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Sample records for calculated detonation velocity

  1. Detonation Velocity Calculations of Explosives with Slowly-Burning Constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, W. Michael; Souers, P. Clark; Fried, Laurence E.

    1997-07-01

    The thermochemical code Equilbrium CHEETAH has been modified to allow partial reaction of constituents and partial flow of heat. Solid or liquid reactants are described by Einstein oscillators, whose temperatures can be changed to allow heat transfer. Hydroxy-terminated-poly-budadiene, mixed with RDX or HMX, does not react, as shown by the effect on the calculated detonation velocity. Aluminum and ammonium perchlorate in composites also do not react. Only partial heat flow also takes place in the unreacted materials. These results show that the usual assumption of total burn in a thermochemical code is probably incorrect, at least in the sonic reaction zone that drives the detonation velocity. A kinetic code would be the logical extension of this work.

  2. Detonation velocity in poorly mixed gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, E. S.

    2017-10-01

    The technique for computation of the average velocity of plane detonation wave front in poorly mixed mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen is proposed. Here it is assumed that along the direction of detonation propagation the chemical composition of the mixture has periodic fluctuations caused, for example, by layered stratification of gas charge. The technique is based on the analysis of functional dependence of ideal (Chapman-Jouget) detonation velocity on mole fraction (with respect to molar concentration) of the fuel. It is shown that the average velocity of detonation can be significantly (by more than 10%) less than the velocity of ideal detonation. The dependence that permits to estimate the degree of mixing of gas mixture basing on the measurements of average detonation velocity is established.

  3. Thermodynamic Calculations of Hydrogen-Oxygen Detonation Parameters for Various Initial Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollinger, Loren E.; Edse, Rudolph

    1961-01-01

    Composition, temperature, pressure and density behind a stable detonation wave and its propagation rate have been calculated for seven hydrogen-oxygen mixture at 1, 5, 25 and 100 atm initial pressure, and at an initial temperature of 40C. For stoichiometric mixtures that calculations also include an initial temperature of 200C. According to these calculations the detonation velocities of hydrogen-oxygen mixtures increase with increasing initial pressure, but decrease slightly when the initial temperature is raised from 40 to 200 C. The calculated detonation velocities agree satisfactorily with values determined experimentally. These values will be published in the near future.

  4. Measuring In-Situ Mdf Velocity Of Detonation

    DOEpatents

    Horine, Frank M.; James, Jr., Forrest B.

    2005-10-25

    A system for determining the velocity of detonation of a mild detonation fuse mounted on the surface of a device includes placing the device in a predetermined position with respect to an apparatus that carries a couple of sensors that sense the passage of a detonation wave at first and second spaced locations along the fuse. The sensors operate a timer and the time and distance between the locations is used to determine the velocity of detonation. The sensors are preferably electrical contacts that are held spaced from but close to the fuse such that expansion of the fuse caused by detonation causes the fuse to touch the contact, causing an electrical signal to actuate the timer.

  5. Hydrazine vapor detonations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedley, M. D.; Bishop, C. V.; Benz, F. J.; Bennett, C. A.; Mcclenagan, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    The detonation velocity and cell widths for hydrazine decomposition were measured over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. The detonation velocity in pure hydrazine was within 5 percent of the calculated C-J velocity. The detonation cell width measurements were interpreted using the Zeldovich-Doering-von Neumann model with a detailed reaction mechanism for hydrazine decomposition. Excellent agreement with experimental data for pure hydrazine was obtained using the empirical relation that detonation cell width was equal to 29 times the kinetically calculated reaction zone length.

  6. Small-scale Detonation Velocity Measurement of Select CL-20 Cocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuppuluri, Vasant; Gunduz, I. Emre; Son, Steven F.

    2017-06-01

    The challenge of developing novel energetic materials makes cocrystallization using existing energetic molecules useful. Cocrystallization of CL-20 with other high explosives such as HMX has been demonstrated previously to yield novel energetic materials and may have favorable detonation performance. However, detonation performance characterization of these cocrystals is challenging due to limited availability of material. Also, the contribution of bonding energy between coformers contained within the cocrystal is not well-understood. We present the comparison of steady detonation velocities of CL-20 cocrystals to their corresponding physical mixtures using microwave interferometry. With less than 1.5 g of the cocrystal material contained within 6.52 mm diameter charges, shot-to-shot variation in detonation velocity of only about 100 m/s are achievable with this technique. This variation is adequate to resolve relatively small differences between physical mixed explosive molecules and cocrystals.

  7. Calculation of detonation initiation in a hydrogen/oxygen/argon mixture in by a small-diameter spherical projectile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedarev, I. A.; Temerbekov, V. M.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2018-03-01

    The initiation of detonation in a reactive mixture by a small-diameter spherical projectile launched at supersonic velocity was studied for a reduced kinetic scheme of chemical reactions. A mathematical technique based on the ANSYS Fluent package was developed for this purpose. Numerical and experimental data on the flow regimes and detonation cell sizes are compared. There is agreement between the calculated and experimental flow patterns and detonation cell sizes for each regime.

  8. Investigation of detonation velocity in heterogeneous explosive system using the reactive Burgers' analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Labbio, G.; Kiyanda, C. B.; Mi, X.; Higgins, A. J.; Nikiforakis, N.; Ng, H. D.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the applicability of the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) criterion is tested numerically for heterogeneous explosive media using a simple detonation analog. The analog system consists of a reactive Burgers' equation coupled with an Arrhenius type reaction wave, and the heterogeneity of the explosive media is mimicked using a discrete energy source approach. The governing equation is solved using a second order, finite-volume approach and the average propagation velocity of the discrete detonation is determined by tracking the leading shock front. Consistent with previous studies, the averaged velocity of the leading shock front from the unsteady numerical simulations is also found to be in good agreement with the velocity of a CJ detonation in a uniform medium wherein the energy source is spatially homogenized. These simulations have thus implications for whether the CJ criterion is valid to predict the detonation velocity in heterogeneous explosive media.

  9. Detonation waves in pentaerythritol tetranitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarver, Craig M.; Breithaupt, R. Don; Kury, John W.

    1997-06-01

    Fabry-Perot laser interferometry was used to obtain nanosecond time resolved particle velocity histories of the free surfaces of tantalum discs accelerated by detonating pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) charges and of the interfaces between PETN detonation products and lithium fluoride crystals. The experimental records were compared to particle velocity histories calculated using very finely zoned meshes of the exact dimensions with the DYNA2D hydrodynamic code. The duration of the PETN detonation reaction zone was demonstrated to be less than the 5 ns initial resolution of the Fabry-Perot technique, because the experimental records were accurately calculated using an instantaneous chemical reaction, the Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) model of detonation, and the reaction product Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equation of state for PETN detonation products previously determined by supracompression (overdriven detonation) studies. Some of the PETN charges were pressed to densities approaching the crystal density and exhibited the phenomenon of superdetonation. An ignition and growth Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring (ZND) reactive flow model was developed to explain these experimental records and the results of previous PETN shock initiation experiments on single crystals of PETN. Good agreement was obtained for the induction time delays preceding chemical reaction, the run distances at which the initial shock waves were overtaken by the detonation waves in the compressed PETN, and the measured particle velocity histories produced by the overdriven detonation waves before they could relax to steady state C-J velocity and pressure.

  10. Detonation waves in pentaerythritol tetranitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C.M.; Breithaupt, R.D.; Kury, J.W.

    1997-06-01

    Fabry{endash}Perot laser interferometry was used to obtain nanosecond time resolved particle velocity histories of the free surfaces of tantalum discs accelerated by detonating pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) charges and of the interfaces between PETN detonation products and lithium fluoride crystals. The experimental records were compared to particle velocity histories calculated using very finely zoned meshes of the exact dimensions with the DYNA2D hydrodynamic code. The duration of the PETN detonation reaction zone was demonstrated to be less than the 5 ns initial resolution of the Fabry{endash}Perot technique, because the experimental records were accurately calculated using an instantaneous chemical reaction, the Chapman{endash}Jouguetmore » (C-J) model of detonation, and the reaction product Jones{endash}Wilkins{endash}Lee (JWL) equation of state for PETN detonation products previously determined by supracompression (overdriven detonation) studies. Some of the PETN charges were pressed to densities approaching the crystal density and exhibited the phenomenon of superdetonation. An ignition and growth Zeldovich{endash}von Neumann{endash}Doring (ZND) reactive flow model was developed to explain these experimental records and the results of previous PETN shock initiation experiments on single crystals of PETN. Good agreement was obtained for the induction time delays preceding chemical reaction, the run distances at which the initial shock waves were overtaken by the detonation waves in the compressed PETN, and the measured particle velocity histories produced by the overdriven detonation waves before they could relax to steady state C-J velocity and pressure. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}« less

  11. Using embedded fibers to measure explosive detonation velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Podsednik, Jason W.; Parks, Shawn Michael; Navarro, Rudolfo J.

    2012-07-01

    Single-mode fibers were cleverly embedded into fixtures holding nitromethane, and used in conjunction with a photonic Doppler velocimeter (PDV) to measure the associated detonation velocity. These measurements have aided us in our understanding of energetic materials and enhanced our diagnostic capabilities.

  12. The hydrodynamic theory of detonation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langweiler, Heinz

    1939-01-01

    This report derives equations containing only directly measurable constants for the quantities involved in the hydrodynamic theory of detonation. The stable detonation speed, D, is revealed as having the lowest possible value in the case of positive material velocity, by finding the minimum of the Du curve (u denotes the speed of the gases of combustion). A study of the conditions of energy and impulse in freely suspended detonating systems leads to the disclosure of a rarefaction front traveling at a lower speed behind the detonation front; its velocity is computed. The latent energy of the explosive passes into the steadily growing detonation zone - the region between the detonation front and the rarefaction front. The conclusions lead to a new definition of the concept of shattering power. The calculations are based on the behavior of trinitrotoluene.

  13. Critical velocities for deflagration and detonation triggered by voids in a REBO high explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, Stuart Davis; Germann, Timothy C; Jensen, Niels G

    2010-01-01

    The effects of circular voids on the shock sensitivity of a two-dimensional model high explosive crystal are considered. We simulate a piston impact using molecular dynamics simulations with a Reactive Empirical Bond Order (REBO) model potential for a sub-micron, sub-ns exothermic reaction in a diatomic molecular solid. The probability of initiating chemical reactions is found to rise more suddenly with increasing piston velocity for larger voids that collapse more deterministically. A void with radius as small as 10 nm reduces the minimum initiating velocity by a factor of 4. The transition at larger velocities to detonation is studied in amore » micron-long sample with a single void (and its periodic images). The reaction yield during the shock traversal increases rapidly with velocity, then becomes a prompt, reliable detonation. A void of radius 2.5 nm reduces the critical velocity by 10% from the perfect crystal. A Pop plot of the time-to-detonation at higher velocities shows a characteristic pressure dependence.« less

  14. Low Velocity Detonation of Nitromethane Affected by Precursor Shock Waves Propagating in Various Container Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamashima, H.; Osada, A.; Itoh, S.; Kato, Y.

    2007-12-01

    It is well known that some liquid explosives have two detonation behaviors, high velocity detonation (HVD) or low velocity detonation (LVD) can propagate. A physical model to describe the propagation mechanism of LVD in liquid explosives was proposed that LVD is not a self-reactive detonation, but rather a supported-reactive detonation from the cavitation field generated by precursor shock waves. However, the detailed structure of LVD in liquid explosives has not yet been clarified. In this study, high-speed photography was used to investigate the effects of the precursor shock waves propagating in various container materials for LVD in nitromethane (NM). Stable LVD was not observed in all containers, although transient LVD was observed. A very complicated structure of LVD was observed: the interaction of multiple precursor shock waves, multiple oblique shock waves, and the cavitation field.

  15. Low Velocity Detonation of Nitromethane Affected by Precursor Shock Waves Propagating in Various Container Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamashima, Hideki; Osada, Akinori; Kato, Yukio; Itoh, Shigeru

    2007-06-01

    It is well known that some liquid explosives have two detonation behaviors, high velocity detonation (HVD) or low velocity detonation (LVD) can propagate. A physical model to describe the propagation mechanism of LVD in liquid explosives was proposed that LVD is not a self-reactive detonation, but rather a supported-reactive detonation from the cavitation field generated by precursor shock waves. However, the detailed structure of LVD in liquid explosives has not yet been clarified. In this study, high-speed photography was used to investigate the effects of the precursor shock waves propagating in various container materials for LVD in nitromethane (NM). Stable LVD was not observed in all containers, although transient LVD was observed. A very complicated structure of LVD was observed: the interaction of multiple precursor shock waves, multiple oblique shock waves, and the cavitation field.

  16. Using time-frequency analysis to determine time-resolved detonation velocity with microwave interferometry.

    PubMed

    Kittell, David E; Mares, Jesus O; Son, Steven F

    2015-04-01

    Two time-frequency analysis methods based on the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) were used to determine time-resolved detonation velocities with microwave interferometry (MI). The results were directly compared to well-established analysis techniques consisting of a peak-picking routine as well as a phase unwrapping method (i.e., quadrature analysis). The comparison is conducted on experimental data consisting of transient detonation phenomena observed in triaminotrinitrobenzene and ammonium nitrate-urea explosives, representing high and low quality MI signals, respectively. Time-frequency analysis proved much more capable of extracting useful and highly resolved velocity information from low quality signals than the phase unwrapping and peak-picking methods. Additionally, control of the time-frequency methods is mainly constrained to a single parameter which allows for a highly unbiased analysis method to extract velocity information. In contrast, the phase unwrapping technique introduces user based variability while the peak-picking technique does not achieve a highly resolved velocity result. Both STFT and CWT methods are proposed as improved additions to the analysis methods applied to MI detonation experiments, and may be useful in similar applications.

  17. Predicting High Explosive Detonation Velocities from Their Composition and Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    for a gamut of ideal explosives. The explosives ranged from nitroaromatics, cyclic and linear nitramines, nitrate esters and nitro-nitrato...structure is postulated for a gamut of explosives. Since detonation velocity, DQ, is density dependent, the linear regression plot. Figure 1, of the

  18. A velocity probe-based method for continuous detonation and shock measurement in near-field underwater explosion.

    PubMed

    Li, Kebin; Li, Xiaojie; Yan, Honghao; Wang, Xiaohong; Miao, Yusong

    2017-12-01

    A new velocity probe which permits recording the time history of detonation and shock waves has been developed by improving the commercial on principle and structure. A method based on the probe is then designed to measure the detonation velocity and near-field shock parameters in a single underwater explosion, by which the oblique shock wave front of cylindrical charges and the peak pressure attenuation curve of spherical explosive are obtained. A further derivation of detonation pressure, adiabatic exponent, and other shock parameters is conducted. The present method offers a novel and reliable parameter determination for near-field underwater explosion.

  19. A velocity probe-based method for continuous detonation and shock measurement in near-field underwater explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kebin; Li, Xiaojie; Yan, Honghao; Wang, Xiaohong; Miao, Yusong

    2017-12-01

    A new velocity probe which permits recording the time history of detonation and shock waves has been developed by improving the commercial on principle and structure. A method based on the probe is then designed to measure the detonation velocity and near-field shock parameters in a single underwater explosion, by which the oblique shock wave front of cylindrical charges and the peak pressure attenuation curve of spherical explosive are obtained. A further derivation of detonation pressure, adiabatic exponent, and other shock parameters is conducted. The present method offers a novel and reliable parameter determination for near-field underwater explosion.

  20. Detonability of hydrocarbon fuels in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeson, H. D.; Mcclenagan, R. D.; Bishop, C. V.; Benz, F. J.; Pitz, W. J.; Westbrook, C. K.; Lee, J. H. S.

    1991-01-01

    Studies were conducted of the detonation of gas-phase mixtures of n-hexane and JP-4, with oxidizers as varied as air and pure oxygen, measuring detonation velocities and cell sizes as a function of stoichiometry and diluent concentration. The induction length of a one-dimensional Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doering detonation was calculated on the basis of a theoretical model that employed the reaction kinetics of the hydrocarbon fuels used. Critical energy and critical tube diameter are compared for a relative measure of the heavy hydrocarbon fuels studied; detonation sensitivity appears to increase slightly with increasing carbon number.

  1. Equation of state for detonation product gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagayama, Kunihito; Kubota, Shiro

    2003-03-01

    A thermodynamic analysis procedure of the detonation product equation of state (EOS) together with the experimental data set of the detonation velocity as a function of initial density has been formulated. The Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state [W. Ficket and W. C. Davis, Detonation: Theory and Experiment (University of California Press, Berkeley 1979)] on the p-ν plane is found to be well approximated by the envelope function formed by the collection of Rayleigh lines with many different initial density states. The Jones-Stanyukovich-Manson relation [W. Ficket and W. C. Davis, Detonation: Theory and Experiment (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1979)] is used to estimate the error included in this approximation. Based on this analysis, a simplified integration method to calculate the Grüneisen parameter along the CJ state curve with different initial densities utilizing the cylinder expansion data has been presented. The procedure gives a simple way of obtaining the EOS function, compatible with the detonation velocity data. Theoretical analysis has been performed for the precision of the estimated EOS function. EOS of the pentaerithrytoltetranitrate explosive is calculated and compared with some of the experimental data such as CJ pressure data and cylinder expansion data.

  2. Equation of state of detonation products based on statistical mechanical theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanhong; Liu, Haifeng; Zhang, Gongmu; Song, Haifeng

    2015-06-01

    The equation of state (EOS) of gaseous detonation products is calculated using Ross's modification of hard-sphere variation theory and the improved one-fluid van der Waals mixture model. The condensed phase of carbon is a mixture of graphite, diamond, graphite-like liquid and diamond-like liquid. For a mixed system of detonation products, the free energy minimization principle is used to calculate the equilibrium compositions of detonation products by solving chemical equilibrium equations. Meanwhile, a chemical equilibrium code is developed base on the theory proposed in this article, and then it is used in the three typical calculations as follow: (i) Calculation for detonation parameters of explosive, the calculated values of detonation velocity, the detonation pressure and the detonation temperature are in good agreement with experimental ones. (ii) Calculation for isentropic unloading line of RDX explosive, whose starting points is the CJ point. Comparison with the results of JWL EOS it is found that the calculated value of gamma is monotonically decreasing using the presented theory in this paper, while double peaks phenomenon appears using JWL EOS.

  3. Equation of state of detonation products based on statistical mechanical theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanhong; Liu, Haifeng; Zhang, Gongmu; Song, Haifeng; Iapcm Team

    2013-06-01

    The equation of state (EOS) of gaseous detonation products is calculated using Ross's modification of hard-sphere variation theory and the improved one-fluid van der Waals mixture model. The condensed phase of carbon is a mixture of graphite, diamond, graphite-like liquid and diamond-like liquid. For a mixed system of detonation products, the free energy minimization principle is used to calculate the equilibrium compositions of detonation products by solving chemical equilibrium equations. Meanwhile, a chemical equilibrium code is developed base on the theory proposed in this article, and then it is used in the three typical calculations as follow: (i) Calculation for detonation parameters of explosive, the calculated values of detonation velocity, the detonation pressure and the detonation temperature are in good agreement with experimental ones. (ii) Calculation for isentropic unloading line of RDX explosive, whose starting points is the CJ point. Comparison with the results of JWL EOS it is found that the calculated value of gamma is monotonically decreasing using the presented theory in this paper, while double peaks phenomenon appears using JWL EOS.

  4. Detonation Performance Analyses for Recent Energetic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiel, Leonard; Samuels, Philip; Spangler, Kimberly; Iwaniuk, Daniel; Cornell, Rodger; Baker, Ernest

    2017-06-01

    Detonation performance analyses were conducted for a number of evolving and potential high explosive materials. The calculations were completed for theoretical maximum densities of the explosives using the Jaguar thermo-chemical equation of state computer programs for performance evaluations and JWL/JWLB equations of state parameterizations. A number of recently synthesized materials were investigated for performance characterizations and comparisons to existing explosives, including TNT, RDX, HMX, and Cl-20. The analytic cylinder model was utilized to establish cylinder and Gurney velocities as functions of the radial expansions of the cylinder for each explosive. The densities and heats of formulation utilized in the calculations are primarily experimental values from Picatinny Arsenal and other sources. Several of the new materials considered were predicted to have enhanced detonation characteristics compared to conventional explosives. In order to confirm the accuracy of the Jaguar and analytic cylinder model results, available experimental detonation and Gurney velocities for representative energetic molecules and their formulations were compared with the corresponding calculated values. Close agreement was obtained with most of the data. Presently at NATO.

  5. Coupling Detonation Shock Dynamics in a Consistent Manner to Equations of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfield, William

    2017-06-01

    In hydrocode simulations, detonating high explosives (HE) are often modelled using programmed burn. Each HE cell is assigned a ``burn time'' at which it should begin to behave as HE products in the subsequent simulation. Traditionally, these burn times were calculated using a Huygens construction to propagate the detonation wave at a constant speed corresponding to the planar Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) velocity. The Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) model improves upon this approach by treating the local detonation velocity as a function of wave curvature, reflecting that the detonation speed is not constant in reality. However, without alterations being made, this variable detonation velocity is inconsistent with the CJ velocity associated with the HE products equation of state (EOS). Previous work has shown that the inconsistency can be resolved by modifying the HE product EOS, but this treatment is empirical in nature and has only been applied to the JWL EOS. This work investigates different methods to resolve the inconsistency that are applicable both to JWL and to tabular HE product EOS, and their impact on hydrocode simulations.

  6. Measurement of Detonation Velocity for a Nonideal Heterogeneous Explosive in Axisymmetric and Two-Dimensional Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    Detonation in a heterogeneous explosive with a relatively sparse concentration of reaction centers ("hot spots") is investigated experimentally. The explosive system considered is nitromethane gelled with PMMA and with glass microballoons (GMB's) in suspension. The detonation velocity is measured as a function of the characteristic charge dimension (diameter or thickness) in both axisymmetric and two-dimensional geometries. The use of a unique, annular charge geometry (with the diameter of the annulus much greater than the annular gap thickness) permits quasi-two-dimensional detonations to be observed without undesirable lateral rarefactions that result from a finite aspect ratio. The results confirm the prior findings of Gois et al. (1996) which show that, for a low concentration of GMB's, detonation propagation does not exhibit the expected 2:1 scaling from axisymmetric to planar geometries. This reinforces the idea that detonation in highly nonideal explosives is not governed exclusively by global front curvature.

  7. Eigenvalue Detonation of Combined Effects Aluminized Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capellos, C.; Baker, E. L.; Nicolich, S.; Balas, W.; Pincay, J.; Stiel, L. I.

    2007-12-01

    Theory and performance for recently developed combined—effects aluminized explosives are presented. Our recently developed combined-effects aluminized explosives (PAX-29C, PAX-30, PAX-42) are capable of achieving excellent metal pushing, as well as high blast energies. Metal pushing capability refers to the early volume expansion work produced during the first few volume expansions associated with cylinder and wall velocities and Gurney energies. Eigenvalue detonation explains the observed detonation states achieved by these combined effects explosives. Cylinder expansion data and thermochemical calculations (JAGUAR and CHEETAH) verify the eigenvalue detonation behavior.

  8. Molecular simulations of Crussard curves of detonation product mixtures at chemical equilibrium: Microscopic calculation of the Chapman-Jouguet state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourasseau, Emeric; Dubois, Vincent; Desbiens, Nicolas; Maillet, Jean-Bernard

    2007-06-01

    The simultaneous use of the Reaction Ensemble Monte Carlo (ReMC) method and the Adaptative Erpenbeck EOS (AE-EOS) method allows us to calculate direclty the thermodynamical and chemical equilibrium of a mixture on the hugoniot curve. The ReMC method allow to reach chemical equilibrium of detonation products and the AE-EOS method constraints ths system to satisfy the Hugoniot relation. Once the Crussard curve of detonation products has been established, CJ state properties may be calculated. An additional NPT simulation is performed at CJ conditions in order to compute derivative thermodynamic quantities like Cp, Cv, Gruneisen gama, sound velocity, and compressibility factor. Several explosives has been studied, of which PETN, nitromethane, tetranitromethane, and hexanitroethane. In these first simulations, solid carbon is eventually treated using an EOS.

  9. Optimum performance of explosives in a quasistatic detonation cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Ernest L.; Stiel, Leonard I.

    2017-01-01

    Analyses were conducted on the behavior of explosives in a quasistatic detonation cycle. This type of cycle has been proposed for the determination of the maximum work that can be performed by the explosive. The Jaguar thermochemical equilibrium program enabled the direct analyses of explosive performance at the various steps in the detonation cycle. In all cases the explosive is initially detonated to a point on the Hugoniot curve for the reaction products. The maximum useful work that can be obtained from the explosive is equal to the P-V work on the isentrope for expansion after detonation to atmospheric pressure, minus one-half the square of the particle velocity at the detonation point. This quantity is calculated form the internal energy of the explosive at the initial and final atmospheric temperatures. Cycle efficiencies (net work/ heat added) are also calculated with these procedures. For several explosives including TNT, RDX, and aluminized compositions, maximum work effects were established through the Jaguar calculations for Hugoniot points corresponding to C-J, overdriven, underdriven and constant volume detonations. Detonation to the C-J point is found to result in the maximum net work in all cases.

  10. Modeling a Material's Instantaneous Velocity during Acceleration Driven by a Detonation's Gas-Push Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backofen, Joseph E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper will describe both the scientific findings and the model developed in order to quantfy a material's instantaneous velocity versus position, time, or the expansion ratio of an explosive's gaseous products while its gas pressure is accelerating the material. The formula derived to represent this gas-push process for the 2nd stage of the BRIGS Two-Step Detonation Propulsion Model was found to fit very well the published experimental data available for twenty explosives. When the formula's two key parameters (the ratio Vinitial / Vfinal and ExpansionRatioFinal) were adjusted slightly from the average values describing closely many explosives to values representing measured data for a particular explosive, the formula's representation of that explosive's gas-push process was improved. The time derivative of the velocity formula representing acceleration and/or pressure compares favorably to Jones-Wilkins-Lee equation-of-state model calculations performed using published JWL parameters.

  11. Influence of Dense Inert Additives (W and Pb) on Detonation Conditions and Regime of Condensed Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imkhovik, Nikolay A.

    2010-10-01

    Results of experimental and theoretical studies of the unusual detonation properties of mixtures of high explosives (HEs) with high-density inert additives W and Pb were analyzed and systematized. Typical examples of the nonideal detonation of composite explosives for which the measured detonation pressure is substantially lower and the detonation velocity is higher than the values calculated within the framework of the hydrodynamic model, with the specific heat ratio for the detonation products of ∼6-8, are presented. Mechanisms of formation of anomalous pressure and mass velocity profiles, which explain the correlation between the Chapman-Jouguet pressure for HE-W and HE-Pb mixtures, the velocity of the free surface of duralumin target, and the depth of the dent imprinted in steel witness plates, are described.

  12. Fast Reactions of Aluminum and Explosive Decomposition Products in a Post-Detonation Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappan, Bryce; Manner, Virginia; Lloyd, Joseph; Pemberton, Steven; Explosives Applications; Special Projects Team

    2011-06-01

    In order to determine the reaction behavior of Al in HMX/cast-cured binder formulations shortly after the passage of the detonation, a series of cylinder tests was performed on formulations with varying amounts of 2 μm spherical Al as well as LiF (an inert surrogate for Al). In these studies, both detonation velocity and cylinder expansion velocity are measured in order to determine exactly how and when Al contributes to the explosive event, particularly in the presence of oxidizing/energetic binders. The U.S. Army ARDEC at Picatinny has recently coined the term ``combined effects explosives'' for these materials as they demonstrate both high metal pushing capability and high blast ability. This study is aimed at developing a fundamental understanding of the reaction of Al with explosives decomposition products, where both the detonation and post-detonation environment are analyzed. Reaction rates of Al metal are determined via comparison of predicted performance based on thermoequilibrium calculations. The JWL equation of state, detonation velocities, wall velocities, and parameters at the C-J plane are some of the parameters that will be discussed.

  13. Theory and Modeling of Liquid Explosive Detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarver, Craig M.; Urtiew, Paul A.

    2010-10-01

    The current understanding of the detonation reaction zones of liquid explosives is discussed in this article. The physical and chemical processes that precede and follow exothermic chemical reaction within the detonation reaction zone are discussed within the framework of the nonequilibrium Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring (NEZND) theory of self-sustaining detonation. Nonequilibrium chemical and physical processes cause finite time duration induction zones before exothermic chemical energy release occurs. This separation between the leading shock wave front and the chemical energy release needed to sustain it results in shock wave amplification and the subsequent formation of complex three-dimensional cellular structures in all liquid detonation waves. To develop a practical Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring (ZND) reactive flow model for liquid detonation, experimental data on reaction zone structure, confined failure diameter, unconfined failure diameter, and failure wave velocity in the Dremin-Trofimov test for detonating nitromethane are calculated using the ignition and growth reactive flow model.

  14. JAGUAR Procedures for Detonation Behavior of Explosives Containing Boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiel, Leonard; Baker, Ernest; Capellos, Christos

    2009-06-01

    The JAGUAR product library was expanded to include boron and boron containing products. Relationships of the Murnaghan form for molar volumes and derived properties were implemented in JAGUAR. Available Hugoniot and static volumertic data were analyzed to obtain constants of the Murnaghan relationship for solid boron, boron oxide, boron nitride, boron carbide, and boric acid. Experimental melting points were also utilized with optimization procedures to obtain the constants of the volumetric relationships for liquid boron and boron oxide. Detonation velocities for HMX - boron mixtures calculated with these relationships using JAGUAR are in closer agreement with literature values at high initial densities for inert (unreacted) boron than with the completely reacted metal. These results indicate that boron mixtures may exhibit eigenvalue detonation behavior, as observed by aluminized combined effects explosives, with higher detonation velocities than would be achieved by a classical Chapman-Jouguet detonation. Analyses of calorimetric measurements for RDX - boron mixtures indicate that at high boron contents the formation of side products, including boron nitride and boron carbide, inhibits the energy output obtained from the detonation of the formulation.

  15. Chemical Energy Release in Several Recently Discovered Detonation and Deflagration Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarver, Craig M.

    2010-10-01

    Several recent experiments on complex detonation and deflagration flows are analyzed in terms of the chemical energy release required to sustain these flows. The observed double cellular structures in detonating gaseous nitromethane-oxygen and NO2-fuel (H2, CH4, and C2H6) mixtures are explained by the amplification of two distinct pressure wave frequencies by two exothermic reactions, the faster reaction forming vibrationally excited NO* and the slower reaction forming highly vibrationally excited N2**. The establishment of a Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) deflagration behind a weak shock wave, the C-J detonation established after a head-on collision with a shock front, and the C-J detonation conditions established in reactive supersonic flows are quantitatively calculated using the chemical energy release of a H2 + Cl2 mixture. For these three reactive flows, these calculations illustrate that different fractions of the exothermic chemical energy are used to sustain steady-state propagation. C-J detonation calculations on the various initial states using the CHEETAH chemical equilibrium code are shown to be in good agreement with experimental detonation velocity measurements for the head-on collision and supersonic flow detonations.

  16. Measurement of Front Curvature and Detonation Velocity for a Nonideal Heterogeneous Explosive in Axisymmetric and Two-Dimensional Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    Detonation in a heterogeneous explosive with a relatively sparse concentration of reaction centers (``hot spots'') is investigated experimentally. The explosive system considered is nitromethane gelled with PMMA and with glass microballoons (GMB's) in suspension. The detonation velocity is measured as a function of the characteristic charge dimension (diameter or thickness) in both axisymmetric and two-dimensional planar geometries. The use of a unique, annular charge geometry (with the diameter of the annulus much greater than the annular gap thickness) permits quasi-two-dimensional detonations to be observed without undesirable lateral rarefactions that result from a finite aspect ratio. The detonation front curvature is also measured directly using an electronic streak camera. The results confirm the prior findings of Gois et al. (1996) which showed that, for a low concentration of GMB's, detonation propagation does not exhibit the expected 2:1 scaling from axisymmetric to planar geometries. This reinforces the idea that detonation in highly nonideal explosives is not governed exclusively by front curvature.

  17. Fast reactions of aluminum and explosive decomposition products in a post-detonation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappan, Bryce C.; Manner, Virginia W.; Lloyd, Joseph M.; Pemberton, Steven J.

    2012-03-01

    In order to determine the reaction behavior of Al in RDX or HMX/cast-cured binder formulations shortly after the passage of the detonation, a series of cylinder tests was performed on formulations comprising of varying binder systems and either 3.5 μm spherical Al or LiF (an inert salt with a similar molecular weight and density to Al). In these studies, both detonation velocity and cylinder expansion velocity are measured in order to determine exactly how and when Al contributes to the explosive event, particularly in the presence of oxidizing/energetic binders. The U.S. Army Research, Development and Engineering Laboratory at Picatinny have recently coined the term "combined effects" explosives for materials such as these; as they demonstrate both high metal pushing capability and high blast ability. This study is aimed at developing a fundamental understanding of the reaction of Al with explosives decomposition products, where both the detonation and early post-detonation environment are analyzed. Reaction rates of Al metal are investigated via comparison of predicted performance based on thermoequilibrium calculations. The detonation velocities, wall velocities, and parameters at the CJ plane are some of the parameters that will be discussed.

  18. On the Exit Boundary Condition for One-Dimensional Calculations of Pulsed Detonation Engine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jack; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2002-01-01

    In one-dimensional calculations of pulsed detonation engine (PDE) performance, the exit boundary condition is frequently taken to be a constant static pressure. In reality, for an isolated detonation tube, after the detonation wave arrives at the exit plane, there will be a region of high pressure, which will gradually return to ambient pressure as an almost spherical shock wave expands away from the exit, and weakens. Initially, the flow is supersonic, unaffected by external pressure, but later becomes subsonic. Previous authors have accounted for this situation either by assuming the subsonic pressure decay to be a relaxation phenomenon, or by running a two-dimensional calculation first, including a domain external to the detonation tube, and using the resulting exit pressure temporal distribution as the boundary condition for one-dimensional calculations. These calculations show that the increased pressure does affect the PDE performance. In the present work, a simple model of the exit process is used to estimate the pressure decay time. The planar shock wave emerging from the tube is assumed to transform into a spherical shock wave. The initial strength of the spherical shock wave is determined from comparison with experimental results. Its subsequent propagation, and resulting pressure at the tube exit, is given by a numerical blast wave calculation. The model agrees reasonably well with other, limited, results. Finally, the model was used as the exit boundary condition for a one-dimensional calculation of PDE performance to obtain the thrust wall pressure for a hydrogen-air detonation in tubes of length to diameter ratio (L/D) of 4, and 10, as well as for the original, constant pressure boundary condition. The modified boundary condition had no performance impact for values of L/D > 10, and moderate impact for L/D = 4.

  19. Detonation properties of nitromethane/diethylenetriamine solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalova, V.; Utkin, A.; Lapin, S.

    2017-01-01

    The results of the experimental determination of the detonation parameters of nitromethane (NM) with diethylenetriamine (DETA) solution are presented in this work. With the using of a laser interferometer VISAR the stability of detonation waves, the detonation velocity and the reaction time at the concentration of DETA from 0 to 60 weight percentage were investigated. It is shown that the stability of detonation waves is retained up to 25% DETA, at that the characteristic reaction time is reduced by about half at the addition of several percentage of the sensitizer to NM and then remains almost constant. The increase of the detonation velocity in the vicinity of the small, about 0.1%, concentrations of sensitizer is recorded.

  20. Unsteady self-sustained detonation in flake aluminum dust/air mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Li, S.; Huang, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-07-01

    Self-sustained detonation waves in flake aluminum dust/air mixtures have been studied in a tube of diameter 199 mm and length 32.4 m. A pressure sensor array of 32 sensors mounted around certain circumferences of the tube was used to measure the shape of the detonation front in the circumferential direction and pressure histories of the detonation wave. A two-head spin detonation wave front was observed for the aluminum dust/air mixtures, and the cellular structure resulting from the spinning movement of the triple point was analyzed. The variations in velocity and overpressure of the detonation wave with propagation distance in a cell were studied. The interactions of waves in triple-point configurations were analyzed and the flow-field parameters were calculated. Three types of triple-point configuration have been found in the wave front of the detonation wave of an aluminum dust/air mixture. Both strong and weak transverse waves exist in the unstable self-sustained detonation wave.

  1. Detonation properties of the nitromethane/ diethylenetriamine solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalova, Valentina; Utkin, Alexander; Lapin, Sergey

    2015-06-01

    The results of the experimental determination of detonation parameters for the mixture of nitromethane (NM) with diethylenetriamine (DETA) are presented in this work. By the using of a laser interferometer VISAR the stability of detonation waves, detonation velocity and the reaction time with the change of the DETA concentration from 0 to 60 weight percentages were investigated. It is shown that detonation waves are stable up to 25% DETA, and the character reaction time is reduced from 50 ns up to 30 ns with the addition of a few percentages of the sensitizer and then remains almost the constant. With further increase of the DETA concentration the detonation front becomes unstable, and it results in an arising of pulsations with amplitude of 10 microns. The limit concentration of DETA, above which the detonation of the mixture was impossible, was determined. This concentration was equal to 60%. It is shown that the dependence of the detonation velocity on the DETA concentration is non-monotonic. In particular, the increase of detonation velocity in the vicinity of small concentrations of the sensitizer, about 0.1%, was recorded. The work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project 15-03-07830).

  2. Subnanosecond measurements of detonation fronts in solid high explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, S. A.; Bloomquist, D. D.; Tarver, C. M.

    1984-04-01

    Detonation fronts in solid high explosives have been examined through measurements of particle velocity histories resulting from the interaction of a detonation wave with a thin metal foil backed by a water window. Using a high time resolution velocity-interferometer system, experiments were conducted on three explosives—a TATB (1,3,5-triamino-trinitrobenzene)-based explosive called PBX-9502, TNT (2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene), and CP (2-{5-cyanotetrazolato} pentaamminecobalt {III} perchlorate). In all cases, detonation-front rise times were found to be less than the 300 ps resolution of the interferometer system. The thermodynamic state in the front of the detonation wave was estimated to be near the unreacted state determined from an extrapolation of low-pressure unreacted Hugoniot data for both TNT and PBX-9502 explosives. Computer calculations based on an ignition and growth model of a Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doering (ZND) detonation wave show good agreement with the measurements. By using the unreacted Hugoniot and a JWL equation of state for the reaction products, we estimated the initial reaction rate in the high explosive after the detonation wave front interacted with the foil to be 40 μs-1 for CP, 60 μs-1 for TNT, and 80 μs-1 for PBX-9502. The shape of the profiles indicates the reaction rate decreases as reaction proceeds.

  3. Equation of State for Detonation Product Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagayama, Kunihito; Kubota, Shiro

    2013-06-01

    Based on the empirical linear relationship between detonation velocity and loading density, an approximate description for the Chapman-Jouguet state for detonation product gases of solid phase high explosives has been developed. Provided that the Grüneisen parameter is a function only of volume, systematic and closed system of equations for the Grüneisen parameter and CJ volume have been formulated. These equations were obtained by combining this approximation with the Jones-Stanyukovich-Manson relation together with JWL isentrope for detonation of crystal density PETN. A thermodynamic identity between the Grüneisen parameter and another non-dimensional material parameter introduced by Wu and Jing can be used to derive the enthalpy-pressure-volume equation of state for detonation gases. This Wu-Jing parameter is found to be the ratio of the Grüneisen parameter and the adiabatic index. Behavior of this parameter as a function of pressure was calculated and revealed that their change with pressure is very gradual. By using this equation of state, several isentropes down from the Chapman-Jouguet states reached by four different lower initial density PETN have been calculated and compared with available cylinder expansion tests.

  4. The dependence of Ammonium-Nitrate Fuel-Oil (ANFO) detonation on confinement

    DOE PAGES

    Jackson, Scott I.

    2016-11-17

    As detonation is a coupled fluid-chemical process, flow divergence inside the detonation reaction zone can strongly influence detonation velocity and energy release. Such divergence is responsible for the diameter-effect and failure-diameter phenomena in condensed-phase explosives and particularly dominant in detonation of nonideal explosives such as Ammonium Nitrate and Fuel Oil (ANFO). In this study, the effect of reaction zone flow divergence on ANFO detonation was explored through variation of the inert confinement and explosive diameter in the rate-stick geometry with cylinder expansion experiments. New tests are discussed and compared to prior experiments. Presented results include the detonation velocity as amore » function of diameter and confinement, reaction zone times, detonation product isentropes and energies, as well as sonic surface pressures and velocities. Product energy densities and isentropes were found to increase with detonation velocity, indicating more complete chemical reaction with increased detonation velocity. In addition, detonation reaction zone times were found to scale with the acoustic transit time of the confiner wall and used to show that the ANFO diameter effect scaled with the reaction zone time for a particle along the flow centerline, regardless of the confinement. Such a result indicates that the ANFO reaction mechanisms are sufficiently slow that the centerline fluid expansion timescale is a limiting factor controlling detonation velocity and energy release.« less

  5. Helium in double-detonation models of type Ia supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Aoife; Sim, Stuart A.; Hachinger, Stephan; Kerzendorf, Wolfgang

    2017-03-01

    The double-detonation explosion model has been considered a candidate for explaining astrophysical transients with a wide range of luminosities. In this model, a carbon-oxygen white dwarf star explodes following detonation of a surface layer of helium. One potential signature of this explosion mechanism is the presence of unburned helium in the outer ejecta, left over from the surface helium layer. In this paper we present simple approximations to estimate the optical depths of important He I lines in the ejecta of double-detonation models. We use these approximations to compute synthetic spectra, including the He I lines, for double-detonation models obtained from hydrodynamical explosion simulations. Specifically, we focus on photospheric-phase predictions for the near-infrared 10 830 Å and 2 μm lines of He I. We first consider a double detonation model with a luminosity corresponding roughly to normal SNe Ia. This model has a post-explosion unburned He mass of 0.03 M⊙ and our calculations suggest that the 2 μm feature is expected to be very weak but that the 10 830 Å feature may have modest opacity in the outer ejecta. Consequently, we suggest that a moderate-to-weak He I 10 830 Å feature may be expected to form in double-detonation explosions at epochs around maximum light. However, the high velocities of unburned helium predicted by the model ( 19 000 km s-1) mean that the He I 10 830 Å feature may be confused or blended with the C I 10 690 Å line forming at lower velocities. We also present calculations for the He I 10 830 Å and 2 μm lines for a lower mass (low luminosity) double detonation model, which has a post-explosion He mass of 0.077 M⊙. In this case, both the He I features we consider are strong and can provide a clear observational signature of the double-detonation mechanism.

  6. Synthesis, Characterization, Detonation Performance, and DFT Calculation of HMX/PNO Cocrystal Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, He; Chen, Jian-Fu; Zhu, Shun-Guan; Li, Hong-Zhen; Huang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    A novel 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX)/pyridine-N-oxide (PNO) cocrystal at 1:1 molar ratio was synthesized by a solvent evaporation method, and its crystal structure was determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD). It crystallizes in the orthorhombic system with the Pbcn space group and cell parameters a = 12.712(3)Å, b = 9.315(3)Å, c = 12.909(3)Å. In addition, detonation performance of this cocrystal was estimated. The predicted detonation velocity and detonation pressure of this cocrystal are 7.47 km/s and 23.20 GPa, respectively, suggesting that it is less powerful than β-HMX. Finally, density functional theory, involving binding energy, atoms in molecule (AIM) theory, natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis, band structure, and density of states, was adopted to characterize the driving forces for the formation of this cocrystal. The results show that driving forces are dominated by the interactions between O atoms of PNO and methylene groups of HMX. It is expected that this research provides some bases for further HMX cocrystal design and preparation.

  7. Molecular simulations of Hugoniots of detonation product mixtures at chemical equilibrium: Microscopic calculation of the Chapman-Jouguet state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourasseau, Emeric; Dubois, Vincent; Desbiens, Nicolas; Maillet, Jean-Bernard

    2007-08-01

    In this work, we used simultaneously the reaction ensemble Monte Carlo (ReMC) method and the adaptive Erpenbeck equation of state (AE-EOS) method to directly calculate the thermodynamic and chemical equilibria of mixtures of detonation products on the Hugoniot curve. The ReMC method [W. R. Smith and B. Triska, J. Chem. Phys. 100, 3019 (1994)] allows us to reach the chemical equilibrium of a reacting mixture, and the AE-EOS method [J. J. Erpenbeck, Phys. Rev. A 46, 6406 (1992)] constrains the system to satisfy the Hugoniot relation. Once the Hugoniot curve of the detonation product mixture is established, the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state of the explosive can be determined. A NPT simulation at PCJ and TCJ is then performed in order to calculate direct thermodynamic properties and the following derivative properties of the system using a fluctuation method: calorific capacities, sound velocity, and Grüneisen coefficient. As the chemical composition fluctuates, and the number of particles is not necessarily constant in this ensemble, a fluctuation formula has been developed to take into account the fluctuations of mole number and composition. This type of calculation has been applied to several usual energetic materials: nitromethane, tetranitromethane, hexanitroethane, PETN, and RDX.

  8. Molecular simulations of Hugoniots of detonation product mixtures at chemical equilibrium: microscopic calculation of the Chapman-Jouguet state.

    PubMed

    Bourasseau, Emeric; Dubois, Vincent; Desbiens, Nicolas; Maillet, Jean-Bernard

    2007-08-28

    In this work, we used simultaneously the reaction ensemble Monte Carlo (ReMC) method and the adaptive Erpenbeck equation of state (AE-EOS) method to directly calculate the thermodynamic and chemical equilibria of mixtures of detonation products on the Hugoniot curve. The ReMC method [W. R. Smith and B. Triska, J. Chem. Phys. 100, 3019 (1994)] allows us to reach the chemical equilibrium of a reacting mixture, and the AE-EOS method [J. J. Erpenbeck, Phys. Rev. A 46, 6406 (1992)] constrains the system to satisfy the Hugoniot relation. Once the Hugoniot curve of the detonation product mixture is established, the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state of the explosive can be determined. A NPT simulation at P(CJ) and T(CJ) is then performed in order to calculate direct thermodynamic properties and the following derivative properties of the system using a fluctuation method: calorific capacities, sound velocity, and Gruneisen coefficient. As the chemical composition fluctuates, and the number of particles is not necessarily constant in this ensemble, a fluctuation formula has been developed to take into account the fluctuations of mole number and composition. This type of calculation has been applied to several usual energetic materials: nitromethane, tetranitromethane, hexanitroethane, PETN, and RDX.

  9. Detonation Velocity-Diameter Relation in Gelled Explosive with Inert Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Andrew; Loiseau, Jason; Mi, Xiaocheng

    2017-06-01

    The detonation velocity is measured in a gelled explosive that has been sensitized via the addition of glass microballoons (GMBs) and additionally diluted via the inclusion of large scale (300-700 micron) inert inclusions. The base explosive is nitromethane that has been gelled via the addition of poly(methyl methacrylate) and then sensitized via hot-spot inducing glass microballoons. Inert inclusions (e.g., glass, steel beads) are then added to the explosive to make a heterogeneous explosive with heterogeneities that are at a scale disparate from those of the microballoons. This system has the potential to be a synthetic explosive that can be tuned to have the properties of more complex commercial blasting agents. The velocity-diameter relation is studied using weak confinement (polyvinyl chloride) and time-of-arrival gages. The results are also used to further explore the phenomenon of anomalous scaling between axisymmetric charges (cylinders) and two-dimensional (slab) charges.

  10. Near-limit propagation of gaseous detonations in narrow annular channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Ng, H. D.; Lee, J. H. S.

    2017-03-01

    New results on the near-limit behaviors of gaseous detonations in narrow annular channels are reported in this paper. Annular channels of widths 3.2 and 5.9 mm were made using circular inserts in a 50.8 mm-diameter external tube. The length of each annular channel was 1.8 m. Detonations were initiated in a steel driver tube where a small volume of a sensitive C2H2+ 2.5O2 mixture was injected to facilitate detonation initiation. A 2 m length of circular tube with a 50.8 mm diameter preceded the annular channel so that a steady Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonation was established prior to entering the annular channel. Four detonable mixtures of C2H2 {+} 2.5O2 {+} 85 % Ar, C2H2 {+} 2.5O2 {+} 70 % Ar, C3H8 {+} 5O2, and CH4 {+} 2O2 were used in the present study. Photodiodes spaced 10 cm throughout the length of both the annular channel and circular tube were used to measure the detonation velocity. In addition, smoked foils were inserted into the annular channel to monitor the cellular structure of the detonation wave. The results show that, well within the detonability limits, the detonation wave propagates along the channel with a small local velocity fluctuation and an average global velocity can be deduced. The average detonation velocity has a small deficit of 5-15 % far from the limits and the velocity rapidly decreases to 0.7V_{CJ}-0.8V_{CJ} when the detonation propagates near the limit. Subsequently, the fluctuation of local velocity also increases as the decreasing initial pressure approaches the limit. In the two annular channels used in this work, no galloping detonations were observed for both the stable and unstable mixtures tested. The present study also confirms that single-headed spinning detonation occurs at the limit, as in a circular tube, rather than the up and down "zig zag" mode in a two-dimensional, rectangular channel.

  11. Detonation of Meta-stable Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, Allen; Kuhl, Allen L.; Fried, Laurence E.

    2008-05-31

    We consider the energy accumulation in meta-stable clusters. This energy can be much larger than the typical chemical bond energy (~;;1 ev/atom). For example, polymeric nitrogen can accumulate 4 ev/atom in the N8 (fcc) structure, while helium can accumulate 9 ev/atom in the excited triplet state He2* . They release their energy by cluster fission: N8 -> 4N2 and He2* -> 2He. We study the locus of states in thermodynamic state space for the detonation of such meta-stable clusters. In particular, the equilibrium isentrope, starting at the Chapman-Jouguet state, and expanding down to 1 atmosphere was calculated with the Cheetahmore » code. Large detonation pressures (3 and 16 Mbar), temperatures (12 and 34 kilo-K) and velocities (20 and 43 km/s) are a consequence of the large heats of detonation (6.6 and 50 kilo-cal/g) for nitrogen and helium clusters respectively. If such meta-stable clusters could be synthesized, they offer the potential for large increases in the energy density of materials.« less

  12. Time resolved small angle X-ray scattering experiments performed on detonating explosives at the advanced photon source: Calculation of the time and distance between the detonation front and the x-ray beam

    DOE PAGES

    Gustavsen, Richard L.; Dattelbaum, Dana Mcgraw; Watkins, Erik Benjamin; ...

    2017-03-10

    Time resolved Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) experiments on detonating explosives have been conducted at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Photon Source Dynamic Compression Sector. The purpose of the experiments is to measure the SAXS patterns at tens of ns to a few μs behind the detonation front. Corresponding positions behind the detonation front are of order 0.1–10 mm. From the scattering patterns, properties of the explosive products relative to the time behind the detonation front can be inferred. Lastly, this report describes how the time and distance from the x-ray probe location to the detonation front is calculated, as wellmore » as the uncertainties and sources of uncertainty associated with the calculated times and distances.« less

  13. Time resolved small angle X-ray scattering experiments performed on detonating explosives at the advanced photon source: Calculation of the time and distance between the detonation front and the x-ray beam

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavsen, Richard L.; Dattelbaum, Dana Mcgraw; Watkins, Erik Benjamin

    Time resolved Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) experiments on detonating explosives have been conducted at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Photon Source Dynamic Compression Sector. The purpose of the experiments is to measure the SAXS patterns at tens of ns to a few μs behind the detonation front. Corresponding positions behind the detonation front are of order 0.1–10 mm. From the scattering patterns, properties of the explosive products relative to the time behind the detonation front can be inferred. Lastly, this report describes how the time and distance from the x-ray probe location to the detonation front is calculated, as wellmore » as the uncertainties and sources of uncertainty associated with the calculated times and distances.« less

  14. Non-Ideal Detonation Properties of Ammonium Nitrate and Activated Carbon Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Atsumi; Echigoya, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Hidefumi; Ogawa, Terushige; Katoh, Katsumi; Kubota, Shiro; Wada, Yuji; Ogata, Yuji

    To obtain a better understanding of detonation properties of ammonium nitrate (AN) and activated carbon (AC) mixtures, steel tube tests with several diameters were carried out for various compositions of powdered AN and AC mixtures and the influence of the charge diameter on the detonation velocity was investigated. The results showed that the detonation velocity increased with the increase of the charge diameter. The experimentally observed values were far below the theoretically predicted values made by the thermodynamic CHEETAH code and they showed so-called non-ideal detonation. The extrapolated detonation velocity of stoichiometric composition to the infinite diameter showed a good agreement with the theoretical value.

  15. Effect of Aluminium Confinement on ANFO Detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Mark; Jackson, Scott; Kiyanda, Charles; Shinas, Mike; Hare, Steve; Briggs, Matt

    2013-06-01

    Detonations in confined non-ideal high explosives often have velocities below the confiner sound speed. The effect on detonation propagation of the resulting subsonic flow in the confiner (such as confiner stress waves traveling ahead of the main detonation front or upstream wall deflection into the HE) has yet to be fully understood. Previous work by Sharpe and Bdzil (J. Eng. Math, 2006) has shown that for subsonic confiner flow, there is no limiting thickness for which the detonation dynamics are uninfluenced by further increases in wall thickness. The critical parameters influencing detonation behavior are the wall thickness relative to the HE reaction zone size, and the difference in the detonation velocity and confiner sound speed. Additional possible outcomes of subsonic flow are that for increasing thickness, the confiner is increasingly deflected into the HE upstream of the detonation, and that for sufficiently thick confiners, the detonation speed could be driven up to the sound speed in the confiner. We report here on a further series of experiments in which a mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) is detonated in aluminum confiners with varying HE charge diameter and confiner thickness, and compare the results with the outcomes suggested by Sharpe and Bdzil.

  16. Predicting propagation limits of laser-supported detonation by Hugoniot analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamura, Kohei; Ofosu, Joseph A.; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Koizumi, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Termination conditions of a laser-supported detonation (LSD) wave were investigated using control volume analysis with a Shimada-Hugoniot curve and a Rayleigh line. Because the geometric configurations strongly affect the termination condition, a rectangular tube was used to create the quasi-one-dimensional configuration. The LSD wave propagation velocity and the pressure behind LSD were measured. Results reveal that the detonation states during detonation and at the propagation limit are overdriven detonation and Chapman-Jouguet detonation, respectively. The termination condition is the minimum velocity criterion for the possible detonation solution. Results were verified using pressure measurements of the stagnation pressure behind the LSD wave.

  17. Ability of thermochemical calculation to treat organic peroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmont, Antoine; Baudin, Gérard; Genetier, Marc

    2017-06-01

    Since 3 years, the CEA Gramat is developing a new thermochemical code, called SIAME, funded by DGA to help French defense industry at conceiving new explosives compositions. It enables the calculation of CJ detonation and deflagration points and combustion of explosives. The accuracy of the code has been checked on several compositions containing PETN, RDX, HMX, TNT, NTO. The error on the velocity of detonation is 3%. To enlarge the domain of validity of the code, organic peroxides have been considered. It is known that thermochemical simulation is in failure regarding compounds as simple as hydrogen peroxide. The computed velocity of detonation is 5720 m/s when shock planar impact gives 6150 m/s. The same discrepancy is found for TATP, with a calculated value at 5870 m/s when 5290 has been measured. Detonation velocity of TATP has been measured at two different densities. These velocities agree with other published values. A closer look at the enthalpy of formation of TATP has revealed that it comes from an article of 1932. Ab initio computations have given a totally different value, leading to better agreement with experiment.

  18. Precursor detonation wave development in ANFO due to aluminum confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Scott I; Klyanda, Charles B; Short, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Detonations in explosive mixtures of ammonium-nitrate-fuel-oil (ANFO) confined by aluminum allow for transport of detonation energy ahead of the detonation front due to the aluminum sound speed exceeding the detonation velocity. The net effect of this energy transport on the detonation is unclear. It could enhance the detonation by precompressing the explosive near the wall. Alternatively, it could decrease the explosive performance by crushing porosity required for initiation by shock compression or destroying confinement ahead of the detonation. At present, these phenomena are not well understood. But with slowly detonating, non-ideal high explosive (NIHE) systems becoming increasing prevalent, proper understandingmore » and prediction of the performance of these metal-confined NIHE systems is desirable. Experiments are discussed that measured the effect of this ANFO detonation energy transported upstream of the front by a 76-mm-inner-diameter aluminum confining tube. Detonation velocity, detonation-front shape, and aluminum response are recorded as a function of confiner wall thickness and length. Detonation shape profiles display little curvature near the confining surface, which is attributed to energy transported upstream modifying the flow. Average detonation velocities were seen to increase with increasing confiner thickness, while wavefront curvature decreased due to the stiffer, subsonic confinement. Significant radial sidewall tube motion was observed immediately ahead of the detonation. Axial motion was also detected, which interfered with the front shape measurements in some cases. It was concluded that the confiner was able to transport energy ahead of the detonation and that this transport has a definite effect on the detonation by modifying its characteristic shape.« less

  19. Detonation propagation in a high loss configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Scott I; Shepherd, Joseph E

    2009-01-01

    This work presents an experimental study of detonation wave propagation in tubes with inner diameters (ID) comparable to the mixture cell size. Propane-oxygen mixtures were used in two test section tubes with inner diameters of 1.27 mm and 6.35 mm. For both test sections, the initial pressure of stoichiometric mixtures was varied to determine the effect on detonation propagation. For the 6.35 mm tube, the equivalence ratio {phi} (where the mixture was {phi} C{sub 3}H{sub 8} + 50{sub 2}) was also varied. Detonations were found to propagate in mixtures with cell sizes as large as five times the diameter ofmore » the tube. However, under these conditions, significant losses were observed, resulting in wave propagation velocities as slow as 40% of the CJ velocity U{sub CJ}. A review of relevant literature is presented, followed by experimental details and data. Observed velocity deficits are predicted using models that account for boundary layer growth inside detonation waves.« less

  20. Synchro-ballistic recording of detonation phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Critchfield, R.R.; Asay, B.W.; Bdzil, J.B.

    1997-09-01

    Synchro-ballistic use of rotating-mirror streak cameras allows for detailed recording of high-speed events of known velocity and direction. After an introduction to the synchro-ballistic technique, this paper details two diverse applications of the technique as applied in the field of high-explosives research. In the first series of experiments detonation-front shape is recorded as the arriving detonation shock wave tilts an obliquely mounted mirror, causing reflected light to be deflected from the imaging lens. These tests were conducted for the purpose of calibrating and confirming the asymptotic Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) theory of Bdzil and Stewart. The phase velocities of themore » events range from ten to thirty millimeters per microsecond. Optical magnification is set for optimal use of the film`s spatial dimension and the phase velocity is adjusted to provide synchronization at the camera`s maximum writing speed. Initial calibration of the technique is undertaken using a cylindrical HE geometry over a range of charge diameters and of sufficient length-to-diameter ratio to insure a stable detonation wave. The final experiment utilizes an arc-shaped explosive charge, resulting in an asymmetric detonation-front record. The second series of experiments consists of photographing a shaped-charge jet having a velocity range of two to nine millimeters per microsecond. To accommodate the range of velocities it is necessary to fire several tests, each synchronized to a different section of the jet. The experimental apparatus consists of a vacuum chamber to preclude atmospheric ablation of the jet tip with shocked-argon back lighting to produce a shadow-graph image.« less

  1. Characterizing detonator output using dynamic witness plates

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Michael John; Adrian, Ronald J

    2009-01-01

    A sub-microsecond, time-resolved micro-particle-image velocimetry (PIV) system is developed to investigate the output of explosive detonators. Detonator output is directed into a transparent solid that serves as a dynamic witness plate and instantaneous shock and material velocities are measured in a two-dimensional plane cutting through the shock wave as it propagates through the solid. For the case of unloaded initiators (e.g. exploding bridge wires, exploding foil initiators, etc.) the witness plate serves as a surrogate for the explosive material that would normally be detonated. The velocity-field measurements quantify the velocity of the shocked material and visualize the geometry of themore » shocked region. Furthermore, the time-evolution of the velocity-field can be measured at intervals as small as 10 ns using the PIV system. Current experimental results of unloaded exploding bridge wire output in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) witness plates demonstrate 20 MHz velocity-field sampling just 300 ns after initiation of the wire.« less

  2. Eigenvalue Detonation of Combined Effects Aluminized Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capellos, Christos; Baker, Ernest; Balas, Wendy; Nicolich, Steven; Stiel, Leonard

    2007-06-01

    This paper reports on the development of theory and performance for recently developed combined effects aluminized explosives. Traditional high energy explosives used for metal pushing incorporate high loading percentages of HMX or RDX, whereas blast explosives incorporate some percentage of aluminum. However, the high blast explosives produce increased blast energies, with reduced metal pushing capability due to late time aluminum reaction. Metal pushing capability refers to the early volume expansion work produced during the first few volume expansions associated with cylinder wall velocities and Gurney energies. Our Recently developed combined effects aluminized explosives (PAX-29C, PAX-30, PAX-42) are capable of achieving excellent metal pushing and high blast energies. Traditional Chapman-Jouguet detonation theory does not explain the observed detonation states achieved by these combined effects explosives. This work demonstrates, with the use of cylinder expansion data and thermochemical code calculations (JAGUAR and CHEETAH), that eigenvalue detonation theory explains the observed behavior.

  3. Effect of Velocity of Detonation of Explosives on Seismic Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroujkova, A. F.; Leidig, M.; Bonner, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    We studied seismic body wave generation from four fully contained explosions of approximately the same yields (68 kg of TNT equivalent) conducted in anisotropic granite in Barre, VT. The explosions were detonated using three types of explosives with different velocities of detonation (VOD): Black Powder (BP), Ammonium Nitrate Fuel Oil/Emulsion (ANFO), and Composition B (COMP B). The main objective of the experiment was to study differences in seismic wave generation among different types of explosives, and to determine the mechanism responsible for these differences. The explosives with slow burn rate (BP) produced lower P-wave amplitude and lower corner frequency, which resulted in lower seismic efficiency (0.35%) in comparison with high burn rate explosives (2.2% for ANFO and 3% for COMP B). The seismic efficiency estimates for ANFO and COMP B agree with previous studies for nuclear explosions in granite. The body wave radiation pattern is consistent with an isotropic explosion with an added azimuthal component caused by vertical tensile fractures oriented along pre-existing micro-fracturing in the granite, although the complexities in the P- and S-wave radiation patterns suggest that more than one fracture orientation could be responsible for their generation. High S/P amplitude ratios and low P-wave amplitudes suggest that a significant fraction of the BP source mechanism can be explained by opening of the tensile fractures as a result of the slow energy release.

  4. Reduced detonation kinetics and detonation structure in one- and multi-fuel gaseous mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, P. A.; Trotsyuk, A. V.; Vasil'ev, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    Two-step approximate models of chemical kinetics of detonation combustion of (i) one-fuel (CH4/air) and (ii) multi-fuel gaseous mixtures (CH4/H2/air and CH4/CO/air) are developed for the first time. The models for multi-fuel mixtures are proposed for the first time. Owing to the simplicity and high accuracy, the models can be used in multi-dimensional numerical calculations of detonation waves in corresponding gaseous mixtures. The models are in consistent with the second law of thermodynamics and Le Chatelier’s principle. Constants of the models have a clear physical meaning. Advantages of the kinetic model for detonation combustion of methane has been demonstrated via numerical calculations of a two-dimensional structure of the detonation wave in a stoichiometric and fuel-rich methane-air mixtures and stoichiometric methane-oxygen mixture. The dominant size of the detonation cell, determines in calculations, is in good agreement with all known experimental data.

  5. Momentum and Heat Transfer Models for Detonation in Nitromethane with Metal Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripley, R. C.; Zhang, F.; Lien, F.-S.

    2009-12-01

    Models for momentum and heat exchange have been derived from the results of previous 3D mesoscale simulations of detonation in packed aluminum particles saturated with nitromethane, where the shock interaction timescale was resolved. In these models, particle acceleration and heating within the shock and detonation zone are expressed in terms of velocity and temperature transmission factors, which are a function of the metal to explosive density ratio, solid volume fraction and ratio of particle size to detonation zone thickness. These models are incorporated as source terms in the governing equations for continuum dense two-phase flow, and then applied to macroscopic simulation of detonation of nitromethane/aluminum in lightly-cased cylinders. Heterogeneous detonation features such as velocity deficit, enhanced pressure, and critical diameter effects are demonstrated. Various spherical particle diameters from 3-350 μm are utilized where most of the particles react in the expanding detonation products. Results for detonation velocity, pressure history, failure and U-shaped critical diameter behavior are compared to existing experiments.

  6. Synchro-ballistic recording of detonation phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critchfield, Robert R.; Asay, Blaine W.; Bdzil, John B.; Davis, William C.; Ferm, Eric N.; Idar, Deanne J.

    1997-12-01

    Synchro-ballistic use of rotating-mirror streak cameras allows for detailed recording of high-speed events of known velocity and direction. After an introduction to the synchro-ballistic technique, this paper details two diverse applications of the technique as applied in the field of high-explosives research. In the first series of experiments detonation-front shape is recorded as the arriving detonation shock wave tilts an obliquely mounted mirror, causing reflected light to be deflected from the imaging lens. These tests were conducted for the purpose of calibrating and confirming the asymptotic detonation shock dynamics (DSD) theory of Bdzil and Stewart. The phase velocities of the events range from ten to thirty millimeters per microsecond. Optical magnification is set for optimal use of the film's spatial dimension and the phase velocity is adjusted to provide synchronization at the camera's maximum writing speed. Initial calibration of the technique is undertaken using a cylindrical HE geometry over a range of charge diameters and of sufficient length-to- diameter ratio to insure a stable detonation wave. The final experiment utilizes an arc-shaped explosive charge, resulting in an asymmetric denotation-front record. The second series of experiments consists of photographing a shaped-charge jet having a velocity range of two to nine millimeters per microsecond. To accommodate the range of velocities it is necessary to fire several tests, each synchronized to a different section of the jet. The experimental apparatus consists of a vacuum chamber to preclude atmospheric ablation of the jet tip with shocked-argon back lighting to produce a shadow-graph image.

  7. Detonability of H/sub 2/-air-diluent mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Tieszen, S.R.; Sherman, M.P.; Benedick, W.B.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes the Heated Detonation Tube (HDT). Detonation cell width and velocity results are presented for H/sub 2/-air mixtures, undiluted and diluted with CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O for a range of H/sub 2/ concentration, initial temperature and pressure. The results show that the addition of either CO/sub 2/ or H/sub 2/O significantly increases the detonation cell width and hence reduces the detonability of the mixture. The results also show that the detonation cell width is reduced (detonability is increased) for increased initial temperature and/or pressure.

  8. A small-scale experiment using microwave interferometry to investigate detonation and shock-to-detonation transition in pressed TATB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renslow, Peter John

    A small-scale characterization test utilizing microwave interferometry was developed to dynamically measure detonation and run to detonation distance in explosives. The technique was demonstrated by conducting two experimental series on the well-characterized explosive triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB). In the first experiment series, the detonation velocity was observed at varying porosity. The velocity during TATB detonation matched well with predictions made using CHEETAH and an empirical relation from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The microwave interferometer also captured unsteady propagation of the reaction when a low density charge was near the failure diameter. In the second experiment series, Pop-plots were produced using data obtained from shock initiation of the TATB through a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) attenuator. The results compared well to wedge test data from LANL despite the microwave interferometer test being of substantially smaller scale. The results showed the test method is attractive for rapid characterization of new and improvised explosive materials.

  9. Momentum and Heat Transfer Models for Detonation in Nitromethane with Metal Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripley, Robert; Zhang, Fan; Lien, Fue-Sang

    2009-06-01

    Models for momentum and heat exchange have been derived from the results of previous 3D mesoscale simulations of detonation in packed aluminum particles saturated with nitromethane, where the shock interaction timescale was resolved. In these models, particle acceleration and heating within the shock and detonation zone have been expressed in terms of velocity and temperature transmission factors, which are a function of metal to explosive density ratio, metal volume fraction and ratio of particle size to detonation zone thickness. These models are incorporated as source terms in the governing equations for continuum dense two-phase flow and macroscopic simulation is then applied to detonation of nitromethane/aluminum in lightly-cased cylinders. Heterogeneous detonation features such as velocity deficit, enhanced pressure, and critical diameter effects are reproduced. Various spherical particle diameters from 3 -- 30 μm are utilized where most of the particles react in the expanding detonation products. Results for detonation velocity, pressure history, failure and U-shaped critical diameter behavior are compared to the existing experiments.

  10. On the theory of the propagation of detonation in gaseous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeldovich, Y B

    1950-01-01

    The existing theory of detonation is critically examined. It is shown that the considerations with which the steady value of the velocity of detonation is chosen are not convincing. In connection with the problem of the process of the chemical reaction in a detonation wave, the objections raised against the conceptions of Le Chatelier and Vieille of the 19th century with regard to the ignition of the gas by the shock wave are refuted. On the basis of this concept, it is possible to give a rigorous foundation for the existing method of computing the detonation velocity. The distributions of the temperature, the pressure, and the velocity in the detonation wave front as the chemical reaction proceeds, are considered. On the assumption of the absence of losses, the pure compression of the gas in the shock wave at the start of the chemical reaction develops a temperature that is near the temperature of combustion of the given mixture at constant pressure.

  11. Initiation of Gaseous Detonation by Conical Projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verreault, Jimmy

    Initiation and stabilization of detonation by hypersonic conical projectiles launched into combustible gas mixtures is investigated. This phenomenon must be understood for the design and optimization of specific hypersonic propulsion devices, such as the oblique detonation wave engine and the ram accelerator. The criteria for detonation initiation by a projectile is also related to fundamental aspects of detonation research, such as the requirement for direct initiation of a detonation by a blast wave. Experimental results of this problem also offer useful references for validation of numerical and theoretical modeling. Projectiles with cone half angles varying from 15° to 60° were launched into stoichiometric mixtures of hydrogen/oxygen with 70% argon dilution at initial pressures between 10 and 200 kPa. The projectiles were launched from a combustion-driven gas gun at velocities up to 2.2 km/s (corresponding to 133% of the Chapman Jouguet velocity). Pictures of the flowfields generated by the projectiles were taken via Schlieren photography. Five combustion regimes were observed about the projectile ranging from prompt and delayed oblique detonation wave formation, combustion instabilities, a wave splitting, and an inert shock wave. Two types of transition from the prompt oblique detonation wave regime to the inert shock regime were observed. The first (the delayed oblique detonation wave regime) showed an inert shock attached to the tip of the projectile followed by a sharp kink at the onset of an oblique detonation wave; this regime occurred by decreasing the cone angle at high mixture pressures. The second (the combustion instabilities regime) exhibited large density gradients due to combustion ignition and quenching phenomena; this regime occurred by decreasing the mixture pressure at large cone angles. A number of theoretical models were considered to predict critical conditions for the initiation of oblique detonations. The Lee-Vasiljev model agreed

  12. Laser-shocked energetic materials with metal additives: evaluation of detonation performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottfried, Jennifer; Bukowski, Eric

    A focused, nanosecond-pulsed laser with sufficient energy to exceed the breakdown threshold of a material generates a laser-induced plasma with high peak temperatures, pressures, and shock velocities. Depending on the laser parameters and material properties, nanograms to micrograms of material is ablated, atomized, ionized and excited in the laser-induced plasma. The subsequent shock wave expansion into the air above the sample has been monitored using high-speed schlieren imaging in a recently developed technique, laser-induced air shock from energetic materials (LASEM). The estimated detonation velocities using LASEM agree well with published experimental values. A comparison of the measured shock velocities for various energetic materials including RDX, DNTF, and LLM-172 doped with Al or B to the detonation velocities predicted by CHEETAH for inert or active metal participation demonstrates that LASEM has potential for predicting the early time participation of metal additives in detonation events. The LASEM results show that reducing the amount of hydrogen present in B formulations increases the resulting detonation velocities

  13. Laser-shocked energetic materials with metal additives: evaluation of chemistry and detonation performance.

    PubMed

    Gottfried, Jennifer L; Bukowski, Eric J

    2017-01-20

    A focused, nanosecond-pulsed laser has been used to ablate, atomize, ionize, and excite milligram quantities of metal-doped energetic materials that undergo exothermic reactions in the laser-induced plasma. The subsequent shock wave expansion in the air above the sample has been monitored using high-speed schlieren imaging in a recently developed technique, laser-induced air shock from energetic materials (LASEM). The method enables the estimation of detonation velocities based on the measured laser-induced air-shock velocities and has previously been demonstrated for organic military explosives. Here, the LASEM technique has been extended to explosive formulations with metal additives. A comparison of the measured laser-induced air-shock velocities for TNT, RDX, DNTF, and LLM-172 doped with Al or B to the detonation velocities predicted by the thermochemical code CHEETAH for inert or active metal participation demonstrates that LASEM has potential for predicting the early time (<10  μs) participation of metal additives in detonation events. The LASEM results show that while Al is mostly inert at early times in the detonation event (confirmed from large-scale detonation testing), B is active-and reducing the amount of hydrogen present during the early chemical reactions increases the resulting estimated detonation velocities.

  14. Detonation properties of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (DADNE).

    PubMed

    Trzciński, Waldemar A; Cudziło, Stanisław; Chyłek, Zbigniew; Szymańczyk, Leszek

    2008-09-15

    1,1-Diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (DADNE, FOX-7) is an explosive of current interest. In our work, an advanced study of detonation characteristics of this explosive was performed. DADNE was prepared and recrystallized on a laboratory scale. Some sensitivity and detonation properties of DADNE were determined. The detonation performance was established by measurements of the detonation wave velocity, detonation pressure and calorimetric heat of explosion as well as the accelerating ability. The JWL (Jones-Wilkins-Lee) isentrope and the constant-gamma isentrope for the detonation products of DADNE were also found.

  15. Ignition and growth modeling of detonation reaction zone experiments on single crystals of PETN and HMX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Bradley W.; Tarver, Craig M.

    2017-01-01

    It has long been known that detonating single crystals of solid explosives have much larger failure diameters than those of heterogeneous charges of the same explosive pressed or cast to 98 - 99% theoretical maximum density (TMD). In 1957, Holland et al. demonstrated that PETN single crystals have failure diameters of about 8 mm, whereas heterogeneous PETN charges have failure diameters of less than 0.5 mm. Recently, Fedorov et al. quantitatively determined nanosecond time resolved detonation reaction zone profiles of single crystals of PETN and HMX by measuring the interface particle velocity histories of the detonating crystals and LiF windows using a PDV system. The measured reaction zone time durations for PETN and HMX single crystal detonations were approximately 100 and 260 nanoseconds, respectively. These experiments provided the necessary data to develop Ignition and Growth (I&G) reactive flow model parameters for the single crystal detonation reaction zones. Using these parameters, the calculated unconfined failure diameter of a PETN single crystal was 7.5 +/- 0.5 mm, close to the 8 mm experimental value. The calculated failure diameter of an unconfined HMX single crystal was 15 +/- 1 mm. The unconfined failure diameter of an HMX single crystal has not yet been determined precisely, but Fedorov et al. detonated 14 mm diameter crystals confined by detonating a HMX-based plastic bonded explosive (PBX) without initially overdriving the HMX crystals.

  16. Simple Model for Detonation Energy and Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauderbach, Lisa M.; Souers, P. Clark

    2017-06-01

    A simple model is used to derive the Eyring equation for the size effect and detonation rate, which depends on a constant energy density. The rate derived from detonation velocities is then converted into a rate constant to be used in a reactive flow model. The rate might be constant if the size effect curve is straight, but the rate constant will change with the radius of the sample and cannot be a constant. This is based on many careful cylinder tests have been run recently on LX-17 with inner copper diameters ranging from 12.7 to 101.6 mm. Copper wall velocities at scaled displacements of 6, 12.5 and 19 mm equate to values at relative volumes of 2.4, 4.4 and 7.0. At each point, the velocities from 25.4 to 101.6 mm are constant within error whereas the 12.7 mm velocities are lower. Using the updated Gurney model, the energy densities at the three larger sizes are also constant. Similar behavior has been seen in LX-14, LX-04, and an 83% RDX mix. A rough saturation has also been in old ANFO data for diameters of 101.6 mm and larger. Although the energy densities saturate, the detonation velocities continue to increase with size. These observations suggest that maximum energy density is a constant for a given explosive of a given density. The correlation of energy density with detonation velocity is not good because the latter depends on the total energy of the sample. This work performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Detonation Processes USSR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1960-06-06

    scientists of various countries. The Investigators addressed themselves at once to the question as to what physical process causes combustion to...same values for the r poducts of com- bustion, D is the velocity of the detonation front AB, and w is the velocity of the products of com- ,bustton... mixed with oxi- dizer and mixture is preheated; 3 -- reaction zone; 4 -- products of combustion. Let us return to the single-headed spin and consider

  18. Detonation Characteristics of Plastic Explosives Based on Attractive Nitramines with Polyisobutylene and Poly(methyl methacrylate) Binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbeih, Ahmed; Pachman, Jiri; Zeman, Svatopluk; Vávra, Pavel; Trzciński, Waldemar A.; Akštein, zbyněk

    2012-10-01

    Four highly brisant nitramines, RDX (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane), HMX (1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane), BCHMX (cis-1,3,4,6-tetranitro-octahydroimidazo-[4,5-d]imidazole), and ɛ-HNIW (ɛ-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane), were studied as extruded plastic explosives bonded by two plastic matrices based on polyisobutylene (C4 matrix) and poly-methylmethacrylate (plasticized by dioctyl-adipate) binders. The detonation velocities, D, were measured experimentally. Detonation parameters were also calculated by means of the Kamlet and Jacobs method and CHEETAH and EXPLO5 codes. These detonation parameters showed that plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) based on BCHMX are more powerful explosives than those based on RDX. The Urizar coefficient for poly(methyl methacrylate) binder was also calculated.

  19. Detonation Shock Dynamics Calibration for Non-Ideal HE: ANFO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Mark; Salyer, Terry

    2009-06-01

    The detonation of ammonium nitrate (AN) and fuel-oil (FO) mixtures (ANFO) is significantly influenced by the properties of the AN (porosity, particle size, coating) and fuel-oil stoichiometry. We report on a new series of rate-stick experiments in cardboard confinement that highlight detonation front speed and curvature dependence on AN/FO stoichiometry and AN particle properties. Standard detonation velocity-curvature calibrations to the experimental data will be presented, as well as higher-order time-dependent detonation shock dynamics calibrations.

  20. Phase velocity enhancement of linear explosive shock tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, Jason; Serge, Matthew; Szirti, Daniel; Higgins, Andrew; Tanguay, Vincent

    2011-06-01

    Strong, high density shocks can be generated by sequentially detonating a hollow cylinder of explosives surrounding a thin-walled, pressurized tube. Implosion of the tube results in a pinch that travels at the detonation velocity of the explosive and acts like a piston to drive a shock into the gas ahead of it. In order to increase the maximum shock velocities that can be obtained, a phase velocity generator can be used to drag an oblique detonation wave along the gas tube at a velocity much higher than the base detonation velocity of the explosive. Since yielding and failure of the gas tube is the primary limitation of these devices, it is desirable to retain the dynamic confinement effects of a heavy-walled tamper without interfering with operation of the phase velocity generator. This was accomplished by cutting a slit into the tamper and introducing a phased detonation wave such that it asymmetrically wraps around the gas tube. This type of configuration has been previously experimentally verified to produce very strong shocks but the post-shock pressure and shock velocity limits have not been investigated. This study measured the shock trajectory for various fill pressures and phase velocities to ascertain the limiting effects of tube yield, detonation obliquity and pinch aspect ratio.

  1. Stability of cosmological detonation fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín

    2014-05-01

    The steady-state propagation of a phase-transition front is classified, according to hydrodynamics, as a deflagration or a detonation, depending on its velocity with respect to the fluid. These propagation modes are further divided into three types, namely, weak, Jouguet, and strong solutions, according to their disturbance of the fluid. However, some of these hydrodynamic modes will not be realized in a phase transition. One particular cause is the presence of instabilities. In this work we study the linear stability of weak detonations, which are generally believed to be stable. After discussing in detail the weak detonation solution, we consider small perturbations of the interface and the fluid configuration. When the balance between the driving and friction forces is taken into account, it turns out that there are actually two different kinds of weak detonations, which behave very differently as functions of the parameters. We show that the branch of stronger weak detonations are unstable, except very close to the Jouguet point, where our approach breaks down.

  2. Detonation mode and frequency analysis under high loss conditions for stoichiometric propane-oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Scott I.; Lee, Bok Jik; Shepherd, Joseph E.

    In this paper, the propagation characteristics of galloping detonations were quantified with a high-time-resolution velocity diagnostic. Combustion waves were initiated in 30-m lengths of 4.1-mm inner diameter transparent tubing filled with stoichiometric propane–oxygen mixtures. Chemiluminescence from the resulting waves was imaged to determine the luminous wave front position and velocity every 83.3 μ. As the mixture initial pressure was decreased from 20 to 7 kPa, the wave was observed to become increasingly unsteady and transition from steady detonation to a galloping detonation. While wave velocities averaged over the full tube length smoothly decreased with initial pressure down to half ofmore » the Chapman–Jouguet detonation velocity (D CJ) at the quenching limit, the actual propagation mechanism was seen to be a galloping wave with a cycle period of approximately 1.0 ms, corresponding to a cycle length of 1.3–2.0 m or 317–488 tube diameters depending on the average wave speed. The long test section length of 7300 tube diameters allowed observation of up to 20 galloping cycles, allowing for statistical analysis of the wave dynamics. In the galloping regime, a bimodal velocity distribution was observed with peaks centered near 0.4 D CJ and 0.95 D CJ. Decreasing initial pressure increasingly favored the low velocity mode. Galloping frequencies ranged from 0.8 to 1.0 kHz and were insensitive to initial mixture pressure. Wave deflagration-to-detonation transition and detonation failure trajectories were found to be repeatable in a given test and also across different initial mixture pressures. The temporal duration of wave dwell at the low and high velocity modes during galloping was also quantified. It was found that the mean wave dwell duration in the low velocity mode was a weak function of initial mixture pressure, while the mean dwell time in the high velocity mode depended exponentially on initial mixture pressure. Analysis of the velocity

  3. Detonation mode and frequency analysis under high loss conditions for stoichiometric propane-oxygen

    DOE PAGES

    Jackson, Scott I.; Lee, Bok Jik; Shepherd, Joseph E.

    2016-03-24

    In this paper, the propagation characteristics of galloping detonations were quantified with a high-time-resolution velocity diagnostic. Combustion waves were initiated in 30-m lengths of 4.1-mm inner diameter transparent tubing filled with stoichiometric propane–oxygen mixtures. Chemiluminescence from the resulting waves was imaged to determine the luminous wave front position and velocity every 83.3 μ. As the mixture initial pressure was decreased from 20 to 7 kPa, the wave was observed to become increasingly unsteady and transition from steady detonation to a galloping detonation. While wave velocities averaged over the full tube length smoothly decreased with initial pressure down to half ofmore » the Chapman–Jouguet detonation velocity (D CJ) at the quenching limit, the actual propagation mechanism was seen to be a galloping wave with a cycle period of approximately 1.0 ms, corresponding to a cycle length of 1.3–2.0 m or 317–488 tube diameters depending on the average wave speed. The long test section length of 7300 tube diameters allowed observation of up to 20 galloping cycles, allowing for statistical analysis of the wave dynamics. In the galloping regime, a bimodal velocity distribution was observed with peaks centered near 0.4 D CJ and 0.95 D CJ. Decreasing initial pressure increasingly favored the low velocity mode. Galloping frequencies ranged from 0.8 to 1.0 kHz and were insensitive to initial mixture pressure. Wave deflagration-to-detonation transition and detonation failure trajectories were found to be repeatable in a given test and also across different initial mixture pressures. The temporal duration of wave dwell at the low and high velocity modes during galloping was also quantified. It was found that the mean wave dwell duration in the low velocity mode was a weak function of initial mixture pressure, while the mean dwell time in the high velocity mode depended exponentially on initial mixture pressure. Analysis of the velocity

  4. Detonation Diffraction in a Multi-Step Channel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    openings. This allowed the detonation wave diffraction transmission limits to be determined for hydrogen/air mixtures and to better understand...imaging systems to provide shock wave detail and velocity information. The images were observed through a newly designed explosive proof optical section...stepped openings. This allowed the detonation wave diffraction transmission limits to be determined for hydrogen/air mixtures and to better

  5. The effect of detonation wave incidence angle on the acceleration of flyers by explosives heavily laden with inert additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, Jason; Georges, William; Frost, David L.; Higgins, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence angle of a detonation wave in a conventional high explosive influences the acceleration and terminal velocity of a metal flyer by increasing the magnitude of the material velocity imparted by the transmitted shock wave as the detonation is tilted towards normal loading. For non-ideal explosives heavily loaded with inert additives, the detonation velocity is typically subsonic relative to the flyer sound speed, leading to shockless accelerations when the detonation is grazing. Further, in a grazing detonation the particles are initially accelerated in the direction of the detonation and only gain velocity normal to the initial orientation of the flyer at later times due to aerodynamic drag as the detonation products expand. If the detonation wave in a non-ideal explosive instead strikes the flyer at normal incidence, a shock is transmitted into the flyer and the first interaction between the particle additives and the flyer occurs due to the imparted material velocity from the passage of the detonation wave. Consequently, the effect of incidence angle and additive properties may play a more prominent role in the flyer acceleration. In the present study we experimentally compared normal detonation loadings to grazing loadings using a 3-mm-thick aluminum slapper to impact-initiate a planar detonation wave in non-ideal explosive-particle admixtures, which subsequently accelerated a second 6.4-mm-thick flyer. Flyer acceleration was measured with heterodyne laser velocimetry (PDV). The explosive mixtures considered were packed beds of glass or steel particles of varying sizes saturated with sensitized nitromethane, and gelled nitromethane mixed with glass microballoons. Results showed that the primary parameter controlling changes in flyer velocity was the presence of a transmitted shock, with additive density and particle size playing only secondary roles. These results are similar to the grazing detonation experiments, however under normal loading the

  6. Evaluation of the Deuterium Isotope Effect in the Detonation of Aluminum Containing Explosives

    DOE PAGES

    Tappan, Bryce C.; Bowden, Patrick R.; Manner, Virginia W.; ...

    2017-12-04

    During or shortly after a detonation in condensed explosives, the reaction rates and the physical mechanism controlling aluminum reaction is poorly understood. We utilize the kinetic isotope effect to probe Al reactions in detonation product gases in aluminized, protonated and deuterated high explosives using high-fidelity detonation velocity and cylinder wall expansion velocity measurements. By observation of the profile of cylinder wall velocity versus time, we are able to determine the timing of aluminum contribution to energy release in product gases and observe the presence or absence of rate changes isotopic substitution. By comparison of the Al oxidation with lithium fluoridemore » (LiF), data indicate that Al oxidation occurs on an extremely fast time scale, with post-detonation kinetic isotope effects observed in carbon containing formulations.« less

  7. Evaluation of the Deuterium Isotope Effect in the Detonation of Aluminum Containing Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Tappan, Bryce C.; Bowden, Patrick R.; Manner, Virginia W.

    During or shortly after a detonation in condensed explosives, the reaction rates and the physical mechanism controlling aluminum reaction is poorly understood. We utilize the kinetic isotope effect to probe Al reactions in detonation product gases in aluminized, protonated and deuterated high explosives using high-fidelity detonation velocity and cylinder wall expansion velocity measurements. By observation of the profile of cylinder wall velocity versus time, we are able to determine the timing of aluminum contribution to energy release in product gases and observe the presence or absence of rate changes isotopic substitution. By comparison of the Al oxidation with lithium fluoridemore » (LiF), data indicate that Al oxidation occurs on an extremely fast time scale, with post-detonation kinetic isotope effects observed in carbon containing formulations.« less

  8. Detonation initiation of heterogeneous melt-cast high explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuzeville, V.; Baudin, G.; Lefrançois, A.; Genetier, M.; Barbarin, Y.; Jacquet, L.; Lhopitault, J.-L.; Peix, J.; Boulanger, R.; Catoire, L.

    2017-01-01

    2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is widely used in conventional and insensitive munitions as a fusible binder, commonly melt-cast with other explosives such as 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) or 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-one (NTO). In this paper, we study the shock-to-detonation transition phenomenon in two melt-cast high explosives (HE). We have performed plate impact tests on wedge samples to measure run-distance and time-to-detonation in order to establish the Pop-plot relation for several melt-cast HE. Highlighting the existence of the single curve buildup, we propose a two phase model based on a Zeldovich, Von-Neumann, Döring (ZND) approach where the deflagration fronts grow from the explosive grain boundaries. Knowing the grain size distribution, we calculate the deflagration velocities of the explosive charges as a function of shock pressure and explore the possible grain fragmentation.

  9. High-Speed Photography of Detonation Propagation in Dynamically Precompressed Liquid Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petel, O. E.; Higgins, A. J.; Yoshinaka, A. C.; Zhang, F.

    2007-12-01

    The propagation of detonation in shock-compressed nitromethane was observed with a high-speed framing camera. The test explosive, nitromethane, was compressed by a reverberating shock wave to pressures as high as 10 GPa prior to being detonated by a secondary detonation event. The pressure and density in the test explosive prior to detonation were determined using two methods: manganin stress gauge measurements and LS-DYNA simulations. The velocity of the detonation front was determined from consecutive frames and correlated to the density of the reverberating shock-compressed explosive prior to detonation. Observing detonation propagation under these non-ambient conditions provides data which can be useful in the validation of equation of state models.

  10. High-Speed Photography of Detonation Propagation in Dynamically Precompressed Liquid Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petel, Oren; Higgins, Andrew; Yoshinaka, Akio; Zhang, Fan

    2007-06-01

    The propagation of detonation in shock compressed nitromethane was observed with a high speed framing camera. The test explosive, nitromethane, was compressed by a reverberating shock wave to pressures on the order of 10 GPa prior to being detonated by a secondary detonation event. The pressure and density in the test explosive prior to detonation was determined using two methods: manganin strain gauge measurements and LS-DYNA simulations. The velocity of the detonation front was determined from consecutive frames and correlated to the density of the explosive post-reverberating shock wave and prior to being detonated. Observing detonation propagation under these non-ambient conditions provides data which can be useful in the validation of equation of state models.

  11. Development of an Actuator for Flow Control Utilizing Detonation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lonneman, Patrick J.; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2004-01-01

    Active flow control devices including mass injection systems and zero-net-mass flux actuators (synthetic jets) have been employed to delay flow separation. These devices are capable of interacting with low-speed, subsonic flows, but situations exist where a stronger crossflow interaction is needed. Small actuators that utilize detonation of premixed fuel and oxidizer should be capable of producing supersonic exit jet velocities. An actuator producing exit velocities of this magnitude should provide a more significant interaction with transonic and supersonic crossflows. This concept would be applicable to airfoils on high-speed aircraft as well as inlet and diffuser flow control. The present work consists of the development of a detonation actuator capable of producing a detonation in a single shot (one cycle). Multiple actuator configurations, initial fill pressures, oxidizers, equivalence ratios, ignition energies, and the addition of a turbulence generating device were considered experimentally and computationally. It was found that increased initial fill pressures and the addition of a turbulence generator aided in the detonation process. The actuators successfully produced Chapman-Jouguet detonations and wave speeds on the order of 3000 m/s.

  12. Detonation-to-shock wave transmission at a contact discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peace, J. T.; Lu, F. K.

    2018-02-01

    The one-dimensional interaction of a detonation wave with a contact discontinuity was investigated analytically and experimentally for oxyhydrogen detonations. The analytical and experimental results showed that the transmitted shock through the contact surface and into a non-combustible gas can either be amplified or attenuated depending on the reflection type at the contact surface and on the ratio of acoustic impedance across it. Experiments were performed with a detonation-driven shock tube facility to determine the transmitted shock velocity into a non-combustible He/air mixture. The oxyhydrogen equivalence ratio in the detonation section was varied from 0.5 to 1.5, and the driven section He mole fraction was varied from 0.0 to 1.0 to test a broad range of acoustic impedance ratios ranging from approximately 0.36 to 1.69. The analytical results were shown to have acceptable agreement with the measured transmitted shock wave velocity in the case of a reflected rarefaction from the contact surface. Additionally, the results indicated that the detonation wave reaction zone properties could have an important role that influences the transmitted shock properties in the case of a reflected shock from the contact surface.

  13. Detonator Performance Characterization using Multi-Frame Laser Schlieren Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Steven; Landon, Colin; Murphy, Michael; Martinez, Michael; Mason, Thomas; Thomas, Keith

    2009-06-01

    Multi-frame Laser Schlieren Imaging of shock waves produced by detonators in transparent witness materials can be used to evaluate detonator performance. We use inverse calculations of the 2D propagation of shock waves in the EPIC finite element model computer code to calculate a temporal-spatial-pressure profile on the surface of the detonator that is consistent with the experimental shock waves from the schlieren imaging. Examples of calculated 2D temporal-spatial-pressure profiles from a range of detonator types (EFI --exploding foil initiators, DOI -- direct optical initiation, EBW -- exploding bridge wire, hotwire), detonator HE materials (PETN, HMX, etc), and HE densities. Also pressure interaction profiles from the interaction of multiple shock waves will be shown. LA-UR-09-00909.

  14. [Research on diagnosis of gas-liquid detonation exhaust based on double optical path absortion spectroscopy technique].

    PubMed

    Lü, Xiao-Jing; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-Sheng

    2014-03-01

    The effect detection of detonation exhaust can provide measurement data for exploring the formation mechanism of detonation, the promotion of detonation efficiency and the reduction of fuel waste. Based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technique combined with double optical path cross-correlation algorithm, the article raises the diagnosis method to realize the on-line testing of detonation exhaust velocity, temperature and H2O gas concentration. The double optical path testing system is designed and set up for the valveless pulse detonation engine with the diameter of 80 mm. By scanning H2O absorption lines of 1343nm with a high frequency of 50 kHz, the on-line detection of gas-liquid pulse detonation exhaust is realized. The results show that the optical testing system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technique can capture the detailed characteristics of pulse detonation exhaust in the transient process of detonation. The duration of single detonation is 85 ms under laboratory conditions, among which supersonic injection time is 5.7 ms and subsonic injection time is 19.3 ms. The valveless pulse detonation engine used can work under frequency of 11 Hz. The velocity of detonation overflowing the detonation tube is 1,172 m x s(-1), the maximum temperature of detonation exhaust near the nozzle is 2 412 K. There is a transitory platform in the velocity curve as well as the temperature curve. H2O gas concentration changes between 0-7% during detonation under experimental conditions. The research can provide measurement data for the detonation process diagnosis and analysis, which is of significance to advance the detonation mechanism research and promote the research of pulse detonation engine control technology.

  15. Confined Detonations and Pulse Detonation Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    chemically reacting flow was described by the 2D Euler equations &q OF(q) +G(q) W (1) 75 CONFINED DETONATIONS AND PULSE DETONATION ENGINES where q = (p...DETONATIONS AND PULSE DETONATION ENGINES 5 CONCLUDING REMARKS Numerical investigations of RR and MR in a supersonic chemically reacting flows have...formalism of hetero- geneous medium mechanics supplemented with an overall chemical reaction was 141 CONFINED DETONATIONS AND PULSE DETONATION ENGINES

  16. Structure of the detonation wave front in a mixture of nitromethane with acetone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buravova, S. N.

    2012-09-01

    It is shown that the leading front of an inhomogeneous detonation wave is a shock wave in which wave structures of the type of triple shock configurations are moving. It was experimentally found that the reaction in these inhomogeneities occurs in oblique shock waves. The reaction sites at the wave front are ring-shaped. In a 75: 25 mixture of nitromethane with acetone, up to 70% of the front surface is occupied by the reaction at the sites in the wave front. Measurements of the mass velocity profile indicate that afterburning takes place in the unloading area behind the Jouguet plane. Calculations of the heat release in the reaction mixture with a decrease in the mass velocity indicate that the material that have not reacted in the inhomogeneities can be ignited in the induction zone. It is suggested that the adiabatic flashes are a mechanism that generates inhomogeneities in the detonation wave front.

  17. Experimental Measurements of the Chemical Reaction Zone of Detonating Liquid Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouyer, Viviane; Sheffield, Stephen A.; Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Gustavsen, Richard L.; Stahl, David B.; Doucet, Michel; Decaris, Lionel

    2009-12-01

    We have a joint project between CEA-DAM Le Ripault and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to study the chemical reaction zone in detonating high explosives using several different laser velocimetry techniques. The short temporal duration of the von Neumann spike and early part of the reaction zone make these measurements difficult. Here, we report results obtained from detonation experiments using VISAR (velocity interferometer system for any reflector) and PDV (photon Doppler velocimetry) methods to measure the particle velocity history at a detonating nitromethane/PMMA interface. Experiments done at CEA were high-explosive-plane-wave initiated and those at LANL were gas-gun-projectile initiated with a detonation run of about 6 charge diameters in all experiments. The experiments had either glass or brass confinement. Excellent agreement of the interface particle velocity measurements at both Laboratories were obtained even though the initiation methods and the velocimetry systems were somewhat different. Some differences were observed in the peak particle velocity because of the ˜2 ns time resolution of the techniques—in all cases the peak was lower than the expected von Neumann spike. This is thought to be because the measurements were not high enough time resolution to resolve the spike.

  18. Propagation of gaseous detonation waves in a spatially inhomogeneous reactive medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, XiaoCheng; Higgins, Andrew J.; Ng, Hoi Dick; Kiyanda, Charles B.; Nikiforakis, Nikolaos

    2017-05-01

    Detonation propagation in a compressible medium wherein the energy release has been made spatially inhomogeneous is examined via numerical simulation. The inhomogeneity is introduced via step functions in the reaction progress variable, with the local value of energy release correspondingly increased so as to maintain the same average energy density in the medium and thus a constant Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonation velocity. A one-step Arrhenius rate governs the rate of energy release in the reactive zones. The resulting dynamics of a detonation propagating in such systems with one-dimensional layers and two-dimensional squares are simulated using a Godunov-type finite-volume scheme. The resulting wave dynamics are analyzed by computing the average wave velocity and one-dimensional averaged wave structure. In the case of sufficiently inhomogeneous media wherein the spacing between reactive zones is greater than the inherent reaction zone length, average wave speeds significantly greater than the corresponding CJ speed of the homogenized medium are obtained. If the shock transit time between reactive zones is less than the reaction time scale, then the classical CJ detonation velocity is recovered. The spatiotemporal averaged structure of the waves in these systems is analyzed via a Favre-averaging technique, with terms associated with the thermal and mechanical fluctuations being explicitly computed. The analysis of the averaged wave structure identifies the super-CJ detonations as weak detonations owing to the existence of mechanical nonequilibrium at the effective sonic point embedded within the wave structure. The correspondence of the super-CJ behavior identified in this study with real detonation phenomena that may be observed in experiments is discussed.

  19. Determination of the effects of water adsorption on the sensitivity and detonation performance of the explosive JOB-9003 by molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Hang, GuiYun; Yu, WenLi; Wang, Tao; Li, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    In order to determine the adsorption mechanism of water on the crystal surfaces of the explosive JOB-9003 and the effect of this adsorption on the sensitivity and detonation performance of this explosive, a model of the crystal of JOB-9003 was created in the software package Materials Studio (MS). The adsorption process was simulated, and molecular dynamics simulation was performed with the COMPASS force field in the NPT ensemble to calculate the sensitivity and detonation performance of the explosive. The results show that the maximum trigger bond length decreases whereas the interaction energy of the trigger bond and the cohesive energy density increase after adsorption, indicating that the sensitivity of JOB-9003 decreases. The results for the detonation performance show that the detonation pressure, detonation velocity, and detonation heat decrease upon the adsorption of water, thus illustrating that the detonation performance of JOB-9003 is degraded. In summary, the adsorption of water has a positive effect on the sensitivity and safety of the explosive JOB-9003 but a negative effect on its detonation performance.

  20. Near-failure detonation behavior of vapor-deposited hexanitrostilbene (HNS) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knepper, Robert; Wixom, Ryan R.; Marquez, Michael P.; Tappan, Alexander S.

    2017-01-01

    Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) films were deposited onto polycarbonate substrates using vacuum thermal sublimation. The deposition conditions were varied in order to alter porosity in the films, and the resulting microstructures were quantified by analyzing ion-polished cross-sections using scanning electron microscopy. The effects of these changes in microstructure on detonation velocity and the critical thickness needed to sustain detonation were determined. The polycarbonate substrates also acted as recording plates for detonation experiments, and films near the critical thickness displayed distinct patterns in the dent tracks that indicate instabilities in the detonation front when approaching failure conditions.

  1. Detonation suppression in hydrogen-air mixtures using porous coatings on the walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bivol, G. Yu.; Golovastov, S. V.; Golub, V. V.

    2018-05-01

    We considered the problem of detonation suppression and weakening of blast wave effects occurring during the combustion of hydrogen-air mixtures in confined spaces. The gasdynamic processes during combustion of hydrogen, an alternative environmentally friendly fuel, were also considered. Detonation decay and flame propagation in hydrogen-air mixtures were experimentally investigated in rectangular cross-section channels with solid walls and two types of porous coatings: steel wool and polyurethane foam. Shock wave pressure dynamics inside the section with porous coating were studied using pressure sensors; flame front propagation was studied using photodiodes and high-speed camera visualization. For all mixtures, the detonation wave formed before entering the section with porous coating. For both porous materials, the steady detonation wave decoupled in the porous section of the channel into a shock wave and flame front propagating with a velocity around the Chapman-Jouguet acoustic velocity. By the end of the porous section, shock wave pressure reductions of 70 and 85% were achieved for the polyurethane foam and steel wool, respectively. The dependence of the flame velocity on the mixture composition (equivalence ratio) is presented.

  2. Detonation Velocity Measurements from a Digital High-speed Rotating-mirror Framing Camera

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2...The intense light emission produced throughout the energetic material detonation process, however, suggests the alternative use of optical measurement...edge, figure 1). As previously stated, the detonation wave position was typically measured as a result of its light emission . Here, however, it was

  3. Determination of detonation parameters for liquid High Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalova, Valentina; Utkin, Alexander

    2011-06-01

    The experimental investigation of detonation parameters and reaction zone structure in liquid HE (bis-(2-fluoro-2,2-dinitroethyl)formal (FEFO), tetranitromethane (TNM), nitromethane (NM)) was conducted. Detonation front in TNM and NM was stable while the instability of detonation in FEFO was observed. Von Neumann spike was recorded for these HE and its parameters were determined. The different methods for C-J point determination were used for each HE. For FEFO reaction time τ was found from experiments with different charge diameters (τ is approximately equal to 300 ns); for TNM - at fixed diameter and different lengths of charges (τ ~ 200 ns); for NM - at fixed diameter and length of charges, but detonation initiation was carried out by different explosive charges (τ ~ 50 ns). It was found that in TNM the detonation velocity depends on charge diameter. Maximum value of reaction rate in investigated liquid HE was observed after shock jump and induction time was not recorded.

  4. Determination of detonation parameters for liquid high explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalova, Valentina; Utkin, Alexander

    2012-03-01

    The experimental investigation of detonation parameters and reaction zone structure in liquid HE (bis-(2-fluoro-2,2-dinitroethyl)formal (FEFO), tetranitromethane (TNM), nitromethane (NM)) was conducted by means of laser interferometer VISAR. Detonation front in TNM and NM was stable while the instability of detonation in FEFO was observed. The parameters of Von Neumann spike were determined for these HE. The different methods for C-J point determination were used for each HE. For FEFO reaction time t was found from experiments with different charge diameters (τ is approximately equal to 300 ns); for TNM - at fixed diameter and different lengths of charges (τ ≈ 200 ns); for NM - at fixed diameter and length of charges, but detonation initiation was carried out by different explosive charges (τ ≈ 50 ns). It was found that in TNM the detonation velocity depends on charge diameter. Maximum value of reaction rate in investigated liquid HE was observed after shock jump.

  5. Using Schlieren Visualization to Track Detonator Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Steven; Thomas, Keith; Martinez, Michael; Akinci, Adrian; Murphy, Michael; Adrian, Ronald

    2007-06-01

    Several experiments that are part of a phased plan to understand the evolution of detonation in a detonator from initiation shock through run to detonation to full detonation to transition to booster and booster detonation will be presented. High Speed Laser Schlieren Movies have been used to study several explosive initiation events, such as exploding bridgewires (EBW), Exploding Foil Initiators (EFI) (or slappers), Direct Optical Initiation (DOI), and ElectroStatic Discharge (ESD). Additionally, a series of tests have been performed on ``cut-back'' detonators with varying initial pressing (IP) heights. We have also used this diagnostic to visualize a range of EBW, EFI, and DOI full-up detonators. Future applications to other explosive events such as boosters and IHE booster evaluation will be discussed. EPIC Hydrodynamic code has been used to analyze the shock fronts from the Schlieren images to reverse calculate likely boundary or initial conditions to determine the temporal-spatial pressure profile across the output face of the detonator. LA-UR-07-1229

  6. The delayed-detonation model of Type Ia supernovae. 2: The detonation phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnett, David; Livne, Eli

    1994-01-01

    The investigation, by use of two-dimensional numerical hydrodynamics simulations, of the 'delayed detonation' mechanism of Khokhlov for the explosion of Type Ia supernovae is continued. Previously we found that the deflagration is insufficient to unbind the star. Expansion shuts off the flame; much of this small production of iron group nuclei occurs at lower densities, which reduces the electron-capture problem. Because the degenerate star has an adiabatic exponent only slightly above 4/3, the energy released by deflagration drives a pulsation of large amplitude. During the first expansion phase, adiabatic cooling shuts off the burning, and a Rayleigh-Taylor instability then gives mixing of high-entropy ashes with low-entropy fuel. During the first contraction phase, compressional heating reignites the material. The burning was allowed to develop into a detonation in these nonspherical models. The detonation grows toward spherical symmetry at late times. At these densities (rho approx. 10(exp 7) to 10(exp 8) g cm(exp -3)), either Ni-56 or nuclei of the Si-Ca group are the dominant products of the burning. The bulk yields are sensitive to the density of the star when the transition to detonation occurs. The relevance of the abundances, velocities, mixing, and total energy release to the theory and interpretation of Type Ia supernovae is discussed.

  7. Experimental study of detonation of large-scale powder-droplet-vapor mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, C.-H.; Wang, Y.; Xue, K.; Wang, L.-F.

    2018-05-01

    Large-scale experiments were carried out to investigate the detonation performance of a 1600-m3 ternary cloud consisting of aluminum powder, fuel droplets, and vapor, which were dispersed by a central explosive in a cylindrically stratified configuration. High-frame-rate video cameras and pressure gauges were used to analyze the large-scale explosive dispersal of the mixture and the ensuing blast wave generated by the detonation of the cloud. Special attention was focused on the effect of the descending motion of the charge on the detonation performance of the dispersed ternary cloud. The charge was parachuted by an ensemble of apparatus from the designated height in order to achieve the required terminal velocity when the central explosive was detonated. A descending charge with a terminal velocity of 32 m/s produced a cloud with discernably increased concentration compared with that dispersed from a stationary charge, the detonation of which hence generates a significantly enhanced blast wave beyond the scaled distance of 6 m/kg^{1/3}. The results also show the influence of the descending motion of the charge on the jetting phenomenon and the distorted shock front.

  8. Impulse generation by detonation tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Marcia Ann

    Impulse generation with gaseous detonation requires conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy. This conversion process is well understood in rocket engines where the high pressure combustion products expand through a nozzle generating high velocity exhaust gases. The propulsion community is now focusing on advanced concepts that utilize non-traditional forms of combustion like detonation. Such a device is called a pulse detonation engine in which laboratory tests have proven that thrust can be achieved through continuous cyclic operation. Because of poor performance of straight detonation tubes compared to conventional propulsion systems and the success of using nozzles on rocket engines, the effect of nozzles on detonation tubes is being investigated. Although previous studies of detonation tube nozzles have suggested substantial benefits, up to now there has been no systematic investigations over a range of operating conditions and nozzle configurations. As a result, no models predicting the impulse when nozzles are used exist. This lack of data has severely limited the development and evaluation of models and simulations of nozzles on pulse detonation engines. The first experimental investigation measuring impulse by gaseous detonation in plain tubes and tubes with nozzles operating in varying environment pressures is presented. Converging, diverging, and converging-diverging nozzles were tested to determine the effect of divergence angle, nozzle length, and volumetric fill fraction on impulse. The largest increases in specific impulse, 72% at an environment pressure of 100 kPa and 43% at an environment pressure of 1.4 kPa, were measured with the largest diverging nozzle tested that had a 12° half angle and was 0.6 m long. Two regimes of nozzle operation that depend on the environment pressure are responsible for these increases and were first observed from these data. To augment this experimental investigation, all data in the literature regarding

  9. Equations of state of detonation products: ammonia and methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, John; Dattelbaum, Dana; Goodwin, Peter; Garcia, Daniel; Coe, Joshua; Leiding, Jeffery; Gibson, Lloyd; Bartram, Brian

    2015-06-01

    Ammonia (NH3) and methane (CH4) are two principal product gases resulting from explosives detonation, and the decomposition of other organic materials under shockwave loading (such as foams). Accurate thermodynamic descriptions of these gases are important for understanding the detonation performance of high explosives. However, shock compression data often do not exist for molecular species in the dense gas phase, and are limited in the fluid phase. Here, we present equation of state measurements of elevated initial density ammonia and methane gases dynamically compressed in gas-gun driven plate impact experiments. Pressure and density of the shocked gases on the principal Hugoniot were determined from direct particle velocity and shock wave velocity measurements recorded using optical velocimetry (Photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) and VISAR (velocity interferometer system for any reflector)). Streak spectroscopy and 5-color pyrometry were further used to measure the emission from the shocked gases, from which the temperatures of the shocked gases were estimated. Up to 0.07 GPa, ammonia was not observed to ionize, with temperature remaining below 7000 K. These results provide quantitative measurements of the Hugoniot locus for improving equations of state models of detonation products.

  10. Sub-Chandrasekhar-mass White Dwarf Detonations Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ken J.; Kasen, Daniel; Miles, Broxton J.; Townsley, Dean M.

    2018-02-01

    The detonation of a sub-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf (WD) has emerged as one of the most promising Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) progenitor scenarios. Recent studies have suggested that the rapid transfer of a very small amount of helium from one WD to another is sufficient to ignite a helium shell detonation that subsequently triggers a carbon core detonation, yielding a “dynamically driven double-degenerate double-detonation” SN Ia. Because the helium shell that surrounds the core explosion is so minimal, this scenario approaches the limiting case of a bare C/O WD detonation. Motivated by discrepancies in previous literature and by a recent need for detailed nucleosynthetic data, we revisit simulations of naked C/O WD detonations in this paper. We disagree to some extent with the nucleosynthetic results of previous work on sub-Chandrasekhar-mass bare C/O WD detonations; for example, we find that a median-brightness SN Ia is produced by the detonation of a 1.0 {M}ȯ WD instead of a more massive and rarer 1.1 {M}ȯ WD. The neutron-rich nucleosynthesis in our simulations agrees broadly with some observational constraints, although tensions remain with others. There are also discrepancies related to the velocities of the outer ejecta and light curve shapes, but overall our synthetic light curves and spectra are roughly consistent with observations. We are hopeful that future multidimensional simulations will resolve these issues and further bolster the dynamically driven double-degenerate double-detonation scenario’s potential to explain most SNe Ia.

  11. Detonation energies of explosives by optimized JCZ3 procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiel, Leonard I.; Baker, Ernest L.

    1998-07-01

    Procedures for the detonation properties of explosives have been extended for the calculation of detonation energies at adiabatic expansion conditions. The use of the JCZ3 equation of state with optimized Exp-6 potential parameters leads to lower errors in comparison to JWL detonation energies than for other methods tested.

  12. Influence of propane additives on the detonation characteristics of H2-air mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guanbing; Bauer, Pascal; Zitoun, Ratiba

    2014-03-01

    Hydrogen is more and more considered as a potential fuel for propulsion applications. However, due to its low ignition energy and wide flammability limits, H2-air mixtures raise a concern in terms of safety. This aspect can be partly solved by adding an alkane to these mixtures, which plays the role of an inhibitor. The present paper provides data on such binary fuel-air mixtures where various amounts of propane are added to hydrogen. The behavior of the corresponding mixtures, in terms of detonation characteristics and other fundamental properties, such as the cell size of the detonation front and induction delay, are presented and discussed for a series of equivalence ratios and propane addition. The experimental detonation velocity is in good agreement with calculated theoretical Chapman-Jouguet values. Based on soot tracks records, the cell size λ is measured, whereas the induction length L i is derived from data using a GRI-Mech kinetic mechanism. These data allow providing a value of the coefficient K = λ/L i .

  13. Kinetic calculations of explosives with slow-burning constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, W. Michael; Souers, P. Clark; Fried, Laurence E.

    1998-07-01

    The equilibrium thermochemical code CHEETAH V1.40 has been modified to detonate part of the explosive and binder. An Einstein thermal description of the unreacted constituents is used, and the Einstein temperature may be increased to reduce heat absorption. We study the effect of the reactivity and thermal transport on the detonation velocity. Hydroxy-terminated-polybutadiene binders have low energy and density and would degrade the detonation velocity if they burned. Runs with unburned binder are closer to the measured values. Aluminum and ammonium perchlorate are also largely unburned within the sonic reaction zone that determines the detonation velocity. All three materials appear not to fully absorb heat as well. The normal assumption of total reaction in a thermochemical code is clearly not true for these special cases, where the detonation velocities have widely different values for different combinations of processes.

  14. Explosively generated shock wave processing of metal powders by instrumented detonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A. D.; Sharma, A. K.; Thakur, N.

    2013-06-01

    The highest pressures generated by dynamic processes resulting either from high velocity impact or by spontaneous release of high energy rate substances in direct contact with a metal find superior applications over normal mechanical means. The special feature of explosive loading to the powder materials over traditional methods is its controlled detonation pressure which directly transmits shock energy to the materials which remain entrapped inside powder resulting into several micro-structural changes and hence improved mechanical properties. superalloy powders have been compacted nearer to the theoretical density by shock wave consolidation. In a single experimental set-up, compaction of metal powder and measurement of detonation velocity have been achieved successfully by using instrumented detonics. The thrust on the work is to obtain uniform, crack-free and fracture-less compacts of superalloys having intact crystalline structure as has been examined from FE-SEM, XRD and mechanical studies. Shock wave processing is an emerging technique and receiving much attention of the materials scientists and engineers owing to its excellent advantages over traditional metallurgical methods due to short processing time, scaleup advantage and controlled detonation pressure.

  15. Effects of Fuel Distribution on Detonation Tube Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, H. Douglas; Sung, Chih-Jen

    2003-01-01

    A pulse detonation engine uses a series of high frequency intermittent detonation tubes to generate thrust. The process of filling the detonation tube with fuel and air for each cycle may yield non-uniform mixtures. Uniform mixing is commonly assumed when calculating detonation tube thrust performance. In this study, detonation cycles featuring idealized non-uniform Hz/air mixtures were analyzed using a two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code with detailed chemistry. Mixture non-uniformities examined included axial equivalence ratio gradients, transverse equivalence ratio gradients, and partially fueled tubes. Three different average test section equivalence ratios were studied; one stoichiometric, one fuel lean, and one fuel rich. All mixtures were detonable throughout the detonation tube. Various mixtures representing the same average test section equivalence ratio were shown to have specific impulses within 1% of each other, indicating that good fuel/air mixing is not a prerequisite for optimal detonation tube performance under conditions investigated.

  16. Ignition and growth reactive flow modeling of recent HMX/TATB detonation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarver, Craig M.

    2017-01-01

    Two experimental studies in which faster HMX detonation waves produced oblique detonation waves in adjoining slower detonating TATB charges were modeled using the Ignition and Growth (I&G) reactive flow detonation model parameters for PBX 9501 (95% HMX / 2.5% Estane / 2.5% BDNPA/F) and PBX 9502 (95% TATB / 5% Kel-F binder). Matignon et al. used X1 explosive (96% HMX / 4% binder) to drive an oblique detonation wave into an attached charge of T2 explosive (97% TATB / 3% binder). The flow angles were measured in the T2 shock initiation region and in steady T2 detonation. Anderson et al. used detonating PBX 9501 slabs of various thicknesses ranging from 0.56 mm to 2.5 mm to create oblique detonation waves in 8 mm thick slabs of PBX 9502. Several diagnostics were employed to: photograph the waves; measure detonation velocities and flow angles; and determine the output of the PBX 9501 slabs, the PBX 9502 slabs, and the "initiation regions" using LiF windows and PDV probes.

  17. Calculating the Velocity in the Moss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womebarger, Amy R.; Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen

    2011-01-01

    The velocity of the warm (1 MK) plasma in the footpoint of the hot coronal loops (commonly called moss) could help discriminate between different heating frequencies in the active region core. Strong velocities would indicated low-frequency heating, while velocities close to zero would indicate high-frequency heating. Previous results have found disparaging observations, with both strong velocities and velocities close to zero reported. Previous results are based on observations from Hinode/EIS. The wavelength arrays for EIS spectra are typically calculated by assuming quiet Sun velocities are zero. In this poster, we determine the velocity in the moss using observations with SoHO/SUMER. We rely on neutral or singly ionized spectral lines to determine accurately the wavelength array associated with the spectra. SUMER scanned the active region twice, so we also report the stability of the velocity.

  18. Simulation of detonation of ammonium nitrate fuel oil mixture confined by aluminum: edge angles for DSD

    SciTech Connect

    Short, Mark; Quirk, James J; Kiyanda, Charles B

    2010-01-01

    Non-ideal high explosives are typically porous, low-density materials with a low detonation velocity (3--5 km/s) and long detonation reaction zone ({approx} cms). As a result, the interaction of a non-ideal high explosive with an inert confiner can be markedly different than for a conventional high explosive. Issues arise, for example, with light stiff confiners where the confiner can drive the high explosive (HE) through a Prandtl-Meyer fan at the HE/confiner interface rather than the HE driving the confiner. For a non-ideal high explosive confined by a high sound speed inert such that the detonation velocity is lower than the inertmore » sound speed, the flow is subsonic and thus shockless in the confiner. In such cases, the standard detonation shock dynamics methodology, which requires a positive edge-angle be specified at the HE/confiner interface in order that the detonation shape be divergent, cannot be directly utilized. In order to study how detonation shock dynamics can be utilized in such cases, numerical simulations of the detonation of ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO) confined by aluminum 6061 are conducted.« less

  19. Effects of Fuel Distribution on Detonation Tube Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Hugh Douglas

    2002-01-01

    A pulse detonation engine (PDE) uses a series of high frequency intermittent detonation tubes to generate thrust. The process of filling the detonation tube with fuel and air for each cycle may yield non-uniform mixtures. Lack of mixture uniformity is commonly ignored when calculating detonation tube thrust performance. In this study, detonation cycles featuring idealized non-uniform H2/air mixtures were analyzed using the SPARK two-dimensional Navier-Stokes CFD code with 7-step H2/air reaction mechanism. Mixture non-uniformities examined included axial equivalence ratio gradients, transverse equivalence ratio gradients, and partially fueled tubes. Three different average test section equivalence ratios (phi), stoichiometric (phi = 1.00), fuel lean (phi = 0.90), and fuel rich (phi = 1.10), were studied. All mixtures were detonable throughout the detonation tube. It was found that various mixtures representing the same test section equivalence ratio had specific impulses within 1 percent of each other, indicating that good fuel/air mixing is not a prerequisite for optimal detonation tube performance.

  20. Theoretical analysis of rotating two phase detonation in a rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, I.; Adamson, T. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Tangential mode, non-linear wave motion in a liquid propellant rocket engine is studied, using a two phase detonation wave as the reaction model. Because the detonation wave is followed immediately by expansion waves, due to the side relief in the axial direction, it is a Chapman-Jouguet wave. The strength of this wave, which may be characterized by the pressure ratio across the wave, as well as the wave speed and the local wave Mach number, are related to design parameters such as the contraction ratio, chamber speed of sound, chamber diameter, propellant injection density and velocity, and the specific heat ratio of the burned gases. In addition, the distribution of flow properties along the injector face can be computed. Numerical calculations show favorable comparison with experimental findings. Finally, the effects of drop size are discussed and a simple criterion is found to set the lower limit of validity of this strong wave analysis.

  1. Laser diode initiated detonators for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewick, David W.; Graham, J. A.; Hawley, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    Ensign Bickford Aerospace Company (EBAC) has over ten years of experience in the design and development of laser ordnance systems. Recent efforts have focused on the development of laser diode ordnance systems for space applications. Because the laser initiated detonators contain only insensitive secondary explosives, a high degree of system safety is achieved. Typical performance characteristics of a laser diode initiated detonator are described in this paper, including all-fire level, function time, and output. A finite difference model used at EBAC to predict detonator performance, is described and calculated results are compared to experimental data. Finally, the use of statistically designed experiments to evaluate performance of laser initiated detonators is discussed.

  2. Detonation wave compression in gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, A.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of the concept of augmenting the performance of low pressure ratio gas turbines by detonation wave compression of part of the flow. The concept exploits the constant volume heat release of detonation waves to increase the efficiency of the Brayton cycle. In the models studied, a fraction of the compressor output was channeled into detonation ducts where it was processed by transient transverse detonation waves. Gas dynamic studies determined the maximum cycling frequency of detonation ducts, proved that upstream propagation of pressure pulses represented no problems and determined the variations of detonation duct output with time. Mixing and wave compression were used to recombine the combustor and detonation duct flows and a concept for a spiral collector to further smooth the pressure and temperature pulses was presented as an optional component. The best performance was obtained with a single firing of the ducts so that the flow could be re-established before the next detonation was initiated. At the optimum conditions of maximum frequency of the detonation ducts, the gas turbine efficiency was found to be 45 percent while that of a corresponding pressure ratio 5 conventional gas turbine was only 26%. Comparable improvements in specific fuel consumption data were found for gas turbines operating as jet engines, turbofans, and shaft output machines. Direct use of the detonation duct output for jet propulsion proved unsatisfactory. Careful analysis of the models of the fluid flow phenomena led to the conclusion that even more elaborate calculations would not diminish the uncertainties in the analysis of the system. Feasibility of the concept to work as an engine now requires validation in an engineering laboratory experiment.

  3. The ignition of carbon detonations via converging shock waves in white dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Ken J.; Bildsten, Lars, E-mail: kenshen@astro.berkeley.edu, E-mail: bildsten@kitp.ucsb.edu

    2014-04-10

    The progenitor channel responsible for the majority of Type Ia supernovae is still uncertain. One emergent scenario involves the detonation of a He-rich layer surrounding a C/O white dwarf, which sends a shock wave into the core. The quasi-spherical shock wave converges and strengthens at an off-center location, forming a second, C-burning, detonation that disrupts the whole star. In this paper, we examine this second detonation of the double detonation scenario using a combination of analytic and numeric techniques. We perform a spatially resolved study of the imploding shock wave and outgoing detonation and calculate the critical imploding shock strengthsmore » needed to achieve a core C detonation. We find that He detonations in recent two-dimensional simulations yield converging shock waves that are strong enough to ignite C detonations in high-mass C/O cores, with the caveat that a truly robust answer requires multi-dimensional detonation initiation calculations. We also find that convergence-driven detonations in low-mass C/O cores and in O/Ne cores are harder to achieve and are perhaps unrealized in standard binary evolution.« less

  4. Near-Failure Detonation Behavior of Vapor-Deposited Hexanitrostilbene (HNS) Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knepper, Robert; Wixom, Ryan; Tappan, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Physical vapor deposition is an attractive method to produce sub-millimeter explosive samples for studying detonation behavior at near-failure conditions. In this work, we examine hexanitrostilbene (HNS) films deposited onto polycarbonate substrates using vacuum thermal sublimation. Deposition conditions are varied in order to alter porosity in the films, and the resulting microstructures are quantified by analyzing ion-polished cross-sections using scanning electron microscopy. The effects of these changes in microstructure on detonation velocity and the critical thickness needed to sustain detonation are determined. The polycarbonate substrates can act as recording plates for detonation experiments, and films near the critical thickness display distinct patterns in the dent tracks that indicate instabilities in the detonation front when approaching failure conditions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  5. Detonation control

    DOEpatents

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.

    2016-10-25

    Detonation control modules and detonation control circuits are provided herein. A trigger input signal can cause a detonation control module to trigger a detonator. A detonation control module can include a timing circuit, a light-producing diode such as a laser diode, an optically triggered diode, and a high-voltage capacitor. The trigger input signal can activate the timing circuit. The timing circuit can control activation of the light-producing diode. Activation of the light-producing diode illuminates and activates the optically triggered diode. The optically triggered diode can be coupled between the high-voltage capacitor and the detonator. Activation of the optically triggered diode causes a power pulse to be released from the high-voltage capacitor that triggers the detonator.

  6. The Physical Effects of Detonation in a Closed Cylindrical Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, C S

    1935-01-01

    Detonation in the internal-combustion engine is studied as a physical process. It is shown that detonation is accompanied by pressure waves within the cylinder charge. Sound theory is applied to the calculation of resonant pressure-wave frequencies. Apparatus is described for direct measurement of pressure-wave frequencies. Frequencies determined from two engines of different cylinder sizes are shown to agree with the values calculated from sound theory. An outline of the theoretically possible modes of vibration in a right circular cylinder with flat ends is included. An appendix by John P. Elting gives a method of calculating pressure in the sound wave following detonation.

  7. Detonator Performance Characterization Using Multi-Frame Laser Schlieren Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, S. A.; Landon, C. D.; Murphy, M. J.; Martinez, M. E.; Mason, T. A.; Thomas, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    Several experiments that are part of a phased plan to understand the evolution of detonation in a detonator from initiation shock through run to detonation to full detonation to transition to booster and booster detonation will be presented. High speed laser schlieren movies have been used to study several explosive initiation events, such as exploding bridgewires (EBW), exploding foil initiators (EFI) (or slappers), direct optical initiation (DOI), and electrostatic discharge (ESD). Additionally, a series of tests have been performed on "cut-back" detonators with varying initial pressing (IP) heights. We have also used this diagnostic to visualize a range of EBW, EFI, and DOI full-up detonators. Future applications to other explosive events such as boosters and IHE booster evaluation will be discussed. The EPIC hydrodynamic code has been used to analyze the shock fronts from the schlieren images to reverse calculate likely boundary or initial conditions to determine the temporal-spatial pressure profile across the output face of the detonator. LA-UR-05099

  8. Structure and characteristics of heterogeneous detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, J. A.; Sichel, M.; Kauffman, C. W.

    1983-09-01

    The emphasis of this research program centered around the structure of heterogeneous detonation waves, inasmuch as this had been found to be very important to the detonation characteristics of heterogeneous mixtures. On the experimental side, a vertical detonation tube was used wherein liquid fuel drops, all of one size, were generated at the top of the tube and allowed to fall vertically into the desired gaseous mixture. A strong blast wave was transmitted into the mixture through use of an auxiliary shock tube. The propagation of the resultant wave was monitored by pressure switches, pressure transducers, and photography. The low vapor pressure liquid fuel, decane (400 micrometer drop size) was used for most of the experiments. Attention was given to wave structure, wave velocity, and initiation energy. Three atmospheres (100% O2; 40% O2/60% N2; and air) and a number of equivalence ratios were investigated. Holographic pictures and streak photography were employed to study the drop shattering process and the structure of the front. Other experiments investigated the addition of the sensitizer, normal propyl nitrate (NPN), to the decane. The important aspect of vapor pressure was studied by heating the entire tube to various elevated temperatures and then noting the effect on detonability.

  9. Material properties effects on the detonation spreading and propagation of diaminoazoxyfurazan (DAAF)

    SciTech Connect

    Francois, Elizabeth Green; Morris, John S; Novak, Alan M

    2010-01-01

    Recent dynamic testing of Diaminoazoxyfurazan (DAAF) has focused on understanding the material properties affecting the detonation propagation, spreading, behavior and symmetry. Small scale gap testing and wedge testing focus on the sensitivity to shock with the gap test including the effects of particle size and density. Floret testing investigates the detonation spreading as it is affected by particle size, density, and binder content. The polyrho testing illustrates the effects of density and binder content on the detonation velocity. Finally the detonation spreading effect can be most dramatically seen in the Mushroom and Onionskin tests where the variations due to densitymore » gradients, pressing methods and geometry can be seen on the wave breakout behavior.« less

  10. Dynamics of High Sound-Speed Metal Confiners Driven By Non-Ideal High-Explosive Detonation

    DOE PAGES

    Short, Mark; Jackson, Scott I.

    2015-01-23

    Here, the results of 14 tests examining the behavior of aluminum (Al) conifners driven by non-ideal ANFO detonation in a cylinder test configuration are presented. In each test, the measured detonation phase velocity is slower than the aluminum sound speed. Thus, in the detonation reference frame, the ow in the Al is both shockless and subsonic. The tests involve: 3-inch inner diameter (ID) cylinders with Al wall thicknesses of 1/4, 3/8, 1/2, 1 and 2 inches; a 4-inch ID cylinder with a 1/2-inch Al wall thickness; and 6-inch ID cylinders with Al wall thicknesses of 1/2, 1 and 2 inches.more » The ANFO detonation velocity is seen to increase with increasing wall thickness for both the 3- and 6-inch ID tests, with no limiting velocity reached for the wall thicknesses used. The motion of the outer Al wall due to precursor elastic waves in the Al running ahead of the detonation is also measured at various axial locations along the cylinders. It is found that the magnitude of the outer wall motion due to the precursor elastic waves is small, while the associated wall motion is unsteady and decays in amplitude as the elastic disturbances move further ahead of the detonation front. The variations in the expansion history of the main outer wall motion of the cylinders are presented for increasing wall thickness at fixed ID, and for increasing cylinder inner diameter at a fixed wall thickness. Finally, we also explore the existence of a geometric similarity scaling of the wall expansion history for three geometrically scaled tests (3- and 6-inch ID cylinders with 1/4- and 1/2-inch walls respectively, 3- and 6-inch ID cylinders with 1/2- and 1-inch walls and 3- and 6-inch ID cylinders with 1- and 2-inch walls respectively). We find that the wall velocity histories for each of the three scaled tests, when plotted directly against time relative to start of main motion of the wall, are similar over a certain range of wall velocities without any geometric based rescaling in time

  11. Dynamics of High Sound-Speed Metal Confiners Driven By Non-Ideal High-Explosive Detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Short, Mark; Jackson, Scott I.

    Here, the results of 14 tests examining the behavior of aluminum (Al) conifners driven by non-ideal ANFO detonation in a cylinder test configuration are presented. In each test, the measured detonation phase velocity is slower than the aluminum sound speed. Thus, in the detonation reference frame, the ow in the Al is both shockless and subsonic. The tests involve: 3-inch inner diameter (ID) cylinders with Al wall thicknesses of 1/4, 3/8, 1/2, 1 and 2 inches; a 4-inch ID cylinder with a 1/2-inch Al wall thickness; and 6-inch ID cylinders with Al wall thicknesses of 1/2, 1 and 2 inches.more » The ANFO detonation velocity is seen to increase with increasing wall thickness for both the 3- and 6-inch ID tests, with no limiting velocity reached for the wall thicknesses used. The motion of the outer Al wall due to precursor elastic waves in the Al running ahead of the detonation is also measured at various axial locations along the cylinders. It is found that the magnitude of the outer wall motion due to the precursor elastic waves is small, while the associated wall motion is unsteady and decays in amplitude as the elastic disturbances move further ahead of the detonation front. The variations in the expansion history of the main outer wall motion of the cylinders are presented for increasing wall thickness at fixed ID, and for increasing cylinder inner diameter at a fixed wall thickness. Finally, we also explore the existence of a geometric similarity scaling of the wall expansion history for three geometrically scaled tests (3- and 6-inch ID cylinders with 1/4- and 1/2-inch walls respectively, 3- and 6-inch ID cylinders with 1/2- and 1-inch walls and 3- and 6-inch ID cylinders with 1- and 2-inch walls respectively). We find that the wall velocity histories for each of the three scaled tests, when plotted directly against time relative to start of main motion of the wall, are similar over a certain range of wall velocities without any geometric based rescaling in time

  12. Equations of state for explosive detonation products: The PANDA model

    SciTech Connect

    Kerley, G.I.

    1994-05-01

    This paper discusses a thermochemical model for calculating equations of state (EOS) for the detonation products of explosives. This model, which was first presented at the Eighth Detonation Symposium, is available in the PANDA code and is referred to here as ``the Panda model``. The basic features of the PANDA model are as follows. (1) Statistical-mechanical theories are used to construct EOS tables for each of the chemical species that are to be allowed in the detonation products. (2) The ideal mixing model is used to compute the thermodynamic functions for a mixture of these species, and the composition ofmore » the system is determined from assumption of chemical equilibrium. (3) For hydrocode calculations, the detonation product EOS are used in tabular form, together with a reactive burn model that allows description of shock-induced initiation and growth or failure as well as ideal detonation wave propagation. This model has been implemented in the three-dimensional Eulerian code, CTH.« less

  13. Effect of slow energy releasing on divergent detonation of Insensitive High Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaomian; Pan, Hao; Huang, Yong; Wu, Zihui

    2014-03-01

    There exists a slow energy releasing (SER) process in the slow reaction zone located behind the detonation wave due to the carbon cluster in the detonation products of Insensitive High Explosives (IHEs), and the process will affect the divergent detonation wave's propagation and the driving process of the explosives. To study the potential effect, a new artificial burn model including the SER process based on the programmed burn model is proposed in the paper. Quasi-steady analysis of the new model indicates that the nonlinearity of the detonation speed as a function of front curvature owes to the significant change of the reaction rate and the reaction zone length at the sonic state. What's more, in simulating the detonation of IHE JB-9014, the new model including the slow reaction can predict a slower jump-off velocity, in good agreement with the result of the test.

  14. Flowfield characterization and model development in detonation tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Zachary Clark

    A series of experiments and numerical simulations are performed to advance the understanding of flowfield phenomena and impulse generation in detonation tubes. Experiments employing laser-based velocimetry, high-speed schlieren imaging and pressure measurements are used to construct a dataset against which numerical models can be validated. The numerical modeling culminates in the development of a two-dimensional, multi-species, finite-rate-chemistry, parallel, Navier-Stokes solver. The resulting model is specifically designed to assess unsteady, compressible, reacting flowfields, and its utility for studying multidimensional detonation structure is demonstrated. A reduced, quasi-one-dimensional model with source terms accounting for wall losses is also developed for rapid parametric assessment. Using these experimental and numerical tools, two primary objectives are pursued. The first objective is to gain an understanding of how nozzles affect unsteady, detonation flowfields and how they can be designed to maximize impulse in a detonation based propulsion system called a pulse detonation engine. It is shown that unlike conventional, steady-flow propulsion systems where converging-diverging nozzles generate optimal performance, unsteady detonation tube performance during a single-cycle is maximized using purely diverging nozzles. The second objective is to identify the primary underlying mechanisms that cause velocity and pressure measurements to deviate from idealized theory. An investigation of the influence of non-ideal losses including wall heat transfer, friction and condensation leads to the development of improved models that reconcile long-standing discrepancies between predicted and measured detonation tube performance. It is demonstrated for the first time that wall condensation of water vapor in the combustion products can cause significant deviations from ideal theory.

  15. Ignition-and-Growth Modeling of NASA Standard Detonator and a Linear Shaped Charge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oguz, Sirri

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to quantitatively investigate the ignition and shock sensitivity of NASA Standard Detonator (NSD) and the shock wave propagation of a linear shaped charge (LSC) after being shocked by NSD flyer plate. This combined explosive train was modeled as a coupled Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) model with LS-DYNA hydro code. An ignition-and-growth (I&G) reactive model based on unreacted and reacted Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equations of state was used to simulate the shock initiation. Various NSD-to-LSC stand-off distances were analyzed to calculate the shock initiation (or failure to initiate) and detonation wave propagation along the shaped charge. Simulation results were verified by experimental data which included VISAR tests for NSD flyer plate velocity measurement and an aluminum target severance test for LSC performance verification. Parameters used for the analysis were obtained from various published data or by using CHEETAH thermo-chemical code.

  16. Comparison of detonation spreading in pressed ultra-fine and nano-TATB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olles, Joseph; Wixom, Ryan; Knepper, Robert; Yarrington, Cole; Patel, Rajen; Stepanov, Victor

    2017-06-01

    Detonation spreading behavior in insensitive high explosives is an important performance characteristic for initiation-train design. In the past, several variations of the floret test have been used to study this phenomenon. Commonly, dent blocks or multi-fiber optical probes were employed for reduced cost and complexity. We devised a floret-like test, using minimal explosive material, to study the detonation spreading in nano-TATB as compared to ultra-fine TATB. Our test uses a streak camera, combined with photonic Doppler velocimetry, to image the breakout timing and quantify the output particle velocity. The TATB acceptor pellets are initiated using an explosively-driven aluminum flyer with a well characterized velocity. We characterized the two types of TATB by assessing purity, particle morphology, and the microstructure of the consolidated pellets. Our results align with published data for ultra-fine TATB, however the nano-TATB shows a distinct difference where output has a strong dependence on density. The results indicate that control over pellet pore size and pressing density may be used to optimize detonation spreading behavior.

  17. Experimental Measurements of the Chemical Reaction Zone of Detonating Liquid Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouyer, Viviane; Sheffield, Stephen A.; Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Gustavsen, Richard L.; Stahl, David B.; Doucet, Michel

    2009-06-01

    We have a joint project between CEA-DAM Le Ripault and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to study the chemical reaction zone in detonating high explosives using several different laser velocimetry techniques. The short temporal duration of the features (von Neumann spike and sonic locus) of the reaction zone make these measurements difficult. Here, we report results obtained from using and PDV (photon Doppler velocimetry) methods to measure the particle velocity history at a detonating HE (nitromethane)/PMMA interface. Experiments done at CEA were high-explosive-plane-wave initiated and those at LANL were gas-gun-projectile initiated with a detonation run of about 6 charge diameters in all experiments, in either glass or brass confinement. Excellent agreement of the interface particle velocity measurements at both Laboratories were obtained even though the initiation systems and the velocimetry systems were different. Some differences were observed in the von Neumann spike height because of the approximately 2 nanosecond time resolution of the techniques -- in some or all cases the spike top was truncated.

  18. Equation of State of Detonation Products for TNT by Aquarium Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yong

    2017-06-01

    During explosive detonation, the detonation pressure (P) and temperature (T) will decay quickly with the expansion of detonation products, and the damage effect is determined by the thermodynamic state of detonation products under high pressure. The traditional and important method for calibrating the parameters of thermodynamic state is cylinder test, but the results showed that when the cylinder expanded to a certain distance, the cylinder wall would break up and the detonation products would jet out, which would affect the accuracy of the calibration parameters of thermodynamic state. In this paper, the aquarium technique was used to study the detonation product thermodynamic state of TNT explosive, obtaining the shock wave track under the water and the trace of the interface between water and detonation products in the specific position with the high speed rotating mirror camera. By thermodynamic calculation program BKW and VHL, the parameters of equation of state were obtained. Using the parameters and the dynamic software LS-DYNA, the underwater explosion of TNT was simulated. Comparison with experimental results shows that the thermodynamic state parameters which is calculated by VHL is more accurate than that of BKW. It is concluded that the aquarium test is a more effective method to calibrate the thermodynamic state than cylinder test.

  19. Detonation re-initiation in a concentric tube arrangement for C_2H_2/O_2/Ar mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Lee, J. H. S.; Weng, C.

    2017-05-01

    Re-initiation of detonation in a concentric tube arrangement where a detonation exiting from a small diameter inner tube to a large diameter outer tube has been investigated. The outer tube diameter D is 50.8 mm and inner tube diameters d are 38, 25.4, and 12.7 mm giving diameter ratios D/d=1.34, 2, and 4. Stoichiometric C_2H_2-O_2 mixtures with argon dilution of 0, 25, 50, and 70% are used in the present study. Velocity measurements are made using photodiodes, and smoked foils downstream of the exit of the inner tube are also used to record the re-initiation process. Upon exit from the inner tube, the detonation suffers an abrupt decrease in velocity and at critical conditions, the velocity downstream of the exit is of the order of 50% of the Chapman-Jouguet velocity. It is found that re-initiation generally occurs within 10 tube diameters downstream of the exit. If re-initiation is not successful, the detonation continues to propagate at a low velocity for distances of the order of 30 tube diameters without any indication of flame acceleration of deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT). Thus, the re-initiation process is clearly defined and distinct from the usual DDT in a smooth tube. The critical d/λ value ratio in the concentric tube is significantly lower than the usual unconfined case of d/λ =13 where λ is the detonation cell size. Thus, it is a result of re-initiation at the Mach stem of the reflected shock from the wall of the outer concentric tube. If re-initiation is not successful upon the first reflection, then subsequent multiple reflections at the tube axis and wall of the outer tube can also result in re-initiation. However, this is only observed for undiluted mixtures. For high-argon-diluted mixtures, re-initiation only occurs at the Mach stem of the first reflection.

  20. Characterization of Detonation Products of RSI-007 Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ager, Timothy; Neel, Christopher; Chhabildas, Lalit

    2011-06-01

    PDV and VISAR have been employed to characterize the detonation products of a production quality RSI-007 explosive. The explosive was part of an exploding foil initiator (EFI) detonator assembly in which the explosive was contained within a Kovar (Fe-Ni-Co alloy) cup. The free surface of the Kovar serves as the witness plate for the interferometry measurements. Detailed shock reverberations are recorded on the witness plate and the isentropic release path of the explosive is inferred though the velocity history. Two separate window materials are bonded to the Kovar cup in subsequent experiments and are used to further determine the release state in different pressure regimes. Presenter

  1. Characterization of detonation products of RSI-007 explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ager, Timothy; Neel, Christopher; Breaux, Bradley; Vineski, Christopher; Welle, Eric; Lambert, David; Chhabildas, Lalit

    2012-03-01

    PDV and VISAR have been employed to characterize the detonation products of a high-purity CL-20 based explosive. The explosive was part of an exploding foil initiator (EFI) detonator assembly in which the explosive was contained within a Kovar (Fe-Ni-Co alloy) cup. The back surface of the Kovar serves as the witness plate for interferometry measurements. Detailed reverberations corresponding to shock arrival and release are recorded on the witness plate and the isentropic release path of the explosive is inferred though the velocity history. Two separate window materials are bonded to the Kovar cup in subsequent experiments and are used to further refine the release states.

  2. The stabilization of unstable detonation waves for the mixture of nitromethane/methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utkin, A. V.; Koldunov, S. A.; Mochalova, V. M.; Torunov, S. I.; Lapin, S. M.

    2015-11-01

    Using a laser interferometer VISAR the measurements of the particle velocity profiles in detonation waves for nitromethane/methanol mixtures with additions of a sensitizer diethylenetriamine were conducted. It is shown that the detonation front in a mixture of nitromethane/methanol is unstable and sensitizer is an effective method for the flow stabilization. If the diluent concentration is less than 10%, the detonation front is stabilized by adding of 1% diethylenetriamine. At higher concentrations of methanol, the sensitizer does not reject instability, but the amplitude of oscillations decreases in several times. An increase of the limit concentration of methanol at the addition of diethylenetriamine to the mixture was found.

  3. Controlled Detonation Dynamics in Additively Manufactured High Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalzer, Andrew; Tappan, Bryce; Bowden, Patrick; Manner, Virginia; Clements, Brad; Menikoff, Ralph; Ionita, Axinte; Branch, Brittany; Dattelbaum, Dana; Espy, Michelle; Patterson, Brian; Wu, Ruilian; Mueller, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    The effect of structure in explosives has long been a subject of interest to explosives engineers and scientists. Through structure, detonation dynamics in explosives can be manipulated, introducing a new level of safety and directed performance into these previously difficult to control materials. New advances in additive manufacturing (AM) allow the deliberate introduction of exact internal structures at dimensions approaching the mesoscale of these energetic materials. We show through simulation and experiment that this structure can be used to control detonation behavior by manipulating complex shockwave interactions. We use high-speed video and shorting mag-wires to determine the detonation velocity in AM generated explosive structures, demonstrating, for the first time, a method of controlling the directional propagation of reactive flow through the controlled introduction of structure within a high explosive. With ongoing improvement in the AM methods available coupled with guidance through modeling and simulations, more complex interactions are being explored. LANL LDRD Office.

  4. Photographic investigation into the mechanism of combustion in irregular detonation waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyanda, C. B.; Higgins, A. J.

    2013-03-01

    Irregular detonations are supersonic combustion waves in which the inherent multi-dimensional structure is highly variable. In such waves, it is questionable whether auto-ignition induced by shock compression is the only combustion mechanism present. Through the use of high-speed schlieren and self-emitted light photography, the velocity of the different components of detonation waves in a {{ CH}}_4+2{ O}_2 mixture is analyzed. The observed burn-out of unreacted pockets is hypothesized to be due to turbulent combustion.

  5. Development of a Gas-Fed Pulse Detonation Research Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Hutt, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In response to the growing need for empirical data on pulse detonation engine performance and operation, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has developed and placed into operation a low-cost gas-fed pulse detonation research engine. The guiding design strategy was to achieve a simple and flexible research apparatus, which was inexpensive to build and operate. As such, the engine was designed to operate as a heat sink device, and testing was limited to burst-mode operation with run durations of a few seconds. Wherever possible, maximum use was made of standard off-the-shelf industrial or automotive components. The 5-cm diameter primary tube is about 90-cm long and has been outfitted with a multitude of sensor and optical ports. The primary tube is fed by a coaxial injector through an initiator tube, which is inserted directly into the injector head face. Four auxiliary coaxial injectors are also integrated into the injector head assembly. All propellant flow is controlled with industrial solenoid valves. An automotive electronic ignition system was adapted for use, and spark plugs are mounted in both tubes so that a variety of ignition schemes can be examined. A microprocessor-based fiber-optic engine control system was developed to provide precise control over valve and ignition timing. Initial shakedown testing with hydrogen/oxygen mixtures verified the need for Schelkin spirals in both the initiator and primary tubes to ensure rapid development of the detonation wave. Measured pressure wave time-of-flight indicated detonation velocities of 2.4 km/sec and 2.2 km/sec in the initiator and primary tubes, respectively. These values implied a fuel-lean mixture corresponding to an H2 volume fraction near 0.5. The axial distribution for the detonation velocity was found to be essentially constant along the primary tube. Time-resolved thrust profiles were also acquired for both underfilled and overfilled tube conditions. These profiles are consistent with previous time

  6. The Ignition of Two Phase Detonation by a Branching Detonation Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Cha; Qiu, Hua; Lu, Qinwei

    2017-11-01

    A branching tube is available to deliver sufficient energy to directly initiate a detonation wave. But sustaining the detonation wave through a branching tube is a challenge. In this study, a preliminary exploration about a branching pulsed detonation engine with a gas-liquid mixture was carried out to evaluate filling conditions on detonation initiation. Two detonation tubes were connected by three different schemes, such as Tail-Tail, Tail-Mid, and Tail-Head. Experimental results showed only end-head connected tubes can be ignited by the branching tube, which is quite different from the results using gas fuels or pre-evaporated liquid fuel. Liquid fuel distribution is crucial for successful detonation traveling through the branching tube.

  7. The Experimental Study about the Effect of Operating Conditions on Multi-tube Pulse Detonation Engine Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Min; Han, Hyung-Seok; Choi, Jeong-Yeol

    2018-04-01

    This study examines a multi-tube pulse detonation engine (PDE) which has a type of constant volume combustion. We designed and made the multi-tube PDE and then conducted an experiment in various operating frequencies and equivalence ratios. First, experiments with operating frequencies of 40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 Hz resulted in an average thrust and specific impulse 23.14 N and 42.34 s. The next experiment resulted in the equivalence ratio varying from 0.81 to 1.38, which resulted in an average thrust and specific impulse 22.36 N and 40.11 s. The average detonation velocity was 8% lower than that calculated according to C-J theory. The incidence ratios of the detonation wave were stable with the exception of the operating frequency of 200 Hz. However, at 200 Hz, the incidence ratio was less than 50%. We assumed that a low fill fraction occurred for this problem. The thrust of the PDE increased with the operating frequency. However, the thrust increase was at a lower rate than in previous studies, because of a lost thrust output result from the slow response time of the load cell amplifier.

  8. Characterizing the growth to detonation in HNS with small-scale PDV "cutback" experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wixom, Ryan R.; Yarrington, Cole D.; Knepper, Robert; Tappan, Alexander S.; Olles, Joseph D.; Damm, David L.

    2017-01-01

    For many decades, cutback experiments have been used to characterize the equation of state and growth to steady detonation in explosive formulations. More recently, embedded gauges have been used to capture the growth to steady detonation in gas-gun impacted samples. Data resulting from these experiments are extremely valuable for parameterizing equation of state and reaction models used in hydrocode simulations. Due to the extremely fast growth to detonation in typical detonator explosives, cutback and embedded gauge experiments are particularly difficult, if not impossible. Using frequency shifted photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) we have measured particle velocity histories from vapor-deposited explosive films impacted with electrically driven flyers. By varying the sample thickness and impact conditions we were able to capture the growth from inert shock to full detonation pressure within distances as short as 100 µm. These data are being used to assess and improve burn-model parameterization and equations of state for simulating shock initiation.

  9. Reactive flow modeling of initial density effect on divergence JB-9014 detonation driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xin; Huang, Kuibang; Zheng, Miao

    2016-06-01

    A serious of experiments were designed and the results were represented in this paper, in which 2mm thickness cooper shells were impacted by explosives named JB-9014 with different densities, and the surface velocities of the OFHC shells were measured. The comparison of experimental data shows the free surface velocity of the OFHC shell increase with the IHE density. Numerical modeling, which occupied phenomenological reactive flow rate model using the two-dimensional Lagrange hydrodynamic code, were carried out to simulate the above experiments, and empirical adjustments on detonation velocity and pressure and Pier Tang's adjustments on EOS of detonation products were both introduced in our numerical simulation work. The computational results agree well with that of experiments, and the numerical results with original parameters of products and the adjusted ones of JB-9014 could describe the density effect distinctly.

  10. High temperature detonator

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, James O.; Dinegar, Robert H.

    1988-01-01

    A detonator assembly is provided which is usable at high temperatures about 300.degree. C. A detonator body is provided with an internal volume defining an anvil surface. A first acceptor explosive is disposed on the anvil surface. A donor assembly having an ignition element, an explosive material, and a flying plate, are placed in the body effective to accelerate the flying plate to impact the first acceptor explosive on the anvil for detonating the first acceptor explosive. A second acceptor explosive is eccentrically located in detonation relationship with the first acceptor explosive to thereafter effect detonation of a main charge.

  11. Propagation of detonation wave in hydrogen-air mixture in channels with sound-absorbing surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bivol, G. Yu.; Golovastov, S. V.; Golub, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    The possibility of using sound-absorbing surfaces for attenuating the intensity of detonation waves propagating in hydrogen-air mixtures has been experimentally studied in a cylindrical detonation tube open at one end, with an explosive initiated by spark discharge at the closed end. Sound-absorbing elements were made of an acoustic-grade foamed rubber with density of 0.035 g/cm3 containing open pores with an average diameter of 0.5 mm. The degree of attenuation of the detonation wave front velocity was determined as dependent on the volume fraction of hydrogen in the gas mixture.

  12. Particle response to shock waves in solids: dynamic witness plate/PIV method for detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Michael J.; Adrian, Ronald J.

    2007-08-01

    Studies using transparent, polymeric witness plates consisting of polydimethlysiloxane (PDMS) have been conducted to measure the output of exploding bridge wire (EBW) detonators and exploding foil initiators (EFI). Polymeric witness plates are utilized to alleviate particle response issues that arise in gaseous flow fields containing shock waves and to allow measurements of shock-induced material velocities to be made using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Quantitative comparisons of velocity profiles across the shock waves in air and in PDMS demonstrate the improved response achieved by the dynamic witness plate method. Schlieren photographs complement the analysis through direct visualization of detonator-induced shock waves in the witness plates.

  13. Theoretical Study on Vibrational Spectra, Detonation Properties and Pyrolysis Mechanism for Cyclic 2-Diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-hong; Yin, Geng-xin; Zhang, Xian-zhou

    2012-10-01

    Based on the full optimized molecular geometrical structures at the DFT-B3LYP/6-311+G** level, there exists intramolecular hydrogen bond interaction for cyclic 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol. The assigned infrared spectrum is obtained and used to compute the thermodynamic properties. The results show that there are four main characteristic regions in the calculated IR spectra of the title compound. The detonation velocities and pressures are also evaluated by using Kamlet-Jacobs equations based on the calculated density and condensed phase heat of formation. Thermal stability and the pyrolysis mechanism of 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol are investigated by calculating the bond dissociation energies at the B3LYP/6-311+G** level.

  14. Research on filling process of fuel and oxidant during detonation based on absorption spectrum technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Xiao-Jing; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-Sheng

    2014-12-01

    Research on detonation process is of great significance for the control optimization of pulse detonation engine. Based on absorption spectrum technology, the filling process of fresh fuel and oxidant during detonation is researched. As one of the most important products, H2O is selected as the target of detonation diagnosis. Fiber distributed detonation test system is designed to enable the detonation diagnosis under adverse conditions in detonation process. The test system is verified to be reliable. Laser signals at different working frequency (5Hz, 10Hz and 20Hz) are detected. Change of relative laser intensity in one detonation circle is analyzed. The duration of filling process is inferred from the change of laser intensity, which is about 100~110ms. The peak of absorption spectrum is used to present the concentration of H2O during the filling process of fresh fuel and oxidant. Absorption spectrum is calculated, and the change of absorption peak is analyzed. Duration of filling process calculated with absorption peak consisted with the result inferred from the change of relative laser intensity. The pulse detonation engine worked normally and obtained the maximum thrust at 10Hz under experiment conditions. The results are verified through H2O gas concentration monitoring during detonation.

  15. Numerical simulation of double front detonations in a non-ideal explosive with varying aluminum concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wuhyun; Gwak, Min-Cheol; Yoh, Jack; Seoul National University Team

    2017-06-01

    The performance characteristics of aluminized HMX are considered by varying the aluminum (Al) concentration in a hybrid non-ideal detonation model. Two cardinal observations are reported: a decrease in detonation velocity with an increase in Al concentration and a double front detonation (DFD) feature when aerobic Al reaction occurs behind the front. While experimental studies have been reported on the effect of Al concentration on both gas-phase and solid-phase detonations, the numerical investigations were limited to only gas-phase detonation for the varying Al concentration. In the current study, a two-phase model is utilized for understanding the volumetric effects of Al concentration in the condensed phase detonations. A series of unconfined and confined rate sticks are considered for characterizing the performance of aluminized HMX with a maximum Al concentration of 50%. The simulated results are compared with the experimental data for 5%-25% concentrations, and the formation of DFD structure under varying Al concentration (0%-50%) in HMX is investigated.

  16. Deflagration to detonation transition in mechanoactivated mixtures of ammonium perchlorate with aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, A. A.; Dolgoborodov, A. Yu; Kirilenko, V. G.; Brazhnikov, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    Deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in aluminum-ammonium perchlorate (Al/AP) loose-packed charges (80% porosity) has been studied. The charges were manufactured from preliminary mechanoactivated mixtures. The mixtures placed in steel tubes 10 mm in diameter were ignited by Nichrome wire. It was found that it is possible to distinguish three parts corresponding to different stages of DDT process development. Steady-state detonation velocity reached the level of 2500 m/s at the distance of 90 mm from the ignition point.

  17. Characterization and Performance of a Liquid Hydrocarbon-Fueled Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    head wall pressure (P3) and the two sensors at the end of the tube provided indication of detonation wave passage (Wave1 and Wave2 ). These data...wave speed using the time of passage at Wave1 and Wave2 and the user-defined value of the distance between each sensor (this distance varied slightly...for each tube extension). A detonation velocity of zero was returned for any event in which neither Wave1 or Wave2 sensed a pressure rise of

  18. Detonation Propagation Through Ducts in a Pulsed Detonation Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    PDE head. This convention is used based on the fill and purge flow directions, not the detonation direction. Figure 21. Adapter used to rotate ...presented for the development of a continuously operating pulsed detonation engine ( PDE ). A PDE without a high energy ignition system or a... detonation wave. Propagation is left to right in the bottom tube. ..... 19  Figure 15. Research PDE head

  19. The Effect of Detonation Wave Incidence Angle on the Acceleration of Flyers by Explosives Heavily Laden with Inert Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, Jason; Georges, William; Frost, David; Higgins, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    The incidence angle of a detonation wave is often assumed to weakly influence the terminal velocity of an explosively driven flyer. For explosives heavily loaded with dense additives, this may not be true due to differences in momentum and energy transfer between detonation products, additive particles, and the flyer. For tangential incidence the particles are first accelerated against the flyer via an expansion fan, whereas they are first accelerated by the detonation wave in the normal case. In the current study we evaluate the effect of normal versus tangential incidence on the acceleration of flyers by nitromethane heavily loaded with a variety of additives. Normal detonation was initiated via an explosively driven slapper. Flyer acceleration was measured with heterodyne laser interferometry (PDV). The influence of wave angle is evaluated by comparing the terminal velocity in the two cases (i.e., normal and grazing) for the heavily loaded mixtures. The decrement in flyer velocity correlated primarily with additive volume fraction and had a weak dependence on additive density or particle size. The Gurney energy of the heterogeneous explosive was observed to increase with flyer mass, presumably due to the timescale over which impinging particles could transfer momentum.

  20. Calculating wave-generated bottom orbital velocities from surface-wave parameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiberg, P.L.; Sherwood, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Near-bed wave orbital velocities and shear stresses are important parameters in many sediment-transport and hydrodynamic models of the coastal ocean, estuaries, and lakes. Simple methods for estimating bottom orbital velocities from surface-wave statistics such as significant wave height and peak period often are inaccurate except in very shallow water. This paper briefly reviews approaches for estimating wave-generated bottom orbital velocities from near-bed velocity data, surface-wave spectra, and surface-wave parameters; MATLAB code for each approach is provided. Aspects of this problem have been discussed elsewhere. We add to this work by providing a method for using a general form of the parametric surface-wave spectrum to estimate bottom orbital velocity from significant wave height and peak period, investigating effects of spectral shape on bottom orbital velocity, comparing methods for calculating bottom orbital velocity against values determined from near-bed velocity measurements at two sites on the US east and west coasts, and considering the optimal representation of bottom orbital velocity for calculations of near-bed processes. Bottom orbital velocities calculated using near-bed velocity data, measured wave spectra, and parametric spectra for a site on the northern California shelf and one in the mid-Atlantic Bight compare quite well and are relatively insensitive to spectral shape except when bimodal waves are present with maximum energy at the higher-frequency peak. These conditions, which are most likely to occur at times when bottom orbital velocities are small, can be identified with our method as cases where the measured wave statistics are inconsistent with Donelan's modified form of the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP) spectrum. We define the 'effective' forcing for wave-driven, near-bed processes as the product of the magnitude of forcing times its probability of occurrence, and conclude that different bottom orbital velocity statistics

  1. Miniature Precision Detonator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    Detonator Output Characterize the detonator output by the following 2-3.1 Dent Output Test. Test detonators Into steel witness plate to compare dent...Kovar with gold plating . The Insulating seal Is glass. The jead pin Is 0.012 ± 0.001 Inch In diameter by 0.25 Inch long. 3.2.2 Bridge. Detonators... plated for solderablllty. The bottom thickness Is 0.004 ± 0.001 Inch. It would be desirable to have 0.002 to 0.003-lnch-thlck bottom so that the mass

  2. Portable fiber optic coupled Doppler interferometer system for detonation and shock wave diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Kevin J.

    1993-01-01

    Testing and analysis of shock wave characteristics such as detonators and ground shock propagation frequently require a method of measuring velocity and displacement of the surface of interest. One method of measurement is Doppler interferometry. The VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) uses Doppler interferometry and has gained wide acceptance as the preferred tool for shock measurement. An important asset of VISAR is that it measures velocity and displacement nonintrusively.

  3. Qualification of a multi-diagnostic detonator-output characterization procedure utilizing PMMA witness blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biss, Matthew; Murphy, Michael; Lieber, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Experiments were conducted in an effort to qualify a multi-diagnostic characterization procedure for the performance output of a detonator when fired into a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) witness block. A suite of optical diagnostics were utilized in combination to both bound the shock wave interaction state at the detonator/PMMA interface and characterize the nature of the shock wave decay in PMMA. The diagnostics included the Shock Wave Image Framing Technique (SWIFT), a photocathode tube streak camera, and photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV). High-precision, optically clear witness blocks permitted dynamic flow visualization of the shock wave in PMMA via focused shadowgraphy. SWIFT- and streak-imaging diagnostics captured the spatiotemporally evolving shock wave, providing a two-dimensional temporally discrete image set and a one-dimensional temporally continuous image, respectively. PDV provided the temporal velocity history of the detonator output along the detonator axis. Through combination of the results obtained, a bound was able to be placed on the interface condition and a more-physical profile representing the shock wave decay in PMMA for an exploding-bridgewire detonator was achieved.

  4. Branch Detonation of a Pulse Detonation Engine With Flash Vaporized JP-8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Mark F. Reeder (Member) date iii Abstract Pulse Detonation Engines ( PDE ) operating on liquid hydrocarbon fuels are... Detonation Transition FF – Fill Fraction FN – Flow Number NPT – National Pipe Thread OH – Hydroxyl PDE – Pulse Detonation Engine PF – Purge...Introduction Motivation Research on Pulsed Detonation Engines ( PDE ) has increased over the past ten years due to the potential for increased

  5. Deflagration-to-detonation transition in gases in tubes with cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, N. N.; Nikitin, V. F.; Phylippov, Yu. G.

    2010-12-01

    DDT control in gaseous fuel-air mixtures became very acute. This paper contains results of theoretical and experimental investigations of DDT processes in combustible gaseous mixtures. In particular, the paper investigates the effect of cavities incorporated in detonation tubes at the onset of detonation in gases. Extensive numerical modeling and simulations allowed studying the features of deflagration-to-detonation transition in gases in tubes incorporating cavities of a wider cross section. The presence of cavities substantially affects the combustion modes being established in the device and their dependence on the governing parameters of the problem. The influence of geometrical characteristics of the confinement and flow turbulization on the onset of detonation and the influence of temperature and fuel concentration in the unburned mixture are discussed. It was demonstrated both experimentally and theoretically that the presence of cavities of wider cross section in the ignition part of the tube promotes DDT and shortens the predetonation length. At the same time, cavities incorporated along the whole length or in the far-end section inhibit detonation and bring about the onset of low-velocity galloping detonation or galloping combustion modes. The presence of cavities in the ignition section turns an increase in the initial mixture temperature into a DDT-promoting factor instead of a DDT-inhibiting factor.

  6. Fast Hydrogen-Air Flames for Turbulence Driven Deflagration to Detonation Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Jessica; Ahmed, Kareem

    2016-11-01

    Flame acceleration to Detonation produces several combustion modes as the Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) is initiated, including fast deflagration, auto-ignition, and quasi-detonation. Shock flame interactions and turbulence levels in the reactant mixture drive rapid flame expansion, formation of a leading shockwave and post-shock conditions. An experimental study to characterize the developing shock and flame front behavior of propagating premixed hydrogen-air flames in a square channel is presented. To produce each flame regime, turbulence levels and flame propagation velocity are controlled using perforated plates in several configurations within the experimental facility. High speed optical diagnostics including Schlieren and Particle Image Velocimetry are used to capture the flow field. In-flow pressure measurements acquired post-shock, detail the dynamic changes that occur in the compressed gas directly ahead of the propagating flame. Emphasis on characterizing the turbulent post-shock environment of the various flame regimes helps identify the optimum conditions to initiate the DDT process. The study aims to further the understanding of complex physical mechanisms that drive transient flame conditions for detonation initiation. American Chemical Society.

  7. Detonation propagation in annular arcs of condensed phase explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannou, Eleftherios; Schoch, Stefan; Nikiforakis, Nikolaos; Michael, Louisa

    2017-11-01

    We present a numerical study of detonation propagation in unconfined explosive charges shaped as an annular arc (rib). Steady detonation in a straight charge propagates at constant speed, but when it enters an annular section, it goes through a transition phase and eventually reaches a new steady state of constant angular velocity. This study examines the speed of the detonation wave along the annular charge during the transition phase and at steady state, as well as its dependence on the dimensions of the annulus. The system is modeled using a recently proposed diffuse-interface formulation which allows for the representation of a two-phase explosive and of an additional inert material. The explosive considered is the polymer-bonded TATB-based LX-17 and is modeled using two Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equations of state and the ignition and growth reaction rate law. Results show that steady state speeds are in good agreement with experiment. In the transition phase, the evolution of outer detonation speed deviates from the exponential bounded growth function suggested by previous studies. We propose a new description of the transition phase which consists of two regimes. The first regime is caused by local effects at the outer edge of the annulus and leads to a dependence of the outer detonation speed on the angular position along the arc. The second regime is induced by effects originating from the inner edge of the annular charge and leads to the deceleration of the outer detonation until steady state is reached. The study concludes with a parametric study where the dependence of the steady state and the transition phase on the dimensions of the annulus is investigated.

  8. Numerical study of nonequilibrium plasma assisted detonation initiation in detonation tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Siyin; Wang, Fang; Che, Xueke; Nie, Wansheng

    2016-12-01

    Nonequilibrium plasma has shown great merits in ignition and combustion nowadays, which should be especially useful for hypersonic propulsion. A coaxial electrodes configuration was established to investigate the effect of alternating current (AC) dielectric barrier discharge nonequilibrium plasma on the detonation initiation process in a hydrogen-oxygen mixture. A discharge simulation-combustion simulation loosely coupled method was used to simulate plasma assisted detonation initiation. First, the dielectric barrier discharge in the hydrogen-oxygen mixture driven by an AC voltage was simulated, which takes 17 kinds of particles (including positively charged particles, negatively charged particles, and neutral particles) and 47 reactions into account. The temporal and spatial characteristics of the discharge products were obtained. Then, the discharge products were incorporated into the combustion model of a detonation combustor as the initial conditions for the later detonation initiation simulation. Results showed that the number density distributions of plasma species are different in space and time, and develop highly nonuniformly from high voltage electrode to grounded electrode at certain times. All the active species reach their highest concentration at approximately 0.6T (T denotes a discharge cycle). Compared with the no plasma case, the differences of flowfield shape mainly appear in the early stage of the deflagration to detonation transition process. None of the sub-processes (including the very slow combustion, deflagration, over-driven detonation, detonation decay, and propagation of a self-sustained stable detonation wave) have been removed by the plasma. After the formation of a C-J detonation wave, the whole flowfield remains unchanged. With the help of plasma, the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) time and distance are reduced by about 11.6% and 12.9%, respectively, which should be attributed to the active particles effect of

  9. Theoretical studies on the crystal structure, thermodynamic properties, detonation performance and thermal stability of cage-tetranitrotetraazabicyclooctane as a novel high energy density compound.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guo-zheng; Lu, Ming

    2013-01-01

    The B3LYP/6-31G (d) method of density functional theory (DFT) was used to study molecular geometry, electronic structure, infrared spectrum (IR) and thermodynamic properties. The heat of formation (HOF) and calculated density were estimated to evaluate the detonation properties using Kamlet-Jacobs equations. Thermal stability of 3,5,7,10,12,14,15,16-octanitro- 3,5,7,10,12,14,15,16-octaaza-heptacyclo[7.5.1.1(2,8).0(1,11).0(2,6).0(4,13).0(6,11)]hexadecane (cage-tetranitrotetraazabicyclooctane) was investigated by calculating the bond dissociation energy (BDE) at unrestricted B3LYP/6-31G (d) level. The calculated results show that the N-NO2 bond is a trigger bond during thermolysis initiation process. The crystal structure obtained by molecular mechanics (MM) methods belongs to Pna2(1) space group, with cell parameters a=12.840 Å, b=9.129 Å, c=14.346 Å, Z=6 and ρ=2.292 g·cm(-3). Both the detonation velocity of 9.96 km·s(-1) and the detonation pressure of 47.47 GPa are better than those of CL-20. According to the quantitative standard of energetics and stability, as a high energy density compound (HEDC), cage-tetranitrotetraazabicyclooctane essentially satisfies this requirement.

  10. Formation mechanisms and characteristics of transition patterns in oblique detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Shikun; Zhou, Jin; Liu, Shijie; Cai, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    The transition structures of wedge-induced oblique detonation waves (ODWs) in high-enthalpy supersonic combustible mixtures are studied with two-dimensional reactive Euler simulations based on the open-source program AMROC (Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Object-oriented C++). The formation mechanisms of different transition patterns are investigated through theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. Results show that transition patterns of ODWs depend on the pressure ratio Pd/Ps, (Pd, Ps are the pressure behind the ODW and the pressure behind the induced shock, respectively). When Pd/Ps > 1.3, an abrupt transition occurs, while when Pd/Ps < 1.3, a smooth transition appears. A parameter ε is introduced to describe the transition patterns quantitatively. Besides, a criterion based on the velocity ratio Φ=U0/UCJ is proposed to predict the transition patterns based on the inflow conditions. It is concluded that an abrupt transition appears when Φ < 0.98Φ*, while a smooth transition occurs when Φ > 1.02Φ∗ (Φ∗ is the critical velocity ratio calculated with an empirical formula).

  11. Direct Initiation Through Detonation Branching in a Pulsed Detonation Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    important features noted ................................. 33  Figure 20. GM Quad 4 engine head used as the PDE research engine with the detonation tube...Deflagration to Detonation Transition EF – Engine Frequency FF – Fill Fraction NPT – National Pipe Thread MPT – Male National Pipe Thread PDE – Pulsed... Detonation Engines ( PDE ) has increased greatly in recent years due in part to the potential for increased thermal efficiency derived from constant

  12. Superior Thermostability, Good Detonation Properties, Insensitivity, and the Effect on the Thermal Decomposition of Ammonium Perchlorate for a New Solvent-Free 3D Energetic PbII -MOF.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi; Yang, Guoli; Zhang, Wendou; Zhang, Sheng; Yang, Zhaohui; Xie, Gang; Wei, Qing; Chen, Sanping; Gao, Shengli

    2017-07-06

    A new solvent-free energetic MOF, [Pb(HBTI)] n (1) (H 3 BTI=4,5-bis(1H-tetrazole)-1H-imidazole), has been synthesized under hydrothermal and acidic conditions. It was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, thermogravimetric, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and SEM. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that 1 features a rigid 3D framework architecture free of solvent molecules. Thermal analysis demonstrated that the thermostability of 1 was up to 325 °C. Non-isothermal kinetic and apparent thermodynamic parameters of exothermic decomposition process of 1 were determined by Kissinger's and Ozawa's methods. Through oxygen-bomb combustion calorimetry, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of 1 was determined. The calculated detonation properties (heat of detonation, detonation velocity and detonation pressure) and sensitivity tests of 1 were carried out. In addition, 1 was explored as combustion promoter to accelerate the thermal decompositions of ammonium perchlorate (AP) by differential scanning calorimetry. Experimental results indicated that 1 possesses potential application prospects in the field of explosives and propellants. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Evaluation of Impact Damage to the Burster Detonation Vessel Caused by Fragments from a Drained M121A1 Chemical Munition Detonated with an Initiation Charge

    SciTech Connect

    KIPP, MARLIN E.

    2001-12-01

    Explosive charges placed on the fuze end of a drained chemical munition are expected to be used as a means to destroy the fuze and burster charges of the munition. Analyses are presented to evaluate the effect of these additional initiation charges on the fragmentation characteristics for the M121A1 155mm chemical munition, modeled with a T244 fuze attached, and to assess the consequences of these fragment impacts on the walls of a containment chamber--the Burster Detonation Vessel. A numerical shock physics code (CTH) is used to characterize the mass and velocity of munition fragments. Both two- and three-dimensional simulations ofmore » the munition have been completed in this study. Based on threshold fragment velocity/mass results drawn from both previous and current analyses, it is determined that under all fragment impact conditions from the munition configurations considered in this study, no perforation of the inner chamber wall will occur, and the integrity of the Burster Detonation Vessel is retained. However, the munition case fragments have sufficient mass and velocity to locally damage the surface of the inner wall of the containment vessel.« less

  14. On the propagation mechanism of a detonation wave in a round tube with orifice plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccarelli, G.; Cross, M.

    2016-09-01

    This study deals with the investigation of the detonation propagation mechanism in a circular tube with orifice plates. Experiments were performed with hydrogen air in a 10-cm-inner-diameter tube with the second half of the tube filled with equally spaced orifice plates. A self-sustained Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonation wave was initiated in the smooth first half of the tube and transmitted into the orifice-plate-laden second half of the tube. The details of the propagation were obtained using the soot-foil technique. Two types of foils were used between obstacles, a wall-foil placed on the tube wall, and a flat-foil (sooted on both sides) placed horizontally across the diameter of the tube. When placed after the first orifice plate, the flat foil shows symmetric detonation wave diffraction and failure, while the wall foil shows re-initiation via multiple local hot spots created when the decoupled shock wave interacts with the tube wall. At the end of the tube, where the detonation propagated at an average velocity much lower than the theoretical CJ value, the detonation propagation is much more asymmetric with only a few hot spots on the tube wall leading to local detonation initiation. Consecutive foils also show that the detonation structure changes after each obstacle interaction. For a mixture near the detonation propagation limit, detonation re-initiation occurs at a single wall hot spot producing a patch of small detonation cells. The local overdriven detonation wave is short lived, but is sufficient to keep the global explosion front propagating. Results associated with the effect of orifice plate blockage and spacing on the detonation propagation mechanism are also presented.

  15. Investigation of Sustained Detonation Devices: the Pulse Detonation Engine-Crossover System and the Rotating Detonation Engine System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Robert B.

    An experimental study is conducted on a Pulse Detonation Engine-Crossover System to investigate the feasibility of repeated, shock-initiated combustion and characterize the initiation performance. A PDE-crossover system can decrease deflagration-to-detonation transition length while employing a single spark source to initiate a multi-PDE system. Visualization of a transferred shock wave propagating through a clear channel reveals a complex shock train behind the leading shock. Shock wave Mach number and decay rate remains constant for varying crossover tube geometries and operational frequencies. A temperature gradient forms within the crossover tube due to forward flow of high temperature ionized gas into the crossover tube from the driver PDE and backward flow of ionized gas into the crossover tube from the driven PDE, which can cause intermittent auto-ignition of the driver PDE. Initiation performance in the driven PDE is strongly dependent on initial driven PDE skin temperature in the shock wave reflection region. An array of detonation tubes connected with crossover tubes is developed using optimized parameters and successful operation utilizing shock-initiated combustion through shock wave reflection is achieved and sustained. Finally, an air-breathing, PDE-Crossover System is developed to characterize the feasibility of shock-initiated combustion within an air-breathing pulse detonation engine. The initiation effectiveness of shock-initiated combustion is compared to spark discharge and detonation injection through a pre-detonator. In all cases, shock-initiated combustion produces improved initiation performance over spark discharge and comparable detonation transition run-up lengths relative to pre-detonator initiation. A computational study characterizes the mixing processes and injection flow field within a rotating detonation engine. Injection parameters including reactant flow rate, reactant injection area, placement of the fuel injection, and fuel

  16. Controlling the position of a stabilized detonation wave in a supersonic gas mixture flow in a plane channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, V. A.; Zhuravskaya, T. A.

    2017-03-01

    Stabilization of a detonation wave in a stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture flowing at a supersonic velocity into a plane symmetric channel with constriction has been studied in the framework of a detailed kinetic mechanism of the chemical interaction. Conditions ensuring the formation of a thrust-producing f low with a stabilized detonation wave in the channel are determined. The inf luence of the inf low Mach number, dustiness of the combustible gas mixture supplied to the channel, and output cross-section size on the position of a stabilized detonation wave in the f low has been analyzed with a view to increasing the efficiency of detonation combustion of the gas mixture. It is established that thrust-producing flow with a stabilized detonation wave can be formed in the channel without any energy consumption.

  17. Miniature plasma accelerating detonator and method of detonating insensitive materials

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Kopczewski, Michael R.; Schwarz, Alfred C.

    1986-01-01

    The invention is a detonator for use with high explosives. The detonator comprises a pair of parallel rail electrodes connected to a power supply. By shorting the electrodes at one end, a plasma is generated and accelerated toward the other end to impact against explosives. A projectile can be arranged between the rails to be accelerated by the plasma. An alternative arrangement is to a coaxial electrode construction. The invention also relates to a method of detonating explosives.

  18. Combustion and Magnetohydrodynamic Processes in Advanced Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Lord Kahil

    -dimensional transient simulations. The dynamics of the detonation are found to be affected by the application of magnetic and electric fields. We find that the regularity of one-dimensional cesium-seeded detonations can be significantly altered by reasonable applied magnetic fields (Bz ≤ 8T), but that it takes a stronger applied field (Bz > 16T) to significantly alter the cellular structure and detonation velocity of a two-dimensional detonation in the time in which these phenomena were observed. This observation is likely attributed to the additional coupling of the two-dimensional detonation with the transverse waves, which are not captured in the one-dimensional simulations. Future studies involving full ionization kinetics including collisional-radiative processes, will be used to examine these processes in further detail.

  19. A fast, low resistance switch for small slapper detonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, D. D.; Jones, D. A.

    1986-10-01

    A novel design for a shock compression conduction switch for use with slapper detonators is described. The switch is based on the concept of an explosively driven flyer plate impacting a plastic insulator and producing sufficient pressure within the insulator to produce a conduction transition. An analysis of the functioning of the switch is made using a simple Gurney model for the explosive, and basic shock wave theory to calculate impact pressure and switch closure times. The effect of explosive tamping is considered, and calculations are carried out for two donor explosive thicknesses and a range of flyer plate thicknesses. The new switch has been successfully tested in a series of experimental slapper detonator firings. The results of these tests show trends in overall agreement with those predicted by the calculations.

  20. Detonation Propulsion - A Navy Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    for Detonation of Stoichiometric C2H4/ 02 Pui•DIIIIIdll Elllllbell Pllllllll•a IIIII • Project/Program Components - Single tube multi-cycle PDE ... Detonation (mid stages) • Acoustic Wave Interaction - Rotating Detonation (mid stages) - Spinning Detonation (early stages) 62 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6...Session 2 Detonation Propulsion -A Navy Perspective Gabriel Roy Office of Naval Research Global 46 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No

  1. Formation of double front detonations of a condensed-phase explosive with powdered aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wuhyun; Gwak, Min-cheol; Yoh, Jack J.

    2018-03-01

    The performance characteristics of aluminised high explosive are considered by varying the aluminium (Al) mass fraction in a hybrid non-ideal detonation model. Since the time scales of the characteristic induction and combustion of high explosives and Al particles differ, the process of energy release behind the leading detonation wave front occurs over an extended period of time. Two cardinal observations are reported: a decrease in detonation velocity with an increase in Al mass fraction and a double front detonation (DFD) feature when anaerobic Al reaction occurs behind the front. In order to simulate the performance characteristics due to the varying Al mass fraction, the tetrahexamine tetranitramine (HMX) is considered as a base high explosive when formulating the multiphase conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy exchanges between particles and HMX product gases. While experimental studies have been reported on the effect of Al mass fraction on both gas-phase and solid-phase detonations, the numerical investigations have been limited to only gas-phase detonation for the varying Al particles in the mixture. In the current study, a two-phase model is utilised for understanding the volumetric effects of Al mass fraction in condensed phase detonations. A series of unconfined and confined rate sticks are considered for characterising the performance of aluminised HMX with a maximum Al mass fraction of 50%. The simulated results are compared with the experimental data for 5-25% mass fractions, and the higher mass fraction behaviours are consistent with the experimental observations.

  2. Continuous spin detonation of poorly detonable fuel-air mixtures in annular combustors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykovskii, F. A.; Zhdan, S. A.

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports on the results of experimental investigations of continuous spin detonation of three fuel-air mixtures (syngas-air, CH4/H2-air, and kerosene/H2-air in a flow-type annular cylindrical combustor 503 mm in diameter. The limits of existence of continuous detonation in terms of the specific flow rates of the mixtures (minimum values) are determined. It is found that all gas mixtures, including the least detonable methane-air mixture, with addition of hydrogen can be burned in the continuous spin detonation regime.

  3. Miniature plasma accelerating detonator and method of detonating insensitive materials

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Kopczewski, M.R.; Schwarz, A.C.

    1985-01-04

    The invention is a detonator for use with high explosives. The detonator comprises a pair of parallel rail electrodes connected to a power supply. By shorting the electrodes at one end, a plasma is generated and accelerated toward the other end to impact against explosives. A projectile can be arranged between the rails to be accelerated by the plasma. An alternative arrangement is to a coaxial electrode construction. The invention also relates to a method of detonating explosives. 3 figs.

  4. [The Diagnostics of Detonation Flow External Field Based on Multispectral Absorption Spectroscopy Technology].

    PubMed

    Lü, Xiao-jing; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Compared with traditional sampling-based sensing method, absorption spectroscopy technology is well suitable for detonation flow diagnostics, since it can provide with us fast response, nonintrusive, sensitive solution for situ measurements of multiple flow-field parameters. The temperature and concentration test results are the average values along the laser path with traditional absorption spectroscopy technology, while the boundary of detonation flow external field is unknown and it changes all the time during the detonation engine works, traditional absorption spectroscopy technology is no longer suitable for detonation diagnostics. The trend of line strength with temperature varies with different absorption lines. By increasing the number of absorption lines in the test path, more information of the non-uniform flow field can be obtained. In this paper, based on multispectral absorption technology, the reconstructed model of detonation flow external field distribution was established according to the simulation results of space-time conservation element and solution element method, and a diagnostic method of detonation flow external field was given. The model deviation and calculation error of the least squares method adopted were studied by simulation, and the maximum concentration and temperature calculation error was 20.1% and 3.2%, respectively. Four absorption lines of H2O were chosen and detonation flow was scanned at the same time. The detonation external flow testing system was set up for the valveless gas-liquid continuous pulse detonation engine with the diameter of 80 mm. Through scanning H2O absorption lines with a high frequency of 10 kHz, the on-line detection of detonation external flow was realized by direct absorption method combined with time-division multiplexing technology, and the reconstruction of dynamic temperature distribution was realized as well for the first time, both verifying the feasibility of the test method. The test results

  5. Pulse Detonation Rocket Magnetohydrodynamic Power Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, R. J.; Jones, J. E.; Dobson, C. C.; Cole, J. W.; Thompson, B. R.; Plemmons, D. H.; Turner, M. W.

    2003-01-01

    The production of onboard electrical power by pulse detonation engines is problematic in that they generate no shaft power; however, pulse detonation driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation represents one intriguing possibility for attaining self-sustained engine operation and generating large quantities of burst power for onboard electrical systems. To examine this possibility further, a simple heat-sink apparatus was developed for experimentally investigating pulse detonation driven MHD generator concepts. The hydrogen oxygen fired driver was a 90 cm long stainless steel tube having a 4.5 cm square internal cross section and a short Schelkin spiral near the head end to promote rapid formation of a detonation wave. The tube was intermittently filled to atmospheric pressure and seeded with a CsOH/methanol prior to ignition by electrical spark. The driver exhausted through an aluminum nozzle having an area contraction ratio of A*/A(sub zeta) = 1/10 and an area expansion ratio of A(sub zeta)/A* = 3.2 (as limited by available magnet bore size). The nozzle exhausted through a 24-electrode segmented Faraday channel (30.5 cm active length), which was inserted into a 0.6 T permanent magnet assembly. Initial experiments verified proper drive operation with and without the nozzle attachment, and head end pressure and time resolved thrust measurements were acquired. The exhaust jet from the nozzle was interrogated using a polychromatic microwave interferometer yielding an electron number density on the order of 10(exp 12)/cm at the generator entrance. In this case, MHD power generation experiments suffered from severe near-electrode voltage drops and low MHD interaction; i.e., low flow velocity, due to an inherent physical constraint on expansion with the available magnet. Increased scaling, improved seeding techniques, higher magnetic fields, and higher expansion ratios are expected to greatly improve performance.

  6. Atomistic Simulations of Detonation Instabilities in Condensed Phase Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kober, Edward; Heim, Andrew; Germann, Timothy; Jensen, Niels

    2007-06-01

    We report the results of simulations of condensed phase detonation phenomena using a model diatomic system: 2AB -> A2 + B2. The initial set of parameters for this system corresponded to the Model 0 set of C. White et al, which exhibits a steady, Chapman-Jouget (CJ) detonation structure with a reaction zone length of 30-100 å. This has a highly compressed CJ state (V/V0˜0.5) that does not consist of discrete molecular species. The potential form was modified so that a more molecular CJ state resulted, consistent with the models for conventional organic explosives. The new system has a less dense CJ state (V/V0˜0.8), and the reaction zone was substantially extended. The reaction rate fits Arrhenius-type kinetics with an activation energy of ˜2 eV, with a minor density dependence. In contrast, the original Model 0 system had a lower activation energy (˜1 eV) with a stronger density dependence. The new system exhibits quite marked two dimensional instability structures with well-defined wavelengths similar to what has been observed for gas-phase detonations and for nitromethane. Depending on the exothermicity and the width of the periodic simulations, these instabilities can result in either detonation failure or quasi-steady propagation. The observed propagation velocities are several per cent higher than CJ values derived from thermodynamic analyses.

  7. Diamonds in detonation soot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greiner, N. Roy; Phillips, Dave; Johnson, J. D.; Volk, Fred

    1990-01-01

    Diamonds 4 to 7 nm in diameter have been identified and partially isolated from soot formed in detonations of carbon-forming composite explosives. The morphology of the soot has been examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the identity of the diamond has been established by the electron diffraction pattern of the TEM samples and by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the isolated solid. Graphite is also present in the form of ribbons of turbostatic structure with a thickness of 2 to 4 nm. A fraction, about 25 percent of the soot by weight, was recovered from the crude soot after oxidation of the graphite with fuming perchloric acid. This fraction showed a distinct XRD pattern of diamond and the diffuse band of amorphous carbon. The IR spectrum of these diamonds closely matches that of diamonds recovered from meteorites (Lewis et al., 1987), perhaps indicating similar surface properties after the oxidation. If these diamonds are produced in the detonation itself or during the initial expansion, they exhibit a phenomenal crystal growth rate (5 nm/0.00001 s equal 1.8 m/hr) in a medium with a very low hydrogen/carbon ratio. Because the diamonds will be carried along with the expanding gases, they will be accelerated to velocities approaching 8 km/s.

  8. The measured temperature and pressure of EDC37 detonation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, J. W.; Richley, J. C.; Sutton, B. D.; Price, E.; Ota, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the experimentally determined temperature and pressure of the detonation products of EDC37; a HMX based conventional high explosive. These measurements were performed on a series of cylinder tests. The temperature measurements were undertaken at the end of the cylinder with optical fibres observing the bare explosive through a LiF window. The temperature of the products was measured for approximately 2 µs using single colour pyrometry, multicolour pyrometry and also using time integrated optical emission spectroscopy with the results from all three methods being broadly consistent. The peak temperature was found to be ≈ 3600 K dropping to ≈ 2400 K at the end of the measurement window. The spectroscopy was time integrated and showed that the emission spectra can be approximated using a grey body curve between 520 - 800 nm with no emission or absorption lines being observed. The pressure was obtained using an analytical method which requires the velocity of the expanding cylinder wall and the velocity of detonation. The pressure drops from an initial CJ value of ≈ 38 GPa to ≈ 4 GPa after 2 µs.

  9. Parametric Study of High Frequency Pulse Detonation Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, Anderw D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes development of high frequency pulse detonation tubes similar to a small pulse detonation engine (PDE). A high-speed valve injects a charge of a mixture of fuel and air at rates of up to 1000 Hz into a constant area tube closed at one end. The reactants detonate in the tube and the products exit as a pulsed jet. High frequency pressure transducers are used to monitor the pressure fluctuations in the device and thrust is measured with a balance. The effects of injection frequency, fuel and air flow rates, tube length, and injection location are considered. Both H2 and C2H4 fuels are considered. Optimum (maximum specific thrust) fuel-air compositions and resonant frequencies are identified. Results are compared to PDE calculations. Design rules are postulated and applications to aerodynamic flow control and propulsion are discussed.

  10. Theoretical insights into the stabilities, detonation performance, and electrostatic potentials of cocrystals containing α- or β-HMX and TATB, FOX-7, NTO, or DMF in various molar ratios.

    PubMed

    Song, Ken-Peng; Ren, Fu-de; Zhang, Shu-Hai; Shi, Wen-Jing

    2016-10-01

    A molecular dynamics method was employed to study the binding energies associated with the cocrystallization (at selected crystal planes) of either 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitro-benzene (TATB), 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene, 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (TATB, FOX-7, and NTO, respectively, all of which are explosives), or N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF, a nonenergetic solvent) in various molar ratios with 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazacyclooctane in its α and β conformations (α-HMX and β-HMX, respectively). The results showed that the cocrystals with low molar ratios (2:1, 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3) were the most stable. The binding energies of HMX/NTO and HMX/DMF were larger than those of HMX/TATB and HMX/FOX-7. According to the calculated stabilities, HMX prefers to adopt its α form in HMX/TATB and its β form in HMX/NTO, whereas the two forms coexist in HMX/FOX-7. For HMX/TATB, HMX/NTO, and α-HMX/FOX-7, increasing the proportion of the cocrystal component with the highest detonation heat (HMX in the first two cases, FOX-7 in the latter) increases the detonation heat, velocity, and pressure of the cocrystal. However, increasing the proportion of the component with the highest detonation heat in β-HMX/FOX-7 and γ-CL-20/FOX-7 increases the detonation heat of the cocrystal but decreases its detonation velocity. An investigation of the surface electrostatic potential revealed how the sensitivity changes upon cocrystal formation. Graphical Abstract Surface electrostatic potential of HMX/TATB.

  11. Propagation velocities of laser-produced plasmas from copper wire targets and water droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Kyo-Dong; Alexander, Dennis R.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the plasma propagation velocities resulting from KrF laser irradiation of copper wire target (75 microns diameter) and water droplets (75 microns diameter) at irradiance levels ranging from 25 to 150 GW/sq cm. Plasma propagation velocities were measured using a streak camera system oriented orthogonally to the high-energy laser propagation axis. Plasma velocities were studied as a function of position in the focused beam. Results show that both the shape of the plasma formation and material removal from the copper wire are different and depend on whether the targets are focused or slightly defocused (approximately = 0.5 mm movement in the beam axis). Plasma formation and its position relative to the target is an important factor in determining the practical focal point during high-energy laser interaction with materials. At irradiance of 100 GW/sq cm, the air plasma has two weak-velocity components which propagate toward and away from the incident laser while a strong-velocity component propagates away from the laser beam as a detonation wave. Comparison of the measured breakdown velocities (in the range of 2.22-2.27 x 10(exp 5) m/s) for air and the value calculated by the nonlinear breakdown wave theory at irradiance of 100 GW/sq cm showed a quantitative agreement within approximately 50% while the linear theory and Gaussian pulse theory failed. The detonation wave velocities of plasma generated from water droplets and copper wire targets for different focused cases were measured and analyzed theoretically. The propagation velocities of laser-induced plasma liquid droplets obtained by previous research are compared with current work.

  12. High Explosive Detonation-Confiner Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Mark; Quirk, James J.

    2018-01-01

    The primary purpose of a detonation in a high explosive (HE) is to provide the energy to drive a surrounding confiner, typically for mining or munitions applications. The details of the interaction between an HE detonation and its confinement are essential to achieving the objectives of the explosive device. For the high pressures induced by detonation loading, both the solid HE and confiner materials will flow. The structure and speed of a propagating detonation, and ultimately the pressures generated in the reaction zone to drive the confiner, depend on the induced flow both within the confiner and along the HE-confiner material interface. The detonation-confiner interactions are heavily influenced by the material properties and, in some cases, the thickness of the confiner. This review discusses the use of oblique shock polar analysis as a means of characterizing the possible range of detonation-confiner interactions. Computations that reveal the fluid mechanics of HE detonation-confiner interactions for finite reaction-zone length detonations are discussed and compared with the polar analysis. This includes cases of supersonic confiner flow; subsonic, shock-driven confiner flow; subsonic, but shockless confiner flow; and sonic flow at the intersection of the detonation shock and confiner material interface. We also summarize recent developments, including the effects of geometry and porous material confinement, on detonation-confiner interactions.

  13. An exact solution for axial flow in cylindrically symmetric, steady-state detonation in polytropic explosive with an arbitrary rate of decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowperthwaite, M.

    1994-03-01

    Methods of differential geometry and Bernoulli's equation, written as B=0, are used to develop a new approach for constructing an exact solution for axial flow in a classical, two-dimensional, ZND detonation wave in a polytropic explosive with an arbitrary rate of decomposition. This geometric approach is fundamentally different from the traditional approaches to this axial flow problem formulated by Wood and Kirkwood (WK) and Fickett and Davis (FD), and gives equations for the axial particle velocity (u), the sound speed (c), the pressure (p), and the density (ρ), that are expressed in terms of the detonation velocity (D), the extent of decomposition (λ), the polytropic index (K), and two nonideal parameters ɛ3 and ɛ1, and reduce to the equations for steady-state, one-dimensional detonation as ɛ3 and ɛ1 approach zero. In contrast to the FD approach, the equations for u and c are obtained from first integrals of a tangent vector à on (u,c,λ) space, and the invariant condition, ÃB=aB=0, bypasses the FD eigenvalue problem by defining ɛ3 in terms of the detonation velocity deficit D/D∞ and K. In contrast to the WK approach, the equations for p and ρ are obtained from equations expressing the conservation of axial momentum and energy. Because the equations for these flow variables are derived without using the conservation of mass, the axial radial particle velocity gradient (war) associated with the flow can be obtained from the continuity equation without making approximations. The relationship between ɛ1 and ɛ3 that closes the solution is obtained from equations expressing constraints imposed on the axial flow at the shock front by the axial and radial momentum equations, the curved shock and the decomposition rate law, and a particular solution is constructed from the ɛ1-ɛ3 relationship determined by a prescribed rate law and value of K. Properties of particular solutions are presented to provide a better understanding of two-dimensional detonation

  14. THE EFFECTS OF CURVATURE AND EXPANSION ON HELIUM DETONATIONS ON WHITE DWARF SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Kevin; Bildsten, Lars; Townsley, Dean M.

    2013-10-20

    Accreted helium layers on white dwarfs have been highlighted for many decades as a possible site for a detonation triggered by a thermonuclear runaway. In this paper, we find the minimum helium layer thickness that will sustain a steady laterally propagating detonation and show that it depends on the density and composition of the helium layer, specifically {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O. Detonations in these thin helium layers have speeds slower than the Chapman-Jouget (CJ) speed from complete helium burning, v{sub CJ} = 1.5 × 10{sup 9} cm s{sup –1}. Though gravitationally unbound, the ashes still have unburned helium (≈80%more » in the thinnest cases) and only reach up to heavy elements such as {sup 40}Ca, {sup 44}Ti, {sup 48}Cr, and {sup 52}Fe. It is rare for these thin shells to generate large amounts of {sup 56}Ni. We also find a new set of solutions that can propagate in even thinner helium layers when {sup 16}O is present at a minimum mass fraction of ≈0.07. Driven by energy release from α captures on {sup 16}O and subsequent elements, these slow detonations only create ashes up to {sup 28}Si in the outer detonated He shell. We close by discussing how the unbound helium burning ashes may create faint and fast 'Ia' supernovae as well as events with virtually no radioactivity, and speculate on how the slower helium detonation velocities impact the off-center ignition of a carbon detonation that could cause a Type Ia supernova in the double detonation scenario.« less

  15. Calculated concentrations of any radionuclide deposited on the ground by release from underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rockets, and tests of nuclear ramjet engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, H.G.

    1981-11-01

    This report presents calculated gamma radiation exposure rates and ground deposition of related radionuclides resulting from three types of event that deposited detectable radioactivity outside the Nevada Test Site complex, namely, underground nuclear detonations, tests of nuclear rocket engines and tests of nuclear ramjet engines.

  16. Detonation Reaction Zones in Condensed Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarver, Craig M.

    2006-07-01

    Experimental measurements using nanosecond time resolved embedded gauges and laser interferometric techniques, combined with Non-Equilibrium Zeldovich - von Neumann - Doling (NEZND) theory and Ignition and Growth reactive flow hydrodynamic modeling, have revealed the average pressure/particle velocity states attained in reaction zones of self-sustaining detonation waves in several solid and liquid explosives. The time durations of these reaction zone processes are discussed for explosives based on pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), nitromethane, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), triaminitrinitrobenzene(TATB) and trinitrotoluene (TNT).

  17. Measurements of observables during detonator function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilowitz, Laura; Henson, Bryan; Remelius, Dennis

    Thermal explosion and detonation are two phenomena which can both occur as the response of explosives to thermal or mechanical insults. Thermal explosion is typically considered in the safety envelope and detonation is considered in the performance regime of explosive behavior. However, the two regimes are tied together by a phenomenon called deflagration to detonation transition (DDT). In this talk, I will discuss experiments on commercial detonators aimed at understanding the mechanism for energy release during detonator function. Diagnostic development towards measuring temperature, pressure, and density during the extreme conditions and time scales of detonation will be discussed. Our current ability to perform table-top dynamic radiography on functioning detonators will be described. Dynamic measurements of temperature, pressure, and density will be shown and discussion of the function of a detonator will be given in terms of our current understanding of deflagration, detonation, and the transition between the two.

  18. Simulations of Heterogeneous Detonations and Post Detonation Turbulent Mixing and Afterburning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Suresh; Gottiparthi, Kalyana

    2011-06-01

    Most metal-loaded explosives and thermobaric explosives exploit the afterburning of metals to maintain pressure and temperature conditions.The use of such explosives in complex environment can result in post detonation flow containing many scales of vortical motion, flow jetting and shear, as well as plume-surface interactions due to flow impingement and wall flows. In general, all these interactions can lead to highly turbulent flow fields even if the initial ambient conditions were quiescent. Thus, turbulent mixing can dominate initial mixing and impact the final afterburn. We conduct three-dimensional numerical simulations of the propagation of detonation resulting from metal-loaded (inert or reacting) explosives and analyze the afterburn process as well as the generation of multiple scales of mixing in the post detonation flow field. Impact of the detonation and post-detonation flow field on solid surface is also considered for a variety of initial conditions. Comparison with available data is carried out to demonstrate validity of the simulation method. Supported by Defense Threat Reduction Agency

  19. Pulse Detonation Rocket MHD Power Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A pulse detonation research engine (MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) Model PDRE (Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine) G-2) has been developed for the purpose of examining integrated propulsion and magnetohydrodynamic power generation applications. The engine is based on a rectangular cross-section tube coupled to a converging-diverging nozzle, which is in turn attached to a segmented Faraday channel. As part of the shakedown testing activity, the pressure wave was interrogated along the length of the engine while running on hydrogen/oxygen propellants. Rapid transition to detonation wave propagation was insured through the use of a short Schelkin spiral near the head of the engine. The measured detonation wave velocities were in excess of 2500 m/s in agreement with the theoretical C-J velocity. The engine was first tested in a straight tube configuration without a nozzle, and the time resolved thrust was measured simultaneously with the head-end pressure. Similar measurements were made with the converging-diverging nozzle attached. The time correlation of the thrust and head-end pressure data was found to be excellent. The major purpose of the converging-diverging nozzle was to configure the engine for driving an MHD generator for the direct production of electrical power. Additional tests were therefore necessary in which seed (cesium-hydroxide dissolved in methanol) was directly injected into the engine as a spray. The exhaust plume was then interrogated with a microwave interferometer in an attempt to characterize the plasma conditions, and emission spectroscopy measurements were also acquired. Data reduction efforts indicate that the plasma exhaust is very highly ionized, although there is some uncertainty at this time as to the relative abundance of negative OH ions. The emission spectroscopy data provided some indication of the species in the exhaust as well as a measurement of temperature. A 24-electrode-pair segmented Faraday channel and 0.6 Tesla permanent

  20. Detonation command and control

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, Jonathan Lee; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.

    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link therebetween. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  1. Detonation command and control

    DOEpatents

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2015-11-10

    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link therebetween. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  2. Detonation command and control

    DOEpatents

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2016-05-31

    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link there between. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  3. The History of the Study of Detonation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulat, Pavel V.; Volkov, Konstantin N.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we reviewed the main concepts of detonative combustion. Concepts of slow and fast combustion, of detonation adiabat are introduced. Landmark works on experimental and semi-empirical detonation study are presented. We reviewed Chapman-Jouguet stationary detonation and spin detonation. Various mathematical model of detonation wave…

  4. A novel method for the measurement of the von Neumann spike in detonating high explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sollier, A.; Bouyer, V.; Hébert, P.; Doucet, M.

    2016-06-01

    We present detonation wave profiles measured in T2 (97 wt. % TATB) and TX1 (52 wt. % TATB and 45 wt. % HMX) high explosives. The experiments consisted in initiating a detonation wave in a 15 mm diameter cylinder of explosive using an explosive wire detonator and an explosive booster. Free surface velocity wave profiles were measured at the explosive/air interface using a Photon Doppler Velocimetry system. We demonstrate that a comparison of these free surface wave profiles with those measured at explosive/window interfaces in similar conditions allows to bracket the von Neumann spike in a narrow range. For T2, our measurements show that the spike pressure lies between 35.9 and 40.1 GPa, whereas for TX1, it lies between 42.3 and 47.0 GPa. The numerical simulations performed in support to these measurements show that they can be used to calibrate reactive burn models and also to check the accuracy of the detonation products equation of state at low pressure.

  5. Initiation Mechanisms of Low-loss Swept-ramp Obstacles for Deflagration to Detonation Transition in Pulse Detonation Combustors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    minimal pressure losses. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 113 14. SUBJECT TERMS Pulse Detonation Combustors, PDC, Pulse Detonation Engines, PDE , PDE ...Postgraduate School PDC Pulse Detonation Combustor PDE Pulse Detonation Engine RAM Random Access Memory RDT Research, Design and Test RPL...inhibiting the implementation of this advanced propulsion system. The primary advantage offered by pulse detonation engines ( PDEs ) is the high efficiency

  6. Bidirectional slapper detonator

    DOEpatents

    McCormick, Robert N.; Boyd, Melissa D.

    1984-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a bidirectional slapper detonator. One embodiment utilizes a single bridge circuit to detonate a pair of opposing initiating pellets. A line generator embodiment uses a plurality of bridges in electrical series to generate opposing cylindrical wavefronts.

  7. Gaseous detonation initiation via wave implosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Scott Irving

    Efficient detonation initiation is a topic of intense interest to designers of pulse detonation engines. This experimental work is the first to detonate propane-air mixtures with an imploding detonation wave and to detonate a gas mixture with a non-reflected, imploding shock. In order to do this, a unique device has been developed that is capable of generating an imploding toroidal detonation wave inside of a tube from a single ignition point without any obstruction to the tube flow path. As part of this study, an initiator that creates a large-aspect-ratio planar detonation wave in gas-phase explosive from a single ignition point has also been developed. The effectiveness of our initiation devices has been evaluated. The minimum energy required by the imploding shock for initiation was determined to scale linearly with the induction zone length, indicating the presence of a planar initiation mode. The imploding toroidal detonation initiator was found to be more effective at detonation initiation than the imploding shock initiator, using a comparable energy input to that of current initiator tubes.

  8. Planar Reflection of Gaseous Detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damazo, Jason Scott

    Pipes containing flammable gaseous mixtures may be subjected to internal detonation. When the detonation normally impinges on a closed end, a reflected shock wave is created to bring the flow back to rest. This study built on the work of Karnesky (2010) and examined deformation of thin-walled stainless steel tubes subjected to internal reflected gaseous detonations. A ripple pattern was observed in the tube wall for certain fill pressures, and a criterion was developed that predicted when the ripple pattern would form. A two-dimensional finite element analysis was performed using Johnson-Cook material properties; the pressure loading created by reflected gaseous detonations was accounted for with a previously developed pressure model. The residual plastic strain between experiments and computations was in good agreement. During the examination of detonation-driven deformation, discrepancies were discovered in our understanding of reflected gaseous detonation behavior. Previous models did not accurately describe the nature of the reflected shock wave, which motivated further experiments in a detonation tube with optical access. Pressure sensors and schlieren images were used to examine reflected shock behavior, and it was determined that the discrepancies were related to the reaction zone thickness extant behind the detonation front. During these experiments reflected shock bifurcation did not appear to occur, but the unfocused visualization system made certainty impossible. This prompted construction of a focused schlieren system that investigated possible shock wave-boundary layer interaction, and heat-flux gauges analyzed the boundary layer behind the detonation front. Using these data with an analytical boundary layer solution, it was determined that the strong thermal boundary layer present behind the detonation front inhibits the development of reflected shock wave bifurcation.

  9. Some properties of explosive mixtures containing peroxides Part II. Relationships between detonation parameters and thermal reactivity of the mixtures with triacetone triperoxide.

    PubMed

    Zeman, Svatopluk; Bartei, Cécile

    2008-06-15

    This study concerns mixtures of triacetone triperoxide (3,3,6,6,9,9-hexamethyl-1,2,4,5,7,8-hexoxonane, TATP) and ammonium nitrate (AN) with added water (W), as the case may be, and two dry mixtures of TATP with urea nitrate (UN). Relative performances (RP) of the mixtures and their individual components, relative to TNT, were determined by means of ballistic mortar. Thermal reactivity of these mixtures was examined by means of differential thermal analysis and the data were analyzed according to the modified Kissinger method (the peak temperature was replaced by the temperature of decomposition onset in this case). The reactivity, expressed as the EaR(-1) slopes of the Kissinger relationship, correlates with the squares of the calculated detonation velocities for the charge density of 1000 kg m(-3) of the studied energetic materials. Similarly, the relationships between the EaR(-1) values and RP have been found. While the first mentioned correlation (modified Evans-Polanyi-Semenov equation) is connected with the primary chemical micro-mechanism of the mixtures detonation, the relationships in the second case should be connected with the thermochemical aspects of this detonation.

  10. Development and testing of pulsed and rotating detonation combustors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. George, Andrew C.

    Detonation is a self-sustaining, supersonic, shock-driven, exothermic reaction. Detonation combustion can theoretically provide significant improvements in thermodynamic efficiency over constant pressure combustion when incorporated into existing cycles. To harness this potential performance benefit, countless studies have worked to develop detonation combustors and integrate these devices into existing systems. This dissertation consists of a series of investigations on two types of detonation combustors: the pulse detonation combustor (PDC) and the rotating detonation combustor (RDC). In the first two investigations, an array of air-breathing PDCs is integrated with an axial power turbine. The system is initially operated with steady and pulsed cold air flow to determine the effect of pulsed flow on turbine performance. Various averaging approaches are employed to calculate turbine efficiency, but only flow-weighted (e.g., mass or work averaging) definitions have physical significance. Pulsed flow turbine efficiency is comparable to steady flow efficiency at high corrected flow rates and low rotor speeds. At these conditions, the pulse duty cycle expands and the variation of the rotor incidence angle is constrained to a favorable range. The system is operated with pulsed detonating flow to determine the effect of frequency, fill fraction, and rotor speed on turbine performance. For some conditions, output power exceeds the maximum attainable value from steady constant pressure combustion due to a significant increase in available power from the detonation products. However, the turbine component efficiency estimated from classical thermodynamic analysis is four times lower than the steady design point efficiency. Analysis of blade angles shows a significant penalty due to the detonation, fill, and purge processes simultaneously imposed on the rotor. The latter six investigations focus on fundamental research of the RDC concept. A specially-tailored RDC data

  11. Interaction between a steady detonation wave in nitromethane and geometrical complex confinement defects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzet, Blandine; Carion, Noel; Manczur, Philippe

    2007-06-01

    It is well known that detonation propagation is altered if the explosive is encased in an inert confining material. But in practice, explosives are rarely used without confinement and particular attention must be paid to the problem of explosive/confinement interactions. In this work, we have carried out two copper cylinder expansion tests on nitromethane. They differ from the classical cylinder test in that the liner includes evenly-spaced protruding circular defects. The aim is to study how a detonation front propagating in the liquid explosive interacts with the confining material defects. The subsequent motion of the metal, accelerated by the expanding detonation products, is measured using a range of diagnostic techniques: electrical probes, rapid framing camera, glass block associated with streak camera and velocity laser interferometers. The different experimental records have been examined in the light of a simple 2D theoretical shock polar analysis and 2D numerical simulations.

  12. Influencing Factors of the Initiation Point in the Parachute-Bomb Dynamic Detonation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qizhong, Li; Ye, Wang; Zhongqi, Wang; Chunhua, Bai

    2017-12-01

    The parachute system has been widely applied in modern armament design, especially for the fuel-air explosives. Because detonation of fuel-air explosives occurs during flight, it is necessary to investigate the influences of the initiation point to ensure successful dynamic detonation. In fact, the initiating position exist the falling area in the fuels, due to the error of influencing factors. In this paper, the major influencing factors of initiation point were explored with airdrop and the regularity between initiation point area and factors were obtained. Based on the regularity, the volume equation of initiation point area was established to predict the range of initiation point in the fuel. The analysis results showed that the initiation point appeared area, scattered on account of the error of attitude angle, secondary initiation charge velocity, and delay time. The attitude angle was the major influencing factors on a horizontal axis. On the contrary, secondary initiation charge velocity and delay time were the major influencing factors on a horizontal axis. Overall, the geometries of initiation point area were sector coupled with the errors of the attitude angle, secondary initiation charge velocity, and delay time.

  13. Diminishing detonator effectiveness through electromagnetic effects

    DOEpatents

    Schill, Jr, Robert A.

    2016-09-20

    An inductively coupled transmission line with distributed electromotive force source and an alternative coupling model based on empirical data and theory were developed to initiate bridge wire melt for a detonator with an open and a short circuit detonator load. In the latter technique, the model was developed to exploit incomplete knowledge of the open circuited detonator using tendencies common to all of the open circuit loads examined. Military, commercial, and improvised detonators were examined and modeled. Nichrome, copper, platinum, and tungsten are the detonator specific bridge wire materials studied. The improvised detonators were made typically made with tungsten wire and copper (.about.40 AWG wire strands) wire.

  14. High speed radiometric measurements of IED detonation fireballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spidell, Matthew T.; Gordon, J. Motos; Pitz, Jeremey; Gross, Kevin C.; Perram, Glen P.

    2010-04-01

    Continuum emission is predominant in fireball spectral phenomena and in some demonstrated cases, fine detail in the temporal evolution of infrared spectral emissions can be used to estimate size and chemical composition of the device. Recent work indicates that a few narrow radiometric bands may reveal forensic information needed for the explosive discrimination and classification problem, representing an essential step in moving from "laboratory" measurements to a rugged, fieldable system. To explore phenomena not observable in previous experiments, a high speed (10μs resolution) radiometer with four channels spanning the infrared spectrum observed the detonation of nine home made explosive (HME) devices in the < 100lb class. Radiometric measurements indicate that the detonation fireball is well approximated as a single temperature blackbody at early time (0 < t <~ 3ms). The effective radius obtained from absolute intensity indicates fireball growth at supersonic velocity during this time. Peak fireball temperatures during this initial detonation range between 3000.3500K. The initial temperature decay with time (t <~ 10ms) can be described by a simple phenomenological model based on radiative cooling. After this rapid decay, temperature exhibits a small, steady increase with time (10 <~ t <~ 50ms) and peaking somewhere between 1000.1500K-likely the result of post-detonation combustion-before subsequent cooling back to ambient conditions . Radius derived from radiometric measurements can be described well (R2 > 0.98) using blast model functional forms, suggesting that energy release could be estimated from single-pixel radiometric detectors. Comparison of radiometer-derived fireball size with FLIR infrared imagery indicate the Planckian intensity size estimates are about a factor of two smaller than the physical extent of the fireball.

  15. Weakly nonlinear dynamics of near-CJ detonation waves

    SciTech Connect

    Bdzil, J.B.; Klein, R.

    1993-01-01

    The renewed interest in safety issues for large scale industrial devices and in high speed combustion has driven recent intense efforts to gain a deeper theoretical understanding of detonation wave dynamics. Linear stability analyses, weakly nonlinear bifurcation calculations as well as full scale multi-dimensional direct numerical simulations have been pursued for a standard model problem based on the reactive Euler equations for an ideal gas with constant specific heat capacities and simplified chemical reaction models. Most of these studies are concerned with overdriven detonations. This is true despite the fact that the majority of all detonations observed in nature aremore » running at speeds close to the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) limit value. By focusing on overdriven waves one removes an array of difficulties from the analysis that is associated with the sonic flow conditions in the wake of a CJ-detonation. In particular, the proper formulation of downstream boundary conditions in the CJ-case is a yet unsolved analytical problem. A proper treatment of perturbations in the back of a Chapman-Jouguet detonation has to account for two distinct weakly nonlinear effects in the forward acoustic wave component. The first is a nonlinear interactionof highly temperature sensitive chemistry with the forward acoustic wave component in a transonic boundary layer near the end of the reaction zone. The second is a cumulative three-wave-resonance in the sense of Majda et al. which is active in the near-sonic burnt gas flow and which is essentially independent of the details of the chemical model. In this work, we consider detonations in mixtures with moderate state sensitivity of the chemical reactions. Then, the acoustic perturbations do not influence the chemistry at the order considered and we may concentrate on the second effect; the three-wave resonance.« less

  16. Weakly nonlinear dynamics of near-CJ detonation waves

    SciTech Connect

    Bdzil, J.B.; Klein, R.

    1993-02-01

    The renewed interest in safety issues for large scale industrial devices and in high speed combustion has driven recent intense efforts to gain a deeper theoretical understanding of detonation wave dynamics. Linear stability analyses, weakly nonlinear bifurcation calculations as well as full scale multi-dimensional direct numerical simulations have been pursued for a standard model problem based on the reactive Euler equations for an ideal gas with constant specific heat capacities and simplified chemical reaction models. Most of these studies are concerned with overdriven detonations. This is true despite the fact that the majority of all detonations observed in nature aremore » running at speeds close to the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) limit value. By focusing on overdriven waves one removes an array of difficulties from the analysis that is associated with the sonic flow conditions in the wake of a CJ-detonation. In particular, the proper formulation of downstream boundary conditions in the CJ-case is a yet unsolved analytical problem. A proper treatment of perturbations in the back of a Chapman-Jouguet detonation has to account for two distinct weakly nonlinear effects in the forward acoustic wave component. The first is a nonlinear interactionof highly temperature sensitive chemistry with the forward acoustic wave component in a transonic boundary layer near the end of the reaction zone. The second is a cumulative three-wave-resonance in the sense of Majda et al. which is active in the near-sonic burnt gas flow and which is essentially independent of the details of the chemical model. In this work, we consider detonations in mixtures with moderate state sensitivity of the chemical reactions. Then, the acoustic perturbations do not influence the chemistry at the order considered and we may concentrate on the second effect; the three-wave resonance.« less

  17. Detonation Jet Engine. Part 2--Construction Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulat, Pavel V.; Volkov, Konstantin N.

    2016-01-01

    We present the most relevant works on jet engine design that utilize thermodynamic cycle of detonative combustion. Detonation engines of various concepts, pulse detonation, rotational and engine with stationary detonation wave, are reviewed. Main trends in detonation engine development are discussed. The most important works that carried out…

  18. High-Temperature and Pressure Aluminum Reactions in Carbon Dioxide Rich Post-Detonation Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappan, Bryce; Manner, Virginia; Pemberton, Steven; Lieber, Mark; Johnson, Carl; Sanders, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Powdered aluminum is a common additive to energetic materials, but little is understood regarding its reaction rate at very high temperatures and pressures in specific oxidizing gases such as carbon dioxide. Aluminum reaction kinetics in carbon dioxide have been studied in various reaction conditions, but difficulties arise in the more specific study of Al oxidation at the high pressures and temperatures in detonation reactions. To study these reactions, small particle size Al or the inert surrogate, LiF, was added to the energetic material benzotrifuroxan (BTF). BTF is a hydrogen-free material that selectively forms CO2 as the major oxidizing species for post-detonation Al oxidation. High-fidelity PDV measurements were utilized for early wall velocity expansion measurements in 12.7 mm copper cylinders. The JWL equation of state was solved to determine temperature, pressure and energies at specific time periods. A genetic algorithm was used in conjunction with a numerical simulation hydrocode, ALE3D, which enables the elucidation of aluminum reaction extent. By comparison of the Al oxidation with LiF, data indicate that Al oxidation occurs on an extremely fast time scale, beginning and completing between 1 and 25 microseconds. Unconfined, 6.4 mm diameter rate-sticks were also utilized to determine the effect of Al compared to LiF on detonation velocity.

  19. High-temperature and pressure aluminum reactions in carbon dioxide rich post-detonation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappan, B. C.; Hill, L. G.; Manner, V. W.; Pemberton, S. J.; Lieber, M. A.; Johnson, C. E.; Sanders, V. E.

    2014-05-01

    Powdered aluminum is a common additive to energetic materials, but little is understood regarding its reaction rate at very high temperatures and pressures in specific oxidizing gases such as carbon dioxide. Aluminum reaction kinetics in carbon dioxide have been studied in various reaction conditions, but difficulties arise in the more specific study of Al oxidation at the high pressures and temperatures in detonation reactions. To study these reactions, small particle size Al or the inert surrogate, LiF, was added to the energetic material benzotrifuroxan (BTF). BTF is a hydrogen-free material that selectively forms CO2 as the major oxidizing species for post-detonation Al oxidation. High-fidelity PDV measurements were utilized for early wall velocity expansion measurements in 12.7 mm copper cylinders. The JWL equation of state was solved to determine temperature, pressure and energies at specific time periods. A genetic algorithm was used in conjunction with a numerical simulation hydrocode, ALE3D, which enables the elucidation of aluminum reaction extent. By comparison of the Al oxidation with LiF, data indicate that Al oxidation occurs on an extremely fast time scale, beginning and completing between 1 and 25 microseconds. Unconfined, 6.4 mm diameter rate-sticks were also utilized to determine the effect of Al compared to LiF on detonation velocity.

  20. Experimental study on transmission of an overdriven detonation wave from propane/oxygen to propane/air

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Lai, W.H.; Chung, K.

    2008-08-15

    Two sets of experiments were performed to achieve a strong overdriven state in a weaker mixture by propagating an overdriven detonation wave via a deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) process. First, preliminary experiments with a propane/oxygen mixture were used to evaluate the attenuation of the overdriven detonation wave in the DDT process. Next, experiments were performed wherein a propane/oxygen mixture was separated from a propane/air mixture by a thin diaphragm to observe the transmission of an overdriven detonation wave. Based on the characteristic relations, a simple wave intersection model was used to calculate the state of the transmitted detonation wave. The resultsmore » showed that a rarefaction effect must be included to ensure that there is no overestimate of the post-transmission wave properties when the incident detonation wave is overdriven. The strength of the incident overdriven detonation wave plays an important role in the wave transmission process. The experimental results showed that a transmitted overdriven detonation wave occurs instantaneously with a strong incident overdriven detonation wave. The near-CJ state of the incident wave leads to a transmitted shock wave, and then the transition to the overdriven detonation wave occurs downstream. The attenuation process for the overdriven detonation wave decaying to a near-CJ state occurs in all tests. After the attenuation process, an unstable detonation wave was observed in most tests. This may be attributed to the increase in the cell width in the attenuation process that exceeds the detonability cell width limit. (author)« less

  1. Lagrangian technique to calculate window interface velocity from shock velocity measurements: Application for quartz windows

    DOE PAGES

    McCoy, Chad A.; Knudson, Marcus D.

    2017-08-24

    Measurement of the window interface velocity is a common technique for investigating the dynamic response materials at high strain rates. However, these measurements are limited in pressure to the range where the window remains transparent. The most common window material for this application is lithium fluoride, which under single shock compression becomes opaque at ~200 GPa. To date, no other window material has been identified for use at higher pressures. Here, we present a Lagrangian technique to calculate the interface velocity from a continuously measured shock velocity, with application to quartz. The quartz shock front becomes reflective upon melt, atmore » ~100 GPa, enabling the use of velocity interferometry to continuously measure the shock velocity. This technique overlaps with the range of pressures accessible with LiF windows and extends the region where wave profile measurements are possible to pressures in excess of 2000 GPa. Lastly, we show through simulated data that the technique accurately reproduces the interface velocity within 20% of the initial state, and that the Lagrangian technique represents a significant improvement over a simple linear approximation.« less

  2. Lagrangian technique to calculate window interface velocity from shock velocity measurements: Application for quartz windows

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Chad A.; Knudson, Marcus D.

    Measurement of the window interface velocity is a common technique for investigating the dynamic response materials at high strain rates. However, these measurements are limited in pressure to the range where the window remains transparent. The most common window material for this application is lithium fluoride, which under single shock compression becomes opaque at ~200 GPa. To date, no other window material has been identified for use at higher pressures. Here, we present a Lagrangian technique to calculate the interface velocity from a continuously measured shock velocity, with application to quartz. The quartz shock front becomes reflective upon melt, atmore » ~100 GPa, enabling the use of velocity interferometry to continuously measure the shock velocity. This technique overlaps with the range of pressures accessible with LiF windows and extends the region where wave profile measurements are possible to pressures in excess of 2000 GPa. Lastly, we show through simulated data that the technique accurately reproduces the interface velocity within 20% of the initial state, and that the Lagrangian technique represents a significant improvement over a simple linear approximation.« less

  3. Detonation Energies of Explosives by Optimized JCZ3 Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiel, Leonard; Baker, Ernest

    1997-07-01

    Procedures for the detonation properties of explosives have been extended for the calculation of detonation energies at adiabatic expansion conditions. Advanced variable metric optimization routines developed by ARDEC are utilized to establish chemical reaction equilibrium by the minimization of the Helmholtz free energy of the system. The use of the JCZ3 equation of state with optimized Exp-6 potential parameters leads to lower errors in JWL detonation energies than the TIGER JCZ3 procedure and other methods tested for relative volumes to 7.0. For the principal isentrope with C-J parameters and freeze conditions established at elevated pressures with the JCZ3 equation of state, best results are obtained if an alternate volumetric relationship is utilized at the highest expansions. Efficient subroutines (designated JAGUAR) have been developed which incorporate the ability to automatically generate JWL and JWLB equation of state parameters. abstract.

  4. Pulse detonation engines and components thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tangirala, Venkat Eswarlu (Inventor); Rasheed, Adam (Inventor); Vandervort, Christian Lee (Inventor); Dean, Anthony John (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A pulse detonation engine comprises a primary air inlet; a primary air plenum located in fluid communication with the primary air inlet; a secondary air inlet; a secondary air plenum located in fluid communication with the secondary air inlet, wherein the secondary air plenum is substantially isolated from the primary air plenum; a pulse detonation combustor comprising a pulse detonation chamber, wherein the pulse detonation chamber is located downstream of and in fluid communication with the primary air plenum; a coaxial liner surrounding the pulse detonation combustor defining a cooling plenum, wherein the cooling plenum is in fluid communication with the secondary air plenum; an axial turbine assembly located downstream of and in fluid communication with the pulse detonation combustor and the cooling plenum; and a housing encasing the primary air plenum, the secondary air plenum, the pulse detonation combustor, the coaxial liner, and the axial turbine assembly.

  5. Evaluation of the Detonation Performance of Insensitive Explosive Formulations Based on 3,3 Diamino-4,4-Azoxyfurazan (DAAF) and 3-Nitro-1,2,4-Triazol-5-One (NTO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappan, Bryce C.; Bowden, Patrick R.; Lichthardt, Joseph P.; Schmitt, Matthew M.; Hill, Larry G.

    2018-04-01

    Two energetic materials identified for relatively high energy, but little to no response to impact, spark or friction stimuli are 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazole-5-one (NTO), and 3,3' diamino-4,4'-azoxyfurazan (DAAF). More of an outlier in performance versus sensitivity, DAAF illustrates insensitivity by small-scale sensitivity tests, yet has a failure diameter estimated to be 1.25 mm and a short run length to detonation. Because of this unusual behavior, DAAF is an ideal material to formulate with NTO to obtain tailored shock sensitivity and critical diameter, with detonation velocities and pressures higher than PBX 9502. Here, we present detonation properties of Kel-F® bonded formulations with ratios of 20-70 wt.-% DAAF added to NTO. All formulations were evaluated for detonation velocity, aluminum flyer acceleration at jump-off, and via the cylinder expansion test.

  6. Numerical modeling of divergent detonation wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiwei; Liu, Bangdi

    1987-11-01

    The indefinite nature of divergent detonations under the assumption of instantaneous stable detonation is described. In the numerical modeling method for divergent detonation, the artificial cohesiveness was improved and the Cochran reaction rate and the JWL equations of state were used to describe the ignition process of the explosion. Several typical divergent detonation problems were computed obtaining rather satisfying results.

  7. Parametric study of the dynamic JWL-EOS for detonation products

    SciTech Connect

    Urtiew, P.A.; Hayes, B.

    1990-03-01

    The JWL equation of state describing the adiabatic expansion of detonation products is revisited to complete the description of the principal eigenvalue, to reset the secondary eigenvalue to produce a well-behaved adiabatic gamma profile, and to normalize the characteristic equation of state in terms of conventional parameters having a clear experimental interpretation. This is accomplished by interjecting a dynamic flow condition concerning the value of the relative specific volume when the particle velocity of the detonation products is zero. In addition, a set of generic parameters based on the statistical distribution of the primary explosives making up the available datamore » base is presented. Unlike theoretical and statistical mechanical models, the adiabatic gamma function for these materials is seen to have a positive initial slope in accord with experimental findings. 10 refs., 4 figs.« less

  8. Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator

    DOEpatents

    Dinegar, Robert H.; Kirkham, John

    1982-01-01

    A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

  9. Measurements of multiple gas parameters in a pulsed-detonation combustor using time-division-multiplexed Fourier-domain mode-locked lasers.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Andrew W; Roy, Sukesh; An, Xinliang; Sanders, Scott T; Schauer, Frederick R; Gord, James R

    2013-04-20

    Hyperspectral absorption spectroscopy is being used to monitor gas temperature, velocity, pressure, and H(2)O mole fraction in a research-grade pulsed-detonation combustor (PDC) at the Air Force Research Laboratory. The hyperspectral source employed is termed the TDM 3-FDML because it consists of three time-division-multiplexed (TDM) Fourier-domain mode-locked (FDML) lasers. This optical-fiber-based source monitors sufficient spectral information in the H(2)O absorption spectrum near 1350 nm to permit measurements over the wide range of conditions encountered throughout the PDC cycle. Doppler velocimetry based on absorption features is accomplished using a counterpropagating beam approach that is designed to minimize common-mode flow noise. The PDC in this study is operated in two configurations: one in which the combustion tube exhausts directly to the ambient environment and another in which it feeds an automotive-style turbocharger to assess the performance of a detonation-driven turbine. Because the enthalpy flow [kilojoule/second] is important in assessing the performance of the PDC in various configurations, it is calculated from the measured gas properties.

  10. Interaction Between a Steady Detonation Wave in Nitromethane and Geometrical Complex Confinement Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzet, B.; Soulard, L.; Carion, N.; Manczur, P.

    2007-12-01

    Two copper cylinder expansion tests were carried out on nitromethane. They differ from the classical cylinder test in that the liner includes evenly-spaced protruding circular defects. The aim is to study how a detonation front propagating in the liquid explosive interacts with the confining material defects. The subsequent motion of the metal, accelerated by the expanding detonation products, is measured using a range of diagnostic techniques: electrical probes, a rapid framing camera, a glass block associated with a streak camera and velocity laser interferometers. The different experimental records have been examined in the light of previous classical cylinder test measurements, simple 2D theoretical shock polar analysis results and 2D numerical simulations.

  11. A Performance Map for Ideal Air Breathing Pulse Detonation Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of an ideal, air breathing Pulse Detonation Engine is described in a manner that is useful for application studies (e.g., as a stand-alone, propulsion system, in combined cycles, or in hybrid turbomachinery cycles). It is shown that the Pulse Detonation Engine may be characterized by an averaged total pressure ratio, which is a unique function of the inlet temperature, the fraction of the inlet flow containing a reacting mixture, and the stoichiometry of the mixture. The inlet temperature and stoichiometry (equivalence ratio) may in turn be combined to form a nondimensional heat addition parameter. For each value of this parameter, the average total enthalpy ratio and total pressure ratio across the device are functions of only the reactant fill fraction. Performance over the entire operating envelope can thus be presented on a single plot of total pressure ratio versus total enthalpy ratio for families of the heat addition parameter. Total pressure ratios are derived from thrust calculations obtained from an experimentally validated, reactive Euler code capable of computing complete Pulse Detonation Engine limit cycles. Results are presented which demonstrate the utility of the described method for assessing performance of the Pulse Detonation Engine in several potential applications. Limitations and assumptions of the analysis are discussed. Details of the particular detonative cycle used for the computations are described.

  12. The development and testing of pulsed detonation engine ground demonstrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panicker, Philip Koshy

    2008-10-01

    short ignition delays and DDT run-up distances. Dynamic pressure transducers, ion detectors and photo-detectors were compared for the diagnostics of the detonation wave. The ion detector is found to be a safe, cheap and effective choice for obtaining detonation or flame velocities, and better than the optical detector, which is not practical for long-duration PDE operations. The piezoelectric dynamic pressure transducer has problems with heating and requires an effective cooling system to enable it to function in a PDE. Other diagnostics studied include thrust measurement and mass flow rate measurement techniques. Additionally, fuel sensitizing techniques, such as hydrogen blending, along with the DDT devices can ensure that detonations are produced successfully.

  13. Using Schlieren Visualization to Track Detonator Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, S. A.; Bolme, C. A.; Murphy, M. J.; Landon, C. D.; Mason, T. A.; Adrian, R. J.; Akinci, A. A.; Martinez, M. E.; Thomas, K. A.

    2007-12-01

    Several experiments will be presented that are part of a phased plan to understand the evolution of detonation in a detonator from initiation shock through run to detonation, to full detonation, to transition, to booster and booster detonation. High-speed multiframe schlieren imagery has been used to study several explosive initiation events, such as exploding bridgewires (EBWs), exploding foil initiators (EFIs or "slappers"), direct optical initiation (DOI), and electrostatic discharge. Additionally, a series of tests has been performed on "cut-back" detonators with varying initial pressing heights. We have also used this diagnostic to visualize a range of EBW, EFI, and DOI full-up detonators. Future applications to other explosive events, such as boosters and insensitive high explosives booster evaluation, will be discussed. The EPIC finite element code has been used to analyze the shock fronts from the schlieren images to solve iteratively for consistent boundary or initial conditions to determine the temporal-spatial pressure profile across the output face of the detonator.

  14. Comparative theoretical studies of differently bridged nitramino-substituted ditetrazole 2-N-oxides with high detonation performance and an oxygen balance of around zero.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Kou, Bo; Hang, Zusheng; Zhu, Weihua

    2017-06-01

    In this work, six (A-F) nitramino (-NHNO 2 )-substituted ditetrazole 2-N-oxides with different bridging groups (-CH 2 -, -CH 2 -CH 2 -, -NH-, -N=N-, and -NH-NH-) were designed. The six compounds were based on the parent compound tetrazole 2-N-oxide, which possesses a high oxygen balance and high density. The structure, heat of formation, density, detonation properties (detonation velocity D and detonation pressure P), and the sensitivity of each compound was investigated systematically via density functional theory, by studying the electrostatic potential, and using molecular mechanics. The results showed that compounds A-F all have outstanding energetic properties (D: 9.1-10.0 km/s; P: 38.0-46.7 GPa) and acceptable sensitivities (h 50 : 28-37 cm). The bridging group present was found to greatly affect the detonation performance of each ditetrazole 2-N-oxide, and the compound with the -NH-NH- bridging group yielded the best results. Indeed, this compound (F) was calculated to have comparable sensitivity to the famous and widely used high explosive 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX), but with values of D and P that were about 8.7% and 19.4% higher than those for HMX, respectively. The present study shows that tetrazole 2-N-oxide is a useful parent compound which could potentially be used in the design of new and improved high-energy compounds to replace existing energetic compounds such as HMX.

  15. The Universal Role of Tubulence in the Propagation of Strong Shocks and Detonation Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, John H.

    2001-06-01

    The passage of a strong shock wave usually results in irreversible physical and chemical changes in the medium. If the chemical reactions are sufficiently exothermic, the shock wave can be self-propagating, i.e., sustained by the chemical energy release via the expansion work of the reaction products. Although shocks and detonations can be globally stable and propagate at constant velocities (in the direction of motion), their structure may be highly unstable and exhibit large hydrodynamic fluctuations, i.e., turbulence. Recent investigations on plastic deformation of polycrystalline material behind shock waves have revealed particle velocity dispersion at the mesoscopic level, a result of vortical rotational motion similar to that of turbulent fluid flows at high Reynolds number.1 Strong ionizing shocks in noble gases2, as well as dissociating shock waves in carbon dioxide,3 also demonstrate a turbulent density fluctuation in the non-equilibrium shock transition zone. Perhaps the most thoroughly investigated unstable structure is that of detonation waves in gaseous explosives.4 Detonation waves in liquid explosives such as nitromethane also take on similar unstable structure as gaseous detonations.5 There are also indications that detonations in solid explosives have a similar unsteady structure under certain conditions. Thus, it appears that it is more of a rule than an exception that the structure of strong shocks and detonations are unstable and exhibit turbulent-like fluctuations as improved diagnostics now permit us to look more closely at the meso- and micro-levels. Increasing attention is now devoted to the understanding of the shock waves at the micro-scale level in recent years. This is motivated by the need to formulate physical and chemical models that contain the correct physics capable of describing quantitatively the shock transition process. It should be noted that, in spite of its unstable 3-D structure, the steady 1-D conservation laws (in the

  16. Experimental study on incident wave speed and the mechanisms of deflagration-to-detonation transition in a bent geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Li, J.; Teo, C. J.; Chang, P. H.; Khoo, B. C.

    2018-03-01

    The study of deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in bent tubes is important with many potential applications including fuel pipeline and mine tunnel designs for explosion prevention and detonation engines for propulsion. The aim of this study is to exploit low-speed incident shock waves for DDT using an S-shaped geometry and investigate its effectiveness as a DDT enhancement device. Experiments were conducted in a valveless detonation chamber using ethylene-air mixture at room temperature and pressure (303 K, 1 bar). High-speed Schlieren photography was employed to keep track of the wave dynamic evolution. Results showed that waves with velocity as low as 500 m/s can experience a successful DDT process through this S-shaped geometry. To better understand the mechanism, clear images of local explosion processes were captured in either the first curved section or the second curved section depending on the inlet wave velocity, thus proving that this S-shaped tube can act as a two-stage device for DDT. Owing to the curved wall structure, the passing wave was observed to undergo a continuous compression phase which could ignite the local unburnt mixture and finally lead to a local explosion and a detonation transition. Additionally, the phenomenon of shock-vortex interaction near the wave diffraction region was also found to play an important role in the whole process. It was recorded that this interaction could not only result in local head-on reflection of the reflected wave on the wall that could ignite the local mixture, and it could also contribute to the recoupling of the shock-flame complex when a detonation wave is successfully formed in the first curved section.

  17. Planar Reflection of Detonations Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damazo, Jason; Shepherd, Joseph

    2012-11-01

    An experimental study examining normally reflected gaseous detonation waves is undertaken so that the physics of reflected detonations may be understood. Focused schlieren visualization is used to describe the boundary layer development behind the incident detonation wave and the nature of the reflected shock wave. Reflected shock wave bifurcation-which has received extensive study as it pertains to shock tube performance-is predicted by classical bifurcation theory, but is not observed in the present study for undiluted hydrogen-oxygen and ethylene-oxygen detonation waves. Pressure and thermocouple gauges are installed in the floor of the detonation tube so as to examine both the wall pressure and heat flux. From the pressure results, we observe an inconsistency between the measured reflected shock speed and the measured reflected shock strength with one dimensional flow predictions confirming earlier experiments performed in our laboratory. This research is sponsored by the DHS through the University of Rhode Island, Center of Excellence for Explosives Detection.

  18. Rotating Detonation Engine Operation (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    MdotH2 = mass flow of hydrogen MdotAir = mass flow of air PCB = Piezoelectric Pressure Sensor PDE = Pulsed Detonation Engine RDE = Rotating ...and unsteady thrust output of PDEs . One of the new designs was the Rotating Detonation Engine (RDE). An RDE operates by exhausting an initial...AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2012-0003 ROTATING DETONATION ENGINE OPERATION (PREPRINT) James A. Suchocki and Sheng-Tao John Yu The Ohio State

  19. Prediction of the Chapman-Jouguet chemical equilibrium state in a detonation wave from first principles based reactive molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dezhou; Zybin, Sergey V; An, Qi; Goddard, William A; Huang, Fenglei

    2016-01-21

    The combustion or detonation of reacting materials at high temperature and pressure can be characterized by the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state that describes the chemical equilibrium of the products at the end of the reaction zone of the detonation wave for sustained detonation. This provides the critical properties and product kinetics for input to macroscale continuum simulations of energetic materials. We propose the ReaxFF Reactive Dynamics to CJ point protocol (Rx2CJ) for predicting the CJ state parameters, providing the means to predict the performance of new materials prior to synthesis and characterization, allowing the simulation based design to be done in silico. Our Rx2CJ method is based on atomistic reactive molecular dynamics (RMD) using the QM-derived ReaxFF force field. We validate this method here by predicting the CJ point and detonation products for three typical energetic materials. We find good agreement between the predicted and experimental detonation velocities, indicating that this method can reliably predict the CJ state using modest levels of computation.

  20. Research and Development of High-performance Explosives

    PubMed Central

    Cornell, Rodger; Wrobel, Erik; Anderson, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Developmental testing of high explosives for military applications involves small-scale formulation, safety testing, and finally detonation performance tests to verify theoretical calculations. small-scale For newly developed formulations, the process begins with small-scale mixes, thermal testing, and impact and friction sensitivity. Only then do subsequent larger scale formulations proceed to detonation testing, which will be covered in this paper. Recent advances in characterization techniques have led to unparalleled precision in the characterization of early-time evolution of detonations. The new technique of photo-Doppler velocimetry (PDV) for the measurement of detonation pressure and velocity will be shared and compared with traditional fiber-optic detonation velocity and plate-dent calculation of detonation pressure. In particular, the role of aluminum in explosive formulations will be discussed. Recent developments led to the development of explosive formulations that result in reaction of aluminum very early in the detonation product expansion. This enhanced reaction leads to changes in the detonation velocity and pressure due to reaction of the aluminum with oxygen in the expanding gas products. PMID:26966969

  1. Detonative propagation and accelerative expansion of the Crab Nebula shock front.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Law, Chung K

    2011-10-21

    The accelerative expansion of the Crab Nebula's outer envelope is a mystery in dynamics, as a conventional expanding blast wave decelerates when bumping into the surrounding interstellar medium. Here we show that the strong relativistic pulsar wind bumping into its surrounding nebula induces energy-generating processes and initiates a detonation wave that propagates outward to form the current outer edge, namely, the shock front, of the nebula. The resulting detonation wave, with a reactive downstream, then provides the needed power to maintain propagation of the shock front. Furthermore, relaxation of the curvature-induced reduction of the propagation velocity from the initial state of formation to the asymptotic, planar state of Chapman-Jouguet propagation explains the observed accelerative expansion. Potential richness in incorporating reactive fronts in the description of various astronomical phenomena is expected. © 2011 American Physical Society

  2. Detonator-activated ball shutter

    DOEpatents

    McWilliams, Roy A.; von Holle, William G.

    1983-01-01

    A detonator-activated ball shutter for closing an aperture in about 300.mu. seconds. The ball shutter containing an aperture through which light, etc., passes, is closed by firing a detonator which propels a projectile for rotating the ball shutter, thereby blocking passage through the aperture.

  3. Detonator-activated ball shutter

    DOEpatents

    McWilliams, R.A.; Holle, W.G. von.

    1983-08-16

    A detonator-activated ball shutter for closing an aperture in about 300[mu] seconds. The ball shutter containing an aperture through which light, etc., passes, is closed by firing a detonator which propels a projectile for rotating the ball shutter, thereby blocking passage through the aperture. 3 figs.

  4. Recent work on gaseous detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettleton, M. A.

    The paper reviews recent progress in the field of gaseous detonations, with sections on shock diffraction and reflection, the transition to detonation, hybrid, spherically-imploding, and galloping and stuttering fronts, their structure, their transmission and quenching by additives, the critical energy for initiation and detonation of more unusual fuels. The final section points out areas where our understanding is still far from being complete and contains some suggestions of ways in which progress might be made.

  5. Detonating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Lawrence H.

    1976-01-01

    1. Apparatus for detonation of high explosive in uniform timing comprising in combination, an outer case, spark gap electrodes insulatedly supported in spaced relationship within said case to form a spark gap, high explosive of the class consisting of pentaerythritol tetranitrate and trimethylene trinitramine substantially free from material sensitive to detonation by impact compressed in surrounding relation to said electrodes including said spark gap under a pressure from about 100 psi to about 500 psi, said spark gap with said compressed explosive therein requiring at least 1000 volts for sparking, and means for impressing at least 1000 volts on said spark gap.

  6. Optically detonated explosive device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.; Menichelli, V. J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A technique and apparatus for optically detonating insensitive high explosives, is disclosed. An explosive device is formed by containing high explosive material in a house having a transparent window. A thin metallic film is provided on the interior surface of the window and maintained in contact with the high explosive. A laser pulse provided by a Q-switched laser is focussed on the window to vaporize the metallic film and thereby create a shock wave which detonates the high explosive. Explosive devices may be concurrently or sequentially detonated by employing a fiber optic bundle to transmit the laser pulse to each of the several individual explosive devices.

  7. Development of multi-component explosive lenses for arbitrary phase velocity generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, Jason; Huneault, Justin; Petel, Oren; Goroshin, Sam; Frost, David; Higgins, Andrew; Zhang, Fan

    2013-06-01

    The combination of explosives with different detonation velocities and lens-like geometric shaping is a well-established technique for producing structured detonation waves. This technique can be extended to produce nearly arbitrary detonation phase velocities for the purposes of sequentially imploding pressurized tubes or driving Mach disks through high-density metalized explosives. The current study presents the experimental development of accelerating, multi-component lenses designed using simple geometric optics and idealized front curvature. The fast explosive component is either Composition C4 (VOD = 8 km/s) or Primasheet 1000 (VOD = 7 km/s), while the slow component varies from heavily amine-diluted nitromethane (amine mass fraction exceeding 20%) to packed metal and glass particle beds wetted with amine-sensitized nitromethane. The applicability of the geometric optic analog to such highly heterogeneous explosives is also investigated. The multi-layered lens technique is further developed as a means of generating a directed mass and momentum flux of metal particles via Mach-disk formation and jetting in circular and oval planar lenses.

  8. Detonation initiation in a model of explosive: Comparative atomistic and hydrodynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murzov, S. A.; Sergeev, O. V.; Dyachkov, S. A.; Egorova, M. S.; Parshikov, A. N.; Zhakhovsky, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    Here we extend consistent simulations to reactive materials by the example of AB model explosive. The kinetic model of chemical reactions observed in a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of self-sustained detonation wave can be used in hydrodynamic simulation of detonation initiation. Kinetic coefficients are obtained by minimization of difference between profiles of species calculated from the kinetic model and observed in MD simulations of isochoric thermal decomposition with a help of downhill simplex method combined with random walk in multidimensional space of fitting kinetic model parameters.

  9. The Attenuation of a Detonation Wave by an Aircraft Engine Axial Turbine Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale; Envia, Edmane; Turner, Mark G.

    2007-01-01

    A Constant Volume Combustion Cycle Engine concept consisting of a Pulse Detonation Combustor (PDC) followed by a conventional axial turbine was simulated numerically to determine the attenuation and reflection of a notional PDC pulse by the turbine. The multi-stage, time-accurate, turbomachinery solver TURBO was used to perform the calculation. The solution domain consisted of one notional detonation tube coupled to 5 vane passages and 8 rotor passages representing 1/8th of the annulus. The detonation tube was implemented as an initial value problem with the thermodynamic state of the tube contents, when the detonation wave is about to exit, provided by a 1D code. Pressure time history data from the numerical simulation was compared to experimental data from a similar configuration to verify that the simulation is giving reasonable results. Analysis of the pressure data showed a spectrally averaged attenuation of about 15 dB across the turbine stage. An evaluation of turbine performance is also presented.

  10. Ignition and Growth Modeling of Detonating LX-04 (85% HMX / 15% VITON) Using New and Previously Obtained Experimental Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarver, Craig

    2017-06-01

    An Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for detonating LX-04 (85% HMX / 15% Viton) was developed using new and previously obtained experimental data on: cylinder test expansion; wave curvature; failure diameter; and laser interferometric copper and tantalum foil free surface velocities and LiF interface particle velocity histories. A reaction product JWL EOS generated by the CHEETAH code compared favorably with the existing, well normalized LX-04 product JWL when both were used with the Ignition and Growth model. Good agreement with all existing experimental data was obtained. Keywords: LX-04, HMX, detonation, Ignition and Growth PACS:82.33.Vx, 82.40.Fp This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. The Energy Diameter Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitello, Peter; Garza, Raul; Hernandez, Andy; Souers, P. Clark

    2007-12-01

    We explore various relations for the detonation energy and velocity as they relate to the inverse radius of the cylinder. The effective detonation rate-inverse slope relation seen in reactive flow models can be used to derive the familiar Eyring equation. Generalized inverse radii can be shown to fit large quantities of cylinder results. A rough relation between detonation energy and detonation velocity is found from collected JWL values. Cylinder test data for ammonium nitrate mixes down to 6.35 mm radii are presented, and a size energy effect is shown to exist in the Cylinder test data. The relation that detonation energy is roughly proportional to the square of the detonation velocity is shown by data and calculation.

  12. Far Field Modeling Methods For Characterizing Surface Detonations

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, A.

    2015-10-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed particle samples collected during experiments that were designed to replicate tests of nuclear weapons components that involve detonation of high explosives (HE). SRNL collected the particle samples in the HE debris cloud using innovative rocket propelled samplers. SRNL used scanning electronic microscopy to determine the elemental constituents of the particles and their size distributions. Depleted uranium composed about 7% of the particle contents. SRNL used the particle size distributions and elemental composition to perform transport calculations that indicate in many terrains and atmospheric conditions the uranium bearing particles will be transported long distances downwind.more » This research established that HE tests specific to nuclear proliferation should be detectable at long downwind distances by sampling airborne particles created by the test detonations.« less

  13. Detonation performance measurements of cyclotol 80/20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuiper, T. A.; Anderson, E. K.; Short, M.; Jackson, S. I.

    2017-01-01

    Cyclotol is a melt-castable high explosive composed of RDX and TNT, and typically a small amount of HMX. The term Cyclotol may apply to other mixtures of these components, but for the present work, experiments were conducted using Cyclotol containing 80 wt% RDX and HMX and 20 wt% TNT (we will refer to mixtures of RDX and TNT using the notation RDX%/TNT%). In the current effort, we report detonation velocity measurements at several diameters for unconfined rate sticks. The results are compared to prior diameter-effect data for Cyclotol 77/23, and a density-corrected Eyring-form fit for all available rate-stick data is reported.

  14. Computational Study of Near-limit Propagation of Detonation in Hydrogen-air Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yungster, S.; Radhakrishnan, K.

    2002-01-01

    A computational investigation of the near-limit propagation of detonation in lean and rich hydrogen-air mixtures is presented. The calculations were carried out over an equivalence ratio range of 0.4 to 5.0, pressures ranging from 0.2 bar to 1.0 bar and ambient initial temperature. The computations involved solution of the one-dimensional Euler equations with detailed finite-rate chemistry. The numerical method is based on a second-order spatially accurate total-variation-diminishing (TVD) scheme, and a point implicit, first-order-accurate, time marching algorithm. The hydrogen-air combustion was modeled with a 9-species, 19-step reaction mechanism. A multi-level, dynamically adaptive grid was utilized in order to resolve the structure of the detonation. The results of the computations indicate that when hydrogen concentrations are reduced below certain levels, the detonation wave switches from a high-frequency, low amplitude oscillation mode to a low frequency mode exhibiting large fluctuations in the detonation wave speed; that is, a 'galloping' propagation mode is established.

  15. Reverse slapper detonator

    DOEpatents

    Weingart, Richard C.

    1990-01-01

    A reverse slapper detonator (70), and methodology related thereto, are provided. The detonator (70) is adapted to be driven by a pulse of electric power from an external source (80). A conductor (20) is disposed along the top (14), side (18), and bottom (16) surfaces of a sheetlike insulator (12). Part of the conductor (20) comprises a bridge (28), and an aperture (30) is positioned within the conductor (20), with the bridge (28) and the aperture (30) located on opposite sides of the insulator (12). A barrel (40) and related explosive charge (50) are positioned adjacent to and in alignment with the aperture (30), and the bridge (28) is buttressed with a backing layer (60). When the electric power pulse vaporizes the bridge (28), a portion of the insulator (12) is propelled through the aperture (30) and barrel (40), and against the explosive charge (50), thereby detonating it.

  16. Novel uses of detonator diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, John R.; Wilde, Zakary Robert; Tasker, Douglas George

    A novel combination of diagnostics is being used to research the physics of detonator initiation. The explosive PETN (Pentaerythritol tetranitrate) commonly used in detonators, is also a piezo-electric material that, when sufficiently shocked, emits an electromagnetic field in the radio frequency (RF) range, along crystal fracture planes. In an effort to capture this RF signal, a new diagnostic was created. A copper foil, used as an RF antenna, was wrapped around a foam fixture encompassing a PETN pellet. Rogowski coils were used to obtain the change in current with respect to time (di/dt) the detonator circuit, in and polyvinylidene difluoridemore » (PVDF) stress sensors were used to capture shockwave arrival time. The goal of these experiments is to use these diagnostics to study the reaction response of a PETN pellet of known particle size to shock loading with various diagnostics including an antenna to capture RF emissions. Our hypothesis is that RF feedback may signify the rate of deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) or lack thereof. The new diagnostics and methods will be used to determine the timing of start of current, bridge burst, detonator breakout timing and RF generated from detonation. These data will be compared to those of currently used diagnostics in order to validate the accuracy of these new methods. Future experiments will incorporate other methods of validation including dynamic radiography, optical initiation and use of magnetic field sensors.« less

  17. Dimensional Analysis of Impulse Loading Resulting from Detonation of Shallow-Buried Charges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    lines running along the floor, floor-bolted seats , ammunition storage racks, power-train lines, etc.). MMMS 9,3 368 Traditionally, the floor-rupture...The power of dimensional analysis is that the functional relations offered are generalized, i.e. the effect of geometrical, kinematic , ambient, loading... ejected vdet Explosive detonation velocity L/T A new quantity added which controls the time of sand-overburden bubble burst Charge/plate positioning

  18. Computer Program for Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions, Rocket Performance, Incident and Reflected Shocks, and Chapman-Jouguet Detonations. Interim Revision, March 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, S.; Mcbride, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed description of the equations and computer program for computations involving chemical equilibria in complex systems is given. A free-energy minimization technique is used. The program permits calculations such as (1) chemical equilibrium for assigned thermodynamic states (T,P), (H,P), (S,P), (T,V), (U,V), or (S,V), (2) theoretical rocket performance for both equilibrium and frozen compositions during expansion, (3) incident and reflected shock properties, and (4) Chapman-Jouguet detonation properties. The program considers condensed species as well as gaseous species.

  19. The Energy Diameter Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Vitello, P; Garza, R; Hernandez, A

    2007-07-10

    We explore various relations for the detonation energy and velocity as they relate to the inverse radius of the cylinder. The detonation rate-inverse slope relation seen in reactive flow models can be used to derive the familiar Eyring equation. Generalized inverse radii can be shown to fit large quantities of cylinder results. A rough relation between detonation energy and detonation velocity is found from collected JWL values. Cylinder test data for ammonium nitrate mixes down to 6.35 mm radii are presented, and a size energy effect is shown to exist in the Cylinder test data. The relation that detonation energymore » is roughly proportional to the square of the detonation velocity is shown by data and calculation.« less

  20. The Energy Diameter Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P; Vitello, P; Garza, R

    2007-04-20

    Various relations for the detonation energy and velocity as they relate to the inverse radius of the cylinder are explored. The detonation rate-inverse slope relation seen in reactive flow models can be used to derive the familiar Eyring equation. Generalized inverse radii can be shown to fit large quantities of cylinder and sphere results. A rough relation between detonation energy and detonation velocity is found from collected JWL values. Cylinder test data for ammonium nitrate mixes down to 6.35 mm radii are presented, and a size energy effect is shown to exist in the Cylinder test data. The relation thatmore » detonation energy is roughly proportional to the square of the detonation velocity is shown by data and calculation.« less

  1. Star of Condor - A strontium critical velocity experiment, Peru, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T.; Foeppl, H.; Valenzuela, A.

    1986-01-01

    'Star of Condor' was a critical velocity experiment using Sr vapor produced in a radial shaped charge, which was carried to 571.11 km altitude on a Taurus-Tomahawk rocket launched from Punto Lobos, Peru, and detonated in the plane of the magnetic field lines so that all ranges of pitch angles from parallel to B to perpendicular to B were covered. Sr has a critical velocity of 3.3 km/s, and from observation, 42.5 percent of the neutral Sr gas had a velocity component perpendicular to B exceeding that value. No Sr ion emissions were detected shortly after the burst with usual TV integration times. However, about 10 min after the detonation a faint field-aligned streak was discovered with long TV integration times. The brightness is estimated as 5 R, which, combined with the streak geometry, implies an ion production of 2.4 x 10 to the 19th ions. This is only 0.0036 percent ionization of the Sr vapor. All the ions could easily have been produced by thermal ionization from the original detonation thermal distribution. The breakup of the Sr gas into small bloblike structures may have allowed the high-energy electrons to escape before an ionization cascade could be produced. For whatever reason, the Alfven mechanism proposed for space plasmas in the absence of laboratory walls did not produce an ionization cascade in the experiment.

  2. Competency Development Detonator Development and Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    required. Exploding foil initiators ( EFI or Slapper) - The benefits of using an EFI is that the metal bridge is separated from the explosive, the explosive...to the materials ignition temperature to begin a burning reaction that propagates to the next material in the initiator . Exploding bridgewire (EBW...principles "* Initiation capabilities of the MEMS scale detonator DETONATOR BACKGROUND In a typical detonator, an explosive train is used. The explosive train

  3. Optically triggered fire set/detonator system

    DOEpatents

    Chase, Jay B.; Pincosy, Philip A.; Chato, Donna M.; Kirbie, Hugh; James, Glen F.

    2007-03-20

    The present invention is directed to a system having a plurality of capacitor discharge units (CDUs) that includes electrical bridge type detonators operatively coupled to respective explosives. A pulse charging circuit is adapted to provide a voltage for each respective capacitor in each CDU. Such capacitors are discharged through the electrical bridge type detonators upon receiving an optical signal to detonate respective operatively coupled explosives at substantially the same time.

  4. One Year Term Review as a Participating Guest in the Detonator and Detonation Physics Group

    SciTech Connect

    Lefrancois, A; Roeske, F; Tran, T

    2006-02-06

    The one year stay was possible after a long administrative process, because of the fact that this was the first participating guest of B division as a foreign national in HEAF (High Explosives Application Facility) with the Detonator/Detonation Physics Group.

  5. Detonation equation of state at LLNL, 1995. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Souers, P.C.; Wu, B.; Haselman, L.C. Jr.

    1996-02-01

    JWL`s and 1-D Look-up tables are shown to work for ``one-track`` experiments like cylinder shots and the expanding sphere. They fail for ``many-track`` experiments like the compressed sphere. As long as the one-track experiment has dimensions larger than the explosive`s reaction zone and the explosive is near-ideal, a general JWL with R{sub 1} = 4.5 and R{sub 2} = 1.5 can be constructed, with both {omega} and E{sub o} being calculated from thermochemical codes. These general JWL`s allow comparison between various explosives plus recalculation of the JWL for different densities. The Bigplate experiment complements the cylinder test by providing continuousmore » oblique angles of shock incidence from 0{degrees} to 70{degrees}. Explosive reaction zone lengths are determined from metal plate thicknesses, extrapolated run-to-detonation distances, radius size effects and detonation front curvature. Simple theories of the cylinder test, Bigplate, the cylinder size effect and detonation front curvature are given. The detonation front lag at the cylinder edge is shown to be proportional to the half-power of the reaction zone length. By calibrating for wall blow-out, a full set of reaction zone lengths from PETN to ANFO are obtained. The 1800--2100 K freezing effect is shown to be caused by rapid cooling of the product gases. Compiled comparative data for about 80 explosives is listed. Ten Chapters plus an Appendix.« less

  6. Propagation of detonations in hydrazine vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrich, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    In the range of greater hydrazine vapor pressure, detonation speed depends exclusively on the extent of the ammonia decomposition in the second reaction stage. As vapor pressure decreases, the ammonia disintegration speed becomes increasingly slower and the reaction reached in the reaction zone increasingly decreases until finally, in the vapor pressure range between 53 and 16 Torr, the contribution of the second stage to detonation propagation disappears, and only the first stage remains active. Since the disintegration speed of the hydrazine in this pressure range has decreased markedly as well, no level, but rather only spinning, detonations occur. Temporary separations of the impact front and the reaction zone in the process lead to fluctuations of the detonation speed.

  7. Underwater sympathetic detonation of pellet explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Shiro; Saburi, Tei; Nagayama, Kunihito

    2017-06-01

    The underwater sympathetic detonation of pellet explosives was taken by high-speed photography. The diameter and the thickness of the pellet were 20 and 10 mm, respectively. The experimental system consists of the precise electric detonator, two grams of composition C4 booster and three pellets, and these were set in water tank. High-speed video camera, HPV-X made by Shimadzu was used with 10 Mfs. The underwater explosions of the precise electric detonator, the C4 booster and a pellet were also taken by high-speed photography to estimate the propagation processes of the underwater shock waves. Numerical simulation of the underwater sympathetic detonation of the pellet explosives was also carried out and compared with experiment.

  8. Detonation Jet Engine. Part 1--Thermodynamic Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulat, Pavel V.; Volkov, Konstantin N.

    2016-01-01

    We present the most relevant works on jet engine design that utilize thermodynamic cycle of detonative combustion. The efficiency advantages of thermodynamic detonative combustion cycle over Humphrey combustion cycle at constant volume and Brayton combustion cycle at constant pressure were demonstrated. An ideal Ficket-Jacobs detonation cycle, and…

  9. Synthetic Seismogram Calculations for Two-Dimensional Velocity Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-20

    vertical and radial component displacements. The seismograms have been convolved with a seismograph response function corresponding to a short period...phase velocity is a measure of the degree of numerical dispersion present in the calculation for a variety of grid spacings. The value of 1/G of 0.1...method is an approximate technique and is some what restricted in its application, its efficiency and accuracy make it suitable for routine modeling of

  10. Comparison of phase velocities from array measurements of Rayleigh waves associated with microtremor and results calculated from borehole shear-wave velocity profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Hsi-Ping; Boore, David M.; Joyner, William B.; Oppenheimer, David H.; Warrick, Richard E.; Zhang, Wenbo; Hamilton, John C.; Brown, Leo T.

    2000-01-01

    Shear-wave velocities (VS) are widely used for earthquake ground-motion site characterization. VS data are now largely obtained using borehole methods. Drilling holes, however, is expensive. Nonintrusive surface methods are inexpensive for obtaining VS information, but not many comparisons with direct borehole measurements have been published. Because different assumptions are used in data interpretation of each surface method and public safety is involved in site characterization for engineering structures, it is important to validate the surface methods by additional comparisons with borehole measurements. We compare results obtained from a particular surface method (array measurement of surface waves associated with microtremor) with results obtained from borehole methods. Using a 10-element nested-triangular array of 100-m aperture, we measured surface-wave phase velocities at two California sites, Garner Valley near Hemet and Hollister Municipal Airport. The Garner Valley site is located at an ancient lake bed where water-saturated sediment overlies decomposed granite on top of granite bedrock. Our array was deployed at a location where seismic velocities had been determined to a depth of 500 m by borehole methods. At Hollister, where the near-surface sediment consists of clay, sand, and gravel, we determined phase velocities using an array located close to a 60-m deep borehole where downhole velocity logs already exist. Because we want to assess the measurements uncomplicated by uncertainties introduced by the inversion process, we compare our phase-velocity results with the borehole VS depth profile by calculating fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave phase velocities from an earth model constructed from the borehole data. For wavelengths less than ~2 times of the array aperture at Garner Valley, phase-velocity results from array measurements agree with the calculated Rayleigh-wave velocities to better than 11%. Measurement errors become larger for wavelengths 2

  11. Experimental and computational investigation of microwave interferometry (MI) for detonation front characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, Owen; Tringe, Joe; Souers, Clark; Lauderbach, Lisa; Baluyot, Emer; Converse, Mark; Kane, Ron

    2017-06-01

    Microwave interferometry (MI) presents several advantages over more traditional existing shock and deflagration front diagnostics. Most importantly, it directly interrogates these fronts, instead of measuring the evolution of containment surfaces or explosive edges. Here we present the results of MI measurements on detonator-initiated cylinder tests, as well as on deflagration-to-detonation transition experiments, with emphasis on optimization of signal strength through coupling devices and through microwave-transparent windows. Full-wave electromagnetic field finite element simulations were employed to better understand microwave coupling into porous and near full theoretical maximum density (TMD) explosives. HMX and TATB-based explosives were investigated. Data was collected simultaneously at 26.5 GHz and 39 GHz, allowing for direct comparison of the front characteristics and providing insight into the dielectric properties of explosives at these high frequencies. MI measurements are compared against detonation velocity results from photonic Doppler velocimetry probes and high speed cameras, demonstrating the accuracy of the MI technique. Our results illustrate features of front propagation behavior that are difficult to observe with other techniques. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. The relationship between plate velocity and trench viscosity in Newtonian and power-law subduction calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Scott D.; Hager, Bradford H.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between oceanic trench viscosity and oceanic plate velocity is studied using a Newtonian rheology by varying the viscosity at the trench. The plate velocity is a function of the trench viscosity for fixed Rayleigh number and plate/slab viscosity. Slab velocities for non-Newtonian rheology calculations are significantly different from slab velocities from Newtonian rheology calculations at the same effective Rayleigh number. Both models give reasonable strain rates for the slab when compared with estimates of seismic strain rate. Non-Newtonian rheology eliminates the need for imposed weak zones and provides a self-consistent fluid dynamical mechanism for subduction in numerical convection models.

  13. Equation of state, initiation, and detonation of pure ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, D. L.; Sheffield, S. A.; Dattelbaum, D. M.; Velisavljevic, N.; Stahl, D. B.

    2009-06-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a widely used fertilizer and mining explosive throughout the world. One of the more common explosives using AN is called ANFO, a mixture of AN prills and fuel oil in a 94:6 ratio by weight. The AN prills are specially made to absorb the fuel oil, forming a mixture that reacts under shock loading through a diffusion-controlled process, resulting in a non-ideal explosive with detonation velocities around 4 km/s. While there are a number of studies on ANFO, there are only a few studies relating to the equation of state (EOS) and detonation properties of pure AN - resulting mainly from studies of accidents that have occurred during transportation of large quantities of AN. We present the results of a series of gas gun-driven plate impact experiments on pressed AN ranging in density from 1.72 to 0.9 g/cm^3. Several of the high density experiments were performed in front surface impact geometry, in which pressed AN disks were built into the projectile front and impacted onto LiF windows. Additional experiments at low density have been done in ``half cell'' multiple magnetic gauge gun experiments. From this work a complete unreacted EOS has been developed, as well as some initiation and detonation information. Additional high pressure x-ray diffraction experiments in diamond anvil cells have provided a static isotherm for AN.

  14. Observations on the normal reflection of gaseous detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damazo, J.; Shepherd, J. E.

    2017-09-01

    Experimental results are presented examining the behavior of the shock wave created when a gaseous detonation wave normally impinges upon a planar wall. Gaseous detonations are created in a 7.67-m-long, 280-mm-internal-diameter detonation tube instrumented with a test section of rectangular cross section enabling visualization of the region at the tube-end farthest from the point of detonation initiation. Dynamic pressure measurements and high-speed schlieren photography in the region of detonation reflection are used to examine the characteristics of the inbound detonation wave and outbound reflected shock wave. Data from a range of detonable fuel/oxidizer/diluent/initial pressure combinations are presented to examine the effect of cell-size and detonation regularity on detonation reflection. The reflected shock does not bifurcate in any case examined and instead remains nominally planar when interacting with the boundary layer that is created behind the incident wave. The trajectory of the reflected shock wave is examined in detail, and the wave speed is found to rapidly change close to the end-wall, an effect we attribute to the interaction of the reflected shock with the reaction zone behind the incident detonation wave. Far from the end-wall, the reflected shock wave speed is in reasonable agreement with the ideal model of reflection which neglects the presence of a finite-length reaction zone. The net far-field effect of the reaction zone is to displace the reflected shock trajectory from the predictions of the ideal model, explaining the apparent disagreement of the ideal reflection model with experimental reflected shock observations of previous studies.

  15. Detonation engine fed by acetylene-oxygen mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, N. N.; Betelin, V. B.; Nikitin, V. F.; Phylippov, Yu. G.; Koo, Jaye

    2014-11-01

    The advantages of a constant volume combustion cycle as compared to constant pressure combustion in terms of thermodynamic efficiency has focused the search for advanced propulsion on detonation engines. Detonation of acetylene mixed with oxygen in various proportions is studied using mathematical modeling. Simplified kinetics of acetylene burning includes 11 reactions with 9 components. Deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) is obtained in a cylindrical tube with a section of obstacles modeling a Shchelkin spiral; the DDT takes place in this section for a wide range of initial mixture compositions. A modified ka-omega turbulence model is used to simulate flame acceleration in the Shchelkin spiral section of the system. The results of numerical simulations were compared with experiments, which had been performed in the same size detonation chamber and turbulent spiral ring section, and with theoretical data on the Chapman-Jouguet detonation parameters.

  16. A Computational Examination of Detonation Physics and Blast Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    State 5 3 Detonation and Shock Hugoniots for TNT using the JWL Equation of State 6 4 Detonation and Shock Hugoniots for HMX using the JWL ...Equation of State 6 5 Detonation and Shock Hugoniots for Composition C-4 using the JWL Equation of State 7 6 Detonation and Shock...Hugoniots for PBX-9502 using the JWL Equation of State 7 7 Detonation and Shock Hugoniots for PETN using the JWL Equation of State 8 8

  17. A Computational Examination of Detonation Physics and Blast Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Equation of State 5 3 Detonation and Shock Hugoniots for TNT using the JWL Equation of State 6 4 Detonation and Shock Hugoniots for HMX using the... JWL Equation of State 6 5 Detonation and Shock Hugoniots for Composition C-4 using the JWL Equation of State 7 6 Detonation and...Shock Hugoniots for PBX-9502 using the JWL Equation of State 7 7 Detonation and Shock Hugoniots for PETN using the JWL Equation of State 8

  18. Detonation wave augmentation of gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study that examined the effects of using detonation waves to augment the performance of gas turbines are reported. The central ideas were to reduce compressor requirements and to maintain high performance in jet engines. Gasdynamic equations were used to model the flows associated with shock waves generated by the detonation of fuel in detonator tubes. Shock wave attenuation to the level of Mach waves was found possible, thus eliminating interference with the compressor and the necessity of valves and seals. A preliminary parametric study of the performance of a compressor working at a 4:1 ratio in a conceptual design of a detonation wave augmented jet engine in subsonic flight indicated a clear superiority over conventional designs in terms of fuel efficiency and thrust.

  19. Microscopic approaches to liquid nitromethane detonation properties.

    PubMed

    Hervouët, Anaïs; Desbiens, Nicolas; Bourasseau, Emeric; Maillet, Jean-Bernard

    2008-04-24

    In this paper, thermodynamic and chemical properties of nitromethane are investigated using microscopic simulations. The Hugoniot curve of the inert explosive is computed using Monte Carlo simulations with a modified version of the adaptative Erpenbeck equation of state and a recently developed intermolecular potential. Molecular dynamic simulations of nitromethane decomposition have been performed using a reactive potential, allowing the calculation of kinetic rate constants and activation energies. Finally, the Crussard curve of detonation products as well as thermodynamic properties at the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) point are computed using reactive ensemble Monte Carlo simulations. Results are in good agreement with both thermochemical calculations and experimental measurements.

  20. Numerical simulation of detonation reignition in H 2-O 2 mixtures in area expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. A.; Kemister, G.; Tonello, N. A.; Oran, E. S.; Sichel, M.

    Time-dependent, two-dimensional, numerical simulations of a transmitted detonation show reignition occuring by one of two mechanisms. The first mechanism involves the collision of triple points as they expand along a decaying shock front. In the second mechanism ignition results from the coalescence of a number of small, relatively high pressure regions left over from the decay of weakened transverse waves. The simulations were performed using an improved chemical kinetic model for stoichiometric H 2-O 2 mixtures. The initial conditions were a propagating, two-dimensional detonation resolved enough to show transverse wave structure. The calculations provide clarification of the reignition mechanism seen in previous H 2-O 2-Ar simulations, and again demonstrate that the transverse wave structure of the detonation front is critical to the reignition process.

  1. Relative Velocity as a Metric for Probability of Collision Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frigm, Ryan Clayton; Rohrbaugh, Dave

    2008-01-01

    Collision risk assessment metrics, such as the probability of collision calculation, are based largely on assumptions about the interaction of two objects during their close approach. Specifically, the approach to probabilistic risk assessment can be performed more easily if the relative trajectories of the two close approach objects are assumed to be linear during the encounter. It is shown in this analysis that one factor in determining linearity is the relative velocity of the two encountering bodies, in that the assumption of linearity breaks down at low relative approach velocities. The first part of this analysis is the determination of the relative velocity threshold below which the assumption of linearity becomes invalid. The second part is a statistical study of conjunction interactions between representative asset spacecraft and the associated debris field environment to determine the likelihood of encountering a low relative velocity close approach. This analysis is performed for both the LEO and GEO orbit regimes. Both parts comment on the resulting effects to collision risk assessment operations.

  2. The characteristics of void distribution in spalled high purity copper cylinder under sweeping detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Jiang, Zhi; Chen, Jixinog; Guo, Zhaoliang; Tang, Tiegang; Hu, Haibo

    2018-03-01

    The effects of different peak compression stresses (2-5 GPa) on the spallation behaviour of high purity copper cylinder during sweeping detonation were examined by Electron Backscatter Diffraction Microscopy, Doppler Pins System and Optical Microscopy techniques. The velocity history of inner surface and the characteristics of void distributions in spalled copper cylinder were investigated. The results indicated that the spall strength of copper in these experiments was less than that revealed in previous reports concerning plate impact loading. The geometry of cylindrical copper and the obliquity of incident shock during sweeping detonation may be the main reasons. Different loading stresses seemed to be responsible for the characteristics of the resultant damage fields, and the maximum damage degree increased with increasing shock stress. Spall planes in different cross-sections of sample loaded with the same shock stress of 3.29 GPa were found, and the distance from the initiation end has little effect on the maximum damage degree (the maximum damage range from 12 to 14%), which means that the spallation behaviour was stable along the direction parallel to the detonation propagation direction under the same shock stress.

  3. Effect of fuel stratification on detonation wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masselot, Damien; Fievet, Romain; Raman, Venkat

    2016-11-01

    Rotating detonation engines (RDEs) form a class of pressure-gain combustion systems of higher efficiency compared to conventional gas turbine engines. One of the key features of the design is the injection system, as reactants need to be continuously provided to the detonation wave to sustain its propagation speed. As inhomogeneities in the reactant mixture can perturb the detonation wave front, premixed fuel jet injectors might seem like the most stable solution. However, this introduces the risk of the detonation wave propagating through the injector, causing catastrophic failure. On the other hand, non-premixed fuel injection will tend to quench the detonation wave near the injectors, reducing the likelihood of such failure. Still, the effects of such non-premixing and flow inhomogeneities ahead of a detonation wave have yet to be fully understood and are the object of this study. A 3D channel filled with O2 diluted in an inert gas with circular H2 injectors is simulated as a detonation wave propagates through the system. The impact of key parameters such as injector spacing, injector size, mixture composition and time variations will be discussed. PhD Candidate.

  4. Operational Characteristics of a Rotating Detonation Engine Using Hydrogen and Air

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Naval Research Laboratory PDE Pulsed detonation engine RDE Rotating detonation engine TDW Transverse detonation wave Symbols [SI units...primarily been on pulsed detonation engines ( PDEs ). Recently, however, detonation research has begun to also focus on rotating , or continuous... rotating detonation engines have been studied, however, more progress was initially made regarding PDEs . Recently, though, there has been a renewed

  5. 30 CFR 57.6402 - Deenergized circuits near detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6402 Deenergized circuits near detonators. Electrical distribution circuits within 50 feet of electric detonators at the blast site shall be deenergized. Such circuits need not be deenergized between 25 to 50 feet of the electric detonators if stray current tests...

  6. 30 CFR 56.6402 - Deenergized circuits near detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Electric Blasting § 56.6402 Deenergized circuits near detonators. Electrical distribution circuits within 50 feet of electric detonators at the blast site shall be deenergized. Such circuits need not be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deenergized circuits near detonators. 56.6402...

  7. High speed spectral measurements of IED detonation fireballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, J. Motos; Spidell, Matthew T.; Pitz, Jeremey; Gross, Kevin C.; Perram, Glen P.

    2010-04-01

    Several homemade explosives (HMEs) were manufactured and detonated at a desert test facility. Visible and infrared signatures were collected using two Fourier transformspectrometers, two thermal imaging cameras, a radiometer, and a commercial digital video camera. Spectral emissions from the post-detonation combustion fireball were dominated by continuum radiation. The events were short-lived, decaying in total intensity by an order of magnitude within approximately 300ms after detonation. The HME detonation produced a dust cloud in the immediate area that surrounded and attenuated the emitted radiation from the fireball. Visible imagery revealed a dark particulate (soot) cloud within the larger surrounding dust cloud. The ejected dust clouds attenuated much of the radiation from the post-detonation combustion fireballs, thereby reducing the signal-to-noise ratio. The poor SNR at later times made it difficult to detect selective radiation from by-product gases on the time scale (~500ms) in which they have been observed in other HME detonations.

  8. Influence of the Fluid on the Parameters and Limits of Bubble Detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinaev, A. V.; Prokhorov, E. S.

    2017-12-01

    The compression and inflammation of reactive gas bubbles in bubble detonation waves have been studied, and the considerable influence of the fluid (liquid or vapor) on the detonation parameters has been found. It has been shown numerically that the final values of the pressure and temperature significantly decrease if the temperature dependence of the adiabatic index is taken into account at the compression stage. The parameters of reactive gas combustion products in the bubble have been calculated in terms of an equilibrium model, and the influence of the fluid that remains in the bubble in the form of microdroplets and vapor on these parameters has been investigated.

  9. Numerical simulation of a 100-ton ANFO detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, P. W.; Millage, K. K.; Crepeau, J. E.; Happ, H. J.; Gitterman, Y.; Needham, C. E.

    2015-03-01

    This work describes the results from a US government-owned hydrocode (SHAMRC, Second-Order Hydrodynamic Automatic Mesh Refinement Code) that simulated an explosive detonation experiment with 100,000 kg of Ammonium Nitrate-Fuel Oil (ANFO) and 2,080 kg of Composition B (CompB). The explosive surface charge was nearly hemispherical and detonated in desert terrain. Two-dimensional axisymmetric (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) simulations were conducted, with the 3D model providing a more accurate representation of the experimental setup geometry. Both 2D and 3D simulations yielded overpressure and impulse waveforms that agreed qualitatively with experiment, including the capture of the secondary shock observed in the experiment. The 2D simulation predicted the primary shock arrival time correctly but secondary shock arrival time was early. The 2D-predicted impulse waveforms agreed very well with the experiment, especially at later calculation times, and prediction of the early part of the impulse waveform (associated with the initial peak) was better quantitatively for 2D compared to 3D. The 3D simulation also predicted the primary shock arrival time correctly, and secondary shock arrival times in 3D were closer to the experiment than in the 2D results. The 3D-predicted impulse waveform had better quantitative agreement than 2D for the later part of the impulse waveform. The results of this numerical study show that SHAMRC may be used reliably to predict phenomena associated with the 100-ton detonation. The ultimate fidelity of the simulations was limited by both computer time and memory. The results obtained provide good accuracy and indicate that the code is well suited to predicting the outcomes of explosive detonations.

  10. Laser detonator development for test-firing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Munger, A. C.; Thomas, K. A.; Kennedy, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has historically fielded two types of electro-explosive detonators. The exploding-bridgewire detonator (EBW) has an exploding wire as the initiating element, a low-density transfer charge and a high-density output pellet. The slapper detonator, or exploding-foil initiator (EFI), utilizes an exploding foil to drive a flying plate element into a high-density output pellet. The last twenty years has seen various research and development activities from many laboratories and manufacturing facilities around the world to develop laser-driven analogs of these devices, but to our knowledge none of those is in general use. Los Alamos is currently committed to designmore » and manufacture a laser analog to the long-standing, generic, general-purpose SE-1 EBW detonator, which is intended to provide increased safety in large-scale test-firing operations. This paper will discuss the major design parameters of this laser detonator and present some preliminary testing results.« less

  11. 30 CFR 56.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 56.6400... Electric Blasting § 56.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar electrical firing characteristics. ...

  12. 30 CFR 57.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 57.6400... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar electrical...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 56.6400... Electric Blasting § 56.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar electrical firing characteristics. ...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 56.6400... Electric Blasting § 56.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar electrical firing characteristics. ...

  15. 30 CFR 56.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 56.6400... Electric Blasting § 56.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar electrical firing characteristics. ...

  16. 30 CFR 57.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 57.6400... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar electrical...

  17. 30 CFR 57.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 57.6400... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar electrical...

  18. 30 CFR 56.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 56.6400... Electric Blasting § 56.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar electrical firing characteristics. ...

  19. 30 CFR 57.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 57.6400... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar electrical...

  20. 30 CFR 57.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 57.6400... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar electrical...

  1. Deflagration to Detonation Transition (DDT) Simulations of HMX Powder Using the HERMES Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Bradley; Reaugh, John; Tringe, Joseph

    2017-06-01

    We performed computer simulations of DDT experiments with Class I HMX powder using the HERMES model (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) in ALE3D. Parameters for the model were fitted to the limited available mechanical property data of the low-density powder, and to the Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT) test results. The DDT tests were carried out in steel-capped polycarbonate tubes. This arrangement permits direct observation of the event using both flash X-ray radiography and high speed camera imaging, and provides a stringent test of the model. We found the calculated detonation transition to be qualitatively similar to experiment. Through simulation we also explored the effects of confinement strength, the HMX particle size distribution and porosity on the computed detonation transition location. This work was performed under the auspices of the US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. 30 CFR 75.1311 - Transporting explosives and detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transporting explosives and detonators. 75.1311... Transporting explosives and detonators. (a) When explosives and detonators are to be transported underground... transported by any cars or vehicles— (1) The cars or vehicles shall be marked with warnings to identify the...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1311 - Transporting explosives and detonators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transporting explosives and detonators. 75.1311... Transporting explosives and detonators. (a) When explosives and detonators are to be transported underground... transported by any cars or vehicles— (1) The cars or vehicles shall be marked with warnings to identify the...

  4. Transmission of a detonation across a density interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang Yuk, K. C.; Mi, X. C.; Lee, J. H. S.; Ng, H. D.

    2018-05-01

    The present study investigates the transmission of a detonation wave across a density interface. The problem is first studied theoretically considering an incident Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonation wave, neglecting its detailed reaction-zone structure. It is found that, if there is a density decrease at the interface, a transmitted strong detonation wave and a reflected expansion wave would be formed; if there is a density increase, one would obtain a transmitted CJ detonation wave followed by an expansion wave and a reflected shock wave. Numerical simulations are then performed considering that the incident detonation has the Zel'dovich-von Neumann-Döring reaction-zone structure. The transient process that occurs subsequently to the detonation-interface interaction has been captured by the simulations. The effects of the magnitude of density change across the interface and different reaction kinetics (i.e., single-step Arrhenius kinetics vs. two-step induction-reaction kinetics) on the dynamics of the transmission process are explored. After the transient relaxation process, the transmitted wave reaches the final state in the new medium. For the cases with two-step induction-reaction kinetics, the transmitted wave fails to evolve to a steady detonation wave if the magnitude of density increase is greater than a critical value. For the cases wherein the transmitted wave can evolve to a steady detonation, the numerical results for both reaction models give final propagation states that agree with the theoretical solutions.

  5. Transient Heat Transfer Properties in a Pulse Detonation Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    strategies for future systems. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 89 14. SUBJECT TERMS Pulse Detonation Engines, PDE , Heat Transfer 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...GUI Graphical User Interface NPS Naval Postgraduate School PDC Pulse Detonation Combustion PDE Pulse Detonation Engine RPL Rocket...a tactical missile with a Pulse Detonation Engine ( PDE ) and provide greater range for the same amount of fuel as compared to other current

  6. On the deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) process with added energetic solid particles for pulse detonation engines (PDE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, V. B.; Li, J.; Chang, P.-H.; Phan, Q. T.; Teo, C. J.; Khoo, B. C.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, numerical simulations are performed to study the dynamics of the deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in pulse detonation engines (PDE) using energetic aluminum particles. The DDT process and detonation wave propagation toward the unburnt hydrogen/air mixture containing solid aluminum particles is numerically studied using the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. A hybrid numerical methodology combined with appropriate sub-models is used to capture the gas dynamic characteristics, particle behavior, combustion characteristics, and two-way solid-particle-gas flow interactions. In our approach, the gas mixture is expressed in the Eulerian frame of reference, while the solid aluminum particles are tracked in the Lagrangian frame of reference. The implemented computer code is validated using published benchmark problems. The obtained results show that the aluminum particles not only shorten the DDT length but also reduce the DDT time. The improvement of DDT is primarily attributed to the heat released from surface chemical reactions on the aluminum particles. The temperatures associated with the DDT process are greater than the case of non-reacting particles added, with an accompanying rise in the pressure. For an appropriate range of particle volume fraction, particularly in this study, the higher volume fraction of the micro-aluminum particles added in the detonation chamber can lead to more heat energy released and more local instabilities in the combustion process (caused by the local high temperature), thereby resulting in a faster DDT process. In essence, the aluminum particles contribute to the DDT process of successfully transitioning to detonation waves for (failure) cases in which the fuel gas mixture can be either too lean or too rich. With a better understanding of the influence of added aluminum particles on the dynamics of the DDT and detonation process, we can apply it to modify the geometry of the detonation chamber (e.g., the length of

  7. Effect of Detonation through a Turbine Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Matthew T.

    2004-01-01

    Pulse detonation engines (PDE) have been investigated as a more efficient means of propulsion due to its constant volume combustion rather than the more often used constant pressure combustion of other propulsion systems. It has been proposed that a hybrid PDE-gas turbine engine would be a feasible means of improving the efficiency of the typical constant pressure combustion gas turbine cycle. In this proposed system, multiple pulse detonation tubes would replace the conventional combustor. Also, some of the compressor stages may be removed due to the pressure rise gained across the detonation wave. The benefits of higher thermal efficiency and reduced compressor size may come at a cost. The first question that arises is the unsteadiness in the flow created by the pulse detonation tubes. A constant pressure combustor has the advantage of supplying a steady and large mass flow rate. The use of the pulse detonation tubes will create an unsteady mass flow which will have currently unknown effects on the turbine located downstream of the combustor. Using multiple pulse detonation tubes will hopefully improve the unsteadiness. The interaction between the turbine and the shock waves exiting the tubes will also have an unknown effect. Noise levels are also a concern with this hybrid system. These unknown effects are being investigated using TURBO, an unsteady turbomachinery flow simulation code developed at Mississippi State University. A baseline case corresponding to a system using a constant pressure combustor with the same mass flow rate achieved with the pulse detonation hybrid system will be investigated first.

  8. Insensitive detonator apparatus for initiating large failure diameter explosives

    DOEpatents

    Perry, III, William Leroy

    2015-07-28

    A munition according to a preferred embodiment can include a detonator system having a detonator that is selectively coupled to a microwave source that functions to selectively prime, activate, initiate, and/or sensitize an insensitive explosive material for detonation. The preferred detonator can include an explosive cavity having a barrier within which an insensitive explosive material is disposed and a waveguide coupled to the explosive cavity. The preferred system can further include a microwave source coupled to the waveguide such that microwaves enter the explosive cavity and impinge on the insensitive explosive material to sensitize the explosive material for detonation. In use the preferred embodiments permit the deployment and use of munitions that are maintained in an insensitive state until the actual time of use, thereby substantially preventing unauthorized or unintended detonation thereof.

  9. 14 CFR 33.47 - Detonation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Detonation test. 33.47 Section 33.47 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.47 Detonation test. Each engine...

  10. 14 CFR 33.47 - Detonation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Detonation test. 33.47 Section 33.47 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.47 Detonation test. Each engine...

  11. 14 CFR 33.47 - Detonation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detonation test. 33.47 Section 33.47 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.47 Detonation test. Each engine...

  12. 14 CFR 33.47 - Detonation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Detonation test. 33.47 Section 33.47 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.47 Detonation test. Each engine...

  13. Environmentally Benign Stab Detonators

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, A

    2005-12-21

    Many energetic systems can be activated via mechanical means. Percussion primers in small caliber ammunition and stab detonators used in medium caliber ammunition are just two examples. Current medium caliber (20-60mm) munitions are detonated through the use of impact sensitive stab detonators. Stab detonators are very sensitive and must be small, as to meet weight and size limitations. A mix of energetic powders, sensitive to mechanical stimulus, is typically used to ignite such devices. Stab detonators are mechanically activated by forcing a firing pin through the closure disc of the device and into the stab initiating mix. Rapid heating causedmore » by mechanically driven compression and friction of the mixture results in its ignition. The rapid decomposition of these materials generates a pressure/temperature pulse that is sufficient to initiate a transfer charge, which has enough output energy to detonate the main charge. This general type of ignition mix is used in a large variety of primers, igniters, and detonators.[1] Common primer mixes, such as NOL-130, are made up of lead styphnate (basic) 40%, lead azide (dextrinated) 20%, barium nitrate 20%, antimony sulfide 15%, and tetrazene 5%.[1] These materials pose acute and chronic toxicity hazards during mixing of the composition and later in the item life cycle after the item has been field functioned. There is an established need to replace these mixes on toxicity, health, and environmental hazard grounds. This effort attempts to demonstrate that environmentally acceptable energetic solgel coated flash metal multilayer nanocomposites can be used to replace current impact initiated devices (IIDs), which have hazardous and toxic components. Successful completion of this project will result in IIDs that include innocuous compounds, have sufficient output energy for initiation, meet current military specifications, are small, cost competitive, and perform as well as or better than current devices. We expect

  14. Computational and experimental investigation of plasma deflagration jets and detonation shocks in coaxial plasma accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, Vivek; Underwood, Thomas C.; Raja, Laxminarayan L.; Cappelli, Mark A.

    2018-02-01

    We present a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulation to study the physical mechanisms underlying plasma acceleration in a coaxial plasma gun. Coaxial plasma accelerators are known to exhibit two distinct modes of operation depending on the delay between gas loading and capacitor discharging. Shorter delays lead to a high velocity plasma deflagration jet and longer delays produce detonation shocks. During a single operational cycle that typically consists of two discharge events, the plasma acceleration exhibits a behavior characterized by a mode transition from deflagration to detonation. The first of the discharge events, a deflagration that occurs when the discharge expands into an initially evacuated domain, requires a modification of the standard MHD algorithm to account for rarefied regions of the simulation domain. The conventional approach of using a low background density gas to mimic the vacuum background results in the formation of an artificial shock, inconsistent with the physics of free expansion. To this end, we present a plasma-vacuum interface tracking framework with the objective of predicting a physically consistent free expansion, devoid of the spurious shock obtained with the low background density approach. The interface tracking formulation is integrated within the MHD framework to simulate the plasma deflagration and the second discharge event, a plasma detonation, formed due to its initiation in a background prefilled with gas remnant from the deflagration. The mode transition behavior obtained in the simulations is qualitatively compared to that observed in the experiments using high framing rate Schlieren videography. The deflagration mode is further investigated to understand the jet formation process and the axial velocities obtained are compared against experimentally obtained deflagration plasma front velocities. The simulations are also used to provide insight into the conditions responsible for the generation and sustenance of

  15. Formation Pathways of Carbon Allotropes in Detonation Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Michael; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Hammons, Josh; Lauderbach, Lisa; Hodgin, Ralph; Bastea, Sorin; Fried, Larry; Lee, Jonathan; van Buuren, Tony; Pagoria, Phil; May, Chadd; Aloni, Shaul; Willey, Trevor

    2017-06-01

    Time-resolved small-angle scattering (TR-SAXS) data reveal evolution in the size and morphology of nano-carbon particles that form during the first microsecond during the detonation of high explosive (HE) materials, but do not provide chemical or phase information. Herein, we present analysis of complementary post-detonation soots collected with minimal environmental carbon or other contamination: HE samples are detonated whithin clean ice capture layers to yield aqueous dispersions of the carbonaceous soot. We report substantial variation in soots formed through the detonation of HE materials that attain a variety of temperatures and pressures during detonation. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of these recovered soots provides physical and chemical information that we compare directly to TR-SAXS data and SAXS measurements from recovered soots. We observe various structures including graphitic and amorphous carbon, nanodiamond, and spherical carbon onions. These experimental data correlate to models of how products from HE materials traverse the carbon phase diagram during detonation. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Reaugh, J E

    2011-11-22

    reliable performance, whether as a result of accident, hazard, or a fault in the detonation train. These models describe the build-up of detonation from a shock stimulus. They are generally consistent with the mesoscale picture of ignition at many small defects in the plane of the shock front and the growth of the resulting hot-spots, leading to detonation in heterogeneous explosives such as plastic-bonded explosives (PBX). The models included terms for ignition, and also for the growth of reaction as tracked by the local mass fraction of product gas, {lambda}. The growth of reaction in such models incorporates a form factor that describes the change of surface area per unit volume (specific surface area) as the reaction progresses. For unimolecular crystalline-based explosives, the form factor is consistent with the mesoscale picture of a galaxy of hot spots burning outward and eventually interacting with each other. For composite explosives and propellants, where the fuel and oxidizer are segregated, the diffusion flame at the fuel-oxidizer interface can be interpreted with a different form factor that corresponds to grains burning inward from their surfaces. The form factor influences the energy release rate, and the amount of energy released in the reaction zone. Since the 19th century, gun and cannon propellants have used perforated geometric shapes that produce an increasing surface area as the propellant burns. This helps maintain the pressure as burning continues while the projectile travels down the barrel, which thereby increases the volume of the hot gas. Interior ballistics calculations use a geometric form factor to describe the changing surface area precisely. As a result, with a suitably modified form factor, detonation models can represent burning and explosion in damaged and broken reactant. The disadvantage of such models in application to accidents is that the ignition term does not distinguish between a value of pressure that results from a shock, and

  17. Deflagration-to-detonation characteristics of a laser exploding bridge detonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welle, E. J.; Fleming, K. J.; Marley, S. K.

    2006-08-01

    Evaluation of laser initiated explosive trains has been an area of extreme interest due to the safety benefits of these systems relative to traditional electro-explosive devices. A particularly important difference is these devices are inherently less electro-static discharge (ESD) sensitive relative to traditional explosive devices due to the isolation of electrical power and associated materials from the explosive interface. This paper will report work conducted at Sandia National Laboratories' Explosive Components Facility, which evaluated the initiation and deflagration-to-detonation characteristics of a Laser Driven Exploding Bridgewire detonator. This paper will report and discuss characteristics of Laser Exploding Bridgewire devices loaded with hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) and tetraammine-cis-bis-(5-nitro-2H-tetrazolato-N2) cobalt (III) perchlorate (BNCP).

  18. New detonation concepts for propulsion and power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Eric M.

    A series of related analytical and experimental studies are focused on utilizing detonations for emerging propulsion and power generation devices. An understanding of the physical and thermodynamic processes for this unsteady thermodynamic cycle has taken over 100 years to develop. An overview of the thermodynamic processes and development history is provided. Thermodynamic cycle analysis of detonation-based systems has often been studied using surrogate models. A real gas model is used for a thermal efficiency prediction of a detonation wave based on the work and heat specified by process path diagrams and a control volume analysis. A combined first and second law analysis aids in understanding performance trends for different initial conditions. A cycle analysis model for an airbreathing, rotating detonation wave engine (RDE) is presented. The engine consists of a steady inlet system with an isolator which delivers air into an annular combustor. A detonation wave continuously rotates around the combustor with side relief as the flow expands towards the nozzle. Air and fuel enter the combustor when the rarefaction wave pressure behind the detonation front drops to the inlet supply pressure. To create a stable RDE, the inlet pressure is matched in a convergence process with the average combustor pressure by increasing the annulus channel width with respect to the isolator channel. Performance of this engine is considered using several parametric studies. RDEs require a fuel injection system that can cycle beyond the limits of mechanical valves. Fuel injectors composed of an orifice connected to a small plenum cavity were mounted on a detonation tube. These fuel injectors, termed fluidic valves, utilize their geometry and a supply pressure to deliver fuel and contain no moving parts. Their behavior is characterized in order to determine their feasibility for integration with high-frequency RDEs. Parametric studies have been conducted with the type of fuel injected

  19. Detonation in TATB Hemispheres

    SciTech Connect

    Druce, B; Souers, P C; Chow, C

    2004-03-17

    Streak camera breakout and Fabry-Perot interferometer data have been taken on the outer surface of 1.80 g/cm{sup 3} TATB hemispherical boosters initiated by slapper detonators at three temperatures. The slapper causes breakout to occur at 54{sup o} at ambient temperatures and 42{sup o} at -54 C, where the axis of rotation is 0{sup o}. The Fabry velocities may be associated with pressures, and these decrease for large timing delays in breakout seen at the colder temperatures. At room temperature, the Fabry pressures appear constant at all angles. Both fresh and decade-old explosive are tested and no difference is seen. Themore » problem has been modeled with reactive flow. Adjustment of the JWL for temperature makes little difference, but cooling to -54 C decreases the rate constant by 1/6th. The problem was run both at constant density and with density differences using two different codes. The ambient code results show that a density difference is probably there but it cannot be quantified.« less

  20. Spectral calculations for pressure-velocity and pressure-strain correlations in homogeneous shear turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Kishore

    2018-02-01

    Theoretical analyses of pressure related turbulent statistics are vital for a reliable and accurate modeling of turbulence. In the inertial subrange of turbulent shear flow, pressure-velocity and pressure-strain correlations are affected by anisotropy imposed at large scales. Recently, Tsuji and Kaneda (2012 J. Fluid Mech. 694 50) performed a set of experiments on homogeneous shear flow, and estimated various one-dimensional pressure related spectra and the associated non-dimensional universal numbers. Here, starting from the governing Navier-Stokes dynamics for the fluctuating velocity field and assuming the anisotropy at inertial scales as a weak perturbation of an otherwise isotropic dynamics, we analytically derive the form of the pressure-velocity and pressure-strain correlations. The associated universal numbers are calculated using the well-known renormalization-group results, and are compared with the experimental estimates of Tsuji and Kaneda. Approximations involved in the perturbative calculations are discussed.

  1. Measurement and reactive burn modeling of the shock to detonation transition for the HMX based explosive LX-14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. D.; Ma, Xia; Clements, B. E.; Gibson, L. L.; Gustavsen, R. L.

    2017-06-01

    Gas-gun driven plate-impact techniques were used to study the shock to detonation transition in LX-14 (95.5 weight % HMX, 4.5 weight % estane binder). The transition was recorded using embedded electromagnetic particle velocity gauges. Initial shock pressures, P, ranged from 2.5 to 8 GPa and the resulting distances to detonation, xD, were in the range 1.9 to 14 mm. Numerical simulations using the SURF reactive burn scheme coupled with a linear US -up / Mie-Grueneisen equation of state for the reactant and a JWL equation of state for the products, match the experimental data well. Comparison of simulation with experiment as well as the ``best fit'' parameter set for the simulations is presented.

  2. High Resolution WENO Simulation of 3D Detonation Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-27

    pocket behind the detonation front was not observed in their results because the rotating transverse detonation completely consumed the unburned gas. Dou...three-dimensional detonations We add source terms (functions of x, y, z and t) to the PDE system so that the following functions are exact solutions to... detonation rotates counter-clockwise, opposite to that in [48]. It can be seen that, the triple lines and transverse waves collide with the walls, and strong

  3. Pulse Detonation Engine Test Bed Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breisacher, Kevin J.

    2002-01-01

    A detonation is a supersonic combustion wave. A Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) repetitively creates a series of detonation waves to take advantage of rapid burning and high peak pressures to efficiently produce thrust. NASA Glenn Research Center's Combustion Branch has developed a PDE test bed that can reproduce the operating conditions that might be encountered in an actual engine. It allows the rapid and cost-efficient evaluation of the technical issues and technologies associated with these engines. The test bed is modular in design. It consists of various length sections of both 2- and 2.6- in. internal-diameter combustor tubes. These tubes can be bolted together to create a variety of combustor configurations. A series of bosses allow instrumentation to be inserted on the tubes. Dynamic pressure sensors and heat flux gauges have been used to characterize the performance of the test bed. The PDE test bed is designed to utilize an existing calorimeter (for heat load measurement) and windowed (for optical access) combustor sections. It uses hydrogen as the fuel, and oxygen and nitrogen are mixed to simulate air. An electronic controller is used to open the hydrogen and air valves (or a continuous flow of air is used) and to fire the spark at the appropriate times. Scheduled tests on the test bed include an evaluation of the pumping ability of the train of detonation waves for use in an ejector and an evaluation of the pollutants formed in a PDE combustor. Glenn's Combustion Branch uses the National Combustor Code (NCC) to perform numerical analyses of PDE's as well as to evaluate alternative detonative combustion devices. Pulse Detonation Engine testbed.

  4. A simple model for the dependence on local detonation speed of the product entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetherington, David C.; Whitworth, Nicholas J.

    2012-03-01

    The generation of a burn time field as a pre-processing step ahead of a hydrocode calculation has been mostly upgraded in the explosives modelling community from the historical model of singlespeed programmed burn to DSD/WBL (Detonation Shock Dynamics / Whitham Bdzil Lambourn). The problem with this advance is that the previously conventional approach to the hydrodynamic stage of the model results in the entropy of the detonation products (s) having the wrong correlation with detonation speed (D). Instead of being higher where D is lower, the conventional method leads to s being lower where D is lower, resulting in a completely fictitious enhancement of available energy where the burn is degraded! A technique is described which removes this deficiency of the historical model when used with a DSD-generated burn time field. By treating the conventional JWL equation as a semi-empirical expression for the local expansion isentrope, and constraining the local parameter set for consistency with D, it is possible to obtain the two desirable outcomes that the model of the detonation wave is internally consistent, and s is realistically correlated with D.

  5. Double-detonation Sub-Chandrasekhar Supernovae: Synthetic Observables for Minimum Helium Shell Mass Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kromer, M.; Sim, S. A.; Fink, M.; Röpke, F. K.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2010-08-01

    In the double-detonation scenario for Type Ia supernovae, it is suggested that a detonation initiates in a shell of helium-rich material accreted from a companion star by a sub-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf. This shell detonation drives a shock front into the carbon-oxygen white dwarf that triggers a secondary detonation in the core. The core detonation results in a complete disruption of the white dwarf. Earlier studies concluded that this scenario has difficulties in accounting for the observed properties of Type Ia supernovae since the explosion ejecta are surrounded by the products of explosive helium burning in the shell. Recently, however, it was proposed that detonations might be possible for much less massive helium shells than previously assumed (Bildsten et al.). Moreover, it was shown that even detonations of these minimum helium shell masses robustly trigger detonations of the carbon-oxygen core (Fink et al.). Therefore, it is possible that the impact of the helium layer on observables is less than previously thought. Here, we present time-dependent multi-wavelength radiative transfer calculations for models with minimum helium shell mass and derive synthetic observables for both the optical and γ-ray spectral regions. These differ strongly from those found in earlier simulations of sub-Chandrasekhar-mass explosions in which more massive helium shells were considered. Our models predict light curves that cover both the range of brightnesses and the rise and decline times of observed Type Ia supernovae. However, their colors and spectra do not match the observations. In particular, their B - V colors are generally too red. We show that this discrepancy is mainly due to the composition of the burning products of the helium shell of the Fink et al. models which contain significant amounts of titanium and chromium. Using a toy model, we also show that the burning products of the helium shell depend crucially on its initial composition. This leads us to

  6. MC3196 Detonator Shipping Package Hazard Classification Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jones; Robert B.

    1979-05-31

    An investigation was made to determine whether the MC3196 detonator should be assigned a DOT hazard classification of Detonating Fuze, Class C Explosives per 49 CFR 173.113. This study covers the Propagation Test and the External Heat Test as approved by DOE Albuquerque Operations Office. Test data led to the recommeded hazard classification of detonating fuze, Class C explosives.

  7. Effects of high sound speed confiners on ANFO detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyanda, Charles; Jackson, Scott; Short, Mark

    2011-06-01

    The interaction between high explosive (HE) detonations and high sound speed confiners, where the confiner sound speed exceeds the HE's detonation speed, has not been thoroughly studied. The subsonic nature of the flow in the confiner allows stress waves to travel ahead of the main detonation front and influence the upstream HE state. The interaction between the detonation wave and the confiner is also no longer a local interaction, so that the confiner thickness now plays a significant role in the detonation dynamics. We report here on larger scale experiments in which a mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) is detonated in aluminium confiners with varying charge diameter and confiner thickness. The results of these large-scale experiments are compared with previous large-scale ANFO experiments in cardboard, as well as smaller-scale aluminium confined ANFO experiments, to characterize the effects of confiner thickness.

  8. Characterizing the energy output generated by a standard electric detonator using shadowgraph imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petr, V.; Lozano, E.

    2017-09-01

    This paper overviews a complete method for the characterization of the explosive energy output from a standard detonator. Measurements of the output of explosives are commonly based upon the detonation parameters of the chemical energy content of the explosive. These quantities provide a correct understanding of the energy stored in an explosive, but they do not provide a direct measure of the different modes in which the energy is released. This optically based technique combines high-speed and ultra-high-speed imaging to characterize the casing fragmentation and the detonator-driven shock load. The procedure presented here could be used as an alternative to current indirect methods—such as the Trauzl lead block test—because of its simplicity, high data accuracy, and minimum demand for test repetition. This technique was applied to experimentally measure air shock expansion versus time and calculating the blast wave energy from the detonation of the high explosive charge inside the detonator. Direct measurements of the shock front geometry provide insight into the physics of the initiation buildup. Because of their geometry, standard detonators show an initial ellipsoidal shock expansion that degenerates into a final spherical wave. This non-uniform shape creates variable blast parameters along the primary blast wave. Additionally, optical measurements are validated using piezoelectric pressure transducers. The energy fraction spent in the acceleration of the metal shell is experimentally measured and correlated with the Gurney model, as well as to several empirical formulations for blasts from fragmenting munitions. The fragment area distribution is also studied using digital particle imaging analysis and correlated with the Mott distribution. Understanding the fragmentation distribution plays a critical role when performing hazard evaluation from these types of devices. In general, this technique allows for characterization of the detonator within 6-8% error

  9. Performance Characterization of Swept Ramp Obstacle Fields in Pulse Detonation Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    field of practical obstacle geometries. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 97 14. SUBJECT TERMS Pulse Detonation , PDE , Transient Plasma Ignition, TPI, Swept... Detonation Transition NI - National Instruments NPS - Naval Postgraduate School PDC - Pulse Detonation Combustor PDE - Pulse Detonation Engine...with incredible grace. xvi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION Pulse detonation engines ( PDE ) continue to be explored due to

  10. Mid-infrared Laser Absorption Diagnostics for Detonation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spearrin, R. M.; Goldenstein, C. S.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    Detonation-based engines represent a challenging application for diagnostics due to the wide range of thermodynamic conditions involved (T~500-3000 K, P~2-60 atm) and the short time scales of change (~10- 6 to 10- 4 sec) associated with such systems. Non-intrusive laser absorption diagnostics can provide high time-resolution and have been employed extensively in shock tube kinetics experiments (P~1-20 atm), offering high potential for application in detonation environments with modest utilization to date [1-4]. Limiting factors in designing effective tunable laser absorption sensors for detonation engines can be divided into two sets of challenges: high-pressure, high-temperature absorption spectroscopy and harsh thermo-mechanical environments. The present work, conducted in a high-pressure shock tube and operating detonation combustor, addresses both sets of difficulties, with the objective of developing time-resolved, in-situ temperature and concentration sensors for detonation studies.

  11. Sensitized Liquid Hydrazine Detonation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rathgeber, K. A.; Keddy, C. P.; Bunker, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Vapor-phase hydrazine (N2H4) is known to be very sensitive to detonation while liquid hydrazine is very insensitive to detonation, theoretically requiring extremely high pressures to induce initiation. A review of literature on solid and liquid explosives shows that when pure explosive substances are infiltrated with gas cavities, voids, and/or different phase contaminants, the energy or shock pressure necessary to induce detonation can decrease by an order of magnitude. Tests were conducted with liquid hydrazine in a modified card-gap configuration. Sensitization was attempted by bubbling helium gas through and/or suspending ceramic microspheres in the liquid. The hydrazine was subjected to the shock pressure from a 2 lb (0.9 kg) Composition C-4 explosive charge. The hydrazine was contained in a 4 in. (10.2 cm) diameter stainless steel cylinder with a 122 in(sup 3) (2 L) volume and sealed with a polyethylene cap. Blast pressures from the events were recorded by 63 high speed pressure transducers located on three radial legs extending from 4 to 115 ft (1.2 to 35.1 in) from ground zero. Comparison of the neat hydrazine and water baseline tests with the "sensitized" hydrazine tests indicates the liquid hydrazine did not detonate under these conditions.

  12. Hydroxyapatite Reinforced Coatings with Incorporated Detonationally Generated Nanodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramatarova, L.; Pecheva, E.; Dimitrova, R.; Spassov, T.; Krasteva, N.; Hikov, T.; Fingarova, D.; Mitev, D.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effect of the substrate chemistry on the morphology of hydroxyapatite-detonational nanodiamond composite coatings grown by a biomimetic approach (immersion in a supersaturated simulated body fluid). When detonational nanodiamond particles were added to the solution, the morphology of the grown for 2 h composite particles was porous but more compact then that of pure hydroxyapatite particles. The nanodiamond particles stimulated the hydroxyapatite growth with different morphology on the various substrates (Ti, Ti alloys, glasses, Si, opal). Biocompatibility assay with MG63 osteoblast cells revealed that the detonational nanodiamond water suspension with low and average concentration of the detonational nanodiamond powder is not toxic to living cells.

  13. Instrumentation techniques for monitoring shock and detonation waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, R. D.; Parrish, R. L.

    1985-09-01

    CORRTEX (Continuous Reflectometry for Radius Versus Time Experiments), SLIFER (Shorted Location Indication by Frequency of Electrical Resonance), and pin probes were used to monitor several conditions of blasting such as the detonation velocity of the explosive, the functioning of the stemming column confining the explosive, and rock mass motion. CORRTEX is a passive device that employs time-domain reflectometry to interrogate the two-way transit time of a coaxial cable. SLIFER is an active device that monitors the changing frequency resulting from a change in length of a coaxial cable forming an element of an oscillator circuit. Pin probes in this application consist of RG-174 coaxial cables, each with an open circuit, placed at several known locations within the material. Each cable is connected to a pulse-forming network and a voltage source. When the cables are shorted by the advancing wave, time-distance data are produced from which a velocity can be computed. Each technique, installation of the gauge, examples of the signals, and interpretation of the records are described.

  14. Particle velocity measurements of the reaction zone in nitromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, S. A.; Engelke, R. P.; Alcon, R. R.

    2002-01-01

    The detonation reaction-zone length in neat, deuterated, and chemically sensitized nitromethane (NM) has been measured by using several different laser-based velocity interferometry systems. The experiments involved measuring the particle velocity history at a NM/PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) window interface during the time a detonation in the NM interacted with the interface. Initially, Fabry-Perot interferometry was used, but, because of low time resolution (>5 ns), several different configurations of VISAR interferometry were subsequently used. Early work was done with VISARs with a time resolution of about 3 ns. By making changes to the recording system, we were able to improve this to {approx}1more » ns. Profiles measured at the NM/PMMA interface agree with the ZND theory, in that a spike ({approx}2.45 mm/{micro}s) is measured that is consistent with an extrapolated reactant NM Hugoniot matched to the PMMA window. The spike is rather sharp, followed by a rapid drop in particle velocity over a time of 5 to 10 ns; this is evidence of early fast reactions. Over about 50 ns, a much slower particle velocity decrease occurs to the assumed CJ condition - indicating a total reaction zone length of {approx}300 {micro}m. When the NM is chemically changed, such as replacing the hydrogen atoms with deuterium or chemically sensitizing with a base, some changes are observed in the early part of the reaction zone.« less

  15. CONDITIONS FOR SUCCESSFUL HELIUM DETONATIONS IN ASTROPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Cole; Guillochon, James; De Colle, Fabio

    2013-07-01

    Several models for Type Ia-like supernova events rely on the production of a self-sustained detonation powered by nuclear reactions. In the absence of hydrogen, the fuel that powers these detonations typically consists of either pure helium (He) or a mixture of carbon and oxygen (C/O). Studies that systematically determine the conditions required to initiate detonations in C/O material exist, but until now no analogous investigation of He matter has been conducted. We perform one-dimensional reactive hydrodynamical simulations at a variety of initial density and temperature combinations and find critical length scales for the initiation of He detonations that range betweenmore » 1 and 10{sup 10} cm. A simple estimate of the length scales over which the total consumption of fuel will occur for steady-state detonations is provided by the Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) formalism. Our initiation lengths are consistently smaller than the corresponding CJ length scales by a factor of {approx}100, providing opportunities for thermonuclear explosions in a wider range of low-mass white dwarfs (WDs) than previously thought possible. We find that virialized WDs with as little mass as 0.24 M{sub Sun} can be detonated, and that even less massive WDs can be detonated if a sizable fraction of their mass is raised to a higher adiabat. That the initiation length is exceeded by the CJ length implies that certain systems may not reach nuclear statistical equilibrium within the time it takes a detonation to traverse the object. In support of this hypothesis, we demonstrate that incomplete burning will occur in the majority of He WD detonations and that {sup 40}Ca, {sup 44}Ti, or {sup 48}Cr, rather than {sup 56}Ni, is the predominant burning product for many of these events. We anticipate that a measure of the quantity of the intermediate-mass elements and {sup 56}Ni produced in a helium-rich thermonuclear explosion can potentially be used to constrain the nature of the progenitor system.« less

  16. Effects of Injection Scheme on Rotating Detonation Engine Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacon, Fabian; Duvall, James; Gamba, Mirko

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we experimentally investigate the operation and performance characteristics of a rotating detonation engine (RDE) operated with different fuel injection schemes and operating conditions. In particular, we investigate the detonation and operation characteristics produced with an axial flow injector configuration and semi-impinging injector configurations. These are compared to the characteristics produced with a canonical radial injection system (AFRL injector). Each type produces a different flowfield and mixture distribution, leading to a different detonation initiation, injector dynamic response, and combustor pressure rise. By using a combination of diagnostics, we quantify the pressure loses and gains in the system, the ability to maintain detonation over a range of operating points, and the coupling between the detonation and the air/fuel feed lines. We particularly focus on how this coupling affects both the stability and the performance of the detonation wave. This work is supported by the DOE/UTSR program under project DE-FE0025315.

  17. A submerged singularity method for calculating potential flow velocities at arbitrary near-field points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maskew, B.

    1976-01-01

    A discrete singularity method has been developed for calculating the potential flow around two-dimensional airfoils. The objective was to calculate velocities at any arbitrary point in the flow field, including points that approach the airfoil surface. That objective was achieved and is demonstrated here on a Joukowski airfoil. The method used combined vortices and sources ''submerged'' a small distance below the airfoil surface and incorporated a near-field subvortex technique developed earlier. When a velocity calculation point approached the airfoil surface, the number of discrete singularities effectively increased (but only locally) to keep the point just outside the error region of the submerged singularity discretization. The method could be extended to three dimensions, and should improve nonlinear methods, which calculate interference effects between multiple wings, and which include the effects of force-free trailing vortex sheets. The capability demonstrated here would extend the scope of such calculations to allow the close approach of wings and vortex sheets (or vortices).

  18. Ignition of detonation in accreted helium envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasner, S. Ami; Livne, E.; Steinberg, E.; Yalinewich, A.; Truran, James W.

    2018-05-01

    Sub-Chandrasekhar CO white dwarfs accreting helium have been considered as candidates for Type Ia supernova (SNIa) progenitors since the early 1980s (helium shell mass >0.1 M⊙). These models, once detonated, did not fit the observed spectra and light curve of typical SNIa observations. New theoretical work examined detonations on much less massive (<0.05 M⊙) envelopes. They find stable detonations that lead to light curves, spectra, and abundances that compare relatively well with the observational data. The exact mechanism leading to the ignition of helium detonation is a key issue, since it is a mandatory first step for the whole scenario. As the flow of the accreted envelope is unstable to convection long before any hydrodynamic phenomena develops, a multidimensional approach is needed in order to study the ignition process. The complex convective reactive flow is challenging to any hydrodynamical solver. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D studies ignited the detonation artificially. We present here, for the first time, fully consistent results from two hydrodynamical 2D solvers that adopt two independent accurate schemes. For both solvers, an effort was made to overcome the problematics raised by the finite resolution and numerical diffusion by the advective terms. Our best models lead to the ignition of a detonation in a convective cell. Our results are robust and the agreement between the two different numerical approaches is very good.

  19. Detonation Synthesis of Alpha-Variant Silicon Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langenderfer, Martin; Johnson, Catherine; Fahrenholtz, William; Mochalin, Vadym

    2017-06-01

    A recent research study has been undertaken to develop facilities for conducting detonation synthesis of nanomaterials. This process involves a familiar technique that has been utilized for the industrial synthesis of nanodiamonds. Developments through this study have allowed for experimentation with the concept of modifying explosive compositions to induce synthesis of new nanomaterials. Initial experimentation has been conducted with the end goal being synthesis of alpha variant silicon carbide (α-SiC) in the nano-scale. The α-SiC that can be produced through detonation synthesis methods is critical to the ceramics industry because of a number of unique properties of the material. Conventional synthesis of α-SiC results in formation of crystals greater than 100 nm in diameter, outside nano-scale. It has been theorized that the high temperature and pressure of an explosive detonation can be used for the formation of α-SiC in the sub 100 nm range. This paper will discuss in detail the process development for detonation nanomaterial synthesis facilities, optimization of explosive charge parameters to maximize nanomaterial yield, and introduction of silicon to the detonation reaction environment to achieve first synthesis of nano-sized alpha variant silicon carbide.

  20. A transient semimetallic layer in detonating nitromethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Evan J.; Riad Manaa, M.; Fried, Laurence E.; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Joannopoulos, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the microscopic details and extreme states of matter found within a detonating high explosive have yet to be elucidated. Here we present the first quantum molecular-dynamics simulation of a shocked explosive near detonation conditions. We discover that the wide-bandgap insulator nitromethane (CH3NO2) undergoes chemical decomposition and a transformation into a semimetallic state for a limited distance behind the detonation front. We find that this transformation is associated with the production of charged decomposition species and provides a mechanism to explain recent experimental observations.

  1. Pulse Detonation Physiochemical and Exhaust Relaxation Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    based on total time to detonation and detonation percentage. Nomenclature A = Arrehenius Constant Ea = Activation Energy Ecrit = Critical...the precision uncertainties vary for each data point. Therefore, the total experimental uncertainty will vary by data point. A comprehensive bias

  2. Hydrodynamical simulation of detonations in superbursts. I. The hydrodynamical algorithm and some preliminary one-dimensional results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël, C.; Busegnies, Y.; Papalexandris, M. V.; Deledicque, V.; El Messoudi, A.

    2007-08-01

    Aims:This work presents a new hydrodynamical algorithm to study astrophysical detonations. A prime motivation of this development is the description of a carbon detonation in conditions relevant to superbursts, which are thought to result from the propagation of a detonation front around the surface of a neutron star in the carbon layer underlying the atmosphere. Methods: The algorithm we have developed is a finite-volume method inspired by the original MUSCL scheme of van Leer (1979). The algorithm is of second-order in the smooth part of the flow and avoids dimensional splitting. It is applied to some test cases, and the time-dependent results are compared to the corresponding steady state solution. Results: Our algorithm proves to be robust to test cases, and is considered to be reliably applicable to astrophysical detonations. The preliminary one-dimensional calculations we have performed demonstrate that the carbon detonation at the surface of a neutron star is a multiscale phenomenon. The length scale of liberation of energy is 106 times smaller than the total reaction length. We show that a multi-resolution approach can be used to solve all the reaction lengths. This result will be very useful in future multi-dimensional simulations. We present also thermodynamical and composition profiles after the passage of a detonation in a pure carbon or mixed carbon-iron layer, in thermodynamical conditions relevant to superbursts in pure helium accretor systems.

  3. Laser High-Cycle Thermal Fatigue of Pulse Detonation Engine Combustor Materials Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Fox, Dennis S.; Miller, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Pulse detonation engines (PDE's) have received increasing attention for future aerospace propulsion applications. Because the PDE is designed for a high-frequency, intermittent detonation combustion process, extremely high gas temperatures and pressures can be realized under the nearly constant-volume combustion environment. The PDE's can potentially achieve higher thermodynamic cycle efficiency and thrust density in comparison to traditional constant-pressure combustion gas turbine engines (ref. 1). However, the development of these engines requires robust design of the engine components that must endure harsh detonation environments. In particular, the detonation combustor chamber, which is designed to sustain and confine the detonation combustion process, will experience high pressure and temperature pulses with very short durations (refs. 2 and 3). Therefore, it is of great importance to evaluate PDE combustor materials and components under simulated engine temperatures and stress conditions in the laboratory. In this study, a high-cycle thermal fatigue test rig was established at the NASA Glenn Research Center using a 1.5-kW CO2 laser. The high-power laser, operating in the pulsed mode, can be controlled at various pulse energy levels and waveform distributions. The enhanced laser pulses can be used to mimic the time-dependent temperature and pressure waves encountered in a pulsed detonation engine. Under the enhanced laser pulse condition, a maximum 7.5-kW peak power with a duration of approximately 0.1 to 0.2 msec (a spike) can be achieved, followed by a plateau region that has about one-fifth of the maximum power level with several milliseconds duration. The laser thermal fatigue rig has also been developed to adopt flat and rotating tubular specimen configurations for the simulated engine tests. More sophisticated laser optic systems can be used to simulate the spatial distributions of the temperature and shock waves in the engine. Pulse laser high

  4. Numerical Simulation of the Detonation of Condensed Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng; Ye, Ting; Ning, Jianguo

    Detonation process of a condensed explosive was simulated using a finite difference method. Euler equations were applied to describe the detonation flow field, an ignition and growth model for the chemical reaction and Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equations of state for the state of explosives and detonation products. Based on the simple mixture rule that assumes the reacting explosives to be a mixture of the reactant and product components, 1D and 2D codes were developed to simulate the detonation process of high explosive PBX9404. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental results, which demonstrates that the finite difference method, mixture rule and chemical reaction proposed in this paper are adequate and feasible.

  5. Simulations of heterogeneous detonations and post-detonation turbulent mixing and afterburning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottiparthi, Kalyana Chakravarthi; Menon, Suresh

    2012-03-01

    We conduct three-dimensional numerical simulations of the propagation of blast waves resulting from detonation of a nitromethane charge of radius 5.9 cm loaded with aluminum particles and analyze the afterburn process as well as the generation of multiple scales ofmixing in the post detonation flow field. In the current study, the particle combustion is observed to be dependent on particle dispersal and mixing of gases in the flow where particle dispersal spreads aluminum within the flow and mixing provides the necessary oxidizer. Thus, 5 μm aluminum particles are burnt more effectively in comparison to 10 μm particles for a fixed initial mass of particles. Also, for a fixed initial particle size, increase in the initial mass of aluminum particles resulted in greater mixing.

  6. Safety and performance enhancement circuit for primary explosive detonators

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Ronald W [Tracy, CA

    2006-04-04

    A safety and performance enhancement arrangement for primary explosive detonators. This arrangement involves a circuit containing an energy storage capacitor and preset self-trigger to protect the primary explosive detonator from electrostatic discharge (ESD). The circuit does not discharge into the detonator until a sufficient level of charge is acquired on the capacitor. The circuit parameters are designed so that normal ESD environments cannot charge the protection circuit to a level to achieve discharge. When functioned, the performance of the detonator is also improved because of the close coupling of the stored energy.

  7. Evaluation of the oblique detonation wave ramjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    The potential performance of oblique detonation wave ramjets is analyzed in terms of multishock diffusion, oblique detonation waves, and heat release. Results are presented in terms of thrust coefficients and specific impulses for a range of flight Mach numbers of 6 to 16.

  8. Calculation of afterbody flows with a composite velocity formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, R. C.; Rubin, S. G.; Khosla, P. K.

    1983-01-01

    A recently developed technique for numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for subsonic, laminar flows is investigated. It is extended here to allow for the computation of transonic and turbulent flows. The basic approach involves a multiplicative composite of the appropriate velocity representations for the inviscid and viscous flow regions. The resulting equations are structured so that far from the surface of the body the momentum equations lead to the Bernoulli equation for the pressure, while the continuity equation reduces to the familiar potential equation. Close to the body surface, the governing equations and solution techniques are characteristic of those describing interacting boundary layers. The velocity components are computed with a coupled strongly implicity procedure. For transonic flows the artificial compressibility method is used to treat supersonic regions. Calculations are made for both laminar and turbulent flows over axisymmetric afterbody configurations. Present results compare favorably with other numerical solutions and/or experimental data.

  9. Design and Evaluation of a Single-Inlet Pulse Detonation Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Kilogram/second m/s Meters/ second N Nitrogen NPS Naval Postgraduate School O Oxygen PDC Pulse Detonation Combustion PDE Pulse Detonation Engine...EVALUATION OF A SINGLE-INLET PULSE DETONATION COMBUSTOR by Danny Soria June 2011 Thesis Advisor: Christopher M. Brophy Second Reader: Garth V...COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Design and Evaluation of a Single-Inlet Pulse Detonation Combustor 6. AUTHOR(S) Danny Soria 5

  10. On the Initiation Mechanism in Exploding Bridgewire and Laser Detonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, D. Scott; Thomas, K.; Saenz, J.

    2005-07-01

    Since its invention by Los Alamos during the Manhattan Project era the exploding bridgewire detonator (EBW) has seen tremendous use and study. Recent development of a laser-powered device with detonation properties similar to an EBW is reviving interest in the basic physics of the Deflagration-to-Detonation (DDT) process in both of these devices,[1]. Cutback experiments using both laser interferometry and streak camera observations are providing new insight into the initiation mechanism in EBWs. These measurements are being correlated to a DDT model of compaction to detonation and shock to detonation developed previously by Xu and Stewart, [2]. The DDT model is incorporated into a high-resolution, multi-material model code for simulating the complete process. Model formulation and predictions against the test data will be discussed. REFS. [1] A. Munger, J. Kennedy, A. Akinci, and K. Thomas, "Dev. of a Laser Detonator" 30th Int. Pyrotechnics Seminar, Fort Collins, CO, (2004). [2] Xu, S. and Stewart, D. S. Deflagration to detonation transition in porous energetic materials: A model study. J. Eng. Math., 31, 143-172 (1997)

  11. A morphological investigation of soot produced by the detonation of munitions.

    PubMed

    Pantea, Dana; Brochu, Sylvie; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Scholz, Günter

    2006-10-01

    The morphology of three different detonation soot samples along with other common soot materials such as carbon black, diesel soot and chimney soot was studied by elemental and proximate analysis, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The goal of this study was to better define the morphology of the detonation soot in order to better assess the interactions of this type of soot with explosive residues. The detonation soot samples were obtained by the detonation of artillery 155mm projectiles filled with either pure TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) or composition B, a military explosive based on a mixture of TNT and RDX (trimethylentrinitramine). The carbon content of the soot samples varied considerably depending on the feedstock composition. Detonation soot contains less carbon and more nitrogen than the other carbonaceous samples studied, due to the molecular structure of the energetic materials detonated such as TNT and RDX. The ash concentration was higher for detonation soot samples due to the high metal content coming from the projectiles shell and to the soil contamination which occurred during the detonation. By X-ray diffraction, diamond and graphite were found to be the major crystalline carbon forms in the detonation soot. Two electron microscopy techniques were used in this study to visualise the primary particles and to try to explain the formation mechanism of detonation soot samples.

  12. Numerical simulations of detonation propagation in gaseous fuel-air mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honhar, Praveen; Kaplan, Carolyn; Houim, Ryan; Oran, Elaine

    2017-11-01

    Unsteady multidimensional numerical simulations of detonation propagation and survival in mixtures of fuel (hydrogen or methane) diluted with air were carried out with a fully compressible Navier-Stokes solver using a simplified chemical-diffusive model (CDM). The CDM was derived using a genetic algorithm combined with the Nelder-Mead optimization algorithm and reproduces physically correct laminar flame and detonation properties. Cases studied are overdriven detonations propagating through confined mediums, with or without gradients in composition. Results from simulations confirm that the survival of the detonation depends on the channel heights. In addition, the simulations show that the propagation of the detonation waves depends on the steepness in composition gradients.

  13. Determination of Effective Crossover Location and Dimensions for Branched Detonation in a Pulsed Detonation Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    location is varied from the aft end of the detonation tube to the middle of the detonation tube while the crossover width is varied from 2.5 in to 0.5...the other end where the tube is connected to a source of fuel, oxidizer, and ignition .7 The engine cycle is divided into three equal phases: fill...location and width of the crossover duct for hydrogen, ethylene and an n-alkane. The crossover location is varied from the aft end of the

  14. Flying-plate detonator using a high-density high explosive

    DOEpatents

    Stroud, John R.; Ornellas, Donald L.

    1988-01-01

    A flying-plate detonator containing a high-density high explosive such as benzotrifuroxan (BTF). The detonator involves the electrical explosion of a thin metal foil which punches out a flyer from a layer overlying the foil, and the flyer striking a high-density explosive pellet of BTF, which is more thermally stable than the conventional detonator using pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN).

  15. Heat Exchanger Design and Testing for a 6-Inch Rotating Detonation Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Engine Research Facility HHV Higher heating value LHV Lower heating value PDE Pulsed detonation engine RDE Rotating detonation engine RTD...the combustion community are pulse detonation engines ( PDEs ) and rotating detonation engines (RDEs). 1.1 Differences between Pulsed and Rotating ...steadier than that of a PDE (2, 3). (2) (3) Figure 1. Unrolled rotating detonation wave from high-speed video (4) Another difference that

  16. Diameter Effect Curve and Detonation Front Curvature Measurements for ANFO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanach, R. A.; Hill, L. G.

    2001-06-01

    Diameter effect and front curvature measurements are reported for rate stick experiments on commercially available prilled ANFO (ammonium nitrate-fuel oil) at ambient temperature. The shots were fired in paper tubes so as to provide minimal confinement. Diameters ranged from 77 mm. (≈ failure diameter) to 200 mm., with the tube length being ten diameters in all cases. Each detonation wave shape was fit with an analytic form, from which the local normal velocity Dn and total curvature κ were generated as a function of radius R, then plotted parametrically to generate a D_n(κ) function. The resulting behavior deviates substantially from that of previous explosives,(Hill,L.G., Bdzil,J.B., and Aslam,T.D., 11^th) Detonation Symposium, 1998^,(Hill,L.G., Bdzil,J.B., Davis,W.C., and Engelke,R., Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, 1999) in which curves for different stick sizes overlay well for small κ but diverge for large κ, and for which κ increases monotonically with R to achieve a maximum value at the charge edge. For ANFO, we find that κ achieves a maximum at an intermediate R and that D_n(κ) curves for different stick sizes are widely separated with no overlap whatsoever.

  17. Deflagration-to-detonation transition in spiral channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovastov, S. V.; Mikushkin, A. Yu.; Golub, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    The deflagration-to-detonation transition in hydrogen-air mixtures that fill spiral channels has been studied. A spiral channel has been produced in a cylindrical detonation tube with a twisted ribbon inside. The gas mixture has been ignited by means of a spark gap switch. The predetonation distance versus the twisted ribbon configuration and molar ratio between the gas mixture components has been determined. A pulling force exerted by the detonation tube after a single event of hydrogen-air mixture burnout has been found for four configurations of the twisted ribbon. Conditions under which the use of a spiral tube can be more effective (increase the pulling force) have been formulated.

  18. 29 CFR 1926.908 - Use of detonating cord.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be handled and used with the same respect and care given other explosives. (c) The line of detonating... explosive core is dry. (f) All detonating cord trunklines and branchlines shall be free of loops, sharp...

  19. Particle Size Effects on CL-20 Initiation and Detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valancius, Cole; Bainbridge, Joe; Love, Cody; Richardson, Duane

    2017-06-01

    Particle size or specific surface area effects on explosives has been of interest to the explosives community for both application and modeling of initiation and detonation. Different particles sizes of CL-20 were used in detonator experiments to determine the effects of particle size on initiation, run-up to steady state detonation, and steady state detonation. Historical tests have demonstrated a direct relationship between particle size and initiation. However, historical tests inadvertently employed density gradients, making it difficult to discern the effects of particle size from the effects of density. Density gradients were removed from these tests using a larger diameter, shorter charge column, allowing for similar loading across different particle sizes. Without the density gradient, the effects of particle size on initiation and detonation are easier to determine. The results of which contrast with historical results, showing particle size does not directly affect initiation threshold.

  20. Heat Transfer Experiments on a Pulse Detonation Driven Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    steps that need to take place before such a hybrid is successfully developed. PDEs obtain their increased efficiency by means of detonation , a pressure...combustion in the Brayton cycle. A PDE utilizes detonations , which offer much higher pressures at the site of fuel ignition, generating less...HEAT TRANSFER EXPERIMENTS ON A PULSE DETONATION DRIVEN COMBUSTOR THESIS Nicholas C. Longo, Captain, USAF AFIT/GAE/ENY/11-M18

  1. Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition Control by Nanosecond Gas Discharges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-07

    Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 1 April 2007 - 18 August 09 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Deflagration-To- Detonation Transition Control By Nanosecond...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT During the current project, an extensive experimental study of detonation initiation by high{voltage...nanosecond gas discharges has been performed in a smooth detonation tube with different discharge chambers and various discharge cell numbers. The chambers

  2. Rapid detonation initiation by sparks in a short duct: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Z. M.; Dou, H. S.; Khoo, B. C.

    2010-06-01

    Rapid onset of detonation can efficiently increase the working frequency of a pulse detonation engine (PDE). In the present study, computations of detonation initiation in a duct are conducted to investigate the mechanisms of detonation initiation. The governing equations are the Euler equations and the chemical kinetic model consists of 19 elementary reactions and nine species. Different techniques of initiation have been studied for the purpose of accelerating detonation onset with a relatively weak ignition energy. It is found that detonation ignition induced by means of multiple sparks is applicable to auto-ignition for a PDE. The interaction among shock waves, flame fronts and the strip of pre-compressed fresh (unburned) mixture plays an important role in rapid onset of detonation.

  3. Mechanisms of detonation formation due to a temperature gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapila, A. K.; Schwendeman, D. W.; Quirk, J. J.; Hawa, T.

    2002-12-01

    Emergence of a detonation in a homogeneous, exothermically reacting medium can be deemed to occur in two phases. The first phase processes the medium so as to create conditions ripe for the onset of detonation. The actual events leading up to preconditioning may vary from one experiment to the next, but typically, at the end of this stage the medium is hot and in a state of nonuniformity. The second phase consists of the actual formation of the detonation wave via chemico-gasdynamic interactions. This paper considers an idealized medium with simple, rate-sensitive kinetics for which the preconditioned state is modelled as one with an initially prescribed linear gradient of temperature. Accurate and well-resolved numerical computations are carrried out to determine the mode of detonation formation as a function of the size of the initial gradient. For shallow gradients, the result is a decelerating supersonic reaction wave, a weak detonation, whose trajectory is dictated by the initial temperature profile, with only weak intervention from hydrodynamics. If the domain is long enough, or the gradient less shallow, the wave slows down to the Chapman-Jouguet speed and undergoes a swift transition to the ZND structure. For sharp gradients, gasdynamic nonlinearity plays a much stronger role. Now the path to detonation is through an accelerating pulse that runs ahead of the reaction wave and rearranges the induction-time distribution there to one that bears little resemblance to that corresponding to the initial temperature gradient. The pulse amplifies and steepens, transforming itself into a complex consisting of a lead shock, an induction zone, and a following fast deflagration. As the pulse advances, its three constituent entities attain progressively higher levels of mutual coherence, to emerge as a ZND detonation. For initial gradients that are intermediate in size, aspects of both the extreme scenarios appear in the path to detonation. The novel aspect of this study

  4. Mechanism of Gaseous Detonation Propagation Through Reactant Layers Bounded by Inert Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houim, Ryan

    2017-11-01

    Vapor cloud explosions and rotating detonation engines involve the propagation of gaseous detonations through a layer of reactants that is bounded by inert gas. Mechanistic understanding of how detonations propagate stably or fail in these scenarios is incomplete. Numerical simulations were used to investigate mechanisms of gaseous detonation propagation through reactant layers bounded by inert gas. The reactant layer was a stoichiometric mixture of C2H4/O2 at 1 atm and 300K and is 4 detonation cells in height. Cases where the inert gas temperature was 300, 1500, and 3500 K will be discussed. The detonation failed for the 300 K case and propagated marginally for the 1500 K case. Surprisingly, the detonation propagated stably for the 3500 K case. A shock structure forms that involves a detached shock in the inert gas and a series of oblique shocks in the reactants. A small local explosion is triggered when the Mach stem of a detonation cell interacts with the compressed reactants behind one of these oblique shocks. The resulting pressure wave produces a new Mach stem and a new triple point that leads to a stable detonation. Preliminary results on the influence of a deflagration at the inert/reactant interface on the stability of a layered detonation will be discussed.

  5. Calculation of laser induced impulse based on the laser supported detonation wave model with dissociation, ionization and radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Li, E-mail: ligan0001@gmail.com; Mousen, Cheng; Xiaokang, Li

    In the laser intensity range that the laser supported detonation (LSD) wave can be maintained, dissociation, ionization and radiation take a substantial part of the incidence laser energy. There is little treatment on the phenomenon in the existing models, which brings obvious discrepancies between their predictions and the experiment results. Taking into account the impact of dissociation, ionization and radiation in the conservations of mass, momentum and energy, a modified LSD wave model is developed which fits the experimental data more effectively rather than the existing models. Taking into consideration the pressure decay of the normal and the radial rarefaction,more » the laser induced impulse that is delivered to the target surface is calculated in the air; and the dependencies of impulse performance on laser intensity, pulse width, ambient pressure and spot size are indicated. The results confirm that the dissociation is the pivotal factor of the appearance of the momentum coupling coefficient extremum. This study focuses on a more thorough understanding of LSD and the interaction between laser and matter.« less

  6. Detonation charge size versus coda magnitude relations in California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Magnitude-charge size relations have important uses in forensic seismology and are used in Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty monitoring. I derive empirical magnitude versus detonation-charge-size relationships for 322 detonations located by permanent seismic networks in California and Nevada. These detonations, used in 41 different seismic refraction or network calibration experiments, ranged in yield (charge size) between 25 and 106 kg; coda magnitudes reported for them ranged from 0.5 to 3.9. Almost all represent simultaneous (single-fired) detonations of one or more boreholes. Repeated detonations at the same shotpoint suggest that the reported coda magnitudes are repeatable, on average, to within 0.1 magnitude unit. An empirical linear regression for these 322 detonations yields M = 0.31 + 0.50 log10(weight [kg]). The detonations compiled here demonstrate that the Khalturin et al. (1998) relationship, developed mainly for data from large chemical explosions but which fits data from nuclear blasts, can be used to estimate the minimum charge size for coda magnitudes between 0.5 and 3.9. Drilling, loading, and shooting logs indicate that the explosive specification, loading method, and effectiveness of tamp are the primary factors determining the efficiency of a detonation. These records indicate that locating a detonation within the water table is neither a necessary nor sufficient condition for an efficient shot.

  7. Hazard classification assessment for the MC3423 detonator shipping package

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.B.

    1981-11-05

    An investigation was made to determine whether the MC3423 detonator should be assigned a DOT hazard classification of Detonating Fuze, Class C Explosive, per Federal Register 49 CFR 173.113, when packaged as specified. This study covers two propagation tests which evaluated the effects of two orientations of the MC3423 in its shipping tray. The method of testing was approved by DOE, Albuquerque Operations Office. Test data led to the recommended hazard classification of Detonating Fuze, Class C Explosive for both orientations of the detonator.

  8. Ice flood velocity calculating approach based on single view metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Xu, L.

    2017-02-01

    Yellow River is the river in which the ice flood occurs most frequently in China, hence, the Ice flood forecasting has great significance for the river flood prevention work. In various ice flood forecast models, the flow velocity is one of the most important parameters. In spite of the great significance of the flow velocity, its acquisition heavily relies on manual observation or deriving from empirical formula. In recent years, with the high development of video surveillance technology and wireless transmission network, the Yellow River Conservancy Commission set up the ice situation monitoring system, in which live videos can be transmitted to the monitoring center through 3G mobile networks. In this paper, an approach to get the ice velocity based on single view metrology and motion tracking technique using monitoring videos as input data is proposed. First of all, River way can be approximated as a plane. On this condition, we analyze the geometry relevance between the object side and the image side. Besides, we present the principle to measure length in object side from image. Secondly, we use LK optical flow which support pyramid data to track the ice in motion. Combining the result of camera calibration and single view metrology, we propose a flow to calculate the real velocity of ice flood. At last we realize a prototype system by programming and use it to test the reliability and rationality of the whole solution.

  9. Analysis of Porous Media as Inlet Concept for Rotating Detonation Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grogan, Kevin; Ihme, Matthias; Department of Mechanical Engineering Team

    2016-11-01

    Rotating detonation engines combust reactive gas mixtures with a high-speed, annularly-propagating detonation wave, which provides many advantages including a stagnation pressure gain and a compact, lightweight design. However, the optimal design of the inlet to the combustion chamber inlet is a moot topic since improper design can significantly reduce detonability and increase pressure losses. The highly diffusive properties of porous media could make it an ideal material to prevent the flashback of the detonation wave and therefore, allow the inlet gas to be premixed. Motivated by this potential, this work employs simulation to evaluate the application of porous media to the inlet of a rotating detonation engine as a novel means to stabilize a detonation wave while reducing the pressure losses incurred by non-ideal mixing strategies. Department of the Air Force.

  10. Nonideal detonation regimes in low density explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ershov, A. P.; Kashkarov, A. O.; Pruuel, E. R.; Satonkina, N. P.; Sil'vestrov, V. V.; Yunoshev, A. S.; Plastinin, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    Measurements using Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) were performed for three high explosives at densities slightly above the natural loose-packed densities. The velocity histories at the explosive/window interface demonstrate that the grain size of the explosives plays an important role. Fine-grained materials produced rather smooth records with reduced von Neumann spike amplitudes. For commercial coarse-grained specimens, the chemical spike (if detectable) was more pronounced. This difference can be explained as a manifestation of partial burn up. In fine-grained explosives, which are more sensitive, the reaction can proceed partly within the compression front, which leads to a lower initial shock amplitude. The reaction zone was shorter in fine-grained materials because of higher density of hot spots. The noise level was generally higher for the coarse-grained explosives, which is a natural stochastic effect of the highly non-uniform flow of the heterogeneous medium. These results correlate with our previous data of electrical conductivity diagnostics. Instead of the classical Zel'dovich-von Neumann-Döring profiles, violent oscillations around the Chapman-Jouguet level were observed in about half of the shots using coarse-grained materials. We suggest that these unusual records may point to a different detonation wave propagation mechanism.

  11. Detonation duct gas generator demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, Andrew; Brinlee, Gayl A.; Othmer, Peter; Whelan, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of the generation of detonation waves moving periodically across high speed channel flow is experimentally demonstrated. Such waves are essential to the concept of compressing requirements and increasing the engine pressure compressor with the objective of reducing conventional compressor requirements and increasing the engine thermodynamic efficiency through isochoric energy addition. By generating transient transverse waves, rather than standing waves, shock wave losses are reduced by an order of magnitude. The ultimate objective is to use such detonation ducts downstream of a low pressure gas turbine compressor to produce a high overall pressure ratio thermodynamic cycle. A 4 foot long, 1 inch x 12 inch cross-section, detonation duct was operated in a blow-down mode using compressed air reservoirs. Liquid or vapor propane was injected through injectors or solenoid valves located in the plenum or the duct itself. Detonation waves were generated when the mixture was ignited by a row of spark plugs in the duct wall. Problems with fuel injection and mixing limited the air speeds to about Mach 0.5, frequencies to below 10 Hz, and measured pressure ratios of about 5 to 6. The feasibility of the gas dynamic compression was demonstrated and the critical problem areas were identified.

  12. High-speed velocity measurements on an EFI-system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinse, W. C.; van't Hof, P. G.; Cheng, L. K.; Scholtes, J. H. G.

    2007-01-01

    For the development of an Exploding Foil Initiator for Insensitive Munitions applications the following topics are of interest: the electrical circuit, the exploding foil, the velocity of the flyer, the driver explosive, the secondary flyer and the acceptor explosive. Several parameters of the EFI have influences on the velocity of the flyer. To investigate these parameters a Fabry-Perot Velocity Interferometer System (F-PVIS) has been used. The light to and from the flyer is transported by a multimode fibre terminated with a GRIN-lens. By this method the velocity of very tiny objects (0.1 mm), can be measured. The velocity of flyer can be recorded with nanosecond resolution, depending on the Fabry-Perot etalon and the streak camera. With this equipment the influence of the dimensions of the exploding foil and the flyer on the velocity and the acceleration of the flyer are investigated. Also the integrity of the flyer during flight can be analyzed. To characterize the explosive material, to be used as driver explosive in EFI's, the initiation behaviour of the explosive has been investigated by taking pictures of the explosion with a high speed framing and streak camera. From these pictures the initiation distance and the detonation behaviour of the explosive has been analyzed. Normally, the driver explosive initiates the acceptor explosive (booster) by direct contact. This booster explosive is embedded in the main charge of the munitions. The combination of initiator, booster explosive and main charge explosive is called the detonation train. In this research the possibility of initiation of the booster by an intermediate flyer is investigated. This secondary flyer can be made of different materials, like aluminium, steel and polyester with different sizes. With the aid of the F-PVIS the acceleration of the secondary flyer is investigated. This reveals the influence of the thickness and density of the flyer on the acceleration and final velocity. Under certain

  13. Attenuation of a hydrogen-air detonation by acoustic absorbing covering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bivol, G. Yu; Golovastov, S. V.; Golub, V. V.; Ivanov, K. V.; Korobov, A. E.

    2015-11-01

    Using of sound-absorbing surfaces to weaken and decay of a detonation wave in hydrogen-air mixtures was investigated experimentally. Experiments were carried out in a cylindrical detonation tube open at one end. Initiation of the explosive mixture was carried out by a spark discharge, which is located at the closed end of the detonation tube. Acoustical sound absorbing foam element of a specific weight of 0.035 g/cm3 with open pores of 0.5 mm was used. The degree of attenuation of the intensity of the detonation wave front was determined.

  14. Deflagration-to-detonation transition in granular HMX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, A. W.

    1980-01-01

    Granular HMX of three degrees of fineness was packed into heavy-walled steel tubes closed at both ends. Ignition was obtained at one end using an intimate mixture of finely divided titanium and boron as an igniter that produced heat with little gas. The distance to detonation was determined by examination of the resulting tube fragments. By inserting tightly-fitted neoprene diaphragms periodically into the HMX column, it was shown that the role of convective combustion was limited to the initial stage of the deflagration to detonation (DDT) process. Experiments in which various combinations of two of the three types of HMX were loaded into the same tube showed that heating by adiabatic shear of explosive grains was an essential factor in the final buildup to detonation. A description of the DDT process is developed in which conductive burning is followed in turn by convective burning, bed collapse with plug formation, onset of accelerated burning at the front of the plug through heating by intercrystalline friction and adiabatic shear, and intense shock formation resulting in high-order detonation.

  15. On the neutralization of bacterial spores in post-detonation flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottiparthi, K. C.; Schulz, J. C.; Menon, S.

    2014-09-01

    In multiple operational scenarios, explosive charges are used to neutralize confined or unconfined stores of bacterial spores. The spore destruction is achieved by post-detonation combustion and mixing of hot detonation product gases with the ambient flow and spore clouds. In this work, blast wave interaction with bacterial spore clouds and the effect of post-detonation combustion on spore neutralization are investigated using numerical simulations. Spherical explosive charges (radius, = 5.9 cm) comprising of nitromethane are modeled in the vicinity of a spore cloud, and the spore kill in the post-detonation flow is quantified. The effect of the mass of the spores and the initial distance, , of the spore cloud from the explosive charge on the percentage of spores neutralized is investigated. When the spores are initially placed within a distance of 3.0, within 0.1 ms after detonation of the charge, all the spores are neutralized by the blast wave and the hot detonation product gases. In contrast, almost all the spores survived the explosion when is greater than 8.0. The percentage of intact spores varied from 0 to 100 for 3.0 8.0 with spore neutralization dependent on time spent by the spores in the post-detonation mixing/combustion zone.

  16. Improved detonation modeling with CHEETAH

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, A.

    1997-11-01

    A Livermore software program called CHEETAH, an important, even indispensable tool for energetic materials researchers worldwide, was made more powerful in the summer of 1997 with the release of CHEETAH 2.0, an advanced version that simulates a wider variety of detonations. Derived from more than 40 years of experiments on high explosives at Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos national laboratories, CHEETAH predicts the results from detonating a mixture of specified reactants. It operates by solving thermodynamic equations to predict detonation products and such properties as temperature, pressure, volume, and total energy released. The code is prized by synthesis chemists andmore » other researchers because it allows them to vary the starting molecules and conditions to optimize the desired performance properties. One of the Laboratory`s most popular computer codes, CHEETAH is used at more than 200 sites worldwide, including ones in England, Canada, Sweden, Switzerland, and France. Most sites are defense-related, although a few users, such as Japanese fireworks researchers, are in the civilian sector.« less

  17. On the Initiation Mechanism in Exploding Bridgewire and Laser Detonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, D. Scott; Thomas, Keith A.; Clarke, S.; Mallett, H.; Martin, E.; Martinez, M.; Munger, A.; Saenz, Juan

    2006-07-01

    Since its invention by Los Alamos during the Manhattan Project era the exploding bridgewire detonator (EBW) has seen tremendous use and study. Recent development of a laser-powered device with detonation properties similar to an EBW is reviving interest in the basic physics of the deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) process in both of these devices. Cutback experiments using both laser interferometry and streak camera observations are providing new insight into the initiation mechanism in EBWs. These measurements are being correlated to a DDT model of compaction to detonation and shock to detonation developed previously by Xu and Stewart. The DDT model is incorporated into a high-resolution, multi-material model code for simulating the complete process. Model formulation and the modeling issues required to describe the test data will be discussed.

  18. Reduced chemical kinetic model of detonation combustion of one- and multi-fuel gaseous mixtures with air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, P. A.

    2018-03-01

    Two-step approximate models of chemical kinetics of detonation combustion of (i) one hydrocarbon fuel CnHm (for example, methane, propane, cyclohexane etc.) and (ii) multi-fuel gaseous mixtures (∑aiCniHmi) (for example, mixture of methane and propane, synthesis gas, benzene and kerosene) are presented for the first time. The models can be used for any stoichiometry, including fuel/fuels-rich mixtures, when reaction products contain molecules of carbon. Owing to the simplicity and high accuracy, the models can be used in multi-dimensional numerical calculations of detonation waves in corresponding gaseous mixtures. The models are in consistent with the second law of thermodynamics and Le Chatelier's principle. Constants of the models have a clear physical meaning. The models can be used for calculation thermodynamic parameters of the mixture in a state of chemical equilibrium.

  19. NUclear EVacuation Analysis Code (NUEVAC) : a tool for evaluation of sheltering and evacuation responses following urban nuclear detonations.

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, Ann S.; Brandt, Larry D.

    2009-11-01

    The NUclear EVacuation Analysis Code (NUEVAC) has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories to support the analysis of shelter-evacuate (S-E) strategies following an urban nuclear detonation. This tool can model a range of behaviors, including complex evacuation timing and path selection, as well as various sheltering or mixed evacuation and sheltering strategies. The calculations are based on externally generated, high resolution fallout deposition and plume data. Scenario setup and calculation outputs make extensive use of graphics and interactive features. This software is designed primarily to produce quantitative evaluations of nuclear detonation response options. However, the outputs have also proven usefulmore » in the communication of technical insights concerning shelter-evacuate tradeoffs to urban planning or response personnel.« less

  20. Time-resolved optical measurements of the post-detonation combustion of aluminized explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carney, Joel R.; Miller, J. Scott; Gump, Jared C.; Pangilinan, G. I.

    2006-06-01

    The dynamic observation and characterization of light emission following the detonation and subsequent combustion of an aluminized explosive is described. The temporal, spatial, and spectral specificity of the light emission are achieved using a combination of optical diagnostics. Aluminum and aluminum monoxide emission peaks are monitored as a function of time and space using streak camera based spectroscopy in a number of light collection configurations. Peak areas of selected aluminum containing species are tracked as a function of time to ascertain the relative kinetics (growth and decay of emitting species) during the energetic event. At the chosen streak camera sensitivity, aluminum emission is observed for 10μs following the detonation of a confined 20g charge of PBXN-113, while aluminum monoxide emission persists longer than 20μs. A broadband optical emission gauge, shock velocity gauge, and fast digital framing camera are used as supplemental optical diagnostics. In-line, collimated detection is determined to be the optimum light collection geometry because it is independent of distance between the optics and the explosive charge. The chosen optical configuration also promotes a constant cylindrical collection volume that should facilitate future modeling efforts.

  1. Modeling Hemispheric Detonation Experiments in 2-Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, W M; Fried, L E; Vitello, P A

    2006-06-22

    Experiments have been performed with LX-17 (92.5% TATB and 7.5% Kel-F 800 binder) to study scaling of detonation waves using a dimensional scaling in a hemispherical divergent geometry. We model these experiments using an arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian (ALE3D) hydrodynamics code, with reactive flow models based on the thermo-chemical code, Cheetah. The thermo-chemical code Cheetah provides a pressure-dependent kinetic rate law, along with an equation of state based on exponential-6 fluid potentials for individual detonation product species, calibrated to high pressures ({approx} few Mbars) and high temperatures (20000K). The parameters for these potentials are fit to a wide variety of experimental data,more » including shock, compression and sound speed data. For the un-reacted high explosive equation of state we use a modified Murnaghan form. We model the detonator (including the flyer plate) and initiation system in detail. The detonator is composed of LX-16, for which we use a program burn model. Steinberg-Guinan models5 are used for the metal components of the detonator. The booster and high explosive are LX-10 and LX-17, respectively. For both the LX-10 and LX-17, we use a pressure dependent rate law, coupled with a chemical equilibrium equation of state based on Cheetah. For LX-17, the kinetic model includes carbon clustering on the nanometer size scale.« less

  2. Assessment of the MC3608 detonator shipping package hazard classification

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.B.

    1981-08-07

    An investigation was made to determine whether the MC 3608 Detonator should be assigned a DOT hazard classification of Detonating Fuze, Class C Explosive, per 49 CFR 173.113. This study covers the propagation test as approved by DOE-Albuquerque Operations Office. Analysis of the test data led to the recommended hazard classification of Detonating Fuze, Class C Explosive.

  3. Detonation Performance Testing of LX-19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Samuel; Aslam, Tariq; Jackson, Scott

    2015-06-01

    CL-20 was developed at the Naval Surface Weapons Center at China Lake, CA in the mid 80's. Being less sensitive than PETN, but considerably more powerful than HMX, it is the highest energy and density compound known among organic chemicals. LX-19 was developed at LLNL in the early 90's. It is a high-energy plastic bonded explosive, composed of 95.8 wt% CL-20 and 4.2 wt% Estane binder, and is similar to LX-14 (composed of HMX and Estane), but with greater sensitivity characteristics with use of the more energetic CL-20 explosive. We report detonation performance results for unconfined cylindrical rate sticks of LX-19. The experimental diameter effects are shown, along with detonation front shapes, and reaction zone profiles for different test diameters. This data is critical for calibration to Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD). LA-UR-15-20672.

  4. Design and optimization of a deflagration to detonation transition (ddt) section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romo, Francisco X.

    Throughout the previous century, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have used and optimized the `traditional' combustion process called deflagration (subsonic combustion). An alternative form of combustion, detonation (supersonic combustion), can increase the thermal efficiency of the process by anywhere from 20 - 50%. Even though several authors have studied detonation waves since the 1890's and a plethora of papers and books have been published, it was not until 2008 that the first detonation-powered flight took place. It lasted for 10 seconds at 100 ft. altitude. Achieving detonation presents its own challenges: some fuels are not prone to detonate, severe vibrations caused by the cyclic nature of the engine and its intense noise are some of the key areas that need further research. Also, to directly achieve detonation either a high-energy, bulky, ignition system is required, or the combustion chamber must be fairly long (5 ft. or more in some cases). In the latter method, a subsonic flame front accelerates within the combustion chamber until it reaches supersonic speeds, thus detonation is attained. This is called deflagration-todetonation transition (DDT). Previous papers and experiments have shown that obstacles, such as discs with an orifice, located inside the combustion chamber can shorten the distance required to achieve detonation. This paper describes a hands-on implementation of a DDT device. Different disc geometries inside the chamber alter the wave characteristics at the exit of the tube. Although detonation was reached only when using pure oxygen, testing identified an obstacle configuration for LPG and air mixtures that increased pressure and wave speed significantly when compared to baseline or other obstacle configurations. Mixtures of LPG and air were accelerated to Mach 0.96 in the downstream frame of reference, which would indicate a transition to detonation was close. Reasons for not achieving detonation may include poor fuel and oxidizer mixing

  5. Modeling the Effects of Turbulence in Rotating Detonation Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towery, Colin; Smith, Katherine; Hamlington, Peter; van Schoor, Marthinus; TESLa Team; Midé Team

    2014-03-01

    Propulsion systems based on detonation waves, such as rotating and pulsed detonation engines, have the potential to substantially improve the efficiency and power density of gas turbine engines. Numerous technical challenges remain to be solved in such systems, however, including obtaining more efficient injection and mixing of air and fuels, more reliable detonation initiation, and better understanding of the flow in the ejection nozzle. These challenges can be addressed using numerical simulations. Such simulations are enormously challenging, however, since accurate descriptions of highly unsteady turbulent flow fields are required in the presence of combustion, shock waves, fluid-structure interactions, and other complex physical processes. In this study, we performed high-fidelity three dimensional simulations of a rotating detonation engine and examined turbulent flow effects on the operation, performance, and efficiency of the engine. Along with experimental data, these simulations were used to test the accuracy of commonly-used Reynolds averaged and subgrid-scale turbulence models when applied to detonation engines. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).

  6. Ignition Study on a Rotary-valved Air-breathing Pulse Detonation Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuwen; Han, Qixiang; Shen, Yujia; Zhao, Wei

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, the ignition effect on detonation initiation was investigated in the air-breathing pulse detonation engine. Two kinds of fuel injection and ignition methods were applied. For one method, fuel and air was pre-mixed outside the PDE and then injected into the detonation tube. The droplet sizes of mixtures were measured. An annular cavity was used as the ignition section. For the other method, fuel-air mixtures were mixed inside the PDE, and a pre-combustor was utilized as the ignition source. At firing frequency of 20 Hz, transition to detonation was obtained. Experimental results indicated that the ignition position and initial flame acceleration had important effects on the deflagration-to-detonation transition.

  7. The Use of Steady and Unsteady Detonation Waves for Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Henry G.; Menees, Gene P.; Cambier, Jean-Luc; Bowles, Jeffrey V.; Cavolowsky, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Detonation wave enhanced supersonic combustors such as the Oblique Detonation Wave Engine (ODWE) are attractive propulsion concepts for hypersonic flight. These engines utilize detonation waves to enhance fuel-air mixing and combustion. The benefits of wave combustion systems include shorter and lighter engines which require less cooling and generate lower internal drag. These features allow air-breathing operation at higher Mach numbers than the diffusive burning scramjet delaying the need for rocket engine augmentation. A comprehensive vehicle synthesis code has predicted the aerodynamic characteristics and structural size and weight of a typical single-stage-to-orbit vehicle using an ODWE. Other studies have focused on the use of unsteady or pulsed detonation waves. For low speed applications, pulsed detonation engines (PDE) have advantages in low weight and higher efficiency than turbojets. At hypersonic speeds, the pulsed detonations can be used in conjunction with a scramjet type engine to enhance mixing and provide thrust augmentation.

  8. Diameter Effect Curve and Detonation Front Curvature Measurements for ANFO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanach, R. A.; Hill, L. G.

    2002-07-01

    Diameter effect and front curvature measurements are reported for rate stick experiments on commercially available prilled ANFO (ammonium-nitrate/fuel-oil) at ambient temperature. The shots were fired in paper tubes so as to provide minimal confinement. Diameters ranged from 77 mm (approximately failure diameter) to 205 mm, with the tube length being ten diameters in all cases. Each detonation wave shape was fit with an analytic form, from which the local normal velocity Dn, and local total curvature kappa, were generated as a function of radius R, then plotted parametrically to generate a Dn(kappa) function. The observed behavior deviates substantially from that of previous explosives, for which curves for different diameters overlay well for small kappa but diverge for large kappa, and for which kappa increases monotonically with R. For ANFO, we find that Dn(kappa) curves for individual sticks 1) show little or no overlap--with smaller sticks lying to the right of larger ones, 2) exhibit a large velocity deficit with little kappa variation, and 3) reach a peak kappa at an intermediate R.

  9. A review of direct numerical simulations of astrophysical detonations and their implications

    DOE PAGES

    Parete-Koon, Suzanne T.; Smith, Christopher R.; Papatheodore, Thomas L.; ...

    2013-04-11

    Multi-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) of astrophysical detonations in degenerate matter have revealed that the nuclear burning is typically characterized by cellular structure caused by transverse instabilities in the detonation front. Type Ia supernova modelers often use one- dimensional DNS of detonations as inputs or constraints for their whole star simulations. While these one-dimensional studies are useful tools, the true nature of the detonation is multi-dimensional. The multi-dimensional structure of the burning influences the speed, stability, and the composition of the detonation and its burning products, and therefore, could have an impact on the spectra of Type Ia supernovae. Considerablemore » effort has been expended modeling Type Ia supernovae at densities above 1x10 7 g∙cm -3 where the complexities of turbulent burning dominate the flame propagation. However, most full star models turn the nuclear burning schemes off when the density falls below 1x10 7 g∙cm -3 and distributed burning begins. The deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) is believed to occur at just these densities and consequently they are the densities important for studying the properties of the subsequent detonation. In conclusion, this work reviews the status of DNS studies of detonations and their possible implications for Type Ia supernova models. It will cover the development of Detonation theory from the first simple Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonation models to the current models based on the time-dependent, compressible, reactive flow Euler equations of fluid dynamics.« less

  10. Theoretical and computer models of detonation in solid explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C.M.; Urtiew, P.A.

    1997-10-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical advances in understanding energy transfer and chemical kinetics have led to improved models of detonation waves in solid explosives. The Nonequilibrium Zeldovich - von Neumann - Doring (NEZND) model is supported by picosecond laser experiments and molecular dynamics simulations of the multiphonon up-pumping and internal vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) processes by which the unreacted explosive molecules are excited to the transition state(s) preceding reaction behind the leading shock front(s). High temperature, high density transition state theory calculates the induction times measured by laser interferometric techniques. Exothermic chain reactions form product gases in highly excited vibrational states,more » which have been demonstrated to rapidly equilibrate via supercollisions. Embedded gauge and Fabry-Perot techniques measure the rates of reaction product expansion as thermal and chemical equilibrium is approached. Detonation reaction zone lengths in carbon-rich condensed phase explosives depend on the relatively slow formation of solid graphite or diamond. The Ignition and Growth reactive flow model based on pressure dependent reaction rates and Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equations of state has reproduced this nanosecond time resolved experimental data and thus has yielded accurate average reaction zone descriptions in one-, two- and three- dimensional hydrodynamic code calculations. The next generation reactive flow model requires improved equations of state and temperature dependent chemical kinetics. Such a model is being developed for the ALE3D hydrodynamic code, in which heat transfer and Arrhenius kinetics are intimately linked to the hydrodynamics.« less

  11. Calculation of acoustic field based on laser-measured vibration velocities on ultrasonic transducer surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Liang; Zhao, Nannan; Gao, Zhijian; Mao, Kai; Chen, Wenyu; Fu, Xin

    2018-05-01

    Determination of the distribution of a generated acoustic field is valuable for studying ultrasonic transducers, including providing the guidance for transducer design and the basis for analyzing their performance, etc. A method calculating the acoustic field based on laser-measured vibration velocities on the ultrasonic transducer surface is proposed in this paper. Without knowing the inner structure of the transducer, the acoustic field outside it can be calculated by solving the governing partial differential equation (PDE) of the field based on the specified boundary conditions (BCs). In our study, the BC on the transducer surface, i.e. the distribution of the vibration velocity on the surface, is accurately determined by laser scanning measurement of discrete points and follows a data fitting computation. In addition, to ensure the calculation accuracy for the whole field even in an inhomogeneous medium, a finite element method is used to solve the governing PDE based on the mixed BCs, including the discretely measured velocity data and other specified BCs. The method is firstly validated on numerical piezoelectric transducer models. The acoustic pressure distributions generated by a transducer operating in an homogeneous and inhomogeneous medium, respectively, are both calculated by the proposed method and compared with the results from other existing methods. Then, the method is further experimentally validated with two actual ultrasonic transducers used for flow measurement in our lab. The amplitude change of the output voltage signal from the receiver transducer due to changing the relative position of the two transducers is calculated by the proposed method and compared with the experimental data. This method can also provide the basis for complex multi-physical coupling computations where the effect of the acoustic field should be taken into account.

  12. Integrated Pulse Detonation Propulsion and Magnetohydrodynamic Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2001-01-01

    The prospects for realizing an integrated pulse detonation propulsion and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power system are examined. First, energy requirements for direct detonation initiation of various fuel-oxygen and fuel-air mixtures are deduced from available experimental data and theoretical models. Second, the pumping power requirements for effective chamber scavenging are examined through the introduction of a scavenging ratio parameter and a scavenging efficiency parameter. A series of laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the basic engineering performance characteristics of a pulse detonation-driven MHD electric power generator. In these experiments, stoichiometric oxy-acetylene mixtures seeded with a cesium hydroxide/methanol spray were detonated at atmospheric pressure in a 1-m-long tube having an i.d. of 2.54 cm. Experiments with a plasma diagnostic channel attached to the end of the tube confirmed the attainment of detonation conditions (p2/p1 approximately 34 and D approximately 2,400 m/sec) and enabled the direct measurement of current density and electrical conductivity (approximately = 6 S/m) behind the detonation wave front, In a second set of experiments, a 30-cm-long continuous electrode Faraday channel, having a height of 2.54 cm and a width of 2 cm, was attached to the end of the tube using an area transition duct. The Faraday channel was inserted in applied magnetic fields of 0.6 and 0.95 T, and the electrodes were connected to an active loading circuit to characterize power extraction dependence on load impedance while also simulating higher effective magnetic induction. The experiments indicated peak power extraction at a load impedance between 5 and 10 Omega. The measured power density was in reasonable agreement with a simple electrodynamic model incorporating a correction for near-electrode potential losses. The time-resolved thrust characteristics of the system were also measured, and it was found that the NM interaction

  13. Integrated Pulse Detonation Propulsion and Magnetohydrodynamic Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, R. J.; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The prospects for realizing an integrated pulse detonation propulsion and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power system are examined. First, energy requirements for direct detonation initiation of various fuel-oxygen and fuel-air mixtures are deduced from available experimental data and theoretical models. Second, the pumping power requirements for effective chamber scavenging are examined through the introduction of a scavenging ratio parameter and a scavenging efficiency parameter. A series of laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the basic engineering performance characteristics of a pulse detonation-driven MHD electric power generator. In these experiments, stoichiometric oxy-acetylene mixtures seeded with a cesium hydroxide/methanol spray were detonated at atmospheric pressure in a 1-m-long tube having an i.d. of 2.54 cm. Experiments with a plasma diagnostic channel attached to the end of the tube confirmed the attainment of detonation conditions (p(sub 2)/p(sub 1) approx. 34 and D approx. 2,400 m/sec) and enabled the direct measurement of current density and electrical conductivity (=6 S/m) behind the detonation wave front. In a second set of experiments, a 30-cm-long continuous electrode Faraday channel, having a height of 2.54 cm and a width of 2 cm, was attached to the end of the tube using an area transition duct. The Faraday channel was inserted in applied magnetic fields of 0.6 and 0.95 T. and the electrodes were connected to an active loading circuit to characterize power extraction dependence on load impedance while also simulating higher effective magnetic induction. The experiments indicated peak power extraction at a load impedance between 5 and 10 Ohm. The measured power density was in reasonable agreement with a simple electrodynamic model incorporating a correction for near-electrode potential losses. The time-resolved thrust characteristics of the system were also measured, and it was found that the MHD interaction exerted a

  14. Numerical modelling of underwater detonation of non-ideal condensed-phase explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoch, Stefan; Nikiforakis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    The interest in underwater detonation tests originated from the military, since the expansion and subsequent collapse of the explosive bubble can cause considerable damage to surrounding structures or vessels. In military applications, the explosive is typically represented as a pre-burned material under high pressure, a reasonable assumption due to the short reaction zone lengths, and complete detonation of the unreacted explosive. Hence, numerical simulations of underwater detonation tests have been primarily concerned with the prediction of target loading and the damage incurred rather than the accurate modelling of the underwater detonation process. The mining industry in contrast has adopted the underwater detonation test as a means to experimentally characterise the energy output of their highly non-ideal explosives depending on explosive type and charge configuration. This characterisation requires a good understanding of how the charge shape, pond topography, charge depth, and additional charge confinement affect the energy release, some of which can be successfully quantified with the support of accurate numerical simulations. In this work, we propose a numerical framework which is able to capture the non-ideal explosive behaviour and in addition is capable of capturing both length scales: the reaction zone and the pond domain. The length scale problem is overcome with adaptive mesh refinement, which, along with the explosive model, is validated against experimental data of various TNT underwater detonations. The variety of detonation and bubble behaviour observed in non-ideal detonations is demonstrated in a parameter study over the reactivity of TNT. A representative underwater mining test containing an ammonium-nitrate fuel-oil ratestick charge is carried out to demonstrate that the presented method can be readily applied alongside experimental underwater detonation tests.

  15. Comparison of Bacillus atrophaeus spore viability following exposure to detonation of C4 and to deflagration of halogen-containing thermites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tringe, J. W.; Létant, S. E.; Dugan, L. C.; Levie, H. W.; Kuhl, A. L.; Murphy, G. A.; Alves, S. W.; Vandersall, K. S.; Pantoya, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    Energetic materials are being considered for the neutralization of spore-forming bacteria. In this study, the neutralization effects of a monomolecular explosive were compared to the effects of halogen-containing thermites. Bacillus atrophaeus spores were exposed to the post-detonation environment of a 100 g charge of the military explosive C-4 at a range of 50 cm. These tests were performed in the thermodynamically closed environment of a 506-l barometric calorimeter. Associated temperatures were calculated using a thermodynamic model informed by calculations with the Cheetah thermochemical code. Temperatures in the range of 2300-2800 K were calculated to persist for nearly the full 4 ms pressure observation time. After the detonation event, spores were characterized using optical microscopy and the number of viable spores was assessed. Results showed live spore survival rates in the range of 0.01%-1%. For the thermite tests, a similar, smaller-scale configuration was employed that examined the spore neutralization effects of two thermites: aluminum with iodine pentoxide and aluminum with potassium chlorate. Only the former mixture resulted in spore neutralization. These results indicate that the detonation environment produced by an explosive with no chemical biocides may provide effective spore neutralization similar to a deflagrating thermite containing iodine.

  16. Comparison of Bacillus atrophaeus spore viability following exposure to detonation of C4 and to deflagration of halogen-containing thermites

    DOE PAGES

    Tringe, J. W.; Letant, S. E.; Dugan, L. C.; ...

    2013-12-17

    We found that energetic materials are being considered for the neutralization of spore-forming bacteria. In this study, the neutralization effects of a monomolecular explosive were compared to the effects of halogen-containing thermites. Bacillus atrophaeus spores were exposed to the post-detonation environment of a 100 g charge of the military explosive C-4 at a range of 50 cm. These tests were performed in the thermodynamically closed environment of a 506-l barometric calorimeter. Associated temperatures were calculated using a thermodynamic model informed by calculations with the Cheetah thermochemicalcode. Temperatures in the range of 2300–2800 K were calculated to persist for nearly themore » full 4 ms pressure observation time. After the detonation event, spores were characterized using optical microscopy and the number of viable spores was assessed. These results showed live spore survival rates in the range of 0.01%–1%. For the thermite tests, a similar, smaller-scale configuration was employed that examined the spore neutralization effects of two thermites: aluminum with iodine pentoxide andaluminum with potassium chlorate. Only the former mixture resulted in spore neutralization. Our results indicate that the detonation environment produced by an explosive with no chemical biocides may provide effective spore neutralization similar to a deflagrating thermite containing iodine.« less

  17. Preliminary Studies of a Pulsed Detonation Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambier, Jean-Luc; Adelman, H. G.; Menees, G. P.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    In the new era of space exploration, there is a strong need for more efficient, cheaper and more reliable propulsion devices. With dramatic increase in specific impulse, the overall mass of fuel to be lifted into orbit is decreased, and this leads, in turn, to much lower mass requirements at lift-off, higher payload ratios and lower launch costs. The Pulsed Detonation engine (PDE) has received much attention lately due to its unique combination of simplicity, light-weight and efficiency. Current investigations focus principally on its use as a low speed, airbreathing engine, although other applications have also been proposed. Its use as a rocket propulsion device was first proposed in 1988 by the present authors. The superior efficiency of the Pulsed Detonation Rocket Engine (PDRE) is due to the near constant volume combustion process of a detonation wave. Our preliminary estimates suggest that the PDRE is theoretically capable of achieving specific impulses as high as 720 sec, a dramatic improvement over the current 480 sec of conventional rocket engines, making it competitive with nuclear thermal rockets. In addition to this remarkable efficiency, the PDRE may eliminate the need for high pressure cryogenic turbopumps, a principal source of failures. The heat transfer rates are also much lower, eliminating the need for nozzle cooling. Overall, the engine is more reliable and has a much lower weight. This paper will describe in detail the operation of the PDRE and calculate its performance, through numerical simulations. Engineering issues will be addressed and discussed, and the impact on mission profiles will also be presented. Finally, the performance of the PDRE using in-situ resources, such as CO and O2 from the martian atmosphere, will also be computed.

  18. Munitions having an insensitive detonator system for initiating large failure diameter explosives

    DOEpatents

    Perry, III, William Leroy

    2015-08-04

    A munition according to a preferred embodiment can include a detonator system having a detonator that is selectively coupled to a microwave source that functions to selectively prime, activate, initiate, and/or sensitize an insensitive explosive material for detonation. The preferred detonator can include an explosive cavity having a barrier within which an insensitive explosive material is disposed and a waveguide coupled to the explosive cavity. The preferred system can further include a microwave source coupled to the waveguide such that microwaves enter the explosive cavity and impinge on the insensitive explosive material to sensitize the explosive material for detonation. In use the preferred embodiments permit the deployment and use of munitions that are maintained in an insensitive state until the actual time of use, thereby substantially preventing unauthorized or unintended detonation thereof.

  19. Fundamental Properties of Non-equilibrium Laser-Supported Detonation Wave

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Hiroyuki

    For developing laser propulsion, it is very important to analyze the mechanism of Laser-Supported Detonation (LSD), because it can generate high pressure and high temperature to be used by laser propulsion can be categorized as one type of hypersonic reacting flows, where exothermicity is supplied not by chemical reaction but by radiation absorption. I have numerically simulated the 1-D and Quasi-1-D LSD waves propagating through an inert gas, which absorbs CO2 gasdynamic laser, using a 2-temperature model. Calculated results show the fundamental properties of the non-equilibrium LSD Waves.

  20. Structure and Stability of One-Dimensional Detonations in Ethylene-Air Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yungster, S.; Radhakrishnan, K.; Perkins, High D. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The propagation of one-dimensional detonations in ethylene-air mixtures is investigated numerically by solving the one-dimensional Euler equations with detailed finite-rate chemistry. The numerical method is based on a second-order spatially accurate total-variation-diminishing scheme and a point implicit, first-order-accurate, time marching algorithm. The ethylene-air combustion is modeled with a 20-species, 36-step reaction mechanism. A multi-level, dynamically adaptive grid is utilized, in order to resolve the structure of the detonation. Parametric studies over an equivalence ratio range of 0.5 less than phi less than 3 for different initial pressures and degrees of detonation overdrive demonstrate that the detonation is unstable for low degrees of overdrive, but the dynamics of wave propagation varies with fuel-air equivalence ratio. For equivalence ratios less than approximately 1.2 the detonation exhibits a short-period oscillatory mode, characterized by high-frequency, low-amplitude waves. Richer mixtures (phi greater than 1.2) exhibit a low-frequency mode that includes large fluctuations in the detonation wave speed; that is, a galloping propagation mode is established. At high degrees of overdrive, stable detonation wave propagation is obtained. A modified McVey-Toong short-period wave-interaction theory is in excellent agreement with the numerical simulations.

  1. Density Gradient Separation of Detonation Soot for Nanocarbon Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringstrand, Bryan; Jungjohann, Katie; Seifert, Sonke; Firestone, Millicent; Podlesak, David

    2017-06-01

    Detonation of high explosives (HE) can expand our understanding of chemical bonding at extreme conditions as well as the opportunity to prepare carbon nanomaterials. In order to understand detonation mechanisms, nanocarbon characterization contained within the soot is paramount. Thus, benign purification methods for detonation soot are important for its characterization. Progress towards a non-traditional approach to detonation soot processing is presented. Purification of soot using heavy liquid media such as sodium polytungstate to separate soot components based on their density was tested based on the premise that different nanocarbons possess different densities [ ρ = 1.79 g/cm3 (graphene) and ρ = 3.05 g/cm3 (nanodiamond)]. Analysis using XRD, SAXS, WAXS, Raman, XPS, TEM, and NMR provided information about particle morphology and carbon hybridization. Detonation synthesis offers an avenue for the discovery of new carbon frameworks. In addition, understanding reactions at extreme conditions provides for more accurate predictions of HE performance, explosion intent, and simulation refinement. These results are of interest to both the nanoscience and shock physics communities. We acknowledge the support of the U.S. Department of Energy LANL/LDRD Program (LANL #20150050DR). LA-UR-17-21502.

  2. Development and qualification testing of a laser-ignited, all-secondary (DDT) detonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blachowski, Thomas J.; Krivitsky, Darrin Z.; Tipton, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    The Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center (IHDIV, NSWC) is conducting a qualification program for a laser-ignited, all-secondary (DDT) explosive detonator. This detonator was developed jointly by IHDIV, NSWC and the Department of Energy's EG&G Mound Applied Technologies facility in Miamisburg, Ohio to accept a laser initiation signal and produce a fully developed shock wave output. The detonator performance requirements were established by the on-going IHDIV, NSWC Laser Initiated Transfer Energy Subsystem (LITES) advanced development program. Qualification of the detonator as a component utilizing existing military specifications is the selected approach for this program. The detonator is a deflagration-to-detonator transfer (DDT) device using a secondary explosive, HMX, to generate the required shock wave output. The prototype development and initial system integration tests for the LITES and for the detonator were reported at the 1992 International Pyrotechnics Society Symposium and at the 1992 Survival and Flight Equipment National Symposium. Recent results are presented for the all-fire sensitivity and qualification tests conducted at two different laser initiation pulses.

  3. Pressure profiles in detonation cells with rectangular and diagonal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanana, M.; Lefebvre, M. H.

    Experimental results presented in this work enable us to classify the three-dimensional structure of the detonation into two fundamental types: a rectangular structure and a diagonal structure. The rectangular structure is well documented in the literature and consists of orthogonal waves travelling independently from each another. The soot record in this case shows the classical diamond detonation cell exhibiting `slapping waves'. The experiments indicate that the diagonal structure is a structure with the triple point intersections moving along the diagonal line of the tube cross section. The axes of the transverse waves are canted at 45 degrees to the wall, accounting for the lack of slapping waves. It is possible to reproduce these diagonal structures by appropriately controlling the experimental ignition procedure. The characteristics of the diagonal structure show some similarities with detonation structure in round tube. Pressure measurements recorded along the central axis of the cellular structure show a series of pressure peaks, depending on the type of structure and the position inside the detonation cell. Pressure profiles measured for the whole length of the two types of detonation cells show that the intensity of the shock front is higher and the length of the detonation cell is shorter for the diagonal structures.

  4. 29 CFR 1926.908 - Use of detonating cord.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... physical condition of the bore hole and stemming and the type of explosives used. (b) Detonating cord shall... cord extending out of a bore hole or from a charge shall be cut from the supply spool before loading the remainder of the bore hole or placing additional charges. (d) Detonating cord shall be handled and...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.908 - Use of detonating cord.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... physical condition of the bore hole and stemming and the type of explosives used. (b) Detonating cord shall... cord extending out of a bore hole or from a charge shall be cut from the supply spool before loading the remainder of the bore hole or placing additional charges. (d) Detonating cord shall be handled and...

  6. Microscopic evidence that the nitromethane aci ion is a rate controlling species in the detonation of liquid nitromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Engelke, R.; Earl, W.L.; Rohlfing, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    We present microscopic evidence that the aci ion (H/sub 2/CNO/sup -//sub 2/) of nitromethane (H/sub 3/CNO/sub 2/) plays an important role in the detonation kinetics of liquid-phase nitromethane. It is known from previous detonation experiments that very minute additions of organic bases (e.g., amines) have a profound effect on the detonation properties of nitromethane; i.e., the explosive is strongly sensitized. Here we show that, under conditions similar to the detonation experiments, the only new chemical species generated in nitromethane by the bases sodium hydroxide (NaOH), diethylenetriamine (NH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/NHCH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/NH/sub 2/), and pyridine (C/sub 5/H/sub 5/N) is themore » aci ion, within the sensitivity of the experiments. The primary tool used to demonstrate this is /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy. Ab initio quantum-mechanical calculations of the chemical shifts are used to support the experimental interpretation. Qualitative arguments concerning the increased reactivity of the aci ion, relative to normal nitromethane, are given. We review earlier work and relate it to the current findings.« less

  7. Changes in Blow-Off Velocity Observed in Two Explosives at the Threshold for Sustained Ignition Using the Modified Gap Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, R. J.; Forbes, J. W.; Tasker, D. G.; Orme, R. S.

    2009-12-01

    The Modified Gap Test was used to quantify different levels of partial reaction for various input stresses. This test configuration has been historically useful in highlighting thresholds for first reaction, sustained ignition, and detonation. Two different HMX based compositions were studied; a cast-cured composition with 87% HMX and a pressed composition with 92% HMX. Each explosive was prepared from large industrially produced batches consisting of different unreactive polymeric binder systems. Short samples (50.8 mm in diameter and 12.7 mm thick) were shock loaded using the standard large-scale gap test donor system. Product-cloud blow-off velocities at the opposite end of the sample were measured using a high-speed digital-camera. Velocity versus input pres sure plots provided changes in reactivity that had developed by the 12.7 mm run distance. Results appear consistent for the lower input stresses. In contrast, the results varied widely in a range of input stresses around the transition to detonation in both explosives. These results indicate that both explosives are subject to large variation in blow-off velocity in a range of input stresses near the threshold for prompt detonation. This is explained by localized variations of HMX particle size and density in industrially prepared samples. Approved for public release, Distribution unlimited, IHDIV Log No. 09-108.

  8. Calculation and measurement of a neutral air flow velocity impacting a high voltage capacitor with asymmetrical electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Malík, M., E-mail: michal.malik@tul.cz; Primas, J.; Kopecký, V.

    2014-01-15

    This paper deals with the effects surrounding phenomenon of a mechanical force generated on a high voltage asymmetrical capacitor (the so called Biefeld-Brown effect). A method to measure this force is described and a formula to calculate its value is also given. Based on this the authors derive a formula characterising the neutral air flow velocity impacting an asymmetrical capacitor connected to high voltage. This air flow under normal circumstances lessens the generated force. In the following part this velocity is measured using Particle Image Velocimetry measuring technique and the results of the theoretically calculated velocity and the experimentally measuredmore » value are compared. The authors found a good agreement between the results of both approaches.« less

  9. Isotope-Labeled Composition B for Tracing Detonation Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manner, Virginia; Podlesak, David; Huber, Rachel; Amato, Ronald; Giambra, Anna; Bowden, Patrick; Hartline, Ernest; Dattelbaum, Dana

    2017-06-01

    To better understand how solid carbon forms and evolves during detonation, we have prepared Composition B with 13 C and 15 N-labeled 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in order to trace the formation of soot from the carbon and nitrogen atoms in these explosives. Isotope-labeling of explosives has been performed in the recent past for a variety of reasons, including environmental remediation and reaction mechanism studies. Because it is expensive and time consuming to prepare these materials, and our detection equipment only requires trace amounts of isotopes, we have prepared fully-labeled materials and substituted them into unlabeled RDX and TNT at less than the 1% level. We will discuss the preparation and full characterization of this labeled Composition B, the detonation tests performed, along with the results of the post-detonation soot analysis. Various detonation models predict differing amounts and forms of carbon and nitrogen; these isotopically-labeled precursors have allowed these models to be tested.

  10. Rotary wave-ejector enhanced pulse detonation engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalim, M. R.; Izzy, Z. A.; Akbari, P.

    2012-01-01

    The use of a non-steady ejector based on wave rotor technology is modeled for pulse detonation engine performance improvement and for compatibility with turbomachinery components in hybrid propulsion systems. The rotary wave ejector device integrates a pulse detonation process with an efficient momentum transfer process in specially shaped channels of a single wave-rotor component. In this paper, a quasi-one-dimensional numerical model is developed to help design the basic geometry and operating parameters of the device. The unsteady combustion and flow processes are simulated and compared with a baseline PDE without ejector enhancement. A preliminary performance assessment is presented for the wave ejector configuration, considering the effect of key geometric parameters, which are selected for high specific impulse. It is shown that the rotary wave ejector concept has significant potential for thrust augmentation relative to a basic pulse detonation engine.

  11. Numerical study of chemically reacting viscous flow relevant to pulsed detonation engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Tae-Hyeong

    2005-11-01

    A computational fluid dynamics code for two-dimensional, multi-species, laminar Navier-Stokes equations is developed to simulate a recently proposed engine concept for a pulsed detonation based propulsion system and to investigate the feasibility of the engine of the concept. The governing equations that include transport phenomena such as viscosity, thermal conduction and diffusion are coupled with chemical reactions. The gas is assumed to be thermally perfect and in chemically non-equilibrium. The stiffness due to coupling the fluid dynamics and the chemical kinetics is properly taken care of by using a time-operator splitting method and a variable coefficient ordinary differential equation solver. A second-order Roe scheme with a minmod limiter is explicitly used for space descretization, while a second-order, two-step Runge-Kutta method is used for time descretization. In space integration, a finite volume method and a cell-centered scheme are employed. The first-order derivatives in the equations of transport properties are discretized by a central differencing with Green's theorem. Detailed chemistry is involved in this study. Two chemical reaction mechanisms are extracted from GRI-Mech, which are forty elementary reactions with thirteen species for a hydrogen-air mixture and twenty-seven reactions with eight species for a hydrogen-oxygen mixture. The code is ported to a high-performance parallel machine with Message-Passing Interface. Code validation is performed with chemical kinetic modeling for a stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture, an one-dimensional detonation tube, a two-dimensional, inviscid flow over a wedge and a viscous flow over a flat plate. Detonation is initiated using a numerically simulated arc-ignition or shock-induced ignition system. Various freestream conditions are utilized to study the propagation of the detonation in the proposed concept of the engine. Investigation of the detonation propagation is performed for a pulsed detonation

  12. Macro-Scale Reactive Flow Model for High-Explosive Detonation in Support of ASCI Weapon Safety Milepost

    SciTech Connect

    Reaugh, J E

    2002-01-03

    Explosive grain-scale simulations are not practical for weapon safety simulations. Indeed for nearly ideal explosives with reaction zones of order 500 {micro}m, even reactive flow models are not practical for weapon safety simulations. By design, reactive flow models must resolve the reaction zone, which implies computational cells with dimension of order 50 {micro}m for such explosives. The desired result for a simulation in which the reaction zone is not resolved is that the explosive behaves as an ideal one. The pressure at the shock front rises to the Chapman-Jouget (CJ) pressure with a reaction zone dimension that is like thatmore » of a shock propagating in an unreactive medium, on the order of a few computational cells. It should propagate with the detonation velocity that is determined by the equation of state of the products. In the past, this was achieved in one dimensional simulations with ''beta-burn'', a method in which the extent of conversion to final product is proportional to the approach of the specific volume in the shock front to the specific volume of the CJ state. One drawback with this method is that there is a relatively long build-up to steady detonation that is typically 50 to 100 computational cells. The need for relatively coarsely zoned simulations in two dimensions lead to ''program-burn'' by which the time to detonation can be determined by a simple ray-tracing algorithm when there are no barriers or shadows. Complications arise in two and three dimensions to the extent that some calculations of the lighting time in complex geometry can give incorrect results. We sought to develop a model based on reactive flow that might help the needs of the Weapon Safety Simulation milepost. Important features of the model are: (1) That it be useable with any equation of state description of the explosive product gases including both JWL and LEOS table forms. (2) That it exhibits the desired dependence on zone size. We believe that the model

  13. Multicale modeling of the detonation of aluminized explosives using SPH-MD-QM method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Qing; Wang, Guangyu; Liu, Gui-Rong; de, Suvranu

    Aluminized explosives have been applied in military industry since decades ago. Compared with ideal explosives, aluminized explosives feature both fast detonation and slow metal combustion chemistry, generating a complex multi-phase reactive flow. Here, we introduce a sequential multiscale model of SPH-MD-QM to simulate the detonation behavior of aluminized explosives. At the bottom level, first-principles quantum mechanics (QM) calculations are employed to obtain the training sets for fitting the ReaxFF potentials, which are used in turn in the reactive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in the middle level to obtain the chemical reaction rates and equations of states. At the up lever, a smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method incorporated ignition and growth model and afterburning model has been used for the simulation of the detonation and combustion of the aluminized explosive. Simulation is compared with experiment and good agreement is observed. The proposed multiscale method of SPH-MD-QM could be used to optimize the performance of aluminized explosives. The authors would like to acknowledge the generous financial support from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Grant No. HDTRA1-13-1-0025 and the Office of Naval Research Grants ONR Award No. N00014-08-1-0462 and No. N00014-12-1-0527.

  14. CHEETAH: A fast thermochemical code for detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, L.E.

    1993-11-01

    For more than 20 years, TIGER has been the benchmark thermochemical code in the energetic materials community. TIGER has been widely used because it gives good detonation parameters in a very short period of time. Despite its success, TIGER is beginning to show its age. The program`s chemical equilibrium solver frequently crashes, especially when dealing with many chemical species. It often fails to find the C-J point. Finally, there are many inconveniences for the user stemming from the programs roots in pre-modern FORTRAN. These inconveniences often lead to mistakes in preparing input files and thus erroneous results. We are producingmore » a modern version of TIGER, which combines the best features of the old program with new capabilities, better computational algorithms, and improved packaging. The new code, which will evolve out of TIGER in the next few years, will be called ``CHEETAH.`` Many of the capabilities that will be put into CHEETAH are inspired by the thermochemical code CHEQ. The new capabilities of CHEETAH are: calculate trace levels of chemical compounds for environmental analysis; kinetics capability: CHEETAH will predict chemical compositions as a function of time given individual chemical reaction rates. Initial application: carbon condensation; CHEETAH will incorporate partial reactions; CHEETAH will be based on computer-optimized JCZ3 and BKW parameters. These parameters will be fit to over 20 years of data collected at LLNL. We will run CHEETAH thousands of times to determine the best possible parameter sets; CHEETAH will fit C-J data to JWL`s,and also predict full-wall and half-wall cylinder velocities.« less

  15. Explosive Products EOS: Adjustment for detonation speed and energy release

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, Ralph

    2014-09-05

    Propagating detonation waves exhibit a curvature effect in which the detonation speed decreases with increasing front curvature. The curvature effect is due to the width of the wave profile. Numerically, the wave profile depends on resolution. With coarse resolution, the wave width is too large and results in a curvature effect that is too large. Consequently, the detonation speed decreases as the cell size is increased. We propose a modification to the products equation of state (EOS) to compensate for the effect of numerical resolution; i.e., to increase the CJ pressure in order that a simulation propagates a detonation wavemore » with a speed that is on average correct. The EOS modification also adjusts the release isentrope to correct the energy release.« less

  16. Towards Integrated Pulse Detonation Propulsion and MHD Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Thompson, Bryan R.; Lineberry, John T.

    1999-01-01

    The interest in pulse detonation engines (PDE) arises primarily from the advantages that accrue from the significant combustion pressure rise that is developed in the detonation process. Conventional rocket engines, for example, must obtain all of their compression from the turbopumps, while the PDE provides additional compression in the combustor. Thus PDE's are expected to achieve higher I(sub sp) than conventional rocket engines and to require smaller turbopumps. The increase in I(sub sp) and the decrease in turbopump capacity must be traded off against each other. Additional advantages include the ability to vary thrust level by adjusting the firing rate rather than throttling the flow through injector elements. The common conclusion derived from these aggregated performance attributes is that PDEs should result in engines which are smaller, lower in cost, and lighter in weight than conventional engines. Unfortunately, the analysis of PDEs is highly complex due to their unsteady operation and non-ideal processes. Although the feasibility of the basic PDE concept has been proven in several experimental and theoretical efforts, the implied performance improvements have yet to be convincingly demonstrated. Also, there are certain developmental issues affecting the practical application of pulse detonation propulsion systems which are yet to be fully resolved. Practical detonation combustion engines, for example, require a repetitive cycle of charge induction, mixing, initiation/propagation of the detonation wave, and expulsion/scavenging of the combustion product gases. Clearly, the performance and power density of such a device depends upon the maximum rate at which this cycle can be successfully implemented. In addition, the electrical energy required for direct detonation initiation can be significant, and a means for direct electrical power production is needed to achieve self-sustained engine operation. This work addresses the technological issues associated

  17. Fundamental Structure of High-Speed Reacting Flows: Supersonic Combustion and Detonation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0195 Fundamental Structure of High-Speed Reacting Flows: Supersonic Combustion and Detonation Kenneth Yu MARYLAND UNIV COLLEGE...MARCH 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FUNDAMENTAL STRUCTURE OF HIGH-SPEED REACTING FLOWS: SUPERSONIC COMBUSTION AND DETONATION 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...public release. Final Report on Fundamental Structure of High-Speed Reacting Flows: Supersonic Combustion and Detonation Grant

  18. Shock wave and flame front induced detonation in a rapid compression machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Qi, Y.; Xiang, S.; Mével, R.; Wang, Z.

    2018-05-01

    The present study focuses on one mode of detonation initiation observed in a rapid compression machine (RCM). This mode is referred to as shock wave and flame front-induced detonation (SWFID). Experimental high-speed imaging and two-dimensional numerical simulations with skeletal chemistry are combined to unravel the dominant steps of detonation initiation under SWFID conditions. It is shown that the interaction between the shock wave generated by the end-gas auto-ignition and the spherical flame creates a region of high pressure and temperature which enables the acceleration of the flame front and the detonation onset. The experimental observation lacks adequate spatial and temporal resolution despite good reproducibility of the detonation onset. Based on the numerical results, phenomenological interpretation of the event within the framework of shock wave refraction indicates that the formation of a free-precursor shock wave at the transition between regular and irregular refraction may be responsible for detonation onset. The present results along with previous findings on shock wave reflection-induced detonation in the RCM indicate that super-knock occurs after the interaction of the shock wave generated by end-gas auto-ignition with the RCM walls, preignition flame, or another shock wave.

  19. Initiation structure of oblique detonation waves behind conical shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Pengfei; Ng, Hoi Dick; Teng, Honghui; Jiang, Zonglin

    2017-08-01

    The understanding of oblique detonation dynamics has both inherent basic research value for high-speed compressible reacting flow and propulsion application in hypersonic aerospace systems. In this study, the oblique detonation structures formed by semi-infinite cones are investigated numerically by solving the unsteady, two-dimensional axisymmetric Euler equations with a one-step irreversible Arrhenius reaction model. The present simulation results show that a novel wave structure, featured by two distinct points where there is close-coupling between the shock and combustion front, is depicted when either the cone angle or incident Mach number is reduced. This structure is analyzed by examining the variation of the reaction length scale and comparing the flow field with that of planar, wedge-induced oblique detonations. Further simulations are performed to study the effects of chemical length scale and activation energy, which are both found to influence the formation of this novel structure. The initiation mechanism behind the conical shock is discussed to investigate the interplay between the effect of the Taylor-Maccoll flow, front curvature, and energy releases from the chemical reaction in conical oblique detonations. The observed flow fields are interpreted by means of the energetic limit as in the critical regime for initiation of detonation.

  20. Predicted detonation properties at the Chapman-Jouguet state for proposed energetic materials (MTO and MTO3N) from combined ReaxFF and quantum mechanics reactive dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tingting; Zybin, Sergey V; Goddard, William A; Cheng, Tao; Naserifar, Saber; Jaramillo-Botero, Andres; Huang, Fenglei

    2018-02-07

    The development of new energetic materials (EMs) with improved detonation performance but low sensitivity and environmental impact is of considerable importance for applications in civilian and military fields. Often new designs are difficult to synthesize so predictions of performance in advance is most valuable. Examples include MTO (2,4,6-triamino-1,3,5-triazine-1,3,5-trioxide) and MTO3N (2,4,6-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine-1,3,5-trioxide) suggested by Klapötke as candidate EMs but not yet successfully synthesized. We propose and apply to these materials a new approach, RxMD(cQM), in which ReaxFF Reactive Molecular Dynamics (RxMD) is first used to predict the reaction products and thermochemical properties at the Chapman Jouguet (CJ) state for which the system is fully reacted and at chemical equilibrium. Quantum mechanics dynamics (QMD) is then applied to refine the pressure of the ReaxFF predicted CJ state to predict a more accurate final CJ point, leading to a very practical calculation that includes accurate long range vdW interactions needed for accurate pressure. For MTO, this RxMD(cQM) method predicts a detonation pressure of P CJ = 40.5 GPa and a detonation velocity of D CJ = 8.8 km s -1 , while for MTO3N it predicts P CJ = 39.9 GPa and D CJ = 8.4 km s -1 , making them comparable to HMX (P CJ = 39.5 GPa, D CJ = 9.1 km s -1 ) and worth synthesizing. This first-principles-based RxMD(cQM) methodology provides an excellent compromise between computational cost and accuracy including the formation of clusters that burn too slowly, providing a practical mean of assessing detonation performances for novel candidate EMs. This RxMD(cQM) method that links first principles atomistic molecular dynamics simulations with macroscopic properties to promote in silico design of new EMs should also be of general applicability to materials synthesis and processing.

  1. Determination of detonation wave boundary angles via hydrocode simulations using CREST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitworth, N. J.; Childs, M.

    2017-01-01

    A key input parameter to Detonation Shock Dynamics models is the angle that the propagating detonation wave makes with the charge edge. This is commonly referred to as the boundary angle, and is a property of the explosive/confiner material combination. Such angles can be determined: (i) experimentally from measured detonation wave-shapes, (ii) theoretically, or (iii) via hydrocode simulations using a reactive burn model. Of these approaches: (i) is difficult because of resolution, (ii) breaks down for certain configurations, while (iii) requires a well validated model. In this paper, the CREST reactive burn model, which has previously been successful in modelling a wide range of explosive phenomena, is used to simulate recent Detonation Confinement Sandwich Tests conducted at LANL using the insensitive high explosive PBX 9502. Simulated detonation wave-shapes in PBX 9502 for a number of different confiner materials and combinations closely match those recorded from the experiments. Boundary angles were subsequently extracted from the simulated results via a wave-shape analysis toolkit. The results shown demonstrate the usefulness of CREST in determining detonation wave boundary angles for a range of explosive/confiner material combinations.

  2. Effects of injection nozzle exit width on rotating detonation engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jian; Zhou, Jin; Liu, Shijie; Lin, Zhiyong; Cai, Jianhua

    2017-11-01

    A series of numerical simulations of RDE modeling real injection nozzles with different exit widths are performed in this paper. The effects of nozzle exit width on chamber inlet state, plenum flowfield and detonation propagation are analyzed. The results are compared with that using an ideal injection model. Although the ideal injection model is a good approximation method to model RDE inlet, the two-dimensional effects of real nozzles are ignored in the ideal injection model so that some complicated phenomena such as the reflected waves caused by the nozzle walls and the reversed flow into the nozzles can not be modeled accurately. Additionally, the ideal injection model overpredicts the block ratio. In all the cases that stabilize at one-wave mode, the block ratio increases as the nozzle exit width gets smaller. The dual-wave mode case also has a relatively high block ratio. A pressure oscillation in the plenum with the same main frequency with the rotating detonation wave is observed. A parameter σ is applied to describe the non-uniformity in the plenum. σ increases as the nozzle exit width gets larger. Under some condition, the heat release on the interface of fresh premixed gas layer and detonation products can be strong enough to induce a new detonation wave. A spontaneous mode-transition process is observed for the smallest exit width case. Due to the detonation products existing in the premixed gas layer before the detonation wave, the detonation wave will propagate through reactants and products alternately, and therefore its strength will vary with time, especially near the chamber inlet. This tendency gets weaker as the injection nozzle exit width increases.

  3. Comparison of Bacillus atrophaeus spore viability following exposure to detonation of C4 and to deflagration of halogen-containing thermites

    SciTech Connect

    Tringe, J. W.; Létant, S. E.; Dugan, L. C.

    2013-12-21

    Energetic materials are being considered for the neutralization of spore-forming bacteria. In this study, the neutralization effects of a monomolecular explosive were compared to the effects of halogen-containing thermites. Bacillus atrophaeus spores were exposed to the post-detonation environment of a 100 g charge of the military explosive C-4 at a range of 50 cm. These tests were performed in the thermodynamically closed environment of a 506-l barometric calorimeter. Associated temperatures were calculated using a thermodynamic model informed by calculations with the Cheetah thermochemical code. Temperatures in the range of 2300–2800 K were calculated to persist for nearly the full 4 ms pressure observation time.more » After the detonation event, spores were characterized using optical microscopy and the number of viable spores was assessed. Results showed live spore survival rates in the range of 0.01%–1%. For the thermite tests, a similar, smaller-scale configuration was employed that examined the spore neutralization effects of two thermites: aluminum with iodine pentoxide and aluminum with potassium chlorate. Only the former mixture resulted in spore neutralization. These results indicate that the detonation environment produced by an explosive with no chemical biocides may provide effective spore neutralization similar to a deflagrating thermite containing iodine.« less

  4. A Hydrocarbon Fuel Flash Vaporization System for a Pulsed Detonation Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Experiments were performed in the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Pulsed Detonation Research Facility at Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio. The PDE ...AFRL-MN-EG-TP-2006-7420 A HYDROCARBON FUEL FLASH VAPORIZATION SYSTEM FOR A PULSED DETONATION ENGINE (PREPRINT) K. Colin Tucker...85,7<&/$66,),&$7,212) E7(/(3+21(180%(5 ,QFOXGHDUHDFRGH A Hydrocarbon Fuel Flash Vaporization System for a Pulsed Detonation Engine K

  5. Calculations of the FLAX events with comparisons to particle velocity data recorded at low stress

    SciTech Connect

    Rambo, J.

    1993-09-01

    The FLAX event, fired in 1972, produced two particle velocity data sets from two devices in the same hole, U2dj. The data are of interest because they contain verification of focusing of a shock wave above the water table. The FLAX data show the peak velocity attenuation from the device buried in saturated tuff are different from those emanating from the upper device buried in porous alluvium. The attenuations of the peaks are different in regions traversed by both waves traveling at the same sound speed and measured by the same particle velocity gages. The attenuation rate from the lowermore » device is due to 2-D effects attributed to wave focusing above the water table and is a feature that should be captured by 2-D calculations. LLNL`s KDYNA calculations used for containment analyses have utilized a material model initially developed by Butkovich, which estimates strength and compressibility based on gas porosity, total porosity, and water content determined from geophysical measurements. Unfortunately, the material model estimates do not correctly model the more important details of strength and compressibility used for matching the velocity data. The velocity gage data contain information that can be related to the strength properties of the medium, provided that there are more than two gages recording in the stress region of plastic deformation of the material. A modification to Butkovich`s model incorporated approximate strengths derived from the data. The mechanisms of focusing will be discussed and will incorporate additional information from the TYBO event.« less

  6. Diameter Effect In Initiating Explosives, Numerical Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lefrancois, A.; Benterou, J.; Roeske, F.

    2006-02-10

    The ability to safely machine small pieces of HE with the femtosecond laser allows diameter effect experiments to be performed in initiating explosives in order to study the failure diameter, the reduction of the detonation velocity and curvature versus the diameter. The reduced diameter configuration needs to be optimized, so that the detonation products of the first cylinder will not affect the measurement of the detonation velocity of the second cylinder with a streak camera. Different 2D axi-symmetrical configurations have been calculated to identify the best solution using the Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for LX16 Pellet with Ls-Dyna.

  7. a Transient Semi-Metallic Layer in Detonating Nitromethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Evan J.; Manaa, M. Riad; Fried, Laurence E.; Glaesemann, Kurt; Joannopoulos, John D.

    2007-12-01

    We present the first ever glimpse behind a detonation shock front in a chemically reactive quantum molecular dynamics simulation of the explosive nitromethane (CH3NO2). We discover that the wide-bandgap insulator nitromethane undergoes chemical decomposition and a transformation into a semi-metallic state for a limited distance behind the detonation front. We find this transformation is associated with the production of charged decomposition species.

  8. Multiple-cycle Simulation of a Pulse Detonation Engine Ejector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yungster, S.; Perkins, H. D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study involving single and multiple-cycle numerical simulations of various PDE-ejector configurations utilizing hydrogen-oxygen mixtures. The objective was to investigate the thrust, impulse and mass flow rate characteristics of these devices. The results indicate that ejector systems can utilize the energy stored in the strong shock wave exiting the detonation tube to augment the impulse obtained from the detonation tube alone. Impulse augmentation ratios of up to 1.9 were achieved. The axial location of the converging-diverging ejectors relative to the end of the detonation tube were shown to affect the performance of the system.

  9. A numerical scheme to calculate temperature and salinity dependent air-water transfer velocities for any gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. T.

    2010-10-01

    The ocean-atmosphere flux of a gas can be calculated from its measured or estimated concentration gradient across the air-sea interface and the transfer velocity (a term representing the conductivity of the layers either side of the interface with respect to the gas of interest). Traditionally the transfer velocity has been estimated from empirical relationships with wind speed, and then scaled by the Schmidt number of the gas being transferred. Complex, physically based models of transfer velocity (based on more physical forcings than wind speed alone), such as the NOAA COARE algorithm, have more recently been applied to well-studied gases such as carbon dioxide and DMS (although many studies still use the simpler approach for these gases), but there is a lack of validation of such schemes for other, more poorly studied gases. The aim of this paper is to provide a flexible numerical scheme which will allow the estimation of transfer velocity for any gas as a function of wind speed, temperature and salinity, given data on the solubility and liquid molar volume of the particular gas. New and existing parameterizations (including a novel empirical parameterization of the salinity-dependence of Henry's law solubility) are brought together into a scheme implemented as a modular, extensible program in the R computing environment which is available in the supplementary online material accompanying this paper; along with input files containing solubility and structural data for ~90 gases of general interest, enabling the calculation of their total transfer velocities and component parameters. Comparison of the scheme presented here with alternative schemes and methods for calculating air-sea flux parameters shows good agreement in general. It is intended that the various components of this numerical scheme should be applied only in the absence of experimental data providing robust values for parameters for a particular gas of interest.

  10. Detonation failure characterization of non-ideal explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janesheski, Robert S.; Groven, Lori J.; Son, Steven

    2012-03-01

    Non-ideal explosives are currently poorly characterized, hence limiting the modeling of them. Current characterization requires large-scale testing to obtain steady detonation wave characterization for analysis due to the relatively thick reaction zones. Use of a microwave interferometer applied to small-scale confined transient experiments is being implemented to allow for time resolved characterization of a failing detonation. The microwave interferometer measures the position of a failing detonation wave in a tube that is initiated with a booster charge. Experiments have been performed with ammonium nitrate and various fuel compositions (diesel fuel and mineral oil). It was observed that the failure dynamics are influenced by factors such as chemical composition and confiner thickness. Future work is planned to calibrate models to these small-scale experiments and eventually validate the models with available large scale experiments. This experiment is shown to be repeatable, shows dependence on reactive properties, and can be performed with little required material.

  11. Asymptotic study of pulsating evolution of overdriven and CJ detonation with a chain-branching kinetics model

    SciTech Connect

    Short, Mark; Chliquete, Carlos

    2011-01-20

    The pulsating dynamics of gaseous detonations with a model two-step chain-branching kinetic mechanism are studied both numerically and asymptotically. The model studied here was also used in [4], [3] and [2] and mimics the attributes of some chain-branching reaction mechanisms. Specifically, the model comprises a chain-initiationlbranching zone with an Arrhenius temperature-sensitive rate behind the detonation shock where fuel is converted into chain-radical with no heat release. This is followed by a chain-termination zone having a temperature insensitive rate where the exothermic heat of reaction is released. The lengths of these two zones depend on the relative rates of each stage.more » It was determined in [4] and [3] via asymptotic and numerical analysis that the ratio of the length of the chain-branching zone to that of the chain-initation zone relative to the size of the von Neumann state scaled activation energy in the chain initiation/branching zone has a primary influence of the stability of one-dimensional pulsating instability behavior for this model. In [2], the notion of a specific stability parameter related to this ratio was proposed that determines the boundary between stable and unstable waves. In [4], a slow-time varying asymptotic study was conducted of pulsating instability of Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonations with the above two-step rate model, assuming a large activation energy for the chain-initiation zone and a chain-termination zone longer than the chain-initiation zone. Deviations D{sub n}{sup (1)} ({tau}) of the detonation velocity from Chapman-Jouguet were of the order of the non-dimensional activation energy. Solutions were sought for a pulsation timescale of the order of the non-dimensional activation energy times the particle transit time through the induction zone. On this time-scale, the evolution of the chain-initation zone is quasi-steady. In [4], a time-dependent non-linear evolution equation for D{sub n}{sup (1)} ({tau}) was

  12. TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE: CAN CORIOLIS FORCE BREAK THE SYMMETRY OF THE GRAVITATIONAL CONFINED DETONATION EXPLOSION MECHANISM?

    SciTech Connect

    García-Senz, D.; Cabezón, R. M.; Thielemann, F. K.

    Currently the number of models aimed at explaining the phenomena of type Ia supernovae is high and distinguishing between them is a must. In this work we explore the influence of rotation on the evolution of the nuclear flame that drives the explosion in the so-called gravitational confined detonation models. Assuming that the flame starts in a pointlike region slightly above the center of the white dwarf (WD) and adding a moderate amount of angular velocity to the star we follow the evolution of the deflagration using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. We find that the results are very dependentmore » on the angle between the rotational axis and the line connecting the initial bubble of burned material with the center of the WD at the moment of ignition. The impact of rotation is larger for angles close to 90° because the Coriolis force on a floating element of fluid is maximum and its principal effect is to break the symmetry of the deflagration. Such symmetry breaking weakens the convergence of the nuclear flame at the antipodes of the initial ignition volume, changing the environmental conditions around the convergence region with respect to non-rotating models. These changes seem to disfavor the emergence of a detonation in the compressed volume at the antipodes and may compromise the viability of the so-called gravitational confined detonation mechanism.« less

  13. Approximate Equation of State for Overdriven and Reflected Detonation Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi-Yue; Itoh, Shigeru

    2001-06-01

    Approximate Equation of State for Overdriven and Reflected Detonation Products Zhi-Yue Liu and Shigeru Itoh Shock Wave and Condensed Matter Research Center, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto, 860-8555, Japan ABSTRACT There are several types of equations of state (EOS) to describe the isentropic expansion behavior of the detonation products after the explosive is exploded. Of which, Jones-Wilkins-Lee (or JWL) equation and polytropic gas (or gamma-law) equation are most popularly employed owing to either the completely experimental calibration or simple form in expression. However, both equations fail to correctly describe the behavior of detonation products above the Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) state. For this reason, a new form of equation of state is proposed for overcoming this deficiency. The new equation of state is simply a linear combination of JWL and gamma-law equations. The coefficient appeared in the EOS can be obtained by fitting to the data from the overdriven detonation experiments. Results show that this form of EOS not only gives the satisfactory description to the variation of the detonation products in overdriven or reflected state also can simply be incorporated into the hydrodynamic computer codes.

  14. Detonation-flame arrester devices for gasoline cargo vapor recovery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorklund, R. A.; Ryason, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    Empirical data on the deflagration-to-detonation run-up distance for flowing mixtures of gasoline and air in 15.2-cm- (6.0-in.-) diameter piping simulating a vapor recovery system are presented. The quenching capability of eight selected flame control devices subjected to repeated stable detonations was evaluated. The successful detonation-flame arresters were: (1) spiral-wound, crimped aluminum ribbon, (2) foamed nickel-chrome metal, (3) vertically packed bed of aluminum Ballast rings, and (4) water-trap or hydraulic back-pressure valve. Installation configurations for two of the more applicable arresters, the spiral-wound, crimped stainless-steel ribbon and the vertically packed bed of aluminum Ballast rings, were further optimized by a series of parametric tests. The final configuration of these two arresters was demonstrated with repeated detonation tests at conditions that simulated vapor recovery system operation. On these tests, the combustible mixture of gasoline and air continued to flow through the piping for periods up to 120 seconds after the initial detonation had been arrested. There was no indication of continuous burning or reignition occurring on either side of the test arresters.

  15. Ferrite core coupled slapper detonator apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Boberg, Ralph E.; Lee, Ronald S.; Weingart, Richard C.

    1989-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for coupling a temporally short electric power pulse from a thick flat-conductor power cable into a thin flat-conductor slapper detonator circuit. A first planar and generally circular loop is formed from an end portion of the power cable. A second planar and generally circular loop, of similar diameter, is formed from all or part of the slapper detonator circuit. The two loops are placed together, within a ferrite housing that provides a ferrite path that magnetically couples the two loops. Slapper detonator parts may be incorporated within the ferrite housing. The ferrite housing may be made vacuum and water-tight, with the addition of a hermetic ceramic seal, and provided with an enclosure for protecting the power cable and parts related thereto.

  16. Ferrite core coupled slapper detonator apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Boberg, R.E.; Lee, R.S.; Weingart, R.C.

    1989-08-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for coupling a temporally short electric power pulse from a thick flat-conductor power cable into a thin flat-conductor slapper detonator circuit. A first planar and generally circular loop is formed from an end portion of the power cable. A second planar and generally circular loop, of similar diameter, is formed from all or part of the slapper detonator circuit. The two loops are placed together, within a ferrite housing that provides a ferrite path that magnetically couples the two loops. Slapper detonator parts may be incorporated within the ferrite housing. The ferrite housing may be made vacuum and water-tight, with the addition of a hermetic ceramic seal, and provided with an enclosure for protecting the power cable and parts related thereto. 10 figs.

  17. Thermal stability of detonation-produced micro and nanodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, V. P.; Zakatilova, E. I.; Maklashova, I. V.; Shevchenko, N. V.

    2018-01-01

    Detonation nanodiamonds are produced at utilization of high explosives. When an explosive blasts in a water environment, the detonation products contain microdiamonds, and in a gaseous medium, nanodiamonds. It is known that with decreasing size the influence of the surface energy of particles on their properties increases. Thus, it is interesting to compare the properties of detonation nano and microdiamonds. In this study, we have examined the thermal stability of diamond materials by synchronous thermal analysis. The experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure in argon flow for different heating rates in a range from room temperature to 1500 °C. Samples of initial and annealed micro and nanomaterials were studied using electron microscopy, x-ray and x-ray-fluorescence analysis. It was established that thermal and structural properties of micro and nanodiamonds differ substantially.

  18. Modeling normal shock velocity curvature relations for heterogeneous explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Sunhee; Crochet, Michael; Pemberton, Steven

    2017-01-01

    The theory of Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) is, in part, an asymptotic method to model a functional form of the relation between the shock normal, its time rate and shock curvature κ. In addition, the shock polar analysis provides a relation between shock angle θ and the detonation velocity Dn that is dependent on the equations of state (EOS) of two adjacent materials. For the axial detonation of an explosive material confined by a cylinder, the shock angle is defined as the angle between the shock normal and the normal to the cylinder liner, located at the intersection of the shock front and cylinder inner wall. Therefore, given an ideal explosive such as PBX-9501 with two functional models determined, a unique, smooth detonation front shape ψ can be determined that approximates the steady state detonation shock front of the explosive. However, experimental measurements of the Dn(κ) relation for heterogeneous explosives such as PBXN-111 [D. K. Kennedy, 2000] are challenging due to the non-smoothness and asymmetry usually observed in the experimental streak records of explosion fronts. Out of many possibilities the asymmetric character may be attributed to the heterogeneity of the explosives; here, material heterogeneity refers to compositions with multiple components and having a grain morphology that can be modeled statistically. Therefore in extending the formulation of DSD to modern novel explosives, we pose two questions: (1) is there any simple hydrodynamic model that can simulate such an asymmetric shock evolution, and (2) what statistics can be derived for the asymmetry using simulations with defined structural heterogeneity in the unreacted explosive? Saenz, Taylor and Stewart [1] studied constitutive models for derivation of the Dn(κ) relation for porous homogeneous explosives and carried out simulations in a spherical coordinate frame. In this paper we extend their model to account for heterogeneity and present shock evolutions in heterogeneous

  19. Use of noise attenuation modeling in managing missile motor detonation activities.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Michael J; Watkins, Jeffrey W; Kordich, Micheal M; Pollet, Dean A; Palmer, Glenn R

    2004-03-01

    The Sound Intensity Prediction System (SIPS) and Blast Operation Overpressure Model (BOOM) are semiempirical sound models that are employed by the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) to predict whether noise levels from the detonation of large missile motors will exceed regulatory thresholds. Field validation of SIPS confirmed that the model was effective in limiting the number of detonations of large missile motors that could potentially result in a regulatory noise exceedance. Although the SIPS accurately predicted the impact of weather on detonation noise propagation, regulators have required that the more conservative BOOM model be employed in conjunction with SIPS in evaluating peak noise levels in populated areas. By simultaneously considering the output of both models, in 2001, UTTR detonated 104 missile motors having net explosive weights (NEW) that ranged between 14,960 and 38,938 lb without a recorded public noise complaint. Based on the encouraging results, the U.S. Department of Defense is considering expanding the application of these noise models to support the detonation of missile motors having a NEW of 81,000 lb. Recent modeling results suggest that, under appropriate weather conditions, missile motors containing up to 96,000 lb NEW can be detonated at the UTTR without exceeding the regulatory noise limit of 134 decibels (dB).

  20. Impurity-doped optical shock, detonation and damage location sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, J.D.

    1995-02-07

    A shock, detonation, and damage location sensor providing continuous fiber-optic means of measuring shock speed and damage location, and could be designed through proper cabling to have virtually any desired crush pressure. The sensor has one or a plurality of parallel multimode optical fibers, or a singlemode fiber core, surrounded by an elongated cladding, doped along their entire length with impurities to fluoresce in response to light at a different wavelength entering one end of the fiber(s). The length of a fiber would be continuously shorted as it is progressively destroyed by a shock wave traveling parallel to its axis. The resulting backscattered and shifted light would eventually enter a detector and be converted into a proportional electrical signals which would be evaluated to determine shock velocity and damage location. The corresponding reduction in output, because of the shortening of the optical fibers, is used as it is received to determine the velocity and position of the shock front as a function of time. As a damage location sensor the sensor fiber cracks along with the structure to which it is mounted. The size of the resulting drop in detector output is indicative of the location of the crack. 8 figs.

  1. Impurity-doped optical shock, detonation and damage location sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1995-01-01

    A shock, detonation, and damage location sensor providing continuous fiber-optic means of measuring shock speed and damage location, and could be designed through proper cabling to have virtually any desired crush pressure. The sensor has one or a plurality of parallel multimode optical fibers, or a singlemode fiber core, surrounded by an elongated cladding, doped along their entire length with impurities to fluoresce in response to light at a different wavelength entering one end of the fiber(s). The length of a fiber would be continuously shorted as it is progressively destroyed by a shock wave traveling parallel to its axis. The resulting backscattered and shifted light would eventually enter a detector and be converted into a proportional electrical signals which would be evaluated to determine shock velocity and damage location. The corresponding reduction in output, because of the shortening of the optical fibers, is used as it is received to determine the velocity and position of the shock front as a function of time. As a damage location sensor the sensor fiber cracks along with the structure to which it is mounted. The size of the resulting drop in detector output is indicative of the location of the crack.

  2. Build Up and Operation of an Axial Turbine Driven by a Rotary Detonation Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    RDEs) offer advantages over pulsed detonation engines ( PDEs ) due to a steadier exhaust and fewer total system losses. All previous research on...turbine integration with detonation combustors has focused on utilizing PDEs to drive axial and centrifugal turbines. The objective of this thesis was... detonation engine ............................................. 5 Figure 4. Schematic of the rotating detonation wave structure for an unwrapped view of an

  3. Detonation onset following shock wave focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, N. N.; Penyazkov, O. G.; Sevrouk, K. L.; Nikitin, V. F.; Stamov, L. I.; Tyurenkova, V. V.

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present paper is to study detonation initiation due to focusing of a shock wave reflected inside a cone. Both numerical and experimental investigations were conducted. Comparison of results made it possible to validate the developed 3-d transient mathematical model of chemically reacting gas mixture flows incorporating hydrogen - air mixtures. The results of theoretical and numerical experiments made it possible improving kinetic schemes and turbulence models. Several different flow scenarios were detected in reflection of shock waves all being dependent on incident shock wave intensity: reflecting of shock wave with lagging behind combustion zone, formation of detonation wave in reflection and focusing, and intermediate transient regimes.

  4. Explosive detonation causes an increase in soil porosity leading to increased TNT transformation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Holly A; Nic Daeid, Niamh; Dawson, Lorna A; DeTata, David A; Lewis, Simon W

    2017-01-01

    Explosives are a common soil contaminant at a range of sites, including explosives manufacturing plants and areas associated with landmine detonations. As many explosives are toxic and may cause adverse environmental effects, a large body of research has targeted the remediation of explosives residues in soil. Studies in this area have largely involved spiking 'pristine' soils using explosives solutions. Here we investigate the fate of explosives present in soils following an actual detonation process and compare this to the fate of explosives spiked into 'pristine' undetonated soils. We also assess the effects of the detonations on the physical properties of the soils. Our scanning electron microscopy analyses reveal that detonations result in newly-fractured planes within the soil aggregates, and novel micro Computed Tomography analyses of the soils reveal, for the first time, the effect of the detonations on the internal architecture of the soils. We demonstrate that detonations cause an increase in soil porosity, and this correlates to an increased rate of TNT transformation and loss within the detonated soils, compared to spiked pristine soils. We propose that this increased TNT transformation is due to an increased bioavailability of the TNT within the now more porous post-detonation soils, making the TNT more easily accessible by soil-borne bacteria for potential biodegradation. This new discovery potentially exposes novel remediation methods for explosive contaminated soils where actual detonation of the soil significantly promotes subsequent TNT degradation. This work also suggests previously unexplored ramifications associated with high energy soil disruption.

  5. Explosive detonation causes an increase in soil porosity leading to increased TNT transformation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Holly A.; Nic Daeid, Niamh; Dawson, Lorna A.; DeTata, David A.; Lewis, Simon W.

    2017-01-01

    Explosives are a common soil contaminant at a range of sites, including explosives manufacturing plants and areas associated with landmine detonations. As many explosives are toxic and may cause adverse environmental effects, a large body of research has targeted the remediation of explosives residues in soil. Studies in this area have largely involved spiking ‘pristine’ soils using explosives solutions. Here we investigate the fate of explosives present in soils following an actual detonation process and compare this to the fate of explosives spiked into ‘pristine’ undetonated soils. We also assess the effects of the detonations on the physical properties of the soils. Our scanning electron microscopy analyses reveal that detonations result in newly-fractured planes within the soil aggregates, and novel micro Computed Tomography analyses of the soils reveal, for the first time, the effect of the detonations on the internal architecture of the soils. We demonstrate that detonations cause an increase in soil porosity, and this correlates to an increased rate of TNT transformation and loss within the detonated soils, compared to spiked pristine soils. We propose that this increased TNT transformation is due to an increased bioavailability of the TNT within the now more porous post-detonation soils, making the TNT more easily accessible by soil-borne bacteria for potential biodegradation. This new discovery potentially exposes novel remediation methods for explosive contaminated soils where actual detonation of the soil significantly promotes subsequent TNT degradation. This work also suggests previously unexplored ramifications associated with high energy soil disruption. PMID:29281650

  6. Delayed detonation models for normal and subluminous type Ia sueprnovae: Absolute brightness, light curves, and molecule formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoflich, P.; Khokhlov, A. M.; Wheeler, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    We compute optical and infrared light curves of the pulsating class of delayed detonation models for Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia's) using an elaborate treatment of the Local Thermodynamic Equilbrium (LTE) radiation transport, equation of state and ionization balance, expansion opacity including the cooling by CO, Co(+), and SiO, and a Monte Carlo gamma-ray deposition scheme. The models have an amount of Ni-56 in the range from approximately or equal to 0.1 solar mass up to 0.7 solar mass depending on the density at which the transition from a deflagration to a detonation occurs. Models with a large nickel production give light curves comparable to those of typical Type Ia supernovae. Subluminous supernovae can be explained by models with a low nickel production. Multiband light curves are presented in comparison with the normally bright event SN 1992bc and the subluminous events Sn 1991bg and SN 1992bo to establish the principle that the delayed detonation paradigm in Chandrasekhar mass models may give a common explosion mechanism accounting for both normal and subluminous SN Ia's. Secondary IR-maxima are formed in the models of normal SN Ia's as a photospheric effect if the photospheric radius continues to increase well after maximum light. Secondary maxima appear later and stronger in models with moderate expansion velocities and with radioactive material closer to the surface. Model light curves for subluminous SN Ia's tend to show only one 'late' IR-maximum. In some delayed detonation models shell-like envelopes form, which consist of unburned carbon and oxygen. The formation of molecules in these envelopes is addressed. If the model retains a C/O-envelope and is subluminous, strong vibration bands of CO may appear, typically several weeks past maximum light. CO should be very weak or absent in normal Sn Ia's.

  7. Numerical Optimisation in Non Reacting Conditions of the Injector Geometry for a Continuous Detonation Wave Rocket Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, T.; Davidenko, D.; Dupoirieux, F.

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents the methodology and the results of a numerical study, which is aimed at the investigation and optimisation of different means of fuel and oxidizer injection adapted to rocket engines operating in the rotating detonation mode. As the simulations are achieved at the local scale of a single injection element, only one periodic pattern of the whole geometry can be calculated so that the travelling detonation waves and the associated chemical reactions can not be taken into account. Here, separate injection of fuel and oxidizer is considered because premixed injection is handicapped by the risk of upstream propagation of the detonation wave. Different associations of geometrical periodicity and symmetry are investigated for the injection elements distributed over the injector head. To analyse the injection and mixing processes, a nonreacting 3D flow is simulated using the LES approach. Performance of the studied configurations is analysed using the results on instantaneous and mean flowfields as well as by comparing the mixing efficiency and the total pressure recovery evaluated for different configurations.

  8. Shock Interaction of Metal Particles in Condensed Explosive Detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripley, Robert; Zhang, Fan; Lien, Fue-Sang

    2005-07-01

    For detonation propagation in a condensed explosive with metal particles, a macro-scale physical model describing the momentum transfer between the explosive and particles has yet to be completely established. Previous 1D and 2D meso-scale modeling studies indicated that significant momentum transfer from the explosive to the particles occurs as the leading shock front crosses the particles, thus influencing the initiation and detonation structure. In this work, 3D meso-scale modeling is conducted to further study the two-phase momentum transfer during the shock diffraction and subsequent detonation in liquid nitromethane containing packed metal particles. Detonation of the condensed explosive is computed using an Arrhenius reaction model and a hybrid EOS model that combines the Mie-Gruneisen equation for reactants and the JWL equation for products. The compressible particles are modeled using the Tait EOS, where the material strength is negligible. The effect of particle packing configuration and inter-particle spacing is shown by parametric studies. Finally, a physical description of the momentum transfer is discussed.

  9. Comparative Analysis of a High Bypass Turbofan Using a Pulsed Detonation Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 xiii List of Abbreviations Abbreviation Page PDE Pulsed Detonation Engine...past ten years to develop pulsed det- onation engines ( PDE ) as a means of aircraft propulsion. Detonation combustion holds the promise of a more...aviation engine, and detonation creates more of it than previous aircraft engines. It is hoped that a marriage of the PDE with traditional

  10. Computer modeling of electrical performance of detonators

    SciTech Connect

    Furnberg, C.M.; Peevy, G.R.; Brigham, W.P.

    1995-05-01

    An empirical model of detonator electrical performance which describes the resistance of the exploding bridgewire (EBW) or exploding foil initiator (EFI or slapper) as a function of energy, deposition will be described. This model features many parameters that can be adjusted to obtain a close fit to experimental data. This has been demonstrated using recent experimental data taken with the cable discharge system located at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper will be a continuation of the paper entitled ``Cable Discharge System for Fundamental Detonator Studies`` presented at the 2nd NASA/DOD/DOE Pyrotechnic Workshop.

  11. Pressure and Thrust Measurements of a High-Frequency Pulsed-Detonation Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Namtran C.; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a small-scale, high-frequency pulsed detonation actuator. The device utilized a fuel mixture of H2 and air, which was injected into the device at frequencies of up to 1200 Hz. Pulsed detonations were demonstrated in an 8-inch long combustion volume, at approx.600 Hz, for the lambda/4 mode. The primary objective of this experiment was to measure the generated thrust. A mean value of thrust was measured up to 6.0 lb, corresponding to specific impulse of 2611 s. This value is comparable to other H2-fueled pulsed detonation engines (PDEs) experiments. The injection and detonation frequency for this new experimental case was approx.600 Hz, and was much higher than typical PDEs, where frequencies are usually less than 100 Hz. The compact size of the model and high frequency of detonation yields a thrust-per-unit-volume of approximately 2.0 lb/cu in, and compares favorably with other experiments, which typically have thrust-per-unit-volume values of approximately 0.01 lb/cu in.

  12. Diagnostic Imaging of Detonation Waves for Waveshaper Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    it is difficult to determine the depth of the detonation wave (due to the translucency of the sensitised nitromethane) and when it reaches the bottom...Charges For Use against Concrete Targerts, DSTO Client Report, DSTO-CR-2005-0164, 2005. [2] M. J. Murphy, R. M. Kuklo, T. A. Rambur, L. L. Switzer & M...Resnyansky, S. A. Weckert & T. Delaney, Shaping of Detonation Waves in Shaped Charges for Use against Concrete Targets: Part II, in preparation

  13. Neutrinos from type Ia supernovae: The deflagration-to-detonation transition scenario

    DOE PAGES

    Wright, Warren P.; Nagaraj, Gautam; Kneller, James P.; ...

    2016-07-19

    It has long been recognized that the neutrinos detected from the next core-collapse supernova in the Galaxy have the potential to reveal important information about the dynamics of the explosion and the nucleosynthesis conditions as well as allowing us to probe the properties of the neutrino itself. The neutrinos emitted from thermonuclear—type Ia—supernovae also possess the same potential, although these supernovae are dimmer neutrino sources. For the first time, we calculate the time, energy, line of sight, and neutrino-flavor-dependent features of the neutrino signal expected from a three-dimensional delayed-detonation explosion simulation, where a deflagration-to-detonation transition triggers the complete disruption ofmore » a near-Chandrasekhar mass carbon-oxygen white dwarf. We also calculate the neutrino flavor evolution along eight lines of sight through the simulation as a function of time and energy using an exact three-flavor transformation code. We identify a characteristic spectral peak at ˜10 MeV as a signature of electron captures on copper. This peak is a potentially distinguishing feature of explosion models since it reflects the nucleosynthesis conditions early in the explosion. We simulate the event rates in the Super-K, Hyper-K, JUNO, and DUNE neutrino detectors with the SNOwGLoBES event rate calculation software and also compute the IceCube signal. Hyper-K will be able to detect neutrinos from our model out to a distance of ˜10 kpc. Here, at 1 kpc, JUNO, Super-K, and DUNE would register a few events while IceCube and Hyper-K would register several tens of events.« less

  14. Characterization of Detonator Performance as a Function of Porosity via the Hayes Effect via Rogowski Coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamoto, Teagan; Parrack, Kristina; Smith, Dalton; Trujillo, Chris; Wilde, Zak; Gibson, John; Lodes, Rylie; Malcolm, Hayden

    2017-06-01

    Researchers experimented with a novel diagnostic to study the effects of porosity on detonator performance. The new diagnostic takes advantage of the detonation electric effect observed by Hayes (1966). Detonation-produced electrical charges induce a current in the detonator wire that may be detected by use of a Rogowski coil developed and tailored for the purpose. Data collected by the Rogowski coil were then used to characterize detonations. Researchers tested PETN charges of various porosity levels (as characterized by measured particle size and surface area) to study the effect of porosity on detonation characteristics. This novel method was compared with and verified by the well-established technique of using PVDF gauges for detonator response characterization.

  15. Nuclear reactions in type IA supernovae: Effects of progenitor composition and detonation asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamulak, David A.

    Type Ia supernovae go through three distinct phases before their progenitor star is obliterated in a thermonuclear explosion. First is "simmering," during which the 12 C + 12 C reaction gradually heats the white dwarf on a long (~10^3 yr) timescale. Next is a period of subsonic burning. Finally, a detonation is thought to occur that finishes unbinding the star. This thesis investigates the nuclear reactions that take place in these three phases and considers what that may be able to tell us about the progenitor systems and the mechanics behind the detonation. First, we investigate the nuclear reactions during this simmering with a series of self-heating, at constant pressure, reaction network calculations. As an aid to hydrodynamical simulations of the simmering phase, we present fits to the rates of heating, electron capture, change in mean atomic mass, and consumption of 12 C in terms of the screened thermally averaged cross section for 12 C + 12 C. Our evaluation of the net heating rate includes contributions from electron captures into the 3.68 MeV excited state of 13 C. We compare our one-zone results to more accurate integrations over the white dwarf structure to estimate the amount of 12 C that must be consumed to raise the white dwarf temperature, and hence to determine the net reduction of Y e during simmering. Second, we consider the effects of 22 Ne on flame speed. Carbon-oxygen white dwarfs contain 22 Ne formed from a-captures onto 14 N during core He burning in the progenitor star. In a white dwarf (Type Ta) supernova, the 22 Ne abundance determines, in part, the neutron-to-proton ratio and hence the abundance of radioactive 56 Ni that powers the lightcurve. The 22 Ne abundance also changes the burning rate and hence the laminar flame speed. We tabulate the flame speedup for different initial 12 C and 22 Ne abundances and for a range of densities. This increase in the laminar flame speed--about 30% for a 22 Ne mass fraction of 6%--affects the

  16. Characterization of Detonation Soot Produced During Steady and Overdriven Conditions for Three High Explosive Formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podlesak, David; Amato, Ronald; Dattelbaum, Dana; Firestone, Millicent; Gustavsen, Richard; Huber, Rachel; Ringstrand, Bryan

    2015-06-01

    The detonation of high explosives (HE) produces a dense fluid of molecular gases and solid carbon. The solid detonation carbon contains various carbon allotropes such as detonation nanodiamonds, ``onion-like'' carbon, graphite and amorphous carbon, with the formation of the different forms dependent upon pressure, temperature and the environmental conditions of the detonation. We have collected solid carbon residues from controlled detonations of three HE formulations (Composition B-3, PBX 9501, and PBX 9502). Soot was collected from experiments designed to produce both steady and overdriven conditions, and from detonations in both an ambient (air) atmosphere and in an inert Ar atmosphere. Structural studies to glean the features of the solid carbon products have been performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and X-Ray Pair Distribution Function measurements (PDF). Bulk soot was also analyzed for elemental and isotopic compositions. We will discuss differences in the structure and composition of the detonation carbon as a function of formulation, detonation conditions, and the surrounding atmosphere.

  17. Modeling Initiation in Exploding Bridgewire Detonators

    SciTech Connect

    Hrousis, C A

    2005-05-18

    One- and two-dimensional models of initiation in detonators are being developed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of aged and modified detonator designs. The models focus on accurate description of the initiator, whether it be an EBW (exploding bridgewire) that directly initiates a high explosive powder or an EBF (exploding bridgefoil) that sends an inert flyer into a dense HE pellet. The explosion of the initiator is simulated using detailed MHD equations of state as opposed to specific action-based phenomenological descriptions. The HE is modeled using the best available JWL equations of state. Results to date have been promising,more » however, work is still in progress.« less

  18. A gasdynamic gun driven by gaseous detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinping; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Shizhong; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Yu, Hongru

    2016-01-01

    A gasdynamic gun driven by gaseous detonation was developed to address the disadvantages of the insufficient driving capability of high-pressure gas and the constraints of gunpowder. The performance of this gasdynamic gun was investigated through experiments and numerical simulations. Much more powerful launching capability was achieved by this gun relative to a conventional high-pressure gas gun, owing to the use of the chemical energy of the driver gas. To achieve the same launching condition, the initial pressure required for this gun was an order of magnitude lower than that for a gun driven by high-pressure H2. Because of the presence of the detonation, however, a more complex internal ballistic process of this gun was observed. Acceleration of projectiles for this gun was accompanied by a series of impulse loads, in contrast with the smooth acceleration for a conventional one, which indicates that this gun should be used conditionally. The practical feasibility of this gun was verified by experiments. The experiments demonstrated the convenience of taking advantage of the techniques developed for detonation-driven shock tubes and tunnels.

  19. Multistage reaction pathways in detonating high explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Kalia, Rajiv; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; CACS Collaboration; ALCF Team

    2015-06-01

    Atomistic mechanisms underlying the reaction time and intermediate reaction products of detonating high explosives far from equilibrium have been elusive. This is because detonation is one of the hardest multiscale physics problems, in which diverse length and time scales play important roles. Here, large spatiotemporal-scale reactive molecular dynamics simulations validated by quantum molecular dynamics simulations reveal a two-stage reaction mechanism during the detonation of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine crystal. Rapid production of N2 and H2O within 10 ps is followed by delayed production of CO molecules beyond ns. We found that further decomposition towards the final products is inhibited by the formation of large metastable carbon- and oxygen-rich clusters with fractal geometry. In addition, we found distinct uni-molecular and intermolecular reaction pathways, respectively, for the rapid N2 and H2O productions. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research Grant No. N000014-12-1-0555 and the Basic Research Program of Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Grant No. HDTRA1-08-1-0036. All the simulations were performed at USC and Argonne LCF.

  20. Analysis of supercritical vapor explosions using thermal detonation wave theory

    SciTech Connect

    Shamoun, B.I.; Corradini, M.L.

    The interaction of certain materials such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with water results in vapor explosions with very high (supercritical) pressures and propagation velocities. A quasi-steady state analysis of supercritical detonation in one-dimensional multiphase flow was applied to analyze experimental data of the KROTOS (26-30) set of experiments conducted at the Joint Research Center at Ispra, Italy. In this work we have applied a new method of solution which allows for partial fragmentation of the fuel in the shock adiabatic thermodynamic model. This method uses known experiment values of the shock pressure and propagation velocity to estimate the initial mixingmore » conditions of the experiment. The fuel and coolant were both considered compressible in this analysis. In KROTOS 26, 28, 29, and 30 the measured values of the shock pressure by the experiment were found to be higher than 25, 50, 100, and 100 Mpa respectively. Using the above data for the wave velocity and our best estimate for the values of the pressure, the predicted minimum values of the fragmented mass of the fuel were found to be 0.026. 0.04, 0.057, and 0.068 kg respectively. The predicted values of the work output corresponding to the above fragmented masses of the fuel were found to be 40, 84, 126, and 150 kJ respectively, with predicted initial void fractions of 112%, 12.5%, 8%, and 6% respectively.« less

  1. Dynamic transition in the structure of an energetic crystal during chemical reactions at shock front prior to detonation.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Ken-Ichi; Kalia, Rajiv K; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; van Duin, Adri C T; Goddard, William A

    2007-10-05

    Mechanical stimuli in energetic materials initiate chemical reactions at shock fronts prior to detonation. Shock sensitivity measurements provide widely varying results, and quantum-mechanical calculations are unable to handle systems large enough to describe shock structure. Recent developments in reactive force-field molecular dynamics (ReaxFF-MD) combined with advances in parallel computing have paved the way to accurately simulate reaction pathways along with the structure of shock fronts. Our multimillion-atom ReaxFF-MD simulations of l,3,5-trinitro-l,3,5-triazine (RDX) reveal that detonation is preceded by a transition from a diffuse shock front with well-ordered molecular dipoles behind it to a disordered dipole distribution behind a sharp front.

  2. The analysis of thermal stability of detonation nanodiamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, V. P.; Zakatilova, E. I.

    2016-11-01

    The detonation nanodiamond is a new perspective material. Ammunition recycling with use of high explosives and obtaining nanodiamond as the result of the detonation synthesis have given a new motivation for searching of their application areas. In this work nanodiamond powder has been investigated by the method of synchronous thermal analysis. Experiments have been carried out at atmospheric pressure in the environment of argon. Nanodiamond powder has been heated in the closed corundum crucible at the temperature range of 30-1500 °C. The heating rates were varied from 2 K/min to 20 K/min. After the heat treatment, the samples have been studied by the x-ray diffraction and the electron microscopy. As one of the results of this work, it has been found that the detonation nanodiamond has not started the transition into graphite at the temperature below 800 °C.

  3. Reflection Patterns Generated by Condensed-Phase Oblique Detonation Interaction with a Rigid Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Mark; Chiquete, Carlos; Bdzil, John; Meyer, Chad

    2017-11-01

    We examine numerically the wave reflection patterns generated by a detonation in a condensed phase explosive inclined obliquely but traveling parallel to a rigid wall as a function of incident angle. The problem is motivated by the characterization of detonation-material confiner interactions. We compare the reflection patterns for two detonation models, one where the reaction zone is spatially distributed, and the other where the reaction is instantaneous (a Chapman-Jouguet detonation). For the Chapman-Jouguet model, we compare the results of the computations with an asymptotic study recently conducted by Bdzil and Short for small detonation incident angles. We show that the ability of a spatially distributed reaction energy release to turn flow streamlines has a significant impact on the nature of the observed reflection patterns. The computational approach uses a shock-fit methodology.

  4. 30 CFR 75.1312 - Explosives and detonators in underground magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... magazines. 75.1312 Section 75.1312 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Blasting § 75.1312 Explosives and detonators in underground magazines. (a) The quantity of explosives kept..., explosives and detonators taken underground shall be kept in— (1) Separate, closed magazines at least 5 feet...

  5. Numerical Modeling of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine Gasdynamics and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. I.

    2003-01-01

    Pulse detonation engines (PDB) have generated considerable research interest in recent years as a chemical propulsion system potentially offering improved performance and reduced complexity compared to conventional gas turbines and rocket engines. The detonative mode of combustion employed by these devices offers a theoretical thermodynamic advantage over the constant-pressure deflagrative combustion mode used in conventional engines. However, the unsteady blowdown process intrinsic to all pulse detonation devices has made realistic estimates of the actual propulsive performance of PDES problematic. The recent review article by Kailasanath highlights some of the progress that has been made in comparing the available experimental measurements with analytical and numerical models.

  6. NOx Emissions from a Rotating Detonation-wave Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Schwer, Douglas

    2016-11-01

    Rotating detonation-wave engines (RDE) are a form of continuous detonation-wave engines. They potentially provide further gains in performance than an intermittent or pulsed detonation-wave engine (PDE). The overall flow field in an idealized RDE, primarily consisting of two concentric cylinders, has been discussed in previous meetings. Because of the high pressures involved and the lack of adequate reaction mechanisms for this regime, previous simulations have typically used simplified chemistry models. However, understanding the exhaust species concentrations in propulsion devices is important for both performance considerations as well as estimating pollutant emissions. Progress towards addressing this need will be discussed in this talk. In this approach, an induction parameter model is used for simulating the detonation but a more detailed finite-chemistry model including NOx chemistry is used in the expansion flow region, where the pressures are lower and the uncertainties in the chemistry model are greatly reduced. Results show that overall radical concentrations in the exhaust flow are substantially lower than from earlier predictions with simplified models. Results to date show that NOx emissions are not a problem for the RDE due to the short residence times and the nature of the flow field. Furthermore, simulations show that the amount of NOx can be further reduced by tailoring the fluid dynamics within the RDE.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Flow in Fluidic Valves in Rotating Detonation Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Nandini

    Rotating detonation engines (RDE) have received considerable research attention in recent times for use in propulsion systems. The cycle frequency of operation of an RDE can be as high as 10,000 Hz. Conventional mechanical valves cannot operate at such high frequencies, leading to the need for propellant injectors or valves with no moving parts. A fluidic valve is such a valve and is the focus of this study. The valve consists of an orifice connected to a constant area plenum cavity which operates at constant pressure. The fluidic valve supplies propellants to the detonation tube through the orifice. Hydrogen - oxygen detonation is studied in a tube with fluidic valves. A detailed 19-step chemical reaction mechanism has been used to model detonation and the flow simulated in ANSYS Fluent. This research aims to determine the location of contact surface in the cavity and the time taken for the contact surface to leave the valve after a shock wave has passed through it. This will help us understand if the steady-state flow in the cavity is comprised of detonation products or fresh propellants.

  8. Detonation corner turning in vapor-deposited explosives using the micromushroom test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappan, Alexander S.; Yarrington, Cole D.; Knepper, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Detonation corner turning describes the ability of a detonation wave to propagate into unreacted explosive that is not immediately in the path normal to the wave. The classic example of corner turning is cylindrical and involves a small diameter explosive propagating into a larger diameter explosive as described by Los Alamos' Mushroom test (e.g. (Hill, Seitz et al. 1998)), where corner turning is inferred from optical breakout of the detonation wave. We present a complimentary method to study corner turning in millimeter-scale explosives through the use of vapor deposition to prepare the slab (quasi-2D) analog of the axisymmetric mushroom test. Because the samples are in a slab configuration, optical access to the explosive is excellent and direct imaging of the detonation wave and ``dead zone'' that results during corner turning is possible. Results are compared for explosives that demonstrate a range of behaviors, from pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), which has corner turning properties that are nearly ideal; to HNAB (hexanitroazobenzene), which has corner turning properties that reveal a substantial dead zone. Results are discussed in the context of microstructure and detonation failure thickness.

  9. Three Dimensional Analysis of Induced Detonation of Cased Explosive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-16

    hardness and ductility . RHA steel is largely used in military applications to manufacture armoured vehicles. The Johnson Cook (JC) constitutive...armour (RHA) steel were investigated through the LS-DYNA. The investigation focused on shock to detonation simulations of Composition B, with the... hot spots caused by the compression of the explosive from the initial shockwave. Detonation was also caused by pressure waves reflecting against the

  10. Anatomy of a diffracting detonation in a circular arc of explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Bdzil, John Bohdan

    Using high-resolution numerical simulation, study diffraction of a detonation as it traverses a 270° finite-thickness condensed-phase explosive arc. This geometry admits a steady solution in a frame rotating with angular speed ω 0, which thereby facilitates a detailed analysis of how the loss of energy from the detonation reaction zone due to the diffraction process slows the propagation of the detonation. There exists a region of subsonic flow, between the detonation shock and the curve of sonic flow (labelled the DDZ), which is responsible for setting ω 0. Although the DDZ spans the entire thickness for thin arcs, it ismore » localized to a region near the inside surface as the arc is thickened. Furthermore the explosive energy release near this inside surface plays a disproportionate role in the diffraction process.« less

  11. Shock-to-detonation transition of nitromethane: Time-resolved emission spectroscopy measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bouyer, Viviane; Darbord, Isabelle; Herve, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work is to improve the knowledge of the shock-to-detonation transition of nitromethane. The study is based on a spectral analysis in the range 0.3-0.85 {mu}m, with a 28-nm resolution, during experiments of plane shock impacts on explosive targets at 8.6 GPa. The time-resolved radiant spectra show that the detonation front, the reaction products produced during the superdetonation, and the detonation products are semitransparent. The temperature and absorption coefficient profiles are determined from the measured spectra by a mathematical inversion method based on the equation of radiative transfer with Rayleigh scattering regime. Shocked nitromethane reaches at leastmore » 2500 K, showing the existence of local chemical reactions after shock entrance. Levels of temperature of superdetonation and steady-state detonation are also determined.« less

  12. Anatomy of a diffracting detonation in a circular arc of explosive

    DOE PAGES

    Bdzil, John Bohdan

    2018-02-08

    Using high-resolution numerical simulation, study diffraction of a detonation as it traverses a 270° finite-thickness condensed-phase explosive arc. This geometry admits a steady solution in a frame rotating with angular speed ω 0, which thereby facilitates a detailed analysis of how the loss of energy from the detonation reaction zone due to the diffraction process slows the propagation of the detonation. There exists a region of subsonic flow, between the detonation shock and the curve of sonic flow (labelled the DDZ), which is responsible for setting ω 0. Although the DDZ spans the entire thickness for thin arcs, it ismore » localized to a region near the inside surface as the arc is thickened. Furthermore the explosive energy release near this inside surface plays a disproportionate role in the diffraction process.« less

  13. Schlieren Imaging of a Single-Ejector, Multi-Tube Pulsed Detonation Engine (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    studies have shown the potential of an ejector to almost double the thrust of a pulsed detonation engine ( PDE ) tube [1-3]. Axial misalignment of the... Detonation Research Facility in the Air Force Research Laboratory were used for this study. The PDE utilizes automotive valving to feed up to four... detonation tubes. The damped thrust stand was setup to measure PDE thrust alone for baseline tests or total thrust from ejector and PDE . This

  14. Characterization of detonation soot produced during steady and overdriven conditions for three high explosive formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podlesak, David W.; Huber, Rachel C.; Amato, Ronald S.; Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Firestone, Millicent A.; Gustavsen, Richard L.; Johnson, Carl E.; Mang, Joseph T.; Ringstrand, Bryan S.

    2017-01-01

    The detonation of high explosives (HE) produces a dense fluid of molecular gases and solid carbon. The solid detonation carbon contains various carbon allotropes such as detonation nanodiamonds, onion-like carbon, graphite and amorphous carbon, with the formation of the different forms dependent upon pressure, temperature and the environmental conditions of the detonation. We have collected solid carbon residues from controlled detonations of three HE formulations (Composition B-3, PBX 9501, and PBX 9502). Soot was collected from experiments designed to produce both steady and overdriven conditions, and from detonations in both an ambient (air) atmosphere and in an inert Ar atmosphere. Differences in solid carbon residues were quantified using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and carbon isotope measurements. Environmental conditions, HE formulation, and peak pressures influenced the amount of and isotopic composition of the carbon in the soot. Detonations in an Ar atmosphere produced greater amounts of carbon soot with lower δ13C values than those in ambient air. Therefore, solid carbon residues continued to evolve after detonation due to excess oxygen in the ambient air detonations. As well, higher peak pressures in overdriven conditions produced less carbon soot with, in general, higher δ13C values. Consequently, while overdriven conditions only produced peak pressures for a limited duration, it was enough to influence the composition of the solid carbon residues.

  15. A Semi-analytic Criterion for the Spontaneous Initiation of Carbon Detonations in White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Uma; Chang, Philip

    2017-02-01

    Despite over 40 years of active research, the nature of the white dwarf progenitors of SNe Ia remains unclear. However, in the last decade, various progenitor scenarios have highlighted the need for detonations to be the primary mechanism by which these white dwarfs are consumed, but it is unclear how these detonations are triggered. In this paper we study how detonations are spontaneously initiated due to temperature inhomogeneities, e.g., hotspots, in burning nuclear fuel in a simplified physical scenario. Following the earlier work by Zel’Dovich, we describe the physics of detonation initiation in terms of the comparison between the spontaneous wave speed and the Chapman-Jouguet speed. We develop an analytic expression for the spontaneous wave speed and utilize it to determine a semi-analytic criterion for the minimum size of a hotspot with a linear temperature gradient between a peak and base temperature for which detonations in burning carbon-oxygen material can occur. Our results suggest that spontaneous detonations may easily form under a diverse range of conditions, likely allowing a number of progenitor scenarios to initiate detonations that burn up the star.

  16. A Semi-analytic Criterion for the Spontaneous Initiation of Carbon Detonations in White Dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, Uma; Chang, Philip, E-mail: umagarg@uwm.edu, E-mail: chang65@uwm.edu

    Despite over 40 years of active research, the nature of the white dwarf progenitors of SNe Ia remains unclear. However, in the last decade, various progenitor scenarios have highlighted the need for detonations to be the primary mechanism by which these white dwarfs are consumed, but it is unclear how these detonations are triggered. In this paper we study how detonations are spontaneously initiated due to temperature inhomogeneities, e.g., hotspots, in burning nuclear fuel in a simplified physical scenario. Following the earlier work by Zel’Dovich, we describe the physics of detonation initiation in terms of the comparison between the spontaneousmore » wave speed and the Chapman–Jouguet speed. We develop an analytic expression for the spontaneous wave speed and utilize it to determine a semi-analytic criterion for the minimum size of a hotspot with a linear temperature gradient between a peak and base temperature for which detonations in burning carbon–oxygen material can occur. Our results suggest that spontaneous detonations may easily form under a diverse range of conditions, likely allowing a number of progenitor scenarios to initiate detonations that burn up the star.« less

  17. 30 CFR 75.1313 - Explosives and detonators outside of magazines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosives and detonators outside of magazines... § 75.1313 Explosives and detonators outside of magazines. (a) The quantity of explosives outside a magazine for use in a working section or other area where blasting is to be performed shall— (1) Not exceed...

  18. Velocity field calculation for non-orthogonal numerical grids

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G. P.

    2015-03-01

    Computational grids containing cell faces that do not align with an orthogonal (e.g. Cartesian, cylindrical) coordinate system are routinely encountered in porous-medium numerical simulations. Such grids are referred to in this study as non-orthogonal grids because some cell faces are not orthogonal to a coordinate system plane (e.g. xy, yz or xz plane in Cartesian coordinates). Non-orthogonal grids are routinely encountered at the Savannah River Site in porous-medium flow simulations for Performance Assessments and groundwater flow modeling. Examples include grid lines that conform to the sloping roof of a waste tank or disposal unit in a 2D Performance Assessment simulation,more » and grid surfaces that conform to undulating stratigraphic surfaces in a 3D groundwater flow model. Particle tracking is routinely performed after a porous-medium numerical flow simulation to better understand the dynamics of the flow field and/or as an approximate indication of the trajectory and timing of advective solute transport. Particle tracks are computed by integrating the velocity field from cell to cell starting from designated seed (starting) positions. An accurate velocity field is required to attain accurate particle tracks. However, many numerical simulation codes report only the volumetric flowrate (e.g. PORFLOW) and/or flux (flowrate divided by area) crossing cell faces. For an orthogonal grid, the normal flux at a cell face is a component of the Darcy velocity vector in the coordinate system, and the pore velocity for particle tracking is attained by dividing by water content. For a non-orthogonal grid, the flux normal to a cell face that lies outside a coordinate plane is not a true component of velocity with respect to the coordinate system. Nonetheless, normal fluxes are often taken as Darcy velocity components, either naively or with accepted approximation. To enable accurate particle tracking or otherwise present an accurate depiction of the velocity field for a

  19. Premature detonation of an NH₄NO₃ emulsion in reactive ground.

    PubMed

    Priyananda, Pramith; Djerdjev, Alex M; Gore, Jeff; Neto, Chiara; Beattie, James K; Hawkett, Brian S

    2015-01-01

    When NH4NO3 emulsions are used in blast holes containing pyrite, they can exothermally react with pyrite, causing the emulsion to intensively heat and detonate prematurely. Such premature detonations can inflict fatal and very costly damages. The mechanism of heating of the emulsions is not well understood though such an understanding is essential for designing safe blasting. In this study the heating of an emulsion in model blast holes was simulated by solving the heat equation. The physical factors contributing to the heating phenomenon were studied using microscopic and calorimetric methods. Microscopic studies revealed the continuous formation of a large number of gas bubbles as the reaction progressed at the emulsion-pyrite interface, which made the reacting emulsion porous. Calculations show that the increase in porosity causes the thermal conductivity of a reacting region of an emulsion column in a blast hole to decrease exponentially. This large reduction in the thermal conductivity retards heat dissipation from the reacting region causing its temperature to rise. The rise in temperature accelerates the exothermic reaction producing more heat. Simulations predict a migration of the hottest spot of the emulsion column, which could dangerously heat the primers and boosters located in the blast hole. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine Research at NASA Marshall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Christopher I.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph representation provides an overview of research being conducted on Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines (PDRE) by the Propulsion Research Center (PRC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. PDREs have a theoretical thermodynamic advantage over Steady-State Rocket Engines (SSREs) although unsteady blowdown processes complicate effective use of this advantage in practice; PRE is engaged in a fundamental study of PDRE gas dynamics to improve understanding of performance issues. Topics covered include: simplified PDRE cycle, comparison of PDRE and SSRE performance, numerical modeling of quasi 1-D rocket flows, time-accurate thrust calculations, finite-rate chemistry effects in nozzles, effect of F-R chemistry on specific impulse, effect of F-R chemistry on exit species mole fractions and PDRE performance optimization studies.

  1. CFD Analysis to Calculate the Optimal Air Velocity in Drying Green Tea Process Using Fluidized Bed Dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yohana, Eflita; Nugraha, Afif Prasetya; Diana, Ade Eva; Mahawan, Ilham; Nugroho, Sri

    2018-02-01

    Tea processing is basically distinguished into three types which black tea, green tea, and oolong tea. Green tea is processed by heating and drying the leaves. Green tea factories in Indonesia are generally using the process of drying by panning the leaves. It is more recommended to use the fluidization process to speed up the drying process as the quality of the tea can be maintained. Bubbling fluidization is expected to occur in this research. It is a process of bubbles are formed in the fluidization. The effectiveness of the drying process in a fluidized bed dryer machine needs to be improved by using a CFD simulation method to proof that umf < u < ut, where the average velocity value is limited by the minimum and the maximum velocity of the calculation the experimental data. The minimum and the maximum velocity value of the fluidization is 0.96 m/s and 8.2 m/s. The result of the simulation obtained that the average velocity of the upper bed part is 1.81 m/s. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the calculation and the simulation data is in accordance with the condition of bubbling fluidization in fluidized bed dryer.

  2. Detonation Initiation of Heterogeneous Melt-Cast High Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuzeville, Vincent; Baudin, Gerard; Lefrancois, Alexandre; Boulanger, Remi; Catoire, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    The melt-cast explosives' shock initiation mechanisms are less investigated than pressed and cast-cured ones. If the existence of hot-spots is widely recognized, their formation mechanism is not yet established. We study here two melt-cast explosives, NTO-TNT 60:40 and RDX-TNT 60:40 in order to establish a relation between the microstructure and the reaction rate using a two-phase model based on a ZND approach. Such a model requires the reaction rate, the equations of state of the unreacted phase and of the detonation products and an interaction model between the two phases to describe the reaction zone thermodynamics. The reaction rate law can be written in a factorized form including the number of initiation sites, the explosive's deflagration velocity around hot spots and a function depending on gas volume fraction produced by the deflagration front propagation. The deflagration velocity mainly depends on pressure and is determined from pop-plot tests using the hypothesis of the single curve build-up. This hypothesis has been verified for our two melt-cast explosives. The function depending on gas volume fraction is deduced from microstructural observations and from an analogy with the solid nucleation and growth theory. It has been established for deflagration fronts growing from grain's surface and a given initial grain size distribution. The model requires only a few parameters, calibrated thanks to an inversion method. A good agreement is obtained between experiments and numerical simulations.

  3. Velocity filtering applied to optical flow calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barniv, Yair

    1990-01-01

    Optical flow is a method by which a stream of two-dimensional images obtained from a forward-looking passive sensor is used to map the three-dimensional volume in front of a moving vehicle. Passive ranging via optical flow is applied here to the helicopter obstacle-avoidance problem. Velocity filtering is used as a field-based method to determine range to all pixels in the initial image. The theoretical understanding and performance analysis of velocity filtering as applied to optical flow is expanded and experimental results are presented.

  4. Effect of microstructure on the detonation initiation in energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Jackson, T. L.

    2017-12-01

    In this work we examine the role of the microstructure on detonation initiation of energetic materials. We solve the reactive Euler equations, with the energy equation augmented by a power deposition term. The deposition term is based on simulations of void collapse at the microscale, modeled at the mesoscale as hot-spots, while the reaction rate at the mesoscale is modeled using density-based kinetics. We carry out two-dimensional simulations of random packs of HMX crystals in a binder. We show that mean particle size, size distribution, and particle shape have a major effect on the transition between detonation and no-detonation, thus highlighting the importance of the microstructure for shock-induced initiation.

  5. Parametric Investigation of Thrust Augmentation by Ejectors on a Pulsed Detonation Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jack; Sgondea, Alexandru; Paxson, Daniel E.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.

    2006-01-01

    A parametric investigation has been made of thrust augmentation of a 1 in. diameter pulsed detonation tube by ejectors. A set of ejectors was used which permitted variation of the ejector length, diameter, and nose radius, according to a statistical design of experiment scheme. The maximum augmentation ratios for each ejector were fitted using a polynomial response surface, from which the optimum ratios of ejector diameter to detonation tube diameter, and ejector length and nose radius to ejector diameter, were found. Thrust augmentation ratios above a factor of 2 were measured. In these tests, the pulsed detonation device was run on approximately stoichiometric air-hydrogen mixtures, at a frequency of 20 Hz. Later measurements at a frequency of 40 Hz gave lower values of thrust augmentation. Measurements of thrust augmentation as a function of ejector entrance to detonation tube exit distance showed two maxima, one with the ejector entrance upstream, and one downstream, of the detonation tube exit. A thrust augmentation of 2.5 was observed using a tapered ejector.

  6. Deflagrations, Detonations, and the Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Methane-Air Mixtures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-27

    we attempt to answer the question: Given a large enough volume of flammable mixture of NG and air, can a weak spark ignition develop into a...detonation? Large -scale numerical simulations, in conjunction with experimental work conducted at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and...12 2.3.3. Flame Acceleration and DDT in Channels with Obstacles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.3.4. DDT in Large Spaces

  7. Swept-Ramp Detonation Initiation Performance in a High-Pressure Pulse Detonation Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    conditions at sea level, but at elevated temperatures of 300–500°F in the combustor. The current work was motivated by a need to experimentally...The current work was motivated by a need to experimentally evaluate the detonation initiation performance of a PDC at elevated combustor pressures...High-Speed Propulsion Technologies (After [3]) .....................2 Figure 2. Stationary One-Dimensional Combustion Wave Model (From [7

  8. Initiation and structures of gaseous detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'ev, A. A.; Vasiliev, V. A.

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of the initiation of a detonation wave (DW) and the emergence of a multi-front structure of the DW-front are presented. It is shown that the structure of the DW arises spontaneously at the stage of a strong overdriven of the wave. The hypothesis of the gradual enhancement of small perturbations on an initially smooth initiating blast wave, traditionally used in the numerical simulation of multi-front detonation, does not agree with the experimental data. The instability of the DW is due to the chemical energy release of the combustible mixture Q. A technique for determining the Q-value of mixture was proposed, based on reconstruction of the trajectory of the expanding wave from the position of the strong explosion model. The wave trajectory at the critical initiation of a multifront detonation in a combustible mixture is compared with the trajectory of an explosive wave from the same initiator in an inert mixture whose gas-dynamic parameters are equivalent to the parameters of the combustible mixture. The energy release of a mixture is defined as the difference in the joint energy release of the initiator and the fuel mixture during the critical initiation and energy release of the initiator when the blast wave is excited in an inert mixture. Observable deviations of the experimental profile of Q from existing model representations were found.

  9. Pulse Detonation Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    constant-pressure ( Brayton ) cycle used in gas turbines and ramjets. The advantages of PDE for air- breathing propulsion are simplicity and easy scaling...constant-volume, and detonative combustion cycles will be referred to as Brayton , Humphrey, and PDE cycles. The efficiency of thermodynamic cycles O’ODD...efficiency of Brayton cycle, as 0G HH =′ , i.e., 0==constpχ (3) Constant-volume combustion (point E in Fig. 1) results in temperature K 2647/0E

  10. Thrust Augmentation Measurements Using a Pulse Detonation Engine Ejector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Robert J.; Pal, Sibtosh

    2003-01-01

    The present NASA GRC-funded three-year research project is focused on studying PDE driven ejectors applicable to a hybrid Pulse Detonation/Turbofan Engine. The objective of the study is to characterize the PDE-ejector thrust augmentation. A PDE-ejector system has been designed to provide critical experimental data for assessing the performance enhancements possible with this technology. Completed tasks include demonstration of a thrust stand for measuring average thrust for detonation tube multi-cycle operation, and design of a 72-in.-long, 2.25-in.-diameter (ID) detonation tube and modular ejector assembly. This assembly will allow testing of both straight and contoured ejector geometries. Initial ejectors that have been fabricated are 72-in.-long-constant-diameter tubes (4-, 5-, and 6-in.-diameter) instrumented with high-frequency pressure transducers. The assembly has been designed such that the detonation tube exit can be positioned at various locations within the ejector tube. PDE-ejector system experiments with gaseous ethylene/ nitrogen/oxygen propellants will commence in the very near future. The program benefits from collaborations with Prof. Merkle of University of Tennessee whose PDE-ejector analysis helps guide the experiments. The present research effort will increase the TRL of PDE-ejectors from its current level of 2 to a level of 3.

  11. Exhaust Gas Emissions from a Rotating Detonation-wave Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Schwer, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    Rotating detonation-wave engines (RDE) are a form of continuous detonation-wave engines. They potentially provide further gains in performance than an intermittent or pulsed detonation-wave engine (PDE). The overall flow field in an idealized RDE, primarily consisting of two concentric cylinders, has been discussed in previous meetings. Because of the high pressures involved and the lack of adequate reaction mechanisms for this regime, previous simulations have typically used simplified chemistry models. However, understanding the exhaust species concentrations in propulsion devices is important for both performance considerations as well as estimating pollutant emissions. Progress towards addressing this need will be discussed in this talk. In this approach, an induction parameter model is used for simulating the detonation but a more detailed finite-chemistry model including NOx chemistry is used in the expansion flow region, where the pressures are lower and the uncertainties in the chemistry model are greatly reduced. Results show that overall radical concentrations in the exhaust flow are substantially lower than from earlier predictions with simplified models. The performance of a baseline hydrogen/air RDE increased from 4940 s to 5000 s with the expansion flow chemistry, due to recombination of radicals and more production of H2O, resulting in additional heat release. Work sponsored by the Office of Naval Research.

  12. Effect of Mixture Pressure and Equivalence Ratio on Detonation Cell Size for Hydrogen-Air Mixtures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    National Labs ( BNL ) built and tested several detonation tubes with hydrogen and air detonations. BNL’s main detonation tubes were called the High...K and the ability to change to mixture pressure from one atmosphere to just less than three atmospheres. Before BNL designed their detonation tubes...gas driver initiation system was that the diaphragm had to be replaced after each test. In order to save time from replacing the diaphragms, BNL

  13. Rotating Detonation Combustion: A Computational Study for Stationary Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, Sergio

    The increased availability of gaseous fossil fuels in The US has led to the substantial growth of stationary Gas Turbine (GT) usage for electrical power generation. In fact, from 2013 to 2104, out of the 11 Tera Watts-hour per day produced from fossil fuels, approximately 27% was generated through the combustion of natural gas in stationary GT. The thermodynamic efficiency for simple-cycle GT has increased from 20% to 40% during the last six decades, mainly due to research and development in the fields of combustion science, material science and machine design. However, additional improvements have become more costly and more difficult to obtain as technology is further refined. An alternative to improve GT thermal efficiency is the implementation of a combustion regime leading to pressure-gain; rather than pressure loss across the combustor. One concept being considered for such purpose is Rotating Detonation Combustion (RDC). RDC refers to a combustion regime in which a detonation wave propagates continuously in the azimuthal direction of a cylindrical annular chamber. In RDC, the fuel and oxidizer, injected from separated streams, are mixed near the injection plane and are then consumed by the detonation front traveling inside the annular gap of the combustion chamber. The detonation products then expand in the azimuthal and axial direction away from the detonation front and exit through the combustion chamber outlet. In the present study Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to predict the performance of Rotating Detonation Combustion (RDC) at operating conditions relevant to GT applications. As part of this study, a modeling strategy for RDC simulations was developed. The validation of the model was performed using benchmark cases with different levels of complexity. First, 2D simulations of non-reactive shock tube and detonation tubes were performed. The numerical predictions that were obtained using different modeling parameters were compared with

  14. Investigation on Novel Methods to Increase Specific Thrust in Pulse Detonation Engines via Imploding Detonations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Malliakos. Detonation cell size measurements in high-temperature hydrogen- air-steam mixtures at the bnl high-temperature combustion facility. Technical...Report NUREG/CR-6391, BNL -NUREG-52482, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1997. [13] W.B. Benedick, R. Knystautas, and J.H.S. Lee. Large-scale

  15. A detonation wave in the system liquid-gas bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, A. I.

    1985-06-01

    The shock-wave ignition of a system consisting of a liquid (H2O) and bubbles of an explosive gas mixture (C2H2+2.5O2) is investigated experimentally and analytically. The possibility of the existence of a detonation wave, a supersonic self-sustaining process, in a gas-liquid system is demonstrated. The conditions for the existence of a detonation wave are determined, and the initiation mechanism is analyzed.

  16. Development of Detonation Modeling Capabilities for Rocket Test Facilities: Hydrogen-Oxygen-Nitrogen Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allgood, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the presented work was to develop validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based methodologies for predicting propellant detonations and their associated blast environments. Applications of interest were scenarios relevant to rocket propulsion test and launch facilities. All model development was conducted within the framework of the Loci/CHEM CFD tool due to its reliability and robustness in predicting high-speed combusting flow-fields associated with rocket engines and plumes. During the course of the project, verification and validation studies were completed for hydrogen-fueled detonation phenomena such as shock-induced combustion, confined detonation waves, vapor cloud explosions, and deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) processes. The DDT validation cases included predicting flame acceleration mechanisms associated with turbulent flame-jets and flow-obstacles. Excellent comparison between test data and model predictions were observed. The proposed CFD methodology was then successfully applied to model a detonation event that occurred during liquid oxygen/gaseous hydrogen rocket diffuser testing at NASA Stennis Space Center.

  17. Parallel Adaptive Simulation of Detonation Waves Using a Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Sean

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop a code that could be used to develop a better understanding of the physics of detonation waves. First, a detonation was simulated in one dimension using ZND theory. Then, using the 1D solution as an initial condition, a detonation was simulated in two dimensions using a weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme on an adaptive mesh with the smallest lengthscales being equal to 2-3 flamelet lengths. The code development in linking Chemkin for chemical kinetics to the adaptive mesh refinement flow solver was completed. The detonation evolved in a way that, qualitatively, matched the experimental observations, however, the simulation was unable to progress past the formation of the triple point.

  18. An Attempt to Standardize the Calculation of Growth Velocity of Preterm Infants-Evaluation of Practical Bedside Methods.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Tanis R; Anderson, Diane; Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Hoyos, Angela; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Senterre, Thibault

    2018-05-01

    To examine how well growth velocity recommendations for preterm infants fit with current growth references: Fenton 2013, Olsen 2010, INTERGROWTH 2015, and the World Health Organization Growth Standard 2006. The Average (2-point), Exponential (2-point), Early (1-point) method weight-gains were calculated for 1,4,8,12, and 16-week time-periods. Growth references' weekly velocities (g/kg/d, gram/day and cm/week) were illustrated graphically with frequently-quoted 15 g/kg/d, 10-30 grams/day and 1 cm/week rates superimposed. The 15 g/kg/d and 1 cm/week growth velocity rates were calculated from 24-50 weeks, superimposed on the Fenton and Olsen preterm growth charts. The Average and Exponential g/kg/d estimates showed close agreement for all ages (range 5.0-18.9 g/kg/d), while the Early method yielded values as high as 41 g/kg/d. All 3 preterm growth references were similar to 15 g/kg/d rate at 34 weeks, but rates were higher prior and lower at older ages. For gram/day, the growth references changed from 10 to 30 grams/day for 24-33 weeks. Head growth rates generally fit the 1 cm/week velocity for 23-30 weeks, and length growth rates fit for 37-40 weeks. The calculated g/kg/d curves deviated from the growth charts, first downward, then steeply crossed the median curves near term. Human growth is not constant through gestation and early infancy. The frequently-quoted 15 g/kg/d, 10-30 gram/day and 1 cm/week only fit current growth references for limited time periods. Rates of 15-20 g/kg/d (calculated using average or exponential methods) are a reasonable goal for infants 23-36 weeks, but not beyond. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Axisymmetric Numerical Modeling of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Christopher I.

    2005-01-01

    Pulse detonation rocket engines (PDREs) have generated research interest in recent years as a chemical propulsion system potentially offering improved performance and reduced complexity compared to conventional rocket engines. The detonative mode of combustion employed by these devices offers a thermodynamic advantage over the constant-pressure deflagrative combustion mode used in conventional rocket engines and gas turbines. However, while this theoretical advantage has spurred considerable interest in building PDRE devices, the unsteady blowdown process intrinsic to the PDRE has made realistic estimates of the actual propulsive performance problematic. The recent review article by Kailasanath highlights some of the progress that has been made in comparing the available experimental measurements with analytical and numerical models. In recent work by the author, a quasi-one-dimensional, finite rate chemistry CFD model was utilized to study the gasdynamics and performance characteristics of PDREs over a range of blowdown pressure ratios from 1-1000. Models of this type are computationally inexpensive, and enable first-order parametric studies of the effect of several nozzle and extension geometries on PDRE performance over a wide range of conditions. However, the quasi-one-dimensional approach is limited in that it cannot properly capture the multidimensional blast wave and flow expansion downstream of the PDRE, nor can it resolve nozzle flow separation if present. Moreover, the previous work was limited to single-pulse calculations. In this paper, an axisymmetric finite rate chemistry model is described and utilized to study these issues in greater detail. Example Mach number contour plots showing the multidimensional blast wave and nozzle exhaust plume are shown. The performance results are compared with the quasi-one-dimensional results from the previous paper. Both Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions are calculated in order to determine the effect of viscous

  20. Density-based kinetics for mesoscale simulations of detonation initiation in energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Thomas Luther; Zhang, Ju

    2017-07-01

    In this work we present one- and two-dimensional mesoscale simulations of detonation initiation in energetic materials. We solve the reactive Euler equations, with the energy equation augmented by a power deposition term. The reaction rate at the mesoscale is modelled using a density-based kinetics scheme, adapted from standard 'Ignition and Growth' models. The deposition term is based on previous results of simulations of void collapse at the microscale, modelled at the mesoscale as hot spots. For an isolated hot spot in a homogeneous medium, it is found that a critical size of the hot spots exists. If the hot spots exceed the critical size, initiation of detonation can be achieved. For sub-critical hot-spot sizes, we show that it takes a collection of hot spots to achieve detonation. We also carry out two-dimensional mesoscale simulations of random packs of HMX crystals in a binder, and show that the transition between no detonation and detonation depends on the number density of the hot spots, the initial radius of the hot spot, the post-shock pressure of an imposed shock, and the amplitude of the power deposition term.