NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, H. F.
2013-12-01
First-principles atomistic simulation is a vital tool for understanding the properties of materials at the high-pressure high-temperature conditions prevalent in giant planet interiors, but properties such as solubility and phase boundaries are dependent on entropy, a quantity not directly accessible in simulation. Determining entropic properties from atomistic simulations is a difficult problem typically requiring a time-consuming integration over molecular dynamics trajectories. Here I will describe recent advances in first-principles thermodynamic calculations which substantially increase the simplicity and efficiency of thermodynamic integration and make entropic properties more readily accessible. I will also describe the use of first-principles thermodynamic calculations for understanding problems including core solubility in gas giants and superionic phase changes in ice giants, as well as future prospects for combining first-principles thermodynamics with planetary-scale models to help us understand the origin and consequences of compositional inhomogeneity in giant planet interiors.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Svehla, R. A.; Mcbride, B. J.
1973-01-01
A FORTRAN IV computer program for the calculation of the thermodynamic and transport properties of complex mixtures is described. The program has the capability of performing calculations such as:(1) chemical equilibrium for assigned thermodynamic states, (2) theoretical rocket performance for both equilibrium and frozen compositions during expansion, (3) incident and reflected shock properties, and (4) Chapman-Jouguet detonation properties. Condensed species, as well as gaseous species, are considered in the thermodynamic calculation; but only the gaseous species are considered in the transport calculations.
WETAIR: A computer code for calculating thermodynamic and transport properties of air-water mixtures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fessler, T. E.
1979-01-01
A computer program subroutine, WETAIR, was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of air water mixtures. It determines the thermodynamic state from assigned values of temperature and density, pressure and density, temperature and pressure, pressure and entropy, or pressure and enthalpy. The WETAIR calculates the properties of dry air and water (steam) by interpolating to obtain values from property tables. Then it uses simple mixing laws to calculate the properties of air water mixtures. Properties of mixtures with water contents below 40 percent (by mass) can be calculated at temperatures from 273.2 to 1497 K and pressures to 450 MN/sq m. Dry air properties can be calculated at temperatures as low as 150 K. Water properties can be calculated at temperatures to 1747 K and pressures to 100 MN/sq m. The WETAIR is available in both SFTRAN and FORTRAN.
NASA Glenn Coefficients for Calculating Thermodynamic Properties of Individual Species
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McBride, Bonnie J.; Zehe, Michael J.; Gordon, Sanford
2002-01-01
This report documents the library of thermodynamic data used with the NASA Glenn computer program CEA (Chemical Equilibrium with Applications). This library, containing data for over 2000 solid, liquid, and gaseous chemical species for temperatures ranging from 200 to 20,000 K, is available for use with other computer codes as well. The data are expressed as least-squares coefficients to a seven-term functional form for C((sup o)(sub p)) (T) / R with integration constants for H (sup o) (T) / RT and S(sup o) (T) / R. The NASA Glenn computer program PAC (Properties and Coefficients) was used to calculate thermodynamic functions and to generate the least-squares coefficients. PAC input was taken from a variety of sources. A complete listing of the database is given along with a summary of thermodynamic properties at 0 and 298.15 K.
Microcomputer Calculation of Thermodynamic Properties from Molecular Parameters of Gases.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Venugopalan, Mundiyath
1990-01-01
Described in this article is a problem-solving activity which integrates the application of microcomputers with the learning of physical chemistry. Students use the program with spectroscopic data to calculate the thermodynamic properties and compare them with the values from the thermochemical tables. (Author/KR)
Thermodynamic and mechanical properties of TiC from ab initio calculation
Dang, D. Y.; Fan, J. L.; Gong, H. R., E-mail: gonghr@csu.edu.cn
2014-07-21
The temperature-dependent thermodynamic and mechanical properties of TiC are systematically investigated by means of a combination of density-functional theory, quasi-harmonic approximation, and thermal electronic excitation. It is found that the quasi-harmonic Debye model should be pertinent to reflect thermodynamic properties of TiC, and the elastic properties of TiC decease almost linearly with the increase of temperature. Calculations also reveal that TiC possesses a pronounced directional pseudogap across the Fermi level, mainly due to the strong hybridization of Ti 3d and C 2p states. Moreover, the strong covalent bonding of TiC would be enhanced (reduced) with the decrease (increase) of temperature,more » while the change of volume (temperature) should have negligible effect on density of states at the Fermi level. The calculated results agree well with experimental observations in the literature.« less
THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF MC (M = V, Nb, Ta): FIRST-PRINCIPLES CALCULATIONS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Yong; Zhu, Jingchuan; Liu, Yong; Long, Zhishen
2013-07-01
Through the quasi-harmonic Debye model, the pressure and temperature dependences of linear expansion coefficient, bulk modulus, Debye temperature and heat capacity have been investigated. The calculated thermodynamic properties were compared with experimental data and satisfactory agreement is reached.
Coefficients for calculating thermodynamic and transport properties of individual species
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford; Reno, Martin A.
1993-01-01
Libraries of thermodynamic data and transport properties are given for individual species in the form of least-squares coefficients. Values of C(sup 0)(sub p)(T), H(sup 0)(T), and S(sup 0)(T) are available for 1130 solid, liquid, and gaseous species. Viscosity and thermal conductivity data are given for 155 gases. The original C(sup 0)(sub p)(T) values were fit to a fourth-order polynomial with integration constants for H(sup 0)(T) and S(sup 0)(T). For each species the integration constant for H(sup 0)(T) includes the heat of formation. Transport properties have a different functional form. The temperature range for most of the data is 300 to 5000 K, although some of the newer thermodynamic data have a range of 200 to 6000 K. Because the species are mainly possible products of reaction, the data are useful for chemical equilibrium and kinetics computer codes. Much of the data has been distributed for several years with the NASA Lewis equilibrium program CET89. The thermodynamic properties of the reference elements were updated along with about 175 species that involve the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. These sets of data will be distributed with the NASA Lewis personal computer program for calculating chemical equilibria, CETPC.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Ge-Xing; Ma, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Qi-Jun; Li, Yong; Liu, Zheng-Tang
2018-03-01
Using first-principles calculations method based on density functional theory (DFT) with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) implementation of the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), we investigate the structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of gold-copper intermetallic compounds (Au-Cu ICs). The calculated lattice parameters are in excellent agreement with experimental data. The elastic constants show that all the investigated Au-Cu alloys are mechanically stable. Elastic properties, including the shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio and Pugh's indicator, of the intermetallic compounds are evaluated and discussed, with special attention to the remarkable anisotropy displayed by Au-Cu ICs. Thermodynamic and transport properties including the Debye temperature, thermal conductivity and melting point are predicted from the averaged sound velocity and elastic moduli, using semi-empirical formulas.
eQuilibrator--the biochemical thermodynamics calculator.
Flamholz, Avi; Noor, Elad; Bar-Even, Arren; Milo, Ron
2012-01-01
The laws of thermodynamics constrain the action of biochemical systems. However, thermodynamic data on biochemical compounds can be difficult to find and is cumbersome to perform calculations with manually. Even simple thermodynamic questions like 'how much Gibbs energy is released by ATP hydrolysis at pH 5?' are complicated excessively by the search for accurate data. To address this problem, eQuilibrator couples a comprehensive and accurate database of thermodynamic properties of biochemical compounds and reactions with a simple and powerful online search and calculation interface. The web interface to eQuilibrator (http://equilibrator.weizmann.ac.il) enables easy calculation of Gibbs energies of compounds and reactions given arbitrary pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentrations. The eQuilibrator code is open-source and all thermodynamic source data are freely downloadable in standard formats. Here we describe the database characteristics and implementation and demonstrate its use.
eQuilibrator—the biochemical thermodynamics calculator
Flamholz, Avi; Noor, Elad; Bar-Even, Arren; Milo, Ron
2012-01-01
The laws of thermodynamics constrain the action of biochemical systems. However, thermodynamic data on biochemical compounds can be difficult to find and is cumbersome to perform calculations with manually. Even simple thermodynamic questions like ‘how much Gibbs energy is released by ATP hydrolysis at pH 5?’ are complicated excessively by the search for accurate data. To address this problem, eQuilibrator couples a comprehensive and accurate database of thermodynamic properties of biochemical compounds and reactions with a simple and powerful online search and calculation interface. The web interface to eQuilibrator (http://equilibrator.weizmann.ac.il) enables easy calculation of Gibbs energies of compounds and reactions given arbitrary pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentrations. The eQuilibrator code is open-source and all thermodynamic source data are freely downloadable in standard formats. Here we describe the database characteristics and implementation and demonstrate its use. PMID:22064852
Duan, Yuhua
2012-11-02
Since current technologies for capturing CO{sub 2} to fight global climate change are still too energy intensive, there is a critical need for development of new materials that can capture CO{sub 2} reversibly with acceptable energy costs. Accordingly, solid sorbents have been proposed to be used for CO{sub 2} capture applications through a reversible chemical transformation. By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The calculatedmore » thermodynamic properties of different classes of solid materials versus temperature and pressure changes were further used to evaluate the equilibrium properties for the CO{sub 2} adsorption/desorption cycles. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO{sub 2} capture reactions by the solids of interest, we were able to screen only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions. Only those selected CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates were further considered for experimental validations. The ab initio thermodynamic technique has the advantage of identifying thermodynamic properties of CO{sub 2} capture reactions without any experimental input beyond crystallographic structural information of the solid phases involved. Such methodology not only can be used to search for good candidates from existing database of solid materials, but also can provide some guidelines for synthesis new materials. In this presentation, we first introduce our screening methodology and the results on a testing set of solids with known thermodynamic properties to validate our methodology. Then, by applying our computational
Electronic and thermodynamic properties of layered Hf2Sfrom first-principles calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nandadasa, Chandani; Yoon, Mina; Kim, Seong-Gon; Erwin, Steve; Kim, Sungho; Kim, Sung Wng; Lee, Kimoon
Theoretically we explored two stable phases of inorganic fullerene-like structure of the layered dihafnium sulfide (Hf2 S) . We investigated structural and electronic properties of the two phases of Hf2 S by using first-principles calculations. Our calculation identifies experimentally observed anti-NbS2 structure of Hf2 S . Our electronic calculation results indicate that the density of states of anti- NbS2 structure of Hf2 S at fermi level is less than that of the other phase of Hf2 S . To study the relative stability of different phases at finite temperature Helmholtz free energies of two phases are obtained using density functional theory and density functional perturbation theory. The free energy of the anti-NbS2 structure of Hf2 S always lies below the free energy of the other phase by confirming the most stable structure of Hf2 S . The phonon dispersion, phonon density of states including partial density of states and total density of states are obtained within density functional perturbation theory. Our calculated zero-pressure phonon dispersion curves confirm that the thermodynamic stability of Hf2 S structures. For further investigation of thermodynamic properties, the temperature dependency of thermal expansion, heat capacities at constant pressure and volume are evaluated within the quasiharmonic approximations (QHA).
Internet calculations of thermodynamic properties of substances: Some problems and results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ustyuzhanin, E. E.; Ochkov, V. F.; Shishakov, V. V.; Rykov, S. V.
2016-11-01
Internet resources (databases, web sites and others) on thermodynamic properties R = (p,T,s,...) of technologically important substances are analyzed. These databases put online by a number of organizations (the Joint Institute for High Temperatures of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Standartinform, the National Institute of Standards and Technology USA, the Institute for Thermal Physics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, etc) are investigated. Software codes are elaborated in the work in forms of “client functions” those have such characteristics: (i) they are placed on a remote server, (ii) they serve as open interactive Internet resources. A client can use them for a calculation of R properties of substances. “Complex client functions” are considered. They are focused on sharing (i) software codes elaborated to design of power plants (PP) and (ii) client functions those can calculate R properties of working fluids for PP.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Xiangli; Liang, Yuxuan; Bai, Pengpeng; Luo, Bingwei; Fang, Teng; Yue, Luo; An, Teng; Song, Weiyu; Zheng, Shuqi
2017-11-01
The thermodynamic properties of Fe-S compounds with different crystal structure are very different. In this study, the structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of mackinawite (FeS) and pyrite (FeS2) were investigated by first-principles calculations. Examination of the electronic density of states shows that mackinawite (FeS) is metallic and that pyrite (FeS2) is a semiconductor with a band gap of Eg = 1.02 eV. Using the stress-strain method, the elastic properties including the bulk modulus and shear modulus were derived from the elastic Cij data. Density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) calculations within the quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA) were used to calculate the thermodynamic properties, and the two Fe-S compounds are found to be dynamically stable. The isothermal bulk modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, heat capacities, Gibbs free energy and entropy of the Fe-S compounds are obtained by first-principles phonon calculations. Furthermore, the temperature of the mackinawite (FeS) ⟶ pyrite (FeS2) phase transition at 0 GPa was predicted. Based on the calculation results, the model for prediction of Fe-S compounds in the Fe-H2S-H2O system was improved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noh, Seunghyo; Kwak, Dohyun; Lee, Juseung; Kang, Joonhee; Han, Byungchan
2014-03-01
We utilized first-principles density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations to evaluate the thermodynamic feasibility of a pyroprocessing methodology for reducing the volume of high-level radioactive materials and recycling spent nuclear fuels. The thermodynamic properties of transuranium elements (Pu, Np and Cm) were obtained in electrochemical equilibrium with a LiCl-KCl molten salt as ionic phases and as adsorbates on a W(110) surface. To accomplish the goal, we rigorously calculated the double layer interface structures on an atomic resolution, on the thermodynamically most stable configurations on W(110) surfaces and the chemical activities of the transuranium elements for various coverages of those elements. Our results indicated that the electrodeposition process was very sensitive to the atomic level structures of Cl ions at the double-layer interface. Our studies are easily expandable to general electrochemical applications involving strong redox reactions of transition metals in non-aqueous solutions.
First-principles calculations on thermodynamic properties of BaTiO3 rhombohedral phase.
Bandura, Andrei V; Evarestov, Robert A
2012-07-05
The calculations based on the linear combination of atomic orbitals have been performed for the low-temperature phase of BaTiO(3) crystal. Structural and electronic properties, as well as phonon frequencies were obtained using hybrid PBE0 exchange-correlation functional. The calculated frequencies and total energies at different volumes have been used to determine the equation of state and thermal contribution to the Helmholtz free energy within the quasiharmonic approximation. For the first time, the bulk modulus, volume thermal expansion coefficient, heat capacity, and Grüneisen parameters in BaTiO(3) rhombohedral phase have been estimated at zero pressure and temperatures form 0 to 200 K, based on the results of first-principles calculations. Empirical equation has been proposed to reproduce the temperature dependence of the calculated quantities. The agreement between the theoretical and experimental thermodynamic properties was found to be satisfactory. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Dongqiang; Wang, Yongxin; Zhang, Xinyi; Zhang, Minyu; Niu, Yanfei
2016-12-01
First-principles calculations based on density functional theory was used to investigate the structural, thermodynamic and elastic properties of precipitations, θ″, θ‧ and θ, in Al-Cu alloys. The values of lattice constants accord with experimental results well. The structural stability of θ is the best, followed by θ‧ and θ″. In addition, due to the highest bulk modulus, shear modulus and Young's modulus, θ possesses the best reinforcement effect in precipitation hardening process considered only from mechanical properties of perfect crystal. According to the values of B/G, Poisson's ratio and C11-C12, θ‧ has the worst ductility, while θ″ has the best ductility, the ductility of θ is in the middle. The ideal tensile strength of θ″, θ‧ and θ calculated along [100] and [001] directions are 20.87 GPa, 23.11 GPa and 24.70 GPa respectively. The analysis of electronic structure suggests that three precipitations all exhibit metallic character, and number of bonding electrons and bonding strength are the nature of different thermodynamic and elastic properties for θ″, θ‧ and θ.
Thermodynamic properties of potassium chloride aqueous solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zezin, Denis; Driesner, Thomas
2017-04-01
Potassium chloride is a ubiquitous salt in natural fluids, being the second most abundant dissolved salt in many geological aqueous solutions after sodium chloride. It is a simple solute and strong electrolyte easily dissociating in water, however the thermodynamic properties of KCl aqueous solutions were never correlated with sufficient accuracy for a wide range of physicochemical conditions. In this communication we propose a set of parameters for a Pitzer-type model which allows calculation of all necessary thermodynamic properties of KCl solution, namely excess Gibbs free energy and derived activity coefficient, apparent molar enthalpy, heat capacity and volume, as well as osmotic coefficient and activity of water in solutions. The system KCl-water is one of the best studied aqueous systems containing electrolytes. Although extensive experimental data were collected for thermodynamic properties of these solutions over the years, the accurate volumetric data became available only recently, thus making possible a complete thermodynamic formulation including a pressure dependence of excess Gibbs free energy and derived properties of the KCl-water liquids. Our proposed model is intended for calculation of major thermodynamic properties of KCl aqueous solutions at temperatures ranging from freezing point of a solution to 623 K, pressures ranging from saturated water vapor up to 150 MPa, and concentrations up to the salt saturation. This parameterized model will be further implemented in geochemical software packages and can facilitate the calculation of aqueous equilibrium for reactive transport codes.
Calculating the thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of alkali metal carboxylates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudakov, A. M.; Sergievskii, V. V.; Zhukova, T. V.
2014-06-01
A modified Robinson-Stokes equation with terms that consider the formation of ionic hydrates and associates is used to describe thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of electrolytes. The model is used to describe data on the osmotic coefficients of aqueous solutions of alkali metal carboxylates, and to calculate the mean ionic activity coefficients of salts and excess Gibbs energies. The key contributions from ionic hydration and association to the nonideality of solutions is determined by analyzing the contributions of various factors. Relations that connect the hydration numbers of electrolytes with the parameters of the Pitzer-Mayorga equation and a modified Hückel equation are developed.
Thermodynamic and transport properties of gaseous tetrafluoromethane in chemical equilibrium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunt, J. L.; Boney, L. R.
1973-01-01
Equations and in computer code are presented for the thermodynamic and transport properties of gaseous, undissociated tetrafluoromethane (CF4) in chemical equilibrium. The computer code calculates the thermodynamic and transport properties of CF4 when given any two of five thermodynamic variables (entropy, temperature, volume, pressure, and enthalpy). Equilibrium thermodynamic and transport property data are tabulated and pressure-enthalpy diagrams are presented.
Computer program for calculating and fitting thermodynamic functions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford
1992-01-01
A computer program is described which (1) calculates thermodynamic functions (heat capacity, enthalpy, entropy, and free energy) for several optional forms of the partition function, (2) fits these functions to empirical equations by means of a least-squares fit, and (3) calculates, as a function of temperture, heats of formation and equilibrium constants. The program provides several methods for calculating ideal gas properties. For monatomic gases, three methods are given which differ in the technique used for truncating the partition function. For diatomic and polyatomic molecules, five methods are given which differ in the corrections to the rigid-rotator harmonic-oscillator approximation. A method for estimating thermodynamic functions for some species is also given.
Size- and shape-dependent surface thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Qingshan; Xue, Yongqiang; Cui, Zixiang
2018-05-01
As the fundamental properties, the surface thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals play a key role in the physical and chemical changes. However, it remains ambiguous about the quantitative influence regularities of size and shape on the surface thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals. Thus by introducing interface variables into the Gibbs energy and combining Young-Laplace equation, relations between the surface thermodynamic properties (surface Gibbs energy, surface enthalpy, surface entropy, surface energy and surface heat capacity), respectively, and size of nanocrystals with different shapes were derived. Theoretical estimations of the orders of the surface thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals agree with available experimental values. Calculated results of the surface thermodynamic properties of Au, Bi and Al nanocrystals suggest that when r > 10 nm, the surface thermodynamic properties linearly vary with the reciprocal of particle size, and when r < 10 nm, the effect of particle size on the surface thermodynamic properties becomes greater and deviates from linear variation. For nanocrystals with identical equivalent diameter, the more the shape deviates from sphere, the larger the surface thermodynamic properties (absolute value) are.
Experimental verification of the thermodynamic properties for a jet-A fuel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Graciasalcedo, Carmen M.; Brabbs, Theodore A.; Mcbride, Bonnie J.
1988-01-01
Thermodynamic properties for a Jet-A fuel were determined by Shell Development Company in 1970 under a contract for NASA Lewis Research Center. The polynomial fit necessary to include Jet-A fuel (liquid and gaseous phases) in the library of thermodynamic properties of the NASA Lewis Chemical Equilibrium Program is calculated. To verify the thermodynamic data, the temperatures of mixtures of liquid Jet-A injected into a hot nitrogen stream were experimentally measured and compared to those calculated by the program. Iso-octane, a fuel for which the thermodynamic properties are well known, was used as a standard to calibrate the apparatus. The measured temperatures for the iso-octane/nitrogen mixtures reproduced the calculated temperatures except for a small loss due to the non-adiabatic behavior of the apparatus. The measurements for Jet-A were corrected for this heat loss and showed excellent agreement with the calculated temperatures. These experiments show that this process can be adequately described by the thermodynamic properties fitted for the Chemical Equilibrium Program.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, X. D.; Li, K.; Wei, C. H.; Han, W. D.; Zhou, N. G.
2018-06-01
The structural, electronic, elastic, and thermodynamic properties of CaSi, Ca2Si, and CaSi2 are systematically investigated by using first-principles calculations method based on density functional theory (DFT). The calculated formation enthalpies and cohesive energies show that CaSi2 possesses the greatest structural stability and CaSi has the strongest alloying ability. The structural stability of the three phases is compared according to electronic structures. Further analysis on electronic structures indicates that the bonding of these phases exhibits the combinations of metallic, covalent, and ionic bonds. The elastic constants are calculated, and the bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and anisotropy factor of polycrystalline materials are deduced. Additionally, the thermodynamic properties were theoretically predicted and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Ling; Li, Wei-Dong; Wang, Fangwei; Eriksson, Olle; Wang, Bao-Tian
2017-12-01
We present a systematic investigation of the structural, magnetic, electronic, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties of CmO2 with the local density approximation (LDA)+U and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA)+U approaches. The strong Coulomb repulsion and the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effects on the lattice structures, electronic density of states, and band gaps are carefully studied, and compared with other A O2 (A =U , Np, Pu, and Am). The ferromagnetic configuration with half-metallic character is predicted to be energetically stable while a charge-transfer semiconductor is predicted for the antiferromagnetic configuration. The elastic constants and phonon spectra show that the fluorite structure is mechanically and dynamically stable. Based on the first-principles phonon density of states, the lattice vibrational energy is calculated using the quasiharmonic approximation. Then, the Gibbs free energy, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat, and entropy are obtained and compared with experimental data. The mode Grüneisen parameters are presented to analyze the anharmonic properties. The Slack relation is applied to obtain the lattice thermal conductivity in temperature range of 300-1600 K. The phonon group velocities are also calculated to investigate the heat transfer. For all these properties, if available, we compare the results of CmO2 with other A O2 .
Thermodynamic properties of oxygen and nitrogen III
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stewart, R. B.; Jacobsen, R. T.; Myers, A. F.
1972-01-01
The final equation for nitrogen was determined. In the work on the equation of state for nitrogen, coefficients were determined by constraining the critical point to selected critical point parameters. Comparisons of this equation with all the P-density-T data were made, as well as comparisons to all other thermodynamic data reported in the literature. The extrapolation of the equation of state was studied for vapor to higher temperatures and lower temperatures, and for the liquid surface to the saturated liquid and the fusion lines. A new vapor pressure equation was also determined which was constrained to the same critical temperature, pressure, and slope (dP/dT) as the equation of state. Work on the equation of state for oxygen included studies for improving the equation at the critical point. Comparisons of velocity of sound data for oxygen were also made between values calculated with a preliminary equation of state and experimental data. Functions for the calculation of the derived thermodynamic properties using the equation of state are given, together with the derivative and integral functions for the calculation of the thermodynamic properties using the equations of state. Summary tables of the thermodynamic properties of nitrogen and oxygen are also included to serve as a check for those preparing computer programs using the equations of state.
Ideal gas thermodynamic properties for the phenyl, phenoxy, and o-biphenyl radicals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burcat, A.; Zeleznik, F. J.; Mcbride, B. J.
1985-01-01
Ideal gas thermodynamic properties of the phenyl and o-biphenyl radicals, their deuterated analogs and the phenoxy radical were calculated to 5000 K using estimated vibrational frequencies and structures. The ideal gas thermodynamic properties of benzene, biphenyl, their deuterated analogs and phenyl were also calculated.
Thermodynamic properties of pressurized PH3 superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koka, S.; Rao, G. Venugopal
2018-05-01
The paper presents the superconducting thermodynamic functions determined for pressurized phosphorus trihydride (PH3). In particular, free energy difference ΔF, thermodynamic critical field Hc, specific heat etc. have been calculated using analytical expressions. The calculations were performed in the frame work of the strong-coupling formalism. The obtained dimensionless parameters: RΔ ≡ 2Δ(0)/kBTc, RC ≡ ΔC(Tc)/CN(Tc) and RH≡TcCN(Tc)/Hc2(0) are 4.05, 1.96 and 0.156 respectively, which significantly differ from the values arising from the BCS theory of superconductivity. The thermodynamic properties strongly depend on the depairing electron correlations and retardation effects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiao-Yong; Lu, Yong; Zheng, Fa-Wei; Zhang, Ping
2015-11-01
Mechanical, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of zirconium carbide have been systematically studied using the ab initio calculations. The calculated equilibrium lattice parameter, bulk modulus, and elastic constants are all well consistent with the experimental data. The electronic band structure indicates that the mixture of C 2p and Zr 4d and 4p orbitals around the Fermi level makes a large covalent contribution to the chemical bonds between the C and Zr atoms. The Bader charge analysis suggests that there are about 1.71 electrons transferred from each Zr atom to its nearest C atom. Therefore, the Zr-C bond displays a mixed ionic/covalent character. The calculated phonon dispersions of ZrC are stable, coinciding with the experimental measurement. A drastic expansion in the volume of ZrC is seen with increasing temperature, while the bulk modulus decreases linearly. Based on the calculated phonon dispersion curves and within the quasi-harmonic approximation, the temperature dependence of the heat capacities is obtained, which gives a good description compared with the available experimental data. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51071032).
Computer program for calculating thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hendricks, R. C.; Braon, A. K.; Peller, I. C.
1975-01-01
Computer code has been developed to provide thermodynamic and transport properties of liquid argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, fluorine, helium, methane, neon, nitrogen, oxygen, and parahydrogen. Equation of state and transport coefficients are updated and other fluids added as new material becomes available.
Computer program for calculation of ideal gas thermodynamic data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gordon, S.; Mc Bride, B. J.
1968-01-01
Computer program calculates ideal gas thermodynamic properties for any species for which molecular constant data is available. Partial functions and derivatives from formulas based on statistical mechanics are provided by the program which is written in FORTRAN 4 and MAP.
Thermodynamic and Kinetic Properties of Metal Hydrides from First-Principles Calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michel, Kyle Jay
In an effort to minimize the worldwide dependence on fossil fuels, much research has focused on the development of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Among the many challenges currently facing the transition to such an alternative energy economy is the storage of hydrogen in an economical and practical way. One class of materials that has presented itself as a possible candidate is solid metal hydrides. These materials chemically bind hydrogen and on heating, release the gas which can then be used to generate power as needed for the vehicle. In order to meet guidelines that have been set for such a storage system, hydrogen must be released rapidly in a narrow temperature range of -40 to 80°C with all reactions being reversible. This sets both thermodynamic and kinetic requirements for the design of candidate metal hydrides. First-principles calculations are well-suited for the task of exploring reactions involving metal hydrides. Here, density-functional theory is used to calculate properties of these materials at the quantum mechanical level of accuracy. In particular, three systems have been investigated: 1. Li-Mg-N-H. Reactions between all known compounds in this system are systematically investigated in order to predict thermodynamically allowed reactions that release hydrogen. The properties of these reactions are compared to the requirements set for hydrogen storage systems. Additionally, ground-state structures are predicted for Li2Mg(NH)2 and Li 4Mg(NH)3. 2. Na-Al-H. The kinetics of mass transport during the (de)hydrogenation of the well-known metal hydride NaAlH4 are investigated. A model is developed to study the flux of native defects through phases involved in these reactions. Since it is also known that titanium is an effective catalyst for both dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation, the effect of Ti substitution in bulk lattices on the kinetics of mass transport is investigated. Results are compared to experiments in order to determine if mass transport
The thermodynamic properties of benzothiazole and benzoxazole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steele, W. V.; Chirico, R. D.; Knipmeyer, S. E.; Nguyen, A.
1991-08-01
This research program, funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Advanced Extraction and Process Technology, provides accurate experimental thermochemical and thermophysical properties for key organic diheteroatom-containing compounds present in heavy petroleum feedstocks, and applies the experimental information to thermodynamic analyses of key hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation, and hydrodeoxygenation reaction networks. Thermodynamic analyses, based on accurate information, provide insights for the design of cost-effective methods of heteroatom removal. The results reported here, and in a companion report to be completed, will point the way to the development of new methods of heteroatom removal from heavy petroleum. Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties are reported for benzothiazole and benzoxazole. Experimental methods included combustion calorimetry, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, comparative ebulliometry, inclinded-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c). Critical property estimates are made for both compounds. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gas for both compounds for selected temperatures between 280 K and near 650 K. The Gibbs energies of formation will be used in a subsequent report in thermodynamic calculations to study the reaction pathways for the removal of the heteratoms by hydrogenolysis. The results obtained in this research are compared with values present in the literature. The failure of a previous adiabatic heat capacity study to see the phase transition in benzothiazole is noted. Literature vibrational frequency assignments were used to calculate ideal gas entropies in the temperature range reported here for both compounds. Resulting large deviations show the need for a revision of those assignments.
Thermodynamic properties of water solvating biomolecular surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heyden, Matthias
Changes in the potential energy and entropy of water molecules hydrating biomolecular interfaces play a significant role for biomolecular solubility and association. Free energy perturbation and thermodynamic integration methods allow calculations of free energy differences between two states from simulations. However, these methods are computationally demanding and do not provide insights into individual thermodynamic contributions, i.e. changes in the solvent energy or entropy. Here, we employ methods to spatially resolve distributions of hydration water thermodynamic properties in the vicinity of biomolecular surfaces. This allows direct insights into thermodynamic signatures of the hydration of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solvent accessible sites of proteins and small molecules and comparisons to ideal model surfaces. We correlate dynamic properties of hydration water molecules, i.e. translational and rotational mobility, to their thermodynamics. The latter can be used as a guide to extract thermodynamic information from experimental measurements of site-resolved water dynamics. Further, we study energy-entropy compensations of water at different hydration sites of biomolecular surfaces. This work is supported by the Cluster of Excellence RESOLV (EXC 1069) funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.
Methane on Mars: Thermodynamic Equilibrium and Photochemical Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levine, J. S.; Summers, M. E.; Ewell, M.
2010-01-01
The detection of methane (CH4) in the atmosphere of Mars by Mars Express and Earth-based spectroscopy is very surprising, very puzzling, and very intriguing. On Earth, about 90% of atmospheric ozone is produced by living systems. A major question concerning methane on Mars is its origin - biological or geological. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations indicated that methane cannot be produced by atmospheric chemical/photochemical reactions. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations for three gases, methane, ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in the Earth s atmosphere are summarized in Table 1. The calculations indicate that these three gases should not exist in the Earth s atmosphere. Yet they do, with methane, ammonia and nitrous oxide enhanced 139, 50 and 12 orders of magnitude above their calculated thermodynamic equilibrium concentration due to the impact of life! Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations have been performed for the same three gases in the atmosphere of Mars based on the assumed composition of the Mars atmosphere shown in Table 2. The calculated thermodynamic equilibrium concentrations of the same three gases in the atmosphere of Mars is shown in Table 3. Clearly, based on thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, methane should not be present in the atmosphere of Mars, but it is in concentrations approaching 30 ppbv from three distinct regions on Mars.
The thermodynamic properties of gaseous UO2(OH)2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konings, R. J. M.; Kovács, A.; Beneš, O.
2017-12-01
Quantum chemical calculations of the molecular properties of the UO2(OH)2 molecule are presented. From the results the thermodynamic properties of this gaseous species have been calculated, and these have been used to re-evaluate the existing literature study on the volatilization of U3O8 in steam, allowing to derive the enthalpy of formation of the UO2(OH)2 molecule.
Composition and Thermodynamic Properties of Air in Chemical Equilibrium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moeckel, W E; Weston, Kenneth C
1958-01-01
Charts have been prepared relating the thermodynamic properties of air in chemical equilibrium for temperatures to 15,000 degrees k and for pressures 10(-5) to 10 (plus 4) atmospheres. Also included are charts showing the composition of air, the isentropic exponent, and the speed of sound. These charts are based on thermodynamic data calculated by the National Bureau of Standards.
Fluctuations of thermodynamic quantities calculated from the fundamental equation of thermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Zijun; Chen, Jincan
1992-02-01
On the basis of the probability distribution of the various values of the fluctuation and the fundamental equation of thermodynamics of any given system, a simple and useful method of calculating the fluctuations is presented. By using the method, the fluctuations of thermodynamic quantities can be directly determined from the fundamental equation of thermodynamics. Finally, some examples are given to illustrate the use of the method.
Comparing contribution of flexural and planar modes to thermodynamic properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mann, Sarita; Rani, Pooja; Jindal, V. K.
2017-05-01
Graphene, the most studied and explored 2D structure has unusual thermal properties such as negative thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity etc. We have already studied the thermal expansion behavior and various thermodynamic properties of pure graphene like heat capacity, entropy and free energy. The results of thermal expansion and various thermodynamic properties match well with available theoretical studies. For a deeper understanding of these properties, we analyzed the contribution of each phonon branch towards the total value of the individual property. To compute these properties, the dynamical matrix was calculated using VASP code where the density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) is employed under quasi-harmonic approximation in interface with phonopy code. It is noticed that transverse mode has major contribution to negative thermal expansion and all branches have almost same contribution towards the various thermodynamic properties with the contribution of ZA mode being the highest.
Saltas, V.; Chroneos, A.; Cooper, Michael William D.; ...
2016-01-01
In the present work, the defect properties of oxygen self-diffusion in PuO 2 are investigated over a wide temperature (300–1900 K) and pressure (0–10 GPa) range, by combining molecular dynamics simulations and thermodynamic calculations. Based on the well-established cBΩ thermodynamic model which connects the activation Gibbs free energy of diffusion with the bulk elastic and expansion properties, various point defect parameters such as activation enthalpy, activation entropy, and activation volume were calculated as a function of T and P. Molecular dynamics calculations provided the necessary bulk properties for the proper implementation of the thermodynamic model, in the lack of anymore » relevant experimental data. The estimated compressibility and the thermal expansion coefficient of activation volume are found to be more than one order of magnitude greater than the corresponding values of the bulk plutonia. As a result, the diffusion mechanism is discussed in the context of the temperature and pressure dependence of the activation volume.« less
Wong, Bryan M.; Fadri, Maria M.; Raman, Sumathy
2012-01-01
The thermodynamic properties of three halocarbon molecules relevant in atmospheric and public health applications are presented from ab initio calculations. Our technique makes use of a reaction path-like Hamiltonian to couple all the vibrational modes to a large-amplitude torsion for 1,2-difluoroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, and 1,2-dibromoethane, each of which possesses a heavy asymmetric rotor. Optimized ab initio energies and Hessians were calculated at the CCSD(T) and MP2 levels of theory, respectively. In addition, to investigate the contribution of electronically excited states to thermodynamic properties, several excited singlet and triplet states for each of the halocarbons were computed at the CASSCF/MRCI level. Using the resulting potentials and projected frequencies, the couplings of all the vibrational modes to the large-amplitude torsion are calculated using the new STAR-P 2.4.0 software platform that automatically parallelizes our codes with distributed memory via a familiar MATLAB interface. Utilizing the efficient parallelization scheme of STAR-P, we obtain thermodynamic properties for each of the halocarbons, with temperatures ranging from 298.15 to 1000 K. We propose that the free energies, entropies, and heat capacities obtained from our methods be used to supplement theoretical and experimental values found in current thermodynamic tables. PMID:17663439
Wong, Bryan M; Fadri, Maria M; Raman, Sumathy
2008-02-01
The thermodynamic properties of three halocarbon molecules relevant in atmospheric and public health applications are presented from ab initio calculations. Our technique makes use of a reaction path-like Hamiltonian to couple all the vibrational modes to a large-amplitude torsion for 1,2-difluoroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, and 1,2-dibromoethane, each of which possesses a heavy asymmetric rotor. Optimized ab initio energies and Hessians were calculated at the CCSD(T) and MP2 levels of theory, respectively. In addition, to investigate the contribution of electronically excited states to thermodynamic properties, several excited singlet and triplet states for each of the halocarbons were computed at the CASSCF/MRCI level. Using the resulting potentials and projected frequencies, the couplings of all the vibrational modes to the large-amplitude torsion are calculated using the new STAR-P 2.4.0 software platform that automatically parallelizes our codes with distributed memory via a familiar MATLAB interface. Utilizing the efficient parallelization scheme of STAR-P, we obtain thermodynamic properties for each of the halocarbons, with temperatures ranging from 298.15 to 1000 K. We propose that the free energies, entropies, and heat capacities obtained from our methods be used to supplement theoretical and experimental values found in current thermodynamic tables. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu-Dong, Zhang; Wei, Jiang
2016-02-01
The effects of high pressure on lattice stability, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of L12 structure Al3Tm and Al3Lu are studied by first-principles calculations within the VASP code. The phonon dispersion curves and density of phonon states are calculated by using the PHONONPY code. Our results agree well with the available experimental and theoretical values. The vibrational properties indicate that Al3Tm and Al3Lu keep their dynamical stabilities in L12 structure up to 100 GPa. The elastic properties and Debye temperatures for Al3Tm and Al3Lu increase with the increase of pressure. The mechanical anisotropic properties are discussed by using anisotropic indices AG, AU, AZ, and the three-dimensional (3D) curved surface of Young’s modulus. The calculated results show that Al3Tm and Al3Lu are both isotropic at 0 GPa and anisotropic under high pressure. In the present work, the sound velocities in different directions for Al3Tm and Al3Lu are also predicted under high pressure. We also calculate the thermodynamic properties and provide the relationships between thermal parameters and temperature/pressure. These results can provide theoretical support for further experimental work and industrial applications. Project supported by the Scientific Technology Plan of the Educational Department of Liaoning Province and Liaoning Innovative Research Team in University, China (Grant No. LT2014004) and the Program for the Young Teacher Cultivation Fund of Shenyang University of Technology, China (Grant No. 005612).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Askari, Omid; Beretta, Gian Paolo; Eisazadeh-Far, Kian; Metghalchi, Hameed
2016-07-01
Thermodynamic properties of hydrocarbon/air plasma mixtures at ultra-high temperatures must be precisely calculated due to important influence on the flame kernel formation and propagation in combusting flows and spark discharge applications. A new algorithm based on the complete chemical equilibrium assumption is developed to calculate the ultra-high temperature plasma composition and thermodynamic properties, including enthalpy, entropy, Gibbs free energy, specific heat at constant pressure, specific heat ratio, speed of sound, mean molar mass, and degree of ionization. The method is applied to compute the thermodynamic properties of H2/air and CH4/air plasma mixtures for different temperatures (1000-100 000 K), different pressures (10-6-100 atm), and different fuel/air equivalence ratios within flammability limit. In calculating the individual thermodynamic properties of the atomic species needed to compute the complete equilibrium composition, the Debye-Huckel cutoff criterion has been used for terminating the series expression of the electronic partition function so as to capture the reduction of the ionization potential due to pressure and the intense connection between the electronic partition function and the thermodynamic properties of the atomic species and the number of energy levels taken into account. Partition functions have been calculated using tabulated data for available atomic energy levels. The Rydberg and Ritz extrapolation and interpolation laws have been used for energy levels which are not observed. The calculated plasma properties are then presented as functions of temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio, in terms of a new set of thermodynamically self-consistent correlations that are shown to provide very accurate fits suitable for efficient use in CFD simulations. Comparisons with existing data for air plasma show excellent agreement.
Thermodynamic properties of a liquid crystal carbosilane dendrimer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samosudova, Ya. S.; Markin, A. V.; Smirnova, N. N.; Ogurtsov, T. G.; Boiko, N. I.; Shibaev, V. P.
2016-11-01
The temperature dependence of the heat capacity of a first-generation liquid crystal carbosilane dendrimer with methoxyphenyl benzoate end groups is studied for the first time in the region of 6-370 K by means of precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry. Physical transformations are observed in this interval of temperatures, and their standard thermodynamic characteristics are determined and discussed. Standard thermodynamic functions C p ° ( T), H°( T) - H°(0), S°( T) - S°(0), and G°( T) - H°(0) are calculated from the obtained experimental data for the region of T → 0 to 370 K. The standard entropy of formation of the dendrimer in the partially crystalline state at T = 298.15 K is calculated, and the standard entropy of the hypothetic reaction of its synthesis at this temperature is estimated. The thermodynamic properties of the studied dendrimer are compared to those of second- and fourth-generation liquid crystal carbosilane dendrimers with the same end groups studied earlier.
Thermodynamic properties of a hard/soft-magnetic bilayer model
Taaev, T. A., E-mail: taaev89@mail.ru; Khizriev, K. Sh.; Murtazaev, A. K.
2016-05-15
A model for describing the thermodynamic properties of a hard/soft-magnetic bilayer is proposed and thoroughly studied using the Monte Carlo method. Temperature dependences of the heat capacity, total magnetization, magnetizations of the hard- and soft-magnetic layers, total magnetic susceptibility, and susceptibilities of the hard- and soft-magnetic layers have been calculated by this method in the framework of the proposed model. The obtained temperature dependences of the heat capacity and magnetic susceptibility display double maxima that result from the two phase transitions that take place in the system. The influence of system dimensions on the thermodynamic properties of the model hasmore » been considered.« less
Dahlgren, Björn; Reif, Maria M; Hünenberger, Philippe H; Hansen, Niels
2012-10-09
The raw ionic solvation free energies calculated on the basis of atomistic (explicit-solvent) simulations are extremely sensitive to the boundary conditions and treatment of electrostatic interactions used during these simulations. However, as shown recently [Kastenholz, M. A.; Hünenberger, P. H. J. Chem. Phys.2006, 124, 224501 and Reif, M. M.; Hünenberger, P. H. J. Chem. Phys.2011, 134, 144104], the application of an appropriate correction scheme allows for a conversion of the methodology-dependent raw data into methodology-independent results. In this work, methodology-independent derivative thermodynamic hydration and aqueous partial molar properties are calculated for the Na(+) and Cl(-) ions at P° = 1 bar and T(-) = 298.15 K, based on the SPC water model and on ion-solvent Lennard-Jones interaction coefficients previously reoptimized against experimental hydration free energies. The hydration parameters considered are the hydration free energy and enthalpy. The aqueous partial molar parameters considered are the partial molar entropy, volume, heat capacity, volume-compressibility, and volume-expansivity. Two alternative calculation methods are employed to access these properties. Method I relies on the difference in average volume and energy between two aqueous systems involving the same number of water molecules, either in the absence or in the presence of the ion, along with variations of these differences corresponding to finite pressure or/and temperature changes. Method II relies on the calculation of the hydration free energy of the ion, along with variations of this free energy corresponding to finite pressure or/and temperature changes. Both methods are used considering two distinct variants in the application of the correction scheme. In variant A, the raw values from the simulations are corrected after the application of finite difference in pressure or/and temperature, based on correction terms specifically designed for derivative parameters at
Calculation of thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of C5F10O-CO2 thermal plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xingwen; Guo, Xiaoxue; Murphy, Anthony B.; Zhao, Hu; Wu, Jian; Guo, Ze
2017-10-01
The thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of C5F10O-CO2 gas mixtures, which are being considered as substitutes for SF6 in circuit breaker applications, are calculated for the temperature range from 300 K to 30 000 K and the pressure range from 0.05 MPa to 1.6 MPa. Special attention is paid on investigating the evolution of thermophysical properties of C5F10O-CO2 mixtures with different mixing ratios and with different pressures; both the mixing ratio and pressure significantly affect the properties. This is explained mainly in terms of the changes in the temperatures at which the dissociation and ionization reactions take place. Comparisons of different thermophysical properties of C5F10O-CO2 mixtures with those of SF6 are also carried out. It is found that most of the thermophysical properties of the C5F10O-CO2 mixtures, such as thermal conductivity, viscosity, and electrical conductivity, become closer to those of SF6 as the C5F10O concentration increases. The composition and thermophysical properties of pure C5F10O in the temperature range from 300 K to 2000 K based on the decomposition pathway are also given. The calculation results provide a basis for further study of the insulation and arc-quenching capability of C5F10O-CO2 gas mixtures as substitutes for SF6.
Thermodynamic properties for arsenic minerals and aqueous species
Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Majzlan, Juraj; Königsberger, Erich; Bowell, Robert J.; Alpers, Charles N.; Jamieson, Heather E.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Majzlan, Juraj
2014-01-01
Quantitative geochemical calculations are not possible without thermodynamic databases and considerable advances in the quantity and quality of these databases have been made since the early days of Lewis and Randall (1923), Latimer (1952), and Rossini et al. (1952). Oelkers et al. (2009) wrote, “The creation of thermodynamic databases may be one of the greatest advances in the field of geochemistry of the last century.” Thermodynamic data have been used for basic research needs and for a countless variety of applications in hazardous waste management and policy making (Zhu and Anderson 2002; Nordstrom and Archer 2003; Bethke 2008; Oelkers and Schott 2009). The challenge today is to evaluate thermodynamic data for internal consistency, to reach a better consensus of the most reliable properties, to determine the degree of certainty needed for geochemical modeling, and to agree on priorities for further measurements and evaluations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bordbar, G. H.; Hosseini, S.; Poostforush, A.
2017-05-01
Correlations in quantum fluids such as liquid 3He continue to be of high interest to scientists. Based on this prospect, the present work is devoted to study the effects of spin-spin correlation function on the thermodynamic properties of polarized liquid 3He such as pressure, velocity of sound, adiabatic index and adiabatic compressibility along different isentropic paths, using the Lennard-Jones potential and employing the variational approach based on cluster expansion of the energy functional. The inclusion of this correlation improves our previous calculations and leads to good agreements with experimental results.
Thermodynamic properties of α-uranium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Zhiyong; Wu, Jun; Ma, Rong; Hu, Guichao; Luo, Chao
2016-11-01
The lattice constants and equilibrium atomic volume of α-uranium were calculated by Density Functional Theory (DFT). The first principles calculation results of the lattice for α-uranium are in agreement with the experimental results well. The thermodynamic properties of α-uranium from 0 to 900 K and 0-100 GPa were calculated with the quasi-harmonic Debye model. Volume, bulk modulus, entropy, Debye temperature, thermal expansion coefficient and the heat capacity of α-uranium were calculated. The calculated results show that the bulk modulus and Debye temperature increase with the increasing pressure at a given temperature while decreasing with the increasing temperature at a given pressure. Volume, entropy, thermal expansion coefficient and the heat capacity decrease with the increasing pressure while increasing with the increasing temperature. The theoretical results of entropy, Debye temperature, thermal expansion coefficient and the heat capacity show good agreement with the general trends of the experimental values. The constant-volume heat capacity shows typical Debye T3 power-law behavior at low temperature limit and approaches to the classical asymptotic Dulong-Petit limit at high temperature limit.
Mechanical and thermodynamic properties of AlX (X = N, P, As) compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Lifang; Bu, Wei
2017-09-01
The Vickers hardness of various AlX (X = N, P, As) compound polymorphs were calculated with the bond resistance model. Thermodynamic properties, such as vibrational entropy, constant volume specific heat and Debye temperatures, were calculated using phonon dispersion relations and phonon density of states (DOS). The calculated values are in good agreement with the previous experimental and theoretical data. For the same structure of AlX (X = N, P, As) compounds, their hardness and Debye temperatures both decrease with the X atomic number. The wurtzite (wz) and zincblende (zb) structures of the same compounds AlX share an almost identical hardness, but have different Debye temperatures. The difference between wz and zb structures increases as the atomic number of X increases. The thermodynamic properties reveal that the constant volume specific heat approaches the Dulong-Petit rule at high temperatures.
Liu, Xuan L; Gheno, Thomas; Lindahl, Bonnie B; Lindwall, Greta; Gleeson, Brian; Liu, Zi-Kui
2015-01-01
The phase relations and thermodynamic properties of the condensed Al-Co-Cr ternary alloy system are investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) and phase-equilibria experiments that led to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) measurements. A thermodynamic description is developed by means of the calculations of phase diagrams (CALPHAD) method using experimental and computational data from the present work and the literature. Emphasis is placed on modeling the bcc-A2, B2, fcc-γ, and tetragonal-σ phases in the temperature range of 1173 to 1623 K. Liquid, bcc-A2 and fcc-γ phases are modeled using substitutional solution descriptions. First-principles special quasirandom structures (SQS) calculations predict a large bcc-A2 (disordered)/B2 (ordered) miscibility gap, in agreement with experiments. A partitioning model is then used for the A2/B2 phase to effectively describe the order-disorder transitions. The critically assessed thermodynamic description describes all phase equilibria data well. A2/B2 transitions are also shown to agree well with previous experimental findings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Rong Hua; Chao Dong, Zheng; Gui Zhong, Chong
2017-12-01
The effects of pressure on the structural, mechanical, dynamical and thermodynamic properties of AgMg have been investigated using first principles based on density functional theory. The optimized lattice constants agree well with previous experimental and theoretical results. The bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio and Debye temperature under pressures were calculated. The calculated results of Cauchy pressure and B/G ratio indicate that AgMg shows ductile nature. Phonon dispersion curves suggest the dynamical stability of AgMg. The pressure dependent behavior of thermodynamic properties are calculated, the Helmholtz free energy and internal energy increase with increase of pressure, while entropy and heat capacity decrease.
Huo, Jin-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Xu; Cloud Computing Department, Beijing Computing Center, Beijing 100084
2016-05-15
The magnetic moment, lattice parameter and atom fraction coordinates for Ce{sub 3}Co{sub 29}Si{sub 4}B{sub 10} are calculated by the first-principles GGA+U method, and the results indicate that the calculated and experimental values are basically accordant when U=2.6 eV. We study the interaction effect and orbital hybridization between Co and Ce atoms. The projected density of states at U=2.6 eV which provided by Co-2c, Ce-2b and Ce-4d sites are contrasted with else U values. Meanwhile the electron density of states for different sites and the distance between various atoms are exhibited. In addition, the thermodynamic properties of Ce{sub 3}Co{sub 29}Si{sub 4}B{submore » 10} are evaluated by using a series of interatomic pair potentials. - Graphical abstract: Change of the total magnetic moment for Ce{sub 3}Co{sub 29}Si{sub 4}B{sub 10} along with the value of U. There is a sharply decline of the curve at U=2.6 eV and, at the moment, the total magnetic moment of the compound have a good agreement with the experimental data. - Highlights: • We research of quaternary rare earth and transition metal compounds. • We perform the calculation of magnetic moment and electronic structure by GGA+U method. • The orbital hybridization between Co and Ce atoms is displayed and analyzed. • Show the plot of projected density of states for different sites more clearly. • Calculate the thermodynamic property of rare-earth transition metal compound.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Huaming; Tian, Yanting; Sun, Yongli; Li, Mo; Nonequilibrium materials; physics Team; Computational materials science Team
In this work, we apply a general equation of state of liquid and Ab initio molecular-dynamics method to study thermodynamic properties in liquid potassium under high pressure. Isothermal bulk modulus and molar volume of molten sodium are calculated within good precision as compared with the experimental data. The calculated internal energy data and the calculated values of isobaric heat capacity of molten potassium show the minimum along the isothermal lines as the previous result obtained in liquid sodium. The expressions for acoustical parameter and nonlinearity parameter are obtained based on thermodynamic relations from the equation of state. Both parameters for liquid potassium are calculated under high pressure along the isothermal lines by using the available thermodynamic data and numeric derivations. Furthermore, Ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations are used to calculate some thermodynamic properties of liquid potassium along the isothermal lines. Scientific Research Starting Foundation from Taiyuan university of Technology, Shanxi Provincial government (``100-talents program''), China Scholarship Council and National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grant No. 51602213.
The VLab repository of thermodynamics and thermoelastic properties of minerals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Da Silveira, P. R.; Sarkar, K.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.; Shukla, G.; Lindemann, W.; Wu, Z.
2015-12-01
Thermodynamics and thermoelastic properties of minerals at planetary interior conditions are essential as input for geodynamics simulations and for interpretation of seismic tomography models. Precise experimental determination of these properties at such extreme conditions is very challenging. Therefore, ab initio calculations play an essential role in this context, but at the cost of great computational effort and memory use. Setting up a widely accessible and versatile mineral physics database can relax unnecessary repetition of such computationally intensive calculations. Access to such data facilitates transactional interaction across fields and can advance more quickly insights about deep Earth processes. Hosted by the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute, the Virtual Laboratory for Earth and Planetary Materials (VLab) was designed to develop and promote the theory of planetary materials using distributed, high-throughput quantum calculations. VLab hosts an interactive database of thermodynamics and thermoelastic properties or minerals computed by ab initio. Such properties can be obtained according to user's preference. The database is accompanied by interactive visualization tools, allowing users to repeat and build upon previously published results. Using VLab2015, we have evaluated thermoelastic properties, such as elastic coefficients (Cij), Voigt, Reuss, and Voigt-Reuss-Hill aggregate averages for bulk (K) and shear modulus (G), shear wave velocity (VS), longitudinal wave velocity (Vp), and bulk sound velocity (V0) for several important minerals. Developed web services are general and can be used for crystals of any symmetry. Results can be tabulated, plotted, or downloaded from the VLab website according to user's preference.
Structural, vibrational and thermodynamic properties of Mg2 FeH6 complex hydride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, H. L.; Yu, Y.; Zhang, H. F.; Gao, T.
2011-02-01
Mg2FeH6, which has one of the highest hydrogen storage capacities among Mg based 3d-transitional metal hydrides, is considered as an attractive material for hydrogen storage. Within density-functional perturbation theory (DFPT), we have investigated the structural, vibrational and thermodynamic properties of Mg2FeH6. The band structure calculation shows that this compound is a semiconductor with a direct X-X energy gap of 1.96 eV. The calculated phonon frequencies for the Raman-active and the infrared-active modes are assigned. The phonon dispersion curves together with the corresponding phonon density of states and longitudinal-transverse optical (LO-TO) splitting are also calculated. Findings are also presented for the temperature-dependent behaviors of some thermodynamic properties such as free energy, internal energy, entropy and heat capacity within the quasi-harmonic approximation based on the calculated phonon density of states.
Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. [thermodynamic properties of gases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1976-01-01
The basic thermodynamic properties of gases are reviewed and the relations between them are derived from the first and second laws. The elements of statistical mechanics are then formulated and the partition function is derived. The classical form of the partition function is used to obtain the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of kinetic energies in the gas phase and the equipartition of energy theorem is given in its most general form. The thermodynamic properties are all derived as functions of the partition function. Quantum statistics are reviewed briefly and the differences between the Boltzmann distribution function for classical particles and the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein distributions for quantum particles are discussed.
The calculation of thermophysical properties of nickel plasma
Apfelbaum, E. M.
2015-09-15
The thermophysical properties of Nickel plasma have been calculated for the temperatures 10–60 kK and densities less than 1 g/cm{sup 3}. These properties are the pressure, internal energy, heat capacity, and the electronic transport coefficients (electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and thermal power). The thermodynamic values have been calculated by means of the chemical model, which also allows one to obtain the ionic composition of considered plasma. The composition has been used to calculate the electronic transport coefficients within the relaxation time approximation. The results of the present investigation have been compared with the calculations of other researchers and available data ofmore » measurements.« less
Thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of two-temperature helium thermal plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Xiaoxue; Murphy, Anthony B.; Li, Xingwen
2017-03-01
Helium thermal plasmas are in widespread use in arc welding and many other industrial applications. Simulation of these processes relies on accurate plasma property data, such as plasma composition, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients. Departures from LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) generally occur in some regions of helium plasmas. In this paper, properties are calculated allowing for different values of the electron temperature, T e, and heavy-species temperature, T h, at atmospheric pressure from 300 K to 30 000 K. The plasma composition is first calculated using the mass action law, and the two-temperature thermodynamic properties are then derived. The viscosity, diffusion coefficients, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of the two-temperature helium thermal plasma are obtained using a recently-developed method that retains coupling between electrons and heavy species by including the electron-heavy-species collision term in the heavy-species Boltzmann equation. It is shown that the viscosity and the diffusion coefficients strongly depend on non-equilibrium ratio θ (θ ={{T}\\text{e}}/{{T}\\text{h}} ), through the plasma composition and the collision integrals. The electrical conductivity, which depends on the electron number density and ordinary diffusion coefficients, and the thermal conductivity have similar dependencies. The choice of definition of the Debye length is shown to affect the electrical conductivity significantly for θ > 1. By comparing with literature data, it is shown that the coupling between electrons and heavy species has a significant influence on the electrical conductivity, but not on the viscosity. Plasma properties are tabulated in the supplementary data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Xinjun; Liu, Changdong; Guo, Yongliang; Sun, Deyan; Ke, Xuezhi
2018-03-01
The structural and thermodynamic properties of titanium nitride (TiN) have been investigated by merging first-principles calculations and particle-swarm algorithm. The three phases are identified for TiN, including the B1, the P63 / mmc, and the B2 phases. A new phase of anti-TiP structure with the space group P63 / mmc has been predicted. The calculated phase transition from the B1 to the P63 / mmc occurs at 270 GPa. The vibrational, elastic, and thermodynamic properties for the three phases have been calculated and discussed.
Ab initio interatomic potentials and the thermodynamic properties of fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vlasiuk, Maryna; Sadus, Richard J.
2017-07-01
Monte Carlo simulations with accurate ab initio interatomic potentials are used to investigate the key thermodynamic properties of argon and krypton in both vapor and liquid phases. Data are reported for the isochoric and isobaric heat capacities, the Joule-Thomson coefficient, and the speed of sound calculated using various two-body interatomic potentials and different combinations of two-body plus three-body terms. The results are compared to either experimental or reference data at state points between the triple and critical points. Using accurate two-body ab initio potentials, combined with three-body interaction terms such as the Axilrod-Teller-Muto and Marcelli-Wang-Sadus potentials, yields systematic improvements to the accuracy of thermodynamic predictions. The effect of three-body interactions is to lower the isochoric and isobaric heat capacities and increase both the Joule-Thomson coefficient and speed of sound. The Marcelli-Wang-Sadus potential is a computationally inexpensive way to utilize accurate two-body ab initio potentials for the prediction of thermodynamic properties. In particular, it provides a very effective way of extending two-body ab initio potentials to liquid phase properties.
Ab initio interatomic potentials and the thermodynamic properties of fluids.
Vlasiuk, Maryna; Sadus, Richard J
2017-07-14
Monte Carlo simulations with accurate ab initio interatomic potentials are used to investigate the key thermodynamic properties of argon and krypton in both vapor and liquid phases. Data are reported for the isochoric and isobaric heat capacities, the Joule-Thomson coefficient, and the speed of sound calculated using various two-body interatomic potentials and different combinations of two-body plus three-body terms. The results are compared to either experimental or reference data at state points between the triple and critical points. Using accurate two-body ab initio potentials, combined with three-body interaction terms such as the Axilrod-Teller-Muto and Marcelli-Wang-Sadus potentials, yields systematic improvements to the accuracy of thermodynamic predictions. The effect of three-body interactions is to lower the isochoric and isobaric heat capacities and increase both the Joule-Thomson coefficient and speed of sound. The Marcelli-Wang-Sadus potential is a computationally inexpensive way to utilize accurate two-body ab initio potentials for the prediction of thermodynamic properties. In particular, it provides a very effective way of extending two-body ab initio potentials to liquid phase properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Xue; Cui, Xinglei; Chen, Mo; Zhai, Guofu
2016-05-01
Species composites of Ag-N2, Ag-H2 and Ag-He plasmas in the temperature range of 3,000-20,000 K and at 1 atmospheric pressure were calculated by using the minimization of Gibbs free energy. Thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of nitrogen, hydrogen and helium plasmas mixed with a variety of silver vapor were then calculated based on the equilibrium composites and collision integral data. The calculation procedure was verified by comparing the results obtained in this paper with the published transport coefficients on the case of pure nitrogen plasma. The influences of the silver vapor concentration on composites, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients were finally analyzed and summarized for all the three types of plasmas. Those physical properties were important for theoretical study and numerical calculation on arc plasma generated by silver-based electrodes in those gases in sealed electromagnetic relays and contacts. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51277038 and 51307030)
Vibrational and thermodynamic properties of β-HMX: a first-principles investigation.
Wu, Zhongqing; Kalia, Rajiv K; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya
2011-05-28
Thermodynamic properties of β-HMX crystal are investigated using the quasi-harmonic approximation and density functional theory within the local density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and GGA + empirical van der Waals (vdW) correction. It is found that GGA well describes the thermal expansion coefficient and heat capacity but fails to produce correct bulk modulus and equilibrium volume. The vdW correction improves the bulk modulus and volume, but worsens the thermal expansion coefficient and heat capacity. In contrast, LDA describes all thermodynamic properties with reasonable accuracy, and overall is a good exchange-correlation functional for β-HMX molecular crystal. The results also demonstrate significant contributions of phonons to the equation of state. The static calculation of equilibrium volume for β-HMX differs from the room-temperature value incorporating lattice vibrations by over 5%. Therefore, for molecular crystals, it is essential to include phonon contributions when calculated equation of state is compared with experimental data at ambient condition. © 2011 American Institute of Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drablia, S.; Boukhris, N.; Boulechfar, R.; Meradji, H.; Ghemid, S.; Ahmed, R.; Omran, S. Bin; El Haj Hassan, F.; Khenata, R.
2017-10-01
The alkaline earth metal chalcogenides are being intensively investigated because of their advanced technological applications, for example in photoluminescent devices. In this study, the structural, electronic, thermodynamic and thermal properties of the BaSe1-x Te x alloys at alloying composition x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1 are investigated. The full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital method designed within the density functional theory was used to perform the total energy calculations. In this research work the effect of the composition on the results of the parameters and bulk modulus as well as on the band gap energy is analyzed. From our results, we found a deviation of the obtained results for the lattice constants from Vegard’s law as well as a deviation of the value of the bulk modulus from the linear concentration dependence. We also carried out a microscopic analysis of the origin of the band gap energy bowing parameter. Furthermore, the thermodynamic stability of the considered alloys was explored through the measurement of the miscibility critical temperature. The quasi-harmonic Debye model, as implemented in the Gibbs code, was used to predict the thermal properties of the BaSe1-x Te x alloys, and these investigations comprise our first theoretical predictions concerning the BaSe1-x Te x alloys.
Thermodynamic Properties of HCFC142b
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukushima, Masato; Watanabe, Naohiro
Thermodynamic properties of HCFC142b,namely saturated densities,vapor pressures and PVT properties,were measured and the critical parameters were determined through those experimental results. The correlations for vpor pressure, saturated liquid density and PVT properties deduced from those experimental results were compared with the measured data and also with the estimates of the other correlations published in literatures. The thermodynamic functions,such as enthalpy,entropy,heat capacity and etc.,could be considered to be reasonab1y estimatedby the expression reported in this paper.
Hakin, A W; Hedwig, G R
2001-02-15
A recent paper in this journal [Amend and Helgeson, Biophys. Chem. 84 (2000) 105] presented a new group additivity model to calculate various thermodynamic properties of unfolded proteins in aqueous solution. The parameters given for the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state for all the constituent groups of unfolded proteins can be used, in principle, to calculate the partial molar heat capacity, C(o)p.2, and volume, V2(0), at infinite dilution of any polypeptide. Calculations of the values of C(o)p.2 and V2(0) for several polypeptides have been carried out to test the predictive utility of the HKF group additivity model. The results obtained are in very poor agreement with experimental data, and also with results calculated using a peptide-based group additivity model. A critical assessment of these two additivity models is presented.
Free energy of formation of Mo2C and the thermodynamic properties of carbon in solid molybdenum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seigle, L. L.; Chang, C. L.; Sharma, T. P.
1979-01-01
As part of a study of the thermodynamical properties of interstitial elements in refractory metals, the free energy of formation of Mo2C is determined, and the thermodynamical properties of C in solution in solid Mo evaluated. The activity of C in the two-phase region Mo + Mo2C is obtained from the C content of iron rods equilibrated with metal + carbide powder mixtures. The free energy of formation of alpha-Mo2C is determined from the activity data. The thermodynamic properties of C in the terminal solid solution are calculated from available data on the solid solubility of C in Mo. Lattice distortion due to misfit of the C atoms in the interstitial sites appears to play a significant role in determining the thermodynamic properties of C in solid Mo.
Pokrovskii, V.A.
1999-04-01
Dissociation constants of aqueous ion pairs HCl{sup 0} and HBr{sup 0} derived in the literature from vapor pressure and supercritical conductance measurements (Quist and Marshall, 1968b; Frantz and Marshall, 1984) were used to calculate the standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of the species at 25 C and 1 bar. Regression of the data with the aid of revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equations of state (Helgeson et al., 1981; Tanger and Helgeson, 1988; Shock et al., 1989) resulted in a set of equations-of-state parameters that permits accurate calculation of the thermodynamic properties of the species at high temperatures and pressures. These properties andmore » parameters reproduce generally within 0.1 log unit (with observed maximum deviation of 0.23 log unit) the log K values for HBr{sup 0} and HCl{sup 0} given by Quist and Marshall (1968b) and Frantz and Marshall (1984), respectively, at temperatures to 800 C and pressures to 5 kbar.« less
Thermodynamic properties of asymptotically Reissner–Nordström black holes
Hendi, S.H., E-mail: hendi@shirazu.ac.ir
2014-07-15
Motivated by possible relation between Born–Infeld type nonlinear electrodynamics and an effective low-energy action of open string theory, asymptotically Reissner–Nordström black holes whose electric field is described by a nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED) are studied. We take into account a four dimensional topological static black hole ansatz and solve the field equations, exactly, in terms of the NLED as a matter field. The main goal of this paper is investigation of thermodynamic properties of the obtained black holes. Moreover, we calculate the heat capacity and find that the nonlinearity affects the minimum size of stable black holes. We also use Legendre-invariantmore » metric proposed by Quevedo to obtain scalar curvature divergences. We find that the singularities of the Ricci scalar in Geometrothermodynamics (GTD) method take place at the Davies points. -- Highlights: •We examine the thermodynamical properties of black holes in Einstein gravity with nonlinear electrodynamics. •We investigate thermodynamic stability and discuss about the size of stable black holes. •We obtain analytical solutions of higher dimensional theory.« less
Thermodynamic Properties of Dimethyl Carbonatea)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Yong; Wu, Jiangtao; Lemmon, Eric W.
2011-12-01
A thermodynamic property formulation for dimethyl carbonate has been developed with the use of available experimental thermodynamic property data. The equation of state was developed with multiproperty fitting methods involving pressure-density-temperature (pρT), heat capacity, vapor pressure, and saturated-liquid density data. The equation of state conforms to the Maxwell criterion for two-phase liquid-vapor equilibrium states, and is valid for temperatures from the triple-point temperature (277.06 ± 0.63) K to 600 K, for pressures up to 60 MPa, and for densities up to 12.12 mol dm-3. The extrapolation behavior of the equation of state at low and high temperatures and pressures is reasonable. The uncertainties (k = 2, indicating a 95% confidence level) of the equation of state in density are 0.05% for saturated-liquid states below 350 K, rising to 0.1% in the single phase between 278 K and 400 K at pressures up to 60 MPa. Due to the lack of reliable data outside this region, the estimated uncertainties increase to 0.5% to 1% in the vapor and critical regions. The uncertainties in vapor pressure are 0.6% from 310 K to 400 K, and increase to 1% at higher temperatures and to 2% at lower temperatures due to a lack of experimental data. The uncertainty in isobaric heat capacity and speed of sound in the liquid phase at saturation or atmospheric pressure is 0.5% from 280 K to 335 K. The uncertainties are higher for all properties in the critical region. Detailed comparisons between experimental and calculated data, and an analysis of the equation, have been performed.
Zhang, JunMin, E-mail: jmzhang@buaa.edu.cn, E-mail: guanyg@tsinghua.edu.cn; Lu, ChunRong; Guan, YongGang, E-mail: jmzhang@buaa.edu.cn, E-mail: guanyg@tsinghua.edu.cn
2015-10-15
Because the fault arc in aircraft electrical system often causes a fire, it is particularly important to analyze its energy and transfer for aircraft safety. The calculation of arc energy requires the basic parameters of the arc. This paper is mainly devoted to the calculations of equilibrium composition, thermodynamic properties (density, molar weight, enthalpy, and specific heat at constant pressure) and transport coefficients (thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, and viscosity) of plasmas produced by a mixture of air, Cu, and polytetrafluoroethylene under the condition of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The equilibrium composition is determined by solving a system of equations around themore » number densities of each species. The thermodynamic properties are obtained according to the standard thermodynamic relationships. The transport coefficients are calculated using the Chapman-Enskog approximations. Results are presented in the temperature range from 3000 to 30 000 K for pressures of 0.08 and 0.1 MPa, respectively. The results are more accurate and are reliable reference data for theoretical analysis and computational simulation of the behavior of fault arc.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Musari, A. A.; Orukombo, S. A.
2018-03-01
Barium chalcogenides are known for their high-technological importance and great scientific interest. Detailed studies of their elastic, mechanical, dynamical and thermodynamic properties were carried out using density functional theory and plane-wave pseudo potential method within the generalized gradient approximation. The optimized lattice constants were in good agreement when compared with experimental data. The independent elastic constants, calculated from a linear fit of the computed stress-strain function, were used to determine the Young’s modulus (E), bulk modulus (B), shear modulus (G), Poisson’s ratio (σ) and Zener’s anisotropy factor (A). Also, the Debye temperature and sound velocities for barium chalcogenides were estimated from the three independent elastic constants. The calculations of phonon dispersion showed that there are no negative frequencies throughout the Brillouin zone. Hence barium chalcogenides have dynamically stable NaCl-type crystal structure. Finally, their thermodynamic properties were calculated in the temperature range of 0-1000 K and their constant-volume specific heat capacities at room-temperature were reported.
The Thermodynamic Properties of Cubanite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berger, E. L.; Lauretta, D. S.; Keller, L. P.
2012-01-01
CuFe2S3 exists in two polymorphs, a low-temperature orthorhombic form (cubanite) and a high-temperature cubic form (isocubanite). Cubanite has been identified in the CI-chondrite and Stardust collections. However, the thermodynamic properties of cubanite have neither been measured nor estimated. Our derivation of a thermodynamic model for cubanite allows constraints to be placed on the formation conditions. This data, along with the temperature constraint afforded by the crystal structure, can be used to assess the environments in which cubanite formation is (or is not) thermodynamically favored.
Thermodynamic properties of gases dissolved in electrolyte solutions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tiepel, E. W.; Gubbins, K. E.
1973-01-01
A method based on perturbation theory for mixtures is applied to the prediction of thermodynamic properties of gases dissolved in electrolyte solutions. The theory is compared with experimental data for the dependence of the solute activity coefficient on concentration, temperature, and pressure; calculations are included for partial molal enthalpy and volume of the dissolved gas. The theory is also compared with previous theories for salt effects and found to be superior. The calculations are best for salting-out systems. The qualitative feature of salting-in is predicted by the theory, but quantitative predictions are not satisfactory for such systems; this is attributed to approximations made in evaluating the perturbation terms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abid, O. Miloud; Menouer, S.; Yakoubi, A.; Khachai, H.; Omran, S. Bin; Murtaza, G.; Prakash, Deo; Khenata, R.; Verma, K. D.
2016-05-01
The structural, electronic, elastic, thermoelectric and thermodynamic properties of NbMSb (M = Fe, Ru, Os) half heusler compounds are reported. The full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) plus local orbital (lo) method, based on the density functional theory (DFT) was employed for the present study. The equilibrium lattice parameter results are in good compliance with the available experimental measurements. The electronic band structure and Boltzmann transport calculations indicated a narrow indirect energy band gap for the compound having electronic structure favorable for thermoelectric performance as well as with substantial thermopowers at temperature ranges from 300 K to 800 K. Furthermore, good potential for thermoelectric performance (thermopower S ≥ 500 μeV) was found at higher temperature. In addition, the analysis of the charge density, partial and total densities of states (DOS) of three compounds demonstrate their semiconducting, ionic and covalent characters. Conversely, the calculated values of the Poisson's ratio and the B/G ratio indicate their ductile makeup. The thermal properties of the compounds were calculated by quasi-harmonic Debye model as implemented in the GIBBS code.
Thermodynamic properties of fullerite C70
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rekhviashvili, S. Sh.
2017-08-01
A new expression for the isochoric heat capacity and the equation of state of fullerite C70 are obtained in the framework of a quantum-statistical method. Analogs of the Debye law and Dulong-Petit law for this fullerite are formulated. Fullerene C70 molecules are modeled by isotropic quantum oscillators under the assumption that their nonsphericity weakly influences the thermodynamic properties of the condensed phase. The intramolecular oscillations of carbon atoms are described using the Debye theory and the cold contribution to the free energy of fullerite is calculated using the Lennard-Jones pair potential for fullerene molecules. A comparison of the proposed theory to experiment shows good agreement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouhadda, Y.; Bentabet, A.; Fenineche, N. E.; Boudouma, Y.
2012-12-01
By this work, we aim to study the dynamical and the thermodynamic properties of the zinc-blende GaX (X = N, P, As and Sb) using the Ab initio simulation method. Indeed, we studied the lattice dynamics, the constant-volume specific heat (Cv), the internal energy (U), the entropy (S) and the free energy (F). The observed differences between the properties of GaX elements were discussed. Our results and the available literature data (theoretical and experimental) seems to be in good agreement. Moreover, Cv, U, F and S were calculated by using the harmonic approximation in the calculation of the dynamic lattice vibration. The good agreement between our results of both the phonon frequency, the constant-volume specific heat and the experimental data allows us to conclude that our results of S, U and F of GaX were well predicted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Musari, A. A.; Joubert, D. P.; Adebayo, G. A.
2018-04-01
Cuprite (Cu2O) is a solid mineral and a compound whose simplicity of preparation, non toxic nature, low band gap and its abundance has made it a prospective candidate for the realisation of low cost photovoltaic applications. The present work successfully dopes Cuprite with Ag ({{{Cu}}}2(1-{{x})}{{{Ag}}}2{{x}}{{O}}) at different concentrations x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1, their first-principle calculations of their electronic, dynamical and thermodynamic properties have been investigated extensively within the generalised gradient approximation. Direct band gap energies at {{Γ }} are predicted for all the studied systems. A small bowing parameter for lattice constants ba and bulk modulus bB of 0.4245 \\mathring{{A}} and 0.8747 GPa were obtained when compared to Vegard’s law. The results of phonon dispersion when x = 0 and 1 indicate stability, these agree with available theoretical and experimental results while negative frequencies observed along the Brillouin zone for the doped systems when x = 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 imply that they are dynamically unstable. The thermodynamic properties between 0 to 800 K were determined using the calculated phonon density of states within the harmonic approximation and the values of the specific heat capacity at constant volume at ambient temperature and the temperature at which lattice vibrations and thermal motion of electrons contribute to the constant volume specific heat capacity are presented for all the systems.
Free Energy Perturbation Calculations of the Thermodynamics of Protein Side-Chain Mutations.
Steinbrecher, Thomas; Abel, Robert; Clark, Anthony; Friesner, Richard
2017-04-07
Protein side-chain mutation is fundamental both to natural evolutionary processes and to the engineering of protein therapeutics, which constitute an increasing fraction of important medications. Molecular simulation enables the prediction of the effects of mutation on properties such as binding affinity, secondary and tertiary structure, conformational dynamics, and thermal stability. A number of widely differing approaches have been applied to these predictions, including sequence-based algorithms, knowledge-based potential functions, and all-atom molecular mechanics calculations. Free energy perturbation theory, employing all-atom and explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations, is a rigorous physics-based approach for calculating thermodynamic effects of, for example, protein side-chain mutations. Over the past several years, we have initiated an investigation of the ability of our most recent free energy perturbation methodology to model the thermodynamics of protein mutation for two specific problems: protein-protein binding affinities and protein thermal stability. We highlight recent advances in the field and outline current and future challenges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jezierski, Andrzej, E-mail: andrzej.jezierski@ifmpan.poznan.pl; Szytuła, Andrzej
2016-02-15
The electronic structures and thermodynamic properties of LaPtIn and CePtIn are studied by means of ab-initio full-relativistic full-potential local orbital basis (FPLO) method within densities functional (DFT) methodologies. We have also examined the influence of hydrogen on the electronic structure and stability of CePtInH and LaPtInH systems. The positions of the hydrogen atoms have been found from the minimum of the total energy. Our calculations have shown that band structure and topology of the Fermi surfaces changed significantly during the hydrogenation. The thermodynamic properties (bulk modulus, Debye temperatures, constant pressure heat capacity) calculated in quasi-harmonic Debye-Grüneisen model are in amore » good agreement with the experimental data. We have applied different methods of the calculation of the equation of states (EOS) (Murnaghan, Birch-Murnaghan, Poirier–Tarantola, Vinet). The thermodynamic properties are presented for the pressure 0« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ha, Vu Thi Thanh; Hung, Vu Van; Hanh, Pham Thi Minh; Tuyen, Nguyen Viet; Hai, Tran Thi; Hieu, Ho Khac
2018-03-01
The thermodynamic and mechanical properties of III-V zinc-blende AlP, InP semiconductors and their alloys have been studied in detail from statistical moment method taking into account the anharmonicity effects of the lattice vibrations. The nearest neighbor distance, thermal expansion coefficient, bulk moduli, specific heats at the constant volume and constant pressure of the zincblende AlP, InP and AlyIn1-yP alloys are calculated as functions of the temperature. The statistical moment method calculations are performed by using the many-body Stillinger-Weber potential. The concentration dependences of the thermodynamic quantities of zinc-blende AlyIn1-yP crystals have also been discussed and compared with those of the experimental results. Our results are reasonable agreement with earlier density functional theory calculations and can provide useful qualitative information for future experiments. The moment method then can be developed extensively for studying the atomistic structure and thermodynamic properties of nanoscale materials as well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miao, Yurun; Li, Huayang; Wang, Hongjuan; He, Kaihua; Wang, Qingbo
2018-02-01
First principles and quasi-harmonic Debye model have been used to study the thermodynamic properties, enthalpies, electronic and optical properties of MgO up to the core-mantle boundary (CMB) condition (137 GPa and 3700 K). Thermodynamic properties calculation includes thermal expansion coefficient and capacity, which have been studied up to the CMB pressure (137 GPa) and temperature (3700 K) by the Debye model with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local-density approximation (LDA). First principles with hybrid functional method (PBE0) has been used to calculate the electronic and optical properties under pressure up to 137 GPa and 0 K. Our results show the Debye model with LDA and first principles with PBE0 can provide accurate thermodynamic properties, enthalpies, electronic and optical properties. Calculated enthalpies show that MgO keep NaCl (B1) structure up to 137 GPa. And MgO is a direct bandgap insulator with a 7.23 eV calculated bandgap. The bandgap increased with increasing pressure, which will induce a blue shift of optical properties. We also calculated the density of states (DOS) and discussed the relation between DOS and band, optical properties. Equations were used to fit the relations between pressure and bandgaps, absorption coefficient (α(ω)) of MgO. The equations can be used to evaluate pressure after careful calibration. Our calculations can not only be used to identify some geological processes, but also offer a reference to the applications of MgO in the future.
Thermodynamic properties of gadolinium in Ga-Sn and Ga-Zn eutectic based alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maltsev, Dmitry S.; Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Yamshchikov, Leonid F.; Chukin, Andrey V.
2016-09-01
Thermodynamic properties of gadolinium in Ga-Sn and Ga-Zn eutectic based alloys were studied. Temperature dependences of gadolinium activity in the studied alloys were determined at 573-1073 K employing the EMF method. Solubility of gadolinium in the Ga-Sn and Ga-Zn alloys was measured at 462-1073 K using IMCs sedimentation method. Activity coefficients as well as partial and excess thermodynamic functions of gadolinium in the studied alloys were calculated on the basis of the obtained experimental data.
Thermodynamic properties of rare earth elements in La-RE-Ga-In alloys (RE = Nd, Y)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raguzina, Ekaterina V.; Maltsev, Dmitry S.; Volkovich, Vladimir A.; Yamshchikov, Leonid F.; Chukin, Andrey V.
2017-09-01
Thermodynamic properties of La, Nd, and Y were studied in pseudo-quaternary systems La-Nd-(Ga-In)eut and La-Y-(Ga-In)eut. Temperature dependences of lanthanum, neodymium, and yttrium activity in the alloys were determined at 300-800 °C employing the e.m.f. method. Partial thermodynamic functions of lanthanum in the alloys studied were calculated on the basis of the experimental data.
Ab initio calculation of thermodynamic potentials and entropies for superionic water
French, Martin; Desjarlais, Michael P.; Redmer, Ronald
We construct thermodynamic potentials for two superionic phases of water [with body-centered cubic (bcc) and face-centered cubic (fcc) oxygen lattice] using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics simulations (MD). For this purpose, a generic expression for the free energy of warm dense matter is developed and parametrized with equation of state data from the DFT-MD simulations. A second central aspect is the accurate determination of the entropy, which is done using an approximate two-phase method based on the frequency spectra of the nuclear motion. The boundary between the bcc superionic phase and the ices VII andmore » X calculated with thermodynamic potentials from DFT-MD is consistent with that directly derived from the simulations. As a result, differences in the physical properties of the bcc and fcc superionic phases and their impact on interior modeling of water-rich giant planets are discussed.« less
Ab initio calculation of thermodynamic potentials and entropies for superionic water
French, Martin; Desjarlais, Michael P.; Redmer, Ronald
2016-02-25
We construct thermodynamic potentials for two superionic phases of water [with body-centered cubic (bcc) and face-centered cubic (fcc) oxygen lattice] using a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics simulations (MD). For this purpose, a generic expression for the free energy of warm dense matter is developed and parametrized with equation of state data from the DFT-MD simulations. A second central aspect is the accurate determination of the entropy, which is done using an approximate two-phase method based on the frequency spectra of the nuclear motion. The boundary between the bcc superionic phase and the ices VII andmore » X calculated with thermodynamic potentials from DFT-MD is consistent with that directly derived from the simulations. As a result, differences in the physical properties of the bcc and fcc superionic phases and their impact on interior modeling of water-rich giant planets are discussed.« less
Thermodynamic calculations in the system CH4-H2O and methane hydrate phase equilibria
Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Stern, L.A.
2006-01-01
Using the Gibbs function of reaction, equilibrium pressure, temperature conditions for the formation of methane clathrate hydrate have been calculated from the thermodynamic properties of phases in the system CH4-H 2O. The thermodynamic model accurately reproduces the published phase-equilibria data to within ??2 K of the observed equilibrium boundaries in the range 0.08-117 MPa and 190-307 K. The model also provides an estimate of the third-law entropy of methane hydrate at 273.15 K, 0.1 MPa of 56.2 J mol-1 K-1 for 1/n CH4??H 2O, where n is the hydrate number. Agreement between the calculated and published phase-equilibria data is optimized when the hydrate composition is fixed and independent of the pressure and temperature for the conditions modeled. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.
Exact Calculation of the Thermodynamics of Biomacromolecules on Cubic Recursive Lattice.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Ran
The thermodynamics of biomacromolecules featured as foldable polymer with inner-linkage of hydrogen bonds, e. g. protein, RNA and DNA, play an impressive role in either physical, biological, and polymer sciences. By treating the foldable chains to be the two-tolerate self-avoiding trails (2T polymer), abstract lattice modeling of these complex polymer systems to approach their thermodynamics and subsequent bio-functional properties have been developed for decades. Among these works, the calculations modeled on Bethe and Husimi lattice have shown the excellence of being exactly solvable. Our project extended this effort into the 3D situation, i.e. the cubic recursive lattice. The preliminary exploration basically confirmed others' previous findings on the planar structure, that we have three phases in the grand-canonical phase diagram, with a 1st order transition between non-polymerized and polymer phases, and a 2nd order transition between two distinguishable polymer phases. However the hydrogen bond energy J, stacking energy ɛ, and chain rigidity energy H play more vigorous effects on the thermal behaviors, and this is hypothesized to be due to the larger number of possible configurations provided by the complicated 3D model. By the so far progress, the calculation of biomacromolecules may be applied onto more complex recursive lattices, such as the inhomogeneous lattice to describe the cross-dimensional situations, and beside the thermal properties of the 2T polymers, we may infer some interesting insights of the mysterious folding problem itself. National Natural Science Foundation of China.
First-principles study of the elastic and thermodynamic properties of CaSiO(3) perovskite.
Liu, Z J; Sun, X W; Chen, Q F; Cai, L C; Wu, H Y; Ge, S H
2007-06-20
The thermodynamic and elastic properties of CaSiO(3) perovskite are investigated at high pressures and temperatures using the plane wave pseudopotential method within the local density approximation. The athermal elastic moduli of CaSiO(3) perovskite are calculated as a function of pressure up to 200 GPa. The calculated results are in excellent agreement with available experimental data at high pressure, and compare favourably with other pseudopotential predictions over the pressure regime studied. It is also found that the elastic anisotropy drops rapidly with the increase of pressure initially, and then decreases more slowly at higher pressures. The thermodynamic properties of CaSiO(3) perovskite are predicted using the quasi-harmonic Debye model for the first time; the heat capacity and the thermal expansion coefficient agree with the observed values at ambient conditions and the other calculations at high pressures and temperatures.
WASP: A flexible FORTRAN 4 computer code for calculating water and steam properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hendricks, R. C.; Peller, I. C.; Baron, A. K.
1973-01-01
A FORTRAN 4 subprogram, WASP, was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of water and steam. The temperature range is from the triple point to 1750 K, and the pressure range is from 0.1 to 100 MN/m2 (1 to 1000 bars) for the thermodynamic properties and to 50 MN/m2 (500 bars) for thermal conductivity and to 80 MN/m2 (800 bars) for viscosity. WASP accepts any two of pressure, temperature, and density as input conditions. In addition, pressure and either entropy or enthalpy are also allowable input variables. This flexibility is especially useful in cycle analysis. The properties available in any combination as output include temperature, density, pressure, entropy, enthalpy, specific heats, sonic velocity, viscosity, thermal conductivity, surface tension, and the Laplace constant. The subroutine structure is modular so that the user can choose only those subroutines necessary to his calculations. Metastable calculations can also be made by using WASP.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roondhe, Basant; Upadhyay, Deepak; Som, Narayan; Pillai, Sharad B.; Shinde, Satyam; Jha, Prafulla K.
2017-03-01
The structural, electronic, dynamical and thermodynamical properties of CmX (X = N, P, As, Sb, and Bi) compounds are studied using first principles calculations within density functional theory. The Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof spin polarized generalized gradient approximation and Perdew-Wang (PW) spin polarized local density approximation as the exchange correlational functionals are used in these calculations. There is a good agreement between the present and previously reported data. The calculated electronic density of states suggests that the curium monopnictides are metallic in nature, which is consistent with earlier studies. The significant values of magnetic moment suggest their magnetic nature. The phonon dispersion curves and phonon density of states are also calculated, which depict the dynamical stability of these compounds. There is a significant separation between the optical and acoustical phonon branches. The temperature dependence of the thermodynamical functions are also calculated and discussed. Internal energy and vibrational contribution to the Helmholtz free energy increases and decreases, respectively, with temperature. The entropy increases with temperature. The specific heat at constant volume and Debye temperature obey Debye theory. The temperature variation of the considered thermodynamical functions is in line with those of other crystalline solids.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Talcott, N. A., Jr.
1977-01-01
Equations and computer code are given for the thermodynamic properties of gaseous fluorocarbons in chemical equilibrium. In addition, isentropic equilibrium expansions of two binary mixtures of fluorocarbons and argon are included. The computer code calculates the equilibrium thermodynamic properties and, in some cases, the transport properties for the following fluorocarbons: CCl2F, CCl2F2, CBrF3, CF4, CHCl2F, CHF3, CCL2F-CCl2F, CCLF2-CClF2, CF3-CF3, and C4F8. Equilibrium thermodynamic properties are tabulated for six of the fluorocarbons(CCl3F, CCL2F2, CBrF3, CF4, CF3-CF3, and C4F8) and pressure-enthalpy diagrams are presented for CBrF3.
Electronic structure, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of BaPaO3 under pressure.
Khandy, Shakeel Ahmad; Islam, Ishtihadah; Gupta, Dinesh C; Laref, Amel
2018-05-07
Density functional theory (DFT)-based investigations have been put forward on the elastic, mechanical, and thermo-dynamical properties of BaPaO 3 . The pressure dependence of electronic band structure and other physical properties has been carefully analyzed. The increase in Bulk modulus and decrease in lattice constant is seen on going from 0 to 30 GPa. The predicted lattice constants describe this material as anisotropic and ductile in nature at ambient conditions. Post-DFT calculations using quasi-harmonic Debye model are employed to envisage the pressure-dependent thermodynamic properties like Debye temperature, specific heat capacity, Grüneisen parameter, thermal expansion, etc. Also, the computed Debye temperature and melting temperature of BaPaO 3 at 0 K are 523 K and 1764.75 K, respectively.
Thermodynamic properties of liquid Au–Cu–Sn alloys determined from electromotive force measurements
Guo, Zhongnan; Hindler, Michael; Yuan, Wenxia; Mikula, Adolf
2011-01-01
The thermodynamic properties of the ternary Au–Cu–Sn system were determined with the electromotive force (EMF) method using a liquid electrolyte. Three different cross-sections with constant Au:Cu ratios of 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3 were applied to measure the thermodynamic properties of the ternary system in the temperature range between the liquidus temperature of the alloys and 1023 K. The partial free energies of Sn in liquid Au–Cu–Sn alloys were obtained from EMF data. The integral Gibbs free energy and the integral enthalpy at 900 K were calculated by Gibbs–Duhem integration. The ternary interaction parameters were evaluated using the Redlich–Kister–Muggianu polynomial. PMID:22039311
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simmonds, A. L.; Miller, C. G., III; Nealy, J. E.
1976-01-01
Equilibrium thermodynamic properties for pure ammonia were generated for a range of temperature from 500 to 50,000 K and pressure from 0.01 to 40 MN/sq m and are presented in tabulated and graphical form. Properties include pressure, temperature, density, enthalpy, speed of sound, entropy, molecular-weight ratio, specific heat at constant pressure, specific heat at constant volume, isentropic exponent, and species mole fractions. These properties were calculated by the method which is based on minimization of the Gibbs free energy. The data presented herein are for an 18-species ammonia model. Heats of formation and spectroscopic constants used as input data are presented. Comparison of several thermodynamic properties calculated with the present program and a second computer code is performed for a range of pressure and for temperatures up to 30,000 K.
Biochemical thermodynamics: applications of Mathematica.
Alberty, Robert A
2006-01-01
The most efficient way to store thermodynamic data on enzyme-catalyzed reactions is to use matrices of species properties. Since equilibrium in enzyme-catalyzed reactions is reached at specified pH values, the thermodynamics of the reactions is discussed in terms of transformed thermodynamic properties. These transformed thermodynamic properties are complicated functions of temperature, pH, and ionic strength that can be calculated from the matrices of species values. The most important of these transformed thermodynamic properties is the standard transformed Gibbs energy of formation of a reactant (sum of species). It is the most important because when this function of temperature, pH, and ionic strength is known, all the other standard transformed properties can be calculated by taking partial derivatives. The species database in this package contains data matrices for 199 reactants. For 94 of these reactants, standard enthalpies of formation of species are known, and so standard transformed Gibbs energies, standard transformed enthalpies, standard transformed entropies, and average numbers of hydrogen atoms can be calculated as functions of temperature, pH, and ionic strength. For reactions between these 94 reactants, the changes in these properties can be calculated over a range of temperatures, pHs, and ionic strengths, and so can apparent equilibrium constants. For the other 105 reactants, only standard transformed Gibbs energies of formation and average numbers of hydrogen atoms at 298.15 K can be calculated. The loading of this package provides functions of pH and ionic strength at 298.15 K for standard transformed Gibbs energies of formation and average numbers of hydrogen atoms for 199 reactants. It also provides functions of temperature, pH, and ionic strength for the standard transformed Gibbs energies of formation, standard transformed enthalpies of formation, standard transformed entropies of formation, and average numbers of hydrogen atoms for 94
SteamTablesGrid: An ActiveX control for thermodynamic properties of pure water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verma, Mahendra P.
2011-04-01
An ActiveX control, steam tables grid ( StmTblGrd) to speed up the calculation of the thermodynamic properties of pure water is developed. First, it creates a grid (matrix) for a specified range of temperature (e.g. 400-600 K with 40 segments) and pressure (e.g. 100,000-20,000,000 Pa with 40 segments). Using the ActiveX component SteamTables, the values of selected properties of water for each element (nodal point) of the 41×41 matrix are calculated. The created grid can be saved in a file for its reuse. A linear interpolation within an individual phase, vapor or liquid is implemented to calculate the properties at a given value of temperature and pressure. A demonstration program to illustrate the functionality of StmTblGrd is written in Visual Basic 6.0. Similarly, a methodology is presented to explain the use of StmTblGrd in MS-Excel 2007. In an Excel worksheet, the enthalpy of 1000 random datasets for temperature and pressure is calculated using StmTblGrd and SteamTables. The uncertainty in the enthalpy calculated with StmTblGrd is within ±0.03%. The calculations were performed on a personal computer that has a "Pentium(R) 4 CPU 3.2 GHz, RAM 1.0 GB" processor and Windows XP. The total execution time for the calculation with StmTblGrd was 0.3 s, while it was 60.0 s for SteamTables. Thus, the ActiveX control approach is reliable, accurate and efficient for the numerical simulation of complex systems that demand the thermodynamic properties of water at several values of temperature and pressure like steam flow in a geothermal pipeline network.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klaa, K.; Labidi, S.; Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.; Labidi, M.; Amara, A.; Drici, A.; Hlil, E. K.; Ellouze, M.
2018-06-01
Structural, electronic, magnetic and thermodynamic main features for Ni1-xTixO ternary alloys in rock-salt structure with Ti content in the range ? were studied using the full potential Linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within density functional theory. The exchange-correlation potential was calculated by the generalized gradient approximation. The analysis of the electronic density of states curves allowed the computation of the magnetic moments which are considered to lie along (010) axes. The thermodynamic stability of this alloy was investigated by calculating the excess enthalpy of mixing ? as well as the phase diagram. In addition, the Monte Carlo simulations have been exploited to calculate the transition temperature and magnetic coercive field in the alloy.
The first principles study of elastic and thermodynamic properties of ZnSe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khatta, Swati; Kaur, Veerpal; Tripathi, S. K.; Prakash, Satya
2018-05-01
The elastic and thermodynamic properties of ZnSe are investigated using thermo_pw package implemented in Quantum espresso code within the framework of density functional theory. The pseudopotential method within the local density approximation is used for the exchange-correlation potential. The physical parameters of ZnSe bulk modulus and shear modulus, anisotropy factor, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, Pugh's ratio and Frantsevich's ratio are calculated. The sound velocity and Debye temperature are obtained from elastic constant calculations. The Helmholtz free energy and internal energy of ZnSe are also calculated. The results are compared with available theoretical calculations and experimental data.
Ab-initio study of thermodynamic properties of boron nanowire at atomic scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhuyan, Prabal D.; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Sonvane, Y.; Gajjar, P. N.
2018-04-01
In the present work, we have optimized ribbon like zigzag structure of boron (B) nanowire (NW) and investigated vibrational and thermodynamic properties using quasi-harmonic approximations (QHA). All positive phonon in the phonon dispersive curve have confirmed dynamical stability of ribbon B-NW. The thermodynamic properties, like Debye temperature, internal energy and specific heat, are calculated as a function of temperature. The variation of specific heat is proportional to T3 Debye law at lower temperature for B-NW, while it becomes constant above room temperature at 1200K; obeys Dulong-Petit's law. The high Debye temperature of 1120K is observed at ambient temperature, which can be attributed to high thermal conductivity. Our study shows that B-NW with high thermal conductivity could be the next generation electron connector for nanoscale electronic devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, R. H.; Thakore, B. Y.; Bhatt, N. K.; Vyas, P. R.; Jani, A. R.
2018-02-01
A density functional theory along with electronic contribution is used to compute quasiharmonic total energy for silver, whereas explicit phonon anharmonic contribution is added through perturbative term in temperature. Within the Mie-Grüneisen approach, we propose a consistent computational scheme for calculating various thermophysical properties of a substance, in which the required Grüneisen parameter γth is calculated from the knowledge of binding energy. The present study demonstrates that no separate relation for volume dependence for γth is needed, and complete thermodynamics under simultaneous high-temperature and high-pressure condition can be derived in a consistent manner. We have calculated static and dynamic equation of states and some important thermodynamic properties along the shock Hugoniot. A careful examination of temperature dependence of Grüneisen parameter reveals the importance of temperature-effect on various thermal properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Androulaki, Eleni; Vergadou, Niki; Ramos, Javier; Economou, Ioannis G.
2012-06-01
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed in order to investigate the properties of [C n mim+][Tf2N-] (n = 4, 8, 12) ionic liquids (ILs) in a wide temperature range (298.15-498.15 K) and at atmospheric pressure (1 bar). A previously developed methodology for the calculation of the charge distribution that incorporates ab initio quantum mechanical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) was used to calculate the partial charges for the classical molecular simulations. The wide range of time scales that characterize the segmental dynamics of these ILs, especially at low temperatures, required very long MD simulations, on the order of several tens of nanoseconds, to calculate the thermodynamic (density, thermal expansion, isothermal compressibility), structural (radial distribution functions between the centers of mass of ions and between individual sites, radial-angular distribution functions) and dynamic (relaxation times of the reorientation of the bonds and the torsion angles, self-diffusion coefficients, shear viscosity) properties. The influence of the temperature and the cation's alkyl chain length on the above-mentioned properties was thoroughly investigated. The calculated thermodynamic (primary and derivative) and structural properties are in good agreement with the experimental data, while the extremely sluggish dynamics of the ILs under study renders the calculation of their transport properties a very complicated and challenging task, especially at low temperatures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belov, G. V.; Dyachkov, S. A.; Levashov, P. R.; Lomonosov, I. V.; Minakov, D. V.; Morozov, I. V.; Sineva, M. A.; Smirnov, V. N.
2018-01-01
The database structure, main features and user interface of an IVTANTHERMO-Online system are reviewed. This system continues the series of the IVTANTHERMO packages developed in JIHT RAS. It includes the database for thermodynamic properties of individual substances and related software for analysis of experimental results, data fitting, calculation and estimation of thermodynamical functions and thermochemistry quantities. In contrast to the previous IVTANTHERMO versions it has a new extensible database design, the client-server architecture, a user-friendly web interface with a number of new features for online and offline data processing.
Thermodynamic properties of tungsten
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimvall, Göran; Thiessen, Maria; Guillermet, Armando Fernández
1987-11-01
Tungsten has several unusual thermodynamic properties, e.g., very high values of the melting point, the entropy of fusion, the expansion on melting and the lattice anharmonicity. These features are given a semiquantitative explanation, based on the electron density of states N(E). Our treatment includes a numerical calculation of the electronic heat capacity from N(E) and a calculation of the entropy Debye temperature FTHETAS(T) from the vibrational part of the experimental heat capacity. FTHETAS(T) decreases by 36% from 300 K to the melting temperature 3695 K, the largest drop in FTHETAS for elemental metals. Recent quantum-mechanical ab initio calculations of the difference, Hβ/α, in Gibbs energy at T=0 K between the metastable fcc tungsten and the stable bcc phase yield Hβ/α=50+/-5 kJ/mol, which is much larger than the ``experimental'' values Hβ/α=10 and 19 kJ/mol derived from previous semiempirical analyses [the so-called calculation of phase diagrams (``CALPHAD'') method] of binary phase diagrams containing tungsten. We have reanalyzed CALPHAD data, using the results of the first part of this paper. Because of the shapes of N(E) of α-W and β-W, some usually acceptable CALPHAD procedures give misleading results. We give several estimates of Hβ/α, using different assumptions about the hypothetical melting temperature Tβf of fcc W. The more realistic of our estimates gives Hβ/α=30 kJ/mol or larger, thus reducing considerably the previous discrepancy between CALPHAD and ab initio results. The physical picture emerging from this work should be of importance in refinements of the CALPHAD method.
Thermodynamic properties of PbTe, PbSe, and PbS: a ﬁrst-principles study
Zhang, Yi; Ke, Xuezhi; Chen, Changfeng
2009-01-01
The recent discovery of novel lead chalcogenide-based thermoelectric materials has attracted great interest. These materials exhibit low thermal conductivity which is closely related to their lattice dynamics and thermodynamic properties. In this paper, we report a systematic study of electronic structures and lattice dynamics of the lead chalcogenides PbX (X=Te, Se, S) using ﬁrst-principles density functional theory calculations and a direct force-constant method. We calculate the struc- tural parameters, elastic moduli, electronic band structures, dielectric constants, and Born eﬀective charges. Moreover, we determine phonon dispersions, phonon density of states, and phonon softening modes in these materials. Based on the resultsmore » of these calculations, we further employ quasihar- monic approximation to calculate the heat capacity, internal energy, and vibrational entropy. The obtained results are in good agreement with experimental data. Lattice thermal conductivities are evaluated in terms of the Gruneisen parameters. The mode Gruneisen parameters are calculated to explain the anharmonicity in these materials. The eﬀect of the spin-orbit interaction is found to be negligible in determining the thermodynamic properties of PbTe, PbSe, and PbS.« less
ms2: A molecular simulation tool for thermodynamic properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deublein, Stephan; Eckl, Bernhard; Stoll, Jürgen; Lishchuk, Sergey V.; Guevara-Carrion, Gabriela; Glass, Colin W.; Merker, Thorsten; Bernreuther, Martin; Hasse, Hans; Vrabec, Jadran
2011-11-01
This work presents the molecular simulation program ms2 that is designed for the calculation of thermodynamic properties of bulk fluids in equilibrium consisting of small electro-neutral molecules. ms2 features the two main molecular simulation techniques, molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte-Carlo. It supports the calculation of vapor-liquid equilibria of pure fluids and multi-component mixtures described by rigid molecular models on the basis of the grand equilibrium method. Furthermore, it is capable of sampling various classical ensembles and yields numerous thermodynamic properties. To evaluate the chemical potential, Widom's test molecule method and gradual insertion are implemented. Transport properties are determined by equilibrium MD simulations following the Green-Kubo formalism. ms2 is designed to meet the requirements of academia and industry, particularly achieving short response times and straightforward handling. It is written in Fortran90 and optimized for a fast execution on a broad range of computer architectures, spanning from single processor PCs over PC-clusters and vector computers to high-end parallel machines. The standard Message Passing Interface (MPI) is used for parallelization and ms2 is therefore easily portable to different computing platforms. Feature tools facilitate the interaction with the code and the interpretation of input and output files. The accuracy and reliability of ms2 has been shown for a large variety of fluids in preceding work. Program summaryProgram title:ms2 Catalogue identifier: AEJF_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJF_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Special Licence supplied by the authors No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 82 794 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 793 705 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran90 Computer: The
Phonon spectra, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of WS2 nanotubes.
Evarestov, Robert A; Bandura, Andrei V; Porsev, Vitaly V; Kovalenko, Alexey V
2017-11-15
Hybrid density functional theory calculations are performed for the first time on the phonon dispersion and thermodynamic properties of WS 2 -based single-wall nanotubes. Symmetry analysis is presented for phonon modes in nanotubes using the standard (crystallographic) factorization for line groups. Symmetry and the number of infra-red and Raman active modes in achiral WS 2 nanotubes are given for armchair and zigzag chiralities. It is demonstrated that a number of infrared and Raman active modes is independent on the nanotube diameter. The zone-folding approach is applied to find out an impact of curvature on electron and phonon band structure of nanotubes rolled up from the monolayer. Phonon frequencies obtained both for layers and nanotubes are used to compute the thermal contributions to their thermodynamic functions. The temperature dependences of energy, entropy, and heat capacity of nanotubes are estimated with respect to those of the monolayer. The role of phonons in the stability estimation of nanotubes is discussed based on Helmholtz free energy calculations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Jin-Qiao; Liu, Ke; Huang, Sha; Mao, Xiao-Chun; Hou, Bao-Sen; Tan, Jiao; Zhou, Xiao-Lin
2017-11-01
The mechanical, electronic and thermodynamic properties of MTe2 (M = Ni, Pd and Pt) under high pressure were investigated via the first-principles calculations. According to our calculations of these trigonal crystals (space group of P3M1, No: 164), we found that all of them are fulfilled by the mechanical stability criteria under 31 GPa (for NiTe2), 37 GPa (for PdTe2) and 73 GPa (for PtTe2). The study on their structures revealed the elastic anisotropy of these isostructural compounds. Electronic structure calculations show that MTe2 are semi-metal. On the basis of the quasi-harmonic Debye model, we also researches their thermodynamic properties.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gordon, S.
1982-01-01
Thermodynamic and transport combustion properties were calculated for a wide range of conditions for the reaction of hydrocarbons with air. Three hydrogen-carbon atom ratios (H/C = 1.7, 2.0, 2.1) were selected to represent the range of aircraft fuels. For each of these H/C ratios, combustion properties were calculated for the following conditions: Equivalence ratio: 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 Water - dry air mass ratio: 0, 0.03 Pressure, kPa: 1.01325, 10.1325, 101.325, 1013.25, 5066.25 (or in atm: 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 50) Temperature, K: every 10 degrees from 200 to 900 K; every 50 degrees from 900 to 3000 K Temperature, R: every 20 degrees from 360 to 1600 R; very 100 degrees from 1600 to 5400 R. The properties presented are composition, density, molecular weight, enthalphy, entropy, specific heat at constant pressure, volume derivatives, isentropic exponent, velocity of sound, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and Prandtl number. Property tables are based on composites that were calculated by assuming both: (1) chemical equilibrium (for both homogeneous and heterogeneous phases) and (2) constant compositions for all temperatures. Properties in SI units are presented in this report for the Kelvin temperature schedules.
Structural, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties of WCu solid solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, C. P.; Wu, C. Y.; Fan, J. L.; Gong, H. R.
2017-11-01
Various properties of Wsbnd Cu solid solutions are systematically investigated through a combined use of first-principles calculation, cluster expansion, special quasirandom structures (SQS), and lattice dynamics. It is shown that SQS are effective to unravel the intrinsic nature of solid solutions, and that BCC and FCC W100-xCux solid solutions are energetically more stable when 0 ≤ x ≤ 70 and 70 < x ≤ 100, respectively. Calculations also reveal that the Debye model should be appropriate to derive thermodynamic properties of Wsbnd Cu, and that the coefficients of thermal expansion of W100-xCux solid solutions are much lower than those of corresponding mechanical mixtures. In addition, the G/B values of W100-xCux solid solutions reach a minimum at x = 50, which is fundamentally due to the softening of phonons as well as strong chemical bonding between W and Cu with a mainly metallic feature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Weizong; Yan, Joseph D.; Qi, Haiyang; Geng, Jinyue; Wu, Yaowu
2017-10-01
Ablation-controlled plasmas have been used in a range of technical applications where local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) is often violated near the wall due to the strong cooling effect caused by the ablation of wall materials. The thermodynamic and transport properties of ablated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) vapor, which determine the flowing plasma behavior in such applications, are calculated based on a two-temperature model at atmospheric pressure. To our knowledge, no data for PTFE have been reported in the literature. The species composition and thermodynamic properties are numerically determined using the two-temperature Saha equation and the Guldberg-Waage equation according to van de Sanden et al’s derivation. The transport coefficients, including viscosity, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, are calculated with the most recent collision interaction potentials using Devoto’s electron and heavy-particle decoupling approach but expanded to the third-order approximation (second-order for viscosity) in the frame of the Chapman-Enskog method. Results are computed for different degrees of thermal non-equilibrium, i.e. the ratio of electron to heavy-particle temperatures, from 1 to 10, with electron temperature ranging from 300 to 40 000 K. Plasma transport properties in the LTE state obtained from the present work are compared with existing published results and the causes for the discrepancy analyzed. The two-temperature plasma properties calculated in the present work enable the modeling of wall ablation-controlled plasma processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asta, Mark; Morgan, Dane; Hoyt, J. J.; Sadigh, Babak; Althoff, J. D.; de Fontaine, D.; Foiles, S. M.
1999-06-01
Structural, thermodynamic, and atomic-transport properties of liquid Ni-Al alloys have been studied by Monte Carlo and molecular-dynamics simulations based upon three different embedded-atom method (EAM) interatomic potentials, namely those due to Foiles and Daw (FD) [J. Mater. Res. 2, 5 (1987)], Voter and Chen (VC) [in Characterization of Defects in Materials, edited by R. W. Siegel et al. MRS Symposia Proceedings. No. 82 (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, 1987), p.175] and Ludwig and Gumbsch (LG) [Model. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 3, 533 (1995)]. We present detailed comparisons between calculated results and experimental data for structure factors, atomic volumes, enthalpies of mixing, activities, and viscosities. Calculated partial structure factors are found to be in semiquantitative agreement with published neutron scattering measurements for Ni20Al80 alloys, indicating that short-range order in the liquid phase is qualitatively well described. Calculated thermodynamic properties of mixing are found to agree very well with experimental data for Ni compositions greater than 75 atomic %, while for alloys richer in Al the magnitudes of the enthalpies and entropies of mixing are significantly underestimated. The VC and LG potentials give atomic densities and viscosities in good agreement with experiment for Ni-rich compositions, while FD potentials consistently underestimate both properties at all concentrations. The results of this study demonstrate that VC and LG potentials provide a realistic description of the thermodynamic and atomic transport properties for NixAl1-x liquid alloys with x>=0.75, and point to the limitations of EAM potentials for alloys richer in Al.
Direct computation of thermodynamic properties of chemically reacting air with consideration to CFD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iannelli, Joe
2003-10-01
This paper details a two-equation procedure to calculate exactly mass and mole fractions, pressure, temperature, specific heats, speed of sound and the thermodynamic and jacobian partial derivatives of pressure and temperature for a five-species chemically reacting equilibrium air. The procedure generates these thermodynamic properties using as independent variables either pressure and temperature or density and internal energy, for CFD applications. An original element in this procedure consists in the exact physically meaningful solution of the mass-fraction and mass-action equations. Air-equivalent molecular masses for oxygen and nitrogen are then developed to account, within a mixture of only oxygen and nitrogen, for the presence of carbon dioxide, argon and the other noble gases within atmospheric air. The mathematical formulation also introduces a versatile system non-dimensionalization that makes the procedure uniformly applicable to flows ranging from shock-tube flows with zero initial velocity to aerothermodynamic flows with supersonic/hypersonic free-stream Mach numbers. Over a temperature range of more than 10000 K and pressure and density ranges corresponding to an increase in altitude in standard atmosphere of 30000 m above sea level, the predicted distributions of mole fractions, constant-volume specific heat, and speed of sound for the model five species agree with independently published results, and all the calculated thermodynamic properties, including their partial derivatives, remain continuous, smooth, and physically meaningful.
Thermodynamic properties of sea air
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feistel, R.; Wright, D. G.; Kretzschmar, H.-J.; Hagen, E.; Herrmann, S.; Span, R.
2010-02-01
Very accurate thermodynamic potential functions are available for fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure conditions. They permit the consistent computation of all equilibrium properties as, for example, required for coupled atmosphere-ocean models or the analysis of observational or experimental data. With the exception of humid air, these potential functions are already formulated as international standards released by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS), and have been adopted in 2009 for oceanography by IOC/UNESCO. In this paper, we derive a collection of formulas for important quantities expressed in terms of the thermodynamic potentials, valid for typical phase transitions and composite systems of humid air and water/ice/seawater. Particular attention is given to equilibria between seawater and humid air, referred to as "sea air" here. In a related initiative, these formulas will soon be implemented in a source-code library for easy practical use. The library is primarily aimed at oceanographic applications but will be relevant to air-sea interaction and meteorology as well. The formulas provided are valid for any consistent set of suitable thermodynamic potential functions. Here we adopt potential functions from previous publications in which they are constructed from theoretical laws and empirical data; they are briefly summarized in the appendix. The formulas make use of the full accuracy of these thermodynamic potentials, without additional approximations or empirical coefficients. They are expressed in the temperature scale ITS-90 and the 2008 Reference-Composition Salinity Scale.
Thermodynamic properties of sea air
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feistel, R.; Kretzschmar, H.-J.; Span, R.; Hagen, E.; Wright, D. G.; Herrmann, S.
2009-10-01
Very accurate thermodynamic potential functions are available for fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure conditions. They permit the consistent computation of all equilibrium properties as, for example, required for coupled atmosphere-ocean models or the analysis of observational or experimental data. With the exception of humid air, these potential functions are already formulated as international standards released by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS), and have been adopted in 2009 for oceanography by IOC/UNESCO. In this paper, we derive a collection of formulas for important quantities expressed in terms of the thermodynamic potentials, valid for typical phase transitions and composite systems of humid air and water/ice/seawater. Particular attention is given to equilibria between seawater and humid air, referred to as ''sea air'' here. In a related initiative, these formulas will soon be implemented in a source-code library for easy practical use. The library is primarily aimed at oceanographic applications but will be relevant to air-sea interaction and meteorology as well. The formulas provided are valid for any consistent set of suitable thermodynamic potential functions. Here we adopt potential functions from previous publications in which they are constructed from theoretical laws and empirical data; they are briefly summarized in the appendix. The formulas make use of the full accuracy of these thermodynamic potentials, without additional approximations or empirical coefficients. They are expressed in the temperature scale ITS-90 and the 2008 Reference-Composition Salinity Scale.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Satoh, Katsuhiko
2013-08-01
The thermodynamic scaling of molecular dynamic properties of rotation and thermodynamic parameters in a nematic phase was investigated by a molecular dynamic simulation using the Gay-Berne potential. A master curve for the relaxation time of flip-flop motion was obtained using thermodynamic scaling, and the dynamic property could be solely expressed as a function of TV^{γ _τ }, where T and V are the temperature and volume, respectively. The scaling parameter γτ was in excellent agreement with the thermodynamic parameter Γ, which is the logarithm of the slope of a line plotted for the temperature and volume at constant P2. This line was fairly linear, and as good as the line for p-azoxyanisole or using the highly ordered small cluster model. The equivalence relation between Γ and γτ was compared with results obtained from the highly ordered small cluster model. The possibility of adapting the molecular model for the thermodynamic scaling of other dynamic rotational properties was also explored. The rotational diffusion constant and rotational viscosity coefficients, which were calculated using established theoretical and experimental expressions, were rescaled onto master curves with the same scaling parameters. The simulation illustrates the universal nature of the equivalence relation for liquid crystals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amend, Jan P.; Helgeson, Harold C.
1997-01-01
Group additivity equations of state for aqueous organic molecules have been generated by combining the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state ( Shock and Helgeson, 1988, 1990; Tanger and Helgeson, 1988; Shock et al., 1989, 1992) with experimental values of the standard molal properties of aqueous alkanes, alkanols, alkylbenzenes, car☐ylic acids, amides, and amines. Equations of state parameters for the groups represented by -CH 2-, -CH 3, -CHCH 3-, -C 6H 5, -CH 2OH, -COOH, -CONH 2, and -CH 2NH 2 were determined by regression of the experimental data. This procedure permits calculation of the standard molal thermodynamic properties of these groups at elevated temperatures and pressures. Although curves representing the apparent standard molal Gibbs free energies (Δ G°) and enthalpies (Δ H°) of formation, and the standard molal entropies ( S°) of the groups as a function of temperature and pressure are respectively similar for each of them, the temperature dependence of the standard molal heat capacities ( Cp°) and volumes ( V°) of a number of the groups are quite different from one another. For example, the standard molal heat capacities of the hydrocarbon groups minimize with increasing temperature, but those of -CH 2OH and -CH 2NH 2 maximize. Computed values of Δ G°, Δ H°, S°, Cp°, V°, and the equations of state parameters for the various groups were used together with group additivity relations to generate corresponding values of these properties for aqueous n-alkanes, 2-methylalkanes, n-alkylbenzenes, n-alkanols, n-car☐ylic acids, n-amides, and n-amines at temperatures ≤ 250°C and pressures ≤ 1 kbar. The validity and generality of the equations of state are supported by the fact that predicted equilibrium constants for liquid n-alkane solubility reactions in water compare favorably with experimental values reported in the literature for temperatures as high as 200°C. Furthermore, equilibrium constants for aqueous ethane
Design of new face-centered cubic high entropy alloys by thermodynamic calculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Won-Mi; Jung, Seungmun; Jo, Yong Hee; Lee, Sunghak; Lee, Byeong-Joo
2017-09-01
A new face-centered cubic (fcc) high entropy alloy system with non-equiatomic compositions has been designed by utilizing a CALculation of PHAse Diagram (CALPHAD) - type thermodynamic calculation technique. The new alloy system is based on the representative fcc high entropy alloy, the Cantor alloy which is an equiatomic Co- Cr-Fe-Mn-Ni five-component alloy, but fully or partly replace the cobalt by vanadium and is of non-equiatomic compositions. Alloy compositions expected to have an fcc single-phase structure between 700 °C and melting temperatures are proposed. All the proposed alloys are experimentally confirmed to have the fcc single-phase during materials processes (> 800 °C), through an X-ray diffraction analysis. It is shown that there are more chances to find fcc single-phase high entropy alloys if paying attention to non-equiatomic composition regions and that the CALPHAD thermodynamic calculation can be an efficient tool for it. An alloy design technique based on thermodynamic calculation is demonstrated and the applicability and limitation of the approach as a design tool for high entropy alloys is discussed.
The OpenCalphad thermodynamic software interface.
Sundman, Bo; Kattner, Ursula R; Sigli, Christophe; Stratmann, Matthias; Le Tellier, Romain; Palumbo, Mauro; Fries, Suzana G
2016-12-01
Thermodynamic data are needed for all kinds of simulations of materials processes. Thermodynamics determines the set of stable phases and also provides chemical potentials, compositions and driving forces for nucleation of new phases and phase transformations. Software to simulate materials properties needs accurate and consistent thermodynamic data to predict metastable states that occur during phase transformations. Due to long calculation times thermodynamic data are frequently pre-calculated into "lookup tables" to speed up calculations. This creates additional uncertainties as data must be interpolated or extrapolated and conditions may differ from those assumed for creating the lookup table. Speed and accuracy requires that thermodynamic software is fully parallelized and the Open-Calphad (OC) software is the first thermodynamic software supporting this feature. This paper gives a brief introduction to computational thermodynamics and introduces the basic features of the OC software and presents four different application examples to demonstrate its versatility.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amend, Jan P.; Plyasunov, Andrey V.
2001-11-01
Experimental thermodynamic data for aqueous organic compounds can be combined with the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state to generate parameters that can be used to estimate standard molal properties as functions of temperature and pressure. In this study, we regressed thermodynamic data for aqueous carbohydrates at temperatures up to 393 K reported in the literature to permit the calculation of the apparent standard molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation (ΔGo and ΔHo, respectively) and the standard molal entropies (S2o), heat capacities (CP,2o), and volumes (V2o) to 423 K and several hundred MPa of aqueous C5 aldoses (ribose, arabinose, xylose, lyxose) and C5 ketoses (ribulose, xylulose) as well as C6 aldoses (glucose, mannose, galactose) and C6 ketoses (fructose, sorbose). Values of ΔGo for these 11 aqueous carbohydrates are given as a function of temperature at the saturated water vapor pressure (PSAT) and at 50 MPa. Values of ΔGo for aqueous glucose are then combined with those of other aqueous organic and inorganic compounds to calculate values of the standard molal Gibbs free energies of 13 fermentation and respiration reactions (ΔGro) known or likely to be carried out by thermophilic microorganisms. Finally, values of the overall Gibbs free energies of these reactions (ΔGr) are calculated at the temperature, pressure, and chemical composition that obtain in the hydrothermal fluids of Vulcano Island, southern Italy, a site that is widely known for its tremendous diversity of organisms able to live at high temperatures. At likely activities of aqueous glucose, it is shown that thermophiles in the hot springs of Vulcano at 373 K and ∼0.1 MPa can gain between 400 and 3000 kJ per mole of glucose fermented or respired.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dar, Sajad Ahmad; Srivastava, Vipul; Sakalle, Umesh Kumar; Parey, Vanshree
2018-04-01
The structural, electronic, elasto-mechanical and thermodynamic properties of cubic ABO3 perovskites BaCmO3 has been successfully calculated within density functional theory via full potential linearized augmented plane wave. The structural study divulges ferromagnetic stability for the compound. For the precise calculation of electronic and magnetic properties a generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and a Hubbard approximation (GGA + U), (modified Becke Johnson approximation) mBJ have been incorporated. The electronic study portrays the half-metallic nature for the compound in all the approximations. The calculated magnetic moment with different approximations was found to be large and with an integer value of 6 μ b, this integer value of magnetic moment also proves the half-metallic nature for BaCmO3. The calculated elastic constants have been used to predict mechanical properties like the Young modulus (Y), the Shear modulus (G) and the Poisson ratio (ν). The calculated B/G and Cauchy pressure (C12-C44) present the brittle nature for BaCmO3. The thermodynamic parameters like heat capacity, thermal expansion, and Debye temperature have been calculated and examined in the temperature range of 0 K to 700 K and pressure between 0 GPa and 40 GPa. The melting temperature was also calculated and was found to be 1847 ± 300 K.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fisenko, Anatoliy I.; Lemberg, Vladimir F.
2016-09-01
The knowledge of thermal radiative and thermodynamic properties of uranium and plutonium carbides under extreme conditions is essential for designing a new metallic fuel materials for next generation of a nuclear reactor. The present work is devoted to the study of the thermal radiative and thermodynamic properties of liquid and solid uranium and plutonium carbides at their melting/freezing temperatures. The Stefan-Boltzmann law, total energy density, number density of photons, Helmholtz free energy density, internal energy density, enthalpy density, entropy density, heat capacity at constant volume, pressure, and normal total emissivity are calculated using experimental data for the frequency dependence of the normal spectral emissivity of liquid and solid uranium and plutonium carbides in the visible-near infrared range. It is shown that the thermal radiative and thermodynamic functions of uranium carbide have a slight difference during liquid-to-solid transition. Unlike UC, such a difference between these functions have not been established for plutonium carbide. The calculated values for the normal total emissivity of uranium and plutonium carbides at their melting temperatures is in good agreement with experimental data. The obtained results allow to calculate the thermal radiative and thermodynamic properties of liquid and solid uranium and plutonium carbides for any size of samples. Based on the model of Hagen-Rubens and the Wiedemann-Franz law, a new method to determine the thermal conductivity of metals and carbides at the melting points is proposed.
Thermodynamic and transport properties of frozen and reacting pH2-oH2 mixtures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carter, H. G.; Bullock, R. E.
1972-01-01
Application of experimental state data and spectroscopic term values shows that the thermodynamic and transport properties of reacting pH2-oH2 mixtures are considerably different than those of chemically frozen pH2 at temperatures below 300 R. Calculated H-S data also show that radiation-induced pH2-oH2 equilibration at constant enthalpy produces a temperature drop of at least 28 R, corresponding to an ideal shaft work loss of 15% or more for a turbine operating downstream from the point of conversion. Aside from differences in thermodynamic and transport properties, frozen pH2-oH2 mixtures may differ from pure pH2 on a purely hydrodynamical basis.
Atomistic calculations of interface elastic properties in noncoherent metallic bilayers
Mi Changwen; Jun, Sukky; Kouris, Demitris A.
2008-02-15
The paper describes theoretical and computational studies associated with the interface elastic properties of noncoherent metallic bicrystals. Analytical forms of interface energy, interface stresses, and interface elastic constants are derived in terms of interatomic potential functions. Embedded-atom method potentials are then incorporated into the model to compute these excess thermodynamics variables, using energy minimization in a parallel computing environment. The proposed model is validated by calculating surface thermodynamic variables and comparing them with preexisting data. Next, the interface elastic properties of several fcc-fcc bicrystals are computed. The excess energies and stresses of interfaces are smaller than those on free surfacesmore » of the same crystal orientations. In addition, no negative values of interface stresses are observed. Current results can be applied to various heterogeneous materials where interfaces assume a prominent role in the systems' mechanical behavior.« less
Campbell, Matthew Frederick; Owen, Kyle G.; Davidson, David F.
The purpose of this article is to explore the dependence of calculated postshock thermodynamic properties in shock tube experiments upon the vibrational state of the test gas and upon the uncertainties inherent to calculation inputs. This paper first offers a comparison between state variables calculated according to a Rankine–Hugoniot–equation-based algorithm, known as FROSH, and those derived from shock tube experiments on vibrationally nonequilibrated gases. It is shown that incorrect vibrational relaxation assumptions could lead to errors in temperature as large as 8% for 25% oxygen/argon mixtures at 3500 K. Following this demonstration, this article employs the algorithm to show themore » importance of correct vibrational equilibration assumptions, noting, for instance, that errors in temperature of up to about 2% at 3500 K may be generated for 10% nitrogen/argon mixtures if vibrational relaxation is not treated properly. Lastly, this article presents an extensive uncertainty analysis, showing that postshock temperatures can be calculated with root-of-sum-of-square errors of better than ±1% given sufficiently accurate experimentally measured input parameters.« less
Campbell, Matthew Frederick; Owen, Kyle G.; Davidson, David F.; ...
2017-01-30
The purpose of this article is to explore the dependence of calculated postshock thermodynamic properties in shock tube experiments upon the vibrational state of the test gas and upon the uncertainties inherent to calculation inputs. This paper first offers a comparison between state variables calculated according to a Rankine–Hugoniot–equation-based algorithm, known as FROSH, and those derived from shock tube experiments on vibrationally nonequilibrated gases. It is shown that incorrect vibrational relaxation assumptions could lead to errors in temperature as large as 8% for 25% oxygen/argon mixtures at 3500 K. Following this demonstration, this article employs the algorithm to show themore » importance of correct vibrational equilibration assumptions, noting, for instance, that errors in temperature of up to about 2% at 3500 K may be generated for 10% nitrogen/argon mixtures if vibrational relaxation is not treated properly. Lastly, this article presents an extensive uncertainty analysis, showing that postshock temperatures can be calculated with root-of-sum-of-square errors of better than ±1% given sufficiently accurate experimentally measured input parameters.« less
Equations for calculating the properties of dissociated steam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aminov, R. Z.; Gudym, A. A.
2017-08-01
The equations of state for dissociated steam have been developed in the temperature and pressure ranges of 1250-2300 K and 0.01-10.00 MPa for calculating thermodynamic processes in thermal power units operating on high-temperature steam. These equations are based on the property tables for dissociated steam derived at a reference temperature of 0 K. It is assumed that the initial substance is steam, the dissociation of which—in accordance with the most likely chemical reactions—results in formation of molecules of hydrogen, oxygen, steam, hydroxyl, and atoms of oxygen and hydrogen. Differential thermodynamic correlations, considering a change in the chemical potential and the composition of the mixture, during the steam dissociation are used. A reference temperature of 0.01°C used in the calculation of parameters of nondissociated steam has been adopted to predict processes in thermal power units without matching the reference temperatures and to account for transformation of dissociated steam into its usual form for which there is the international system of equations with the water triple point of 0.01°C taken as the reference. In the investigated region, the deviation of dissociated steam properties from those of nondissociated steam, which increases with decreasing the pressure or increasing the temperature, was determined. For a pressure of 0.02 MPa and a temperature of 2200 K, these deviations are 512 kJ/kg for the enthalpy, 0.2574 kJ/(kg K) for the entropy, and 3.431 kJ/(kg K) for the heat capacity at constant pressure. The maximum deviation of the dissociated steam properties calculated by the developed equations from the handbook values that these equations are based on does not exceed 0.03-0.05%.
The OpenCalphad thermodynamic software interface
Sundman, Bo; Kattner, Ursula R; Sigli, Christophe; Stratmann, Matthias; Le Tellier, Romain; Palumbo, Mauro; Fries, Suzana G
2017-01-01
Thermodynamic data are needed for all kinds of simulations of materials processes. Thermodynamics determines the set of stable phases and also provides chemical potentials, compositions and driving forces for nucleation of new phases and phase transformations. Software to simulate materials properties needs accurate and consistent thermodynamic data to predict metastable states that occur during phase transformations. Due to long calculation times thermodynamic data are frequently pre-calculated into “lookup tables” to speed up calculations. This creates additional uncertainties as data must be interpolated or extrapolated and conditions may differ from those assumed for creating the lookup table. Speed and accuracy requires that thermodynamic software is fully parallelized and the Open-Calphad (OC) software is the first thermodynamic software supporting this feature. This paper gives a brief introduction to computational thermodynamics and introduces the basic features of the OC software and presents four different application examples to demonstrate its versatility. PMID:28260838
Thermodynamic Properties of Polyphenylquinoxaline in the Temperature Range of T → 0 to 570 K
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnova, N. N.; Markin, A. V.; Samosudova, Ya. S.; Bykova, T. A.; Shifrina, Z. B.; Serkova, E. S.; Kuchkina, N. V.
2018-02-01
The thermodynamic properties of amorphous polyphenylquinoxaline in the temperature range of 6 to 570 K are studied via precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. The thermodynamic characteristics of glass transition are determined. Standard thermodynamic functions C ° p, H°( T) - H°(0), S°( T) - S°(0), and G°( T) - H°(0) in the range of T → 0 to 570 K and the standard entropy of formation at T = 298.15 K are calculated. The low-temperature ( T ≤ 50 K) heat capacity is analyzed using a multifractal model for the processing of heat capacity, fractal dimension D values are determined, and conclusions on the topological structure of the compound are drawn.
Thermodynamic properties by Equation of state of liquid sodium under pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Huaming; Sun, Yongli; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Mo
Isothermal bulk modulus, molar volume and speed of sound of molten sodium are calculated through an equation of state of a power law form within good precision as compared with the experimental data. The calculated internal energy data show the minimum along the isothermal lines as the previous result but with slightly larger values. The calculated values of isobaric heat capacity show the unexpected minimum in the isothermal compression. The temperature and pressure derivative of various thermodynamic quantities in liquid Sodium are derived. It is discussed about the contribution from entropy to the temperature and pressure derivative of isothermal bulk modulus. The expressions for acoustical parameter and nonlinearity parameter are obtained based on thermodynamic relations from the equation of state. Both parameters for liquid Sodium are calculated under high pressure along the isothermal lines by using the available thermodynamic data and numeric derivations. By comparison with the results from experimental measurements and quasi-thermodynamic theory, the calculated values are found to be very close at melting point at ambient condition. Furthermore, several other thermodynamic quantities are also presented. Scientific Research Starting Foundation from Taiyuan university of Technology, Shanxi Provincial government (``100-talents program''), China Scholarship Council and National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grant No. 11204200.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semelsberger, Troy A.; Borup, Rodney L.
The production of a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed by dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming was investigated using calculations of thermodynamic equilibrium as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0.00-4.00), temperature (100-600 °C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species. Species considered were acetone, acetylene, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, dimethyl ether, ethane, ethanol, ethylene, formaldehyde, formic acid, hydrogen, isopropanol, methane, methanol, methyl-ethyl ether, n-propanol and water. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of DME steam reforming indicate complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide at temperatures greater than 200 °C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure ( P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure shifts the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 to 5 atm decreases the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5 to 76.2%. The trend of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction is methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol-formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. Based on the equilibrium calculations, the optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occur at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.50, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 °C. These thermodynamic equilibrium calculations show dimethyl ether processed with steam will produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds—with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. The conversion of dimethyl ether via hydrolysis (considering methanol as the only product) is limited by thermodynamic equilibrium. Equilibrium conversion increases with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio. A maximum dimethyl ether conversion of 62% is achieved at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 5.00 and a processing temperature of 600 °C.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Linlin; Wang, Xiaohua; Cressault, Yann; Teulet, Philippe; Rong, Mingzhe
2016-09-01
The metallic vapours (i.e., copper, iron, and silver in this paper) resulting from walls and/or electrode surfaces can significantly affect the characteristics of air plasma. Different from the previous works assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium, this paper investigates the influence of metallic vapours on two-temperature (2 T) air plasma. The 2 T compositions of air contaminated by Cu, Fe, and Ag are first determined based on Saha's and Guldberg-Waage's laws. The thermodynamic properties (including mass density, specific enthalpy, and specific heat) are then calculated according to their definitions. After determining the collision integrals for each pair of species in air-metal mixtures using the newly published methods and source data, the transport coefficients (including electrical conductivity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity) are calculated for air-Cu, air-Fe, and air-Ag plasmas with different non-equilibrium degree θ (Te/Th). The influences of metallic contamination as well as non-equilibrium degree are discussed. It is found that copper, iron, and silver exist mainly in the form of Cu2, FeO, and AgO at low temperatures. Generally, the metallic vapours increase mass density at most temperatures, reduce the specific enthalpy and specific heat in the whole temperature range, and affect the transport properties remarkably from 5000 K to 20 000 K. The effect arising from the type of metals is little except for silver at certain temperatures. Besides, the departure from thermal equilibrium results in the delay of dissociation and ionization reactions, leading to the shift of thermodynamic and transport properties towards a higher temperature.
Thermodynamical properties of liquid lanthanides-A variational approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patel, H. P.; Thakor, P. B.; Sonvane, Y. A.
2015-06-01
Thermodynamical properties like Entropy (S), Internal energy (E) and Helmholtz free energy (F) of liquid lanthanides using a variation principle based on the Gibbs-Bogoliubuv (GB) inequality with Percus Yevick hard sphere reference system have been reported in the present investigation. To describe electron-ion interaction we have used our newly constructed parameter free model potential along with Sarkar et al. local field correction function. Lastly, we conclude that our newly constructed model potential is capable to explain the thermodynamical properties of liquid lanthanides.
Thermodynamical properties of liquid lanthanides-A variational approach
Patel, H. P.; Department of Applied Physics, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat 395 007, Gujarat; Thakor, P. B., E-mail: pbthakor@rediffmail.com
2015-06-24
Thermodynamical properties like Entropy (S), Internal energy (E) and Helmholtz free energy (F) of liquid lanthanides using a variation principle based on the Gibbs-Bogoliubuv (GB) inequality with Percus Yevick hard sphere reference system have been reported in the present investigation. To describe electron-ion interaction we have used our newly constructed parameter free model potential along with Sarkar et al. local field correction function. Lastly, we conclude that our newly constructed model potential is capable to explain the thermodynamical properties of liquid lanthanides.
Donohue, M.D.
It is the purpose of this research program to develop a model to predict the thermodynamic properties of coal derivatives. Unlike natural gas and petroleum, coal and its gasification and liquefaction products are predominantly aromatic and have substantial quadrupole moments. Because of these quadrupole forces, the numerous correlational techniques that have been developed for petroleum products cannot be used to predict the thermodynamic properties of coal derivatives. We are presently developing a correlation that will be useful in predicting the thermodynamic properties of coal derivatives. This theory is based on the Perturbed-Hard-Chain theory, but is different from PHCT in twomore » respects. First, PHCT uses a square-well to describe the intermolecular potential energy between two molecules. In our new theory, the Lennard-Jones potential energy function is used. The second difference is that we take into account the effect of quadrupole forces on the intermolecular potential energy. In PHCT these forces were ignored. In PHCT the contributions to the partition function (or equation of state) that arise from the attractive forces between molecules (regardless of whether these forces are treated as a square-well or by Lennard-Jones) are calculated by assuming that they are perturbations on a hard sphere. In calculating the contributions to the partition function that arise from the quadrupole-quadrupole interactions, we use a second order perturbation about the Lennard-Jones. For aromatic molecules, the effect of this additional perturbation is significant.« less
Temperature Dependence of Thermodynamic Properties of Thallium Chloride and Thallium Bromide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kavanoz, H. B.
2015-02-01
Thermodynamic properties as lattice parameters, thermal expansion, heat capacities Cp and Cv, bulk modulus, and Gruneisen parameter of ionic halides TlCl and TlBr in solid and liquid phases were studied using classical molecular dynamics simulation (MD) with interionic Vashistha-Rahman (VR) model potential. In addition to the static and transport properties which have been previously reported by the author [13], this study further confirms that temperature dependence of the calculated thermophysical properties of TlCl and TlBr are in agreement with the available experimental data at both solid and liquid phases in terms of providing an alternative rigid ion potential. The results give a fairly good description of TlCl and TlBr in the temperature range 10-1000 K.
Porsev, Vitaly V; Bandura, Andrei V; Evarestov, Robert A
2016-06-15
A zone-folding approach is applied to estimate the thermodynamic properties of V2 O5 -based nanotubes. The results obtained are compared with those from the direct calculations. It is shown that the zone-folding approximation allows an accurate estimation of nanotube thermodynamic properties and gives a gain in computation time compared to their direct calculations. Both approaches show that temperature effects do not change the relative stability of V2 O5 free layers and nanotubes derived from the α- and γ-phase. The internal energy thermal contributions into the strain energy of nanotubes are small and can be ignored. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnov, N. A.
2018-03-01
The paper investigates the role of spin-orbit interaction in the prediction of structural stability, lattice dynamics, elasticity, thermodynamic and transport properties (electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity) of lead under pressure with the FP-LMTO (full-potential linear-muffin-tin orbital) method for the first-principles band structure calculations. Our calculations were carried out for three polymorphous lead modifications (fcc, hcp, and bcc) in generalized gradient approximation with the exchange-correlation functional PBEsol. They suggest that compared to the scalar-relativistic calculation, the account for the SO effects insignificantly influences the compressibility of Pb. At the same time, in the calculation of phonon spectra and transport properties, the role of SO interaction is important, at least, for P ≲150 GPa. At higher pressures, the contribution from SO interaction reduces but not vanishes. As for the relative structural stability, our studies show that SO effects influence weakly the pressure of the fcc →hcp transition and much higher the pressure of the hcp →bcc transition.
Ab initio study of phonon dispersion and thermodynamic properties of pure and doped pyrites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Musari, Abolore A.; Joubert, Daniel P.; Olowofela, Joseph A.; Akinwale, Adio T.; Adebayo, Gboyega A.
2017-12-01
Pyrites (FeS2) are solid minerals that are found abundantly in Nigeria and are easy to prepare in laboratories. In this work, FeS2 is studied extensively in its pure state as well as when iron is substitutionally doped with zinc and calcium at concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1. Using density functional theory, the eectronic, dynamic and thermodynamic properties were calculated. The results revealed that the lattice parameters and bulk modulus increases with increasing concentration and the obtained values are in agreement with available experimental and theoretical values. Though pyrite, when doped with zinc, obeys Vegard's law, doping with calcium revealed pronounced deviation from this law. The calculated band structures showed that FeS2 has an indirect band gap whose size decreases after introducing zinc while doping with calcium increases the band gap. The phonon dispersion of the end members FeS2 and ZnS2 indicate that the systems are dynamically stable while CaS2 is dynamically unstate. Also, the thermodynamic properties of the pure and doped pyrites were calculated and the ranges of temperature at which the lattice and electronic degrees of freedom contribute to the specific heat capacity are presented.
The thermodynamic properties of normal liquid helium 3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modarres, M.; Moshfegh, H. R.
2009-09-01
The thermodynamic properties of normal liquid helium 3 are calculated by using the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method. The Landau Fermi liquid model and Fermi-Dirac distribution function are considered as our statistical model for the uncorrelated quantum fluid picture and the Lennard-Jones and Aziz potentials are used in our truncated cluster expansion (LOCV) to calculate the correlated energy. The single particle energy is treated variationally through an effective mass. The free energy, pressure, entropy, chemical potential and liquid phase diagram as well as the helium 3 specific heat are evaluated, discussed and compared with the corresponding available experimental data. It is found that the critical temperature for the existence of the pure gas phase is about 4.90 K (4.45 K), which is higher than the experimental prediction of 3.3 K, and the helium 3 flashing temperature is around 0.61 K (0.50 K) for the Lennard-Jones (Aziz) potential.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Leini; Jian, Zhang; Ning, Wei
2018-06-01
The phonon, elastic and thermodynamic properties of L12 phase Rh3Ta have been investigated by the density functional theory (DFT) approach combined with the quasi-harmonic approximation model. The results of the phonon band structure show that L12 phase Rh3Ta possesses dynamical stability in the pressure range from 0-80 GPa due to the absence of imaginary frequencies. The pressure dependences with the elastic constants Cij, shear modulus G, bulk modulus B, Young’s modulus Y, Poisson’s ratio and B/G ratio have been analyzed. The results of the elastic properties studies show that L12 phase Rh3Ta compound is mechanically stable and possesses a higher hardness, improved ductility and plasticity under higher pressures. The pressure and temperature relationship of the thermodynamic properties, such as the Debye temperature ΘD, heat capacity Cp, thermal expansion coefficient α and the Grüneisen parameter γ are predicted by the quasi-harmonic Debye model in a wide pressure (0-80 GPa) and temperature (0-750 K) ranges.
Equation of State for the Thermodynamic Properties of 1,1,2,2,3-Pentafluoropropane (R-245ca)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Yong; Lemmon, Eric W.
2016-03-01
An equation of state for the calculation of the thermodynamic properties of 1,1,2,2,3-pentafluoropropane (R-245ca), which is a hydrofluorocarbon refrigerant, is presented. The equation of state (EOS) is expressed in terms of the Helmholtz energy as a function of temperature and density, and can calculate all thermodynamic properties through the use of derivatives of the Helmholtz energy. The equation is valid for all liquid, vapor, and supercritical states of the fluid, and is valid from the triple point to 450 K, with pressures up to 10 MPa. Comparisons to experimental data are given to verify the stated uncertainties in the EOS. The estimated uncertainty for density is 0.1 % in the liquid phase between 243 K and 373 K with pressures up to 6.5 MPa; the uncertainties increase outside this range, and are unknown. The uncertainty in vapor-phase speed of sound is 0.1 %. The uncertainty in vapor pressure is 0.2 % between 270 K and 393 K. The uncertainties in other regions and properties are unknown due to a lack of experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baaziz, H.; Guendouz, Dj.; Charifi, Z.; Akbudak, S.; Uğur, G.; Uğur, Ş.; Boudiaf, K.
2017-12-01
The structural, electronic, elastic and thermodynamic properties of Curium Monopnictides CmX (X = N, P, As, Sb and Bi) are investigated using first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT) and full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method under ambient condition and high pressure. The exchange-correlation term is treated using two approximations spin-polarized local density approximation (LSDA) and spin-polarized generalized gradient approximation generalized (GGA). The structural parameters such as the equilibrium lattice parameters, bulk modulus and the total energies are calculated in two phases: namely NaCl (B1) and CsCl (B2). The obtained results are compared with the previous theoretical and experimental results. A structural phase transition from B1 phase to B2 phase for Curium pnictides has been obtained. The highest transition pressure is 122 GPa for CmN and the lowest one is 10.0 GPa for CmBi compound. The electronic properties show that these materials exhibit half-metallic behavior in both phases. The magnetic moment is found to be around 7.0 μB. The mechanical properties of CmX (X = N, P, As, Sb and Bi) are predicted from the calculated elastic constants. Our calculated results are in good agreement with the theoretical results in literature. The effect of pressure and temperature on the thermodynamic properties like the cell volume, bulk modulus and the specific heats C𝜗 and CP, the entropy 𝒮 and the Grüneisen parameter γ have been foreseen at expanded pressure and temperature ranges.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokolova, Tatiana S.; Dorogokupets, Peter I.; Dymshits, Anna M.; Danilov, Boris S.; Litasov, Konstantin D.
2016-09-01
We present Microsoft Excel spreadsheets for calculation of thermodynamic functions and P-V-T properties of MgO, diamond and 9 metals, Al, Cu, Ag, Au, Pt, Nb, Ta, Mo, and W, depending on temperature and volume or temperature and pressure. The spreadsheets include the most common pressure markers used in in situ experiments with diamond anvil cell and multianvil techniques. The calculations are based on the equation of state formalism via the Helmholtz free energy. The program was developed using Visual Basic for Applications in Microsoft Excel and is a time-efficient tool to evaluate volume, pressure and other thermodynamic functions using T-P and T-V data only as input parameters. This application is aimed to solve practical issues of high pressure experiments in geosciences and mineral physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helgeson, Harold C.; Owens, Christine E.; Knox, Annette M.; Richard, Laurent
1998-03-01
Calculation of the thermodynamic properties of organic solids, liquids, and gases at high temperatures and pressures is a requisite for characterizing hydrothermal metastable equilibrium states involving these species and quantifying the chemical affinities of irreversible reactions of organic molecules in natural gas, crude oil, kerogen, and coal with minerals and organic, inorganic, and biomolecular aqueous species in interstitial waters in sedimentary basins. To facilitate calculations of this kind, coefficients for the Parameters From Group Contributions (PFGC) equation of state have been compiled for a variety of groups in organic liquids and gases. In addition, molecular weights, critical temperatures and pressures, densities at 25°C and 1 bar, transition, melting, and boiling temperatures ( Tt,Pr, Tm,Pr, and Tv,Pr, respectively) and standard molal enthalpies of transition (Δ H° t,Pr), melting (Δ H° m,Pr), and vaporization (Δ H° v,Pr) of organic species at 1 bar ( Pr) have been tabulated, together with an internally consistent and comprehensive set of standard molal Gibbs free energies and enthalpies of formation from the elements in their stable state at 298.15 K ( Tr) and Pr (Δ G° f and Δ H° f, respectively). The critical compilation also includes standard molal entropies ( S°) and volumes ( V°) at Tr and Pr, and standard molal heat capacity power function coefficients to compute the standard molal thermodynamic properties of organic solids, liquids, and gases as a function of temperature at 1 bar. These properties and coefficients have been tabulated for more than 500 crystalline solids, liquids, and gases, and those for many more can be computed from the equations of state group additivity algorithms. The crystalline species correspond to normal alkanes (C nH 2( n+1) ) with carbon numbers ( n, which is equal to the number of moles of carbon atoms in one mole of the species) ranging from 5 to 100, and 23 amino acids including glycine (C 2H 5NO
Thermodynamic wetness loss calculation in nozzle and turbine cascade: nucleating steam flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joseph, Joby; Subramanian, Sathyanarayanan; Vigney, K.; Prasad, B. V. S. S. S.; Biswas, D.
2017-11-01
Rapid expansion of steam in turbines and nozzles cause condensation. The formation of liquid droplets due to condensation results in wetness losses, which include aerodynamic losses (due to friction between liquid droplets and the vapour), thermodynamic losses (due to irreversible latent heat addition), and braking losses (due to the impact of liquid droplets on the turbine blade). In this study, a numerical investigation of the thermodynamic loss in a nucleating steam flow is performed. The thermodynamic loss is calculated using the change in entropy due to condensation. The effect of different operating conditions on the thermodynamic loss is estimated for a nozzle and turbine cascade in a nucleating flow. The non-equilibrium condensation in high-speed steam flows is modelled using Eulerian-Eulerian approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Achsah, R. S.; Shyam, S.; Mayuri, N.; Anantharaj, R.
2018-04-01
Deep eutectic solvents (DES) and ionic liquids (ILs) have their applications in various fields of research and in industries due to their attractive physiochemical properties. In this study, the combined thermodynamic properties of DES (choline chloride-glycerol) + IL1 (1-butyl-3-methylimiazolium acetate) and DES(choline chloride-glycerol) + IL2 (1-ethyl-3-methylimadzolium ethyl sulphate) have been studied. The thermodynamic properties such as excess molar volume, partial molar volume, excess partial molar volume and apparent molar volume were calculated for different mole fractions ranging from 0 to 1 and varying temperatures from 293.15 K to 343.15 K. In order to know the solvent properties of DESs and ILs mixtures at different temperatures and their molecular interactions to enhance the solvent performance and process efficiency at fixed composition and temperature the thermodynamic properties were analyzed.
Simple optimized Brenner potential for thermodynamic properties of diamond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, F.; Tang, Q. H.; Shang, B. S.; Wang, T. C.
2012-02-01
We have examined the commonly used Brenner potentials in the context of the thermodynamic properties of diamond. A simple optimized Brenner potential is proposed that provides very good predictions of the thermodynamic properties of diamond. It is shown that, compared to the experimental data, the lattice wave theory of molecular dynamics (LWT) with this optimized Brenner potential can accurately predict the temperature dependence of specific heat, lattice constant, Grüneisen parameters and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of diamond.
CAP: A Computer Code for Generating Tabular Thermodynamic Functions from NASA Lewis Coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zehe, Michael J.; Gordon, Sanford; McBride, Bonnie J.
2001-01-01
For several decades the NASA Glenn Research Center has been providing a file of thermodynamic data for use in several computer programs. These data are in the form of least-squares coefficients that have been calculated from tabular thermodynamic data by means of the NASA Properties and Coefficients (PAC) program. The source thermodynamic data are obtained from the literature or from standard compilations. Most gas-phase thermodynamic functions are calculated by the authors from molecular constant data using ideal gas partition functions. The Coefficients and Properties (CAP) program described in this report permits the generation of tabulated thermodynamic functions from the NASA least-squares coefficients. CAP provides considerable flexibility in the output format, the number of temperatures to be tabulated, and the energy units of the calculated properties. This report provides a detailed description of input preparation, examples of input and output for several species, and a listing of all species in the current NASA Glenn thermodynamic data file.
Thermodynamic properties of triangle-well fluids in two dimensions: MC and MD simulations.
Reyes, Yuri; Bárcenas, Mariana; Odriozola, Gerardo; Orea, Pedro
2016-11-07
With the aim of providing complementary data of the thermodynamics properties of the triangular well potential, the vapor/liquid phase diagrams for such potential with different interaction ranges were calculated in two dimensions by Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations; also, the vapor/liquid interfacial tension was calculated. As reported for other interaction potentials, it was observed that the reduction of the dimensionality makes the phase diagram to shrink. Finally, with the aid of reported data for the same potential in three dimensions, it was observed that this potential does not follow the principle of corresponding states.
Thermodynamic properties of lanthanum in gallium-zinc alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dedyukhin, A. S.; Shepin, I. E.; Kharina, E. A.; Shchetinskiy, A. V.; Volkovich, V. A.; Yamshchikov, L. F.
2016-09-01
Thermodynamic properties of lanthanum were determined in gallium-zinc alloys of the eutectic and over-eutectic compositions. The electromotive force measurements were used to determine thermodynamic activity and sedimentation technique to measure solubility of lanthanum in liquid metal alloys. Temperature dependencies of lanthanum activity, solubility and activity coefficients in alloys with Ga-Zn mixtures containing 3.64, 15 and 50 wt. % zinc were obtained.
Computational Calorimetry: High-Precision Calculation of Host–Guest Binding Thermodynamics
2015-01-01
We present a strategy for carrying out high-precision calculations of binding free energy and binding enthalpy values from molecular dynamics simulations with explicit solvent. The approach is used to calculate the thermodynamic profiles for binding of nine small molecule guests to either the cucurbit[7]uril (CB7) or β-cyclodextrin (βCD) host. For these systems, calculations using commodity hardware can yield binding free energy and binding enthalpy values with a precision of ∼0.5 kcal/mol (95% CI) in a matter of days. Crucially, the self-consistency of the approach is established by calculating the binding enthalpy directly, via end point potential energy calculations, and indirectly, via the temperature dependence of the binding free energy, i.e., by the van’t Hoff equation. Excellent agreement between the direct and van’t Hoff methods is demonstrated for both host–guest systems and an ion-pair model system for which particularly well-converged results are attainable. Additionally, we find that hydrogen mass repartitioning allows marked acceleration of the calculations with no discernible cost in precision or accuracy. Finally, we provide guidance for accurately assessing numerical uncertainty of the results in settings where complex correlations in the time series can pose challenges to statistical analysis. The routine nature and high precision of these binding calculations opens the possibility of including measured binding thermodynamics as target data in force field optimization so that simulations may be used to reliably interpret experimental data and guide molecular design. PMID:26523125
Thermodynamic properties of small aggregates of rare-gas atoms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Etters, R. D.; Kaelberer, J.
1975-01-01
The present work reports on the equilibrium thermodynamic properties of small clusters of xenon, krypton, and argon atoms, determined from a biased random-walk Monte Carlo procedure. Cluster sizes ranged from 3 to 13 atoms. Each cluster was found to have an abrupt liquid-gas phase transition at a temperature much less than for the bulk material. An abrupt solid-liquid transition is observed for thirteen- and eleven-particle clusters. For cluster sizes smaller than 11, a gradual transition from solid to liquid occurred over a fairly broad range of temperatures. Distribution of number of bond lengths as a function of bond length was calculated for several systems at various temperatures. The effects of box boundary conditions are discussed. Results show the importance of a correct description of boundary conditions. A surprising result is the slow rate at which system properties approach bulk behavior as cluster size is increased.
Thermodynamic properties of chlorite and berthierine derived from calorimetric measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blanc, Philippe; Gailhanou, Hélène; Rogez, Jacques; Mikaelian, Georges; Kawaji, Hitoshi; Warmont, Fabienne; Gaboreau, Stéphane; Grangeon, Sylvain; Grenèche, Jean-Marc; Vieillard, Philippe; Fialips, Claire I.; Giffaut, Eric; Gaucher, Eric C.; Claret, F.
2014-09-01
In the context of the deep waste disposal, we have investigated the respective stabilities of two iron-bearing clay minerals: berthierine ISGS from Illinois [USA; (Al0.975FeIII0.182FeII1.422Mg0.157Li0.035Mn0.002)(Si1.332Al0.668)O5(OH)4] and chlorite CCa-2 from Flagstaff Hill, California [USA; (Si2.633Al1.367)(Al1.116FeIII0.215Mg2.952FeII1.712Mn0.012Ca0.011)O10(OH)8]. For berthierine, the complete thermodynamic dataset was determined at 1 bar and from 2 to 310 K, using calorimetric methods. The standard enthalpies of formation were obtained by solution-reaction calorimetry at 298.15 K, and the heat capacities were measured by heat-pulse calorimetry. For chlorite, the standard enthalpy of formation is measured by solution-reaction calorimetry at 298.15 K. This is completing the entropy and heat capacity obtained previously by Gailhanou et al. (Geochim Cosmochim Acta 73:4738-4749, 2009) between 2 and 520 K, by using low-temperature adiabatic calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. For both minerals, the standard entropies and the Gibbs free energies of formation at 298.15 K were then calculated. An assessment of the measured properties could be carried out with respect to literature data. Eventually, the thermodynamic dataset allowed realizing theoretical calculations concerning the berthierine to chlorite transition. The latter showed that, from a thermodynamic viewpoint, the main factor controlling this transition is probably the composition of the berthierine and chlorite minerals and the nature of the secondary minerals rather than temperature.
Migdisov, Artaches; Williams-Jones, A. E.; Brugger, J.; ...
2016-06-11
For many years, our understanding of the behavior of the REE in hydrothermal systems was based on semi-empirical estimates involving extrapolation of thermodynamic data obtained at 25 °C. Since then, a substantial body of experimental data has accumulated on the stability of aqueous complexes of the REE. These data have shown that some of the predictions of Haas et al. (1995) are accurate, but others may be in error by several orders of magnitude. However, application of the data in modeling hydrothermal transport and deposition of the REE has been severely hampered by the lack of data on the thermodynamicmore » properties of even the most common REE minerals. The discrepancies between the predictions and experimental determinations of the thermodynamic properties of aqueous REE species, together with the paucity of data on the stability of REE minerals, raise serious questions about the reliability of some models that have been proposed for the hydrothermal mobility of these critical metals. In this contribution, we review a body of high-temperature experimental data collected over the past 15 years on the stability of REE aqueous species and minerals. Using this new thermodynamic dataset, we re-evaluate the mechanisms responsible for hydrothermal transport and deposition of the REE. We also discuss the mechanisms that can result in REE fractionation during their hydrothermal transport and deposition. Here, our calculations suggest that in hydrothermal solutions, the main REE transporting ligands are chloride and sulfate, whereas fluoride, carbonate, and phosphate likely play an important role as depositional ligands. In addition to crystallographic fractionation, which is based on the differing affinity of mineral structures for the REE, our models suggest that the REE can be fractionated hydrothermally due to the differences in the stability of the LREE and HREE as aqueous chloride complexes.« less
Turboexpander calculations using a generalized equation of state correlation
Han, M.S.; Starling, K.E.
1975-01-01
A generalized method for predicting the thermodynamic properties of natural gas fluids has been developed and tested. The results of several comparisons between thermodynamic property values predicted by the method and experimental data are presented. Comparisons of predicted and experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium are presented. These comparisons indicate that the generalized correlation can be used to predict many thermodynamic properties of natural gas and LNG. Turboexpander calculations are presented to show the utility of the generalized correlation for process design calculations.
Equation of State for the Thermodynamic Properties of trans-1,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene [R-1234ze(E)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thol, Monika; Lemmon, Eric W.
2016-03-01
An equation of state for the calculation of the thermodynamic properties of the hydrofluoroolefin refrigerant R-1234ze(E) is presented. The equation of state (EOS) is expressed in terms of the Helmholtz energy as a function of temperature and density. The formulation can be used for the calculation of all thermodynamic properties through the use of derivatives of the Helmholtz energy. Comparisons to experimental data are given to establish the uncertainty of the EOS. The equation of state is valid from the triple point (169 K) to 420 K, with pressures to 100 MPa. The uncertainty in density in the liquid and vapor phases is 0.1 % from 200 K to 420 K at all pressures. The uncertainty increases outside of this temperature region and in the critical region. In the gaseous phase, speeds of sound can be calculated with an uncertainty of 0.05 %. In the liquid phase, the uncertainty in speed of sound increases to 0.1 %. The estimated uncertainty for liquid heat capacities is 5 %. The uncertainty in vapor pressure is 0.1 %.
Structural and Thermodynamic Properties of Amyloid-β Peptides: Impact of Fragment Size
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitahara, T.; Wise-Scira, O.; Coskuner, O.
2010-10-01
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease whose physiological characteristics include the accumulation of amyloid-containing deposits in the brain and consequent synapse and neuron loss. Unfortunately, most widely used drugs for the treatment can palliate the outer symptoms but cannot cure the disease itself. Hence, developing a new drug that can cure it. Most recently, the ``early aggregation and monomer'' hypothesis has become popular and a few drugs have been developed based on this hypothesis. Detailed understanding of the amyloid-β peptide structure can better help us to determine more effective treatment strategies; indeed, the structure of Amyloid has been studied extensively employing experimental and theoretical tools. Nevertheless, those studies have employed different fragment sizes of Amyloid and characterized its conformational nature in different media. Thus, the structural properties might be different from each other and provide a reason for the existing debates in the literature. Here, we performed all-atom MD simulations and present the structural and thermodynamic properties of Aβ1-16, Aβ1-28, and Aβ1-42 in the gas phase and in aqueous solution. Our studies show that the overall structures, secondary structures, and the calculated thermodynamic properties change with increasing peptide size. In addition, we find that the structural properties of those peptides are different from each other in the gas phase and in aqueous solution.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zehe, Michael J.; Gordon, Sanford; McBride, Bonnie J.
2002-01-01
For several decades the NASA Glenn Research Center has been providing a file of thermodynamic data for use in several computer programs. These data are in the form of least-squares coefficients that have been calculated from tabular thermodynamic data by means of the NASA Properties and Coefficients (PAC) program. The source thermodynamic data are obtained from the literature or from standard compilations. Most gas-phase thermodynamic functions are calculated by the authors from molecular constant data using ideal gas partition functions. The Coefficients and Properties (CAP) program described in this report permits the generation of tabulated thermodynamic functions from the NASA least-squares coefficients. CAP provides considerable flexibility in the output format, the number of temperatures to be tabulated, and the energy units of the calculated properties. This report provides a detailed description of input preparation, examples of input and output for several species, and a listing of all species in the current NASA Glenn thermodynamic data file.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamada, Takahiro
1999-08-01
Reaction pathways and kinetics are analyzed on CH3OC.H2 unimolecular decay and on the complete CH3OC.H2 + O2 reaction system using thermodynamic properties DHdegf 298,Sdeg 298, and Cp(T) 300 <= T/K <= 1500) derived by two ab initio calculation methods, CBS-q and G2. These are used to determine thermodynamic properties of reactants, intermediate radicals and transition state (TS) compounds. Quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) analysis is used to calculate energy dependent rate constants, k(E), and master equation is used to account for collisional stabilization. Comparison of calculated fall-off with experiment indicates that the CBS-q and G2 calculated Ea,rxn for the rate controlling transition state (β-scission reaction to CH 2O + C.H2OOH) needs to be lowered by factor of 3.3 kcal/mol and 4.0 kcal/mol respectively in order to match the data of Sehested et al. Experimental results on dimethyl-ether pyrolysis and oxidation reaction systems are compared with a detailed reaction mechanism model. The computer code CHEMKIN II is used for numerical integration. Overall agreement of the model data with experimental data is very good. Reaction pathways are analyzed and kinetics are determined on formation and reactions of the adduct resulting from OH addition to ethylene using the above ab initio methods. Hydrogen atom tunneling is included by use of Eckart formalism. Rate constants are compared with experimentally determined product branching ratios (C.H2CH 2OH stabilization: CH2O + CH3: CH3CHO + H). ab initio calculations are performed to estimate thermodynamic properties of nine fluorinated ethane compounds (fluoroethane to hexafluoroethane), eight fluoropropane (1-fluoropropane, 1,1- and 1,2- difluoropropane, 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-trifluoropropane, 1,1,1,2- and 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoropropane and 1,1,1,2,2- pentafluoropropane), and 2-fluoro,2-methylpropane. Standard entropies and heat capacities are calculated using the rigid-rotor-harmonic-oscillator approximation with
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Sang-Gyu; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Bong-Sang; Wee, Dang-Moon
2010-12-01
SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel has improved fracture toughness and strength compared to commercial low alloy steels such as SA508 Gr.3 Mn-Mo-Ni low alloy steel, which has less than 1% Ni. Higher strength and fracture toughness of low alloy steels can be achieved by increasing the Ni and Cr contents. In this study, the effects of the alloying elements of Ni and Cr on the microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of SA508 Gr.4N Ni-Mo-Cr low alloy steel are evaluated. Changes in the stable phases of SA508 Gr.4N low alloy steel with these alloying elements were evaluated using thermodynamic calculation software. These values were then compared with the observed microstructural results. Additionally, tensile tests and Charpy impact test were carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties. The thermodynamic calculations show that Ni mainly affects the change of the matrix phase of γ and α rather than the carbide phase. Contrary to the Ni effect, Cr and Mo primarily affect the precipitation behavior of the carbide phases of Cr 23C 6, Cr 7C 3 and Mo 2C. In the microscopic observations, the lath martensitic structure becomes finer as the Ni content increases without affecting the carbides. When the Cr content decreases, the Cr carbide becomes unstable and carbide coarsening occurs. Carbide Mo 2C in the form of fine needles were observed in the high-Mo alloy. Greater strength was obtained after additions of Ni and Mo and the transition properties were improved as the Ni and Cr contents increased. These results were correlated with the thermodynamic calculation results.
Thermodynamic properties of UF sub 6 measured with a ballistic piston compressor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sterritt, D. E.; Lalos, G. T.; Schneider, R. T.
1973-01-01
From experiments performed with a ballistic piston compressor, certain thermodynamic properties of uranium hexafluoride were investigated. Difficulties presented by the nonideal processes encountered in ballistic compressors are discussed and a computer code BCCC (Ballistic Compressor Computer Code) is developed to analyze the experimental data. The BCCC unfolds the thermodynamic properties of uranium hexafluoride from the helium-uranium hexafluoride mixture used as the test gas in the ballistic compressor. The thermodynamic properties deduced include the specific heat at constant volume, the ratio of specific heats for UF6, and the viscous coupling constant of helium-uranium hexafluoride mixtures.
Thermodynamic and transport properties of nitrogen fluid: Molecular theory and computer simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eskandari Nasrabad, A.; Laghaei, R.
2018-04-01
Computer simulations and various theories are applied to compute the thermodynamic and transport properties of nitrogen fluid. To model the nitrogen interaction, an existing potential in the literature is modified to obtain a close agreement between the simulation results and experimental data for the orthobaric densities. We use the Generic van der Waals theory to calculate the mean free volume and apply the results within the modified Cohen-Turnbull relation to obtain the self-diffusion coefficient. Compared to experimental data, excellent results are obtained via computer simulations for the orthobaric densities, the vapor pressure, the equation of state, and the shear viscosity. We analyze the results of the theory and computer simulations for the various thermophysical properties.
Ullmann, R Thomas; Andrade, Susana L A; Ullmann, G Matthias
2012-08-16
Amt-1 from Archaeoglobus fulgidus (AfAmt-1) belongs to the Amt/Rh family of ammonium/ammonia transporting membrane proteins. The transport mode and the precise microscopic permeation mechanism utilized by these proteins are intensely debated. Open questions concern the identity of the transported substrate (ammonia and/or ammonium) and whether the transport is passive or active. To address these questions, we studied the overall thermodynamics of the different transport modes as a function of the environmental conditions. Then, we investigated the thermodynamics of the underlying microscopic transport mechanisms with free energy calculations within a continuum electrostatics model. The formalism developed for this purpose is of general utility in the calculation of binding free energies for ligands with multiple protonation forms or other binding forms. The results of our calculations are compared to the available experimental and theoretical data on Amt/Rh proteins and discussed in light of the current knowledge on the physiological conditions experienced by microorganisms and plants. We found that microscopic models of electroneutral and electrogenic transport modes are in principle thermodynamically viable. However, only the electrogenic variants have a net thermodynamic driving force under the physiological conditions experienced by microorganisms and plants. Thus, the transport mechanism of AfAmt-1 is most likely electrogenic.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Huy H.; Martin, Michael A.
2004-01-01
The two most common approaches used to formulate thermodynamic properties of pure substances are fundamental (or characteristic) equations of state (Helmholtz and Gibbs functions) and a piecemeal approach that is described in Adebiyi and Russell (1992). This paper neither presents a different method to formulate thermodynamic properties of pure substances nor validates the aforementioned approaches. Rather its purpose is to present a method to generate property tables from existing property packages and a method to facilitate the accurate interpretation of fluid thermodynamic property data from those tables. There are two parts to this paper. The first part of the paper shows how efficient and usable property tables were generated, with the minimum number of data points, using an aerospace industry standard property package. The second part describes an innovative interpolation technique that has been developed to properly obtain thermodynamic properties near the saturated liquid and saturated vapor lines.
Predicting structural properties of fluids by thermodynamic extrapolation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahynski, Nathan A.; Jiao, Sally; Hatch, Harold W.; Blanco, Marco A.; Shen, Vincent K.
2018-05-01
We describe a methodology for extrapolating the structural properties of multicomponent fluids from one thermodynamic state to another. These properties generally include features of a system that may be computed from an individual configuration such as radial distribution functions, cluster size distributions, or a polymer's radius of gyration. This approach is based on the principle of using fluctuations in a system's extensive thermodynamic variables, such as energy, to construct an appropriate Taylor series expansion for these structural properties in terms of intensive conjugate variables, such as temperature. Thus, one may extrapolate these properties from one state to another when the series is truncated to some finite order. We demonstrate this extrapolation for simple and coarse-grained fluids in both the canonical and grand canonical ensembles, in terms of both temperatures and the chemical potentials of different components. The results show that this method is able to reasonably approximate structural properties of such fluids over a broad range of conditions. Consequently, this methodology may be employed to increase the computational efficiency of molecular simulations used to measure the structural properties of certain fluid systems, especially those used in high-throughput or data-driven investigations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batool, Javaria; Alay-e-Abbas, Syed Muhammad; Amin, Nasir
2018-04-01
The density functional theory based total energy calculations are performed to examine the effect of charge neutral and fully charged intrinsic vacancy defects on the thermodynamic, electronic, and magnetic properties of Ca3SnO antiperovskite. The chemical stability of Ca3SnO is evaluated with respect to binary compounds CaO, CaSn, and Ca2Sn, and the limits of atomic chemical potentials of Ca, Sn, and O atoms for stable synthesis of Ca3SnO are determined within the generalized gradient approximation parametrization scheme. The electronic properties of the pristine and the non-stoichiometric forms of this compound have been explored and the influence of isolated intrinsic vacancy defects (Ca, Sn, and O) on the structural, bonding, and electronic properties of non-stoichiometric Ca3SnO are analyzed. We also predict the possibility of achieving stable ferromagnetism in non-stoichiometric Ca3SnO by means of charge neutral tin vacancies. From the calculated total energies and the valid ranges of atomic chemical potentials, the formation energetics of intrinsic vacancy defects in Ca3SnO are evaluated for various growth conditions. Our results indicate that the fully charged calcium vacancies are thermodynamically stable under the permissible Sn-rich condition of stable synthesis of Ca3SnO, while tin and oxygen vacancies are found to be stable under the extreme Ca-rich condition.
Thermodynamic properties of an emerging chemical disinfectant, peracetic acid.
Zhang, Chiqian; Brown, Pamela J B; Hu, Zhiqiang
2018-04-15
Peracetic acid (PAA or CH 3 COOOH) is an emerging disinfectant with a low potential to form carcinogenic disinfection by-products (DBPs). Basic thermodynamic properties of PAA are, however, absent or inconsistently reported in the literature. This review aimed to summarize important thermodynamic properties of PAA, including standard Gibbs energy of formation and oxidation-reduction (redox) potential. The standard Gibbs energies of formation of CH 3 COOOH (aq) , CH 3 COOOH (g) , CH 3 COOOH (l) , and CH 3 COOO (aq) - are -299.41kJ·mol -1 , -283.02kJ·mol -1 , -276.10kJ·mol -1 , and -252.60kJ·mol -1 , respectively. The standard redox potentials of PAA are 1.748V and 1.005V vs. standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) at pH 0 and pH 14, respectively. Under biochemical standard state conditions (pH 7, 25°C, 101,325Pa), PAA has a redox potential of 1.385V vs. SHE, higher than many disinfectants. Finally, the environmental implications of the thermodynamic properties of PAA were systematically discussed. Those properties can be used to predict the physicochemical and biological behavior of aquatic systems exposed to PAA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thermodynamic properties for applications in chemical industry via classical force fields.
Guevara-Carrion, Gabriela; Hasse, Hans; Vrabec, Jadran
2012-01-01
Thermodynamic properties of fluids are of key importance for the chemical industry. Presently, the fluid property models used in process design and optimization are mostly equations of state or G (E) models, which are parameterized using experimental data. Molecular modeling and simulation based on classical force fields is a promising alternative route, which in many cases reasonably complements the well established methods. This chapter gives an introduction to the state-of-the-art in this field regarding molecular models, simulation methods, and tools. Attention is given to the way modeling and simulation on the scale of molecular force fields interact with other scales, which is mainly by parameter inheritance. Parameters for molecular force fields are determined both bottom-up from quantum chemistry and top-down from experimental data. Commonly used functional forms for describing the intra- and intermolecular interactions are presented. Several approaches for ab initio to empirical force field parameterization are discussed. Some transferable force field families, which are frequently used in chemical engineering applications, are described. Furthermore, some examples of force fields that were parameterized for specific molecules are given. Molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods for the calculation of transport properties and vapor-liquid equilibria are introduced. Two case studies are presented. First, using liquid ammonia as an example, the capabilities of semi-empirical force fields, parameterized on the basis of quantum chemical information and experimental data, are discussed with respect to thermodynamic properties that are relevant for the chemical industry. Second, the ability of molecular simulation methods to describe accurately vapor-liquid equilibrium properties of binary mixtures containing CO(2) is shown.
Ground-state and Thermodynamic Properties of an S = 1 Kitaev Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koga, Akihisa; Tomishige, Hiroyuki; Nasu, Joji
2018-06-01
We study the ground-state and thermodynamic properties of an S = 1 Kitaev model. We first clarify the existence of global parity symmetry in addition to the local symmetry on each plaquette, which enables us to perform large-scale calculations on up to 24 sites. It is found that the ground state should be singlet, and its energy is estimated as E/N ˜ -0.65J, where J is the Kitaev exchange coupling. We find that the lowest excited state belongs to the same subspace as the ground state, and that the gap decreases monotonically with increasing system size, which suggests that the ground state of the S = 1 Kitaev model is gapless. Using the thermal pure quantum states, we clarify the finite temperature properties characteristic of the Kitaev models with S ≤ 2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, S.; Solana, J. R.
2018-03-01
Monte Carlo NVT simulations have been performed to obtain the thermodynamic and structural properties and perturbation coefficients up to third order in the inverse temperature expansion of the Helmholtz free energy of fluids with potential models proposed in the literature for diamond and wurtzite lattices. These data are used to analyze performance of a coupling parameter series expansion (CPSE). The main findings are summarized as follows, (1) The CPSE provides accurate predictions of the first three coefficient in the inverse temperature expansion of Helmholtz free energy for the potential models considered and the thermodynamic properties of these fluids are predicted more accurately when the CPSE is truncated at second or third order. (2) The Barker-Henderson (BH) recipe is appropriate for determining the effective hard sphere diameter for strongly repulsive potential cores, but its performance worsens with increasing the softness of the potential core. (3) For some thermodynamic properties the first-order CPSE works better for the diamond potential, whose tail is dominated by repulsive interactions, than for the potential, whose tail is dominated by attractive interactions. However, the first-order CPSE provides unsatisfactory results for the excess internal energy and constant-volume excess heat capacity for the two potential models.
Thermodynamic properties derived from the free volume model of liquids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, R. I.
1974-01-01
An equation of state and expressions for the isothermal compressibility, thermal expansion coefficient, heat capacity, and entropy of liquids have been derived from the free volume model partition function suggested by Turnbull. The simple definition of the free volume is used, and it is assumed that the specific volume is directly related to the cube of the intermolecular separation by a proportionality factor which is found to be a function of temperature and pressure as well as specific volume. When values of the proportionality factor are calculated from experimental data for real liquids, it is found to be approximately constant over ranges of temperature and pressure which correspond to the dense liquid phase. This result provides a single-parameter method for calculating dense liquid thermodynamic properties and is consistent with the fact that the free volume model is designed to describe liquids near the solidification point.
Hydrogen interaction with ferrite/cementite interface: ab initio calculations and thermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirzoev, A. A.; Verkhovykh, A. V.; Okishev, K. Yu.; Mirzaev, D. A.
2018-02-01
The paper presents the results of ab initio modelling of the interaction of hydrogen atoms with ferrite/cementite interfaces in steels and thermodynamic assessment of the ability of interfaces to trap hydrogen atoms. Modelling was performed using the density functional theory with generalised gradient approximation (GGA'96), as implemented in WIEN2k package. An Isaichev-type orientation relationship between the two phases was accepted, with a habit plane (101)c ∥ (112)α. The supercell contained 64 atoms (56 Fe and 8 C). The calculated formation energies of ferrite/cementite interface were 0.594 J/m2. The calculated trapping energy at cementite interstitial was 0.18 eV, and at the ferrite/cementite interface - 0.30 eV. Considering calculated zero-point energy, the trapping energies at cementite interstitial and ferrite/cementite interface become 0.26 eV and 0.39 eV, respectively. The values are close to other researchers' data. These results were used to construct a thermodynamic description of ferrite/cementite interface-hydrogen interaction. Absorption calculations using the obtained trapping energy values showed that even thin lamellar ferrite/cementite mixture with an interlamellar spacing smaller than 0.1 μm has noticeable hydrogen trapping ability at a temperature below 400 K.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wentzcovitch, R. M.; Da Silveira, P. R.; Wu, Z.; Yu, Y.
2013-12-01
Today first principles calculations in mineral physics play a fundamental role in understanding of the Earth. They complement experiments by expanding the pressure and temperature range for which properties can be obtained and provide access to atomic scale phenomena. Since the wealth of predictive first principles results can hardly be communicated in printed form, we have developed online applications where published results can be reproduced/verified online and extensive unpublished results can be generated in customized form. So far these applications have included thermodynamics properties of end-member phases and thermal elastic properties of end-member phases and few solid solutions. Extension of this software infrastructure to include other properties is in principle straightforward. This contribution will review the nature of results that can be generated (methods, thermodynamics domain, list of minerals, properties, etc) and nature of the software infrastructure. These applications are part of a more extensive cyber-infrastructure operating in the XSEDE - the VLab Science Gateway [1]. [1] https://www.xsede.org/web/guest/gateways-listing Research supported by NSF grants ATM-0428744 and EAR-1047629.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobsen, Richard T.; Stewart, Richard B.
1973-01-01
Tables of thermodynamic properties of nitrogen are presented for the liquid and vapor phases for temperatures from the freezing line to 2000K and pressures to 10,000 bar. The tables include values of density, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, isochoric heat capacity, isobaric heat capacity velocity of sound, the isotherm derivative, and the isochor derivative. The thermodynamic property tables are based on an equation of state, P=P (p,T), which accurately represents liquid and gaseous nitrogen for the range of pressures and temperatures covered by the tables. Comparisons of property values calculated from the equation of state with measured values for P-p-T, heat capacity, enthalpy, latent heat, and velocity of sound are included to illustrate the agreement between the experimental data and the tables of properties presented here. The coefficients of the equation of state were determined by a weighted least squares fit to selected P-p-T data and, simultaneously, to isochoric heat capacity data determined by corresponding states analysis from oxygen data, and to data which define the phase equilibrium criteria for the saturated liquid and the saturated vapor. The vapor pressure equation, melting curve equation, and an equation to represent the ideal gas heat capacity are also presented. Estimates of the accuracy of the equation of state, the vapor pressure equation, and the ideal gas heat capacity equation are given. The equation of state, derivatives of the equation, and the integral functions for calculating derived thermodynamic properties are included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harvey, J.-P.; Gheribi, A. E.; Chartrand, P.
2012-12-01
In this work, an in silico procedure to generate a fully coherent set of thermodynamic properties obtained from classical molecular dynamics (MD) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations is proposed. The procedure is applied to the Al-Zr system because of its importance in the development of high strength Al-Li alloys and of bulk metallic glasses. Cohesive energies of the studied condensed phases of the Al-Zr system (the liquid phase, the fcc solid solution, and various orthorhombic stoichiometric compounds) are calculated using the modified embedded atom model (MEAM) in the second-nearest-neighbor formalism (2NN). The Al-Zr MEAM-2NN potential is parameterized in this work using ab initio and experimental data found in the literature for the AlZr3-L12 structure, while its predictive ability is confirmed for several other solid structures and for the liquid phase. The thermodynamic integration (TI) method is implemented in a general MC algorithm in order to evaluate the absolute Gibbs energy of the liquid and the fcc solutions. The entropy of mixing calculated from the TI method, combined to the enthalpy of mixing and the heat capacity data generated from MD/MC simulations performed in the isobaric-isothermal/canonical (NPT/NVT) ensembles are used to parameterize the Gibbs energy function of all the condensed phases in the Al-rich side of the Al-Zr system in a CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD) approach. The modified quasichemical model in the pair approximation (MQMPA) and the cluster variation method (CVM) in the tetrahedron approximation are used to define the Gibbs energy of the liquid and the fcc solid solution respectively for their entire range of composition. Thermodynamic and structural data generated from our MD/MC simulations are used as input data to parameterize these thermodynamic models. A detailed analysis of the validity and transferability of the Al-Zr MEAM-2NN potential is presented throughout our work by comparing the predicted properties obtained
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chun Mei; Xu, Chao; Duan, Man Yi
2015-10-01
SnS has potential technical applications, but many of its properties are still not well studied. In this work, the structural, thermodynamic, elastic, and electronic properties of α-SnS have been investigated by the plane wave pseudo-potential density functional theory with the framework of generalised gradient approximation. The calculated pressure-dependent lattice parameters agree well with the available experimental data. Our thermodynamic properties of α-SnS, including heat capacity CP , entropy S, and Gibbs free energy relation of -(GT -H0) curves, show similar growth trends as the experimental data. At T=298.15 K, our CP =52.31 J/mol·K, S=78.93 J/mol·K, and -(GT -H0)=12.03 J/mol all agree very well with experimental data CP =48.77 J/mol·K and 49.25 J/mol·K, S=76.78 J/mol·K, and -(GT -H0)=12.38 J/mol. The elastic constants, together with other elastic properties, are also computed. The anisotropy analyses indicate obvious elastic anisotropy for α-SnS along different symmetry planes and axes. Moreover, calculations demonstrate that α-SnS is an indirect gap semiconductor, and it transforms to semimetal with pressure increasing up to 10.2 GPa. Combined with the density of states, the characters of the band structure have been analysed in detail.
Stability and Elastic, Electronic, and Thermodynamic Properties of Fe2TiSi1- x Sn x Compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jong, Ju-Yong; Yan, Jihong; Zhu, Jingchuan; Kim, Chol-Jin
2017-10-01
We have systematically studied the structural, phase, and mechanical stability and elastic, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of Fe2TiSi1- x Sn x ( x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) compounds using first-principles calculations. The structural and phase stability and elastic properties of Fe2TiSi1- x Sn x ( x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) indicated that all of the compounds are thermodynamically and mechanically stable. The shear modulus, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, electronic band structure, density of states, Debye temperature, and Grüneisen parameter of all the substituted compounds were studied. The results show that Sn substitution in Fe2TiSi enhances its stability and mechanical and thermoelectric properties. The Fe2TiSi1- x Sn x compounds have narrow bandgap from 0.144 eV and 0.472 eV for Sn substitution from 0 to 1. The calculated band structure and density of states (DOS) of Fe2TiSi1- x Sn x show that the thermoelectric properties can be improved at substituent concentration x of 0.75. The lattice thermal conductivity was significantly decreased in the Sn-substituted compounds, and all the results indicate that Fe2TiSi0.25Sn0.75 could be a new candidate high-performance thermoelectric material.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harloff, G. J.
1986-01-01
Real thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrogen, steam, the SSME mixture, and air are developed. The SSME mixture properties are needed for the analysis of the space shuttle main engine fuel turbine. The mixture conditions for the gases, except air, are presented graphically over a temperature range from 800 to 1200 K, and a pressure range from 1 to 500 atm. Air properties are given over a temperature range of 320 to 500 K, which are within the bounds of the thermodynamics programs used, in order to provide mixture data which is more easily checked (than H2/H2O). The real gas property variation of the SSME mixture is quantified. Polynomial expressions, needed for future computer analysis, for viscosity, Prandtl number, and thermal conductivity are given for the H2/H2O SSME fuel turbine mixture at a pressure of 305 atm over a range of temperatures from 950 to 1140 K. These conditions are representative of the SSME turbine operation. Performance calculations are presented for the space shuttle main engine (SSME) fuel turbine. The calculations use the air equivalent concept. Progress towards obtaining the capability to evaluate the performance of the SSME fuel turbine, with the H2/H2O mixture, is described.
Intermolecular interactions and the thermodynamic properties of supercritical fluids.
Yigzawe, Tesfaye M; Sadus, Richard J
2013-05-21
The role of different contributions to intermolecular interactions on the thermodynamic properties of supercritical fluids is investigated. Molecular dynamics simulation results are reported for the energy, pressure, thermal pressure coefficient, thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal and adiabatic compressibilities, isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, Joule-Thomson coefficient, and speed of sound of fluids interacting via both the Lennard-Jones and Weeks-Chandler-Andersen potentials. These properties were obtained for a wide range of temperatures, pressures, and densities. For each thermodynamic property, an excess value is determined to distinguish between attraction and repulsion. It is found that the contributions of intermolecular interactions have varying effects depending on the thermodynamic property. The maxima exhibited by the isochoric and isobaric heat capacities, isothermal compressibilities, and thermal expansion coefficient are attributed to interactions in the Lennard-Jones well. Repulsion is required to obtain physically realistic speeds of sound and both repulsion and attraction are necessary to observe a Joule-Thomson inversion curve. Significantly, both maxima and minima are observed for the isobaric and isochoric heat capacities of the supercritical Lennard-Jones fluid. It is postulated that the loci of these maxima and minima converge to a common point via the same power law relationship as the phase coexistence curve with an exponent of β = 0.32. This provides an explanation for the terminal isobaric heat capacity maximum in supercritical fluids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fisenko, Anatoliy I.; Lemberg, Vladimir
2014-07-01
Using the explicit form of the functions to describe the monopole and dipole spectra of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, the exact expressions for the temperature dependences of the radiative and thermodynamic functions, such as the total radiation power per unit area, total energy density, number density of photons, Helmholtz free energy density, entropy density, heat capacity at constant volume, and pressure in the finite range of frequencies v 1≤ v≤ v 2 are obtained. Since the dependence of temperature upon the redshift z is known, the obtained expressions can be simply presented in z representation. Utilizing experimental data for the monopole and dipole spectra measured by the COBE FIRAS instrument in the 60-600 GHz frequency interval at the temperature T=2.72548 K, the values of the radiative and thermodynamic functions, as well as the radiation density constant a and the Stefan-Boltzmann constant σ are calculated. In the case of the dipole spectrum, the constants a and σ, and the radiative and thermodynamic properties of the CMB radiation are obtained using the mean amplitude T amp=3.358 mK. It is shown that the Doppler shift leads to a renormalization of the radiation density constant a, the Stefan-Boltzmann constant σ, and the corresponding constants for the thermodynamic functions. The expressions for new astrophysical parameters, such as the entropy density/Boltzmann constant, and number density of CMB photons are obtained. The radiative and thermodynamic properties of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation for the monopole and dipole spectra at redshift z≈1089 are calculated.
Electronic and thermodynamic properties of α-Pu2O3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yong; Yang, Yu; Zheng, Fawei; Zhang, Ping
2014-08-01
Based on density functional theory+U calculations and the quasi-annealing simulation method, we obtain the ground electronic state for α-Pu2O3 and present its phonon dispersion curves as well as various thermodynamic properties, which have seldom been theoretically studied because of the huge unit cell. We find that the Pu-O chemical bonding is weaker in α-Pu2O3 than in fluorite PuO2, and subsequently a frequency gap appears between oxygen and plutonium vibration density of states. Based on the calculated Helmholtz free energies at different temperatures, we further study the reaction energies for Pu oxidation, PuO2 reduction, and transformation between PuO2 and α-Pu2O3. Our reaction energy results are in agreements with available experiment. And it is revealed that high temperature and insufficient oxygen environment are in favor of the formation of α-Pu2O3.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Huy H.; Martin, Michael A.
2003-01-01
The availability and proper utilization of fluid properties is of fundamental importance in the process of mathematical modeling of propulsion systems. Real fluid properties provide the bridge between the realm of pure analytiis and empirical reality. The two most common approaches used to formulate thermodynamic properties of pure substances are fundamental (or characteristic) equations of state (Helmholtz and Gibbs functions) and a piecemeal approach that is described, for example, in Adebiyi and Russell (1992). This paper neither presents a different method to formulate thermodynamic properties of pure substances nor validates the aforementioned approaches. Rather its purpose is to present a method to be used to facilitate the accurate interpretation of fluid thermodynamic property data generated by existing property packages. There are two parts to this paper. The first part of the paper shows how efficient and usable property tables were generated, with the minimum number of data points, using an aerospace industry standard property package (based on fundamental equations of state approach). The second part describes an innovative interpolation technique that has been developed to properly obtain thermodynamic properties near the saturated liquid and saturated vapor lines.
Thermoelectric properties of rocksalt ZnO from first-principles calculations
Alvarado, Andrew; Attapattu, Jeevake; Zhang, Yi; ...
2015-10-22
Zinc oxide (ZnO) undergoes a pressure-induced structural transition from its normal ambient-pressure wurtzite (WZ) phase to a rocksalt (RS) phase around 10 GPa. A recent experiment shows that the high-pressure RS ZnO phase can be recovered and stabilized at ambient conditions, which raises exciting prospects of expanding the range of properties of ZnO. For a fundamental understanding of the RS ZnO phase, we have performed first-principles calculations to determine its electronic, phonon, and thermodynamic properties at high (20 GPa) and ambient (0 GPa) pressure. Furthermore, we have calculated its electrical and thermal transport properties, which allow an evaluation of itsmore » thermoelectric figure of merit ZT at different temperature and doping levels. Our calculations show that the ambient-pressure RS ZnO phase can reach ZT values of 0.25 to 0.3 under both n-type and p-type doping in a large temperature range of 400 K to 800 K, which is considerably lower than the temperature range of 1400 K to 1600 K where WZ ZnO reaches similar ZT values. Lastly, these results establish RS ZnO as a promising material for thermoelectric devices designed to operate at temperatures desirable for many heat recovery applications.« less
Thermodynamic properties and atomic structure of Ca-based liquid alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poizeau, Sophie
To identify the most promising positive electrodes for Ca-based liquid metal batteries, the thermodynamic properties of diverse Ca-based liquid alloys were investigated. The thermodynamic properties of Ca-Sb alloys were determined by emf measurements. It was found that Sb as positive electrode would provide the highest voltage for Ca-based liquid metal batteries (1 V). The price of such a battery would be competitive for the grid-scale energy storage market. The impact of Pb, a natural impurity of Sb, was predicted successfully and confirmed via electrochemical measurements. It was shown that the impact on the open circuit voltage would be minor. Indeed, the interaction between Ca and Sb was demonstrated to be much stronger than between Ca and Pb using thermodynamic modeling, which explains why the partial thermodynamic properties of Ca would not vary much with the addition of Pb to Sb. However, the usage of the positive electrode would be reduced, which would limit the interest of a Pb-Sb positive electrode. Throughout this work, the molecular interaction volume model (MIVM) was used for the first time for alloys with thermodynamic properties showing strong negative deviation from ideality. This model showed that systems such as Ca-Sb have strong short-range order: Ca is most stable when its first nearest neighbors are Sb. This is consistent with what the more traditional thermodynamic model, the regular association model, would predict. The advantages of the MIVM are the absence of assumption regarding the composition of an associate, and the reduced number of fitting parameters (2 instead of 5). Based on the parameters derived from the thermodynamic modeling using the MIVM, a new potential of mixing for liquid alloys was defined to compare the strength of interaction in different Ca-based alloys. Comparing this trend with the strength of interaction in the solid state of these systems (assessed by the energy of formation of the intermetallics), the systems with
Thermodynamics of concentrated solid solution alloys
Gao, Michael C.; Zhang, C.; Gao, P.
This study reviews the three main approaches for predicting the formation of concentrated solid solution alloys (CSSA) and for modeling their thermodynamic properties, in particular, utilizing the methodologies of empirical thermo-physical parameters, CALPHAD method, and first-principles calculations combined with hybrid Monte Carlo/Molecular Dynamics (MC/MD) simulations. In order to speed up CSSA development, a variety of empirical parameters based on Hume-Rothery rules have been developed. Herein, these parameters have been systematically and critically evaluated for their efficiency in predicting solid solution formation. The phase stability of representative CSSA systems is then illustrated from the perspectives of phase diagrams and nucleation drivingmore » force plots of the σ phase using CALPHAD method. The temperature-dependent total entropies of the FCC, BCC, HCP, and σ phases in equimolar compositions of various systems are presented next, followed by the thermodynamic properties of mixing of the BCC phase in Al-containing and Ti-containing refractory metal systems. First-principles calculations on model FCC, BCC and HCP CSSA reveal the presence of both positive and negative vibrational entropies of mixing, while the calculated electronic entropies of mixing are negligible. Temperature dependent configurational entropy is determined from the atomic structures obtained from MC/MD simulations. Current status and challenges in using these methodologies as they pertain to thermodynamic property analysis and CSSA design are discussed.« less
Thermodynamics of concentrated solid solution alloys
Gao, Michael C.; Zhang, C.; Gao, P.; ...
2017-10-12
This study reviews the three main approaches for predicting the formation of concentrated solid solution alloys (CSSA) and for modeling their thermodynamic properties, in particular, utilizing the methodologies of empirical thermo-physical parameters, CALPHAD method, and first-principles calculations combined with hybrid Monte Carlo/Molecular Dynamics (MC/MD) simulations. In order to speed up CSSA development, a variety of empirical parameters based on Hume-Rothery rules have been developed. Herein, these parameters have been systematically and critically evaluated for their efficiency in predicting solid solution formation. The phase stability of representative CSSA systems is then illustrated from the perspectives of phase diagrams and nucleation drivingmore » force plots of the σ phase using CALPHAD method. The temperature-dependent total entropies of the FCC, BCC, HCP, and σ phases in equimolar compositions of various systems are presented next, followed by the thermodynamic properties of mixing of the BCC phase in Al-containing and Ti-containing refractory metal systems. First-principles calculations on model FCC, BCC and HCP CSSA reveal the presence of both positive and negative vibrational entropies of mixing, while the calculated electronic entropies of mixing are negligible. Temperature dependent configurational entropy is determined from the atomic structures obtained from MC/MD simulations. Current status and challenges in using these methodologies as they pertain to thermodynamic property analysis and CSSA design are discussed.« less
Thermodynamic Properties of Actinides and Actinide Compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konings, Rudy J. M.; Morss, Lester R.; Fuger, Jean
The necessity of obtaining accurate thermodynamic quantities for the actinide elements and their compounds was recognized at the outset of the Manhattan Project, when a dedicated team of scientists and engineers initiated the program to exploit nuclear energy for military purposes. Since the end of World War II, both fundamental and applied objectives have motivated a great deal of further study of actinide thermodynamics. This chapter brings together many research papers and critical reviews on this subject. It also seeks to assess, to systematize, and to predict important properties of the actinide elements, ions, and compounds, especially for species in which there is significant interest and for which there is an experimental basis for the prediction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zolotorevskii, V. S.; Pozdnyakov, A. V.; Churyumov, A. Yu.
2012-11-01
A calculation-experimental study is carried out to improve the concept of searching for new alloying systems in order to develop new casting alloys using mathematical simulation methods in combination with thermodynamic calculations. The results show the high effectiveness of the applied methods. The real possibility of selecting the promising compositions with the required set of casting and mechanical properties is exemplified by alloys with thermally hardened Al-Cu and Al-Cu-Mg matrices, as well as poorly soluble additives that form eutectic components using mainly the calculation study methods and the minimum number of experiments.
Chughtai, A.R.; Riter, J.R. Jr.
1979-10-18
By the use of the modified computer programs of Gordon and McBride for the determination of heterogeneous phase and chemical equilibria at preassigned temperatures (300-1100 K) and atmospheric pressure (101 325 N m/sup -2/), the oxidation with O/sub 2/ of sulfur-poisoned Raney nickel catalyst and subsequent reduction with H/sub 2/ have been modeled thermodynamically by using the properties of bulk nickel compounds. An alternate process, the direct reduction with H/sub 2/ of the sulfidized nickel, has also been modeled and arguments are advanced for the further investigation of this thermodynamically favored second process. In both processes the mole ratios ofmore » reactants, H/sub 2//NiSO/sub 4/ and H/sub 2//Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/, respectively, for complete disappearance of the last product to be reduced, Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/, increase markedly as the desired temperature for complete thermodynamic reduction decreases. These ratios and the equilibrium activity quotient P/sub H/sub 2///P/sub H/sub 2/S/ have been determined as quantitative functions of this critical reduction temperature. A complete thermodynamic hierarchy of oxidation processes for the reaction of O/sub 2/ with mixtures of Ni and Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/ is developed. From the equilibrium calculations it is brought out that Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/ is relatively more stable both to oxidation with O/sub 2/ than is Ni and to reduction with H/sub 2/ than is NiO. One point of modest connection with experiment is presented for the reduction processes. 1 figure, 1 table.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Younglove, B.; Mccarty, R. D.
1979-01-01
A virial equation of state for nitrogen was determined by use of newly measured speed-of-sound data and existing pressure-density-temperature data in a multiproperty-fitting technique. The experimental data taken were chosen to optimize the equation of state for a pressure range of 0 to 10 atm and for a temperature range of 60 to 350 K. Comparisons are made for thermodynamic properties calculated both from the new equation and from existing equations of state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vlasiuk, Maryna; Frascoli, Federico; Sadus, Richard J.
2016-09-01
The thermodynamic, structural, and vapor-liquid equilibrium properties of neon are comprehensively studied using ab initio, empirical, and semi-classical intermolecular potentials and classical Monte Carlo simulations. Path integral Monte Carlo simulations for isochoric heat capacity and structural properties are also reported for two empirical potentials and one ab initio potential. The isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal pressure coefficient, isothermal and adiabatic compressibilities, Joule-Thomson coefficient, and the speed of sound are reported and compared with experimental data for the entire range of liquid densities from the triple point to the critical point. Lustig's thermodynamic approach is formally extended for temperature-dependent intermolecular potentials. Quantum effects are incorporated using the Feynman-Hibbs quantum correction, which results in significant improvement in the accuracy of predicted thermodynamic properties. The new Feynman-Hibbs version of the Hellmann-Bich-Vogel potential predicts the isochoric heat capacity to an accuracy of 1.4% over the entire range of liquid densities. It also predicts other thermodynamic properties more accurately than alternative intermolecular potentials.
Thermodynamical property of entanglement entropy for excited states.
Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy; Nozaki, Masahiro; Takayanagi, Tadashi; Ugajin, Tomonori
2013-03-01
We argue that the entanglement entropy for a very small subsystem obeys a property which is analogous to the first law of thermodynamics when we excite the system. In relativistic setups, its effective temperature is proportional to the inverse of the subsystem size. This provides a universal relationship between the energy and the amount of quantum information. We derive the results using holography and confirm them in two-dimensional field theories. We will also comment on an example with negative specific heat and suggest a connection between the second law of thermodynamics and the strong subadditivity of entanglement entropy.
Design and Properties Prediction of AMCO3F by First-Principles Calculations.
Tian, Meng; Gao, Yurui; Ouyang, Chuying; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liquan
2017-04-19
Computer simulation accelerates the rate of identification and application of new materials. To search for new materials to meet the increasing demands of secondary batteries with higher energy density, the properties of some transition-metal fluorocarbonates ([CO 3 F] 3- ) were simulated in this work as cathode materials for Li- and Na-ion batteries based on first-principles calculations. These materials were designed by substituting the K + ions in KCuCO 3 F with Li + or Na + ions and the Cu 2+ ions with transition-metal ions such as Fe 2+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ , and Mn 2+ ions, respectively. The phase stability, electronic conductivity, ionic diffusion, and electrochemical potential of these materials were calculated by first-principles calculations. After taking comprehensive consideration of the kinetic and thermodynamic properties, LiCoCO 3 F and LiFeCO 3 F are believed to be promising novel cathode materials in all of the calculated AMCO 3 F (A = Li and Na; M = Fe, Mn, Co, and Ni). These results will help the design and discovery of new materials for secondary batteries.
Thermodynamic DFT analysis of natural gas.
Neto, Abel F G; Huda, Muhammad N; Marques, Francisco C; Borges, Rosivaldo S; Neto, Antonio M J C
2017-08-01
Density functional theory was performed for thermodynamic predictions on natural gas, whose B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31+G(d), CBS-QB3, G3, and G4 methods were applied. Additionally, we carried out thermodynamic predictions using G3/G4 averaged. The calculations were performed for each major component of seven kinds of natural gas and to their respective air + natural gas mixtures at a thermal equilibrium between room temperature and the initial temperature of a combustion chamber during the injection stage. The following thermodynamic properties were obtained: internal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy and entropy, which enabled us to investigate the thermal resistance of fuels. Also, we estimated an important parameter, namely, the specific heat ratio of each natural gas; this allowed us to compare the results with the empirical functions of these parameters, where the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and G3/G4 methods showed better agreements. In addition, relevant information on the thermal and mechanic resistance of natural gases were investigated, as well as the standard thermodynamic properties for the combustion of natural gas. Thus, we show that density functional theory can be useful for predicting the thermodynamic properties of natural gas, enabling the production of more efficient compositions for the investigated fuels. Graphical abstract Investigation of the thermodynamic properties of natural gas through the canonical ensemble model and the density functional theory.
A thermodynamic approach to obtain materials properties for engineering applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Y. Austin
1993-01-01
With the ever increases in the capabilities of computers for numerical computations, we are on the verge of using these tools to model manufacturing processes for improving the efficiency of these processes as well as the quality of the products. One such process is casting for the production of metals. However, in order to model metal casting processes in a meaningful way it is essential to have the basic properties of these materials in their molten state, solid state as well as in the mixed state of solid and liquid. Some of the properties needed may be considered as intrinsic such as the density, heat capacity or enthalpy of freezing of a pure metal, while others are not. For instance, the enthalpy of solidification of an alloy is not a defined thermodynamic quantity. Its value depends on the micro-segregation of the phases during the course of solidification. The objective of the present study is to present a thermodynamic approach to obtain some of the intrinsic properties and combining thermodynamics with kinetic models to estimate such quantities as the enthalpy of solidification of an alloy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fessler, T. E.
1977-01-01
A computer program subroutine, FLUID, was developed to calculate thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluid substances. It provides for determining the thermodynamic state from assigned values for temperature-density, pressure-density, temperature-pressure, pressure-entropy, or pressure-enthalpy. Liquid or two-phase (liquid-gas) conditions are considered as well as the gas phase. A van der Waals model is used to obtain approximate state values; these values are then corrected for real gas effects by model-correction factors obtained from tables based on experimental data. Saturation conditions, specific heat, entropy, and enthalpy data are included in the tables for each gas. Since these tables are external to the FLUID subroutine itself, FLUID can implement any gas for which a set of tables has been generated. (A setup phase is used to establish pointers dynamically to the tables for a specific gas.) Data-table preparation is described. FLUID is available in both SFTRAN and FORTRAN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, M.; Schmid-Fetzer, R.
2012-04-01
, when coupled to a thermodynamic computation program, the calculation and prediction of phase equilibria and thermo-physical properties of phase equilibrium assemblages in pressure-temperature-composition space. In Jacobs and van den Berg (2011) the vibrational method, together with a thermodynamic data base, was successfully applied to mantle convection of materials in the Earth. These works demonstrate that the vibrational method has the advantages of (1) computational speed, (2) coupling or making comparisons with ab initio methods and (3) making reliable extrapolations to extreme conditions. We present results of thermodynamic analyses, using lattice vibrational methods, of Ag, Al, Au, Cu and MgO covering the pressure and temperature regime of the Earth's interior. We show results on consistency of the pressure scales for these materials using different equations of state, under the constraint that thermodynamic properties in the low-pressure regime are accurately represented.
Bandura, Andrei V; Porsev, Vitaly V; Evarestov, Robert A
2016-03-15
A zone-folding (ZF) approach is applied for the estimation of the phonon contributions to thermodynamic properties of carbon-and ZrS2 -based nanotubes (NTs) of hexagonal morphology with different chiralities. The results obtained are compared with those from the direct calculation of the thermodynamic properties of NTs using PBE0 hybrid exchange-correlation functional. The phonon contribution to the stability of NTs proved to be negligible for the internal energy and small for the Helmholtz free energy. It is found that the ZF approach allows us an accurate estimation of phonon contributions to internal energy, but slightly overestimates the phonon contributions to entropy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ab-initio thermodynamic and elastic properties of AlNi and AlNi3 intermetallic compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yalameha, Shahram; Vaez, Aminollah
2018-04-01
In this paper, thermodynamic and elastic properties of the AlNi and AlNi3 were investigated using density functional theory (DFT). The full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (APW) in the framework of the generalized gradient approximation as used as implemented in the Wien2k package. The temperature dependence of thermal expansion coefficient, bulk modulus and heat capacity in a wide range of temperature (0-1600 K) were investigated. The calculated elastic properties of the compounds show that both intermetallic compounds of AlNi and AlNi3 have surprisingly negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR). The results were compared with other experimental and computational data.
Thermodynamics Study of Removal of Heavy Metal by TiN-Nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahdavian, Leila
2015-12-01
The ability of TiN-nanotube to remove lead (Pb(II)) and arsenic (As(III)) ions from aqueous solutions is investigated. The thermodynamics properties of Pb(II) and As(III) ions passing through TiN-nanotubes (TiN-NTs) is calculated in basis set (B3LYP/6-31G**) DFT-IR method by Gaussian program package. The results showed, Pb(II) and As(III) passing through had low potential in middle nanotubes, and are trapped in this place. The thermodynamic properties showed; the passing through are spontaneous and favorable because ΔGele (MJ/mol) is negative for them. The goal of this study is the detection of surface species of TiN-NTs for metal ions removal by using computer calculations. The structural and thermodynamic properties studied ions absorption on TiN-NTs at room temperature.
Fisher Information, Entropy, and the Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics
We propose Fisher Information as a new calculable thermodynamic property that can be shown to follow the Second and the Third Laws of Thermodynamics. Fisher Information is, however, qualitatively different from entropy and potentially possessing a great deal more structure. Hence...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, Richard A.; Lee, Kam-Pui; Gupta, Roop N.
1991-01-01
The computer codes developed here provide self-consistent thermodynamic and transport properties for equilibrium air for temperatures from 500 to 30000 K over a temperature range of 10 (exp -4) to 10 (exp -2) atm. These properties are computed through the use of temperature dependent curve fits for discrete values of pressure. Interpolation is employed for intermediate values of pressure. The curve fits are based on mixture values calculated from an 11-species air model. Individual species properties used in the mixture relations are obtained from a recent study by the present authors. A review and discussion of the sources and accuracy of the curve fitted data used herein are given in NASA RP 1260.
Mean-field potential approach for thermodynamic properties of lanthanide: Europium as a prototype
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Priyank; Bhatt, N. K.; Vyas, P. R.; Gohel, V. B.
2018-03-01
In the present paper, a simple conjunction scheme [mean-field potential (MFP) + local pseudopotential] is used to study the thermodynamic properties of divalent lanthanide europium (Eu) at extreme environment. Present study has been carried out due to the fact that divalent nature of Eu arises because of stable half-filled 4f-shell at ambient condition, which has great influence on the thermodynamic properties at extreme environment. Due to such electronic structure, it is different from remaining lanthanides having incomplete 4f-shell. The presently computed results of thermodynamic properties of Eu are in good agreement with the experimental results. Looking to such success, it seems that the concept of MFP approach is successful to account contribution due to nuclear motion to the total Helmholtz free energy at finite temperatures and pressure-induced inter-band transfer of electrons for condensed state of matter. The local pseudopotential is used to evaluate cold energy and hence MFP accounts the s-p-d-f hybridization properly. Looking to the reliability and transferability along with its computational and conceptual simplicity, we would like to extend the present scheme for the study of thermodynamic properties of remaining lanthanides and actinides at extreme environment.
An EQT-based cDFT approach for thermodynamic properties of confined fluid mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Motevaselian, M. H.; Aluru, N. R.
2017-04-01
We present an empirical potential-based quasi-continuum theory (EQT) to predict the structure and thermodynamic properties of confined fluid mixtures. The central idea in the EQT is to construct potential energies that integrate important atomistic details into a continuum-based model such as the Nernst-Planck equation. The EQT potentials can be also used to construct the excess free energy functional, which is required for the grand potential in the classical density functional theory (cDFT). In this work, we use the EQT-based grand potential to predict various thermodynamic properties of a confined binary mixture of hydrogen and methane molecules inside graphene slit channels of different widths. We show that the EQT-cDFT predictions for the structure, surface tension, solvation force, and local pressure tensor profiles are in good agreement with the molecular dynamics simulations. Moreover, we study the effect of different bulk compositions and channel widths on the thermodynamic properties. Our results reveal that the composition of methane in the mixture can significantly affect the ordering of molecules and thermodynamic properties under confinement. In addition, we find that graphene is selective to methane molecules.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chattaraj, D.
2017-12-01
Lithium zirconate is considered to be potential tritium breeder material for fusion reactors. Here I report a comprehensive study on structural, electronic, elastic, and thermodynamic properties of Li2ZrO3 using plane wave based density functional theory. While the electron-ion interaction term has been described by projected-augmented wave method, the exchange-correlation energy was taken care of through generalized gradient approximation scheme. The optimized lattice and internal parameters of Li2ZrO3 unit cell agree well within ±1-2% from the experimental values. From the electronic structure analysis it is seen that the Fermi energy has significant contribution from the 2s, 2p and 4d orbitals of Li, O and Zr atoms, respectively. Elastic property calculation of Li2ZrO3 showed mechanical stability and anisotropy at ambient pressure. The formation energy (ΔfH) of Li2ZrO3 at 0 K, after zero point energy correction, has been estimated to be -1550 kJ/mol. The temperature dependent thermodynamic functions of Li2ZrO3 have also been calculated from the Debye-Grüneisen quasi-harmonic approximation and reported here.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oumelaz, F.; Nemiri, O.; Boumaza, A.; Ghemid, S.; Meradji, H.; Bin Omran, S.; El Haj Hassan, F.; Rai, D. P.; Khenata, R.
2018-06-01
In this theoretical study, we have investigated the structural, phase transition, electronic, thermodynamic and optical properties of GaPxSb1-x ternary alloys. Our calculations are performed with the WIEN2k code based on density functional theory using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. For the electron exchange-correlation potential, a generalized gradient approximation within Wu-Cohen scheme is considered. The recently developed Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential has also been used to improve the underestimated band gap. The structural properties, including the lattice constants, the bulk moduli and their pressure derivatives are in very good agreement with the available experimental data and theoretical results. Several structural phase transitions were studied here to establish the stable structure and to predict the phase transition under hydrostatic pressure. The computed transition pressure (Pt) of the material of our interest from the zinc blende (B3) to the rock salt (B1) phase has been determined and found to agree well with the experimental and theoretical data. The calculated band structure shows that GaSb binary compound and the ternary alloys are direct band gap semiconductors. Optical parameters such as the dielectric constants and the refractive indices are calculated and analyzed. The thermodynamic results are also interpreted and analyzed.
Calculating phase diagrams using PANDAT and panengine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, S.-L.; Zhang, F.; Xie, F.-Y.; Daniel, S.; Yan, X.-Y.; Chang, Y. A.; Schmid-Fetzer, R.; Oates, W. A.
2003-12-01
Knowledge of phase equilibria or phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties is important in alloy design and materials-processing simulation. In principle, stable phase equilibrium is uniquely determined by the thermodynamic properties of the system, such as the Gibbs energy functions of the phases. PANDAT, a new computer software package for multicomponent phase-diagram calculation, was developed under the guidance of this principle.
Thermodynamic properties of 5(nitrophenyl) furan-2-carbaldehyde isomers.
Dibrivnyi, Volodymyr; Sobechko, Iryna; Puniak, Marian; Horak, Yuriy; Obushak, Mykola; Van-Chin-Syan, Yuriy; Andriy, Marshalek; Velychkivska, Nadiia
2015-01-01
The aim of the current work was to determine thermo dynamical properties of 5(2-nitro phenyl)-furan-2-carbaldehyde, 5(3-nitro phenyl)-furan-2-carbaldehyde and 5(4-nitro phenyl)-furan-2-carbaldehyde. The temperature dependence of saturated vapor pressure of 5(2-nitro phenyl)-furan-2-carbaldehyde, 5(3-nitro phenyl)-furan-2-carbaldehyde and 5(4-nitro phenyl)-furan-2-carbaldehyde was determined by Knudsen's effusion method. The results are presented by the Clapeyron-Clausius equation in linear form, and via this form, the standard enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs energies of sublimation and evaporation of compounds were calculated at 298.15 K. The standard molar formation enthalpies of compounds in crystalline state at 298.15 K were determined indirectly by the corresponding standard molar combustion enthalpy, obtained using bomb calorimetry combustion. Determination of the thermodynamic properties for these compounds may contribute to solving practical problems pertaining optimization processes of their synthesis, purification and application and it will also provide a more thorough insight regarding the theoretical knowledge of their nature.Graphical abstract:Generalized structural formula of investigated compounds and their formation enthalpy determination scheme in the gaseous state.
Thermodynamic properties of gaseous ruthenium species.
Miradji, Faoulat; Souvi, Sidi; Cantrel, Laurent; Louis, Florent; Vallet, Valérie
2015-05-21
The review of thermodynamic data of ruthenium oxides reveals large uncertainties in some of the standard enthalpies of formation, motivating the use of high-level relativistic correlated quantum chemical methods to reduce the level of discrepancies. The reaction energies leading to the formation of ruthenium oxides RuO, RuO2, RuO3, and RuO4 have been calculated for a series of reactions. The combination of different quantum chemical methods has been investigated [DFT, CASSCF, MRCI, CASPT2, CCSD(T)] in order to predict the geometrical parameters, the energetics including electronic correlation and spin-orbit coupling. The most suitable method for ruthenium compounds is the use of TPSSh-5%HF for geometry optimization, followed by CCSD(T) with complete basis set (CBS) extrapolations for the calculation of the total electronic energies. SO-CASSCF seems to be accurate enough to estimate spin-orbit coupling contributions to the ground-state electronic energies. This methodology yields very accurate standard enthalpies of formations of all species, which are either in excellent agreement with the most reliable experimental data or provide an improved estimate for the others. These new data will be implemented in the thermodynamical databases that are used by the ASTEC code (accident source term evaluation code) to build models of ruthenium chemistry behavior in severe nuclear accident conditions. The paper also discusses the nature of the chemical bonds both from molecular orbital and topological view points.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beddard, Godfrey S.
2011-01-01
Thermodynamic quantities such as the average energy, heat capacity, and entropy are calculated using a Monte Carlo method based on the Metropolis algorithm. This method is illustrated with reference to the harmonic oscillator but is particularly useful when the partition function cannot be evaluated; an example using a one-dimensional spin system…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erum, Nazia; Iqbal, Muhammad Azhar
2017-11-01
The structural, electronic, elastic, optical and thermodynamic properties of cubic fluoroperovskite SrLiF3 at ambient and high-pressure are investigated by using first-principles total energy calculations within the framework of Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA), combined with Quasi-harmonic Debye model in which the phonon effects are considered. The pressure effects are determined in the range of 0-50 GPa, in which cubic stability of SrLiF3 fluoroperovskite remains valid. The computed lattice parameters agree well with experimental and previous theoretical results. Decrease in lattice constant and bonds length is observed with the increase in pressure from 0 to 50 GPa. The effect of increase in pressure on electronic band structure calculations with GGA and GGA plus Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential reveals a predominant characteristic associated with widening of bandgap. The influence of pressure on elastic constants and their related mechanical parameters have been discussed in detail. All the calculated optical properties such as the complex dielectric function Ԑ(ω), optical conductivity σ(ω), energy loss function L(ω), absorption coefficient α(w), refractive index n (ω), reflectivity R (ω), and effective number of electrons neff, via sum rules shift towards the higher energies under the application of pressure. Moreover, important thermodynamic properties heat capacities (Cp and Cv), volume expansion coefficient (α), and Debye temperature (θD) are predicted successfully in the wide temperature and pressure ranges.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zoby, E. V.; Gnoffo, P. A.; Graves, R. A., Jr.
1976-01-01
Simple relations for determining the enthalpy and temperature of hydrogen-helium gas mixtures were developed for hydrogen volumetric compositions from 1.0 to 0.7. These relations are expressed as a function of pressure and density and are valid for a range of temperatures from 7,000 to 35,000 K and pressures from 0.10 to 3.14 MPa. The proportionality constant and exponents in the correlation equations were determined for each gas composition by applying a linear least squares curve fit to a large number of thermodynamic calculations obtained from a detailed computer code. Although these simple relations yielded thermodynamic properties suitable for many engineering applications, their accuracy was improved significantly by evaluating the proportionality constants at postshock conditions and correlating these values as a function of the gas composition and the product of freestream velocity and shock angle. The resulting equations for the proportionality constants in terms of velocity and gas composition and the corresponding simple realtions for enthalpy and temperature were incorporated into a flow field computational scheme. Comparison was good between the thermodynamic properties determined from these relations and those obtained by using a detailed computer code to determine the properties. Thus, an appreciable savings in computer time was realized with no significant loss in accuracy.
The thermodynamic properties of oxygen and nitrogen
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stewart, R. B.; Jacobsen, R. T.; Myers, A. F.
1972-01-01
The development of a single equation of state for oxygen and nitrogen based on the thermodynamic properties of the gases is described. The coefficients of the equation of state were determined by simultaneous least squares fits to values of isochoric heat capacity and saturation density values used to define the criteria for phase equilibrium. Tables of data for the conditions of both gases are included.
An EQT-cDFT approach to determine thermodynamic properties of confined fluids.
Mashayak, S Y; Motevaselian, M H; Aluru, N R
2015-06-28
We present a continuum-based approach to predict the structure and thermodynamic properties of confined fluids at multiple length-scales, ranging from a few angstroms to macro-meters. The continuum approach is based on the empirical potential-based quasi-continuum theory (EQT) and classical density functional theory (cDFT). EQT is a simple and fast approach to predict inhomogeneous density and potential profiles of confined fluids. We use EQT potentials to construct a grand potential functional for cDFT. The EQT-cDFT-based grand potential can be used to predict various thermodynamic properties of confined fluids. In this work, we demonstrate the EQT-cDFT approach by simulating Lennard-Jones fluids, namely, methane and argon, confined inside slit-like channels of graphene. We show that the EQT-cDFT can accurately predict the structure and thermodynamic properties, such as density profiles, adsorption, local pressure tensor, surface tension, and solvation force, of confined fluids as compared to the molecular dynamics simulation results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaplun, A. B.; Meshalkin, A. B.
2013-08-01
Using methods and approaches developed by the authors, a new low-parametric state equation for describing the thermal properties of normal substances is obtained that allows us to describe the thermal properties of gases, liquids, and fluids over a range of densities from the ideal gas state to the triple point, except for a critical region, with a high degree of accuracy close to that of an experiment. The caloric properties and speed of sound are calculated for argon, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide without using any caloric data except for the enthalpy of an ideal gas. It is established that the calculated values of enthalpy, heat capacity, the speed of speed of sound, etc., are in good agreement with the experimental (reliably tabulated) data.
Tables of thermodynamic properties of helium magnet coolant, revision A
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McAshan, M.
1992-07-01
The most complete treatment of the thermodynamic properties of helium at the present time is the monograph by McCarty: 'Thermodynamic Properties of Helium 4 from 2 to 1500 K at Pressures to 10(exp 8) Pa', Robert D. McCarty, Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, Vol. 2, page 923-1040 (1973). In this work the complete range of data on helium is examined and the P-V-T surface is described by an equation of state consisting of three functions P(r,T) covering different regions together with rules for making the transition from one region to another. From this thermodynamic compilation together with correlations of the transport properties of helium was published the well-known NBS Technical Note: 'Thermophysical Properties of Helium 4 from 2 to 1500 K with pressures to 1000 Atmospheres', Robert D. McCarty, US Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 631 (1972). This is the standard reference for helium cryogenics. The NBS 631 tables cover a wide range of temperature and pressure, and as a consequence, the number of points tabulated in the region of the single phase coolant for the SSC magnets are relatively few. The present work sets out to cover the range of interest in more detail in a way that is consistent with NBS 631. This new table is essentially identical to the older one and can be used as an auxiliary to it.
Quantum molecular dynamics simulation of structural and thermodynamic properties of NiAl
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karchevskaya, E. S.; Minakov, D. V.; Levashov, P. R.
2018-01-01
In this work, structural and thermodynamic properties of a solid and liquid Ni-Al compound are studied using an ab initio method of quantum molecular dynamics (QMD). Simulations were carried out in 700-3000 K temperature range at atmospheric pressure. Radial distribution functions are analyzed to determine the presence of Ni-Al chemical bonds. Diffusion coefficients for individual components are also calculated. Another goal of this work is the investigation of the reaction propagation in thermally-initiated Ni-Al foils. For this purpose, we performed QMD simulations of Ni-Al layers in the microcanonical ensemble. An exothermic reaction between the solid Ni-Al layers is observed in our simulations at temperature less than the melting temperatures of the components.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcondes, Michel L.; Wentzcovitch, Renata M.; Assali, Lucy V. C.
2018-05-01
Thermal equations of state (EOS) are essential in several scientific domains. However, experimental determination of EOS parameters may be limited at extreme conditions, therefore, ab initio calculations have become an important method to obtain them. Density functional theory (DFT) and its extensions with various degrees of approximations for the exchange and correlation (XC) energy is the method of choice, but large errors in the EOS parameters are still common. The alkali halides have been problematic from the onset of this field and the quest for appropriate DFT functionals for such ionic and relatively weakly bonded systems has remained an active topic of research. Here we use DFT + van der Waals functionals to calculate vibrational properties, thermal EOS, thermodynamic properties, and the B1 to B2 phase boundary of NaCl with high precision. Our results reveal a remarkable improvement over the performance of standard local density approximation and generalized gradient approximation functionals for all these properties and phase transition boundary, as well as great sensitivity of anharmonic effects on the choice of XC functional.
Computer programs for thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrogen
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, W. J.; Mc Carty, R. D.; Roder, H. M.
1968-01-01
Computer program subroutines provide the thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrogen in tabular form. The programs provide 18 combinations of input and output variables. This program is written in FORTRAN 4 for use on the IBM 7044 or CDC 3600 computers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Román, F. L.; White, J. A.; Velasco, S.; Mulero, A.
2005-09-01
When thermodynamic properties of a pure substance are transformed to reduced form by using both critical- and triple-point values, the corresponding experimental data along the whole liquid-vapor coexistence curve can be correlated with a very simple analytical expression that interpolates between the behavior near the triple and the critical points. The leading terms of this expression contain only two parameters: the critical exponent and the slope at the triple point. For a given thermodynamic property, the critical exponent has a universal character but the slope at the triple point can vary significantly from one substance to another. However, for certain thermodynamic properties including the difference of coexisting densities, the enthalpy of vaporization, and the surface tension of the saturated liquid, one finds that the slope at the triple point also has a nearly universal value for a wide class of fluids. These thermodynamic properties thus show a corresponding apparently universal behavior along the whole coexistence curve.
Automated symbolic calculations in nonequilibrium thermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kröger, Martin; Hütter, Markus
2010-12-01
We cast the Jacobi identity for continuous fields into a local form which eliminates the need to perform any partial integration to the expense of performing variational derivatives. This allows us to test the Jacobi identity definitely and efficiently and to provide equations between different components defining a potential Poisson bracket. We provide a simple Mathematica TM notebook which allows to perform this task conveniently, and which offers some additional functionalities of use within the framework of nonequilibrium thermodynamics: reversible equations of change for fields, and the conservation of entropy during the reversible dynamics. Program summaryProgram title: Poissonbracket.nb Catalogue identifier: AEGW_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 227 952 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 268 918 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica TM 7.0 Computer: Any computer running Mathematica TM 6.0 and later versions Operating system: Linux, MacOS, Windows RAM: 100 Mb Classification: 4.2, 5, 23 Nature of problem: Testing the Jacobi identity can be a very complex task depending on the structure of the Poisson bracket. The Mathematica TM notebook provided here solves this problem using a novel symbolic approach based on inherent properties of the variational derivative, highly suitable for the present tasks. As a by product, calculations performed with the Poisson bracket assume a compact form. Solution method: The problem is first cast into a form which eliminates the need to perform partial integration for arbitrary functionals at the expense of performing variational derivatives. The corresponding equations are conveniently obtained using
Hole pairing and thermodynamic properties of the two dimensional frustrated t-J model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, K.; Pal, P.; Nath, S.; Ghosh, N. K.
2018-04-01
The frustrated t-J model is investigated by using the exact-diagonalization (ED) method on an 8-site cluster. The effect on next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) exchange interaction J' (frustration) on the hole pairing and the thermodynamic properties of the system is considered. Two holes initially remain unbound at smaller value of J'/t, but tend to bind at larger value. The maximum possibility of pair formation has been observed to be at NNN sites. Entropy calculation shows that the system goes to more disordered state with J'. The specific heat curves show a single peak structure. A decrease in effective exchange energy is observed due to the frustration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caro, Miguel A.; Laurila, Tomi; Lopez-Acevedo, Olga
2016-12-01
We explore different schemes for improved accuracy of entropy calculations in aqueous liquid mixtures from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We build upon the two-phase thermodynamic (2PT) model of Lin et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 11792 (2003)] and explore new ways to obtain the partition between the gas-like and solid-like parts of the density of states, as well as the effect of the chosen ideal "combinatorial" entropy of mixing, both of which have a large impact on the results. We also propose a first-order correction to the issue of kinetic energy transfer between degrees of freedom (DoF). This problem arises when the effective temperatures of translational, rotational, and vibrational DoF are not equal, either due to poor equilibration or reduced system size/time sampling, which are typical problems for ab initio MD. The new scheme enables improved convergence of the results with respect to configurational sampling, by up to one order of magnitude, for short MD runs. To ensure a meaningful assessment, we perform MD simulations of liquid mixtures of water with several other molecules of varying sizes: methanol, acetonitrile, N, N-dimethylformamide, and n-butanol. Our analysis shows that results in excellent agreement with experiment can be obtained with little computational effort for some systems. However, the ability of the 2PT method to succeed in these calculations is strongly influenced by the choice of force field, the fluidicity (hard-sphere) formalism employed to obtain the solid/gas partition, and the assumed combinatorial entropy of mixing. We tested two popular force fields, GAFF and OPLS with SPC/E water. For the mixtures studied, the GAFF force field seems to perform as a slightly better "all-around" force field when compared to OPLS+SPC/E.
Critical evaluation and thermodynamic optimization of the Iron-Rare-Earth systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konar, Bikram
Rare-Earth elements by virtue of its typical magnetic, electronic and chemical properties are gaining importance in power, electronics, telecommunications and sustainable green technology related industries. The Magnets from RE-alloys are more powerful than conventional magnets which have more longevity and high temperature workability. The dis-equilibrium in the Rare-Earth element supply and demand has increased the importance of recycling and extraction of REE's from used permanent Magnets. However, lack of the thermodynamic data on RE alloys has made it difficult to design an effective extraction and recycling process. In this regard, Computational Thermodynamic calculations can serve as a cost effective and less time consuming tool to design a waste magnet recycling process. The most common RE permanent magnet is Nd magnet (Nd 2Fe14B). Various elements such as Dy, Tb, Pr, Cu, Co, Ni, etc. are also added to increase its magnetic and mechanical properties. In order to perform reliable thermodynamic calculations for the RE recycling process, accurate thermodynamic database for RE and related alloys are required. The thermodynamic database can be developed using the so-called CALPHAD method. The database development based on the CALPHAD method is essentially the critical evaluation and optimization of all available thermodynamic and phase diagram data. As a results, one set of self-consistent thermodynamic functions for all phases in the given system can be obtained, which can reproduce all reliable thermodynamic and phase diagram data. The database containing the optimized Gibbs energy functions can be used to calculate complex chemical reactions for any high temperature processes. Typically a Gibbs energy minimization routine, such as in FactSage software, can be used to obtain the accurate thermodynamic equilibrium in multicomponent systems. As part of a large thermodynamic database development for permanent magnet recycling and Mg alloy design, all
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suntsov, Yu. K.; Goryunov, V. A.; Chuikov, A. M.; Meshcheryakov, A. V.
2016-08-01
The boiling points of solutions of five binary systems are measured via ebulliometry in the pressure range of 2.05-103.3 kPa. Equilibrium vapor phase compositions, the values of the excess Gibbs energies, enthalpies, and entropies of solution of these systems are calculated. Patterns in the changes of phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of solutions are established, depending on the compositions and temperatures of the systems. Liquid-vapor equilibria in the systems are described using the equations of Wilson and the NRTL (Non-Random Two-Liquid Model).
Thermodynamic properties and diffusion of water + methane binary mixtures
Shvab, I.; Sadus, Richard J., E-mail: rsadus@swin.edu.au
2014-03-14
Thermodynamic and diffusion properties of water + methane mixtures in a single liquid phase are studied using NVT molecular dynamics. An extensive comparison is reported for the thermal pressure coefficient, compressibilities, expansion coefficients, heat capacities, Joule-Thomson coefficient, zero frequency speed of sound, and diffusion coefficient at methane concentrations up to 15% in the temperature range of 298–650 K. The simulations reveal a complex concentration dependence of the thermodynamic properties of water + methane mixtures. The compressibilities, heat capacities, and diffusion coefficients decrease with increasing methane concentration, whereas values of the thermal expansion coefficients and speed of sound increase. Increasing methanemore » concentration considerably retards the self-diffusion of both water and methane in the mixture. These effects are caused by changes in hydrogen bond network, solvation shell structure, and dynamics of water molecules induced by the solvation of methane at constant volume conditions.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao-Lin, Zhang; Yuan-Yuan, Wu; Xiao-Hong, Shao; Yong, Lu; Ping, Zhang
2016-05-01
The high pressure behaviors of Th4H15 and ThH2 are investigated by using the first-principles calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT). From the energy-volume relations, the bct phase of ThH2 is more stable than the fcc phase at ambient conditions. At high pressure, the bct ThH2 and bcc Th4H15 phases are more brittle than they are at ambient pressure from the calculated elastic constants and the Poisson ratio. The thermodynamic stability of the bct phase ThH2 is determined from the calculated phonon dispersion. In the pressure domain of interest, the phonon dispersions of bcc Th4H15 and bct ThH2 are positive, indicating the dynamical stability of these two phases, while the fcc ThH2 is unstable. The thermodynamic properties including the lattice vibration energy, entropy, and specific heat are predicted for these stable phases. The vibrational free energy decreases with the increase of the temperature, and the entropy and the heat capacity are proportional to the temperature and inversely proportional to the pressure. As the pressure increases, the resistance to the external pressure is strengthened for Th4H15 and ThH2. Project supported by the Long-Term Subsidy Mechanism from the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Education of China.
Thermodynamic properties and equation of state of liquid lead and lead bismuth eutectic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sobolev, V. P.; Schuurmans, P.; Benamati, G.
2008-06-01
Since the 1950s, liquid lead (Pb) and lead-bismuth eutectic (Pb-Bi) have been studied in the USA, Canada and in the former-USSR as potential coolants for nuclear installations due to their very attractive thermophysical and neutronic properties. However, experimental data on the thermal properties of these coolants in the temperature range of interest are still incomplete and often contradictory. This makes it very difficult to perform design calculations and to analyse the normal and abnormal behaviour of nuclear installations where these coolants are expected to be used. Recently, a compilation of heavy liquid metal (HLM) properties along with recommendations for its use was prepared by the OECD/NEA Working Party on Fuel Cycle (WPFC) Expert Group on Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Technology. A brief review of this compilation and some new data are presented in this article. A set of correlations for the temperature dependence of the main thermodynamic properties of Pb and Pb-Bi(e) at normal pressure, and a set of simplified thermal and caloric equations of state for the liquid phase are proposed.
Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (REFPROP)
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
SRD 23 NIST Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties Database (REFPROP) (PC database for purchase) NIST 23 contains revised data in a Windows version of the database, including 105 pure fluids and allowing mixtures of up to 20 components. The fluids include the environmentally acceptable HFCs, traditional HFCs and CFCs and 'natural' refrigerants like ammonia
Cappel, Daniel; Sherman, Woody; Beuming, Thijs
2017-01-01
The ability to accurately characterize the solvation properties (water locations and thermodynamics) of biomolecules is of great importance to drug discovery. While crystallography, NMR, and other experimental techniques can assist in determining the structure of water networks in proteins and protein-ligand complexes, most water molecules are not fully resolved and accurately placed. Furthermore, understanding the energetic effects of solvation and desolvation on binding requires an analysis of the thermodynamic properties of solvent involved in the interaction between ligands and proteins. WaterMap is a molecular dynamics-based computational method that uses statistical mechanics to describe the thermodynamic properties (entropy, enthalpy, and free energy) of water molecules at the surface of proteins. This method can be used to assess the solvent contributions to ligand binding affinity and to guide lead optimization. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of published uses of WaterMap, including applications to lead optimization, virtual screening, selectivity analysis, ligand pose prediction, and druggability assessment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.
Allada, Ravikiran; Maruthapillai, Arthanareeswari; Palanisamy, Kamaraj; Chappa, Praveen
2017-01-01
Carvedilol phosphate (CDP) is a nonselective beta-blocker used for the treatment of heart failures and hypertension. In this work, moisture sorption-desorption characteristics and thermodynamic properties of CDP have been investigated. The isotherms were determined using dynamic vapor sorption analyzer at different humidity conditions (0%-90% relative humidity) and three pharmaceutically relevant temperatures (20°C, 30°C, and 40°C). The experimental sorption data determined were fitted to various models, namely, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller; Guggenheim-Anderson-De Boer (GAB); Peleg; and modified GAB. Isosteric heats of sorption were evaluated through the direct use of sorption isotherms by means of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. The sorption model parameters were determined from the experimental sorption data using nonlinear regression analysis, and mean relative percentage deviation (P), correlation (Correl), root mean square error, and model efficiency were considered as the criteria to select the best fit model. The sorption-desorption isotherms have sigmoidal shape - confirming to Type II isotherms. Based on the statistical data analysis, modified GAB model was found to be more adequate to explain sorption characteristics of CDP. It is noted that the rate of adsorption and desorption is specific to the temperature at which it was being studied. It is observed that isosteric heat of sorption decreased with increasing equilibrium moisture content. The calculation of the thermodynamic properties was further used to draw an understanding of the properties of water and energy requirements associated with the sorption behavior. The sorption-desorption data and the set of equations are useful in the simulation of processing, handling, and storage of CDP and further behavior during manufacture and storage of CDP formulations.
Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Thermodynamic Properties in Uranium Dioxide
Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Bin; Gao, Fei
2014-03-01
In the present study, we investigated the thermodynamic properties of uranium dioxide (UO2) by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. As for solid UO2, the lattice parameter, density, and enthalpy obtained by MD simulations were in good agreement with existing experimental data and previous theoretical predictions. The calculated thermal conductivities matched the experiment results at the midtemperature range but were underestimated at very low and very high temperatures. The calculation results of mean square displacement represented the stability of uranium at all temperatures and the high mobility of oxygen toward 3000 K. By fitting the diffusivity constant of oxygen with the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammanmore » law, we noticed a secondary phase transition near 2006.4 K, which can be identified as a ‘‘strong’’ to ‘‘fragile’’ supercooled liquid or glass phase transition in UO2. By fitting the oxygen diffusion constant with the Arrhenius equation, activation energies of 2.0 and 2.7 eV that we obtained were fairly close to the recommended values of 2.3 to 2.6 eV. Xiangyu Wang, Bin Wu, Fei Gao, Xin Li, Xin Sun, Mohammed A. Khaleel, Ademola V. Akinlalu and Li Liu« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Z.; Zhao, J. M.; Liu, L. H.
2018-05-01
The level energies of diatomic molecules calculated by the frequently used Dunham expansion will become less accurate for high-lying vibrational and rotational levels. In this paper, the potential curves for the lower-lying electronic states with accurate spectroscopic constants are reconstructed using the Rydberg-Klein-Rees (RKR) method, which are extrapolated to the dissociation limits by fitting of the theoretical potentials, and the rest of the potential curves are obtained from the ab-initio results in the literature. Solving the rotational dependence of the radial Schrödinger equation over the obtained potential curves, we determine the rovibrational level energies, which are then used to calculate the equilibrium and non-equilibrium thermodynamic properties of N2, N2+, NO, O2, CN, C2, CO and CO+. The partition functions and the specific heats are systematically validated by available data in the literature. Finally, we calculate the radiative source strengths of diatomic molecules in thermodynamic equilibrium, which agree well with the available values in the literature. The spectral radiative intensities for some diatomic molecules in thermodynamic non-equilibrium are calculated and validated by available experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Çoban, Cansu
2017-08-01
The pressure dependent behaviour of the structural, electronic, mechanical, vibrational, and thermodynamic properties of Pd2TiX (X=Ga, In) Heusler alloys was investigated by ab initio calculations. The lattice constant, the bulk modulus and its first pressure derivative, the electronic band structure and the density of states (DOS), mechanical properties such as elastic constants, anisotropy factor, Young's modulus, etc., the phonon dispersion curves and phonon DOS, entropy, heat capacity, and free energy were obtained under pressure. It was determined that the calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the literature, the elastic constants obey the stability criterion, and the phonon dispersion curves have no negative frequency which shows that the compounds are stable. The band structures at 0, 50, and 70 GPa showed valence instability at the L point which explains the superconductivity in Pd2TiX (X=Ga, In).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hendricks, R. C.; Baron, A. K.; Peller, I. C.
1975-01-01
A FORTRAN IV subprogram called GASP is discussed which calculates the thermodynamic and transport properties for 10 pure fluids: parahydrogen, helium, neon, methane, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, fluorine, argon, and carbon dioxide. The pressure range is generally from 0.1 to 400 atmospheres (to 100 atm for helium and to 1000 atm for hydrogen). The temperature ranges are from the triple point to 300 K for neon; to 500 K for carbon monoxide, oxygen, and fluorine; to 600 K for methane and nitrogen; to 1000 K for argon and carbon dioxide; to 2000 K for hydrogen; and from 6 to 500 K for helium. GASP accepts any two of pressure, temperature and density as input conditions along with pressure, and either entropy or enthalpy. The properties available in any combination as output include temperature, density, pressure, entropy, enthalpy, specific heats, sonic velocity, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and surface tension. The subprogram design is modular so that the user can choose only those subroutines necessary to the calculations.
Thermodynamics and combustion modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeleznik, Frank J.
1986-01-01
Modeling fluid phase phenomena blends the conservation equations of continuum mechanics with the property equations of thermodynamics. The thermodynamic contribution becomes especially important when the phenomena involve chemical reactions as they do in combustion systems. The successful study of combustion processes requires (1) the availability of accurate thermodynamic properties for both the reactants and the products of reaction and (2) the computational capabilities to use the properties. A discussion is given of some aspects of the problem of estimating accurate thermodynamic properties both for reactants and products of reaction. Also, some examples of the use of thermodynamic properties for modeling chemically reacting systems are presented. These examples include one-dimensional flow systems and the internal combustion engine.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gupta, Roop N.; Yos, Jerrold M.; Thompson, Richard A.
1989-01-01
Reaction rate coefficients and thermodynamic and transport properties are provided for the 11-species air model which can be used for analyzing flows in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium. Such flows will likely occur around currently planned and future hypersonic vehicles. Guidelines for determining the state of the surrounding environment are provided. Approximate and more exact formulas are provided for computing the properties of partially ionized air mixtures in such environments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hansen, C Frederick; Heims, Steve P
1958-01-01
Thermodynamic and transport properties of high temperature air, and the reaction rates for the important chemical processes which occur in air, are reviewed. Semiempirical, analytic expressions are presented for thermodynamic and transport properties of air. Examples are given illustrating the use of these properties to evaluate (1) equilibrium conditions following shock waves, (2) stagnation region heat flux to a blunt high-speed body, and (3) some chemical relaxation lengths in stagnation region flow.
Fateen, Seif-Eddeen K.; Bonilla-Petriciolet, Adrian
2014-01-01
The search for reliable and efficient global optimization algorithms for solving phase stability and phase equilibrium problems in applied thermodynamics is an ongoing area of research. In this study, we evaluated and compared the reliability and efficiency of eight selected nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithms for solving difficult phase stability and phase equilibrium problems. These algorithms are the cuckoo search (CS), intelligent firefly (IFA), bat (BA), artificial bee colony (ABC), MAKHA, a hybrid between monkey algorithm and krill herd algorithm, covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMAES), magnetic charged system search (MCSS), and bare bones particle swarm optimization (BBPSO). The results clearly showed that CS is the most reliable of all methods as it successfully solved all thermodynamic problems tested in this study. CS proved to be a promising nature-inspired optimization method to perform applied thermodynamic calculations for process design. PMID:24967430
Fateen, Seif-Eddeen K; Bonilla-Petriciolet, Adrian
2014-01-01
The search for reliable and efficient global optimization algorithms for solving phase stability and phase equilibrium problems in applied thermodynamics is an ongoing area of research. In this study, we evaluated and compared the reliability and efficiency of eight selected nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithms for solving difficult phase stability and phase equilibrium problems. These algorithms are the cuckoo search (CS), intelligent firefly (IFA), bat (BA), artificial bee colony (ABC), MAKHA, a hybrid between monkey algorithm and krill herd algorithm, covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMAES), magnetic charged system search (MCSS), and bare bones particle swarm optimization (BBPSO). The results clearly showed that CS is the most reliable of all methods as it successfully solved all thermodynamic problems tested in this study. CS proved to be a promising nature-inspired optimization method to perform applied thermodynamic calculations for process design.
The thermodynamic properties of the earth's lower mantle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Orson L.; Sumino, Yoshio
1980-12-01
The thermodynamic properties of the lower mantle are determined from the seismic profile, where the primary thermodynamic variables are the bulk modulus K and density ρ. It is shown that the Bullen law ( K ∝ P) holds in the lower mantle with a high correlation coefficient for the seismic parametric Earth model (PEM). Using this law produces no ambiguity or trade-off between ρ0 and K0, since both K0 and K' 0 are exactly determined by applying a linear K- ρ relationship to the data. On the other hand, extrapolating the velocity data to zero pressure using a Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (EOS) results in an ambiguous answer because there are three unknown adjustable parameters ( ρ0, K0, K' 0) in the EOS. From the PEM data, K = 232.4 + 3.19 P (GPa). The PEM yields a hot uncompressed density of 3.999 ± 0.0026 g cm -3 for material decompressed from all parts of the lower mantle. Even if the hot uncompressed density were uniform for all depths in the lower mantle, the cold uncompressed mantle would be inhomogeneous because the decompression given by the Bullen law crosses isotherms; for example, the temperature is different at different depths. To calculate the density distribution correctly, an isothermal EOS must be used along an isotherm, and temperature corrections must be placed in the thermal pressure PTH. The thermodynamic parameters of the lower mantle are found by iteration. Values of the three uncompressed anharmonic parameters are first arbitrarily selected: α0 (hot), the coefficient of thermal expansion; γ0, the Grüneisen parameter; and δ, the second Grüneisen parameter. Using γ0 and the measured ρ0 (hot) and K0 (hot), the values of θ0 (Debye temperature) and q = dln γ/dln ρ are found from the measured seismic velocities. Then from ( αKT) 0 and q the thermal pressure PTH at all high temperatures is found. Correlating PTH against T to the geotherm for the lower mantle, PTH is found at all depths Z. The isothermal pressure, along the 0 K
Inflight thermodynamic properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, S. C.; Daniels, G. E.; Johnson, D. L.; Smith, O. E.
1973-01-01
The inflight thermodynamic parameters (temperature, pressure, and density) of the atmosphere are presented. Mean and extreme values of the thermodynamic parameters given here can be used in application of many aerospace problems, such as: (1) research and planning and engineering design of remote earth sensing systems; (2) vehicle design and development; and (3) vehicle trajectory analysis, dealing with vehicle thrust, dynamic pressure, aerodynamic drag, aerodynamic heating, vibration, structural and guidance limitations, and reentry analysis. Atmospheric density plays a very important role in most of the above problems. A subsection on reentry is presented, giving atmospheric models to be used for reentry heating, trajectory, etc., analysis.
Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of dilute polymer solutions in flow.
Latinwo, Folarin; Hsiao, Kai-Wen; Schroeder, Charles M
2014-11-07
Modern materials processing applications and technologies often occur far from equilibrium. To this end, the processing of complex materials such as polymer melts and nanocomposites generally occurs under strong deformations and flows, conditions under which equilibrium thermodynamics does not apply. As a result, the ability to determine the nonequilibrium thermodynamic properties of polymeric materials from measurable quantities such as heat and work is a major challenge in the field. Here, we use work relations to show that nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantities such as free energy and entropy can be determined for dilute polymer solutions in flow. In this way, we determine the thermodynamic properties of DNA molecules in strong flows using a combination of simulations, kinetic theory, and single molecule experiments. We show that it is possible to calculate polymer relaxation timescales purely from polymer stretching dynamics in flow. We further observe a thermodynamic equivalence between nonequilibrium and equilibrium steady-states for polymeric systems. In this way, our results provide an improved understanding of the energetics of flowing polymer solutions.
Thermodynamic studies of different black holes with modifications of entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haldar, Amritendu; Biswas, Ritabrata
2018-02-01
In recent years, the thermodynamic properties of black holes are topics of interests. We investigate the thermodynamic properties like surface gravity and Hawking temperature on event horizon of regular black holes viz. Hayward Class and asymptotically AdS (Anti-de Sitter) black holes. We also analyze the thermodynamic volume and naive geometric volume of asymptotically AdS black holes and show that the entropy of these black holes is simply the ratio of the naive geometric volume to thermodynamic volume. We plot the different graphs and interpret them physically. We derive the `cosmic-Censorship-Inequality' for both type of black holes. Moreover, we calculate the thermal heat capacity of aforesaid black holes and study their stabilities in different regimes. Finally, we compute the logarithmic correction to the entropy for both the black holes considering the quantum fluctuations around the thermal equilibrium and study the corresponding thermodynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fournier, René; Mohareb, Amir
2016-01-01
We devised a global optimization (GO) strategy for optimizing molecular properties with respect to both geometry and chemical composition. A relative index of thermodynamic stability (RITS) is introduced to allow meaningful energy comparisons between different chemical species. We use the RITS by itself, or in combination with another calculated property, to create an objective function F to be minimized. Including the RITS in the definition of F ensures that the solutions have some degree of thermodynamic stability. We illustrate how the GO strategy works with three test applications, with F calculated in the framework of Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory (KS-DFT) with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof exchange-correlation. First, we searched the composition and configuration space of CmHnNpOq (m = 0-4, n = 0-10, p = 0-2, q = 0-2, and 2 ≤ m + n + p + q ≤ 12) for stable molecules. The GO discovered familiar molecules like N2, CO2, acetic acid, acetonitrile, ethane, and many others, after a small number (5000) of KS-DFT energy evaluations. Second, we carried out a GO of the geometry of Cu m Snn + (m = 1, 2 and n = 9-12). A single GO run produced the same low-energy structures found in an earlier study where each Cu m S nn + species had been optimized separately. Finally, we searched bimetallic clusters AmBn (3 ≤ m + n ≤ 6, A,B= Li, Na, Al, Cu, Ag, In, Sn, Pb) for species and configurations having a low RITS and large highest occupied Molecular Orbital (MO) to lowest unoccupied MO energy gap (Eg). We found seven bimetallic clusters with Eg > 1.5 eV.
Viabilty of atomistic potentials for thermodynamic properties of carbon dioxide at low temperatures.
Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Kvamme, Bjørn
2001-11-30
Investigation into volumetric and energetic properties of several atomistic models mimicking carbon dioxide geometry and quadrupole momentum covered the liquid-vapor coexistence curve. Thermodynamic integration over a polynomial and an exponential-polynomial path was used to calculate free energy. Computational results showed that model using GROMOS Lennard-Jones parameters was unsuitable for bulk CO(2) simulations. On the other hand, model with potential fitted to reproduce only correct density-pressure relationship in the supercritical region proved to yield correct enthalpy of vaporization and free energy of liquid CO(2) in the low-temperature region. Except for molar volume at the upper part of the vapor-liquid equilibrium line, the bulk properties of exp-6-1 parametrization of ab initio CO(2) potential were in a close agreement with the experimental results. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Comput Chem 22: 1772-1781, 2001
Calculation of kinetic rate constants from thermodynamic data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marek, C. John
1995-01-01
A new scheme for relating the absolute value for the kinetic rate constant k to the thermodynamic constant Kp is developed for gases. In this report the forward and reverse rate constants are individually related to the thermodynamic data. The kinetic rate constants computed from thermodynamics compare well with the current kinetic rate constants. This method is self consistent and does not have extensive rules. It is first demonstrated and calibrated by computing the HBr reaction from H2 and Br2. This method then is used on other reactions.
Thermodynamic properties of the S =1 /2 twisted triangular spin tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ito, Takuya; Iino, Chihiro; Shibata, Naokazu
2018-05-01
Thermodynamic properties of the twisted three-leg spin tube under magnetic field are studied by the finite-T density-matrix renormalization group method. The specific heat, spin, and chiral susceptibilities of the infinite system are calculated for both the original and its low-energy effective models. The obtained results show that the presence of the chirality is observed as a clear peak in the specific heat at low temperature and the contribution of the chirality dominates the low-temperature part of the specific heat as the exchange coupling along the spin tube decreases. The peak structures in the specific heat, spin, and chiral susceptibilities are strongly modified near the quantum phase transition where the critical behaviors of the spin and chirality correlations change. These results confirm that the chirality plays a major role in characteristic low-energy behaviors of the frustrated spin systems.
Revisit on the thermodynamic stability of Hořava-Lifshitz black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Xudong; Wang, Ruihong
We study the thermodynamic properties of the black hole derived in Hořava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity without the detailed-balance condition. The parameter Ξ = 𝜖2 in the HL black hole plays the same role as that of the electric charge in the Reissner-Nordström-anti-de Sitter (RN-AdS) black hole. By analogy, we treat the parameter Ξ as the thermodynamic variable and obtain the first law of thermodynamics for the HL black hole. Although the HL black hole and the RN-AdS black hole have the similar mass and temperature, due to their very different entropy, the two black holes have very different thermodynamic properties. By calculating the heat capacity and the free energy, we analyze the thermodynamic stability of the HL black hole.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barr, Jordan A.; Lin, Fang-Yin; Ashton, Michael; Hennig, Richard G.; Sinnott, Susan B.
2018-02-01
High-throughput density functional theory calculations are conducted to search through 1572 A B O3 compounds to find a potential replacement material for lead zirconate titanate (PZT) that exhibits the same excellent piezoelectric properties as PZT and lacks both its use of the toxic element lead (Pb) and the formation of secondary alloy phases with platinum (Pt) electrodes. The first screening criterion employed a search through the Materials Project database to find A -B combinations that do not form ternary compounds with Pt. The second screening criterion aimed to eliminate potential candidates through first-principles calculations of their electronic structure, in which compounds with a band gap of 0.25 eV or higher were retained. Third, thermodynamic stability calculations were used to compare the candidates in a Pt environment to compounds already calculated to be stable within the Materials Project. Formation energies below or equal to 100 meV/atom were considered to be thermodynamically stable. The fourth screening criterion employed lattice misfit to identify those candidate perovskites that have low misfit with the Pt electrode and high misfit of potential secondary phases that can be formed when Pt alloys with the different A and B components. To aid in the final analysis, dynamic stability calculations were used to determine those perovskites that have dynamic instabilities that favor the ferroelectric distortion. Analysis of the data finds three perovskites warranting further investigation: CsNb O3 , RbNb O3 , and CsTa O3 .
CET89 - CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM WITH TRANSPORT PROPERTIES, 1989
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcbride, B.
1994-01-01
Scientists and engineers need chemical equilibrium composition data to calculate the theoretical thermodynamic properties of a chemical system. This information is essential in the design and analysis of equipment such as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical processing equipment. The substantial amount of numerical computation required to obtain equilibrium compositions and transport properties for complex chemical systems led scientists at NASA's Lewis Research Center to develop CET89, a program designed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of these systems. CET89 is a general program which will calculate chemical equilibrium compositions and mixture properties for any chemical system with available thermodynamic data. Generally, mixtures may include condensed and gaseous products. CET89 performs the following operations: it 1) obtains chemical equilibrium compositions for assigned thermodynamic states, 2) calculates dilute-gas transport properties of complex chemical mixtures, 3) obtains Chapman-Jouguet detonation properties for gaseous species, 4) calculates incident and reflected shock properties in terms of assigned velocities, and 5) calculates theoretical rocket performance for both equilibrium and frozen compositions during expansion. The rocket performance function allows the option of assuming either a finite area or an infinite area combustor. CET89 accommodates problems involving up to 24 reactants, 20 elements, and 600 products (400 of which may be condensed). The program includes a library of thermodynamic and transport properties in the form of least squares coefficients for possible reaction products. It includes thermodynamic data for over 1300 gaseous and condensed species and transport data for 151 gases. The subroutines UTHERM and UTRAN convert thermodynamic and transport data to unformatted form for faster processing. The program conforms to the FORTRAN 77 standard, except for
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yi; Wang, Chunlin; Sun, Hao; Murphy, Anthony B.; Rong, Mingzhe; Yang, Fei; Chen, Zhexin; Niu, Chunpin; Wang, Xiaohua
2018-04-01
The thermophysical properties, including composition, thermodynamic properties, transport coefficients and net emission coefficients, of thermal plasmas formed from pure iso-C4 perfluoronitrile C4F7N and C4F7N–CO2 mixtures are calculated for temperatures from 300 to 30 000 K and pressures from 0.1 to 20 atm. These gases have received much attention as alternatives to SF6 for use in circuit breakers, due to the low global warming potential and good dielectric properties of C4F7N. Since the parameters of the large molecules formed in the dissociation of C4F7N are unavailable, the partition function and enthalpy of formation were calculated using computational chemistry methods. From the equilibrium composition calculations, it was found that when C4F7N is mixed with CO2, CO2 can capture C atoms from C4F7N, producing CO, since the system consisting of small molecules such as CF4 and CO has lower energy at room temperature. This is in agreement with previous experimental results, which show that CO dominates the decomposition products of C4F7N–CO2 mixtures; it could limit the repeated breaking performance of C4F7N. From the point of view of chemical stability, the mixing ratio of CO2 should therefore be chosen carefully. Through comparison with common arc quenching gases (including SF6, CF3I and C5F10O), it is found that for the temperature range for which electrical conductivity remains low, pure C4F7N has similar ρC p (product of mass density and specific heat) properties to SF6, and higher radiative emission coefficient, properties that are correlated with good arc extinguishing capability. For C4F7N–CO2 mixtures, the electrical conductivity is very close to that of SF6 while the ρC p peak at 7000 K caused by decomposition of CO implies inferior interruption capability to that of SF6. The calculated properties will be useful in arc simulations.
Electronic, thermodynamics and mechanical properties of LaB6 from first-principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivashchenko, V. I.; Turchi, P. E. A.; Shevchenko, V. I.; Medukh, N. R.; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Gorb, Leonid
2018-02-01
Up to date, the electronic structure properties of amorphous lanthanum hexaboride, a-LaB6, were not yet investigated, and the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of crystalline lanthanum hexaboride (c-LaB6) were studied incompletely. The goal of this work was to fill these gaps in the study of lanthanum hexaborides. The electronic and phonon structures, thermodynamic and mechanical properties of both crystalline and amorphous lanthanum hexaborides (c-LaB6, a-LaB6, respectively) were investigated within the density functional theory. An amorphyzation of c-LaB6 gives rise to the metal - semiconductor transition. The thermal conductivity decreases on going from c-LaB6 to a-LaB6. The elastic moduli, hardness, ideal tensile and shear strengths of a-LaB6 are significantly lower compared to those of the crystalline counterpart, despite the formation of the icosahedron-like boron network in the amorphous phase. For c-LaB6, the stable boron octahedrons are preserved after the failure under tensile and shear strains. The peculiarity in the temperature dependence of heat capacity, Cp(T), at 50 K is explained by the availability of a sharp peak at 100 cm-1 in the phonon density of states of c-LaB6. An analysis of the Fermi surface indicates that this peak is not related to the shape of the Fermi surface, and is caused by the vibration of lanthanum atoms. In the phonon spectrum of a-LaB6, the peak at 100 cm-1 is significantly broader than in the spectrum of c-LaB6, for which reason the anomaly in the Cp(T) dependence of a-LaB6 does not appear. The calculated characteristics are in good agreement with the available experimental data.
Allada, Ravikiran; Maruthapillai, Arthanareeswari; Palanisamy, Kamaraj; Chappa, Praveen
2017-01-01
Aims: Carvedilol phosphate (CDP) is a nonselective beta-blocker used for the treatment of heart failures and hypertension. In this work, moisture sorption–desorption characteristics and thermodynamic properties of CDP have been investigated. Materials and Methods: The isotherms were determined using dynamic vapor sorption analyzer at different humidity conditions (0%–90% relative humidity) and three pharmaceutically relevant temperatures (20°C, 30°C, and 40°C). The experimental sorption data determined were fitted to various models, namely, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller; Guggenheim-Anderson-De Boer (GAB); Peleg; and modified GAB. Isosteric heats of sorption were evaluated through the direct use of sorption isotherms by means of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Statistical Analysis Used: The sorption model parameters were determined from the experimental sorption data using nonlinear regression analysis, and mean relative percentage deviation (P), correlation (Correl), root mean square error, and model efficiency were considered as the criteria to select the best fit model. Results: The sorption–desorption isotherms have sigmoidal shape – confirming to Type II isotherms. Based on the statistical data analysis, modified GAB model was found to be more adequate to explain sorption characteristics of CDP. It is noted that the rate of adsorption and desorption is specific to the temperature at which it was being studied. It is observed that isosteric heat of sorption decreased with increasing equilibrium moisture content. Conclusions: The calculation of the thermodynamic properties was further used to draw an understanding of the properties of water and energy requirements associated with the sorption behavior. The sorption–desorption data and the set of equations are useful in the simulation of processing, handling, and storage of CDP and further behavior during manufacture and storage of CDP formulations. PMID:28584488
Thermodynamic properties of Dynes superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herman, František; Hlubina, Richard
2018-01-01
The tunneling density of states in dirty s -wave superconductors is often well described by the phenomenological Dynes formula. Recently we have shown that this formula can be derived, within the coherent potential approximation, for superconductors with simultaneously present pair-conserving and pair-breaking impurity scattering. Here we demonstrate that the theory of such so-called Dynes superconductors is thermodynamically consistent. We calculate the specific heat and critical field of the Dynes superconductors, and we show that their gap parameter, specific heat, critical field, and penetration depth exhibit power-law scaling with temperature in the low-temperature limit. We also show that in the vicinity of a coupling-constant-controlled superconductor to normal metal transition, the Homes law is replaced by a different, pair-breaking-dominated scaling law.
Mkanya, Anele; Pellicane, Giuseppe; Pini, Davide; Caccamo, Carlo
2017-09-13
We report extensive calculations, based on the modified hypernetted chain (MHNC) theory, on the hierarchical reference theory (HRT), and on Monte Carlo simulations, of thermodynamical, structural and phase coexistence properties of symmetric binary hard-core Yukawa mixtures (HCYM) with attractive interactions at equal species concentration. The obtained results are throughout compared with those available in the literature for the same systems. It turns out that the MHNC predictions for thermodynamic and structural quantities are quite accurate in comparison with the MC data. The HRT is equally accurate for thermodynamics, and slightly less accurate for structure. Liquid-vapor (LV) and liquid-liquid (LL) consolute coexistence conditions as emerging from simulations, are also highly satisfactorily reproduced by both the MHNC and HRT for relatively long ranged potentials. When the potential range reduces, the MHNC faces problems in determining the LV binodal line; however, the LL consolute line and the critical end point (CEP) temperature and density turn out to be still satisfactorily predicted within this theory. The HRT also predicts with good accuracy the CEP position. The possibility of employing liquid state theories HCYM for the purpose of reliably determining phase equilibria in multicomponent colloidal fluids of current technological interest, is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mkanya, Anele; Pellicane, Giuseppe; Pini, Davide; Caccamo, Carlo
2017-09-01
We report extensive calculations, based on the modified hypernetted chain (MHNC) theory, on the hierarchical reference theory (HRT), and on Monte Carlo simulations, of thermodynamical, structural and phase coexistence properties of symmetric binary hard-core Yukawa mixtures (HCYM) with attractive interactions at equal species concentration. The obtained results are throughout compared with those available in the literature for the same systems. It turns out that the MHNC predictions for thermodynamic and structural quantities are quite accurate in comparison with the MC data. The HRT is equally accurate for thermodynamics, and slightly less accurate for structure. Liquid-vapor (LV) and liquid-liquid (LL) consolute coexistence conditions as emerging from simulations, are also highly satisfactorily reproduced by both the MHNC and HRT for relatively long ranged potentials. When the potential range reduces, the MHNC faces problems in determining the LV binodal line; however, the LL consolute line and the critical end point (CEP) temperature and density turn out to be still satisfactorily predicted within this theory. The HRT also predicts with good accuracy the CEP position. The possibility of employing liquid state theories HCYM for the purpose of reliably determining phase equilibria in multicomponent colloidal fluids of current technological interest, is discussed.
Mesoscopic modeling of structural and thermodynamic properties of fluids confined by rough surfaces.
Terrón-Mejía, Ketzasmin A; López-Rendón, Roberto; Gama Goicochea, Armando
2015-10-21
The interfacial and structural properties of fluids confined by surfaces of different geometries are studied at the mesoscopic scale using dissipative particle dynamics simulations in the grand canonical ensemble. The structure of the surfaces is modeled by a simple function, which allows us to simulate readily different types of surfaces through the choice of three parameters only. The fluids we have modeled are confined either by two smooth surfaces or by symmetrically and asymmetrically structured walls. We calculate structural and thermodynamic properties such as the density, temperature and pressure profiles, as well as the interfacial tension profiles for each case and find that a structural order-disorder phase transition occurs as the degree of surface roughness increases. However, the magnitude of the interfacial tension is insensitive to the structuring of the surfaces and depends solely on the magnitude of the solid-fluid interaction. These results are important for modern nanotechnology applications, such as in the enhanced recovery of oil, and in the design of porous materials with specifically tailored properties.
PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTY CALCULATIONS
Computer models have been developed to estimate a wide range of physical-chemical properties from molecular structure. The SPARC modeling system approaches calculations as site specific reactions (pKa, hydrolysis, hydration) and `whole molecule' properties (vapor pressure, boilin...
First-Principles Study of Thermodynamic and Magnetic Properties of Alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhuravlev, Ivan
The standard theoretical framework for predicting phase diagrams and other thermodynamic properties of alloys requires an adequate representation of the formation enthalpy. An important part of the formation enthalpy in size-mismatched alloys comes from atomic relaxations. The harmonic Kanzaki-Krivoglaz-Khachaturyan model of strain-induced interaction is generalized to concentrated size-mismatched alloys and adapted to first-principles calculations. The configuration dependence of both Kanzaki forces and force constants is represented by real-space cluster expansions that can be constructed based on the calculated forces. Developed configuration-dependent lattice deformation model is implemented for the fcc lattice and applied to Cu1-x Aux and Fe1-x Ptx alloys for concentrations x = 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75. The model is further adapted to concentration wave analysis and Monte Carlo. Good agreement with experiment is found for all systems except CuAu3 and FePt3. The structural and ordering energetics are studied in Au-Fe alloys by combining DFT calculations with effective Hamiltonian techniques: a cluster expansion with structural filters, and CLDM. The phase separation tendency in Au-Fe persists even if the fcc-bcc decomposition is suppressed. The relative stability of disordered bcc and fcc phases observed in nanoparticles is reproduced, but the fully ordered L10 AuFe, L12 Au3Fe, and L1 2 AuFe3 structures are unstable in DFT. Effects of magnetism on the chemical ordering are also discussed. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy is one of the key properties of a magnetic material. Understanding of its temperature and concentration dependence is a challenging theoretical problem with implications for the design of better materials for permanent magnets and other applications. The origins of the anomalous temperature dependence of magnetocrystalline anisotropy in (Fe 1-xCox)2B alloys are elucidated using first-principles calculations within the disordered local moment model
Evaluation of the thermodynamic properties of hydrated metal oxide nanoparticles by INS techniques
Spencer, Elinor; Ross, Dr. Nancy; Parker, Stewart F.
2013-01-01
In this contribution we will present a detailed methodology for the elucidation of the following aspects of the thermodynamic properties of hydrated metal oxide nanoparticles from high-resolution, low-temperature inelastic neutron scattering (INS) data: (i) the isochoric heat capacity and entropy of the hydration layers both chemi- and physisorbed to the particle surface; (ii) the magnetic contribution to the heat capacity of the nanoparticles. This will include the calculation of the vibrational density of states (VDOS) from the raw INS spectra, and the subsequent extraction of the thermodynamic data from the VDOS. This technique will be described in terms of amore » worked example namely, cobalt oxide (Co3O4 and CoO). To complement this evaluation of the physical properties of metal oxide nanoparticle systems, we will emphasise the importance of high-resolution, high-energy INS for the determination of the structure and dynamics of the water species, namely molecular (H2O) and dissociated water (OH, hydroxyl), confined to the oxide surfaces. For this component of the chapter we will focus on INS investigations of hydrated isostructural rutile (a-TiO2) and cassiterite (SnO2) nanoparticles. We will complete this discussion of nanoparticle analysis by including an appraisal of the INS instrumentation employed in such studies with particular focus on TOSCA [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), U.K.] and the newly developed spectrometer SEQUOIA [SNS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), U.S.A].« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erum, Nazia; Azhar Iqbal, Muhammad
2017-12-01
The effect of pressure variation on structural, electronic, elastic, mechanical, optical and thermodynamic characteristics of cubic SrNaF3 fluoroperovskite have been investigated by employing first-principles method within the framework of gradient approximation (GGA). For the total energy calculations, we have used the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. Thermodynamic properties are computed in terms of quasi-harmonic Debye model. The pressure effects are determined in the range of 0-25 GPa, in which mechanical stability of SrNaF3 fluoroperovskite remains valid. A prominent decrease in lattice constant and bonds length is observed with the increase in pressure from 0 to 25 GPa. The effect of increase in pressure on band structure calculations with GGA and GGA plus Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential reveals a predominant characteristic associated with widening of bandgap. The influence of pressure on set of isotropic elastic parameters and their related properties are numerically estimated for SrNaF3 polycrystalline aggregate. Apart of linear dependence of elastic coefficients, transition from brittle to ductile behavior is observed as pressure is increased from 0 to 25 GPa. We have successfully obtained variation of lattice constant, volume expansion, bulk modulus, Debye temperature and specific heat capacities with pressure and temperature in the range of 0-25 GPa and 0-600 K. All the calculated optical properties such as the complex dielectric function ɛ(ω), optical conductivity σ(ω), energy loss function L(ω), absorption coefficient α(w), refractive index n(ω), reflectivity R(ω), and effective number of electrons n eff, via sum rules shift towards the higher energies under the application of pressure.
Duan, Yuhua; Luebke, David; Pennline, Henry
2012-01-01
It is generally accepted that current technologies for capturing CO{sub 2} are still too energy intensive. Hence, there is a critical need for development of new materials that can capture CO{sub 2} reversibly with acceptable energy costs. Accordingly, solid sorbents have been proposed to be used for CO{sub 2} capture applications through a reversible chemical transformation. By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The calculatedmore » thermodynamic properties of different classes of solid materials versus temperature and pressure changes were further used to evaluate the equilibrium properties for the CO{sub 2} adsorption/desorption cycles. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO{sub 2} capture reactions by the solids of interest, we were able to screen only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions. These CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates were further considered for experimental validations. In this presentation, we first introduce our screening methodology with validating by solid dataset of alkali and alkaline metal oxides, hydroxides and bicarbonates which thermodynamic properties are available. Then, by studying a series of lithium silicates, we found that by increasing the Li{sub 2}O/SiO{sub 2} ratio in the lithium silicates their corresponding turnover temperatures for CO{sub 2} capture reactions can be increased. Compared to anhydrous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, the dehydrated K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}1.5H{sub 2}O can only be applied for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture technology at temperatures lower than its phase
Li, L. H.; Hu, L.; Yang, S. J.
2016-01-21
The thermodynamic properties, including the density, volume expansion coefficient, ratio of specific heat to emissivity of intermetallic Ni{sub 7}Zr{sub 2} alloy, have been measured using the non-contact electrostatic levitation technique. These properties vary linearly with temperature at solid and liquid states, even down to the obtained maximum undercooling of 317 K. The enthalpy, glass transition, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, and surface tension were obtained by using molecular dynamics simulations. Ni{sub 7}Zr{sub 2} has a relatively poor glass forming ability, and the glass transition temperature is determined as 1026 K. The inter-diffusivity of Ni{sub 7}Zr{sub 2} alloy fitted by Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann law yields amore » fragility parameter of 8.49, which indicates the fragile nature of this alloy. Due to the competition of increased thermodynamic driving force and decreased atomic diffusion, the dendrite growth velocity of Ni{sub 7}Zr{sub 2} compound exhibits double-exponential relationship to the undercooling. The maximum growth velocity is predicted to be 0.45 m s{sup −1} at the undercooling of 335 K. Theoretical analysis reveals that the dendrite growth is a diffusion-controlled process and the atomic diffusion speed is only 2.0 m s{sup −1}.« less
Jia, Ting; Zeng, Zhi; Lin, H. Q.; ...
2017-08-08
The electronic, optical and thermodynamic properties of ABO 3 (A = La,Sr, B = Fe,Co) perovskites are investigated using first-principles calculations. The obtained results indicate that SrCoO 3 and SrFeO 3 are metals, while LaCoO 3 and LaFeO 3 are insulators and all of them exhibit strong hybridization of the Fe/Co-3d and O-2p orbitals. By correlating the energy band structures with the peaks of the imaginary part of the dielectric function, we obtained the origin of each electron excitation to provide information about the active bands for the corresponding optical transitions observed in the experiment. Moreover, the Debye temperatures θmore » D obtained from the phonon frequencies are comparable to the available data. In conclusion, the thermodynamic properties of the Helmholtz free energy F, entropy S, and constant-volume heat capacity C v are investigated based on the phonon spectra.« less
Optimization of binary thermodynamic and phase diagram data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bale, Christopher W.; Pelton, A. D.
1983-03-01
An optimization technique based upon least squares regression is presented to permit the simultaneous analysis of diverse experimental binary thermodynamic and phase diagram data. Coefficients of polynomial expansions for the enthalpy and excess entropy of binary solutions are obtained which can subsequently be used to calculate the thermodynamic properties or the phase diagram. In an interactive computer-assisted analysis employing this technique, one can critically analyze a large number of diverse data in a binary system rapidly, in a manner which is fully self-consistent thermodynamically. Examples of applications to the Bi-Zn, Cd-Pb, PbCl2-KCl, LiCl-FeCl2, and Au-Ni binary systems are given.
Thermodynamic and structure-property study of liquid-vapor equilibrium for aroma compounds.
Tromelin, Anne; Andriot, Isabelle; Kopjar, Mirela; Guichard, Elisabeth
2010-04-14
Thermodynamic parameters (T, DeltaH degrees , DeltaS degrees , K) were collected from the literature and/or calculated for five esters, four ketones, two aldehydes, and three alcohols, pure compounds and compounds in aqueous solution. Examination of correlations between these parameters and the range values of DeltaH degrees and DeltaS degrees puts forward the key roles of enthalpy for vaporization of pure compounds and of entropy in liquid-vapor equilibrium of compounds in aqueous solution. A structure-property relationship (SPR) study was performed using molecular descriptors on aroma compounds to better understand their vaporization behavior. In addition to the role of polarity for vapor-liquid equilibrium of compounds in aqueous solution, the structure-property study points out the role of chain length and branching, illustrated by the correlation between the connectivity index CHI-V-1 and the difference between T and log K for vaporization of pure compounds and compounds in aqueous solution. Moreover, examination of the esters' enthalpy values allowed a probable conformation adopted by ethyl octanoate in aqueous solution to be proposed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allison, D. O.
1972-01-01
Computer programs for flow fields around planetary entry vehicles require real-gas equilibrium thermodynamic properties in a simple form which can be evaluated quickly. To fill this need, polynomial approximations were found for thermodynamic properties of air and model planetary atmospheres. A coefficient-averaging technique was used for curve fitting in lieu of the usual least-squares method. The polynomials consist of terms up to the ninth degree in each of two variables (essentially pressure and density) including all cross terms. Four of these polynomials can be joined to cover, for example, a range of about 1000 to 11000 K and 0.00001 to 1 atmosphere (1 atm = 1.0133 x 100,000 N/m sq) for a given thermodynamic property. Relative errors of less than 1 percent are found over most of the applicable range.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Ting; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Tian, Jun-Hong; Wei, Xiao-Ping; Wan, Gui-Xin; Ma, Qin
2017-04-01
In the frame of density functional theory, first-principles calculations based on generalized gradient approximation and quasi-harmonic Debye approximation model in which the phononic effects are taken into account have been carried out to investigate the structural, electronic, magnetic, and thermodynamic properties of full-Heusler alloy Mn2RuGe in CuHg2Ti-type structure in the pressure range of 0-50 GPa. Present calculations predict that Mn2RuGe is a ferrimagnet with an optimized lattice parameter of 5.854 Å. The calculated total magnetic moment of 2.01 μB per formula unit is very close to integer value and agree well with the Slater-Pauling rule, where the partial spin moments of Mn (A) and Mn (B) which mainly contribute to the total magnetic moment are 2.66 μB and -0.90 μB, respectively. In the study of the energy band structures and density of states, Mn2RuGe exhibits half-metallicity with an indirect gap of 0.235 eV in the spin-down channels, and the shifting of bands towards higher energies in spin-down channel under high pressure. Meanwhile, the high-pressure thermodynamic properties of Mn2RuGe, such as the pressure-volume-temperature relationship, bulk modulus, thermal expansivity, heat capacity, Debye temperature, and Grüneisen parameter are evaluated systematically in the temperature range of 0-900 K. This set of data is considered as the useful information to understand the high-pressure and high-temperature properties for the Mn2RuZ-type Heusler alloy family.
Chen, W. J.; Zheng, Yue, E-mail: zhengy35@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Wu, C. M.
Thermodynamic calculation and phase-field simulation have been conducted to investigate the misfit strain-temperature phase diagrams, dielectric property, and domain stability of asymmetric ferroelectric capacitors (FCs), with considering the effects of dissimilar screening properties and work function steps at the two interfaces. The distinct features of asymmetric FCs from their symmetric counterparts have been revealed and discussed. Polar states with nonzero out-of-plane polarization in parallel with the built-in field are found preferential to form in asymmetric FCs. Meanwhile, the built-in field breaks the degeneracy of states with out-of-plane polarization in anti-directions. This leads to the necessity of redefining phases according tomore » the bistability of out-of-plane polarization. Moreover, the phase stability as well as the dielectric behavior can be significantly controlled by the properties of electrodes, misfit strain, and temperature. The phase-field simulation result also shows that polydomain instability would happen in asymmetric FCs as the equivalence of domain stability in anti-directions is destroyed.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Li; Ray, Asok K.
2010-03-01
As a continuation of our studies of pure actinide metals using hybrid density functional theory,footnotetextR. Atta-Fynn and A. K. Ray, Europhysics Letters, 85, 27008-p1- p6 (2009); Chemical Physics Letters, 482, 223-227 (2009). we present here a systematic study of the electronic and geometric structure properties of mixed actinide dioxides, U0.5Pu0.5O2, U0.5Am0.5O2, Pu0.5Am0.5 O2 and U0.8Pu0.2O2. The fraction of exact Hartree-Fock exchange used was 40%. To investigate the effect of spin-orbit coupling on the ground state electronic and geometric structure properties, computations have been carried out at two theoretical levels, one at the scalar-relativistic level with no spin-orbit coupling and one at the fully relativistic level with spin-orbit coupling. Thermodynamic properties have been calculated by a coupling of first-principles calculation and lattice dynamics.
Computing Properties Of Chemical Mixtures At Equilibrium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcbride, B. J.; Gordon, S.
1995-01-01
Scientists and engineers need data on chemical equilibrium compositions to calculate theoretical thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Information essential in design and analysis of such equipment as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical-processing equipment. CET93 is general program that calculates chemical equilibrium compositions and properties of mixtures for any chemical system for which thermodynamic data are available. Includes thermodynamic data for more than 1,300 gaseous and condensed species and thermal-transport data for 151 gases. Written in FORTRAN 77.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sologubov, S. S.; Markin, A. V.; Smirnova, N. N.; Novozhilova, N. A.; Tatarinova, E. A.; Muzafarov, A. M.
2018-02-01
The heat capacity of a first-generation carbosilane dendrimer with terminal phenylethyl groups as a function of temperature in the range from 6 to 520 K is studied for the first time via precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Physical transformations, such as low-temperature structural anomaly and glass transition are detected in the above-mentioned range of temperatures, and their standard thermodynamic characteristics are determined and analyzed. The standard thermodynamic functions of the studied dendrimer in the range of T → 0 to 520 K are calculated from the experimental data, as is the standard entropy in the devitrified state at T = 298.15 K. The standard thermodynamic characteristics of the carbosilane dendrimers studied in this work and earlier are compared.
Thermodynamic Properties of Low-Density {}^{132}Xe Gas in the Temperature Range 165-275 K
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akour, Abdulrahman
2018-01-01
The method of static fluctuation approximation was used to calculate selected thermodynamic properties (internal energy, entropy, energy capacity, and pressure) for xenon in a particularly low-temperature range (165-270 K) under different conditions. This integrated microscopic study started from an initial basic assumption as the main input. The basic assumption in this method was to replace the local field operator with its mean value, then numerically solve a closed set of nonlinear equations using an iterative method, considering the Hartree-Fock B2-type dispersion potential as the most appropriate potential for xenon. The results are in very good agreement with those of an ideal gas.
Moffat, Harry K.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.
2009-06-01
In this report, we summarize our work on developing a production level capability for modeling brine thermodynamic properties using the open-source code Cantera. This implementation into Cantera allows for the application of chemical thermodynamics to describe the interactions between a solid and an electrolyte solution at chemical equilibrium. The formulations to evaluate the thermodynamic properties of electrolytes are based on Pitzer's model to calculate molality-based activity coefficients using a real equation-of-state (EoS) for water. In addition, the thermodynamic properties of solutes at elevated temperature and pressures are computed using the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) EoS for ionic and neutral aqueous species.more » The thermodynamic data parameters for the Pitzer formulation and HKF EoS are from the thermodynamic database compilation developed for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) used with the computer code EQ3/6. We describe the adopted equations and their implementation within Cantera and also provide several validated examples relevant to the calculations of extensive properties of electrolyte solutions.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gordon, S.
1982-01-01
The equilibrium compositions that correspond to the thermodynamic and transport combustion properties for a wide range of conditions for the reaction of hydrocarbons with air are presented. Initially 55 gaseous species and 3 coin condensed species were considered in the calculations. Only 17 of these 55 gaseous species had equilibrium mole fractions greater than 0.000005 for any of the conditions studied and therefore these were the only ones retained in the final tables.
Development of a Knowledge Base of Ti-Alloys From First-Principles and Thermodynamic Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marker, Cassie
An aging population with an active lifestyle requires the development of better load-bearing implants, which have high levels of biocompatibility and a low elastic modulus. Titanium alloys, in the body centered cubic phase, are great implant candidates, due to their mechanical properties and biocompatibility. The present work aims at investigating the thermodynamic and elastic properties of bcc Tialloys, using the integrated first-principles based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) and the CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD) method. The use of integrated first-principles calculations based on DFT and CALPHAD modeling has greatly reduced the need for trial and error metallurgy, which is ineffective and costly. The phase stability of Ti-alloys has been shown to greatly affect their elastic properties. Traditionally, CALPHAD modeling has been used to predict the equilibrium phase formation, but in the case of Ti-alloys, predicting the formation of two metastable phases o and alpha" is of great importance as these phases also drastically effect the elastic properties. To build a knowledge base of Ti-alloys, for biomedical load-bearing implants, the Ti-Mo-Nb-Sn-Ta-Zr system was studied because of the biocompatibility and the bcc stabilizing effects of some of the elements. With the focus on bcc Ti-rich alloys, a database of thermodynamic descriptions of each phase for the pure elements, binary and Ti-rich ternary alloys was developed in the present work. Previous thermodynamic descriptions for the pure elements were adopted from the widely used SGTE database for global compatibility. The previous binary and ternary models from the literature were evaluated for accuracy and new thermodynamic descriptions were developed when necessary. The models were evaluated using available experimental data, as well as the enthalpy of formation of the bcc phase obtained from first-principles calculations based on DFT. The thermodynamic descriptions were combined into a database
Balanced Biochemical Reactions: A New Approach to Unify Chemical and Biochemical Thermodynamics
Sabatini, Antonio; Vacca, Alberto; Iotti, Stefano
2012-01-01
A novel procedure is presented which, by balancing elements and electric charge of biochemical reactions which occur at constant pH and pMg, allows assessing the thermodynamics properties of reaction ΔrG ′0, ΔrH ′0, ΔrS ′0 and the change in binding of hydrogen and magnesium ions of these reactions. This procedure of general applicability avoids the complex calculations required by the use of the Legendre transformed thermodynamic properties of formation ΔfG ′0, ΔfH ′0 and ΔfS ′0 hitherto considered an obligatory prerequisite to deal with the thermodynamics of biochemical reactions. As a consequence, the term “conditional” is proposed in substitution of “Legendre transformed” to indicate these thermodynamics properties. It is also shown that the thermodynamic potential G is fully adequate to give a criterion of spontaneous chemical change for all biochemical reactions and then that the use of the Legendre transformed G′ is unnecessary. The procedure proposed can be applied to any biochemical reaction, making possible to re-unify the two worlds of chemical and biochemical thermodynamics, which so far have been treated separately. PMID:22247780
Djamali, Essmaiil; Chen, Keith; Cobble, James W
2009-08-27
Pabalan and Pitzer (Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 1988, 52, 2393-2404) reported a comprehensive set of thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate without using ion association or hydrolysis. However, there is now ample evidence available indicating that the ion association cannot be ignored at temperatures T>or=373 K. For example, even at the lowest concentration of their studies (m>or=0.05) and at 573.15 K, less than 20% of SO4(2-)(aq) is available as free ions. In the present study, the integral heats of solution of sodium sulfate were measured to very low concentrations (10(-4) m) up to 573.16 K. The data were analyzed correcting for the hydrolysis of SO4(2-)(aq) and the association of Na+(aq) with SO4(2-)(aq) and NaSO4-(aq) in order to obtain the final standard state thermodynamic properties of completely ionized aqueous sodium sulfate, Na2SO4(aq). From these and the available solubility data, the stoichiometric activity coefficients of saturated aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate were calculated up to 573.15 K and compared with literature data. The stoichiometric activity coefficients of aqueous solutions of sodium sulfate, as a function of temperature at all concentrations (0
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Linlin; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Xiaohua; Wu, Junhui; Han, Guiquan; Han, Guohui; Lu, Yanhui; Yang, Aijun; Wu, Yi
2017-07-01
C5F10O has recently been found to be a very promising alternative to SF6. This paper is devoted to the investigation of compositions, thermodynamic properties, and transport coefficients of high-temperature C5F10O mixed with CO2 and O2. Firstly, the partition functions and enthalpies of formation for a few molecules (CxFy and CxFyO) which are likely to exist in the mixtures, are calculated based on the G4(MP2) theory. The isomers of the above molecules are selected according to their Gibbs energy. The compositions of C5F10O-CO2-O2 mixtures are then determined using the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. Next, the thermodynamic properties (mass density, specific enthalpy, and specific heat) are derived from the previously calculated compositions. Lastly, the transport coefficients (electrical conductivity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity) are calculated based on Chapman-Enskog method. It is found that, as an arc quenching gas, C5F10O could not recombine into itself with the temperature decreasing down to room temperature after the arc extinction. Besides, the key species at room temperature are always CF4, CO2, and C4F6 if graphite is not considered. When taken into account, graphite will replace C4F6 as one of the dominate particles. The mixing of CO2 with C5F10O plasma significantly affects the thermodynamic properties (e.g. vanishing and/or shifting of the peaks in specific heat) and transport coefficients (e.g. reducing viscosity and changing the number of peaks in thermal conductivity), while the addition of O2 with C5F10O-CO2 mixtures has no remarkable influence on both thermodynamic and transport properties.
Calculating Stress: From Entropy to a Thermodynamic Concept of Health and Disease
Nečesánek, Ivo; Konečný, David; Vasku, Anna
2016-01-01
To date, contemporary science has lacked a satisfactory tool for the objective expression of stress. This text thus introduces a new–thermodynamically derived–approach to stress measurement, based on entropy production in time and independent of the quality or modality of a given stressor or a combination thereof. Hereto, we propose a novel model of stress response based on thermodynamic modelling of entropy production, both in the tissues/organs and in regulatory feedbacks. Stress response is expressed in our model on the basis of stress entropic load (SEL), a variable we introduced previously; the mathematical expression of SEL, provided here for the first time, now allows us to describe the various states of a living system, including differentiating between states of health and disease. The resulting calculation of stress response regardless of the type of stressor(s) in question is thus poised to become an entirely new tool for predicting the development of a living system. PMID:26771542
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Mei-Guang; Huang, Duo-Hui; Wei, Qun
2013-04-01
The first-principles study on the elastic properties, elastic anisotropy and thermodynamic properties of the orthorhombic OsB4 is reported using density functional theory method with the ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme in the frame of the generalized gradient approximation. The calculated equilibrium parameters are in good agreement with the available theoretical data. A complete elastic tensor and crystal anisotropies of the ultra-incompressible OsB4 are determined in the pressure range of 0-50 GPa. By the elastic stability criteria, it is predicted that the orthorhombic OsB4 is stable below 50 GPa. By using the quasi-harmonic Debye model, the heat capacity, the coefficient of thermal expansion, and the Grüneisen parameter of OsB4 are also successfully obtained in the present work.
Calculating the Bending Modulus for Multicomponent Lipid Membranes in Different Thermodynamic Phases
2013-01-01
We establish a computational approach to extract the bending modulus, KC, for lipid membranes from relatively small-scale molecular simulations. Fluctuations in the splay of individual pairs of lipids faithfully inform on KC in multicomponent membranes over a large range of rigidities in different thermodynamic phases. Predictions are validated by experiments even where the standard spectral analysis-based methods fail. The local nature of this method potentially allows its extension to calculations of KC in protein-laden membranes. PMID:24039553
Thermodynamics properties of lanthanide series near melting point-A pseudopotential approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suthar, P. H.; Gajjar, P. N.
2018-04-01
The present paper deals with computational study of thermodynamics properties for fifteen elements of lanthanide series. The Helmholtz free energy (F), Internal energy (E) and Entropy (S)have been computed using variational method based on the Gibbs-Bogoliubov (GB) along with Percus-Yevick hard sphere reference system and Gajjar's model potential. The local field correction function proposed by Taylor is applied to introduce the exchange and correlation effects in the study of thermodynamics of these metals. The present results in comparison with available theoretical and experimental are found to be in good agreement and confirm the ability of the model potential.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makarycheva, A. I.; Faerman, V. A.
2017-02-01
The analyses of automation patterns is performed and the programming solution for the automation of data processing of the chromatographic data and their further information storage with a help of a software package, Mathcad and MS Excel spreadsheets, is developed. The offered approach concedes the ability of data processing algorithm modification and does not require any programming experts participation. The approach provides making a measurement of the given time and retention volumes, specific retention volumes, a measurement of differential molar free adsorption energy, and a measurement of partial molar solution enthalpies and isosteric heats of adsorption. The developed solution is focused on the appliance in a small research group and is tested on the series of some new gas chromatography sorbents. More than 20 analytes were submitted to calculation of retention parameters and thermodynamic sorption quantities. The received data are provided in the form accessible to comparative analysis, and they are able to find sorbing agents with the most profitable properties to solve some concrete analytic issues.
Ab-intio study of phonon and thermodynamic properties of Znic-blende ZnSe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khatta, Swati; Kaur, Veerpal; Tripathi, S. K.; Prakash, Satya
2018-04-01
The Phonon and thermodynamic properties of ZnSe are investigated using density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) and quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA) implemented in Quantum espresso code. The phonon dispersion curve and phonon density of states of ZnSe are obtained. It is shown that high symmetries D→X and D→L directions, there are four branches of dispersion curves which split into six branches along the X→W, W→X and X→D directions. The LO-TO splitting frequencies (in cm-1) at the zone center (D point) are LO=255 and TO=215. The total and partial phonon density of states is used to compute the entropy and specific heat capacity of ZnSe. The computed values are in reasonable agreement with experimental data and other with available theoretical calculations.
Analysis of the Glass-Forming Ability of Fe-Er Alloys, Based on Thermodynamic Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arutyunyan, N. A.; Zaitsev, A. I.; Dunaev, S. F.; Kalmykov, K. B.; El'nyakov, D. D.; Shaposhnikov, N. G.
2018-05-01
The Fe-Er phase diagram and thermodynamic properties of all its phases are assessed by means of self-consistent analysis. To refine the data on phase equilibria in the Fe-Er system, an investigation is performed in the 10-40 at % range of Er concentrations. The temperature-concentration dependences of the thermodynamic properties of a melt are presented using the model of ideal associated solutions. Thermodynamic parameters of each phase are obtained, and the calculated results are in agreement with available experimental data. The correlation between the thermodynamic properties of liquid Fe-Er alloys and their tendency toward amorphization are studied. It is shown that compositions of amorphous alloys prepared by melt quenching coincide with the ranges of concentration with the predominance of Fe3Er and FeEr2 associative groups that have large negative entropies of formation.
Thermodynamic Modeling of the YO(l.5)-ZrO2 System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobson, Nathan S.; Liu, Zi-Kui; Kaufman, Larry; Zhang, Fan
2003-01-01
The YO1.5-ZrO2 system consists of five solid solutions, one liquid solution, and one intermediate compound. A thermodynamic description of this system is developed, which allows calculation of the phase diagram and thermodynamic properties. Two different solution models are used-a neutral species model with YO1.5 and ZrO2 as the components and a charged species model with Y(+3), Zr(+4), O(-2), and vacancies as components. For each model, regular and sub-regular solution parameters are derived fiom selected equilibrium phase and thermodynamic data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Lin; Xie, Liangxu; Yang, Mingjun
2017-04-01
Conformational sampling under rugged energy landscape is always a challenge in computer simulations. The recently developed integrated tempering sampling, together with its selective variant (SITS), emerges to be a powerful tool in exploring the free energy landscape or functional motions of various systems. The estimation of weighting factors constitutes a critical step in these methods and requires accurate calculation of partition function ratio between different thermodynamic states. In this work, we propose a new adaptive update algorithm to compute the weighting factors based on the weighted histogram analysis method (WHAM). The adaptive-WHAM algorithm with SITS is then applied to study the thermodynamic properties of several representative peptide systems solvated in an explicit water box. The performance of the new algorithm is validated in simulations of these solvated peptide systems. We anticipate more applications of this coupled optimisation and production algorithm to other complicated systems such as the biochemical reactions in solution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiaolong; Zhou, Zhaobo; Hu, Riming; Zhou, Xiaolong; Yu, Jie; Liu, Manmen
2018-04-01
The Phase stability, electronic structure, elastic properties and hardness of Ru-Ir alloys with different B concentration were investigated by first principles calculations. The calculated formation enthaplies and cohesive energies show that these compounds are all thermodynamically stable. Information on electronic structure indicates that they possess metallic characteristic and Ru-Ir-B alloys were composed of the Ru-B and Ir-B covalent bond. The elastic properties were calculated, which included bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio and hardness. The calculated results reveal that the plastic of Ru-Ir-B alloys increase with the increase of the content of B atoms, but the hardness of Ru-Ir-B alloys have no substantial progress with the increase of the content of B atoms. However, it is interesting that the hardness of the Ru-Ir-B compound was improved obviously as the B content was higher than 18 atoms because of a phase structure transition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehghani, M.
2018-02-01
Making use of the suitable transformation relations, the action of three-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity theory has been obtained from that of scalar-tensor modified gravity theory coupled to the Maxwell's electrodynamics as the matter field. Two new classes of the static three-dimensional charged dilatonic black holes, as the exact solutions to the coupled scalar, electromagnetic and gravitational field equations, have been obtained in the Einstein frame. Also, it has been found that the scalar potential can be written in the form of a generalized Liouville-type potential. The conserved black hole charge and masses as well as the black entropy, temperature, and electric potential have been calculated from the geometrical and thermodynamical approaches, separately. Through comparison of the results arisen from these two alternative approaches, the validity of the thermodynamical first law has been proved for both of the new black hole solutions in the Einstein frame. Making use of the canonical ensemble method, a black hole stability or phase transition analysis has been performed. Regarding the black hole heat capacity, with the black hole charge as a constant, the points of type-1 and type-2 phase transitions have been determined. Also, the ranges of the black hole horizon radius at which the Einstein black holes are thermally stable have been obtained for both of the new black hole solutions. Then making use of the inverse transformation relations, two new classes of the string black hole solutions have been obtained from their Einstein counterpart. The thermodynamics and thermal stability of the new string black hole solutions have been investigated. It has been found that thermodynamic properties of the new charged black holes are identical in the Einstein and Jordan frames.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, He; Chen, Jian-Fu; Cui, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Zhen-Jiang; Yang, Dong-Dong; Zhu, Shun-Guan; Li, Hong-Zhen
2017-04-01
An investigation on the structural, electronic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)/2-methylpyridine-N-oxide (MPNO) cocrystal was carried out from 0 to 100 GPa by using a dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D) method. Our calculated crystal structure is in excellent agreement with experimental results at ambient pressure. Based on the analysis of lattice parameters, lattice angles, bond lengths, bond angles, and dihedral angles under high pressure, we observe that HMX molecules in the cocrystal bulk are seriously distorted but MPNO molecules remain relatively unchanged. Hydrogen bond lengths are greatly shortened under high pressure. In addition, with the increase in pressure, the bandgap decreases gradually. However, it increases suddenly at 70 GPa. Some important hydrogen bonds between HMX and MPNO are also observed in the density of states spectrum. According to the thermodynamic analysis, this cocrystal is more easily prepared under low pressure. Finally, we characterized its mechanical properties and the results show that this cocrystal is malleable in nature. We expect that this research can provide a fundamental basis for further HMX cocrystal design and preparation.
Influence of Van der Waals interaction on the thermodynamics properties of NaCl
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marcondes, M. L.; Wentzcovitch, R. M.; Assali, L. V. C.
2016-12-01
Equations of state (EoS) are extremely important in several scientific domains. However, many applications require EoS parameters at high pressures and temperatures. Experimental determination of these parameters is limited in such conditions and ab initio calculations have become important in computing them. Density Functional Theory (DFT) with its various approximations for exchange and correlation energy is the method of choice, but lack of a good description of the exchange-correlation energy results in large errors in EoS parameters. It is well known that the alkali halides have been problematic from the onset and the quest for DFT functionals appropriate for such ionic and relatively weakly bonded systems has remained an active topic of research. Here we use DFT + van der Waals functionals to calculate the thermal equation of state and thermodynamic properties of the B1 NaCl phase. Our results show a remarkable improvement over the performance of standard the LDA and GGA functionals. This is hardly surprising given that ions in this system have nearly closed shell configurations.
Thermodynamics of pairing in mesoscopic systems
Sumaryada, Tony; Volya, Alexander
Using numerical and analytical methods implemented for different models, we conduct a systematic study of the thermodynamic properties of pairing correlations in mesoscopic nuclear systems. Various quantities are calculated and analyzed using the exact solution of pairing. An in-depth comparison of canonical, grand canonical, and microcanonical ensembles is conducted. The nature of the pairing phase transition in a small system is of a particular interest. We discuss the onset of discontinuity in the thermodynamic variables, fluctuations, and evolution of zeros of the canonical and grand canonical partition functions in the complex plane. The behavior of the invariant correlational entropy ismore » also studied in the transitional region of interest. The change in the character of the phase transition due to the presence of a magnetic field is discussed along with studies of superconducting thermodynamics.« less
Thermodynamic properties of water in confined environments: a Monte Carlo study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gladovic, Martin; Bren, Urban; Urbic, Tomaž
2018-05-01
Monte Carlo simulations of Mercedes-Benz water in a crowded environment were performed. The simulated systems are representative of both composite, porous or sintered materials and living cells with typical matrix packings. We studied the influence of overall temperature as well as the density and size of matrix particles on water density, particle distributions, hydrogen bond formation and thermodynamic quantities. Interestingly, temperature and space occupancy of matrix exhibit a similar effect on water properties following the competition between the kinetic and the potential energy of the system, whereby temperature increases the kinetic and matrix packing decreases the potential contribution. A novel thermodynamic decomposition approach was applied to gain insight into individual contributions of different types of inter-particle interactions. This decomposition proved to be useful and in good agreement with the total thermodynamic quantities especially at higher temperatures and matrix packings, where higher-order potential-energy mixing terms lose their importance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barber, Duncan Henry
During some postulated accidents at nuclear power stations, fuel cooling may be impaired. In such cases, the fuel heats up and the subsequent increased fission-gas release from the fuel to the gap may result in fuel sheath failure. After fuel sheath failure, the barrier between the coolant and the fuel pellets is lost or impaired, gases and vapours from the fuel-to-sheath gap and other open voids in the fuel pellets can be vented. Gases and steam from the coolant can enter the broken fuel sheath and interact with the fuel pellet surfaces and the fission-product inclusion on the fuel surface (including material at the surface of the fuel matrix). The chemistry of this interaction is an important mechanism to model in order to assess fission-product releases from fuel. Starting in 1995, the computer program SOURCE 2.0 was developed by the Canadian nuclear industry to model fission-product release from fuel during such accidents. SOURCE 2.0 has employed an early thermochemical model of irradiated uranium dioxide fuel developed at the Royal Military College of Canada. To overcome the limitations of computers of that time, the implementation of the RMC model employed lookup tables to pre-calculated equilibrium conditions. In the intervening years, the RMC model has been improved, the power of computers has increased significantly, and thermodynamic subroutine libraries have become available. This thesis is the result of extensive work based on these three factors. A prototype computer program (referred to as SC11) has been developed that uses a thermodynamic subroutine library to calculate thermodynamic equilibria using Gibbs energy minimization. The Gibbs energy minimization requires the system temperature (T) and pressure (P), and the inventory of chemical elements (n) in the system. In order to calculate the inventory of chemical elements in the fuel, the list of nuclides and nuclear isomers modelled in SC11 had to be expanded from the list used by SOURCE 2.0. A
The Molybdenum titanium Phase Diagram Evaluated from Ab initio Calculations
2016-10-07
thermodynamic properties of this binary system are not well known and two conflicting descriptions of the β-phase stability have been presented in the...computational thermodynamics CALPHAD approach [13] and the Thermo-Calc software [14]. These studies led to two conflicting descriptions of the stability of...energy calculations, with an energy cutoff separating core and valence states of -6 Ry. 2.2. Thermodynamic modeling The formation enthalpy of a
High-pressure structural, elastic, and thermodynamic properties of zircon-type HoPO 4 and TmPO 4
Gomis, O.; Lavina, B.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.
2017-01-20
Zircon-type holmium phosphate (HoPO 4) and thulium phosphate (TmPO 4) have been studied by single-crystal x-ray diffraction and ab initio calculations. We report on the influence of pressure on the crystal structure, and on the elastic and thermodynamic properties. The equation of state for both compounds is accurately determined. We have also obtained information on the polyhedral compressibility which is used to explain the anisotropic axial compressibility and the bulk compressibility. Both compounds are ductile and more resistive to volume compression than to shear deformation at all pressures. Furthermore, the elastic anisotropy is enhanced upon compression. Finally, the calculations indicatemore » that the possible causes that make the zircon structure unstable are mechanical instabilities and the softening of a silent B 1u mode.« less
Thermodynamic and transport properties of air/water mixtures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fessler, T. E.
1981-01-01
Subroutine WETAIR calculates properties at nearly 1,500 K and 4,500 atmospheres. Necessary inputs are assigned values of combinations of density, pressure, temperature, and entropy. Interpolation of property tables obtains dry air and water (steam) properties, and simple mixing laws calculate properties of air/water mixture. WETAIR is used to test gas turbine engines and components operating in relatively humid air. Program is written in SFTRAN and FORTRAN.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boulechfar, R.; Khenioui, Y.; Drablia, S.; Meradji, H.; Abu-Jafar, M.; Omran, S. Bin; Khenata, R.; Ghemid, S.
2018-05-01
Ab-initio calculations based on density functional theory have been performed to study the structural, electronic, thermodynamic and mechanical properties of intermetallic compounds Pt3Sc and Pt3Y using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave(FP-LAPW) method. The total energy calculations performed for L12, D022 and D024 structures confirm the experimental phase stability. Using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), the values of enthalpies formation are -1.23 eV/atom and -1.18 eV/atom for Pt3Sc and Pt3Y, respectively. The densities of states (DOS) spectra show the existence of a pseudo-gap at the Fermi level for both compounds which indicate the strong spd hybridization and directing covalent bonding. Furthermore, the density of states at the Fermi level N(EF), the electronic specific heat coefficient (γele) and the number of bonding electrons per atom are predicted in addition to the elastic constants (C11, C12 and C44). The shear modulus (GH), Young's modulus (E), Poisson's ratio (ν), anisotropy factor (A), ratio of B/GH and Cauchy pressure (C12-C44) are also estimated. These parameters show that the Pt3Sc and Pt3Y are ductile compounds. The thermodynamic properties were calculated using the quasi-harmonic Debye model to account for their lattice vibrations. In addition, the influence of the temperature and pressure was analyzed on the heat capacities (Cp and Cv), thermal expansion coefficient (α), Debye temperature (θD) and Grüneisen parameter (γ).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gupta, Roop N.; Yos, Jerrold M.; Thompson, Richard A.; Lee, Kam-Pui
1990-01-01
Reaction rate coefficients and thermodynamic and transport properties are reviewed and supplemented for the 11-species air model which can be used for analyzing flows in chemical and thermal nonequilibrium up to temperatures of 3000 K. Such flows will likely occur around currently planned and future hypersonic vehicles. Guidelines for determining the state of the surrounding environment are provided. Curve fits are given for the various species properties for their efficient computation in flowfield codes. Approximate and more exact formulas are provided for computing the properties of partially ionized air mixtures in a high energy environment. Limitations of the approximate mixing laws are discussed for a mixture of ionized species. An electron number-density correction for the transport properties of the charged species is obtained. This correction has been generally ignored in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yi-Xian; Hu, Cui-E.; Chen, Yang-Mei; Cheng, Yan; Ji, Guang-Fu
2016-11-01
The structural, optical, dynamical, and thermodynamic properties of BaZnO2 under pressure are studied based on the density functional theory. The calculated structural parameters are consistent with the available experimental data. In the ground state, the electronic band structure and density of states indicate that BaZnO2 is an insulator with a direct gap of 2.2 eV. The Mulliken charges are also analyzed to characterize the bonding property. After the structural relaxation, the optical properties are studied. It is found that the dielectric function of E Vert x and EVert y are isotropic, whereas the EVert x and EVert z are anisotropic. The effect of pressure on the energy-loss function in the ultraviolet region becomes more obvious as the pressure increases. Furthermore, the dynamical properties under different pressures are investigated using the finite displacement method. We find that the P3121 phase of BaZnO2 is dynamically stable under the pressure ranging from 0 GPa to 30 GPa. The phonon dispersion curves, phonon density of states, vibrational modes and atoms that contribute to these vibrations at {{\\varvec{Γ }}} point under different pressures are also reported in this work. Finally, by employing the quasi-harmonic approximation, the thermodynamic properties such as the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat, entropy and Gibbs free energy under different pressures are investigated. It is found that the influences of the temperature on the heat capacity are much more significant than that of the pressure on it.
New International Skeleton Tables for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary Water Substance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, H.; Uematsu, M.; Watanabe, K.; Saul, A.; Wagner, W.
1988-10-01
The current knowledge of thermodynamic properties of ordinary water substance is summarized in a condensed form of a set of skeleton steam tables, where the most probable values with the reliabilities on specific volume and enthalpy are provided in the range of temperatures from 273 to 1073 K and pressures from 101.325 kPa to 1 GPa and at the saturation state from the triple point to the critical point. These tables have been accepted as the IAPS Skeleton Tables 1985 for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary Water Substance(IST-85) by the International Association for the Properties of Steam(IAPS). The former International Skeleton Steam Tables, October 1963(IST-63), have been withdrawn by IAPS. About 17 000 experimental thermodynamic data were assessed and classified previously by Working Group 1 of IAPS. About 10 000 experimental data were collected and evaluated in detail and especially about 7000 specific-volume data among them were critically analyzed with respect to their errors using the statistical method originally developed at Keio University by the first three authors. As a result, specific-volume and enthalpy values with associated reliabilities were determined at 1455 grid points of 24 isotherms and 61 isobars in the single-fluid phase state and at 54 temperatures along the saturation curve. The background, analytical procedure, and reliability of IST-85 as well as the assessment of the existing experimental data and equations of state are also discussed in this paper.
Liu, Zi-Kui; Gleeson, Brian; Shang, Shunli
This project developed computational tools that can complement and support experimental efforts in order to enable discovery and more efficient development of Ni-base structural materials and coatings. The project goal was reached through an integrated computation-predictive and experimental-validation approach, including first-principles calculations, thermodynamic CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram), and experimental investigations on compositions relevant to Ni-base superalloys and coatings in terms of oxide layer growth and microstructure stabilities. The developed description included composition ranges typical for coating alloys and, hence, allow for prediction of thermodynamic properties for these material systems. The calculation of phase compositions, phase fraction, and phase stabilities,more » which are directly related to properties such as ductility and strength, was a valuable contribution, along with the collection of computational tools that are required to meet the increasing demands for strong, ductile and environmentally-protective coatings. Specifically, a suitable thermodynamic description for the Ni-Al-Cr-Co-Si-Hf-Y system was developed for bulk alloy and coating compositions. Experiments were performed to validate and refine the thermodynamics from the CALPHAD modeling approach. Additionally, alloys produced using predictions from the current computational models were studied in terms of their oxidation performance. Finally, results obtained from experiments aided in the development of a thermodynamic modeling automation tool called ESPEI/pycalphad - for more rapid discovery and development of new materials.« less
Marciante, Mathieu; Murillo, Michael Sean
2017-01-10
Particle-level simulations of shocked plasmas are carried out to examine kinetic properties not captured by hydrodynamic models. In particular, molecular dynamics simulations of 2D Yukawa plasmas with variable couplings and screening lengths are used to examine shock features unique to plasmas, including the presence of dispersive shock structures for weak shocks. A phase-space analysis reveals several kinetic properties, including anisotropic velocity distributions, non-Maxwellian tails, and the presence of fast particles ahead of the shock, even for moderately low Mach numbers. As a result, we also examine the thermodynamics (Rankine-Hugoniot relations) of recent experiments and find no anomalies in their equationsmore » of state.« less
Marciante, Mathieu; Murillo, Michael Sean
Particle-level simulations of shocked plasmas are carried out to examine kinetic properties not captured by hydrodynamic models. In particular, molecular dynamics simulations of 2D Yukawa plasmas with variable couplings and screening lengths are used to examine shock features unique to plasmas, including the presence of dispersive shock structures for weak shocks. A phase-space analysis reveals several kinetic properties, including anisotropic velocity distributions, non-Maxwellian tails, and the presence of fast particles ahead of the shock, even for moderately low Mach numbers. As a result, we also examine the thermodynamics (Rankine-Hugoniot relations) of recent experiments and find no anomalies in their equationsmore » of state.« less
Mostafa, Ahmad; Medraj, Mamoun
2017-01-01
Fabrication of solar and electronic silicon wafers involves direct contact between solid, liquid and gas phases at near equilibrium conditions. Understanding of the phase diagrams and thermochemical properties of the Si-dopant binary systems is essential for providing processing conditions and for understanding the phase formation and transformation. In this work, ten Si-based binary phase diagrams, including Si with group IIIA elements (Al, B, Ga, In and Tl) and with group VA elements (As, Bi, N, P and Sb), have been reviewed. Each of these systems has been critically discussed on both aspects of phase diagram and thermodynamic properties. The available experimental data and thermodynamic parameters in the literature have been summarized and assessed thoroughly to provide consistent understanding of each system. Some systems were re-calculated to obtain a combination of the best evaluated phase diagram and a set of optimized thermodynamic parameters. As doping levels of solar and electronic silicon are of high technological importance, diffusion data has been presented to serve as a useful reference on the properties, behavior and quantities of metal impurities in silicon. This paper is meant to bridge the theoretical understanding of phase diagrams with the research and development of solar-grade silicon production, relying on the available information in the literature and our own analysis. PMID:28773034
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Jun
Ru and Pt are candidate additional component for improving the high temperature properties of Ni-base superalloys. A thermodynamic description of the Ni-Al-Cr-Ru-Pt system, serving as an essential knowledge base for better alloy design and processing control, was developed in the present study by means of thermodynamic modeling coupled with experimental investigations of phase equilibria. To deal with the order/disorder transition occurring in the Ni-base superalloys, a physical sound model, Cluster/Site Approximation (CSA) was used to describe the fcc phases. The CSA offers computational advantages, without loss of accuracy, over the Cluster Variation Method (CVM) in the calculation of multicomponent phase diagrams. It has been successfully applied to fcc phases in calculating technologically important Ni-Al-Cr phase diagrams. Our effort in this study focused on the two key ternary systems: Ni-Al-Ru and Ni-Al-Pt. The CSA calculated Ni-Al-Ru ternary phase diagrams are in good agreement with the experimental results in the literature and from the current study. A thermodynamic description of quaternary Ni-Al-Cr-Ru was obtained based on the descriptions of the lower order systems and the calculated results agree with experimental data available in literature and in the current study. The Ni-Al-Pt system was thermodynamically modeled based on the limited experimental data available in the literature and obtained from the current study. With the help of the preliminary description, a number of alloy compositions were selected for further investigation. The information obtained was used to improve the current modeling. A thermodynamic description of the Ni-Al-Cr-Pt quaternary was then obtained via extrapolation from its constituent lower order systems. The thermodynamic description for Ni-base superalloy containing Al, Cr, Ru and Pt was obtained via extrapolation. It is believed to be reliable and useful to guide the alloy design and further experimental investigation.
Thermodynamic model of a solid with RKKY interaction and magnetoelastic coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balcerzak, T.; Szałowski, K.; Jaščur, M.
2018-04-01
Thermodynamic description of a model system with magnetoelastic coupling is presented. The elastic, vibrational, electronic and magnetic energy contributions are taken into account. The long-range RKKY interaction is considered together with the nearest-neighbour direct exchange. The generalized Gibbs potential and the set of equations of state are derived, from which all thermodynamic functions are self-consistently obtained. Thermodynamic properties are calculated numerically for FCC structure for arbitrary external pressure, magnetic field and temperature, and widely discussed. In particular, for some parameters of interaction potential and electron concentration corresponding to antiferromagnetic phase, the existence of negative thermal expansion coefficient is predicted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Zhiqin; Zhao, Yuhong; Hou, Hua; Chen, Liwen
2018-05-01
First-principles calculations are performed to investigate lattice parameters, elastic constants and 3D directional Young's modulus E of nickel silicides (i.e., β-Ni3Si, δ-Ni2Si, θ-Ni2Si, ɛ-NiSi, and θ-Ni2Si), and thermodynamic properties, such as the Debye temperature, heat capacity, volumetric thermal expansion coefficient, at finite temperature are also explored in combination with the quasi-harmonic Debye model. The calculated results are in a good agreement with available experimental and theoretical values. The five compounds demonstrate elastic anisotropy. The dependence on the direction of stiffness is the greatest for δ-Ni2Si and θ-Ni2Si, when the stress is applied, while that for β-Ni3Si is minimal. The bulk modulus B reduces with increasing temperature, implying that the resistance to volume deformation will weaken with temperature, and the capacity gradually descend for the compound sequence of β-Ni3Si > δ-Ni2Si > θ-Ni2Si > ɛ-NiSi > θ-Ni2Si. The temperature dependence of the Debye temperature ΘD is related to the change of lattice parameters, and ΘD gradually decreases for the compound sequence of ɛ-NiSi > β-Ni3Si > δ-Ni2Si > θ-Ni2Si > θ-Ni2Si. The volumetric thermal expansion coefficient αV, isochoric heat capacity and isobaric heat capacity C p of nickel silicides are proportional to T 3 at low temperature, subsequently, αV and C p show modest linear change at high temperature, whereas C v obeys the Dulong-Petit limit. In addition, β-Ni3Si has the largest capability to store or release heat at high temperature. From the perspective of solid state physics, the thermodynamic properties at finite temperature can be used to guide further experimental works and design of novel nickel-silicon alloys.
Wang, Xiaotian; Khachai, Houari; Khenata, Rabah; Yuan, Hongkuan; Wang, Liying; Wang, Wenhong; Bouhemadou, Abdelmadjid; Hao, Liyu; Dai, Xuefang; Guo, Ruikang; Liu, Guodong; Cheng, Zhenxiang
2017-11-23
In this paper, we have investigated the structural, electronic, magnetic, half-metallic, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties of the equiatomic quaternary Heusler (EQH) compound FeCrRuSi using the density functional theory (DFT) and the quasi-harmonic Debye model. Our results reveal that FeCrRuSi is a half-metallic material (HMM) with a total magnetic moment of 2.0 μ B in agreement with the well-known Slater-Pauling rule M t = Z t - 24. Furthermore, the origin of the half-metallic band gap in FeCrRuSi is well studied through a schematic diagram of the possible d-d hybridization between Fe, Cr and Ru elements. The half-metallic behavior of FeCrRuSi can be maintained in a relatively wide range of variations of the lattice constant (5.5-5.8 Å) under uniform strain and the c/a ratio (0.96-1.05) under tetragonal distortion. The calculated phonon dispersion, cohesive and formation energies, and mechanical properties reveal that FeCrRuSi is stable with an EQH structure. Importantly, the compound of interest has been prepared and is found to exist in an EQH type structure with the presence of some B2 disorder. Moreover, the thermodynamic properties, such as the thermal expansion coefficient α, the heat capacity C V , the Grüneisen constant γ, and the Debye temperature Θ D are calculated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohiuddin Bhat, Tahir; Gupta, Dinesh C.
2017-11-01
The structural stability, electronic, mechanical, thermodynamic and thermoelectric properties of CoFeCrAl have been investigated by modified Beck-Johnson (mBJ) exchange potential. From the optimized calculations, the indirect band gap of 0.65 eV in spin-down was found, which is enhanced than the previously reported data. The material offers the magnetic moment of 2µ B and displays brittle nature with mixed chemical bonding. The thermoelectric properties of the compound in the temperature range 50-550 K have been revealed. Seebeck coefficient at room temperature is -46 µV K-1 which increases with temperature. At 550 K, the figure-of-merit for n-type compound maximizes up to ~0.41 suggesting a potential thermoelectric material at high temperatures. Meanwhile, quasi-harmonic Debye model was also used to investigate the effect of pressure and temperature on the thermal expansion, Grüneisen parameter and unit cell volume.
Sun, Yuzhen; Pan, Wenxiao; Lin, Yuan; Fu, Jianjie; Zhang, Aiqian
2016-01-01
Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are still controversial candidates for inclusion in the Stockholm Convention. The inherent mixture nature of SCCPs makes it rather difficult to explore their environmental behaviors. A virtual molecule library of 42,720 C10-SCCP congeners covering the full structure spectrum was constructed. We explored the structural effects on the thermodynamic parameters and environmental degradability of C10-SCCPs through semi-empirical quantum chemical calculations. The thermodynamic properties were acquired using the AM1 method, and frontier molecular orbital analysis was carried out to obtain the E(HOMO), E(LUMO) and E(LUMO)-E(HOMO) for degradability exploration at the same level. The influence of the chlorination degree (N(Cl)) on the relative stability and environmental degradation was elucidated. A novel structural descriptor, μ, was proposed to measure the dispersion of the chlorine atoms within a molecule. There were significant correlations between thermodynamic values and N(Cl), while the reported N(Cl)-dependent pollution profile of C10-SCCPs in environmental samples was basically consistent with the predicted order of formation stability of C10-SCCP congeners. In addition, isomers with large μ showed higher relative stability than those with small μ. This could be further verified by the relationship between μ and the reactivity of nucleophilic substitution and OH attack respectively. The C10-SCCP congeners with less Cl substitution and lower dispersion degree are susceptible to environmental degradation via nucleophilic substitution and hydroxyl radical attack, while direct photolysis of C10-SCCP congeners cannot readily occur due to the large E(LUMO)-E(HOMO) values. The chlorination effect and the conclusions were further checked with appropriate density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Thermodynamic and structural properties of hcp bulk and nano-precipitated Ag-Al.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zarkevich, Nikolai; Johnson, Duane; Smirnov, Andrei
2002-03-01
We study the short- and long- range chemical ordering in hcp bulk Ag_2Al using the Monte Carlo method based on a Hamiltonian constructed via structural formation energies from ab initio electronic-structure calculations. We find that the ground-state structure and thermodynamic properties of bulk Ag_2Al is that determined from the X-ray experimental data. We also address the influence of the interface, coherency strain, and off-stoichiometric disorder on the structure of metastable γ' nano-precipitates in fcc Al matrix. We show that γ' precipitates are off-stoichiometric and provide a new Al-rich structure that reproduces the observed TEM image. We acknowledge our support in part by an ALCOA Foundation Grant, the U.S. Department of Energy through the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory at UIUC under grant DEFG02-91ER45439, and the UIUC Materials Computation Center under National Science Foundation grant DMR-9976550.
Rokob, Tibor András; Srnec, Martin; Rulíšek, Lubomír
2012-05-21
In the last decade, we have witnessed substantial progress in the development of quantum chemical methodologies. Simultaneously, robust solvation models and various combined quantum and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approaches have become an integral part of quantum chemical programs. Along with the steady growth of computer power and, more importantly, the dramatic increase of the computer performance to price ratio, this has led to a situation where computational chemistry, when exercised with the proper amount of diligence and expertise, reproduces, predicts, and complements the experimental data. In this perspective, we review some of the latest achievements in the field of theoretical (quantum) bioinorganic chemistry, concentrating mostly on accurate calculations of the spectroscopic and physico-chemical properties of open-shell bioinorganic systems by wave-function (ab initio) and DFT methods. In our opinion, the one-to-one mapping between the calculated properties and individual molecular structures represents a major advantage of quantum chemical modelling since this type of information is very difficult to obtain experimentally. Once (and only once) the physico-chemical, thermodynamic and spectroscopic properties of complex bioinorganic systems are quantitatively reproduced by theoretical calculations may we consider the outcome of theoretical modelling, such as reaction profiles and the various decompositions of the calculated parameters into individual spatial or physical contributions, to be reliable. In an ideal situation, agreement between theory and experiment may imply that the practical problem at hand, such as the reaction mechanism of the studied metalloprotein, can be considered as essentially solved.
Input guide for computer programs to generate thermodynamic data for air and Freon CF4
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tevepaugh, J. A.; Penny, M. M.; Baker, L. R., Jr.
1975-01-01
FORTRAN computer programs were developed to calculate the thermodynamic properties of Freon 14 and air for isentropic expansion from given plenum conditions. Thermodynamic properties for air are calculated with equations derived from the Beattie-Bridgeman nonstandard equation of state and, for Freon 14, with equations derived from the Redlich-Quang nonstandard equation of state. These two gases are used in scale model testing of model rocket nozzle flow fields which requires simulation of the prototype plume shape with a cold flow test approach. Utility of the computer programs for use in analytical prediction of flow fields is enhanced by arranging card or tape output of the data in a format compatible with a method-of-characteristics computer program.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chandel, Namrata; Mehta, Neeraj
2018-04-01
In this study, we prepared novel selenium rich multi-component glasses by incorporating In, Cd and Sb as foreign elements in an Sn containing Sesbnd Te system in order to study their metal-induced effects on the thermal properties of the parent ternary glass. In particular, we determined the thermodynamic parameters of Se80Te18Sn2 and Se80Te8Sn2M10 (M = Cd, In, Sb) glassy semiconductors in a non-isothermal environment using the differential scanning calorimetry. Calorimetric measurements were obtained in the glass transition regions for Se80Te18Sn2 and Se80Te8Sn2M10 (M = Cd, In, Sb) glasses to determine their thermodynamic parameters such as the specific heat, enthalpy, and entropy during glass transition. We analyzed the variation in the specific heat before and after the heat capacity jump in these alloys. The metal-induced effects of foreign elements on the thermodynamic properties of the parent glass were also investigated in terms of the influence of the elemental specific heat of the added elemental metal as well as the thermal stability and glass-forming ability of the glasses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moustafa, Sabry Gad Al-Hak Mohammad
Molecular simulation (MS) methods (e.g. Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD)) provide a reliable tool (especially at extreme conditions) to measure solid properties. However, measuring them accurately and efficiently (smallest uncertainty for a given time) using MS can be a big challenge especially with ab initio-type models. In addition, comparing with experimental results through extrapolating properties from finite size to the thermodynamic limit can be a critical obstacle. We first estimate the free energy (FE) of crystalline system of simple discontinuous potential, hard-spheres (HS), at its melting condition. Several approaches are explored to determine the most efficient route. The comparison study shows a considerable improvement in efficiency over the standard MS methods that are known for solid phases. In addition, we were able to accurately extrapolate to the thermodynamic limit using relatively small system sizes. Although the method is applied to HS model, it is readily extended to more complex hard-body potentials, such as hard tetrahedra. The harmonic approximation of the potential energy surface is usually an accurate model (especially at low temperature and large density) to describe many realistic solid phases. In addition, since the analysis is done numerically the method is relatively cheap. Here, we apply lattice dynamics (LD) techniques to get the FE of clathrate hydrates structures. Rigid-bonds model is assumed to describe water molecules; this, however, requires additional orientation degree-of-freedom in order to specify each molecule. However, we were able to efficiently avoid using those degrees of freedom through a mathematical transformation that only uses the atomic coordinates of water molecules. In addition, the proton-disorder nature of hydrate water networks adds extra complexity to the problem, especially when extrapolating to the thermodynamic limit is needed. The finite-size effects of the proton disorder contribution is
Simplified curve fits for the thermodynamic properties of equilibrium air
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivasan, S.; Tannehill, J. C.; Weilmuenster, K. J.
1987-01-01
New, improved curve fits for the thermodynamic properties of equilibrium air have been developed. The curve fits are for pressure, speed of sound, temperature, entropy, enthalpy, density, and internal energy. These curve fits can be readily incorporated into new or existing computational fluid dynamics codes if real gas effects are desired. The curve fits are constructed from Grabau-type transition functions to model the thermodynamic surfaces in a piecewise manner. The accuracies and continuity of these curve fits are substantially improved over those of previous curve fits. These improvements are due to the incorporation of a small number of additional terms in the approximating polynomials and careful choices of the transition functions. The ranges of validity of the new curve fits are temperatures up to 25 000 K and densities from 10 to the -7 to 10 to the 3d power amagats.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Heling; Ren, Jinxiu; Wang, Wenwei; Yang, Bin; Shen, Hongjun
2018-02-01
Using the semi-classical (Thomas-Fermi) approximation, the thermodynamic properties of ideal Fermi gases in a harmonic potential in an n-dimensional space are studied under the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). The mean particle number, internal energy, heat capacity and other thermodynamic variables of the Fermi system are calculated analytically. Then, analytical expressions of the mean particle number, internal energy, heat capacity, chemical potential, Fermi energy, ground state energy and amendments of the GUP are obtained at low temperatures. The influence of both the GUP and the harmonic potential on the thermodynamic properties of a copper-electron gas and other systems with higher electron densities are studied numerically at low temperatures. We find: (1) When the GUP is considered, the influence of the harmonic potential is very much larger, and the amendments produced by the GUP increase by eight to nine orders of magnitude compared to when no external potential is applied to the electron gas. (2) The larger the particle density, or the smaller the particle masses, the bigger the influence of the GUP. (3) The effect of the GUP increases with the increase in the spatial dimensions. (4) The amendments of the chemical potential, Fermi energy and ground state energy increase with an increase in temperature, while the heat capacity decreases. T F0 is the Fermi temperature of the ideal Fermi system in a harmonic potential. When the temperature is lower than a certain value (0.22 times T F0 for the copper-electron gas, and this value decreases with increasing electron density), the amendment to the internal energy is positive, however, the amendment decreases with increasing temperature. When the temperature increases to the value, the amendment is zero, and when the temperature is higher than the value, the amendment to the internal energy is negative and the absolute value of the amendment increases with increasing temperature. (5) When electron
Infinitely Dilute Partial Molar Properties of Proteins from Computer Simulation
2015-01-01
A detailed understanding of temperature and pressure effects on an infinitely dilute protein’s conformational equilibrium requires knowledge of the corresponding infinitely dilute partial molar properties. Established molecular dynamics methodologies generally have not provided a way to calculate these properties without either a loss of thermodynamic rigor, the introduction of nonunique parameters, or a loss of information about which solute conformations specifically contributed to the output values. Here we implement a simple method that is thermodynamically rigorous and possesses none of the above disadvantages, and we report on the method’s feasibility and computational demands. We calculate infinitely dilute partial molar properties for two proteins and attempt to distinguish the thermodynamic differences between a native and a denatured conformation of a designed miniprotein. We conclude that simple ensemble average properties can be calculated with very reasonable amounts of computational power. In contrast, properties corresponding to fluctuating quantities are computationally demanding to calculate precisely, although they can be obtained more easily by following the temperature and/or pressure dependence of the corresponding ensemble averages. PMID:25325571
Infinitely dilute partial molar properties of proteins from computer simulation.
Ploetz, Elizabeth A; Smith, Paul E
2014-11-13
A detailed understanding of temperature and pressure effects on an infinitely dilute protein's conformational equilibrium requires knowledge of the corresponding infinitely dilute partial molar properties. Established molecular dynamics methodologies generally have not provided a way to calculate these properties without either a loss of thermodynamic rigor, the introduction of nonunique parameters, or a loss of information about which solute conformations specifically contributed to the output values. Here we implement a simple method that is thermodynamically rigorous and possesses none of the above disadvantages, and we report on the method's feasibility and computational demands. We calculate infinitely dilute partial molar properties for two proteins and attempt to distinguish the thermodynamic differences between a native and a denatured conformation of a designed miniprotein. We conclude that simple ensemble average properties can be calculated with very reasonable amounts of computational power. In contrast, properties corresponding to fluctuating quantities are computationally demanding to calculate precisely, although they can be obtained more easily by following the temperature and/or pressure dependence of the corresponding ensemble averages.
Relativistic calculations of atomic properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaur, Jasmeet; Sahoo, B. K.; Arora, Bindiya
2017-04-01
Singly charged ions are engaging candidates in many areas of Physics. They are especially important in astrophysics for evaluating the radiative properties of stellar objects, in optical frequency standards and for fundamental physics studies such as searches for permanent electric dipole moments and atomic parity violation. Interpretation of these experiments often requires a knowledge of their transition wavelengths and electric dipole amplitudes. In this work, we discuss the calculation of various properties of alkaline earth ions. The relativistic all-order SD method in which all single and double excitations of the Dirac-Fock wave function are included, is used to calculate these atomic properties. We use this method for evaluation of electric dipole matrix elements of alkaline earth ions. Combination of these matrix elements with experimental energies allow to obtain the polarizabilities of ground and excited states of ions. We discuss the applications of estimated polarizabiities as a function of imaginary frequencies in the calculations of long-range atom-ion interactions. We have also located the magic wavelengths for nS1 / 2 - nD3 / 2 , 5 / 2 transitions of alkaline earth ions. These calculated properties will be highly valuable to atomic and astrophysics community. UGC-BSR Grant No. F.7-273/2009/BSR.
THERMODYNAMICS OF THE ACTINIDES
Cunningham, Burris B.
1962-04-01
Recent work on the thermodynamic properties of the transplutonium elements is presented and discussed in relation to trends in thermodynamic properties of the actinide series. Accurate values are given for room temperature lattice parameters of two crystallographic forms, (facecentred cubic) fcc and dhcp (double-hexagonal closepacked), of americium metal and for the coefficients of thermal expansion between 157 and 878 deg K (dhcp) and 295 to 633 deg K (fcc). The meiting point of the metal, and its magnetic susceptibility between 77 and 823 deg K are reported and the latter compared with theoretical values for the tripositive ion calculated frommore » spectroscopic data. Similar data (crystallography, meiting point and magnetic susceptibility) are given for metallic curium. A value for the heat of formation of americium monoxide is reported in conjunction with crystallographic data on the monoxide and mononitride. A revision is made in the current value for the heat of formation of Am/O/sub 2/ and for the potential of the Am(III)-Am(IV) couple. The crystal structures and lattice parameters are reported for the trichloride, oxychloride and oxides of californium. (auth)« less
Thermodynamics of Yukawa fluids near the one-component-plasma limit
Khrapak, Sergey A.; Aix-Marseille-Université, CNRS, Laboratoire PIIM, UMR 7345, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20; Semenov, Igor L.
Thermodynamics of weakly screened (near the one-component-plasma limit) Yukawa fluids in two and three dimensions is analyzed in detail. It is shown that the thermal component of the excess internal energy of these fluids, when expressed in terms of the properly normalized coupling strength, exhibits the scaling pertinent to the corresponding one-component-plasma limit (the scalings differ considerably between the two- and three-dimensional situations). This provides us with a simple and accurate practical tool to estimate thermodynamic properties of weakly screened Yukawa fluids. Particular attention is paid to the two-dimensional fluids, for which several important thermodynamic quantities are calculated to illustratemore » the application of the approach.« less
Optimization of the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of P2O5-containing systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hudon, Pierre; Jung, In-Ho
2014-05-01
P2O5 is an important oxide component in the late stage products of numerous igneous rocks such as granites and pegmatites. Typically, P2O5 combines with CaO and crystallizes in the form of apatite, while in volatile-free conditions, Ca-whitlockite is formed. In spite of their interest, the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of P2O5-containg systems are not well known yet. In the case of the pure P2O5 for example, no experimental thermodynamic data are available for the liquid and the O and O' solid phases. As a result, we re-evaluated all the thermodynamic and phase diagram data of the P2O5 unary system [1]. Optimization of the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of the binary P2O5 systems was then performed including the Li2O-, Na2O-, MgO-, CaO-, BaO-, MnO-, FeO-, Fe2O3-, ZnO-, Al2O3-, and SiO2-P2O5 [2] systems. All available thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data were simultaneously reproduced in order to obtain a set of model equations for the Gibbs energies of all phases as functions of temperature and composition. In particular, the Gibbs energy of the liquid solution was described using the Modified Quasichemical Model [3-5] implemented in the FactSage software [6]. Thermodynamic modeling of the Li2O-Na2O-K2O-MgO-CaO-FeO-Fe2O3-Al2O3-SiO2 system, which include many granite-forming minerals such as nepheline, leucite, pyroxene, melilite, feldspar and spinel is currently in progress. [1] Jung, I.-H., Hudon, P. (2012) Thermodynamic assessment of P2O5. J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 95 (11), 3665-3672. [2] Rahman, M., Hudon, P. and Jung, I.-H. (2013) A coupled experimental study and thermodynamic modeling of the SiO2-P2O5 system. Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 44 (4), 837-852. [3] Pelton, A.D. and Blander, M. (1984) Computer-assisted analysis of the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams of slags. Proc. AIME Symp. Metall. Slags Fluxes, TMS-AIME, 281-294. [4] Pelton, A.D. and Blander, M. (1986) Thermodynamic analysis of ordered liquid solutions by a modified
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aoki, Yuta; Saito, Susumu
2013-03-01
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most representative photocatalytic materials and much attention is focused on understanding and improvement of its photocatalytic activity. At the same time, TiO2 is known to be a highly polymorphic material and as many as eleven crystal phases have been identified so far. It is expected that TiO2 show various photocatalytic properties depending on crystal phases. However, relative stabilities of these identified phases are still controversial. In order to clarify the thermodynamic phase stabilities of TiO2, we obtain the free energies of its several representative phases, rutile, anatase, brookite, and TiO2-II within the framework of the density-functional theory using the pseudopotential method. We calculate both the static energy and the contribution of phonons to the free energy through the quasiharmonic approximation for each phase. It is found that treatment of semicore electrons in constructing the pseudopotential of the Ti atom significantly affects the relative phase stabilities. From the phase diagram obtained, we find that the anatase phase is the most stable at lower temperature and pressure. We also discuss the thermodynamic effects on structural properties such as thermal expansion. We acknowledge the financial supports from the Global Center-of-Excellence Program by MEXT, Japan through the Nanoscience and Quantum Physics Project of Tokyo Institute of Technology, and the Elements Science and Technology Project by MEXT.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patch, R. W.
1971-01-01
The composition and thermodynamic properties were calculated for 100 to 110,000 K and 1.01325 x 10 to the 2nd power to 1.01325 x 10 to the 8th power N/sq m for chemical equilibrium in the Debye-Huckel and ideal-gas approximations. Quantities obtained were the concentrations of hydrogen atoms, protons, free electrons, hydrogen molecules, negative hydrogen ions, hydrogen diatomic molecular ions, and hydrogen triatomic molecular ions, and the enthalpy, entropy, average molecular weight, specific heat at constant pressure, density, and isentropic exponent. Electronically excited states of H and H2 were included. Choked, isentropic, one-dimensional nozzle flow with shifting chemical equilibrium was calculated to the Debye-Huckel and ideal-gas approximations for stagnation temperatures from 2500 to 100,000 K. The mass flow per unit throat area and the sonic flow factor were obtained. The pressure ratio, temperature, velocity, and ideal and vacuum specific impulses at the throat and for pressure ratios as low as 0.000001 downstream were found. For high temperatures at pressures approaching 1.01325 x 10 to the 8th power N/sq m, the ideal-gas approximation was found to be inadequate for calculations of composition, precise thermodynamic properties, and precise nozzle flow. The greatest discrepancy in nozzle flow occurred in the exit temperature, which was as much as 21 percent higher when the Debye-Huckel approximation was used.
Intermolecular potentials and the accurate prediction of the thermodynamic properties of water
Shvab, I.; Sadus, Richard J., E-mail: rsadus@swin.edu.au
2013-11-21
The ability of intermolecular potentials to correctly predict the thermodynamic properties of liquid water at a density of 0.998 g/cm{sup 3} for a wide range of temperatures (298–650 K) and pressures (0.1–700 MPa) is investigated. Molecular dynamics simulations are reported for the pressure, thermal pressure coefficient, thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal and adiabatic compressibilities, isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, and Joule-Thomson coefficient of liquid water using the non-polarizable SPC/E and TIP4P/2005 potentials. The results are compared with both experiment data and results obtained from the ab initio-based Matsuoka-Clementi-Yoshimine non-additive (MCYna) [J. Li, Z. Zhou, and R. J. Sadus, J. Chem. Phys.more » 127, 154509 (2007)] potential, which includes polarization contributions. The data clearly indicate that both the SPC/E and TIP4P/2005 potentials are only in qualitative agreement with experiment, whereas the polarizable MCYna potential predicts some properties within experimental uncertainty. This highlights the importance of polarizability for the accurate prediction of the thermodynamic properties of water, particularly at temperatures beyond 298 K.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Michael C.; Ünlü, Necip; Mihalkovic, Marek; Widom, Michael; Shiflet, G. J.
2007-10-01
This study investigates glass formation, phase equilibria, and thermodynamic descriptions of the Al-rich Al-Ce-Co ternary system using a novel approach that combines critical experiments, CALPHAD modeling, and first-principles (FP) calculations. The glass formation range (GFR) and a partial 500 °C isotherm are determined using a range of experimental techniques including melt spinning, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Three stable ternary phases are confirmed, namely, Al8CeCo2, Al4CeCo, and AlCeCo, while a metastable phase, Al5CeCo2, was discovered. The equilibrium and metastable phases identified by the present and earlier reported experiments, together with many hypothetical ternary compounds, are further studied by FP calculations. Based on new experimental data and FP calculations, the thermodynamics of the Al-rich Al-Co-Ce system is optimized using the CALPHAD method. Application to glass formation is discussed in light of present studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ehteshami, Hossein; Korzhavyi, Pavel A.
2017-12-01
First-principles-based thermodynamic modeling of cubic α and β phases of Mn represent a challenge due to their structural complexity and the necessity of simultaneous treatment of several types of disorder (electronic, magnetic, and vibrational) that have very different characteristic time scales. Here we employ mean-field theoretical models to describe the different types of disorder and then we connect each layer of theory to the others using the adiabatic principle of separating faster and slower degrees of freedom. The slowest (vibrational) degrees of freedom are treated using the Moruzzi, Janak, and Schwarz formalism [Phys. Rev. B 37, 790 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevB.37.790] of the Debye-Grüneisen model parametrized based on the first-principles calculated equation of state which includes the free-energy contributions due to the fast (electronic and magnetic) degrees of freedom via the Fermi-Dirac distribution function and a mean-field theory of transverse spin fluctuations. The magnetic contribution due to transverse spin fluctuations has been computed self-consistently within the disordered local moment picture of the paramagnetic state. The obtained results for thermodynamic properties such as lattice parameter, linear thermal expansion coefficient, and heat capacity of both phases show a good agreement with available experimental data. We also tested the assumption about the nature (localized versus delocalized) of magnetic moment on site IV in α -Mn and site I in β -Mn on the thermodynamic properties of these two phases. Similar to the findings of experimental studies, we conclude that magnetic moment on site IV in α -Mn is not of a localized character. However, a similar analysis suggests that the magnetic moment of site I in β -Mn should be treated as localized.
A test of systematic coarse-graining of molecular dynamics simulations: Thermodynamic properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Chia-Chun; Kulkarni, Pandurang M.; Scott Shell, M.; Gary Leal, L.
2012-10-01
Coarse-graining (CG) techniques have recently attracted great interest for providing descriptions at a mesoscopic level of resolution that preserve fluid thermodynamic and transport behaviors with a reduced number of degrees of freedom and hence less computational effort. One fundamental question arises: how well and to what extent can a "bottom-up" developed mesoscale model recover the physical properties of a molecular scale system? To answer this question, we explore systematically the properties of a CG model that is developed to represent an intermediate mesoscale model between the atomistic and continuum scales. This CG model aims to reduce the computational cost relative to a full atomistic simulation, and we assess to what extent it is possible to preserve both the thermodynamic and transport properties of an underlying reference all-atom Lennard-Jones (LJ) system. In this paper, only the thermodynamic properties are considered in detail. The transport properties will be examined in subsequent work. To coarse-grain, we first use the iterative Boltzmann inversion (IBI) to determine a CG potential for a (1-ϕ)N mesoscale particle system, where ϕ is the degree of coarse-graining, so as to reproduce the radial distribution function (RDF) of an N atomic particle system. Even though the uniqueness theorem guarantees a one to one relationship between the RDF and an effective pairwise potential, we find that RDFs are insensitive to the long-range part of the IBI-determined potentials, which provides some significant flexibility in further matching other properties. We then propose a reformulation of IBI as a robust minimization procedure that enables simultaneous matching of the RDF and the fluid pressure. We find that this new method mainly changes the attractive tail region of the CG potentials, and it improves the isothermal compressibility relative to pure IBI. We also find that there are optimal interaction cutoff lengths for the CG system, as a function of
M3FT-15OR0202212: SUBMIT SUMMARY REPORT ON THERMODYNAMIC EXPERIMENT AND MODELING
McMurray, Jake W.; Brese, Robert G.; Silva, Chinthaka M.
2015-09-01
Modeling the behavior of nuclear fuel with a physics-based approach uses thermodynamics for key inputs such as chemical potentials and thermal properties for phase transformation, microstructure evolution, and continuum transport simulations. Many of the lanthanide (Ln) elements and Y are high-yield fission products. The U-Y-O and U-Ln-O ternaries are therefore key subsystems of multi-component high-burnup fuel. These elements dissolve in the dominant urania fluorite phase affecting many of its properties. This work reports on an effort to assess the thermodynamics of the U-Pr-O and U-Y-O systems using the CALPHAD (CALculation of PHase Diagrams) method. The models developed within this frameworkmore » are capable of being combined and extended to include additional actinides and fission products allowing calculation of the phase equilibria, thermochemical and material properties of multicomponent fuel with burnup.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sudolská, Mária; Cantrel, Laurent; Budzák, Šimon; Černušák, Ivan
2014-03-01
Monohydrated complexes of iodine species (I, I2, HI, and HOI) have been studied by correlated ab initio calculations. The standard enthalpies of formation, Gibbs free energy and the temperature dependence of the heat capacities at constant pressure were calculated. The values obtained have been implemented in ASTEC nuclear accident simulation software to check the thermodynamic stability of hydrated iodine compounds in the reactor coolant system and in the nuclear containment building of a pressurised water reactor during a severe accident. It can be concluded that iodine complexes are thermodynamically unstable by means of positive Gibbs free energies and would be represented by trace level concentrations in severe accident conditions; thus it is well justified to only consider pure iodine species and not hydrated forms.
Chemical and Thermodynamic Properties at High Temperatures: A Symposium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, Raymond F.
1961-01-01
This book contains the program and all available abstracts of the 90' invited and contributed papers to be presented at the TUPAC Symposium on Chemical and Thermodynamic Properties at High Temperatures. The Symposium will be held in conjunction with the XVIIIth IUPAC Congress, Montreal, August 6 - 12, 1961. It has been organized, by the Subcommissions on Condensed States and on Gaseous States of the Commission on High Temperatures and Refractories and by the Subcommission on Experimental Thermodynamics of the Commission on Chemical Thermodynamics, acting in conjunction with the Organizing Committee of the IUPAC Congress. All inquiries concerning participation In the Symposium should be directed to: Secretary, XVIIIth International Congress of Pure and Applied Chemistry, National Research Council, Ottawa, 'Canada. Owing to the limited time and facilities available for the preparation and printing of the book, it has not been possible to refer the proofs of the abstracts to the authors for checking. Furthermore, it has not been possible to subject the manuscripts to a very thorough editorial examination. Some obvious errors in the manuscripts have been corrected; other errors undoubtedly have been introduced. Figures have been redrawn only when such a step was essential for reproduction purposes. Sincere apologies are offered to authors and readers for any errors which remain; however, in the circumstances neither the IUPAC Commissions who organized the Symposium, nor the U. S. Government Agencies who assisted in the preparation of this book can accept responsibility for the errors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Chong Gui; Jiang, Qing
2002-09-01
We study the coupling mechanism between antiferromagnetic and ferroelectric ordering that coexist spontaneously at low temperatures. According to the results of experiment and previous theoretical considerations, we propose a possible coupling form related to a combination of electric polar and spin correlation and use it to calculate the thermodynamic properties of a ferroelectromagnetic system, including its magnetization m, polarization p, magnetization susceptibility χm, magnetoelectric susceptibility χme and polarization susceptibility χp, in the case of magnetization m perpendicular to polarization p. It is found that the relationship between m, χm and χme is in agreement with that of phenomenological theory, and polarization induced by magnetic coupling leads to an anomaly of χp at low temperature, which is consistent qualitatively with experimental results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bentouaf, Ali; Hassan, Fouad H.; Reshak, Ali H.; Aïssa, Brahim
2017-01-01
We report on the investigation of the structural and physical properties of the Co2VZ (Z = Al, Ga) Heusler alloys, with L21 structure, through first-principles calculations involving the full potential linearized augmented plane-wave method within density functional theory. These physical properties mainly revolve around the electronic, magnetic and thermodynamic properties. By using the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof generalized gradient approximation, the calculated lattice constants and spin magnetic moments were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, the thermal effects using the quasi-harmonic Debye model have been investigated in depth while taking into account the lattice vibrations, the temperature and the pressure effects on the structural parameters. The heat capacities, the thermal expansion coefficient and the Debye temperatures have also been determined from the non-equilibrium Gibbs functions. An application of the atom in molecule theory is presented and discussed in order to analyze the bonding nature of the Heusler alloys. The focus is on the mixing of the metallic and covalent behavior of Co2VZ (Z = Al, Ga) Heusler alloys.
Cari, C., E-mail: cari@staff.uns.ac.id; Suparmi, A., E-mail: soeparmi@staff.uns.ac.id; Yunianto, M., E-mail: muhtaryunianto@staff.uns.ac.id
2016-02-08
The analytical solution of Ddimensional Dirac equation for Coulombic potential is investigated using Nikiforov-Uvarov method. The D dimensional relativistic energy spectra are obtained from relativistic energy eigenvalue equation by using Mat Lab software.The corresponding D dimensional radial wave functions are formulated in the form of generalized Jacobi and Laguerre Polynomials. In the non-relativistic limit, the relativistic energy equation reduces to the non-relativistic energy which will be applied to determine some thermodynamical properties of the system. The thermodynamical properties of the system are expressed in terms of error function and imaginary error function.
Biochemical Thermodynamics under near Physiological Conditions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mendez, Eduardo
2008-01-01
The recommendations for nomenclature and tables in Biochemical Thermodynamics approved by IUBMB and IUPAC in 1994 can be easily introduced after the chemical thermodynamic formalism. Substitution of the usual standard thermodynamic properties by the transformed ones in the thermodynamic equations, and the use of appropriate thermodynamic tables…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, R. A.
1994-01-01
Accurate numerical prediction of high-temperature, chemically reacting flowfields requires a knowledge of the physical properties and reaction kinetics for the species involved in the reacting gas mixture. Assuming an 11-species air model at temperatures below 30,000 degrees Kelvin, SPECIES (Computer Codes for the Evaluation of Thermodynamic Properties, Transport Properties, and Equilibrium Constants of an 11-Species Air Model) computes values for the species thermodynamic and transport properties, diffusion coefficients and collision cross sections for any combination of the eleven species, and reaction rates for the twenty reactions normally occurring. The species represented in the model are diatomic nitrogen, diatomic oxygen, atomic nitrogen, atomic oxygen, nitric oxide, ionized nitric oxide, the free electron, ionized atomic nitrogen, ionized atomic oxygen, ionized diatomic nitrogen, and ionized diatomic oxygen. Sixteen subroutines compute the following properties for both a single species, interaction pair, or reaction, and an array of all species, pairs, or reactions: species specific heat and static enthalpy, species viscosity, species frozen thermal conductivity, diffusion coefficient, collision cross section (OMEGA 1,1), collision cross section (OMEGA 2,2), collision cross section ratio, and equilibrium constant. The program uses least squares polynomial curve-fits of the most accurate data believed available to provide the requested values more quickly than is possible with table look-up methods. The subroutines for computing transport coefficients and collision cross sections use additional code to correct for any electron pressure when working with ionic species. SPECIES was developed on a SUN 3/280 computer running the SunOS 3.5 operating system. It is written in standard FORTRAN 77 for use on any machine, and requires roughly 92K memory. The standard distribution medium for SPECIES is a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shukla, Adarsh
In a thermodynamic system which contains several elements, the phase relationships among the components are usually very complex. Especially, systems containing oxides are generally very difficult to investigate owing to the very high experimental temperatures and corrosive action of slags. Due to such difficulties, large inconsistencies are often observed among the available experimental data. In order to investigate and understand the complex phase relationships effectively, it is very useful to develop thermodynamic databases containing optimized model parameters giving the thermodynamic properties of all phases as functions of temperature and composition. In a thermodynamic optimization, adjustable model parameters are calculated using, simultaneously, all available thermodynamic and phase-equilibrium data in order to obtain one set of model equations as functions of temperature and composition. Thermodynamic data, such as activities, can aid in the evaluation of the phase diagrams, and information on phase equilibria can be used to deduce thermodynamic properties. Thus, it is frequently possible to resolve discrepancies in the available data. From the model equations, all the thermodynamic properties and phase diagrams can be back-calculated, and interpolations and extrapolations can be made in a thermodynamically correct manner. The data are thereby rendered self-consistent and consistent with thermodynamic principles, and the available data are distilled into a small set of model parameters, ideal for computer storage. As part of a broader research project at the Centre de Recherche en Calcul Thermochimique (CRCT), Ecole Polytechnique to develop a thermodynamic database for multicomponent oxide systems, this thesis deals with the addition of components SrO and BaO to the existing multicomponent database of the SiO2-B2O3-Al2O 3-CaO-MgO system. Over the years, in collaboration with many industrial companies, a thermodynamic database for the SiO2-B2O 3-Al2O3-Ca
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hendricks, R. C.
1994-01-01
A computer program, GASP, has been written to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, fluorine, methane, neon, nitrogen, and oxygen. GASP accepts any two of pressure, temperature, or density as input. In addition, entropy and enthalpy are possible inputs. Outputs are temperature, density, pressure, entropy, enthalpy, specific heats, expansion coefficient, sonic velocity, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and surface tension. A special technique is provided to estimate the thermal conductivity near the thermodynamic critical point. GASP is a group of FORTRAN subroutines. The user typically would write a main program that invoked GASP to provide only the described outputs. Subroutines are structured so that the user may call only those subroutines needed for his particular calculations. Allowable pressures range from 0.l atmosphere to 100 to l,000 atmospheres, depending on the fluid. Similarly, allowable pressures range from the triple point of each substance to 300 degrees K to 2000 degrees K, depending on the substance. The GASP package was developed to be used with heat transfer and fluid flow applications. It is particularly useful in applications of cryogenic fluids. Some problems associated with the liquefication, storage, and gasification of liquefied natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas can also be studied using GASP. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and is available for implementation on IBM 7000 series computers. GASP was developed in 1971.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagabalasubramanian, P. B.; Periandy, S.; Karabacak, Mehmet; Govindarajan, M.
2015-06-01
The solid phase FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 4-vinylcyclohexene (abbreviated as 4-VCH) have been recorded in the region 4000-100 cm-1. The optimized molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of the fundamental modes of 4-VCH have been precisely assigned and analyzed with the aid of structure optimizations and normal coordinate force field calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) method at 6-311++G(d,p) level basis set. The theoretical frequencies were properly scaled and compared with experimentally obtained FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. Also, the effect due the substitution of vinyl group on the ring vibrational frequencies was analyzed and a detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra of this compound has been made on the basis of the calculated total energy distribution (TED). The time dependent DFT (TD-DFT) method was employed to predict its electronic properties, such as electronic transitions by UV-Visible analysis, HOMO and LUMO energies, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and various global reactivity and selectivity descriptors (chemical hardness, chemical potential, softness, electrophilicity index). Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interaction, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. Atomic charges obtained by Mulliken population analysis and NBO analysis are compared. Thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures are also calculated.
Recommendations for terminology and databases for biochemical thermodynamics.
Alberty, Robert A; Cornish-Bowden, Athel; Goldberg, Robert N; Hammes, Gordon G; Tipton, Keith; Westerhoff, Hans V
2011-05-01
Chemical equations are normally written in terms of specific ionic and elemental species and balance atoms of elements and electric charge. However, in a biochemical context it is usually better to write them with ionic reactants expressed as totals of species in equilibrium with each other. This implies that atoms of elements assumed to be at fixed concentrations, such as hydrogen at a specified pH, should not be balanced in a biochemical equation used for thermodynamic analysis. However, both kinds of equations are needed in biochemistry. The apparent equilibrium constant K' for a biochemical reaction is written in terms of such sums of species and can be used to calculate standard transformed Gibbs energies of reaction Δ(r)G'°. This property for a biochemical reaction can be calculated from the standard transformed Gibbs energies of formation Δ(f)G(i)'° of reactants, which can be calculated from the standard Gibbs energies of formation of species Δ(f)G(j)° and measured apparent equilibrium constants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Tables of Δ(r)G'° of reactions and Δ(f)G(i)'° of reactants as functions of pH and temperature are available on the web, as are functions for calculating these properties. Biochemical thermodynamics is also important in enzyme kinetics because apparent equilibrium constant K' can be calculated from experimentally determined kinetic parameters when initial velocities have been determined for both forward and reverse reactions. Specific recommendations are made for reporting experimental results in the literature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qing-Yin, Zhang; Peng, Xie; Xin, Wang; Xue-Wen, Yu; Zhi-Qiang, Shi; Shi-Huai, Zhao
2016-06-01
Organic salts such as spiro-(1,1')-bipyrrolidinium tetrafluoroborate ([SBP][BF4]) dissolved in liquid acetonitrile (ACN) are a new kind of organic salt solution, which is expected to be used as an electrolyte in electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs). To explore the physicochemical properties of the solution, an all-atom force field is established on the basis of AMBER parameter values and quantum mechanical calculations. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to explore the liquid structure and physicochemical properties of [SBP][BF4] electrolyte at room temperature. The computed thermodynamic and transport properties match the available experimental results very well. The microscopic structures of [SBP][BF4] salt solution are also discussed in detail. The method used in this work provides an efficient way of predicting the properties of organic salt solvent as an electrolyte in EDLCs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21476172 and 51172160), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013AA050905), and the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin, China (Grant Nos. 12JCZDJC28400, 14RCHZGX00859, 14JCTPJC00484, and 14JCQNJC07200).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antoshechkina, P. M.; Wolf, A. S.; Hamecher, E. A.; Asimow, P. D.; Ghiorso, M. S.
2013-12-01
modulus and its pressure derivative are obtained by fitting published compression data using the Vinet equation of state, with the Mie-Grüneisen-Debye thermal pressure formalism to model thermal expansion. End-member thermal parameters are obtained by fitting volume data while ensuring that the heat capacity is consistent with the thermodynamic database of Berman and co-workers. For other end members, data for related compositions are used where such data exist; otherwise ultrasonic data or density functional theory results are taken or, for thermal parameters, systematics in cation radii are used. In stages (2) and (3) the remaining data at ambient conditions are fit. Using this step-wise calibration scheme, most parameters are modified little by subsequent calibration steps but some, such as the standard state volume of the Ti-bearing end member, can vary within calculated uncertainties. The final model satisfies desired criteria and fits almost all the data (more than 1000 points); only excess parameters that are justified by the data are activated. The scheme can be easily extended to calibration of end-member and solution properties from experimental phase equilibria. As a first step we obtain the internally consistent standard state entropy and enthalpy of formation for knorringite and discuss differences between our results and those of Klemme and co-workers.
Unifying mechanical and thermodynamic descriptions across the thioredoxin protein family.
Mottonen, James M; Xu, Minli; Jacobs, Donald J; Livesay, Dennis R
2009-05-15
We compare various predicted mechanical and thermodynamic properties of nine oxidized thioredoxins (TRX) using a Distance Constraint Model (DCM). The DCM is based on a nonadditive free energy decomposition scheme, where entropic contributions are determined from rigidity and flexibility of structure based on distance constraints. We perform averages over an ensemble of constraint topologies to calculate several thermodynamic and mechanical response functions that together yield quantitative stability/flexibility relationships (QSFR). Applied to the TRX protein family, QSFR metrics display a rich variety of similarities and differences. In particular, backbone flexibility is well conserved across the family, whereas cooperativity correlation describing mechanical and thermodynamic couplings between the residue pairs exhibit distinctive features that readily standout. The diversity in predicted QSFR metrics that describe cooperativity correlation between pairs of residues is largely explained by a global flexibility order parameter describing the amount of intrinsic flexibility within the protein. A free energy landscape is calculated as a function of the flexibility order parameter, and key values are determined where the native-state, transition-state, and unfolded-state are located. Another key value identifies a mechanical transition where the global nature of the protein changes from flexible to rigid. The key values of the flexibility order parameter help characterize how mechanical and thermodynamic response is linked. Variation in QSFR metrics and key characteristics of global flexibility are related to the native state X-ray crystal structure primarily through the hydrogen bond network. Furthermore, comparison of three TRX redox pairs reveals differences in thermodynamic response (i.e., relative melting point) and mechanical properties (i.e., backbone flexibility and cooperativity correlation) that are consistent with experimental data on thermal stabilities
Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prasobh, C. B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V. C.
2016-04-01
We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime.
Mechanical, electronic and thermodynamic properties of full Heusler compounds Fe2VX(X = Al, Ga)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khalfa, M.; Khachai, H.; Chiker, F.; Baki, N.; Bougherara, K.; Yakoubi, A.; Murtaza, G.; Harmel, M.; Abu-Jafar, M. S.; Omran, S. Bin; Khenata, R.
2015-11-01
The electronic structure, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of Fe2VX, (with X = Al and Ga), have been studied self consistently by employing state-of-the-art full-potential linearized approach of augmented plane wave plus local orbitals (FP-LAPW + lo) method. The exchange-correlation potential is treated with the local density and generalized gradient approximations (LDA and GGA). Our predicted ground state properties such as lattice constants, bulk modulus and elastic constants appear more accurate when we employed the GGA rather than the LDA, and these results are in very good agreement with the available experimental and theoretical data. Further, thermodynamic properties of Fe2VAl and Fe2VGa are predicted with pressure and temperature in the ranges of 0-40 GPa and 0-1500 K using the quasi-harmonic Debye model. We have obtained successfully the variations of the heat capacities, primitive cell volume and volume expansion coefficient.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnova, N. N.; Sologubov, S. S.; Sarmini, Yu. A.; Markin, A. V.; Novozhilova, N. A.; Tatarinova, E. A.; Muzafarov, A. M.
2017-12-01
The heat capacities of first- and third-generation carbosilane dendrimers with terminal phenyldioxolane groups are studied as a function of temperature via vacuum and differential scanning calorimetry in the range of 6 to 520 K. Physical transformations that occur in the above temperature range are detected and their standard thermodynamic characteristics are determined and analyzed. Standard thermodynamic functions C p ο( T), [ H°( T) - H°(0)], [ S°( T) - S°(0)], and [ G°( T) - H°(0)] in the temperature range of T → 0 to 520 K for different physical states and the standard entropies of formation of the studied dendrimers at T = 298.15 K are calculated, based on the obtained experimental data.
Thermodynamic properties of the Group 1A elements
Alcock, C.B.; Itkin, V.P.; Chase, M.W.
1994-05-01
This review describes thermodynamic properties of condensed phases of the alkali metals, excluding francium for which the amount of information is too limited. The properties considered are: heat capacities from 0 to 1600 K, temperatures and enthalpies of fusion and martensitic transformation in Li and Na; discussion of the Debye temperature and electronic heat capacity coefficient at absolute zero temperature is also included. The paper is the second part of a series. Similar to previous assessment of the IIA group [93ALC/CHA], this paper considers original studies, especially with respect to factors which influence the accuracy and reliability of results. Recommendationsmore » derived from such analyses are compared with most advanced previous reviews made at the Institute for High Temperatures (Moscow) [70SHP/YAK], [82GUR] and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (Washington) [85JAN]. The properties of individual elements of the group are compared and suggestions are made for experimental studies which should improve poorly measured quantities. The review is supplemented by an IBM PC database which contains references, assessed data, brief description of studies and has facilities for fitting and plotting of data and for adding new information.« less
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, R. C.
1972-01-01
Procedures for calculating the mass flow rate of methane and natural gas through nozzles are given, along with the FORTRAN 4 subroutines used to make these calculations. Three sets of independent variables are permitted in these routines. In addition to the plenum pressure and temperature, the third independent variable is either nozzle exit pressure, Mach number, or temperature. A critical-flow factor that becomes a convenient means for determining the mass flow rate of methane through critical-flow nozzles is tabulated. Other tables are included for nozzle throat velocity and critical pressure, density, and temperature ratios, along with some thermodynamic properties of methane, including compressibility factor, enthalpy, entropy, specific heat, specific-heat ratio, and speed of sound. These tabulations cover a temperature range from 120 to 600 K and pressures to 3 million N/sq m.
Lenz, Dominic A.; Likos, Christos N.; Blaak, Ronald
We pursue the goal of finding real-world examples of macromolecular aggregates that form cluster crystals, which have been predicted on the basis of coarse-grained, ultrasoft pair potentials belonging to a particular mathematical class [B. M. Mladek et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 045701 (2006)]. For this purpose, we examine in detail the phase behavior and structural properties of model amphiphilic dendrimers of the second generation by means of monomer-resolved computer simulations. On augmenting the density of these systems, a fluid comprised of clusters that contain several overlapping and penetrating macromolecules is spontaneously formed. Upon further compression of the system, amore » transition to multi-occupancy crystals takes place, the thermodynamic stability of which is demonstrated by means of free-energy calculations, and where the FCC is preferred over the BCC-phase. Contrary to predictions for coarse-grained theoretical models in which the particles interact exclusively by effective pair potentials, the internal degrees of freedom of these molecules cause the lattice constant to be density-dependent. Furthermore, the mechanical stability of monodisperse BCC and FCC cluster crystals is restricted to a bounded region in the plane of cluster occupation number versus density. The structural properties of the dendrimers in the dense crystals, including their overall sizes and the distribution of monomers are also thoroughly analyzed.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reddy, Sandeep K.; Straight, Shelby C.; Bajaj, Pushp; Huy Pham, C.; Riera, Marc; Moberg, Daniel R.; Morales, Miguel A.; Knight, Chris; Götz, Andreas W.; Paesani, Francesco
2016-11-01
The MB-pol many-body potential has recently emerged as an accurate molecular model for water simulations from the gas to the condensed phase. In this study, the accuracy of MB-pol is systematically assessed across the three phases of water through extensive comparisons with experimental data and high-level ab initio calculations. Individual many-body contributions to the interaction energies as well as vibrational spectra of water clusters calculated with MB-pol are in excellent agreement with reference data obtained at the coupled cluster level. Several structural, thermodynamic, and dynamical properties of the liquid phase at atmospheric pressure are investigated through classical molecular dynamics simulations as a function of temperature. The structural properties of the liquid phase are in nearly quantitative agreement with X-ray diffraction data available over the temperature range from 268 to 368 K. The analysis of other thermodynamic and dynamical quantities emphasizes the importance of explicitly including nuclear quantum effects in the simulations, especially at low temperature, for a physically correct description of the properties of liquid water. Furthermore, both densities and lattice energies of several ice phases are also correctly reproduced by MB-pol. Following a recent study of DFT models for water, a score is assigned to each computed property, which demonstrates the high and, in many respects, unprecedented accuracy of MB-pol in representing all three phases of water.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavris, Dimitri; Roth, Bryce; McDonald, Rob
2002-01-01
The objective of this report is to provide a tool to facilitate the application of thermodynamic work potential methods to aircraft and engine analysis. This starts with a discussion of the theoretical background underlying these methods, which is then used to derive various equations useful for thermodynamic analysis of aircraft engines. The work potential analysis method is implemented in the form of a set of working charts and tables that can be used to graphically evaluate work potential stored in high-enthalpy gas. The range of validity for these tables is 300 to 36,000 R, pressures between between 0.01 atm and 100 atm, and fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric. The derivations and charts assume mixtures of Jet-A and air as the working fluid. The thermodynamic properties presented in these charts were calculated based upon standard thermodynamic curve fits.
Computer programs for thermodynamic and transport properties of hydrogen (tabcode-II)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roder, H. M.; Mccarty, R. D.; Hall, W. J.
1972-01-01
The thermodynamic and transport properties of para and equilibrium hydrogen have been programmed into a series of computer routines. Input variables are the pair's pressure-temperature and pressure-enthalpy. The programs cover the range from 1 to 5000 psia with temperatures from the triple point to 6000 R or enthalpies from minus 130 BTU/lb to 25,000 BTU/lb. Output variables are enthalpy or temperature, density, entropy, thermal conductivity, viscosity, at constant volume, the heat capacity ratio, and a heat transfer parameter. Property values on the liquid and vapor boundaries are conveniently obtained through two small routines. The programs achieve high speed by using linear interpolation in a grid of precomputed points which define the surface of the property returned.
Yedukondalu, N.; Vaitheeswaran, G., E-mail: gvsp@uohyd.ernet.in
2014-06-14
Silver fulminate (AgCNO) is a primary explosive, which exists in two polymorphic phases, namely, orthorhombic (Cmcm) and trigonal (R3{sup ¯}) forms at ambient conditions. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of pressure and temperature on relative phase stability of the polymorphs using planewave pseudopotential approaches based on Density Functional Theory (DFT). van der Waals interactions play a significant role in predicting the phase stability and they can be effectively captured by semi-empirical dispersion correction methods in contrast to standard DFT functionals. Based on our total energy calculations using DFT-D2 method, the Cmcm structure is found to bemore » the preferred thermodynamic equilibrium phase under studied pressure and temperature range. Hitherto Cmcm and R3{sup ¯} phases denoted as α- and β-forms of AgCNO, respectively. Also a pressure induced polymorphic phase transition is seen using DFT functionals and the same was not observed with DFT-D2 method. The equation of state and compressibility of both polymorphic phases were investigated. Electronic structure and optical properties were calculated using full potential linearized augmented plane wave method within the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential. The calculated electronic structure shows that α, β phases are indirect bandgap insulators with a bandgap values of 3.51 and 4.43 eV, respectively. The nature of chemical bonding is analyzed through the charge density plots and partial density of states. Optical anisotropy, electric-dipole transitions, and photo sensitivity to light of the polymorphs are analyzed from the calculated optical spectra. Overall, the present study provides an early indication to experimentalists to avoid the formation of unstable β-form of AgCNO.« less
Thermodynamic Optimization of the Ag-Bi-Cu-Ni Quaternary System: Part I, Binary Subsystems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jian; Cui, Senlin; Rao, Weifeng
2018-07-01
A comprehensive literature review and thermodynamic optimization of the phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties of the Ag-Bi, Ag-Cu, Ag-Ni, Bi-Cu, and Bi-Ni binary systems are presented. CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD)-type thermodynamic optimization was carried out to reproduce all available and reliable experimental phase equilibrium and thermodynamic data. The modified quasichemical model was used to model the liquid solution. The compound energy formalism was utilized to describe the Gibbs energies of all terminal solid solutions and intermetallic compounds. A self-consistent thermodynamic database for the Ag-Bi, Ag-Cu, Ag-Ni, Bi-Cu, and Bi-Ni binary subsystems of the Ag-Bi-Cu-Ni quaternary system was developed. This database can be used as a guide for research and development of lead-free solders.
Thermodynamic Optimization of the Ag-Bi-Cu-Ni Quaternary System: Part I, Binary Subsystems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jian; Cui, Senlin; Rao, Weifeng
2018-05-01
A comprehensive literature review and thermodynamic optimization of the phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties of the Ag-Bi, Ag-Cu, Ag-Ni, Bi-Cu, and Bi-Ni binary systems are presented. CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD)-type thermodynamic optimization was carried out to reproduce all available and reliable experimental phase equilibrium and thermodynamic data. The modified quasichemical model was used to model the liquid solution. The compound energy formalism was utilized to describe the Gibbs energies of all terminal solid solutions and intermetallic compounds. A self-consistent thermodynamic database for the Ag-Bi, Ag-Cu, Ag-Ni, Bi-Cu, and Bi-Ni binary subsystems of the Ag-Bi-Cu-Ni quaternary system was developed. This database can be used as a guide for research and development of lead-free solders.
Elastic, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties of Bi-Sb binaries: Effect of spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Sobhit; Valencia-Jaime, Irais; Pavlic, Olivia; Romero, Aldo H.
2018-02-01
Using first-principles calculations, we systematically study the elastic stiffness constants, mechanical properties, elastic wave velocities, Debye temperature, melting temperature, and specific heat of several thermodynamically stable crystal structures of BixSb1 -x (0
Thermodynamic equilibrium-air correlations for flowfield applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zoby, E. V.; Moss, J. N.
1981-01-01
Equilibrium-air thermodynamic correlations have been developed for flowfield calculation procedures. A comparison between the postshock results computed by the correlation equations and detailed chemistry calculations is very good. The thermodynamic correlations are incorporated in an approximate inviscid flowfield code with a convective heating capability for the purpose of defining the thermodynamic environment through the shock layer. Comparisons of heating rates computed by the approximate code and a viscous-shock-layer method are good. In addition to presenting the thermodynamic correlations, the impact of several viscosity models on the convective heat transfer is demonstrated.
Thermodynamic Equilibrium Calculations on Cd Transformation during Sewage Sludge Incineration.
Liu, Jing-yong; Huang, Limao; Sun, Shuiyu; Ning, Xun'an; Kuo, Jiahong; Sun, Jian; Wang, Yujie; Xie, Wuming
2016-06-01
Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were performed to reveal the distribution of cadmium during the sewage sludge incineration process. During sludge incineration in the presence of major minerals, such as SiO2, Al2O3 and CaO, the strongest effect was exerted by SiO2 on the Cd transformation compared with the effect of others. The stable solid product of CdSiO3 was formed easily with the reaction between Cd and SiO2, which can restrain the emissions of gaseous Cd pollutants. CdCl2 was formed more easily in the presence of chloride during incineration, thus, the volatilization of Cd was advanced by increasing chlorine content. At low temperatures, the volatilization of Cd was restrained due to the formation of the refractory solid metal sulfate. At high temperatures, the speciation of Cd was not affected by the presence of sulfur, but sulfur could affect the formation temperature of gaseous metals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, S. H.; Dehghani, A.
2015-03-01
In this paper, we obtain topological black hole solutions of third-order Lovelock gravity coupled with two classes of Born-Infeld-type nonlinear electrodynamics with anti-de Sitter asymptotic structure. We investigate geometric and thermodynamics properties of the solutions and obtain conserved quantities of the black holes. We examine the first law of thermodynamics and find that the conserved and thermodynamic quantities of the black hole solutions satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. Finally, we calculate the heat capacity and determinant of the Hessian matrix to evaluate thermal stability in both canonical and grand canonical ensembles. Moreover, we consider the extended phase space thermodynamics to obtain a generalized first law of thermodynamics as well as the extended Smarr formula.
Thermodynamic properties of hydrate phases immersed in ice phase
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belosludov, V. R.; Subbotin, O. S.; Krupskii, D. S.; Ikeshoji, T.; Belosludov, R. V.; Kawazoe, Y.; Kudoh, J.
2006-01-01
Thermodynamic properties and the pressure of hydrate phases immersed in the ice phase with the aim to understand the nature of self-preservation effect of methane hydrate in the framework of macroscopic and microscopic molecular models was studied. It was show that increasing of pressure is happen inside methane hydrate phases immersed in the ice phase under increasing temperature and if the ice structure does not destroy, the methane hydrate will have larger pressure than ice phase. This is because of the thermal expansion of methane hydrate in a few times larger than ice one. The thermal expansion of the hydrate is constrained by the thermal expansion of ice because it can remain in a region of stability within the methane hydrate phase diagram. The utter lack of preservation behavior in CS-II methane- ethane hydrate can be explain that the thermal expansion of ethane-methane hydrate coincide with than ice one it do not pent up by thermal expansion of ice. The pressure and density during the crossing of interface between ice and hydrate was found and dynamical and thermodynamic stability of this system are studied in accordance with relation between ice phase and hydrate phase.
Thermodynamics of reaction of praseodymium with gallium-indium eutectic alloy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melchakov, S. Yu.; Ivanov, V. A.; Yamshchikov, L. F.; Volkovich, V. A.; Osipenko, A. G.; Kormilitsyn, M. V.
2013-06-01
Thermodynamic properties of Ga-In eutectic alloys saturated with praseodymium were determined for the first time employing the electromotive force method. The equilibrium potentials of the Pr-In alloys saturated with praseodymium (8.7-12.1 mol.% Pr) and Pr-Ga-In alloys (containing 0.0012-6.71 mol.% Pr) were measured between 573-1073 K. Pr-In alloy containing solid PrIn3 with known thermodynamic properties was used as the reference electrode when measuring the potentials of ternary Pr-In-Ga alloys. Activity, partial and excessive thermodynamic functions of praseodymium in alloys with indium and Ga-In eutectic were calculated. Activity (a), activity coefficients (γ) and solubility (X) of praseodymium in the studied temperature range can be expressed by the following equations: lgaα-Pr(In) = 4.425 - 11965/T ± 0.026. lgаα-Pr(Ga-In) = 5.866 - 14766/T ± 0.190. lgγα-Pr(Ga-In) = 2.351 - 9996/T ± 0.39. lgХPr(Ga-In) = 3.515 - 4770/T ± 0.20.
Transport and thermodynamic properties of hydrous melts in the system An-Di.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giordano, D.; Potuzak, M.; Romano, C.; Russell, J. K.; Nowak, M.; Dingwell, D. B.
2006-12-01
The thermodynamic and transport properties hydrous silicate melts are of fundamental importance for characterization of the dynamics and energetics associated with silicate melts in the Earth. The literature concerning the transport and calorimetric properties of hydrous silicate melts remains scarce. With few exceptions little has been effectively done in order to provide chemical models that bridge the gap between the description of both complex and simple systems. The An-Di system is of general interest to geochemists as well as petrologists because it serves as a simple analogue for basaltic compositions. It was chosen here due to the combination of its simple chemical description and the presence of an extensive database of published experimental data on both its transport and thermodynamic properties. We have measured the viscosity (η)), the glass transition temperatures (Tg) and the heat capacity (Cp) of silicate melts in the An-Di system containing up to 3 wt.% of dissolved H2O. Viscosity data were obtained by using the dilatometric method of micropenetration, whereas a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was employed to determine the glass transition temperatures and the heat capacities. In order to characterize the well-known cooling/heating rate dependence of the glass transition temperatures the calorimetric measurements were performed at heating/cooling rate of 5, 10, 15 and 20 K/min. These results together with those of previous experimental studies have been used to provide a compositional model capable of calculating the Newtonian viscosity of melts as well as the Tg and Cp values for the An- Di+H2O system. The non-Arrhenian T-dependence of viscosity is accounted for by the Vogel-Fulcher- Tammann (VFT) and the Adam Gibbs (AG) equations. Our optimizations assume a common, high-T limit (A) for silicate melt viscosity, consistent with values provided by both theoretical and experimental studies. In particular, we also show that glass transition
Rofouei, M K; Fereyduni, E; Sohrabi, N; Shamsipur, M; Attar Gharamaleki, J; Sundaraganesan, N
2011-01-01
In this work, we will report a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecular and vibrational structure of N,N'-di(p-thiazole)formamidine (DpTF). DpTF has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy and X-ray single crystal diffraction. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of DpTF were recorded in the solid phase. The optimized geometry was calculated by HF and B3LYP methods using 6-31G(d) basis set. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of DpTF was calculated at the HF/B3LYP/6-31G(d) level and were interpreted in terms of potential energy distribution (PED) analysis. The scaled theoretical wavenumber showed very good agreement with the experimental values. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of DpTF was reported. On the basis of vibrational analyses, the thermodynamic properties of the title compound at different temperatures have been calculated, revealing the correlations between Cp,m°, Sm°, Hm° and temperatures. Furthermore, molecular electrostatic potential maps (MESP) and total dipole moment properties of the compound have been calculated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Hyoungsoon
Since its emergence, the Ginzburg-Landau theory has had a tremendous success in describing thermodynamic properties of superconductivity. In the case of superfluid 3He, not all five fourth-order parameters in the theory are known. Only four combinations of the five parameters have been experimentally established and theoretical attempts to calculate the parameters have had limited success as well. We present in this thesis a method to identify the five parameters independent of one another through a close inspection of the experiments and the theoretical calculation of Sauls and Serene. In an attempt to extend our understanding of the thermodynamic properties of 3He, we have also measured the specific heat of superfluid 3He. The measurements were performed on 3He confined in a high porosity silica aerogel and they served as a probe for the effects of impurity scattering. 3He in aerogel clearly shows behavior different from that of pure 3He: including suppression of the transition temperature and the order parameter. We have also looked at 3He in silver sinter. The difference in structures between the silver sinter and the aerogel are manifested in differences in the specific heat. In both cases, however, the impurity scattering creates Andreev bound states and we present evidence for them with our measurements.
Quark–hadron phase structure, thermodynamics, and magnetization of QCD matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nasser Tawfik, Abdel; Magied Diab, Abdel; Hussein, M. T.
2018-05-01
The SU(3) Polyakov linear-sigma model (PLSM) is systematically implemented to characterize the quark-hadron phase structure and to determine various thermodynamic quantities and the magnetization of quantum chromodynamic (QCD) matter. Using mean-field approximation, the dependence of the chiral order parameter on a finite magnetic field is also calculated. Under a wide range of temperatures and magnetic field strengths, various thermodynamic quantities including trace anomaly, speed of sound squared, entropy density, and specific heat are presented, and some magnetic properties are described as well. Where available these results are compared to recent lattice QCD calculations. The temperature dependence of these quantities confirms our previous finding that the transition temperature is reduced with the increase in the magnetic field strength, i.e. QCD matter is characterized by an inverse magnetic catalysis. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the magnetization showing that QCD matter has paramagnetic properties slightly below and far above the pseudo-critical temperature is confirmed as well. The excellent agreement with recent lattice calculations proves that our QCD-like approach (PLSM) seems to possess the correct degrees of freedom in both the hadronic and partonic phases and describes well the dynamics deriving confined hadrons to deconfined quark-gluon plasma.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weber, L. A.
1975-01-01
Compressibility measurements and thermodynamic properties data for parahydrogen were extended to higher temperatures and pressures. Results of an experimental program are presented in the form of new pressure, volume and temperature data in the temperature range 23 to 300 K at pressures up to 800 bar. Also given are tables of thermodynamic properties on isobars to 1000 bar including density, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, specific heats at constant volume and constant pressure, velocity of sound, and surface derivatives. The accuracy of the data is discussed and comparisons are made with previous data.
Thermodynamics of organic compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gammon, B. E.; Smith, N. K.
1982-11-01
This research program consisted of an integrated and interrelated effort of basic and applied research in chemical thermodynamics and thermochemistry. Knowledge of variation of physical and thermodynamic properties with molecular structure was used to select compounds for study that because of high ring strain or unusual steric effects may have good energy characteristics per unit volume or per unit mass and thus be useful in the synthesis of high energy fuels. These materials were synthesized, and their thermodynamic properties were evaluated. In cooperation with researcher at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, ramjet fuels currently in use were subjected to careful thermodynamic evaluation by measurements of heat capacity, enthalpy of combustion and vapor pressure. During the last year of this effort, seven kerosene-type fuels produced by British Petroleum and seven jet fuels produced from shale oil were studied.
Thermodynamic Properties of α-Fe 2O 3 and Fe 3O 4 Nanoparticles
Spencer, Elinor C.; Ross, Nancy L.; Olsen, Rebecca E.; ...
2015-04-21
Here we comprehansively assessed the thermodynamic properties of hydrated α-Fe 2O 3 (hematite) and Fe 3O 4 (magnetite) nanoparticles. In addition to 9 nm Fe 3O 4, three α-e 2O 3nanoparticles samples of different sizes (11, 14, and 25 nm) and bulk α-e 2O 3 have been evaluated by inelastic neutron scattering methods. The contribution of the two-level magnetic spin flip transition to the heat capacity of the α-e 2O 3 particles has been determined. The isochoric heat capacity of the water confined on the surface of these two types of iron oxide particles have been calculated from their INSmore » spectra, and is affected by the chemical composition of the underlying particle. Furthermore, the heat capacity and dynamics of the particle hydration layers appear to be influenced by a complex array of factors including particle size, water coverage, and possibly the magnetic state of the particle itself.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nadi, Fatemeh; Tzempelikos, Dimitrios
2018-01-01
In this work, apples of cv. Golden Delicious were cut into slices that were 5 and 7 mm thick and then vacuum dried at 50, 60 and 70 °C and pressure of 0.02 bar. The thin layer model drying kinetics was studied, and mass transfer properties, specifically effective moisture diffusivity and convective mass transfer coefficient, were evaluated using the Fick's equation of diffusion. Also, thermodynamic parameters of the process, i.e. enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS) and Gibbs free energy (ΔG), were determined. Colour properties were evaluated as one of the important indicators of food quality and marketability. Determination of mass transfer parameters and thermodynamic properties of vacuum dried apple slices has not been discussed much in the literature. In conclusion, the Nadi's model fitted best the observed data that represent the drying process. Thermodynamic properties were determined based on the dependence of the drying constant of the Henderson and Pabis model on temperature, and it was concluded that the variation in drying kinetics depends on the energy contribution of the surrounding environment. The enthalpy and entropy diminished, while the Gibbs free energy increased with the increase of the temperature of drying; therefore, it was possible to verify that variation in the diffusion process in the apple during drying depends on energetic contributions of the environment. The obtained results showed that diffusivity increased for 69%, while the mass transfer coefficient increase was even higher, 75%, at the variation of temperature of 20 °C. The increase in the dimensionless Biot number was 20%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nadi, Fatemeh; Tzempelikos, Dimitrios
2018-07-01
In this work, apples of cv. Golden Delicious were cut into slices that were 5 and 7 mm thick and then vacuum dried at 50, 60 and 70 °C and pressure of 0.02 bar. The thin layer model drying kinetics was studied, and mass transfer properties, specifically effective moisture diffusivity and convective mass transfer coefficient, were evaluated using the Fick's equation of diffusion. Also, thermodynamic parameters of the process, i.e. enthalpy ( ΔH), entropy ( ΔS) and Gibbs free energy ( ΔG), were determined. Colour properties were evaluated as one of the important indicators of food quality and marketability. Determination of mass transfer parameters and thermodynamic properties of vacuum dried apple slices has not been discussed much in the literature. In conclusion, the Nadi's model fitted best the observed data that represent the drying process. Thermodynamic properties were determined based on the dependence of the drying constant of the Henderson and Pabis model on temperature, and it was concluded that the variation in drying kinetics depends on the energy contribution of the surrounding environment. The enthalpy and entropy diminished, while the Gibbs free energy increased with the increase of the temperature of drying; therefore, it was possible to verify that variation in the diffusion process in the apple during drying depends on energetic contributions of the environment. The obtained results showed that diffusivity increased for 69%, while the mass transfer coefficient increase was even higher, 75%, at the variation of temperature of 20 °C. The increase in the dimensionless Biot number was 20%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohanty, Itishree; Chintha, Appa Rao; Kundu, Saurabh
2018-06-01
The optimization of process parameters and composition is essential to achieve the desired properties with minimal additions of alloying elements in microalloyed steels. In some cases, it may be possible to substitute such steels for those which are more richly alloyed. However, process control involves a larger number of parameters, making the relationship between structure and properties difficult to assess. In this work, neural network models have been developed to estimate the mechanical properties of steels containing Nb + V or Nb + Ti. The outcomes have been validated by thermodynamic calculations and plant data. It has been shown that subtle thermodynamic trends can be captured by the neural network model. Some experimental rolling data have also been used to support the model, which in addition has been applied to calculate the costs of optimizing microalloyed steel. The generated pareto fronts identify many combinations of strength and elongation, making it possible to select composition and process parameters for a range of applications. The ANN model and the optimization model are being used for prediction of properties in a running plant and for development of new alloys, respectively.
Wang, Vincent C-C
2016-08-10
Finding fundamental and general mechanisms for electrochemical reactions, such as the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) from water and reduction of CO2, plays vital roles in developing the desired electrocatalysts for facilitating solar fuel production. Recently, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have shown that there is a universal scaling relation of adsorption energy between key intermediate species, HO(ad) and HOO(ad), on the surface of metal oxides as OER electrocatalysts. In this paper, a kinetic and thermodynamic model for the four-electron electrochemical reaction based on previous OER mechanisms proposed by DFT calculations is developed to further investigate the electrocatalytic properties over a wide range of metal oxides and photosystem II. The OER activity of metal oxides (i.e. electrocatalytic current) calculated from the DFT-calculated equilibrium potentials with kinetic properties, such as the rate constants for interfacial electron transfer and catalytic turnover, can lead to a volcano-shaped trend that agrees with the results observed in experiments. In addition, the kinetic aspects of the impact on the electrocatalysts are evaluated. Finally, comparing the results of metal oxides and photosystem II, and fitting experimental voltammograms give further insights into kinetic and thermodynamic roles. Here, the general guidelines for designing OER electrocatalysts with unified kinetic and thermodynamic properties are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hippensteele, S. A.; Colladay, R. S.
1978-01-01
A computer program for determining desired thermodynamic and transport property values by means of a three-dimensional (pressure, fuel-air ratio, and either enthalpy or temperature) interpolation routine was developed. The program calculates temperature (or enthalpy), molecular weight, viscosity, specific heat at constant pressure, thermal conductivity, isentropic exponent (equal to the specific heat ratio at conditions where gases do not react), Prandtl number, and entropy for air and a combustion gas mixture of ASTM-A-1 fuel and air over fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric, pressures from 1 to 40 atm, and temperatures from 250 to 2800 K.
Thermodynamic properties of model CdTe/CdSe mixtures
van Swol, Frank; Zhou, Xiaowang W.; Challa, Sivakumar R.; ...
2015-02-20
We report on the thermodynamic properties of binary compound mixtures of model groups II–VI semiconductors. We use the recently introduced Stillinger–Weber Hamiltonian to model binary mixtures of CdTe and CdSe. We use molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the volume and enthalpy of mixing as a function of mole fraction. The lattice parameter of the mixture closely follows Vegard's law: a linear relation. This implies that the excess volume is a cubic function of mole fraction. A connection is made with hard sphere models of mixed fcc and zincblende structures. We found that the potential energy exhibits a positive deviation frommore » ideal soluton behaviour; the excess enthalpy is nearly independent of temperatures studied (300 and 533 K) and is well described by a simple cubic function of the mole fraction. Using a regular solution approach (combining non-ideal behaviour for the enthalpy with ideal solution behaviour for the entropy of mixing), we arrive at the Gibbs free energy of the mixture. The Gibbs free energy results indicate that the CdTe and CdSe mixtures exhibit phase separation. The upper consolute temperature is found to be 335 K. Finally, we provide the surface energy as a function of composition. Moreover, it roughly follows ideal solution theory, but with a negative deviation (negative excess surface energy). This indicates that alloying increases the stability, even for nano-particles.« less
Cantera Integration with the Toolbox for Modeling and Analysis of Thermodynamic Systems (T-MATS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lavelle, Thomas M.; Chapman, Jeffryes W.; May, Ryan D.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei
2014-01-01
NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has recently developed a software package for modeling generic thermodynamic systems called the Toolbox for the Modeling and Analysis of Thermodynamic Systems (T-MATS). T-MATS is a library of building blocks that can be assembled to represent any thermodynamic system in the Simulink(Registered TradeMark) (The MathWorks, Inc.) environment. These elements, along with a Newton Raphson solver (also provided as part of the T-MATS package), enable users to create models of a wide variety of systems. The current version of T-MATS (v1.0.1) uses tabular data for providing information about a specific mixture of air, water (humidity), and hydrocarbon fuel in calculations of thermodynamic properties. The capabilities of T-MATS can be expanded by integrating it with the Cantera thermodynamic package. Cantera is an object-oriented analysis package that calculates thermodynamic solutions for any mixture defined by the user. Integration of Cantera with T-MATS extends the range of systems that may be modeled using the toolbox. In addition, the library of elements released with Cantera were developed using MATLAB native M-files, allowing for quicker prototyping of elements. This paper discusses how the new Cantera-based elements are created and provides examples for using T-MATS integrated with Cantera.
Cantera Integration with the Toolbox for Modeling and Analysis of Thermodynamic Systems (T-MATS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lavelle, Thomas M.; Chapman, Jeffryes W.; May, Ryan D.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei
2014-01-01
NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has recently developed a software package for modeling generic thermodynamic systems called the Toolbox for the Modeling and Analysis of Thermodynamic Systems (T-MATS). T-MATS is a library of building blocks that can be assembled to represent any thermodynamic system in the Simulink (The MathWorks, Inc.) environment. These elements, along with a Newton Raphson solver (also provided as part of the T-MATS package), enable users to create models of a wide variety of systems. The current version of T-MATS (v1.0.1) uses tabular data for providing information about a specific mixture of air, water (humidity), and hydrocarbon fuel in calculations of thermodynamic properties. The capabilities of T-MATS can be expanded by integrating it with the Cantera thermodynamic package. Cantera is an object-oriented analysis package that calculates thermodynamic solutions for any mixture defined by the user. Integration of Cantera with T-MATS extends the range of systems that may be modeled using the toolbox. In addition, the library of elements released with Cantera were developed using MATLAB native M-files, allowing for quicker prototyping of elements. This paper discusses how the new Cantera-based elements are created and provides examples for using T-MATS integrated with Cantera.
Simplified curve fits for the thermodynamic properties of equilibrium air
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivasan, S.; Tannehill, J. C.; Weilmuenster, K. J.
1986-01-01
New improved curve fits for the thermodynamic properties of equilibrium air were developed. The curve fits are for p = p(e,rho), a = a(e,rho), T = T(e,rho), s = s(e,rho), T = T(p,rho), h = h(p,rho), rho = rho(p,s), e = e(p,s) and a = a(p,s). These curve fits can be readily incorporated into new or existing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes if real-gas effects are desired. The curve fits were constructed using Grabau-type transition functions to model the thermodynamic surfaces in a piecewise manner. The accuracies and continuity of these curve fits are substantially improved over those of previous curve fits appearing in NASA CR-2470. These improvements were due to the incorporation of a small number of additional terms in the approximating polynomials and careful choices of the transition functions. The ranges of validity of the new curve fits are temperatures up to 25,000 K and densities from 10 to the minus 7th to 100 amagats (rho/rho sub 0).
ms 2: A molecular simulation tool for thermodynamic properties, release 3.0
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rutkai, Gábor; Köster, Andreas; Guevara-Carrion, Gabriela; Janzen, Tatjana; Schappals, Michael; Glass, Colin W.; Bernreuther, Martin; Wafai, Amer; Stephan, Simon; Kohns, Maximilian; Reiser, Steffen; Deublein, Stephan; Horsch, Martin; Hasse, Hans; Vrabec, Jadran
2017-12-01
A new version release (3.0) of the molecular simulation tool ms 2 (Deublein et al., 2011; Glass et al. 2014) is presented. Version 3.0 of ms 2 features two additional ensembles, i.e. microcanonical (NVE) and isobaric-isoenthalpic (NpH), various Helmholtz energy derivatives in the NVE ensemble, thermodynamic integration as a method for calculating the chemical potential, the osmotic pressure for calculating the activity of solvents, the six Maxwell-Stefan diffusion coefficients of quaternary mixtures, statistics for sampling hydrogen bonds, smooth-particle mesh Ewald summation as well as the ability to carry out molecular dynamics runs for an arbitrary number of state points in a single program execution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yafei; Zhou, Wentao; Zhang, Jinsuo
2016-09-01
Thermodynamic properties of rare earth metals in LiCl-KCl molten salt electrolyte are crucial to the development of electrochemical separation for the treatment of used nuclear fuels. In the present study, activity coefficient, apparent potential, and diffusion coefficient of lanthanum, yttrium, scandium, and terbium in the molten salt (58 at% LiCl and 42 at% KCl) were calculated by the method of molecular dynamics simulation up to a concentration around 3 at% at temperatures of 723 K and 773 K. It was found that the activity coefficient and the apparent potential increase with the species concentration while diffusion coefficient shows a trend of increase followed by decrease. The calculated results were validated by available measurement data of dilution cases. This research extends the range of data to a wide component and would provide further insight to the pyroprocessing design and safeguards.
Verevkin, Sergey P; Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N; Kozlova, Svetlana A
2008-10-23
This work has been undertaken in order to obtain data on thermodynamic properties of organic carbonates and to revise the group-additivity values necessary for predicting their standard enthalpies of formation and enthalpies of vaporization. The standard molar enthalpies of formation of dibenzyl carbonate, tert-butyl phenyl carbonate, and diphenyl carbonate were measured using combustion calorimetry. Molar enthalpies of vaporization of these compounds were obtained from the temperature dependence of the vapor pressure measured by the transpiration method. Molar enthalpy of sublimation of diphenyl carbonate was measured in the same way. Ab initio calculations of molar enthalpies of formation of organic carbonates have been performed using the G3MP2 method, and results are in excellent agreement with the available experiment. Then the group-contribution method has been developed to predict values of the enthalpies of formation and enthalpies of vaporization of organic carbonates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tušek, Jaka; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Mañosa, Lluis; Vives, Eduard; Pryds, Nini
2016-12-01
This paper presents direct and indirect methods for studying the elastocaloric effect (eCE) in shape memory materials and its comparison. The eCE can be characterized by the adiabatic temperature change or the isothermal entropy change (both as a function of applied stress/strain). To get these quantities, the evaluation of the eCE can be done using either direct methods, where one measures (adiabatic) temperature changes or indirect methods where one can measure the stress-strain-temperature characteristics of the materials and from these deduce the adiabatic temperature and isothermal entropy changes. The former can be done using the basic thermodynamic relations, i.e. Maxwell relation and Clausius-Clapeyron equation. This paper further presents basic thermodynamic properties of shape memory materials, such as the adiabatic temperature change, isothermal entropy change and total entropy-temperature diagrams (all as a function of temperature and applied stress/strain) of two groups of materials (Ni-Ti and Cu-Zn-Al alloys) obtained using indirect methods through phenomenological modelling and Maxwell relation. In the last part of the paper, the basic definition of the efficiency of the elastocaloric thermodynamic cycle (coefficient of performance) is defined and discussed.
Kaya, Ismet; Pala, Cigdem Yigit
2014-07-01
In this work, some thermodynamic properties of poly (cyclohexyl methacrylate) were studied by inverse gas chromatography (IGC). For this purpose, the polymeric substance was coated on Chromosorb W and which was filled into a glass column. The retention times (t(r)) of the probes were determined from the interactions of poly (cyclohexyl methacrylate) with n-pentane, n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, n-decane, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, butanol, acetone, ethyl methyl ketone, benzene, toluene and o-xylene by IGC technique. Then, the specific volume (Vg(0)) was determined for each probe molecule. By using (1/T; lnVg(0)) graphics, the glass transition temperature of poly (cyclohexyl methacrylate) was found to be 373 K. The adsorption heat under the glass transition temperature (deltaH(a)), and partial molar heat of sorption above the glass transition (deltaH1(S)), partial molar free energy of sorption (deltaG1(S)) and partial molar entropy of sorption (deltaS1(S)) belonging to sorption for every probe were calculated. The partial molar heat of mixing at infinite dilution (deltaH1(infinity)), partial molar free energy of mixing at infinite dilution (deltaG1(infinity)), Flory-Huggins interaction parameter (chi12(infinity)) and weight fraction activity coefficient (a1/w1)(infinity) values of polymer-solute systems were calculated at different column temperatures. The solubility parameters (delta2) of the polymer were obtained by IGC technique.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaban, Vitaly V.; Andreeva, Nadezhda A.
2017-12-01
Energy generation and storage are at the center of modern civilization. Energetic materials constitute quite a large class of compounds with a high amount of stored chemical energy that can be released. We hereby use a combination of quantum chemistry methods to investigate feasibility and properties of carbon-nitrogen cubanes and multi-charged polynitrogen cations in the context of their synthesis and application as unprecedented energetic materials. We show that the stored energy increases gradually with the nitrogen content increase. Nitrogen-poor cubanes retain their stabilities in vacuum, even at elevated temperatures. Such molecules will be probably synthesized at some point. In turn, polynitrogen cations are highly unstable, except N8H+, despite they are isoelectronic to all-carbon cubane. Kinetic stability of the cation decays drastically as its total charge increases. High-level thermodynamic calculations revealed that large amounts of energy are liberated upon decompositions of polynitrogen cations, which produce molecular nitrogen, acetylene, and protons. The present results bring a substantial insights to the design of novel high-energy compounds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiao Guang; Liaw, Bor Yann
Although large ampere hour nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) traction batteries are in the stage of being commercialized for electric and hybrid vehicle applications, little is known about their performance characteristics. By using a standard Hg/HgO reference electrode in a commercial Ni-MH battery, we were able to conduct in situ measurements to determine both kinetic and thermodynamic properties of the system, including the characteristics of individual electrodes. Using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT), we simultaneously and effectively determined the open-circuit voltage of the battery, the equilibrium electrode potentials, and the diffusion coefficient of proton and hydrogen in the nickel and metal hydride electrode, respectively, as a function of the states of charge (SOC). Using the current-step excitation technique, we found that the internal resistance of the battery primarily comes from the metal hydride electrode, which is greater by one order of magnitude than that of the Ni electrode. The cyclic linear micro-polarization experiments, on the other hand, showed that the charge-transfer resistance of the electrochemical reaction at the metal hydride electrode is about twice larger than that of the Ni counterpart above 20% SOC. In comparison, the internal resistance is an order of magnitude smaller than those of the electrochemical charge-transfer reactions. The micro-polarization technique also allowed us to calculate the exchange current densities of the respective electrode electrochemical reactions and the associated specific exchange current densities. These in situ, simple but detailed, characterizations of the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the Ni-MH system provided valuable information for better understanding of the battery performance.
CTserver: A Computational Thermodynamics Server for the Geoscience Community
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kress, V. C.; Ghiorso, M. S.
2006-12-01
The CTserver platform is an Internet-based computational resource that provides on-demand services in Computational Thermodynamics (CT) to a diverse geoscience user base. This NSF-supported resource can be accessed at ctserver.ofm-research.org. The CTserver infrastructure leverages a high-quality and rigorously tested software library of routines for computing equilibrium phase assemblages and for evaluating internally consistent thermodynamic properties of materials, e.g. mineral solid solutions and a variety of geological fluids, including magmas. Thermodynamic models are currently available for 167 phases. Recent additions include Duan, Møller and Weare's model for supercritical C-O-H-S, extended to include SO2 and S2 species, and an entirely new associated solution model for O-S-Fe-Ni sulfide liquids. This software library is accessed via the CORBA Internet protocol for client-server communication. CORBA provides a standardized, object-oriented, language and platform independent, fast, low-bandwidth interface to phase property modules running on the server cluster. Network transport, language translation and resource allocation are handled by the CORBA interface. Users access server functionality in two principal ways. Clients written as browser- based Java applets may be downloaded which provide specific functionality such as retrieval of thermodynamic properties of phases, computation of phase equilibria for systems of specified composition, or modeling the evolution of these systems along some particular reaction path. This level of user interaction requires minimal programming effort and is ideal for classroom use. A more universal and flexible mode of CTserver access involves making remote procedure calls from user programs directly to the server public interface. The CTserver infrastructure relieves the user of the burden of implementing and testing the often complex thermodynamic models of real liquids and solids. A pilot application of this distributed
Ab initio calculations of the elastic and thermodynamic properties of gold under pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnov, N. A.
2017-03-01
The paper presents first-principles FP-LMTO calculations on the relative stability of fcc, bcc, hcp and dhcp gold under pressure. They were done in local density approximation (LDA), as well as in generalized gradient approximation (GGA) with and without spin-orbit interaction. Phonon spectra for the considered gold structures were obtained from LDA calculations within linear response theory and the contribution of lattice vibrations to the free energy of the system was determined in quasiharmonic approximation. Our thorough adjustment of FP-LMTO internal parameters (linearization and tail energies, the MT-sphere radius) helped us to obtain results that agree well with the available experimental phase relation Dubrovinsky et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 045503) between fcc and hcp structures of gold under pressure. The calculations suggest that gold compressed at room temperature successively undergoes the following structural changes: fcc\\to hcp\\to bcc . The paper also presents the calculated elastic constants of fcc, bcc and hcp Au, the principal Hugoniot and the melting curve. Calculated results were used to construct the PT-diagram which describes the relative stability of the gold structures under study up to 500 GPa.
Ab initio calculations of the elastic and thermodynamic properties of gold under pressure.
Smirnov, N A
2017-03-15
The paper presents first-principles FP-LMTO calculations on the relative stability of fcc, bcc, hcp and dhcp gold under pressure. They were done in local density approximation (LDA), as well as in generalized gradient approximation (GGA) with and without spin-orbit interaction. Phonon spectra for the considered gold structures were obtained from LDA calculations within linear response theory and the contribution of lattice vibrations to the free energy of the system was determined in quasiharmonic approximation. Our thorough adjustment of FP-LMTO internal parameters (linearization and tail energies, the MT-sphere radius) helped us to obtain results that agree well with the available experimental phase relation Dubrovinsky et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 045503) between fcc and hcp structures of gold under pressure. The calculations suggest that gold compressed at room temperature successively undergoes the following structural changes: [Formula: see text]. The paper also presents the calculated elastic constants of fcc, bcc and hcp Au, the principal Hugoniot and the melting curve. Calculated results were used to construct the PT-diagram which describes the relative stability of the gold structures under study up to 500 GPa.
Liu, Qi-Jun, E-mail: dianerliu@yahoo.com.cn; Liu, Zheng-Tang; Feng, Li-Ping
2012-12-15
On the plane-wave ultrasoft pseudopotential technique based on the first-principles density functional theory (DFT), we calculated the structural, elastic, electronic and optical properties of the seven different phases of SrZrO{sub 3}. The obtained ground-state properties are in good agreement with previous experiments and calculations, which indicate that the most stable phase is orthorhombic Pnma structure. Seven phases of SrZrO{sub 3} are mechanically stable with cubic, tetragonal and orthorhombic structures. The mechanical and thermodynamic properties have been obtained by using the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approach and Debye-Grueneisen model. The electronic structures and optical properties are obtained and compared with the available experimental andmore » theoretical data. - Graphical abstract: Energy versus volume of seven phases SrZrO{sub 3} shows the Pnma phase has the minimum ground-state energy. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We calculated the physical and chemical properties of seven SrZrO{sub 3} polymorphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The order of stability is Pnma>Imma>Cmcm>I4/mcm>P4/mbm>P4mm>Pm3-bar m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The most stable phase is orthorhombic Pnma structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Seven phases of SrZrO{sub 3} are mechanically stable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relationship between n and {rho}{sub m} is n=1+0.18{rho}{sub m}.« less
Santos, Ana Filipa L O M; Oliveira, Juliana A S A; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D M C; Monte, Manuel J S
2016-03-01
This work reports the experimental determination of relevant thermodynamic properties and the characterization of luminescence properties of the following polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): 2,6-diethylnaphthalene, 2,6-diisopropylnaphthalene and 2,6-di-tert-butylnaphthalene. The standard (p(o) = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of combustion, ΔcHm(o), of the three compounds were determined using static bomb combustion calorimetry. The vapor pressures of the crystalline phase of 2,6-diisopropylnaphthalene and 2,6-di-tert-butylnaphthalene were measured at different temperatures using the Knudsen effusion method and the vapor pressures of both liquid and crystalline phases of 2,6-diethylnaphthalene were measured by means of a static method. The temperatures and the molar enthalpies of fusion of the three compounds were determined using differential scanning calorimetry. The gas-phase molar heat capacities and absolute entropies of the three 2,6-dialkylnaphthalenes studied were determined computationally. The thermodynamic stability of the compounds in both the crystalline and gaseous phases was evaluated by the determination of the Gibbs energies of formation and compared with the ones reported in the literature for 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene. From fluorescence spectroscopy measurements, the optical properties of the compounds studied and of naphthalene were evaluated in solution and in the solid state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramazanov, M. K.; Murtazaev, A. K.; Magomedov, M. A.; Badiev, M. K.
2018-06-01
We study phase transitions and thermodynamic properties in the two-dimensional antiferromagnetic Ising model with next-nearest-neighbor interaction on a Kagomé lattice by Monte Carlo simulations. A histogram data analysis shows that a second-order transition occurs in the model. From the analysis of obtained data, we can assume that next-nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic interactions in two-dimensional antiferromagnetic Ising model on a Kagomé lattice excite the occurrence of a second-order transition and unusual behavior of thermodynamic properties on the temperature dependence.
Structural and thermodynamic properties of WB at high pressure and high temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Hai-Hua; Bi, Yan; Cheng, Yan; Ji, Guangfu; Peng, Fang; Hu, Yan-Fei
2012-12-01
The structure parameters and electronic structures of tungsten boride (WB) have been investigated by using the density functional theory (DFT). Our calculating results display the bulk modulus of WB are 352±2 GPa (K‧0=4.29) and 322±3 GPa (K‧0=4.21) by LDA and GGA methods, respectively. We have analyzed the probable reason of the discrepancy from the bulk modulus between theoretical and experimental results. The compression behavior of the unit cell axes is anisotropic, with the c-axis being more compressible than the a-axis. By analyzing the bond lengths information, it also demonstrated that WB has a lower compressibility at high pressure. From the partial densities of states (PDOS) of WB, we found that the Fermi lever is mostly contributed by the d states of W atom and p states of B atom and that the contributions from the s, p states of W atom and s states of B atom are small. Moreover, using the Gibbs 2 program, the thermodynamic properties of WB are obtained in a wide temperature range at high pressure for the first time in this work.
Shukla, Vikas K; Al-Abdullah, Ebtehal S; El-Emam, Ali A; Sachan, Alok K; Pathak, Shilendra K; Kumar, Amarendra; Prasad, Onkar; Bishnoi, Abha; Sinha, Leena
2014-12-10
Quantum chemical calculations of ground state energy, geometrical structure and vibrational wavenumbers of 1-acetylindole were carried out using density functional (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra were recorded in the condensed state. The fundamental vibrational wavenumbers were calculated and a good correlation between experimental and scaled calculated wavenumbers has been accomplished. Electric dipole moment, polarizability and first static hyperpolarizability values of 1-acetylindole have been calculated at the same level of theory and basis set. The results show that the 1-acetylindole molecule possesses nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non-zero values. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. UV-Visible spectrum of the molecule was recorded in the region 200-500nm and the electronic properties like HOMO and LUMO energies and composition were obtained using TD-DFT method. The calculated energies and oscillator strengths are in good correspondence with the experimental data. The thermodynamic properties of the compound under investigation were calculated at different temperatures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Reddy, Sandeep K.; Straight, Shelby C.; Bajaj, Pushp
The MB-pol many-body potential has recently emerged as an accurate molecular model for water simulations from the gas to the condensed phase. In this study, the accuracy of MB-pol is systematically assessed across the three phases of water through extensive comparisons with experimental data and high-level ab initio calculations. Individual many-body contributions to the interaction energies as well as vibrational spectra of water clusters calculated with MB-pol are in excellent agreement with reference data obtained at the coupled cluster level. Several structural, thermodynamic, and dynamical properties of the liquid phase at atmospheric pressure are investigated through classical molecular dynamics simulationsmore » as a function of temperature. The structural properties of the liquid phase are in nearly quantitative agreement with X-ray diffraction data available over the temperature range from 268 to 368 K. The analysis of other thermodynamic and dynamical quantities emphasizes the importance of explicitly including nuclear quantum effects in the simulations, especially at low temperature, for a physically correct description of the properties of liquid water. Furthermore, both densities and lattice energies of several ice phases are also correctly reproduced by MB-pol. Following a recent study of DFT models for water, a score is assigned to each computed property, which demonstrates the high and, in many respects, unprecedented accuracy of MB-pol in representing all three phases of water. Published by AIP Publishing.« less
Measuring Thermodynamic Properties of Metals and Alloys With Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Copland, Evan H.; Jacobson, Nathan S.
2010-01-01
This report reviews Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) as it relates to thermodynamic measurements of metals and alloys. First, general aspects are reviewed, with emphasis on the Knudsen-cell vapor source and molecular beam formation, and mass spectrometry issues germane to this type of instrument are discussed briefly. The relationship between the vapor pressure inside the effusion cell and the measured ion intensity is the key to KEMS and is derived in detail. Then common methods used to determine thermodynamic quantities with KEMS are discussed. Enthalpies of vaporization, the fundamental measurement, are determined from the variation of relative partial pressure with temperature using the second-law method or by calculating a free energy of formation and subtracting the entropy contribution using the third-law method. For single-cell KEMS instruments, measurements can be used to determine the partial Gibbs free energy if the sensitivity factor remains constant over multiple experiments. The ion-current ratio method and dimer-monomer method are also viable in some systems. For a multiple-cell KEMS instrument, activities are obtained by direct comparison with a suitable component reference state or a secondary standard. Internal checks for correct instrument operation and general procedural guidelines also are discussed. Finally, general comments are made about future directions in measuring alloy thermodynamics with KEMS.
A thermodynamic counterpart of the Axelrod model of social influence: The one-dimensional case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gandica, Y.; Medina, E.; Bonalde, I.
2013-12-01
We propose a thermodynamic version of the Axelrod model of social influence. In one-dimensional (1D) lattices, the thermodynamic model becomes a coupled Potts model with a bonding interaction that increases with the site matching traits. We analytically calculate thermodynamic and critical properties for a 1D system and show that an order-disorder phase transition only occurs at T=0 independent of the number of cultural traits q and features F. The 1D thermodynamic Axelrod model belongs to the same universality class of the Ising and Potts models, notwithstanding the increase of the internal dimension of the local degree of freedom and the state-dependent bonding interaction. We suggest a unifying proposal to compare exponents across different discrete 1D models. The comparison with our Hamiltonian description reveals that in the thermodynamic limit the original out-of-equilibrium 1D Axelrod model with noise behaves like an ordinary thermodynamic 1D interacting particle system.
Kim, Sunghee; Kim, Ki Chul; Lee, Seung Woo; Jang, Seung Soon
2016-07-27
Understanding the thermodynamic stability and redox properties of oxygen functional groups on graphene is critical to systematically design stable graphene-based positive electrode materials with high potential for lithium-ion battery applications. In this work, we study the thermodynamic and redox properties of graphene functionalized with carbonyl and hydroxyl groups, and the evolution of these properties with the number, types and distribution of functional groups by employing the density functional theory method. It is found that the redox potential of the functionalized graphene is sensitive to the types, number, and distribution of oxygen functional groups. First, the carbonyl group induces higher redox potential than the hydroxyl group. Second, more carbonyl groups would result in higher redox potential. Lastly, the locally concentrated distribution of the carbonyl group is more beneficial to have higher redox potential compared to the uniformly dispersed distribution. In contrast, the distribution of the hydroxyl group does not affect the redox potential significantly. Thermodynamic investigation demonstrates that the incorporation of carbonyl groups at the edge of graphene is a promising strategy for designing thermodynamically stable positive electrode materials with high redox potentials.
Montes-Perez, J; Cruz-Vera, A; Herrera, J N
2011-12-01
This work presents the full analytic expressions for the thermodynamic properties and the static structure factor for a hard sphere plus 1-Yukawa fluid within the mean spherical approximation. To obtain these properties of the fluid type Yukawa analytically it was necessary to solve an equation of fourth order for the scaling parameter on a large scale. The physical root of this equation was determined by imposing physical conditions. The results of this work are obtained from seminal papers of Blum and Høye. We show that is not necessary the use the series expansion to solve the equation for the scaling parameter. We applied our theoretical result to find the thermodynamic and the static structure factor for krypton. Our results are in good agreement with those obtained in an experimental form or by simulation using the Monte Carlo method.
Microscopic approaches to liquid nitromethane detonation properties.
Hervouët, Anaïs; Desbiens, Nicolas; Bourasseau, Emeric; Maillet, Jean-Bernard
2008-04-24
In this paper, thermodynamic and chemical properties of nitromethane are investigated using microscopic simulations. The Hugoniot curve of the inert explosive is computed using Monte Carlo simulations with a modified version of the adaptative Erpenbeck equation of state and a recently developed intermolecular potential. Molecular dynamic simulations of nitromethane decomposition have been performed using a reactive potential, allowing the calculation of kinetic rate constants and activation energies. Finally, the Crussard curve of detonation products as well as thermodynamic properties at the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) point are computed using reactive ensemble Monte Carlo simulations. Results are in good agreement with both thermochemical calculations and experimental measurements.
Investigation of thermodynamic properties of metal-oxide catalysts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shah, Parag Rasiklal
An apparatus for Coulometric Titration was developed and used to measure the redox isotherms (i.e. oxygen fugacity P(O2) vs oxygen stoichiometry) of ceria-zirconia solid solutions, mixed oxides of vanadia, and vanadia supported on ZrO2. This data was used to correlate the redox thermodynamics of these oxides to their structure and catalytic properties. From the redox isotherms measured between 873 K and 973 K, the differential enthalpies of oxidation (DeltaH) for Ce0.81Zr0.19O 2.0 and Ce0.25Zr0.75O2.0 were determined, and they were found to be independent of extent of reduction or composition of the solid solution. They were also lower than DeltaH for ceria, which explains the better redox properties of ceria-zirconia solid solutions. The oxidation was driven by entropy in the low reduction region, and a structural model was proposed to explain the observed entropy effects. Redox isotherms were also measured for a number of bulk vanadates between 823 K and 973 K. DeltaG, DeltaH and DeltaS were reported for V 2O5, Mg3(VO4)2, CeVO 4 and ZrV2O7 along with DeltaG values for AlVO 4, LaVO4, CrVO4. V2O5 and ZrV2O7, which were the only oxides having V-O-V bonds, showed a two-step transition of vanadium for V+3↔V +4 and V+4↔V+5 equilibrium in the redox isotherms. The other oxides, all of which have only M-O-V (M=cation other than V), showed a direct one-step transition, V+3↔V +5. The nature of the M-atom also influenced the P(O2) at which the V+3↔V+5 transition occurs. Redox isotherms at 748 K were measured for vanadia supported on ZrO 2; with two different vanadia loadings corresponding to isolated vanadyls and polymeric vanadyls. The isotherm for the sample with isolated vanadyls showed a single-step transition, similar to the one seen in bulk vanadates with M-O-V linkages, while no such one-step transition was observed in the isotherm of the other sample. To study the affect of the varying redox properties of the vanadium-based catalysts on oxidation rates
Thermodynamic assessment of the Sn-Co lead-free solder system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Libin; Andersson, Cristina; Liu, Johan
2004-09-01
The Sn-Co-Cu eutectic alloy can be a less expensive alternative for the Sn-Ag-Cu alloy. In order to find the eutectic solder composition of the Sn-Co-Cu system, the Sn-Co binary system has been thoroughly assessed with the calculation of phase diagram (CALPHAD) method. The liquid phase, the FCC and HCP Co-rich solid solution, and the BCT Sn-rich solid solution have been described by the Redlich-Kister model. The Hillert-Jarl-Inden model has been used to describe the magnetic contributions to Gibbs energy in FCC and HCP. The CoSn2, CoSn, Co3Sn2_β, and Co3Sn2_α phases have been treated as stoichiometric phases. A series of thermodynamic parameters have been obtained. The calculated phase diagram and thermodynamic properties are in good agreement with the experimental data. The obtained thermodynamic data was used to extrapolate the ternary Sn-Co-Cu phase diagram. The composition of the Sn-rich eutectic point of the Sn-Co-Cu system was found to be 224°C, 0.4% Co, and 0.7% Cu.
Surface Emissivity Effects on Thermodynamic Retrieval of IR Spectral Radiance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Smith, William L.; Liu, Xu
2006-01-01
The surface emissivity effect on the thermodynamic parameters (e.g., the surface skin temperature, atmospheric temperature, and moisture) retrieved from satellite infrared (IR) spectral radiance is studied. Simulation analysis demonstrates that surface emissivity plays an important role in retrieval of surface skin temperature and terrestrial boundary layer (TBL) moisture. NAST-I ultraspectral data collected during the CLAMS field campaign are used to retrieve thermodynamic properties of the atmosphere and surface. The retrievals are then validated by coincident in-situ measurements, such as sea surface temperature, radiosonde temperature and moisture profiles. Retrieved surface emissivity is also validated by that computed from the observed radiance and calculated emissions based on the retrievals of surface temperature and atmospheric profiles. In addition, retrieved surface skin temperature and emissivity are validated together by radiance comparison between the observation and retrieval-based calculation in the window region where atmospheric contribution is minimized. Both simulation and validation results have lead to the conclusion that variable surface emissivity in the inversion process is needed to obtain accurate retrievals from satellite IR spectral radiance measurements. Retrieval examples are presented to reveal that surface emissivity plays a significant role in retrieving accurate surface skin temperature and TBL thermodynamic parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fomin, Yu D.; Ryzhov, V. N.; Tsiok, E. N.; Proctor, J. E.; Prescher, C.; Prakapenka, V. B.; Trachenko, K.; Brazhkin, V. V.
2018-04-01
We review recent work aimed at understanding dynamical and thermodynamic properties of liquids and supercritical fluids. The focus of our discussion is on solid-like transverse collective modes, whose evolution in the supercritical fluids enables one to discuss the main properties of the Frenkel line separating rigid liquid-like and non-rigid gas-like supercritical states. We subsequently present recent experimental evidence of the Frenkel line showing that structural and dynamical crossovers are seen at a pressure and temperature corresponding to the line as predicted by theory and modelling. Finally, we link dynamical and thermodynamic properties of liquids and supercritical fluids by the new calculation of liquid energy governed by the evolution of solid-like transverse modes. The disappearance of those modes at high temperature results in the observed decrease of heat capacity.
Thermodynamics of freezing and melting
Pedersen, Ulf R.; Costigliola, Lorenzo; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Schrøder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.
2016-01-01
Although the freezing of liquids and melting of crystals are fundamental for many areas of the sciences, even simple properties like the temperature–pressure relation along the melting line cannot be predicted today. Here we present a theory in which properties of the coexisting crystal and liquid phases at a single thermodynamic state point provide the basis for calculating the pressure, density and entropy of fusion as functions of temperature along the melting line, as well as the variation along this line of the reduced crystalline vibrational mean-square displacement (the Lindemann ratio), and the liquid's diffusion constant and viscosity. The framework developed, which applies for the sizable class of systems characterized by hidden scale invariance, is validated by computer simulations of the standard 12-6 Lennard-Jones system. PMID:27530064
Thermodynamic properties of some metal oxide-zirconia systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobson, Nathan S.
1989-01-01
Metal oxide-zirconia systems are a potential class of materials for use as structural materials at temperatures above 1900 K. These materials must have no destructive phase changes and low vapor pressures. Both alkaline earth oxide (MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO)-zirconia and some rare earth oxide (Y2O3, Sc2O3, La2O3, CeO2, Sm2O3, Gd2O3, Yb2O3, Dy2O3, Ho2O3, and Er2O3)-zirconia system are examined. For each system, the phase diagram is discussed and the vapor pressure for each vapor species is calculated via a free energy minimization procedure. The available thermodynamic literature on each system is also surveyed. Some of the systems look promising for high temperature structural materials.
Rajamani, T; Muthu, S; Karabacak, M
2013-05-01
In this work, the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out by using FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy in the range 4000-100 cm(-1) and 4000-400 cm(-1), respectively, for N-(4-nitro-2-phenoxyphenyl) methanesulfonamide molecule. Theoretical calculations were performed by ab initio RHF and density functional theory (DFT) method using 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis sets. The complete vibrational assignments of wavenumbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED). The results of the calculations were applied to simulated spectra of the title compound, which show excellent agreement with observed spectra. The frontier orbital energy gap and dipole moment illustrates the high reactivity of the title molecule. The first order hyperpolarizability (β0) and related properties (μ, α and Δα) of the molecule were also calculated. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization were analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The results show that electron density (ED) in the σ(*) and π(*) anti-bonding orbitals and second order delocalization energies (E2) confirm the occurrence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. UV-vis spectrum of the compound was recorded in the region 200-500 nm in ethanol and electronic properties such as excitation energies, oscillator strength and wavelength were calculated by TD-DFT/B3LYP, CIS and TD-HF methods using 6-31G(d,p) basis set. Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and HOMO-LUMO energy levels are also constructed. The thermodynamic properties of the title compound were calculated at different temperatures and the results reveals the heat capacity (C), and entropy (S) increases with rise in temperature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yamada, Takahiro; Bozzelli, J.W.
1999-09-09
G2(MP2) composite calculations are performed to obtain thermodynamic properties ({Delta}H{sub f 298}{degree}, S{sub 298}{degree} and C{sub p}(T)'s) of 2-fluoro-2-methylpropane. {Delta}H{sub f 298}{degree} is calculated from the G2(MP2) calculated enthalpy of reaction ({Delta}H{sub rxn 298}{degree}) and use of isodesmic reactions. Standard entropy (S{sub 298}{degree} in cal/(mol{center{underscore}dot}K)) and heat capacities (C{sub p}(T)'s in cal/(mol{center{underscore}dot}K)) are calculated using the rigid-rotor--harmonic-oscillator approximation with direct integration over energy levels of the intermolecular rotation potential energy curve. These thermodynamic properties are used to estimate data for the C/C3/F group. Enthalpies of formation ({Delta}H{sub f 298}{degree} in kcal/mol) for 1,2-difluoroethane ({minus}102.7), 1,1,2-trifluoroethane ({minus}156.9), 1,1,2,2- and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (209.6more » and 213.3), and pentafluoroethane ({minus}264.1), are calculated using total energies obtained from G2(MP2) composite ab initio methods. Isodesmic reactions with existing literature values of {Delta}H{sub f 298}{degree} for ethane, 1-fluoroethane, 1,1-difjuoroethane and 1,1,1-trifluoroethane are used. Fluorine/fluorine interaction terms, F/F, 2F/F, 3F/F, 2F/2F, and 3F/2F, where ``/'' indicates interaction for alkane compounds, for {Delta}H{sub f 298}{degree} are reevaluated based on {Delta}H{sub f 298}{degree} of the above five fluoroethanes. Thermodynamic properties ({Delta}H{sub f 298}{degree}, S{sub 298}{degree} and C{sub p}(T)'s (300 {le} T/K {le} 1500)) for fluorinated carbon groups, C/C3F, C/C2/F/H, C/C2/F2, are calculated using data from ab initio methods and existing literature data. Fluorine-methyl (alkyl) group additivity corrections for gauche interactions are also evaluated.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belmonte, Donato; Ottonello, Giulio Armando; Vetuschi Zuccolini, Marino
2014-05-01
MgSiO3 polymorphs with the garnet, pyroxene and ilmenite structure play a key role in controlling phase equilibria and seismic velocity gradients in the mantle transition zone (440-660 km). Despite the relative abundance of structural and thermoelastic informations, thermodynamic data are still poorly constrained and their extrapolation at high pressure and temperature conditions is affected by large uncertainties. In this work, ab initio calculations of the thermodynamic properties of MgSiO3 polymorphs stable at MTZ conditions (tetragonal majorite, Mj; akimotoite, Ak; HP-clinoenstatite, HPCEn) have been carried out with the hybrid B3LYP density functional method. The static and vibrational features of these minerals (equation of state, elastic constants, seismic velocities and anisotropy, IR and Raman spectra, mode Grüneisen parameters) have been fully characterized in a broad range of P-T conditions. The vibrational density of states (vDOS) have been reproduced in the framework of quasi-harmonic approximation through a full phonon dispersion calculation or, alternatively, a modified Kieffer's model splitting the acoustic and optic modes contribution to the thermodynamic functions. The calculated heat capacities are in good agreement with the relatively few calorimetric investigations made so far on these minerals in the low- to medium-T range. However, physical unsoundness may affect the high-temperature extrapolation of calorimetric results, so that the use in phase equilibria calculation deserves great care. The calculated Gibbs free energies allow to define phase transition boundaries in the MgSiO3 phase diagram and locate the majorite-akimotite-perovskite triple point at P = 21.09 ± 0.13 GPa and T = 2247 ± 31 K. The effect of partial structural disorder in majorite, assessed via an interchange enthalpy (ΔHint = 15 kJ/mol) and configurational entropy [Sconf = 1.9 J/(mol×K)] contribution, must be taken into account to accurately reproduce the Mj
Xu, Wen-Sheng, E-mail: wsxu@uchicago.edu; Freed, Karl F., E-mail: freed@uchicago.edu; Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637
2015-07-14
The lattice cluster theory (LCT) for semiflexible linear telechelic melts, developed in Paper I, is applied to examine the influence of chain stiffness on the average degree of self-assembly and the basic thermodynamic properties of linear telechelic polymer melts. Our calculations imply that chain stiffness promotes self-assembly of linear telechelic polymer melts that assemble on cooling when either polymer volume fraction ϕ or temperature T is high, but opposes self-assembly when both ϕ and T are sufficiently low. This allows us to identify a boundary line in the ϕ-T plane that separates two regions of qualitatively different influence of chainmore » stiffness on self-assembly. The enthalpy and entropy of self-assembly are usually treated as adjustable parameters in classical Flory-Huggins type theories for the equilibrium self-assembly of polymers, but they are demonstrated here to strongly depend on chain stiffness. Moreover, illustrative calculations for the dependence of the entropy density of linear telechelic polymer melts on chain stiffness demonstrate the importance of including semiflexibility within the LCT when exploring the nature of glass formation in models of linear telechelic polymer melts.« less
An improved thermodynamic perturbation theory for Mercedes-Benz water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Urbic, T.; Vlachy, V.; Kalyuzhnyi, Yu. V.; Dill, K. A.
2007-11-01
We previously applied Wertheim's thermodynamic perturbation theory for associative fluids to the simple Mercedes-Benz model of water. We found that the theory reproduced well the physical properties of hot water, but was less successful in capturing the more structured hydrogen bonding that occurs in cold water. Here, we propose an improved version of the thermodynamic perturbation theory in which the effective density of the reference system is calculated self-consistently. The new theory is a significant improvement, giving good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the model, and predicting key anomalies of cold water, such as minima in the molar volume and large heat capacity, in addition to giving good agreement with the isothermal compressibility and thermal expansion coefficient.
An improved thermodynamic perturbation theory for Mercedes-Benz water.
Urbic, T; Vlachy, V; Kalyuzhnyi, Yu V; Dill, K A
2007-11-07
We previously applied Wertheim's thermodynamic perturbation theory for associative fluids to the simple Mercedes-Benz model of water. We found that the theory reproduced well the physical properties of hot water, but was less successful in capturing the more structured hydrogen bonding that occurs in cold water. Here, we propose an improved version of the thermodynamic perturbation theory in which the effective density of the reference system is calculated self-consistently. The new theory is a significant improvement, giving good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the model, and predicting key anomalies of cold water, such as minima in the molar volume and large heat capacity, in addition to giving good agreement with the isothermal compressibility and thermal expansion coefficient.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diakonov, Igor I.; Schott, Jacques; Martin, Francois; Harrichourry, Jean-Claude; Escalier, Jocelyne
1999-08-01
The solubility of natural and synthetic hematite (α-Fe 2O 3) was measured in NaOH-NaCl solutions (0.007 ≤ m(NaOH) ≤ 2.0) between 60 and 300°C at saturated water vapour pressure and under excess oxygen. Solubility constants determined in the present study and by Yishan et al. (1986) at 300°C were combined with the thermodynamic properties of hematite (Hemingway, 1990) and water (SUPCRT92, Johnson et al., 1992) to generate within the framework of the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) model the standard partial molal thermodynamic properties at 25°C and 1 bar, and the revised HKF equations of state parameters of Fe(OH) 4 -. The extrapolated value for the Gibbs energy of formation for Fe(OH) 4 - at 25°C is -201.97 kcal/mol. Thermodynamic calculations show that Fe(OH) 4 - exhibits a chemical behaviour different from that of Ga(OH) 4 - and Al(OH) 4 -.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souadia, Z.; Bouhemadou, A.; Boudrifa, O.; Bin-Omran, S.; Khenata, R.; Al-Douri, Y.
2017-10-01
We report a systematic first-principles density functional theory study on the pressure dependence of the structural parameters, elastic constants and related properties and thermodynamic properties of the complex transition metal hydrides Mg2OsH6, Ca2OsH6, Sr2OsH6 and Ba2OsH6. The calculated structural parameters are in excellent agreement with the existing data in the scientific literature. The single-crystal elastic constants and related properties were predicted using the stress-strain method. The elastic moduli of the polycrystalline aggregates were evaluated via the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approach. The dependences of the lattice parameter, bulk modulus, volume thermal expansion coefficient, isobaric and isochoric heat capacity and Debye temperature on the pressure and temperature, ranging from 0 to 15 GPa and from 0 to 1000 K, respectively, were investigated using the quasi-harmonic Debye model in combination with first-principles calculations.
Study of thermodynamic properties of liquid binary alloys by a pseudopotential method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vora, Aditya M.
2010-11-01
On the basis of the Percus-Yevick hard-sphere model as a reference system and the Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality, a thermodynamic perturbation method is applied with the use of the well-known model potential. By applying a variational method, the hard-core diameters are found which correspond to a minimum free energy. With this procedure, the thermodynamic properties such as the internal energy, entropy, Helmholtz free energy, entropy of mixing, and heat of mixing are computed for liquid NaK binary systems. The influence of the local-field correction functions of Hartree, Taylor, Ichimaru-Utsumi, Farid-Heine-Engel-Robertson, and Sarkar-Sen-Haldar-Roy is also investigated. The computed excess entropy is in agreement with available experimental data in the case of liquid alloys, whereas the agreement for the heat of mixing is poor. This may be due to the sensitivity of the latter to the potential parameters and dielectric function.
Calorimetric Determination of Thermodynamic Stability of MAX and MXene Phases
Sharma, Geetu; Naguib, Michael; Feng, Dawei; ...
2016-11-19
MXenes are layered two dimensional materials with exciting properties useful to a wide range of energy applications. They are derived from ceramics (MAX phases) by leaching and their properties reflect their resulting complex compositions which include intercalating cations and anions and water. Their thermodynamic stability is likely linked to these functional groups but has not yet been addressed by quantitative experimental measurements. We report enthalpies of formation from the elements at 25 °C measured using high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry for a layered Ti-Al-C MAX phase, and the corresponding Ti-C based MXene. The thermodynamic stability of the Ti 3Cmore » 2T x MXene (Tx stands for anionic surface moieties, and intercalated cations) was assessed by calculating the enthalpy of reaction of the MAX phase (ideal composition Ti 3AlC 2) to form MXene, The very exothermic enthalpy of reaction confirms the stability of MXene in an aqueous environment. The surface terminations (O, OH and F) and cations (Li) chemisorbed on the surface and intercalated in the interlayers play a major role in the thermodynamic stabilization of MXene. These findings help to understand and potentially improve properties and performance by characterizing the energetics of species binding to MXene surfaces during synthesis and in energy storage, water desalination and other applications.« less
Thermodynamic Properties of a Double Ring-Shaped Quantum Dot at Low and High Temperatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khordad, R.; Sedehi, H. R. Rastegar
2018-02-01
In this work, we study thermodynamic properties of a GaAs double ring-shaped quantum dot under external magnetic and electric fields. To this end, we first solve the Schrödinger equation and obtain the energy levels and wave functions, analytically. Then, we calculate the entropy, heat capacity, average energy and magnetic susceptibility of the quantum dot in the presence of a magnetic field using the canonical ensemble approach. According to the results, it is found that the entropy is an increasing function of temperature. At low temperatures, the entropy increases monotonically with raising the temperature for all values of the magnetic fields and it is independent of the magnetic field. But, the entropy depends on the magnetic field at high temperatures. The entropy also decreases with increasing the magnetic field. The heat capacity and magnetic susceptibility show a peak structure. The heat capacity reduces with increasing the magnetic field at low temperatures. The magnetic susceptibility shows a transition between diamagnetic and paramagnetic below for T<4 K. The transition temperature depends on the magnetic field.
Reassessing SERS enhancement factors: using thermodynamics to drive substrate design.
Guicheteau, J A; Tripathi, A; Emmons, E D; Christesen, S D; Fountain, Augustus W
2017-12-04
Over the past 40 years fundamental and application research into Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) has been explored by academia, industry, and government laboratories. To date however, SERS has achieved little commercial success as an analytical technique. Researchers are tackling a variety of paths to help break through the commercial barrier by addressing the reproducibility in both the SERS substrates and SERS signals as well as continuing to explore the underlying mechanisms. To this end, investigators use a variety of methodologies, typically studying strongly binding analytes such as aromatic thiols and azarenes, and report SERS enhancement factor calculations. However a drawback of the traditional SERS enhancement factor calculation is that it does not yield enough information to understand substrate reproducibility, application potential with another analyte, or the driving factors behind the molecule-metal interaction. Our work at the US Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center has focused on these questions and we have shown that thermodynamic principles play a key role in the SERS response and are an essential factor in future designs of substrates and applications. This work will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various experimental techniques used to report SERS enhancement with planar SERS substrates and present our alternative SERS enhancement value. We will report on three types of analysis scenarios that all yield different information concerning the effectiveness of the SERS substrate, practical application of the substrate, and finally the thermodynamic properties of the substrate. We believe that through this work a greater understanding for designing substrates will be achieved, one that is based on both thermodynamic and plasmonic properties as opposed to just plasmonic properties. This new understanding and potential change in substrate design will enable more applications for SERS based methodologies including targeting
Zhu, Huayang; Ricote, Sandrine; Coors, W Grover; Kee, Robert J
2015-01-01
A model-based interpretation of measured equilibrium conductivity and conductivity relaxation is developed to establish thermodynamic, transport, and kinetics parameters for multiple charged defect conducting (MCDC) ceramic materials. The present study focuses on 10% yttrium-doped barium zirconate (BZY10). In principle, using the Nernst-Einstein relationship, equilibrium conductivity measurements are sufficient to establish thermodynamic and transport properties. However, in practice it is difficult to establish unique sets of properties using equilibrium conductivity alone. Combining equilibrium and conductivity-relaxation measurements serves to significantly improve the quantitative fidelity of the derived material properties. The models are developed using a Nernst-Planck-Poisson (NPP) formulation, which enables the quantitative representation of conductivity relaxations caused by very large changes in oxygen partial pressure.
Naden, Levi N; Shirts, Michael R
2016-04-12
We show how thermodynamic properties of molecular models can be computed over a large, multidimensional parameter space by combining multistate reweighting analysis with a linear basis function approach. This approach reduces the computational cost to estimate thermodynamic properties from molecular simulations for over 130,000 tested parameter combinations from over 1000 CPU years to tens of CPU days. This speed increase is achieved primarily by computing the potential energy as a linear combination of basis functions, computed from either modified simulation code or as the difference of energy between two reference states, which can be done without any simulation code modification. The thermodynamic properties are then estimated with the Multistate Bennett Acceptance Ratio (MBAR) as a function of multiple model parameters without the need to define a priori how the states are connected by a pathway. Instead, we adaptively sample a set of points in parameter space to create mutual configuration space overlap. The existence of regions of poor configuration space overlap are detected by analyzing the eigenvalues of the sampled states' overlap matrix. The configuration space overlap to sampled states is monitored alongside the mean and maximum uncertainty to determine convergence, as neither the uncertainty or the configuration space overlap alone is a sufficient metric of convergence. This adaptive sampling scheme is demonstrated by estimating with high precision the solvation free energies of charged particles of Lennard-Jones plus Coulomb functional form with charges between -2 and +2 and generally physical values of σij and ϵij in TIP3P water. We also compute entropy, enthalpy, and radial distribution functions of arbitrary unsampled parameter combinations using only the data from these sampled states and use the estimates of free energies over the entire space to examine the deviation of atomistic simulations from the Born approximation to the solvation free
Thermodynamic limit and boundary energy of the su(3) spin chain with non-diagonal boundary fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Fakai; Yang, Tao; Yang, Zhanying; Cao, Junpeng; Hao, Kun; Yang, Wen-Li
2017-02-01
We investigate the thermodynamic limit of the su (n)-invariant spin chain models with unparallel boundary fields. It is found that the contribution of the inhomogeneous term in the associated T-Q relation to the ground state energy does vanish in the thermodynamic limit. This fact allows us to calculate the boundary energy of the system. Taking the su (2) (or the XXX) spin chain and the su (3) spin chain as concrete examples, we have studied the corresponding boundary energies of the models. The method used in this paper can be generalized to study the thermodynamic properties and boundary energy of other high rank models with non-diagonal boundary fields.
Abdel-Naby, Mohamed A; El-Tanash, Arafat Bedier; Sherief, Abdel Daium A
2016-11-01
Tannase (EC.3.1.1.20) from Aspergillus oryzae was purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation (75%), gel filtration chromatography through Sephadex G-100, and G-200. The purified enzyme was monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 106kDa. The activation energy for tannic acid hydrolysis was 32.6kJmol -1 and its temperature quotient (Q 10 ) was 1.0. The pK a1 and pK a2 values of acidic and basic limbs of the active site residues were 4.6 and 6.4. The calculated values of thermodynamic parameters for tannic acid hydrolysis, were as follows: ΔH*=30.02kJmol -1 , ΔG*=59.75kJmol -1 ΔS*=-95.90Jmol -1 K -1 , (ΔG* E-S )=3.66kJmol -1 and ΔG* E-T -12.61kJmol -1 . The pure enzyme exhibited K m , V max and k cat of 4.13mM, 3507Umgprotein -1 and 551.4s -1 . The calculated half-life time at 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, and 70°C was 955.15, 142.0, 30.28, 17.88, 8.23 and 2.95min, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters for irreversible thermal inactivation at different temperatures (40-70°C) were determined. The enzyme was activated by Ca 2+ , and Mg 2+ while Hg 2+ , Fe 2+ , and Cu 2+ strongly inhibited it. Hydrolysis of tannic acid by the pure enzyme indicated that gallic acid was the end-product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Łapsa, Joanna; Onderka, Bogusław
2016-08-01
The thermodynamic properties of liquid Ag-Sb-Sn alloys were obtained through use of the drop solution calorimetric method and electromotive force (emf) measurements of galvanic cells with a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid electrolyte. The experiments were carried out along Ag0.25Sb0.75, Ag0.5Sb0.5 and Ag0.75Sb0.25 sections of the ternary system in the temperature range from 973 K to 1223 K. From the measured emf, the tin activity in liquid solutions of Ag-Sb-Sn was determined for the first time. The partial and integral enthalpy of mixing were determined from calorimetric measurements at two temperatures. These measurements were performed along two cross-sections: Sb0.5Sn0.5 at 912 K and 1075 K, and Ag0.75Sb0.25 at 1075 K. Both experimental data sets were used to find ternary interaction parameters by applying the Redlich-Kister-Muggianu model of the substitutional solution. Consequently, the set of parameters describing the thermodynamic properties of the liquid phase was derived.
Torsional anharmonicity in the conformational thermodynamics of flexible molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Thomas F., III; Clary, David C.
We present an algorithm for calculating the conformational thermodynamics of large, flexible molecules that combines ab initio electronic structure theory calculations with a torsional path integral Monte Carlo (TPIMC) simulation. The new algorithm overcomes the previous limitations of the TPIMC method by including the thermodynamic contributions of non-torsional vibrational modes and by affordably incorporating the ab initio calculation of conformer electronic energies, and it improves the conventional ab initio treatment of conformational thermodynamics by accounting for the anharmonicity of the torsional modes. Using previously published ab initio results and new TPIMC calculations, we apply the algorithm to the conformers of the adrenaline molecule.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butlitsky, M. A.; Zelener, B. B.; Zelener, B. V.
2015-11-01
Earlier a two-component pseudopotential plasma model, which we called a “shelf Coulomb” model has been developed. A Monte-Carlo study of canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies and other thermodynamics properties of the model. In present work, an attempt is made to apply so-called hybrid Gibbs statistical ensemble Monte-Carlo technique to this model. First simulation results data show qualitatively similar results for critical point region for both methods. Gibbs ensemble technique let us to estimate the melting curve position and a triple point of the model (in reduced temperature and specific volume coordinates): T* ≈ 0.0476, v* ≈ 6 × 10-4.
Demetrius, L
2000-09-07
The science of thermodynamics is concerned with understanding the properties of inanimate matter in so far as they are determined by changes in temperature. The Second Law asserts that in irreversible processes there is a uni-directional increase in thermodynamic entropy, a measure of the degree of uncertainty in the thermal energy state of a randomly chosen particle in the aggregate. The science of evolution is concerned with understanding the properties of populations of living matter in so far as they are regulated by changes in generation time. Directionality theory, a mathematical model of the evolutionary process, establishes that in populations subject to bounded growth constraints, there is a uni-directional increase in evolutionary entropy, a measure of the degree of uncertainty in the age of the immediate ancestor of a randomly chosen newborn. This article reviews the mathematical basis of directionality theory and analyses the relation between directionality theory and statistical thermodynamics. We exploit an analytic relation between temperature, and generation time, to show that the directionality principle for evolutionary entropy is a non-equilibrium extension of the principle of a uni-directional increase of thermodynamic entropy. The analytic relation between these directionality principles is consistent with the hypothesis of the equivalence of fundamental laws as one moves up the hierarchy, from a molecular ensemble where the thermodynamic laws apply, to a population of replicating entities (molecules, cells, higher organisms), where evolutionary principles prevail. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
Cluster approach to the prediction of thermodynamic and transport properties of ionic liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seeger, Zoe L.; Kobayashi, Rika; Izgorodina, Ekaterina I.
2018-05-01
The prediction of physicochemical properties of ionic liquids such as conductivity and melting point would substantially aid the targeted design of ionic liquids for specific applications ranging from solvents for extraction of valuable chemicals to biowaste to electrolytes in alternative energy devices. The previously published study connecting the interaction energies of single ion pairs (1 IP) of ionic liquids to their thermodynamic and transport properties has been extended to larger systems consisting of two ion pairs (2 IPs), in which many-body and same-ion interactions are included. Routinely used cations, of the imidazolium and pyrrolidinium families, were selected in the study coupled with chloride, tetrafluoroborate, and dicyanamide. Their two ion pair clusters were subjected to extensive configuration screening to establish most stable structures. Interaction energies of these clusters were calculated at the spin-ratio scaled MP2 (SRS-MP2) level for the correlation interaction energy, and a newly developed scaled Hartree-Fock method for the rest of energetic contributions to interaction energy. A full geometry screening for each cation-anion combination resulted in 192 unique structures, whose stability was assessed using two criteria—widely used interaction energy and total electronic energy. Furthermore, the ratio of interaction energy to its dispersion component was correlated with experimentally observed melting points in 64 energetically favourable structures. These systems were also used to test the correlation of the dispersion contribution to interaction energy with measured conductivity.
Single molecule thermodynamics in biological motors.
Taniguchi, Yuichi; Karagiannis, Peter; Nishiyama, Masayoshi; Ishii, Yoshiharu; Yanagida, Toshio
2007-04-01
Biological molecular machines use thermal activation energy to carry out various functions. The process of thermal activation has the stochastic nature of output events that can be described according to the laws of thermodynamics. Recently developed single molecule detection techniques have allowed each distinct enzymatic event of single biological machines to be characterized providing clues to the underlying thermodynamics. In this study, the thermodynamic properties in the stepping movement of a biological molecular motor have been examined. A single molecule detection technique was used to measure the stepping movements at various loads and temperatures and a range of thermodynamic parameters associated with the production of each forward and backward step including free energy, enthalpy, entropy and characteristic distance were obtained. The results show that an asymmetry in entropy is a primary factor that controls the direction in which the motor will step. The investigation on single molecule thermodynamics has the potential to reveal dynamic properties underlying the mechanisms of how biological molecular machines work.
An Experimental Determination of Thermodynamic Values
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Antony, Erling; Muccianti, Christine; Vogel, Tracy
2012-01-01
Measurements have been added to an old demonstration of chemical equilibria allowing the determination of thermodynamic constants. The experiment allows the students an opportunity to merge qualitative observations associated with Le Chatelier's principle and thermodynamic calculations using graphical techniques. (Contains 4 figures.)
Gas solubility in dilute solutions: A novel molecular thermodynamic perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chialvo, Ariel A.
2018-05-01
We present an explicit molecular-based interpretation of the thermodynamic phase equilibrium underlying gas solubility in liquids, through rigorous links between the microstructure of the dilute systems and the relevant macroscopic quantities that characterize their solution thermodynamics. We apply the formal analysis to unravel and highlight the molecular-level nature of the approximations behind the widely used Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 57, 2168 (1935)] and Krichevsky-Ilinskaya [Acta Physicochim. 20, 327 (1945)] equations for the modeling of gas solubility. Then, we implement a general molecular-based approach to gas solubility and illustrate it by studying Lennard-Jones binary systems whose microstructure and thermodynamic properties were consistently generated via integral equation calculations. Furthermore, guided by the molecular-based analysis, we propose a novel macroscopic modeling approach to gas solubility, emphasize some usually overlook modeling subtleties, and identify novel interdependences among relevant solubility quantities that can be used as either handy modeling constraints or tools for consistency tests.
Gas solubility in dilute solutions: A novel molecular thermodynamic perspective.
Chialvo, Ariel A
2018-05-07
We present an explicit molecular-based interpretation of the thermodynamic phase equilibrium underlying gas solubility in liquids, through rigorous links between the microstructure of the dilute systems and the relevant macroscopic quantities that characterize their solution thermodynamics. We apply the formal analysis to unravel and highlight the molecular-level nature of the approximations behind the widely used Krichevsky-Kasarnovsky [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 57, 2168 (1935)] and Krichevsky-Ilinskaya [Acta Physicochim. 20, 327 (1945)] equations for the modeling of gas solubility. Then, we implement a general molecular-based approach to gas solubility and illustrate it by studying Lennard-Jones binary systems whose microstructure and thermodynamic properties were consistently generated via integral equation calculations. Furthermore, guided by the molecular-based analysis, we propose a novel macroscopic modeling approach to gas solubility, emphasize some usually overlook modeling subtleties, and identify novel interdependences among relevant solubility quantities that can be used as either handy modeling constraints or tools for consistency tests.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dachs, E.; Geiger, C. A.; Benisek, A.
2012-12-01
The aluminosilicate garnets (E3Al2Si3O12 with E = Fe2+, Mn2+, Ca, Mg) form an important rock-forming mineral group. Much study has been directed toward determining their thermodynamic properties. The iron end-member almandine (Fe3Al2Si3O12) is a key phase in many petrologic investigations. As part of an ongoing calorimetric and thermodynamic study of the aluminosilicate garnets, the heat capacity of three synthetic well-characterized polycrystalline almandine garnets and one natural almandine-rich single crystal was measured. The various garnets were characterized by optical microscopy, electron-microprobe analysis, X-ray powder diffraction and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Heat capacity measurements were performed in the temperature range 3 to 300 K using relaxation calorimetry and between 282 and 764 K using DSC methods. From the former, So values between 336.7 ± 0.8 and 337.8 ± 0.8 J/molK are calculated for the different samples. The smaller value is considered the best So for end-member stoichiometric almandine, because it derives from the "best" Fe3+-free synthetic sample. The Cp behavior for almandine at T > 298 K is given by the polynomial (in J/molK): Cp = 649.06(±4) - 3837.57(±122)T-0.5 - 1.44682(±0.06)107T-2 + 1.94834(±0.09)109T-3, which is calculated using DSC data together with one published heat-content datum determined by transposed-drop calorimetry along with a new determination that gives H1181K - H302K = 415.0 ± 3.2 kJ/mole. Almandine shows a λ-type heat-capacity anomaly at low temperatures resulting from a paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic phase transition at about 9 K. The lattice heat capacity was calculated using the single-parameter phonon dispersion model of Komada and Westrum (1997), which allows the non-lattice heat capacity (Cex) behavior to be modelled. An analysis shows the presence of an electronic heat-capacity contribution (Cel - Schottky anomaly) around 17 K that is superimposed on a larger magnetic heat-capacity effect (Cmag
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seo, Won-Gap; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka
2006-04-01
Recently, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation has been widely employed as a very useful method for the calculation of various physicochemical properties in the molten slags and fluxes. In this study, MD simulation has been applied to calculate the structural, transport, and thermodynamic properties for the FeCl2, PbCl2, and ZnCl2 systems using the Born—Mayer—Huggins type pairwise potential with partial ionic charges. The interatomic potential parameters were determined by fitting the physicochemical properties of iron chloride, lead chloride, and zinc chloride systems with experimentally measured results. The calculated structural, transport, and thermodynamic properties of pure FeCl2, PbCl2, and ZnCl2 showed the same tendency with observed results. Especially, the calculated structural properties of molten ZnCl2 and FeCl2 show the possibility of formation of polymeric network structures based on the ionic complexes of ZnCl{4/2-}, ZnCl{3/-}, FeCl{4/2-}, and FeCl{3/-}, and these calculations have successfully reproduced the measured results. The enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy of mixing for the PbCl2-ZnCl2, FeCl2-PbCl2, and FeCl2-ZnCl2 systems were calculated based on the thermodynamic and structural parameters of each binary system obtained from MD simulation. The phase diagrams of the PbCl2-ZnCl2, FeCl2-PbCl2, and FeCl2-ZnCl2 systems estimated by using the calculated Gibbs energy of mixing reproduced the experimentally measured ones reasonably well.
Contact symmetries and Hamiltonian thermodynamics
Bravetti, A., E-mail: bravetti@correo.nucleares.unam.mx; Lopez-Monsalvo, C.S., E-mail: cesar.slm@correo.nucleares.unam.mx; Nettel, F., E-mail: Francisco.Nettel@roma1.infn.it
It has been shown that contact geometry is the proper framework underlying classical thermodynamics and that thermodynamic fluctuations are captured by an additional metric structure related to Fisher’s Information Matrix. In this work we analyse several unaddressed aspects about the application of contact and metric geometry to thermodynamics. We consider here the Thermodynamic Phase Space and start by investigating the role of gauge transformations and Legendre symmetries for metric contact manifolds and their significance in thermodynamics. Then we present a novel mathematical characterization of first order phase transitions as equilibrium processes on the Thermodynamic Phase Space for which the Legendremore » symmetry is broken. Moreover, we use contact Hamiltonian dynamics to represent thermodynamic processes in a way that resembles the classical Hamiltonian formulation of conservative mechanics and we show that the relevant Hamiltonian coincides with the irreversible entropy production along thermodynamic processes. Therefore, we use such property to give a geometric definition of thermodynamically admissible fluctuations according to the Second Law of thermodynamics. Finally, we show that the length of a curve describing a thermodynamic process measures its entropy production.« less
First-principles configurational thermodynamics of alloyed nanoparticles with adsorbates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lin-Lin; Tan, Teck L.; Johnson, Duane D.
2014-03-01
Transition-metal, alloyed nanoparticles (NPs) are key components in current and emerging energy technologies because they are found to improve catalytic activity and selectivity for many energy-conversion processes. However, thermodynamic investigations of the compositional profile of alloyed nanoparticles, which determines their catalytic properties, have been limited mostly to NP core-shell preference without the presence of adsorbates. Here, by extending cluster expansion methods to treat both alloyed nanoparticles and adsorbates, we study the configurational thermodynamics of bimetallic NPs under chemically reactive conditions, using databases from density functional theory calculations. With a few examples, we show that such simulations can provide information needed for rational design of NP catalysts. DOE/BES under DE-FG02-03ER15476 (Catalysis) and DE-AC02-07CH11358 at the Ames Laboratory.
Black hole thermodynamics in Lovelock gravity's rainbow with (A)dS asymptote
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, Seyed Hossein; Dehghani, Ali; Faizal, Mir
2017-01-01
In this paper, we combine Lovelock gravity with gravity's rainbow to construct Lovelock gravity's rainbow. Considering the Lovelock gravity's rainbow coupled to linear and also nonlinear electromagnetic gauge fields, we present two new classes of topological black hole solutions. We compute conserved and thermodynamic quantities of these black holes (such as temperature, entropy, electric potential, charge and mass) and show that these quantities satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. In order to study the thermal stability in canonical ensemble, we calculate the heat capacity and determinant of the Hessian matrix and show in what regions there are thermally stable phases for black holes. Also, we discuss the dependence of thermodynamic behavior and thermal stability of black holes on rainbow functions. Finally, we investigate the critical behavior of black holes in the extended phase space and study their interesting properties.
Metastable Solution Thermodynamic Properties and Crystal Growth Kinetics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Soojin; Myerson, Allan S.
1996-01-01
The crystal growth rates of NH4H2PO4, KH2PO4, (NH4)2SO4, KAl(SO4)2 central dot 12H2O, NaCl, and glycine and the nucleation rates of KBr, KCl, NaBr central dot 2H2O, (NH4)2Cl, and (NH4)2SO4 were expressed in terms of the fundamental driving force of crystallization calculated from the activity of supersaturated solutions. The kinetic parameters were compared with those from the commonly used kinetic expression based on the concentration difference. From the viewpoint of thermodynamics, rate expressions based on the chemical potential difference provide accurate kinetic representation over a broad range of supersaturation. The rates estimated using the expression based on the concentration difference coincide with the true rates of crystallization only in the concentration range of low supersaturation and deviate from the true kinetics as the supersaturation increases.
Thermodynamic properties of OsB under high temperature and high pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Hai-Hua; Li, Zuo; Cheng, Yan; Bi, Yan; Cai, Ling-Cang
2011-09-01
The energy-volume curves of OsB have been obtained using the first-principles plane-wave ultrasoft-pseudopotential density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local density approximation (LDA). Using the quasi-harmonic Debye model we first analyze the specific heat, the coefficients of thermal expansion as well as the thermodynamic Grüneisen parameter of OsB in a wide temperature range at high pressure. At temperature 300 K, the coefficients of thermal expansion αV by LDA and GGA calculations are 1.67×10 -5 1/K and 2.01×10 -5 1/K, respectively. The specific heat of OsB at constant pressure (volume) is also calculated. Meanwhile, we find that the Debye temperature of OsB increases monotonically with increasing pressure. The present study leads to a better understanding of how the OsB materials respond to pressure and temperature.
Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes.
Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David
2016-09-23
We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon-even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, Ashim Kumar; Yoshiya, Masato
2018-03-01
Stability of native point defect species and optical properties are quantitatively examined through first principles calculations in order to identify possible native point defect species in MoS2 and its influences on electronic structures and resultant optical properties. Possible native point defect species are identified as functions of thermodynamic environment and location of Fermi-level in MoS2. It is found that sulphur vacancies can be introduced more easily than other point defect species which will create impurity levels both in bandgap and in valence band. Additionally, antisite Mo and/or Mo vacancies can be created depending on chemical potential of sulphur, both of which will create impurity levels in bandgap and in valence band. Those impurity levels result in pronounced photon absorption in visible light region, though each of these point defects alone has limited impact on the optical properties unless their concentration remained low. Thus, attention must be paid when intentional impurity doping is made to MoS2 to avoid unwanted modification of optical properties of MoS2. Those impurity may enable further exploitation of photovoltaic energy conversion at longer wavelength.
Jenkins, H Donald Brooke; Glasser, Leslie
2004-12-08
We present a quite general thermodynamic "difference" rule, derived from thermochemical first principles, quantifying the difference between the standard thermodynamic properties, P, of a solid n-solvate (or n-hydrate), n-S, containing n molecules of solvate, S (water or other) and the corresponding solid parent (unsolvated) salt: [P[n-solvate] - P[parent
The Thermodynamics of Black Holes.
Wald, Robert M
2001-01-01
We review the present status of black hole thermodynamics. Our review includes discussion of classical black hole thermodynamics, Hawking radiation from black holes, the generalized second law, and the issue of entropy bounds. A brief survey also is given of approaches to the calculation of black hole entropy. We conclude with a discussion of some unresolved open issues.
Zhong, Yang; Warren, G. Lee; Patel, Sandeep
2014-01-01
We study bulk structural and thermodynamic properties of methanol-water solutions via molecular dynamics simulations using novel interaction potentials based on the charge equilibration (fluctuating charge) formalism to explicitly account for molecular polarization at the atomic level. The study uses the TIP4P-FQ potential for water-water interactions, and the CHARMM-based (Chemistry at HARvard Molecular Mechanics) fluctuating charge potential for methanol-methanol and methanol-water interactions. In terms of bulk solution properties, we discuss liquid densities, enthalpies of mixing, dielectric constants, self-diffusion constants, as well as structural properties related to local hydrogen bonding structure as manifested in radial distribution functions and cluster analysis. We further explore the electronic response of water and methanol in the differing local environments established by the interaction of each species predominantly with molecules of the other species. The current force field for the alcohol-water interaction performs reasonably well for most properties, with the greatest deviation from experiment observed for the excess mixing enthalpies, which are predicted to be too favorable. This is qualitatively consistent with the overestimation of the methanol-water gas-phase interaction energy for the lowest-energy conformer (methanol as proton donor). Hydration free energies for methanol in TIP4P-FQ water are predicted to be −5.6±0.2 kcal/mole, in respectable agreement with the experimental value of −5.1 kcal/mole. With respect to solution micro-structure, the present cluster analysis suggests that the micro-scale environment for concentrations where select thermodynamic quantities reach extremal values is described by a bi-percolating network structure. PMID:18074339
Matoz-Fernandez, D A; Linares, D H; Ramirez-Pastor, A J
2012-09-04
The statistical thermodynamics of straight rigid rods of length k on triangular lattices was developed on a generalization in the spirit of the lattice-gas model and the classical Guggenheim-DiMarzio approximation. In this scheme, the Helmholtz free energy and its derivatives were written in terms of the order parameter, δ, which characterizes the nematic phase occurring in the system at intermediate densities. Then, using the principle of minimum free energy with δ as a parameter, the main adsorption properties were calculated. Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations and experimental data were performed in order to evaluate the outcome and limitations of the theoretical model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik
2014-04-01
'Stochastic thermodynamics as a conceptual framework combines the stochastic energetics approach introduced a decade ago by Sekimoto [1] with the idea that entropy can consistently be assigned to a single fluctuating trajectory [2]'. This quote, taken from Udo Seifert's [3] 2008 review, nicely summarizes the basic ideas behind stochastic thermodynamics: for small systems, driven by external forces and in contact with a heat bath at a well-defined temperature, stochastic energetics [4] defines the exchanged work and heat along a single fluctuating trajectory and connects them to changes in the internal (system) energy by an energy balance analogous to the first law of thermodynamics. Additionally, providing a consistent definition of trajectory-wise entropy production gives rise to second-law-like relations and forms the basis for a 'stochastic thermodynamics' along individual fluctuating trajectories. In order to construct meaningful concepts of work, heat and entropy production for single trajectories, their definitions are based on the stochastic equations of motion modeling the physical system of interest. Because of this, they are valid even for systems that are prevented from equilibrating with the thermal environment by external driving forces (or other sources of non-equilibrium). In that way, the central notions of equilibrium thermodynamics, such as heat, work and entropy, are consistently extended to the non-equilibrium realm. In the (non-equilibrium) ensemble, the trajectory-wise quantities acquire distributions. General statements derived within stochastic thermodynamics typically refer to properties of these distributions, and are valid in the non-equilibrium regime even beyond the linear response. The extension of statistical mechanics and of exact thermodynamic statements to the non-equilibrium realm has been discussed from the early days of statistical mechanics more than 100 years ago. This debate culminated in the development of linear response
Measuring the Thermodynamics of the Alloy/Scale Interface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Copland, Evan
2004-01-01
A method is proposed for the direct measurement of the thermodynamic properties of the alloy and oxide compound at the alloy/scale interface observed during steady-state oxidation. The thermodynamic properties of the alloy/scale interface define the driving force for solid-state transport in the alloy and oxide compound. Accurate knowledge of thermodynamic properties of the interface will advance our understanding of oxidation behavior. The method is based on the concept of local equilibrium and assumes that an alloy+scale equilibrium very closely approximates the alloy/scale interface observed during steady-state oxidation. The thermodynamics activities of this alloy+scale equilibrium are measured directly by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometer (KEMS) using the vapor pressure technique. The theory and some practical considerations of this method are discussed in terms of beta-NiAl oxidation.
Lin, Shiang-Tai; Maiti, Prabal K; Goddard, William A
2010-06-24
Presented here is the two-phase thermodynamic (2PT) model for the calculation of energy and entropy of molecular fluids from the trajectory of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In this method, the density of state (DoS) functions (including the normal modes of translation, rotation, and intramolecular vibration motions) are determined from the Fourier transform of the corresponding velocity autocorrelation functions. A fluidicity parameter (f), extracted from the thermodynamic state of the system derived from the same MD, is used to partition the translation and rotation modes into a diffusive, gas-like component (with 3Nf degrees of freedom) and a nondiffusive, solid-like component. The thermodynamic properties, including the absolute value of entropy, are then obtained by applying quantum statistics to the solid component and applying hard sphere/rigid rotor thermodynamics to the gas component. The 2PT method produces exact thermodynamic properties of the system in two limiting states: the nondiffusive solid state (where the fluidicity is zero) and the ideal gas state (where the fluidicity becomes unity). We examine the 2PT entropy for various water models (F3C, SPC, SPC/E, TIP3P, and TIP4P-Ew) at ambient conditions and find good agreement with literature results obtained based on other simulation techniques. We also validate the entropy of water in the liquid and vapor phases along the vapor-liquid equilibrium curve from the triple point to the critical point. We show that this method produces converged liquid phase entropy in tens of picoseconds, making it an efficient means for extracting thermodynamic properties from MD simulations.
Dimensional transitions in thermodynamic properties of ideal Maxwell-Boltzmann gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aydin, Alhun; Sisman, Altug
2015-04-01
An ideal Maxwell-Boltzmann gas confined in various rectangular nanodomains is considered under quantum size effects. Thermodynamic quantities are calculated from their relations with the partition function, which consists of triple infinite summations over momentum states in each direction. To obtain analytical expressions, summations are converted to integrals for macrosystems by a continuum approximation, which fails at the nanoscale. To avoid both the numerical calculation of summations and the failure of their integral approximations at the nanoscale, a method which gives an analytical expression for a single particle partition function (SPPF) is proposed. It is shown that a dimensional transition in momentum space occurs at a certain magnitude of confinement. Therefore, to represent the SPPF by lower-dimensional analytical expressions becomes possible, rather than numerical calculation of summations. Considering rectangular domains with different aspect ratios, a comparison of the results of derived expressions with those of summation forms of the SPPF is made. It is shown that analytical expressions for the SPPF give very precise results with maximum relative errors of around 1%, 2% and 3% at exactly the transition point for single, double and triple transitions, respectively. Based on dimensional transitions, expressions for free energy, entropy, internal energy, chemical potential, heat capacity and pressure are given analytically valid for any scale.
Properties of air and combustion products of fuels with air
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewandowski, K.; Poferl, D. J.; Svevla, R.
1969-01-01
Thermodynamic and transport properties include ratio of specific heats, molecular weight, viscosity, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and Prandtl number. Properties are calculated from 300 to 2500 degrees K and for pressures of three and ten atmospheres.
Lawrenz, Morgan; Baron, Riccardo; Wang, Yi; McCammon, J Andrew
2012-01-01
The Independent-Trajectory Thermodynamic Integration (IT-TI) approach for free energy calculation with distributed computing is described. IT-TI utilizes diverse conformational sampling obtained from multiple, independent simulations to obtain more reliable free energy estimates compared to single TI predictions. The latter may significantly under- or over-estimate the binding free energy due to finite sampling. We exemplify the advantages of the IT-TI approach using two distinct cases of protein-ligand binding. In both cases, IT-TI yields distributions of absolute binding free energy estimates that are remarkably centered on the target experimental values. Alternative protocols for the practical and general application of IT-TI calculations are investigated. We highlight a protocol that maximizes predictive power and computational efficiency.
Glavatskiy, K S
2015-10-28
Validity of local equilibrium has been questioned for non-equilibrium systems which are characterized by delayed response. In particular, for systems with non-zero thermodynamic inertia, the assumption of local equilibrium leads to negative values of the entropy production, which is in contradiction with the second law of thermodynamics. In this paper, we address this question by suggesting a variational formulation of irreversible evolution of a system with non-zero thermodynamic inertia. We introduce the Lagrangian, which depends on the properties of the normal and the so-called "mirror-image" systems. We show that the standard evolution equations, in particular, the Maxwell-Cattaneo-Vernotte equation, can be derived from the variational procedure without going beyond the assumption of local equilibrium. We also argue that the second law of thermodynamics in non-equilibrium should be understood as a consequence of the variational procedure and the property of local equilibrium. For systems with instantaneous response this leads to the standard requirement of the local instantaneous entropy production being always positive. However, if a system is characterized by delayed response, the formulation of the second law of thermodynamics should be altered. In particular, the quantity, which is always positive, is not the instantaneous entropy production, but the entropy production averaged over a proper time interval.
Yang, Shu-Jing; Qin, Xiao-Ya; He, Rongxing; Shen, Wei; Li, Ming; Zhao, Liu-Bin
2017-05-21
Organic redox compounds have become the emerging electrode materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The high electrochemical performance provides organic electrode materials with great opportunities to be applied in electric energy storage devices. Among the different types of organic materials, conjugated carbonyl compounds are the most promising type at present, because only they can simultaneously achieve, high energy density, high cycling stability, and high power density. In this research, a series of heteroatom substituted anthraquinone (AQ) derivatives were designed theoretically so that the high theoretical capacity of AQ remained. The discharge and charge mechanism as well as the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of AQ and its derivatives were investigated using first-principles density functional theory. Using heteroatom substitution, both the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of AQ as cathode materials could be largely improved. Among these conjugated carboxyl compounds, BDOZD and BDIOZD with a simultaneously high theoretical capacity and high working potential exhibit the largest energy density of about 780 W h kg -1 , which is 41% larger than that of AQ. The PQD with the smallest value of λ gives the largest charge transfer rate constant, which is about four times as large as the prototype molecule, AQ. The most interesting finding is that the lithium ion transfer plays a very important role in influencing both the discharge potential and electrochemical charge transfer rate. The present study illustrates that theoretical calculations provide a highly effective way to discover potential materials for use with rechargeable lithium ion batteries.
New general pore size distribution model by classical thermodynamics application: Activated carbon
Lordgooei, M.; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.
2001-01-01
A model is developed using classical thermodynamics to characterize pore size distributions (PSDs) of materials containing micropores and mesopores. The thermal equation of equilibrium adsorption (TEEA) is used to provide thermodynamic properties and relate the relative pore filling pressure of vapors to the characteristic pore energies of the adsorbent/adsorbate system for micropore sizes. Pore characteristic energies are calculated by averaging of interaction energies between adsorbate molecules and adsorbent pore walls as well as considering adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. A modified Kelvin equation is used to characterize mesopore sizes by considering variation of the adsorbate surface tension and by excluding the adsorbed film layer for the pore size. The modified-Kelvin equation provides similar pore filling pressures as predicted by density functional theory. Combination of these models provides a complete PSD of the adsorbent for the micropores and mesopores. The resulting PSD is compared with the PSDs from Jaroniec and Choma and Horvath and Kawazoe models as well as a first-order approximation model using Polanyi theory. The major importance of this model is its basis on classical thermodynamic properties, less simplifying assumptions in its derivation compared to other methods, and ease of use.
Thermodynamical properties of hairy black holes in n spacetime dimensions
Nadalini, Mario; Vanzo, Luciano; Zerbini, Sergio
The issue concerning the existence of exact black hole solutions in the presence of a nonvanishing cosmological constant and scalar fields is reconsidered. With regard to this, in investigating no-hair theorem violations, exact solutions of gravity having as a source an interacting and conformally coupled scalar field are revisited in arbitrary dimensional nonasymptotically flat space-times. New and known hairy black hole solutions are discussed. The thermodynamical properties associated with these solutions are investigated and the invariance of the black hole entropy with respect to different conformal frames is proved. The issue of the positivity of the entropy is discussed andmore » resolved for the case of black holes immersed in de Sitter space.« less
Thermodynamic model effects on the design and optimization of natural gas plants
Diaz, S.; Zabaloy, M.; Brignole, E.A.
1999-07-01
The design and optimization of natural gas plants is carried out on the basis of process simulators. The physical property package is generally based on cubic equations of state. By rigorous thermodynamics phase equilibrium conditions, thermodynamic functions, equilibrium phase separations, work and heat are computed. The aim of this work is to analyze the NGL turboexpansion process and identify possible process computations that are more sensitive to model predictions accuracy. Three equations of state, PR, SRK and Peneloux modification, are used to study the effect of property predictions on process calculations and plant optimization. It is shown that turboexpander plantsmore » have moderate sensitivity with respect to phase equilibrium computations, but higher accuracy is required for the prediction of enthalpy and turboexpansion work. The effect of modeling CO{sub 2} solubility is also critical in mixtures with high CO{sub 2} content in the feed.« less
Hu, Shenyang Y.; Setyawan, Wahyu; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.
2014-02-20
Density functional theory (DFT) is used to calculate the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of transmutant Mg in 3C-SiC due to high-energy neutron irradiation associated with the fusion nuclear environment. The formation and binding energies of intrinsic defects, Mg-related defects, and clusters in 3C-SiC are systematically calculated. The minimum energy paths and activation energies during point defect migration and small cluster evolution are studied using a generalized solid-state elastic band (G-SSNEB) method with DFT energy calculations. Stable defect structures and possible defect migration mechanisms are identified. The evolution of binding energies during Mg2Si formation demonstrates that the formation of Mg2Si needsmore » to overcome a critical nucleus size and nucleation barrier. It is also found that a compressive stress field exists around the Mg2Si nucleus. These data are important inputs in meso- and macro-scale modeling and experiments to understand and predict the impact of Mg on phase stability, microstructure evolution, and performance of SiC and SiC-based materials during long-term neutron exposures.« less
Computational Thermodynamics of Materials Zi-Kui Liu and Yi Wang
Devanathan, Ram
This authoritative volume introduces the reader to computational thermodynamics and the use of this approach to the design of material properties by tailoring the chemical composition. The text covers applications of this approach, introduces the relevant computational codes, and offers exercises at the end of each chapter. The book has nine chapters and two appendices that provide background material on computer codes. Chapter 1 covers the first and second laws of thermodynamics, introduces the spinodal as the limit of stability, and presents the Gibbs-Duhem equation. Chapter 2 focuses on the Gibbs energy function. Starting with a homogeneous system with amore » single phase, the authors proceed to phases with variable compositions, and polymer blends. The discussion includes the contributions of external electric and magnetic fields to the Gibbs energy. Chapter 3 deals with phase equilibria in heterogeneous systems, the Gibbs phase rule, and phase diagrams. Chapter 4 briefly covers experimental measurements of thermodynamic properties used as input for thermodynamic modeling by Calculation of Phase Diagrams (CALPHAD). Chapter 5 discusses the use of density functional theory to obtain thermochemical data and fill gaps where experimental data is missing. The reader is introduced to the Vienna Ab Initio Simulation Package (VASP) for density functional theory and the YPHON code for phonon calculations. Chapter 6 introduces the modeling of Gibbs energy of phases with the CALPHAD method. Chapter 7 deals with chemical reactions and the Ellingham diagram for metal-oxide systems and presents the calculation of the maximum reaction rate from equilibrium thermodynamics. Chapter 8 is devoted to electrochemical reactions and Pourbaix diagrams with application examples. Chapter 9 concludes this volume with the application of a model of multiple microstates to Ce and Fe3Pt. CALPHAD modeling is briefly discussed in the context of genomics of materials. The book introduces
Vreekamp, Remko; Castellano, Desire; Palomar, José; Ortega, Juan; Espiau, Fernando; Fernández, Luís; Penco, Eduvigis
2011-07-14
Here we present experimental data of different properties for a set of binary mixtures composed of water or alkanols (methanol to butanol) with an ionic liquid (IL), butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [bpy][BF(4)]. Solubility data (x(IL),T) are presented for each of the mixtures, including water, which is found to have a small interval of compositions in IL, x(IL), with immiscibility. In each case, the upper critical solubility temperature (UCST) is determined and a correlation was observed between the UCST and the nature of the compounds in the mixtures. Miscibility curves establish the composition and temperature intervals where thermodynamic properties of the mixtures, such as enthalpies H(m)(E) and volumes V(m)(E), can be determined. Hence, at 298.15 and 318.15 K these can only be found with the first four alkanols. All mixing properties are correlated with a suitable equation ξ (x(IL),T,Y(m)(E) = 0. An analysis on the influence of the temperature in the properties is shown, likewise a comparison between the results obtained here and those of analogous mixtures, discussing the position of the -CH(3) group in the pyridinic ring. The (1)H NMR spectra are determined to analyze the molecular interactions present, especially those due to hydrogen bonds. Additional information about the molecular interactions and their influence on the mixing properties is obtained by quantum chemistry calculations. © 2011 American Chemical Society
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cadeville, M. C.; Pierron-Bohnes, V.; Bouzidi, L.; Sanchez, J. M.
1993-01-01
Local and average electronic and magnetic properties of transition metal alloys are strongly correlated to the distribution of atoms on the lattice sites. The ability of some systems to form long range ordered structures at low temperature allows to discuss their properties in term of well identified occupation operators as those related to long range order (LRO) parameters. We show that using theoretical determinations of these LRO parameters through statistical models like the cluster variation method (CVM) developed to simulate the experimental phase diagrams, we are able to reproduce a lot of physical properties. In this paper we focus on two points: (i) a comparison between CVM results and an experimental determination of the LRO parameter by NMR at 59Co in a CoPt3 compound, and (ii) the modelling of the resistivity of ferromagnetic and paramagnetic intermetallic compounds belonging to Co-Pt, Ni-Pt and Fe-Al systems. All experiments were performed on samples in identified thermodynamic states, implying that kinetic effects are thoroughly taken into account.
Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Real Air Plasma in Wide Range of Temperature and Pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chunlin; Wu, Yi; Chen, Zhexin; Yang, Fei; Feng, Ying; Rong, Mingzhe; Zhang, Hantian
2016-07-01
Air plasma has been widely applied in industrial manufacture. In this paper, both dry and humid air plasmas' thermodynamic and transport properties are calculated in temperature 300-100000 K and pressure 0.1-100 atm. To build a more precise model of real air plasma, over 70 species are considered for composition. Two different methods, the Gibbs free energy minimization method and the mass action law method, are used to determinate the composition of the air plasma in a different temperature range. For the transport coefficients, the simplified Chapman-Enskog method developed by Devoto has been applied using the most recent collision integrals. It is found that the presence of CO2 has almost no effect on the properties of air plasma. The influence of H2O can be ignored except in low pressure air plasma, in which the saturated vapor pressure is relatively high. The results will serve as credible inputs for computational simulation of air plasma. supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program)(No. 2015CB251002), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51521065, 51577145), the Science and Technology Project Funds of the Grid State Corporation (SGTYHT/13-JS-177), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and State Grid Corporation Project (GY71-14-004)
Towards accurate free energy calculations in ligand protein-binding studies.
Steinbrecher, Thomas; Labahn, Andreas
2010-01-01
Cells contain a multitude of different chemical reaction paths running simultaneously and quite independently next to each other. This amazing feat is enabled by molecular recognition, the ability of biomolecules to form stable and specific complexes with each other and with their substrates. A better understanding of this process, i.e. of the kinetics, structures and thermodynamic properties of biomolecule binding, would be invaluable in the study of biological systems. In addition, as the mode of action of many pharmaceuticals is based upon their inhibition or activation of biomolecule targets, predictive models of small molecule receptor binding are very helpful tools in rational drug design. Since the goal here is normally to design a new compound with a high inhibition strength, one of the most important thermodynamic properties is the binding free energy DeltaG(0). The prediction of binding constants has always been one of the major goals in the field of computational chemistry, because the ability to reliably assess a hypothetical compound's binding properties without having to synthesize it first would save a tremendous amount of work. The different approaches to this question range from fast and simple empirical descriptor methods to elaborate simulation protocols aimed at putting the computation of free energies onto a solid foundation of statistical thermodynamics. While the later methods are still not suited for the screenings of thousands of compounds that are routinely performed in computational drug design studies, they are increasingly put to use for the detailed study of protein ligand interactions. This review will focus on molecular mechanics force field based free energy calculations and their application to the study of protein ligand interactions. After a brief overview of other popular methods for the calculation of free energies, we will describe recent advances in methodology and a variety of exemplary studies of molecular dynamics
Atomistic modeling of high temperature uranium-zirconium alloy structure and thermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moore, A. P.; Beeler, B.; Deo, C.; Baskes, M. I.; Okuniewski, M. A.
2015-12-01
A semi-empirical Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) potential is developed for application to the high temperature body-centered-cubic uranium-zirconium alloy (γ-U-Zr) phase and employed with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the high temperature thermo-physical properties of U-Zr alloys. Uranium-rich U-Zr alloys (e.g. U-10Zr) have been tested and qualified for use as metallic nuclear fuel in U.S. fast reactors such as the Integral Fast Reactor and the Experimental Breeder Reactors, and are a common sub-system of ternary metallic alloys like U-Pu-Zr and U-Zr-Nb. The potential was constructed to ensure that basic properties (e.g., elastic constants, bulk modulus, and formation energies) were in agreement with first principles calculations and experimental results. After which, slight adjustments were made to the potential to fit the known thermal properties and thermodynamics of the system. The potentials successfully reproduce the experimental melting point, enthalpy of fusion, volume change upon melting, thermal expansion, and the heat capacity of pure U and Zr. Simulations of the U-Zr system are found to be in good agreement with experimental thermal expansion values, Vegard's law for the lattice constants, and the experimental enthalpy of mixing. This is the first simulation to reproduce the experimental thermodynamics of the high temperature γ-U-Zr metallic alloy system. The MEAM potential is then used to explore thermodynamics properties of the high temperature U-Zr system including the constant volume heat capacity, isothermal compressibility, adiabatic index, and the Grüneisen parameters.
Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system
Reynier, Yvan [Meylan, FR; Yazami, Rachid [Los Angeles, CA; Fultz, Brent T [Pasadena, CA
2009-09-29
The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.
Surface Tension: Mechanics, Thermodynamics, and Relaxation Times
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tovbin, Yu. K.
2018-06-01
A microscopic analysis is presented of the existing definitions of equilibrium surface tension, which can be divided into two types: mechanical and thermodynamic. Each type of definition can be studied from the presentation below according to thermodynamic hypotheses or molecular calculations. An analysis of the planar interface is given and its generalization for curved (spherical) interfaces is considered. The distinction between approaches describing the surface tension of metastable and equilibrium droplets is discussed. Based on nonequilibrium thermodynamics, it is shown that the introduction of metastable droplets is due to a violation of the relationship between the times of impulse and chemical potential relaxation in condensed phases. Problems of calculating the surface tension in nonequilibrium situations are created.
Effects of temperature and pressure on thermodynamic properties of Cd0.50 Zn0.50 Se alloy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aarifeen, Najm ul; Afaq, A.
2017-09-01
Thermodynamic properties of \\text{C}{{\\text{d}}0.50} \\text{Z}{{\\text{n}}0.50} Se alloy are studied using quasi harmonic model for pressure range 0-10 GPa and temperature range 0-1000 K. The structural optimization is obtained by self consistent field calculations and full-potential linear muffin-tin orbital method with GGA+U as an exchange correlation functional where U=2.3427 eV is the hubbard potential. The effects of temperature and pressure on the bulk modulus, Helmholtz free energy, internal energy, entropy, Debye temperature, Grüneisen parameter, thermal expansion coefficient and heat capacities of the material are observed and discussed. The bulk modulus, Helmholtz free energy and Debye temperature are found to decrease with increasing temperature while there is an increasing behavior when the pressure rises. Whereas internal energy has increasing trend with rises in temperature and it almost remains insensitive to pressure. The entropy of the system increases (decreases) with a rise of pressure (temperature).
Coupling geodynamic with thermodynamic modelling for reconstructions of magmatic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rummel, Lisa; Kaus, Boris J. P.; White, Richard
2016-04-01
Coupling geodynamic with petrological models is fundamental for understanding magmatic systems from the melting source in the mantle to the point of magma crystallisation in the upper crust. Most geodynamic codes use very simplified petrological models consisting of a single, fixed, chemistry. Here, we develop a method to better track the petrological evolution of the source rock and corresponding volcanic and plutonic rocks by combining a geodynamic code with a thermodynamic model for magma generation and evolution. For the geodynamic modelling a finite element code (MVEP2) solves the conservation of mass, momentum and energy equations. The thermodynamic modelling of phase equilibria in magmatic systems is performed with pMELTS for mantle-like bulk compositions. The thermodynamic dependent properties calculated by pMELTS are density, melt fraction and the composition of the liquid and solid phase in the chemical system: SiO2-TiO2-Al2O3-Fe2O3-Cr2O3-FeO-MgO-CaO-Na2O-K2O-P2O5-H2O. In order to take into account the chemical depletion of the source rock with increasing melt extraction events, calculation of phase diagrams is performed in two steps: 1) With an initial rock composition density, melt fraction as well as liquid and solid composition are computed over the full upper mantle P-T range. 2) Once the residual rock composition (equivalent to the solid composition after melt extraction) is significantly different from the initial rock composition and the melt fraction is lower than a critical value, the residual composition is used for next calculations with pMELTS. The implementation of several melt extraction events take the change in chemistry into account until the solidus is shifted to such high temperatures that the rock cannot be molten anymore under upper mantle conditions. An advantage of this approach is that we can track the change of melt chemistry with time, which can be compared with natural constraints. In the thermo-mechanical code the
Substructure Versus Property-Level Dispersed Modes Calculation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stewart, Eric C.; Peck, Jeff A.; Bush, T. Jason; Fulcher, Clay W.
2016-01-01
This paper calculates the effect of perturbed finite element mass and stiffness values on the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the finite element model. The structure is perturbed in two ways: at the "subelement" level and at the material property level. In the subelement eigenvalue uncertainty analysis the mass and stiffness of each subelement is perturbed by a factor before being assembled into the global matrices. In the property-level eigenvalue uncertainty analysis all material density and stiffness parameters of the structure are perturbed modified prior to the eigenvalue analysis. The eigenvalue and eigenvector dispersions of each analysis (subelement and property-level) are also calculated using an analytical sensitivity approximation. Two structural models are used to compare these methods: a cantilevered beam model, and a model of the Space Launch System. For each structural model it is shown how well the analytical sensitivity modes approximate the exact modes when the uncertainties are applied at the subelement level and at the property level.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Righter, Kevin; Arculus, Richard J.; Paslick, Cassi; Delano, John W.
1990-01-01
The intrinsic oxygen fugacity (IOF) of olivine separates from the Salta, Springwater, and Eagle Station pallasites was measured between 850 and 1150 C using oxygen-specific solid zirconia electrolytes at 100,000 Pa. Thermodynamic calculations of redox equilibria involving equalibrium pallasite assemblages are in good agreement with the experimental results and provide a lower limit to pallasite redox stability; others involving disequilibrium assemblages, suggest that pallasites experienced localized, late-stage oxidation and reduction effects. Consideration of the redox buffer metal-olivine-orthopyroxene utilizing calculated Eucrite Parent Body (EPB) mantle phase compositions indicates that small redox gradients may have existed in the EPB. Such gradients may have produced strong compositional variation within the EPB. In addition, there is apparently significant redox heterogeneity in the source area of Eagle Station Trio pallasites and Bocaiuva iron meteorites.
Liu, Jing-yong, E-mail: www053991@126.com; Huang, Shu-jie; Sun, Shui-yu
2015-04-15
Highlights: • A thermodynamic equilibrium calculation was carried out. • Effects of three types of sulfurs on Pb distribution were investigated. • The mechanism for three types of sulfurs acting on Pb partitioning were proposed. • Lead partitioning and species in bottom ash and fly ash were identified. - Abstract: Experiments in a tubular furnace reactor and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were conducted to investigate the impact of sulfur compounds on the migration of lead (Pb) during sludge incineration. Representative samples of typical sludge with and without the addition of sulfur compounds were combusted at 850 °C, and the partitioning ofmore » Pb in the solid phase (bottom ash) and gas phase (fly ash and flue gas) was quantified. The results indicate that three types of sulfur compounds (S, Na{sub 2}S and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) added to the sludge could facilitate the volatilization of Pb in the gas phase (fly ash and flue gas) into metal sulfates displacing its sulfides and some of its oxides. The effect of promoting Pb volatilization by adding Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}S was superior to that of the addition of S. In bottom ash, different metallic sulfides were found in the forms of lead sulfide, aluminosilicate minerals, and polymetallic-sulfides, which were minimally volatilized. The chemical equilibrium calculations indicated that sulfur stabilizes Pb in the form of PbSO{sub 4}(s) at low temperatures (<1000 K). The equilibrium calculation prediction also suggested that SiO{sub 2}, CaO, TiO{sub 2}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} containing materials function as condensed phase solids in the temperature range of 800–1100 K as sorbents to stabilize Pb. However, in the presence of sulfur or chlorine or the co-existence of sulfur and chlorine, these sorbents were inactive. The effect of sulfur on Pb partitioning in the sludge incineration process mainly depended on the gas phase reaction, the surface reaction, the volatilization of products, and
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkateswaran, S.; Hunt, L. Roane; Prabhu, Ramadas K.
1992-01-01
The Langley 8 foot high temperature tunnel (8 ft HTT) is used to test components of hypersonic vehicles for aerothermal loads definition and structural component verification. The test medium of the 8 ft HTT is obtained by burning a mixture of methane and air under high pressure; the combustion products are expanded through an axisymmetric conical contoured nozzle to simulate atmospheric flight at Mach 7. This facility was modified to raise the oxygen content of the test medium to match that of air and to include Mach 4 and Mach 5 capabilities. These modifications will facilitate the testing of hypersonic air breathing propulsion systems for a wide range of flight conditions. A computational method to predict the thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties of the equilibrium chemically reacting oxygen enriched methane-air combustion products was implemented in a computer code. This code calculates the fuel, air, and oxygen mass flow rates and test section flow properties for Mach 7, 5, and 4 nozzle configurations for given combustor and mixer conditions. Salient features of the 8 ft HTT are described, and some of the predicted tunnel operational characteristics are presented in the carpet plots to assist users in preparing test plans.
Glavatskiy, K. S.
Validity of local equilibrium has been questioned for non-equilibrium systems which are characterized by delayed response. In particular, for systems with non-zero thermodynamic inertia, the assumption of local equilibrium leads to negative values of the entropy production, which is in contradiction with the second law of thermodynamics. In this paper, we address this question by suggesting a variational formulation of irreversible evolution of a system with non-zero thermodynamic inertia. We introduce the Lagrangian, which depends on the properties of the normal and the so-called “mirror-image” systems. We show that the standard evolution equations, in particular, the Maxwell-Cattaneo-Vernotte equation, can bemore » derived from the variational procedure without going beyond the assumption of local equilibrium. We also argue that the second law of thermodynamics in non-equilibrium should be understood as a consequence of the variational procedure and the property of local equilibrium. For systems with instantaneous response this leads to the standard requirement of the local instantaneous entropy production being always positive. However, if a system is characterized by delayed response, the formulation of the second law of thermodynamics should be altered. In particular, the quantity, which is always positive, is not the instantaneous entropy production, but the entropy production averaged over a proper time interval.« less
Sánchez-Badillo, Joel; Gallo, Marco; Alvarado, Sandra; Glossman-Mitnik, Daniel
2015-08-20
Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and acid gases from natural gas is accomplished by absorption processes using a solvent. The gas solubility in a liquid can be used to measure the degree of removal of the gas and is quantified by the Henry's constant, the free energy of solvation at infinite dilution, or the excess chemical potential. In this work, Henry's constants and thermodynamic properties of solvation of H2S were calculated in three ionic liquids: [C4mim][PF6], [C4mim][BF4], and [C4mim][Cl] ([C4mim], 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium). The first step in this work was the evaluation of the force fields for the gas and condensed phases in order to obtain accurate values for the excess chemical potential for H2S on each ionic liquid using free energy perturbation techniques. In the H2S-[C4mim][PF6] and H2S-[C4mim][BF4] systems, the results obtained by molecular simulation agree with the experimental values reported in the literature. However, the solvation free energy calculated for the H2S-[C4mim][Cl] system can be considered predictive because of the lack of experimental data at the simulated conditions. Based on these results, the best solvent for removing H2S is [C4mim][Cl] because it has the highest affinity for this species (lowest value of the Henry's constant). Also, solvation thermodynamic properties such as enthalpy and entropy were calculated in order to evaluate their contribution to the free energy of solvation.
Thermodynamic properties of uranium in liquid gallium, indium and their alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volkovich, V. A.; Maltsev, D. S.; Yamshchikov, L. F.; Osipenko, A. G.
2015-09-01
Activity, activity coefficients and solubility of uranium was determined in gallium, indium and gallium-indium alloys containing 21.8 (eutectic), 40 and 70 wt.% In. Activity was measured at 573-1073 K employing the electromotive force method, and solubility between room temperature (or the alloy melting point) and 1073 K employing direct physical measurements. Activity coefficients were obtained from the difference of experimentally determined temperature dependencies of uranium activity and solubility. Intermetallic compounds formed in the respective alloys were characterized using X-ray diffraction. Partial and excess thermodynamic functions of uranium in the studied alloys were calculated. Liquidus lines in U-Ga and U-In phase diagrams from the side rich in gallium or indium are proposed.
Thermodynamic properties of semiconductor compounds studied based on Debye-Waller factors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Hung, Nguyen; Toan, Nguyen Cong; Ba Duc, Nguyen; Vuong, Dinh Quoc
2015-08-01
Thermodynamic properties of semiconductor compounds have been studied based on Debye-Waller factors (DWFs) described by the mean square displacement (MSD) which has close relation with the mean square relative displacement (MSRD). Their analytical expressions have been derived based on the statistical moment method (SMM) and the empirical many-body Stillinger-Weber potentials. Numerical results for the MSDs of GaAs, GaP, InP, InSb, which have zinc-blende structure, are found to be in reasonable agreement with experiment and other theories. This paper shows that an elements value for MSD is dependent on the binary semiconductor compound within which it resides.
Thermodynamic metrics and optimal paths.
Sivak, David A; Crooks, Gavin E
2012-05-11
A fundamental problem in modern thermodynamics is how a molecular-scale machine performs useful work, while operating away from thermal equilibrium without excessive dissipation. To this end, we derive a friction tensor that induces a Riemannian manifold on the space of thermodynamic states. Within the linear-response regime, this metric structure controls the dissipation of finite-time transformations, and bestows optimal protocols with many useful properties. We discuss the connection to the existing thermodynamic length formalism, and demonstrate the utility of this metric by solving for optimal control parameter protocols in a simple nonequilibrium model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dar, Sajad Ahmad; Srivastava, Vipul; Sakalle, Umesh Kumar; Parey, Vanshree; Pagare, Gitanjali
2017-10-01
The structural, electronic, magnetic and elastic properties of cubic EuMO3 (M = Ga, In) perovskites has been successfully predicted within well accepted density functional theory using full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW). The structural study reveals ferromagnetic stability for both the compounds. The Hubbard correlation (GGA+U) calculated spin polarized electronic band and density of states presents half-metallic nature for both the compounds. The magnetic moments calculated with different approximations were found to be approximately 6 µ B for EuGaO3 and approximately 7 µ B for EuInO3. The three independent elastic constants (C 11, C 12, C 44) have been used for the prediction of mechanical properties like Young modulus (Y), Shear modulus (G), Poisson ratio (ν), Anisotropic factor (A) under pressure. The B/G ratio presents the ductile nature for both compounds. The thermodynamic parameters like specific heat capacity, thermal expansion, Grüneisen parameter and Debye temperature etc have also been analyzed in the temperature range 0-900 K and pressure range from 0 to 30 GPa.
An approach to get thermodynamic properties from speed of sound
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Núñez, M. A.; Medina, L. A.
2017-01-01
An approach for estimating thermodynamic properties of gases from the speed of sound u, is proposed. The square u2, the compression factor Z and the molar heat capacity at constant volume C V are connected by two coupled nonlinear partial differential equations. Previous approaches to solving this system differ in the conditions used on the range of temperature values [Tmin,Tmax]. In this work we propose the use of Dirichlet boundary conditions at Tmin, Tmax. The virial series of the compression factor Z = 1+Bρ+Cρ2+… and other properties leads the problem to the solution of a recursive set of linear ordinary differential equations for the B, C. Analytic solutions of the B equation for Argon are used to study the stability of our approach and previous ones under perturbation errors of the input data. The results show that the approach yields B with a relative error bounded basically by that of the boundary values and the error of other approaches can be some orders of magnitude lager.
Phonon and thermodynamical properties of CuSc: A DFT study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jain, Ekta; Pagare, Gitanjali; Dubey, Shubha; Sanyal, S. P.
2018-05-01
A detailed systematic theoretical investigation of phonon and thermodynamical behavior of CuSc intermetallic compound has been carried out by uing first-principles density functional theory in B2-type (CsCl) crystal structure. Phonon dispersion curve and phonon density of states (PhDOS) are studied which confirm the stability of CuSc intermetallic compound in B2 phase. It is found that PhDOS at high frequencies mostly composed of Sc states. We have also presented some temperature dependent properties such as entropy, free energy, heat capacity, internal energy and thermal displacement, which are computed under PHONON code. The various features of these quantities are discussed in detail. From these results we demonstrate that the particular intermetallic have better ductility and larger thermal expansion.
Trinh, T T; van Erp, T S; Bedeaux, D; Kjelstrup, S; Grande, C A
2015-03-28
Thermodynamic equilibrium for adsorption means that the chemical potential of gas and adsorbed phase are equal. A precise knowledge of the chemical potential is, however, often lacking, because the activity coefficient of the adsorbate is not known. Adsorption isotherms are therefore commonly fitted to ideal models such as the Langmuir, Sips or Henry models. We propose here a new procedure to find the activity coefficient and the equilibrium constant for adsorption which uses the thermodynamic factor. Instead of fitting the data to a model, we calculate the thermodynamic factor and use this to find first the activity coefficient. We show, using published molecular simulation data, how this procedure gives the thermodynamic equilibrium constant and enthalpies of adsorption for CO2(g) on graphite. We also use published experimental data to find similar thermodynamic properties of CO2(g) and of CH4(g) adsorbed on activated carbon. The procedure gives a higher accuracy in the determination of enthalpies of adsorption than ideal models do.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlip, S.
2014-10-01
The discovery in the early 1970s that black holes radiate as black bodies has radically affected our understanding of general relativity, and offered us some early hints about the nature of quantum gravity. In this paper, will review the discovery of black hole thermodynamics and summarize the many independent ways of obtaining the thermodynamic and (perhaps) statistical mechanical properties of black holes. I will then describe some of the remaining puzzles, including the nature of the quantum microstates, the problem of universality, and the information loss paradox.
The Co-Sb-Ga System: Isoplethal Section and Thermodynamic Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gierlotka, Wojciech; Chen, Sinn-wen; Chen, Wei-an; Chang, Jui-shen; Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Tang, Yinglu
2015-04-01
The Co-Sb-Ga ternary system is an important thermoelectric material system, and its phase equilibria are in need of further understanding. The CoSb3-GaSb isoplethal section is experimentally determined in this study. Phase equilibria of the ternary Co-Sb-Ga system are assessed, and the system's thermodynamic models are developed. In addition to the terminal phases and liquid phase, there are six binary intermediate phases and a ternary Co3Sb2Ga4 phase. The Ga solution in the CoSb3 compound is described by a dual-site occupation (GaVF) x Co4Sb12- x/2(GaSb) x/2 model. Phase diagrams are calculated using the developed thermodynamic models, and a reaction scheme is proposed based on the calculation results. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimentally determined phase diagrams, including the CoSb3-GaSb isoplethal section, the liquidus projection, and an isothermal section at 923 K (650 °C). The dual-site occupation (GaVF) x Co4Sb12- x/2(GaSb) x/2 model gives good descriptions of both phase equilibria and thermoelectric properties of the CoSb3 phase with Ga doping.
Application of thermodynamics to silicate crystalline solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saxena, S. K.
1972-01-01
A review of thermodynamic relations is presented, describing Guggenheim's regular solution models, the simple mixture, the zeroth approximation, and the quasi-chemical model. The possibilities of retrieving useful thermodynamic quantities from phase equilibrium studies are discussed. Such quantities include the activity-composition relations and the free energy of mixing in crystalline solutions. Theory and results of the study of partitioning of elements in coexisting minerals are briefly reviewed. A thermodynamic study of the intercrystalline and intracrystalline ion exchange relations gives useful information on the thermodynamic behavior of the crystalline solutions involved. Such information is necessary for the solution of most petrogenic problems and for geothermometry. Thermodynamic quantities for tungstates (CaWO4-SrWO4) are calculated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Long, Debing; Li, Mingkai; Meng, Dongxue; Ahuja, Rajeev; He, Yunbin
2018-03-01
In this work, the structural, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of wurtzite (WZ) and zincblende (ZB) CdS1-xSex alloys are investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) and the cluster expansion method. A special quasirandom structure containing 16 atoms is constructed to calculate the band structures of random alloys. The band gaps of CdS1-xSex alloys are direct and decrease as the Se content increases. The delta self-consistent-field method is applied to correct band gaps that are underestimated by DFT. The band offsets clearly reflect the variation in valence band maxima and conduction band minima, thus providing information useful to the design of relevant quantum well structures. The positive formation enthalpies of both phases imply that CdS1-xSex is an immiscible system and tends to phase separate. The influence of lattice vibrations on the phase diagram is investigated by calculating the phonon density of states. Lattice vibration effects can reduce the critical temperature Tc and increase alloy solid solubilities. This influence is especially significant in the ZB structure. When only chemical interactions are present, the Tc values for WZ- and ZB-CdS1-xSex are 260 K and 249 K, respectively. The lattice vibration enthalpy and entropy lower the Tc to 255 K and 233 K, respectively.