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Sample records for calcium sensor ncs

  1. Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1 (Ncs1p) Is Up-regulated by Calcineurin to Promote Ca2+ Tolerance in Fission Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki-Katagiri, Nobuko; Ames, James B.

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) proteins regulate signal transduction and are highly conserved from yeast to humans. NCS homolog in fission yeast (Ncs1p) is essential for cell growth under extreme Ca2+ conditions. Ncs1p expression increases ∼100-fold when fission yeast grows in high extracellular Ca2+ (>0.1 m). Here, we show that Ca2+-induced expression of Ncs1p is controlled at the level of transcription. Transcriptional reporter assays show that ncs1 promoter activity increased 30-fold when extracellular Ca2+ was raised to 0.1 m and was highly Ca2+-specific. Ca2+-dependent transcription of ncs1 is abolished by the calcineurin inhibitor (FK506) and by knocking out the calcineurin target, prz1. Thus, Ca2+-induced expression of Ncs1p is linked to the calcineurin/prz1 stress response. The Ca2+-responsive ncs1 promoter region consists of 130 nucleotides directly upstream from the start codon and contains tandem repeats of the sequence, 5′-caact-3′, that binds to Prz1p. The Ca2+-sensitive ncs1Δ phenotype is rescued by a yam8 null mutation, suggesting a possible interaction between Ncs1p and the Ca2+ channel, Yam8p. Ca2+ uptake and Ncs1p binding to yeast membranes are both decreased in yam8Δ, suggesting Ca2+-induced binding of Ncs1p to Yam8p results in channel closure. We propose that Ncs1p promotes Ca2+ tolerance in fission yeast, in part by cytosolic Ca2+ buffering and perhaps by negatively regulating the Yam8p Ca2+ channel. PMID:20018864

  2. NCS-1 differentially regulates growth cone and somata calcium channels in Lymnaea neurons.

    PubMed

    Hui, Kwokyin; Feng, Zhong-Ping

    2008-02-01

    Local voltage-gated calcium channels, which regulate intracellular Ca2+ levels by allowing Ca2+ influx, play an important role in guiding and shaping growth cones, and in regulating the outgrowth and branching of neurites. Therefore, elucidating the mechanisms that regulate the biophysical properties of whole-cell calcium currents in the growth cones and somata of growing neurons is important to improving our understanding of neuronal development and regeneration. In this study, taking advantage of the large size of the pedal A (PeA) neurons in Lymnaea stagnalis, we compared the biophysical properties of somata and growth cone whole-cell calcium channel currents using Ba2+ and Ca2+ as current carriers. We found that somata and growth cone currents exhibit similar high-voltage activation properties. However, Ba2+ and Ca2+ currents in growth cones and somata are differentially affected by a dominant-negative peptide containing the C-terminal amino acid sequence of neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1). The peptide selectively reduces the peak and sustained components of current densities and the slope conductance in growth cones, and shifts the reversal potential of the growth cone currents to more hyperpolarized voltages. In contrast, the peptide had no significant effect on the somata calcium channels. Thus, we conclude that NCS-1 differentially modulates Ca2+ currents in the somata and growth cones of regenerating neurons, and may serve as a key regulator to facilitate the growth cone calcium channel activity.

  3. Neuronal Calcium Sensor 1 Has Two Variants with Distinct Calcium Binding Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baisheng; Boeckel, Göran R.; Huynh, Larry; Nguyen, Lien; Cao, Wenxiang; De La Cruz, Enrique M.; Kaftan, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1 Var1) is a calcium-binding protein expressed in most tissues. We examined a poorly characterized variant of NCS-1 (Var2), identified only in humans where the N-terminal 22 amino acid residues of native NCS-1(MGKSNSKLKPEVVEELTRKTY) were replaced with 4 different residues (MATI). Because alterations in the level of expression of NCS-1 Var1 and the expression of NCS-1 variants have been correlated with several neurological diseases, the relative expression and functional role of NCS-1 Var2 was examined. We found that NCS-1 Var2 mRNA levels are not found in mouse tissues and are expressed at levels ~1000-fold lower than NCS-1 Var1 in three different human cell lines (SHSY5Y, HEK293, MB231). Protein expression of both variants was only identified in cell lines overexpressing exogenous NCS-1 Var2. The calcium binding affinity is ~100 times weaker in purified NCS-1 Var2 than NCS-1 Var1. Because truncation of NCS-1 Var1 has been linked to functional changes in neurons, we determined whether the differing properties of the NCS-1 variants could potentially contribute to the altered cell function. In contrast to previous reports showing that overexpression of NCS-1 Var1 increases calcium-dependent processes, functional differences in cells overexpressing NCS-1 Var2 were undetectable in assays for cell growth, cell death and drug (paclitaxel) potency. Our results suggest that NCS-1 Var1 is the primary functional version of NCS-1. PMID:27575489

  4. Understanding the physiological roles of the neuronal calcium sensor proteins

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Calcium signalling plays a crucial role in the control of neuronal function and plasticity. Changes in neuronal Ca2+ concentration are detected by Ca2+-binding proteins that can interact with and regulate target proteins to modify their function. Members of the neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) protein family have multiple non-redundant roles in the nervous system. Here we review recent advances in the understanding of the physiological roles of the NCS proteins and the molecular basis for their specificity. PMID:22269068

  5. Role of neuronal calcium sensor-1 in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tomoe Y; Wakabayashi, Shigeo

    2012-01-01

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) is an important intracellular messenger, regulating myocyte contraction via excitation-contraction (EC) coupling and gene transcription underlying hypertrophy in the heart. Although the mechanisms of EC coupling in the immature heart are believed to be different from those in the adult heart because of the structural immaturity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the young heart, the details of these mechanisms are not completely understood. Neuronal Ca(2+) sensor-1 (NCS-1) is an EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding protein that is highly expressed in young hearts; however, little is known about its cardiac functions. In this review, we summarize our recent findings indicating that NCS-1 acts as a novel regulator enhancing Ca(2+) signals in the heart and hence promoting contraction in the immature heart and hypertrophy in the adult heart. Possible signal transduction pathways are also discussed.

  6. Possible Signaling Pathways Mediating Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1-Dependent Spatial Learning and Memory in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tomoe Y.; Nakao, Shu; Nakajo, Yukako; Takahashi, Jun C.; Wakabayashi, Shigeo; Yanamoto, Hiroji

    2017-01-01

    Intracellular Ca2+ signaling regulates diverse functions of the nervous system. Many of these neuronal functions, including learning and memory, are regulated by neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1). However, the pathways by which NCS-1 regulates these functions remain poorly understood. Consistent with the findings of previous reports, we revealed that NCS-1 deficient (Ncs1-/-) mice exhibit impaired spatial learning and memory function in the Morris water maze test, although there was little change in their exercise activity, as determined via treadmill-analysis. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; a key regulator of memory function) and dopamine was significantly reduced in the Ncs1-/- mouse brain, without changes in the levels of glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor or nerve growth factor. Although there were no gross structural abnormalities in the hippocampi of Ncs1-/- mice, electron microscopy analysis revealed that the density of large dense core vesicles in CA1 presynaptic neurons, which release BDNF and dopamine, was decreased. Phosphorylation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-α (CaMKII-α, which is known to trigger long-term potentiation and increase BDNF levels, was significantly reduced in the Ncs1-/- mouse brain. Furthermore, high voltage electric potential stimulation, which increases the levels of BDNF and promotes spatial learning, significantly increased the levels of NCS-1 concomitant with phosphorylated CaMKII-α in the hippocampus; suggesting a close relationship between NCS-1 and CaMKII-α. Our findings indicate that NCS-1 may regulate spatial learning and memory function at least in part through activation of CaMKII-α signaling, which may directly or indirectly increase BDNF production. PMID:28122057

  7. Modulation of gamma oscillations in the pedunculopontine nucleus by neuronal calcium sensor protein-1: relevance to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    D'Onofrio, Stasia; Kezunovic, Nebojsa; Hyde, James R.; Luster, Brennon; Messias, Erick; Urbano, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced levels of gamma-band activity are present in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients. In the same disorders, increased neuronal calcium sensor protein-1 (NCS-1) expression was reported in a series of postmortem studies. These disorders are also characterized by sleep dysregulation, suggesting a role for the reticular activating system (RAS). The discovery of gamma-band activity in the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), the cholinergic arm of the RAS, revealed that such activity was mediated by high-threshold calcium channels that are regulated by NCS-1. We hypothesized that NCS-1 normally regulates gamma-band oscillations through these calcium channels and that excessive levels of NCS-1, such as would be expected with overexpression, decrease gamma-band activity. We found that PPN neurons in rat brain slices manifested gamma-band oscillations that were increased by low levels of NCS-1 but suppressed by high levels of NCS-1. Our results suggest that NCS-1 overexpression may be responsible for the decrease in gamma-band activity present in at least some schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients. PMID:25376789

  8. Structural and functional deficits in a neuronal calcium sensor-1 mutant identified in a case of autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Handley, Mark T W; Lian, Lu-Yun; Haynes, Lee P; Burgoyne, Robert D

    2010-05-07

    Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) is a Ca(2+) sensor protein that has been implicated in the regulation of various aspects of neuronal development and neurotransmission. It exerts its effects through interactions with a range of target proteins one of which is interleukin receptor accessory protein like-1 (IL1RAPL1) protein. Mutations in IL1RAPL1 have recently been associated with autism spectrum disorders and a missense mutation (R102Q) on NCS-1 has been found in one individual with autism. We have examined the effect of this mutation on the structure and function of NCS-1. From use of NMR spectroscopy, it appeared that the R102Q affected the structure of the protein particularly with an increase in the extent of conformational exchange in the C-terminus of the protein. Despite this change NCS-1(R102Q) did not show changes in its affinity for Ca(2+) or binding to IL1RAPL1 and its intracellular localisation was unaffected. Assessment of NCS-1 dynamics indicated that it could rapidly cycle between cytosolic and membrane pools and that the cycling onto the plasma membrane was specifically changed in NCS-1(R102Q) with the loss of a Ca(2+) -dependent component. From these data we speculate that impairment of the normal cycling of NCS-1 by the R102Q mutation could have subtle effects on neuronal signalling and physiology in the developing and adult brain.

  9. Interaction of ARF-1.1 and neuronal calcium sensor-1 in the control of the temperature-dependency of locomotion in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Paul A. C.; McCue, Hannah V.; Haynes, Lee P.; Barclay, Jeff W.; Burgoyne, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) mediates changes in cellular function by regulating various target proteins. Many potential targets have been identified but the physiological significance of only a few has been established. Upon temperature elevation, Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits reversible paralysis. In the absence of NCS-1, worms show delayed onset and a shorter duration of paralysis. This phenotype can be rescued by re-expression of ncs-1 in AIY neurons. Mutants with defects in four potential NCS-1 targets (arf-1.1, pifk-1, trp-1 and trp-2) showed qualitatively similar phenotypes to ncs-1 null worms, although the effect of pifk-1 mutation on time to paralysis was considerably delayed. Inhibition of pifk-1 also resulted in a locomotion phenotype. Analysis of double mutants showed no additive effects between mutations in ncs-1 and trp-1 or trp-2. In contrast, double mutants of arf-1.1 and ncs-1 had an intermediate phenotype, consistent with NCS-1 and ARF-1.1 acting in the same pathway. Over-expression of arf-1.1 in the AIY neurons was sufficient to rescue partially the phenotype of both the arf-1.1 and the ncs-1 null worms. These findings suggest that ARF-1.1 interacts with NCS-1 in AIY neurons and potentially pifk-1 in the Ca2+ signaling pathway that leads to inhibited locomotion at an elevated temperature. PMID:27435667

  10. The structure of neuronal calcium sensor-1 in solution revealed by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, Luca; Corni, Stefano; Di Felice, Rosa; Paci, Emanuele

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) is a protein able to trigger signal transduction processes by binding a large number of substrates and re-shaping its structure depending on the environmental conditions. The X-ray crystal structure of the unmyristoilated NCS-1 shows a large solvent-exposed hydrophobic crevice (HC); this HC is partially occupied by the C-terminal tail and thus elusive to the surrounding solvent. We studied the native state of NCS-1 by performing room temperature molecular dynamics (MD) simulations starting from the crystal and the solution structures. We observe relaxation to a state independent of the initial structure, in which the C-terminal tail occupies the HC. We suggest that the C-terminal tail shields the HC binding pocket and modulates the affinity of NCS-1 for its natural targets. By analyzing the topology and nature of the inter-residue potential energy, we provide a compelling description of the interaction network that determines the three-dimensional organization of NCS-1.

  11. Single-Molecule Folding Mechanisms of the apo- and Mg2+-Bound States of Human Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Mohsin M.; Heidarsson, Pétur O.; Otazo, Mariela R.; Mossa, Alessandro; Kragelund, Birthe B.; Cecconi, Ciro

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) is the primordial member of a family of proteins responsible primarily for sensing changes in neuronal Ca2+ concentration. NCS-1 is a multispecific protein interacting with a number of binding partners in both calcium-dependent and independent manners, and acting in a variety of cellular processes in which it has been linked to a number of disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. Despite extensive studies on the Ca2+-activated state of NCS proteins, little is known about the conformational dynamics of the Mg2+-bound and apo states, both of which are populated, at least transiently, at resting Ca2+ conditions. Here, we used optical tweezers to study the folding behavior of individual NCS-1 molecules in the presence of Mg2+ and in the absence of divalent ions. Under tension, the Mg2+-bound state of NCS-1 unfolds and refolds in a three-state process by populating one intermediate state consisting of a folded C-domain and an unfolded N-domain. The interconversion at equilibrium between the different molecular states populated by NCS-1 was monitored in real time through constant-force measurements and the energy landscapes underlying the observed transitions were reconstructed through hidden Markov model analysis. Unlike what has been observed with the Ca2+-bound state, the presence of Mg2+ allows both the N- and C-domain to fold through all-or-none transitions with similar refolding rates. In the absence of divalent ions, NCS-1 unfolds and refolds reversibly in a two-state reaction involving only the C-domain, whereas the N-domain has no detectable transitions. Overall, the results allowed us to trace the progression of NCS-1 folding along its energy landscapes and provided a solid platform for understanding the conformational dynamics of similar EF-hand proteins. PMID:26153708

  12. Identification of critical amino acid residues and functional conservation of the Neurospora crassa and Rattus norvegicus orthologues of neuronal calcium sensor-1.

    PubMed

    Gohain, Dibakar; Deka, Rekha; Tamuli, Ranjan

    2016-12-01

    Neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) is a member of neuronal calcium sensor family of proteins consisting of an amino terminal myristoylation domain and four conserved calcium (Ca(2+)) binding EF-hand domains. We performed site-directed mutational analysis of three key amino acid residues that are glycine in the conserved site for the N-terminal myristoylation, a conserved glutamic acid residue responsible for Ca(2+) binding in the third EF-hand (EF3), and an unusual non-conserved amino acid arginine at position 175 in the Neurospora crassa NCS-1. The N. crassa strains possessing the ncs-1 mutant allele of these three amino acid residues showed impairment in functions ranging from growth, Ca(2+) stress tolerance, and ultraviolet survival. In addition, heterologous expression of the NCS-1 from Rattus norvegicus in N. crassa confirmed its interspecies functional conservation. Moreover, functions of glutamic acid at position 120, the first Ca(2+) binding residue among all the EF-hands of the R. norvegicus NCS-1 was found conserved. Thus, we identified three critical amino acid residues of N. crassa NCS-1, and demonstrated its functional conservation across species using the orthologue from R. norvegicus.

  13. Genetically encoded sensors for calcium and zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Amy E.; Dittmer, Philip; McCombs, Janet E.

    2008-02-01

    Our lab focuses on developing fluorescent biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) so that we can monitor signaling ions in living cells. These sensors are comprised of two fluorescent proteins and a sensing domain that undergoes a conformational change upon binding the target ligand. These sensors can be genetically encoded and hence incorporated into cells by transgenic technologies. Here we discuss the latest developments in our efforts to reengineer calcium sensors as well as develop new sensors for zinc. In these efforts we employ a combination of naturally occurring calcium and zinc binding domains, combined with protein engineering. We are also developing new methodologies to screen and sort sensor libraries using optically-integrated microfluidic devices. Thus far, we have targeted sensors to the ER, mitochondria, Golgi, nucleus, and plasma membrane in order to examine the spatial heterogeneity and localization of signaling processes.

  14. Fast Kinetics of Calcium Signaling and Sensor Design

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shen; Reddish, Florence; Zhuo, You; Yang, Jenny J.

    2015-01-01

    Fast calcium signaling is regulated by numerous calcium channels exhibiting high spatiotemporal profiles which are currently measured by fluorescent calcium sensors. There is still a strong need to improve the kinetics of genetically encoded calcium indicators (sensors) to capture calcium dynamics in the millisecond time frame. In this review, we summarize several major fast calcium signaling pathways and discuss the recent developments and application of genetically encoded calcium indicators to detect these pathways. A new class of genetically encoded calcium indicators designed with site-directed mutagenesis on the surface of beta-barrel fluorescent proteins to form a pentagonal bipyramidal-like calcium binding domain dramatically accelerates calcium binding kinetics. Furthermore, novel genetically encoded calcium indicators with significantly increased fluorescent lifetime change are advantageous in deep-field imaging with high light-scattering and notable morphology change. PMID:26151819

  15. Interference of the complex between NCS-1 and Ric8a with phenothiazines regulates synaptic function and is an approach for fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mansilla, Alicia; Chaves-Sanjuan, Antonio; Campillo, Nuria E; Semelidou, Ourania; Martínez-González, Loreto; Infantes, Lourdes; González-Rubio, Juana María; Gil, Carmen; Conde, Santiago; Skoulakis, Efthimios M C; Ferrús, Alberto; Martínez, Ana; Sánchez-Barrena, María José

    2017-02-07

    The protein complex formed by the Ca(2+) sensor neuronal calcium sensor 1 (NCS-1) and the guanine exchange factor protein Ric8a coregulates synapse number and probability of neurotransmitter release, emerging as a potential therapeutic target for diseases affecting synapses, such as fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common heritable autism disorder. Using crystallographic data and the virtual screening of a chemical library, we identified a set of heterocyclic small molecules as potential inhibitors of the NCS-1/Ric8a interaction. The aminophenothiazine FD44 interferes with NCS-1/Ric8a binding, and it restores normal synapse number and associative learning in a Drosophila FXS model. The synaptic effects elicited by FD44 feeding are consistent with the genetic manipulation of NCS-1. The crystal structure of NCS-1 bound to FD44 and the structure-function studies performed with structurally close analogs explain the FD44 specificity and the mechanism of inhibition, in which the small molecule stabilizes a mobile C-terminal helix inside a hydrophobic crevice of NCS-1 to impede Ric8a interaction. Our study shows the drugability of the NCS-1/Ric8a interface and uncovers a suitable region in NCS-1 for development of additional drugs of potential use on FXS and related synaptic disorders.

  16. NCS-1 in the dentate gyrus promotes exploration, synaptic plasticity, and rapid acquisition of spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Saab, Bechara J; Georgiou, John; Nath, Arup; Lee, Frank J S; Wang, Min; Michalon, Aubin; Liu, Fang; Mansuy, Isabelle M; Roder, John C

    2009-09-10

    The molecular underpinnings of exploration and its link to learning and memory remain poorly understood. Here we show that inducible, modest overexpression of neuronal calcium sensor 1 (Ncs1) selectively in the adult murine dentate gyrus (DG) promotes a specific form of exploratory behavior. The mice also display a selective facilitation of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the medial perforant path and a selective enhancement in rapid-acquisition spatial memory, phenotypes that are reversed by direct application of a cell-permeant peptide (DNIP) designed to interfere with NCS-1 binding to the dopamine type-2 receptor (D2R). Moreover, the DNIP and the D2R-selective antagonist L-741,626 attenuated exploratory behavior, DG LTP, and spatial memory in control mice. These data demonstrate a role for NCS-1 and D2R in DG plasticity and provide insight for understanding how the DG contributes to the origin of exploration and spatial memory acquisition.

  17. Network Characterization Service (NCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Guojun; Yang, George; Crowley, Brian; Agarwal, Deborah

    2001-06-06

    Distributed applications require information to effectively utilize the network. Some of the information they require is the current and maximum bandwidth, current and minimum latency, bottlenecks, burst frequency, and congestion extent. This type of information allows applications to determine parameters like optimal TCP buffer size. In this paper, we present a cooperative information-gathering tool called the network characterization service (NCS). NCS runs in user space and is used to acquire network information. Its protocol is designed for scalable and distributed deployment, similar to DNS. Its algorithms provide efficient, speedy and accurate detection of bottlenecks, especially dynamic bottlenecks. On current and future networks, dynamic bottlenecks do and will affect network performance dramatically.

  18. Self-directed exploration provides a Ncs1-dependent learning bonus.

    PubMed

    Mun, Ho-Suk; Saab, Bechara J; Ng, Enoch; McGirr, Alexander; Lipina, Tatiana V; Gondo, Yoichi; Georgiou, John; Roder, John C

    2015-12-07

    Understanding the mechanisms of memory formation is fundamental to establishing optimal educational practices and restoring cognitive function in brain disease. Here, we show for the first time in a non-primate species, that spatial learning receives a special bonus from self-directed exploration. In contrast, when exploration is escape-oriented, or when the full repertoire of exploratory behaviors is reduced, no learning bonus occurs. These findings permitted the first molecular and cellular examinations into the coupling of exploration to learning. We found elevated expression of neuronal calcium sensor 1 (Ncs1) and dopamine type-2 receptors upon self-directed exploration, in concert with increased neuronal activity in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and area CA3, as well as the nucleus accumbens. We probed further into the learning bonus by developing a point mutant mouse (Ncs1(P144S/P144S)) harboring a destabilized NCS-1 protein, and found this line lacked the equivalent self-directed exploration learning bonus. Acute knock-down of Ncs1 in the hippocampus also decoupled exploration from efficient learning. These results are potentially relevant for augmenting learning and memory in health and disease, and provide the basis for further molecular and circuit analyses in this direction.

  19. Self-directed exploration provides a Ncs1-dependent learning bonus

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Ho-Suk; Saab, Bechara J.; Ng, Enoch; McGirr, Alexander; Lipina, Tatiana V.; Gondo, Yoichi; Georgiou, John; Roder, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of memory formation is fundamental to establishing optimal educational practices and restoring cognitive function in brain disease. Here, we show for the first time in a non-primate species, that spatial learning receives a special bonus from self-directed exploration. In contrast, when exploration is escape-oriented, or when the full repertoire of exploratory behaviors is reduced, no learning bonus occurs. These findings permitted the first molecular and cellular examinations into the coupling of exploration to learning. We found elevated expression of neuronal calcium sensor 1 (Ncs1) and dopamine type-2 receptors upon self-directed exploration, in concert with increased neuronal activity in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and area CA3, as well as the nucleus accumbens. We probed further into the learning bonus by developing a point mutant mouse (Ncs1P144S/P144S) harboring a destabilized NCS-1 protein, and found this line lacked the equivalent self-directed exploration learning bonus. Acute knock-down of Ncs1 in the hippocampus also decoupled exploration from efficient learning. These results are potentially relevant for augmenting learning and memory in health and disease, and provide the basis for further molecular and circuit analyses in this direction. PMID:26639399

  20. Direct single-molecule observation of calcium-dependent misfolding in human neuronal calcium sensor-1

    PubMed Central

    Heidarsson, Pétur O.; Naqvi, Mohsin M.; Otazo, Mariela R.; Mossa, Alessandro; Kragelund, Birthe B.; Cecconi, Ciro

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are strongly linked to protein misfolding, and crucial to their explication is a detailed understanding of the underlying structural rearrangements and pathways that govern the formation of misfolded states. Here we use single-molecule optical tweezers to monitor misfolding reactions of the human neuronal calcium sensor-1, a multispecific EF-hand protein involved in neurotransmitter release and linked to severe neurological diseases. We directly observed two misfolding trajectories leading to distinct kinetically trapped misfolded conformations. Both trajectories originate from an on-pathway intermediate state and compete with native folding in a calcium-dependent manner. The relative probability of the different trajectories could be affected by modulating the relaxation rate of applied force, demonstrating an unprecedented real-time control over the free-energy landscape of a protein. Constant-force experiments in combination with hidden Markov analysis revealed the free-energy landscape of the misfolding transitions under both physiological and pathological calcium concentrations. Remarkably for a calcium sensor, we found that higher calcium concentrations increased the lifetimes of the misfolded conformations, slowing productive folding to the native state. We propose a rugged, multidimensional energy landscape for neuronal calcium sensor-1 and speculate on a direct link between protein misfolding and calcium dysregulation that could play a role in neurodegeneration. PMID:25157171

  1. C2-domain containing calcium sensors in neuroendocrine secretion.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Paulo S; Houy, Sébastien; Sørensen, Jakob B

    2016-12-01

    The molecular mechanisms for calcium-triggered membrane fusion have long been sought for, and detailed models now exist that account for at least some of the functions of the many proteins involved in the process. Key players in the fusion reaction are a group of proteins that, upon binding to calcium, trigger the merger of cargo-filled vesicles with the plasma membrane. Low-affinity, fast-kinetics calcium sensors of the synaptotagmin family - especially synaptotagmin-1 and synaptotagmin-2 - are the main calcium sensors for fast exocytosis triggering in many cell types. Their functions extend beyond fusion triggering itself, having been implicated in the calcium-dependent vesicle recruitment during activity, docking of vesicles to the plasma membrane and priming, and even in post-fusion steps, such as fusion pore expansion and endocytosis. Furthermore, synaptotagmin diversity imparts distinct properties to the release process itself. Other calcium-sensing proteins such as Munc13s and protein kinase C play important, but more indirect roles in calcium-triggered exocytosis. Because of their higher affinity, but intrinsic slower kinetics, they operate on longer temporal and spatial scales to organize assembly of the release machinery. Finally, the high-affinity synaptotagmin-7 and Doc2 (Double C2-domain) proteins are able to trigger membrane fusion in vitro, but cellular measurements in different systems show that they may participate in either fusion or vesicle priming. Here, we summarize the properties and possible interplay of (some of) the major C2-domain containing calcium sensors in calcium-triggered exocytosis. This article is part of a mini review series: "Synaptic Function and Dysfunction in Brain Diseases".

  2. The calcium sensor synaptotagmin 7 is required for synaptic facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Jackman, Skyler L.; Turecek, Josef; Belinsky, Justine E.

    2015-01-01

    It has been known for over 70 years that synaptic strength is dynamically regulated in a use-dependent manner1. At synapses with a low initial release probability, closely spaced presynaptic action potentials can result in facilitation, a short-term form of enhancement where each subsequent action potential evokes greater neurotransmitter release2. Facilitation can enhance neurotransmitter release manyfold and profoundly influence information transfer across synapses3, but the underlying mechanism remains a mystery. Among the proposed mechanisms is that a specialized calcium sensor for facilitation transiently increases the probability of release2,4 and is distinct from the fast sensors that mediate rapid neurotransmitter release. Yet such a sensor has never been identified, and its very existence has been disputed5,6. Here we show that synaptotagmin 7 (syt7) is a calcium sensor that is required for facilitation at multiple central synapses. In syt7 knockout mice, facilitation is eliminated even though the initial probability of release and presynaptic residual calcium signals are unaltered. Expression of wild-type syt7 in presynaptic neurons restored facilitation, whereas expression of a mutated syt7 with a calcium-insensitive C2A domain did not. By revealing the role of syt7 in synaptic facilitation, these results resolve a longstanding debate about a widespread form of short-term plasticity, and will enable future studies that may lead to a deeper understanding of the functional importance of facilitation. PMID:26738595

  3. Demonstration of Binding of Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1 to the Cav2.1 P/Q-Type Calcium Channel

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In neurons, entry of extracellular calcium (Ca2+) into synaptic terminals through Cav2.1 (P/Q-type) Ca2+ channels is the driving force for exocytosis of neurotransmitter-containing synaptic vesicles. This class of Ca2+ channel is, therefore, pivotal during normal neurotransmission in higher organisms. In response to channel opening and Ca2+ influx, specific Ca2+-binding proteins associate with cytoplasmic regulatory domains of the P/Q channel to modulate subsequent channel opening. Channel modulation in this way influences synaptic plasticity with consequences for higher-level processes such as learning and memory acquisition. The ubiquitous Ca2+-sensing protein calmodulin (CaM) regulates the activity of all types of mammalian voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, including the P/Q class, by direct binding to specific regulatory motifs. More recently, experimental evidence has highlighted a role for additional Ca2+-binding proteins, particularly of the CaBP and NCS families in the regulation of P/Q channels. NCS-1 is a protein found from yeast to humans and that regulates a diverse number of cellular functions. Physiological and genetic evidence indicates that NCS-1 regulates P/Q channel activity, including calcium-dependent facilitation, although a direct physical association between the proteins has yet to be demonstrated. In this study, we aimed to determine if there is a direct interaction between NCS-1 and the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of the Cav2.1 α-subunit. Using distinct but complementary approaches, including in vitro binding of bacterially expressed recombinant proteins, fluorescence spectrophotometry, isothermal titration calorimetry, nuclear magnetic resonance, and expression of fluorescently tagged proteins in mammalian cells, we show direct binding and demonstrate that CaM can compete for it. We speculate about how NCS-1/Cav2.1 association might add to the complexity of calcium channel regulation mediated by other known calcium-sensing proteins and how

  4. Network Adaptive Deadband: NCS Data Flow Control for Shared Networks

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Cacho, Miguel; Delgado, Emma; Prieto, José A. G.; López, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new middleware solution called Network Adaptive Deadband (NAD) for long time operation of Networked Control Systems (NCS) through the Internet or any shared network based on IP technology. The proposed middleware takes into account the network status and the NCS status, to improve the global system performance and to share more effectively the network by several NCS and sensor/actuator data flows. Relationship between network status and NCS status is solved with a TCP-friendly transport flow control protocol and the deadband concept, relating deadband value and transmission throughput. This creates a deadband-based flow control solution. Simulation and experiments in shared networks show that the implemented network adaptive deadband has better performance than an optimal constant deadband solution in the same circumstances. PMID:23208556

  5. IL1 receptor accessory protein like, a protein involved in X-linked mental retardation, interacts with Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1 and regulates exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Nadia; Friocourt, Gaelle; Carrié, Alain; Graham, Margaret E; Weiss, Jamie L; Chafey, Philippe; Fauchereau, Fabien; Burgoyne, Robert D; Chelly, Jamel

    2003-06-15

    Previously, human genetics-based approaches allowed us to show that mutations in the IL-1 receptor accessory protein-like gene (IL1RAPL) are responsible for a non-specific form of X-linked mental retardation. This gene encodes a predicted protein of 696 amino acids that belongs to a novel class of the IL-1/Toll receptor family. In addition to the extracellular portion consisting of three Ig-like domains and the intracellular TIR domain characteristic of the IL-1/Toll receptor family, IL1RAPL contains a specific 150 amino acid carboxy terminus that has no significant homology with any protein of known function. In order to begin to elucidate the function of this IL-1/Toll receptor-like protein, we have assessed the effect of recombinant IL1RAPL on the binding affinity of type I IL-1R for its ligands IL-1alpha and beta and searched for proteins interacting with the specific carboxy terminus domain of IL1RAPL. Our results show that IL1RAPL is not a protein receptor for IL-1. In addition we present here the identification of Neuronal Calcium Sensor-1 (NCS-1) as an IL1RAPL interactor. Remarkably, although NCS-1 and its non-mammalian homologue, frequenin, are members of a highly conserved EF-hand Ca(2+) binding protein family, our data show that IL1RAPL interacts only with NCS-1 through its specific C-terminal domain. The functional relevance of IL1RAPL activity was further supported by the inhibitory effect on exocytosis in PC12 cells overexpressing IL1RAPL. Taken together, our data suggest that IL1RAPL may regulate calcium-dependent exocytosis and provide insight into the understanding of physiopathological mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment resulting from IL1RAPL dysfunction.

  6. Osmotic induction of calcium accumulation in human embryonic kidney cells detected with a high sensitivity FRET calcium sensor.

    PubMed

    Hou, Bi-Huei; Takanaga, Hitomi; Griesbeck, Oliver; Frommer, Wolf B

    2009-08-01

    Calcium serves as a second messenger in glucose-triggered insulin secretion of pancreatic cells. Less is known about sugar signaling in non-excitable cells. Here, the high sensitivity FRET calcium sensor TN-XXL was used to characterize glucose-induced calcium responses in non-excitable human embryonic kidney HEK293T cells. HEK293T cells responded to perfusion with glucose with a sustained and concentration-dependent increase in cytosolic calcium levels. Sucrose and mannitol triggered comparable calcium responses, suggesting that the increase of the calcium concentration was caused by osmotic effects. HEK293T cells are characterized by low endogenous glucose uptake capacity as shown with a high sensitivity glucose sensor. Consistently, when glucose influx was artificially increased by co-expression of GLUT glucose transporters, the glucose-induced calcium increase was significantly reduced. Neither calcium depletion, nor gadolinium or thapsigargin were able to inhibit the calcium accumulation. Taken together, membrane impermeable osmolytes such as sucrose and mannitol lead to an increase in calcium levels, while the effect of glucose depends on the cell's glucose uptake capacity and will thus vary between cell types in the body that differ in their glucose uptake capacity.

  7. Monitoring Brain Activity with Protein Voltage and Calcium Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Storace, Douglas A.; Braubach, Oliver R.; Jin, Lei; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Sung, Uhna

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the roles of different cell types in the behaviors generated by neural circuits requires protein indicators that report neural activity with high spatio-temporal resolution. Genetically encoded fluorescent protein (FP) voltage sensors, which optically report the electrical activity in distinct cell populations, are, in principle, ideal candidates. Here we demonstrate that the FP voltage sensor ArcLight reports odor-evoked electrical activity in the in vivo mammalian olfactory bulb in single trials using both wide-field and 2-photon imaging. ArcLight resolved fast odorant-responses in individual glomeruli, and distributed odorant responses across a population of glomeruli. Comparisons between ArcLight and the protein calcium sensors GCaMP3 and GCaMP6f revealed that ArcLight had faster temporal kinetics that more clearly distinguished activity elicited by individual odorant inspirations. In contrast, the signals from both GCaMPs were a saturating integral of activity that returned relatively slowly to the baseline. ArcLight enables optical electrophysiology of mammalian neuronal population activity in vivo. PMID:25970202

  8. Nuclear calcium sensors reveal that repetition of trains of synaptic stimuli boosts nuclear calcium signaling in CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, C Peter; Freitag, H Eckehard; Weislogel, Jan-Marek; Bading, Hilmar

    2010-12-15

    Nuclear calcium is a key signal in the dialogue between synapse and nucleus that controls the genomic responses required for persistent adaptations, including memory and acquired neuroprotection. The amplitude and duration of nuclear calcium transients specify activity-induced transcriptional changes. However, the precise relationship between synaptic input and nuclear calcium output is unknown. Here, we used stereotaxic delivery to the rat brain of recombinant adeno-associated viruses encoding nuclear-targeted calcium sensors to assess nuclear calcium transients in CA1 pyramidal neurons after stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals. We show that in acute hippocampal slices, a burst of synaptic activity elicits a nuclear calcium signal with a regenerative component at above-threshold stimulation intensities. Using classical stimulation paradigms (i.e., high-frequency stimulation (HFS) and θ burst stimulation (TBS)) to induce early LTP (E-LTP) and transcription-dependent late LTP (L-LTP), we found that the magnitude of nuclear calcium signals and the number of action potentials activated by synaptic stimulation trains are greatly amplified by their repetition. Nuclear calcium signals and action potential generation were reduced by blockade of either NMDA receptors or L-type voltage-gated calcium channels, but not by procedures that lead to internal calcium store depletion or by blockade of metabotropic glutamate receptors. These findings identify a repetition-induced switch in nuclear calcium signaling that correlates with the transition from E-LTP to L-LTP, and may explain why the transcription-dependent phase of L-LTP is not induced by a single HFS or TBS but requires repeated trains of activity. Recombinant, nuclear-targeted indicators may prove useful for further analysis of nuclear calcium signaling in vivo.

  9. 47 CFR Appendix to Part 216 - NCS Directives

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SYSTEM ISSUANCE SYSTEM Pt. 216, App. Appendix to Part 216—NCS Directives NCS Directive 1-1—Organization, Membership and Administration—National Communications System (NCS) Issuance System NCS Directive 1-2—Organization, Membership and Administration—National Communications System (NCS) Membership NCS Directive...

  10. 47 CFR Appendix to Part 216 - NCS Directives

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SYSTEM ISSUANCE SYSTEM Pt. 216, App. Appendix to Part 216—NCS Directives NCS Directive 1-1—Organization, Membership and Administration—National Communications System (NCS) Issuance System NCS Directive 1-2—Organization, Membership and Administration—National Communications System (NCS) Membership NCS Directive...

  11. 47 CFR Appendix to Part 216 - NCS Directives

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SYSTEM ISSUANCE SYSTEM Pt. 216, App. Appendix to Part 216—NCS Directives NCS Directive 1-1—Organization, Membership and Administration—National Communications System (NCS) Issuance System NCS Directive 1-2—Organization, Membership and Administration—National Communications System (NCS) Membership NCS Directive...

  12. 47 CFR Appendix to Part 216 - NCS Directives

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SYSTEM ISSUANCE SYSTEM Pt. 216, App. Appendix to Part 216—NCS Directives NCS Directive 1-1—Organization, Membership and Administration—National Communications System (NCS) Issuance System NCS Directive 1-2—Organization, Membership and Administration—National Communications System (NCS) Membership NCS Directive...

  13. Neutral-carrier-based needle-type sensor for the determination of calcium ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolan; Hong, Daqing; Li, Yiyong; Lin, Zhihong; Ren, Shu

    2001-09-01

    Calcium ion is a very important messenger not only between cell and cell, but also in meridian main and collateral channels. A new neutral carrier PVC membrane based needle- type potential sensor was prepared, which shows a good selectivity for Ca2+. Response characteristics, pH, response time of sensor, other metal ions such as Mg2+, Na+, and K+ in measuring calcium ion were investigated. The resulting sensor has a liner range from 1.0 X 10-6 to 9.1 X 10-3 mol. L. The sensor will be used in the detection of Ca2+ in vivo in muscular tissues of the mice.

  14. Protein-specific localization of a rhodamine-based calcium-sensor in living cells.

    PubMed

    Best, Marcel; Porth, Isabel; Hauke, Sebastian; Braun, Felix; Herten, Dirk-Peter; Wombacher, Richard

    2016-06-28

    A small synthetic calcium sensor that can be site-specifically coupled to proteins in living cells by utilizing the bio-orthogonal HaloTag labeling strategy is presented. We synthesized an iodo-derivatized BAPTA chelator with a tetramethyl rhodamine fluorophore that allows further modification by Sonogashira cross-coupling. The presented calcium sensitive dye shows a 200-fold increase in fluorescence upon calcium binding. The derivatization with an aliphatic linker bearing a terminal haloalkane-function by Sonogashira cross-coupling allows the localization of the calcium sensor to Halo fusion proteins which we successfully demonstrate in in vitro and in vivo experiments. The herein reported highly sensitive tetramethyl rhodamine based calcium indicator, which can be selectively localized to proteins, is a powerful tool to determine changes in calcium levels inside living cells with spatiotemporal resolution.

  15. Protein intake and calcium absorption – Potential role of the calcium sensor receptor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary protein induces calcium excretion but the source of this calcium is unclear. Evidence from short-term studies indicates that protein promotes bone resorption, but many epidemiologic studies do not corroborate this. Evidence is also mixed on weather protein promotes calcium absorption. Stud...

  16. Generation of a Homozygous Transgenic Rat Strain Stably Expressing a Calcium Sensor Protein for Direct Examination of Calcium Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Szebényi, Kornélia; Füredi, András; Kolacsek, Orsolya; Pergel, Enikő; Bősze, Zsuzsanna; Bender, Balázs; Vajdovich, Péter; Tóvári, József; Homolya, László; Szakács, Gergely; Héja, László; Enyedi, Ágnes; Sarkadi, Balázs; Apáti, Ágota; Orbán, Tamás I.

    2015-01-01

    In drug discovery, prediction of selectivity and toxicity require the evaluation of cellular calcium homeostasis. The rat is a preferred laboratory animal for pharmacology and toxicology studies, while currently no calcium indicator protein expressing rat model is available. We established a transgenic rat strain stably expressing the GCaMP2 fluorescent calcium sensor by a transposon-based methodology. Zygotes were co-injected with mRNA of transposase and a CAG-GCaMP2 expressing construct, and animals with one transgene copy were pre-selected by measuring fluorescence in blood cells. A homozygous rat strain was generated with high sensor protein expression in the heart, kidney, liver, and blood cells. No pathological alterations were found in these animals, and fluorescence measurements in cardiac tissue slices and primary cultures demonstrated the applicability of this system for studying calcium signaling. We show here that the GCaMP2 expressing rat cardiomyocytes allow the prediction of cardiotoxic drug side-effects, and provide evidence for the role of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger and its beneficial pharmacological modulation in cardiac reperfusion. Our data indicate that drug-induced alterations and pathological processes can be followed by using this rat model, suggesting that transgenic rats expressing a calcium-sensitive protein provide a valuable system for pharmacological and toxicological studies. PMID:26234466

  17. Biosensor and chemical sensor probes for calcium and other metal ions

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Viallet, Pierre

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates to chemical sensor and biosensor probes for measuring low concentration of metals and metal ions in complex samples such as biological fluids, living cells, and environmental samples. More particularly the present invention relates to a gel-based Indo-1 and Fura-2 chemical sensor probes for the measurement of low concentrations of calcium, cadmium, magnesium and the like. Also disclosed is a detector device using the sensors of the present invention.

  18. Transcriptome Wide Identification and Validation of Calcium Sensor Gene Family in the Developing Spikes of Finger Millet Genotypes for Elucidating Its Role in Grain Calcium Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Uma M.; Chandra, Muktesh; Shankhdhar, Shailesh C.; Kumar, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Background In finger millet, calcium is one of the important and abundant mineral elements. The molecular mechanisms involved in calcium accumulation in plants remains poorly understood. Transcriptome sequencing of genetically diverse genotypes of finger millet differing in grain calcium content will help in understanding the trait. Principal Finding In this study, the transcriptome sequencing of spike tissues of two genotypes of finger millet differing in their grain calcium content, were performed for the first time. Out of 109,218 contigs, 78 contigs in case of GP-1 (Low Ca genotype) and out of 120,130 contigs 76 contigs in case of GP-45 (High Ca genotype), were identified as calcium sensor genes. Through in silico analysis all 82 unique calcium sensor genes were classified into eight calcium sensor gene family viz., CaM & CaMLs, CBLs, CIPKs, CRKs, PEPRKs, CDPKs, CaMKs and CCaMK. Out of 82 genes, 12 were found diverse from the rice orthologs. The differential expression analysis on the basis of FPKM value resulted in 24 genes highly expressed in GP-45 and 11 genes highly expressed in GP-1. Ten of the 35 differentially expressed genes could be assigned to three documented pathways involved mainly in stress responses. Furthermore, validation of selected calcium sensor responder genes was also performed by qPCR, in developing spikes of both genotypes grown on different concentration of exogenous calcium. Conclusion Through de novo transcriptome data assembly and analysis, we reported the comprehensive identification and functional characterization of calcium sensor gene family. The calcium sensor gene family identified and characterized in this study will facilitate in understanding the molecular basis of calcium accumulation and development of calcium biofortified crops. Moreover, this study also supported that identification and characterization of gene family through Illumina paired-end sequencing is a potential tool for generating the genomic information of

  19. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... You'll also find calcium in broccoli and dark green, leafy vegetables (especially collard and turnip greens, ... can enjoy good sources of calcium such as dark green, leafy vegetables, broccoli, chickpeas, and calcium-fortified ...

  20. Constitutive overexpression of the calcium sensor CBL5 confers osmotic or drought stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Yong Hwa; Sung, Sun Jin; Kim, Beom-Gi; Pandey, Girdhar K; Cho, Ju-Sik; Kim, Kyung-Nam; Luan, Sheng

    2010-02-28

    Calcium serves as a critical messenger in many adaptation and developmental processes. Cellular calcium signals are detected and transmitted by sensor molecules such as calcium-binding proteins. In plants, the calcineurin B-like protein (CBL) family represents a unique group of calcium sensors and plays a key role in decoding calcium transients by specifically interacting with and regulating a family of CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs). In this study, we report the role of Arabidopsis CBL5 gene in high salt or drought tolerance. CBL5 gene is expressed significantly in green tissues, but not in roots. CBL5 was not induced by abiotic stress conditions such as high salt, drought or low temperature. To determine whether the CBL5 gene plays a role in stress response pathways, we ectopically expressed the CBL5 protein in transgenic Arabidopsis plants (35S-CBL5) and examined plant responses to abiotic stresses. CBL5-overexpressing plants displayed enhanced tolerance to high salt or drought stress. CBL5 overexpression also rendered plants more resistant to high salt or hyperosmotic stress during early development (i.e., seed germination) but did not alter their response to abiscisic acid (ABA). Furthermore, overexpression of CBL5 alters the gene expression of stress gene markers, such as RD29A, RD29B and Kin1 etc. These results suggest that CBL5 may function as a positive regulator of salt or drought responses in plants.

  1. Submicron fiber optic sensors for calcium ions and pH with internal calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaschke, Markus; Geyer, Michael; Reichert, Johannes; Ache, Hans-Joachim

    1997-05-01

    Submicron optical sensors can be prepared by immobilization of fluorescent indicators on tapered fiber tips. However, fluorescence intensity based sensing depends on many parameters (e.g. light source, collection geometry, quenching effects, etc.) and therefore quantification is usually complicated. Ratio measurements are established as a common method to quantify fluorescence signals using a sensing and a reference dye. The sensors described in this work are based on a new immobilization concept which consists of the encapsulation of dextran-linked fluorescence indicators in an organic hydrogel. This concept allows co-immobilization and stable encapsulation of different indicators. The calcium- and pH-sensors presented contain dextran-coupled fluorescein- derivatives as indicators (Calcium GreenTM and fluorescein) and a rhodamine-derivative (Texas RedR) as reference dye, co-immobilized in PolyHEMA. These sensors exhibit a signal stability of several weeks (when stored in buffer solution), fast response times and calibration curves which are not affected by immobilization. Due to the ratio measurement signal reproducibility was less than or equal to 5%. The working lifetime of submicron sensors was limited only by photobleaching of the indicators which can be minimized by reduction of the laser power. The dynamic range and short response times of these sensors suggest applications in physiological fluids, cell cultures or micro-bioreactors.

  2. 47 CFR 216.1 - NCS Directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false NCS Directives. 216.1 Section 216.1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL NATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS... Directives, which establish and implement organizational responsibilities, authorities, policies...

  3. 47 CFR 216.1 - NCS Directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false NCS Directives. 216.1 Section 216.1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL NATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS... Directives, which establish and implement organizational responsibilities, authorities, policies...

  4. 47 CFR 216.1 - NCS Directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false NCS Directives. 216.1 Section 216.1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL NATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS... Directives, which establish and implement organizational responsibilities, authorities, policies...

  5. 47 CFR 216.1 - NCS Directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false NCS Directives. 216.1 Section 216.1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL NATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS... Directives, which establish and implement organizational responsibilities, authorities, policies...

  6. 47 CFR 216.1 - NCS Directives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false NCS Directives. 216.1 Section 216.1 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL NATIONAL COMMUNICATIONS... Directives, which establish and implement organizational responsibilities, authorities, policies...

  7. Calcium Sensors as Key Hubs in Plant Responses to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Ranty, Benoît; Aldon, Didier; Cotelle, Valérie; Galaud, Jean-Philippe; Thuleau, Patrice; Mazars, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The Ca2+ ion is recognized as a crucial second messenger in signaling pathways coupling the perception of environmental stimuli to plant adaptive responses. Indeed, one of the earliest events following the perception of environmental changes (temperature, salt stress, drought, pathogen, or herbivore attack) is intracellular variation of free calcium concentrations. These calcium variations differ in their spatio-temporal characteristics (subcellular location, amplitude, kinetics) with the nature and strength of the stimulus and, for this reason, they are considered as signatures encrypting information from the initial stimulus. This information is believed to drive a specific response by decoding via calcium-binding proteins. Based on recent examples, we illustrate how individual calcium sensors from the calcium-dependent protein kinase and calmodulin-like protein families can integrate inputs from various environmental changes. Focusing on members of these two families, shown to be involved in plant responses to both abiotic and biotic stimuli, we discuss their role as key hubs and we put forward hypotheses explaining how they can drive the signaling pathways toward the appropriate plant responses. PMID:27014336

  8. Translating neuronal activity at the synapse: presynaptic calcium sensors in short-term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Arthur P. H.; Fioravante, Diasynou

    2014-01-01

    The complex manner in which patterns of presynaptic neural activity are translated into short-term plasticity (STP) suggests the existence of multiple presynaptic calcium (Ca2+) sensors, which regulate the amplitude and time-course of STP and are the focus of this review. We describe two canonical Ca2+-binding protein domains (C2 domains and EF-hands) and define criteria that need to be met for a protein to qualify as a Ca2+ sensor mediating STP. With these criteria in mind, we discuss various forms of STP and identify established and putative Ca2+ sensors. We find that despite the multitude of proposed sensors, only three are well established in STP: Munc13, protein kinase C (PKC) and synaptotagmin-7. For putative sensors, we pinpoint open questions and potential pitfalls. Finally, we discuss how the molecular properties and modes of action of Ca2+ sensors can explain their differential involvement in STP and shape net synaptic output. PMID:25400547

  9. Optical nanosensors for chemical analysis inside single living cells. 2. Sensors for pH and calcium and the intracellular application of PEBBLE sensors.

    PubMed

    Clark, H A; Kopelman, R; Tjalkens, R; Philbert, M A

    1999-11-01

    Optical nanosensors, or PEBBLEs (probes encapsulated by biologically localized embedding), have been produced for intracellular measurements of pH and calcium. Five varieties of pH-sensitive sensors and three different calcium-selective sensors are presented and discussed. Each sensor combines an ion-selective fluorescent indicator and an ion-insensitive internal standard entrapped within an acrylamide polymeric matrix. Calibrations and linear ranges are presented for each sensor. The photobleaching of dyes incorporated into PEBBLEs is comparable to that of the respective free dye that is incorporated within the matrix. These PEBBLE sensors are fully reversible over many measurements. The leaching of fluorescent indicator from the polymer is less than 50% over a 48-h period (note that a typical application time is only a few hours). The PEBBLE sensors have also been applied to intracellular analysis of the calcium flux in the cytoplasm of neural cells during the mitochondrial permeability transition. Specifically, a distinct difference is noted between cells of different types (astrocyte vs neuron-derived cells) with respect to their response to the toxicant m-dinitrobenzene (DNB). Use of PEBBLE sensors permits the quantitative discrimination of subtle differences between the ability of human SY5Y neuroblastoma and C6 glioma to respond to challenge with DNB. Specifically, measurement of intracellular calcium, the precursor to cell death, has been achieved.

  10. Nanodevice-induced conformational and functional changes in a prototypical calcium sensor protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Valerio; Astegno, Alessandra; Pedroni, Marco; Piccinelli, Fabio; Dell'Orco, Daniele

    2013-12-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) plays a major role in a variety of cellular processes. Fine changes in its concentration are detected by calcium sensor proteins, which adopt specific conformations to regulate their molecular targets. Here, two distinct nanodevices were probed as biocompatible carriers of Ca2+-sensors and the structural and functional effects of protein-nanodevice interactions were investigated. The prototypical Ca2+-sensor recoverin (Rec) was incubated with 20-25 nm CaF2 nanoparticles (NPs) and 70-80 nm liposomes with lipid composition similar to that found in photoreceptor cells. Circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to characterize changes in the protein secondary and tertiary structure and in thermal stability upon interaction with the nanodevice, both in the presence and in the absence of free Ca2+. Variations in the hydrodynamic diameter of the complex were measured by dynamic light scattering and the residual capability of the protein to act as a Ca2+-sensor in the presence of NPs was estimated spectroscopically. The conformation, thermal stability and Ca2+-sensing capability of Rec were all significantly affected by the presence of NPs, while liposomes did not significantly perturb Rec conformation and function, allowing reversible binding. NP-bound Rec maintained an all-helical fold but showed lower thermal stability and high cooperativity of unfolding. Our analysis can be proficiently used to validate the biocompatibility of other nanodevices intended for biomedical applications involving Ca2+-sensors.Calcium (Ca2+) plays a major role in a variety of cellular processes. Fine changes in its concentration are detected by calcium sensor proteins, which adopt specific conformations to regulate their molecular targets. Here, two distinct nanodevices were probed as biocompatible carriers of Ca2+-sensors and the structural and functional effects of protein-nanodevice interactions were investigated. The prototypical Ca2+-sensor recoverin (Rec

  11. Beetroot-Pigment-Derived Colorimetric Sensor for Detection of Calcium Dipicolinate in Bacterial Spores

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Letícia Christina Pires; Da Silva, Sandra Maria; DeRose, Paul C.; Ando, Rômulo Augusto; Bastos, Erick Leite

    2013-01-01

    In this proof-of-concept study, we describe the use of the main red beet pigment betanin for the quantification of calcium dipicolinate in bacterial spores, including Bacillus anthracis. In the presence of europium(III) ions, betanin is converted to a water-soluble, non-luminescent orange 1∶1 complex with a stability constant of 1.4×105 L mol–1. The addition of calcium dipicolinate, largely found in bacterial spores, changes the color of the aqueous solution of [Eu(Bn)+] from orange to magenta. The limit of detection (LOD) of calcium dipicolinate is around 2.0×10–6 mol L–1 and the LOD determined for both spores, B. cereus and B. anthracis, is (1.1±0.3)×106 spores mL–1. This simple, green, fast and low cost colorimetric assay was selective for calcium dipicolinate when compared to several analogous compounds. The importance of this work relies on the potential use of betalains, raw natural pigments, as colorimetric sensors for biological applications. PMID:24019934

  12. Hippocampal expression of the calcium sensor protein visinin-like protein-1 in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Braunewell, Karl-Heinz; Spilker, Christina; Danos, Peter; Baumann, Bruno; Funke, Sieglinde; Diekmann, Silvia; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2002-03-25

    Hippocampal cytoarchitectural abnormalities may be part of the cerebral substrate of schizophrenia. Amongst the chemical components being abnormal in brains of schizophrenics are altered calcium concentrations and reduced expression of the neurotrophin receptor, trkB. We studied by immunohistochemical methods the distribution of visinin-like protein-1 (VILIP-1), which is a calcium sensor protein and at the same time a trkB mRNA binding protein, in hippocampi of nine schizophrenic patients and nine matched control subjects. In normal hippocampi VILIP-1 immunoreactivity was found in multiple pyramidal cells and interneurons. A portion of VILIP-1 immunoreactive interneurons co-express calretinin (60%) and parvalbumin (<10%). In schizophrenics fewer pyramidal cells but more interneurons were immunostained. Our data point to an involvement of the protein in the altered hippocampal circuitry in schizophrenia.

  13. Arabidopsis CML38, a Calcium Sensor That Localizes to Ribonucleoprotein Complexes under Hypoxia Stress1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, Carlee; Li, Tian

    2016-01-01

    During waterlogging and the associated oxygen deprivation stress, plants respond by the induction of adaptive programs, including the redirected expression of gene networks toward the synthesis of core hypoxia-response proteins. Among these core response proteins in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is the calcium sensor CML38, a protein related to regulator of gene silencing calmodulin-like proteins (rgsCaMs). CML38 transcripts are up-regulated more than 300-fold in roots within 6 h of hypoxia treatment. Transfer DNA insertional mutants of CML38 show an enhanced sensitivity to hypoxia stress, with lowered survival and more severe inhibition of root and shoot growth. By using yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) translational fusions, CML38 protein was found to be localized to cytosolic granule structures similar in morphology to hypoxia-induced stress granules. Immunoprecipitation of CML38 from the roots of hypoxia-challenged transgenic plants harboring CML38pro::CML38:YFP followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of protein targets associated with messenger RNA ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complexes including stress granules, which are known to accumulate as messenger RNA storage and triage centers during hypoxia. This finding is further supported by the colocalization of CML38 with the mRNP stress granule marker RNA Binding Protein 47 (RBP47) upon cotransfection of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Ruthenium Red treatment results in the loss of CML38 signal in cytosolic granules, suggesting that calcium is necessary for stress granule association. These results confirm that CML38 is a core hypoxia response calcium sensor protein and suggest that it serves as a potential calcium signaling target within stress granules and other mRNPs that accumulate during flooding stress responses. PMID:26634999

  14. Monitoring of hardening and hygroscopic induced strains in a calcium phosphate bone cement using FBG sensor.

    PubMed

    Bimis, A; Karalekas, D; Bouropoulos, N; Mouzakis, D; Zaoutsos, S

    2016-07-01

    This study initially deals with the investigation of the induced strains during hardening stage of a self-setting calcium phosphate bone cement using fiber-Bragg grating (FBG) optical sensors. A complementary Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) investigation was also conducted at different time intervals of the hardening period and its findings were related to the FBG recordings. From the obtained results, it is demonstrated that the FBG response is affected by the microstructural changes taking place when the bone cement is immersed into the hardening liquid media. Subsequently, the FBG sensor was used to monitor the absorption process and hygroscopic response of the hardened and dried biocement when exposed to a liquid/humid environment. From the FBG-based calculated hygric strains as a function of moisture concentration, the coefficient of moisture expansion (CME) of the examined bone cement was obtained, exhibiting two distinct linear regions.

  15. Dual functions for the endoplasmic reticulum calcium sensors STIM1 and STIM2 in T cell activation and tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Oh-hora, Masatsugu; Yamashita, Megumi; Hogan, Patrick G; Sharma, Sonia; Lamperti, Ed; Chung, Woo; Prakriya, Murali; Feske, Stefan; Rao, Anjana

    2009-01-01

    Store-operated Ca2+ entry through calcium release–activated calcium channels is the chief mechanism for increasing intracellular Ca2+ in immune cells. Here we show that mouse T cells and fibroblasts lacking the calcium sensor STIM1 had severely impaired store-operated Ca2+ influx, whereas deficiency in the calcium sensor STIM2 had a smaller effect. However, T cells lacking either STIM1 or STIM2 had much less cytokine production and nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NFAT. T cell–specific ablation of both STIM1 and STIM2 resulted in a notable lymphoproliferative phenotype and a selective decrease in regulatory T cell numbers. We conclude that both STIM1 and STIM2 promote store-operated Ca2+ entry into T cells and fibroblasts and that STIM proteins are required for the development and function of regulatory T cells. PMID:18327260

  16. PyNCS: a microkernel for high-level definition and configuration of neuromorphic electronic systems

    PubMed Central

    Stefanini, Fabio; Neftci, Emre O.; Sheik, Sadique; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Neuromorphic hardware offers an electronic substrate for the realization of asynchronous event-based sensory-motor systems and large-scale spiking neural network architectures. In order to characterize these systems, configure them, and carry out modeling experiments, it is often necessary to interface them to workstations. The software used for this purpose typically consists of a large monolithic block of code which is highly specific to the hardware setup used. While this approach can lead to highly integrated hardware/software systems, it hampers the development of modular and reconfigurable infrastructures thus preventing a rapid evolution of such systems. To alleviate this problem, we propose PyNCS, an open-source front-end for the definition of neural network models that is interfaced to the hardware through a set of Python Application Programming Interfaces (APIs). The design of PyNCS promotes modularity, portability and expandability and separates implementation from hardware description. The high-level front-end that comes with PyNCS includes tools to define neural network models as well as to create, monitor and analyze spiking data. Here we report the design philosophy behind the PyNCS framework and describe its implementation. We demonstrate its functionality with two representative case studies, one using an event-based neuromorphic vision sensor, and one using a set of multi-neuron devices for carrying out a cognitive decision-making task involving state-dependent computation. PyNCS, already applicable to a wide range of existing spike-based neuromorphic setups, will accelerate the development of hybrid software/hardware neuromorphic systems, thanks to its code flexibility. The code is open-source and available online at https://github.com/inincs/pyNCS. PMID:25232314

  17. Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... milligrams) of calcium each day. Get it from: Dairy products. Low-fat milk, yogurt, cheese, and cottage ... lactase that helps digest the sugar (lactose) in dairy products, and may have gas, bloating, cramps, or ...

  18. The calcium sensor CBL7 modulates plant responses to low nitrate in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qing; Tang, Ren-Jie; Zheng, Xiao-Jiang; Wang, Suo-Min; Luan, Sheng

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) serves as a critical messenger in a number of adaptation and developmental processes. In plants, CBL family represents a unique group of calcium sensors that decodes calcium signals. Several CBL members have been functionally characterized in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, but the role of CBL7 remains unknown. Here, we report that CBL7 is involved in the regulation of low-nitrate response in Arabidopsis. Expression of CBL7 was predominant in the root of young seedlings and substantially induced by nitrate starvation. Cbl7 mutant was more inhibited in root growth upon nitrate starvation compared to the wild-type. Interestingly, the growth arrest of cbl7 under low-nitrate conditions relied on acidic pH. Further analyses revealed that expression of two high-affinity nitrate transporter genes, NRT2.4 and NRT2.5, was down-regulated in cbl7 under nitrogen-starvation condition. Accordingly, the cbl7 mutant plants retained lower nitrate content than wild-type plants under low-nitrate condition. Taken together, our results uncover a novel role of CBL7 in the response to nitrate deficiency in Arabidopsis.

  19. FINAL REPORT: NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY (NCS) ESTIMATING SUBJECT BURDEN FOR POTENTIAL NCS MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose The National Children's Study (NCS), a large longitudinal cohort study of environmental exposures among children, is currently in the planning stage. Prior to enrollment of 100,000 pregnant women across the United Sates for this study, a better understanding of the partic...

  20. Synthesis of an azido-tagged low affinity ratiometric calcium sensor

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Stuart T.; Cairns, Andrew G.; Olson, Marnie; Chalmers, Susan; Sandison, Mairi; Mullen, William; McCarron, John G.; Hartley, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in high localised concentrations of Ca2+ ions are fundamental to cell signalling. The synthesis of a dual excitation, ratiometric calcium ion sensor with a Kd of 90 μM, is described. It is tagged with an azido group for bioconjugation, and absorbs in the blue/green and emits in the red region of the visible spectrum with a large Stokes shift. The binding modulating nitro group is introduced to the BAPTA core prior to construction of a benzofuran-2-yl carboxaldehyde by an allylation–oxidation–cyclisation sequence, which is followed by condensation with an azido-tagged thiohydantoin. The thiohydantoin unit has to be protected with an acetoxymethyl (AM) caging group to allow CuAAC click reaction and incorporation of the KDEL peptide endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention sequence. PMID:26709317

  1. Estradiol alleviates the ischemic brain injury-induced decrease of neuronal calcium sensor protein hippocalcin.

    PubMed

    Koh, Phil-Ok

    2014-10-17

    Estradiol has protective and reparative effects in neurodegenerative diseases. Hippocalcin is a neuronal calcium-sensor protein that acts as a calcium buffer to regulate the intracellular concentration of Ca(2+). This study was investigated to elucidate whether estradiol regulates hippocalcin expression in a focal cerebral ischemia model and glutamate-treated neuronal cells. An ovariectomy was performed in adult female rats, and vehicle or estradiol was administered before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Cerebral cortex tissues were collected at 24h after MCAO. A proteomic approach revealed that hippocalcin expression decreased in vehicle-treated animals with combined MCAO, while estradiol treatment attenuated this decrease. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analyses also showed that estradiol administration prevented the MCAO injury-induced decrease in hippocalcin expression. In cultured hippocampal cells, glutamate exposure increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, which was rescued by the presence of estradiol. Moreover, glutamate toxicity decreased hippocalcin expression, whereas estradiol attenuated this decrease. Together, these findings suggest that estradiol has a neuroprotective function by regulating hippocalcin expression and intracellular Ca(2+) levels in ischemic brain injury.

  2. Loss-of-function mutation of the calcium sensor CBL1 increases aluminum sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ligaba-Osena, Ayalew; Fei, Zhangjun; Liu, Jiping; Xu, Yimin; Shaff, Jon; Lee, Sung-Chul; Luan, Sheng; Kudla, Jörg; Kochian, Leon; Piñeros, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Despite the physiological importance of aluminum (Al) phytotoxicity for plants, it remained unknown if, and how, calcineurin B-like calcium sensors (CBLs) and CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) are involved in Al resistance. We performed a comparative physiological and whole transcriptome investigation of an Arabidopsis CBL1 mutant (cbl1) and the wild-type (WT). cbl1 plants exudated less Al-chelating malate, accumulated more Al, and displayed a severe root growth reduction in response to Al. Genes involved in metabolism, transport, cell wall modification, transcription and oxidative stress were differentially regulated between the two lines, under both control and Al stress treatments. Exposure to Al resulted in up-regulation of a large set of genes only in WT and not cbl1 shoots, while a different set of genes were down-regulated in cbl1 but not in WT roots. These differences allowed us, for the first time, to define a calcium-regulated/dependent transcriptomic network for Al stress responses. Our analyses reveal not only the fundamental role of CBL1 in the adjustment of central transcriptomic networks involved in maintaining adequate physiological homeostasis processes, but also that a high shoot-root dynamics is required for the proper deployment of Al resistance responses in the root.

  3. 47 CFR Appendix to Part 216 - NCS Directives

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...—Plans, Programs, and Fiscal Management—National Security Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) Telecommunications Planning Process NCS Directive 2-2—Plans, Programs, and Fiscal Management—National Level NSEP... Management and Budget, after consideration of the proposed text by the NCS Committee of Principals,...

  4. STIM1 calcium sensor is required for activation of the phagocyte oxidase during inflammation and host defense.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Clemens, Regina A; Liu, Fengchun; Hu, Yongmei; Baba, Yoshihiro; Theodore, Pierre; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Lowell, Clifford A

    2014-04-03

    The stromal-interacting molecule 1 (STIM1) is a potent sensor of intracellular calcium, which in turn regulates entry of external calcium through plasma membrane channels to affect immune cell activation. Although the contribution of STIM1 to calcium signaling in lymphocytes has been well studied, the role of this protein in neutrophil-mediated inflammation and host defense is unknown. We report that STIM1-deficient murine neutrophils show loss of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in response to both soluble ligands that activate G-proteins as well as Fcγ-receptor or integrin ligation that activates tyrosine kinase signaling. This results in modest defects in phagocytosis and degranulation responses but a profound block in superoxide production by the phagocyte oxidase. We trace the primary intracellular target of calcium to be protein kinase C isoforms α and β (PKCα and PKCβ), which in turn phosphorylate subunits of the oxidase leading to superoxide production. In vivo the loss of SOCE in stim1(-/-) chimeric mice results in marked susceptibility to bacterial infections but also protection from tissue injury in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. These results demonstrate the critical role of STIM1-mediated SOCE and define major protein targets of calcium signaling in neutrophil activation during inflammatory disease.

  5. Constitutive Activation of the Calcium Sensor STIM1 Causes Tubular-Aggregate Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Johann; Chevessier, Frédéric; De Paula, André Maues; Koch, Catherine; Attarian, Shahram; Feger, Claire; Hantaï, Daniel; Laforêt, Pascal; Ghorab, Karima; Vallat, Jean-Michel; Fardeau, Michel; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Pouget, Jean; Romero, Norma B.; Koch, Marc; Ebel, Claudine; Levy, Nicolas; Krahn, Martin; Eymard, Bruno; Bartoli, Marc; Laporte, Jocelyn

    2013-01-01

    Tubular aggregates are regular arrays of membrane tubules accumulating in muscle with age. They are found as secondary features in several muscle disorders, including alcohol- and drug-induced myopathies, exercise-induced cramps, and inherited myasthenia, but also exist as a pure genetic form characterized by slowly progressive muscle weakness. We identified dominant STIM1 mutations as a genetic cause of tubular-aggregate myopathy (TAM). Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is the main Ca2+ sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum, and all mutations were found in the highly conserved intraluminal Ca2+-binding EF hands. Ca2+ stores are refilled through a process called store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Upon Ca2+-store depletion, wild-type STIM1 oligomerizes and thereby triggers extracellular Ca2+ entry. In contrast, the missense mutations found in our four TAM-affected families induced constitutive STIM1 clustering, indicating that Ca2+ sensing was impaired. By monitoring the calcium response of TAM myoblasts to SOCE, we found a significantly higher basal Ca2+ level in TAM cells and a dysregulation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Because recessive STIM1 loss-of-function mutations were associated with immunodeficiency, we conclude that the tissue-specific impact of STIM1 loss or constitutive activation is different and that a tight regulation of STIM1-dependent SOCE is fundamental for normal skeletal-muscle structure and function. PMID:23332920

  6. Porous polymer film calcium ion chemical sensor and method of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Porter, M.D.; Chau, L.K.

    1991-02-12

    A method of measuring calcium ions is disclosed wherein a calcium sensitive reagent, calcichrome, is immobilized on a porous polymer film. The reaction of the calcium sensitive reagent to the Ca(II) is then measured and concentration determined as a function of the reaction. 1 figure.

  7. Porous polymer film calcium ion chemical sensor and method of using the same

    DOEpatents

    Porter, Marc D.; Chau, Lai-Kwan

    1991-02-12

    A method of measuring calcium ions is disclosed wherein a calcium sensitive reagent, calcichrome, is immobilized on a porour polymer film. The reaction of the calcium sensitive reagent to the Ca(II) is then measured and concentration determined as a function of the reaction.

  8. Ca2+ sensor proteins in dendritic spines: a race for Ca2+

    PubMed Central

    Raghuram, Vijeta; Sharma, Yogendra; Kreutz, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic spines are believed to be micro-compartments of Ca2+ regulation. In a recent study, it was suggested that the ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved Ca2+ sensor, calmodulin (CaM), is the first to intercept Ca2+ entering the spine and might be responsible for the fast decay of Ca2+ transients in spines. Neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) and neuronal calcium-binding protein (nCaBP) families consist of Ca2+ sensors with largely unknown synaptic functions despite an increasing number of interaction partners. Particularly how these sensors operate in spines in the presence of CaM has not been discussed in detail before. The limited Ca2+ resources and the existence of common targets create a highly competitive environment where Ca2+ sensors compete with each other for Ca2+ and target binding. In this review, we take a simple numerical approach to put forth possible scenarios and their impact on signaling via Ca2+ sensors of the NCS and nCaBP families. We also discuss the ways in which spine geometry and properties of ion channels, their kinetics and distribution, alter the spatio-temporal aspects of Ca2+ transients in dendritic spines, whose interplay with Ca2+ sensors in turn influences the race for Ca2+. PMID:22586368

  9. Structural basis for a hand-like site in the calcium sensor CatchER with fast kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ying; Reddish, Florence; Tang, Shen; Zhuo, You; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Yang, Jenny J.; Weber, Irene T.

    2013-12-01

    High-resolution crystal structures of the designed calcium sensor CatchER revealed snapshots of calcium and gadolinium ions binding within the designed site in agreement with its fast kinetics. Calcium ions, which are important signaling molecules, can be detected in the endoplasmic reticulum by an engineered mutant of green fluorescent protein (GFP) designated CatchER with a fast off-rate. High resolution (1.78–1.20 Å) crystal structures were analyzed for CatchER in the apo form and in complexes with calcium or gadolinium to probe the binding site for metal ions. While CatchER exhibits a 1:1 binding stoichiometry in solution, two positions were observed for each of the metal ions bound within the hand-like site formed by the carboxylate side chains of the mutated residues S147E, S202D, Q204E, F223E and T225E that may be responsible for its fast kinetic properties. Comparison of the structures of CatchER, wild-type GFP and enhanced GFP confirmed that different conformations of Thr203 and Glu222 are associated with the two forms of Tyr66 of the chromophore which are responsible for the absorbance wavelengths of the different proteins. Calcium binding to CatchER may shift the equilibrium for conformational population of the Glu222 side chain and lead to further changes in its optical properties.

  10. Tonoplast calcium sensors CBL2 and CBL3 control plant growth and ion homeostasis through regulating V-ATPase activity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ren-Jie; Liu, Hua; Yang, Yang; Yang, Lei; Gao, Xiao-Shu; Garcia, Veder J; Luan, Sheng; Zhang, Hong-Xia

    2012-12-01

    Plant responses to developmental and environmental cues are often mediated by calcium (Ca(2+)) signals that are transmitted by diverse calcium sensors. The calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein family represents calcium sensors that decode calcium signals through specific interactions with a group of CBL-interacting protein kinases. We report functional analysis of Arabidopsis CBL2 and CBL3, two closely related CBL members that are localized to the vacuolar membrane through the N-terminal tonoplast-targeting sequence. While cbl2 or cbl3 single mutant did not show any phenotypic difference from the wild type, the cbl2 cbl3 double mutant was stunted with leaf tip necrosis, underdeveloped roots, shorter siliques and fewer seeds. These defects were reminiscent of those in the vha-a2 vha-a3 double mutant deficient in vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase). Indeed, the V-ATPase activity was reduced in the cbl2 cbl3 double mutant, connecting tonoplast CBL-type calcium sensors to the regulation of V-ATPase. Furthermore, cbl2 cbl3 double mutant was compromised in ionic tolerance and micronutrient accumulation, consistent with the defect in V-ATPase activity that has been shown to function in ion compartmentalization. Our results suggest that calcium sensors CBL2 and CBL3 serve as molecular links between calcium signaling and V-ATPase, a central regulator of intracellular ion homeostasis.

  11. Calcium sensor kinase activates potassium uptake systems in gland cells of Venus flytraps.

    PubMed

    Scherzer, Sönke; Böhm, Jennifer; Krol, Elzbieta; Shabala, Lana; Kreuzer, Ines; Larisch, Christina; Bemm, Felix; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Shabala, Sergey; Rennenberg, Heinz; Neher, Erwin; Hedrich, Rainer

    2015-06-09

    The Darwin plant Dionaea muscipula is able to grow on mineral-poor soil, because it gains essential nutrients from captured animal prey. Given that no nutrients remain in the trap when it opens after the consumption of an animal meal, we here asked the question of how Dionaea sequesters prey-derived potassium. We show that prey capture triggers expression of a K(+) uptake system in the Venus flytrap. In search of K(+) transporters endowed with adequate properties for this role, we screened a Dionaea expressed sequence tag (EST) database and identified DmKT1 and DmHAK5 as candidates. On insect and touch hormone stimulation, the number of transcripts of these transporters increased in flytraps. After cRNA injection of K(+)-transporter genes into Xenopus oocytes, however, both putative K(+) transporters remained silent. Assuming that calcium sensor kinases are regulating Arabidopsis K(+) transporter 1 (AKT1), we coexpressed the putative K(+) transporters with a large set of kinases and identified the CBL9-CIPK23 pair as the major activating complex for both transporters in Dionaea K(+) uptake. DmKT1 was found to be a K(+)-selective channel of voltage-dependent high capacity and low affinity, whereas DmHAK5 was identified as the first, to our knowledge, proton-driven, high-affinity potassium transporter with weak selectivity. When the Venus flytrap is processing its prey, the gland cell membrane potential is maintained around -120 mV, and the apoplast is acidified to pH 3. These conditions in the green stomach formed by the closed flytrap allow DmKT1 and DmHAK5 to acquire prey-derived K(+), reducing its concentration from millimolar levels down to trace levels.

  12. Calcium sensor kinase activates potassium uptake systems in gland cells of Venus flytraps

    PubMed Central

    Scherzer, Sönke; Böhm, Jennifer; Krol, Elzbieta; Shabala, Lana; Kreuzer, Ines; Larisch, Christina; Bemm, Felix; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.; Shabala, Sergey; Rennenberg, Heinz; Neher, Erwin; Hedrich, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    The Darwin plant Dionaea muscipula is able to grow on mineral-poor soil, because it gains essential nutrients from captured animal prey. Given that no nutrients remain in the trap when it opens after the consumption of an animal meal, we here asked the question of how Dionaea sequesters prey-derived potassium. We show that prey capture triggers expression of a K+ uptake system in the Venus flytrap. In search of K+ transporters endowed with adequate properties for this role, we screened a Dionaea expressed sequence tag (EST) database and identified DmKT1 and DmHAK5 as candidates. On insect and touch hormone stimulation, the number of transcripts of these transporters increased in flytraps. After cRNA injection of K+-transporter genes into Xenopus oocytes, however, both putative K+ transporters remained silent. Assuming that calcium sensor kinases are regulating Arabidopsis K+ transporter 1 (AKT1), we coexpressed the putative K+ transporters with a large set of kinases and identified the CBL9-CIPK23 pair as the major activating complex for both transporters in Dionaea K+ uptake. DmKT1 was found to be a K+-selective channel of voltage-dependent high capacity and low affinity, whereas DmHAK5 was identified as the first, to our knowledge, proton-driven, high-affinity potassium transporter with weak selectivity. When the Venus flytrap is processing its prey, the gland cell membrane potential is maintained around −120 mV, and the apoplast is acidified to pH 3. These conditions in the green stomach formed by the closed flytrap allow DmKT1 and DmHAK5 to acquire prey-derived K+, reducing its concentration from millimolar levels down to trace levels. PMID:25997445

  13. Crystal Structures of the GCaMP Calcium Sensor Reveal the Mechanism of Fluorescence Signal Change and Aid Rational Design

    SciTech Connect

    Akerboom, Jasper; Velez Rivera, Jonathan D.; Rodriguez Guilbe, María M.; Alfaro Malavé, Elisa C.; Hernandez, Hector H.; Tian, Lin; Hires, S. Andrew; Marvin, Jonathan S.; Looger, Loren L.; Schreiter, Eric R.

    2009-03-16

    The genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP2 shows promise for neural network activity imaging, but is currently limited by low signal-to-noise ratio. We describe x-ray crystal structures as well as solution biophysical and spectroscopic characterization of GCaMP2 in the calcium-free dark state, and in two calcium-bound bright states: a monomeric form that dominates at intracellular concentrations observed during imaging experiments and an unexpected domain-swapped dimer with decreased fluorescence. This series of structures provides insight into the mechanism of Ca{sup 2+}-induced fluorescence change. Upon calcium binding, the calmodulin (CaM) domain wraps around the M13 peptide, creating a new domain interface between CaM and the circularly permuted enhanced green fluorescent protein domain. Residues from CaM alter the chemical environment of the circularly permuted enhanced green fluorescent protein chromophore and, together with flexible inter-domain linkers, block solvent access to the chromophore. Guided by the crystal structures, we engineered a series of GCaMP2 point mutants to probe the mechanism of GCaMP2 function and characterized one mutant with significantly improved signal-to-noise. The mutation is located at a domain interface and its effect on sensor function could not have been predicted in the absence of structural data.

  14. Toxicity of 33 NCS to freshwater fish and sea lamprey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marking, Leif L.; King, Everett L.; Walker, Charles R.; Howell, John H.

    1970-01-01

    The chemical 33NCS (3'-chloro-3-nitrosalicylanilide) was evaluated as a fish control agent and as a larvicide for sea lampreys at the Fish Control Laboratories of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife and the Hammond Bay Biological Station of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. The chemical is rapidly toxic to many species. Sea lampreys, bowfin, and channel catfish are the most sensitive species. Carp are more sensitive than trouts or sunfishes. Use of 33NCS in selective control of freshwater fishes or sea lampreys requires precise control because its toxicity is strongly influenced by variations in water quality.

  15. Redox Modulation of Cellular Signaling and Metabolism Through Reversible Oxidation of Methionine Sensors in Calcium Regulatory Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, Diana J.; Squier, Thomas C.

    2005-01-17

    Adaptive responses associated with environmental stressors are critical to cell survival. These involve the modulation of central signaling protein functions through site-specific and enzymatically reversible oxidative modifications of methionines to coordinate cellular metabolism, energy utilization, and calcium signaling. Under conditions when cellular redox and antioxidant defenses are overwhelmed, the selective oxidation of critical methionines within selected protein sensors functions to down-regulate energy metabolism and the further generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mechanistically, these functional changes within protein sensors take advantage of the helix-breaking character of methionine sulfoxide. Thus, depending on either the ecological niche of the organism or the cellular milieu of different organ systems, cellular metabolism can be fine-tuned to maintain optimal function in the face of variable amounts of collateral oxidative damage. The sensitivity of several calcium regulatory proteins to oxidative modification provides cellular sensors that link oxidative stress to cellular response and recovery. Calmodulin (CaM) is one such critical calcium regulatory protein, which is functionally sensitive to methionine oxidation. Helix destabilization resulting from the oxidation of either Met{sup 144} or Met{sup 145} results in the nonproductive association between CaM and target proteins. The ability of oxidized CaM to stabilize its target proteins in an inhibited state with an affinity similar to that of native (unoxidized) CaM permits this central regulatory protein to function as a cellular rheostat that down-regulates energy metabolism in response to oxidative stress. Likewise, oxidation of a methionine within a critical switch region of the regulatory protein phospholamban is expected to destabilize the phosphorylationdependent helix formation necessary for the release of enzyme inhibition, resulting in a down-regulation of the Ca-ATPase in

  16. The calcium sensor Copine-6 regulates spine structural plasticity and learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, Judith R.; Kriz, Alexander; Galic, Milos; Angliker, Nico; Rajalu, Mathieu; Vogt, Kaspar E.; Ruegg, Markus A.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) represents the cellular response of excitatory synapses to specific patterns of high neuronal activity and is required for learning and memory. Here we identify a mechanism that requires the calcium-binding protein Copine-6 to translate the initial calcium signals into changes in spine structure. We show that Copine-6 is recruited from the cytosol of dendrites to postsynaptic spine membranes by calcium transients that precede LTP. Cpne6 knockout mice are deficient in hippocampal LTP, learning and memory. Hippocampal neurons from Cpne6 knockouts lack spine structural plasticity as do wild-type neurons that express a Copine-6 calcium mutant. The function of Copine-6 is based on its binding, activating and recruiting the Rho GTPase Rac1 to cell membranes. Consistent with this function, the LTP deficit of Cpne6 knockout mice is rescued by the actin stabilizer jasplakinolide. These data show that Copine-6 links activity-triggered calcium signals to spine structural plasticity necessary for learning and memory. PMID:27194588

  17. Development of calcium zirconate-based hydrogen sensors with oxide reference electrodes for molten aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Vivek

    Hydrogen is a major cause of gas porosity in aluminum and is frequently removed from the melt prior to casting. The degassing process can be better controlled if the hydrogen content in the melt is known. Thus, gas sensors which can make continuous in situ measurements in molten aluminum are needed. Current online hydrogen sensing systems are complex designs which are prohibitively expensive. Solid electrolyte based potentiometric sensors have been developed as an attractive alternate. These sensors have traditionally used a gas phase as the reference electrode. The present design has a condensed-phase reference electrode to avoid the need for transport of the reference gas into and out of the melt. The use of an oxide rather than a hydride phase reference is expected to considerably lower device cost and improve shelf life and reliability. The sensor element consists of a solid electrolyte tube based on 10 mol% Indoped CaZrO3, which was synthesized using both solid oxide and oxalate co-precipitation techniques. Precursor oxalate powders prepared using polymeric surfactants (PEG) were characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR and particle size analysis. PEG was found to reduce particle size and also influence the process of perovskite formation. The oxalate co-precipitation technique enabled powder synthesis at reduced processing time and temperature. Closed-one-end tubes were slip cast and densified for use as solid electrolytes. Impedance spectroscopy and D.C. resistance measurements were made at temperatures between 650 and 900°C. Undoped CaZrO3 was found to be a p-type conductor in air. Indoped CaZrO3 acted as a proton conductor in air and argon+H2O, whereas the material was found to be a p-type conductor in pure argon. While bulk conduction was found to be homogenous with activation energies matching those from D.C. measurements, conduction across the grain boundary was found to be heterogeneous. Potentiometric sensors using In-doped CaZrO3 as the electrolyte, and

  18. Bio-NCs - the marriage of ultrasmall metal nanoclusters with biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Nirmal; Zheng, Kaiyuan; Xie, Jianping

    2014-10-01

    Ultrasmall metal nanoclusters (NCs) have attracted increasing attention due to their fascinating physicochemical properties. Today, functional metal NCs are finding growing acceptance in biomedical applications. To achieve a better performance in biomedical applications, metal NCs can be interfaced with biomolecules, such as proteins, peptides, and DNA, to form a new class of biomolecule-NC composites (or bio-NCs in short), which typically show synergistic or novel physicochemical and physiological properties. This feature article focuses on the recent studies emerging at the interface of metal NCs and biomolecules, where the interactions could impart unique physicochemical properties to the metal NCs, as well as mutually regulate biological functions of the bio-NCs. In this article, we first provide a broad overview of key concepts and developments in the novel biomolecule-directed synthesis of metal NCs. A special focus is placed on the key roles of biomolecules in metal NC synthesis. In the second part, we describe how the encapsulated metal NCs affect the structure and function of biomolecules. Followed by that, we discuss several unique synergistic effects observed in the bio-NCs, and illustrate them with examples highlighting their potential biomedical applications. Continued interdisciplinary efforts are required to build up in-depth knowledge about the interfacial chemistry and biology of bio-NCs, which could further pave their ways toward biomedical applications.

  19. Bio-NCs--the marriage of ultrasmall metal nanoclusters with biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Nirmal; Zheng, Kaiyuan; Xie, Jianping

    2014-11-21

    Ultrasmall metal nanoclusters (NCs) have attracted increasing attention due to their fascinating physicochemical properties. Today, functional metal NCs are finding growing acceptance in biomedical applications. To achieve a better performance in biomedical applications, metal NCs can be interfaced with biomolecules, such as proteins, peptides, and DNA, to form a new class of biomolecule-NC composites (or bio-NCs in short), which typically show synergistic or novel physicochemical and physiological properties. This feature article focuses on the recent studies emerging at the interface of metal NCs and biomolecules, where the interactions could impart unique physicochemical properties to the metal NCs, as well as mutually regulate biological functions of the bio-NCs. In this article, we first provide a broad overview of key concepts and developments in the novel biomolecule-directed synthesis of metal NCs. A special focus is placed on the key roles of biomolecules in metal NC synthesis. In the second part, we describe how the encapsulated metal NCs affect the structure and function of biomolecules. Followed by that, we discuss several unique synergistic effects observed in the bio-NCs, and illustrate them with examples highlighting their potential biomedical applications. Continued interdisciplinary efforts are required to build up in-depth knowledge about the interfacial chemistry and biology of bio-NCs, which could further pave their ways toward biomedical applications.

  20. The solute specificity profiles of nucleobase cation symporter 1 (NCS1) from Zea mays and Setaria viridis illustrate functional flexibility.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Micah; Schein, Jessica; Hunt, Kevin A; Nalam, Vamsi; Mourad, George S; Schultes, Neil P

    2016-03-01

    The solute specificity profiles (transport and binding) for the nucleobase cation symporter 1 (NCS1) proteins, from the closely related C4 grasses Zea mays and Setaria viridis, differ from that of Arabidopsis thaliana and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii NCS1. Solute specificity profiles for NCS1 from Z. mays (ZmNCS1) and S. viridis (SvNCS1) were determined through heterologous complementation studies in NCS1-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The four Viridiplantae NCS1 proteins transport the purines adenine and guanine, but unlike the dicot and algal NCS1, grass NCS1 proteins fail to transport the pyrimidine uracil. Despite the high level of amino acid sequence similarity, ZmNCS1 and SvNCS1 display distinct solute transport and recognition profiles. SvNCS1 transports adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, cytosine, and allantoin and competitively binds xanthine and uric acid. ZmNCS1 transports adenine, guanine, and cytosine and competitively binds, 5-fluorocytosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid. The differences in grass NCS1 profiles are due to a limited number of amino acid alterations. These amino acid residues do not correspond to amino acids essential for overall solute and cation binding or solute transport, as previously identified in bacterial and fungal NCS1, but rather may represent residues involved in subtle solute discrimination. The data presented here reveal that within Viridiplantae, NCS1 proteins transport a broad range of nucleobase compounds and that the solute specificity profile varies with species.

  1. Dihydropyridine Receptors as Voltage Sensors for a Depolarization-evoked, IP3R-mediated, Slow Calcium Signal in Skeletal Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Roberto; Liberona, José L.; Cárdenas, J. César; Riveros, Nora; Estrada, Manuel; Powell, Jeanne A.; Carrasco, M. Angélica; Jaimovich, Enrique

    2003-01-01

    The dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), normally a voltage-dependent calcium channel, functions in skeletal muscle essentially as a voltage sensor, triggering intracellular calcium release for excitation-contraction coupling. In addition to this fast calcium release, via ryanodine receptor (RYR) channels, depolarization of skeletal myotubes evokes slow calcium waves, unrelated to contraction, that involve the cell nucleus (Jaimovich, E., R. Reyes, J.L. Liberona, and J.A. Powell. 2000. Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 278:C998–C1010). We tested the hypothesis that DHPR may also be the voltage sensor for these slow calcium signals. In cultures of primary rat myotubes, 10 μM nifedipine (a DHPR inhibitor) completely blocked the slow calcium (fluo-3-fluorescence) transient after 47 mM K+ depolarization and only partially reduced the fast Ca2+ signal. Dysgenic myotubes from the GLT cell line, which do not express the α1 subunit of the DHPR, did not show either type of calcium transient following depolarization. After transfection of the α1 DNA into the GLT cells, K+ depolarization induced slow calcium transients that were similar to those present in normal C2C12 and normal NLT cell lines. Slow calcium transients in transfected cells were blocked by nifedipine as well as by the G protein inhibitor, pertussis toxin, but not by ryanodine, the RYR inhibitor. Since slow Ca2+ transients appear to be mediated by IP3, we measured the increase of IP3 mass after K+ depolarization. The IP3 transient seen in control cells was inhibited by nifedipine and was absent in nontransfected dysgenic cells, but α1-transfected cells recovered the depolarization-induced IP3 transient. In normal myotubes, 10 μM nifedipine, but not ryanodine, inhibited c-jun and c-fos mRNA increase after K+ depolarization. These results suggest a role for DHPR-mediated calcium signals in regulation of early gene expression. A model of excitation-transcription coupling is presented in which both G proteins and IP

  2. Structure and Calcium Binding Properties of a Neuronal Calcium-Myristoyl Switch Protein, Visinin-Like Protein 3

    PubMed Central

    Li, Congmin; Lim, Sunghyuk; Braunewell, Karl H.; Ames, James B.

    2016-01-01

    Visinin-like protein 3 (VILIP-3) belongs to a family of Ca2+-myristoyl switch proteins that regulate signal transduction in the brain and retina. Here we analyze Ca2+ binding, characterize Ca2+-induced conformational changes, and determine the NMR structure of myristoylated VILIP-3. Three Ca2+ bind cooperatively to VILIP-3 at EF2, EF3 and EF4 (KD = 0.52 μM and Hill slope of 1.8). NMR assignments, mutagenesis and structural analysis indicate that the covalently attached myristoyl group is solvent exposed in Ca2+-bound VILIP-3, whereas Ca2+-free VILIP-3 contains a sequestered myristoyl group that interacts with protein residues (E26, Y64, V68), which are distinct from myristate contacts seen in other Ca2+-myristoyl switch proteins. The myristoyl group in VILIP-3 forms an unusual L-shaped structure that places the C14 methyl group inside a shallow protein groove, in contrast to the much deeper myristoyl binding pockets observed for recoverin, NCS-1 and GCAP1. Thus, the myristoylated VILIP-3 protein structure determined in this study is quite different from those of other known myristoyl switch proteins (recoverin, NCS-1, and GCAP1). We propose that myristoylation serves to fine tune the three-dimensional structures of neuronal calcium sensor proteins as a means of generating functional diversity. PMID:27820860

  3. The calcium-activated chloride channel anoctamin 1 acts as a heat sensor in nociceptive neurons.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hawon; Yang, Young Duk; Lee, Jesun; Lee, Byeongjoon; Kim, Tahnbee; Jang, Yongwoo; Back, Seung Keun; Na, Heung Sik; Harfe, Brian D; Wang, Fan; Raouf, Ramin; Wood, John N; Oh, Uhtaek

    2012-05-27

    Nociceptors are a subset of small primary afferent neurons that respond to noxious chemical, thermal and mechanical stimuli. Ion channels in nociceptors respond differently to noxious stimuli and generate electrical signals in different ways. Anoctamin 1 (ANO1 also known as TMEM16A) is a Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel that is essential for numerous physiological functions. We found that ANO1 was activated by temperatures over 44 °C with steep heat sensitivity. ANO1 was expressed in small sensory neurons and was highly colocalized with nociceptor markers, which suggests that it may be involved in nociception. Application of heat ramps to dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons elicited robust ANO1-dependent depolarization. Furthermore, knockdown or deletion of ANO1 in DRG neurons substantially reduced nociceptive behavior in thermal pain models. These results indicate that ANO1 is a heat sensor that detects nociceptive thermal stimuli in sensory neurons and possibly mediates nociception.

  4. Calredoxin represents a novel type of calcium-dependent sensor-responder connected to redox regulation in the chloroplast

    PubMed Central

    Hochmal, Ana Karina; Zinzius, Karen; Charoenwattanasatien, Ratana; Gäbelein, Philipp; Mutoh, Risa; Tanaka, Hideaki; Schulze, Stefan; Liu, Gai; Scholz, Martin; Nordhues, André; Offenborn, Jan Niklas; Petroutsos, Dimitris; Finazzi, Giovanni; Fufezan, Christian; Huang, Kaiyao; Kurisu, Genji; Hippler, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) and redox signalling play important roles in acclimation processes from archaea to eukaryotic organisms. Herein we characterized a unique protein from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that has the competence to integrate Ca2+- and redox-related signalling. This protein, designated as calredoxin (CRX), combines four Ca2+-binding EF-hands and a thioredoxin (TRX) domain. A crystal structure of CRX, at 1.6 Å resolution, revealed an unusual calmodulin-fold of the Ca2+-binding EF-hands, which is functionally linked via an inter-domain communication path with the enzymatically active TRX domain. CRX is chloroplast-localized and interacted with a chloroplast 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (PRX1). Ca2+-binding to CRX is critical for its TRX activity and for efficient binding and reduction of PRX1. Thereby, CRX represents a new class of Ca2+-dependent ‘sensor-responder' proteins. Genetically engineered Chlamydomonas strains with strongly diminished amounts of CRX revealed altered photosynthetic electron transfer and were affected in oxidative stress response underpinning a function of CRX in stress acclimation. PMID:27297041

  5. Calredoxin represents a novel type of calcium-dependent sensor-responder connected to redox regulation in the chloroplast.

    PubMed

    Hochmal, Ana Karina; Zinzius, Karen; Charoenwattanasatien, Ratana; Gäbelein, Philipp; Mutoh, Risa; Tanaka, Hideaki; Schulze, Stefan; Liu, Gai; Scholz, Martin; Nordhues, André; Offenborn, Jan Niklas; Petroutsos, Dimitris; Finazzi, Giovanni; Fufezan, Christian; Huang, Kaiyao; Kurisu, Genji; Hippler, Michael

    2016-06-14

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) and redox signalling play important roles in acclimation processes from archaea to eukaryotic organisms. Herein we characterized a unique protein from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that has the competence to integrate Ca(2+)- and redox-related signalling. This protein, designated as calredoxin (CRX), combines four Ca(2+)-binding EF-hands and a thioredoxin (TRX) domain. A crystal structure of CRX, at 1.6 Å resolution, revealed an unusual calmodulin-fold of the Ca(2+)-binding EF-hands, which is functionally linked via an inter-domain communication path with the enzymatically active TRX domain. CRX is chloroplast-localized and interacted with a chloroplast 2-Cys peroxiredoxin (PRX1). Ca(2+)-binding to CRX is critical for its TRX activity and for efficient binding and reduction of PRX1. Thereby, CRX represents a new class of Ca(2+)-dependent 'sensor-responder' proteins. Genetically engineered Chlamydomonas strains with strongly diminished amounts of CRX revealed altered photosynthetic electron transfer and were affected in oxidative stress response underpinning a function of CRX in stress acclimation.

  6. Genome-wide identification and analyses of the rice calmodulin and related potential calcium sensor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Boonburapong, Bongkoj; Buaboocha, Teerapong

    2007-01-01

    Background A wide range of stimuli evoke rapid and transient increases in [Ca2+]cyt in plant cells which are transmitted by protein sensors that contain EF-hand motifs. Here, a group of Oryza sativa L. genes encoding calmodulin (CaM) and CaM-like (CML) proteins that do not possess functional domains other than the Ca2+-binding EF-hand motifs was analyzed. Results By functional analyses and BLAST searches of the TIGR rice database, a maximum number of 243 proteins that possibly have EF-hand motifs were identified in the rice genome. Using a neighbor-joining tree based on amino acid sequence similarity, five loci were defined as Cam genes and thirty two additional CML genes were identified. Extensive analyses of the gene structures, the chromosome locations, the EF-hand motif organization, expression characteristics including analysis by RT-PCR and a comparative analysis of Cam and CML genes in rice and Arabidopsis are presented. Conclusion Although many proteins have unknown functions, the complexity of this gene family indicates the importance of Ca2+-signals in regulating cellular responses to stimuli and this family of proteins likely plays a critical role as their transducers. PMID:17263873

  7. Calmodulin in complex with the first IQ motif of myosin-5a functions as an intact calcium sensor

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Mei; Zhang, Ning; Zheng, Sanduo; Zhang, Wen-Bo; Zhang, Hai-Man; Lu, Zekuan; Su, Qian Peter; Sun, Yujie; Li, Xiang-dong

    2016-01-01

    The motor function of vertebrate myosin-5a is inhibited by its tail in a Ca2+-dependent manner. We previously demonstrated that the calmodulin (CaM) bound to the first isoleucine-glutamine (IQ) motif (IQ1) of myosin-5a is responsible for the Ca2+-dependent regulation of myosin-5a. We have solved the crystal structure of a truncated myosin-5a containing the motor domain and IQ1 (MD-IQ1) complexed with Ca2+-bound CaM (Ca2+-CaM) at 2.5-Å resolution. Compared with the structure of the MD-IQ1 complexed with essential light chain (an equivalent of apo-CaM), MD-IQ1/Ca2+-CaM displays large conformational differences in IQ1/CaM and little difference in the motor domain. In the MD-IQ1/Ca2+-CaM structure, the N-lobe and the C-lobe of Ca2+-CaM adopt an open conformation and grip the C-terminal and the N-terminal portions of the IQ1, respectively. Remarkably, the interlobe linker of CaM in IQ1/Ca2+-CaM is in a position opposite that in IQ1/apo-CaM, suggesting that CaM flip-flops relative to the IQ1 during the Ca2+ transition. We demonstrated that CaM continuously associates with the IQ1 during the Ca2+ transition and that the binding of CaM to IQ1 increases Ca2+ affinity and substantially changes the kinetics of the Ca2+ transition, suggesting that the IQ1/CaM complex functions as an intact Ca2+ sensor responding to distinct calcium signals. PMID:27647889

  8. Calmodulin in complex with the first IQ motif of myosin-5a functions as an intact calcium sensor.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mei; Zhang, Ning; Zheng, Sanduo; Zhang, Wen-Bo; Zhang, Hai-Man; Lu, Zekuan; Su, Qian Peter; Sun, Yujie; Ye, Keqiong; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2016-10-04

    The motor function of vertebrate myosin-5a is inhibited by its tail in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. We previously demonstrated that the calmodulin (CaM) bound to the first isoleucine-glutamine (IQ) motif (IQ1) of myosin-5a is responsible for the Ca(2+)-dependent regulation of myosin-5a. We have solved the crystal structure of a truncated myosin-5a containing the motor domain and IQ1 (MD-IQ1) complexed with Ca(2+)-bound CaM (Ca(2+)-CaM) at 2.5-Å resolution. Compared with the structure of the MD-IQ1 complexed with essential light chain (an equivalent of apo-CaM), MD-IQ1/Ca(2+)-CaM displays large conformational differences in IQ1/CaM and little difference in the motor domain. In the MD-IQ1/Ca(2+)-CaM structure, the N-lobe and the C-lobe of Ca(2+)-CaM adopt an open conformation and grip the C-terminal and the N-terminal portions of the IQ1, respectively. Remarkably, the interlobe linker of CaM in IQ1/Ca(2+)-CaM is in a position opposite that in IQ1/apo-CaM, suggesting that CaM flip-flops relative to the IQ1 during the Ca(2+) transition. We demonstrated that CaM continuously associates with the IQ1 during the Ca(2+) transition and that the binding of CaM to IQ1 increases Ca(2+) affinity and substantially changes the kinetics of the Ca(2+) transition, suggesting that the IQ1/CaM complex functions as an intact Ca(2+) sensor responding to distinct calcium signals.

  9. Fluorescent gold nanoclusters based photoelectrochemical sensors for detection of H2O2 and glucose.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianxiu; Tu, Liping; Zhao, Shuang; Liu, Guohua; Wang, Yangyun; Wang, Yong; Yue, Zhao

    2015-05-15

    In this work, low-toxicity fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) based photoelectrochemical sensors were developed for H2O2 and glucose detection. Herein, the processes used to fabricate the sensors and the photoelectrochemical performances of the sensors under different conditions were presented. Based on the energy band levels of the AuNCs and electron tunneling processes, a detailed photoelectrochemical sensing model was given. The designed sensors were then used for H2O2 and glucose detection without any extra modification of the AuNCs or complex enzyme immobilization. The results demonstrate that the AuNCs allow for H2O2 sensing based on their capacity for both fluorescence and catalysis. Indeed, it was observed that H2O2 was catalyzed by the AuNCs and reduced by photoinduced electrons derived from excited AuNCs. Furthermore, an enhancement in photocurrent amplitude followed the increase in the concentrations of H2O2 and glucose. The effects of the types of ligands surrounding the AuNCs and the applied potential on the output photocurrent were well studied to optimize the measurement conditions. The sensitivity and LOD of MUA-AuNCs at -500 mV were 4.33 nA/mM and 35 μM, respectively. All experimental results indicated that AuNCs could not only serve as a promising photoelectrical material for building the photoelectrochemical biosensors but as catalysts for H2O2 sensing.

  10. Synthesis of fluorescent BSA-Au NCs for the detection of Hg2+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Cheng; Chiang, Cheng-Kang; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present a simple heating approach for preparation of gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a template. At 70 °C, the reaction for the preparation of BSA-Au NCs is completed within 20 min. By conducting matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), we have found that the main product is BSA-Au20 NCs that emit at 660 nm when excited at 330 nm due to "molecular-like" behavior. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data reveal that there are Au+ ions and Au atoms coexisting in the BSA-Au NCs. The as-prepared Au NCs show excellent stability over a wide pH range (2.0-10.0). The fluorescence and MALDI-MS data reveal that the changes in their fluorescence properties are due to the formation of various sizes of BSA-Au NCs for different periods of reaction time. The as-prepared BSA-Au NCs are selective and sensitive (limit of detection of 4 nM at a signal-to noise ratio 3) for the detection of Hg2+ ions through the d10-d10 metallophilic interaction of Au+ and Hg2+ that leads to a decrease in fluorescence. The present assay has been validated for the detection of Hg2+ ions in real water samples, with a result being in good agreement with that from inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

  11. The Structure of the C-Terminal Domain of the Protein Kinase AtSOS2 Bound to the Calcium Sensor AtSOS3

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Barrena, María José; Fujii, Hiroaki; Angulo, Ivan; Martínez-Ripoll, Martín; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Albert, Armando

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The plant SOS2 family of protein kinases and their interacting activators, the SOS3 family of calcium-binding proteins, function together in decoding calcium signals elicited by different environmental stimuli. SOS2 is activated by Ca-SOS3 and subsequently phosphorylates the ion transporter SOS1 to bring about cellular ion homeostasis under salt stress. In addition to possessing the kinase activity, members of the SOS2 family of protein kinases can bind to protein phosphatase 2Cs. The crystal structure of the binary complex of Ca-SOS3 with the C-terminal regulatory moiety of SOS2 resolves central questions regarding the dual function of SOS2 as a kinase and a phosphatase-binding protein. A comparison with the structure of unbound SOS3 reveals the basis of the molecular function of this family of kinases and their interacting calcium sensors. Furthermore, our study suggests that the structure of the phosphatase-interaction domain of SOS2 defines a scaffold module conserved from yeast to human. PMID:17499048

  12. Flow injection chemiluminescence analysis of phenolic compounds using the NCS-luminol system.

    PubMed

    Haghighi, Behzad; Dadashvand, Reza

    2006-03-01

    A flow injection system coupled with two simple and sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) methods is described for the determination of some phenolic compounds. The methods are based on the inhibition effects of the investigated phenols on the CL signal intensities of N-chlorosuccinimide-KI-luminol (NCS-KI-luminol) and NCS-luminol systems. The influences of the chemical and hydrodynamic parameters on the decrease in CL signal intensities of NCS-KI-luminol and NCS-luminol systems for hydroquinone, catechol, and resorcinol, serving as the model compounds of analyte, were studied in the flow injection mode of analysis. Under the selected conditions, the proposed CL systems were used for the determination of some phenolic compound and analytical characteristics of the systems including calibration equation, correlation coefficient, linear dynamic range, limit of detection, and sample throughput. The limits of detection for hydroquinone, catechol, and resorcinol were 0.002, 0.01, and 0.3 microM using the NCS-KI-luminol system; for the NCS-luminol system these were 0.01, 0.17, and 1.6 microM, respectively. The relative standard deviation for 10 repeated measurements of 0.04, 0.06, and 1 microM of hydroquinone, catechol, and resorcinol were 1.9, 1.4, and 2.0%, respectively, with the NCS-KI-luminol system; for 0.2, 0.5, and 4 microM of hydroquinone, catechol, and resorcinol these were 2.6, 2.2, and 3.7%, respectively, using the NCS-luminol system. The method was applied to the determination of catechol in known environmental water samples with a relative error of less than 6%. A possible reaction mechanism of the proposed CL system is discussed briefly.

  13. A fungal homologue of neuronal calcium sensor-1, Bbcsa1, regulates extracellular acidification and contributes to virulence in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yanhua; Ortiz-Urquiza, Almudena; Kudia, Ramsha A; Keyhani, Nemat O

    2012-07-01

    Neuronal calcium sensor proteins and their homologues participate in transducing extracellular signals that affect intracellular Ca(2+) levels, which in turn regulate enzyme activities, secretion, gene expression and other biological processes. The filamentous fungus Beauveria bassiana is a broad-host-range pathogen of insects that acidifies the extracellular milieu during growth and pathogenesis towards target hosts. A collection of B. bassiana random insertion mutants were screened on pH indicator plates and one mutant was isolated that displayed reduced acidification. The random insertion site was mapped to a gene that displayed homology to the neuronal calcium sensor/frequenin protein family and was designated Bbcsa1. To validate the role of Bbcsa1 in B. bassiana, a targeted gene-knockout was constructed. Data confirmed that Bbcsa1 was not an essential gene and the ΔBbcsa1 strain displayed delayed acidification of the medium when grown in Czapek-Dox medium, as compared with the wild-type parent. HPLC profiling of secreted metabolites did not detect any major changes in the production of organic acids, although downregulation of the membrane H(+) pump/ATPase was noted in the mutant. A slight growth-deficient phenotype was observed for the ΔBbcsa1 strain on Czapek-Dox and potato dextrose media, which was accentuated at high calcium concentrations (500 mM) and 1.5 M sorbitol, but was unaffected by EDTA or SDS. Perturbations in vacuole morphology were also noted for the mutant. Insect bioassays using Galleria mellonella as the target host revealed decreased virulence in the ΔBbcsa1 mutant when applied topically, representing the natural route of infection, but no significant effect was observed when fungal cells were directly injected into target hosts. These results suggest that Bbcsa1 participates in pre-penetration or early penetration events, but is dispensable once the insect cuticle has been breached.

  14. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  15. Structural Insights into Membrane Targeting by the Flagellar Calcium-binding Protein (FCaBP) a Myristoylated and Palmitoylated Calcium Sensor in Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    J Wingard; J Ladner; M Vanarotti; A Fisher; H Robinson; K Buchanan; D Engman; J Ames

    2011-12-31

    The flagellar calcium-binding protein (FCaBP) of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is targeted to the flagellar membrane where it regulates flagellar function and assembly. As a first step toward understanding the Ca{sup 2+}-induced conformational changes important for membrane-targeting, we report here the x-ray crystal structure of FCaBP in the Ca{sup 2+}-free state determined at 2.2{angstrom} resolution. The first 17 residues from the N terminus appear unstructured and solvent-exposed. Residues implicated in membrane targeting (Lys-19, Lys-22, and Lys-25) are flanked by an exposed N-terminal helix (residues 26-37), forming a patch of positive charge on the protein surface that may interact electrostatically with flagellar membrane targets. The four EF-hands in FCaBP each adopt a 'closed conformation' similar to that seen in Ca{sup 2+}-free calmodulin. The overall fold of FCaBP is closest to that of grancalcin and other members of the penta EF-hand superfamily. Unlike the dimeric penta EF-hand proteins, FCaBP lacks a fifth EF-hand and is monomeric. The unstructured N-terminal region of FCaBP suggests that its covalently attached myristoyl group at the N terminus may be solvent-exposed, in contrast to the highly sequestered myristoyl group seen in recoverin and GCAP1. NMR analysis demonstrates that the myristoyl group attached to FCaBP is indeed solvent-exposed in both the Ca{sup 2+}-free and Ca{sup 2+}-bound states, and myristoylation has no effect on protein structure and folding stability. We propose that exposed acyl groups at the N terminus may anchor FCaBP to the flagellar membrane and that Ca{sup 2+}-induced conformational changes may control its binding to membrane-bound protein targets..

  16. Solid contact ion sensor with conducting polymer layer copolymerized with the ion-selective membrane for determination of calcium in blood serum.

    PubMed

    Abramova, Natalia; Moral-Vico, Javier; Soley, Jordi; Ocaña, Cristina; Bratov, Andrey

    2016-11-02

    A new solid contact ion selective electrode with intermediate conducting polymer (CP) layer formed by electropolymerization on a gold electrode of a bifunctional monomer, n-phenyl-ethylenediamine-methacrylamide (NPEDMA), which contains a methacrylamide group attached to aniline, is presented. The conducting polymer was studied by means of optical spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and potentiometric measurements. Ca(2+)-ion-selective membrane based on acrylated urethane polymer was shown to co-polymerize with the CP forming highly adhesive boundary that prevents formation of water layers between the CP and membrane, thus enhancing the stability and life-time of the sensor. The designed ion-selective electrode was successfully used for determination of total calcium ion concentration in blood serum samples.

  17. Fast doping of Cu into ZnSe NCs by hydrazine promoted cation exchange in aqueous solution at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Shao, Haibao; Wang, Chunlei; Xu, Shuhong; Wang, Zhuyuan; Yin, Haihong; Cui, Yiping

    2015-03-01

    Controllable doping is an effective way of tuning the properties of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs). In this work, a simple strategy of fast doping Cu ions into ZnSe NCs under ambient conditions was proposed. The principle of doping is based on hydrazine (N2H4) promoted cation exchange reaction. By direct addition of Cu ion stock solution into the preformed ZnSe NCs, Cu doped ZnSe NCs can be obtained. Furthermore, the emission of doped NCs can be tuned by changing the amount of impurity ion addition. The cation exchange reaction is facilitated by three factors: 1) N2H4 addition, 2) fast impurity ions, and 3) partial stabilizer removal. The proposed cation exchange reaction in aqueous solution could be an alternate route for NC doping as well as synthesis of ionic NCs.

  18. Deficient for endoplasmic reticulum calcium sensors Stim1 and Stim2 affects aberrant antibody affinity maturation in B cells

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xuhua; Zhang, Jianfeng; Han, Yue; Luan, Chao; Hu, Yu; Hao, Zhimin; Chen, Min

    2016-01-01

    Antigen specific B cells undergo a process termed affinity maturation in the germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs where B cells with high affinity receptors are selected to mature into antibody-producing cells or to the memory B cell pool. It is known that B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling plays pivotal role in this selection process. Calcium influx is an essential component of BCR signaling. The current report is to determine the effect of calcium influx on antibody affinity maturation. In our studies, mice deficient for both endoplasmic reticulum calciumsensor Stim1 and Stim2 was immunized with T-cell dependent and independent antigens. Antibody affinity was measured by ELISA. We demonstrated that Stim1 &Stim2 deficient B cells exhibit accelerated pace of affinity maturation compared to wild type controls while the overall antibody production was not dramatically impaired to T-independent antigen immunization. In conclusion, calcium influx plays an important role in antibody affinity maturation in humoral immune responses. The knowledge can be used in manipulate humoral immune response for the design of effective vaccines. PMID:27572320

  19. Chloroplast Structure and Function Is Altered in the NCS2 Maize Mitochondrial Mutant 1

    PubMed Central

    Roussell, Deborah L.; Thompson, Deborah L.; Pallardy, Steve G.; Miles, Donald; Newton, Kathleen J.

    1991-01-01

    The nonchromosomal stripe 2 (NCS2) mutant of maize (Zea mays L.) has a DNA rearrangement in the mitochondrial genome that segregates with the abnormal growth phenotype. Yet, the NCS2 characteristic phenotype includes striped sectors of pale-green tissue on the leaves. This suggests a chloroplast abnormality. To characterize the chloroplasts present in the mutant sectors, we examined the chloroplast structure by electron microscopy, chloroplast function by radiolabeled carbon dioxide fixation and fluorescence induction kinetics, and thylakoid protein composition by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The data from these analyses suggest abnormal or prematurely arrested chloroplast development. Deleterious effects of the NCS2 mutant mitochondria upon the cells of the leaf include structural and functional alterations in the both the bundle sheath and mesophyll chloroplasts. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:16668157

  20. Toxicity of 33NCS (3'-chloro-3-nitrosalicylanilide) to freshwater fish and sea lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marking, Leif L.; King, Everett L.; Walker, Charles R.; Howell, John H.

    1970-01-01

    The chemical 33NCS (3'-chloro-3-nitrosalicylanilide) was evaluated as a fish control agent and as a larvicide for sea lampreys at the Fish Control Laboratories of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife and the Hammond Bay Biological Station of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries. The chemical is rapidly toxic to many species. Sea lampreys, bowfin, and channel catfish are the most sensitive species. Carp are more sensitive than trouts or sunfishes. Use of 33NCS in selective control of freshwater fishes or sea lampreys requires precise control because its toxicity is strongly influenced by variations in water quality.

  1. Calcium-dependent copper redistributions in neuronal cells revealed by a fluorescent copper sensor and X-ray fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dodani, Sheel C; Domaille, Dylan W; Nam, Christine I; Miller, Evan W; Finney, Lydia A; Vogt, Stefan; Chang, Christopher J

    2011-04-12

    Dynamic fluxes of s-block metals like potassium, sodium, and calcium are of broad importance in cell signaling. In contrast, the concept of mobile transition metals triggered by cell activation remains insufficiently explored, in large part because metals like copper and iron are typically studied as static cellular nutrients and there are a lack of direct, selective methods for monitoring their distributions in living cells. To help meet this need, we now report Coppersensor-3 (CS3), a bright small-molecule fluorescent probe that offers the unique capability to image labile copper pools in living cells at endogenous, basal levels. We use this chemical tool in conjunction with synchotron-based microprobe X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XRFM) to discover that neuronal cells move significant pools of copper from their cell bodies to peripheral processes upon their activation. Moreover, further CS3 and XRFM imaging experiments show that these dynamic copper redistributions are dependent on calcium release, establishing a link between mobile copper and major cell signaling pathways. By providing a small-molecule fluorophore that is selective and sensitive enough to image labile copper pools in living cells under basal conditions, CS3 opens opportunities for discovering and elucidating functions of copper in living systems.

  2. Preparation and characterization of bioactive calcium silicate and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocomposite for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Heo, S J; Liu, Changsheng; Kim, D H; Kim, S E; Hyun, Y T; Shin, Ji-Wang; Shin, Jung-Woog

    2009-09-01

    A novel biocomposite of nanosized calcium silicate (n-CS) and poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) was successfully fabricated directly using n-CS slurry, not dried n-CS powder, in a solvent-casting method. The in vitro bioactivity of the composite was evaluated by investigating the apatite-forming ability in simulated body fluid. A proliferation assay with mouse L929 fibroblasts was used to test the in vitro biocompatibility. The composition, hydrophilicity, and mechanical properties were also evaluated. Results suggest that the incorporation of n-CS could significantly improve the hydrophilicity, compressive strength, and elastic modulus of n-CS/PCL composites, with the enhancements mainly dependent on n-CS content. The n-CS/PCL composites exhibit excellent in vitro bioactivity, with surface apatite formation for 40% (w/w) n-CS (C40) exceeding that of 20% (w/w) n-CS (C20) at 7 and 14 days. The Ca/P ratios of apatite formed on C20 and C40 surfaces were 1.58 and 1.61, respectively, indicating nonstoichiometric apatite with defective structure. Composites demonstrated significantly better cell attachment and proliferation than that of PCL alone, with C40 demonstrating the best bioactivity. The apatite layers that formed on the composite surfaces facilitated cell attachment (4 h) and proliferation during the early stages (1 and 4 days). Collectively, these results suggest that the incorporation of n-CS produces biocomposites with enhanced bioactivity and biocompatibility.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDY DESIGN FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY (NCS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The general plan for the exposure monitoring component of the planned National Children's Study (NCS) is to measure indoor and outdoor concentrations and personal exposures for a variety of pollutants, including combustion products and pesticides. Due to the size of the study,...

  4. Users Manual for NCS( National Communications System) Facsimile Test Document Tapes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    Comunications System, is the management of the Federal Telecomunication Standards Program. Under this program, the NCS, with the assi stance of the...and telecomunication systems. In developing and coordinating these standards a considerable amount of effort is expended in initiating and pursuing

  5. Syntheses, structures and properties of homo- and heterobimetallic complexes of the type [Zn(tren)NCS] 2[M(NCS) 4] [tren = tris(2-aminoethyl)amine; M = Zn, Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Soumi; Bhar, Kishalay; Das, Sumitra; Chantrapromma, Suchada; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Ghosh, Barindra Kumar

    2010-04-01

    A 2:2:1:6 molar ratio of Zn(ClO 4) 2·6H 2O, tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (tren), Zn(ClO 4) 2·6H 2O/Cu(ClO 4) 2·6H 2O and NH 4NCS in methanol-water solution mixtures affords homo-/heterobimetallic compounds of the type [Zn(tren)NCS] 2[M(NCS) 4] (M = Zn, 1; M = Cu, 2) which have been characterized using microanalytical, spectroscopic, magnetic and other physicochemical results. The structures of the compounds are determined by X-ray diffraction measurements. Structural analyses reveal that 1 and 2 are isomorphous and consist of two discrete [Zn(tren)NCS] + cations and a [M(NCS) 4] 2- (M = Zn/Cu) anion. Zinc(II) centers in the [Zn(tren)NCS] + units adopt distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry with ZnN 5 chromophores coordinated through four N atoms of tren and one N atom of terminal thiocyanate. Each metal(II) center in [M(NCS) 4] 2- has a distorted tetrahedral coordination environment with an MN 4 chromophore ligated by four N atoms of the terminal thiocyanates. In solid state, doubly N-H…S hydrogen bonded 1D chains of [Zn(tren)NCS] + cations are interconnected by tetrahedral [Zn(NCS) 4] 2-/[Cu(NCS) 4] 2- anions through cooperative N-H…S and N-H…N (in 1) and N-H…S and C-H…S (in 2) hydrogen bonds resulting in 3D network structures. Establishment of such networks seems to be aiding the crystallization.

  6. Calcium aluminate silicate Ca2Al2SiO7 single crystal applicable to piezoelectric sensors at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Hiroaki; Hagiwara, Manabu; Noguchi, Hiroaki; Hoshina, Takuya; Takahashi, Tomoko; Kodama, Nobuhiro; Tsurumi, Takaaki

    2013-06-01

    Ca2Al2SiO7 (CAS) bulk single crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. Material constants of the crystal were determined over the driving temperature range of a typical combustion pressure sensor. The electrical resistivity at 800 °C was found to be of the order of 108 Ωcm. We constructed a measurement system for the direct piezoelectric effect at high temperature, and characterized the crystals in a simulated engine cylinder combustion environment. Output charge signal against applied stress was detected at 700 °C. These observations suggest that CAS crystals are superior candidate materials for high temperature for stress sensing.

  7. A calcium sensor – protein kinase signaling module diversified in plants and is retained in all lineages of Bikonta species

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Linda; Edel, Kai H.; Batistič, Oliver; Kudla, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) signaling is a universal mechanism of signal transduction and involves Ca2+ signal formation and decoding of information by Ca2+ binding proteins. Calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs), which upon Ca2+ binding activate CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) regulate a multitude of physiological processes in plants. Here, we combine phylogenomics and functional analyses to investigate the occurrence and structural conservation of CBL and CIPK proteins in 26 species representing all major clades of eukaryotes. We demonstrate the presence of at least singular CBL-CIPK pairs in representatives of Archaeplastida, Chromalveolates and Excavates and their general absence in Opisthokonta and Amoebozoa. This denotes CBL-CIPK complexes as evolutionary ancient Ca2+ signaling modules that likely evolved in the ancestor of all Bikonta. Furthermore, we functionally characterize the CBLs and CIPK from the parabasalid human pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis. Our results reveal strict evolutionary conservation of functionally important structural features, preservation of biochemical properties and a remarkable cross-kingdom protein-protein interaction potential between CBLs and CIPKs from Arabidopsis thaliana and T. vaginalis. Together our findings suggest an ancient evolutionary origin of a functional CBL-CIPK signaling module close to the root of eukaryotic evolution and provide insights into the initial evolution of signaling networks and Ca2+ signaling specificity. PMID:27538881

  8. Heterogeneous Nature of Relaxation Dynamics of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids (EMIm)2[Co(NCS)4] and (BMIm)2[Co(NCS)4

    DOE PAGES

    Hensel-Bielowka, Stella; Wojnarowska, Zaneta; Dzida, Marzena; ...

    2015-08-11

    Dynamic crossover above Tg has been recognized as a characteristic feature of molecular dynamics of liquids approaching glass transition. Experimentally, it is manifested as a change in Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann dependence or a breakdown of the Stokes–Einstein and related relations. In this study, we report the exception from this rather general pattern of behavior. By means of dielectric, ultrasonic, rheological, and calorimetric methods, dynamics of two good ionic conductors (BMIm)2[Co(NCS)4] and (EMIm)2[Co(NCS)4] of less common stoichiometry (2:1) was studied in a very broad temperature range. However, none of the mentioned dynamic changes was observed in the entire studied temperature range. On themore » contrary, the single VFT and the same fractional Walden coefficient were found for conductivity and viscosity changes over 12 decades. Finally and moreover, ultrasonic studies revealed that the data at temperatures which cover the normal liquid region cannot be fitted by a single exponential decay, and the Cole–Cole function should be used instead.« less

  9. Label-free quantification of calcium-sensor targeting to photoreceptor guanylate cyclase and rhodopsin kinase by backscattering interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Sulmann, Stefan; Kussrow, Amanda; Bornhop, Darryl J.; Koch, Karl-Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    Quantification of protein binding to membrane proteins is challenging and a limited set of methods is available to study such systems. Here we employed backscattering interferometry (BSI), a free-solution label-free method with high sensitivity, to quantify the interaction of neuronal Ca2+-Sensor proteins with their targets operating in phototransduction. We tested direct binding of guanylate cyclase–activating proteins (GCAP1 and GCAP2) to their membrane target guanylate cyclase 1. The regulatory mechanism of GCAPs including their binding interface in the target is unresolved. Here we used a label-free, free-solution assay method based on BSI to determine binding constants of GCAP1 and GCAP2 to the full-length membrane-bound guanylate cyclase type 1. GCAP1 and GCAP2 bound to different regions on the target guanylate cyclase with submicromolar affinity (apparent KD-values of 663 ± 121 nM and 231 ± 63 nM for Ca2+-free GCAP1 and GCAP2, respectively). A guanylate cyclase construct containing the juxta-membrane and kinase homology domain harbored an exclusive binding site for GCAP1 with similar affinities as the full-length protein, whereas GCAP2 did not bind to this region. We provide a model in which GCAP1 and GCAP2 do not share a single binding site to the target, thus cannot exchange upon fluctuating Ca2+ levels. PMID:28361875

  10. The NCS code of practice for the quality assurance and control for volumetric modulated arc therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mans, Anton; Schuring, Danny; Arends, Mark P.; Vugts, Cornelia A. J. M.; Wolthaus, Jochem W. H.; Lotz, Heidi T.; Admiraal, Marjan; Louwe, Rob J. W.; Öllers, Michel C.; van de Kamer, Jeroen B.

    2016-10-01

    In 2010, the NCS (Netherlands Commission on Radiation Dosimetry) installed a subcommittee to develop guidelines for quality assurance and control for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments. The report (published in 2015) has been written by Dutch medical physicists and has therefore, inevitably, a Dutch focus. This paper is a condensed version of these guidelines, the full report in English is freely available from the NCS website www.radiationdosimetry.org. After describing the transition from IMRT to VMAT, the paper addresses machine quality assurance (QA) and treatment planning system (TPS) commissioning for VMAT. The final section discusses patient specific QA issues such as the use of class solutions, measurement devices and dose evaluation methods.

  11. Improvement in γ-hydroxybutyrate-induced contextual fear memory deficit by systemic administration of NCS-382

    PubMed Central

    Ishiwari, Keita

    2016-01-01

    Low, nonsedative doses of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) produce short-term anterograde amnesia in humans and memory impairments in experimental animals. We have previously shown that acute systemic treatment of GHB in adolescent female rats impairs the acquisition, but not the expression, of contextual fear memory while sparing both the acquisition and the expression of auditory cued fear memory. In the brain, GHB binds to specific GHB-binding sites as well as to γ-aminobutyric acid type B (GABAB) receptors. Although many of the behavioral effects of GHB at high doses have been attributed to its effects on the GABAB receptor, it is unclear which receptor mediates its relatively low-dose memory-impairing effects. The present study examined the ability of the putative GHB receptor antagonist NCS-382 to block the disrupting effects of GHB on fear memory in adolescent rat. Groups of rats received either a single dose of NCS-382 (3–10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or vehicle, followed by an injection of either GHB (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or saline. All rats were trained in the fear paradigm, and tested for contextual fear memory and auditory cued fear memory. NCS-382 dose-dependently reversed deficits in the acquisition of contextual fear memory induced by GHB in adolescent rats, with 5 mg/kg of NCS-382 maximally increasing freezing to the context compared with the group administered GHB alone. When animals were tested for cued fear memory, treatment groups did not differ in freezing responses to the tone. These results suggest that low-dose amnesic effects of GHB are mediated by GHB receptors. PMID:27105320

  12. Are there stable excited triplet states of NCS-/CNS- and NCO-/CNO-?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiri, D.; Gritli, H.; Peterson, K. A.; Chambaud, G.

    2015-07-01

    Highly correlated ab initio wave functions within the UCCSD(T)-F12 approach have been used to map portions of the potential energy surfaces and to study the stability of the first excited triplet states of the NCS-/CNS- and NCO-/CNO- anions. These a3Π states for linear geometries, or their 3A‧ and 3A″ bent components, correlate with the lowest dissociation asymptote of NCX- (X = S and O) along the NC-X coordinates. The X1Σ+ linear ground states of these anions are known to be stable with respect to dissociation to the X2Π ground state of the corresponding neutral molecule with a rather large electron affinity. The a3Π state of the NCS- anion is positioned below the X state of the neutral at long NC-S distances and its minimum of energy is found for bent geometries. The stability of its two components in bent geometries has been investigated, and it is found that some anionic forms are stable with respect to the X state of the neutral. The linear CNS- and CNO- isomers present a minimum only at long CN-X distances, located below the minimum of their corresponding neutral CNX ground states.

  13. Highly Sensitive Sensors Based on Metal-Oxide Nanocolumns for Fire Detection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwangjae; Shim, Young-Seok; Song, Young Geun; Han, Soo Deok; Lee, Youn-Sung; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2017-02-07

    A fire detector is the most important component in a fire alarm system. Herein, we present the feasibility of a highly sensitive and rapid response gas sensor based on metal oxides as a high performance fire detector. The glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique is used to make the highly porous structure such as nanocolumns (NCs) of various metal oxides for enhancing the gas-sensing performance. To measure the fire detection, the interface circuitry for our sensors (NiO, SnO₂, WO₃ and In₂O₃ NCs) is designed. When all the sensors with various metal-oxide NCs are exposed to fire environment, they entirely react with the target gases emitted from Poly(vinyl chlorides) (PVC) decomposed at high temperature. Before the emission of smoke from the PVC (a hot-plate temperature of 200 °C), the resistances of the metal-oxide NCs are abruptly changed and SnO₂ NCs show the highest response of 2.1. However, a commercial smoke detector did not inform any warning. Interestingly, although the NiO NCs are a p-type semiconductor, they show the highest response of 577.1 after the emission of smoke from the PVC (a hot-plate temperature of 350 °C). The response time of SnO₂ NCs is much faster than that of a commercial smoke detector at the hot-plate temperature of 350 °C. In addition, we investigated the selectivity of our sensors by analyzing the responses of all sensors. Our results show the high potential of a gas sensor based on metal-oxide NCs for early fire detection.

  14. Highly Sensitive Sensors Based on Metal-Oxide Nanocolumns for Fire Detection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwangjae; Shim, Young-Seok; Song, Young Geun; Han, Soo Deok; Lee, Youn-Sung; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2017-01-01

    A fire detector is the most important component in a fire alarm system. Herein, we present the feasibility of a highly sensitive and rapid response gas sensor based on metal oxides as a high performance fire detector. The glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique is used to make the highly porous structure such as nanocolumns (NCs) of various metal oxides for enhancing the gas-sensing performance. To measure the fire detection, the interface circuitry for our sensors (NiO, SnO2, WO3 and In2O3 NCs) is designed. When all the sensors with various metal-oxide NCs are exposed to fire environment, they entirely react with the target gases emitted from Poly(vinyl chlorides) (PVC) decomposed at high temperature. Before the emission of smoke from the PVC (a hot-plate temperature of 200 °C), the resistances of the metal-oxide NCs are abruptly changed and SnO2 NCs show the highest response of 2.1. However, a commercial smoke detector did not inform any warning. Interestingly, although the NiO NCs are a p-type semiconductor, they show the highest response of 577.1 after the emission of smoke from the PVC (a hot-plate temperature of 350 °C). The response time of SnO2 NCs is much faster than that of a commercial smoke detector at the hot-plate temperature of 350 °C. In addition, we investigated the selectivity of our sensors by analyzing the responses of all sensors. Our results show the high potential of a gas sensor based on metal-oxide NCs for early fire detection. PMID:28178216

  15. Star Formation In Nearby Clouds (SFiNCs): X-Ray and Infrared Source Catalogs and Membership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getman, Konstantin V.; Broos, Patrick S.; Kuhn, Michael A.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Richert, Alexander J. W.; Ota, Yosuke; Bate, Matthew R.; Garmire, Gordon P.

    2017-04-01

    The Star Formation in Nearby Clouds (SFiNCs) project is aimed at providing a detailed study of the young stellar populations and of star cluster formation in the nearby 22 star-forming regions (SFRs) for comparison with our earlier MYStIX survey of richer, more distant clusters. As a foundation for the SFiNCs science studies, here, homogeneous data analyses of the Chandra X-ray and Spitzer mid-infrared archival SFiNCs data are described, and the resulting catalogs of over 15,300 X-ray and over 1,630,000 mid-infrared point sources are presented. On the basis of their X-ray/infrared properties and spatial distributions, nearly 8500 point sources have been identified as probable young stellar members of the SFiNCs regions. Compared to the existing X-ray/mid-infrared publications, the SFiNCs member list increases the census of YSO members by 6%–200% for individual SFRs and by 40% for the merged sample of all 22 SFiNCs SFRs.

  16. Identity of the Perchlorate Parent Salt(s) at the Phoenix Mars Landing Site Based on Reanalysis of the Calcium Sensor Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounaves, S. P.; Folds, K. E.; Hansen, V. M.; Weber, A. W.; Carrier, B. L.; Chaniotakis, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    In 2008 the first comprehensive wet chemical analyses of the martian soil were performed by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) on board the Phoenix Mars lander [1-4]. In addition to being dominated by Ca2+ and Mg2+ carbonates, SO4=, and other minor soluble species, the soil contained about 0.6 %wt perchlorate (ClO4-). Its discovery on Mars has broad implications for that planet's water cycle, astrobiology, human habitability, and possible formation of liquid brines. One remaining important question raised by the WCL discovery of ClO4- on Mars is the identity of the parent perchlorate salt. New refined analysis of the Phoenix WCL sensor data and laboratory analyses and equilibrium modeling, indicate that the identity and ratios of the ClO4- parent salts are different than initially proposed. The analyses performed by the Phoenix WCL, along with previous mission results [5], indicated that K+, Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, or Fe2/3+, either singly or as a mixture, were possible candidate counter cations that could be associated with the amount of ClO4- present in solution. If we assumed 100% association of the ClO4- in the soil, then Ca2+ or Mg2+ could account for 100% in each case, since there is in effect a more than sufficient supply of these two counter cations. For other cations, measured concentrations limit the ClO4- salt potentially present, with Na+ accounting for < 30%, K+ < 5%, and Fe2/3+ < 3%. Clearly, Mg(ClO4)2 or Ca(ClO4)2 could constitute as much as 100% of the perchlorate salt present in the soil, either alone or in combination. To definitively identify the parent salt of the ClO4- detected by WCL, we have; (1) reexamined the original Phoenix WCL data in terms of the perchlorate and calcium sensor response; (2) performed a set of laboratory analyses using a WCL testbed to better understand the behavior of the sensor responses on Mars; and (3) have modeled possible chemical equilibrium and the effect of the perchlorate parent salt on other minerals present. The new

  17. Synthesis, crystal structure and DFT studies of a Zinc(II) complex of 1,3-diaminopropane (Dap), [Zn(Dap)(NCS)2][Zn(Dap)(NCS)2]n. The additional stabilizing role of S⋯π chalcogen bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alotaibi, Mshari A.; Alharthi, Abdulrahman I.; Zierkiewicz, Wiktor; Akhtar, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Mazhar, Muhammad; Isab, Anvarhusein A.; Ahmad, Saeed

    2017-04-01

    A zinc(II) complex of 1,3-diaminopropane (Dap), [Zn(Dap)(NCS)2][Zn(Dap)(NCS)2]n (1) has been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H &13C NMR spectroscopy, and its crystal structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure of 1 consists of two types of molecules, a discrete monomer and a polymeric one. In the monomeric unit, the zinc atom is bound to one terminal Dap molecule and to two N-bound thiocyanate ions, while in the polymeric unit, Dap acts as a bridging ligand forming a linear chain. The Zn(II) ions in both assume a slightly distorted tetrahedral geometry. The structures of two systems: the [Zn(Dap)(NCS)2][Zn(Dap)(NCS)2]3 complex as a model of 1 and [Zn(Dap)(NCS)2]4 as a simple polymeric structure were optimized with the B3LYP-D3 method. The DFT results support that the experimentally determined structure (1) is more stable in comparison to a simple polymeric structure, [Zn(Dap)(NCS)2]n (2). The interaction energies (ΔE) for NCS anions obtained by B3LYP-D3 method are about -145 kcal mol-1, while the calculated ΔE values for neutral organic ligands are about twice smaller. The X-ray structure of 1 shows that the complex is stabilized mainly by hydrogen bonds. We also found that weak chalcogen bonds play an additional role in stabilization of compound 1. Some of the intermolecular S⋯N distances are smaller than the sum of the van der Waals radii of the corresponding atoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that shows the structure where the trivalent sulfur is involved in formation of a S⋯π chalcogen bond. The NBO and NCI analyses confirm the existence of this kind of interactions.

  18. NCS EMP (National Communications System Electromagnetic Pulse) mitigation program: Aerial TI System test plan. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    This program mitigates the damaging effects of nuclear weapons on regional and national telecommunications capabilities. To meet this objective, the OMNCS has sponsored efforts to create a network level model to assess the effects of High-Altitude EMP (HEMP). In addition, the OMNCS has sponsored efforts to collect the level HEMP effects to data required to support the network-level model. The products of this model will assist the NCS in identifying potential vulnerabilities of national telecommunications capabilities to HEMP and to support National Security and Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) initiatives.

  19. Calcium-binding proteins and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckingham, K.; Lu, A. Q.; Andruss, B. F.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The known roles for calcium-binding proteins in developmental signaling pathways are reviewed. Current information on the calcium-binding characteristics of three classes of cell-surface developmental signaling proteins (EGF-domain proteins, cadherins and integrins) is presented together with an overview of the intracellular pathways downstream of these surface receptors. The developmental roles delineated to date for the universal intracellular calcium sensor, calmodulin, and its targets, and for calcium-binding regulators of the cytoskeleton are also reviewed.

  20. Modelling the protocol stack in NCS with deterministic and stochastic petri net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Chen; Chunjie, Zhou; Weifeng, Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Protocol stack is the basis of the networked control systems (NCS). Full or partial reconfiguration of protocol stack offers both optimised communication service and system performance. Nowadays, field testing is unrealistic to determine the performance of reconfigurable protocol stack; and the Petri net formal description technique offers the best combination of intuitive representation, tool support and analytical capabilities. Traditionally, separation between the different layers of the OSI model has been a common practice. Nevertheless, such a layered modelling analysis framework of protocol stack leads to the lack of global optimisation for protocol reconfiguration. In this article, we proposed a general modelling analysis framework for NCS based on the cross-layer concept, which is to establish an efficiency system scheduling model through abstracting the time constraint, the task interrelation, the processor and the bus sub-models from upper and lower layers (application, data link and physical layer). Cross-layer design can help to overcome the inadequacy of global optimisation based on information sharing between protocol layers. To illustrate the framework, we take controller area network (CAN) as a case study. The simulation results of deterministic and stochastic Petri-net (DSPN) model can help us adjust the message scheduling scheme and obtain better system performance.

  1. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production of ... Milk-alkali syndrome Proximal renal tubular acidosis Rickets Sarcoidosis Vitamin D Review Date 5/3/2015 Updated ...

  2. Electrically controllable molecular spin crossover switching in Fe(phen)2 (NCS)2 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Chaitali; Mandal, Swapan K.

    2016-10-01

    Spin crossover molecular complex Fe(phen)2(NCS)2 in thin film form (20-300 nm) is obtained by simple dip-coating technique on glass substrates. The growth of the molecular films is confirmed by optical and X-ray diffraction data. The morphology of the samples shows distributed nanocrystals with an average size ca. 12 nm. We measure the current (I)-voltage (V) characteristics of a device with 300 nm film thickness and show that application of electric field can induce spin state switching. The electric field experienced by individual nanocrystals separated by nanometric gap is supposed to be quite high and is plausibly playing the crucial role in instigating switching in molecular nanocrystals. The result is quite significant towards developing room temperature molecular spin cross-over switching devices in the nanoscale limit.

  3. A pharmacokinetic evaluation and metabolite identification of the GHB receptor antagonist NCS-382 in mouse informs novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of GHB intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ainslie, Garrett R; Gibson, K Michael; Vogel, Kara R

    2016-12-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an endogenous inhibitory neurotransmitter and precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). NCS-382 (6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-hydroxy-5H-benzo-cyclohept-6-ylideneacetic acid), a known GHB receptor antagonist, has shown significant efficacy in a murine model of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD), a heritable neurological disorder featuring chronic elevation of GHB that blocks the final step of GABA degradation. NCS-382 exposures and elimination pathways remain unknown; therefore, the goal of the present work was to obtain in vivo pharmacokinetic data in a murine model and to identify the NCS-382 metabolites formed by mouse and human. NCS-382 single-dose mouse pharmacokinetics were established following an intraperitoneal injection (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg body weight) and metabolite identification was conducted using HPLC-MS/MS. Kinetic enzyme assays employed mouse and human liver microsomes. Upon gaining an understanding of the NCS-382 clearance mechanisms, a chemical inhibitor was used to increase NCS-382 brain exposure in a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic study. Two major metabolic pathways of NCS-382 were identified as dehydrogenation and glucuronidation. The Km for the dehydrogenation pathway was determined in mouse (Km = 29.5 ± 10.0 μmol/L) and human (Km = 12.7 ± 4.8 μmol/L) liver microsomes. Comparable parameters for glucuronidation were >100 μmol/L in both species. Inhibition of NCS-382 glucuronidation, in vivo, by diclofenac resulted in increased NCS-382 brain concentrations and protective effects in gamma-butyrolactone-treated mice. These initial evaluations of NCS-382 pharmacokinetics and metabolism inform the development of NCS-382 as a potential therapy for conditions of GHB elevation (including acute intoxication & SSADHD).

  4. Revisiting intracellular calcium signaling semantics.

    PubMed

    Haiech, Jacques; Audran, Emilie; Fève, Marie; Ranjeva, Raoul; Kilhoffer, Marie-Claude

    2011-12-01

    Cells use intracellular free calcium concentration changes for signaling. Signal encoding occurs through both spatial and temporal modulation of the free calcium concentration. The encoded message is detected by an ensemble of intracellular sensors forming the family of calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) which must faithfully translate the message using a new syntax that is recognized by the cell. The cell is home to a significant although limited number of genes coding for proteins involved in the signal encoding and decoding processes. In a cell, only a subset of this ensemble of genes is expressed, leading to a genetic regulation of the calcium signal pathways. Calmodulin (CaM), the most ubiquitous expressed intracellular calcium-binding protein, plays a major role in calcium signal translation. Similar to a hub, it is central to a large and finely tuned network, receiving information, integrating it and dispatching the cognate response. In this review, we examine the different steps starting with an external stimulus up to a cellular response, with special emphasis on CaM and the mechanism by which it decodes calcium signals and translates it into exquisitely coordinated cellular events. By this means, we will revisit the calcium signaling semantics, hoping that we will ease communication between scientists dealing with calcium signals in different biological systems and different domains.

  5. In vitro toxicological evaluation of NCS-382, a high-affinity antagonist of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) binding.

    PubMed

    Vogel, K R; Ainslie, G R; Roullet, J-B; McConnell, A; Gibson, K M

    2017-01-22

    γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), a minor metabolite of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, can accumulate to significant concentrations in the heritable disorder of GABA degradation, succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency (SSADHD). Moreover, GHB may be employed in therapeutic settings (treatment of narcolepsy), as well as instances of illicit activity, including acquaintance sexual assault and the induction of euphoria. High-affinity binding sites for GHB in the brain have been identified, although the absolute identity of these receptors remains unclear. Pharmacological antagonism of GHB binding may have multiple instances of therapeutic relevance. The high affinity GHB receptor antagonist, NCS-382 (6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-hydroxy-5H-benzo-cyclohept-6-ylideneacetic acid) has not been piloted in humans. To address the potential clinical utility of NCS-382, we have piloted initial studies of its toxicology in HepG2 and primary hepatocyte cells. At high dose (0.5mM), NCS-382 showed no capacity for inhibition of microsomal CYPs (CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4) and minimal potential for activation of xenobiotic nuclear receptors. Additional cellular integrity and functional assays (viability, oxidative stress, apoptosis, ATP production) revealed little evidence for cytotoxicity, and a low degree of dysregulation of >370 genes actively engaged in the mediation of cellular toxicity. In vitro testing indicates a low probability of cellular toxicity associated with NCS-382.

  6. Effect of salts, solvents and buffer on miRNA detection using DNA silver nanocluster (DNA/AgNCs) probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Pratik; Cho, Seok Keun; Waaben Thulstrup, Peter; Bhang, Yong-Joo; Ahn, Jong Cheol; Choi, Suk Won; Rørvig-Lund, Andreas; Yang, Seong Wook

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs (size ˜21 nt to ˜25 nt) which regulate a variety of important cellular events in plants, animals and single cell eukaryotes. Especially because of their use in diagnostics of human diseases, efforts have been directed towards the invention of a rapid, simple and sequence selective detection method for miRNAs. Recently, we reported an innovative method for the determination of miRNA levels using the red fluorescent properties of DNA/silver nanoclusters (DNA/AgNCs). Our method is based on monitoring the emission drop of a DNA/AgNCs probe in the presence of its specific target miRNA. Accordingly, the accuracy and efficiency of the method relies on the sensitivity of hybridization between the probe and target. To gain specific and robust hybridization between probe and target, we investigated a range of diverse salts, organic solvents, and buffer to optimize target sensing conditions. Under the newly adjusted conditions, the target sensitivity and the formation of emissive DNA/AgNCs probes were significantly improved. Also, fortification of the Tris-acetate buffer with inorganic salts or organic solvents improved the sensitivity of the DNA/AgNC probes. On the basis of these optimizations, the versatility of the DNA/AgNCs-based miRNA detection method can be expanded.

  7. Neuronal Ca(2+) sensor-1 contributes to stress tolerance in cardiomyocytes via activation of mitochondrial detoxification pathways.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tomoe Y; Nakao, Shu; Wakabayashi, Shigeo

    2016-10-01

    Identification of the molecules involved in cell death/survival pathways is important for understanding the mechanisms of cell loss in cardiac disease, and thus is clinically relevant. Ca(2+)-dependent signals are often involved in these pathways. Here, we found that neuronal Ca(2+)-sensor-1 (NCS-1), a Ca(2+)-binding protein, has an important role in cardiac survival during stress. Cardiomyocytes derived from NCS-1-deficient (Ncs1(-/-)) mice were more susceptible to oxidative and metabolic stress than wild-type (WT) myocytes. Cellular ATP levels and mitochondrial respiration rates, as well as the levels of mitochondrial marker proteins, were lower in Ncs1(-/-) myocytes. Although oxidative stress elevated mitochondrial proton leak, which exerts a protective effect by inhibiting the production of reactive oxygen species in WT myocytes, this response was considerably diminished in Ncs1(-/-) cardiomyocytes, and this would be a major reason for cell death. Consistently, H2O2-induced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, a critical early event in cell death, was accelerated in Ncs1(-/-) myocytes. Furthermore, NCS-1 was upregulated in hearts subjected to ischemia-reperfusion, and ischemia-reperfusion injury was more severe in Ncs1(-/-) hearts. Activation of stress-induced Ca(2+)-dependent survival pathways, such as Akt and PGC-1α (which promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and function), was diminished in Ncs1(-/-) hearts. Overall, these data demonstrate that NCS-1 contributes to stress tolerance in cardiomyocytes at least in part by activating certain Ca(2+)-dependent survival pathways that promote mitochondrial biosynthesis/function and detoxification pathways.

  8. Spectroscopic characterization and constitutional and rotational isomerism of ClC(O)SCN and ClC(O)NCS.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Luis A; Ulic, Sonia E; Romano, Rosana M; Erben, Mauricio F; Vishnevskiy, Yury V; Reuter, Christian G; Mitzel, Norbert W; Beckers, Helmut; Willner, Helge; Zeng, Xiaoqing; Bernhardt, Eduard; Ge, Maofa; Tong, ShengRui; Della Védova, Carlos O

    2013-03-21

    Chlorocarbonylthio- and isothiocyanate (ClC(O)SCN and ClC(O)NCS) have been isolated and characterized by IR (Ar matrix, gas), Raman (liquid), (13)C NMR and UV-visible spectroscopies. Vibrational and quantum chemical studies suggest the presence of the syn and anti conformers (SCN group with respect to the C═O bond) in the gas phase for both constitutional isomers. syn-ClC(O)SCN is preferred by ΔH° (anti/syn) = 1.3(0.3) kcal mol(-1). The solid-state structure of ClC(O)SCN has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis at low temperature. The crystalline solid consists exclusively of molecules in the syn conformation. On the other hand, the anti form is more stable for the ClC(O)NCS isomer. The structure of ClC(O)NCS and its conformational composition were determined by gas electron diffraction. An unusual low syn → anti interconversion energy barrier of 0.98 (0.15) kcal mol(-1) was detected for ClC(O)NCS at cryogenic temperatures. The photochemistry of both constitutional isomers isolated in solid argon at 15 K was studied. Rearrangement of ClC(O)SCN to ClC(O)NCS was observed in the neat liquid and under UV-vis irradiation of ClC(O)SCN isolated in solid argon. Properties have been discussed in terms of the valence electronic structure, including the analysis of the He(I) photoelectron spectrum of ClC(O)SCN.

  9. A Calcium-Relay Mechanism in Vertebrate Phototransduction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Calcium-signaling in cells requires a fine-tuned system of calcium-transport proteins involving ion channels, exchangers, and ion-pumps but also calcium-sensor proteins and their targets. Thus, control of physiological responses very often depends on incremental changes of the cytoplasmic calcium concentration, which are sensed by calcium-binding proteins and are further transmitted to specific target proteins. This Review will focus on calcium-signaling in vertebrate photoreceptor cells, where recent physiological and biochemical data indicate that a subset of neuronal calcium sensor proteins named guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) operate in a calcium-relay system, namely, to make gradual responses to small changes in calcium. We will further integrate this mechanism in an existing computational model of phototransduction showing that it is consistent and compatible with the dynamics that are characteristic for the precise operation of the phototransduction pathways. PMID:23472635

  10. Antitumor resistance induced by zinostatin stimalamer (ZSS), a polymer-conjugated neocarzinostatin (NCS) derivative. I. Meth A tumor eradication and tumor-neutralizing activity in mice pretreated with ZSS or NCS.

    PubMed

    Masuda, E; Maeda, H

    1995-05-01

    Zinostatin stimalamer (ZSS) is a new anticancer agent derived from neocarzinostatin (NCS), which is synthesized by conjugation of one molecule of NCS and two molecules of poly(styrene-co-maleic acid). ZSS exhibited potent in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity in preclinical experiments, and a clinical trial of the intra-arterial administration of ZSS with iodized oil on hepatocellular carcinoma showed potent antitumor activity. We investigated the effect of ZSS and NCS on antitumor resistance and found that pretreatment with either drug suppressed the growth of MethA tumors in Balb/c mice and induced tumor eradication when given separately by single administration at therapeutic doses between 1 day and 4 weeks before tumor transplantation. The findings that the cytocidal activity of these drugs was not detected in vivo at the time of tumor transplantation and that tumor regression was preceded by a period of transient growth suggested that tumor regression was due to host-mediated antitumor activity induced by these drugs. Pretreatment with ZSS or NCS also suppressed the growth of Colon 26 carcinoma and Sarcoma 180. The finding that NCS showed the same effect as ZSS suggests that poly(styrene-comaleic acid) is not essential for the induction of host-mediated antitumor activity. Furthermore, apo-ZSS, which lacks cytocidal activity, did not induce antitumor activity. From this, it is suggested that the cytocidal effect of ZSS involves the induction of host-mediated antitumor resistance. In athymic Balb/c nu/nu mice, pretreatment with ZSS or NCS did not induce tumor eradication, suggesting that mature T lymphocytes play an important role in tumor eradication. Challenging MethA was rejected without transient growth in mice that had been cured of MethA, but challenging Colon 26 was not, showing that anti-MethA resistance was augmented selectively in the MethA-eradicated mice. Splenocytes from MethA-bearing mice pretreated with the drug showed tumor

  11. Phosphorylation of calcineurin B-like (CBL) calcium sensor proteins by their CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) is required for full activity of CBL-CIPK complexes toward their target proteins.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kenji; Eckert, Christian; Anschütz, Uta; Scholz, Martin; Held, Katrin; Waadt, Rainer; Reyer, Antonella; Hippler, Michael; Becker, Dirk; Kudla, Jörg

    2012-03-09

    Calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs) represent a family of calcium sensor proteins that interact with a group of serine/threonine kinases designated as CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs). CBL-CIPK complexes are crucially involved in relaying plant responses to many environmental signals and in regulating ion fluxes. However, the biochemical characterization of CBL-CIPK complexes has so far been hampered by low activities of recombinant CIPKs. Here, we report on an efficient wheat germ extract-based in vitro transcription/translation protocol that yields active full-length wild-type CIPK proteins. We identified a conserved serine residue within the C terminus of CBLs as being phosphorylated by their interacting CIPKs. Remarkably, our studies revealed that CIPK-dependent CBL phosphorylation is strictly dependent on CBL-CIPK interaction via the CIPK NAF domain. The phosphorylation status of CBLs does not appear to influence the stability, localization, or CIPK interaction of these calcium sensor proteins in general. However, proper phosphorylation of CBL1 is absolutely required for the in vivo activation of the AKT1 K(+) channel by CBL1-CIPK23 and CBL9-CIPK23 complexes in oocytes. Moreover, we show that by combining CBL1, CIPK23, and AKT1, we can faithfully reconstitute CBL-dependent enhancement of phosphorylation of target proteins by CIPKs in vitro. In addition, we report that phosphorylation of CBL1 by CIPK23 is also required for the CBL1-dependent enhancement of CIPK23 activity toward its substrate. Together, these data identify a novel general regulatory mechanism of CBL-CIPK complexes in that CBL phosphorylation at their flexible C terminus likely provokes conformational changes that enhance specificity and activity of CBL-CIPK complexes toward their target proteins.

  12. NMR evidence of a high field phase transition in κ-(ET)Cu(NCS)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jeffrey; Clark, W. C.; Prettner, Elizabeth; Kuhns, Phil; Reyes, Arneil; Brooks, J. S.; Schlueter, John; Brown, Stuart

    2010-03-01

    The anisotropic electronic properties of the organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu(NCS)2 make it an excellent candidate for inhomogeneous superconductivity (FFLO state) when the magnetic field is applied in-plane, so as to avoid orbital suppression of the superconductivity. Results of various previous measurements have been interpreted as supporting the existence of an FFLO state for fields B˜21-22T. In this work, ^13C NMR measurements were used to probe the hyperfine fields in the range of B=14-27T and T=0.5-1.6K. A sharp peak in the relaxation rate 1/T1(B) at B˜22T signals a phase transition associated with a turn-on of spin susceptibility, while evolution the spectrum with field indicate the system remains superconducting at higher fields. Additionally, only small variations of the hyperfine fields are observed for external fields B=14-20T, and we discuss this observation in relation to the superconducting order parameter symmetry.

  13. A Nanocrystal-based Ratiometric pH Sensor for Natural pH Ranges.

    PubMed

    Somers, Rebecca C; Lanning, Ryan M; Snee, Preston T; Greytak, Andrew B; Jain, Rakesh K; Bawendi, Moungi G; Nocera, Daniel G

    A ratiometric fluorescent pH sensor based on CdSe/CdZnS nanocrystal quantum dots (NCs) has been designed for biological pH ranges. The construct is formed from the conjugation of a pH dye (SNARF) to NCs coated with a poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimer. The sensor exhibits a well-resolved ratio response at pH values between 6 and 8 under linear or two-photon excitation, and in the presence of a 4% bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution.

  14. A Nanocrystal-based Ratiometric pH Sensor for Natural pH Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Somers, Rebecca C.; Lanning, Ryan M.; Snee, Preston T.; Greytak, Andrew B.; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary A ratiometric fluorescent pH sensor based on CdSe/CdZnS nanocrystal quantum dots (NCs) has been designed for biological pH ranges. The construct is formed from the conjugation of a pH dye (SNARF) to NCs coated with a poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimer. The sensor exhibits a well–resolved ratio response at pH values between 6 and 8 under linear or two–photon excitation, and in the presence of a 4% bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution. PMID:26413260

  15. Calcium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... of calcium dietary supplements include calcium citrate and calcium carbonate. Calcium citrate is the more expensive form of ... the body on a full or empty stomach. Calcium carbonate is less expensive. It is absorbed better by ...

  16. Archaeal Tuc1/Ncs6 Homolog Required for Wobble Uridine tRNA Thiolation Is Associated with Ubiquitin-Proteasome, Translation, and RNA Processing System Homologs

    PubMed Central

    Chavarria, Nikita E.; Hwang, Sungmin; Cao, Shiyun; Fu, Xian; Holman, Mary; Elbanna, Dina; Rodriguez, Suzanne; Arrington, Deanna; Englert, Markus; Uthandi, Sivakumar; Söll, Dieter; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    While cytoplasmic tRNA 2-thiolation protein 1 (Tuc1/Ncs6) and ubiquitin-related modifier-1 (Urm1) are important in the 2-thiolation of 5-methoxycarbonylmethyl-2-thiouridine (mcm5s2U) at wobble uridines of tRNAs in eukaryotes, the biocatalytic roles and properties of Ncs6/Tuc1 and its homologs are poorly understood. Here we present the first report of an Ncs6 homolog of archaea (NcsA of Haloferax volcanii) that is essential for maintaining cellular pools of thiolated tRNALysUUU and for growth at high temperature. When purified from Hfx. volcanii, NcsA was found to be modified at Lys204 by isopeptide linkage to polymeric chains of the ubiquitin-fold protein SAMP2. The ubiquitin-activating E1 enzyme homolog of archaea (UbaA) was required for this covalent modification. Non-covalent protein partners that specifically associated with NcsA were also identified including UbaA, SAMP2, proteasome activating nucleotidase (PAN)-A/1, translation elongation factor aEF-1α and a β-CASP ribonuclease homolog of the archaeal cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 1 family (aCPSF1). Together, our study reveals that NcsA is essential for growth at high temperature, required for formation of thiolated tRNALysUUU and intimately linked to homologs of ubiquitin-proteasome, translation and RNA processing systems. PMID:24906001

  17. Calcium - ionized

    MedlinePlus

    ... 245. Read More Acute kidney failure Albumin - blood (serum) test Bone tumor Calcium blood test Hyperparathyroidism Hypoparathyroidism Malabsorption Milk-alkali syndrome Multiple myeloma Osteomalacia Paget disease of the bone Rickets Sarcoidosis Vitamin D Review ...

  18. Calcium Carbonate.

    PubMed

    Al Omari, M M H; Rashid, I S; Qinna, N A; Jaber, A M; Badwan, A A

    2016-01-01

    Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3 formed by three main elements: carbon, oxygen, and calcium. It is a common substance found in rocks in all parts of the world (most notably as limestone), and is the main component of shells of marine organisms, snails, coal balls, pearls, and eggshells. CaCO3 exists in different polymorphs, each with specific stability that depends on a diversity of variables.

  19. Antagonism between extreme negative linear compression and spin crossover in [Fe(dpp)(2)(NCS)(2)]⋅py.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Helena J; Palamarciuc, Tatiana; Rosa, Patrick; Guionneau, Philippe; Molnár, Gábor; Létard, Jean-François; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2012-04-16

    A scissor-like geometric mechanism is responsible for the strongest negative linear compression effect yet observed in a molecular material, [Fe(dpp)(2)(NCS)(2)]⋅py (see picture; dpp=dipyrido[3,2-a:2'3'-c]phenazine), C gray, N blue, S yellow, Fe red). The same mechanism is also responsible for suppressing the high-spin to low-spin transition under pressure.

  20. Calcium Hydroxylapatite

    PubMed Central

    Yutskovskaya, Yana Alexandrovna; Philip Werschler, WM.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Calcium hydroxylapatite is one of the most well-studied dermal fillers worldwide and has been extensively used for the correction of moderate-to-severe facial lines and folds and to replenish lost volume. Objectives: To mark the milestone of 10 years of use in the aesthetic field, this review will consider the evolution of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine, provide a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach, and examine how the unique properties of calcium hydroxylapatite provide it with an important place in today’s market. Methods: This article is an up-to-date review of calcium hydroxylapatite in aesthetic medicine along with procedures for its use, including a detailed injection protocol for a global facial approach by three expert injectors. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxylapatite is a very effective agent for many areas of facial soft tissue augmentation and is associated with a high and well-established safety profile. Calcium hydroxylapatite combines high elasticity and viscosity with an ability to induce long-term collagen formation making it an ideal agent for a global facial approach. PMID:25610523

  1. Calcium orthophosphates

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2011-01-01

    The present overview is intended to point the readers’ attention to the important subject of calcium orthophosphates. This type of materials is of special significance for human beings, because they represent the inorganic part of major normal (bones, teeth and antlers) and pathological (i.e., those appearing due to various diseases) calcified tissues of mammals. For example, atherosclerosis results in blood vessel blockage caused by a solid composite of cholesterol with calcium orthophosphates, while dental caries and osteoporosis mean a partial decalcification of teeth and bones, respectively, that results in replacement of a less soluble and harder biological apatite by more soluble and softer calcium hydrogenphosphates. Therefore, the processes of both normal and pathological calcifications are just an in vivo crystallization of calcium orthophosphates. Similarly, dental caries and osteoporosis might be considered an in vivo dissolution of calcium orthophosphates. Thus, calcium orthophosphates hold a great significance for humankind, and in this paper, an overview on the current knowledge on this subject is provided. PMID:23507744

  2. Copper nanoclusters as a highly sensitive and selective fluorescence sensor for ferric ions in serum and living cells by imaging.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haiyan; Chen, Zhaohui; Zheng, Huzhi; Huang, Yuming

    2014-12-15

    A simple, one-step facile route for preparation of water soluble and fluorescent Cu nanoclusters (NCs) stabilized by tannic acid (TA) is described. The as-prepared TA capped Cu NCs (TA-Cu NCs) are characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, luminescence, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The TA-Cu NCs show luminescence properties having excitation and emission maxima at 360 nm and 430 nm, respectively, with a quantum yield of about 14%. The TA-Cu NCs are very stable even in 0.3 M NaCl, and their luminescent properties show pH independent. The fluorescence (FL) of Cu NCs is strongly quenched by Fe(3+) through an electron transfer mechanism, but not by other metal ions. Furthermore, the FL of the TA-Cu NCs shows no changes with the addition of Fe(2+) or H2O2 individually. On this basis, a facile chemosensor was developed for rapid, reliable, sensitive, and selective sensing of Fe(3+) ions with detection limit as low as 10 nM and a dynamic range from 10 nM to 10 μM. The proposed sensor was successfully used for the determination of iron contents in serum samples. Importantly, the Cu NCs-based FL probe showed long-term stability, good biocompatibility and very low cytotoxicity. It was successfully used for imaging ferric ions in living cells, suggesting the potential application of Cu NCs fluorescent probe in clinical analysis and cell imaging.

  3. New, high-capacity, calcium-based sorbents: Calcium silicate sorbents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kenney, M.E.; Chiang, Ray-Kuang

    1993-09-30

    A search is being carried out for new calcium-based SO{sub 2} sorbents for induct injection. More specifically, a search is being carried out for induct injection calcium silicate sorbents that are highly cost effective. The objectives of the past year were to study the sorption of SO{sub 2} by representative calcium silicates, to study the composition of the Ca(OH){sub 2}-fly ash sorbent, and to install a humidity sensor in the sorption system.

  4. The Maize Ncs2 Abnormal Growth Mutant Has a Chimeric Nad4-Nad7 Mitochondrial Gene and Is Associated with Reduced Complex I Function

    PubMed Central

    Marienfeld, J. R.; Newton, K. J.

    1994-01-01

    The molecular basis of the maternally inherited, heteroplasmic NCS2 mutant of maize was investigated. Analysis of the NCS2 mtDNA showed that it closely resembles the progenitor cmsT mitochondrial genome, except that the mutant genome contains a fused nad4-nad7 gene and is deleted for the small fourth exon of nad4. The rearrangement has occurred at a 16-bp repeat present in the third intron of the nad4 gene and in the second intron of the nad7 gene. Transcripts containing exon 4 of the nad4 gene are greatly reduced in mtRNA preparations from heteroplasmic NCS2 plants; larger transcripts are associated with the first three nad4 exons. Identical 5' ends of the nad4 transcripts have been mapped 396 and 247 bp upstream of the start codon in mtRNAs from both NCS2 and related non-NCS plants. The putative transcription termination signal of nad4 is deleted in mutant DNA, resulting in the production of the unique longer transcripts. The complex transcript pattern associated with nad7 is also altered in the mutant. Both nad4 and nad7 encode subunits of complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) of the mitochondrial electron transfer chain. Oxygen uptake experiments show that the functioning of complex I is specifically reduced in mitochondria isolated from NCS2 mutant plants. PMID:7851780

  5. A visual physiological temperature sensor developed with gelatin-stabilized luminescent silver nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Lan, Jing; Zou, Hongyan; Liu, Zexi; Gao, Mingxuan; Chen, Binbin; Li, Yuanfang; Huang, Chengzhi

    2015-10-01

    A visual physiological temperature sensor was successfully developed with newly hydrothermally prepared fluorescent silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) at room temperature using gelatin as the protective and reducing agent. The as-prepared gelatin-stabilized AgNCs was water-soluble, uniform and exhibited a narrow distribution with an average size of 1.16 nm, showing a maximum emission band at 552 nm (2.45 eV) when excited at 445 nm (2.79 eV). The large Stokes shift of 110 nm of the gelatin-stabilized AgNCs makes it actually applicable with very low background and light scattering interferences. It was found that the as-prepared gelatin-stabilized AgNCs is temperature-sensitive over the range from 5°C to 45°C, and thus a visual physiological temperature sensor could be developed with the gelatin-AgNCs as under the irradiation of visible light.

  6. Calcium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... if a person has symptoms of a parathyroid disorder , malabsorption , or an overactive thyroid. A total calcium level is often measured as part of a routine health screening. It is included in the comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) and the basic metabolic panel (BMP) , ...

  7. Calcium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for calcium cyanide is included in th

  8. DFT structural investigation on Fe(1,10-phenanthroline){sub 2} (NCS){sub 2} spin crossover molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Chiş, V.; Isai, R.; Droghetti, A.; Rungger, I.; Sanvito, S.; Morari, C.

    2013-11-13

    Understanding the coupling of spin crossover molecules to metallic surfaces is a key ingredient for harnessing of their remarkable features for future spintronics applications. Here we investigate the structural and electronic properties of deformed Fe(1,10-phenanthroline){sub 2} (NCS){sub 2} molecules, mimicking the possible effects arising from the interaction with a metallic substrate. We find a relatively large structural flexibility for this molecule, accompanied by small changes in their total energy. This suggests that the spin crossover activity can be modulated by the interaction with the substrate.

  9. Heterogeneous Nature of Relaxation Dynamics of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids (EMIm)2[Co(NCS)4] and (BMIm)2[Co(NCS)4

    SciTech Connect

    Hensel-Bielowka, Stella; Wojnarowska, Zaneta; Dzida, Marzena; Zorębski, Edward; Zorębski, Michał; Geppert-Rybczyńska, Monika; Peppel, Tim; Grzybowska, Katarzyna; Wang, Yangyang; Sokolov, Alexei P.; Paluch, Marian

    2015-08-11

    Dynamic crossover above Tg has been recognized as a characteristic feature of molecular dynamics of liquids approaching glass transition. Experimentally, it is manifested as a change in Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann dependence or a breakdown of the Stokes–Einstein and related relations. In this study, we report the exception from this rather general pattern of behavior. By means of dielectric, ultrasonic, rheological, and calorimetric methods, dynamics of two good ionic conductors (BMIm)2[Co(NCS)4] and (EMIm)2[Co(NCS)4] of less common stoichiometry (2:1) was studied in a very broad temperature range. However, none of the mentioned dynamic changes was observed in the entire studied temperature range. On the contrary, the single VFT and the same fractional Walden coefficient were found for conductivity and viscosity changes over 12 decades. Finally and moreover, ultrasonic studies revealed that the data at temperatures which cover the normal liquid region cannot be fitted by a single exponential decay, and the Cole–Cole function should be used instead.

  10. Calcium and bone disease

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Harry C.; Robinson, Lisa J.; Huang, Christopher L.-H.; Sun, Li; Friedman, Peter A.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Zaidi, Mone

    2013-01-01

    Calcium transport and calcium signaling are of basic importance in bone cells. Bone is the major store of calcium and a key regulatory organ for calcium homeostasis. Bone, in major part, responds to calcium-dependent signals from the parathyroids and via vitamin D metabolites, although bone retains direct response to extracellular calcium if parathyroid regulation is lost. Improved understanding of calcium transporters and calcium-regulated cellular processes has resulted from analysis of genetic defects, including several defects with low or high bone mass. Osteoblasts deposit calcium by mechanisms including phosphate and calcium transport with alkalinization to absorb acid created by mineral deposition; cartilage calcium mineralization occurs by passive diffusion and phosphate production. Calcium mobilization by osteoclasts is mediated by acid secretion. Both bone forming and bone resorbing cells use calcium signals as regulators of differentiation and activity. This has been studied in more detail in osteoclasts, where both osteoclast differentiation and motility are regulated by calcium. PMID:21674636

  11. Uniformities in OSA-UCS and in NCS tested by color difference prediction based on principal hue components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indow, Tarow

    2002-06-01

    The OSA uniform color system is a 3-D collection of color samples according to the regular rhombohedral structure in which each color is surrounded by its 12 nearest neighbors, all perceptually equally different (local uniformity). The Swedish NCS system is a 3-D collection of color samples that vary gradually in each of the three perceptual attributes. It is not clear that this arrangement implies all neighboring pairs along the respective coordinates being perceptually equally different (local uniformity). Of pairs (j,k) of interest, predicted color differences djk were calculated that have the following property. Suppose an observer selects a pair of Munsell grays (Va, Vb) that matches in size with the color difference between (j,k), then djk=|Va-Vb| is predicted by djk, on the average, with error of 0.34 in Munsell V-unit. Variation of djk in this unit was in the order of 0.22V for nearest neighboring pairs (j,k) in various cleavage planes of OSA-UCS and in the order of 0.11V for neighboring pairs (j,k) along s-coordinate and c-coordinate in sheets with fixed hue of NCS. Both were well within the prediction error range, but some systematic trends in values of djk were found.

  12. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling. Typically about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and replaced each day. To supply this amount, one would need to consume about 600 mg of calcium, since calcium is not very efficiently absorbed. Calcium ...

  13. MicroRNA Biomarkers in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Emerging NanoSensors Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Pratik; Cho, Seok Keun; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Bjerrum, Morten Jannik; Lee, Phil Hyu; Kang, Ju-Hee; Bhang, Yong-Joo; Yang, Seong Wook

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential small RNA molecules (20–24 nt) that negatively regulate the expression of target genes at the post-transcriptional level. Due to their roles in a variety of biological processes, the aberrant expression profiles of miRNAs have been identified as biomarkers for many diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative diseases. In order to precisely, rapidly and economically monitor the expression of miRNAs, many cutting-edge nanotechnologies have been developed. One of the nanotechnologies, based on DNA encapsulated silver nanoclusters (DNA/AgNCs), has increasingly been adopted to create nanoscale bio-sensing systems due to its attractive optical properties, such as brightness, tuneable emission wavelengths and photostability. Using the DNA/AgNCs sensor methods, the presence of miRNAs can be detected simply by monitoring the fluorescence alteration of DNA/AgNCs sensors. We introduce these DNA/ AgNCs sensor methods and discuss their possible applications for detecting miRNA biomarkers in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:28122423

  14. MicroRNA Biomarkers in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Emerging Nano-Sensors Technology.

    PubMed

    Shah, Pratik; Cho, Seok Keun; Thulstrup, Peter Waaben; Bjerrum, Morten Jannik; Lee, Phil Hyu; Kang, Ju-Hee; Bhang, Yong-Joo; Yang, Seong Wook

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential small RNA molecules (20-24 nt) that negatively regulate the expression of target genes at the post-transcriptional level. Due to their roles in a variety of biological processes, the aberrant expression profiles of miRNAs have been identified as biomarkers for many diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative diseases. In order to precisely, rapidly and economically monitor the expression of miRNAs, many cutting-edge nanotechnologies have been developed. One of the nanotechnologies, based on DNA encapsulated silver nanoclusters (DNA/AgNCs), has increasingly been adopted to create nanoscale bio-sensing systems due to its attractive optical properties, such as brightness, tuneable emission wavelengths and photostability. Using the DNA/AgNCs sensor methods, the presence of miRNAs can be detected simply by monitoring the fluorescence alteration of DNA/AgNCs sensors. We introduce these DNA/ AgNCs sensor methods and discuss their possible applications for detecting miRNA biomarkers in neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Calcium in Plants

    PubMed Central

    WHITE, PHILIP J.; BROADLEY, MARTIN R.

    2003-01-01

    Calcium is an essential plant nutrient. It is required for various structural roles in the cell wall and membranes, it is a counter‐cation for inorganic and organic anions in the vacuole, and the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) is an obligate intracellular messenger coordinating responses to numerous developmental cues and environmental challenges. This article provides an overview of the nutritional requirements of different plants for Ca, and how this impacts on natural flora and the Ca content of crops. It also reviews recent work on (a) the mechanisms of Ca2+ transport across cellular membranes, (b) understanding the origins and specificity of [Ca2+]cyt signals and (c) characterizing the cellular [Ca2+]cyt‐sensors (such as calmodulin, calcineurin B‐like proteins and calcium‐dependent protein kinases) that allow plant cells to respond appropriately to [Ca2+]cyt signals. PMID:12933363

  16. Multiscale experimental and theoretical investigations of spin crossover Fe(II) complexes: examples of [Fe(phen)2(NCS)2] and [Fe(PM-BiA)2(NCS)2].

    PubMed

    Matar, Samir F; Guionneau, Philippe; Chastanet, Guillaume

    2015-02-12

    For spin crossover (SCO) complexes, computation results are reported and confirmed with experiments at multiscale levels of the isolated molecule and extended solid on the one hand and theory on the other hand. The SCO phenomenon which characterizes organometallics based on divalent iron in an octahedral FeN6-like environment with high spin (HS) and low spin (LS) states involves the LS/HS switching at the cost of small energies provided by temperature, pressure or light, the latter connected with Light-Induced Excited Spin-State Trapping (LIESST) process. Characteristic infra red (IR) and Raman vibration frequencies are computed within density functional theory (DFT) framework. In [Fe(phen)2(NCS)2] a connection of selected frequencies is established with an ultra-fast light-induced LS → HS photoswitching mechanism. In the extended solid, density of state DOS and electron localization function (ELF) are established for both LS and HS forms, leading to characterizion of the compound as an insulator in both spin states with larger gaps for LS configuration, while keeping molecular features in the solid. In [Fe(PM-BiA)2(NCS)2], by combining DFT and classical molecular dynamics, the properties and the domains of existence of the different phases are obtained by expressing the potential energy surfaces in a short range potential for Fe-N interactions. Applying such Fe-N potentials inserted in a classical force field and carrying out molecular dynamics (MD) in so-called "semi-classical MD" calculations, lead to the relative energies of HS/LS configurations of the crystal and to the assessment of the experimental (P, T) phase diagram.

  17. Multiscale Experimental and Theoretical Investigations of Spin Crossover FeII Complexes: Examples of [Fe(phen)2(NCS)2] and [Fe(PM-BiA)2(NCS)2

    PubMed Central

    Matar, Samir F.; Guionneau, Philippe; Chastanet, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    For spin crossover (SCO) complexes, computation results are reported and confirmed with experiments at multiscale levels of the isolated molecule and extended solid on the one hand and theory on the other hand. The SCO phenomenon which characterizes organometallics based on divalent iron in an octahedral FeN6-like environment with high spin (HS) and low spin (LS) states involves the LS/HS switching at the cost of small energies provided by temperature, pressure or light, the latter connected with Light-Induced Excited Spin-State Trapping (LIESST) process. Characteristic infra red (IR) and Raman vibration frequencies are computed within density functional theory (DFT) framework. In [Fe(phen)2(NCS)2] a connection of selected frequencies is established with an ultra-fast light-induced LS → HS photoswitching mechanism. In the extended solid, density of state DOS and electron localization function (ELF) are established for both LS and HS forms, leading to characterizion of the compound as an insulator in both spin states with larger gaps for LS configuration, while keeping molecular features in the solid. In [Fe(PM-BiA)2(NCS)2], by combining DFT and classical molecular dynamics, the properties and the domains of existence of the different phases are obtained by expressing the potential energy surfaces in a short range potential for Fe–N interactions. Applying such Fe–N potentials inserted in a classical force field and carrying out molecular dynamics (MD) in so-called “semi-classical MD” calculations, lead to the relative energies of HS/LS configurations of the crystal and to the assessment of the experimental (P, T) phase diagram. PMID:25686037

  18. Calcium and Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... A calcium-rich diet (including dairy, nuts, leafy greens and fish) helps to build and protect your ... yogurt and cheese are high in calcium. Certain green vegetables and other foods contain calcium in smaller ...

  19. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scan Coronary Calcium Scan Related Topics Angina Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Electrocardiogram Heart Attack Send a link to NHLBI ... calcium, or calcifications, are a sign of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, or coronary microvascular disease. A coronary calcium scan ...

  20. Calculated impact of ferromagnetic substrate on the spin crossover in a Fe(1 ,10 -phenanthroline) 2(NCS) 2 molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueddida, S.; Alouani, M.

    2016-05-01

    Spin crossover in the Fe(1 ,10 -phenanthroline) 2(NCS) 2 (Fephen) molecule adsorbed on ferromagnetic cobalt (001) and (111) surfaces as well as a gold (001) surface has been studied using the projector augmented wave method in conjunction with the density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation, including a Hubbard interaction U at the iron site and a van der Waals weak interaction between the molecule and the surface. It is shown that the energy difference between the high-spin (HS) and the low-spin (LS) states and the energy barrier of Fephen/Co(111) are significantly reduced compared to those of the adsorbed molecule on Cu(001) and Au(001). This makes the switching of the molecule from the HS to the LS state much easier than when the molecule is adsorbed on a copper or gold substrate. It is also shown that an indirect exchange mechanism is responsible for the ferromagnetic coupling between the Fe center of Fephen and the cobalt substrate and that, in the LS state, the Fephen/Co interface remains magnetically active due to small induced magnetic moments in the NCS group and iron center. This magnetic coupling between the molecule and the substrate decreases in an oscillatory fashion as a function of the number of copper layers inserted between the molecule and the cobalt substrate, in a manner similar to that of the interlayer magnetic exchange coupling. Finally, scanning tunneling microscopy images at the Fermi level show that the separation between the phen lobes is larger in the HS state than in the LS state and the work functions of cobalt, gold, and copper substrates are strongly reduced upon adsorption of the Fephen molecule.

  1. Highly enantioselective alpha-chlorination of cyclic beta-ketoesters catalyzed by N,N'-dioxide using NCS as the chlorine source.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yunfei; Wang, Wentao; Shen, Ke; Wang, Jun; Hu, Xiaolei; Lin, Lili; Liu, Xiaohua; Feng, Xiaoming

    2010-02-28

    A simple and highly efficient N,N'-dioxide organocatalyst system was developed for the asymmetric alpha-chlorination of cyclic beta-ketoesters using easily available NCS as the chlorine source to provide a series of optically active alpha-chloro-beta-ketoesters in excellent yields with 90-98% ee.

  2. Lifetime Prevalence of Mental Disorders in U.S. Adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merikangas, Kathleen Ries; He, Jian-ping; Burstein, Marcy; Swanson, Sonja A.; Avenevoli, Shelli; Cui, Lihong; Benjet, Corina; Georgiades, Katholiki; Swendsen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To present estimates of the lifetime prevalence of "DSM-IV" mental disorders with and without severe impairment, their comorbidity across broad classes of disorder, and their sociodemographic correlates. Method: The National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement NCS-A is a nationally representative face-to-face survey of…

  3. Effect of air-annealing on the morphological, microstructural and optical properties of CdSe NCs grown into porous anodic alumina template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laatar, F.; Hassen, M.; Smida, A.; Riahi, R.; Bel Haj Mohamed, N.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, cadmium selenide nanocrystals (CdSe NCs) were embedded into porous anodic alumina (PAA) template by simple immersion in aqueous solution containing L-cysteine (Cys) functionalized CdSe NCs and water. The prepared samples were heat treated at different temperatures between 150 and 300 °C during 30 min under air. The effect of thermal treatment under air on the CdSe NCs/PAA has been shown from morphological, microstructural and optical studies. Several characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy were used to investigate the surface morphology and microstructural properties of CdSe nanoparticles on the PAA template as function of air-annealing temperature. XRD study shows the transformation phase of deposited CdSe nanoparticles on the PAA template from cubic structure to hexagonal structure at 300 °C. The morphology of CdSe nanorods array which are into the PAA surface were exhibited by AFM scan. Optical properties of CdSe NCs into PAA have been studied at different air-annealing temperatures using optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results showed that the crystal quality was significantly improved with the annealing temperature increase, bringing about an enhancement in PL and a decrease in optical band gap from 2.44 to 2.2 eV exhibiting a red shift.

  4. From Too Much Freedom to Too Much Restriction: The Case of Teacher Autonomy from National Curriculum Statement (NCS) to Curriculum and Assessment Statement (CAPS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramatlapana, K.; Makonye, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    The major curricula revisions in South Africa in the last two decades or so have changed the curriculum landscape. These revisions are meant to effect among other issues, the socio-economic development for all through quality education. The latest curricula transition from National Curriculum Statement (NCS) to Curriculum and Assessment Policy…

  5. Synthesis and structure of R{sub 2}[UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}] (R = Rb or Cs)

    SciTech Connect

    Serezhkin, V. N.; Peresypkina, E. V.; Grigor’eva, V. A.; Virovets, A. V.; Serezhkina, L. B.

    2015-01-15

    Crystals Rb{sub 2}[UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}] (I) and Cs{sub 2}[UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}] (II) have been synthesized and studied by IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Crystals I are monoclinic, with the following parameters: a = 12.2118(5) Å, b = 10.2545(3) Å, c = 11.8754(4) Å, β = 110.287(1)°, sp. gr. C2/c, Z = 4, and R = 0.0523. Crystals II are orthorhombic, with a = 13.7309(3) Å, b = 10.5749(2) Å, c = 10.1891(2) Å, sp. gr. Pnma, Z = 4, and R = 0.0411. The basic structural units of crystals I and II are one-core complexes [UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}]{sup 2−}, which belong to the crystallochemical group cis-AB{sub 2}{sup 01}M{sub 2}{sup 1} (A = UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, B{sup 01} = NO{sub 3}{sup −}, M{sup 1} = NCS{sup −}), which are combined into a framework via electrostatic interactions with ions of alkaline metals R (R = Rb or Cs). The structural features of crystals I and II, which condition the formation of [UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}]{sup 2−} complexes with a cis rather than a trans position of isothiocyanate ions in the coordination sphere of uranyl ions, are discussed.

  6. Imaging calcium in neurons.

    PubMed

    Grienberger, Christine; Konnerth, Arthur

    2012-03-08

    Calcium ions generate versatile intracellular signals that control key functions in all types of neurons. Imaging calcium in neurons is particularly important because calcium signals exert their highly specific functions in well-defined cellular subcompartments. In this Primer, we briefly review the general mechanisms of neuronal calcium signaling. We then introduce the calcium imaging devices, including confocal and two-photon microscopy as well as miniaturized devices that are used in freely moving animals. We provide an overview of the classical chemical fluorescent calcium indicators and of the protein-based genetically encoded calcium indicators. Using application examples, we introduce new developments in the field, such as calcium imaging in awake, behaving animals and the use of calcium imaging for mapping single spine sensory inputs in cortical neurons in vivo. We conclude by providing an outlook on the prospects of calcium imaging for the analysis of neuronal signaling and plasticity in various animal models.

  7. Calcium/calmodulin-mediated signal network in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Tianbao; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2003-01-01

    Various extracellular stimuli elicit specific calcium signatures that can be recognized by different calcium sensors. Calmodulin, the predominant calcium receptor, is one of the best-characterized calcium sensors in eukaryotes. In recent years, completion of the Arabidopsis genome project and advances in functional genomics have helped to identify and characterize numerous calmodulin-binding proteins in plants. There are some similarities in Ca(2+)/calmodulin-mediated signaling in plants and animals. However, plants possess multiple calmodulin genes and many calmodulin target proteins, including unique protein kinases and transcription factors. Some of these proteins are likely to act as "hubs" during calcium signal transduction. Hence, a better understanding of the function of these calmodulin target proteins should help in deciphering the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-mediated signal network and its role in plant growth, development and response to environmental stimuli.

  8. Extracellular calcium sensing and extracellular calcium signaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. M.; MacLeod, R. J.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    , localized changes in Ca(o)(2+) within the ECF can originate from several mechanisms, including fluxes of calcium ions into or out of cellular or extracellular stores or across epithelium that absorb or secrete Ca(2+). In any event, the CaR and other receptors/sensors for Ca(o)(2+) and probably for other extracellular ions represent versatile regulators of numerous cellular functions and may serve as important therapeutic targets.

  9. A "turn-on" fluorescent sensor for ozone detection in ambient air using protein-directed gold nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Qi, Wenjing; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Qing

    2017-04-01

    A "turn-on" fluorescent sensor for ozone using bovine serum albumin-directed gold nanoclusters (BSA-Au NCs) via energy transfer was developed. The spectral overlap of fluorescent spectrum of BSA-Au NCs with absorption spectrum of indigo carmine (IDS) was utilized. Ozone cleaves C = C bond of IDS and suppresses energy transfer from BSA-Au NCs to IDS. Therefore, this proposed fluorescent sensor is a "turn-on" detection motif. It is the first application of fluorescent nanoclusters in sensitively detecting ozone from 0.2 to 12 μM with the limit of detection of 35 nM (the volume of 500 μL, 1.68 ppb). The proposed fluorescent sensor for ozone is more sensitive and faster (within 2 min) than most methods and is with good selectivity for ozone detection against other reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen, or metallic ions. Besides, the proposed method is also utlized in ozone detection in ambient air by monitoring 1 h (60 min) in Qijiang district in Chongqing city. The average of concentration of ozone in ambient air ranges from 44.97 to 52.85 μg/m(3). The results are compared with the automatic monitoring data provided by Qijiang Environmental Monitoring Station and the relative deviations range, respectively, from 2.1 to 5.6%, which suggests that it is a promising fluorescent sensor for ozone in ambient air. This study not only develops a new model of energy transfer motif using BSA-Au NCs as donor and IDS as acceptor but also expands the application of BSA-Au NCs in environmental science. Graphical abstract A "turn-on" fluorescent sensor for ozone detection using bovine serum albumin-directed gold nanoclusters (BSA-Au NCs) via energy transfer is developed. It is the first time to utilize spectral overlap of fluorescent spectrum of BSA-Au NCs with absorption spectrum of indigo carmine and to achieve fast, sensitive, and selective ozone detection with a limit of detection of down to 35 nM (the volume of 500 μL, 1.68 ppb).

  10. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  11. [Do cows drink calcium?].

    PubMed

    Geishauser, T; Lechner, S; Plate, I; Heidemann, B

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how well cows drink the Propeller calcium drink, and it's effect on blood calcium concentration. Drinking was tested in 120 cows right after calving, before cows drank anything else. 60 cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or 20 liters of water. Cows drank the Propeller as good as water. 72% of all cows drank all 20 liters, 18% drank on average 8.2 liters and 10% drank less than 1 liter. Blood calcium concentration was studied in 16 cows right after calving. Eight cows each were offered 20 liters of Propeller calcium drink or no calcium drink. Blood calcium significantly increased ten minutes after Propeller intake and stayed significantly elevated for 24 hours. Without calcium drink blood calcium levels decreased significantly. Advantages of the new Propeller calcium drink over calcium gels or boli could be that cows now drink calcium themselves and that the Propeller increases blood calcium concentration rapidly and long lasting.

  12. Handling packet dropouts and random delays for unstable delayed processes in NCS by optimal tuning of PIλDμ controllers with evolutionary algorithms.

    PubMed

    Pan, Indranil; Das, Saptarshi; Gupta, Amitava

    2011-10-01

    The issues of stochastically varying network delays and packet dropouts in Networked Control System (NCS) applications have been simultaneously addressed by time domain optimal tuning of fractional order (FO) PID controllers. Different variants of evolutionary algorithms are used for the tuning process and their performances are compared. Also the effectiveness of the fractional order PI(λ)D(μ) controllers over their integer order counterparts is looked into. Two standard test bench plants with time delay and unstable poles which are encountered in process control applications are tuned with the proposed method to establish the validity of the tuning methodology. The proposed tuning methodology is independent of the specific choice of plant and is also applicable for less complicated systems. Thus it is useful in a wide variety of scenarios. The paper also shows the superiority of FOPID controllers over their conventional PID counterparts for NCS applications.

  13. Store-Operated Calcium Channels.

    PubMed

    Prakriya, Murali; Lewis, Richard S

    2015-10-01

    Store-operated calcium channels (SOCs) are a major pathway for calcium signaling in virtually all metozoan cells and serve a wide variety of functions ranging from gene expression, motility, and secretion to tissue and organ development and the immune response. SOCs are activated by the depletion of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), triggered physiologically through stimulation of a diverse set of surface receptors. Over 15 years after the first characterization of SOCs through electrophysiology, the identification of the STIM proteins as ER Ca(2+) sensors and the Orai proteins as store-operated channels has enabled rapid progress in understanding the unique mechanism of store-operate calcium entry (SOCE). Depletion of Ca(2+) from the ER causes STIM to accumulate at ER-plasma membrane (PM) junctions where it traps and activates Orai channels diffusing in the closely apposed PM. Mutagenesis studies combined with recent structural insights about STIM and Orai proteins are now beginning to reveal the molecular underpinnings of these choreographic events. This review describes the major experimental advances underlying our current understanding of how ER Ca(2+) depletion is coupled to the activation of SOCs. Particular emphasis is placed on the molecular mechanisms of STIM and Orai activation, Orai channel properties, modulation of STIM and Orai function, pharmacological inhibitors of SOCE, and the functions of STIM and Orai in physiology and disease.

  14. Store-Operated Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Store-operated calcium channels (SOCs) are a major pathway for calcium signaling in virtually all metozoan cells and serve a wide variety of functions ranging from gene expression, motility, and secretion to tissue and organ development and the immune response. SOCs are activated by the depletion of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), triggered physiologically through stimulation of a diverse set of surface receptors. Over 15 years after the first characterization of SOCs through electrophysiology, the identification of the STIM proteins as ER Ca2+ sensors and the Orai proteins as store-operated channels has enabled rapid progress in understanding the unique mechanism of store-operate calcium entry (SOCE). Depletion of Ca2+ from the ER causes STIM to accumulate at ER-plasma membrane (PM) junctions where it traps and activates Orai channels diffusing in the closely apposed PM. Mutagenesis studies combined with recent structural insights about STIM and Orai proteins are now beginning to reveal the molecular underpinnings of these choreographic events. This review describes the major experimental advances underlying our current understanding of how ER Ca2+ depletion is coupled to the activation of SOCs. Particular emphasis is placed on the molecular mechanisms of STIM and Orai activation, Orai channel properties, modulation of STIM and Orai function, pharmacological inhibitors of SOCE, and the functions of STIM and Orai in physiology and disease. PMID:26400989

  15. Calcium and Mitosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  16. An ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor based on the synergistic effect of quaternary Cu2SnZnS4 NCs and cyclodextrin-functionalized graphene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Zhang, Yihe; Du, Ruifeng; Li, Jinhong; Yu, Xuelian

    2017-02-27

    In this study, highly monodispersed Cu2SnZnS4 NCs with a quasi-spherical structure were prepared to construct a sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor for alpha-fetoprotein detection. Quaternary Cu2SnZnS4 NCs as novel biomimetic catalysts show an efficient intrinsic peroxidase-like activity for H2O2 reduction. This excellent catalytic activity is ascribed to the higher electroconductivity than those of the binary Cu2S and ternary Cu2SnS3 NCs. Moreover, β-cyclodextrin-functionalized graphene sheets are used as substrate materials that can capture large amounts of primary antibodies due to host-guest interaction and high surface area. Under the optimized conditions, the electrochemical immunosensor exhibites a wide working range from 0.5 pg mL(-1) to 10 ng mL(-1) and a detection limit of 0.16 pg mL(-1) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. Good sensitivity, reproducibility, and stability demonstrate its potential application in clinical diagnostics.

  17. Molecular Basis of Substrate Promiscuity for the SAM-Dependent O-Methyltransferase NcsB1, Involved in the Biosynthesis of the Enediyne Antitumor Antibiotic Neocarzinostatin

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, H.; Guenther, E; Luo, Y; Shen, B; Bruner, S

    2009-01-01

    The small molecule component of chromoprotein enediyne antitumor antibiotics is biosynthesized through a convergent route, incorporating amino acid, polyketide, and carbohydrate building blocks around a central enediyne hydrocarbon core. The naphthoic acid moiety of the enediyne neocarzinostatin plays key roles in the biological activity of the natural product by interacting with both the carrier protein and duplex DNA at the site of action. We have previously described the in vitro characterization of an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent O-methyltransferase (NcsB1) in the neocarzinostatin biosynthetic pathway [Luo, Y., Lin, S., Zhang, J., Cooke, H. A., Bruner, S. D., and Shen, B. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283, 14694-14702]. Here we provide a structural basis for NcsB1 activity, illustrating that the enzyme shares an overall architecture with a large family of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent proteins. In addition, NcsB1 represents the first enzyme to be structurally characterized in the biosynthetic pathway of neocarzinostatin. By cocrystallizing the enzyme with various combinations of the cofactor and substrate analogues, details of the active site structure have been established. Changes in subdomain orientation were observed via comparison of structures in the presence and absence of substrate, suggesting that reorientation of the enzyme is involved in binding of the substrate. In addition, residues important for substrate discrimination were predicted and probed through site-directed mutagenesis and in vitro biochemical characterization.

  18. Molecular basis of substrate promiscuity for the SAM-dependent O-methyltransferase NcsB1, involved in the biosynthesis of the enediyne antitumor antibiotic neocarzinostatin.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Heather A; Guenther, Elizabeth L; Luo, Yinggang; Shen, Ben; Bruner, Steven D

    2009-10-13

    The small molecule component of chromoprotein enediyne antitumor antibiotics is biosynthesized through a convergent route, incorporating amino acid, polyketide, and carbohydrate building blocks around a central enediyne hydrocarbon core. The naphthoic acid moiety of the enediyne neocarzinostatin plays key roles in the biological activity of the natural product by interacting with both the carrier protein and duplex DNA at the site of action. We have previously described the in vitro characterization of an S-adenosylmethionine-dependent O-methyltransferase (NcsB1) in the neocarzinostatin biosynthetic pathway [Luo, Y., Lin, S., Zhang, J., Cooke, H. A., Bruner, S. D., and Shen, B. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283, 14694-14702]. Here we provide a structural basis for NcsB1 activity, illustrating that the enzyme shares an overall architecture with a large family of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent proteins. In addition, NcsB1 represents the first enzyme to be structurally characterized in the biosynthetic pathway of neocarzinostatin. By cocrystallizing the enzyme with various combinations of the cofactor and substrate analogues, details of the active site structure have been established. Changes in subdomain orientation were observed via comparison of structures in the presence and absence of substrate, suggesting that reorientation of the enzyme is involved in binding of the substrate. In addition, residues important for substrate discrimination were predicted and probed through site-directed mutagenesis and in vitro biochemical characterization.

  19. Enantiomeric separation of D,L-tryptophan and D,L-kynurenine by HPLC using pre-column fluorescence derivatization with R(-)-DBD-PyNCS.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Hideaki; Hirasa, Yasushi; Kubo, Kazumi; Ishii, Kana; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa; Fukushima, Takeshi

    2011-07-01

    The enantiomeric separation of D,L-tryptophan (Trp) and D,L-kynurenine (KYN) was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography using pre-column fluorescence derivatization with a chiral fluorescent labeling reagent, R(-)-4-(3-isothiocyanatopyrrolidin-1-yl)-7- (N,N-dimethylaminosulfonyl)-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole [R(-)-DBD-PyNCS]. Using an octadecylsilica column, namely, an Inertsil ODS-3 column (250 x 2.0 mm; i.d., 3 μm), four fluorescence peaks of D- and L-Trp as well as D- and L-KYN derivatized with R(-)-DBD-PyNCS were clearly observed, and their chemical structures were confirmed by HPLC-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. Simultaneous separation was achieved under the mobile phase condition of 1.5% acetic acid in H₂O-CH₃CN (60:40), and the separation factors of D,L-Trp and D,L-KYN derivatized with R(-)-DBD-PyNCS were 1.22 and 1.19, respectively. Fluorescence detection was carried out by setting the emission wavelength at 565 nm, and the excitation wavelength at 440 nm, and the detection limits were approximately 0.3-0.5 pmol (signal-to-noise ratio of 3).

  20. Calcium and bones

    MedlinePlus

    ... very bad at absorbing calcium. Most people absorb only 15% to 20% of the calcium they eat in their diet. Vitamin D is the hormone that helps the gut absorb more calcium. Many older adults have common risks that make bone health worse. ...

  1. Get Enough Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... a food with 45% DV of calcium. Check food labels. The Daily Value (DV) on a food label tells you the amount of a nutrient (like ... serving, or 60% DV. Learn how to check food labels for calcium information. Use this calcium shopping list ...

  2. Spectral and structural properties of 2D network complex [Ni(4,4'-bipyridine) 2(NCS) 2] n

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Jianmin, L.; Nishiura, M.; Imamoto, T.

    2000-02-01

    The complex [Ni(4,4'-bipyridine) 2(NCS) 2] n, in which nickel atoms are linked by two different Ni-4,4'-bpy-Ni assemblies to form two-dimensional distorted square net structure and the most effective packing of layers, has been isolated and structurally characterized. It represents the first example of Ni(II)-4,4'-bpy complex possesses 2D network. Crystal data for I: Fw=487.23, a=12.156(3), b=11.38(2), c=16.646(8) Å, β=100.43(3), V=2265(1) Å3, Z=4, space group=C2/c, T=298 K, λ((Mo-K α)=0.71070 Å, ρ calc=1.429 g cm -3, μ=10.62 cm-1, F(000)=1000, R=0.054, Rw=0.086, GOF=3.98. The UV-VIS absorption spectrum of the title complex is also reported and explained perfectly by the scaling radial theory which proposed by us. The strong and broad absorption bands occurred at 10433, 16830, 26556 cm -1, and they are assigned as d-d transitions of Ni(II) ion in octahedral field: 3A2g→ 3T2ga,b+ 3T2gc; 3A2g→ 3T1gz+ 3T1gy,x; 3A2g→ 3T1gz+ 3T1gy,x. The calculated results of the d-d transition energy levels agree well with the experimental values.

  3. Spindle function in Xenopus oocytes involves possible nanodomain calcium signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruizhen; Leblanc, Julie; He, Kevin; Liu, X. Johné

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular calcium transients are a universal phenomenon at fertilization and are required for egg activation, but the exact role of Ca2+ in second-polar-body emission remains unknown. On the other hand, similar calcium transients have not been demonstrated during oocyte maturation, and yet, manipulating intracellular calcium levels interferes with first-polar-body emission in mice and frogs. To determine the precise role of calcium signaling in polar body formation, we used live-cell imaging coupled with temporally precise intracellular calcium buffering. We found that BAPTA-based calcium chelators cause immediate depolymerization of spindle microtubules in meiosis I and meiosis II. Surprisingly, EGTA at similar or higher intracellular concentrations had no effect on spindle function or polar body emission. Using two calcium probes containing permutated GFP and the calcium sensor calmodulin (Lck-GCaMP3 and GCaMP3), we demonstrated enrichment of the probes at the spindle but failed to detect calcium increase during oocyte maturation at the spindle or elsewhere. Finally, endogenous calmodulin was found to colocalize with spindle microtubules throughout all stages of meiosis. Our results—most important, the different sensitivities of the spindle to BAPTA and EGTA—suggest that meiotic spindle function in frog oocytes requires highly localized, or nanodomain, calcium signaling. PMID:27582389

  4. Y, Lu, and Gd complexes of NCO/NCS pincer ligands: synthesis, characterization, and catalysis in the cis-1,4-selective polymerization of isoprene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingshun; Hao, Zhiqiang; Gao, Wei; Xin, Lan; Zhang, Lei; Mu, Ying

    2013-09-01

    A series of NCO/NCS pincer precursors, 3-(Ar(2)OCH2)-2-Br-(Ar(1)N=CH)C6H3 (((Ar1)NCO(Ar2))Br, 3a-d) and 3-(2,6-Me2C6H3SCH2)-2-Br-(Ar(1)N=CH)C6H3 (((Ar1)NCS(Me))Br, 4a and 4b) were synthesized and characterized. The reactions of [(Ar1)NCO(Ar2)]Br/[(Ar1)NCS(Me)]Br with nBuLi and the subsequent addition of the rare-earth-metal chlorides afforded their corresponding rare-earth-metal-pincer complexes, that is, [((Ar1)NCO(Ar2))YCl2(thf)2] (5a-d), [((Ar1)NCO(Ar2))LuCl2(thf)2] (6a, 6d), [((Ar1)NCO(Ar2))GdCl2(thf)2] (7), [{((Ar1)NCS(Me))Y(μ-Cl)}2{(μ-Cl)Li(thf)2(μ-Cl)}2] (8, 9), and [{((Ar1)NCS(Me))Gd(μ-Cl)}2{(μ-Cl)Li(thf)2(μ-Cl)}2] (10, 11). These diamagnetic complexes were characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and the molecular structures of compounds 5a, 6a, 7, and 10 were well-established by X-ray diffraction analysis. In compounds 5a, 6a, and 7, all of the metal centers adopted distorted pentagonal bipyramidal geometries with the NCO donors and two oxygen atoms from the coordinated THF molecules in equatorial positions and the two chlorine atoms in apical positions. Complex 10 is a dimer in which the two equal moieties are linked by two chlorine atoms and two Cl-Li-Cl bridges. In each part, the gadolinium atom adopts a distorted pentagonal bipyramidal geometry. Activated with alkylaluminum and borate, the gadolinium and yttrium complexes showed various activities towards the polymerization of isoprene, thereby affording highly cis-1,4-selective polyisoprene, whilst the NCO-lutetium complexes were inert under the same conditions.

  5. Sense and specificity in neuronal calcium signalling☆

    PubMed Central

    Burgoyne, Robert D.; Haynes, Lee P.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2 +]i) in neurons regulate many and varied aspects of neuronal function over time scales from microseconds to days. The mystery is how a single signalling ion can lead to such diverse and specific changes in cell function. This is partly due to aspects of the Ca2 + signal itself, including its magnitude, duration, localisation and persistent or oscillatory nature. The transduction of the Ca2 + signal requires Ca2 + binding to various Ca2 + sensor proteins. The different properties of these sensors are important for differential signal processing and determine the physiological specificity of Ca2 + signalling pathways. A major factor underlying the specific roles of particular Ca2 + sensor proteins is the nature of their interaction with target proteins and how this mediates unique patterns of regulation. We review here recent progress from structural analyses and from functional analyses in model organisms that have begun to reveal the rules that underlie Ca2 + sensor protein specificity for target interaction. We discuss three case studies exemplifying different aspects of Ca2 + sensor/target interaction. This article is part of a special issue titled the 13th European Symposium on Calcium. PMID:25447549

  6. Another dimension to calcium signaling: a look at extracellular calcium.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Aldebaran M

    2005-03-01

    Cell biologists know the calcium ion best as a vital intracellular second messenger that governs countless cellular functions. However, the recent identification of cell-surface detectors for extracellular Ca(2+) has prompted consideration of whether Ca(2+) also functions as a signaling molecule in the extracellular milieu. The cast of Ca(2+) sensors includes the well-characterized extracellular-Ca(2+)-sensing receptor, a G-protein-coupled receptor originally isolated from the parathyroid gland. In addition, other receptors, channels and membrane proteins, such as gap junction hemichannels, metabotropic glutamate receptors, HERG K(+) channels and the receptor Notch, are all sensitive to external [Ca(2+)] fluctuations. A recently cloned Ca(2+) sensor (CAS) in Arabidopsis extends this concept to the plant kingdom. Emerging evidence indicates that [Ca(2+)] in the local microenvironment outside the cell undergoes alterations potentially sufficient to exert biological actions through these sensor proteins. The extracellular space might therefore constitute a much more dynamic Ca(2+) signaling compartment than previously appreciated.

  7. High sensitivity hydrogen peroxide and hydrazine sensor based on silver nanocubes with rich {100} facets as an enhanced electrochemical sensing platform.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinhu; Yang, Xuejuan; Bai, Jing; Jiang, Xiue; Fan, Gungyin

    2013-05-15

    We report a novel hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydrazine sensor based on low-cost poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-protected silver nanocubes (PVP-AgNCs). The monodisperse silver nanocubes were prepared by adding a trace amount of sodium sulfide in the conventional polyol synthesis for fast reduction of silver nitrate under protection of argon. The sensor was fabricated by simple casting of PVP-AgNCs aqueous solution on a glassy carbon electrode and the performance was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and amperometric techniques. It was found that the resulting sensor exhibited extremely good performance toward H2O2 detection with wide linear response ranging from 0.05 to 70mM (R=0.996) at -0.3V and low detection limit of 0.18μM estimated at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. In addition, the fabricated sensor also exhibited high sensitivity toward the detection of hydrazine with a low detection limit of 1.1μM, wide linear range from 0.005 to 0.46mM (R=0.999) at 0.4V and rapid amperometric response time of less than 2s. For both analytes, the sensor exhibited good reproducibility, selectivity and stability. The excellent performance of the sensor might be attributed to the enhanced electrochemical sensing property of well-defined PVP-AgNCs with rich {100} facets.

  8. Stretch-activated calcium channels relay fast calcium waves propagated by calcium-induced calcium influx.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Lionel F

    2007-03-01

    For nearly 30 years, fast calcium waves have been attributed to a regenerative process propagated by CICR (calcium-induced calcium release) from the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, I propose a model containing a new subclass of fast calcium waves which is propagated by CICI (calcium-induced calcium influx) through the plasma membrane. They are called fast CICI waves. These move at the order of 100 to 1000 microm/s (at 20 degrees C), rather than the order of 3 to 30 microm/s found for CICR. Moreover, in this proposed subclass, the calcium influx which drives calcium waves is relayed by stretch-activated calcium channels. This model is based upon reports from approx. 60 various systems. In seven of these reports, calcium waves were imaged, and, in five of these, evidence was presented that these waves were regenerated by CICI. Much of this model involves waves that move along functioning flagella and cilia. In these systems, waves of local calcium influx are thought to cause waves of local contraction by inducing the sliding of dynein or of kinesin past tubulin microtubules. Other cells which are reported to exhibit waves, which move at speeds in the fast CICI range, include ones from a dozen protozoa, three polychaete worms, three molluscs, a bryozoan, two sea urchins, one arthropod, four insects, Amphioxus, frogs, two fish and a vascular plant (Equisetum), together with numerous healthy, as well as cancerous, mammalian cells, including ones from human. In two of these systems, very gentle local mechanical stimulation is reported to initiate waves. In these non-flagellar systems, the calcium influxes are thought to speed the sliding of actinomyosin filaments past each other. Finally, I propose that this mechanochemical model could be tested by seeing if gentle mechanical stimulation induces waves in more of these systems and, more importantly, by imaging the predicted calcium waves in more of them.

  9. Protein ligand-tethered synthetic calcium indicator for localization control and spatiotemporal calcium imaging in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Yousuke; Shigenaga, Miyuki; Imai, Masaki; Nukadzuka, Yuuki; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Saito, Kei; Yokoyama, Ryusuke; Nishitani, Kazuhiko; Ueda, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    In plant biology, calcium ions are involved in a variety of intriguing biological phenomena as a secondary messenger. However, most conventional calcium indicators are not applicable for plant cells because of the difficulty with their localization control in plant cells. We here introduce a method to monitor spatiotemporal Ca(2+) dynamics in living plant cells based on linking the synthetic calcium indicator Calcium Green-1 to a natural product-based protein ligand. In a proof-of-concept study using cultured BY-2 cells overexpressing the target protein for the ligand, the ligand-tethered probe accumulated in the cytosol and nucleus, and enabled real-time monitoring of the cytosolic and nucleus Ca(2+) dynamics under the physiological condition. The present strategy using ligand-tethered fluorescent sensors may be successfully applied to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of calcium ions in living plant cells.

  10. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement thickening products, and many ...

  11. Calcium: total or ionized?

    PubMed

    Schenck, Patricia A; Chew, Dennis J

    2008-05-01

    Measurement of serum total calcium (tCa) has been relied on for assessment of calcium status, despite the fact that it is the ionized calcium (iCa) fraction that has biologic activity. Serum tCa does not accurately predict iCa status in many clinical conditions. For accurate assessment of iCa status, iCa should be directly measured. Anaerobic measurement of serum iCa under controlled conditions provides the most reliable assessment of calcium status; aerobic measurement of iCa with species-specific pH correction is highly correlated with anaerobic measurements.

  12. Synthesis, structural and electrical properties of [C{sub 2}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}][(SnCl(NCS){sub 2}]{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Karoui, Sahel; Kamoun, Slaheddine; Jouini, Amor

    2013-01-15

    Synthesis, structural and electrical properties are given for a new organic stannous pseudo halide material. The structure of the [C{sub 2}H{sub 10}N{sub 2}][(SnCl(NCS){sub 2}]{sub 2} reveals that the adjacent Sn(II) centres are bridged by a pair of SCN{sup -} anions to form a 1-D array giving rise to the anionic chains (SnCl(NCS){sub 2}){sub n}{sup n-}. These chains are themselves interconnected by means of N-H Horizontal-Ellipsis Cl(S) hydrogen bonds originating from the organic cation [(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}(CH{sub 2}){sub 2}]{sup 2+}. The AC impedance measurements were performed as a function of both frequency and temperature. The electrical conduction and dielectric relaxation have been studied. The activation energy associated with the electrical relaxation determined from the electric modulus spectra was found close to that of the activation energy obtained for DC conductivity. The conduction mechanisms are attributed to the quantum mechanical tunneling model in phase I and to the proton hopping among hydrogen vacancies in phase II. - Graphical abstract: Atomic coordination in [C2H10N2][SnCl(NCS)2)2]. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-ray diffraction analysis shows the 1D network character of the structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DSC experiments show a phase transition at 336 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AC conductivity is interpreted in terms of Jonsher's law. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two conduction mechanisms are proposed for phase I and II.

  13. Selective photoswitching of the binuclear spin crossover compound {[Fe(bt)(NCS)2]2(bpm)} into two distinct macroscopic phases.

    PubMed

    Moussa, N Ould; Molnár, G; Bonhommeau, S; Zwick, A; Mouri, S; Tanaka, K; Real, J A; Bousseksou, A

    2005-03-18

    The low-spin (LS-LS, S = 0) diamagnetic form of the binuclear spin crossover complex {[Fe(bt)(NCS)(2)](2)(bpm)} was selectively photoconverted into two distinct macroscopic phases at different excitation wavelengths (1342 or 647.1 nm). These long-lived metastable phases have been identified, respectively, as the symmetry-broken paramagnetic form (HS-LS, S = 2) and the antiferromagnetically coupled (HS-HS, S = 0) high-spin form of the compound. The selectivity may be explained by the strong coupling of the primary excited states to the paramagnetic state.

  14. Organic superconductors revisited. STM imaging and DFT based simulations of the bc plane of κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu(NCS)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohr, C.; Büttner, J. M.; Palitschka, F. A.; Kushch, N. D.; Kartsovnik, M. V.; Biberacher, W.; Gross, R.; Hermann, B. A.

    2009-05-01

    The surfaces of a ten years aged crystal and a freshly prepared κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu(NCS)2 crystal were compared by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The molecularly-resolved STM images of the bc plane of the crystals agree with each other and with the electronic contrast obtained by new density functional theory (DFT) based simulations. Even after ten years STM images of the molecular stacking of BEDT-TTF display a variation in brightness at the positions of different molecules. We attribute this symmetry breaking concerning the brightness in the STM images of the otherwise equivalent BEDT-TTF dimers to the electronic states of a relaxed surface.

  15. Current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane

    2007-01-16

    A current sensor is described that uses a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. The sensor can be hinged to allow clamping to a conductor. The current sensor provides high measurement accuracy for both DC and AC currents, and is substantially immune to the effects of temperature, conductor position, nearby current carrying conductors and aging.

  16. Comparative effects of oral aromatic and branched-chain amino acids on urine calcium and excretion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aromatic amino acids (AAAs) bind to the calcium sensor receptor (CaR) but branched-chain amino acids (B-CAAs) do not; by binding to this receptor, AAAs have an increased potential to affect calcium homeostasis. This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of AAAs and B-CAAs on calci...

  17. Decoding of calcium signal through calmodulin: calmodulin-binding proteins in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many abiotic and biotic stimuli such as heat, cold, drought, salt, light, wind, touch, wounding, symbionts and pathogens as well as growth, developmental and hormonal cues can quickly induce cytosolic calcium increases. Calmodulin, the most thoroughly studied calcium sensor, mediates interpretation...

  18. Calcium fluoride window mounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, D. Douglas

    1982-10-01

    A technique has been developed for joining a large calcium fluoride crystal to a stainless-steel flange by means of a silver transition ring. The process involves both vacuum brazing using a copper-silver alloy and air brazing using silver chloride. This paper describes the procedure used in fabricating a high-vacuum leak-tight calcium fluoride window assembly.

  19. Calcium and bones (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human body. Bones, like other tissues in the body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the formation of and maintenance of healthy teeth.

  20. Kidney and calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Un Sil

    2008-12-01

    Plasma calcium concentration is maintained within a narrow range (8.5-10.5 mg/dL) by the coordinated action of parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25(OH)2D3, calcitonin, and ionized calcium (iCa(2+)) itself. The kidney plays a key role in this process by the fine regulation of calcium excretion. More than 95% of filtered calcium is reabsorbed along the renal tubules. In the proximal tubules, 60% of filtered calcium is reabsorbed by passive mechanisms. In the thick ascending limb, 15% of calcium is reabsorbed by paracellular diffusion through paracellin-1 (claudin-16). The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in the basolateral membrane of the thick ascending limb senses the change in iCa(2+) and inhibits calcium reabsorption independent to PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3. The fine regulation of calcium excretion occurs in the distal convoluted tubules and connecting tubules despite the fact that only 10-15% of filtered calcium is reabsorbed there. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 (TRPV5) and 6 (TRPV6) in the apical membrane act as the main portal of entry, calbindin-D28K delivers Ca(2+) in the cytoplasm, and then Na(2+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX1) and plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase in the basolateral membrane serve as an exit. In the cortical collecting duct, TRPV6 is expressed, but the role might be negligible. In addition to PTH and 1,25(OH)2D3, acid-base disturbance, diuretics, and estrogen affect on these calcium channels. Recently, klotho and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) are suggested as new players in the calcium metabolism. Klotho is exclusively expressed in the kidney and co-localized with TRPV5, NCX1, and calbindin-D28K. Klotho increases calcium reabsorption through trafficking of TRPV5 to the plasma membrane, and also converts FGF receptor to the specific FGF23 receptor. FGF23:klotho complex bound to FGF receptor inhibits 1α-hydroxylase of vitamin D, and contributes to calcium reabsorption and phosphate excretion in the kidney.

  1. A selective and sensitive optical sensor for dissolved ammonia detection via agglomeration of fluorescent Ag nanoclusters and temperature gradient headspace single drop microextraction.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jiang Xue; Gao, Zhong Feng; Zhang, Ying; Li, Bang Lin; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2017-05-15

    In this paper, a simple sensor platform is presented for highly selective and sensitive detection of dissolved ammonia in aqueous solutions without pretreatment based on temperature gradient headspace single drop microextraction (HS-SDME) technique, and fluorescence and UV-vis spectrophotometry are utilized with the Ag nanoclusters (Ag NCs) functioned by citrate and glutathione as the probe. The sensing mechanism is based on the volatility of ammonia gas and the active response of Ag NCs to pH change caused by the introduction of ammonia. High pH can make the Ag NCs agglomerate and lead to the obvious decrease of fluorescence intensity and absorbance of Ag NCs solution. Moreover, the presented method exhibits a remarkably high selectivity toward dissolved ammonia over most of inorganic ions and amino acid, and shows a good linear range of 10-350μM (0.14-4.9mgNL(-1)) with a low detection limit of 336nM (4.70μgNL(-1)) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. In addition, the practical applications of the sensor have been successfully demonstrated by detecting dissolved ammonia in real samples.

  2. Efficient 2-Nitrophenol Chemical Sensor Development Based on Ce2O3 Nanoparticles Decorated CNT Nanocomposites for Environmental Safety

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mohammad M.; Rahman, Mohammed M.; Asiri, Abdullah M.

    2016-01-01

    Ce2O3 nanoparticle decorated CNT nanocomposites (Ce2O3.CNT NCs) were prepared by a wet-chemical method in basic medium. The Ce2O3.CNT NCs were examined using FTIR, UV/Vis, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), X-ray electron dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). A selective 2-nitrophenol (2-NP) sensor was developed by fabricating a thin-layer of NCs onto a flat glassy carbon electrode (GCE, surface area = 0.0316 cm2). Higher sensitivity including linear dynamic range (LDR), long-term stability, and enhanced electrochemical performances towards 2-NP were achieved by a reliable current-voltage (I-V) method. The calibration curve was found linear (R2 = 0.9030) over a wide range of 2-NP concentration (100 pM ~ 100.0 mM). Limit of detection (LOD) and sensor sensitivity were calculated based on noise to signal ratio (~3N/S) as 60 ± 0.02 pM and 1.6×10−3 μAμM-1cm-2 respectively. The Ce2O3.CNT NCs synthesized by a wet-chemical process is an excellent way of establishing nanomaterial decorated carbon materials for chemical sensor development in favor of detecting hazardous compounds in health-care and environmental fields at broad-scales. Finally, the efficiency of the proposed chemical sensors can be applied and utilized in effectively for the selective detection of toxic 2-NP component in environmental real samples with acceptable and reasonable results. PMID:27973600

  3. Structure-function relationship of a plant NCS1 member--homology modeling and mutagenesis identified residues critical for substrate specificity of PLUTO, a nucleobase transporter from Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Witz, Sandra; Panwar, Pankaj; Schober, Markus; Deppe, Johannes; Pasha, Farhan Ahmad; Lemieux, M Joanne; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Plastidic uracil salvage is essential for plant growth and development. So far, PLUTO, the plastidic nucleobase transporter from Arabidopsis thaliana is the only known uracil importer at the inner plastidic membrane which represents the permeability barrier of this organelle. We present the first homology model of PLUTO, the sole plant NCS1 member from Arabidopsis based on the crystal structure of the benzyl hydantoin transporter MHP1 from Microbacterium liquefaciens and validated by molecular dynamics simulations. Polar side chains of residues Glu-227 and backbones of Val-145, Gly-147 and Thr-425 are proposed to form the binding site for the three PLUTO substrates uracil, adenine and guanine. Mutational analysis and competition studies identified Glu-227 as an important residue for uracil and to a lesser extent for guanine transport. A differential response in substrate transport was apparent with PLUTO double mutants E227Q G147Q and E227Q T425A, both of which most strongly affected adenine transport, and in V145A G147Q, which markedly affected guanine transport. These differences could be explained by docking studies, showing that uracil and guanine exhibit a similar binding mode whereas adenine binds deep into the catalytic pocket of PLUTO. Furthermore, competition studies confirmed these results. The present study defines the molecular determinants for PLUTO substrate binding and demonstrates key differences in structure-function relations between PLUTO and other NCS1 family members.

  4. Electron-phonon coupling in {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2} organic superconductor studied by Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Pedron, D.

    1998-07-31

    Low frequency Raman data for {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2}(T{sub c} = 10.4 K) are reported. Measurements have been performed in a wide range of temperatures (1.5-100 K) and frequency hardening related to the superconducting transition has been observed for all the low-lying coupled phonons. The measured relative frequency shifts are lower than those previously reported for {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br (T{sub c} = 11.67 K), but the behavior of the two systems is similar and indicates a significant strength of the intermolecular electron-photon coupling. The effects of isotopic substitutions ({sup 13}C{sub 4} {sup 34}S{sub 8} and {sup 2}H{sub 8}) in ET molecules on the low frequency Raman active phonons of {kappa}-(ET{sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2}) are also reported. They give the first direct experimental confirmation to the suggested lattice softening induced by deuteration.

  5. Novel chemoresistive CH{sub 4} sensor with 10 ppm sensitivity based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes functionalized with SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Humayun, Md Tanim; Paprotny, Igor; Divan, Ralu; Liu, Yuzi; Gundel, Lara; Solomon, Paul A.

    2016-01-15

    Chemoresistive sensors based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized with SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals (NCs) have great potential for detecting trace gases at low concentrations (single ppm levels) at room temperature, because the SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals act as active sites for the chemisorption of gas molecules, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) act as an excellent current carrying platform, allowing the adsorption of gas on SnO{sub 2} to modulate the resistance of the CNTs. However, uniform conjugation of SnO{sub 2} NCs with MWCNTs is challenging. An effective atomic layer deposition based approach to functionalize the surface of MWCNTs with SnO{sub 2} NCs, resulting in a novel CH{sub 4} sensor with 10 ppm sensitivity, is presented in this paper. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy were implemented to study the morphology, elemental composition, and the crystal quality of SnO{sub 2} functionalized MWCNTs. High resolution TEM images showed that the crystal quality of the functionalizing SnO{sub 2} NCs was of high quality with clear lattice fringes and the dimension almost three times smaller than shown thus far in literature. A lift-off based photolithography technique comprising bilayer photoresists was optimized to fabricate SnO{sub 2} functionalized MWCNTs-based chemoresistor sensor, which at room temperature can reliably sense below 10 ppm of CH{sub 4} in air. Such low level gas sensitivity, with significant reversible relative resistance change, is believed to be the direct result of the successful functionalization of the MWCNT surface by SnO{sub 2} NCs.

  6. Calcium signaling in membrane repair

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiping; Zhang, Xiaoli; Yu, Lu; Xu, Haoxing

    2015-01-01

    Resealing allows cells to mend damaged membranes rapidly when plasma membrane (PM) disruptions occur. Models of PM repair mechanisms include the “lipid-patch”, “endocytic removal”, and “macro-vesicle shedding” models, all of which postulate a dependence on local increases in intracellular Ca2+ at injury sites. Multiple calcium sensors, including synaptotagmin (Syt) VII, dysferlin, and apoptosis-linked gene-2 (ALG-2), are involved in PM resealing, suggesting that Ca2+ may regulate multiple steps of the repair process. Although earlier studies focused exclusively on external Ca2+, recent studies suggest that Ca2+ release from intracellular stores may also be important for PM resealing. Hence, depending on injury size and the type of injury, multiple sources of Ca2+ may be recruited to trigger and orchestrate repair processes. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms by which the resealing process is promoted by vesicular Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ sensors that accumulate at damage sites. PMID:26519113

  7. [Calcium and health].

    PubMed

    Ortega Anta, Rosa M; Jiménez Ortega, Ana I; López-Sobaler, Ana M

    2015-04-07

    An adequate intake of calcium is only not limited to avoid the risk of osteoporosis and its benefits in longterm bone health, but also it has been linked to protection against various major diseases, such as hypertension, cancer, kidney stones, insulin resistance, diabetes... and several investigations suggest its importance in preventing and controlling obesity. Studies conducted in Spanish representative samples show that a high percentage of adults and children (> 75%) don't achieve the recommended intake of calcium. Moreover, are growing trends among the population suggesting that calcium intake and dairy consumption (main food source of the mineral) are high, and even excessive, in many individuals. This misconception results in that the calcium intake is increasingly far from the recommended one. The maximum tolerable intake of the mineral is fixed at 2.500 mg/day, but this intake is unusual, and it's more disturbing and frequent, to find intakes below the recommended calcium intakes (1.000 and 1.200 mg/day in adults, men and women, respectively). Data from different studies highlight the risk of an inadequate calcium intake and the damages that may affect the health in a long term. It is not about transmitting indiscriminate guidelines in order to increase the intake of calcium / dairy, but the recommended intakes must be met to achieve both the nutritional and health benefits. Also activities for demystification of misconceptions are need, increasingly frequent, that may impair health population.

  8. Calcium Signaling and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington’s disease (HD), and spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) are very important both for fundamental science and for practical medicine. Despite extensive research into the causes of these diseases, clinical researchers have had very limited progress and, as of now, there is still no cure for any of these diseases. One of the main obstacles in the way of creating treatments for these disorders is the fact that their etiology and pathophysiology still remain unclear. This paper reviews results that support the so–called “calcium hypothesis of neurodegenerative diseases.” The calcium hypothesis states that the atrophic and degenerative processes in the neurons of AD, PD, ALS, HD, and SCA patients are accompanied by alterations in calcium homeostasis. Moreover, the calcium hypothesis states that this deregulation of calcium signaling is one of the early–stage and key processes in the pathogenesis of these diseases. Based on the results we reviewed, we conclude that the calcium channels and other proteins involved in the neuronal calcium signaling system are potential drug targets for AD, PD, ALS, HD, and SCA therapy. PMID:22649630

  9. Note: Inhibiting bottleneck corrosion in electrical calcium tests for ultra-barrier measurements.

    PubMed

    Nehm, F; Müller-Meskamp, L; Klumbies, H; Leo, K

    2015-12-01

    A major failure mechanism is identified in electrical calcium corrosion tests for quality assessment of high-end application moisture barriers. Accelerated calcium corrosion is found at the calcium/electrode junction, leading to an electrical bottleneck. This causes test failure not related to overall calcium loss. The likely cause is a difference in electrochemical potential between the aluminum electrodes and the calcium sensor, resulting in a corrosion element. As a solution, a thin, full-area copper layer is introduced below the calcium, shifting the corrosion element to the calcium/copper junction and inhibiting bottleneck degradation. Using the copper layer improves the level of sensitivity for the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) by over one order of magnitude. Thin-film encapsulated samples with 20 nm of atomic layer deposited alumina barriers this way exhibit WVTRs of 6 × 10(-5) g(H2O)/m(2)/d at 38 °C, 90% relative humidity.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... soda process”; (2) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide in the “Carbonation process”; or (3) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium chloride in the “Calcium...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... soda process”; (2) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide in the “Carbonation process”; or (3) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium chloride in the “Calcium...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... soda process”; (2) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide in the “Carbonation process”; or (3) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium chloride in the “Calcium...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... soda process”; (2) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide in the “Carbonation process”; or (3) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium chloride in the “Calcium...

  14. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  15. Calcium, channels, intracellular signaling and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Jorge-Hernán; Bonilla-Abadía, Fabio; Cañas, Carlos A; Tobón, Gabriel J

    2014-01-01

    Calcium (Ca²⁺) is an important cation able to function as a second messenger in different cells of the immune system, particularly in B and T lymphocytes, macrophages and mastocytes, among others. Recent discoveries related to the entry of Ca²⁺ through the store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) has opened a new investigation area about the cell destiny regulated by Ca²⁺ especially in B and T lymphocytes. SOCE acts through calcium-release-activated calcium (CRAC) channels. The function of CRAC depends of two recently discovered regulators: the Ca²⁺ sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum or stromal interaction molecule (STIM-1) and one subunit of CRAC channels called Orai1. This review focuses on the role of Ca²⁺ signals in B and T lymphocytes functions, the signalling pathways leading to Ca²⁺ influx, and the relationship between Ca²⁺ signals and autoimmune diseases.

  16. Manganese(II)-azido/thiocyanato complexes of naphthylazoimidazoles: X-ray structures of Mn(β-NaiEt) 2(X) 2 (β-NaiEt = 1-ethyl-2-(naphthyl-β-azo)imidazole; X=N3-, NCS -)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, D.; Chand, B. G.; Wu, J. S.; Lu, T.-H.; Sinha, C.

    2007-10-01

    Manganese(II)-naphthylazoimidazole complexes using N3- and NCS - as counter ions are characterized as Mn(β-NaiR) 2(X) 2(β-NaiEt = 1-alkyl-2-(naphthyl-β-azo)imidazole; X=N3-, NCS -). The ligands are unsymmetric N(imidazole), N(azo) chelating agents. The microanalytical, spectral (FT-IR, UV-vis), magnetic (bulk moment and EPR) and electrochemical data establish the structure and composition of the complexes. The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of Mn(β-NaiEt) 2(N 3) 2 and Mn(β-NaiEt) 2(NCS) 2(β-NaiEt = 1-ethyl-2-(naphthyl-β-azo)imidazole) have confirmed the three dimensional structure of the complexes. Cyclic voltammetry exhibits high potential Mn(III)/Mn(II) couple along with azo reductions. The EPR spectra show usual pattern.

  17. Calcium Channel Blockers

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as high blood pressure, chest pain and Raynaud's disease. Find out more about this class of medication. ... Irregular heartbeats (arrhythmia) Some circulatory conditions, such as Raynaud's disease For black people and older people, calcium channel ...

  18. Stoichiometry of Calcium Medicines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    The topic of calcium supplement and its effects on human lives is presented in the way of questions to the students. It enables the students to realize the relevance of chemistry outside the classroom surrounding.

  19. Calcium-D-glucarate.

    PubMed

    2002-08-01

    Calcium-D-glucarate is the calcium salt of D-glucaric acid, a substance produced naturally in small amounts by mammals, including humans. Glucaric acid is also found in many fruits and vegetables with the highest concentrations to be found in oranges, apples, grapefruit, and cruciferous vegetables. Oral supplementation of calcium-D-glucarate has been shown to inhibit beta-glucuronidase, an enzyme produced by colonic microflora and involved in Phase II liver detoxification. Elevated beta-glucuronidase activity is associated with an increased risk for various cancers, particularly hormone-dependent cancers such as breast, prostate, and colon cancers. Other potential clinical applications of oral calcium-D-glucarate include regulation of estrogen metabolism and as a lipid-lowering agent.

  20. Calcium-sensing receptors.

    PubMed

    Goodman, William G

    2004-01-01

    It is now known that variations in extracellular calcium concentration exert diverse physiologic effects in a variety of tissues that are mediated by a calcium-sensing receptor (CaSRs). In parathyroid tissue, the CaSR represents the molecular mechanism by which parathyroid cells detect changes in blood ionized calcium concentration, modulate parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion accordingly, and thus maintain serum calcium levels within a narrow physiologic range. In the kidney, the CaSR regulates renal calcium excretion and influences the transepithelial movement of water and other electrolytes. More generally, activation of the CaSR represents an important signal transduction pathway in intestine, placenta, brain, and perhaps bone. Some of these actions involve cell cycle regulation, changes that may be relevant to understanding the pathogenesis of parathyroid gland hyperplasia in secondary hyperparathyroidism caused by chronic kidney disease. The CaSR represents an appealing target for therapeutic agents designed to modify parathyroid gland function in vivo, offering the prospect of novel therapies for selected disorders of bone and mineral metabolism. Other receptors capable of responding to extracellular calcium ions also have been identified, but the functional importance of these interactions remains to be determined.

  1. Oxidative calcium release from catechol.

    PubMed

    Riley, Patrick A; Stratford, Michael R L

    2015-04-01

    Oxidation of 4-methylcatechol previously exposed to aqueous calcium chloride was shown by ion chromatography to be associated with release of calcium ions. The catechol was oxidised to the corresponding orthoquinone by the use of tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus. The oxidative release of calcium from the catechol is ascribed to the diminution of the available hydroxyl functions able to act as chelating groups. Our results suggest that the redox status of melanin may regulate calcium binding and influence calcium levels in pigmented cells.

  2. Hippocalcin gates the calcium activation of the slow afterhyperpolarization in hippocampal pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Tzingounis, Anastassios V; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Takamatsu, Ken; Nicoll, Roger A

    2007-02-15

    In the brain, calcium influx following a train of action potentials activates potassium channels that mediate a slow afterhyperpolarization current (I(sAHP)). The key steps between calcium influx and potassium channel activation remain unknown. Here we report that the key intermediate between calcium and the sAHP channels is the diffusible calcium sensor hippocalcin. Brief depolarizations sufficient to activate the I(sAHP) in wild-type mice do not elicit the I(sAHP) in hippocalcin knockout mice. Introduction of hippocalcin in cultured hippocampal neurons leads to a pronounced I(sAHP), while neurons expressing a hippocalcin mutant lacking N-terminal myristoylation exhibit a small I(sAHP) that is similar to that recorded in uninfected neurons. This implies that hippocalcin must bind to the plasma membrane to mediate its effects. These findings support a model in which the calcium sensor for the sAHP channels is not preassociated with the channel complex.

  3. Mutations in the calcium-related gene IL1RAPL1 are associated with autism.

    PubMed

    Piton, Amélie; Michaud, Jacques L; Peng, Huashan; Aradhya, Swaroop; Gauthier, Julie; Mottron, Laurent; Champagne, Nathalie; Lafrenière, Ronald G; Hamdan, Fadi F; Joober, Ridha; Fombonne, Eric; Marineau, Claude; Cossette, Patrick; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Haghighi, Pejmun; Drapeau, Pierre; Barker, Philip A; Carbonetto, Salvatore; Rouleau, Guy A

    2008-12-15

    In a systematic sequencing screen of synaptic genes on the X chromosome, we have identified an autistic female without mental retardation (MR) who carries a de novo frameshift Ile367SerfsX6 mutation in Interleukin-1 Receptor Accessory Protein-Like 1 (IL1RAPL1), a gene implicated in calcium-regulated vesicle release and dendrite differentiation. We showed that the function of the resulting truncated IL1RAPL1 protein is severely altered in hippocampal neurons, by measuring its effect on neurite outgrowth activity. We also sequenced the coding region of the close related member IL1RAPL2 and of NCS-1/FREQ, which physically interacts with IL1RAPL1, in a cohort of subjects with autism. The screening failed to identify non-synonymous variant in IL1RAPL2, whereas a rare missense (R102Q) in NCS-1/FREQ was identified in one autistic patient. Furthermore, we identified by comparative genomic hybridization a large intragenic deletion of exons 3-7 of IL1RAPL1 in three brothers with autism and/or MR. This deletion causes a frameshift and the introduction of a premature stop codon, Ala28GlufsX15, at the very beginning of the protein. All together, our results indicate that mutations in IL1RAPL1 cause a spectrum of neurological impairments ranging from MR to high functioning autism.

  4. Extended metal-atom chains with an inert second row transition metal: [Ru5(mu5-tpda)4X2] (tpda2- = tripyridyldiamido dianion, X = Cl and NCS).

    PubMed

    Yin, Caixia; Huang, Gin-Chen; Kuo, Ching-Kuo; Fu, Ming-Dung; Lu, Hao-Cheng; Ke, Jhih-Hong; Shih, Kai-Neng; Huang, Yi-Lin; Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Yeh, Chen-Yu; Chen, Chun-hsien; Peng, Shie-Ming

    2008-08-06

    EMACs (extended metal-atom chains) offer a unique platform for the exploration of metal-metal interactions. There has been significant advances on the synthesis of EMACs, such as lengthening the chains up to 11 metal atoms thus far, integrating naphthyridine moieties for tuning the charge carried at metal centers, and manipulation of metal-metal interactions. However, the metal centers in EMACs hitherto are limited to first row transition metals which are more labile than those relatively inert ones with electrons filled in the 4d and 5d shells. In this Communication, the synthesis, crystallographic, magnetic, and electrical conducting studies of [Ru5(mu5-tpda)4Cl2] and [Ru5(mu5-tpda)4(NCS)2], the first pentanuclear EMACs of second-row transition metal, are reported.

  5. Determination of l-tryptophan and l-kynurenine in Human Serum by using LC-MS after Derivatization with (R)-DBD-PyNCS.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Hayato; Iizuka, Hideaki; Yoshihara, Shunsuke; Otani, Hayato; Kume, Misato; Sadamoto, Kiyomi; Ichiba, Hideaki; Fukushima, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of l-tryptophan (l-Trp) and its metabolite, l-kynurenine (l-KYN), in sera of 19 normal subjects (age: 23.6 ± 3.5 y, male: 8, female: 11) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass-spectrometric detection, following their derivatization with (R)-(-)-4-(N, N-dimethylaminosulfonyl)-7-(3-isothiocyanatopyrrolidin-1-yl)-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (DBD-PyNCS). A significant positive correlation between l-Trp and l-KYN concentrations was observed (r = 0.532, P < 0.05). Serum l-Trp concentration in male subjects (95.65 ± 4.27 μM) was significantly higher than that in female subjects (79.20 ± 3.34 μM; P < 0.05), while no significant differences in l-KYN concentration or the l-KYN:l-Trp ratio were observed between male and female subjects.

  6. Spin-crossover in a trans-[FeL2(NCS)2] family (L = triaryltriazole): remote substituent effects on spin transition modes and temperature.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guo-Ping; Qi, Li; Wang, Lei; Xu, Yan; Jiang, Jing-Jing; Zhu, Dunru; Liu, Xiao-Qin; You, Xiaozeng

    2013-07-28

    We report the syntheses, characterisations, and spin-crossover behaviours of four mononuclear trans-[Fe(L1-L4)2(NCS)2] complexes (L = 4-(p-R1-phenyl)-3,5-bis(2-pyridyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole and 4-(p-methylphenyl)-3-(p-R2-phenyl)-5-(2-pyridyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole, (1) R1 = Cl (L1); (2) R1 = Me (L2); (3) R2 = MeO (L3); (4) R2 = F (L4)). The X-ray single crystal structural analysis reveals that 1 and 2 crystallize in the triclinic space group P1, whereas 3·0.5H2O and 4 crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c, and all complexes possess a similar distorted [FeN6] octahedron with two trans-positions NCS(-) anions. Changing of the distal substituent on the phenyl ring of the triaryltriazoles causes differences in the crystal packing of the complexes that are key to their magnetic properties. Magnetic measurements indicate that 1 shows an abrupt transition with T(1/2) = 235 K, 2 displays a 3 K hysteresis loop with T(1/2)(↓) = 217 K and T(1/2)(↑) = 220 K, 3 exhibits a gradual spin transition with T(1/2) = 156 K and 4 undergoes an incomplete (70%) spin transition with T(1/2) = 97 K. The substituted group effects and intermolecular interactions appear to be critical to spin transition modes and temperature in this family.

  7. Modeling, Substrate Docking, and Mutational Analysis Identify Residues Essential for the Function and Specificity of a Eukaryotic Purine-Cytosine NCS1 Transporter*

    PubMed Central

    Krypotou, Emilia; Kosti, Vasiliki; Amillis, Sotiris; Myrianthopoulos, Vassilios; Mikros, Emmanuel; Diallinas, George

    2012-01-01

    The recent elucidation of crystal structures of a bacterial member of the NCS1 family, the Mhp1 benzyl-hydantoin permease from Microbacterium liquefaciens, allowed us to construct and validate a three-dimensional model of the Aspergillus nidulans purine-cytosine/H+ FcyB symporter. The model consists of 12 transmembrane α-helical, segments (TMSs) and cytoplasmic N- and C-tails. A distinct core of 10 TMSs is made of two intertwined inverted repeats (TMS1–5 and TMS6–10) that are followed by two additional TMSs. TMS1, TMS3, TMS6, and TMS8 form an open cavity that is predicted to host the substrate binding site. Based on primary sequence alignment, three-dimensional topology, and substrate docking, we identified five residues as potentially essential for substrate binding in FcyB; Ser-85 (TMS1), Trp-159, Asn-163 (TMS3), Trp-259 (TMS6), and Asn-354 (TMS8). To validate the role of these and other putatively critical residues, we performed a systematic functional analysis of relevant mutants. We show that the proposed substrate binding residues, plus Asn-350, Asn-351, and Pro-353 are irreplaceable for FcyB function. Among these residues, Ser-85, Asn-163, Asn-350, Asn-351, and Asn-354 are critical for determining the substrate binding affinity and/or the specificity of FcyB. Our results suggest that Ser-85, Asn-163, and Asn-354 directly interact with substrates, Trp-159 and Trp-259 stabilize binding through π-π stacking interactions, and Pro-353 affects the local architecture of substrate binding site, whereas Asn-350 and Asn-351 probably affect substrate binding indirectly. Our work is the first systematic approach to address structure-function-specificity relationships in a eukaryotic member of NCS1 family by combining genetic and computational approaches. PMID:22969088

  8. [Microbial geochemical calcium cycle].

    PubMed

    Zavarzin, G A

    2002-01-01

    The participation of microorganisms in the geochemical calcium cycle is the most important factor maintaining neutral conditions on the Earth. This cycle has profound influence on the fate of inorganic carbon, and, thereby, on the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. The major part of calcium deposits was formed in the Precambrian, when prokaryotic biosphere predominated. After that, calcium recycling based on biogenic deposition by skeletal organisms became the main process. Among prokaryotes, only a few representatives, e.g., cyanobacteria, exhibit a special calcium function. The geochemical calcium cycle is made possible by the universal features of bacteria involved in biologically mediated reactions and is determined by the activities of microbial communities. In the prokaryotic system, the calcium cycle begins with the leaching of igneous rock predominantly through the action of the community of organotrophic organisms. The release of carbon dioxide to the soil air by organotrophic aerobes leads to leaching with carbonic acid and soda salinization. Under anoxic conditions, of major importance is the organic acid production by primary anaerobes (fermentative microorganisms). Calcium carbonate is precipitated by secondary anaerobes (sulfate reducers) and to a smaller degree by methanogens. The role of the cyanobacterial community in carbonate deposition is exposed by stromatolites, which are the most common organo-sedimentary Precambrian structures. Deposition of carbonates in cyanobacterial mats as a consequence of photoassimilation of CO2 does not appear to be a significant process. It is argued that carbonates were deposited at the boundary between the "soda continent", which emerged as a result of subaerial leaching with carbonic acid, and the ocean containing Ca2+. Such ecotones provided favorable conditions for the development of the benthic cyanobacterial community, which was a precursor of stromatolites.

  9. Calcium metabolism and correcting calcium deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Emkey, Ronald D; Emkey, Gregory R

    2012-09-01

    Calcium is the most abundant cation in the human body, of which approximately 99% occurs in bone, contributing to its rigidity and strength. Bone also functions as a reservoir of Ca for its role in multiple physiologic and biochemical processes. This article aims to provide a thorough understanding of the absorptive mechanisms and factors affecting these processes to enable one to better appreciate an individual's Ca needs, and to provide a rationale for correcting Ca deficiencies. An overview of Ca requirements and suggested dosing regimens is presented, with discussion of various Ca preparations and potential toxicities of Ca treatment.

  10. Smart sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, Carlo

    2006-08-01

    The term "Smart Sensors" refer to sensors which contain both sensing and signal processing capabilities with objectives ranging from simple viewing to sophisticated remote sensing, surveillance, search/track, weapon guidance, robotics, perceptronics and intelligence applications. In a broad sense, they include any sensor systems covering the whole electromagnetic spectrum: this paper deals specifically with a new class of smart sensors in infrared spectral bands whose developments started some years ago, when it was recognized that the rapid advances of "very large scale integration" (VLSI) processor technology and mosaic infrared detector array technology could be combined to develop new generations of infrared smart sensor systems with much improved performance. So, sophisticated signal processing operations have been developed for these new systems by integrating microcomputers and other VLSI signal processors within or next to the sensor arrays on the same focal plane avoiding complex computing located far away from the sensors. Recently this approach is achieving higher goals by a new and revolutionary sensors concept which introduce inside the sensor some of the basic function of living eyes, such as dynamic stare, dishomogenity compensation, spatial and temporal filtering. New objectives and requirements of these new focal plane processors are presented for this type of new infrared smart sensor systems. This paper is concerned with the processing techniques for only the front end of the focal plane processing, namely, the enhancement of target-to-noise ratio by background clutter suppression and the improvement in target detection by "smart" and pattern correlation threshold.

  11. Smart sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, Carlo

    1991-09-01

    The term 'smart sensors' refers to sensors which contain both sensing and signal processing capabilities with objectives ranging from simple viewing to sophisticated remote sensing, surveillance, search/track, weapon guidance, robotics, perceptronics, and intelligence applications. In a broad sense, they include any sensor system covering the whole electromagnetic spectrum: this paper deals specifically with a new class of smart sensors in infrared spectral bands whose developments started some years ago, when it was recognized that the rapid advances of very large scale integration (VLSI) processor technology and mosaic infrared detector array technology could be combined to develop new generations of infrared smart sensor systems with much improved performances. Thus, sophisticated signal processing operations will be developed for these new systems by integrating microcomputers and other VLSI signal processors within or next to the sensor arrays, on the same focal plane, avoiding complex computing located far away from the sensors. Recently this approach has achieved higher goals by a new and revolutionary sensor concept which introduces inside the sensor some of the basic functions of living eyes, such as dynamic stare, dishomogeneity compensation, spatial and temporal filtering. New objectives and requirements of these new focal plane processors are presented for this type of new infrared smart sensor system. This paper concerns the processing techniques limited to the front end of the focal plane processing, namely, the enhancement of target-to-noise ratio by background clutter suppression and the improvement in target detection by a smart pattern correlation thresholding.

  12. Inositol trisphosphate and calcium signalling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berridge, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Inositol trisphosphate is a second messenger that controls many cellular processes by generating internal calcium signals. It operates through receptors whose molecular and physiological properties closely resemble the calcium-mobilizing ryanodine receptors of muscle. This family of intracellular calcium channels displays the regenerative process of calcium-induced calcium release responsible for the complex spatiotemporal patterns of calcium waves and oscillations. Such a dynamic signalling pathway controls many cellular processes, including fertilization, cell growth, transformation, secretion, smooth muscle contraction, sensory perception and neuronal signalling.

  13. Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)

  14. NEUROD2 Regulates Stim1 Expression and Store-Operated Calcium Entry in Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Akkaya, Cansu; Bayam, Efil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Calcium signaling controls many key processes in neurons, including gene expression, axon guidance, and synaptic plasticity. In contrast to calcium influx through voltage- or neurotransmitter-gated channels, regulatory pathways that control store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in neurons are poorly understood. Here, we report a transcriptional control of Stim1 (stromal interaction molecule 1) gene, which is a major sensor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium levels and a regulator of SOCE. By using a genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing approach in mice, we find that NEUROD2, a neurogenic transcription factor, binds to an intronic element within the Stim1 gene. We show that NEUROD2 limits Stim1 expression in cortical neurons and consequently fine-tunes the SOCE response upon depletion of ER calcium. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism that regulates neuronal calcium homeostasis during cortical development. PMID:28303257

  15. Calcium Handling and Arrhythmogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bompotis, Georgios C; Pappas, Loukas K; Angelidis, Christos; Kossyvakis, Charalampos; Giannopoulos, Georgios; Deftereos, Spyridon

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular calcium homeostasis plays a fundamental role in the electric and mechanical function of the heart by modulating action potential pattern and duration, by linking cell membrane depolarization to myocardial contraction and by regulating cardiac automaticity. Abnormalities of intracellular calcium regulation disrupt the electrophysiological properties of the heart and create an arrhythmogenic milieu, which promotes atrial and ventricular arrhythmogenesis and impairs cardiac automaticity and atrioventricular conduction. In this brief review, we summarize the basic genetic, molecular and electrophysiological mechanisms linking inherited or acquired intracellular Ca(2+) dysregulation to arrhythmogenesis.

  16. Calcium metabolism in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Heer, M; Kamps, N; Biener, C; Korr, C; Boerger, A; Zittermann, A; Stehle, P; Drummer, C

    1999-09-09

    Unloading of weight bearing bones as induced by microgravity or immobilization has significant impacts on the calcium and bone metabolism and is the most likely cause for space osteoporosis. During a 4.5 to 6 month stay in space most of the astronauts develop a reduction in bone mineral density in spine, femoral neck, trochanter, and pelvis of 1%-1.6% measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorption (DEXA). Dependent on the mission length and the individual turnover rates of the astronauts it can even reach individual losses of up to 14% in the femoral neck. Osteoporosis itself is defined as the deterioration of bone tissue leading to enhanced bone fragility and to a consequent increase in fracture risk. Thinking of long-term missions to Mars or interplanetary missions for years, space osteoporosis is one of the major concerns for manned spaceflight. However, decrease in bone density can be initiated differently. It either can be caused by increases in bone formation and bone resorption resulting in a net bone loss, as obtained in fast looser postmenopausal osteoporosis. On the other hand decrease in bone formation and increase in bone resorption also leads to bone losses as obtained in slow looser postmenopausal osteoporosis or in Anorexia Nervosa patients. Biomarkers of bone turnover measured during several missions indicated that the pattern of space osteoporosis is very similar to the pattern of Anorexia Nervosa patients or slow looser postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, beside unloading, other risk factors for space osteoporosis exist such as stress, nutrition, fluid shifts, dehydration and bone perfusion. Especially nutritional factors may contribute considerably to the development of osteoporosis. From earthbound studies it is known that calcium supplementation in women and men can prevent bone loss of 1% bone per year. Based on these results we studied the calcium intake during several European missions and performed an experiment during the German MIR 97 mission

  17. Restoration of excitation-contraction coupling and slow calcium current in dysgenic muscle by dihydropyridine receptor complementary DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Tsutomu; Beam, Kurt G.; Powell, Jeanne A.; Numa, Shosaku

    1988-11-01

    Microinjection of an expression plasmid that carries complementary DNA encoding the receptor for dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers of skeletal muscle restores both excitation-contraction coupling and slow calcium current in cultured skeletal muscle cells from mice with muscular dysgenesis. This suggests that the dihydropyridine receptor in the transverse tubule membrane of skeletal muscle functions both as the voltage sensor for excitation-contraction coupling and as the slow calcium channel.

  18. Two mixed-ligand lanthanide–hydrazone complexes: [Pr(NCS)3(pbh)2]·H2O and [Nd(NCS)(NO3)(pbh)2(H2O)]NO3·2.33H2O [pbh is N′-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene)benzo­hydrazide, C13H11N3O

    PubMed Central

    Paschalidis, Damianos G.; Harrison, William T. A.

    2016-01-01

    The gel-mediated syntheses and crystal structures of [N′-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene-κN)benzohydrazide-κ2 N′,O]tris(thiocyanato-κN)praseodymium(III) mono­hydrate, [Pr(NCS)3(C13H11N3O)2]·H2O, (I), and aqua(nitrato-κ2 O,O′)[N′-(pyri­din-2-ylmethylidene-κN)benzohydrazide-κ2 N′,O](thiocyanato-κN)neo­dym­ium(III) nitrate 2.33-hydrate, [Nd(NCS)(NO3)(C13H11N3O)2(H2O)]NO3·2.33H2O, (II), are reported. The Pr3+ ion in (I) is coordinated by two N,N,O-tridentate N′-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene)benzohydrazide (pbh) ligands and three N-bonded thio­cyanate ions to generate an irregular PrN7O2 coordination polyhedron. The Nd3+ ion in (II) is coordinated by two N,N,O-tridentate pbh ligands, an N-bonded thio­cyanate ion, a bidentate nitrate ion and a water mol­ecule to generate a distorted NdN5O5 bicapped square anti­prism. The crystal structures of (I) and (II) feature numerous hydrogen bonds, which lead to the formation of three-dimensional networks in each case. PMID:26958385

  19. Two mixed-ligand lanthanide-hydrazone complexes: [Pr(NCS)3(pbh)2]·H2O and [Nd(NCS)(NO3)(pbh)2(H2O)]NO3·2.33H2O [pbh is N'-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene)benzo-hydrazide, C13H11N3O].

    PubMed

    Paschalidis, Damianos G; Harrison, William T A

    2016-02-01

    The gel-mediated syntheses and crystal structures of [N'-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene-κN)benzohydrazide-κ(2) N',O]tris(thiocyanato-κN)praseodymium(III) mono-hydrate, [Pr(NCS)3(C13H11N3O)2]·H2O, (I), and aqua(nitrato-κ(2) O,O')[N'-(pyri-din-2-ylmethylidene-κN)benzohydrazide-κ(2) N',O](thiocyanato-κN)neo-dym-ium(III) nitrate 2.33-hydrate, [Nd(NCS)(NO3)(C13H11N3O)2(H2O)]NO3·2.33H2O, (II), are reported. The Pr(3+) ion in (I) is coordinated by two N,N,O-tridentate N'-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene)benzohydrazide (pbh) ligands and three N-bonded thio-cyanate ions to generate an irregular PrN7O2 coordination polyhedron. The Nd(3+) ion in (II) is coordinated by two N,N,O-tridentate pbh ligands, an N-bonded thio-cyanate ion, a bidentate nitrate ion and a water mol-ecule to generate a distorted NdN5O5 bicapped square anti-prism. The crystal structures of (I) and (II) feature numerous hydrogen bonds, which lead to the formation of three-dimensional networks in each case.

  20. Calcium channels, external calcium concentration and cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Borowiec, Anne-Sophie; Bidaux, Gabriel; Pigat, Natascha; Goffin, Vincent; Bernichtein, Sophie; Capiod, Thierry

    2014-09-15

    Evidence for a role for calcium channel proteins in cell proliferation is numerous suggesting that calcium influx is essential in this physiological process. Several studies in the past thirty years have demonstrated that calcium channel expression levels are determinant in cell proliferation. Voltage-gated, store-operated, second messengers and receptor-operated calcium channels have been associated to cell proliferation. However, the relationship between calcium influx and cell proliferation can be uncoupled in transformed and cancer cells, resulting in an external calcium-independent proliferation. Thus, protein expression could be more important than channel function to trigger cell proliferation suggesting that additional channel functions may be responsible to reconcile calcium channel expression and cell proliferation. When needed, external calcium concentration is obviously important for calcium channel function but it also regulates calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) activity. CaSR can up- or down-regulate cell proliferation depending on physiological conditions. CaSR sensitivity to external calcium is within the 0.5 to 5 mM range and therefore, the role of these receptors in cell proliferation must be taken into account. We therefore suggest here that cell proliferation rates could depend on the relative balance between calcium influx and CaSR activation.

  1. Sensor web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delin, Kevin A. (Inventor); Jackson, Shannon P. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A Sensor Web formed of a number of different sensor pods. Each of the sensor pods include a clock which is synchronized with a master clock so that all of the sensor pods in the Web have a synchronized clock. The synchronization is carried out by first using a coarse synchronization which takes less power, and subsequently carrying out a fine synchronization to make a fine sync of all the pods on the Web. After the synchronization, the pods ping their neighbors to determine which pods are listening and responded, and then only listen during time slots corresponding to those pods which respond.

  2. Fabrication and Tailoring Plasmonic Properties of Two Dimensional Assemblies of Metal Nanostructures towards Engineering Novel Plasmonic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahamad, Nur Uddin

    Electromagnetic mechanism of enhancement, proposed to elucidate surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and Surface enhanced fluorescence (SEF), was justified by studying distance dependent enhancement of SERS and SEF using 2D self-assembled spheroidal silver nanoparticles containing probe molecules. Spacer layer between the metal surface and the probe was created by layer-by-layer deposition of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes. A decreasing trend in SERS enhancement factor and an increasing trend in SEF enhancement factor with increasing separation distance were observed, which corroborate with proposed electromagnetic mechanism of SERS and SEF. In order to fabricate effective SERS substrates by exploiting hot spots, supported 2D assemblies of silver nanocubes (NCs) with controlled interparticles distance were fabricated using LB technique. Interparticles distance in such substrates was tailored by incorporation of NCs in phospholipid monolayers in Langmuir trough and optimizing lateral surface pressure during the film transfer onto a solid surface. However, to develop plasmonic sensors with high refractive index sensitivity (RIS), investigation was performed to optimize RIS of supported and colloidal silver NCs. The size of the NCs, RI of supporting dielectric substrate, and the monolayer surface pressure were used as variables in refractive index sensing optimization. It was found that high refractive index dielectric substrates, a passive molecular spacer and large angles of incidence facilitate the detection of plasmonic response of supported 2D assemblies of nanocubes. Furthermore, a simple and robust strategy was demonstrated for assembling silver NCs into 2D hierarchical structures (uniform rounded islands, branched-parallel chains) on LB films exploiting phase behaviors of multi-components lipid mixtures in Langmuir films. The density of the building blocks, size and shape of the resulting patterns can be controlled by tailoring the lateral surface

  3. Diet and calcium stones.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J; Norman, R W

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature on the dietary modification of urinary risk factors as a means of reducing the likelihood of recurrent stone formation and to develop practical dietary recommendations that might be useful to this end. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE was searched for English-language articles published from 1983 to 1990. Additional references were selected from the bibliographies of identified articles. STUDY SELECTION: Nonrandomized trials and retrospective reviews were included because of a paucity of randomized controlled trials. DATA SYNTHESIS: Information on the dietary intake of calcium, oxalate, protein, sodium and fibre and on alcohol and fluid intake was used to develop practical guidelines on dietary modification. CONCLUSION: Dietary modification plays an important role in the reduction of urinary risk factors in patients with calcium stone disease of the urinary tract. As an initial form of prevention attention should be directed toward moderating the intake of calcium, oxalate, protein, sodium and alcohol and increasing the intake of fibre and water. Future research should include an assessment of the long-term reduction of dietary and urinary risk factors and the rates of recurrence of calcium stones. PMID:1310430

  4. Calcium silicate insulation structure

    DOEpatents

    Kollie, Thomas G.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    An insulative structure including a powder-filled evacuated casing utilizes a quantity of finely divided synthetic calcium silicate having a relatively high surface area. The resultant structure-provides superior thermal insulating characteristics over a broad temperature range and is particularly well-suited as a panel for a refrigerator or freezer or the insulative barrier for a cooler or a insulated bottle.

  5. Calcium biofortification of crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than half of the world's population is deficient in calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se), or zinc (Zn). The consumption of plants, directly or via livestock, containing inadequate concentrations of particular minerals causes these deficiencies. Agronomic and geneti...

  6. High Blood Calcium (Hypercalcemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... as sarcoidosis • Hormone disorders, such as overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) • A genetic condition called familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia • Kidney ... topics: www.hormone.org (search for PHPT, calcium, hyperthyroidism, or osteoporosis) • MedlinePlus (National Institutes of Health-NIH): ...

  7. Assay for calcium channels

    SciTech Connect

    Glossmann, H.; Ferry, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter focuses on biochemical assays for Ca/sup 2 +/-selective channels in electrically excitable membranes which are blocked in electrophysiological and pharmacological experiments by verapamil, 1,4-dihydropyridines, diltiazen (and various other drugs), as well as inorganic di- or trivalent cations. The strategy employed is to use radiolabeled 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives which block calcium channels with ED/sub 50/ values in the nanomolar range. Although tritiated d-cis-diltiazem and verapamil can be used to label calcium channels, the 1,4-dihydropyridines offer numerous advantages. The various sections cover tissue specificity of channel labeling, the complex interactions of divalent cations with the (/sup 3/H)nimodipine-labeled calcium channels, and the allosteric regulation of (/sup 3/H)nimodipine binding by the optically pure enantiomers of phenylalkylamine and benzothiazepine calcium channel blockers. A comparison of the properties of different tritiated 1,4-dihydropyridine radioligands and the iodinated channel probe (/sup 125/I)iodipine is given.

  8. The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1983-01-01

    Three aspect of cellular calcium metabolism in animal cells was discussed including the importance of the plasma membrane in calcium homeostasis, experiments dealing with the actual mechanism of the calcium pump, and the function of the pump in relationship to the mitochondria and to the function of calmodulin in the intact cell.

  9. Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.

    1991-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

  10. Bioceramics of calcium orthophosphates.

    PubMed

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V

    2010-03-01

    A strong interest in use of ceramics for biomedical applications appeared in the late 1960's. Used initially as alternatives to metals in order to increase a biocompatibility of implants, bioceramics have become a diverse class of biomaterials, presently including three basic types: relatively bioinert ceramics, bioactive (or surface reactive) and bioresorbable ones. Furthermore, any type of bioceramics could be porous to provide tissue ingrowth. This review is devoted to bioceramics prepared from calcium orthophosphates, which belong to the categories of bioresorbable and bioactive compounds. During the past 30-40 years, there have been a number of major advances in this field. Namely, after the initial work on development of bioceramics that was tolerated in the physiological environment, emphasis was shifted towards the use of bioceramics that interacted with bones by forming a direct chemical bond. By the structural and compositional control, it became possible to choose whether the bioceramics of calcium orthophosphates was biologically stable once incorporated within the skeletal structure or whether it was resorbed over time. At the turn of the millennium, a new concept of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics, which is able to regenerate bone tissues, has been developed. Current biomedical applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics include replacements for hips, knees, teeth, tendons and ligaments, as well as repair for periodontal disease, maxillofacial reconstruction, augmentation and stabilization of the jawbone, spinal fusion and bone fillers after tumor surgery. Potential future applications of calcium orthophosphate bioceramics will include drug-delivery systems, as well as they will become effective carriers of growth factors, bioactive peptides and/or various types of cells for tissue engineering purposes.

  11. Aptamer Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Marrazza, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    In the last years, great progress has been accomplished in the development of aptamer sensors with different transducers. In order to improve the sensitivity of these biosensors, several methodologies have been employed. In this Special Issue, the state of art and the future trends in the field of aptamer sensors have been explored. PMID:28054983

  12. Temperature Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Weed Instrument Inc. produces a line of thermocouples - temperature sensors - for a variety of industrial and research uses. One of the company's newer products is a thermocouple specially designed for high accuracy at extreme temperatures above 3,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Development of sensor brought substantial increases in Weed Instrument sales and employment.

  13. Smart Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsi, C.

    2007-01-01

    The term "Smart Sensors" refers to sensors which contain both sensing and signal processing capabilities with objectives ranging from simple viewing to sophisticated remote sensing, surveillance, search/track, weapon guidance, robotics, perceptronics and intelligence applications. Recently this approach is achieving higher goals by a new and revolutionary sensors concept which introduced inside the sensor some of the basic functions of living eyes, such as dynamic stare, non-uniformity compensation, spatial and temporal filtering. New objectives and requirements are presented for this type of new infrared smart sensor systems. This paper is concerned with the front end of FPA microbolometers processing, namely, the enhancement of target-to-noise ratio by background clutter suppression and the improvement in target detection by "smart" and pattern correlation thresholding.

  14. Calcium Phosphates and Human Beings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2006-05-01

    This article describes the general importance of calcium phosphates for human beings. The basic information on the structure and chemical properties of the biologically relevant calcium phosphates is summarized. Basic facts on the natural occurrence and the industrial use of natural calcium phosphates are discussed. Fundamental details on the presence of calcium phosphates in major calcified tissues (bones and teeth) of humans and mammals, as well as on biomaterials made of calcium phosphates are discussed. The article will be of value for chemistry teachers for expansion of their general background and point the students' attention to the rapidly growing topic of bone-substituting biomaterials.

  15. The molecular choreography of a store-operated calcium channel.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Richard S

    2007-03-15

    Store-operated calcium channels (SOCs) serve essential functions from secretion and motility to gene expression and cell growth. A fundamental mystery is how the depletion of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) activates Ca2+ entry through SOCs in the plasma membrane. Recent studies using genetic approaches have identified genes encoding the ER Ca2+ sensor and a prototypic SOC, the Ca2+-release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channel. New findings reveal a unique mechanism for channel activation, in which the CRAC channel and its sensor migrate independently to closely apposed sites of interaction in the ER and the plasma membrane.

  16. Reliability and storage capacity: a compromise illustrated in the two-step spin-crossover system [Fe(bapbpy)(NCS)(2)].

    PubMed

    Kepenekian, Mikael; Costa, José Sánchez; Le Guennic, Boris; Maldivi, Pascale; Bonnet, Sylvestre; Reedijk, Jan; Gamez, Patrick; Robert, Vincent

    2010-12-06

    The design of bistable magnetic systems should enable the storage of information by manipulation of the spin degrees of freedom. However, such a strategy relies on the preparation of target objects, whose environment must be controlled to favor a hysteretic behavior. Here, we report the successful modeling of a highly cooperative two-step spin-crossover iron(II) compound, [Fe(bapbpy)(NCS)(2)]. The magnetic susceptibility measurements and low- and high-temperature hysteretic cycles reflect the presence of an intermediate phase, which controls the memory-storage capacity of this material. It is shown that the hysteresis loop widths can be traced theoretically by evaluating the electrostatic contributions between the transiting units. Despite the apparent reduction of intermolecular interactions upon cooling, it is suggested that the enhanced fluctuations of the Madelung field are responsible for the observed hysteresis width changes. This counterintuitive scenario makes the preparation of information storage devices an even more challenging task, where theoretical inspections are very insightful.

  17. Synthesis of Nanocrystals and Particle Size Effects Studies on the Thermally Induced Spin Transition of the Model Spin Crossover Compound [Fe(phen)2(NCS)2].

    PubMed

    Valverde-Muñoz, Francisco Javier; Gaspar, Ana B; Shylin, Sergii I; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Real, José A

    2015-08-17

    Surfactant-free nanocrystals of the model spin-crossover compound [Fe(phen)2(NCS)2] (phen: 1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized applying the reverse micelle technique. The morphology of the nanocrystals, characterized by scanning electronic microscopy, corresponds to rhombohedric platelets with dimensions ranging from 203 × 203 × 106 nm to 142 × 142 × 74 nm. Variation of the concentration of the Fe(BF4)2·6H2O salt in the synthesis has been found to have little influence on the crystallite size. In contrast, the solvent-surfactant ratio (ω) is critical for a good particle growth. The spin transition of the nanocrystals has been characterized by magnetic susceptibility measurements and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The nanocrystals undergo an abrupt and more cooperative spin transition in comparison with the bulk compound. The spin transition is centered in the interval of temperature of 175-185 K and is accompanied by 8 K of thermal hysteresis width. The crystallite quality more than the crystallite size is responsible for the higher cooperativity. The magnetic properties of the nanocrystals embedded in organic polymers such as polyethylene glycol, nujol, glycerol, and triton have been studied as well. The spin transition in the nanocrystals is affected by the polymer coating. The abrupt and first-order spin transition transforms into a more continuous spin transition as a result of the chemical pressure asserted by the organic polymers on the Fe(II) centers.

  18. Vibrational spectrum of the spin crossover complex [Fe(phen)(2)(NCS)(2)] studied by IR and Raman spectroscopy, nuclear inelastic scattering and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Ronayne, Kate L; Paulsen, Hauke; Höfer, Andreas; Dennis, Andrew C; Wolny, Juliusz A; Chumakov, Aleksandr I; Schünemann, Volker; Winkler, Heiner; Spiering, Hartmut; Bousseksou, Azzedine; Gütlich, Philipp; Trautwein, Alfred X; McGarvey, John J

    2006-10-28

    The vibrational modes of the low-spin and high-spin isomers of the spin crossover complex [Fe(phen)(2)(NCS)(2)] (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) have been measured by IR and Raman spectroscopy and by nuclear inelastic scattering. The vibrational frequencies and normal modes and the IR and Raman intensities have been calculated by density functional methods. The vibrational entropy difference between the two isomers, DeltaS(vib), which is--together with the electronic entropy difference DeltaS(el)--the driving force for the spin-transition, has been determined from the measured and from the calculated frequencies. The calculated difference (DeltaS(vib) = 57-70 J mol(-1) K(-1), depending on the method) is in qualitative agreement with experimental values (20-36 J mol(-1) K(-1)). Only the low energy vibrational modes (20% of the 147 modes of the free molecule) contribute to the entropy difference and about three quarters of the vibrational entropy difference are due to the 15 modes of the central FeN(6) octahedron.

  19. Validation of the diagnoses of panic disorder and phobic disorders in the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent (NCS-A) supplement.

    PubMed

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Avenevoli, Shelli; Finkelman, Matthew; Gruber, Michael J; Kessler, Ronald C; Merikangas, Kathleen R; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M

    2011-06-01

    Validity of the adolescent version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) Version 3.0, a fully-structured research diagnostic interview designed to be used by trained lay interviewers, is assessed in comparison to independent clinical diagnoses based on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age Children (K-SADS). This assessment is carried out in the clinical reappraisal sub-sample (n = 347) of the US National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent (NCS-A) supplement, a large (n = 10,148) community epidemiological survey of the prevalence and correlates of adolescent mental disorders in the United States. The diagnoses considered are panic disorder and phobic disorders (social phobia, specific phobia, agoraphobia). CIDI diagnoses are found to have good concordance with K-SADS diagnoses [area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.81-0.94], although the CIDI diagnoses are consistency somewhat higher than the K-SADS diagnoses. Data are also presented on criterion-level concordance in an effort to pinpoint CIDI question series that might be improved in future modifications of the instrument. Finally, data are presented on the factor structure of the fears associated with social phobia, the only disorder in this series where substantial controversy exists about disorder subtypes.

  20. Calcium signaling in taste cells.

    PubMed

    Medler, Kathryn F

    2015-09-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium.

  1. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Bradleigh; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Burton, Rachel A.; Gilliham, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact the development, physical traits and disease susceptibility of fruit through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g., blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples). This review works toward an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved knowledge of the calcium

  2. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    DOEpatents

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  3. Nutrition in calcium nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease with a complex pathogenesis due to genetic and environmental factors. The importance of social and health effects of nephrolithiasis is further highlighted by the strong tendency to relapse of the disease. Long-term prospective studies show a peak of disease recurrence within 2–3 years since onset, 40-50% of patients have a recurrence after 5 years and more than 50-60% after 10 years. International nutritional studies demonstrated that nutritional habits are relevant in therapy and prevention approaches of nephrolithiasis. Water, right intake of calcium, low intake of sodium, high levels of urinary citrate are certainly important for the primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. In this review is discussed how the correction of nutritional mistakes can reduce the incidence of recurrent nephrolithiasis. PMID:23634702

  4. Complexometric Determination of Calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) complexes with numerous mineral ions, including calcium and magnesium. This reaction can be used to determine the amount of these minerals in a sample by a complexometric titration. Endpoints in the titration are detected using indicators that change color when they complex with mineral ions. Calmagite and eriochrome black T (EBT) are such indicators that change from blue to pink when they complex with calcium and magnesium. In the titration of a mineral-containing solution with EDTA, the solution turns from pink to blue at the endpoint with either indicator. The pH affects a complexometric EDTA titration in several ways, and must be carefully controlled. A major application of EDTA titration is testing the hardness of water, for which the method described is an official one (Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, Method 2340C; AOAC Method 920.196).

  5. Synthesis of calcium superoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rewick, R. T.; Blucher, W. G.; Estacio, P. L.

    1972-01-01

    Efforts to prepare Ca(O2) sub 2 from reactions of calcium compounds with 100% O3 and with O(D-1) atoms generated by photolysis of O3 at 2537 A are described. Samples of Ca(OH) sub 2, CaO, CaO2, Ca metal, and mixtures containing suspected impurities to promote reaction have been treated with excess O3 under static and flow conditions in the presence and absence of UV irradiation. Studies with KO2 suggest that the superoxide anion is stable to radiation at 2537 A but reacts with oxygen atoms generated by the photolysis of O3 to form KO3. Calcium superoxide is expected to behave in an analogous.

  6. Availability of calcium from skim milk, calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate for bone mineralization in pigs.

    PubMed

    Pointillart, A; Coxam, V; Sève, B; Colin, C; Lacroix, C H; Guéguen, L

    2000-01-01

    Dairy products provide abundant, accessible calcium for humans, while some calcium sulfate-rich mineral waters could provide appreciable amounts of calcium. But there is little evidence that this calcium is as available as milk calcium for making bone. The availability of calcium was studied by monitoring bone parameters in 2-month-old pigs fed restricted amounts of calcium (70% RDA) for 2.5 months. The 3 main (> or = 50% Ca intake) Ca sources were either CaCO3 or CaSO4 or skim milk powder (29% of the diet). The bones of the pigs fed the "milk" diet had higher (P < 0.01) ash contents, breaking strength and density (DEXA) than those of the two others groups, in which the bone values were similar. Thus, the calcium provided by a diet containing milk appears to ensure better bone mineralization than do calcium salts included in a non-milk diet. The calcium restriction may have enhanced some milk properties to stimulate calcium absorption in these young, rapidly growing pigs.

  7. Sensor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokoloski, Martin M.

    1988-01-01

    The objective is to provide necessary expertise and technology to advance space remote sensing of terrestrial, planetary, and galactic phenomena through the use of electromagnetic and electro-optic properties of gas, liquid, and solid state materials technology. The Sensor Technology Program is divided into two subprograms: a base research and development part and a Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) part. The base research and development consists of research on artificially grown materials such as quantum well and superlattice structure with the potential for new and efficient means for detecting electromagnetic phenomena. Research is also being done on materials and concepts for detector components and devices for measuring high energy phenomena such as UV, X-, and gamma rays that are required observables in astrophysis and solar physics missions. The CSTI program is more mission driven and is balanced among four major disciplines: detector sensors; submillimeter wave sensors; LIDAR/DIAL sensors; and cooler technology.

  8. A model of propagating calcium-induced calcium release mediated by calcium diffusion

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The effect of sudden local fluctuations of the free sarcoplasmic [Ca++]i in cardiac cells on calcium release and calcium uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was calculated with the aid of a simplified model of SR calcium handling. The model was used to evaluate whether propagation of calcium transients and the range of propagation velocities observed experimentally (0.05-15 mm s(-1)) could be predicted. Calcium fluctuations propagate by virtue of focal calcium release from the SR, diffusion through the cytosol (which is modulated by binding to troponin and calmodulin and sequestration by the SR), and subsequently induce calcium release from adjacent release sites of the SR. The minimal and maximal velocities derived from the simulation were 0.09 and 15 mm s(-1) respectively. The method of solution involved writing the diffusion equation as a difference equation in the spatial coordinates. Thus, coupled ordinary differential equations in time with banded coefficients were generated. The coupled equations were solved using Gear's sixth order predictor-corrector algorithm for stiff equations with reflective boundaries. The most important determinants of the velocity of propagation of the calcium waves were the diastolic [Ca++]i, the rate of rise of the release, and the amount of calcium released from the SR. The results are consistent with the assumptions that calcium loading causes an increase in intracellular calcium and calcium in the SR, and an increase in the amount and rate of calcium released. These two effects combine to increase the propagation velocity at higher levels of calcium loading. PMID:2738577

  9. Calcium bioavailability and kinetics of calcium ascorbate and calcium acetate in rats.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jianwei; Zhang, Qinmin; Wastney, Meryl E; Weaver, Connie M

    2004-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the bioavailability and mechanism of calcium absorption of calcium ascorbate (ASC) and calcium acetate (AC). A series of studies was performed in adult Sprague-Dawley male rats. In the first study, each group of rats (n = 10/group) was assigned to one of the five test meals labeled with (45)Ca: (i) 25 mg calcium as heated ASC or (ii) unheated ASC, (iii) 25 mg calcium as unheated AC, (iv) 3.6 mg Ca as unheated ASC, or (v) unheated AC. Femur uptake indicated better calcium bioavailability from ASC than AC at both calcium loads. A 5-min heat treatment partly reduced bioavailability of ASC. Kinetic studies were performed to further investigate the mechanism of superior calcium bioavailability from ASC. Two groups of rats (n = 10/group) received oral doses of 25 mg Ca as ASC or AC. Each dose contained 20 micro Ci (45)Ca. Two additional groups of rats (n = 10/group) received an intravenous injection (iv) of 10 micro Ci (45)Ca after receiving an unlabeled oral dose of 25 mg calcium as ASC or AC. Sequential blood samples were collected over 48 hrs. Urine and fecal samples were collected every 12 hrs for 48 hrs and were analyzed for total calcium and (45)Ca content. Total calcium and (45)Ca from serum, urine, and feces were fitted by a compartment kinetics model with saturable and nonsaturable absorption pathways by WinSAAM (Windows-based Simulation Analysis and Modeling). The difference in calcium bioavailability between the two salts was due to differences in saturable rather than passive intestinal absorption and not to endogenous secretion or calcium deposition rate. The higher bioavailability of calcium ascorbate was due to a longer transit time in the small intestine compared with ASC.

  10. Calcium signalling and calcium channels: evolution and general principles.

    PubMed

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Parpura, Vladimir

    2014-09-15

    Calcium as a divalent cation was selected early in evolution as a signaling molecule to be used by both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Its low cytosolic concentration likely reflects the initial concentration of this ion in the primordial soup/ocean as unicellular organisms were formed. As the concentration of calcium in the ocean subsequently increased, so did the diversity of homeostatic molecules handling calcium. This includes the plasma membrane channels that allowed the calcium entry, as well as extrusion mechanisms, i.e., exchangers and pumps. Further diversification occurred with the evolution of intracellular organelles, in particular the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, which also contain channels, exchanger(s) and pumps to handle the homeostasis of calcium ions. Calcium signalling system, based around coordinated interactions of the above molecular entities, can be activated by the opening of voltage-gated channels, neurotransmitters, second messengers and/or mechanical stimulation, and as such is all-pervading pathway in physiology and pathophysiology of organisms.

  11. Elemental calcium intake associated with calcium acetate/calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Rosamund J; Copley, J Brian

    2017-01-01

    Background Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. Scope A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy. Of the intent-to-treat population (N=2520), 752 patients with recorded dose data for calcium acetate (n=551)/calcium carbonate (n=201) at baseline and lanthanum carbonate at week 16 were studied. Elemental calcium intake, serum phosphate, corrected serum calcium, and serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were analyzed. Findings Of the 551 patients with calcium acetate dose data, 271 (49.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day at baseline, and 142 (25.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) serum phosphate levels were 6.1 (5.89, 6.21) mg/dL at baseline and 6.2 (6.04, 6.38) mg/dL at 16 weeks; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.3 (9.16, 9.44) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Of the 201 patients with calcium carbonate dose data, 117 (58.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day, and 76 (37.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% CI) serum phosphate levels were 5.8 (5.52, 6.06) mg/dL at baseline and 5.8 (5.53, 6.05) mg/dL at week 16; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.7 (9.15, 10.25) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Conclusion Calcium acetate/calcium carbonate phosphate binders, taken to control serum phosphate levels, may result in high levels of elemental calcium intake. This may lead to complications related to calcium balance. PMID:28182142

  12. X-ray fluorescence measurements of organic superconductors {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br and {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Kurmaev, E.Z.; Shamin, S.N.; Xu, Y.; Ching, W.Y.; Moewes, A.; Ederer, D.L.; Yagubskii, E.B.; Kushch, N.D.

    1999-11-01

    The electronic structure of organic superconductors {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br and {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2} has been studied in detail by means of soft x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Cu L{sub 3}, S L{sub 2,3}, C K{alpha}, and N K{alpha} x-ray emission spectra are measured near the corresponding thresholds with synchrotron radiation. The experimental information about site-selective and symmetry-restricted partial density of states in the valence band of both compounds is compared with first-principles band-structure calculations and ultraviolet photoemission spectra. It is found that copper is monovalent in both compounds indicating that the electron is transferred from (ET) dimer to Cu(NCS){sub 2} and Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br and is localized mainly on the Cu site. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Synthesis of hexa aza cages, SarAr-NCS and AmBaSar and a study of their metal complexation, conjugation to nanomaterials and proteins for application in radioimaging and therapy.

    PubMed

    Mume, Eskender; Asad, Ali; Di Bartolo, Nadine M; Kong, Linggen; Smith, Christopher; Sargeson, Alan M; Price, Roger; Smith, Suzanne V

    2013-10-28

    A novel hexa aza cage, N(1)-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaazabicyclo[6.6.6]icosane-1,8-diamine (SarAr-NCS) was synthesized in good yield and characterized by (1)H NMR and electrospray mass spectrometry. A new method for the synthesis of the related N(1)-(4-carboxybenzyl)-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaazabicyclo[6.6.6]icosane-1,8-diamine (AmBaSar) using the p-carboxybenzaldehyde is reported. The complexation of Cu(2+), Co(2+) and Zn(2+) by the two ligands over a range of pHs was found to be similar to the parent derivative SarAr. SarAr-NCS was conjugated to both silica particles (≈90 nm diam.) and the model B72.3 murine antibody. The SarAr-NCSN-silica particles were radiolabeled with Cu(2+) doped (64)Cu and the number of ligands conjugated was calculated to be an average of 7020 ligands per particle. Conjugation of SarAr-NCS to the B72.3 antibody was optimized over a range of conditions. The SarAr-NCSN-B72.3 conjugate was stored in buffer and as a lyophilized powder at 4 °C over 38 days. Its radiolabeling efficiency, stability and immunoreactivity were maintained. The development of a high yielding synthesis of SarAr-NCS should provide an entry point for a wide range of Cu and Zn radiometal PET imaging agents and potentially radiotherapeutic agents with (67)Cu.

  14. Exploring the associations between microRNA expression profiles and environmental pollutants in human placenta from the National Children's Study (NCS).

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Kappil, Maya A; Li, An; Dassanayake, Priyanthi S; Darrah, Thomas H; Friedman, Alan E; Friedman, Michelle; Lambertini, Luca; Landrigan, Philip; Stodgell, Christopher J; Xia, Yulin; Nanes, Jessica A; Aagaard, Kjersti M; Schadt, Eric E; Murray, Jeff C; Clark, Edward B; Dole, Nancy; Culhane, Jennifer; Swanson, James; Varner, Michael; Moye, Jack; Kasten, Carol; Miller, Richard K; Chen, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is the principal regulator of the in utero environment, and disruptions to this environment can result in adverse offspring health outcomes. To better characterize the impact of in utero perturbations, we assessed the influence of known environmental pollutants on the expression of microRNA (miRNA) in placental samples collected from the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard birth cohort. This study analyzed the expression of 654 miRNAs in 110 term placentas. Environmental pollutants measured in these placentas included dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), bisphenol A (BPA), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). A moderated t-test was used to identify a panel of differentially expressed miRNAs, which were further analyzed using generalized linear models. We observed 112 miRNAs consistently expressed in >70% of the samples. Consistent with the literature, miRNAs located within the imprinted placenta-specific C19MC cluster, specifically mir-517a, mir-517c, mir-522, and mir-23a, are among the top expressed miRNA in our study. We observed a positive association between PBDE 209 and miR-188-5p and an inverse association between PBDE 99 and let-7c. Both PCBs and Cd were positively associated with miR-1537 expression level. In addition, multiple let-7 family members were downregulated with increasing levels of Hg and Pb. We did not observe DDE or BPA levels to be associated with placental miRNA expression. This is the first birth cohort study linking environmental pollutants and placental expression of miRNAs. Our results suggest that placental miRNA profiles may signal in utero exposures to environmental chemicals.

  15. Theoretical aspects of calcium signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pencea, Corneliu Stefan

    2001-08-01

    Experiments investigating intracellular calcium dynamics have revealed that calcium signals differentially affect a variety of intracellular processes, from fertilization and cell development and differentiation to subsequent cellular activity, ending with cell death. As an intracellular messenger, calcium transmits information within and between cells, thus regulating their activity. To control such a variety of processes, calcium signals have to be very flexible and also precisely regulated. The cell uses a calcium signaling ``toolkit'', where calcium ions can act in different contexts of space, amplitude and time. For different tasks, the cell selects the particular signal, or combination of signals, that triggers the appropriate physiological response. The physical foundations of such a versatile cellular signaling toolkit involving calcium are not completely understood, despite important experimental and theoretical progress made recently. The declared goal of this work is to investigate physical mechanisms on which the propagation of differential signals can be based. The dynamics of calcium near a cluster of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) activated calcium channels has been investigated analytically and numerically. Our work has demonstrated that clusters of different IP3 receptors can show similar bistable behavior, but differ in both the transient and long term dynamics. We have also investigated the conditions under which a calcium signal propagates between a pair of localized stores. We have shown that the propagation of the signal across a random distribution of such stores shows a percolation transition manifested in the shape of the wave front. More importantly, our work indicates that specific distribution of stores can be interpreted as calcium circuits that can perform important signal analyzing task, from unidirectional propagation and coincidence detection to a complete set of logic gates. We believe that phenomena like the ones described are

  16. Cardiovascular effects of calcium supplements.

    PubMed

    Reid, Ian R

    2013-07-05

    Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%-31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%-20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  17. A comprehensive search for calcium binding sites critical for TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channel activity

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Jason; Peters, Christian J; Wong, Xiu Ming; Cheng, Tong; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh; Yang, Huanghe

    2014-01-01

    TMEM16A forms calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) that regulate physiological processes such as the secretions of airway epithelia and exocrine glands, the contraction of smooth muscles, and the excitability of neurons. Notwithstanding intense interest in the mechanism behind TMEM16A-CaCC calcium-dependent gating, comprehensive surveys to identify and characterize potential calcium sensors of this channel are still lacking. By aligning distantly related calcium-activated ion channels in the TMEM16 family and conducting systematic mutagenesis of all conserved acidic residues thought to be exposed to the cytoplasm, we identify four acidic amino acids as putative calcium-binding residues. Alterations of the charge, polarity, and size of amino acid side chains at these sites alter the ability of different divalent cations to activate the channel. Furthermore, TMEM16A mutant channels containing double cysteine substitutions at these residues are sensitive to the redox potential of the internal solution, providing evidence for their physical proximity and solvent accessibility. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02772.001 PMID:24980701

  18. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... acid with calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate. It occurs as a fine white, odorless powder and... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 184.1195 Section 184.1195 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Calcium citrate...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... acid with calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate. It occurs as a fine white, odorless powder and... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 184.1195 Section 184.1195 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Calcium citrate...

  20. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and... Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely used as an anticaking agent in animal feed, provided that the amount of calcium silicate does...

  1. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and... Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely used as an anticaking agent in animal feed, provided that the amount of calcium silicate does...

  2. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and... Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely used as an anticaking agent in animal feed, provided that the amount of calcium silicate does...

  3. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and... Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely used as an anticaking agent in animal feed, provided that the amount of calcium silicate does...

  4. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and... Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely used as an anticaking agent in animal feed, provided that the amount of calcium silicate does...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Calcium citrate (Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 813-0994-095) is the calcium salt of citric acid. It is prepared by neutralizing citric acid with calcium hydroxide or calcium carbonate. It occurs as a fine white, odorless powder...

  6. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt..., calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may... information required by the Act, the following: (1) The name of the additive “calcium chloride double salt...

  7. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt..., calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may... information required by the Act, the following: (1) The name of the additive “calcium chloride double salt...

  8. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt..., calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may... information required by the Act, the following: (1) The name of the additive “calcium chloride double salt...

  9. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt..., calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may... information required by the Act, the following: (1) The name of the additive “calcium chloride double salt...

  10. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt... Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.330 Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may be safely used in foods for...

  11. Water Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mike Morris, former Associate Director of STAC, formed pHish Doctor, Inc. to develop and sell a pH monitor for home aquariums. The monitor, or pHish Doctor, consists of a sensor strip and color chart that continually measures pH levels in an aquarium. This is important because when the level gets too high, ammonia excreted by fish is highly toxic; at low pH, bacteria that normally break down waste products stop functioning. Sales have run into the tens of thousands of dollars. A NASA Tech Brief Technical Support Package later led to a salt water version of the system and a DoE Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant for development of a sensor for sea buoys. The company, now known as Ocean Optics, Inc., is currently studying the effects of carbon dioxide buildup as well as exploring other commercial applications for the fiber optic sensor.

  12. Calcium channels and migraine.

    PubMed

    Pietrobon, Daniela

    2013-07-01

    Missense mutations in CACNA1A, the gene that encodes the pore-forming α1 subunit of human voltage-gated Ca(V)2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels, cause a rare form of migraine with aura (familial hemiplegic migraine type 1: FHM1). Migraine is a common disabling brain disorder whose key manifestations are recurrent attacks of unilateral headache that may be preceded by transient neurological aura symptoms. This review, first, briefly summarizes current understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms that are believed to underlie migraine headache, migraine aura and the onset of a migraine attack, and briefly describes the localization and function of neuronal Ca(V)2.1 channels in the brain regions that have been implicated in migraine pathogenesis. Then, the review describes and discusses i) the functional consequences of FHM1 mutations on the biophysical properties of recombinant human Ca(V)2.1 channels and native Ca(V)2.1 channels in neurons of knockin mouse models carrying the mild R192Q or severe S218L mutations in the orthologous gene, and ii) the functional consequences of these mutations on neurophysiological processes in the cerebral cortex and trigeminovascular system thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of migraine, and the insights into migraine mechanisms obtained from the functional analysis of these processes in FHM1 knockin mice. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium channels.

  13. Osseointegration of nanohydroxyapatite- or nano-calcium silicate-incorporated polyetheretherketone bioactive composites in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui; Yu, Zhifeng; Tang, Songchao; Pan, Yongkang; Wei, Jie; Tang, Tingting

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) exhibits appropriate biomechanical strength as well as good biocompatibility and stable chemical properties but lacks bioactivity and cannot achieve highly efficient osseointegration after implantation. Incorporating bioceramics into the PEEK matrix is a feasible approach for improving its bioactivity. In this study, nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA) and nano-calcium silicate (n-CS) were separately incorporated into PEEK to prepare n-HA/PEEK and n-CS/PEEK biocomposites, respectively, using a compounding and injection-molding technique, and the in vitro degradation characteristics were evaluated. Discs with a diameter of 8 mm were inserted in 8 mm full-thickness cranial defects in rabbits for 4 and 8 weeks, and implantation of pure PEEK was used as the control. Three-dimensional microcomputed tomography, histological analysis, fluorescence microscopy of new bone formation, and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the osseointegration performance at the bone/implant interface. The results of the in vitro degradation study demonstrated that degradation of n-CS on the surface of n-CS/PEEK could release Ca and Si ions and form a porous structure. In vivo tests revealed that both n-CS/PEEK and n-HA/PEEK promoted osseointegration at the bone/implant interface compared to PEEK, and n-CS/PEEK exhibited higher bone contact ratio and more new bone formation compared with those of n-HA/PEEK, implying that n-CS/PEEK possessed a stronger ability to promote osseointegration. These two PEEK biocomposites are promising materials for the preparation of orthopedic or craniofacial implants.

  14. Osseointegration of nanohydroxyapatite- or nano-calcium silicate-incorporated polyetheretherketone bioactive composites in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rui; Yu, Zhifeng; Tang, Songchao; Pan, Yongkang; Wei, Jie; Tang, Tingting

    2016-01-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) exhibits appropriate biomechanical strength as well as good biocompatibility and stable chemical properties but lacks bioactivity and cannot achieve highly efficient osseointegration after implantation. Incorporating bioceramics into the PEEK matrix is a feasible approach for improving its bioactivity. In this study, nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA) and nano-calcium silicate (n-CS) were separately incorporated into PEEK to prepare n-HA/PEEK and n-CS/PEEK biocomposites, respectively, using a compounding and injection-molding technique, and the in vitro degradation characteristics were evaluated. Discs with a diameter of 8 mm were inserted in 8 mm full-thickness cranial defects in rabbits for 4 and 8 weeks, and implantation of pure PEEK was used as the control. Three-dimensional microcomputed tomography, histological analysis, fluorescence microscopy of new bone formation, and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the osseointegration performance at the bone/implant interface. The results of the in vitro degradation study demonstrated that degradation of n-CS on the surface of n-CS/PEEK could release Ca and Si ions and form a porous structure. In vivo tests revealed that both n-CS/PEEK and n-HA/PEEK promoted osseointegration at the bone/implant interface compared to PEEK, and n-CS/PEEK exhibited higher bone contact ratio and more new bone formation compared with those of n-HA/PEEK, implying that n-CS/PEEK possessed a stronger ability to promote osseointegration. These two PEEK biocomposites are promising materials for the preparation of orthopedic or craniofacial implants. PMID:27881916

  15. Calcium transporters: From fields to the table

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium transporters regulate calcium fluxes within cells. Plants, like all organisms, contain channels, pumps, and exchangers to carefully modulate intracellular calcium levels. This review presents a summary of the recent advances in cloning and characterizing of these transporters and highlight...

  16. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Balance › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin ...

  17. Major Minerals - Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus are essential elements critically important for the function of the musculoskeletal system, including the formation and transduction of energy and the maintenance of healthy bone. The major calcium concern for physically active healthy middle-aged adults is to consu...

  18. Electrochemical cell with calcium anode

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.; Hosmer, Pamela K.; Kelly, Benjamin E.

    1979-01-01

    An electrochemical cell comprising a calcium anode and a suitable cathode in an alkaline electrolyte consisting essentially of an aqueous solution of an hydroxide and a chloride. Specifically disclosed is a mechanically rechargeable calcium/air fuel cell with an aqueous NaOH/NaCl electrolyte.

  19. Calcium Intake: A Lifelong Proposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amschler, Denise H.

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews the current problem of low calcium intake in the United States among all age groups, the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone mass, and major factors influencing absorption. Osteoporosis is discussed, and current recommendations for Recommended Dietary allowance are provided. (Author/MT)

  20. Sensor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A [Idaho Falls, ID; Telschow, Kenneth L [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-12-22

    A sensor apparatus and method for detecting an environmental factor is shown that includes an acoustic device that has a characteristic resonant vibrational frequency and mode pattern when exposed to a source of acoustic energy and, futher, when exposed to an environmental factor, produces a different resonant vibrational frequency and/or mode pattern when exposed to the same source of acoustic energy.

  1. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, Jr., James R.; Edlund, David J.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Rayfield, George W.

    1991-01-01

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising (a) a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, operatively coupled to (b) a transducer capable of directly converting said expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response.

  2. Gas sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  3. Chemical sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  4. The bioavailability of calcium in spinach and calcium-oxalate to calcium-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Kikunaga, S; Arimori, M; Takahashi, M

    1988-04-01

    We estimated the utilization of calcium in spinach and calcium-oxalate to calcium-deficient rats, and the effect of oxalic acid on absorption of dietary calcium by using calcium-deficient rats. The body weight gain of the calcium-deficient rats for 8 days receiving a calcium-deficient diet supplemented with raw-powdered spinach (R-sp), boiled-powdered spinach (B-sp), or calcium-oxalate (Ca-ox), and a control diet supplemented with oxalic acid (OX-C) were 4.8, 2.8, 4.9, and 5.1 g, respectively. The calcium content in the liver and kidney of the rats receiving R-sp, B-sp, Ca-ox, and OX-C diets significantly increased as compared with the calcium-deficient rats. Significant differences in the liver calcium levels were not observed among the rats receiving various additional diets, though the content in the kidneys of the rats receiving R-sp, B-sp, Ca-ox, and OX-C diets were 28.0, 21.5, 0.11, and 0.59 mg, respectively. An especially large amount of calcium was accumulated in the kidneys of the rats receiving R-sp and B-sp diets. The calcium concentration in the serum of the rats receiving Ca-ox and OX-C diets was higher than the calcium concentration in the serum of the R-sp, B-sp, and calcium-deficient rats. The calcium content in the left tibiae of the rats receiving Ca-ox and OX-C diets was higher than that of the rats receiving R-sp and B-sp diets. The breaking force of the right tibiae of the rats was highest in the OX-C group, and higher in the R-sp and Ca-ox groups than the breaking force of the right tibiae of the rats fed on B-sp diet. The alkaline phosphatase activity in the small intestines of the rats rose in the order of the R-sp, B-sp, and Ca-ox groups, although significant differences of the activity were not observed between the Ca-ox and the OX-C groups. The calcium retention of the rats receiving the calcium-deficient, R-sp, B-sp, Ca-ox, and OX-C diets was -18.5, 35.2, 25.6, 41.6, and 45.8%, respectively. About 35% of the calcium in the spinach was

  5. Pressure effect and crystal structure reinvestigations on the spin crossover system: [Fe(bt)2(NCS)2] (bt = 2,2'-bithiazoline) polymorphs A and B.

    PubMed

    Galet, Ana; Gaspar, Ana Belén; Muñoz, M Carmen; Levchenko, Georgii; Real, José Antonio

    2006-11-27

    The crystal structure of [Fe(bt)2(NCS)2] (A) was determined by X-ray diffraction at 293 and at 150 K in order to analyze the structural changes associated with the spin transition. The space group is P1 with Z = 2 at both temperatures. Lattice constants are as follows: a = 8.5240(4), b = 11.0730(6), c = 12.5300(8) at 293 K and a = 8.1490(4), b = 11.4390(5), c = 12.1270(6) at 150 K. The iron(II) atom lies at the center of a distorted [FeN6] defined by two bt ligands arranged in a cis conformation. The two remaining coordination positions are occupied by two isothiocyanate anions. The average bond lengths of 2.159(4) A (293 K) and 1.951(2) A (150 K) clearly indicate the change in spin configuration. The trigonal distortion parameter phi has a value of 9.6 degrees and 5.5 degrees at 293 and 150 K, respectively. For A, DeltaV = DeltaV(SCO) = 28 A(3) per formula unit and is accompanied by a hysteresis of 10 K. chi(M)T vs T curves at atmospheric pressure for A show an abrupt spin transition with Tc downward arrow = 176 K and Tc upward arrow = 187 K. The thermodynamic parameters associated with the spin transition are DeltaH = 8.4 +/- 0.4 kJ mol(-1) and DeltaS = 46.5 +/- 3 J K mol(-1). The thermal dependence of the magnetic susceptibility at different pressures, 0.1-0.91 GPa, points out an unusual behavior, which can only be understood in terms of a crystallographic phase transition or a change in the bulk modulus of the complex. Polymorph B crystallizes in the C2/c space group with an average Fe-N bond length of 2.168(2) A and phi = 14.7 degrees at 293 K. B remains in the HS configuration even at pressures of 1.06 GPa.

  6. Ultra-compact photonic crystal integrated sensor formed by series-connected nanobeam bandstop filter and nanobeam cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yujie; Yang, Daquan; Ji, Yuefeng

    2016-10-01

    A novel ultra-compact one dimensional (1D) photonic crystal (PC) nanobeam integrated sensor (1D PC NIS) is presented in this work, which is formed by series-connected 1D PC nanobeam bandstop filter (1D PC NBF) and 1D PC nanobeam cavity sensor (1D PC NCS). 1D PC NBF is based on an array of the same rectangular grating, with the photonics bandgap (PBG) range for 1538nm 1763nm. 1D PC NCS consists of a 1D PC nanobeam cavity, with the circle air-hole radius parabolically decreasing. By connecting these two parts above, the resonance within the stop band of 1D PC NBF will be filtered out, only the goal resonance used for refractive index sensing is left. Resonance wavelength position of the goal resonance remains the same basically. A high Q-factor of above 1.43×103 and a high sensitivity of 127.07nm/RIU can be obtained simultaneously, which agrees well with the 122.07nm/RIU obtained above without filter. Moreover, benefiting from the ultra-compact size (0.7μm×11μm), 1D PC NIS proposed in the paper is promising to be used for sensors array and multiplexed sensing.

  7. Limestone reaction in calcium aluminate cement–calcium sulfate systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bizzozero, Julien Scrivener, Karen L.

    2015-10-15

    This paper reports a study of ternary blends composed of calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and limestone. Compressive strength tests and hydration kinetics were studied as a function of limestone and calcium sulfate content. The phase evolution and the total porosity were followed and compared to thermodynamic simulation to understand the reactions involved and the effect of limestone on these binders. The reaction of limestone leads to the formation of hemicarboaluminate and monocarboaluminate. Increasing the ratio between sulfate and aluminate decreases the extent of limestone reaction.

  8. Optogenetic monitoring identifies phosphatidylthreonine-regulated calcium homeostasis in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Kuchipudi, Arunakar; Arroyo-Olarte, Ruben D.; Hoffmann, Friederike; Brinkmann, Volker; Gupta, Nishith

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite, which inflicts acute as well as chronic infections in a wide range of warm-blooded vertebrates. Our recent work has demonstrated the natural occurrence and autonomous synthesis of an exclusive lipid phosphatidylthreonine in T. gondii. Targeted gene disruption of phosphatidylthreonine synthase impairs the parasite virulence due to unforeseen attenuation of the consecutive events of motility, egress and invasion. However, the underlying basis of such an intriguing phenotype in the parasite mutant remains unknown. Using an optogenetic sensor (gene-encoded calcium indicator, GCaMP6s), we show that loss of phosphatidylthreonine depletes calcium stores in intracellular tachyzoites, which leads to dysregulation of calcium release into the cytosol during the egress phase of the mutant. Consistently, the parasite motility and egress phenotypes in the mutant can be entirely restored by ionophore-induced mobilization of calcium. Collectively, our results suggest a novel regulatory function of phosphatidylthreonine in calcium signaling of a prevalent parasitic protist. Moreover, our application of an optogenetic sensor to monitor subcellular calcium in a model intracellular pathogen exemplifies its wider utility to other entwined systems. PMID:28357357

  9. Defoaming effect of calcium soap.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Miller, Clarence A; Garrett, Peter R; Raney, Kirk H

    2004-11-15

    The effect of calcium oleate on foam stability was studied for aqueous solutions of two commonly used surfactants (anionic and nonionic) under alkaline conditions in the absence of oil. For the anionic surfactant, defoaming by calcium oleate appears to involve two mechanisms. One is that oleate and calcium ions are presumably incorporated into the surfactant monolayers with a resulting decrease in the maximum of the disjoining pressure curve and therefore produces less stable thin films. The other is bridging of the films by calcium oleate particles. The latter mechanism was especially important in freshly made solutions where precipitation in the aqueous phase was still occurring when the foam was generated. Foams generated after aging (hours) when precipitation was nearly complete were more stable even though solution turbidities were greater. Foams of the nonionic surfactant were less stable than those of the anionic surfactant but were also destabilized by sufficient amounts of calcium oleate and exhibited a similar aging effect. A simplified model was developed for estimating the sodium oleate concentration at which precipitation commences in solutions of the anionic surfactant containing dissolved calcium. It includes enhancement of calcium content in the electrical double layers of the surfactant micelles. Predictions of the model were in agreement with experiment.

  10. Calcium homeostasis in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Heath, H; Lambert, P W; Service, F J; Arnaud, S B

    1979-09-01

    Experimentally diabetic rats have low serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, intestinal malabsorption of calcium, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and bone loss. To examine the hypothesis that abnormalities similar to those in the diabetic rat might explain human diabetic osteopenia, we studied calcium metabolism in 40 healthy control and 82 diabetic patients aged 18--75 yr [47 untreated: fasting plasma glucose (mean +/- SE), 267 +/- 8 mg/dl; 19 treated but hyperglycemic: glucose 305 +/- 24 mg/dl; 16 treated and in better control: glucose, 146 +/- 8 mg/dl]. Serum total calcium, ionic calcium, immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (Arnaud method, GP-1M and CH-12M antisera), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (Haddad method), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (Lambert method) concentrations were normal in all 3 groups of diabetics and were not significantly different from values in the control group. We determined absorption of calcium from the intestine by a double isotope method (100 mg Ca carrier; normal range, 40--80%) in 11 control and 13 untreated, uncontrolled diabetics (mean plasma glucose, 285 +/- 17 mg/dl). Absorption of calcium in controls was 60 +/- 3% and in diabetics was 56 +/- 3% (not significantly different). We have found no derangement of calcium metabolism in adults with insulin-requiring juvenile- and adult-onset diabetes regardless of treatment status. The experimental diabetic rat model does not appear to be useful for determining the pathogenesis of adult human diabetic osteopenia.

  11. Facile and scalable disposable sensor based on laser engraved graphene for electrochemical detection of glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tehrani, Farshad; Bavarian, Behzad

    2016-06-01

    A novel and highly sensitive disposable glucose sensor strip was developed using direct laser engraved graphene (DLEG) decorated with pulse deposited copper nanocubes (CuNCs). The high reproducibility (96.8%), stability (97.4%) and low cost demonstrated by this 3-step fabrication method indicates that it could be used for high volume manufacturing of disposable glucose strips. The fabrication method also allows for a high degree of flexibility, allowing for control of the electrode size, design, and functionalization method. Additionally, the excellent selectivity and sensitivity (4,532.2 μA/mM.cm2), low detection limit (250 nM), and suitable linear range of 25 μM–4 mM, suggests that these sensors may be a great potential platform for glucose detection within the physiological range for tear, saliva, and/or sweat.

  12. Facile and scalable disposable sensor based on laser engraved graphene for electrochemical detection of glucose

    PubMed Central

    Tehrani, Farshad; Bavarian, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    A novel and highly sensitive disposable glucose sensor strip was developed using direct laser engraved graphene (DLEG) decorated with pulse deposited copper nanocubes (CuNCs). The high reproducibility (96.8%), stability (97.4%) and low cost demonstrated by this 3-step fabrication method indicates that it could be used for high volume manufacturing of disposable glucose strips. The fabrication method also allows for a high degree of flexibility, allowing for control of the electrode size, design, and functionalization method. Additionally, the excellent selectivity and sensitivity (4,532.2 μA/mM.cm2), low detection limit (250 nM), and suitable linear range of 25 μM–4 mM, suggests that these sensors may be a great potential platform for glucose detection within the physiological range for tear, saliva, and/or sweat. PMID:27306706

  13. Pressure sensor

    DOEpatents

    Mee, David K.; Ripley, Edward B.; Nienstedt, Zachary C.; Nienstedt, Alex W.; Howell, Jr., Layton N.

    2015-09-29

    Disclosed is a passive, in-situ pressure sensor. The sensor includes a sensing element having a ferromagnetic metal and a tension inducing mechanism coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The tension inducing mechanism is operable to change a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal based on a change in pressure in the sensing element. Changes in pressure are detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal when subjected to an alternating magnetic field caused by the change in the tensile stress. The sensing element is embeddable in a closed system for detecting pressure changes without the need for any penetrations of the system for power or data acquisition by detecting changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the tensile stress.

  14. Corrosion sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, R.S.; Clarke, W.L. Jr.; Ciarlo, D.R.

    1994-04-26

    A corrosion sensor array is described incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis. 7 figures.

  15. Corrosion sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S.; Clarke, Jr., Willis L.; Ciarlo, Dino R.

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion sensor array incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis.

  16. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    PubMed

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-09

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness.

  17. Primary Cilia Are Not Calcium-Responsive Mechanosensors

    PubMed Central

    Delling, M.; Indzhykulian, A. A.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y.; Xie, T.; Corey, D. P.; Clapham, D. E.

    2016-01-01

    Primary cilia are solitary, generally non-motile, hair-like protrusions that extend from the surface of cells between cell divisions. Their antenna-like structure leads naturally to the assumption that they sense the surrounding environment, the most common hypothesis being sensation of mechanical force through calcium-permeable ion channels within the cilium1. This Ca2+- Responsive MechanoSensor (CaRMS) hypothesis for primary cilia has been invoked to explain a large range of biological responses, from control of left-right axis determination in embryonic development to adult progression of polycystic kidney disease and some cancers2,3. Here, we report the complete lack of mechanically induced calcium increases in primary cilia, in tissues upon which this hypothesis has been based. First, we developed a transgenic mouse, Arl13b-mCherry-GECO1.2, expressing a ratiometric genetically encoded calcium indicator (GECI) in all primary cilia. We then measured responses to flow in primary cilia of cultured kidney epithelial cells, kidney thick ascending tubules, crown cells of the embryonic node, kinocilia of inner ear hair cells, and several cell lines. Cilia-specific Ca2+ influxes were not observed in physiological or even highly supraphysiological levels of fluid flow. We conclude that mechanosensation, if it originates in primary cilia, is not via calcium signaling. PMID:27007841

  18. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1992-06-09

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material. 12 figs.

  19. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, Jr., James R.; Edlund, David J.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Rayfield, George W.

    1992-01-01

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed, comprising a mechanicochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment, either operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical or optical response, or adhered to a second inert polymeric strip, or doped with a conductive material.

  20. Sensor assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Thomas E.; Nelson, Drew V.

    2004-04-13

    A ribbon-like sensor assembly is described wherein a length of an optical fiber embedded within a similar lengths of a prepreg tow. The fiber is ""sandwiched"" by two layers of the prepreg tow which are merged to form a single consolidated ribbon. The consolidated ribbon achieving a generally uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin does not ""pool"" around the periphery of the embedded fiber.

  1. Kinetics of light-induced first-order phase transformation in molecular solids: Fe(btr){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Pillet, S.; Legrand, V.; Souhassou, M.; Lecomte, C.

    2006-10-01

    The mechanism and kinetics of the thermally and light-induced spin transition of the highly cooperative spin crossover material Fe(btr){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O (btr=4,4'-bis-1,2,4-triazole) have been investigated by single crystal x-ray diffraction techniques. The key role of like-spin domains is quantitatively analyzed through a nucleation, growing, and coarsening mechanism whose kinetics follow the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model with low dimensional characteristics.

  2. Hysteretic behavior of Fe(phen){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2} spin-transition microparticles vs. the environment: A huge reversible component resolved by first order reversal curves

    SciTech Connect

    Tanasa, Radu; Stancu, Alexandru; Enachescu, Cristian; Laisney, Jérôme; Boillot, Marie-Laure

    2014-01-20

    We discuss the influence of the embedding matrix on the thermal hysteretic behavior of spin transition microparticles of Fe(phen){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2} by using a series of experimental first order reversal curves (FORCs). The shape of FORCs supports the hypothesis considering additional interactions between the spin-transition microparticles and the embedding matrix, which compares to a negative pressure on the particles. A mean-field approach based on negative variable external pressures, together with a cut off/switch on of particles-matrix interactions accounts for the experimental features.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1187 - Calcium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium alginate. 184.1187 Section 184.1187 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1187 Calcium alginate. (a) Calcium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005.... Calcium alginate is prepared by the neutralization of purified alginic acid with appropriate pH...

  4. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be...

  5. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be...

  6. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and... PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely used in food in accordance with...

  7. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be...

  8. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1201 - Calcium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium glycerophosphate. 184.1201 Section 184... as GRAS § 184.1201 Calcium glycerophosphate. (a) Calcium glycerophosphate (C3H7CaO6P, CAS Reg. No... mixture of calcium β-, and D-, and L-α-glycerophosphate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications...

  10. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information Skip sharing on ... media links Share this: Page Content What is bone health and how do you build strong bones? ...

  11. Calcium and Arrhythmogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ter Keurs, Henk E. D. J.; Boyden, Penelope A.

    2010-01-01

    Triggered activity in cardiac muscle and intracellular Ca2+ have been linked in the past. However, today not only are there a number of cellular proteins that show clear Ca2+ dependence but also there are a number of arrhythmias whose mechanism appears to be linked to Ca2+-dependent processes. Thus we present a systematic review of the mechanisms of Ca2+ transport (forward excitation-contraction coupling) in the ventricular cell as well as what is known for other cardiac cell types. Second, we review the molecular nature of the proteins that are involved in this process as well as the functional consequences of both normal and abnormal Ca2+ cycling (e.g., Ca2+ waves). Finally, we review what we understand to be the role of Ca2+ cycling in various forms of arrhythmias, that is, those associated with inherited mutations and those that are acquired and resulting from reentrant excitation and/or abnormal impulse generation (e.g., triggered activity). Further solving the nature of these intricate and dynamic interactions promises to be an important area of research for a better recognition and understanding of the nature of Ca2+ and arrhythmias. Our solutions will provide a more complete understanding of the molecular basis for the targeted control of cellular calcium in the treatment and prevention of such. PMID:17429038

  12. Calcium transport in turtle bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Sabatini, S.; Kurtzman, N.A. )

    1987-12-01

    Unidirectional {sup 45}Ca fluxes were measured in the turtle bladder under open-circuit and short-circuit conditions. In the open-circuited state net calcium flux (J{sup net}{sub Ca}) was secretory (serosa to mucosa). Ouabain reversed J{sup net}{sub Ca} to an absorptive flux. Amiloride reduced both fluxes such that J{sup net}{sub Ca} was not significantly different from zero. Removal of mucosal sodium caused net calcium absorption; removal of serosal sodium caused calcium secretion. When bladders were short circuited, J{sup net}{sub Ca} decreased to approximately one-third of control value but remained secretory. When ouabain was added under short-circuit conditions, J{sup net}{sub Ca} was similar in magnitude and direction to ouabain under open-circuited conditions (i.e., absorptive). Tissue {sup 45}Ca content was {approx equal}30-fold lower when the isotope was placed in the mucosal bath, suggesting that the apical membrane is the resistance barrier to calcium transport. The results obtained in this study are best explained by postulating a Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase on the serosa of the turtle bladder epithelium and a sodium-calcium antiporter on the mucosa. In this model, the energy for calcium movement would be supplied, in large part, by the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase. By increasing cell sodium, ouabain would decrease the activity of the mucosal sodium-calcium exchanger (or reverse it), uncovering active calcium transport across the serosa.

  13. Medical therapy, calcium oxalate urolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruml, L. A.; Pearle, M. S.; Pak, C. Y.

    1997-01-01

    The development of diagnostic protocols that identify specific risk factors for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis has led to the formulation of directed medical regimens that are aimed at correcting the underlying metabolic disturbances. Initiation of these treatment programs has reduced markedly the rate of stone formation in the majority of patients who form stones. This article discusses the rationale that underlies the choice of medical therapy for the various pathophysiologic causes of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis and the appropriate use of available medications.

  14. Calcium in plant defence-signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lecourieux, David; Ranjeva, Raoul; Pugin, Alain

    2006-01-01

    In plant cells, the calcium ion is a ubiquitous intracellular second messenger involved in numerous signalling pathways. Variations in the cytosolic concentration of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt) couple a large array of signals and responses. Here we concentrate on calcium signalling in plant defence responses, particularly on the generation of the calcium signal and downstream calcium-dependent events participating in the establishment of defence responses with special reference to calcium-binding proteins.

  15. IL1-receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1), a protein involved in cognitive functions, regulates N-type Ca2+-channel and neurite elongation.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Frédéric; Pavlowsky, Alice; Béglé, Aurélie; Dupont, Jean-Luc; Bahi, Nadia; Courjaret, Raphael; Gardette, Robert; Hadjkacem, Hassen; Skala, Henriette; Poulain, Bernard; Chelly, Jamel; Vitale, Nicolas; Humeau, Yann

    2007-05-22

    Null mutations in the IL1-receptor accessory protein-like 1 gene (IL1RAPL1) are responsible for an inherited X-linked form of cognitive impairment. IL1RAPL1 protein physically interacts with neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1), but the functional impact of the IL1RAPL1/NCS-1 interaction remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that stable expression of IL1RAPL1 in PC12 cells induces a specific silencing of N-type voltage-gated calcium channels (N-VGCC) activity that explains a secretion deficit observed in these IL1RAPL1 cells. Importantly, this modulation of VGCC activity is mediated by NCS-1. Indeed, a specific loss-of-function of N-VGCC was observed in PC12 cells overexpressing NCS-1, and a total recovery of N-VGCC activity was obtained by a down-regulation of NCS-1 in IL1RAPL1 cells. The functional relevance of the interaction between IL1RAPL1 and NCS-1 was also suggested by the reduction of neurite elongation observed in nerve growth factor (NGF)-treated IL1RAPL1 cells, a phenotype rescued by NCS-1 inactivation. Because both proteins are highly expressed in neurons, these results suggest that IL1RAPL1-related mental retardation could result from a disruption of N-VGCC and/or NCS-1-dependent synaptic and neuronal activities.

  16. Evolution and functional diversity of the Calcium Binding Proteins (CaBPs)

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Lee P.; McCue, Hannah V.; Burgoyne, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) exhibits a remarkable ability to process, store, and transfer information. Key to these activities is the use of highly regulated and unique patterns of calcium signals encoded by calcium channels and decoded by families of specific calcium-sensing proteins. The largest family of eukaryotic calcium sensors is those related to the small EF-hand containing protein calmodulin (CaM). In order to maximize the usefulness of calcium as a signaling species and to permit the evolution and fine tuning of the mammalian CNS, families of related proteins have arisen that exhibit characteristic calcium binding properties and tissue-, cellular-, and sub-cellular distribution profiles. The Calcium Binding Proteins (CaBPs) represent one such family of vertebrate specific CaM like proteins that have emerged in recent years as important regulators of essential neuronal target proteins. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that the CaBPs consist of two subfamilies and that the ancestral members of these are CaBP1 and CaBP8. The CaBPs have distinct intracellular localizations based on different targeting mechanisms including a novel type-II transmembrane domain in CaBPs 7 and 8 (otherwise known as calneuron II and calneuron I, respectively). Recent work has led to the identification of new target interactions and possible functions for the CaBPs suggesting that they have multiple physiological roles with relevance for the normal functioning of the CNS. PMID:22375103

  17. Calcium Binding and Disulfide Bonds Regulate the Stability of Secretagogin towards Thermal and Urea Denaturation

    PubMed Central

    Weiffert, Tanja; Ní Mhurchú, Niamh; O’Connell, David; Linse, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Secretagogin is a calcium-sensor protein with six EF-hands. It is widely expressed in neurons and neuro-endocrine cells of a broad range of vertebrates including mammals, fishes and amphibia. The protein plays a role in secretion and interacts with several vesicle-associated proteins. In this work, we have studied the contribution of calcium binding and disulfide-bond formation to the stability of the secretagogin structure towards thermal and urea denaturation. SDS-PAGE analysis of secretagogin in reducing and non-reducing conditions identified a tendency of the protein to form dimers in a redox-dependent manner. The denaturation of apo and Calcium-loaded secretagogin was studied by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy under conditions favoring monomer or dimer or a 1:1 monomer: dimer ratio. This analysis reveals significantly higher stability towards urea denaturation of Calcium-loaded secretagogin compared to the apo protein. The secondary and tertiary structure of the Calcium-loaded form is not completely denatured in the presence of 10 M urea. Reduced and Calcium-loaded secretagogin is found to refold reversibly after heating to 95°C, while both oxidized and reduced apo secretagogin is irreversibly denatured at this temperature. Thus, calcium binding greatly stabilizes the structure of secretagogin towards chemical and heat denaturation. PMID:27812162

  18. Note: Inhibiting bottleneck corrosion in electrical calcium tests for ultra-barrier measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Nehm, F. Müller-Meskamp, L.; Klumbies, H.; Leo, K.

    2015-12-15

    A major failure mechanism is identified in electrical calcium corrosion tests for quality assessment of high-end application moisture barriers. Accelerated calcium corrosion is found at the calcium/electrode junction, leading to an electrical bottleneck. This causes test failure not related to overall calcium loss. The likely cause is a difference in electrochemical potential between the aluminum electrodes and the calcium sensor, resulting in a corrosion element. As a solution, a thin, full-area copper layer is introduced below the calcium, shifting the corrosion element to the calcium/copper junction and inhibiting bottleneck degradation. Using the copper layer improves the level of sensitivity for the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) by over one order of magnitude. Thin-film encapsulated samples with 20 nm of atomic layer deposited alumina barriers this way exhibit WVTRs of 6 × 10{sup −5} g(H{sub 2}O)/m{sup 2}/d at 38 °C, 90% relative humidity.

  19. Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; Orwoll, Shiela; McCarron, David A.

    2002-01-01

    To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P < 0.001), elevated parathyroid hormone levels (P < 0.001), reduced calcitonin levels (P < 0.05), unchanged 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels, and elevated skull (P < 0.01) and reduced femur bone mineral density. Basal and thrombin-stimulated platelet free calcium (intracellular calcium concentration) were also reduced (P < 0.05). There was a tendency for indirect systolic BP to be reduced in conscious flight animals (P = 0.057). However, mean arterial pressure was elevated (P < 0.001) after anesthesia. Dietary calcium altered all aspects of calcium metabolism (P < 0.001), as well as BP (P < 0.001), but the only interaction with flight was a relatively greater increase in ionized calcium in flight animals fed low- compared with high-calcium diets (P < 0.05). The results indicate that 1) flight-induced disruptions of calcium metabolism are relatively impervious to dietary calcium in the short term, 2) increased ionized calcium did not normalize low-calcium-induced elevations of BP, and 3) parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

  20. Hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  1. Influenza sensor

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, Basil I.; Song, Xuedong; Unkefer, Clifford; Silks, III, Louis A.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.

    2003-09-30

    A sensor for the detection of tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase within a sample is disclosed, where a positive detection indicates the presence of a target virus within the sample. Also disclosed is a trifunctional composition of matter including a trifunctional linker moiety with groups bonded thereto including (a) an alkyl chain adapted for attachment to a substrate, (b) a fluorescent moiety capable of generating a fluorescent signal, and (c) a recognition moiety having a spacer group of a defined length thereon, the recognition moiety capable of binding with tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase.

  2. Influenza Sensor

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, Basil I.; Song, Xuedong; Unkefer, Clifford; Silks, III, Louis A.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.

    2005-05-17

    A sensor for the detection of tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase within a sample is disclosed, where a positive detection indicates the presence of a target virus within the sample. Also disclosed is a trifunctional composition of matter including a trifunctional linker moiety with groups bonded thereto including (a) an alkyl chain adapted for attachment to a substrate, (b) a fluorescent moiety capable of generating a fluorescent signal, and (c) a recognition moiety having a spacer group of a defined length thereon, the recognition moiety capable of binding with tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase.

  3. Influenza Sensor

    DOEpatents

    Swanson, Basil I.; Song, Xuedong; Unkefer, Clifford; Silks, III, Louis A.; Schmidt, Jurgen G.

    2006-03-28

    A sensor for the detection of tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase within a sample is disclosed, where a positive detection indicates the presence of a target virus within the sample. Also disclosed is a trifunctional composition of matter including a trifunctional linker moiety with groups bonded thereto including (a) an alkyl chain adapted for attachment to a substrate, (b) a fluorescent moiety capable of generating a fluorescent signal, and (c) a recognition moiety having a spacer group of a defined length thereon, the recognition moiety capable of binding with tetrameric multivalent neuraminidase.

  4. Calcium signaling and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Kass, G E; Orrenius, S

    1999-01-01

    The divalent calcium cation Ca(2+) is used as a major signaling molecule during cell signal transduction to regulate energy output, cellular metabolism, and phenotype. The basis to the signaling role of Ca(2+) is an intricate network of cellular channels and transporters that allow a low resting concentration of Ca(2+) in the cytosol of the cell ([Ca(2+)]i) but that are also coupled to major dynamic and rapidly exchanging stores. This enables extracellular signals from hormones and growth factors to be transduced as [Ca(2+)]i spikes that are amplitude and frequency encoded. There is considerable evidence that a number of toxic environmental chemicals target these Ca(2+) signaling processes, alter them, and induce cell death by apoptosis. Two major pathways for apoptosis will be considered. The first one involves Ca(2+)-mediated expression of ligands that bind to and activate death receptors such as CD95 (Fas, APO-1). In the second pathway, Ca(2+) has a direct toxic effect and its primary targets include the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Mitochondria may respond to an apoptotic Ca(2+) signal by the selective release of cytochrome c or through enhanced production of reactive oxygen species and opening of an inner mitochondrial membrane pore. Toxic agents such as the environmental pollutant tributyltin or the natural plant product thapsigargin, which deplete the ER Ca(2+) stores, will induce as a direct result of this effect the opening of plasma membrane Ca(2+) channels and an ER stress response. In contrast, under some conditions, Ca(2+) signals may be cytoprotective and antagonize the apoptotic machinery. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10229704

  5. Calcium signalling and calcium channels: Evolution and general principles

    PubMed Central

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Parpura, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Calcium as a divalent ion was selected early in evolution as a signaling molecule to be used by both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Its low cytosolic concentration likely reflects the initial concentration of this ion in the primordial soup/ocean as unicellular organisms were formed. As the concentration of calcium in the ocean subsequently increased, so did the diversity of homeostatic molecules. This includes the plasma membrane channels that allowed the calcium entry, as well as extrusion mechanisms, i.e., exchangers and pumps. Further diversification occurred with the evolution of intracellular organelles, in particular the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, which also contain channels, exchanger(s) and pumps to handle the homeostasis of calcium ions. Calcium signalling system, based around coordinated interactions of the above molecular entities, can be activated by the opening of voltage-gated channels, by neurotransmitters, by second messengers and/or mechanical stimulation, and as such is all-pervading pathway in physiology and pathophysiology of organisms. PMID:24291103

  6. Dopaminergic regulation of dendritic calcium: fast multisite calcium imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Liang; Oikonomou, Katerina D; Short, Shaina M; Antic, Srdjan D

    2013-01-01

    Optimal dopamine tone is required for the normal cortical function; however it is still unclear how cortical-dopamine-release affects information processing in individual cortical neurons. Thousands of glutamatergic inputs impinge onto elaborate dendritic trees of neocortical pyramidal neurons. In the process of ensuing synaptic integration (information processing), a variety of calcium transients are generated in remote dendritic compartments. In order to understand the cellular mechanisms of dopaminergic modulation it is important to know whether and how dopaminergic signals affect dendritic calcium transients. In this chapter, we describe a relatively inexpensive method for monitoring dendritic calcium fluctuations at multiple loci across the pyramidal dendritic tree, at the same moment of time (simultaneously). The experiments have been designed to measure the amplitude, time course and spatial extent of action potential-associated dendritic calcium transients before and after application of dopaminergic drugs. In the examples provided here the dendritic calcium transients were evoked by triggering the somatic action potentials (backpropagation-evoked), and puffs of exogenous dopamine were applied locally onto selected dendritic branches.

  7. Increased calcium bioavailability in mice fed genetically engineered plants lacking calcium oxalate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioavailable calcium affects bone formation and calcification. Here we investigate how a single gene mutation altering calcium partitioning in the model forage crop Medicago truncatula affects calcium bioavailability. Previously, the cod5 M. truncatula mutant was identified which contains identical ...

  8. Experimental and semiempirical method to determine the Pauli-limiting field in quasi-two-dimensional superconductors as applied to κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu(NCS)2: strong evidence of a FFLO state

    SciTech Connect

    Agosta, C. C.; Jin, J.; Coniglio, W. A.; Smith, B. E.; Cho, K.; Mihut, I.; Martin, C.; Tozer, S. W.; Murphy, T. P.; Palm, E. C.; Schlueter, J. A.; Kurmoo, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present upper critical field data for {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2} with the magnetic field close to parallel and parallel to the conducting layers. We show that we can eliminate the effect of vortex dynamics in these layered materials if the layers are oriented within 0.3-inch of parallel to the applied magnetic field. Eliminating vortex effects leaves one remaining feature in the data that corresponds to the Pauli paramagnetic limit (H{sub p}). We propose a semiempirical method to calculate the H{sub p} in quasi-2D superconductors. This method takes into account the energy gap of each of the quasi-2D superconductors, which is calculated from specific-heat data, and the influence of many-body effects. The calculated Pauli paramagnetic limits are then compared to critical field data for the title compound and other organic conductors. Many of the examined quasi-2D superconductors, including the above organic superconductors and CeCoIn{sub 5}, exhibit upper critical fields that exceed their calculated H{sub p} suggesting unconventional superconductivity. We show that the high-field low-temperature state in {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2} is consistent with the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state.

  9. Force sensor

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, A.R.

    1993-05-11

    A force sensor and related method for determining force components is described. The force sensor includes a deformable medium having a contact surface against which a force can be applied, a signal generator for generating signals that travel through the deformable medium to the contact surface, a signal receptor for receiving the signal reflected from the contact surface, a generation controller, a reception controller, and a force determination apparatus. The signal generator has one or more signal generation regions for generating the signals. The generation controller selects and activates the signal generation regions. The signal receptor has one or more signal reception regions for receiving signals and for generating detections signals in response thereto. The reception controller selects signal reception regions and detects the detection signals. The force determination apparatus measures signal transit time by timing activation and detection and, optionally, determines force components for selected cross-field intersections. The timer which times by activation and detection can be any means for measuring signal transit time. A cross-field intersection is defined by the overlap of a signal generation region and a signal reception region.

  10. Force sensor

    DOEpatents

    Grahn, Allen R.

    1993-01-01

    A force sensor and related method for determining force components. The force sensor includes a deformable medium having a contact surface against which a force can be applied, a signal generator for generating signals that travel through the deformable medium to the contact surface, a signal receptor for receiving the signal reflected from the contact surface, a generation controller, a reception controller, and a force determination apparatus. The signal generator has one or more signal generation regions for generating the signals. The generation controller selects and activates the signal generation regions. The signal receptor has one or more signal reception regions for receiving signals and for generating detections signals in response thereto. The reception controller selects signal reception regions and detects the detection signals. The force determination apparatus measures signal transit time by timing activation and detection and, optionally, determines force components for selected cross-field intersections. The timer which times by activation and detection can be any means for measuring signal transit time. A cross-field intersection is defined by the overlap of a signal generation region and a signal reception region.

  11. Microcantilever sensor

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, T.G.; Wachter, E.A.

    1998-02-17

    An improved microcantilever sensor is fabricated with at least one microcantilever attached to a piezoelectric transducer. The microcantilever is partially surface treated with a compound selective substance having substantially exclusive affinity for a targeted compound in a monitored atmosphere. The microcantilever sensor is also provided with a frequency detection means and a bending detection means. The frequency detection means is capable of detecting changes in the resonance frequency of the vibrated microcantilever in the monitored atmosphere. The bending detection means is capable of detecting changes in the bending of the vibrated microcantilever in the monitored atmosphere coactively with the frequency detection means. The piezoelectric transducer is excited by an oscillator means which provides a signal driving the transducer at a resonance frequency inducing a predetermined order of resonance on the partially treated microcantilever. Upon insertion into a monitored atmosphere, molecules of the targeted chemical attach to the treated regions of the microcantilever resulting in a change in oscillating mass as well as a change in microcantilever spring constant thereby influencing the resonant frequency of the microcantilever oscillation. Furthermore, the molecular attachment of the target chemical to the treated regions induce areas of mechanical strain in the microcantilever consistent with the treated regions thereby influencing microcantilever bending. The rate at which the treated microcantilever accumulates the target chemical is a function of the target chemical concentration. Consequently, the extent of microcantilever oscillation frequency change and bending is related to the concentration of target chemical within the monitored atmosphere. 16 figs.

  12. Microcantilever sensor

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Wachter, Eric A.

    1998-01-01

    An improved microcantilever sensor is fabricated with at least one microcantilever attached to a piezoelectric transducer. The microcantilever is partially surface treated with a compound selective substance having substantially exclusive affinity for a targeted compound in a monitored atmosphere. The microcantilever sensor is also provided with a frequency detection means and a bending detection means. The frequency detection means is capable of detecting changes in the resonance frequency of the vibrated microcantilever in the monitored atmosphere. The bending detection means is capable of detecting changes in the bending of the vibrated microcantilever in the monitored atmosphere coactively with the frequency detection means. The piezoelectric transducer is excited by an oscillator means which provides a signal driving the transducer at a resonance frequency inducing a predetermined order of resonance on the partially treated microcantilever. Upon insertion into a monitored atmosphere, molecules of the targeted chemical attach to the treated regions of the microcantilever resulting in a change in oscillating mass as well as a change in microcantilever spring constant thereby influencing the resonant frequency of the microcantilever oscillation. Furthermore, the molecular attachment of the target chemical to the treated regions induce areas of mechanical strain in the microcantilever consistent with the treated regions thereby influencing microcantilever bending. The rate at which the treated microcantilever accumulates the target chemical is a function of the target chemical concentration. Consequently, the extent of microcantilever oscillation frequency change and bending is related to the concentration of target chemical within the monitored atmosphere.

  13. Semiconductor sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, Harry C. (Inventor); Lagowski, Jacek (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A semiconductor sensor adapted to detect with a high degree of sensitivity small magnitudes of a mechanical force, presence of traces of a gas or light. The sensor includes a high energy gap (i.e., .about. 1.0 electron volts) semiconductor wafer. Mechanical force is measured by employing a non-centrosymmetric material for the semiconductor. Distortion of the semiconductor by the force creates a contact potential difference (cpd) at the semiconductor surface, and this cpd is determined to give a measure of the force. When such a semiconductor is subjected to illumination with an energy less than the energy gap of the semiconductors, such illumination also creates a cpd at the surface. Detection of this cpd is employed to sense the illumination itself or, in a variation of the system, to detect a gas. When either a gas or light is to be detected and a crystal of a non-centrosymmetric material is employed, the presence of gas or light, in appropriate circumstances, results in a strain within the crystal which distorts the same and the distortion provides a mechanism for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the gas or the light, as the case may be.

  14. Calcium wave of tubuloglomerular feedback.

    PubMed

    Peti-Peterdi, János

    2006-08-01

    ATP release from macula densa (MD) cells into the interstitium of the juxtaglomerular (JG) apparatus (JGA) is an integral component of the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism that controls the glomerular filtration rate. Because the cells of the JGA express a number of calcium-coupled purinergic receptors, these studies tested the hypothesis that TGF activation triggers a calcium wave that spreads from the MD toward distant cells of the JGA and glomerulus. Ratiometric calcium imaging of in vitro microperfused isolated JGA-glomerulus complex dissected from rabbits was performed with fluo-4/fura red and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Activation of TGF by increasing tubular flow rate at the MD rapidly produced a significant elevation in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in extraglomerular mesangial cells (by 187.6 +/- 45.1 nM) and JG renin granular cells (by 281.4 +/- 66.6 nM). Subsequently, cell-to-cell propagation of the calcium signal at a rate of 12.6 +/- 1.1 microm/s was observed upstream toward proximal segments of the afferent arteriole and adjacent glomeruli, as well as toward intraglomerular elements including the most distant podocytes (5.9 +/- 0.4 microm/s). The same calcium wave was observed in nonperfusing glomeruli, causing vasoconstriction and contractions of the glomerular tuft. Gap junction uncoupling, an ATP scavenger enzyme cocktail, and pharmacological inhibition of P(2) purinergic receptors, but not adenosine A(1) receptor blockade, abolished the changes in [Ca(2+)](i) and propagation of the calcium wave. These studies provided evidence that both gap junctional communication and extracellular ATP are integral components of the TGF calcium wave.

  15. [Calcium metabolism characteristics in microgravity].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, A I; Larina, I M; Morukov, B V

    1999-06-01

    The results of research of calcium exchange parameters at cosmonauts taken part in long space flights (SF) onboard of orbital stations "SALUT" and "MIR" within 1978-1998 were generalized. The analysis of data received during observation of 44 cosmonauts (18 of them have taken part in long SF twice) was done. The observation was carried out before and after SF by duration 30-438 days. The content of a total calcium in blood serum was increased basically by the increase of its ionized fraction after flights of moderate (3-6 months) and large duration (6-14 months) along with the significant increase of PTH and decrease of calcitonin levels. The content of osteocalcin after SF was increased. Three cosmonauts participated in research of calcium kinetics using stable isotopes before, in time and after a 115-day SF. Reduction of intestinal absorption, excretion through a gastrointestinal tract, and increase of calcium excretion with urine were marked in time of SF. In early postflight period a level of intestinal absorption, on the average, was much lower than in SF, and the calcium removal through intestine was increased. Both renal and intestinal excretion of calcium were not normalized in 3.5-4.5 months after end of SF. Increase of resorbtive processes in bone tissues which induced negative bone balance during flight was observed in all test subjects, proceeding from estimations of speed of the basic calcium flows made on the basis of mathematical modeling. The conclusion about decrease in speed of bone tissue remodeling and strengthening of its resorption proves to be true by data of research of biochemical and endocrine markers.

  16. Sensors for Entertainment.

    PubMed

    Lamberti, Fabrizio; Sanna, Andrea; Rokne, Jon

    2016-07-15

    Sensors are becoming ubiquitous in all areas of science, technology, and society. In this Special Issue on "Sensors for Entertainment", developments in progress and the current state of application scenarios for sensors in the field of entertainment is explored.

  17. Sensors, Update 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    1996-12-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Treatments include current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Furthermore, the sensor market as well as peripheral aspects such as standards are covered. Each volume is divided into four sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides an overview of suppliers and market trends for a particular section, and Sensor Standards, reviews recent legislation and requirements for sensors. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  18. Calcium supplement: humanity's double-edged sword.

    PubMed

    Bunyaratavej, Narong; Buranasinsup, Shutipen

    2011-10-01

    The principle aim of the present study is to investigate the dark side of calcium, pollutions in calcium preparation especially lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd). The collected samples were the different calcium salts in the market and 18 preparations which were classified into 3 groups: Calcium carbonate salts, Chelated calcium and natural-raw calcium. All samples were analyzed for lead, cadmium and mercury by inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique, in house method based on AOAC (2005) 999.10 by ICP-MS. The calcium carbonate and the natural-raw calcium in every sample contained lead at 0.023-0.407 mg/kg of calcium powder. Meanwhile, the natural-raw calcium such as oyster, coral and animal bone showed amount of lead at 0.106-0.384 mg/kg with small amounts of mercury and cadmium. The chelated calcium such as calcium gluconate, calcium lactate and calcium citrate are free of lead.

  19. Calcium bioavailability and its relation to osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C M

    1992-06-01

    The balance of data suggests that calcium intake has a positive influence on bone mass in premenopausal women and has a preventive effect on the rate of bone loss in postmenopausal women. Even small advantages in bone mass provide great reductions in fracture rates. However, the majority of studies have tested the relationship of calcium intake and bone mass using calcium supplements. Few intervention studies have manipulated calcium intake through foods. Calcium is only useful to the skeleton once it is absorbed. Therefore, the bioavailability of dietary calcium becomes important in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Isotopic tracer techniques have only recently been employed in the labeling of foods with calcium isotopes for evaluation of calcium absorption. Milk calcium is usually the referent food which is typically absorbed at 20-40% depending on the calcium status of the subject. The absorptive efficiency of most vegetable sources is as good or better than for dairy foods, unless they have high concentrations of oxalic acid (spinach, for example) or phytic acid (wheat bran cereal, for example). Few vegetable sources are concentrated sources of calcium. Therefore, it would be difficult to obtain adequate intakes of calcium to protect against osteoporosis without liberal use of dairy products in the diet. Alternately, calcium supplements provide concentrated amounts of absorbable calcium, but they do not provide other nutrients necessary for skeletal growth and maintenance.

  20. Influence of phosvitin and calcium gluconate concentration on permeation and intestinal absorption of calcium ions.

    PubMed

    Dolińska, Barbara; Łopata, Katarzyna; Mikulska, Agnieszka; Leszczyńska, Lucyna; Ryszka, Florian

    2012-06-01

    The effect of egg yolk phosvitin on the permeation and absorption of calcium was investigated in vitro in relation to calcium gluconate concentration. Obtained results indicate that phosvitin significantly reduces the intestinal calcium absorption from 1 and 10 mM of calcium gluconate solution. It is associated with the formation of the complex of Ca (II) ions with phosvitin. The process of calcium permeation increases under phosvitin influence when calcium gluconate concentrations rise up to 10 mM. At a higher concentration of calcium gluconate (20 mM), no effect of phosvitin was seen on permeation of calcium ions.

  1. Mass Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    2001-01-18

    The purpose of this CRADA was to use Honeywell's experience in low temperature cofire ceramics and traditional ceramics to assemble a relatively low-cost, mass-producible miniature mass analyzer. The specific design, given to us by Mass Sensors, LLC, was used to test for helium. The direct benefit for the participant was to have a prototype unit assembled for the purpose of proof of concept and the ability to secure venture capital investors. From that, the company would begin producing their own product for sale. The consumer/taxpayer benefits come from the wide variety of industries that can utilize this technology to improve quality of life. Medical industry can use this technology to improve diagnostic ability; manufacturing industry can use it for improved air, water, and soil monitoring to minimize pollution; and the law enforcement community can use this technology for identification of substances. These are just a few examples of the benefit of this technology. The benefits to DOE were in the area of process improvement for cofire and ceramic materials. From this project we demonstrated nonlinear thickfilm fine lines and spaces that were 5-mil wide with 5-mil spaces; determined height-to diameter-ratios for punched and filled via holes; demonstrated the ability to punch and fill 5-mil microvias; developed and demonstrated the capability to laser cut difficult geometries in 40-mil ceramic; developed and demonstrated coupling LTCC with standard alumina and achieving hermetic seals; developed and demonstrated three-dimensional electronic packaging concepts; and demonstrated printing variable resistors within 1% of the nominal value and within a tightly defined ratio. The capability of this device makes it invaluable for many industries. The device could be used to monitor air samples around manufacturing plants. It also could be used for monitoring automobile exhaust, for doing blood gas analysis, for sampling gases being emitted by volcanoes, for studying

  2. A coated-wire ion-selective electrode for ionic calcium measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W.; Arnaud, Sara; Madou, Marc; Joseph, Jose; Jina, Arvind

    1991-01-01

    A coated-wire ion-selective electrode for measuring ionic calcium was developed, in collaboration with Teknektron Sensor Development Corporation (TSDC). This coated wire electrode sensor makes use of advanced, ion-responsive polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane technology, whereby the electroactive agent is incorporated into a polymeric film. The technology greatly simplifies conventional ion-selective electrode measurement technology, and is envisioned to be used for real-time measurement of physiological and environment ionic constituents, initially calcium. A primary target biomedical application is the real-time measurement of urinary and blood calcium changes during extended exposure to microgravity, during prolonged hospital or fracture immobilization, and for osteoporosis research. Potential advanced life support applications include monitoring of calcium and other ions, heavy metals, and related parameters in closed-loop water processing and management systems. This technology provides a much simplified ionic calcium measurement capability, suitable for both automated in-vitro, in-vivo, and in-situ measurement applications, which should be of great interest to the medical, scientific, chemical, and space life sciences communities.

  3. Pathogenesis and treatment of calcium stones.

    PubMed

    Parks, J H; Coe, F L

    1996-09-01

    Calcium stones arise from imbalances between urinary excretions of insoluble salts and water. Idiopathic hypercalciuria and hyperparathyroidism are the calcium disorders usually associated with elevated levels of calcium in the urine. Renal tubular acidosis is associated with a disordered acid-base status that results in low urine citrate. Hypocitraturia itself is a cause of calcium stones because it leaves urine calcium free to complex with either oxalate or phosphate. Elevated urine oxalate is commonly associated with dietary excesses, bowel disease, and, rarely, primary hyperoxaluria. Hyperuricosuria, usually of dietary origin, when reversed can cause a fall in new calcium stones.

  4. Fast and selective room-temperature ammonia sensors using silver nanocrystal-functionalized carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shumao; Pu, Haihui; Lu, Ganhua; Wen, Zhenhai; Mattson, Eric C; Hirschmugl, Carol; Gajdardziska-Josifovska, Marija; Weinert, Michael; Chen, Junhong

    2012-09-26

    We report a selective, room-temperature NH(3) gas-sensing platform with enhanced sensitivity, superfast response and recovery, and good stability, using Ag nanocrystal-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Ag NC-MWCNTs). Ag NCs were synthesized by a simple mini-arc plasma method and directly assembled on MWCNTs using an electrostatic force-directed assembly process. The nanotubes were assembled onto gold electrodes with both ends in Ohmic contact. The addition of Ag NCs on MWCNTs resulted in dramatically improved sensitivity toward NH(3). Upon exposure to 1% NH(3) at room temperature, Ag NC-MWCNTs showed enhanced sensitivity (~9%), very fast response (~7 s), and full recovery within several minutes in air. Through density functional theory calculations, we found that the fully oxidized Ag surface plays a critical role in the sensor response. Ammonia molecules are adsorbed at Ag hollow sites on the AgO surface with H pointing toward Ag. A net charge transfer from NH(3) to the Ag NC-MWCNTs hybrid leads to the conductance change in the hybrid.

  5. The effect of variable calcium and very low calcium diets on human calcium metabolism. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, J.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of a very low calcium diet, with variable high and low protein intake, on the dynamics of calcium metabolism and the mechanism of calciuretics, are examined. The experiment, using male subjects, was designed to study the role of intestinal calcium absorption on urinary calcium excretion, and the rate of production of endogeneously secreted calcium in the gastrointestinal tract. The study showed an average of 70% fractional absorption rate during very low calcium intake, and that a decrease in renal tubular reabsorption of calcium is responsible for calciuretic effects of high protein intake. The study also indicates that there is a tendency to develop osteoporosis after long periods of low calcium intake, especially with a concurrent high protein intake.

  6. Calcium regulation of muscle contraction.

    PubMed Central

    Szent-Györgyi, A G

    1975-01-01

    Calcium triggers contraction by reaction with regulatory proteins that in the absence of calcium prevent interaction of actin and myosin. Two different regulatory systems are found in different muscles. In actin-linked regulation troponin and tropomyosin regulate actin by blocking sites on actin required for complex formation with myosin; in myosin-linked regulation sites on myosin are blocked in the absence of calcium. The major features of actin control are as follows: there is a requirement for tropomyosin and for a troponin complex having three different subunits with different functions; the actin displays a cooperative behavior; and a movement of tropomyosin occurs controlled by the calcium binding on troponin. Myosin regulation is controlled by a regulatory subunit that can be dissociated in scallop myosin reversibly by removing divalent cations with EDTA. Myosin control can function with pure actin in the absence of tropomyosin. Calcium binding and regulation of molluscan myosins depend on the presence of regulatory light chains. It is proposed that the light chains function by sterically blocking myosin sites in the absence of calcium, and that the "off" state of myosin requires cooperation between the two myosin heads. Both myosin control and actin control are widely distributed in different organisms. Many invertebrates have muscles with both types of regulation. Actin control is absent in the muscles of molluscs and in several minor phyla that lack troponin. Myosin control is not found in striated vertebrate muscles and in the fast muscles of crustacean decapods, although regulatory light chains are present. While in vivo myosin control may not be excluded from vertebrate striated muscles, myosin control may be absent as a result of mutations of the myosin heavy chain. PMID:806311

  7. Vitamin D and intestinal calcium absorption.

    PubMed

    Christakos, Sylvia; Dhawan, Puneet; Porta, Angela; Mady, Leila J; Seth, Tanya

    2011-12-05

    The principal function of vitamin D in calcium homeostasis is to increase calcium absorption from the intestine. Calcium is absorbed by both an active transcellular pathway, which is energy dependent, and by a passive paracellular pathway through tight junctions. 1,25Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) the hormonally active form of vitamin D, through its genomic actions, is the major stimulator of active intestinal calcium absorption which involves calcium influx, translocation of calcium through the interior of the enterocyte and basolateral extrusion of calcium by the intestinal plasma membrane pump. This article reviews recent studies that have challenged the traditional model of vitamin D mediated transcellular calcium absorption and the crucial role of specific calcium transport proteins in intestinal calcium absorption. There is also increasing evidence that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) can enhance paracellular calcium diffusion. The influence of estrogen, prolactin, glucocorticoids and aging on intestinal calcium absorption and the role of the distal intestine in vitamin D mediated intestinal calcium absorption are also discussed.

  8. Regional Fos-expression induced by γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB): comparison with γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and effects of co-administration of the GABAB antagonist SCH 50911 and putative GHB antagonist NCS-382.

    PubMed

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, P S; McGregor, I S; Chebib, M; Hunt, G E

    2014-09-26

    γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has a complex array of neural actions that include effects on its own high-affinity GHB receptor, the release of neuroactive steroids, and agonist actions at GABAA and GABAB receptors. We previously reported partial overlap in the c-Fos expression patterns produced by GHB and the GABAB agonist, baclofen in rats. The present study extends these earlier findings by examining the extent to which GHB Fos expression and behavioral sedation are prevented by (2S)-(+)-5,5-dimethyl-2-morpholineacetic acid (SCH 50911), a GABAB antagonist, and NCS-382, a putative antagonist at the high-affinity GHB receptor. We also compare Fos expression caused by GHB and its precursor γ-butyrolactone (GBL), which is a pro-drug for GHB but lacks the high sodium content of the parent GHB molecule. Both GHB (1,000 mg/kg) and GBL (600 mg/kg) induced rapid sedation in rats that lasted over 90 min and caused similar Fos expression patterns, albeit with GBL causing greater activation of the nucleus accumbens (core and shell) and dentate gyrus (granular layer). Pretreatment with SCH 50911 (100mg/kg) partly reversed the sedative effects of GHB and significantly reduced GHB-induced Fos expression in only four regions: the tenia tecta, lateral habenula, dorsal raphe and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus. NCS-382 (50mg/kg) had no effect on GHB-induced sedation or Fos expression. When given alone, both NCS-382 and SCH 50911 increased Fos expression in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central amygdala, parasubthalamic nucleus and nucleus of the solitary tract. SCH 50911 alone affected the Islands of Calleja and the medial, central and paraventricular thalamic nuclei. Overall, this study shows a surprising lack of reversal of GHB-induced Fos expression by two relevant antagonists, both of which have marked intrinsic actions. This may reflect the limited doses tested but also suggests that GHB Fos expression reflects mechanisms independent of GHB and GABAB receptors.

  9. Mössbauer investigation of the photoexcited spin states and crystal structure analysis of the spin-crossover dinuclear complex [{Fe(bt)(NCS)(2)}(2)bpym] (bt=2,2'-bithiazoline, bpym=2,2'-bipyrimidine).

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Ana B; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Reiman, Sergey; Gütlich, Philipp; Thompson, Amber L; Goeta, Andrés E; Muñoz, M Carmen; Real, José A

    2006-12-13

    The crystal structure of the complex [{Fe(bt)(NCS)(2)}(2)bpym] (1) (bt=2,2'-bithiazoline, bpym=2,2'-bipyrimidine) has been solved at 293, 240, 175 and 30 K. At all four temperatures the crystal remains in the P space group with a=8.7601(17), b=9.450(2), c=12.089(3) A, alpha=72.77(2), beta=79.150(19), gamma=66.392(18) degrees , V=873.1(4) Angstrom(3) (data for 293 K structure). The structure consists of centrosymmetric dinuclear units in which each iron(II) atom is coordinated by two NCS(-) ions in the cis position and two nitrogen atoms of the bridging bpym ligand, with the remaining positions occupied by the peripheral bt ligand. The iron atom is in a severely distorted octahedral FeN(6) environment. The average Fe--N bond length of 2.15(9) Angstrom indicates that compound 1 is in the high-spin state (HS-HS) at 293 K. Crystal structure determinations at 240, 175 and 30 K gave a cell comparable to that seen at 293 K, but reduced in volume. At 30 K, the average Fe--N distance is 1.958(4) Angstrom, showing that the structure is clearly low spin (LS-LS). At 175 K the average Fe--N bond length of 2.052(11) Angstrom suggests that there is an intermediate phase. Mössbauer investigations of the light-induced excited spin state trapping (LIESST) effect (lambda=514 nm, 25 mW cm(-2)) in 1 (4.2 K, H(ext)=50 kOe) show that the excited spin states correspond to the HS-HS and HS-LS pairs. The dynamics of the relaxation of the photoexcited states studied at 4.2 K and H(ext)=50 kOe demonstrate that HS-HS pairs revert with time to both HS-LS and LS-LS configurations. The HS-LS photoexcited pairs relax with time back to the ground LS-LS configuration. Complex [{Fe(0.15)Zn(0.85)(bt)(NCS)(2)}(2)bpym] (2) exhibits a continuous spin transition centred around 158 K in contrast to the two-step transition observed for 1. The different spin-crossover behaviour observed for 2 is due to the decrease of cooperativity (intermolecular interactions) imposed by the matrix of Zn(II) ions. This

  10. Extra-intestinal calcium handling contributes to normal serum calcium levels when intestinal calcium absorption is suboptimal.

    PubMed

    Lieben, Liesbet; Verlinden, Lieve; Masuyama, Ritsuko; Torrekens, Sophie; Moermans, Karen; Schoonjans, Luc; Carmeliet, Peter; Carmeliet, Geert

    2015-12-01

    The active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D, is a crucial regulator of calcium homeostasis, especially through stimulation of intestinal calcium transport. Lack of intestinal vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling does however not result in hypocalcemia, because the increased 1,25(OH)2D levels stimulate calcium handling in extra-intestinal tissues. Systemic VDR deficiency, on the other hand, results in hypocalcemia because calcium handling is impaired not only in the intestine, but also in kidney and bone. It remains however unclear whether low intestinal VDR activity, as observed during aging, is sufficient for intestinal calcium transport and for mineral and bone homeostasis. To this end, we generated mice that expressed the Vdr exclusively in the gut, but at reduced levels. We found that ~15% of intestinal VDR expression greatly prevented the Vdr null phenotype in young-adult mice, including the severe hypocalcemia. Serum calcium levels were, however, in the low-normal range, which may be due to the suboptimal intestinal calcium absorption, renal calcium loss, insufficient increase in bone resorption and normal calcium incorporation in the bone matrix. In conclusion, our results indicate that low intestinal VDR levels improve intestinal calcium absorption compared to Vdr null mice, but also show that 1,25(OH)2D-mediated fine-tuning of renal calcium reabsorption and bone mineralization and resorption is required to maintain fully normal serum calcium levels.

  11. The effect of calcium gluconate and other calcium supplements as a dietary calcium source on magnesium absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Chonan, O; Takahashi, R; Yasui, H; Watanuki, M

    1997-01-01

    The effects of commercially available calcium supplements (calcium carbonate, calcium gluconate, oyster shell preparation and bovine bone preparation) and gluconic acid on the absorption of calcium and magnesium were evaluated for 30 days in male Wistar rats. There were no differences in the apparent absorption ratio of calcium among rats fed each calcium supplement; however, the rats fed the calcium gluconate diet had a higher apparent absorption ratio of magnesium than the rats fed the other calcium supplements. Dietary gluconic acid also more markedly stimulated magnesium absorption than the calcium carbonate diet, and the bone (femur and tibia) magnesium contents of rats fed the gluconic acid diet were significantly higher than those of the rats fed the calcium carbonate diet. Furthermore, the weight of cecal tissue and the concentrations of acetic acid and butyric acid in cecal digesta of rats fed the calcium gluconate diet or the gluconic acid diet were significantly increased. We speculate that the stimulation of magnesium absorption in rats fed the calcium gluconate diet is a result of the gluconic acid component and the effect of gluconic acid on magnesium absorption probably results from cecal hypertrophy, magnesium solubility in the large intestine and the effects of volatile fatty acids on magnesium absorption.

  12. Calcium Activation of Mougeotia Potassium Channels 1

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Roger R.; Serlin, Bruce S.; Schauf, Charles L.; Stockton, Marsha E.

    1990-01-01

    Phytochrome mediates chloroplast movement in the alga Mougeotia, possibly via changes in cytosolic calcium. It is known to regulate a calcium-activated potassium channel in the algal plasma membrane. As part of a characterization of the potassium channel, we examined the properties of calcium activation. The calcium ionophore A23187 activates the channel at external [Ca2+] as low as 20 micromolar. However, external [Ca2+] is not required for activation of the channel by photoactivated phytochrome. Furthermore, when an inhibitor of calcium release from internal stores, 8-(diethylamino)-octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate, hydrochloride (TMB-8), is present, red light no longer stimulates channel activity. We conclude that phytochrome activates the plasma membrane potassium channel by releasing calcium from intracellular calcium vesicles; the elevated cytosolic calcium then stimulates channel activity by an unknown mechanism. In the presence of TMB-8, red light does induce chloroplast rotation; thus, potassium channel activation may not be coupled to chloroplast rotation. PMID:16667356

  13. Decalcification of calcium polycarbophil in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T; Saito, T; Takahara, E; Nagata, O; Tamai, I; Tsuji, A

    1997-03-01

    The in vivo decalcification of calcium polycarbophil was examined. The decalcification ratio of [45Ca]calcium polycarbophil in the stomach after oral dosing to rats was more than 70% at each designated time and quite closely followed in the in vitro decalcification curve, indicating that the greater part of the calcium ion is released from calcium polycarbophil under normal gastric acidic conditions. The residual radioactivity in rat gastrointestine was nearly equal to that after oral administration of either [45Ca]calcium chloride + polycarbophil. The serum level of radioactivity was nearly equal to that after oral dosing of [45Ca]calcium lactate. These results indicate that the greater part of orally administered calcium polycarbophil released calcium ions to produce polycarbophil in vivo.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

  18. Magnesium/Calcium Competition at Excitable Membranes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belzer, Bill; Fry, Panni

    1998-01-01

    Considers some consequences of altering intracellular calcium supply by magnesium concentration changes. Focuses on using this procedure as an exercise with allied health students as they witness therapeutic uses of magnesium and other calcium entry inhibitors. (DDR)

  19. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    MedlinePlus

    ... not exceed 4000 IU per day Calcium and Dairy Products Milk and dairy products are the best sources of calcium. They ... 2% or 1%) milk, and other lower fat dairy products. Removing some of the fat does not ...

  20. Calcium release from experimental dental materials.

    PubMed

    Okulus, Zuzanna; Buchwald, Tomasz; Voelkel, Adam

    2016-11-01

    The calcium release from calcium phosphate-containing experimental dental restorative materials was examined. The possible correlation of ion release with initial calcium content, solubility and degree of curing (degree of conversion) of examined materials was also investigated. Calcium release was measured with the use of an ion-selective electrode in an aqueous solution. Solubility was established by the weighing method. Raman spectroscopy was applied for the determination of the degree of conversion, while initial calcium content was examined with the use of energy-dispersive spectroscopy. For examined materials, the amount of calcium released was found to be positively correlated with solubility and initial calcium content. It was also found that the degree of conversion does not affect the ability of these experimental composites to release calcium ions.

  1. The ins and outs of mitochondrial calcium.

    PubMed

    Finkel, Toren; Menazza, Sara; Holmström, Kira M; Parks, Randi J; Liu, Julia; Sun, Junhui; Liu, Jie; Pan, Xin; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2015-05-22

    Calcium is thought to play an important role in regulating mitochondrial function. Evidence suggests that an increase in mitochondrial calcium can augment ATP production by altering the activity of calcium-sensitive mitochondrial matrix enzymes. In contrast, the entry of large amounts of mitochondrial calcium in the setting of ischemia-reperfusion injury is thought to be a critical event in triggering cellular necrosis. For many decades, the details of how calcium entered the mitochondria remained a biological mystery. In the past few years, significant progress has been made in identifying the molecular components of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex. Here, we review how calcium enters and leaves the mitochondria, the growing insight into the topology, stoichiometry and function of the uniporter complex, and the early lessons learned from some initial mouse models that genetically perturb mitochondrial calcium homeostasis.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... three common methods of manufacture: (1) As a byproduct in the “Lime soda process”; (2) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide in the “Carbonation process”; or (3) By precipitation...

  3. Characteristics of two calcium pectinates prepared from citrus pectin using either calcium chloride or calcium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiujun; Duan, Hanying; Wang, Chao; Huang, Xuesong

    2014-07-09

    Calcium pectinate (CaP) was prepared from citrus pectin using either calcium chloride (C-CaP) or calcium hydroxide (HO-CaP) as the source of calcium for the reaction. The production yields and the rates of decalcification for the two calcium pectinates were compared and both found to be lower for C-CaP than for HO-CaP. In an attempt to explain these differences, certain chemical and structural characteristics of the two products, including functional groups (-CH3, C═O, COO-), rheological properties, morphology, and egg-box junction zones, were investigated by Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, rheology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results from FTIR showed that, with an increase in calcium content, the wavenumber values and peak areas of FTIR for -CH3, C═O, and COO- groups all changed dramatically for C-CaP, while they were virtually unchanged for HO-CaP. Rheological analysis of the CaP gel showed that C-CaP had a stronger cross-linked network structure and a greater range of elastic behavior as compared to HO-CaP. SEM images of two CaP gels showed irregular membranes. C-CaP maintained a tight structure and a smooth surface, whereas HO-CaP was loose and rough. The results from XRD revealed a higher degree of crystallinity within C-CaP than within HO-CaP, which indicated that C-CaP possessed compact, ordered, and stable egg-box junction zones while the junction zones in HO-CaP were metastable and loose.

  4. Calcium Supplements: Do They Interfere with Blood Pressure Drugs?

    MedlinePlus

    ... have your blood pressure and calcium levels checked. Calcium channel blockers. When given through an intravenous (IV) line, calcium may decrease the effects of calcium channel blockers, such as nifedipine (Adalat CC, Afeditab CR, ...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1195 - Calcium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... calcium carbonate. It occurs as a fine white, odorless powder and usually contains four moles of water per... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium citrate. 184.1195 Section 184.1195 Food... GRAS § 184.1195 Calcium citrate. (a) Calcium citrate (Ca3(C6H5O7)2·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 813-0994-095)...

  6. Oxalic acid decreases calcium absorption in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, C.M.; Martin, B.R.; Ebner, J.S.; Krueger, C.A.

    1987-11-01

    Calcium absorption from salts and foods intrinsically labeled with /sup 45/Ca was determined in the rat model. Calcium bioavailability was nearly 10 times greater for low oxalate kale, CaCO/sub 3/ and CaCl/sub 2/ than from CaC/sub 2/O/sub 4/ (calcium oxalate) and spinach (high in oxalates). Extrinsic and intrinsic labeling techniques gave a similar assessment of calcium bioavailability from kale but not from spinach.

  7. Oxalic acid decreases calcium absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Weaver, C M; Martin, B R; Ebner, J S; Krueger, C A

    1987-11-01

    Calcium absorption from salts and foods intrinsically labeled with 45Ca was determined in the rat model. Calcium bioavailability was nearly 10 times greater for low oxalate kale, CaCO3 and CaCl2 than from CaC2O4 (calcium oxalate) and spinach (high in oxalates). Extrinsic and intrinsic labeling techniques gave a similar assessment of calcium bioavailability from kale but not from spinach.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Sensor Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    identify the promising sensor concepts is provided in this section along with the basic conclusions that were reached regarding avail- able sensor techniques ...63 Estimated Operating Characteristics ... .......... 65 Conclusions and Recommendations (SAW) ... ......... 68 Calorimetric Technique ...Desired Sensor Properties. .. .. ... .. ... .. ..... 8 Table 2A. Candidate Sensor Techniques . .. .. ... .. ... .. ... 14 Selected for Further Analysis

  9. Sensor response rate accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Vogt, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for sensor signal prediction and for improving sensor signal response time, is disclosed. An adaptive filter or an artificial neural network is utilized to provide predictive sensor signal output and is further used to reduce sensor response time delay.

  10. Wireless ferroelectric resonating sensor.

    PubMed

    Viikari, Ville; Seppa, Heikki; Mattila, Tomi; Alastalo, Ari

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a passive wireless resonating sensor that is based on a ferroelectric varactor. The sensor replies with its data at an intermodulation frequency when a reader device illuminates it at 2 closely located frequencies. The paper derives a theoretical equation for the response of such a sensor, verifies the theory by simulations, and demonstrates a temperature sensor based on a ferroelectric varactor.

  11. Visualizing Presynaptic Calcium Dynamics and Vesicle Fusion with a Single Genetically Encoded Reporter at Individual Synapses.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Rachel E; Burrone, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic transmission depends on the influx of calcium into the presynaptic compartment, which drives neurotransmitter release. Genetically encoded reporters are widely used tools to understand these processes, particularly pHluorin-based reporters that report vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis through pH dependent changes in fluorescence, and genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) that exhibit changes in fluorescence upon binding to calcium. The recent expansion of the color palette of available indicators has made it possible to image multiple probes simultaneously within a cell. We have constructed a single molecule reporter capable of concurrent imaging of both presynaptic calcium influx and exocytosis, by fusion of sypHy, the vesicle associated protein synaptophysin containing a GFP-based pHluorin sensor, with the red-shifted GECI R-GECO1. Due to the fixed stoichiometry of the two probes, the ratio of the two responses can also be measured, providing an all optical correlate of the calcium dependence of release. Here, we have characterized stimulus-evoked sypHy-RGECO responses of hippocampal synapses in vitro, exploring the effects of different stimulus strengths and frequencies as well as variations in external calcium concentrations. By combining live sypHy-RGECO imaging with post hoc fixation and immunofluorescence, we have also investigated correlations between structural and functional properties of synapses.

  12. Visualizing Presynaptic Calcium Dynamics and Vesicle Fusion with a Single Genetically Encoded Reporter at Individual Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Rachel E.; Burrone, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic transmission depends on the influx of calcium into the presynaptic compartment, which drives neurotransmitter release. Genetically encoded reporters are widely used tools to understand these processes, particularly pHluorin-based reporters that report vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis through pH dependent changes in fluorescence, and genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) that exhibit changes in fluorescence upon binding to calcium. The recent expansion of the color palette of available indicators has made it possible to image multiple probes simultaneously within a cell. We have constructed a single molecule reporter capable of concurrent imaging of both presynaptic calcium influx and exocytosis, by fusion of sypHy, the vesicle associated protein synaptophysin containing a GFP-based pHluorin sensor, with the red-shifted GECI R-GECO1. Due to the fixed stoichiometry of the two probes, the ratio of the two responses can also be measured, providing an all optical correlate of the calcium dependence of release. Here, we have characterized stimulus-evoked sypHy-RGECO responses of hippocampal synapses in vitro, exploring the effects of different stimulus strengths and frequencies as well as variations in external calcium concentrations. By combining live sypHy-RGECO imaging with post hoc fixation and immunofluorescence, we have also investigated correlations between structural and functional properties of synapses. PMID:27507942

  13. Teaching Calcium-Induced Calcium Release in Cardiomyocytes Using a Classic Paper by Fabiato

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Willmann

    2008-01-01

    This teaching paper utilizes the materials presented by Dr. Fabiato in his review article entitled "Calcium-induced release of calcium from the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum." In the review, supporting evidence of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is presented. Data concerning potential objections to the CICR theory are discussed as well. In…

  14. Nanotube Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEuen, Paul L.

    2002-01-01

    Under this project, we explored the feasibility of utilizing carbon nanotubes in sensing applications. The grant primarily supported a graduate student, who worked on a number of aspects of the electrical properties of carbon nanotubes in collaboration with other researchers in my group. The two major research accomplishments are described below. The first accomplishment is the demonstration that solution carbon nanotube transistors functioned well in an electrolyte environment. This was important for two reasons. First, it allowed us to explore the ultimate limits of nanotube electronic performance by using the electrolyte as a highly effective gate, with a dielectric constant of approximately 80 and an effective insulator thickness of approximately 1 nm. Second, it showed that nanotubes function well under biologically relevant conditions (salty water) and therefore offer great promise as biological sensors. The second accomplishment was the demonstration that a voltage pulse applied to an AFM tip could be used to electrically cut carbon nanotubes. We also showed that a carefully applied pulse could also 'nick' a nanotube, creating a tunnel barrier without completely breaking the tube. Nicking was employed to make, for example, a quantum dot within a nanotube.

  15. Calcium orthophosphates and human beings

    PubMed Central

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V.

    2012-01-01

    The historical development of a scientific knowledge on calcium orthophosphates from the 1770s until 1940 is described. Many forgotten and poorly known historical facts and approaches have been extracted from old publications and then they have been analyzed, systematized and reconsidered from the modern point of view. The chosen time scale starts with the earliest available studies of 1770s (to the best of my findings, calcium orthophosphates had been unknown before), passes through the entire 19th century and finishes in 1940, because since then the amount of publications on calcium orthophosphates rapidly increases and the subject becomes too broad. Furthermore, since publications of the second half of the 20th century are easily accessible, a substantial amount of them have already been reviewed by other researchers. The reported historical findings clearly demonstrate that the substantial amount of the scientific facts and experimental approaches have been known for very many decades and, in fact, the considerable quantity of relatively recent investigations on calcium orthophosphates is just either a further development of the earlier studies or a rediscovery of the already forgotten knowledge. PMID:23507803

  16. Acute calcium pyrophosphate deposition arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Thomas; Furman, Janet

    2016-06-01

    Acute calcium pyrophosphate deposition (CPPD) arthropathy, also called pseudogout, is common, and becomes more prevalent as patients age. The presenting symptoms are similar to both gout and septic arthritis but may be treated differently. This article describes a typical patient presentation and management from an emergency medicine and orthopedic surgery standpoint.

  17. Fiber optic sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, J.; Sohler, W.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of the developments in the field of fiber optics sensor technology is presented along with a discussion of the advantages of optical measuring instruments as compared with electronic sensors. The two primary types of fiber optics sensors, specifically those with multiwave fibers and those with monowave fibers, are described. Examples of each major sensor type are presented and discussed. Multiwave detectors include external and internal fiber optics sensors. Among the monowave detectors are Mach-Zender interferometers, Michelson interferometers, Sagnac interferometers (optical gyroscopes), waveguide resonators, and polarimeter sensors. Integrated optical sensors and their application in spectroscopy are briefly discussed.

  18. Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; OBrien, K. O.; Abrams, S. A.; Wastney, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    Bone loss during space flight is one of the most critical challenges to astronaut health on space exploration missions. Defining the time course and mechanism of these changes will aid in developing means to counteract bone loss during space flight, and will have relevance for other clinical situations that impair weight-bearing activity. Bone health is a product of the balance between bone formation and bone resorption. Early space research could not clearly identify which of these was the main process altered in bone loss, but identification of the collagen crosslinks in the 1990s made possible a clear understanding that the impact of space flight was greater on bone resorption, with bone formation being unchanged or only slightly decreased. Calcium kinetics data showed that bone resorption was greater during flight than before flight (668 plus or minus 130 vs. 427 plus or minus 153 mg/d, p less than 0.001), and clearly documented that true intestinal calcium absorption was lower during flight than before flight (233 plus or minus 87 vs. 460 plus or minus 47 mg/d, p less than 0.01). Weightlessness had a detrimental effect on the balance in bone turnover: the difference between daily calcium balance during flight (-234 plus or minus 102 mg/d) and calcium balance before flight (63 plus or minus 75 mg/d) approached 300 mg/d (p less than 0.01). These data demonstrate that the bone loss that occurs during space flight is a consequence of increased bone resorption and decreased intestinal calcium absorption. Examining the changes in bone and calcium homeostasis in the initial days and weeks of space flight, as well as at later times on missions longer than 6 months, is critical to understanding the nature of bone adaptation to weightlessness. To increase knowledge of these changes, we studied bone adaptation to space flight on the 16-day Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-107) mission. When the brave and talented crew of Columbia were lost during reentry on the tragic morning

  19. 21 CFR 582.7187 - Calcium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium alginate. 582.7187 Section 582.7187 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium alginate. (a) Product. Calcium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 182.8217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.8217 Section 182.8217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate...

  1. 21 CFR 182.3189 - Calcium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium ascorbate. 182.3189 Section 182.3189 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3189 Calcium ascorbate. (a) Product. Calcium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  2. 21 CFR 182.3189 - Calcium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium ascorbate. 182.3189 Section 182.3189 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium ascorbate. (a) Product. Calcium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3189 - Calcium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium ascorbate. 582.3189 Section 582.3189 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3189 Calcium ascorbate. (a) Product. Calcium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 582.3189 - Calcium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium ascorbate. 582.3189 Section 582.3189 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3189 Calcium ascorbate. (a) Product. Calcium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 182.3189 - Calcium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium ascorbate. 182.3189 Section 182.3189 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium ascorbate. (a) Product. Calcium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 182.3189 - Calcium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium ascorbate. 182.3189 Section 182.3189 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium ascorbate. (a) Product. Calcium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3189 - Calcium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium ascorbate. 582.3189 Section 582.3189 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3189 Calcium ascorbate. (a) Product. Calcium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  8. 21 CFR 182.3189 - Calcium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium ascorbate. 182.3189 Section 182.3189 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium ascorbate. (a) Product. Calcium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3189 - Calcium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium ascorbate. 582.3189 Section 582.3189 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3189 Calcium ascorbate. (a) Product. Calcium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 582.3189 - Calcium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium ascorbate. 582.3189 Section 582.3189 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3189 Calcium ascorbate. (a) Product. Calcium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  12. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  13. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  14. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  15. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  16. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  18. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  19. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  20. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  1. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  5. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  6. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 7 CFR 58.434 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calcium chloride. 58.434 Section 58.434 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.434 Calcium chloride. Calcium chloride, when used, shall meet the requirements of the...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.6193 Section 582.6193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium chloride. 582.1193 Section 582.1193 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1193 Calcium chloride. (a) Product. Calcium chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  16. 21 CFR 73.1070 - Calcium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1070 Calcium carbonate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive calcium carbonate is a fine, white, synthetically prepared powder consisting essentially of... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium carbonate. 73.1070 Section 73.1070...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg. No... gypsum, occurs naturally and exists as a fine, white to slightly yellow-white odorless powder....

  18. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg. No... gypsum, occurs naturally and exists as a fine, white to slightly yellow-white odorless powder....

  19. 21 CFR 73.1070 - Calcium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1070 Calcium carbonate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive calcium carbonate is a fine, white, synthetically prepared powder consisting essentially of... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium carbonate. 73.1070 Section 73.1070...

  20. 21 CFR 73.1070 - Calcium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1070 Calcium carbonate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive calcium carbonate is a fine, white, synthetically prepared powder consisting essentially of... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium carbonate. 73.1070 Section 73.1070...

  1. 21 CFR 73.1070 - Calcium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1070 Calcium carbonate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive calcium carbonate is a fine, white, synthetically prepared powder consisting essentially of... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium carbonate. 73.1070 Section 73.1070...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1230 - Calcium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium sulfate. 184.1230 Section 184.1230 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1230 Calcium sulfate. (a) Calcium sulfate (CaSO4, CAS Reg. No... gypsum, occurs naturally and exists as a fine, white to slightly yellow-white odorless powder....

  3. 21 CFR 73.1070 - Calcium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1070 Calcium carbonate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive calcium carbonate is a fine, white, synthetically prepared powder consisting essentially of... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium carbonate. 73.1070 Section 73.1070...

  4. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2227 Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium...

  5. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c)...

  6. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c)...

  7. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c)...

  8. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c)...

  9. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c)...

  10. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c)...

  11. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c)...

  12. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c)...

  13. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c)...

  14. Release of calcium from endolysosomes increases calcium influx through N-type calcium channels: Evidence for acidic store-operated calcium entry in neurons.

    PubMed

    Hui, Liang; Geiger, Nicholas H; Bloor-Young, Duncan; Churchill, Grant C; Geiger, Jonathan D; Chen, Xuesong

    2015-12-01

    Neurons possess an elaborate system of endolysosomes. Recently, endolysosomes were found to have readily releasable stores of intracellular calcium; however, relatively little is known about how such 'acidic calcium stores' affect calcium signaling in neurons. Here we demonstrated in primary cultured neurons that calcium released from acidic calcium stores triggered calcium influx across the plasma membrane, a phenomenon we have termed "acidic store-operated calcium entry (aSOCE)". aSOCE was functionally distinct from store-operated calcium release and calcium entry involving endoplasmic reticulum. aSOCE appeared to be governed by N-type calcium channels (NTCCs) because aSOCE was attenuated significantly by selectively blocking NTCCs or by siRNA knockdown of NTCCs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that NTCCs co-immunoprecipitated with the lysosome associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1), and that aSOCE is accompanied by increased cell-surface expression levels of NTCC and LAMP1 proteins. Moreover, we demonstrated that siRNA knockdown of LAMP1 or Rab27a, both of which are key proteins involved in lysosome exocytosis, attenuated significantly aSOCE. Taken together our data suggest that aSOCE occurs in neurons, that aSOCE plays an important role in regulating the levels and actions of intraneuronal calcium, and that aSOCE is regulated at least in part by exocytotic insertion of N-type calcium channels into plasma membranes through LAMP1-dependent lysosome exocytosis.

  15. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  16. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  17. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  18. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  19. 21 CFR 573.240 - Calcium periodate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.240 Calcium periodate. The food additive calcium periodate may be safely used in... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium periodate. 573.240 Section 573.240...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1221 - Calcium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1221 Calcium propionate. (a) Calcium propionate (C6H10CaO4, CAS Reg. No. 4075-81-4) is the calcium salt of propionic acid. It occurs as white crystals or a crystalline solid, possessing not more than a faint odor of propionic acid. It is prepared by...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1221 - Calcium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1221 Calcium propionate. (a) Calcium propionate (C6H10CaO4, CAS Reg. No. 4075-81-4) is the calcium salt of propionic acid. It occurs as white crystals or a crystalline solid, possessing not more than a faint odor of propionic acid. It is prepared by...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1229 - Calcium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1229 Calcium stearate. (a) Calcium stearate (Ca(C17H35COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 1529-23-0) is the calcium salt of stearic acid derived from edible sources. It is prepared as... of this ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is...

  3. Abnormalities of serum calcium and magnesium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neonatal hypocalcemia is defined as a total serum calcium concentration of <7 mg/dL or an ionized calcium concentration of <4 mg/dL (1mmol/L). In very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, ionized calcium values of 0.8 to 1 mmol/L are common and not usually associated with clinical symptoms. In larger in...

  4. 21 CFR 172.720 - Calcium lactobionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.720 Calcium lactobionate. The food additive calcium lactobionate... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium lactobionate. 172.720 Section 172.720...

  5. Multifaceted Role of Calcium in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sarode, Gargi S; Sarode, Sachin C; Patil, Shankargouda

    2017-01-01

    Role of calcium in bone remodeling and tooth remineral-ization is well known. However, calcium also plays a very imperative role in many biochemical reactions, which are essential for normal functioning of cells. The calcium associated tissue homeostasis encompasses activities like proliferation, cell death, cell motility, oxygen, and nutrient supply.

  6. Acute calcium homeostasis in MHS swine.

    PubMed

    Harrison, G G; Morrell, D F; Brain, V; Jaros, G G

    1987-07-01

    To elucidate a pathogenesis for the reduction in bone calcium content observed in MHS individuals, we studied the acute calcium homeostasis of MHS swine. This was achieved by the serial measurement, with a calcium selective electrode, of calcium transients in Landrace MHS (five) and control Landrace/large white cross MH negative (five) swine following IV bolus injection of calcium gluconate 0.1 mmol X kg-1--a dose which induced an acute 45 per cent increase in plasma ionised calcium. Experimental animals were anaesthetised with ketamine 10 mg X kg-1 IM, thiopentone (intermittent divided doses) 15-25 mg X kg-1 (total) IV and N2O/O2 (FIO2 0.3) by IPPV to maintain a normal blood gas, acid/base state. The plasma ionised calcium decay curve observed in MHS swine did not differ from that of control normal swine. Further it was noted that the induced acute rise in plasma ionised calcium failed to trigger the MH syndrome in any MHS swine. It is concluded that the mechanisms of acute calcium homeostasis in MHS swine are normal. An explanation for the reduction in bone calcium content observed in MHS individuals must be sought, therefore, through study of the slow long-term component of the calcium regulatory process. In addition, the conventional strictures placed on the use, in MHS patients, of calcium gluconate are called in question.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1201 - Calcium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium glycerophosphate. 184.1201 Section 184.1201... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1201 Calcium glycerophosphate. (a) Calcium glycerophosphate (C3H7CaO6P, CAS Reg. No. 27214-00-2) is a fine, white, odorless, almost tasteless,...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1201 - Calcium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium glycerophosphate. 184.1201 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1201 Calcium glycerophosphate. (a) Calcium glycerophosphate (C3H7CaO6P, CAS Reg. No. 27214-00-2) is a fine, white, odorless, almost tasteless,...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1201 - Calcium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium glycerophosphate. 184.1201 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1201 Calcium glycerophosphate. (a) Calcium glycerophosphate (C3H7CaO6P, CAS Reg. No. 27214-00-2) is a fine, white, odorless, almost tasteless,...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1201 - Calcium glycerophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium glycerophosphate. 184.1201 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1201 Calcium glycerophosphate. (a) Calcium glycerophosphate (C3H7CaO6P, CAS Reg. No. 27214-00-2) is a fine, white, odorless, almost tasteless,...

  11. Characterization of calcium carbonate/chitosan composites

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, K.E.; Zhang, S.

    1995-12-31

    The crystal growth of calcium carbonate on a chitosan substrate was achieved using a supersaturated calcium carbonate solution, by using various additives, polyacrylic acid (PAA). Polyacrylic acid modified the chitosan-film surface and promoted the nucleation of calcium carbonate crystals.

  12. 21 CFR 582.6219 - Calcium phytate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phytate. 582.6219 Section 582.6219 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium phytate. (a) Product. Calcium phytate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 582.1207 Section 582.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Product. Calcium lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 582.1207 Section 582.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Product. Calcium lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 582.1207 Section 582.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Product. Calcium lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 582.1207 Section 582.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Product. Calcium lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 582.1207 Section 582.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Product. Calcium lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. Sensors, Update 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    1996-10-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Furthermore, the sensor market as well as peripheral aspects such as standards are covered. Each volume is divided into four sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.

  19. EDITORIAL: Humidity sensors Humidity sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regtien, Paul P. L.

    2012-01-01

    produced at relatively low cost. Therefore, they find wide use in lots of applications. However, the method requires a material that possesses some conflicting properties: stable and reproducible relations between air humidity, moisture uptake and a specific property (for instance the length of a hair, the electrical impedance of the material), fast absorption and desorption of the water vapour (to obtain a short response time), small hysteresis, wide range of relative humidity (RH) and temperature-independent output (only responsive to RH). For these reasons, much research is done and is still going on to find suitable materials that combine high performance and low price. In this special feature, three of the four papers report on absorption sensors, all with different focus. Aziz et al describe experiments with newly developed materials. The surface structure is extensively studied, in view of its ability to rapidly absorb water vapour and exhibit a reproducible change in the resistance and capacitance of the device. Sanchez et al employ optical fibres coated with a thin moisture-absorbing layer as a sensitive humidity sensor. They have studied various coating materials and investigated the possibility of using changes in optical properties of the fibre (here the lossy mode resonance) due to a change in humidity of the surrounding air. The third paper, by Weremczuk et al, focuses on a cheap fabrication method for absorption-based humidity sensors. The inkjet technology appears to be suitable for mass fabrication of such sensors, which is demonstrated by extensive measurements of the electrical properties (resistance and capacitance) of the absorbing layers. Moreover, they have developed a model that describes the relation between humidity and the electrical parameters of the moisture-sensitive layer. Despite intensive research, absorption sensors still do not meet the requirements for high accuracy applications. The dew-point temperature method is more appropriate

  20. Specific heat measurements of the gap structure of the organic superconductors {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]Br and {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2}.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, O. J.; Carrington, A.; Schlueter, J.; Univ. of Bristol

    2007-01-01

    We present high resolution heat capacity measurements of the organic superconductors {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu[N(CN)2]Br and {kappa}-(ET)2Cu(NCS)2 in fields up to 14 T. We use the high field data to determine the normal state specific heat and hence extract the behavior of the electronic specific heat Cel in the superconducting state in zero and finite fields. We find that in both materials for T/T{sub c} {approx}< 0.3, Cel(H=0){approx}T{sup 2} indicating d-wave superconductivity. The data are well described by a strong coupling d-wave model from our base temperature (T/T{sub c}{approx}0.1) right up to T{sub c}. Our data help to resolve the controversy regarding the order parameter symmetry in these materials.

  1. 1,2,4-Triazole Complexes XIII. Magnetic Properties of the Quasi two-dimensional Weak Ferromagnet β-nickel (II)(1,2,4-triazole)2(NCS)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelfriet, D. W.; Groeneveld, W. L.; Nap, G. M.

    1980-12-01

    Powdered samples of β-Ni(trz)2(NCS)2 have been investigated by measurements of the magnetic susceptibility (in the temperature range T = 15-300 K), magnetization (at T = 4.2 K) and heat capacity (T = 1-90 K). From the magnetization measurements the material is found to be a weak ferromagnet, with a zero-field magnetic moment of ~ 0.015 μB. The ordering temperature is determined as Tc = 10.14(2) K. The susceptibility and heat capacity data are in reasonable agreement with predictions from high-temperature series expansions for the quadratic layer, S = 1, Heisenberg antiferromagnet, with an intralayer exchange constant J/k = - 4.5(1) K.

  2. Sensor sentinel computing device

    DOEpatents

    Damico, Joseph P.

    2016-08-02

    Technologies pertaining to authenticating data output by sensors in an industrial environment are described herein. A sensor sentinel computing device receives time-series data from a sensor by way of a wireline connection. The sensor sentinel computing device generates a validation signal that is a function of the time-series signal. The sensor sentinel computing device then transmits the validation signal to a programmable logic controller in the industrial environment.

  3. Abrupt versus Gradual Spin-Crossover in Fe(II)(phen)2(NCS)2 and Fe(III)(dedtc)3 Compared by X-ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy and Quantum-Chemical Calculations.

    PubMed

    Mebs, Stefan; Braun, Beatrice; Kositzki, Ramona; Limberg, Christian; Haumann, Michael

    2015-12-21

    Molecular spin-crossover (SCO) compounds are attractive for information storage and photovoltaic technologies. We compared two prototypic SCO compounds with Fe(II)N6 (1, [Fe(phen)2(NCS)2], with phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) or Fe(III)S6 (2, [Fe(dedtc)3], with dedtc = N,N'-diethyldithiocarbamate) centers, which show abrupt (1) or gradual (2) thermally induced SCO, using K-edge X-ray absorption and Kβ emission spectroscopy (XAS/XES) in a 8-315 K temperature range, single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), and density functional theory (DFT). Core-to-valence and valence-to-core electronic transitions in the XAS/XES spectra and bond lengths change from XRD provided benchmark data, verifying the adequacy of the TPSSh/TZVP DFT approach for the description of low-spin (LS) and high-spin (HS) species. Determination of the spin densities, charge distributions, bonding descriptors, and valence-level configurations, as well as similar experimental and calculated enthalpy changes (ΔH), suggested that the varying metal-ligand bonding properties and deviating electronic structures converge to similar enthalpic contributions to the free-energy change (ΔG) and thus presumably are not decisive for the differing SCO behavior of 1 and 2. Rather, SCO seems to be governed by vibrational contributions to the entropy changes (ΔS) in both complexes. Intra- and intermolecular interactions in crystals of 1 and 2 were identified by atoms-in-molecules analysis. Thermal excitation of individual dedtc ligand vibrations accompanies the gradual SCO in 2. In contrast, extensive inter- and intramolecular phen/NCS vibrational mode coupling may be an important factor in the cooperative SCO behavior of 1.

  4. Label-free and enzyme-free platform for the construction of advanced DNA logic devices based on the assembly of graphene oxide and DNA-templated AgNCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Daoqing; Zhu, Jinbo; Liu, Yaqing; Wang, Erkang; Dong, Shaojun

    2016-02-01

    DNA-based molecular logic computation has drawn extensive attention in bioanalysis, intelligent diagnostics of diseases and other nanotechnology areas. Herein, taking 2-to-1 and 4-to-2 encoders and a 1-to-2 decoder as model molecular logic devices, we for the first time combined the quenching ability of GO (graphene oxide) to DNA-templated AgNCs with G-quadruplex-enhanced fluorescence intensity of porphyrin dyes for the construction of label-free and enzyme-free dual-output advanced DNA molecular logic devices. Also, through the application of negative logic conversion to an XOR logic gate and combined with an INHIBIT logic gate, we also operated a label-free and enzyme-free comparator.DNA-based molecular logic computation has drawn extensive attention in bioanalysis, intelligent diagnostics of diseases and other nanotechnology areas. Herein, taking 2-to-1 and 4-to-2 encoders and a 1-to-2 decoder as model molecular logic devices, we for the first time combined the quenching ability of GO (graphene oxide) to DNA-templated AgNCs with G-quadruplex-enhanced fluorescence intensity of porphyrin dyes for the construction of label-free and enzyme-free dual-output advanced DNA molecular logic devices. Also, through the application of negative logic conversion to an XOR logic gate and combined with an INHIBIT logic gate, we also operated a label-free and enzyme-free comparator. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Optimization experiments, Table S1, Fig. S1-S5 in ESI. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00032k

  5. [Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy using NCS (neocarzinostatin) and 5-FU in the treatment of gastric cancer. First report--A comparison with the 5-year survival rate of patients undergoing combined therapy with MMC and 5-FU].

    PubMed

    Yokomori, T; Taniguchi, T; Iesato, H; Sakata, Y; Watanabe, T; Kawabe, K

    1987-11-01

    As a postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer, we have administered a combination of NCS (Neocarzinostatin) and 5-FU (NF treatment method) and in this paper we have compiled the results obtained in patients who were treated for 5 years in an attempt to compare the 5-year survival rate with that of patients administered a combination of MMC and 5-FU (MF treatment group) and a control group administered no anticancer agents. As the selection of either NF or MF treatment was conducted on an annual basis, this study can be considered an historical controlled study. The results obtained are summarized as follows. On comparing the survival rate of the NF treatment group and the control group, the 5-year survival rate for all patients who underwent curative resection and all patients with histological stage III cancers and the curative resection PS (+) group, as well as the survival period of the non-resected patients, showed a statistically significant difference, indicating that the survival rate was higher in the NF group. On comparing the NF group and the MF group, although no statistically significant difference was observed between then based on a stratified analysis of all resected cases, histological stage differences and n.ps factors, etc., certain values tended to indicate a higher survival rate for the NF group. Moreover, the survival rate of the non-resected patients was more favorable in the NF group. These results confirm that NCS is useful for the treatment of stomach cancer and compares favorably with MMC. The appearance of side-effects was significantly lower in the NF group in comparison with the MF group and the number of patients who had to discontinue therapy was extremely low.

  6. Calcium chloride versus calcium gluconate: comparison of ionization and cardiovascular effects in children and dogs.

    PubMed

    Cote', C J; Drop, L J; Daniels, A L; Hoaglin, D C

    1987-04-01

    A randomized prospective study in both children and dogs compared ionization of calcium chloride and calcium gluconate. Five conditioned dogs under halothane anesthesia received calcium chloride (4, 8, 12 mg/kg) and calcium gluconate (14, 28, 42 mg/kg) intravenously. Ten children scheduled for burn wound excision and grafting received both calcium chloride (2.5 mg/kg) and calcium gluconate (7.5 mg/kg) injected through a central venous cannula. Ionized calcium was measured at 0, 0.5, 1, 3, 5, and 10 min in the children, and 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, and 45 min in the dogs. The authors conclude that equal elemental calcium doses of calcium gluconate (10%) and calcium chloride (10%) (approximately 3:1), injected over the same period of time, are equivalent in their ability to raise [Ca++] during normocalcemic states in children and dogs; the changes in [Ca++] following calcium administration are short-lived (minutes); rapidity of ionization seems to exclude hepatic metabolism as an important factor in the dissociation of calcium gluconate; and equivalent rises in [Ca++] produced by calcium gluconate or calcium chloride resulted in equivalent cardiovascular effects. The authors feel that either form of calcium salt would be satisfactory if indicated during cardiopulmonary resuscitation or for the treatment of ionized hypocalcemia due to massive blood transfusion.

  7. Calcium signals and calcium channels in osteoblastic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R. L.; Akanbi, K. A.; Farach-Carson, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) channels are present in non-excitable as well as in excitable cells. In bone cells of the osteoblast lineage, Ca2+ channels play fundamental roles in cellular responses to external stimuli including both mechanical forces and hormonal signals. They are also proposed to modulate paracrine signaling between bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts at local sites of bone remodeling. Calcium signals are characterized by transient increases in intracellular Ca2+ levels that are associated with activation of intracellular signaling pathways that control cell behavior and phenotype, including patterns of gene expression. Development of Ca2+ signals is a tightly regulated cellular process that involves the concerted actions of plasma membrane and intracellular Ca2+ channels, along with Ca2+ pumps and exchangers. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning the structure, function, and role of Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ signals in bone cells, focusing on the osteoblast.

  8. Computational study of a calcium release-activated calcium channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukdar, Keka; Shantappa, Anil

    2016-05-01

    The naturally occurring proteins that form hole in membrane are commonly known as ion channels. They play multiple roles in many important biological processes. Deletion or alteration of these channels often leads to serious problems in the physiological processes as it controls the flow of ions through it. The proper maintenance of the flow of ions, in turn, is required for normal health. Here we have investigated the behavior of a calcium release-activated calcium ion channel with pdb entry 4HKR in Drosophila Melanogaster. The equilibrium energy as well as molecular dynamics simulation is performed first. The protein is subjected to molecular dynamics simulation to find their energy minimized value. Simulation of the protein in the environment of water and ions has given us important results too. The solvation energy is also found using Charmm potential.

  9. The preparation of calcium superoxide from calcium peroxide diperoxyhydrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballou, E. V.; Wood, P. C.; Spitze, L. A.; Wydeven, T.

    1977-01-01

    There is interest in solid materials containing a high percentage of stored oxygen for use in emergency breathing apparatus for miners and as auxiliary oxygen sources for astronauts. In theory, the amount of available oxygen in calcium superoxide, Ca(O2)2 is higher than in potassium superoxide, KO2, and its availability during use should be unhindered by the formation of a low melting and hydrous coating. The decomposition of solid calcium peroxide diperoxyhydrate, CaO2.2H2O2 has been studied, using an apparatus which allows good control of the critical reaction parameters. Samples have been prepared showing apparent superoxide contents in excess of those previously reported and higher than the theoretical 58.4% expected from a disproportionation reaction.

  10. Effect of anions or foods on absolute bioavailability of calcium from calcium salts in mice by pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Yukari; Taira, Zenei

    2013-01-01

    We studied the absolute bioavailability of calcium from calcium L-lactate in mice using pharmacokinetics, and reviewed the absolute bioavailability of calcium from three other calcium salts in mice previously studied: calcium chloride, calcium acetate, and calcium ascorbate. The results showed that calcium metabolism is linear between intravenous administration of 15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg, and is not affected by anions. Results after oral calcium administration of 150 mg/kg showed that the intestinal absorption process was significantly different among the four calcium salts. The rank of absolute bioavailability of calcium was calcium ascorbate > calcium L-lactate ≥ calcium acetate > calcium chloride. The mean residence time (MRTab) of calcium from calcium ascorbate (32.2 minutes) in the intestinal tract was much longer than that from calcium L-lactate (9.5 minutes), calcium acetate (15.0 minutes) and calcium chloride (13.6 minutes). Furthermore, the foods di-D-fructo-furanose-1,2':2,3'-dianhydride, sudachi (Citrus sudachi) juice, and moromi-su (a Japanese vinegar) increased the absolute bioavailability of calcium from calcium chloride by 2.46-fold, 2.86-fold, and 1.23-fold, respectively, and prolonged MRTab by 48.5 minutes, 43.1 minutes, and 44.9 minutes, respectively. In conclusion, the prolonged MRTab of calcium in the intestinal tract by anion or food might cause the increased absorbability of calcium.

  11. Substitution of calcium by strontium within selected calcium phosphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokita, E.; Hermes, C.; Nolting, H.-F.; Ryczek, J.

    1993-06-01

    Sr incorporation in the molecules of amorphous calcium phosphate, apatitic tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, octacalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate was investigated. The concentration of Sr ranged from 225 to 1010 μ g / g, i.e. it overlapped with the physiological range of Sr concentrations in human bone. The leading experimental technique was extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) at the Sr K edge. Results of these studies demonstrated the following: (1) Sr incorporation in the calcium phosphates is compound-dependent, (2) the coordination of incorporated Sr atoms in the Ca-P molecules is similar to that of Ca atoms, but interatomic distances are ≈0.015 nm larger, (3) in apatitic tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite and octacalcium phosphate lattices Sr atoms may occupy selected Ca sites, which was not the case for dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, (4) in the apatite lattice Sr atoms are coordinated by 6 PO 4 tetrahedrals and (5) EXAFS spectra at the K edge of the incorporated Sr may be used to distinguish the structures of amorphous calcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate as well as apatite and its derivatives (apatitic tricalcium phosphate, octacalcium phosphate).

  12. Calcium deficiency cannot induce obesity in rats.

    PubMed

    Paradis, S; Cabanac, M

    2005-06-30

    If intake of a required nutrient--here calcium--affects body weight, the effect must be mediated by a change in the body weight set-point. Thus, the controversial 'anti-obesity' influence of high calcium intake should decrease the body weight set-point. Diets differing in calcium content were assigned to three groups of rats. The effects of the diets on body weight, BMI, fat content, plasma calcium, body weight set-point, food intake, and preference for various calcium solutions were measured after 6 weeks of calcium deprivation or supplementation, and again after a further 6 weeks of recovery on a regular diet. After 6 weeks, the low-calcium diet had induced calcium deficiency but had failed to raise the body weight set-point. Nor had it produced obesity or fat accumulation. After 6 weeks of recovery, body weight and fat content were no higher in calcium-deprived rats than in the control or supplemented rats. In this experiment, low-calcium intake failed to cause obesity and did not raise the body weight set-point. The results indicate that calcium intake probably does not affect body weight.

  13. Early redox, Src family kinase, and calcium signaling integrate wound responses and tissue regeneration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sa Kan; Freisinger, Christina M; LeBert, Danny C; Huttenlocher, Anna

    2012-10-15

    Tissue injury can lead to scar formation or tissue regeneration. How regenerative animals sense initial tissue injury and transform wound signals into regenerative growth is an unresolved question. Previously, we found that the Src family kinase (SFK) Lyn functions as a redox sensor in leukocytes that detects H(2)O(2) at wounds in zebrafish larvae. In this paper, using zebrafish larval tail fins as a model, we find that wounding rapidly activated SFK and calcium signaling in epithelia. The immediate SFK and calcium signaling in epithelia was important for late epimorphic regeneration of amputated fins. Wound-induced activation of SFKs in epithelia was dependent on injury-generated H(2)O(2). A SFK member, Fynb, was responsible for fin regeneration. This work provides a new link between early wound responses and late regeneration and suggests that redox, SFK, and calcium signaling are immediate "wound signals" that integrate early wound responses and late epimorphic regeneration.

  14. Functional optoacoustic neuro-tomography of calcium fluxes in adult zebrafish brain in vivo.

    PubMed

    Deán-Ben, X Luís; Gottschalk, Sven; Sela, Gali; Shoham, Shy; Razansky, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Genetically-encoded calcium indicators (GECIs) have revolutionized neuroimaging by enabling mapping of the activity of entire neuronal populations in vivo. Visualization of these powerful activity sensors has to date been limited to depth-restricted microscopic studies due to intense light scattering in the brain. We demonstrate, for the first time, in vivo real-time volumetric optoacoustic monitoring of calcium transients in adult transgenic zebrafish expressing the GCaMP5G calcium indicator. Fast changes in optoacoustic traces associated with GCaMP5G activity were detectable in the presence of other strongly absorbing endogenous chromophores, such as hemoglobin. The new functional optoacoustic neuroimaging method can visualize neural activity at penetration depths and spatio-temporal resolution scales not covered with the existing neuroimaging techniques.

  15. Sensor modules for wireless distributed sensor networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A P; McConaghy, C F; Simon, J N; Benett, W; Jones, L; Trevino, J

    1999-02-22

    A national security need as well as environmental monitoring need exists for networks of sensors. The advantages of a network of sensors over a single sensor are improved range, sensitivity, directionality, and data readability. Depending upon the particular application, sensors can be acoustic, chemical, biological, thermal or inertial. A major desire in these sensor networks is to have the individual sensor and associated electronics small and low enough in power that the battery can also be small and of long life. Smaller, low power sensor nodes can allow more nodes per network. A typical network for security applications is depicted in Figure 1. Here a number of sensor nodes are deployed around a central hub node in a star configuration. In this scenario the hubs communicate with each other and ultimately relay information to a satellite. Future networks might follow this scenario or some other network architecture such as a hopping network where individual nodes communicate directly with each other. The focus of our research has been on development of the small low power nodes and less on the overall network topology. However, some consideration of the network must be given when designing the nodes and some consideration of the nodes must be given when designing the network. An individual sensor node contains not only the sensor but also the sensor interface electronics, analog to digital (A/D) converter, logic, RF communication link, antenna, and the battery. Future nodes will also contain some form of signal processing to allow more sophisticated network architectures. The FY98 goal for this project was to make a sensor node with a physical form factor of a 2 inch x 2 inch x 2 inch cube.

  16. Calcium regulation in endosymbiotic organelles of plants.

    PubMed

    Bussemer, Johanna; Vothknecht, Ute C; Chigri, Fatima

    2009-09-01

    In plant cells calcium-dependent signaling pathways are involved in a large array of biological processes in response to hormones, biotic/abiotic stress signals and a variety of developmental cues. This is generally achieved through binding of calcium to diverse calcium-sensing proteins, which subsequently control downstream events by activating or inhibiting biochemical reactions. Regulation by calcium is considered as a eukaryotic trait and has not been described for prokaryotes. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence indicating that organelles of prokaryotic origin, such as chloroplasts and mitochondria, are integrated into the calcium-signaling network of the cell. An important transducer of calcium in these organelles appears to be calmodulin. In this review we want to give an overview over present data showing that endosymbiotic organelles harbour calcium-dependent biological processes with a focus on calmodulin-regulation.

  17. Seasonal Variations in Mercury's Dayside Calcium Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Cassidy, Timothy A.; Sarantos, Menelaos

    2014-01-01

    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer on the MESSENGER spacecraft has observed calcium emission in Mercury's exosphere on a near-daily basis since March 2011. During MESSENGER's primary and first extended missions (March 2011 - March 2013) the dayside calcium exosphere was measured over eight Mercury years. We have simulated these data with a Monte Carlo model of exospheric source processes to show that (a) there is a persistent source of energetic calcium located in the dawn equatorial region, (b) there is a seasonal dependence in the calcium source rate, and (c) there are no obvious year-to-year variations in the near-surface dayside calcium exosphere. Although the precise mechanism responsible for ejecting the calcium has not yet been determined, the most likely process is the dissociation of Ca-bearing molecules produced in micrometeoroid impact plumes to form energetic, escaping calcium atoms.

  18. T-type calcium channels contribute to calcium disturbances in brain during hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Odackal, John; Sherpa, Ang D; Patel, Nisha; Colbourn, Robert; Hrabetova, Sabina

    2015-11-01

    Disturbance of calcium homeostasis is implicated in the normal process of aging and brain pathology prevalent in the elderly such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Previous studies demonstrated that applying a hyponatremic iso-osmotic (low-NaCl) artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) to rodent hippocampus causes extracellular calcium to rapidly decrease. Restoring normonatremia after low-NaCl treatment causes a rapid increase in extracellular calcium that overshoots baseline. This study examined the amplitude, timing, and mechanism of these surprising calcium changes. We also tested whether hyponatremia increased calcium entry into brain cells or calcium binding to chondroitin sulfate (CS), a negatively charged constituent of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that may be occupied by sodium during normonatremia. We report three major findings. First we show that CS does not contribute to extracellular calcium changes during low-NaCl treatments. Second, we show that the time to minimum extracellular calcium during low-NaCl treatment is significantly shorter than the time to maximum extracellular calcium in recovery from low-NaCl treatment. Third, we show that the decrease in extracellular calcium observed during hyponatremia is attenuated by ML 218, a highly selective T-type calcium channel blocker. Together these data suggest that calcium rapidly enters cells at the onset of low-NaCl treatment and is extruded from cells when normonatremia is restored. Calcium binding to CS does not significantly contribute to calcium changes in brain during hyponatremia. Differences in timing suggest that extracellular calcium changes during and in recovery from hyponatremia occur by distinct mechanisms or by a multistep process. Finally, partial block of extracellular calcium influx by ML 218 suggests that T-type channels are involved in calcium entering cells during hyponatremia. Given the high prevalence of hyponatremia among elderly patients and the

  19. Drosophila mushroom body Kenyon cells generate spontaneous calcium transients mediated by PLTX-sensitive calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shaojuan Amy; Campusano, Jorge M; Su, Hailing; O'Dowd, Diane K

    2005-07-01

    Spontaneous calcium oscillations in mushroom bodies of late stage pupal and adult Drosophila brains have been implicated in memory consolidation during olfactory associative learning. This study explores the cellular mechanisms regulating calcium dynamics in Kenyon cells, principal neurons in mushroom bodies. Fura-2 imaging shows that Kenyon cells cultured from late stage Drosophila pupae generate spontaneous calcium transients in a cell autonomous fashion, at a frequency similar to calcium oscillations in vivo (10-20/h). The expression of calcium transients is up regulated during pupal development. Although the ability to generate transients is a property intrinsic to Kenyon cells, transients can be modulated by bath application of nicotine and GABA. Calcium transients are blocked, and baseline calcium levels reduced, by removal of external calcium, addition of cobalt, or addition of Plectreurys toxin (PLTX), an insect-specific calcium channel antagonist. Transients do not require calcium release from intracellular stores. Whole cell recordings reveal that the majority of voltage-gated calcium channels in Kenyon cells are PLTX-sensitive. Together these data show that influx of calcium through PLTX-sensitive voltage-gated calcium channels mediates spontaneous calcium transients and regulates basal calcium levels in cultured Kenyon cells. The data also suggest that these calcium transients represent cellular events underlying calcium oscillations in the intact mushroom bodies. However, spontaneous calcium transients are not unique to Kenyon cells as they are present in approximately 60% of all cultured central brain neurons. This suggests the calcium transients play a more general role in maturation or function of adult brain neurons.

  20. Sensors, Update 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltes, Henry; Göpel, Wolfgang; Hesse, Joachim

    2001-10-01

    Sensors Update ensures that you stay at the cutting edge of the field. Built upon the series Sensors, it presents an overview of highlights in the field. Coverage includes current developments in materials, design, production, and applications of sensors, signal detection and processing, as well as new sensing principles. Each volume is divided into three sections. Sensor Technology, reviews highlights in applied and basic research, Sensor Applications, covers new or improved applications of sensors, Sensor Markets, provides a survey of suppliers and market trends for a particular area. With this unique combination of information in each volume, Sensors Update will be of value for scientists and engineers in industry and at universities, to sensors developers, distributors, and users.