16A, a calcium-activated chloride channel, stimulate epithelial chloride secretion and intestinal contraction

    PubMed Central

    Namkung, Wan; Yao, Zhen; Finkbeiner, Walter E.; Verkman, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    TMEM16A (ANO1) is a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) expressed in secretory epithelia, smooth muscle, and other tissues. Cell-based functional screening of ∼110,000 compounds revealed compounds that activated TMEM16A CaCC conductance without increasing cytoplasmic Ca2+. By patch-clamp, N-aroylaminothiazole “activators” (Eact) strongly increased Cl− current at 0 Ca2+, whereas tetrazolylbenzamide “potentiators” (Fact) were not active at 0 Ca2+ but reduced the EC50 for Ca2+-dependent TMEM16A activation. Of 682 analogs tested, the most potent activator (Eact) and potentiator (Fact) produced large and more sustained CaCC Cl− currents than general agonists of Ca2+ signaling, with EC50 3–6 μM and Cl− conductance comparable to that induced transiently by Ca2+-elevating purinergic agonists. Analogs of activators were identified that fully inhibited TMEM16A Cl− conductance, providing further evidence for direct TMEM16A binding. The TMEM16A activators increased CaCC conductance in human salivary and airway submucosal gland epithelial cells, and IL-4 treated bronchial cells, and stimulated submucosal gland secretion in human bronchi and smooth muscle contraction in mouse intestine. Small-molecule, TMEM16A-targeted activators may be useful for drug therapy of cystic fibrosis, dry mouth, and gastrointestinal hypomotility disorders, and for pharmacological dissection of TMEM16A function.—Namkung, W., Yao, Z., Finkbeiner, W. E., Verkman, A. S. Small-molecule activators of TMEM16A, a calcium-activated chloride channel, stimulate epithelial chloride secretion and intestinal contraction. PMID:21836025

  2. Odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells by calcium silicate materials stimulating via FGFR/ERK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao-Hsin; Hung, Chi-Jr; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Lin, Chi-Chang; Kao, Chia-Tze; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-10-01

    Bone healing needs a complex interaction of growth factors that establishes an environment for efficient bone formation. We examine how calcium silicate (CS) and tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) cements influence the behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) through fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and active MAPK pathways, in particular ERK. The hDPCs are cultured with β-TCP and CS, after which the cells' viability and odontogenic differentiation markers are determined by using PrestoBlue® assay and western blot, respectively. The effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection targeting FGFR was also evaluated. The results showed that CS promoted cell proliferation and enhances FGFR expression. It was also found that CS increases ERK and p38 activity in hDPCs, and furthermore, raises the expression and secretion of DSP, and DMP-1. Additionally, statistically significant differences (p<0.05) have been found in the calcium deposition in si-FGFR transfection and ERK inhibitor between CS and β-TCP; these variations indicated that ERK/MAPK signaling is involved in the silicon-induced odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs. The current study shows that CS substrates play a key role in odontoblastic differentiation of hDPCs through FGFR and modulate ERK/MAPK activation.

  3. Benidipine, a dihydropyridine-calcium channel blocker, inhibits lysophosphatidylcholine-induced endothelial injury via stimulation of nitric oxide release.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Masahiro; Yao, Kozo; Hasegawa, Kazuhide

    2006-01-01

    Benidipine hydrochloride (benidipine), which is a long-lasting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, exerts antihypertensive action via inhibition of Ca(2+) influx through L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels. In addition, benidipine is shown to restore endothelial function. However, the mechanisms whereby benidipine has protective effects on endothelium are poorly defined. Nitric oxide (NO), which is produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), plays important roles in endothelial function. In this study, we examined effects of benidipine on NO production from human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Benidipine (0.3-10 microM) augmented eNOS expression and total eNOS enzymatic activities. Benidipine also promoted the production of NO and the accumulation of cGMP, a second messenger of NO. Lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), a component of oxidized low-density lipoproteins, induced caspase-3 activation followed by apoptosis of endothelial cells. Benidipine (0.3-10 microM) prevented lysoPC-induced caspase-3 activation, which was canceled by Nomega-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME) (250-2500 microM), an inhibitor of NOS. Moreover, diethylenetetraamine NONOate (30-100 microM), a NO donor, inhibited the caspase-3 activation. These results suggested that the increase in NO production by benidipine might be involved in the inhibition of caspase induction. The direct enhancement of endothelial NO release by benidipine may be in part responsible for amelioration of endothelial dysfunction.

  4. Luminol-dependent photoemission from single neutrophil stimulated by phorbol ester and calcium ionophore--role of degranulation and myeloperoxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Suematsu, M.; Oshio, C.; Miura, S.; Suzuki, M.; Houzawa, S.; Tsuchiya, M.

    1988-08-30

    Luminol-dependent photonic burst from phorbol ester-treated single neutrophil was visually investigated by using an ultrasensitive photonic image intensifier microscope. Neutrophils stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate (0.1 microgram/ml) alone produced a negligible level of photonic activities in the presence of luminol (10 micrograms/ml). The additional application of 0.1 microM Ca2+ ionophore A23187 induced explosive changes of photonic burst corresponding to the distribution of neutrophils, and these photonic activities were gradually spread to extracellular space. Sodium azide, which prevents myeloperoxidase activity, inhibited Ca2+ ionophore-induced photonic burst from phorbol ester-treated neutrophil. These findings suggest a prerequisite role of degranulation and myeloperoxidase release in luminol-dependent photoemission from stimulated neutrophils.

  5. Rapid signaling responses in Sertoli cell membranes induced by follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone: calcium inflow and electrophysiological changes.

    PubMed

    Loss, Eloísa S; Jacobus, Ana Paula; Wassermann, Guillermo F

    2011-10-10

    This minireview describes the rapid signaling actions of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone in immature Sertoli cells mainly related to Ca(2+) inflow and the electrophysiological changes produced by hormones. The rapid membrane actions of FSH occur in a time frame of seconds to minutes, which include membrane depolarization and the stimulation of (45)Ca(2+) uptake. These effects can be prevented by pertussis toxin (PTX), suggesting that they are likely mediated by Gi-protein coupled receptor activation. Furthermore, these effects were inhibited by verapamil, a blocker of the L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel (VDCC). Finally, FSH stimulation of (45)Ca(2+) uptake was inhibited by the (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. These results suggest that the rapid action of FSH on L-type Ca(2+) channel activity in Sertoli cells from pre-pubertal rats is mediated by the Gi/Gβγ/PI3Kγ pathway, independent of its effects on insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I). Testosterone depolarizes the membrane potential and increases the resistance and the (45)Ca(2+) uptake in Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubules of immature rats. These actions were nullified by diazoxide (K(+)(ATP) channel opener). Testosterone actions were blocked by both PTX and the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122, suggesting the involvement of PLC - phosphatidylinositol 4-5 bisphosphate (PIP2) hydrolysis via the Gq protein in the testosterone-mediated pathway. These results indicate that testosterone acts on the Sertoli cell membrane through the K(+)(ATP) channels and PLC-PIP2 hydrolysis, which closes the channel, depolarizes the membrane and stimulates (45)Ca(2+) uptake. These results demonstrate the existence of rapid non-classical pathways in immature Sertoli cells regulated by FSH and testosterone.

  6. Electrical stimulation induces calcium-dependent up-regulation of neuregulin-1β in dystrophic skeletal muscle cell lines.

    PubMed

    Juretić, Nevenka; Jorquera, Gonzalo; Caviedes, Pablo; Jaimovich, Enrique; Riveros, Nora

    2012-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a neuromuscular disease originated by reduced or no expression of dystrophin, a cytoskeletal protein that provides structural integrity to muscle fibres. A promising pharmacological treatment for DMD aims to increase the level of a structural dystrophin homolog called utrophin. Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1), a growth factor that potentiates myogenesis, induces utrophin expression in skeletal muscle cells. Microarray analysis of total gene expression allowed us to determine that neuregulin-1β (NRG-1β) is one of 150 differentially expressed genes in electrically stimulated (400 pulses, 1 ms, 45 Hz) dystrophic human skeletal muscle cells (RCDMD). We investigated the effect of depolarization, and the involvement of intracellular Ca(2+) and PKC isoforms on NRG-1β expression in dystrophic myotubes. Electrical stimulation of RCDMD increased NRG-1β mRNA and protein levels, and mRNA enhancement was abolished by actinomycin D. NRG-1β transcription was inhibited by BAPTA-AM, an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, and by inhibitors of IP(3)-dependent slow Ca(2+) transients, like 2-APB, Ly 294002 and Xestospongin B. Ryanodine, a fast Ca(2+) signal inhibitor, had no effect on electrical stimulation-induced expression. BIM VI (general inhibitor of PKC isoforms) and Gö 6976 (specific inhibitor of Ca(2+)-dependent PKC isoforms) abolished NRG-1β mRNA induction. Our results suggest that depolarization induced slow Ca(2+) signals stimulate NRG-1β transcription in RCDMD cells, and that Ca(2+)-dependent PKC isoforms are involved in this process. Based on utrophin's ability to partially compensate dystrophin disfunction, knowledge on the mechanism involved on NRG-1 up-regulation could be important for new therapeutic strategies design.

  7. Possible role of the transverse tubules in accumulating calcium released from the terminal cisternae by stimulation and drugs.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, C P; Narayan, S

    1982-04-01

    The size of the rapidly exchanging and slowly exchanging Ca2+ pools were estimated in frog sartorius muscles. A new technique using Sr2+ to extract the rapidly exchanging pool was used. The method avoids problems of kinetic analysis. The results showed that stimulation causes Ca2+ to be translocated from a compartment which exchanges with a time constant of 800 min to a compartment that can be washed out in 15 min. This is likely a transfer from the terminal cisternae to the transverse tubule. Calculations show that this would represent 0.9% of the Ca2+ released in each twitch. After 300 twitches produced by a 1-Hz stimulation, this accumulation could have increased the Ca concentration in the transverse tubules to 70 mM. A marked increase of Ca2+ concentration of this magnitude in the transverse tubules would raise the mechanical threshold for excitation--contraction coupling and would decrease the efficiency of coupling between contraction and excitation. This could be the explanation of the fatigue observed during this kind of stimulation.

  8. Enhanced calcium responses to serotonin receptor stimulation in T-lymphocytes from schizophrenic patients--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Genius, J; Schellenberg, A; Tchana-Duope, L; Hartmann, N; Giegling, I; Hartmann, A; Benninghoff, J; Rujescu, D

    2015-03-04

    Even if more extensively investigated in affective disorders, the serotonergic system is likely to be also implicated in modulating the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, where it closely interacts with the dopaminergic and glutamatergic system. To substantiate this notion, we studied the intensity and dynamics of cellular Ca(2+) responses to serotonin (5-hydoxytryptamine, 5-HT) in peripheral lymphocytes taken from currently non-psychotic schizophrenic patients. To this aim, peripheral lymphocytes were freshly obtained from healthy controls and a naturalistic collective of patients with schizophrenia in remission. Intracellular Ca(2+) responses were recorded in real-time by ratiometric fluorometry after 5-HT or phythaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation, which served as an internal reference for Ca(2+) responsivity to non-specific stimulation. The intracellular Ca(2+) peak early after applying the 5-HT trigger was significantly elevated in schizophrenic patients. No significant differences of Ca(2+) peak levels were seen in response to stimulation with the mitogenic agent PHA, although responses to 5-HT and PHA were positively correlated in individual patients or controls. In conclusion, the serotonergic response patterns in peripheral lymphocytes from schizophrenic patients seem to be elevated, if employing sensitive tools like determination of intracellular Ca(2+) responses. Our observations suggest that the participation of serotonergic neurotransmitter system in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia may deserve more interest, even if it should only act as a modulator on the main pathology in the dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems. We hope that this pilot study will prompt further studies with larger patient collectives to revisit this question.

  9. Localization of intracellular calcium release in cells injured by venom from the ectoparasitoid Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and dependence of calcium mobilization on G-protein activation.

    PubMed

    Rivers, David B; Crawley, Timothy; Bauser, Holly

    2005-02-01

    Venom from the ectoparasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis induces cellular injury that appears to involve the release of intracellular calcium stores via the activation of phospholipase C, and culminates in oncotic death. A linkage between release of intracellular Ca2+ and oncosis has not been clearly established and was the focus of this study. When BTI-TN-5B1-4 cells were treated with suramin, an uncoupler of G-proteins, venom-induced swelling and oncotic death were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner for at least 24 h. Suramin also blocked increases in free cytosolic [Ca2+], arguing that venom induces calcium mobilization through G-protein signaling pathways. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was predicted to be the source of intracellular calcium release, but labeling with the fluorescent probe ER-tracker revealed no indication of organelle swelling or loss of membrane integrity as would be expected if the Ca(2+)-ATPase pump was disabled by crude venom. Incubation of cell monolayers with calmodulin or nitrendipine, modulators of ER calcium release channels, neither attenuated nor augmented the effects of wasp venom. These results suggest that wasp venom stimulates calcium release from ER compartments distinct from RyRs, L-type Ca2+ channels, and the Ca(2+)-ATPase pump, or calcium is released from some other intracellular store. A reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential delta psi(m) appeared to precede a rise in cytosolic free Ca2+ as evidenced by fluorescent microscopy using the calcium-sensitive probe fluo-4 AM. This argues that the initial insult to the cell resulting from venom elicits a rapid loss of (delta psi(m)), followed by unregulated calcium efflux from mitochondria into the cytosol. Mobilization of calcium in this fashion could stimulate cAMP formation, and subsequently promote calcium release from NAADP-sensitive stores.

  10. A calmodulin-stimulated Ca2+ pump in plasma-membrane vesicles from Trypanosoma brucei; selective inhibition by pentamidine.

    PubMed Central

    Benaim, G; Lopez-Estraño, C; Docampo, R; Moreno, S N

    1993-01-01

    Despite previous reports [McLaughlin (1985) Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 15, 189-201; Ghosh, Ray, Sarkar and Bhaduri (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 11345-11351; Mazumder, Mukherjee, Ghosh, Ray and Bhaduri (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 18440-18446] that the plasma membrane of different trypanosomatids only contains Ca(2+)-ATPase that does not show any demonstrable dependence on Mg2+, a high-affinity (Ca(2+)-Mg2+)-ATPase was demonstrated in the plasma membrane of Trypanosoma brucei. The enzyme became saturated with micromolar amounts of Ca2+, reaching a Vmax. of 3.45 +/- 0.66 nmol of ATP/min per mg of protein. The Km,app. for Ca2+ was 0.52 +/- 0.03 microM. This was decreased to 0.23 +/- 0.05 microM, and the Vmax. was increased to 6.36 +/- 0.22 nmol of ATP/min per mg of protein (about 85%), when calmodulin was present. T. brucei plasma-membrane vesicles accumulated Ca2+ on addition of ATP only when Mg2+ was present, and released it to addition of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. In addition, this Ca2+ transport was stimulated by calmodulin. Addition of NaCl to Ca(2+)-loaded T. brucei plasma-membrane vesicles did not result in Ca2+ release, thus suggesting the absence of a Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in these parasites. Therefore the (Ca(2+)-Mg2+)-ATPase would be the only mechanism so far described that is responsible for the long-term fine tuning of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration of these parasites. The trypanocidal drug pentamidine inhibited the T. brucei plasma-membrane (Ca(2+)-Mg2+)-ATPase and Ca2+ transport at concentrations that had no effect on the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity of human or pig erythrocytes. In this latter case, pentamidine behaved as a weak calmodulin antagonist, since it inhibited the stimulation of the erythrocyte Ca(2+)-ATPase by calmodulin. PMID:8280074

  11. The reduced state of the plastoquinone pool is required for chloroplast-mediated stomatal closure in response to calcium stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Hua; He, En-Ming; Chen, Juan; Guo, Ying; Chen, Juan; Liu, Xiang; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2016-04-01

    Besides their participation in photosynthesis, leaf chloroplasts function in plant responses to stimuli, yet how they direct stimulus-induced stomatal movement remains elusive. Here, we showed that over-reduction of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool by dibromothymoquinone (DBMIB) was closely associated with stomatal closure in plants which required chloroplastic H2O2 generation in the mesophyll. External application of H2 O2 reduced the PQ pool, whereas the cell-permeable reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) reversed the DBMIB-induced over-reduction of the PQ pool and stomatal closure. Mesophyll chloroplasts are key players of extracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)o)-induced stomatal closure, but when treated with either 3-(3',4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) or NAC they failed to facilitate Ca(2+)o-induced stomatal closure due to the inhibition of chloroplastic H2 O2 synthesis in mesophyll. Similarly, the Arabidopsis electron transfer chain-related mutants npq4-1, stn7 and cas-1 exhibited diverse responses to Ca(2+)o or DBMIB. Transcriptome analysis also demonstrated that the PQ pool signaling pathway shared common responsive genes with the H2 O2 signaling pathway. These results implicated a mechanism for chloroplast-mediated stomatal closure involving the generation of mesophyll chloroplastic H2O2 based on the reduced state of the PQ pool, which is calcium-sensing receptor (CAS) and LHCII phosphorylation dependent.

  12. Autoinhibition of a calmodulin-dependent calcium pump involves a structure in the stalk that connects the transmembrane domain to the ATPase catalytic domain.

    PubMed

    Curran, A C; Hwang, I; Corbin, J; Martinez, S; Rayle, D; Sze, H; Harper, J F

    2000-09-29

    The regulation of Ca(2+)-pumps is important for controlling [Ca(2+)] in the cytosol and organelles of all eukaryotes. Here, we report a genetic strategy to identify residues that function in autoinhibition of a novel calmodulin-activated Ca(2+)-pump with an N-terminal regulatory domain (isoform ACA2 from Arabidopsis). Mutant pumps with constitutive activity were identified by complementation of a yeast (K616) deficient in two Ca(2+)-pumps. Fifteen mutations were found that disrupted a segment of the N-terminal autoinhibitor located between Lys(23) and Arg(54). Three mutations (E167K, D219N, and E341K) were found associated with the stalk that connects the ATPase catalytic domain (head) and with the transmembrane domain. Enzyme assays indicated that the stalk mutations resulted in calmodulin-independent activity, with V(max), K(mATP), and K(mCa(2+)) similar to that of a pump in which the N-terminal autoinhibitor had been deleted. A highly conservative substitution at Asp(219) (D219E) still produced a deregulated pump, indicating that the autoinhibitory structure in the stalk is highly sensitive to perturbation. In plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases from yeast and plants, similarly positioned mutations resulted in hyperactive pumps. Together, these results suggest that a structural feature of the stalk is of general importance in regulating diverse P-type ATPases.

  13. Autoinhibition of a calmodulin-dependent calcium pump involves a structure in the stalk that connects the transmembrane domain to the ATPase catalytic domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, A. C.; Hwang, I.; Corbin, J.; Martinez, S.; Rayle, D.; Sze, H.; Harper, J. F.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The regulation of Ca(2+)-pumps is important for controlling [Ca(2+)] in the cytosol and organelles of all eukaryotes. Here, we report a genetic strategy to identify residues that function in autoinhibition of a novel calmodulin-activated Ca(2+)-pump with an N-terminal regulatory domain (isoform ACA2 from Arabidopsis). Mutant pumps with constitutive activity were identified by complementation of a yeast (K616) deficient in two Ca(2+)-pumps. Fifteen mutations were found that disrupted a segment of the N-terminal autoinhibitor located between Lys(23) and Arg(54). Three mutations (E167K, D219N, and E341K) were found associated with the stalk that connects the ATPase catalytic domain (head) and with the transmembrane domain. Enzyme assays indicated that the stalk mutations resulted in calmodulin-independent activity, with V(max), K(mATP), and K(mCa(2+)) similar to that of a pump in which the N-terminal autoinhibitor had been deleted. A highly conservative substitution at Asp(219) (D219E) still produced a deregulated pump, indicating that the autoinhibitory structure in the stalk is highly sensitive to perturbation. In plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases from yeast and plants, similarly positioned mutations resulted in hyperactive pumps. Together, these results suggest that a structural feature of the stalk is of general importance in regulating diverse P-type ATPases.

  14. Room temperature low threshold stimulated emission of electron beam-pumped AlGaN-based deep UV laser structures emitting below 250 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforov, A.; Zhang, W.; Woodward, J.; Yin, J.; Pecora, E.; Zhou, L.; Dal Negro, L.; Paiella, R.; Smith, D.; Moustakas, T.; Moldawer, A.

    2012-02-01

    The development of semiconductor lasers, operating in the deep UV, will find a number of applications such as identification of biological and chemical agents, non-line-off -sight free space communications and point of site medical diagnostics. In this paper we report the growth of QW laser structures in the configuration 6H-SiC / AlN / AlGaN - AlN MQWs /AlN by PAMBE. A novel growth mode was developed in which arriving active nitrogen species and aluminum atoms dissolve in the excess liquid Ga covering the surface of the growing film and incorporate into the AlGaN film from the liquid phase. This liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) growth was found to introduce band structure potential fluctuations and high-density of nanocluster-like features within the AlGaN wells. The structure and microstructure of these devices were investigated by AFM, XRD and TEM and their emission properties were investigated by electron beam pumping at room temperature. The investigated laser structures were found to emit in the 235-250 nm range and stimulated emission was observed at a threshold power of 20-40 KW / cm^2. This low threshold value is attributed to nanoclusters-like features in the wells.

  15. Wafer-scale crack-free AlGaN on GaN through two-step selective-area growth for optically pumped stimulated emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Young-Ho; Bae, Sung-Bum; Kim, Sung-Bock; Kim, Dong Churl; Leem, Young Ahn; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Nam, Eun-Soo

    2016-07-01

    Crack-free AlGaN template has been successfully grown over entire 2-in. wafer by using 2-step selective-area growth (SAG). The GaN truncated structure was obtained by vertical growth mode with low growth temperature. AlGaN of second step was grown under lateral growth mode. Low pressure enhanced the relative ratio of lateral to vertical growth rate as well as absolute overall growth rate. High V/III ratio was favorable for lateral growth mode. Crack-free planar AlGaN was obtained under low pressure of 30 Torr and high V/III ratio of 4400. The AlGaN was crack-free over entire 2-in. wafer and had quite uniform Al-mole fraction. The dislocation density of the AlGaN with 20% Al-composition was as low as ~7.6×108 /cm2, measured by cathodoluminescence. GaN/AlGaN multi-quantum well (MQW) with cladding and waveguide layers were grown on the crack-free AlGaN template with low dislocation density. It was confirmed that the MQW on the AlGaN template emitted the stimulated emission at 355.5 nm through optical pumping experiment. The AlGaN obtained by 2-step SAG would provide high crystal quality for highly-efficient optoelectronic devices as well as the ultraviolet laser diode.

  16. Nicotine stimulates adhesion molecular expression via calcium influx and mitogen-activated protein kinases in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajing; Wang, Zhaoxia; Zhou, Ying; Liu, Liming; Zhao, Yangxing; Yao, Chenjiang; Wang, Lianyun; Qiao, Zhongdong

    2006-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of nicotine on endothelium dysfunction and development of vascular diseases, we investigated the influence on adhesion molecular expression mediated by nicotine and the mechanism of this effect in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The result showed that nicotine could induce surface/soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) and endothelial selectin (E-selectin) expression in a time-response decline manner and the peak appeared at 15 min. This action could be mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (MAPK/ERK1/2) and MAPK/p38 because their activation could be distinctly blocked by MAPK inhibitors, PD098059 or SB203580. Mecamylamine (non-selective nicotinic receptor inhibitor), alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha7 nicotinic receptor inhibitor) could block Ca2+ accumulation, and then, prevented the phosphorylation on ERK1/2 and p38. They also inhibited the surface/soluble VCAM-1, E-selectin production of HUVECs modulated by nicotine. Therefore, we concluded that: (i) nicotine obviously up-regulates VCAM-1 and E-selectin expression at 15 min in HUVECs, (ii) nicotine activates HUVECs triggered by the ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation with an involvement of intracellular calcium mobilization chiefly mediated by alpha7 nicotinic receptor, (iii) intracellular Ca2+ activates a sequential pathway from alpha7 nicotinic receptor to the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38. These elucidate that nicotine activates HUVECs through fast signal transduction pathway and arguments their capacity of adhesion molecular production. Further more nicotine may contribute its influence to the progression of vascular disease such as atherosclerotic lesion.

  17. Differential effects of arsenic on intracellular free calcium levels and the proliferative response of murine mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Goytia-Acevedo, Raquel C; Cebrian, Mariano E; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S

    2003-08-01

    This study examined the effects of sodium arsenite treatment on free [Ca(2+)]i and cell death in mitogen-activated murine lymphocytes. The main findings of this study were that simultaneous sodium arsenite treatment inhibited PHA- but not Con A-induced T cell proliferation, induced a higher increase in free [Ca(2+)]i and an early increase in the proportion of dead cells in PHA than in Con A activated cells. Sodium arsenite pre-treatment reduced both PHA- and Con A-induced T-cell proliferation. Phorbol myristate ester (PMA) did not prevent the inhibitory effects of both sodium arsenite treatments, suggesting that sodium arsenite did not significantly decreased PKC activation or that its effects occurred on events parallel to PKC activation. Both PHA and Con A increased free [Ca(2+)]i after stimulation, yet the effect was more pronounced in mitogen-activated cells simultaneously treated with sodium arsenite and particularly in those activated with PHA. The increase in free [Ca(2+)]i was in agreement with the early cell death induced by sodium arsenite in PHA-activated cells, a finding consistent with the inhibitory effects on PHA-induced proliferation. Sodium arsenite-induced cell death occurred faster in PHA-activated cells. Further studies are needed to ascertain the relationships between the effects of sodium arsenite on free [Ca(2+)]i levels and the type of cell death induced by sodium arsenite and their relevance for the proliferative response of T cells.

  18. Histamine H3 receptor activation stimulates calcium mobilization in a subpopulation of rat striatal neurons in primary culture, but not in synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Ramírez, Nayeli; Montejo-López, Wilber; López-Méndez, María-Cristina; Guerrero-Hernández, Agustín; Molina-Hernández, Anayansi; García-Hernández, Ubaldo; Arias-Montaño, José-Antonio

    2016-12-01

    The histamine H3 receptor (H3R) is abundantly expressed in the Central Nervous System where it regulates several functions pre and postsynaptically. H3Rs couple to Gαi/o proteins and trigger or modulate several intracellular signaling pathways, including the cAMP/PKA pathway and the opening of N- and P/Q-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. In transfected cells, activation of the human H3R of 445 amino acids (hH3R445) results in phospholipase C (PLC) stimulation and release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores. In this work we have studied whether H3R activation induces Ca(2+) mobilization from intracellular stores in native systems, either isolated nerve terminals (synaptosomes) or neurons in primary culture. In rat striatal synaptosomes H3R activation induced inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) formation but failed to increase the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). In striatal primary cultures H3R activation resulted in IP3 formation and increased the [Ca(2+)]i in 18 out of 70 cells that responded with an elevation in the [Ca(2+)]i to membrane depolarization with KCl (100 mM) as evaluated by microfluorometry. Confocal microscopy studies corroborated the increase in [Ca(2+)]i induced by H3R activation in a fraction of those cells that were responsive to membrane depolarization. These results indicate that H3R activation stimulates the PLC/IP3/Ca(2+) pathway but only in a subpopulation of striatal neurons.

  19. Electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced relaxations turn into contractions upon removal of extracellular calcium in rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Melike Hacer; Ozturk, Elif Inci; Uma, Serdar

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, we aimed to examine the effect of blockade of L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCC) and in addition the removal of extracellular Ca(2+), on EFS-induced relaxations in rings of rat mesenteric artery. EFS applied to the tissues precontracted with phenylephrine caused relaxations which were markedly inhibited by nifedipine (10(-7)M) and tetraethylammonium (TEA) (1mM). Addition of LTCC opener BAY K 8644 (10(-7)M) failed to enhance the relaxations. Upon removal of Ca(2+), EFS with the same stimulation parameters produced frequency-dependent transient contractions. Tetrodotoxin (10(-6)M), capsaicin (10(-5)M) and removal of endothelium did not alter these contractions suggesting that they were not neural in origin and endothelium-derived contracting factors were unlikely to be involved. However, they were increased by nearly 40% in response to BAY K 8644 (10(-7)M) and were inhibited by nifedipine (10(-7)M), indicating that activation of the LTCCs was essential. Inositol triphosphate (InsP3) receptor antagonist 2-APB (10(-4)M) significantly reduced, and high concentration of caffeine (20mM) almost totally suppressed the contractions. These results suggest that in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) EFS through membrane depolarization, evokes the opening of the LTCCs which subsequently leads to the release of Ca(2+) from internal stores via InsP3 receptors, a phenomenon known as Ca(2+) channel-induced Ca(2+) release (CCICR), to trigger vasoconstriction. That activation of LTCCs causes arterial relaxation or contraction depending on the Ca(2+) status apparently exemplifies how the same messenger fulfils opposing physiological functions in a given cell.

  20. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  1. The Relationship between Membrane Potential and Calcium Dynamics in Glucose-Stimulated Beta Cell Syncytium in Acute Mouse Pancreas Tissue Slices

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Evan W.; Slak Rupnik, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    Oscillatory electrical activity is regarded as a hallmark of the pancreatic beta cell glucose-dependent excitability pattern. Electrophysiologically recorded membrane potential oscillations in beta cells are associated with in-phase oscillatory cytosolic calcium activity ([Ca2+]i) measured with fluorescent probes. Recent high spatial and temporal resolution confocal imaging revealed that glucose stimulation of beta cells in intact islets within acute tissue slices produces a [Ca2+]i change with initial transient phase followed by a plateau phase with highly synchronized [Ca2+]i oscillations. Here, we aimed to correlate the plateau [Ca2+]i oscillations with the oscillations of membrane potential using patch-clamp and for the first time high resolution voltage-sensitive dye based confocal imaging. Our results demonstrated that the glucose-evoked membrane potential oscillations spread over the islet in a wave-like manner, their durations and wave velocities being comparable to the ones for [Ca2+]i oscillations and waves. High temporal resolution simultaneous records of membrane potential and [Ca2+]i confirmed tight but nevertheless limited coupling of the two processes, with membrane depolarization preceding the [Ca2+]i increase. The potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium increased the velocity at which oscillations advanced over the islet by several-fold while, at the same time, emphasized differences in kinetics of the membrane potential and the [Ca2+]i. The combination of both imaging techniques provides a powerful tool that will help us attain deeper knowledge of the beta cell network. PMID:24324777

  2. Phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase II at T286 enhances invasion and migration of human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Mengna; Evans, Hamish; Gilchrist, Jackson; Mayhew, Jack; Hoffman, Alexander; Pearsall, Elizabeth Ann; Jankowski, Helen; Brzozowski, Joshua Stephen; Skelding, Kathryn Anne

    2016-01-01

    Calcium/calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a multi-functional kinase that controls a range of cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The biological properties of CaMKII are regulated by multi-site phosphorylation. However, the role that CaMKII phosphorylation plays in cancer cell metastasis has not been examined. We demonstrate herein that CaMKII expression and phosphorylation at T286 is increased in breast cancer when compared to normal breast tissue, and that increased CAMK2 mRNA is associated with poor breast cancer patient prognosis (worse overall and distant metastasis free survival). Additionally, we show that overexpression of WT, T286D and T286V forms of CaMKII in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells increases invasion, migration and anchorage independent growth, and that overexpression of the T286D phosphomimic leads to a further increase in the invasive, migratory and anchorage independent growth capacity of these cells. Pharmacological inhibition of CaMKII decreases MDA-MB-231 migration and invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that overexpression of T286D, but not WT or T286V-CaMKII, leads to phosphorylation of FAK, STAT5a, and Akt. These results demonstrate a novel function for phosphorylation of CaMKII at T286 in the control of breast cancer metastasis, offering a promising target for the development of therapeutics to prevent breast cancer metastasis. PMID:27605043

  3. Stimulation of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels inhibits neurogenic contraction of human bladder from patients with urinary symptoms and reverses acetic acid-induced bladder hyperactivity in rats.

    PubMed

    La Fuente, José M; Fernández, Argentina; Cuevas, Pedro; González-Corrochano, Rocío; Chen, Mao Xiang; Angulo, Javier

    2014-07-15

    We have analysed the effects of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BK) stimulation on neurogenic and myogenic contraction of human bladder from healthy subjects and patients with urinary symptoms and evaluated the efficacy of activating BK to relief bladder hyperactivity in rats. Bladder specimens were obtained from organ donors and from men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Contractions elicited by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and carbachol (CCh) were evaluated in isolated bladder strips. in vivo cystometric recordings were obtained in anesthetized rats under control and acetic acid-induced hyperactive conditions. Neurogenic contractions of human bladder were potentiated by blockade of BK and small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (SK) but were unaffected by the blockade of intermediate calcium-activated potassium channels (IK). EFS-induced contractions were inhibited by BK stimulation with NS-8 or NS1619 or by SK/IK stimulation with NS309 (3µM). CCh-induced contractions were not modified by blockade or stimulation of BK, IK or SK. The anti-cholinergic agent, oxybutynin (0.3µM) inhibited either neurogenic or CCh-induced contractions. Neurogenic contractions of bladders from BPH patients were less sensitive to BK inhibition and more sensitive to BK activation than healthy bladders. The BK activator, NS-8 (5mg/kg; i.v.), reversed bladder hyperactivity induced by acetic acid in rats, while oxybutynin was ineffective. NS-8 did not significantly impact blood pressure or heart rate. BK stimulation specifically inhibits neurogenic contractions in patients with urinary symptoms and relieves bladder hyperactivity in vivo without compromising bladder contractile capacity or cardiovascular safety, supporting its potential therapeutic use for relieving bladder overactivity.

  4. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor-mediated uptake of sup 45 Ca sup 2+ by proteoliposomes and cultured rat sertoli cells: Evidence for involvement of voltage-activated and voltage-independent calcium channels

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, P.; Reichert, L.E. Jr. )

    1989-12-01

    We have previously reported incorporation into liposomes of Triton X-100-solubilized FSH receptor-G-protein complexes derived from purified bovine calf testis membranes. In the present study we have used this model system to show that FSH induces flux of 45Ca2+ into such proteoliposomes in a hormone-specific concentration-dependent manner. FSH, inactivated by boiling, had no stimulatory effect on 45Ca2+ flux, nor did isolated alpha- or beta-subunits of FSH. Addition of GTP (or its analogs 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate and guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate)) or sodium fluoride (in the presence or absence of GTP or its analogs) failed to induce 45Ca2+ flux into proteoliposomes, suggesting that the uptake of 45Ca2+ was receptor, and not G-protein, related. Voltage-independent (ruthenium red and gadolinium chloride) and voltage-activated (methyoxyverapamil and nifedipine) calcium channel-blocking agents reduced FSH-stimulated 45Ca2+ flux into proteoliposomes to control levels. FSH also induced uptake of 45Ca2+ by cultured rat Sertoli cells. Ruthenium red and gadolinium chloride had no effect on basal levels of 45Ca2+ uptake or estradiol secretion by cultured rat Sertoli cells, nor did methoxyverapamil or nifedipine. All four calcium channel blockers, however, were able to reduce FSH-induced 45Ca2+ uptake to basal levels and FSH-stimulated conversion of androstenedione to estradiol by up to 50%, indicating an involvement of Ca2+ in FSH-stimulated steroidogenesis. Our results suggest that the well documented changes in intracellular calcium levels consequent to FSH binding may be due, at least in part, to an influx of calcium through FSH receptor-regulated calcium channels.

  5. Temporal changes in the calcium-dependence of the histamine H1-receptor-stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation in guinea-pig cerebral cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, J.; Brown, A. M.; Hill, S. J.

    1989-01-01

    1. 2-Chloroadenosine (2CA) causes a maintained rise in adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) content of guinea-pig cerebral cortical slices which is augmented by addition of histamine. We have investigated the temporal profile of the sensitivity of this response to calcium. 2. Rapid removal of extracellular calcium with EGTA (5 mM) at 2CA (30 microM)-induced steady state caused a slight increase in the cyclic AMP response to 2CA alone and completely abolished the augmentation produced by histamine (0.1 mM) added 20 min later. When EGTA was added only 2 min before histamine, the augmentation was reduced by 72%. 3. The calcium sensitivity of the histamine response was also indicated in studies in which EGTA was added 1 or 3 min after histamine at 2CA-induced steady state. Following addition of EGTA at either of these times, the augmentation was not maintained. 4. When calcium was rapidly removed with EGTA once a steady state level of cyclic AMP had been achieved with histamine, the augmentation response was maintained. This was despite the fact that EGTA had a similar effect on both extracellular free calcium and tissue calcium content when it was applied before or after histamine. 5. The 2CA response was augmented by phorbol esters (which mimic the actions of diacylglycerol) in a calcium-independent manner. 6. These results suggest that calcium is important for the initiation and early stages of the histamine-induced augmentation response. The apparent lack of calcium sensitivity of the response at later stages could mean that calcium is not involved in the maintenance of the response or that the intracellular machinery involved in the augmentation process becomes more sensitive to calcium as the response progresses, such that it becomes able to operate at a much lower level of intracellular calcium. A possible role for diacylglycerol in the maintenance of the response is discussed. PMID:2558762

  6. Electrical stimulation modulates Wnt signaling and regulates genes for the motor endplate and calcium binding in muscle of rats with spinal cord transection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in muscle atrophy and a shift of slow oxidative to fast glycolytic fibers. Electrical stimulation (ES) at least partially restores muscle mass and fiber type distribution. The objective of this study was to was to characterize the early molecular adaptations that occur in rat soleus muscle after initiating isometric resistance exercise by ES for one hour per day for 1, 3 or 7 days when ES was begun 16 weeks after SCI. Additionally, changes in mRNA levels after ES were compared with those induced in soleus at the same time points after gastrocnemius tenotomy (GA). Results ES increased expression of Hey1 and Pitx2 suggesting increased Notch and Wnt signaling, respectively, but did not normalize RCAN1.4, a measure of calcineurin/NFAT signaling, or PGC-1ß mRNA levels. ES increased PGC-1α expression but not that of slow myofibrillar genes. Microarray analysis showed that after ES, genes coding for calcium binding proteins and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors were increased, and the expression of genes involved in blood vessel formation and morphogenesis was altered. Of the 165 genes altered by ES only 16 were also differentially expressed after GA, of which 12 were altered in the same direction by ES and GA. In contrast to ES, GA induced expression of genes related to oxidative phosphorylation. Conclusions Notch and Wnt signaling may be involved in ES-induced increases in the mass of paralyzed muscle. Molecular adaptations of paralyzed soleus to resistance exercise are delayed or defective compared to normally innervated muscle. PMID:23914941

  7. Stretch-activated calcium channels relay fast calcium waves propagated by calcium-induced calcium influx.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Lionel F

    2007-03-01

    For nearly 30 years, fast calcium waves have been attributed to a regenerative process propagated by CICR (calcium-induced calcium release) from the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, I propose a model containing a new subclass of fast calcium waves which is propagated by CICI (calcium-induced calcium influx) through the plasma membrane. They are called fast CICI waves. These move at the order of 100 to 1000 microm/s (at 20 degrees C), rather than the order of 3 to 30 microm/s found for CICR. Moreover, in this proposed subclass, the calcium influx which drives calcium waves is relayed by stretch-activated calcium channels. This model is based upon reports from approx. 60 various systems. In seven of these reports, calcium waves were imaged, and, in five of these, evidence was presented that these waves were regenerated by CICI. Much of this model involves waves that move along functioning flagella and cilia. In these systems, waves of local calcium influx are thought to cause waves of local contraction by inducing the sliding of dynein or of kinesin past tubulin microtubules. Other cells which are reported to exhibit waves, which move at speeds in the fast CICI range, include ones from a dozen protozoa, three polychaete worms, three molluscs, a bryozoan, two sea urchins, one arthropod, four insects, Amphioxus, frogs, two fish and a vascular plant (Equisetum), together with numerous healthy, as well as cancerous, mammalian cells, including ones from human. In two of these systems, very gentle local mechanical stimulation is reported to initiate waves. In these non-flagellar systems, the calcium influxes are thought to speed the sliding of actinomyosin filaments past each other. Finally, I propose that this mechanochemical model could be tested by seeing if gentle mechanical stimulation induces waves in more of these systems and, more importantly, by imaging the predicted calcium waves in more of them.

  8. Effect of calcium ions on the evolution of biofouling by Bacillus subtilis in plate heat exchangers simulating the heat pump system used with treated sewage in the 2008 Olympic Village.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lei; Chen, Xiao Dong; Yang, Qian Peng; Chen, Jin Chun; Shi, Lin; Li, Qiong

    2012-06-01

    Heat pump systems using treated sewage water as the heat source were used in the Beijing Olympic Village for domestic heating and cooling. However, considerable biofouling occurred in the plate heat exchangers used in the heat pump system, greatly limiting the system efficiency. This study investigates the biofouling characteristics using a plate heat exchanger in parallel with a flow cell system to focus on the effect of calcium ions on the biofilm development. The interactions between the microorganisms and Ca(2+) enhances both the extent and the rate of biofilm development with increasing Ca(2+) concentration, leading to increased heat transfer and flow resistances. Three stages of biofouling development were identified in the presence of Ca(2+) from different biofouling mass growth rates with an initial stage, a rapid growth stage and an extended growth stage. Each growth stage had different biofouling morphologies influenced by the Ca(2+) concentration. The effects of Ca(2+) on the biofouling heat transfer and flow resistances had a synergistic effect related to both the biofouling mass and the morphology. The effect of Ca(2+) on the biofouling development was most prominent during the rapid growth stage.

  9. Altered calcium pump and secondary deficiency of γ-sarcoglycan and microspan in sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes isolated from δ-sarcoglycan knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Solares-Pérez, Alhondra; Álvarez, Rocío; Crosbie, Rachelle H.; Vega-Moreno, Jesús; Medina-Monares, Joel; Estrada, Francisco J.; Ortega, Alicia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoglycans (SGs) and sarcospan (SSPN) are transmembrane proteins of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. Mutations in the genes encoding SGs cause many inherited forms of muscular dystrophy. In this study, using purified membranes of wild-type (WT) and δ-SG knockout (KO) mice, we found the specific localization of the SG-SSPN isoforms in transverse tubules (TT) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes. Immunoblotting revealed that the absence of δ-SG isoforms in TT and SR results in a secondary deficiency of γ-SG and µSPN. Our results showed augmented ATP hydrolytic activity, ATP-dependent calcium uptake and passive calcium efflux, probably through SERCA1 in KO compared to WT mice. Furthermore, we found a conformational change in SERCA1 isolated from KO muscle as demonstrated by calorimetric analysis. Following these alterations with mechanical properties, we found an increase in force in KO muscle with the same rate of fatigue but with a decreased fatigue recovery compared to WT. Together our observations suggest, for the first time, that the δ-SG isoforms may stabilize the expression of γ-SG and µSPN in the TT and SR membranes and that this possible complex may play a role in the maintenance of a stable level of resting cytosolic calcium concentration in skeletal muscle. PMID:20638123

  10. Optically pumped isotopic ammonia laser system

    DOEpatents

    Buchwald, Melvin I.; Jones, Claude R.; Nelson, Leonard Y.

    1982-01-01

    An optically pumped isotopic ammonia laser system which is capable of producing a plurality of frequencies in the middle infrared spectral region. Two optical pumping mechanisms are disclosed, i.e., pumping on R(J) and lasing on P(J) in response to enhancement of rotational cascade lasing including stimulated Raman effects, and, pumping on R(J) and lasing on P(J+2). The disclosed apparatus for optical pumping include a hole coupled cavity and a grating coupled cavity.

  11. ATPase pumps in osteoclasts and osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Francis, Martin J O; Lees, Rita L; Trujillo, Elisa; Martín-Vasallo, Pablo; Heersche, Johan N M; Mobasheri, Ali

    2002-05-01

    Osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts are specialised cells of bone that play crucial roles in the formation, maintenance and resorption of bone matrix. Bone formation and resorption critically depend on optimal intracellular calcium and phosphate homeostasis and on the expression and activity of plasma membrane transport systems in all three cell types. Osteotropic agents, mechanical stimulation and intracellular pH are important parameters that determine the fate of bone matrix and influence the activity, expression, regulation and cell surface abundance of plasma membrane transport systems. In this paper the role of ATPase pumps is reviewed in the context of their expression in bone cells, their contribution to ion homeostasis and their relation to other transport systems regulating bone turnover.

  12. The Biological Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Rocha, C. L.

    2003-12-01

    Despite having residence times (τ) that exceed the ˜1,000yr mixing time of the ocean (Broecker and Peng, 1982), many dissolved constituents of seawater have distributions that vary with depth and from place to place. For instance, silicic acid (τ=1.5×104 yr), nitrate (τ=3,000 yr), phosphate (τ=(1-5)×104 yr), and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC; τ=8.3×104 yr) are generally present in low concentrations in surface waters and at much higher concentrations below the thermocline (Figure 1). Additionally, their concentrations are higher in older deep waters than they are in the younger waters of the deep sea (Figure 2). This is the general distribution exhibited by elements and compounds taking part in biological processes in the ocean and is generally referred to as a "nutrient-type" distribution. (16K)Figure 1. Depth profiles of: (a) ∑CO2, (b) dissolved CO2, (c) silicic acid, (d) nitrate, and (e) phosphate from the Indian Ocean (27° 4' S, 56° 58' E; GEOSECS Station 427) (source Weiss et al., 1983). (22K)Figure 2. Nitrate concentrations along the great ocean conveyor at 2,000 m depth (source Levitus et al., 1994, by way of the LDEO/IRI Data Library). Both the lateral and vertical gradients in the concentrations of nutrients result from "the biological pump" (Figure 3). Dissolved inorganic materials (e.g., CO2, NO3-, PO43-, Si(OH)4) are fixed into particulate organic matter (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins) and biominerals (silica and calcium carbonate) by phytoplankton in surface waters. Some of these particles are subsequently transported, by sinking, into the deep. The bulk of the organic material and biominerals decomposes in the upper ocean via dissolution, zooplankton grazing, and microbial hydrolysis, but a significant supply of material does survive to reach the deep sea and sediments. Thus, just as biological uptake removes certain dissolved inorganic materials in surface waters, the decomposition of sinking biogenic particles provides a source of

  13. PUMP CONSTRUCTION

    DOEpatents

    Strickland, G.; Horn, F.L.; White, H.T.

    1960-09-27

    A pump which utilizes the fluid being pumped through it as its lubricating fluid is described. This is achieved by means of an improved bearing construction in a pump of the enclosed or canned rotor type. At the outlet end of the pump, adjacent to an impeller mechanism, there is a bypass which conveys some of the pumped fluid to a chamber at the inlet end of the pump. After this chamber becomes full, the pumped fluid passes through fixed orifices in the top of the chamber and exerts a thrust on the inlet end of the pump rotor. Lubrication of the rotor shaft is accomplished by passing the pumped fluid through a bypass at the outlet end of the rotor shaft. This bypass conveys Pumped fluid to a cooling means and then to grooves on the surface of the rotor shait, thus lubricating the shaft.

  14. Industrial Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A flow inducer is a device that increases the pump intake capacity of a Worthington Centrifugal pump. It lifts the suction pressure sufficiently for the rotating main impeller of the centrifugal pump to operate efficiently at higher fluid intake levels. The concept derives from 1960's NASA technology which was advanced by Worthington Pump Division. The pumps are used to recirculate wood molasses, a highly viscous substance.

  15. 1-[N, O-bis-(5-isoquinolinesulphonyl)-N-methyl-L-tyrosyl]-4- phenylpiperazine (KN-62), an inhibitor of calcium-dependent camodulin protein kinase II, inhibits both insulin- and hypoxia-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Brozinick, J T; Reynolds, T H; Dean, D; Cartee, G; Cushman, S W

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated a role for calmodulin in hypoxia-and insulin-stimulated glucose transport. However, since calmodulin interacts with multiple protein targets, it is unknown which of these targets is involved in the regulation of glucose transport. In the present study, we have used the calcium-dependent calmodulin protein kinase II (CAMKII) inhibitor 1-[N, O-bis-(5-isoquinolinesulphonyl) -N-methyl-L-tyrosyl]-4-phenylpiperazine (KN-62) to investigate the possible role of this enzyme in the regulation of glucose transport in isolated rat soleus and epitrochlearis muscles. KN-62 did not affect basal 2-deoxyglucose transport, but it did inhibit both insulin- and hypoxia-stimulated glucose transport activity by 46 and 40% respectively. 1-[N,O-Bis-(1, 5-isoquinolinesulphonyl)-N-methyl-l-tyrosyl]-4-phenylpiperazine (KN-04), a structural analogue of KN-62 that does not inhibit CAMKII, had no effect on hypoxia-or insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Accordingly, KN-62 decreased the stimulated cell-surface GLUT4 labelling by a similar extent as the inhibition of glucose transport (insulin, 49% and hypoxia, 54%). Additional experiments showed that KN-62 also inhibited insulin- and hypoxia-stimulated transport by 37 and 40% respectively in isolated rat epitrochlearis (a fast-twitch muscle), indicating that the effect of KN-62 was not limited to the slow-twitch fibres of the soleus. The inhibitory effect of KN-62 on hypoxia-stimulated glucose transport appears to be specific to CAMKII, since KN-62 did not inhibit hypoxia-stimulated 45Ca efflux from muscles pre-loaded with 45Ca, or hypoxia-stimulated glycogen breakdown. Additionally, KN-62 affected neither insulin-stimulated phosphoinositide 3-kinase nor Akt activity, suggesting that the effects of KN-62 are not due to non-specific effects of this inhibitor on these regions of the insulin-signalling cascade. The results of the present study suggest that CAMKII might have a distinct role in insulin- and hypoxia-stimulated

  16. Magnetocaloric pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.

    1973-01-01

    Very cold liquids and gases such as helium, neon, and nitrogen can be pumped by using magnetocaloric effect. Adiabatic magnetization and demagnetization are used to alternately heat and cool slug of pumped fluid contained in closed chamber.

  17. Heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilli, P. V.

    1982-11-01

    Heat pumps for residential/commercial space heating and hot tap water make use of free energy of direct or indirect solar heat and save from about 40 to about 70 percent of energy if compared to a conventional heating system with the same energy basis. In addition, the electrically driven compressor heat pump is able to substitute between 40% (bivalent alternative operation) to 100% (monovalent operation) of the fuel oil of an oilfired heating furnace. For average Central European conditions, solar space heating systems with high solar coverage factor show the following sequence of increasing cost effectiveness: pure solar systems (without heat pumps); heat pump assisted solar systems; solar assisted heat pump systems; subsoil/water heat pumps; air/water heat pumps; air/air heat pumps.

  18. Nature's pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Steven

    1994-10-01

    Although diverse in both form and function, the fluid-forcing devices in organisms have many of the capabilities and limitations of pumps of human design. Nature's pumps certainly look quite different from those of our technology, but all of them perform the same task. The author examines a few of these with an eye toward technological parallels and the two functional classes -- positive-displacement pumps and fluid-dynamic pumps.

  19. ELECTROMAGNETIC PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Pulley, O.O.

    1954-08-17

    This patent reiates to electromagnetic pumps for electricity-conducting fluids and, in particular, describes several modifications for a linear conduction type electromagnetic interaction pump. The invention resides in passing the return conductor for the current traversing the fiuid in the duct back through the gap in the iron circuit of the pump. Both the maximum allowable pressure and the efficiency of a linear conduction electromagnetic pump are increased by incorporation of the present invention.

  20. Brassica juncea nitric oxide synthase like activity is stimulated by PKC activators and calcium suggesting modulation by PKC-like kinase.

    PubMed

    Talwar, Pooja Saigal; Gupta, Ravi; Maurya, Arun Kumar; Deswal, Renu

    2012-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule having varied physiological and regulatory roles in biological systems. The fact that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is responsible for NO generation in animals, prompted major search for a similar enzyme in plants. Arginine dependent NOS like activity (BjNOSla) was detected in Brassica juncea seedlings using oxyhemoglobin and citrulline assays. BjNOSla showed 25% activation by NADPH (0.4 mM) and 40% by calcium (0.4 mM) but the activity was flavin mononucleotide (FMN), flavin dinucleotide (FAD) and calmodulin (CaM) independent. Pharmacological approach using mammalian NOS inhibitors, NBT (300 μM) and l-NAME (5 mM), showed significant inhibition (100% and 67% respectively) supporting that the BjNOSla operates via the oxidative pathway. Most of the BjNOSla activity (80%) was confined to shoot while root showed only 20% activity. Localization studies by NADPH-diaphorase and DAF-2DA staining showed the presence of BjNOSla in guard cells. Kinetic analysis showed positive cooperativity with calcium as reflected by a decreased K(m) (∼13%) and almost two fold increase in V(max). PMA (438 nM), a kinase activator, activated BjNOSla ∼1.9 fold while its inactive analog 4αPDD was ineffective. Calcium and PMA activated the enzyme to ∼3 folds. Interestingly, 1,2-DG6 (2.5 μM) and PS (1 μM) with calcium activated the enzyme activity to ∼7 fold. A significant inhibition of BjNOSla by PKC inhibitors-staurosporine (∼90%) and calphostin-C (∼40%), further supports involvement of PKC-like kinase. The activity was also enhanced by abiotic stress conditions (7-46%). All these findings suggest that BjNOSla generates NO via oxidative pathway and is probably regulated by phosphorylation.

  1. A new role for follicle-stimulating hormone in the regulation of calcium flux in Sertoli cells: Inhibition of Na+/Ca++ exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, P.; Joseph, M.P.; Reichert, L.E. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Elucidation of mechanisms regulating intracellular calcium levels in steroidogenic tissues is important for understanding control of cellular function. We have previously described FSH receptor-mediated flux of 45Ca++ into cultured rat Sertoli cells and receptor-enriched proteoliposomes via voltage-sensitive and voltage-independent calcium channels. In the present study, we report heretofore unrecognized inhibitory effects of FSH on Na+/Ca++ exchange in these two systems. An outwardly directed Na+ gradient, developed by preincubating Sertoli cell monolayers in buffer made hypertonic with NaCl, resulted in uptake of 45Ca++ that was unaffected by calcium channel blocking agents, ruthenium red or methoxyverapamil, but was enhanced by ouabain, a specific inhibitor of Na+/K(+)-ATPase. Sodium-dependent 45Ca++ flux into Sertoli cells was inhibited in a concentration-related manner by increased extracellular Na+ (up to 135 mM). FSH consistently and reproducibly (28.9 +/- 3.8%, 10 separate assays) reduced sodium-dependent 45Ca++ influx in the absence or presence of ouabain. A lesser effect on Na+/Ca++ exchange was seen when Li+ replaced Na+ in the preincubation buffer, and a marked reduction occurred when Sertoli cells were incubated in buffer containing KCl, presumably due to membrane depolarization. FSH-sensitive Na+/45Ca++ exchange was also observed when using FSH receptor-enriched proteoliposomes. Our earlier calcium channel studies indicated that FSH affects Ca++ entry into Sertoli cells via a receptor-mediated process. The results reported here demonstrate that the interaction of FSH with its receptor is associated with changes in Na+/Ca++ exchange as well, and suggest that this activity may also be involved in regulating intracellular free Ca++ levels in the Sertoli cell.

  2. OSCILLATORY PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, N.

    1958-09-23

    This patent relates to a pump suitable fur pumping highly corrosive gases wherein no lubricant is needed in the pumping chamber thus eliminating possible contamination sources. The chamber contains a gas inlet and outlet in each side, with a paddle like piston suspended by a sylphon seal between these pcrts. An external arrangement causes the paddle to oscillate rapidly between the ports, alternately compressing and exhausting the gas trapped on each side of the paddle. Since the paddle does nnt touch the chamber sides at any point, no lubricant is required. This pump is useful for pumping large quantities of uranium hexafluorine.

  3. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    PubMed

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-09

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness.

  4. The Third Exon of the Budding Yeast Meiotic Recombination Gene HOP2 Is Required for Calcium-dependent and Recombinase Dmc1-specific Stimulation of Homologous Strand Assimilation*

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yuen-Ling; Brown, M. Scott; Qin, Daoming; Handa, Naofumi; Bishop, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    During meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the HOP2 and MND1 genes are essential for recombination. A previous biochemical study has shown that budding yeast Hop2-Mnd1 stimulates the activity of the meiosis-specific strand exchange protein ScDmc1 only 3-fold, whereas analogous studies using mammalian homologs show >30-fold stimulation. The HOP2 gene was recently discovered to contain a second intron that lies near the 3′-end. We show that both HOP2 introns are efficiently spliced during meiosis, forming a predominant transcript that codes for a protein with a C-terminal sequence different from that of the previously studied version of the protein. Using the newly identified HOP2 open reading frame to direct synthesis of wild type Hop2 protein, we show that the Hop2-Mnd1 heterodimer stimulated Dmc1 D-loop activity up to 30-fold, similar to the activity of mammalian Hop2-Mnd1. ScHop2-Mnd1 stimulated ScDmc1 activity in the presence of physiological (micromolar) concentrations of Ca2+ ions, as long as Mg2+ was also present at physiological concentrations, leading us to hypothesize that ScDmc1 protomers bind both cations in the active Dmc1 filament. Co-factor requirements and order-of-addition experiments suggested that Hop2-Mnd1-mediated stimulation of Dmc1 involves a process that follows the formation of functional Dmc1-ssDNA filaments. In dramatic contrast to mammalian orthologs, the stimulatory activity of budding yeast Hop2-Mnd1 appeared to be specific to Dmc1; we observed no Hop2-Mnd1-mediated stimulation of the other budding yeast strand exchange protein Rad51. Together, these results support previous genetic experiments indicating that Hop2-Mnd1 specifically stimulates Dmc1 during meiotic recombination in budding yeast. PMID:24798326

  5. The third exon of the budding yeast meiotic recombination gene HOP2 is required for calcium-dependent and recombinase Dmc1-specific stimulation of homologous strand assimilation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yuen-Ling; Brown, M Scott; Qin, Daoming; Handa, Naofumi; Bishop, Douglas K

    2014-06-27

    During meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the HOP2 and MND1 genes are essential for recombination. A previous biochemical study has shown that budding yeast Hop2-Mnd1 stimulates the activity of the meiosis-specific strand exchange protein ScDmc1 only 3-fold, whereas analogous studies using mammalian homologs show >30-fold stimulation. The HOP2 gene was recently discovered to contain a second intron that lies near the 3'-end. We show that both HOP2 introns are efficiently spliced during meiosis, forming a predominant transcript that codes for a protein with a C-terminal sequence different from that of the previously studied version of the protein. Using the newly identified HOP2 open reading frame to direct synthesis of wild type Hop2 protein, we show that the Hop2-Mnd1 heterodimer stimulated Dmc1 D-loop activity up to 30-fold, similar to the activity of mammalian Hop2-Mnd1. ScHop2-Mnd1 stimulated ScDmc1 activity in the presence of physiological (micromolar) concentrations of Ca(2+) ions, as long as Mg(2+) was also present at physiological concentrations, leading us to hypothesize that ScDmc1 protomers bind both cations in the active Dmc1 filament. Co-factor requirements and order-of-addition experiments suggested that Hop2-Mnd1-mediated stimulation of Dmc1 involves a process that follows the formation of functional Dmc1-ssDNA filaments. In dramatic contrast to mammalian orthologs, the stimulatory activity of budding yeast Hop2-Mnd1 appeared to be specific to Dmc1; we observed no Hop2-Mnd1-mediated stimulation of the other budding yeast strand exchange protein Rad51. Together, these results support previous genetic experiments indicating that Hop2-Mnd1 specifically stimulates Dmc1 during meiotic recombination in budding yeast.

  6. Calcium Activation of Mougeotia Potassium Channels 1

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Roger R.; Serlin, Bruce S.; Schauf, Charles L.; Stockton, Marsha E.

    1990-01-01

    Phytochrome mediates chloroplast movement in the alga Mougeotia, possibly via changes in cytosolic calcium. It is known to regulate a calcium-activated potassium channel in the algal plasma membrane. As part of a characterization of the potassium channel, we examined the properties of calcium activation. The calcium ionophore A23187 activates the channel at external [Ca2+] as low as 20 micromolar. However, external [Ca2+] is not required for activation of the channel by photoactivated phytochrome. Furthermore, when an inhibitor of calcium release from internal stores, 8-(diethylamino)-octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate, hydrochloride (TMB-8), is present, red light no longer stimulates channel activity. We conclude that phytochrome activates the plasma membrane potassium channel by releasing calcium from intracellular calcium vesicles; the elevated cytosolic calcium then stimulates channel activity by an unknown mechanism. In the presence of TMB-8, red light does induce chloroplast rotation; thus, potassium channel activation may not be coupled to chloroplast rotation. PMID:16667356

  7. Evidence for a Regulatory Role of Calcium in Gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments conducted to determine the cellular basis of gravitropism, the phenomenon of calcium migration following gravitropic stimulation, and the preferential accumulation of calcium in cells are described. Results of autoradiographic studies of cross sections of oat, and the pryoantimony precipitation of calcium in situ are discussed. It was found that the movement of calcium during gravimetric stimulation is a redistribution of calcium from the vacuolar regions into the cells walls. This movement requires precipitation of a calcium ATPase. The control of calcium ATPase by calmodulin and whether chlorpromazine is binding to calmodulin in plants are considered.

  8. Effects of electromagnetic field stimulation on cellular signal transduction mechanisms: Analyses of the effects of low frequency electromagnetic fields on calcium spiking in ROS 17/2.8 cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sisken, B.F.; Sisken, J.E.

    1997-12-01

    The general goals of this work were to determine whether resting levels of cellular second messengers, especially calcium, are affected by low-level electromagnetic fields and the mechanisms that could lead to such changes. The work performed was directed at (1) verifying the report of McLeod et al (1990) that low frequency sinusoidal EMF can alter basal calcium fluctuations in cultured ROS 17/2.8 osteoblast-like cells and (2) reproducing the findings of Luben et al (1982) that pulsed electromagnetic fields can affect PTH-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in osteoblasts. Initially a system was constructed so that cells could be exposed to sinusoidal electric fields using platinum electrodes. In this system, the electrodes were separated from the cells and culture medium by agar barriers. A series of experiments indicated that this system was subject to a significant, though little-known artifact in which a not well understood interaction between the electrodes and sodium ions in the medium or in plain salt solutions led to frequency and amplitude dependent emission of photons that are recorded by the detection system. They therefore designed and constructed an air gap reactor system that utilizes a ferromagnetic core to direct the magnetic flux generated by a sinusoidal coil. Studies on the effects of a 15 Hz pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on cyclic AMP metabolism were performed on ROS 17/2.8 and MC3T3 cells.

  9. Mouse osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1) expresses extracellular calcium (Ca2+o)-sensing receptor and its agonists stimulate chemotaxis and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Kifor, O.; Butters, R. R. Jr; Sugimoto, T.; Brown, E. M.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that plays key roles in extracellular calcium ion (Ca2+o) homeostasis in parathyroid gland and kidney. Osteoblasts appear at sites of osteoclastic bone resorption during bone remodeling in the "reversal" phase following osteoclastic resorption and preceding bone formation. Bone resorption produces substantial local increases in Ca2+o that could provide a signal for osteoblasts in the vicinity, leading us to determine whether such osteoblasts express the CaR. In this study, we used the mouse osteoblastic, clonal cell line MC3T3-E1. Both immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis, using an antiserum specific for the CaR, detected CaR protein in MC3T3-E1 cells. We also identified CaR transcripts in MC3T3-E1 cells by Northern analysis using a CaR-specific riboprobe and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with CaR-specific primers, followed by nucleotide sequencing of the amplified products. Exposure of MC3T3-E1 cells to high Ca2+o (up to 4.8 mM) or the polycationic CaR agonists, neomycin and gadolinium (Gd3+), stimulated both chemotaxis and DNA synthesis in MC3T3-E1 cells. Therefore, taken together, our data strongly suggest that the osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 possesses both CaR protein and mRNA very similar, if not identical, to those in parathyroid and kidney. Furthermore, the CaR in these osteoblasts could play a key role in regulating bone turnover by stimulating the proliferation and migration of such cells to sites of bone resorption as a result of local release of Ca2+o.

  10. FocusStack and StimServer: a new open source MATLAB toolchain for visual stimulation and analysis of two-photon calcium neuronal imaging data.

    PubMed

    Muir, Dylan R; Kampa, Björn M

    2014-01-01

    Two-photon calcium imaging of neuronal responses is an increasingly accessible technology for probing population responses in cortex at single cell resolution, and with reasonable and improving temporal resolution. However, analysis of two-photon data is usually performed using ad-hoc solutions. To date, no publicly available software exists for straightforward analysis of stimulus-triggered two-photon imaging experiments. In addition, the increasing data rates of two-photon acquisition systems imply increasing cost of computing hardware required for in-memory analysis. Here we present a Matlab toolbox, FocusStack, for simple and efficient analysis of two-photon calcium imaging stacks on consumer-level hardware, with minimal memory footprint. We also present a Matlab toolbox, StimServer, for generation and sequencing of visual stimuli, designed to be triggered over a network link from a two-photon acquisition system. FocusStack is compatible out of the box with several existing two-photon acquisition systems, and is simple to adapt to arbitrary binary file formats. Analysis tools such as stack alignment for movement correction, automated cell detection and peri-stimulus time histograms are already provided, and further tools can be easily incorporated. Both packages are available as publicly-accessible source-code repositories.

  11. Entamoeba histolytica Dmc1 Catalyzes Homologous DNA Pairing and Strand Exchange That Is Stimulated by Calcium and Hop2-Mnd1

    PubMed Central

    Kelso, Andrew A.; Say, Amanda F.; Sharma, Deepti; Ledford, LeAnna L.; Turchick, Audrey; Saski, Christopher A.; King, Ada V.; Attaway, Christopher C.; Temesvari, Lesly A.; Sehorn, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Meiosis depends on homologous recombination (HR) in most sexually reproducing organisms. Efficient meiotic HR requires the activity of the meiosis-specific recombinase, Dmc1. Previous work shows Dmc1 is expressed in Entamoeba histolytica, a eukaryotic parasite responsible for amoebiasis throughout the world, suggesting this organism undergoes meiosis. Here, we demonstrate Dmc1 protein is expressed in E. histolytica. We show that purified ehDmc1 forms presynaptic filaments and catalyzes ATP-dependent homologous DNA pairing and DNA strand exchange over at least several thousand base pairs. The DNA pairing and strand exchange activities are enhanced by the presence of calcium and the meiosis-specific recombination accessory factor, Hop2-Mnd1. In combination, calcium and Hop2-Mnd1 dramatically increase the rate of DNA strand exchange activity of ehDmc1. The biochemical system described herein provides a basis on which to better understand the role of ehDmc1 and other HR proteins in E. histolytica. PMID:26422142

  12. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production of ... Milk-alkali syndrome Proximal renal tubular acidosis Rickets Sarcoidosis Vitamin D Review Date 5/3/2015 Updated ...

  13. Calcium Modulation of Plant Plasma Membrane-Bound Atpase Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, C.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetic properties of barley enzyme are discussed and compared with those of other plants. Possibilities for calcium transport in the plasma membrane by proton pump and ATPase-dependent calcium pumps are explored. Topics covered include the ph phase of the enzyme; high affinity of barley for calcium; temperature dependence, activation enthalpy, and the types of ATPase catalytic sites. Attention is given to lipids which are both screened and bound by calcium. Studies show that barley has a calmodulin activated ATPase that is found in the presence of magnesium and calcium.

  14. Availability of calcium from skim milk, calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate for bone mineralization in pigs.

    PubMed

    Pointillart, A; Coxam, V; Sève, B; Colin, C; Lacroix, C H; Guéguen, L

    2000-01-01

    Dairy products provide abundant, accessible calcium for humans, while some calcium sulfate-rich mineral waters could provide appreciable amounts of calcium. But there is little evidence that this calcium is as available as milk calcium for making bone. The availability of calcium was studied by monitoring bone parameters in 2-month-old pigs fed restricted amounts of calcium (70% RDA) for 2.5 months. The 3 main (> or = 50% Ca intake) Ca sources were either CaCO3 or CaSO4 or skim milk powder (29% of the diet). The bones of the pigs fed the "milk" diet had higher (P < 0.01) ash contents, breaking strength and density (DEXA) than those of the two others groups, in which the bone values were similar. Thus, the calcium provided by a diet containing milk appears to ensure better bone mineralization than do calcium salts included in a non-milk diet. The calcium restriction may have enhanced some milk properties to stimulate calcium absorption in these young, rapidly growing pigs.

  15. Action potential propagation through embryonic dorsal root ganglion cells in culture. II. Decrease of conduction reliability during repetitive stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lüscher, C; Streit, J; Lipp, P; Lüscher, H R

    1994-08-01

    1. The reliability of the propagation of action potentials (AP) through dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells in embryonic slice cultures was investigated during repetitive stimulation at 1-20 Hz. Membrane potentials of DRG cells were recorded intracellularly while the axons were stimulated by an extracellular electrode. 2. In analogy to the double-pulse experiments reported previously, either one or two types of propagation failures were recorded during repetitive stimulation, depending on the cell morphology. In contrast to the double-pulse experiments, the failures appeared at longer interpulse intervals and usually only after several tens of stimuli with reliable propagation. 3. In the period with reliable propagation before the failures, a decrease in the conduction velocity and in the amplitude of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP), an increase in the total membrane conductance, and the disappearance of the action potential "shoulder" were observed. 4. The reliability of conduction during repetitive stimulation was improved by lowering the extracellular calcium concentration or by replacing the extracellular calcium by strontium. The reliability of conduction decreased by the application of cadmium, a calcium channel blocker, 4-amino pyridine, a fast potassium channel blocker, or apamin or muscarine, the blockers of calcium-dependent potassium channels. The reliability of conduction was not effected by blocking the sodium potassium pump with ouabain or by replacing extracellular sodium with lithium. 5. In the period with reliable propagation cadmium, apamin, and muscarine reduced the amplitude of the AHP. The shoulder of the action potential was more pronounced and not sensitive to repetitive stimulation when extracellular calcium was replaced by strontium. It disappeared when cadmium was applied. 6. In DRG somata changes of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration were monitored by measuring the fluorescence of the Ca2+ indicator Fluo-3 with a laser-scanning confocal

  16. TNAP stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell trans-differentiation into chondrocytes through calcium deposition and BMP-2 activation: Possible implication in atherosclerotic plaque stability.

    PubMed

    Fakhry, Maya; Roszkowska, Monika; Briolay, Anne; Bougault, Carole; Guignandon, Alain; Diaz-Hernandez, Juan Ignacio; Diaz-Hernandez, Miguel; Pikula, Slawomir; Buchet, René; Hamade, Eva; Badran, Bassam; Bessueille, Laurence; Magne, David

    2017-03-01

    Atherosclerotic plaque calcification varies from early, diffuse microcalcifications to a bone-like tissue formed by endochondral ossification. Recently, a paradigm has emerged suggesting that if the bone metaplasia stabilizes the plaques, microcalcifications are harmful. Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), an ectoenzyme necessary for mineralization by its ability to hydrolyze inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), is stimulated by inflammation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Our objective was to determine the role of TNAP in trans-differentiation of VSMCs and calcification. In rodent MOVAS and A7R5 VSMCs, addition of exogenous alkaline phosphatase (AP) or TNAP overexpression was sufficient to stimulate the expression of several chondrocyte markers and induce mineralization. Addition of exogenous AP to human mesenchymal stem cells cultured in pellets also stimulated chondrogenesis. Moreover, TNAP inhibition with levamisole in mouse primary chondrocytes dropped mineralization as well as the expression of chondrocyte markers. VSMCs trans-differentiated into chondrocyte-like cells, as well as primary chondrocytes, used TNAP to hydrolyze PPi, and PPi provoked the same effects as TNAP inhibition in primary chondrocytes. Interestingly, apatite crystals, associated or not to collagen, mimicked the effects of TNAP on VSMC trans-differentiation. AP and apatite crystals increased the expression of BMP-2 in VSMCs, and TNAP inhibition reduced BMP-2 levels in chondrocytes. Finally, the BMP-2 inhibitor noggin blocked the rise in aggrecan induced by AP in VSMCs, suggesting that TNAP induction in VSMCs triggers calcification, which stimulates chondrogenesis through BMP-2. Endochondral ossification in atherosclerotic plaques may therefore be induced by crystals, probably to confer stability to plaques with microcalcifications.

  17. Calcium-linked increase in coupled cAMP synthesis and hydrolysis is an early event in cholinergic and. beta. -adrenergic stimulation of parotid secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, M.A.; Graeff, R.M.; Walseth, T.F.; Goldberg, N.D. )

    1988-11-01

    The dynamics and compartmental characteristics of cAMP metabolism were examined by {sup 18}O labeling of cellular adenine nucleotide {alpha} phosphoryls in rat parotid gland stimulated to secrete with {beta}-adrenergic and cholinergic agents. The secretory response occurred in association with a rapidly increased rate of cAMP hydrolysis apparently coordinated with an equivalent increase in the rate of cAMP synthesis, since the cellular concentration of cAMP remained unchanged. The magnitude of this metabolic response was equivalent to the metabolism of 10-75 times the cellular content of cAMP within the first minute of stimulation. This increased metabolic rate occurred only during the early (1-3 min) period of stimulation, in what appeared to be an exclusive cellular compartment distinguished by a unique distribution of {sup 18}O among adenine nucleotide {alpha} phosphoryls. This {sup 18}O distribution contrasted with that produced by forskolin, which increased cellular cAMP concentration and elicited only a delayed response missing the early secretory component. The early acceleration of cAMP metabolism appeared linked to a stimulus-induced increase in intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration, since the Ca{sup 2+} ionophore ionomycin produced the same metabolic response in association with secretion. These observations suggest that cAMP metabolism is involved in stimulus-secretion coupling by a Ca{sup 2+}-linked mechanism different from that in which cAMP plays the role of a second messenger.

  18. Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II regulates the phosphorylation of cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein of spinal cord in rats following noxious stimulation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Li; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Xuan; Lin, Qing; Willis, William D

    2005-02-01

    We have previously reported that intradermal capsaicin injection causes the phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) in the spinal cord of rats. The present study was designed to investigate the role of calcium/camodulin protein dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) in the regulation of phosphorylation of CREB after capsaicin injection. We found that capsaicin injection produces a significant upregulation of phosphorylated CREB in the spinal cord of rat. Intrathecal treatment with a CaM kinase II inhibitor, KN-93, significantly blocked the increased phosphorylation of CREB, but did not affect the CREB protein itself. These results suggest that increased phosphorylation of CREB protein may contribute to central sensitization following acute peripheral noxious stimuli, and the effect may be regulated through the activation of CaM kinase cascades.

  19. Anti-Epileptic Effect of Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharides by Inhibition of Intracellular Calcium Accumulation and Stimulation of Expression of CaMKII α in Epileptic Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu-Qiu; Li, Xiao-Jie; Qiu, Hong-Bin; Jiang, Zhi-Mei; Simon, Maria; Ma, Xiao-Ru; Liu, Lei; Liu, Jun-Xing; Wang, Fang-Fang; Liang, Yan-Feng; Wu, Jia-Mei; Di, Wei-Hua; Zhou, Shaobo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the mechanism of the anti-epileptic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP), the changes of intracellular calcium and CaMK II α expression in a model of epileptic neurons were investigated. Method Primary hippocampal neurons were divided into: 1) Control group, neurons were cultured with Neurobasal medium, for 3 hours; 2) Model group I: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours; 3) Model group II: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours then cultured with the normal medium for a further 3 hours; 4) GLP group I: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium containing GLP (0.375 mg/ml) for 3 hours; 5) GLP group II: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours then cultured with a normal culture medium containing GLP for a further 3 hours. The CaMK II α protein expression was assessed by Western-blot. Ca2+ turnover in neurons was assessed using Fluo-3/AM which was added into the replacement medium and Ca2+ turnover was observed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. Results The CaMK II α expression in the model groups was less than in the control groups, however, in the GLP groups, it was higher than that observed in the model group. Ca2+ fluorescence intensity in GLP group I was significantly lower than that in model group I after 30 seconds, while in GLP group II, it was reduced significantly compared to model group II after 5 minutes. Conclusion GLP may inhibit calcium overload and promote CaMK II α expression to protect epileptic neurons. PMID:25010576

  20. Bioinspired artificial single ion pump.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huacheng; Hou, Xu; Zeng, Lu; Yang, Fu; Li, Lin; Yan, Dadong; Tian, Ye; Jiang, Lei

    2013-10-30

    Bioinspired artificial functional nanochannels for intelligent molecular and ionic transport control at the nanoscale have wide potential applications in nanofluidics, energy conversion, and biosensors. Although various smart passive ion transport properties of ion channels have been artificially realized, it is still hugely challenging to achieve high level intelligent ion transport features in biological ion pumps. Here we show a unique bioinspired single ion pump based on a cooperative pH response double-gate nanochannel, whose gates could be opened and closed alternately/simultaneously under symmetric/asymmetric pH environments. With the stimulation of the double-gate nanochannel by continuous switching of the symmetric/asymmetric pH stimuli, the bioinspired system systematically realized three key ionic transport features of biological ion pumps, including an alternating gates ion pumping process under symmetric pH stimuli, transformation of the ion pump into an ion channel under asymmetric pH stimuli, and a fail-safe ion pumping feature under both symmetric and asymmetric pH stimuli. The ion pumping processes could well be reproduced under a concentration gradient. With the advantages of the extraordinary ionic transport functions of biological ion pumps, the bioinspired ion pump should find widespread applicability in active transportation-controlling smart nanofluidic devices, efficient energy conversions, and seawater desalinization, and open the way to design and develop novel bioinspired intelligent artificial nanochannel materials.

  1. Axial Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George Arthur (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A rotary blood pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial and radial clearances of blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with cross-linked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

  2. Pumping system

    SciTech Connect

    Kime, J.A.

    1987-05-19

    This patent describes a gas-oil production system for pumping formation fluid in a well through a tubing string within which a down hole pump connects to a hydraulic stroking device through a rod string providing the pump including a plunger reciprocally driven by the hydraulic stroking device toward an upper terminal position during a plunger upstroke. The rod string normally supports the weight of a column of fluid and toward a lower terminal position at the end of a plunger downstroke during which the weight of the column fluid is normally transferred to the tubing string through fluid within the pump. The method for detecting when the well is pumped off comprises: supplying working fluid to the hydraulic stroking device to raise the hydraulic stroking device and thereby move the plunger from the lower terminal position to the upper terminal position; and removing the working fluid at a controlled rate from the hydraulic stroking device.

  3. Ferroelectric Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A ferroelectric pump has one or more variable volume pumping chambers internal to a housing. Each chamber has at least one wall comprising a dome shaped internally prestressed ferroelectric actuator having a curvature and a dome height that varies with an electric voltage applied between an inside and outside surface of the actuator. A pumped medium flows into and out of each pumping chamber in response to displacement of the ferroelectric actuator. The ferroelectric actuator is mounted within each wall and isolates each ferroelectric actuator from the pumped medium, supplies a path for voltage to be applied to each ferroelectric actuator, and provides for positive containment of each ferroelectric actuator while allowing displacement of the entirety of each ferroelectric actuator in response to the applied voltage.

  4. The appetite-inducing peptide, ghrelin, induces intracellular store-mediated rises in calcium in addiction and arousal-related laterodorsal tegmental neurons in mouse brain slices.

    PubMed

    Hauberg, Katrine; Kohlmeier, Kristi A

    2015-03-01

    Ghrelin, a gut and brain peptide, has recently been shown to be involved in motivated behavior and regulation of the sleep and wakefulness cycle. The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) is involved in appetitive behavior and control of the arousal state of an organism, and accordingly, behavioral actions of ghrelin could be mediated by direct cellular actions within this nucleus. Consistent with this interpretation, postsynaptically mediated depolarizing membrane actions of ghrelin on LDT neurons have been reported. Direct actions were ascribed solely to closure of a potassium conductance however this peptide has been shown in other cell types to lead to rises in calcium via release of calcium from intracellular stores. To determine whether ghrelin induced intracellular calcium rises in mouse LDT neurons, we conducted calcium imaging studies in LDT brain slices loaded with the calcium binding dye, Fura-2AM. Ghrelin elicited TTX-insensitive changes in dF/F indicative of rises in calcium, and a portion of these rises were independent of membrane depolarization, as they persisted in conditions of high extracellular potassium solutions and were found to involve SERCA-pump mediated intracellular calcium stores. Involvement of the ghrelin receptor (GHR-S) in these actions was confirmed. Taken together with other studies, our data suggest that ghrelin has multiple cellular actions on LDT cells. Ghrelin's induction of calcium via intracellular release in the LDT could play a role in behavioral actions of this peptide as the LDT governs processes involved in stimulation of motivated behavior and control of cortical arousal.

  5. Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; Orwoll, Shiela; McCarron, David A.

    2002-01-01

    To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P < 0.001), elevated parathyroid hormone levels (P < 0.001), reduced calcitonin levels (P < 0.05), unchanged 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels, and elevated skull (P < 0.01) and reduced femur bone mineral density. Basal and thrombin-stimulated platelet free calcium (intracellular calcium concentration) were also reduced (P < 0.05). There was a tendency for indirect systolic BP to be reduced in conscious flight animals (P = 0.057). However, mean arterial pressure was elevated (P < 0.001) after anesthesia. Dietary calcium altered all aspects of calcium metabolism (P < 0.001), as well as BP (P < 0.001), but the only interaction with flight was a relatively greater increase in ionized calcium in flight animals fed low- compared with high-calcium diets (P < 0.05). The results indicate that 1) flight-induced disruptions of calcium metabolism are relatively impervious to dietary calcium in the short term, 2) increased ionized calcium did not normalize low-calcium-induced elevations of BP, and 3) parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

  6. [Relationship between the amplitude of myocardial contractions in frogs and the frequency of electrical stimulation. Role of external and intracellular calcium in the coupling of excitation and contraction].

    PubMed

    Khodorov, B I; Mukumov, M R; Kitaĭgorodskaia, G M; Khodorova, A B

    1977-01-01

    Ionic currents were studied on the frog atrial trabeculae (Rana ridibunda) at 20 degrees C using a double sucrose gap voltage clamp arrangement. The net inward current peaks did not change in the course of repetitive stimulation (0,5/s) in contrast to the increase of the contraction amplitude (isometric tension) in the similar conditions (Bowdich staircase). The slow component of the net inward current revealed under the action of TTX (2-10(-8) g/ml) was increased upon the increase of external Ca concentration but was blocked when D-600 was introduced into the solution. The inhibitory action of D-600 on the contraction amplitude was frequency independent (in the ranges: 0,1--0,7/s). The decrease of external Na+ (isoosmotic replacement of 70% NaCl by sucrose) or the increase (5-fold) of the external Ca2+ significantly enhanced the myocardial contraction depressed with D-600. However these contractions fall in the course of rhythmical stimulation, and the effect being strongly dependent on the rate of stimulation. The results confirm the assumption (see: Biophysics, 6, 1024, 1976), that intracellular Ca stores (sarcoplasmic reticulum, internal surface of the cellular membrane) are involved in the control of the contractility in the amphibian myocardial cells. Many peculiarities of the excitation-contraction coupling in the frog myocardial cells can be explaned if one assumes that: 1) there is no space separation of primary uptake and release of Ca ion sites in the frog myocardium; 2) the system of "resting Ca chanels" in the frog myocardial cells is not so well developed as in the mammalian myocardial cells.

  7. Protein kinase activities in ripening mango, Mangifera indica L., fruit tissue. I: Purification and characterization of a calcium-stimulated casein kinase-I.

    PubMed

    Frylinck, L; Dubery, I A

    1998-01-15

    A Ca(2+)-stimulated protein kinase (PK-I), active with dephosphorylated casein as exogenous substrate, was purified from ripening mango fruit. The purification procedure involved 30-70% ammonium sulphate fractionation and sequential anion exchange-, affinity-, hydrophobic interaction- and gel filtration chromatography. PK-I was purified ca. 40-fold with an overall yield of < 1%. The final specific activity in the presence of 0.1 mM Ca2+ was 55 nmol min-1 mg-1. Analysis of the most highly purified preparations revealed a monomeric enzyme with an M(r) of 30.9 kDa and pI of 5.1. PK-I efficiently phosphorylated casein and phosvitin, but did not phosphorylate histone II-S, histone III-S, protamine sulphate or bovine serum albumin. PK-I activity was stimulated by micromolar concentrations of Ca2+ and was dependent on millimolar Mg2+ concentrations, which could not be substituted with Mn2+. PK-I activity was stimulated by, but was not dependent on Ca2+. Calmodulin and calmodulin inhibitors did not affect PK-I activity, but heparin and cAMP acted as inhibitors. The pH and temperature optima of the enzyme under standard reaction conditions were 6.5 and 35 degrees C, respectively. The kinetic reaction mechanism of PK-I was studied by using casein as substrate. Initial velocity and product inhibition studies with ADP as product inhibitor best fit an ordered bi-bi kinetic mechanism with the Mg(2+)-ATP complex binding first to the enzyme followed by binding of the protein substrate. The K(m)ATP and K(m)casein of PK-I were 9 microM and 0.26 mg ml-1, respectively. The KiADP of PK-I was 9 microM.

  8. Cellular mechanisms by which oxytocin mediates uterine prostaglandin F2 alpha synthesis in bovine endometrium: role of calcium.

    PubMed

    Burns, P D; Hayes, S H; Silvia, W J

    1998-11-01

    The objective of these experiments was to determine the role of Ca2+ during oxytocin-stimulated prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha release from bovine endometrial tissue in vitro. Uteri were collected from dairy cows on the day after spontaneous luteal regression. Caruncular endometrial explants were dissected and incubated in vitro to determine phospholipase C activity or PGF2 alpha release. A23,187 (a calcium ionophore) and maitotoxin (an activator of voltage-gated L-type calcium channels) stimulated release of PGF 2 alpha in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Thapsigargin (induces accumulation of Ca2+ in the cytoplasm by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+/ATPase pumps) stimulated release of PGF2 alpha in a concentration-dependent manner as well (P < 0.13). Oxytocin (10(-6) M), AIF4- (a nonspecific activator of G-proteins; 10(-5) M), A23,187 (10(-5) M), and melittin (a stimulator of phospholipase A2; 10(-4) M) stimulated PGF2 alpha release when explants were incubated in Ca(2+)-free medium (P < 0.10); however, oxytocin, A23,187, or melittin were unable to stimulate PGF2 alpha release when explants were incubated in Ca(2+)-free medium containing the calcium chelator EGTA (P < 0.10). This treatment did not prevent oxytocin or AIF4- from stimulating phospholipase C activity (P < 0.08). CoCl2 (a nonspecific Ca2+ channel blocker) and methoxyverapamil (a specific voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channel blocker) prevented oxytocin from stimulating PGF2 alpha release (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that both extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ may be required for oxytocin to stimulate PGF2 alpha secretion in bovine endometrial tissue.

  9. Probing the Conical Intersection Dynamics of the RNA Base Uracil by UV-Pump Stimulated-Raman-Probe Signals; Ab Initio Simulations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Nonadiabatic electron and nuclear dynamics of photoexcited molecules involving conical intersections is of fundamental importance in many reactions such as the self-protection mechanism of DNA and RNA bases against UV irradiation. Nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy can provide an ultrafast sensitive probe for these processes. We employ a simulation protocol that combines nonadiabatic on-the-fly molecular dynamics with a mode-tracking algorithm for the simulation of femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (SRS) signals of the high frequency C–H- and N–H-stretch vibrations of the photoexcited RNA base uracil. The simulations rely on a microscopically derived expression that takes into account the path integral of the excited state evolution and the pulse shapes. Analysis of the joint time/frequency resolution of the technique reveals a matter chirp contribution that limits the inherent temporal resolution. Characteristic signatures of relaxation dynamics mediated in the vicinity of conical intersection are predicted. The C–H and N–H spectator modes provide high sensitivity to their local environment and act as local probes with submolecular and high temporal resolution. PMID:24803857

  10. Extra-intestinal calcium handling contributes to normal serum calcium levels when intestinal calcium absorption is suboptimal.

    PubMed

    Lieben, Liesbet; Verlinden, Lieve; Masuyama, Ritsuko; Torrekens, Sophie; Moermans, Karen; Schoonjans, Luc; Carmeliet, Peter; Carmeliet, Geert

    2015-12-01

    The active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D, is a crucial regulator of calcium homeostasis, especially through stimulation of intestinal calcium transport. Lack of intestinal vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling does however not result in hypocalcemia, because the increased 1,25(OH)2D levels stimulate calcium handling in extra-intestinal tissues. Systemic VDR deficiency, on the other hand, results in hypocalcemia because calcium handling is impaired not only in the intestine, but also in kidney and bone. It remains however unclear whether low intestinal VDR activity, as observed during aging, is sufficient for intestinal calcium transport and for mineral and bone homeostasis. To this end, we generated mice that expressed the Vdr exclusively in the gut, but at reduced levels. We found that ~15% of intestinal VDR expression greatly prevented the Vdr null phenotype in young-adult mice, including the severe hypocalcemia. Serum calcium levels were, however, in the low-normal range, which may be due to the suboptimal intestinal calcium absorption, renal calcium loss, insufficient increase in bone resorption and normal calcium incorporation in the bone matrix. In conclusion, our results indicate that low intestinal VDR levels improve intestinal calcium absorption compared to Vdr null mice, but also show that 1,25(OH)2D-mediated fine-tuning of renal calcium reabsorption and bone mineralization and resorption is required to maintain fully normal serum calcium levels.

  11. The effect of calcium gluconate and other calcium supplements as a dietary calcium source on magnesium absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Chonan, O; Takahashi, R; Yasui, H; Watanuki, M

    1997-01-01

    The effects of commercially available calcium supplements (calcium carbonate, calcium gluconate, oyster shell preparation and bovine bone preparation) and gluconic acid on the absorption of calcium and magnesium were evaluated for 30 days in male Wistar rats. There were no differences in the apparent absorption ratio of calcium among rats fed each calcium supplement; however, the rats fed the calcium gluconate diet had a higher apparent absorption ratio of magnesium than the rats fed the other calcium supplements. Dietary gluconic acid also more markedly stimulated magnesium absorption than the calcium carbonate diet, and the bone (femur and tibia) magnesium contents of rats fed the gluconic acid diet were significantly higher than those of the rats fed the calcium carbonate diet. Furthermore, the weight of cecal tissue and the concentrations of acetic acid and butyric acid in cecal digesta of rats fed the calcium gluconate diet or the gluconic acid diet were significantly increased. We speculate that the stimulation of magnesium absorption in rats fed the calcium gluconate diet is a result of the gluconic acid component and the effect of gluconic acid on magnesium absorption probably results from cecal hypertrophy, magnesium solubility in the large intestine and the effects of volatile fatty acids on magnesium absorption.

  12. CD50 (intercellular adhesion molecule 3) stimulation induces calcium mobilization and tyrosine phosphorylation through p59fyn and p56lck in Jurkat T cell line

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The leukocyte differentiation antigen, CD50, has been recently identified as the intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM-3), the third counter-receptor of leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1). This molecule seems to be specially involved in the adhesion events of the initial phases of the immune response. To characterize the role of CD50 in leukocyte interactions, the different molecular events induced after cross-linking of CD50 on T cell-derived Jurkat cell line have been analyzed. When cells were incubated with anti-CD50 mAbs and cross- linked with polyclonal goat anti-mouse immunoglobulins, a rise in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) was observed. This increase in [Ca2+]i was mainly due to the uptake of extracellular Ca2+. This Ca2+ flux involved tyrosine phosphorylations and was further increased by CD3 costimulation. These data, together with those obtained by phosphotyrosine (P-Tyr) immunoprecipitation and in vitro kinase assays, suggested the involvement of protein-tyrosine kinases (PTK) in CD50 transduction pathways. By using specific antisera, the presence of p56lck and p59fyn protein tyrosine kinases (PTK) was clearly demonstrated in the CD50 immunoprecipitates. These findings suggest that the interaction of CD50 with its natural ligand (LFA-1) may result in T lymphocyte activation events, in which CD50 could play a very active role after antigen triggering. PMID:7515097

  13. Large scale production and purification of human IL-2 from buffy coat lymphocytes stimulated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187.

    PubMed

    Grote, W; Klaar, J; Mühlradt, P F; Monner, D A

    1987-10-23

    Methods for the production of high titers of interleukin-2 (IL-2) from human buffy coat lymphocytes, and subsequent purification of the IL-2 are described. 50 buffy coats containing 1 X 10(11) leukocytes were first depleted of erythrocytes by batchwise leukapheresis using a Haemonetics model 15 blood wash centrifuge. Further lymphocyte enrichment was achieved using a one-step sedimentation in the presence of hydroxyethyl starch, which produced suspensions of more than 90% lymphocytes. This degree of lymphocyte purity was important since phagocytes were inhibitory to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate/calcium ionophore (TPA/A23187)-induced IL-2 production when their concentration exceeded 15% of the total cells. Cell culture was performed in stirred fermenters. Using TPA/A23187 induction, up to 500 micrograms of IL-2 per liter were produced. The IL-2 was purified by absorption from the supernatants onto controlled pore glass and elution with 50% ethylene glycol, followed by Fractogel chromatography, and then preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using an RP-6 column and elution with a gradient of n-propanol. A final HPLC rechromatography step using an analytical RP-6 column gave a homogeneous preparation with specific activity of 1.2 X 10(7) U/mg and a recovery from the starting supernatant of 22%.

  14. Submersible pump

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, D. B.

    1985-08-27

    A method and apparatus for using a submersible pump to lift reservoir fluids in a well while having the tubing/casing annulus isolated from the produced fluids. The apparatus allows the submersible pump to be positioned above the annular packoff device. The apparatus comprises an outer shield that encloses the pump and can be attached to the production tubing. The lower end of the shield attaches to a short tubing section that seals with the annular packoff device or a receptacle above the annular packoff device.

  15. Activation of TRPV4 channel in pancreatic INS-1E beta cells enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion via calcium-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Skrzypski, M; Kakkassery, M; Mergler, S; Grötzinger, C; Khajavi, N; Sassek, M; Szczepankiewicz, D; Wiedenmann, B; Nowak, K W; Strowski, M Z

    2013-10-01

    Transient receptor potential channel vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) is a Ca(2+)- and Mg(2+)-permeable cation channel that influences oxidative metabolism and insulin sensitivity. The role of TRPV4 in pancreatic beta cells is largely unknown. Here, we characterize the role of TRPV4 in controlling intracellular Ca(2+) and insulin secretion in INS-1E beta cells. Osmotic, thermal or pharmacological activation of TRPV4 caused a rapid rise of intracellular Ca(2+) and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In the presence of the TRPV channel blocker ruthenium red (RuR) or after suppression of TRPV4 protein production, TRPV4 activators failed to increase [Ca(2+)]i and insulin secretion in INS-1E cells.

  16. ION PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1961-01-01

    An ion pump and pumping method are given for low vacuum pressures in which gases introduced into a pumping cavity are ionized and thereafter directed and accelerated into a quantity of liquid gettering metal where they are absorbed. In the preferred embodiment the metal is disposed as a liquid pool upon one electrode of a Phillips ion gauge type pump. Means are provided for continuously and remotely withdrawing and degassing the gettering metal. The liquid gettering metal may be heated if desired, although various combinations of gallium, indium, tin, bismuth, and lead, the preferred metals, have very low melting points. A background pressure of evaporated gettering metal may be provided by means of a resistance heated refractory metal wick protruding from the surface of the pcol of gettering metal.

  17. Electrokinetic pump

    DOEpatents

    Patel, Kamlesh D.

    2007-11-20

    A method for altering the surface properties of a particle bed. In application, the method pertains particularly to an electrokinetic pump configuration where nanoparticles are bonded to the surface of the stationary phase to alter the surface properties of the stationary phase including the surface area and/or the zeta potential and thus improve the efficiency and operating range of these pumps. By functionalizing the nanoparticles to change the zeta potential the electrokinetic pump is rendered capable of operating with working fluids having pH values that can range from 2-10 generally and acidic working fluids in particular. For applications in which the pump is intended to handle highly acidic solutions latex nanoparticles that are quaternary amine functionalized can be used.

  18. Slurry pumping: Pump performance prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Taccani, R.; Pediroda, V.; Reini, M.; Giadrossi, A.

    2000-07-01

    Centrifugal pumps are being used increasingly for transportation of slurries through pipelines. To design a slurry handling system it is essential to have a knowledge of the effects of suspended solids on the pump performance. A new test loop has been realized in the laboratory of the Energetics Department of the University of Trieste which allows pump performance to be determined at various pump speeds, with many different mixture concentrations and rheologies. The pump test rig consists of 150 mm diameter pipe with facilities for measuring suction and discharge pressure, flowrate, pump input power and speed, slurry density and temperature. In particular flowrate is measured by diverting flow into a weighing tank and timing a specified volume of slurry. An automatic PC based data acquisition system has been implemented. Preliminary tests with clear water show that performance can be measured with good repeatability and accuracy. The new test rig is used to verify the range of validity of the correlations to predict pump performance, available in literature and of that proposed by authors. This correlation, based on a Neural Network and not on a predefined analytical expression, can be easily improved with new experimental data.

  19. In vivo analysis of the calcium signature in the plant Golgi apparatus reveals unique dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ordenes, Viviana R; Moreno, Ignacio; Maturana, Daniel; Norambuena, Lorena; Trewavas, Anthony J; Orellana, Ariel

    2012-11-01

    The Golgi apparatus is thought to play a role in calcium homeostasis in plant cells. However, the calcium dynamics in this organelle is unknown in plants. To monitor the [Ca2+]Golgiin vivo, we obtained and analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana plants that express aequorin in the Golgi. Our results show that free [Ca2+] levels in the Golgi are higher than in the cytosol (0.70 μM vs. 0.05 μM, respectively). Stimuli such as cold shock, mechanical stimulation and hyperosmotic stress, led to a transient increase in cytosolic calcium; however, no instant change in the [Ca2+]Golgi concentration was detected. Nevertheless, a delayed increase in the [Ca2+]Golgi up to 2-3 μM was observed. Cyclopiazonic acid and thapsigargin inhibited the stimuli-induced [Ca2+]Golgi increase, suggesting that [Ca2+]Golgi levels are dependent upon the activity of Ca2+-ATPases. Treatment of these plants with the synthetic auxin analog, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), produced a slow decrease of free calcium in the organelle. Our results indicate that the plant Golgi apparatus is not involved in the generation of cytosolic calcium transients and exhibits its own dynamics modulated in part by the activity of Ca2+ pumps and hormones.

  20. Fuel pump

    SciTech Connect

    Bellis, P.D.; Nesselrode, F.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes a fuel pump. It includes: a fuel reservoir member, the fuel reservoir member being formed with fuel chambers, the chambers comprising an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber, means to supply fuel to the inlet chamber, means to deliver fuel from the outlet chamber to a point of use, the fuel reservoir member chambers also including a bypass chamber, means interconnecting the bypass chamber with the outlet chamber; the fuel pump also comprising pump means interconnecting the inlet chamber and the outlet chamber and adapted to suck fuel from the fuel supply means into the inlet chamber, through the pump means, out the outlet chamber, and to the fuel delivery means; the bypass chamber and the pump means providing two substantially separate paths of fuel flow in the fuel reservoir member, bypass plunger means normally closing off the flow of fuel through the bypass chamber one of the substantially separate paths including the fuel supply means and the fuel delivery means when the bypass plunger means is closed, the second of the substantially separate paths including the bypass chamber when the bypass plunger means is open, and all of the chambers and the interconnecting means therebetween being configured so as to create turbulence in the flow of any fuel supplied to the outlet chamber by the pump means and bypassed through the bypass chamber and the interconnecting means.

  1. Effects of pumping wavelength and pump density on the random laser performance of stoichiometric Nd crystal powders.

    PubMed

    Azkargorta, J; Iparraguirre, I; Bettinelli, M; Cavalli, E; Barredo-Zuriarrain, M; García-Revilla, S; Balda, R; Fernandez, J

    2014-11-03

    Laser slope and threshold properties have been investigated in Nd stoichiometric crystal powders as a function of pump wavelength and pump beam size. Above a given pumped area, the laser slope and the threshold pump energy per unit area are invariant and the known theoretical expressions are well fulfilled. Likewise, the size of the stimulated emission zone as a function of the pump beam area has been measured, also showing a different behavior above or below a given pumped area value which coincides with the one mentioned above. In conclusion, two different operating regimes with different performances are clearly observed as a function of the pump beam area.

  2. Stimulation of Synaptic Vesicle Exocytosis by the Mental Disease Gene DISC1 is Mediated by N-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Willcyn; Thevathasan, Jervis Vermal; Lin, Qingshu; Lim, Kim Buay; Kuroda, Keisuke; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Bilger, Marcel; Soong, Tuck Wah; Fivaz, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Lesions and mutations of the DISC1 (Disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1) gene have been linked to major depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism, but the influence of DISC1 on synaptic transmission remains poorly understood. Using two independent genetic approaches—RNAi and a DISC1 KO mouse—we examined the impact of DISC1 on the synaptic vesicle (SV) cycle by population imaging of the synaptic tracer vGpH in hippocampal neurons. DISC1 loss-of-function resulted in a marked decrease in SV exocytic rates during neuronal stimulation and was associated with reduced Ca2+ transients at nerve terminals. Impaired SV release was efficiently rescued by elevation of extracellular Ca2+, hinting at a link between DISC1 and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Accordingly, blockade of N-type Cav2.2 channels mimics and occludes the effect of DISC1 inactivation on SV exocytosis, and overexpression of DISC1 in a heterologous system increases Cav2.2 currents. Collectively, these results show that DISC1-dependent enhancement of SV exocytosis is mediated by Cav2.2 and point to aberrant glutamate release as a probable endophenotype of major psychiatric disorders. PMID:27378904

  3. A homolog of mammalian, voltage-gated calcium channels mediates yeast pheromone-stimulated Ca2+ uptake and exacerbates the cdc1(Ts) growth defect.

    PubMed Central

    Paidhungat, M; Garrett, S

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies attributed the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cdc1(Ts) growth defect to loss of an Mn2+-dependent function. In this report we show that cdc1(Ts) temperature-sensitive growth is also associated with an increase in cytosolic Ca2+. We identified two recessive suppressors of the cdc1(Ts) temperature-sensitive growth which block Ca2+ uptake and accumulation, suggesting that cytosolic Ca2+ exacerbates or is responsible for the cdc1(Ts) growth defect. One of the cdc1(Ts) suppressors is identical to a gene, MID1, recently implicated in mating pheromone-stimulated Ca2+ uptake. The gene (CCH1) corresponding to the second suppressor encodes a protein that bears significant sequence similarity to the pore-forming subunit (alpha1) of plasma membrane, voltage-gated Ca2+ channels from higher eukaryotes. Strains lacking Mid1 or Cch1 protein exhibit a defect in pheromone-induced Ca2+ uptake and consequently lose viability upon mating arrest. The mid1delta and cch1delta mutants also display reduced tolerance to monovalent cations such as Li+, suggesting a role for Ca2+ uptake in the calcineurin-dependent ion stress response. Finally, mid1delta cch1delta double mutants are, by both physiological and genetic criteria, identical to single mutants. These and other results suggest Mid1 and Cch1 are components of a yeast Ca2+ channel that may mediate Ca2+ uptake in response to mating pheromone, salt stress, and Mn2+ depletion. PMID:9343395

  4. Functional role of Calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclase 8 in adaptations to psychological stressors in the mouse: implications for mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Razzoli, M; Andreoli, M; Maraia, G; Di Francesco, C; Arban, R

    2010-10-13

    The Ca(2+)/calmodulin stimulated adenylyl cylcase 8 (AC8) is a pure Ca(2+) sensor, catalyzing the conversion of ATP to cAMP, with a critical role in neuronal plasticity. A role for AC8 in modulating complex behavioral outcomes has been demonstrated in AC8 knock out (KO) mouse models in which anxiety-like responses were differentially modulated following repeated stress experiences, suggesting an involvement of AC8 in stress adaptation and mood disorders. To further investigate the role of this enzyme in phenotypes relevant for psychiatric conditions, AC8 KO mice were assessed for baseline behavioral and hormonal parameters, responses to repeated restraint stress experience, and long-term effects of chronic social defeat stress. The lack of AC8 conferred a hyperactive-phenotype both in home-cage behaviors and the forced swim test response as well as lower leptin plasma levels and adrenal hypertrophy. AC8 KO mice showed baseline "anxiety" levels similar to wild type littermates in a variety of procedures, but displayed decreased anxiety-like responses following repeated restraint stress. This increased stress resilience was not seen during the chronic social defeat procedure. AC8 KO did not differ from wild type mice in response to social stress; similar alterations in body weight, food intake and increased social avoidance were found in all defeated subjects. Altogether these results support a complex role of cAMP signaling pathways confirming the involvement of AC8 in the modulation of stress responses. Furthermore, the hyperactivity and the increased risk taking behavior observed in AC8 KO mice could be related to a manic-like behavioral phenotype that warrants further investigation.

  5. Which breast pump for which mother: an evidence-based approach to individualizing breast pump technology.

    PubMed

    Meier, P P; Patel, A L; Hoban, R; Engstrom, J L

    2016-07-01

    The majority of new mothers in the United States use breast pumps in the first 4 months postbirth in order to achieve their personal human milk feeding goals. Although these mothers seek guidance from health-care professionals with respect to the type and use of breast pumps, there are few evidence-based guidelines to guide this professional advice. This paper reviews the evidence to facilitate professional individualization of breast pump recommendations using three categories of literature: the infant as the gold standard to which the pump is compared; the degree of maternal breast pump dependency (for example, the extent to which the breast pump replaces the infant for milk removal and mammary gland stimulation); and the stage of lactation for which the pump replaces the infant. This review can also serve to inform public and private payers with respect to individualizing breast pump type to mother-infant dyad characteristics.

  6. DIFFUSION PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Levenson, L.

    1963-09-01

    A high-vacuum diffusion pump is described, featuring a novel housing geometry for enhancing pumping speed. An upright, cylindrical lower housing portion is surmounted by a concentric, upright, cylindrical upper housing portion of substantially larger diameter; an uppermost nozzle, disposed concentrically within the upper portion, is adapted to eject downwardly a conical sheet of liquid outwardly to impinge upon the uppermost extremity of the interior wall of the lower portion. Preferably this nozzle is mounted upon a pedestal rising coaxially from within the lower portion and projecting up into said upper portion. (AEC)

  7. Electrokinetic pump

    DOEpatents

    Hencken, Kenneth R.; Sartor, George B.

    2004-08-03

    An electrokinetic pump in which the porous dielectric medium of conventional electrokinetic pumps is replaced by a patterned microstructure. The patterned microstructure is fabricated by lithographic patterning and etching of a substrate and is formed by features arranged so as to create an array of microchannels. The microchannels have dimensions on the order of the pore spacing in a conventional porous dielectric medium. Embedded unitary electrodes are vapor deposited on either end of the channel structure to provide the electric field necessary for electroosmotic flow.

  8. Calcium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... of calcium dietary supplements include calcium citrate and calcium carbonate. Calcium citrate is the more expensive form of ... the body on a full or empty stomach. Calcium carbonate is less expensive. It is absorbed better by ...

  9. A Calcium-Relay Mechanism in Vertebrate Phototransduction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Calcium-signaling in cells requires a fine-tuned system of calcium-transport proteins involving ion channels, exchangers, and ion-pumps but also calcium-sensor proteins and their targets. Thus, control of physiological responses very often depends on incremental changes of the cytoplasmic calcium concentration, which are sensed by calcium-binding proteins and are further transmitted to specific target proteins. This Review will focus on calcium-signaling in vertebrate photoreceptor cells, where recent physiological and biochemical data indicate that a subset of neuronal calcium sensor proteins named guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) operate in a calcium-relay system, namely, to make gradual responses to small changes in calcium. We will further integrate this mechanism in an existing computational model of phototransduction showing that it is consistent and compatible with the dynamics that are characteristic for the precise operation of the phototransduction pathways. PMID:23472635

  10. Induction of Calcium Influx in Cortical Neural Networks by Nanomagnetic Forces.

    PubMed

    Tay, Andy; Kunze, Anja; Murray, Coleman; Di Carlo, Dino

    2016-02-23

    Nanomagnetic force stimulation with ferromagnetic nanoparticles was found to trigger calcium influx in cortical neural networks without observable cytotoxicity. Stimulated neural networks showed an average of 20% increment in calcium fluorescence signals and a heightened frequency in calcium spiking. These effects were also confined spatially to areas with engineered high magnetic field gradients. Furthermore, blockage of N-type calcium channels inhibited the stimulatory effects of the nanomagnetic forces, suggesting the role of mechano-sensitive ion channels in mediating calcium influx.

  11. Calcium - ionized

    MedlinePlus

    ... 245. Read More Acute kidney failure Albumin - blood (serum) test Bone tumor Calcium blood test Hyperparathyroidism Hypoparathyroidism Malabsorption Milk-alkali syndrome Multiple myeloma Osteomalacia Paget disease of the bone Rickets Sarcoidosis Vitamin D Review ...

  12. Calcium Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, M M H; Rashid, I S; Qinna, N A; Jaber, A M; Badwan, A A

    2016-01-01

    Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3 formed by three main elements: carbon, oxygen, and calcium. It is a common substance found in rocks in all parts of the world (most notably as limestone), and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, coal balls, pearls, and eggshells. CaCO3 exists in different polymorphs, each with specific stability that depends on a diversity of variables.

  13. 18. Electrically driven pumps in Armory Street Pump House. Pumps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Electrically driven pumps in Armory Street Pump House. Pumps in background formerly drew water from the clear well. They went out of service when use of the beds was discontinued. Pumps in the foreground provide high pressure water to Hamden. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  14. Calcium Hydroxylapatite

    PubMed Central

    Yutskovskaya, Yana Alexandrovna; Philip Werschler, WM.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Calcium hydroxylapatite is one of the most well-studied dermal fillers worldwide and has been extensively used for the correction of moderate-to-severe facial lines and folds and to replenish lost volume. Objectives: To mark the milestone of 10 years of use in the aesthetic field, this review will consider the evolution of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine, provide a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach, and examine how the unique properties of calcium hydroxylapatite provide it with an important place in today’s market. Methods: This article is an up-to-date review of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine along with procedures for its use, including a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach by three expert injectors. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxylapatite is a very effective agent for many areas of facial soft tissue augmentation and is associated with a high and well-established safety profile. Calcium hydroxylapatite combines high elasticity and viscosity with an ability to induce long-term collagen formation making it an ideal agent for a global facial approach. PMID:25610523

  15. Calcium orthophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. This type of materials is of special significance for human beings, because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and antlers) and pathological (i.e., those appearing due to various diseases) calcified tissues of mammals. For example, atherosclerosis results in blood vessel blockage caused by a solid composite of cholesterol with calcium orthophosphates, while dental caries and osteoporosis mean a partial decalcification of teeth and bones, respectively, that results in replacement of a less soluble and harder biological apatite by more soluble and softer calcium hydrogenphosphates. Therefore, the processes of both normal and pathological calcifications are just an in vivo crystallization of calcium orthophosphates. Similarly, dental caries and osteoporosis might be considered an in vivo dissolution of calcium orthophosphates. Thus, calcium orthophosphates hold a great significance for humankind, and in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided. PMID:23507744

  16. The sodium pump keeps us going.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Torben

    2003-04-01

    This invited lecture reviews recent evidence that, in skeletal muscle, excitability and contractility depend on the transmembrane distribution of Na(+) and K(+) and the membrane potential, which in turn are determined by the operation of the Na(+)-K(+) pump. Action potentials are elicited by passive fluxes of Na(+) and K(+). Because of their size and sudden onset, these transport events constitute the major challenge for the Na(+)-K(+) pumps. When the Na(+)-K(+) pumps cannot readily restore the Na(+)-K(+) gradients, working muscle cells often undergo net loss of K(+) and gain of Na(+). This leads to loss of excitability and force, in particular, in muscles where excitation-induced passive Na(+)-K(+) fluxes are large. Thus, excitability depends on the leak/pump ratio for Na(+) and K(+). When this ratio is increased by inhibition or downregulation of the Na(+)-K(+) pumps, the force decline seen during continued stimulation is accelerated. This effect is highly significant already within the first seconds of electrical stimulation. Fortunately, electrical stimulation also increases Na(+)-K(+) pumping rate within seconds. Thus, maximum increase (20-fold above the resting level) may be reached in 10 seconds, with utilization of all available Na(+)-K(+) pumps. In muscles, where excitability was inhibited by exposure to high [K(+)](o) (10-12.5 mM), activation of the Na(+)-K(+) pumps by hormones or electrical stimulation restored excitability and contractile force. In working muscles, the Na(+)-K(+) pumps, because of rapid activation of their large transport capacity, play a dynamic regulatory role in the second-to-second ongoing restoration and maintenance of excitability and force. The Na(+)-K(+) pumps become a limiting factor for contractile endurance, in particular, if their capacity is reduced by inactivity or disease.

  17. The role of calcium and Ca2+-ATPase in maintaining motility in ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Breitbart, H; Rubinstein, S; Nass-Arden, L

    1985-09-25

    Extracellular calcium at millimolar concentrations inhibits collective motility of ejaculated ram spermatozoa. In untreated cells, or when motility was made dependent upon glycolytic activity, there is very small inhibition, but when motility was made dependent upon mitochondrial respiration there is very high inhibition in motility by increasing extracellular Ca2+ concentration. Quercetin, which inhibits (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase activity in isolated plasma membranes, also inhibits motility mainly in cells that have been made dependent upon glycolytic activity, but there is also inhibition in untreated cells. When motility was made dependent upon mitochondrial activity, there is no inhibition but rather some stimulation in motility by quercetin. The inhibitory effect of quercetin is enhanced by increasing Ca2+ concentration in the medium. Quercetin also inhibits uptake of calcium into the cells, in a mechanism by which a calcium channel is involved. This inhibition is high only when the glycolysis is inhibited in the cells. The rate of glycolysis is decreased by quercetin or ouabain, but their effects on motility are quite different. Based on these data, it appears that the plasma membrane (Ca2+ + Mg2+)-ATPase or the Ca2+ pump have a functional role in the regulation of spermatozoa motility. This motility regulation is functioning through mechanisms which include glycolytic activity and maintenance of intracellular calcium concentrations.

  18. Solar Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pique, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Proposed pump moves liquid by action of bubbles formed by heat of sun. Tube of liquid having boiling point of 100 to 200 degrees F placed at focal axis of cylindrical reflector. Concentrated sunlight boils liquid at focus, and bubbles of vapor rise in tube, carrying liquid along with them. Pressure difference in hot tube sufficient to produce flow in large loop. Used with conventional flat solar heating panel in completely solar-powered heat-storage system.

  19. Heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, A.J.

    1982-11-30

    A single working fluid heat pump system having a turbocompressor with a first fluid input for the turbine and a second fluid input for the compressor, and a single output volute or mixing chamber for combining the working fluid output flows of the turbine and the compressor. The system provides for higher efficiency than single fluid systems whose turbine and compressor are provided with separate output volutes.

  20. Influence of calcium sources on microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation by Bacillus sp. CR2.

    PubMed

    Achal, Varenyam; Pan, Xiangliang

    2014-05-01

    Stimulation of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICCP) is likely to be influenced by calcium sources. In order to study such influences, we performed MICCP using Bacillus sp. CR2 in nutrient broth containing urea, supplemented with different calcium sources (calcium chloride, calcium oxide, calcium acetate and calcium nitrate). The experiment lasted 7 days, during which bacterial growth, urease activity, calcite production and pH were measured. Our results showed that calcium chloride is the better calcium source for MICCP process, since it provides higher urease activity and more calcite production. The influences of calcium sources on MICCP were further studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. These analyses confirmed that the precipitate formed was CaCO3 and composed of predominantly calcite crystals with a little amount of aragonite and vaterite crystals. The maximum yield of calcite precipitation was achievable with calcium chloride followed by calcium nitrate as a calcium source. The results of present study may be applicable to media preparation during efficient MICCP process.

  1. Energy saving pump and pumping system

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, K.C.

    1983-08-02

    A centrifugal pump and a pumping system are disclosed that recover hydraulic energy in response to flow capacity reduction and spontaneously provide a recirculating flow at low capacities when pump cooling is needed. From a upstream source the fluid is guided by two suction lines to two parallel pumping mechanisms housed by a common discharge casing. Said pumping mechanisms have a combined hydraulic characteristic that the first pumping mechanism will force a reverse flow through the second pumping mechanism, when pump discharge is reduced by the system below a certain low flow rate. The reverse flow will then return to the upstream fluid source through a suction line. The pump is the protected from overheating by a circulating flow at low flow capacities. At the same time, said reverse flow generates a turbine action on the second pumping mechanism and transmits the contained hydraulic energy back to the rotor and thereby results in power saving at low flow capacities.

  2. Iontophoresis and sonophoresis stimulate epidermal cytokine expression at energies that do not provoke a barrier abnormality: lamellar body secretion and cytokine expression are linked to altered epidermal calcium levels.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eung Ho; Kim, Min Jung; Yeh, Byung-Il; Ahn, Sung Ku; Lee, Seung Hun

    2003-11-01

    We performed this study to identify whether the expression of epidermal cytokines is altered by changes in epidermal calcium content, independent of skin barrier disruption. Iontophoresis and sonophoresis with the energies that do not disrupt the skin barrier, but induce changes in the epidermal calcium gradient, were applied to the skin of hairless mice. Immediately after iontophoresis and sonophoresis, immersion in a solution containing calcium was carried out, and iontophoresis in either high- or low-calcium solutions was performed. The biopsy specimens were taken for real-time quantitative RT-PCR to detect changes in mRNA level of interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and transforming growth factor-beta in the epidermis and for immunohistochemical stain with primary antibodies to IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha. The expression of each cytokine mRNA increased in the epidermis treated with iontophoresis and sonophoresis compared to a nontreated control as well as in tape-stripped skin used as a positive control and was lower after immersion in a high-calcium solution than in low-calcium solution. IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha immunohistochemical protein staining increased with iontophoresis at low calcium. These studies suggest that changes in epidermal calcium can directly signal expression of epidermal cytokines in vivo, independent of changes in barrier function.

  3. Hierarchical clustering of ryanodine receptors enables emergence of a calcium clock in sinoatrial node cells.

    PubMed

    Stern, Michael D; Maltseva, Larissa A; Juhaszova, Magdalena; Sollott, Steven J; Lakatta, Edward G; Maltsev, Victor A

    2014-05-01

    The sinoatrial node, whose cells (sinoatrial node cells [SANCs]) generate rhythmic action potentials, is the primary pacemaker of the heart. During diastole, calcium released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via ryanodine receptors (RyRs) interacts with membrane currents to control the rate of the heartbeat. This "calcium clock" takes the form of stochastic, partially periodic, localized calcium release (LCR) events that propagate, wave-like, for limited distances. The detailed mechanisms controlling the calcium clock are not understood. We constructed a computational model of SANCs, including three-dimensional diffusion and buffering of calcium in the cytosol and SR; explicit, stochastic gating of individual RyRs and L-type calcium channels; and a full complement of voltage- and calcium-dependent membrane currents. We did not include an anatomical submembrane space or inactivation of RyRs, the two heuristic components that have been used in prior models but are not observed experimentally. When RyRs were distributed in discrete clusters separated by >1 µm, only isolated sparks were produced in this model and LCR events did not form. However, immunofluorescent staining of SANCs for RyR revealed the presence of bridging RyR groups between large clusters, forming an irregular network. Incorporation of this architecture into the model led to the generation of propagating LCR events. Partial periodicity emerged from the interaction of LCR events, as observed experimentally. This calcium clock becomes entrained with membrane currents to accelerate the beating rate, which therefore was controlled by the activity of the SERCA pump, RyR sensitivity, and L-type current amplitude, all of which are targets of β-adrenergic-mediated phosphorylation. Unexpectedly, simulations revealed the existence of a pathological mode at high RyR sensitivity to calcium, in which the calcium clock loses synchronization with the membrane, resulting in a paradoxical decrease in beating

  4. Hierarchical clustering of ryanodine receptors enables emergence of a calcium clock in sinoatrial node cells

    PubMed Central

    Maltseva, Larissa A.; Juhaszova, Magdalena; Sollott, Steven J.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Maltsev, Victor A.

    2014-01-01

    The sinoatrial node, whose cells (sinoatrial node cells [SANCs]) generate rhythmic action potentials, is the primary pacemaker of the heart. During diastole, calcium released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) via ryanodine receptors (RyRs) interacts with membrane currents to control the rate of the heartbeat. This “calcium clock” takes the form of stochastic, partially periodic, localized calcium release (LCR) events that propagate, wave-like, for limited distances. The detailed mechanisms controlling the calcium clock are not understood. We constructed a computational model of SANCs, including three-dimensional diffusion and buffering of calcium in the cytosol and SR; explicit, stochastic gating of individual RyRs and L-type calcium channels; and a full complement of voltage- and calcium-dependent membrane currents. We did not include an anatomical submembrane space or inactivation of RyRs, the two heuristic components that have been used in prior models but are not observed experimentally. When RyRs were distributed in discrete clusters separated by >1 µm, only isolated sparks were produced in this model and LCR events did not form. However, immunofluorescent staining of SANCs for RyR revealed the presence of bridging RyR groups between large clusters, forming an irregular network. Incorporation of this architecture into the model led to the generation of propagating LCR events. Partial periodicity emerged from the interaction of LCR events, as observed experimentally. This calcium clock becomes entrained with membrane currents to accelerate the beating rate, which therefore was controlled by the activity of the SERCA pump, RyR sensitivity, and L-type current amplitude, all of which are targets of β-adrenergic–mediated phosphorylation. Unexpectedly, simulations revealed the existence of a pathological mode at high RyR sensitivity to calcium, in which the calcium clock loses synchronization with the membrane, resulting in a paradoxical decrease in

  5. DISK PUMP FEASIBILITY INVESTIGATION,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The disk pump was investigated at the Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory (AFRPL) to determine the feasibility of using a novel viscous pumping... pump primarily for application as an inducer. The disk pump differs drastically from conventional pumps because of the following major factors: (1) The...The pump inlet relative velocity is equal only to the through flow velocity between the disks. Therefore, there is good indication that the disk pump will

  6. Effects of treppe and calcium on intracellular calcium and function in the failing heart from the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Brooks, W W; Bing, O H; Litwin, S E; Conrad, C H; Morgan, J P

    1994-09-01

    failing myocardium cannot be explained by decreased peak [Ca2+]i, (2) relative increases in [Ca2+]i and inotropy with increasing [Ca2+]o are proportional among groups; and (3) although peak systolic [Ca2+]i and inotropy are maintained with increasing stimulation rate in the WKY and SHR-NF groups, peak systolic [Ca2+]i and pressure decrease in parallel in the SHR-F heart with increasing stimulation rate, suggesting that impaired calcium cycling may contribute to compromised pump function in the SHR-F heart.

  7. Regulating Intracellular Calcium in Plants: From Molecular Genetics to Physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Heven Sze

    2008-06-22

    To grow, develop, adapt, and reproduce, plants have evolved mechanisms to regulate the uptake, translocation and sorting of calcium ions into different cells and subcellular compartments. Yet how plants accomplish this remarkable feat is still poorly understood. The spatial and temporal changes in intracellular [Ca2+] during growth and during responses to hormonal and environmental stimuli indicate that Ca2+ influx and efflux transporters are diverse and tightly regulated in plants. The specific goals were to determine the biological roles of multiple Ca pumps (ECAs) in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We had pioneered the use of K616 yeast strain to functionally express plant Ca pumps, and demonstrated two distinct types of Ca pumps in plants (Sze et al., 2000. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 51,433). ACA2 represented one type that was auto-inhibited by the N-terminal region and stimulated by calmodulin. ECA1 represented another type that was not sensitive to calmodulin and phylogenetically distinct from ACAs. The goal to determine the biological roles of multiple ECA-type Ca pumps in Arabidopsis has been accomplished. Although we demonstrated ECA1 was a Ca pump by functional expression in yeast, the in vivo roles of ECAs was unclear. A few highlights are described. ECA1 and/or ECA4 are Ca/Mn pumps localized to the ER and are highly expressed in all cell types. Using homozygous T-DNA insertional mutants of eca1, we demonstrated that the ER-bound ECA1 supports growth and confers tolerance of plants growing on medium low in Ca or containing toxic levels of Mn. This is the first genetic study to determine the in vivo function of a Ca pump in plants. A phylogenetically distinct ECA3 is also a Ca/Mn pump that is localized to endosome, such as post-Golgi compartments. Although it is expressed at lower levels than ECA1, eca3 mutants are impaired in Ca-dependent root growth and in pollen tube elongation. Increased secretion of wall proteins in mutants suggests that Ca and Mn

  8. Well pump

    SciTech Connect

    Page, J.S.

    1983-03-08

    Well fluid pumping apparatus comprises: (A) body structure defining an upright plunger bore, (B) a plunger reciprocable in that bore, (C) the body structure also defining a chamber sidewardly offset from an axis defined by the plunger bore and communicating with the bore, and (D) valving carried by the body structure to pass intake fluid via the chamber into the plunger bore in response to stroking of the plunger in one direction in the bore, and to pass discharge fluid from the plunger bore into and from the chamber in response to stroking of the plunger in the opposite direction in the bore.

  9. Calcium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... if a person has symptoms of a parathyroid disorder , malabsorption , or an overactive thyroid. A total calcium level is often measured as part of a routine health screening. It is included in the comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) and the basic metabolic panel (BMP) , ...

  10. Calcium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for calcium cyanide is included in th

  11. Activation of the calcium sensing receptor with cinacalcet increases serum gastrin levels in healthy older subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gastric acidity is postulated to enhance calcium absorption since calcium is better dissolved at low pH. Extracellular calcium stimulates gastrin and gastric acid secretion in humans. Ex vivo studies indicate that the calcium sensing receptor (CaR), which is expressed on the surface of human G cells...

  12. Reconstruction of Cell Surface Densities of Ion Pumps, Exchangers, and Channels from mRNA Expression, Conductance Kinetics, Whole-Cell Calcium, and Current-Clamp Voltage Recordings, with an Application to Human Uterine Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Atia, Jolene; McCloskey, Conor; Shmygol, Anatoly S; Rand, David A; van den Berg, Hugo A; Blanks, Andrew M

    2016-04-01

    Uterine smooth muscle cells remain quiescent throughout most of gestation, only generating spontaneous action potentials immediately prior to, and during, labor. This study presents a method that combines transcriptomics with biophysical recordings to characterise the conductance repertoire of these cells, the 'conductance repertoire' being the total complement of ion channels and transporters expressed by an electrically active cell. Transcriptomic analysis provides a set of potential electrogenic entities, of which the conductance repertoire is a subset. Each entity within the conductance repertoire was modeled independently and its gating parameter values were fixed using the available biophysical data. The only remaining free parameters were the surface densities for each entity. We characterise the space of combinations of surface densities (density vectors) consistent with experimentally observed membrane potential and calcium waveforms. This yields insights on the functional redundancy of the system as well as its behavioral versatility. Our approach couples high-throughput transcriptomic data with physiological behaviors in health and disease, and provides a formal method to link genotype to phenotype in excitable systems. We accurately predict current densities and chart functional redundancy. For example, we find that to evoke the observed voltage waveform, the BK channel is functionally redundant whereas hERG is essential. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that activation of calcium-activated chloride conductances by intracellular calcium release is the key factor underlying spontaneous depolarisations.

  13. Reconstruction of Cell Surface Densities of Ion Pumps, Exchangers, and Channels from mRNA Expression, Conductance Kinetics, Whole-Cell Calcium, and Current-Clamp Voltage Recordings, with an Application to Human Uterine Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Atia, Jolene; McCloskey, Conor; Shmygol, Anatoly S.; Rand, David A.; van den Berg, Hugo A.; Blanks, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Uterine smooth muscle cells remain quiescent throughout most of gestation, only generating spontaneous action potentials immediately prior to, and during, labor. This study presents a method that combines transcriptomics with biophysical recordings to characterise the conductance repertoire of these cells, the ‘conductance repertoire’ being the total complement of ion channels and transporters expressed by an electrically active cell. Transcriptomic analysis provides a set of potential electrogenic entities, of which the conductance repertoire is a subset. Each entity within the conductance repertoire was modeled independently and its gating parameter values were fixed using the available biophysical data. The only remaining free parameters were the surface densities for each entity. We characterise the space of combinations of surface densities (density vectors) consistent with experimentally observed membrane potential and calcium waveforms. This yields insights on the functional redundancy of the system as well as its behavioral versatility. Our approach couples high-throughput transcriptomic data with physiological behaviors in health and disease, and provides a formal method to link genotype to phenotype in excitable systems. We accurately predict current densities and chart functional redundancy. For example, we find that to evoke the observed voltage waveform, the BK channel is functionally redundant whereas hERG is essential. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that activation of calcium-activated chloride conductances by intracellular calcium release is the key factor underlying spontaneous depolarisations. PMID:27105427

  14. Pump apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kime, J.A.

    1987-02-17

    This patent describes a gas-oil well production system for pumping formation fluid wherein a down hole pump is provided having a barrel including a barrel fluid inlet, a barrel fluid outlet, a barrel chamber, and a plunger mounted in the barrel chamber having a plunger chamber. The plunger is reciprocally driven between an upper terminal position at the end of the plunger upstroke and a lower terminal position at the end of the plunger downstroke. The method for removing developed gaseous fluids in the formation fluid from the barrel chamber comprises: drawing formation fluid into the barrel chamber during the plunger upstroke; providing gas port means in the barrel; expelling the developed gaseous fluids from the barrel chamber through the gas port means during the occurrence of that portion of the plunger downstroke from the upper terminal position of the gas port means; and substantially blocking the gas port means and moving formation fluid into the plunger chamber during the occurrence of that portion of the plunger downstroke from below the gas port means to the lower terminal position.

  15. Transient effects on stimulated Brillouin scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Faris, G.W.; Dyer, M.J.; Hickman, A.P. )

    1992-08-01

    We present a detailed comparison of theory and experiment for transient stimulated Brillouin scattering for a pump pulse with Gaussian temporal profile. A new approach for measuring Brillouin linewidths is demonstrated, and an unexplained asymmetry is observed.

  16. Calcium regulates FGF-23 expression in bone.

    PubMed

    David, Valentin; Dai, Bing; Martin, Aline; Huang, Jinsong; Han, Xiaobin; Quarles, L Darryl

    2013-12-01

    Calcium has recently been shown to regulate fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), a bone-derived phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone. To better understand the regulation of FGF-23 by calcium, phosphorus, 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D], and PTH, we examined FGF-23 expression under basal conditions and in response to PTH, doxercalciferol, or high-calcium diet treatment in Gcm2(-/-) and Cyp27b1(-/-) mutant mice. Gcm2(-/-) mice exhibited low serum PTH and 1,25(OH)2D concentrations, hypocalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia, whereas Cyp27b1(-/-) mice had high PTH, undetectable 1,25(OH)2D, hypocalcemia, and hypophosphatemia. Serum FGF-23 levels were decreased in both mutant models. Doxercalciferol administration increased serum FGF-23 levels in both mutant models. PTH administration to Gcm2(-/-) mice also increased serum FGF-23 levels, in association with an increase in both 1,25(OH)2D and calcium concentrations. Multiple regression analysis of pooled data indicated that changes in FGF-23 were positively correlated with serum calcium and 1,25(OH)2D but not related to changes in serum phosphate concentrations. A high-calcium diet also increased serum FGF-23 concentrations in Cyp27b1(-/-) mice in the absence of 1,25(OH)2D and in Gcm2(-/-) mice with low PTH. The addition of calcium to the culture media also stimulated FGF-23 message expression in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. In addition, FGF-23 promoter activity in cultured osteoblasts was inhibited by the L-calcium-channel inhibitor nifedipine and stimulated by calcium ionophores. The effects of chronic low calcium to prevent 1,25(OH)2D and PTH stimulation of FGF-23 in these mutant mouse models suggest that suppression of FGF-23 plays an important physiological adaptive response to hypocalcemia.

  17. Synthetic peptides corresponding to human follicle-stimulating hormone (hFSH)-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) induce uptake of 45Ca++ by liposomes: evidence for calcium-conducting transmembrane channel formation

    SciTech Connect

    Grasso, P.; Santa-Coloma, T.A.; Reichert, L.E. Jr. )

    1991-06-01

    We have previously described FSH receptor-mediated influx of 45Ca++ in cultured Sertoli cells from immature rats and receptor-enriched proteoliposomes via activation of voltage-sensitive and voltage-independent calcium channels. We have further shown that this effect of FSH does not require cholera toxin- or pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding protein or activation of adenylate cyclase. In the present study, we have identified regions of human FSH-beta-subunit which appear to be involved in mediating calcium influx. We screened 11 overlapping peptide amides representing the entire primary structure of hFSH-beta-subunit for their effects on 45Ca++ flux in FSH receptor-enriched proteoliposomes. hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) induced uptake of 45Ca++ in a concentration-related manner. This effect of hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) was also observed in liposomes lacking incorporated FSH receptor. Reducing membrane fluidity by incubating liposomes (containing no receptor) with hFSH-beta-(1-15) or hFSH-beta-(51-65) at temperatures lower than the transition temperatures of their constituent phospholipids resulted in no significant (P greater than 0.05) difference in 45Ca++ uptake. The effectiveness of the calcium ionophore A23187, however, was abolished. Ruthenium red, a voltage-independent calcium channel antagonist, was able to completely block uptake of 45Ca++ induced by hFSH-beta-(1-15) and hFSH-beta-(51-65) whereas nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker specific for L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels, was without effect. These results suggest that in addition to its effect on voltage-sensitive calcium channel activity, interaction of FSH with its receptor may induce formation of transmembrane aqueous channels which also facilitate influx of extracellular calcium.

  18. Slow Ca2+ dynamics in pharyngeal muscles in Caenorhabditis elegans during fast pumping.

    PubMed

    Shimozono, Satoshi; Fukano, Takashi; Kimura, Koutarou D; Mori, Ikue; Kirino, Yutaka; Miyawaki, Atsushi

    2004-05-01

    The pharyngeal muscles of Caenorhabditis elegans are composed of the corpus, isthmus and terminal bulb from anterior to posterior. These components are excited in a coordinated fashion to facilitate proper feeding through pumping and peristalsis. We analysed the spatiotemporal pattern of intracellular calcium dynamics in the pharyngeal muscles during feeding. We used a new ratiometric fluorescent calcium indicator and a new optical system that allows simultaneous illumination and detection at any two wavelengths. Pumping was observed with fast, repetitive and synchronous spikes in calcium concentrations in the corpus and terminal bulb, indicative of electrical coupling throughout the muscles. The posterior isthmus, however, responded to only one out of several pumping spikes to produce broad calcium transients, leading to peristalsis, the slow and gradual motion needed for efficient swallows. The excitation-calcium coupling may be uniquely modulated in this region at the level of calcium channels on the plasma membrane.

  19. Calcium and bone disease

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Harry C.; Robinson, Lisa J.; Huang, Christopher L.-H.; Sun, Li; Friedman, Peter A.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Zaidi, Mone

    2013-01-01

    Calcium transport and calcium signaling are of basic importance in bone cells. Bone is the major store of calcium and a key regulatory organ for calcium homeostasis. Bone, in major part, responds to calcium-dependent signals from the parathyroids and via vitamin D metabolites, although bone retains direct response to extracellular calcium if parathyroid regulation is lost. Improved understanding of calcium transporters and calcium-regulated cellular processes has resulted from analysis of genetic defects, including several defects with low or high bone mass. Osteoblasts deposit calcium by mechanisms including phosphate and calcium transport with alkalinization to absorb acid created by mineral deposition; cartilage calcium mineralization occurs by passive diffusion and phosphate production. Calcium mobilization by osteoclasts is mediated by acid secretion. Both bone forming and bone resorbing cells use calcium signals as regulators of differentiation and activity. This has been studied in more detail in osteoclasts, where both osteoclast differentiation and motility are regulated by calcium. PMID:21674636

  20. Calcium signals and calcium channels in osteoblastic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R. L.; Akanbi, K. A.; Farach-Carson, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) channels are present in non-excitable as well as in excitable cells. In bone cells of the osteoblast lineage, Ca2+ channels play fundamental roles in cellular responses to external stimuli including both mechanical forces and hormonal signals. They are also proposed to modulate paracrine signaling between bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts at local sites of bone remodeling. Calcium signals are characterized by transient increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels that are associated with activation of intracellular signaling pathways that control cell behavior and phenotype, including patterns of gene expression. Development of Ca2+ signals is a tightly regulated cellular process that involves the concerted actions of plasma membrane and intracellular Ca2+ channels, along with Ca2+ pumps and exchangers. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning the structure, function, and role of Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ signals in bone cells, focusing on the osteoblast.

  1. LMFBR with booster pump in pumping loop

    DOEpatents

    Rubinstein, H.J.

    1975-10-14

    A loop coolant circulation system is described for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) utilizing a low head, high specific speed booster pump in the hot leg of the coolant loop with the main pump located in the cold leg of the loop, thereby providing the advantages of operating the main pump in the hot leg with the reliability of cold leg pump operation.

  2. Liquid metal pump

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

  3. Winding for linear pump

    DOEpatents

    Kliman, G.B.; Brynsvold, G.V.; Jahns, T.M.

    1989-08-22

    A winding and method of winding for a submersible linear pump for pumping liquid sodium are disclosed. The pump includes a stator having a central cylindrical duct preferably vertically aligned. The central vertical duct is surrounded by a system of coils in slots. These slots are interleaved with magnetic flux conducting elements, these magnetic flux conducting elements forming a continuous magnetic field conduction path along the stator. The central duct has placed therein a cylindrical magnetic conducting core, this core having a cylindrical diameter less than the diameter of the cylindrical duct. The core once placed to the duct defines a cylindrical interstitial pumping volume of the pump. This cylindrical interstitial pumping volume preferably defines an inlet at the bottom of the pump, and an outlet at the top of the pump. Pump operation occurs by static windings in the outer stator sequentially conveying toroidal fields from the pump inlet at the bottom of the pump to the pump outlet at the top of the pump. The winding apparatus and method of winding disclosed uses multiple slots per pole per phase with parallel winding legs on each phase equal to or less than the number of slots per pole per phase. The slot sequence per pole per phase is chosen to equalize the variations in flux density of the pump sodium as it passes into the pump at the pump inlet with little or no flux and acquires magnetic flux in passage through the pump to the pump outlet. 4 figs.

  4. Winding for linear pump

    DOEpatents

    Kliman, Gerald B.; Brynsvold, Glen V.; Jahns, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    A winding and method of winding for a submersible linear pump for pumping liquid sodium is disclosed. The pump includes a stator having a central cylindrical duct preferably vertically aligned. The central vertical duct is surrounded by a system of coils in slots. These slots are interleaved with magnetic flux conducting elements, these magnetic flux conducting elements forming a continuous magnetic field conduction path along the stator. The central duct has placed therein a cylindrical magnetic conducting core, this core having a cylindrical diameter less than the diameter of the cylindrical duct. The core once placed to the duct defines a cylindrical interstitial pumping volume of the pump. This cylindrical interstitial pumping volume preferably defines an inlet at the bottom of the pump, and an outlet at the top of the pump. Pump operation occurs by static windings in the outer stator sequentially conveying toroidal fields from the pump inlet at the bottom of the pump to the pump outlet at the top of the pump. The winding apparatus and method of winding disclosed uses multiple slots per pole per phase with parallel winding legs on each phase equal to or less than the number of slots per pole per phase. The slot sequence per pole per phase is chosen to equalize the variations in flux density of the pump sodium as it passes into the pump at the pump inlet with little or no flux and acquires magnetic flux in passage through the pump to the pump outlet.

  5. Optically pumped molecular bromine laser. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.W.

    1990-12-01

    An optically pumped molecular bromine laser was studied to investigate the quenching kinetics state of Br2. This included characterization of the pressure dependence of the laser output power. The approach was to excite molecular bromine in a sealed cell with a Nd:YAG pumped dye laser. Unresolved side fluorescence and amplified stimulated emission (ASE) spectra were recorded. ASE offered the advantage of a simpler optical system with no externally induced wavelength dependencies. Stimulated emission as a signal monitor offered greater resolution than side fluorescence spectra and facilitated spectroscopic assignment. (JS)

  6. Nuclear calcium sensors reveal that repetition of trains of synaptic stimuli boosts nuclear calcium signaling in CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, C Peter; Freitag, H Eckehard; Weislogel, Jan-Marek; Bading, Hilmar

    2010-12-15

    Nuclear calcium is a key signal in the dialogue between synapse and nucleus that controls the genomic responses required for persistent adaptations, including memory and acquired neuroprotection. The amplitude and duration of nuclear calcium transients specify activity-induced transcriptional changes. However, the precise relationship between synaptic input and nuclear calcium output is unknown. Here, we used stereotaxic delivery to the rat brain of recombinant adeno-associated viruses encoding nuclear-targeted calcium sensors to assess nuclear calcium transients in CA1 pyramidal neurons after stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals. We show that in acute hippocampal slices, a burst of synaptic activity elicits a nuclear calcium signal with a regenerative component at above-threshold stimulation intensities. Using classical stimulation paradigms (i.e., high-frequency stimulation (HFS) and θ burst stimulation (TBS)) to induce early LTP (E-LTP) and transcription-dependent late LTP (L-LTP), we found that the magnitude of nuclear calcium signals and the number of action potentials activated by synaptic stimulation trains are greatly amplified by their repetition. Nuclear calcium signals and action potential generation were reduced by blockade of either NMDA receptors or L-type voltage-gated calcium channels, but not by procedures that lead to internal calcium store depletion or by blockade of metabotropic glutamate receptors. These findings identify a repetition-induced switch in nuclear calcium signaling that correlates with the transition from E-LTP to L-LTP, and may explain why the transcription-dependent phase of L-LTP is not induced by a single HFS or TBS but requires repeated trains of activity. Recombinant, nuclear-targeted indicators may prove useful for further analysis of nuclear calcium signaling in vivo.

  7. Relevance of the plasma membrane calcium-ATPase in the homeostasis of calcium in the fetal liver

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Coello, Blanca; Mas-Oliva, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    During the early stages of development, the embryo depends on the placenta as provider of oxygen and calcium, among other essential compounds. Although fetal liver accomplishes a well-known haematopoietic function, its contribution to calcium homeostasis upon development is poorly understood. The homeostasis of cell calcium contributes to diverse signaling pathways across developmental stages of most tissues and the calcium-ATPase located at the plasma membrane (PMCA) helps pumping excess calcium into the extracellular space. To date, the understanding of the equilibrium shift between PMCA isoforms during liver development is still missing. This review focuses on the characterization of the hepatic PMCA along the early stages of development, followed by a description of modern approaches to study calcium homeostasis involving several types of pluripotent cells. The application of interdisciplinary techniques to improve our understanding of liver development and the role calcium homeostasis plays in the definition of pathogenesis is also discussed. PMID:25836032

  8. Presynaptic calcium stores contribute to nicotine-elicited potentiation of evoked synaptic transmission at CA3-CA1 connections in the neonatal rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Le Magueresse, Corentin; Cherubini, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    Nicotine acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that are widely expressed throughout the central nervous system. It is well established that presynaptic, alpha7-containing nAChRs modulate glutamate release in several brain areas, and that this modulation requires extracellular calcium. However, the intracellular mechanisms consecutive to nAChR opening are unclear. Recent studies have suggested a role for presynaptic calcium stores in the increase of neurotransmitter release following nAChR activation. Using the minimal stimulation protocol at low-probability Schaffer collateral synapses in acute hippocampal slices from neonatal rats, we show that nicotine acting on presynaptic alpha7 nAChRs persistently upregulates glutamate release. We tested the role of calcium stores in this potentiation. First, we examined the relationship between calcium stores and glutamate release. We found that bath application of SERCA pump inhibitors (cyclopiazonic acid and thapsigargin), as well as an agonist of ryanodine receptors (ryanodine 2 microM) increases the probability of glutamate release at CA3-CA1 synapses, decreases the coefficient of variation and the paired-pulse ratio, indicating that presynaptic activation of calcium-induced calcium release can modulate glutamatergic transmission. Next, we investigated whether blocking calcium release from internal stores could alter the effect of nicotine. Preincubation with thapsigargin (10 microM), cyclopiazonic acid (30 microM), or with a high (blocking) concentration of ryanodine (100 microM) for 30 min to 5 h failed to block the effect of nicotine. However, after preincubation in ryanodine, nicotine-elicited potentiation was significantly shortened. These results indicate that at immature Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses, activation of presynaptic calcium stores is not necessary for but contributes to nicotine-elicited increase of neurotransmitter release.

  9. Hydraulic pump

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, P.R.; Jantzen, D.E.

    1984-05-15

    This invention relates to an improved pump jack characterized by a hollow piston rod which telescopes down over the sucker rod to which it is clamped for reciprocating motion. The cylinder, in turn, is fastened in fixed position directly to the upper exposed end of the well casing. As fluid is introduced into the lower end of the cylinder it raises the piston into engagement with a pushrod housed in the upper cylinder head that lifts switch-actuating means associated therewith into a position operative to actuate a switch located adjacent thereto thereby causing the latter to change state and actuate a multi-function solenoid valve so as to cut off fluid flow to the cylinder. As gravity lowers the sucker rod and piston exhausting the hydraulic fluid therebeneath, an adjustable stop engages the pushrod from above so as to return it together with the switch-actuating means associated therewith to their original positions thereby resetting the switch to complete the operating cycle.

  10. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling. Typically about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and replaced each day. To supply this amount, one would need to consume about 600 mg of calcium, since calcium is not very efficiently absorbed. Calcium ...

  11. Whole blood pumping with a microthrottle pump

    PubMed Central

    Davies, M. J.; Johnston, I. D.; Tan, C. K. L.; Tracey, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    We have previously reported that microthrottle pumps (MTPs) display the capacity to pump solid phase suspensions such as polystyrene beads which prove challenging to most microfluidic pumps. In this paper we report employing a linear microthrottle pump (LMTP) to pump whole, undiluted, anticoagulated, human venous blood at 200 μl min−1 with minimal erythrocyte lysis and no observed pump blockage. LMTPs are particularly well suited to particle suspension transport by virtue of their relatively unimpeded internal flow-path. Micropumping of whole blood represents a rigorous real-world test of cell suspension transport given blood’s high cell content by volume and erythrocytes’ relative fragility. A modification of the standard Drabkin method and its validation to spectrophotometrically quantify low levels of erythrocyte lysis by hemoglobin release is also reported. Erythrocyte lysis rates resulting from transport via LMTP are determined to be below one cell in 500 at a pumping rate of 102 μl min−1. PMID:21264059

  12. In vivo Calcium Imaging of Evoked Calcium Waves in the Embryonic Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Yuryev, Mikhail; Pellegrino, Christophe; Jokinen, Ville; Andriichuk, Liliia; Khirug, Stanislav; Khiroug, Leonard; Rivera, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of intracellular calcium fluxes are instrumental in the proliferation, differentiation, and migration of neuronal cells. Knowledge thus far of the relationship between these calcium changes and physiological processes in the developing brain has derived principally from ex vivo and in vitro experiments. Here, we present a new method to image intracellular calcium flux in the cerebral cortex of live rodent embryos, whilst attached to the dam through the umbilical cord. Using this approach we demonstrate induction of calcium waves by laser stimulation. These waves are sensitive to ATP-receptor blockade and are significantly increased by pharmacological facilitation of intracellular-calcium release. This approach is the closest to physiological conditions yet achieved for imaging of calcium in the embryonic brain and as such opens new avenues for the study of prenatal brain development. Furthermore, the developed method could open the possibilities of preclinical translational studies in embryos particularly important for developmentally related diseases such as schizophrenia and autism. PMID:26778965

  13. Simulation by two calcium store models of myocardial dynamic properties: potentiation, staircase, and biphasic tension development.

    PubMed

    Wussling, M; Szymanski, G

    1986-04-01

    Most considerations and models concerning myocardial dynamic properties e.g. potentiation and staircase, are based upon the existence of storage structures in the heart muscle cell. The phenomenon of biphasic tension development (or two-component contraction) in heart muscle preparations of several mammalian species suggests that the sarcoplasmic reticulum is one, but by no means the major, source of activator calcium for the contractile system. The simulation of dynamic properties including biphasic tension development was performed in two steps by a simple "two-Ca store-model" and by an "expanded two-Ca store-model" with following results: Increasing potentiation indicated a decrease in the degree of coupling between the Ca stores. A shift of the interval strength curve to lower intervals as well as a decrease of the steady state contraction height implies a decrease of both, the coupling and the leakage time constant. There was no standard relation between staircase phenomena and structure parameters. Analog displays showed a late (or second) component at prolongated stimulation intervals, in the transient phase after a rest period, in the case of perfectly coupled or uncoupled stores, and at great time constant tau p (which characterizes the calcium pump activity). It is concluded that the late component of biphasic tension development is due to direct activation by the transsarcolemmal Ca flux of the myofilaments, whereas the early component is caused by the release of stored calcium. In the absence of an early component neither potentiation nor marked treppe may be expected.

  14. Loss of autoinhibition of the plasma membrane Ca(2+) pump by substitution of aspartic 170 by asparagin. A ctivation of plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4 without disruption of the interaction between the catalytic core and the C-terminal regulatory domain.

    PubMed

    Bredeston, Luis M; Adamo, Hugo P

    2004-10-01

    The plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) actively transports Ca(2+) from the cytosol to the extra cellular space. The C-terminal segment of the PMCA functions as an inhibitory domain by interacting with the catalytic core. Ca(2+)-calmodulin binds to the C-terminal segment and stops inhibition. Here we showed that residue Asp(170), in the putative "A" domain of human PMCA isoform 4xb, plays a critical role in autoinhibition. In the absence of calmodulin a PMCA containing a site-specific mutation of D170N had 80% of the maximum activity of the calmodulin-activated PMCA and a similar high affinity for Ca(2+). The mutation did not change the activation of the PMCA by ATP. Deletion of the C-terminal segment further downstream of the calmodulin-binding site led to an additional increase in the maximal activity of the mutant, which suggests that the mutation did not affect the inhibition because of this portion of the C-terminal segment. The calmodulin-activated PMCA was more sensitive to vanadate inhibition than the autoinhibited enzyme. In contrast, inhibition of the D170N mutant required higher concentrations of vanadate and was not affected by calmodulin. Despite its higher basal activity, the mutant had an apparent affinity for calmodulin similar to that of the wild type enzyme, and its rate of proteolysis at the C-terminal segment was still calmodulin-dependent. Altogether these results suggest that activation by mutation D170N does not involve the displacement of the calmodulin-binding autoinhibitory domain from the catalytic core and may arise directly from changes in the accessibility to the calcium-binding residues of the pump.

  15. Multiple pump housing

    DOEpatents

    Donoho, II, Michael R.; Elliott, Christopher M.

    2010-03-23

    A fluid delivery system includes a first pump having a first drive assembly, a second pump having a second drive assembly, and a pump housing. At least a portion of each of the first and second pumps are located in the housing.

  16. Types of Breast Pumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... Powered and Electric Pumps A powered breast pump uses batteries or a cord plugged into an electrical outlet ... pumps rely on a power source, women who use powered breast pumps should be prepared for emergency situations when electricity or extra batteries may not be available. If breastfeeding is not ...

  17. Potentiation of fractional sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium release by total and free intra-sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, T R; Ginsburg, K S; Bers, D M

    2000-01-01

    Our aim was to measure the influence of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium content ([Ca](SRT)) and free SR [Ca] ([Ca](SR)) on the fraction of SR calcium released during voltage clamp steps in isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes. [Ca](SRT), as measured by caffeine application, was progressively increased by conditioning pulses. Sodium was absent in both the intracellular and in the extracellular solutions to block sodium/calcium exchange. Total cytosolic calcium flux during the transient was inferred from I(Ca), [Ca](SRT), [Ca](i), and cellular buffering characteristics. Fluxes via the calcium current (I(Ca)), the SR calcium pump, and passive leak from the SR were evaluated to determine SR calcium release flux (J(rel)). Excitation-contraction (EC) coupling was characterized with respect to both gain (integral J(rel)/integral I(Ca)) and fractional SR calcium release. Both parameters were virtually zero for a small, but measurable [Ca](SRT). Gain and fractional SR calcium release increased steeply and nonlinearly with both [Ca](SRT) and [Ca](SR). We conclude that potentiation of EC coupling can be correlated with both [Ca](SRT) and [Ca](SR). While fractional SR calcium release was not linearly dependent upon [Ca](SR), intra-SR calcium may play a crucial role in regulating the SR calcium release process. PMID:10620297

  18. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase pump is a major regulator of glucose transport in the healthy and diabetic heart.

    PubMed

    Waller, Amanda P; Kalyanasundaram, Anuradha; Hayes, Summer; Periasamy, Muthu; Lacombe, Véronique A

    2015-05-01

    Despite intensive research, the pathways that mediate calcium (Ca(2+))-stimulated glucose transport in striated muscle remain elusive. Since the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) pump tightly regulates cytosolic [Ca(2+)], we investigated whether the SERCA pump is a major regulator of cardiac glucose transport. We used healthy and insulin-deficient diabetic transgenic (TG) mice expressing SERCA1a in the heart. Active cell surface glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 was measured by a biotinylated photolabeled assay in the intact perfused myocardium and isolated myocytes. In healthy TG mice, cardiac-specific SERCA1a expression increased active cell-surface GLUT4 and glucose uptake in the myocardium, as well as whole body glucose tolerance. Diabetes reduced active cell-surface GLUT4 content and glucose uptake in the heart of wild type mice, all of which were preserved in diabetic TG mice. Decreased basal AS160 and increased proportion of calmodulin-bound AS160 paralleled the increase in cell surface GLUT4 content in the heart of TG mice, suggesting that AS160 regulates GLUT trafficking by a Ca(2+)/calmodulin dependent pathway. In addition, cardiac-specific SERCA1a expression partially rescues hyperglycemia during diabetes. Collectively, these data suggested that the SERCA pump is a major regulator of cardiac glucose transport by an AS160 dependent mechanism during healthy and insulin-deficient state. Our data further indicated that cardiac-specific SERCA overexpression rescues diabetes induced-alterations in cardiac glucose transport and improves whole body glucose homeostasis. Therefore, findings from this study provide novel mechanistic insights linking upregulation of the SERCA pump in the heart as a potential therapeutic target to improve glucose metabolism during diabetes.

  19. Calcium and Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... A calcium-rich diet (including dairy, nuts, leafy greens and fish) helps to build and protect your ... yogurt and cheese are high in calcium. Certain green vegetables and other foods contain calcium in smaller ...

  20. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scan Coronary Calcium Scan Related Topics Angina Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Electrocardiogram Heart Attack Send a link to NHLBI ... calcium, or calcifications, are a sign of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, or coronary microvascular disease. A coronary calcium scan ...

  1. PIV Measurements in Pumps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Pump Impeller Fig. 37 shows the top view of pump test rig for radial impeller pumps . The goal of this experiment is cavitation observation and their...PIV Measurements in Pumps 5 - 28 RTO-EN-AVT-143 Figure 37: Test Rig for Combined PIV Measurements and Cavitation Observation. Figure 38...RTO-EN-AVT-143 5 - 1 PIV Measurements in Pumps Dr. Detlev L. Wulff TU Braunschweig Institut für Strömungsmaschinen Langer Kamp 6 D-38106

  2. [Calcium transport in endoplasmic reticulum of the rat liver during lipid peroxidation].

    PubMed

    Gubskiĭ, Iu I; Kurskiĭ, M D; Zadorina, O V; Fedorov, A N; Briuzgina, T S; Iurzhenko, N N

    1990-01-01

    Some parameters of calcium transport in rat liver microsomes under conditions of lipoperoxidation activation modelled by antioxidant deficiency (AOD) were studied. This process was shown to be associated with a sharp stimulation of NADPH- and ascorbate-dependent lipid peroxidation in hepatocyte endoplasmic reticulum. The activation of lipid peroxidation was accompanied by disturbances in the kinetic properties of Ca2(+)-ATPase. This was paralleled with a considerable decrease of the ATP-dependent 45Ca-accumulation, increase in the passive permeability of microsomal vesicles for Ca2+ and Ca2+ elevation in the microsomal fraction. The AOD-induced diminution of the Ca2(+)-pump efficiency was slightly prevented by injections of rats with the antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol acetate and ionol which enable Ca2+ compartmentation correction in liver cytosol and membrane fractions.

  3. Direct Current-Induced Calcium Trafficking in Different Neuronal Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Zaghloul

    2016-01-01

    The influence of direct current (DC) stimulation on radioactive calcium trafficking in sciatic nerve in vivo and in vitro, spinal cord, and synaptosomes was investigated. The exposure to DC enhanced calcium redistribution in all of these preparations. The effect was dependent on the strength of the stimulation and extended beyond the phase of exposure to DC. The DC-induced increase in calcium sequestration by synaptosomes was significantly reduced by cobalt and rupture of synaptosomes by osmotic shock. Although both anodal and cathodal currents were effective, the experiments with two electrodes of different areas revealed that cathodal stimulation exerted stronger effect. The exposure to DC induced not only relocation but also redistribution of calcium within segments of the sciatic nerve. Enzymatic removal of sialic acid by preincubation of synaptosomes with neuroaminidase, or carrying out the experiments in sodium-free environment, amplified DC-induced calcium accumulation. PMID:28074161

  4. Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis and Calcium Nephrolithiasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, Orson W.; Fuster, Daniel G.; Xie, Xiao-Song

    2008-09-01

    Calcium stones are commonly encountered in patients with congenital distal renal tubular acidosis, a disease of renal acidification caused by mutations in either the vacuolar H+-ATPase (B1 or a4 subunit), anion exchanger-1, or carbonic anhydrase II. Based on the existing database, we present two hypotheses. First, heterozygotes with mutations in B1 subunit of H+-ATPase are not normal but may harbor biochemical abnormalities such as renal acidification defects, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia which can predispose them to kidney stone formation. Second, we propose at least two mechanisms by which mutant B1 subunit can impair H+-ATPase: defective pump assembly and defective pump activity.

  5. Calcium movements and the cellular basis of gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, S. J.; Biro, R. L.; Hale, C. C., II

    1983-01-01

    Evidence that calcium is a significant factor in gravitropism of plants is examined, together with the regulatory mechanism that controls calcium efflux in plant cells. Calcium has been found to accumulate on the upper surface of a plant placed in a horizontal attitude, which is followed by growth to the vertical within a half-hour. It has also been determined that the upper surface of the plant simultaneously experiences a reduced growth rate, compared to the lower surface. The substance calmodulin has been identified as the calcium-binding regulatory protein most influential in the transduction process leading to gravitropism, while chlorpromazine can inhibit its effects. The calcium is transported by ATPase located in the cell membrane. A possibility that the calcium pump is regulated by a feedback mechanism involving the presence of calmodulin is discussed.

  6. Isoprenaline, Ca2+ and the Na(+)-K+ pump in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Gao, J; Mathias, R T; Cohen, I S; Baldo, G J

    1992-01-01

    1. The whole-cell patch clamp technique was employed to study the effects of the beta-agonist isoprenaline (ISO) on the Na(+)=K+ pump current, Ip, in acutely isolated ventricular myocytes from guinea-pig hearts. Propranolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, was used to demonstrate that all of the effects of ISO, stimulatory or inhibitory, are mediated by beta-receptors. 2. Below about 150 nM [Ca2+]i, we find that ISO reduces Ip, while above this [Ca2+]i ISO increases Ip. The stimulatory and inhibitory effects of ISO on Ip are independent of either intracellular sodium ([Na+]i) or extracellular potassium ([K+]o). These results suggest that the end-effect of ISO is directly on the maximum pump turnover rate (Vmax) rather than indirectly through changes in [Na+]i or [K+]o or modulatory effects on Na+ or K+ affinity. 3. The maximum effect of ISO increases Ip by 25% when [Ca2+] is buffered at 1.4 microM. A half-maximal effect is reached at roughly 10 nM-ISO and a near-maximal effect by 0.5 microM. 4. The permeabilized patch technique, using amphotericin B (Horn & Marty, 1988; Rae, Cooper, Gates & Watsky, 1991), was employed to minimize changes in the normal second messenger systems and calcium buffers. In these experiments, we used a high intracellular sodium solution (pipette sodium was 50 mM), thus sodium-calcium exchange was depressed and we expected [Ca2+]i to be above 150 nM. ISO increases Ip in these conditions as in the dialysed cells. 5. Our results suggest that beta-stimulation can increase Ip, but only if [Ca2+]i is above about 150 nM. In the beating heart [Ca2+]i rises well above this value during systole and the average [Ca2+]i, which depends on heart rate, is expected to normally be above this level. During beta-stimulation, the increase in Ip along with a concomitant increase in IK (Giles, Nakajima, Ono & Shibata, 1989; Duchatelle-Gourdon, Hartzell & Lagrutta, 1989) helps prevent action potential lengthening and allows an increase in heart rate even in the

  7. Continuously pumping and reactivating gas pump

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    Apparatus for continuous pumping using cycling cryopumping panels. A plurality of liquid helium cooled panels are surrounded by movable nitrogen cooled panels that alternatively expose or shield the helium cooled panels from the space being pumped. Gases condense on exposed helium cooled panels until the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to isolate the helium cooled panels. The helium cooled panels are incrementally warmed, causing captured gases to accumulate at the base of the panels, where an independant pump removes the gases. After the helium cooled panels are substantially cleaned of condensate, the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to expose the helium cooled panels to the space being pumped.

  8. Continuously pumping and reactivating gas pump

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, Thomas H.; Call, Wayne R.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for continuous pumping using cycling cyropumping panels. A plurality of liquid helium cooled panels are surrounded by movable nitrogen cooled panels the alternatively expose or shield the helium cooled panels from the space being pumped. Gases condense on exposed helium cooled panels until the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to isolate the helium cooled panels. The helium cooled panels are incrementally warmed, causing captured gases to accumulate at the base of the panels, where an independent pump removes the gases. After the helium cooled panels are substantially cleaned of condensate, the nitrogen cooled panels are positioned to expose the helium cooled panels to the space being pumped.

  9. Alternative backing up pump for turbomolecular pumps

    DOEpatents

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2003-04-22

    As an alternative to the use of a mechanical backing pump in the application of wide range turbomolecular pumps in ultra-high and extra high vacuum applications, palladium oxide is used to convert hydrogen present in the evacuation stream and related volumes to water with the water then being cryo-pumped to a low pressure of below about 1.e.sup.-3 Torr at 150.degree. K. Cryo-pumping is achieved using a low cost Kleemenco cycle cryocooler, a somewhat more expensive thermoelectric cooler, a Venturi cooler or a similar device to achieve the required minimization of hydrogen partial pressure.

  10. Calcium at fertilization and in early development

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Fertilization calcium waves are introduced and the evidence from which we can infer general mechanisms of these waves is presented. The two main classes of hypothesis put forward to explain the generation of the fertilization calcium wave are set out and it is concluded that initiation of the fertilization calcium wave can be most generally explained in inverterbrates by a mechanism in which an activating substance enters the egg from the sperm on sperm-egg fusion, activating the egg by stimulating phospholipase C activation through a src family kinase pathway and in mammals by the diffusion of a sperm-specific phospholipase C from sperm to egg on sperm-egg fusion. The fertilization calcium wave is then set into the context of cell cycle control and the mechanism of repetitive calcium spiking in mammalian eggs is investigated. Evidence that calcium signals control cell division in early embryos is reviewed, and it is concluded that calcium signals are essential at all three stages of cell division in early embryos. Evidence that phosphoinositide signalling pathways control the resumption of meiosis during oocyte maturation is considered. It is concluded on balance that the evidence points to a need for phosphoinositide/calcium signalling during resumption of meiosis. Changes to the calcium signalling machinery occur during meiosis to enable the production of a calcium wave in the mature oocyte when it is fertilized; evidence that the shape and structure of the endoplasmic reticulum alters dynamically during maturation and after fertilization is reviewed and the link between ER dynamics and the cytoskeleton is discussed. There is evidence that calcium signalling plays a key part in the development of patterning in early embryos. Morphogenesis in ascidian, frog and zebrafish embryos is briefly described to provide the developmental context in which calcium signals act. Intracellular calcium waves that may play a role in axis formation in ascidian are discussed

  11. Spatiotemporal intracellular calcium dynamics during cardiac alternans

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Juan G.; Karma, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Cellular calcium transient alternans are beat-to-beat alternations in the peak cytosolic calcium concentration exhibited by cardiac cells during rapid electrical stimulation or under pathological conditions. Calcium transient alternans promote action potential duration alternans, which have been linked to the onset of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Here we use a recently developed physiologically detailed mathematical model of ventricular myocytes to investigate both stochastic and deterministic aspects of intracellular calcium dynamics during alternans. The model combines a spatially distributed description of intracellular calcium cycling, where a large number of calcium release units are spatially distributed throughout the cell, with a full set of ionic membrane currents. The results demonstrate that ion channel stochasticity at the level of single calcium release units can influence the whole-cell alternans dynamics by causing phase reversals over many beats during fixed frequency pacing close to the alternans bifurcation. They also demonstrate the existence of a wide range of dynamical states. Depending on the sign and magnitude of calcium-voltage coupling, calcium alternans can be spatially synchronized or desynchronized, in or out of phase with action potential duration alternans, and the node separating out-of-phase regions of calcium alternans can be expelled from or trapped inside the cell. This range of states is found to be larger than previously anticipated by including a robust global attractor where calcium alternans can be spatially synchronized but out of phase with action potential duration alternans. The results are explained by a combined theoretical analysis of alternans stability and node motion using general iterative maps of the beat-to-beat dynamics and amplitude equations. PMID:19792040

  12. Optimal quantum pumps.

    PubMed

    Avron, J E; Elgart, A; Graf, G M; Sadun, L

    2001-12-03

    We study adiabatic quantum pumps on time scales that are short relative to the cycle of the pump. In this regime the pump is characterized by the matrix of energy shift which we introduce as the dual to Wigner's time delay. The energy shift determines the charge transport, the dissipation, the noise, and the entropy production. We prove a general lower bound on dissipation in a quantum channel and define optimal pumps as those that saturate the bound. We give a geometric characterization of optimal pumps and show that they are noiseless and transport integral charge in a cycle. Finally we discuss an example of an optimal pump related to the Hall effect.

  13. Bradykinin and vasopressin stimulate Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-Cl/sup -/ cotransport in cultured endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, T.A.; Brugnara, C.; Canessa, M.; Gimbrone, M.A. Jr.

    1986-06-01

    The authors have characterized a Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-Cl/sup -/ cotransporter in vascular endothelial cells (EC) cultured from different blood vessels and species that is inhibited by the diuretics furosemide and bumentanide. Inward /sup 86/Rb influx transported by the Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ pump in cultured EC from bovine and pig aorta, bovine vena cava, and baboon cephalic vein but not in human umbilical or saphenous vein EC. External Na/sup +/ or Cl/sup -/-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive /sup 86/Rb influx is equal to furosemide or bumetanide-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx. Ouabain-insensitive /sup 22/Na influx is also partially inhibited by these drugs and stimulated by increasing external K/sup +/ or Cl/sup -/. Net Na/sup +/ extrusion occurs via the Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-Cl/sup -/ cotransporter in the absence of external K/sup +/, whereas net Na/sup +/ influx occurs at higher external K/sup +/. Maximal concentrations (100 nM) of bradykinin and vasopressin increase the initial rate of bumetanide-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx by approx.60 and 70%. Addition of either ethyleneglycol-bis(..beta..-aminotethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid or LaCl/sub 3/ (to block calcium influx) prevents bradykinin-stimulated /sup 86/Rb influx. When intracellular calcium is elevated using ionomycin (100 nM), a Ca/sup 2 +/ionophore, bumetanide-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx increases approx.twofold. In contrast, isoproterenol (100 ..mu..M) and forskolin (50 /sup +/M), adenylate cyclase stimulators, decrease furosemide-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx. Thus in certain types of cultured EC, a Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-Cl/sup -/ cotransporter mediates a fraction of K/sup +/ influx quantitatively as important as the Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ pump (ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx) and appears to be modulated by Ca/sup 2 +/ and cyclic nucleotides.

  14. Fluid sampling pump

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, P.V.; Nimberger, M.; Ward, R.L.

    1991-12-24

    This patent describes a fluid sampling pump for withdrawing pressurized sample fluid from a flow line and for pumping a preselected quantity of sample fluid with each pump driving stroke from the pump to a sample vessel, the sampling pump including a pump body defining a pump bore therein having a central axis, a piston slideably moveable within the pump bore and having a fluid inlet end and an opposing operator end, a fluid sample inlet port open to sample fluid in the flow line, a fluid sample outlet port for transmitting fluid from the pump bore to the sample vessel, and a line pressure port in fluid pressure sample fluid in the flow line, an inlet valve for selectively controlling sample fluid flow from the flow line through the fluid sample inlet port, an operator unit for periodically reciprocating the piston within the pump bore, and a controller for regulating the stroke of the piston within the pump bore, and thereby the quantity of fluid pumped with each pump driving stroke. It comprises a balanced check valve seat; a balanced check valve seal; a compression member; and a central plunger.

  15. Gas pump with movable gas pumping panels

    DOEpatents

    Osher, J.L.

    Apparatus for pumping gas continuously a plurality of articulated panels of getter material, each of which absorbs gases on one side while another of its sides is simultaneously reactivated in a zone isolated by the panels themselves from a working space being pumped.

  16. Imaging calcium in neurons.

    PubMed

    Grienberger, Christine; Konnerth, Arthur

    2012-03-08

    Calcium ions generate versatile intracellular signals that control key functions in all types of neurons. Imaging calcium in neurons is particularly important because calcium signals exert their highly specific functions in well-defined cellular subcompartments. In this Primer, we briefly review the general mechanisms of neuronal calcium signaling. We then introduce the calcium imaging devices, including confocal and two-photon microscopy as well as miniaturized devices that are used in freely moving animals. We provide an overview of the classical chemical fluorescent calcium indicators and of the protein-based genetically encoded calcium indicators. Using application examples, we introduce new developments in the field, such as calcium imaging in awake, behaving animals and the use of calcium imaging for mapping single spine sensory inputs in cortical neurons in vivo. We conclude by providing an outlook on the prospects of calcium imaging for the analysis of neuronal signaling and plasticity in various animal models.

  17. Stimulated Parametric Emission Microscope Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Kazuyoshi; Isobe, Keisuke

    2006-10-01

    We present a novel microscopy technique based on the fourwave mixing (FWM) process that is enhanced by two-photon electronic resonance induced by a pump pulse along with stimulated emission induced by a dump pulse. A Ti:sapphire laser and an optical parametric oscillator are used as light sources for the pump and dump pulses, respectively. We demonstrate that our FWM technique can be used to obtain two-dimensional microscopic images of an unstained leaf of Camellia sinensis and an unlabeled tobacco BY2 Cell.

  18. Proton pump inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by ... Proton pump inhibitors are used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This ...

  19. Sizing pumps for slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Akhtar, S.Z.

    1996-11-01

    Slurry characteristics have a significant impact on centrifugal pump performance. For instance, as particle size increases or the percent solids concentration increases, pump head and efficiency decrease. Therefore, before a slurry pump is selected, it is important to define the slurry characteristics as accurately as possible. The effect of the slurry characteristics on the head and efficiency of the centrifugal pump will be emphasized (the effect on flowrate is less significant). The effect of slurry characteristics is more predominant in smaller pumps (with smaller diameter impellers) than in larger pumps. The data and relationship between the various slurry parameters have been developed from correlations and nomographs published by pump vendors from their field data and test results. The information helps to avoid specifying an undersized pump/motor assembly for slurry service.

  20. Insulin pump (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The catheter at the end of the insulin pump is inserted through a needle into the abdominal ... with diabetes. Dosage instructions are entered into the pump's small computer and the appropriate amount of insulin ...

  1. Liquid metal enabled pump

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Sivan, Vijay; Petersen, Phred; O’Mullane, Anthony P.; Abbott, Derek; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale pumps will be the heartbeat of many future micro/nanoscale platforms. However, the integration of small-scale pumps is presently hampered by limited flow rate with respect to the input power, and their rather complicated fabrication processes. These issues arise as many conventional pumping effects require intricate moving elements. Here, we demonstrate a system that we call the liquid metal enabled pump, for driving a range of liquids without mechanical moving parts, upon the application of modest electric field. This pump incorporates a droplet of liquid metal, which induces liquid flow at high flow rates, yet with exceptionally low power consumption by electrowetting/deelectrowetting at the metal surface. We present theory explaining this pumping mechanism and show that the operation is fundamentally different from other existing pumps. The presented liquid metal enabled pump is both efficient and simple, and thus has the potential to fundamentally advance the field of microfluidics. PMID:24550485

  2. Photovoltaic pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klockgether, J.; Kiessling, K. P.

    1983-09-01

    Solar pump systems for the irrigation of fields and for water supply in regions with much sunshine are discussed. For surface water and sources with a hoisting depth of 12 m, a system with immersion pumps is used. For deep sources with larger hoisting depths, an underwater motor pump was developed. Both types of pump system meet the requirements of simple installation and manipulation, safe operation, maintenance free, and high efficiency reducing the number of solar cells needed.

  3. Glucagon effects on the membrane potential and calcium uptake rate of rat liver mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Wingrove, D.E.; Amatruda, J.M.; Gunter, T.E.

    1984-08-10

    It has been widely reported that the in vivo administration of glucagon to rats results in the stimulation of calcium influx in subsequently isolated liver mitochondria. The mechanism of this effect is investigated through simultaneous measurements of calcium uptake rate and mitochondrial membrane potential. This allows the measurement of the calcium uniporter conductance independent of hormonal effects on electron transport or respiration. Two experimental approaches are used. The first involves measuring the uptake of 40-50 nmol of Ca/sup 2 +//mg of mitochondrial protein with the calcium dye antipyrylazo III; the second uses /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ to follow uptake in the presence of 0.5 to 1.5 ..mu..M free calcium, buffered with HEDTA. In both cases a tetraphenyl phosphonium electrode is used to follow membrane potential, and membrane potential is varied using either malonate or butylmalonate in the presence of rotenone. The relative merits of these two approaches are discussed. The conductance of the calcium uniporter is found not to be stimulated by glucagon pretreatment. Also, the relative glucagon stimulation of both calcium influx and membrane potential is found to increase with increasing malonate concentration. These results imply that there is no direct stimulation of calcium uptake into liver mitochondria following glucagon treatment. The results are consistent with a glucagon stimulation of substrate transport, substrate oxidation, or a stimulation of electron transport resulting in an increased membrane potential and secondary stimulation of calcium uptake.

  4. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Kirol, L.D.

    1987-02-11

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation. 5 figs.

  5. Rotary magnetic heat pump

    DOEpatents

    Kirol, Lance D.

    1988-01-01

    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  6. Centrifugal main fuel pump

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, E.F.

    1986-08-26

    For a gas turbine power plant having a fuel supply and a fuel metering valve and variable geometry for the power plant including servo actuating mechanisms for the fuel metering valve and variable geometry, a fuel pumping system, is described to supply pressurized fuel for the servo actuating mechanisms and for the engine working fluid medium. The pumping system includes a centrifugal pump solely supplying the fuel to the fuel metering valve to be delivered to the power plant for its working fluid medium, a positive displacement pump in parallel with the centrifugal pump and solely to supply pressurized fuel to the servo actuating mechanisms for the fuel metering valve and for the variable geometry, and a boost pump means disposed in serial relationship with the positive displacement pump and the centrifugal pump for augmenting the pressure supplied by the positive displacement pump and the centrifugal pump during predetermined operating conditions of the power plant. The combined boost pump and centrifugal pump capability is sufficient to satisfy the vapor to liquid ratio requirements of the power during its entire operating envelope.

  7. Green pumped Alexandrite lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuper, Jerry W.; Brown, David C.

    2005-04-01

    Initial experiments with pulsed and CW pumping an alexandrite laser rod at 532 nm are presented. This pumping architecture holds promise for the production of scalable diode-pumped, tunable alexandrite laser systems operating in the near infrared (750 nm), and the ultraviolet (375 and 250 nm) spectral regions.

  8. Pulsed pumping process optimization using a potential flow model.

    PubMed

    Tenney, C M; Lastoskie, C M

    2007-08-15

    A computational model is applied to the optimization of pulsed pumping systems for efficient in situ remediation of groundwater contaminants. In the pulsed pumping mode of operation, periodic rather than continuous pumping is used. During the pump-off or trapping phase, natural gradient flow transports contaminated groundwater into a treatment zone surrounding a line of injection and extraction wells that transect the contaminant plume. Prior to breakthrough of the contaminated water from the treatment zone, the wells are activated and the pump-on or treatment phase ensues, wherein extracted water is augmented to stimulate pollutant degradation and recirculated for a sufficient period of time to achieve mandated levels of contaminant removal. An important design consideration in pulsed pumping groundwater remediation systems is the pumping schedule adopted to best minimize operational costs for the well grid while still satisfying treatment requirements. Using an analytic two-dimensional potential flow model, optimal pumping frequencies and pumping event durations have been investigated for a set of model aquifer-well systems with different well spacings and well-line lengths, and varying aquifer physical properties. The results for homogeneous systems with greater than five wells and moderate to high pumping rates are reduced to a single, dimensionless correlation. Results for heterogeneous systems are presented graphically in terms of dimensionless parameters to serve as an efficient tool for initial design and selection of the pumping regimen best suited for pulsed pumping operation for a particular well configuration and extraction rate. In the absence of significant retardation or degradation during the pump-off phase, average pumping rates for pulsed operation were found to be greater than the continuous pumping rate required to prevent contaminant breakthrough.

  9. Spontaneous electrical and calcium oscillations in unstimulated pituitary gonadotrophs.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y X; Rinzel, J; Vergara, L; Stojilković, S S

    1995-01-01

    Single pituitary cells often fire spontaneous action potentials (APs), which are believed to underlie spiking fluctuations in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i). To address how these basal [Ca2+]i fluctuations depend on changes in plasma membrane voltage (V), simultaneous measurements of V and [Ca2+]i were performed in rat pituitary gonadotrophs. The data show that each [Ca2+]i spike is produced by the Ca2+ entry during a single AP. Using these and previously obtained patch-clamp data, we develop a quantitative mathematical model of this plasma membrane oscillator and the accompanying spatiotemporal [Ca2+]i oscillations. The model demonstrates that AP-induced [Ca2+]i spiking is prominent only in a thin shell layer neighboring the cell surface. This localized [Ca2+]i spike transiently activates the Ca2(+)- dependent K+ current resulting in a sharp afterhyperpolarization following each voltage spike. In accord with experimental observations, the model shows that the frequency and amplitude of the voltage spikes are highly sensitive to current injection and to the blocking of the Ca(2+)-sensitive current. Computations also predict that leaving the membrane channels intact, the firing rate can be modified by changing the Ca2+ handling parameters: the Ca2+ diffusion rate, the Ca2+ buffering capacity, and the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump rate. Finally, the model suggests reasons that spontaneous APs were seen in some gonadotrophs but not in others. This model provides a basis for further exploring how plasma membrane electrical activity is involved in the control of cytosolic calcium level in unstimulated as well as agonist-stimulated gonadotrophs. Images FIGURE 4 PMID:8519979

  10. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1992-01-01

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

  11. Jet pump assisted artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  12. Optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance of semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Sophia E; Mui, Stacy; Ramaswamy, Kannan

    2008-02-07

    Optically pumped NMR (OPNMR) of direct gap and indirect gap semiconductors has been an area of active research interest, motivated by both basic science and technological perspectives. Proposals to enhance and to spatially localize nuclear polarization have stimulated interest in this area. Recent progress in OPNMR has focused on exploring the experimental parameter space in order to elucidate details of the underlying photophysics of optical pumping phenomena. The focus of this review is on recent studies of bulk samples of GaAs and InP, namely, the photon energy dependence, the magnetic field dependence, and the phase dependence of OPNMR resonances. Models for the development of nuclear polarization are discussed.

  13. Fluid sampling pump

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, P.V.; Nimberger, S.M.; Ward, R.L.

    1992-03-03

    This patent describes a pump for pumping a preselected quantity of fluid with each pump driving stroke from a fluid inlet port to a fluid outlet port, an inlet valve for selectively controlling fluid flow through the fluid inlet port, a pump body defining a pump bore therein, a piston slidably movable within the pump bore and having a fluid inlet end and an opposing operator end, an operator unit for reciprocating the piston within the pump bore, and a manifold interconnect with the pump body. It comprises a flow path therein extending from a manifold inlet port to a manifold outlet port, flow path being in communication with the fluid outlet port in the pump body, a purge passageway extending from the flow path to the outlet passageway, a purge valve for regulating fluid flow through the purge passageway, and a filter positioned within the manifold and extending across a portion of the flow path, the filter defining a filtered zone within the flow path adjoining the inlet port in the pump body, and an unfiltered zone within the flow path extending from the manifold inlet to the manifold outlet, such that filtered fluid enters the pump bore while unfiltered fluid bypasses the filter and passes out the manifold outlet port.

  14. Regulation of BMP2-induced intracellular calcium increases in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenfeng; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xue; Chiang, Martin Y M; Li, Bo; Xu, Zichen; Liao, Xiaoling

    2016-10-01

    Although bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) is a well-characterized regulator that stimulates osteoblast differentiation, little is known about how it regulates intracellular Ca(2+) signaling. In this study, intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i ) upon BMP2 application, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Src activities were measured in the MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cell line using fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based biosensors. Increase in [Ca(2+) ]i , FAK, and Src activities were observed during BMP2 stimulation. The removal of extracellular calcium, the application of membrane channel inhibitors streptomycin or nifedipine, the FAK inhibitor PF-573228 (PF228), and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) siRNA all blocked the BMP2-stimulated [Ca(2+) ]i increase, while the Src inhibitor PP1 did not. In contrast, a gentle decrease of endoplasmic reticulum calcium concentration was found after BMP2 stimulation, which could be blocked by both streptomycin and PP1. Further experiments revealed that BMP2-induced FAK activation could not be inhibited by PP1, ALP siRNA or the calcium channel inhibitor nifedipine. PF228, but not PP1 or calcium channel inhibitors, suppressed ALP elevation resulting from BMP2 stimulation. Therefore, our results suggest that BMP2 can increase [Ca(2+) ]i through extracellular calcium influx regulated by FAK and ALP and can deplete ER calcium through Src signaling simultaneously. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1725-1733, 2016.

  15. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  16. [Do cows drink calcium?].

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T; Lechner, S; Plate, I; Heidemann, B

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how well cows drink the Propeller calcium drink, and it's effect on blood calcium concentration. Drinking was tested in 120 cows right after calving, before cows drank anything else. 60 cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or 20 liters of water. Cows drank the Propeller as good as water. 72% of all cows drank all 20 liters, 18% drank on average 8.2 liters and 10% drank less than 1 liter. Blood calcium concentration was studied in 16 cows right after calving. Eight cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or no calcium drink. Blood calcium significantly increased ten minutes after Propeller intake and stayed significantly elevated for 24 hours. Without calcium drink blood calcium levels decreased significantly. Advantages of the new Propeller calcium drink over calcium gels or boli could be that cows now drink calcium themselves and that the Propeller increases blood calcium concentration rapidly and long lasting.

  17. Yeast Gdt1 is a Golgi-localized calcium transporter required for stress-induced calcium signaling and protein glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Colinet, Anne-Sophie; Sengottaiyan, Palanivelu; Deschamps, Antoine; Colsoul, Marie-Lise; Thines, Louise; Demaegd, Didier; Duchêne, Marie-Clémence; Foulquier, François; Hols, Pascal; Morsomme, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Calcium signaling depends on a tightly regulated set of pumps, exchangers, and channels that are responsible for controlling calcium fluxes between the different subcellular compartments of the eukaryotic cell. We have recently reported that two members of the highly-conserved UPF0016 family, human TMEM165 and budding yeast Gdt1p, are functionally related and might form a new group of Golgi-localized cation/Ca2+ exchangers. Defects in the human protein TMEM165 are known to cause a subtype of Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation. Using an assay based on the heterologous expression of GDT1 in the bacterium Lactococcus lactis, we demonstrated the calcium transport activity of Gdt1p. We observed a Ca2+ uptake activity in cells expressing GDT1, which was dependent on the external pH, indicating that Gdt1p may act as a Ca2+/H+ antiporter. In yeast, we found that Gdt1p controls cellular calcium stores and plays a major role in the calcium response induced by osmotic shock when the Golgi calcium pump, Pmr1p, is absent. Importantly, we also discovered that, in the presence of a high concentration of external calcium, Gdt1p is required for glycosylation of carboxypeptidase Y and the glucanosyltransferase Gas1p. Finally we showed that glycosylation process is restored by providing more Mn2+ to the cells. PMID:27075443

  18. Pitot heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    Grose, R.D.

    1981-12-08

    A pitot heat pump is described wherein a multi-stage pitot pump is employed as the compression means in a heat pump thermodynamic cycle. The heat pump is comprised of a multi-stage vapor pitot pump, liquid pitot pump, turbine, vaporizer, evaporator, condenser and expansion valve. The turbine is used to rotate a shaft to which the impellers of the pitot pump are attached. Refrigerant gas from the evaporator enters the first stage of the pitot pump and the impeller therein forces the refrigerant gas outwardly where it enters the narrow end of a pitot tube provided therein. The discharge end of the pitot tube is in communication with the next stage of the pitot pump. In passing through the pitot tube, the refrigerant gas expands and the centrifugal force and the kinetic energy of the gas provide the energy whereby the refrigerant gas is compressed. After the last stage, the compressed gas is transmitted to the condenser of the heat pump.

  19. ATP-driven calcium transport in membrane vesicles of Streptococcus sanguis. [Streptococcus sanguis; Streptococcus faecalis; Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Houng, H.; Lynn, A.R.; Rosen, B.P.

    1986-11-01

    Calcium transport was investigated in membrane vesicles prepared from the oral bacterium Streptococcus sanguis. Procedures were devised for the preparation of membrane vesicles capable of accumulation /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/. Uptake was ATP dependent and did not require a proton motive force. Calcium transport in these vesicles was compared with /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ accumulation in membrane vesicles from Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. The data support the existence of an ATP-driven calcium pump in S. sanguis similar to that in S. faecalis. This pump, which catalyzes uptake into membrane vesicles, would be responsible for extrusion of calcium from intact cells.

  20. Effect of thymol on calcium handling in mammalian ventricular myocardium.

    PubMed

    Szentandrássy, Norbert; Szigeti, Gyula; Szegedi, Csaba; Sárközi, Sándor; Magyar, János; Bányász, Tamás; Csernoch, László; Kovács, László; Nánási, Péter P; Jóna, István

    2004-01-02

    Concentration-dependent effects of thymol on calcium handling were studied in canine and guinea pig cardiac preparations (Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts, canine ventricular trabeculae, canine sarcoplasmic reticular vesicles and single ryanodine receptors). Thymol induced a concentration-dependent negative inotropic action in both canine and guinea pig preparations (EC(50) = 297 +/- 12 microM in dog). However, low concentrations of thymol reduced intracellular calcium transients in guinea pig hearts without decreasing contractility. At higher concentrations both calcium transients and contractions were suppressed. In canine sarcoplasmic reticular vesicles thymol induced rapid release of calcium (V(max) = 0.47 +/- 0.04 nmol s(-1), EC(50) = 258 +/- 21 microM, Hill coefficient = 3.0 +/- 0.54), and decreased the activity of the calcium pump (EC(50) = 253 +/- 4.7 microM, Hill coefficient = 1.62 +/- 0.05). Due to the less sharp concentration-dependence of the ATPase inhibition, this effect was significant from 50 microM, whereas the thymol-induced calcium release only from 100 microM. In single ryanodine receptors incorporated into artificial lipid bilayer thymol induced long lasting openings, having mean open times increased with 3 orders of magnitude, however, the specific conductance of the channel remained unaltered. This effect of thymol was not voltage-dependent and failed to prevent the binding of ryanodine. In conclusion, the negative inotropic action of thymol can be explained by reduction in calcium content of the sarcoplasmic reticulum due to the combination of the thymol-induced calcium release and inhibition of the calcium pump. The calcium-sensitizer effect, observed at lower thymol concentrations, indicates that thymol is likely to interact with the contractile machinery also.

  1. The influence of extracellular and intracellular calcium on the secretion of renin

    PubMed Central

    Atchison, Douglas K.; Beierwaltes, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in plasma, extracellular and intracellular calcium can affect renin secretion from the renal juxtaglomerular (JG) cells. Elevated intracellular calcium directly inhibits renin release from JG cells by decreasing the dominant second messenger intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) via actions on calcium-inhibitable adenylyl cyclases and calcium-activated phosphodiesterases. Increased extracellular calcium also directly inhibits renin release by stimulating the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) on JG cells, resulting in parallel changes in the intracellular environment and decreasing intracellular cAMP. In vivo, acutely elevated plasma calcium inhibits plasma renin activity (PRA) via parathyroid hormone-mediated elevations in renal cortical interstitial calcium that stimulate the JG cell CaSR. However, chronically elevated plasma calcium or CaSR activation may actually stimulate PRA. This elevation in PRA may be a compensatory mechanism resulting from calcium-mediated polyuria. Thus, changing the extracellular calcium in vitro or in vivo results in inversely related acute changes in cAMP, and therefore renin release, but chronic changes in calcium may result in more complex interactions dependent upon the duration of changes and the integration of the body’s response to these changes. PMID:22538344

  2. Alpha adrenergic modulation of the Na/sup +/ pump of canine vascular smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Navran, S.S.; Adair, S.E.; Allen, J.C.; Seidel, C.L.

    1986-03-01

    Some vasoactive agents, eg. beta adrenergic agonists and forskolin, stimulate the Na/sup 7/ pump by a cAMP- dependent mechanism. The authors have now demonstrated that phenylephrine (PE) stimulates the Na/sup 7/ pump in intact blood vessels as quantitated by an increased ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake. The stimulation is dose-dependent (ED/sub 50/, 3 x 10/sup -6/M) and blocked by phentolamine (I/sub 50/, 10/sup -7/M), prazosin (I/sub 50/, 10/sup -8/M) yohimbine (I/sub 50/, 10/sup -6/M) or elevated intracellular Na/sup +/. These data suggest that the Na/sup +/ pump stimulation is mediated through alpha/sub 1/ receptors which produce an influx of extracellular Na/sup +/. In vascular smooth muscle cell cultures PE stimulates the Na/sup +/ pump, but only when cells have been deprived of fetal calf serum (FCS). Since FCS is known to stimulate Na/sup +/influx, in the continuous presence of FCS, these cells may already be Na/sup +/-loaded and therefore refractory to further stimulation by alpha-adrenergic agents. Unlike those vasorelaxants whose mechanism involves stimulation of the Na/sup +/ pump, alpha adrenergic agents are vasoconstrictors and therefore the role of Na/sup +/ pump stimulation in this case may be as a mechanism of feedback inhibition of contractility.

  3. Calcium and Mitosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  4. Analysis of spontaneous and nerve-evoked calcium transients in intact extraocular muscles in vitro.

    PubMed

    Feng, Cheng-Yuan; Hennig, Grant W; Corrigan, Robert D; Smith, Terence K; von Bartheld, Christopher S

    2012-07-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOMs) have unique calcium handling properties, yet little is known about the dynamics of calcium events underlying ultrafast and tonic contractions in myofibers of intact EOMs. Superior oblique EOMs of juvenile chickens were dissected with their nerve attached, maintained in oxygenated Krebs buffer, and loaded with fluo-4. Spontaneous and nerve stimulation-evoked calcium transients were recorded and, following calcium imaging, some EOMs were double-labeled with rhodamine-conjugated alpha-bungarotoxin (rhBTX) to identify EOM myofiber types. EOMs showed two main types of spontaneous calcium transients, one slow type (calcium waves with 1/2(max) duration of 2-12 s, velocity of 25-50 μm/s) and two fast "flash-like" types (Type 1, 30-90 ms; Type 2, 90-150 ms 1/2(max) duration). Single pulse nerve stimulation evoked fast calcium transients identical to the fast (Type 1) calcium transients. Calcium waves were accompanied by a local myofiber contraction that followed the calcium transient wavefront. The magnitude of calcium-wave induced myofiber contraction far exceeded those of movement induced by nerve stimulation and associated fast calcium transients. Tetrodotoxin eliminated nerve-evoked transients, but not spontaneous transients. Alpha-bungarotoxin eliminated both spontaneous and nerve-evoked fast calcium transients, but not calcium waves, and caffeine increased wave activity. Calcium waves were observed in myofibers lacking spontaneous or evoked fast transients, suggestive of multiply-innervated myofibers, and this was confirmed by double-labeling with rhBTX. We propose that the abundant spontaneous calcium transients and calcium waves with localized contractions that do not depend on innervation may contribute to intrinsic generation of tonic functions of EOMs.

  5. Analysis of Spontaneous and Nerve-Evoked Calcium Transients in Intact Extraocular Muscles in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Cheng-Yuan; Hennig, Grant W.; Corrigan, Robert D.; Smith, Terence K.; von Bartheld, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOMs) have unique calcium handling properties, yet little is known about the dynamics of calcium events underlying ultrafast and tonic contractions in myofibers of intact EOMs. Superior oblique EOMs of juvenile chickens were dissected with their nerve attached, maintained in oxygenated Krebs buffer, and loaded with fluo-4. Spontaneous and nerve stimulation-evoked calcium transients were recorded and, following calcium imaging, some EOMs were double-labeled with rhodamine-conjugated alpha-bungarotoxin (rhBTX) to identify EOM myofiber types. EOMs showed two main types of spontaneous calcium transients, one slow type (calcium waves with 1/2max duration of 2–12 s, velocity of 25–50 μm/s) and two fast “flash-like” types (Type 1, 30–90 ms; Type 2, 90–150 ms 1/2max duration). Single pulse nerve stimulation evoked fast calcium transients identical to the fast (Type 1) calcium transients. Calcium waves were accompanied by a local myofiber contraction that followed the calcium transient wavefront. The magnitude of calcium-wave induced myofiber contraction far exceeded those of movement induced by nerve stimulation and associated fast calcium transients. Tetrodotoxin eliminated nerve-evoked transients, but not spontaneous transients. Alpha-bungarotoxin eliminated both spontaneous and nerve-evoked fast calcium transients, but not calcium waves, and caffeine increased wave activity. Calcium waves were observed in myofibers lacking spontaneous or evoked fast transients, suggestive of multiply-innervated myofibers, and this was confirmed by double-labeling with rhBTX. We propose that the abundant spontaneous calcium transients and calcium waves with localized contractions that do not depend on innervation may contribute to intrinsic generation of tonic functions of EOMs. PMID:22579493

  6. Pump isolation valve

    DOEpatents

    Kinney, Calvin L.; Wetherill, Todd M.

    1983-08-02

    The pump isolation valve provides a means by which the pump may be selectively isolated from the remainder of the coolant system while being compatible with the internal hydraulic arrangement of the pump during normal operation of the pump. The valve comprises a valve cylinder disposed around the pump and adjacent to the last pump diffuser with a turning vane attached to the lower end of the valve cylinder in a manner so as to hydraulically match with the discharge diffuser. The valve cylinder is connected to a drive means for sliding the valve cylinder relative to the diffuser support cylinder so as to block flow in either direction through the discharge diffuser when the valve is in the closed position and to aid in the flow of the coolant from the discharge diffuser by means of the turning vane when the valve is in the open position.

  7. DIRECT CURRENT ELECTROMAGNETIC PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Barnes, A.H.

    1957-11-01

    An improved d-c electromagnetic pump is presented in which the poles, and consequently the magetic gap at the poles, are tapered to be wider at the upstream end. In addition, the cross section of the tube carryiQ the liquid metal is tapered so that the velocity of the pumped liquid increases in the downstream direction at a rate such that the counter-induced voltage in the liquid metal remains constant as it traverses the region between the poles. This configuration compensates for the distortion of the magnetic field caused by the induced voltage that would otherwise result in the lowering of the pumping capacity. This improved electromagnetic pump as practical application in the pumping of liquid metal coolants for nuclear reactors where conventional positive displacement pumps have proved unsatisfactory due to the high temperatures and the corrosive properties of the liquid metals involved.

  8. Rotary blood pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Greg S. (Inventor); Vandamm, George A. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A rotary blood pump is presented. The pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial, and radial clearances of the blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion, and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with crosslinked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

  9. Electrokinetic pumps and actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip M. Paul

    2000-03-01

    Flow and ionic transport in porous media are central to electrokinetic pumping as well as to a host of other microfluidic devices. Electrokinetic pumping provides the ability to create high pressures (to over 10,000 psi) and high flow rates (over 1 mL/min) with a device having no moving parts and all liquid seals. The electrokinetic pump (EKP) is ideally suited for applications ranging from a high pressure integrated pump for chip-scale HPLC to a high flow rate integrated pump for forced liquid convection cooling of high-power electronics. Relations for flow rate and current fluxes in porous media are derived that provide a basis for analysis of complex microfluidic systems as well as for optimization of electrokinetic pumps.

  10. Calcium and bones

    MedlinePlus

    ... very bad at absorbing calcium. Most people absorb only 15% to 20% of the calcium they eat in their diet. Vitamin D is the hormone that helps the gut absorb more calcium. Many older adults have common risks that make bone health worse. ...

  11. Get Enough Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... a food with 45% DV of calcium. Check food labels. The Daily Value (DV) on a food label tells you the amount of a nutrient (like ... serving, or 60% DV. Learn how to check food labels for calcium information. Use this calcium shopping list ...

  12. Fakir fuel pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    In designing the Fakir fuel pump, the fundamental idea was to obtain a simple and reliable method of conveying the fuel from a low tank to the carburetor, with the avoidance of the faults of all former methods and the simultaneous warming of the fuel by means of the heat of compression generated. The principle of the Fakir fuel pump rests on the well-known principle of the diaphragm pump, which must be suitably adapted to the present purpose.

  13. A compact cryogenic pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Caldwell, Shane; Clark, Jason A.; Gulick, Sidney; Hecht, Adam; Lascar, Daniel D.; Levand, Tony; Morgan, Graeme; Orford, Rodney; Savard, Guy; Sharma, Kumar S.; Van Schelt, Jonathon

    2016-04-01

    A centrifugal cryogenic pump has been designed at Argonne National Laboratory to circulate liquid nitrogen (LN2) in a closed circuit allowing the recovery of excess fluid. The pump can circulate LN2 at rates of 2-10 L/min, into a head of 0.5-3 m. Over four years of laboratory use the pump has proven capable of operating continuously for 50-100 days without maintenance.

  14. Detection of pump degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W.

    1995-08-01

    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

  15. Store-Operated Calcium Channels.

    PubMed

    Prakriya, Murali; Lewis, Richard S

    2015-10-01

    Store-operated calcium channels (SOCs) are a major pathway for calcium signaling in virtually all metozoan cells and serve a wide variety of functions ranging from gene expression, motility, and secretion to tissue and organ development and the immune response. SOCs are activated by the depletion of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), triggered physiologically through stimulation of a diverse set of surface receptors. Over 15 years after the first characterization of SOCs through electrophysiology, the identification of the STIM proteins as ER Ca(2+) sensors and the Orai proteins as store-operated channels has enabled rapid progress in understanding the unique mechanism of store-operate calcium entry (SOCE). Depletion of Ca(2+) from the ER causes STIM to accumulate at ER-plasma membrane (PM) junctions where it traps and activates Orai channels diffusing in the closely apposed PM. Mutagenesis studies combined with recent structural insights about STIM and Orai proteins are now beginning to reveal the molecular underpinnings of these choreographic events. This review describes the major experimental advances underlying our current understanding of how ER Ca(2+) depletion is coupled to the activation of SOCs. Particular emphasis is placed on the molecular mechanisms of STIM and Orai activation, Orai channel properties, modulation of STIM and Orai function, pharmacological inhibitors of SOCE, and the functions of STIM and Orai in physiology and disease.

  16. Store-Operated Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Store-operated calcium channels (SOCs) are a major pathway for calcium signaling in virtually all metozoan cells and serve a wide variety of functions ranging from gene expression, motility, and secretion to tissue and organ development and the immune response. SOCs are activated by the depletion of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), triggered physiologically through stimulation of a diverse set of surface receptors. Over 15 years after the first characterization of SOCs through electrophysiology, the identification of the STIM proteins as ER Ca2+ sensors and the Orai proteins as store-operated channels has enabled rapid progress in understanding the unique mechanism of store-operate calcium entry (SOCE). Depletion of Ca2+ from the ER causes STIM to accumulate at ER-plasma membrane (PM) junctions where it traps and activates Orai channels diffusing in the closely apposed PM. Mutagenesis studies combined with recent structural insights about STIM and Orai proteins are now beginning to reveal the molecular underpinnings of these choreographic events. This review describes the major experimental advances underlying our current understanding of how ER Ca2+ depletion is coupled to the activation of SOCs. Particular emphasis is placed on the molecular mechanisms of STIM and Orai activation, Orai channel properties, modulation of STIM and Orai function, pharmacological inhibitors of SOCE, and the functions of STIM and Orai in physiology and disease. PMID:26400989

  17. Champagne Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2004-01-01

    The term champagne heat pump denotes a developmental heat pump that exploits a cycle of absorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in an alcohol or other organic liquid. Whereas most heat pumps in common use in the United States are energized by mechanical compression, the champagne heat pump is energized by heating. The concept of heat pumps based on other absorption cycles energized by heat has been understood for years, but some of these heat pumps are outlawed in many areas because of the potential hazards posed by leakage of working fluids. For example, in the case of the water/ammonia cycle, there are potential hazards of toxicity and flammability. The organic-liquid/carbon dioxide absorption/desorption cycle of the champagne heat pump is similar to the water/ammonia cycle, but carbon dioxide is nontoxic and environmentally benign, and one can choose an alcohol or other organic liquid that is also relatively nontoxic and environmentally benign. Two candidate nonalcohol organic liquids are isobutyl acetate and amyl acetate. Although alcohols and many other organic liquids are flammable, they present little or no flammability hazard in the champagne heat pump because only the nonflammable carbon dioxide component of the refrigerant mixture is circulated to the evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, which are the only components of the heat pump in direct contact with air in habitable spaces.

  18. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  19. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Lopez, John T.; Olich, Eugene E.; West, Calvin W.

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates.

  20. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Miyaki, M.

    1986-01-07

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump for delivering fuel to the cylinders of an internal combustion engine consisting of: a pump housing with a fuel chamber therein to which fuel is supplied from a fuel tank; means for compressing fuel in the pump chamber and delivering the compressed fuel to the engine cylinders with such means including a pump plunger adapted to be reciprocated so as to introduce fuel into the pump chamber and to pressurize the introduced fuel; spill means for spilling to a low-pressure side on a fuel tank side the compressed fuel which was pressurized in the pump chamber to be delivered from the pump chamber to the engine cylinders, the spill mechanism including a spill passage communicating with the pump chamber and including a solenoid valve located in the spill passage for opening and closing the spill passage with predetermined timing; escape for allowing the compressed fuel pressurized in the pump chamber to escape to the low-pressure side of the fuel tank side.

  1. Remotely operable peristaltic pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belew, R. R. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A peristaltic pump is disclosed which includes a roller assembly on which is mounted a series of pump rollers. As the roller assembly is rotated by a drive gear the pump rollers are driven in reverse rotation by means of a stationary ring gear and pump roller gears. An upper pressure shoe plate and a lower pressure shoe plate are positioned above sets of flexible tubing. The tubing is sandwiched between the pressure shoe plates and the pump rollers. A highly compact pump is provided having twice as many fluid channel lines as is conventional. The peristaltic pump device may be remotely operated by means of a rotary actuator which rotates a driving hub to move the shoe plates by means of eccentrically mounted links. The pressure shoe plates may be moved by the rotary actuator to a loaded position in which the fluid lines are pinched by the pump rollers and fluid is pumped to an unloaded position in which the fluid lines are maintained in an undeformed, uncrimped configuration so that no creases or crimps are set into the fluid lines during periods of prolonged nonuse.

  2. Thermomechanical piston pump development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelman, E. E.

    1971-01-01

    A thermally powered reciprocating pump has been devised to replace or augment an electric pump for the transport of temperature-control fluid on the Thermoelectric Outer Planet Spacecraft (TOPS). The thermally powered pump operates cyclically by extracting heat energy from the fluid by means of a vapor-pressure expansion system and by using the heat to perform the mechanical work of pumping. A feasibility test unit has been constructed to provide an output of 7 cu in during a 10- to 100-second cycle. It operates with a fluid input temperature of 200 to 300 F and a heat sink temperature of 0 to 30 F.

  3. [Portable peristaltic perfusion pumps].

    PubMed

    Magallón Pedrera, I; Soto Torres, I

    1999-11-01

    Portable peristaltic perfusion pumps allow one to administer pharmaceuticals in hospitals as well as in primary health care centers and furthermore these pumps present multiple advantages for patients and their families since they make it possible to carry out treatment in a patient's home while at the same time lowering the costs involved. The authors analyze the most out standing aspects of portable peristaltic perfusion pumps along with their characteristics, installation, programming, and how to turn them on; in addition, the authors list the maintenance care which these pumps require.

  4. Detection of pump degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Casada, D.

    1995-04-01

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous special vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Pump head and flow rate are also monitored, per code requirements. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition; advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed.

  5. Resonance wave pumping: wave mass transport pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmigniani, Remi; Violeau, Damien; Gharib, Morteza

    2016-11-01

    It has been previously reported that pinching at intrinsic resonance frequencies a valveless pump (or Liebau pump) results in a strong pulsating flow. A free-surface version of the Liebau pump is presented. The experiment consists of a closed tank with a submerged plate separating the water into a free-surface and a recirculation section connected through two openings at each end of the tank. A paddle is placed at an off-centre position at the free-surface and controlled in a heaving motion with different frequencies and amplitudes. Near certain frequencies identified as resonance frequencies through a linear potential theory analysis, the system behaves like a pump. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is performed in the near free surface region and compared with simulations using Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. The mean eulerian mass flux field (ρ) is extracted. It is observed that the flow is located in the vicinity of the surface layer suggesting Stokes Drift (or Wave Mass Transport) is the source of the pumping. A model is developped to extend the linear potential theory to the second order to take into account these observations. The authors would like to acknowledge the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation for their generous support.

  6. The role of calcium in the regulation of renin secretion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Renin is the enzyme which is the rate-limiting step in the formation of the hormone angiotensin II. Therefore, the regulation of renin secretion is critical in understanding the control of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and its many biological and pathological actions. Renin is synthesized, stored in, and released from the juxtaglomerular (JG) cells of the kidney. While renin secretion is positively regulated by the “second messenger” cAMP, unlike most secretory cells, renin secretion from the JG cell is inversely related to the extracellular and intracellular calcium concentrations. This novel relationship is referred to as the “calcium paradox.” This review will address observations made over the past 30 years regarding calcium and the regulation of renin secretion, and focus on recent observations which address this scientific conundrum. These include 1) receptor-mediated pathways for changing intracellular calcium; 2) the discovery of a calcium-inhibitable isoform of adenylyl cyclase associated with renin in the JG cells; 3) calcium-sensing receptors in the JG cells; 4) calcium-calmodulin-mediated signals; 5) the role of phosphodiesterases; and 6) connexins, gap junctions, calcium waves, and the cortical extracellular calcium environment. While cAMP is the dominant second messenger for renin secretion, calcium appears to modulate the integrated activities of the enzymes, which balance cAMP synthesis and degradation. Thus this review concludes that calcium modifies the amplitude of cAMP-mediated renin-signaling pathways. While calcium does not directly control renin secretion, increased calcium inhibits and decreased calcium amplifies cAMP-stimulated renin secretion. PMID:19640903

  7. Relationship of superoxide production to cytoplasmic free calcium in human monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Scully, S P; Segel, G B; Lichtman, M A

    1986-01-01

    Calcium has been proposed as an intracellular second messenger for activation of secretion, phagocytosis, and the oxidative burst of neutrophils. We have examined the role of calcium in human monocyte activation. Concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated monocytes displayed an increment in cytoplasmic ionized calcium at 31 +/- 6 s and the onset of superoxide production at 61 +/- 9 s. The increase in cytoplasmic calcium invariably preceded the onset of superoxide production. If the external calcium concentration was reduced to less than 28 nM by the addition of 10 mM EGTA, superoxide production was not diminished at 5 min; however, superoxide production decreased thereafter. The Con A-evoked increment in cytoplasmic ionized calcium was blunted upon the addition of EGTA and decreased further with time. Both the production of superoxide and the Con A-evoked increment in cytoplasmic ionized calcium displayed a 50% inhibition after 15 min of calcium depletion and were completely inhibited after 60 min. Total cell calcium fell from 0.7 to 0.5 fmol/cell, and the basal level of ionized calcium fell from 83 to 30 nM after 60 min. Histidine, a strong chelator of divalent cations other than calcium and magnesium, had no effect on monocyte superoxide production or on ionized calcium concentrations, indicating that EGTA inhibition was due to cell calcium depletion. In calcium-depleted cells, Con A did not evoke superoxide production until calcium was restored to the incubation medium. The restoration of calcium to Con A-treated, calcium-depleted monocytes permitted a rapid rise in the cytoplasmic ionized calcium, and the production of superoxide within 9 s. These data suggest that an increase in ionized cytoplasmic calcium is necessary for the activation of monocyte superoxide production by Con A. The rise in ionized calcium in response to Con A results, in part, from an internal redistribution of calcium, which is sufficient to permit superoxide generation. PMID:3007579

  8. Well-pump alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, Douglas S.

    1998-01-01

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping.

  9. Liquid pump for astronaut cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo portable life support system water-recirculation pump used for astronaut cooling is described. The problems associated with an early centrifugal pump and how these problems were overcome by the use of a new diaphragm pump are discussed. Performance comparisons of the two pump designs are given. Developmental problems and flight results with the diaphragm pump are discussed.

  10. Calcium-Mediated Abiotic Stress Signaling in Roots

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Katie A.; Matthus, Elsa; Swarbreck, Stéphanie M.; Davies, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Roots are subjected to a range of abiotic stresses as they forage for water and nutrients. Cytosolic free calcium is a common second messenger in the signaling of abiotic stress. In addition, roots take up calcium both as a nutrient and to stimulate exocytosis in growth. For calcium to fulfill its multiple roles must require strict spatio-temporal regulation of its uptake and efflux across the plasma membrane, its buffering in the cytosol and its sequestration or release from internal stores. This prompts the question of how specificity of signaling output can be achieved against the background of calcium’s other uses. Threats to agriculture such as salinity, water availability and hypoxia are signaled through calcium. Nutrient deficiency is also emerging as a stress that is signaled through cytosolic free calcium, with progress in potassium, nitrate and boron deficiency signaling now being made. Heavy metals have the capacity to trigger or modulate root calcium signaling depending on their dose and their capacity to catalyze production of hydroxyl radicals. Mechanical stress and cold stress can both trigger an increase in root cytosolic free calcium, with the possibility of membrane deformation playing a part in initiating the calcium signal. This review addresses progress in identifying the calcium transporting proteins (particularly channels such as annexins and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels) that effect stress-induced calcium increases in roots and explores links to reactive oxygen species, lipid signaling, and the unfolded protein response. PMID:27621742

  11. Looking south at boiler feedwater pumps (steam turbine pump on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking south at boiler feedwater pumps (steam turbine pump on left, electric motor pump on right). - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  12. 98. VIEW OF PUMPS FROM NORTH. MILL SOLUTION PUMP No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. VIEW OF PUMPS FROM NORTH. MILL SOLUTION PUMP No. 2 IN FOREGROUND, ABANDONED BARREN SOLUTION PUMP BEYOND. AGITATOR No. 1 IN BACKGROUND. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  13. 33. PLAN OF DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION SHOWING EXISTING PUMPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. PLAN OF DEER ISLAND PUMPING STATION SHOWING EXISTING PUMPING PLAN AND LOCATION OF PROPOSED ADDITIONS, METROPOLITAN WATER AND SEWERAGE BOARD, METROPOLITAN SEWERAGE WORKS, JULY 1908. Aperture card 6417. - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  14. Sphingosine-1-phosphate pretreatment amends hypoxia-induced metabolic dysfunction and impairment of myogenic potential in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts by stimulating viability, calcium homeostasis and energy generation.

    PubMed

    Rahar, Babita; Chawla, Sonam; Pandey, Sanjay; Bhatt, Anant Narayan; Saxena, Shweta

    2017-01-09

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has a role in transpiration in patho-physiological signaling in skeletal muscles. The present study evaluated the pre-conditioning efficacy of S1P in facilitating differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts under a normoxic/hypoxic cell culture environment. Under normoxia, exogenous S1P significantly promoted C2C12 differentiation as evident from morphometric descriptors and differentiation markers of the mature myotubes, but it could facilitate only partial recovery from hypoxia-induced compromised differentiation. Pretreatment of S1P optimized the myokine secretion, intracellular calcium release and energy generation by boosting the aerobic/anaerobic metabolism and mitochondrial mass. In the hypoxia-exposed cells, there was derangement of the S1PR1-3 expression patterns, while the same could be largely restored with S1P pretreatment. This is being proposed as a plausible underlying mechanism for the observed pro-myogenic efficacy of exogenous S1P preconditioning. The present findings are an invaluable addition to the existing knowledge on the pro-myogenic potential of S1P and may prove beneficial in the field of hypoxia-related myo-pathologies.

  15. The salutary effect of dietary calcium on bone mass in a rat model of simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Globus, R.; Halloran, B. P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1985-01-01

    Whether supplementation of dietary calcium reduces the differences in bone mass of unweighed limbs and normally weighted limbs, and whether parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) respond differently to dietary calcium in unweighted animals in comparison with pair-fed controls was studied. The hind limbs of rats were unweighted by a tail suspension method and diets containing 0.1% to 2.4% calcium. After 2 weeks serum calcium, phosphorus, PTH and 1,25(OH)2D intestinal calcium transport were determined and bone mass, ash weight, and calcium in the tibia, L-1 vertebra, and humerus were measured. No significant differences in body weights were observed among the various groups. Suspended rats maintained constant levels of serum calcium and phosphate over the wide range of dietary calcium. Serum PTH and 1,25(OH)2D and intestinal calcium transport fell as dietary calcium was increased. Bone calcium in the tibia and vertebra from suspended rats remained less than that from pair-fed control. It is suggested that although no striking difference between suspended and control animals was observed in response to dieteary calcium, increasing dietary calcium may reduce the negative impact of unloading on the calcium content of the unweighted bones. The salutary effect of high dietary calcium appears to be due to inhibition of bone resorption rather than to stimulation of bone formation.

  16. ATP-dependent calcium transport across basal plasma membranes of human placental trophoblast

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, G.J.; Kelley, L.K.; Smith, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    As a first step in understanding the cellular basis of maternal-fetal calcium transfer, the authors examined the characteristics of calcium uptake by a highly purified preparation of the syncytiotrophoblast basal (fetal facing) plasma membrane. In the presence of nanomolar concentrations of free calcium, basal membranes demonstrated substantial ATP-dependent calcium uptake. This uptake required magnesium, was not significantly affected by Na/sup +/ or K/sup +/ (50 mM), or sodium azide (10 mM). Intravesicular calcium was rapidly and completely released by the calcium ionophore rapidly and completely released by the calcium ionophore A23187. Calcium transport was significantly stimulated by the calcium-dependent regulatory protein calmodulin. Placental membrane fractions enriched in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria also demonstrated ATP-dependent calcium uptake. In contrast to basal membrane, mitochondrial calcium uptake was completely inhibited by azide. The rate of calcium uptake was completely inhibited by azide. The rate of calcium uptake by the ER was only 20% of that of basal membranes. They conclude that the placental basal plasma membrane possesses a high-affinity calcium transport system similar to that found in plasma membranes of a variety of cell types. This transporter is situated to permit it to function in vivo in maternal-fetal calcium transfer.

  17. Interaction between Calcium Ions and Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Activity against Sf9 Cells (Spodoptera frugiperda, Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Monette, R.; Potvin, L.; Baines, D.; Laprade, R.; Schwartz, J. L.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of calcium ions and modulators of calcium movement on Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein toxicity were investigated with Sf9 cells (Spodoptera frugiperda, fall armyworm) by a new B. thuringiensis toxicity assay based on measurement of fluorescence of ethidium homodimer, a high-affinity DNA stain. CryIC toxicity was substantially stimulated by extracellular calcium in a dose-dependent way (in the millimolar range), while toxicity enhancement could not be replicated when calcium was replaced by barium. This incremental toxicity was reduced by cobalt and lanthanum ions, two inorganic-calcium transport inhibitors. Methoxyverapamil, a voltage-dependent calcium channel blocker, and nifedipine, an inhibitor of dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type calcium channels, had no effect on CryIC toxin activity, but BAY K 8644, an L-type calcium channel activator, increased CryIC activity at high concentrations of extracellular calcium. While A23187, a calcium ionophore, and TMB-8, an inhibitor of intracellular-calcium mobilization, did not change CryIC-induced mortality, thapsigargin, an inhibitor of calcium uptake in intracellular stores, and more particularly trifluoperazine, which inhibits calcium-calmodulin-dependent processes, increased CryIC-mediated toxicity. The incremental effect of extracellular calcium on CryIC-induced toxicity was consistent with an increased concentration of intracellular calcium. PMID:16535509

  18. Mechanically Induced Intercellular Calcium Communication in Confined Endothelial Structures

    PubMed Central

    Junkin, Michael; Lu, Yi; Long, Juexuan; Deymier, Pierre A.; Hoying, James B.; Wong, Pak Kin

    2012-01-01

    Calcium signaling in the diverse vascular structures is regulated by a wide range of mechanical and biochemical factors to maintain essential physiological functions of the vasculature. To properly transmit information, the intercellular calcium communication mechanism must be robust against various conditions in the cellular microenvironment. Using plasma lithography geometric confinement, we investigate mechanically induced calcium wave propagation in networks of human umbilical vein endothelial cells organized. Endothelial cell networks with confined architectures were stimulated at the single cell level, including using capacitive force probes. Calcium wave propagation in the network was observed using fluorescence calcium imaging. We show that mechanically induced calcium signaling in the endothelial networks is dynamically regulated against a wide range of probing forces and repeated stimulations. The calcium wave is able to propagate consistently in various dimensions from monolayers to individual cell chains, and in different topologies from linear patterns to cell junctions. Our results reveal that calcium signaling provides a robust mechanism for cell-cell communication in networks of endothelial cells despite the diversity of the microenvironmental inputs and complexity of vascular structures. PMID:23267827

  19. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  20. A Shocking New Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Hydro Dynamics, Inc. received a technical helping hand from NASA that made their Hydrosonic Pump (HPump) a reality. Marshall engineers resolved a bearing problem in the rotor of the pump and recommended new bearings, housings and mounting hardware as a solution. The resulting HPump is able to heat liquids with greater energy efficiency using shock waves to generate heat.

  1. Detection of pump degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Casada, D.

    1994-12-31

    There are a variety of stressors that can affect the operation of centrifugal pumps. Although these general stressors are active in essentially all centrifugal pumps, the stressor level and the extent of wear and degradation can vary greatly. Parameters that affect the extent of stressor activity are manifold. In order to assure the long-term operational readiness of a pump, it is important to both understand the nature and magnitude of the specific degradation mechanisms and to monitor the performance of the pump. The most commonly applied method of monitoring the condition of not only pumps, but rotating machinery in general, is vibration analysis. Periodic or continuous spectral vibration analysis is a cornerstone of most pump monitoring programs. In the nuclear industry, non-spectral vibration monitoring of safety-related pumps is performed in accordance with the ASME code. Although vibration analysis has dominated the condition monitoring field for many years, there are other measures that have been historically used to help understand pump condition: advances in historically applied technologies and developing technologies offer improved monitoring capabilities. The capabilities of several technologies (including vibration analysis, dynamic pressure analysis, and motor power analysis) to detect the presence and magnitude of both stressors and resultant degradation are discussed.

  2. Micromachined peristaltic pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Micromachined pumps including a channel formed between a first membrane and a substrate or between first and second flexible membranes. A series of electrically conductive strips is applied to a surface of the substrate or one of the membranes. Application of a sequential voltage to the series of strips causes a region of closure to progress down the channel to achieve a pumping action.

  3. Solar heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanson, R.

    Brief discussions of the major components of a solar powered, chemical ground source heat pump are presented. The components discussed are the solar collectors and the chemical heat storage battery. Sodium sulfide is the medium used for heat storage. Catalog information which provides a description of all of the heat pump systems is included.

  4. Estimating Pump Blockage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, W.; Meng, S. Y.; Meng, C. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Blockage predicted for all components including inducers, impellers and diffusers. Pump performance predicted by semiempirical method shows excellent agreement with test results in Space Shuttle main-engine highpressure fuel turbopump. Comparisons of pump efficiency show equally good agreement of calculated values with experimental ones. Method improves current estimation methods based solely on subjective engineering judgment.

  5. Water Treatment Technology - Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on pumps provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pumps in plant and distribution systems, pump…

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR FUEL PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Cobb, W.G.

    1959-06-01

    A reactor fuel pump is described which offers long life, low susceptibility to radiation damage, and gaseous fission product removal. An inert-gas lubricated bearing supports a journal on one end of the drive shsft. The other end has an impeller and expansion chamber which effect pumping and gas- liquid separation. (T.R.H.)

  7. Advances in pump technology: insulin patch pumps, combined pumps and glucose sensors, and implanted pumps.

    PubMed

    Schaepelynck, P; Darmon, P; Molines, L; Jannot-Lamotte, M F; Treglia, C; Raccah, D

    2011-12-01

    This review discusses the most recent developments in insulin pump technology. The benefits of the insulin pump to patients with type 1 diabetes are recognized both for its metabolic effectiveness and its positive effects on quality of life. The current pumps are reliable, small and light, and are becoming more and more sophisticated. Nevertheless, there remain practical and psychological constraints for the patient. However, recent patch-pump advances should simplify the technical aspects of pump treatment and enhance patient comfort. Another advance combines the insulin pump with a glucose sensor. Such a combination is logical for optimizing pump use and, to that end, developing an automated or 'closed-loop'system that permits the delivery of subcutaneous insulin adjusted according to measured levels of subcutaneous glucose. Finally, implanted insulin pumps have proven their worth not only because of their simple use, but also for their contribution in the artificial pancreas project. Indeed, the prompt response with intraperitoneal administration of insulin makes it of interest for use in a closed-loop system.

  8. A sodium-pump-mediated afterhyperpolarization in pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Gulledge, Allan T; Dasari, Sameera; Onoue, Keita; Stephens, Emily K; Hasse, J Michael; Avesar, Daniel

    2013-08-07

    The sodium-potassium ATPase (i.e., the "sodium pump") plays a central role in maintaining ionic homeostasis in all cells. Although the sodium pump is intrinsically electrogenic and responsive to dynamic changes in intracellular sodium concentration, its role in regulating neuronal excitability remains unclear. Here we describe a physiological role for the sodium pump in regulating the excitability of mouse neocortical layer 5 and hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Trains of action potentials produced long-lasting (∼20 s) afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) that were insensitive to blockade of voltage-gated calcium channels or chelation of intracellular calcium, but were blocked by tetrodotoxin, ouabain, or the removal of extracellular potassium. Correspondingly, the AHP time course was similar to the decay of activity-induced increases in intracellular sodium, whereas intracellular calcium decayed at much faster rates. To determine whether physiological patterns of activity engage the sodium pump, we replayed in vitro a place-specific burst of 15 action potentials recorded originally in vivo in a CA1 "place cell" as the animal traversed the associated place field. In both layer 5 and CA1 pyramidal neurons, this "place cell train" generated small, long-lasting AHPs capable of reducing neuronal excitability for many seconds. Place-cell-train-induced AHPs were blocked by ouabain or removal of extracellular potassium, but not by intracellular calcium chelation. Finally, we found calcium contributions to the AHP to be temperature dependent: prominent at room temperature, but largely absent at 35°C. Our results demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for the sodium-potassium ATPase in regulating the excitability of neocortical and hippocampal pyramidal neurons.

  9. Normetex Pump Alternatives Study

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Elliot A.

    2013-04-25

    A mainstay pump for tritium systems, the Normetex scroll pump, is currently unavailable because the Normetex company went out of business. This pump was an all-metal scroll pump that served tritium processing facilities very well. Current tritium system operators are evaluating replacement pumps for the Normetex pump and for general used in tritium service. An all-metal equivalent alternative to the Normetex pump has not yet been identified. 1. The ideal replacement tritium pump would be hermetically sealed and contain no polymer components or oils. Polymers and oils degrade over time when they contact ionizing radiation. 2. Halogenated polymers (containing fluorine, chlorine, or both) and oils are commonly found in pumps. These materials have many properties that surpass those of hydrocarbon-based polymers and oils, including thermal stability (higher operating temperature) and better chemical resistance. Unfortunately, they are less resistant to degradation from ionizing radiation than hydrocarbon-based materials (in general). 3. Polymers and oils can form gaseous, condensable (HF, TF), liquid, and solid species when exposed to ionizing radiation. For example, halogenated polymers form HF and HCl, which are extremely corrosive upon reaction with water. If a pump containing polymers or oils must be used in a tritium system, the system must be designed to be able to process the unwanted by-products. Design features to mitigate degradation products include filters and chemical or physical traps (eg. cold traps, oil traps). 4. Polymer components can work in tritium systems, but must be replaced regularly. Polymer components performance should be monitored or be regularly tested, and regular replacement of components should be viewed as an expected normal event. A radioactive waste stream must be established to dispose of used polymer components and oil with an approved disposal plan developed based on the facility location and its regulators. Polymers have varying

  10. Deep well solar pump

    SciTech Connect

    Vanek, J.

    1990-02-06

    This patent describes, in a pump having a source of gas under pressure, and a gas operated pump, a mechanism periodically injecting gas from the source of gas into the gas operated pump. It comprises: a long period pendulum turning towards a first position by gravity, an injection valve connected between the source of gas under pressure and the gas operated pump, a linkage between the pendulum and the injection valve. The linkage opening the injection valve when the pendulum is in the first position, an impulse tube connected between the injection valve and the gas operated pump, a member having a surface adjacent to the first position of the pendulum, and an elastic impulse bladder connected to the impulse tube adjacent to the surface so that inflation of the impulse bladder on the opening of the injection valve forces the impulse bladder against the pendulum urging the pendulum against the force of gravity toward a second position.

  11. Centrifugal pump fuel system

    SciTech Connect

    McGlone, M.E.; Larkins, L.J.; Johnson, R.O.; Moeller, K.A.

    1993-06-22

    A centrifugal pump fuel system for an engine driven fuel pump for an aircraft gas turbine engine is described comprising: a centrifugal pump having at constant speed rising head/flow characteristic at low flows; a plumbing system receiving flow from the pump, and having at least one control valve located down stream of and defining a discrete volume of the plumbing system; a plumbing resonant frequency defined by the discrete volume, the geometry of the plumbing system, and the bulk modulus of the fuel; a pressure difference regulating valve located adjacent to the discharge of the pump, up stream of the vast majority of the discrete volume; and the frequency response of the regulating valve being significantly less than the frequency response of the plumbing system such that the response of the regulating valve is attenuated at the resonant frequency of the plumbing system.

  12. Rotary Blood Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George A. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Paul A. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A rotary blood pump includes a pump housing for receiving a flow straightener, a rotor mounted on rotor bearings and having an inducer portion and an impeller portion, and a diffuser. The entrance angle, outlet angle, axial and radial clearances of blades associated with the flow straightener, inducer portion, impeller portion and diffuser are optimized to minimize hemolysis while maintaining pump efficiency. The rotor bearing includes a bearing chamber that is filled with cross-linked blood or other bio-compatible material. A back emf integrated circuit regulates rotor operation and a microcomputer may be used to control one or more back emf integrated circuits. A plurality of magnets are disposed in each of a plurality of impeller blades with a small air gap. A stator may be axially adjusted on the pump housing to absorb bearing load and maximize pump efficiency.

  13. A Valveless Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringley, Thomas; Childress, Stephen; Vandenberghe, Nicolas

    2004-11-01

    We study experimentally a simple valveless mechanical pump. The pumping mechanism could help to explain the successful circulation of blood in the cardiovascular systems of the human fetus, certain organisms whose hearts have no valves, and a person undergoing CPR. Because of its simplicity, the pump may also have applications in microfluidics. The experimental setup consists of two connected sections of tube, one rigid and one elastic, filled with water. To pump, a segment of the elastic section is pressed closed periodically. We examine the effects of varying the location of the forced segment and the forcing frequency. Both the magnitude and the direction of the pumping are observed to depend on both parameters. Moreover, certain frequencies result in destructive interference or resonance. We present some simple numerical models to try to explain these observations.

  14. High pressure liquid gas pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acres, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Design and development of two types of pumps for handling liquefied gases are discussed. One pump uses mechanical valve shift and other uses pneumatic valve shift. Illustrations of pumps are provided and detailed description of operation is included.

  15. Calcium/calmodulin‐dependent kinase II and nitric oxide synthase 1‐dependent modulation of ryanodine receptors during β‐adrenergic stimulation is restricted to the dyadic cleft

    PubMed Central

    Dries, Eef; Santiago, Demetrio J.; Johnson, Daniel M.; Gilbert, Guillaume; Holemans, Patricia; Korte, Sanne M.; Roderick, H. Llewelyn

    2016-01-01

    Key points The dyadic cleft, where coupled ryanodine receptors (RyRs) reside, is thought to serve as a microdomain for local signalling, as supported by distinct modulation of coupled RyRs dependent on Ca2+/calmodulin‐dependent kinase II (CaMKII) activation during high‐frequency stimulation.Sympathetic stimulation through β‐adrenergic receptors activates an integrated signalling cascade, enhancing Ca2+ cycling and is at least partially mediated through CaMKII.Here we report that CaMKII activation during β‐adrenergic signalling is restricted to the dyadic cleft, where it enhances activity of coupled RyRs thereby contributing to the increase in diastolic events. Nitric oxide synthase 1 equally participates in the local modulation of coupled RyRs.In contrast, the increase in the Ca2+ content of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and related increase in the amplitude of the Ca2+ transient are primarily protein kinase A‐dependent.The present data extend the concept of microdomain signalling in the dyadic cleft and give perspectives for selective modulation of RyR subpopulations and diastolic events. Abstract In cardiac myocytes, β‐adrenergic stimulation enhances Ca2+ cycling through an integrated signalling cascade modulating L‐type Ca2+ channels (LTCCs), phospholamban and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Ca2+/calmodulin‐dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1) are proposed as prime mediators for increasing RyR open probability. We investigate whether this pathway is confined to the high Ca2+ microdomain of the dyadic cleft and thus to coupled RyRs. Pig ventricular myocytes are studied under whole‐cell voltage‐clamp and confocal line‐scan imaging with Fluo‐4 as a [Ca2+]i indicator. Following conditioning depolarizing pulses, spontaneous RyR activity is recorded as Ca2+ sparks, which are assigned to coupled and non‐coupled RyR clusters. Isoproterenol (ISO) (10 nm) increases Ca2+ spark frequency in both populations of RyRs. However

  16. Radio pumping of ionospheric plasma with orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Leyser, T B; Norin, L; McCarrick, M; Pedersen, T R; Gustavsson, B

    2009-02-13

    Experimental results are presented of pumping ionospheric plasma with a radio wave carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM), using the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska. Optical emissions from the pumped plasma turbulence exhibit the characteristic ring-shaped morphology when the pump beam carries OAM. Features of stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) that are attributed to cascading Langmuir turbulence are well developed for a regular beam but are significantly weaker for a ring-shaped OAM beam in which case upper hybrid turbulence dominates the SEE.

  17. Radio Pumping of Ionospheric Plasma with Orbital Angular Momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Leyser, T. B.; Norin, L.; McCarrick, M.; Pedersen, T. R.; Gustavsson, B.

    2009-02-13

    Experimental results are presented of pumping ionospheric plasma with a radio wave carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM), using the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska. Optical emissions from the pumped plasma turbulence exhibit the characteristic ring-shaped morphology when the pump beam carries OAM. Features of stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) that are attributed to cascading Langmuir turbulence are well developed for a regular beam but are significantly weaker for a ring-shaped OAM beam in which case upper hybrid turbulence dominates the SEE.

  18. Apparatus for Pumping a Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boeyen, Robert Van; Reeh, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    A fluid pump has been developed for mechanically pumped fluid loops for spacecraft thermal control. Lynntech's technology utilizes a proprietary electrochemically driven pumping mechanism. Conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps typically do not meet the stringent power and operational reliability requirements of space applications. Lynntech's developmental pump is a highly efficient solid-state pump with essentially no rotating or moving components (apart from metal bellows).

  19. Pressure charged airlift pump

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Gene K.

    1983-01-01

    A pumping system is described for pumping fluids, such as water with entrained mud and small rocks, out of underground cavities such as drilled wells, which can effectively remove fluids down to a level very close to the bottom of the cavity and which can operate solely by compressed air pumped down through the cavity. The system utilizes a subassembly having a pair of parallel conduit sections (44, 46) adapted to be connected onto the bottom of a drill string utilized for drilling the cavity, the drill string also having a pair of coaxially extending conduits. The subassembly includes an upper portion which has means for connection onto the drill string and terminates the first conduit of the drill string in a plenum (55). A compressed air-driven pump (62) is suspended from the upper portion. The pump sucks fluids from the bottom of the cavity and discharges them into the second conduit. Compressed air pumped down through the first conduit (46) to the plenum powers the compressed air-driven pump and aerates the fluid in the second conduit to lift it to the earth's surface.

  20. Deep well pump

    SciTech Connect

    Downen, J.L.; Sutliff, W.N.

    1981-06-16

    A pump barrel open at its lower end is coupled at its upper end by a tubular adapter assembly to the lower end of a pump tubing string. This assembly presents an internal bevelled sealing latching annulus, an axially bored pump head being radially expansively spring latched in a fixed axial sealed relation with the annulus to seal the upper end of the pump barrel from the adapter assembly to form a pump compression chamber surrounding a hollow polish rod extending upwardly from a plunger mounted on the lower end of the polish rod for reciprocation in the pump barrel. The plunger carries tandem travelling valves close beneath its connection with the polish rod. The lower valve opening to receive oil through the barrel and plunger on the down stroke and concurrently delivering such oil into the compression chamber. The upper valve closes on the down stroke and opening on the up stroke during which the lower valve closes to expel oil trapped in the compression chamber upward through the upper valve into the lower end of the hollow polish rod which oil is discharged at the upper end thereof into the pump tubing string through the fitting adapting the polish rod to the lower end of the sucker rod.

  1. Fuel injection pump

    SciTech Connect

    Iiyama, A.; Nishimura, T.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a fuel injection pump comprising: (a) engageable first and second cam members, the first cam member reciprocating axially as the first cam member moves angularly relative to the second cam member when the first and second cam members are in engagement; (b) means for urging the first cam member toward the second cam member to engage the first and second cam members; (c) a plunger connected to the first cam member for reciprocation with the first cam member, the plunger defining at least a part of a pumping chamber, the pumping chamber contracting and expanding as the plunger reciprocates; (d) means for allowing fuel to move into the pumping chamber as the pumping chamber expands in a fuel intake stroke; (e) means for allowing the fuel to move out of the pumping chamber as the pumping chamber contracts in a fuel compression stroke; and (f) means for resisting movement of the plunger in at least part of the fuel compression stroke and relieving resistance to the movement of the plunger in the fuel intake stroke wherein the resisting means comprises a piston slidably mounted on the plunger, a spring urging the piston to seat the piston on a shoulder on the plunger so that the piston reciprocates as the plunger reciprocates, wherein the piston is seated on the shoulder in the fuel compression stroke and separates from the shoulder against the force of the spring in the fuel intake stroke, a second fluid chamber at least partially defined by the piston.

  2. Variable displacement vane pump

    SciTech Connect

    Tschantz, J.S.; Bisson, B.J.

    1997-12-31

    What has been developed under this program is a pumping system which can vary the amount of fuel delivered according to engine needs, thereby reducing the temperature rise of the fuel to very low levels. This permits the elimination of the air/oil coolers and conserves the vital airflow through the fan. The variable displacement vane pump (VDVP) also permits a substantial simplification of the control system with the elimination of complex metering valves, offering a significant reduction in fuel system cost. This program was initiated to develop a technology that embodied the ruggedness of the gear pump with the efficiency and metering versatility of the variable displacement vane pump. Thick metal vanes emulate the teeth on pumping gears while the simple, elegant swing cam feature provides the variable displacement capability without the unwieldy multiple cam segments found in other concepts. The result is a pumping architecture which is rugged, light in weight and extremely versatile, having demonstrated superb heat management and controllability in extensive bench and engine testing. This paper will report the results that the pumps have achieved to date both in terms of durability and efficiency.

  3. Multiphase pumping - operation & control

    SciTech Connect

    Salis, J. de; Marolies, C. de; Falcimaigne, J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reviews field issues related to the planning, installation and operation of the helico-axial multiphase pumps. Interest for multiphase production, which leads to simpler and smaller in-field installations, is primarily dictated by the need for more a cost effective production system. Multiphase pumping is essentially a means of adding energy to the unprocessed effluent which enables the liquid/gas mixture to be transported over long distances without the need for prior separation. The Poseidon helico-axial pumps, under normal operating conditions, are largely unaffected by process fluctuations at pump inlet (changes in pressure, liquid or gas flow rate). They have demonstrated a stable behavior (self-adaptive capability with regards to instantaneous changes). A multiphase pump set is designed to operate under changing/fluctuating process conditions. An important issue related to pump operability and flexibility has to do with the driver selection: fixed speed vs. variable speed. In some cases a fixed speed drive provides sufficient operational flexibility. In other cases variable speed can be chosen. Pump operation & control strategies are presented and discussed.

  4. Microfluidic reflow pumps.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Bryan; Tsai, Long-Fang; Anderson, Ryan R; Kim, Seunghyun; Hu, Weisheng; Nordin, Gregory P

    2015-07-01

    A new microfluidic pump, termed a reflow pump, is designed to operate with a sub-μl sample volume and transport it back and forth between two pneumatically actuated reservoirs through a flow channel typically containing one or more sensor surfaces. The ultimate motivation is to efficiently use the small sample volume in conjunction with convection to maximize analyte flux to the sensor surface(s) in order to minimize sensor response time. In this paper, we focus on the operational properties of the pumps themselves (rather than the sensor surfaces), and demonstrate both two-layer and three-layer polydimethylsiloxane reflow pumps. For the three-layer pump, we examine the effects of reservoir actuation pressure and actuation period, and demonstrate average volumetric flow rates as high as 500 μl/min. We also show that the two-layer design can pump up to 93% of the sample volume during each half period and demonstrate integration of a reflow pump with a single-chip microcantilever array to measure maximum flow rate.

  5. Control of Intracellular Calcium Signaling as a Neuroprotective Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, R. Scott; Goad, Daryl L.; Grillo, Michael A.; Kaja, Simon; Payne, Andrew J.; Koulen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Both acute and chronic degenerative diseases of the nervous system reduce the viability and function of neurons through changes in intracellular calcium signaling. In particular, pathological increases in the intracellular calcium concentration promote such pathogenesis. Disease involvement of numerous regulators of intracellular calcium signaling located on the plasma membrane and intracellular organelles has been documented. Diverse groups of chemical compounds targeting ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors, pumps and enzymes have been identified as potential neuroprotectants. The present review summarizes the discovery, mechanisms and biological activity of neuroprotective molecules targeting proteins that control intracellular calcium signaling to preserve or restore structure and function of the nervous system. Disease relevance, clinical applications and new technologies for the identification of such molecules are being discussed. PMID:20335972

  6. Calcium transients and calcium release in rat fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, J; Schneider, M F

    1993-01-01

    1. Calcium transients were recorded from cut segments of fast-twitch rat skeletal muscle fibres stretched to 3.7-4.0 microns per sarcomere and voltage clamped at a holding potential of -80 mV using the double Vaseline-gap technique. Calcium transients were monitored simultaneously with the two calcium indicators antipyrylazo III (AP III) and fura-2. AP III was used to record the calcium changes in response to 10-200 ms depolarizing pulses to different membrane potentials while fura-2 monitored the slow decay of the transient (during 16-20 s) and the resting calcium concentration. Experiments were performed at 14-17 degrees C. 2. For 50-100 ms depolarizing pulses calcium transients were first detected between -30 and -20 mV in a total of twenty-one fibres. The transients recorded with AP III showed a plateau for small pulses (-20 mV) and a steady increase during stronger pulses (-10 mV and more positive). Upon repolarization the transients decayed towards the baseline. The signal recorded simultaneously with fura-2 showed a continuous increase of the transient during the pulses at all membrane potentials. The amplitude of the calcium transients for the large pulses could not be followed with fura-2 due to saturation of the dye. 3. The signals obtained with both dyes were used to determine the kinetics of the calcium-fura-2 reaction inside the fibres. The mean values of the kinetic parameters were: the on rate constant (kon) = 5.1 x 10(8) M-1s-1, the off rate constant (koff) = 26 s-1, and koff/kon (KD) = 69.7 nM. 4. The fast phase of decay of the calcium transients after the pulses was studied from the records obtained with AP III. For depolarizing pulses of the same duration, the rate of decay of the transients after the pulse was slower the stronger the depolarization. For pulses to the same membrane potential, the rate of decay was slower the longer the pulse duration. Both stimulating patterns indicated saturation of the removal system in the muscle fibres due to

  7. RENEWABLE LIQUID GETTERING PUMP

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.

    1962-08-21

    A method and structure were developed for pumping gases by simple absorption into a liquid gettering material. The invention comprises means ror continuously pumping a liquid getterrng material from a reservoir to the top of a generally vertical surface disposed in a vacuum pumping chamber to receive gaseous and other particles in the liquid gettering material which continuously flows downward over the vertical suiface. Means are provided for continuous removal, degassing, and return of a portion of the liquid gettering material from the reservoir connected with collectrng means at the base of the generally vertical plate. (AEC)

  8. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement thickening products, and many ...

  9. Calcium: total or ionized?

    PubMed

    Schenck, Patricia A; Chew, Dennis J

    2008-05-01

    Measurement of serum total calcium (tCa) has been relied on for assessment of calcium status, despite the fact that it is the ionized calcium (iCa) fraction that has biologic activity. Serum tCa does not accurately predict iCa status in many clinical conditions. For accurate assessment of iCa status, iCa should be directly measured. Anaerobic measurement of serum iCa under controlled conditions provides the most reliable assessment of calcium status; aerobic measurement of iCa with species-specific pH correction is highly correlated with anaerobic measurements.

  10. Portable fluorescence photometer for monitoring free calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struckmeier, Jens; Klopp, Erk; Born, Matthias; Hofmann, Martin; Tenbosch, Jochen; Jones, David B.

    2000-12-01

    We introduce a compact and portable photometric system for measurements of the calcium dynamics in cells. The photometer is designed for applications in centrifuges or in zero gravity environment and thus extremely compact and reliable. It operates with the calcium-sensitive dye Indo-1. The excitation wavelength of 345 nm is generated by frequency doubling of a laser diode. Two compact photomultiplier tubes detect the fluorescent emission. The electronics provide the sensitivity of photon counting combined with simultaneous measurement of the temperature, of air pressure, and of gravitational force. Internal data storage during the experiment is possible. A newly developed cell chamber stabilizes the cell temperature to 37.0±0.1 °C and includes a perfusion system to supply the cells with medium. The system has a modular setup providing the possibility of changing the light source and detectors for investigation of ions other than calcium. Measurements of the intracellular calcium concentration are based on a comprehensive calibration of our system. First experiments show that the calcium dynamics of osteosarcoma cells stimulated by parathyroid hormone is observable.

  11. [Pharmacology of the extracellular calcium ion receptor].

    PubMed

    Ruat, Martial

    2003-01-01

    The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) belongs to family 3 of G-protein coupled receptors. The CaSR, expressed at the surface of the parathyroid cells, controls parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion and is the main regulator of calcium homeostasis. Its activity is regulated by small changes in the physiological concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions present in the serum and extracellular fluids, leading to the stimulation of the phospholipases C and A2. Molecules that potentiate the effect of extracellular calcium are called calcimimetics. They reduce the PTH level in vivo and have been proposed to be of therapeutic benefit for the treatment of both primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. The blocking of CaSR by a calcilytic molecule results in the increase in serum PTH and might be of interest in the treatment of osteoporosis. The CaSR is also expressed in the thyroid, kidney, bone and in neuronal and glial cell populations, where it should be involved in the complex responses associated with calcium and magnesium ions present in the extracellular fluids.

  12. Pertussis toxin nullifies the depolarization of the membrane potential and the stimulation of the rapid phase of Ca entry through L-type calcium channels that are produced by follicle stimulating hormone in 10- to 12-day-old rat Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Jacobus, Ana Paula; Loss, Eloísa Silveira; Wassermann, Guillermo Federico

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) on the depolarizing component of the action of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on the membrane potential (MP) of Sertoli cells, which is linked to the rapid entry of Ca(2+) into cells and to the Ca(2+)-dependent transport of neutral amino acids by the A system. This model allowed us to analyze the involvement of Gi proteins in the action of FSH in these phenomena. In parallel, using an inactive analog of insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-1), JB1, and an anti-IGF-I antibody we investigated the possible mediating role of IGF-I on these effects of FSH because IGF-I is produced and released by testicular cells in response to stimulation by FSH and shows depolarization effects on MP similar to those from FSH. Our results have the following implications: (a) the rapid membrane actions of FSH, which occur in a time-frame of seconds to minutes and include the depolarization of the MP, and stimulation of (45)Ca(2+) uptake and [(14)C]-methyl aminoisobutyric acid ([(14)C]-MeAIB) transport, are nullified by the action of PTX and, therefore, are probably mediated by GiPCR activation; (b) the effects of FSH were also nullified by verapamil, an L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel blocker; (c) wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), prevented FSH stimulation of (45)Ca(2+) entry and [(14)C]-MeAIB transport; and (d) these FSH actions are independent of the IGF-I effects. In conclusion, these results strongly suggest that the rapid action of FSH on L-type Ca(2+) channel activity in Sertoli cells from 10- to 12-day-old rats is mediated by the Gi/βγ/PI3Kγ pathway, independent of the effects of IGF-I.

  13. Pertussis Toxin Nullifies the Depolarization of the Membrane Potential and the Stimulation of the Rapid Phase of 45Ca2+ Entry Through L-type Calcium Channels that are Produced by Follicle Stimulating Hormone in 10- to 12-Day-Old Rat Sertoli Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jacobus, Ana Paula; Loss, Eloísa Silveira; Wassermann, Guillermo Federico

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pertussis toxin (PTX) on the depolarizing component of the action of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on the membrane potential (MP) of Sertoli cells, which is linked to the rapid entry of Ca2+ into cells and to the Ca2+-dependent transport of neutral amino acids by the A system. This model allowed us to analyze the involvement of Gi proteins in the action of FSH in these phenomena. In parallel, using an inactive analog of insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-1), JB1, and an anti-IGF-I antibody we investigated the possible mediating role of IGF-I on these effects of FSH because IGF-I is produced and released by testicular cells in response to stimulation by FSH and shows depolarization effects on MP similar to those from FSH. Our results have the following implications: (a) the rapid membrane actions of FSH, which occur in a time-frame of seconds to minutes and include the depolarization of the MP, and stimulation of 45Ca2+ uptake and [14C]-methyl aminoisobutyric acid ([14C]-MeAIB) transport, are nullified by the action of PTX and, therefore, are probably mediated by GiPCR activation; (b) the effects of FSH were also nullified by verapamil, an L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel blocker; (c) wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), prevented FSH stimulation of 45Ca2+ entry and [14C]-MeAIB transport; and (d) these FSH actions are independent of the IGF-I effects. In conclusion, these results strongly suggest that the rapid action of FSH on L-type Ca2+ channel activity in Sertoli cells from 10- to 12-day-old rats is mediated by the Gi/βγ/PI3Kγ pathway, independent of the effects of IGF-I. PMID:21423378

  14. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  15. Intracellular calcium buffering declines in aging adrenergic nerves.

    PubMed

    Tsai, H; Hewitt, C W; Buchholz, J N; Duckles, S P

    1997-01-01

    Stimulation-evoked norepinephrine release from rat tail artery adrenergic nerves increased with advancing age in the Fischer-344 rat when function of norepinephrine uptake mechanisms and prejunctional alpha-2 adrenoceptors were blocked. When calcium channels were bypassed with the ionophore, ionomycin (4 microM), norepinephrine release from aged nerves (20 months) was still elevated as compared to 6-month-old nerves. Norepinephrine release stimulated by high K+ was also higher in 20-month nerves. The intracellular calcium chelator, 1,2 bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetomethylester (BAPTA/AM), was used to determine whether age-related increases in norepinephrine release could be reversed with the addition of an artificial intracellular calcium buffer. Exposure to BAPTA/AM decreased stimulation-evoked norepinephrine release in both old and young tail arteries; however, the effect was significantly greater in older arteries. When mitochondrial calcium uptake was compromised using the uncoupler of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, dinitrophenol, BAPTA caused a further decrease in stimulation-evoked norepinephrine release in 20-month tail arteries with much less effect in 6-month-old nerves. These results suggest that intracellular calcium buffering is less efficient in older nerves.

  16. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  17. Intelligent pumping system developed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The oil field's first intelligent rod pumping system designed specifically to reduce the cost of pumping oil wells now is a reality. As a plus benefit, the system (called Liftronic) is compact and quiet. The new system combines an efficient mechanical design with a computer control system to reduce pumping costs. The unit stands less than 8 ft high, or approx. one-fourth the height of a comparable beam unit. It also mounts directly on the wellhead. The entire system can be concealed behind a fence or enclosed within a small building to make it a more attractive neighbor in residential, commercial, or recreational areas. It is useful also for agricultural areas where overhead irrigation systems restrict the use of many oil field pumping systems.

  18. Keeping Hearts Pumping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A collaboration between NASA, Dr. Michael DeBakey, Dr. George Noon, and MicroMed Technology, Inc., resulted in a life-saving heart pump for patients awaiting heart transplants. The MicroMed DeBakey VAD functions as a "bridge to heart transplant" by pumping blood throughout the body to keep critically ill patients alive until a donor heart is available. Weighing less than 4 ounces and measuring 1 inch by 3 inches, the pump is approximately one-tenth the size of other currently marketed pulsatile VADs. This makes it less invasive and ideal for smaller adults and children. Because of the pump's small size, less than 5 percent of the patients implanted developed device-related infections. It can operate up to 8 hours on batteries, giving patients the mobility to do normal, everyday activities.The MicroMed DeBakey VAD is a registered trademark of MicroMed Technology, Inc.

  19. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  20. Selecting multiphase pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Prang, A.J.

    1997-02-01

    Multiphase pumps in petroleum applications today must handle liquid products containing large amounts of gas, and often including water and sand as well. In the past, gas was commonly separated and flared off at the well head, and only liquid product was piped along for further processing. Using this setup, processing the gas as well as the liquid requires separators, compressors and dual pipelines. Rotary two-screw units are ideal for multiphase use, as they can pump any product that can be introduced into the suction passages of their screws. These devices also effectively handle heat generation from compressed gases. To select units for multiphase applications, an engineer should be familiar with these pumps and how they work. This article discusses rotary-screw pumps and how to effectively select a unit for multiphase service.

  1. Pumping and Breastmilk Storage

    MedlinePlus

    ... by washing your pumping equipment with soap and water and letting the equipment air dry. Storage of breastmilk Store your breastmilk in clean glass or hard BPA-free plastic bottles with tight-fitting lids. You can also use ...

  2. GAS METERING PUMP

    DOEpatents

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  3. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Pound, C.R.

    2001-09-17

    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  4. Sliding valve pump

    SciTech Connect

    Rupert, C.L.

    1980-09-09

    A sliding valve pump for oil wells which includes a working barrel having a plurality of apertures located in spaced relationship in the wall thereof and a pair of travelling valves fitted within the working barrel and carried by a plunger rod, the valves also having a plurality of apertures or ports for periodic registration with the ports in the working barrel wall to facilitate pumping of fluid from an oil reservoir or pool to the surface. The pump is designed to pull the oil-gas mixture from the reservoir pool into the lower section of the working barrel on the downward stroke, and to subsequently pump the collected oil through the barrel and tubing upwardly toward the surface on the upward stroke.

  5. Fuel injection pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, P.

    1985-04-02

    A fuel injection pump of the rotary distributor type includes a cam actuated plunger housing in a bore and an adjustable fuel control member which varies the amount of fuel supplied to the bore. The pump also includes a timing piston connected to the cam, the piston being biased by a spring against the action of fuel under pressure. In order to vary the timing under certain conditions a control piston serves as an abutment for the spring and the application of pressure to the control piston is controlled by a valve which has a valve element coupled to a throttle member of the pump the valve having a housing which is secured on the exterior of the pump.

  6. High efficiency centrifugal pump

    SciTech Connect

    Nasvytis, P.J.; Jahrstorfer, G.W.

    1983-10-11

    A high speed fuel pump for a gas turnbine engine has a positively-driven shroud positioned between a main impeller and the wall of a pumping cavity to reduce impeller drag. The shroud is formed by a first disc having a boost impeller connected to its central hub portion and a second disc having a gear carried by its central hub portion. The main drive shaft assembly to which the main impeller is connected, carries a gear which meshes with gear mounted upon a shaft. The shaft also carries a gear which meshes with the gear. The gears are sized so that the shroud is driven at one-half the speed of the main impeller in order to maximize impeller drag reduction and enhance pumping capability when severe inlet conditions are present at the pump inlet.

  7. Absorption heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Gershon

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  8. Direct nuclear pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Miley, George H.; Wells, William E.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    1978-01-01

    There is provided a direct nuclear pumped gas laser in which the lasing mechanism is collisional radiated recombination of ions. The gas laser active medium is a mixture of the gases, with one example being neon and nitrogen.

  9. Using a Breast Pump

    MedlinePlus

    ... 15 seconds, then rinse with plenty of warm water. After washing, dry your hands thoroughly with a clean paper towel. You do not need to wash your breasts before you pump unless you have been using a cream, ointment, ...

  10. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. D.; Doherty, T. J.; Kannberg, L. D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-velocity requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more.

  11. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  12. Geothermal irrigation pump

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, H.B.

    1982-04-20

    A deep well pumping apparatus utilizing a geothermal source of energy is disposed within or above a stratum having a cool irrigating fluid, and an associated heat exchange unit is disposed within a stratum having the geothermal source. An organic working fluid is conveyed under pressure through the heat exchange unit and applied as a gas to a turbine assembly operatively coupled to the pump. The spent working fluid and cool irrigation fluid are then conveyed to the surface.

  13. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  14. Axial pumps for propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huppert, M. C.; Rothe, K.

    1974-01-01

    The development of axial flow hydrogen pumps is examined. The design features and the performance data obtained during the course of the development programs are discussed. The problems created by the pump characteristics are analyzed. Graphs of four stage pump performance for various turbine blade configurations are developed. The characteristics and performance of a variety of pumps are included.

  15. The Evolution of Ion Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, Peter C.; Wilson, T. Hastings

    1985-01-01

    Constructs an evolutionary sequence to account for the diversity of ion pumps found today. Explanations include primary ion pumps in bacteria, features and distribution of ATP-driven pumps, preference for cation transport, and proton pump reversal. The integrated evolutionary hypothesis should encourage new experimental approaches. (DH)

  16. Well pump controller

    SciTech Connect

    Pikna, R. G.

    1985-04-02

    A device for automatically controlling the pumping of fluids from a well of the type using a walking beam and positive displacement pump to provide efficient utilization of the pumping equipment and energy required therefor, and to obtain efficient flow rates from the wall. A sensor detects the position of the walking beam at a predetermined position on the up-stroke of its pumping cycle and generates a signal to a control unit. a diaphram detects the pressure differential between the well casing pressure and the fluid delivery tube pressure. The diaphram moves a spring biased plunger which actuates a switch upon a predetermined pressure differential existing between the casing and delivery tube which sends a second signal to the control unit. The control unit upon receiving both signals maintains the pumping unit energizes until the pressure differential on the diaphram drops to a predetermined value preventing the plunger from actuating the switch. The control unit will deenergize the pumping unit if both signals are not received at the appropriate time. The sensitivity of the diaphram actuated switch is adjustable by changing the biasing force of the spring on the plunger.

  17. Pumping a playground swing.

    PubMed

    Post, Auke A; de Groot, Gert; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Beek, Peter J

    2007-04-01

    In mechanical studies of pumping a playground swing, two methods of energy insertion have been identified: parametric pumping and driven oscillation. While parametric pumping involves the systematic raising and lowering of the swinger's center of mass (CM) along the swing's radial axis (rope), driven oscillation may be conceived as rotation of the CM around a pivot point at a fixed distance to the point of suspension. We examined the relative contributions of those two methods of energy insertion by inviting 18 participants to pump a swing from standstill and by measuring and analyzing the swing-swinger system (defined by eight markers) in the sagittal plane. Overall, driven oscillation was found to play a major role and parametric pumping a subordinate role, although the relative contribution of driven oscillation decreased as swinging amplitude increased, whereas that of parametric pumping increased slightly. Principal component analysis revealed that the coordination pattern of the swing-swinger system was largely determined (up to 95%) by the swing's motion, while correlation analysis revealed that (within the remaining 5% of variance) trunk and leg rotations were strongly coupled.

  18. Lunar base heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Jeffrey H.; Tetreault, R.; Fischbach, D.; Walker, D.

    1994-01-01

    A heat pump is a device which elevates the temperature of a heat flow by a means of an energy input. By doing this, the heat pump can cause heat to transfer faster from a warm region to a cool region, or it can cause heat to flow from a cool region to a warmer region. The second case is the one which finds vast commercial applications such as air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration. Aerospace applications of heat pumps include both cases. The NASA Johnson Space Center is currently developing a Life Support Systems Integration Facility (LSSIF, previously SIRF) to provide system-level integration, operational test experience, and performance data that will enable NASA to develop flight-certified hardware for future planetary missions. A high lift heat pump is a significant part of the TCS hardware development associated with the LSSIF. The high lift heat pump program discussed here is being performed in three phases. In Phase 1, the objective is to develop heat pump concepts for a lunar base, a lunar lander, and for a ground development unit for the SIRF. In Phase 2, the design of the SIRF ground test unit is being performed, including identification and evaluation of safety and reliability issues. In Phase 3, the SIRF unit will be manufactured, tested, and delivered to the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  19. Satellite Propellant Pump Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Veres, Joseph P.; Hah, Chunill; Nerone, Anthony L.; Cunningham, Cameron C.; Kraft, Thomas G.; Tavernelli, Paul F.; Fraser, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    NASA Glenn initiated a satellite propellant pump technology demonstration program. The goal was to demonstrate the technologies for a 60 percent efficient pump at 1 gpm flow rate and 500 psia pressure rise. The pump design and analysis used the in-house developed computer codes named PUMPA and HPUMP3D. The requirements lead to a 4-stage impeller type pump design with a tip diameter of 0.54 inches and a rotational speed of 57,000 rpm. Analyses indicated that flow cavitation was not a problem in the design. Since the flow was incompressible, the stages were identical. Only the 2-stage pump was designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested for demonstration. Water was selected as the surrogate fluid for hydrazine in this program. Complete mechanical design including stress and dynamic analyses were conducted. The pump was driven by an electric motor directly coupled to the impellers. Runs up to 57,000 rpm were conducted, where a pressure rise of 200 psia at a flow rate of 0.8 gpm was measured to validate the design effort.

  20. Rotary blood pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor); Kiris, Cetin (Inventor); Kwak, Dochan (Inventor); Rosenbaum, Bernard J. (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); DeBakey, Michael E. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A blood pump that comprises a pump housing having a blood flow path therethrough, a blood inlet, and a blood outlet; a stator mounted to the pump housing, the stator having a stator field winding for producing a stator magnetic field; a flow straightener located within the pump housing, and comprising a flow straightener hub and at least one flow straightener blade attached to the flow straightener hub; a rotor mounted within the pump housing for rotation in response to the stator magnetic field, the rotor comprising an inducer and an impeller; the inducer being located downstream of the flow straightener, and comprising an inducer hub and at least one inducer blade attached to the inducer hub; the impeller being located downstream of the inducer, and comprising an impeller hub and at least one impeller blade attached to the impeller hub; and preferably also comprising a diffuser downstream of the impeller, the diffuser comprising a diffuser hub and at least one diffuser blade. Blood flow stagnation and clot formation within the pump are minimized by, among other things, providing the inducer hub with a diameter greater than the diameter of the flow straightener hub; by optimizing the axial spacing between the flow straightener hub and the inducer hub, and between the impeller hub and the diffuser hub; by optimizing the inlet angle of the diffuser blades; and by providing fillets or curved transitions between the upstream end of the inducer hub and the shaft mounted therein, and between the impeller hub and the shaft mounted therein.

  1. Regulation of PKC Mediated Signaling by Calcium during Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Nivedita; Chakraborty, Supriya; Paul Chowdhury, Bidisha; Banerjee, Sayantan; Halder, Kuntal; Majumder, Saikat; Majumdar, Subrata; Sen, Parimal C.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium is an ubiquitous cellular signaling molecule that controls a variety of cellular processes and is strictly maintained in the cellular compartments by the coordination of various Ca2+ pumps and channels. Two such fundamental calcium pumps are plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) and Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) which play a pivotal role in maintaining intracellular calcium homeostasis. This intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis is often disturbed by the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, the causative organism of visceral leishmaniasis. In the present study we have dileneated the involvement of PMCA4 and SERCA3 during leishmaniasis. We have observed that during leishmaniasis, intracellular Ca2+ concentration was up-regulated and was further controlled by both PMCA4 and SERCA3. Inhibition of these two Ca2+-ATPases resulted in decreased parasite burden within the host macrophages due to enhanced intracellular Ca2+. Contrastingly, on the other hand, activation of PMCA4 was found to enhance the parasite burden. Our findings also highlighted the importance of Ca2+ in the modulation of cytokine balance during leishmaniasis. These results thus cumulatively suggests that these two Ca2+-ATPases play prominent roles during visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:25329062

  2. Pumping system for oil production

    SciTech Connect

    Yamato, I.; Yamata, T.

    1984-05-29

    A pumping system for oil production comprises a hydraulic unit set on the ground and adapted to send out a pressure oil, and a pump unit set in an oil well and adapted to draw up crude oil therefrom. The pump unit comprises a pump cylinder, and a plunger reciprocatingly moved in the pump cylinder. The plunger is provided with a clearance formed between the outer circumferential surface of a lower end portion thereof and the inner circumferential surface of the pump cylinder. The pressure oil supplied from the hydraulic unit is ejected from the clearance along the inner surface of the pump cylinder into a cylinder chamber.

  3. Calcium transport by rat duodenal villus and crypt basolateral membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, J.R.F.; Weiser, M.M.

    1987-02-01

    Rat duodenal cells were isolated sequentially to give fractions enriched for villus and crypt cells. From each of these fractions, basolateral-enriched membrane vesicles were prepared and ATP-dependent calcium uptake was studied. Calcium uptake was sensitive to temperature, was inhibited by vanadate and by A23187, and was lower in vitamin D-deficient animals. In normal animals, (UVCa)-transport was approximately twofold greater in villus-tip than in crypt cell-fraction basolateral membranes though the affinity of the uptake for calcium was similar (K/sub m/ = 0.3 M). In vitamin D-deficient animals, the crypt-to-villus gradient was reduced, and in all fractions, calcium transport was similar to or lower than that in the crypts of normal animals. Six hours after vitamin D-deficient animals were repleted with 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, a significant increase in calcium transport by everted gut sacs was present; however, basolateral calcium transport was significantly increased in only the mid-villus fractions, and no change was seen in the villus-tip fractions. Thus vitamin D appears necessary for the development of increased basolateral membrane calcium pump activity in duodenal villus cells, but not all cells in vitamin D-deficient rats are able to respond to 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol.

  4. Calcium fluoride window mounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, D. Douglas

    1982-10-01

    A technique has been developed for joining a large calcium fluoride crystal to a stainless-steel flange by means of a silver transition ring. The process involves both vacuum brazing using a copper-silver alloy and air brazing using silver chloride. This paper describes the procedure used in fabricating a high-vacuum leak-tight calcium fluoride window assembly.

  5. Calcium and bones (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human body. Bones, like other tissues in the body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the formation of and maintenance of healthy teeth.

  6. Apparatus for pumping subterranean fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, E. H.

    1985-11-19

    An apparatus and method for pumping oil or other fluids from the earth is disclosed as using a submersible pump which is suspended in a hole drilled into the earth by means of a flexible cable. Encased in a flexible sheath with the cable are a power cable for the pump and a flexible hose to carry the oil from the pump to the surface of the earth. Control and signal wires may also be encased in the sheath for connection to transducers mounted on the pump. The pump may be easily inserted into or removed from the hole by using a reeling mechanism on the surface of the earth. The pump itself may comprise a submersible motor connected to a rotary to linear motion transducer that causes a pump barrel to reciprocate. The pump barrel moves over a stationary pump plunger, and there are ball check valves in both the barrel and plunger to control the entrance and exit of oil.

  7. Automatic pump for deep wells

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.D.

    1981-11-24

    An automatic pump for deep wells comprises a long stroke reciprocating pump having its piston normally in its bottom position and an automatic control dependent upon the collection of a predetermined amount of liquid in the pump cylinder above the piston for actuating the piston to pump the liquid into a production line. The automatic control includes an electric motor driven hydraulic pump and a reservoir of hydraulic fluid which is actuated upon filling of the reciprocating pump chamber to supply hydraulic fluid to a closed chamber below the piston and force the piston upwardly to discharge liquid from the pump cylinder. Gas collected in the top of the pump cylinder results in low starting current and a saving of energy. The hydraulic pump is reversed automatically upon completion of the pumping stroke of the piston.

  8. Kidney and calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Un Sil

    2008-12-01

    Plasma calcium concentration is maintained within a narrow range (8.5-10.5 mg/dL) by the coordinated action of parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25(OH)2D3, calcitonin, and ionized calcium (iCa(2+)) itself. The kidney plays a key role in this process by the fine regulation of calcium excretion. More than 95% of filtered calcium is reabsorbed along the renal tubules. In the proximal tubules, 60% of filtered calcium is reabsorbed by passive mechanisms. In the thick ascending limb, 15% of calcium is reabsorbed by paracellular diffusion through paracellin-1 (claudin-16). The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in the basolateral membrane of the thick ascending limb senses the change in iCa(2+) and inhibits calcium reabsorption independent to PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3. The fine regulation of calcium excretion occurs in the distal convoluted tubules and connecting tubules despite the fact that only 10-15% of filtered calcium is reabsorbed there. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 (TRPV5) and 6 (TRPV6) in the apical membrane act as the main portal of entry, calbindin-D28K delivers Ca(2+) in the cytoplasm, and then Na(2+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX1) and plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase in the basolateral membrane serve as an exit. In the cortical collecting duct, TRPV6 is expressed, but the role might be negligible. In addition to PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3, acid-base disturbance, diuretics, and estrogen affect on these calcium channels. Recently, klotho and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) are suggested as new players in the calcium metabolism. Klotho is exclusively expressed in the kidney and co-localized with TRPV5, NCX1, and calbindin-D28K. Klotho increases calcium reabsorption through trafficking of TRPV5 to the plasma membrane, and also converts FGF receptor to the specific FGF23 receptor. FGF23:klotho complex bound to FGF receptor inhibits 1α-hydroxylase of vitamin D, and contributes to calcium reabsorption and phosphate excretion in the kidney.

  9. Well-pump alignment system

    DOEpatents

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1998-10-20

    An improved well-pump for geothermal wells, an alignment system for a well-pump, and to a method for aligning a rotor and stator within a well-pump are disclosed, wherein the well-pump has a whistle assembly formed at a bottom portion thereof, such that variations in the frequency of the whistle, indicating misalignment, may be monitored during pumping. 6 figs.

  10. New slurry pumps in China

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.; Wang, W.; Shi, Z.

    1998-07-01

    Wet parts of centrifugal slurry pumps are naturally subjected to wear, but local wear in pumps could be avoided, at least partly. Through studying the wear phenomenon of slurry pumps in industrial applications, a series of much more advanced slurry pumps was developed in China. Laboratory tests and industrial applications show that the new pumps are high in efficiency when transporting slurries, and uniform wear can be expected from them.

  11. New slurry pumps in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhengwang Li; Wenlie Wang; Zhongyin Shi

    1998-04-01

    Wet parts of centrifugal slurry pumps are naturally subjected to wear, but local wear in pumps could be avoided, at least partly. Through studying the wear phenomenon of slurry pumps in industrial applications, a series of much more advanced slurry pumps was developed in China. Laboratory tests and industrial applications show that the new pumps are high in efficiency when transporting slurries, and uniform wear can be expected from them.

  12. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  13. A Sodium-Pump-Mediated Afterhyperpolarization in Pyramidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Sameera; Onoue, Keita; Stephens, Emily K.; Hasse, J. Michael; Avesar, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The sodium-potassium ATPase (i.e., the “sodium pump”) plays a central role in maintaining ionic homeostasis in all cells. Although the sodium pump is intrinsically electrogenic and responsive to dynamic changes in intracellular sodium concentration, its role in regulating neuronal excitability remains unclear. Here we describe a physiological role for the sodium pump in regulating the excitability of mouse neocortical layer 5 and hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Trains of action potentials produced long-lasting (∼20 s) afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) that were insensitive to blockade of voltage-gated calcium channels or chelation of intracellular calcium, but were blocked by tetrodotoxin, ouabain, or the removal of extracellular potassium. Correspondingly, the AHP time course was similar to the decay of activity-induced increases in intracellular sodium, whereas intracellular calcium decayed at much faster rates. To determine whether physiological patterns of activity engage the sodium pump, we replayed in vitro a place-specific burst of 15 action potentials recorded originally in vivo in a CA1 “place cell” as the animal traversed the associated place field. In both layer 5 and CA1 pyramidal neurons, this “place cell train” generated small, long-lasting AHPs capable of reducing neuronal excitability for many seconds. Place-cell-train-induced AHPs were blocked by ouabain or removal of extracellular potassium, but not by intracellular calcium chelation. Finally, we found calcium contributions to the AHP to be temperature dependent: prominent at room temperature, but largely absent at 35°C. Our results demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for the sodium-potassium ATPase in regulating the excitability of neocortical and hippocampal pyramidal neurons. PMID:23926257

  14. Combined retrograde labeling and calcium imaging in spinal cord and brainstem neurons of the lamprey.

    PubMed

    McClellan, A D; McPherson, D; O'Donovan, M J

    1994-11-07

    Neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord of the lamprey were retrogradely labeled with Calcium Green-dextran, an indicator dye that increases its fluorescence when intracellular calcium levels increase. Optical signals could be recorded from these labeled neurons during spinal cord stimulation, nerve stimulation, or spontaneous activity, up to 4 days after dye application and for distances of 5-14 mm away from the application site. Optical signals were enhanced by 4-AP, a potassium channel blocker, and blocked by cadmium, a calcium channel blocker. Taken together, the results suggest that the optical signals recorded from labeled neurons were due to calcium influx during electrical activity. Thus, retrograde labeling with calcium indicator dyes may provide a general purpose method for simultaneously monitoring the activity-related changes of intracellular calcium in anatomically identified groups of neurons in the lamprey nervous system.

  15. Reductions in calcium uptake induced in rat brain synaptosomes by ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Howerton, T.C.; Hunt, W.A. )

    1991-02-01

    Gamma irradiation (60Co) reduced KCl-stimulated voltage-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake in whole-brain, cortical, and striatal synaptosomes. The time course (3, 10, 30, and 60 s) of calcium uptake by irradiated (3 Gy) and nonirradiated synaptosomes, as well as the effect of KCl (15-65 mM), was measured in whole-brain synaptosomes. The fastest and highest rate of depolarization-dependent calcium uptake occurred at 3 s with 65 mM KCl. Irradiation reduced calcium uptake at all incubation times and KCl concentrations. Bay K 8644 enhancement of KCl-stimulated calcium influx was also reduced by radiation exposure. Nimodipine binding to dihydropyridine (DHP) L-type calcium channel receptors was not altered following radiation exposure. These results demonstrate an inhibitory effect of ionizing radiation on the voltage-sensitive calcium channels in rat brain synaptosomes that are not mediated by DHP receptors.

  16. Design and mechanistic insight into ultrafast calcium indicators for monitoring intracellular calcium dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Helassa, Nordine; Podor, Borbala; Fine, Alan; Török, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    Calmodulin-based genetically encoded fluorescent calcium indicators (GCaMP-s) are powerful tools of imaging calcium dynamics from cells to freely moving animals. High affinity indicators with slow kinetics however distort the temporal profile of calcium transients. Here we report the development of reduced affinity ultrafast variants of GCaMP6s and GCaMP6f. We hypothesized that GCaMP-s have a common kinetic mechanism with a rate-limiting process in the interaction of the RS20 peptide and calcium-calmodulin. Therefore we targeted specific residues in the binding interface by rational design generating improved indicators with GCaMP6fu displaying fluorescence rise and decay times (t1/2) of 1 and 3 ms (37 °C) in vitro, 9 and 22-fold faster than GCaMP6f respectively. In HEK293T cells, GCaMP6fu revealed a 4-fold faster decay of ATP-evoked intracellular calcium transients than GCaMP6f. Stimulation of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons with five action potentials fired at 100 Hz resulted in a single dendritic calcium transient with a 2-fold faster rise and 7-fold faster decay time (t1/2 of 40 ms) than GCaMP6f, indicating that tracking high frequency action potentials may be limited by calcium dynamics. We propose that the design strategy used for generating GCaMP6fu is applicable for the acceleration of the response kinetics of GCaMP-type calcium indicators. PMID:27922063

  17. Plasmon-enhanced stimulated emission of chromene dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliverstova, E. V.; Ibrayev, N. Kh

    2016-08-01

    Effect of silver nanoparticles on spontaneous and stimulated emission of chromene- 3 in ethanol solution is studied. It is established, that upon laser photoexcitation of solution the spontaneous fluorescence is observed, which with increasing of pumping energy transforms in stimulated emission. The increasing of fluorescence, stimulated emission and lasing threshold was observed upon addition of silver nanoparticles. The dependence of intensity of lasing of silver concentration correlates with data of fluorescence.

  18. Fluid pumping system

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, R.T.; Gerlach, C.R.

    1986-05-13

    A fluid pumping system is described for use with a natural gas dehydrating system or the like having an absorber apparatus for removing water from wet natural gas to produce dry natural gas by use of a dessicant agent such as glycol, and a glycol treater apparatus for producing a source of dry glycol from wet glycol received from the absorber apparatus. The system consists of: a fluid pump means operatively connected between dry glycol source and absorber apparatus for pumping dry glycol from the dry glycol source to the absorber apparatus; a fluid operable piston motor means operatively associated with the pump means for driving the pump means and having fluid inlet passage means for receiving wet glycol from the absorber and fluid outlet passage means for delivering wet glycol to the glycol reboiler means wherein energy derived from the flow of fluid passing through the fluid inlet passage means provides the entire motivating force for the motor means and the pump means; the fluid pump means comprising a first pair of equal diameter chamber portion of a double acting piston means having a piston rod with two oppositely positioned piston heads at terminal ends thereof received within two oppositely positioned cylinders mounted on a fixed central body which slidably supports the piston rod; the fluid operable motor means comprising a second pair of equal diameter chamber portions of the double acting piston means; the effective areas of outwardly directed faces of the piston heads being substantially greater than the effective areas of inwardly directed faces of the piston heads; and a wet glycol passage shifting means associated with the fluid motor means for automatically changing the porting of the fluid motor means at the end of a piston stroke for producing reciprocal piston motion in the fluid motor means including toggle means actuated by the piston rod.

  19. Dynamic modulation of spike timing-dependent calcium influx during corticostriatal upstates

    PubMed Central

    Evans, R. C.; Maniar, Y. M.

    2013-01-01

    The striatum of the basal ganglia demonstrates distinctive upstate and downstate membrane potential oscillations during slow-wave sleep and under anesthetic. The upstates generate calcium transients in the dendrites, and the amplitude of these calcium transients depends strongly on the timing of the action potential (AP) within the upstate. Calcium is essential for synaptic plasticity in the striatum, and these large calcium transients during the upstates may control which synapses undergo plastic changes. To investigate the mechanisms that underlie the relationship between calcium and AP timing, we have developed a realistic biophysical model of a medium spiny neuron (MSN). We have implemented sophisticated calcium dynamics including calcium diffusion, buffering, and pump extrusion, which accurately replicate published data. Using this model, we found that either the slow inactivation of dendritic sodium channels (NaSI) or the calcium inactivation of voltage-gated calcium channels (CDI) can cause high calcium corresponding to early APs and lower calcium corresponding to later APs. We found that only CDI can account for the experimental observation that sensitivity to AP timing is dependent on NMDA receptors. Additional simulations demonstrated a mechanism by which MSNs can dynamically modulate their sensitivity to AP timing and show that sensitivity to specifically timed pre- and postsynaptic pairings (as in spike timing-dependent plasticity protocols) is altered by the timing of the pairing within the upstate. These findings have implications for synaptic plasticity in vivo during sleep when the upstate-downstate pattern is prominent in the striatum. PMID:23843436

  20. Mobilization of hepatic calcium pools by platelet activating factor

    SciTech Connect

    Lapointe, D.S.; Hanahan, D.J.; Olson, M.S.

    1987-03-24

    In the perfused rat liver, platelet activating factor, 1-O-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (AGEPC), infusion produces an extensive but transient glycogenolytic response which at low AGEPC concentrations is markedly dependent upon the perfusate calcium levels. The role of calcium in the glycogenolytic response of the liver to AGEPC was investigated by assessing the effect of AGEPC on various calcium pools in the intact liver. Livers from fed rats were equilibrated with /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/, and the kinetics of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux were determined in control, AGEPC-stimulated, and phenylephrine-stimulated livers during steady-state washout of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/. AGEPC treatment had only a slight if any effect on the pattern of steady-state calcium efflux from the liver, as opposed to major perturbations in the pattern of calcium efflux effected by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine. Infusion of short pulses of AGEPC during the washout of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ from labeled livers caused a transient release of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ which was not abolished at low calcium concentrations in the perfusate. Infusion of latex beads, which are removed by the reticuloendothelial cells, caused the release of hepatic /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ in a fashion similar to the case with AGEPC. The findings indicate that AGEPC does not perturb a major pool of calcium within the liver as occurs upon ..cap alpha..-adrenergic stimulation; it is likely that AGEPC mobilizes calcium from a smaller yet very important pool, very possibly from nonparenchymal cells in the liver.