Science.gov

Sample records for calculated oxygen fugacity

  1. The color of meteoritic hibonite - an indicator of oxygen fugacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihinger, P. D.; Stolper, E.

    1986-05-01

    Hibonites similar in composition to those found in Ca-Al-rich inclusions change color from blue, to green, to orange, to nearly colorless as oxygen fugacity is increased at high temperature from below the iron-wustite buffer up to air. The development of the blue color is correlated with the growth of an absorption band at 715 nm in the optical spectra of the hibonites as the oxygen fugacity is reduced. The growth of this band is attributed to the increasing concentration of Ti(3+) in these hibonites with decreasing oxygen fugacity. The blue hibonites in meteorites reflect equilibration under reducing conditions based on the intensity of 715 nm band, it is estimated that the hibonite in the Blue Angel inclusion indicates an oxygen fugacity four to five orders of magnitude more oxidizing than that expected in the early solar nebula. This may be due to formation in an anomalously oxidizing region of the nebula or to oxidation during cooling or later alteration. The orange hibonites in Allende reflect oxygen fugacities approximately ten or more orders of magnitude more oxidizing than the expected primitive nebula; this color probably indicates alteration of initially more reduced (blue?) hibonites. The colorless hibonite in the HAL inclusion reflects highly oxidizing conditions and/or its low Ti content.

  2. Oxygen fugacity control in piston-cylinder experiments: a re-evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, Sigurdur; Blundy, Jon; Moore, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Jakobsson (Contrib Miner Petrol 164(3):397-407, 2012) investigated a double capsule assembly for use in piston-cylinder experiments that would allow hydrous, high-temperature, and high-pressure experiments to be conducted under controlled oxygen fugacity conditions. Using a platinum outer capsule containing a metal oxide oxygen buffer (Ni-NiO or Co-CoO) and H2O, with an inner gold-palladium capsule containing hydrous melt, this study was able to compare the oxygen fugacity imposed by the outer capsule oxygen buffer with an oxygen fugacity estimated by the AuPdFe ternary system calibrated by Barr and Grove (Contrib Miner Petrol 160(5):631-643, 2010). H2O loss or gain, as well as iron loss to the capsule walls and carbon contamination, is often observed in piston-cylinder experiments and often go unexplained. Only a few have attempted to actually quantify various aspects of these changes (Brooker et al. in Am Miner 83(9-10):985-994, 1998; Truckenbrodt and Johannes in Am Miner 84:1333-1335, 1999). It was one of the goals of Jakobsson (Contrib Miner Petrol 164(3):397-407, 2012) to address these issues by using and testing the AuPdFe solution model of Barr and Grove (Contrib Miner Petrol 160(5):631-643, 2010), as well as to constrain the oxygen fugacity of the inner capsule. The oxygen fugacities of the analyzed melts were assumed to be equal to those of the solid Ni-NiO and Co-CoO buffers, which is incorrect since the melts are all undersaturated in H2O and the oxygen fugacities should therefore be lower than that of the buffer by 2 log.

  3. Platinum catalytic effect on oxygen fugacity of CO 2H 2 gas mixtures measured with ZrO 2 oxygen sensor at 105 Pa from 1300 to 700°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, M.; Mikouchi, T.

    1996-08-01

    The oxygen fugacity of CO 2H 2 gas mixtures were measured with a ZrO 2 oxygen sensor at high temperatures in a furnace. We confirmed that the oxygen fugacity values measured by the ZrO 2 cell are more reducing than those of the CO 2H 2 gas mixtures calculated by using JANAF data at temperatures below 1150°C as was previously reported by Huebner (1975). We successfully decreased the deviation of the measured oxygen-fugacity value from the calculated one down to temperature of 800°C by using a Pt catalyst. Our results suggest that the deviation is probably due to incomplete equilibration of the gases.

  4. Oxygen buffering of Kilauea volcanic gases and the oxygen fugacity of Kilauea basalt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerlach, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    challenges the common assumption that volcanic gases are released from lava in a state of chemical equilibrium and then continue equilibrating homogeneously with falling temperature until reaction rates are unable to keep pace with cooling. No evidence is found, moreover, that certain gas species are kinetically more responsive and able to equilibrate down to lower temperatures than those of the last gas/lava oxygen exchange. Homogeneous reaction rates in the gas phase are apparently slow compared to the time it took for the gases to move from the last site of gas/lava equilibration to the site of collection. An earlier set of data for higher temperature CO2-rich Type I volcanic gases, which come from sustained summit lava lake eruptions supplied by magma that experienced substantially shorter periods of crustal storage, shows fO2 buffering by oxygen transfer up to 1185??C. Oxygen fugacity measurements in drill holes into ponded lava flows suggest that buffering by oxygen transfer may control the fO2 of residual gases down to several hundred degrees below the solidus in the early stages of cooling. Although the details of the fO2 buffering mechanisms for oxygen transfer are unknown, the fact that fO2 buffering is effective from molten to subsolidus conditions suggests that the reaction mechanisms must change with cooling as the reactants change from predominantly melt, to melt plus crystals, to glass plus crystals. Mass balance calculations suggest that redox reactions between the gas and ferrous/ferric iron in the lava are plausible mechanisms for the oxygen transfer and that the fO2 of the gases is buffered by sliding ferrous/ferric equilibria in the erupting lavas. Contrary to expectations based on models predicting the oxidation of basalt by H2 and CO escape during crustal storage, CO2-rich Type I gases and CO2-poor Type II gases have identical oxygen fugacities despite greatly different crustal storage and degassing histories. Volcanic gas data give a tightly co

  5. Calculation of Oxygen Fugacity in High Pressure Metal-Silicate Experiments and Comparison to Standard Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Ghiorso, M.

    2009-01-01

    Calculation of oxygen fugacity in high pressure and temperature experiments in metal-silicate systems is usually approximated by the ratio of Fe in the metal and FeO in the silicate melt: (Delta)IW=2*log(X(sub Fe)/X(sub FeO)), where IW is the iron-wustite reference oxygen buffer. Although this is a quick and easy calculation to make, it has been applied to a huge variety of metallic (Fe- Ni-S-C-O-Si systems) and silicate liquids (SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2, FeO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O systems). This approach has surely led to values that have little meaning, yet are applied with great confidence, for example, to a terrestrial mantle at "IW-2". Although fO2 can be circumvented in some cases by consideration of Fe-M distribution coefficient, these do not eliminate the effects of alloy or silicate liquid compositional variation, or the specific chemical effects of S in the silicate liquid, for example. In order to address the issue of what the actual value of fO2 is in any given experiment, we have calculated fO2 from the equilibria 2Fe (metal) + SiO2 (liq) + O2 = Fe2SiO4 (liq).

  6. Constraints on oxygen fugacity within metal capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faul, Ulrich H.; Cline, Christopher J., II; Berry, Andrew; Jackson, Ian; Garapić, Gordana

    2018-06-01

    Experiments were conducted with olivine encapsulated or wrapped in five different metals (Pt, Ni, Ni_{70}Fe_{30}, Fe, and Re) to determine the oxygen fugacity in the interior of large capsules used for deformation and seismic property experiments. Temperature (1200°C), pressure (300 MPa), and duration (24 h) were chosen to represent the most common conditions in these experiments. The oxygen fugacity was determined by analysing the Fe content of initially pure Pt particles that were mixed with the olivine powder prior to the experiments. Oxygen fugacities in the more oxidizing metal containers are substantially below their respective metal-oxide buffers, with the fO_2 of sol-gel olivine in Ni about 2.5 orders of magnitude below Ni-NiO. Analysis of olivine and metal blebs reveals three different length-, and hence diffusive time scales: (1) Fe loss to the capsule over ˜ 100 μ m, (2) fO_2 gradients at the sample-capsule interface up to 2 mm into the sample, and (3) constant interior fO_2 values with an ordering corresponding to the capsule material. The inferred diffusive processes are: Fe diffusion in olivine with a diffusivity ˜ 10^{-14} m^2/s, diffusion possibly of oxygen along grain boundaries with a diffusivity ˜ 10^{-12} m^2/s, and diffusion possibly involving pre-existing defects with a diffusivity ˜ 10^{-10} m^2/s. The latter, fast adjustment to changing fO_2 may consist of a rearrangement of pre-existing defects, representing a metastable equilibrium, analogous to decoration of pre-existing defects by hydrogen. Full adjustment to the external fO_2 requires atomic diffusion.

  7. Technical Update: Johnson Space Center system using a solid electrolytic cell in a remote location to measure oxygen fugacities in CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Williams, R. J.; Le, L.; Wagstaff, J.; Lofgren, G.; Lanier, A.; Carter, W.; Roshko, A.

    1993-01-01

    Details are given for the design and application of a (one atmosphere) redox-control system. This system differs from that given in NASA Technical Memorandum 58234 in that it uses a single solid-electrolytic cell in a remote location to measure the oxygen fugacities of multiple CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces. This remote measurement extends the range of sample-furnace conditions that can be measured using a solid-electrolytic cell, and cuts costs by extending the life of the sensors and by minimizing the number of sensors in use. The system consists of a reference furnace and an exhaust-gas manifold. The reference furnace is designed according to the redox control system of NASA Technical Memorandum 58234, and any number of CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces can be attached to the exhaust-gas manifold. Using the manifold, the exhaust gas from individual CO/CO2 controlled atmosphere furnaces can be diverted through the reference furnace, where a solid-electrolyte cell is used to read the ambient oxygen fugacity. The oxygen fugacity measured in the reference furnace can then be used to calculate the oxygen fugacity in the individual CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnace. A BASIC computer program was developed to expedite this calculation.

  8. Solubility of tungsten in a haplobasaltic melt as a function of temperature and oxygen fugacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertel, W.; O'Neill, H. St. C.; Dingwell, D. B.; Spettel, B.

    1996-04-01

    The solubility of tungsten (W) in a haplobasaltic melt has been determined as a function of oxygen fugacity in the temperature range 1300-1500°C using the mechanically assisted equilibrium technique of Dingwell et al. (1994), and at 1600-1700°C by the wire loop method. Quenched samples were analysed for W by using ICP-AES as well as INAA, and sample major element compositions were checked by electron microprobe. W concentrations ranged from 20 ppm to 17 wt%, and the solution of WO 2 in the melt may be described by Henry's Law up to remarkably high concentrations (e.g., 14 wt% at 1500°C). W dissolves in the melt with a quadrivalent (4+) formal oxidation state over the entire range of oxygen fugacity and temperature investigated. The solubility of W decreases strongly with increasing temperature at constant oxygen fugacity. The solubility data have been used to calculate trace distribution coefficients for W between Fe-rich metal and silicate melt, using literature values for the activity coefficient of W in liquid Fe. Comparison of our data with the distribution coefficients for Mo calculated from the analogous Mo solubility data of Holzheid et al. (1994) shows that the ratio of the metal-silicate distribution coefficient DMomet/sil/ DWmet/sil remains very high (~10 3) at all T-fO 2 conditions. However, in the Earth's mantle, Mo is relatively more depleted than W only by a factor of three. The relative abundances of W and Mo in the Earth's mantle cannot, therefore, be explained by core formation from a homogeneously accreted Earth whatever the temperature at which metal/silicate equilibrium may have ocurred might have been. Their abundances may be quantitatively accounted for by a heterogeneous accretion model such as that of O'Neill (1991).

  9. The effect of oxygen fugacity on the solubility of carbon-oxygen fluids in basaltic melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawley, Alison R.; Holloway, John R.; Mcmillan, Paul F.

    1992-01-01

    The solubility of CO2-CO fluids in a midocean ridge basalt have been measured at 1200 C, 500-1500 bar, and oxygen fugacities between NNO and NNO-4. In agreement with results of previous studies, the results reported here imply that, at least at low pressures, CO2 dissolves in basaltic melt only in the form of carbonate groups. The dissolution reaction is heterogeneous, with CO2 molecules in the fluid reacting directly with reactive oxygens in the melt to produce CO3(2-). CO, on the other hand, is insoluble, dissolving neither as carbon, molecular CO, nor CO3(2-). It is shown that, for a given pressure and temperature, the concentration of dissolved carbon-bearing species in basaltic melt in equilibrium with a carbon-oxygen fluid is proportional to the mole fraction of CO2 in the fluid, which is a function of fO2. At low pressures CO2 solubility is a linear function of CO2 fugacity at constant temperatures.

  10. Oxygen fugacities directly measured in magmatic gases.

    PubMed

    Sato, M; Wright, T L

    1966-09-02

    An electrochemical device was used to measure the fugacity of oxygen (fo(o2)) in holes drilled through the crust of Makaopuhi lava lake, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Results obtained within 6 months of the lake formation show that log fo(o2) normally varies linearly with the reciprocal of the absolute temperature, and that chemical changes occurring in the cooling tholeiitic basalt are reflected in the fo(o2) values measured in the holes.

  11. Oxygen fugacity of gases and rocks from Momotombo Volcano, Nicaragua: Application to volcanological monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhamou, G.; Allard, P.; Sabroux, J. C.; Vitter, G.; Dajlevic, D.; Creusot, A.

    1988-12-01

    The oxygen fugacity (fO2) and the fO2 versus T°C relationship of high-temperature (600°-860°C) gas emissions from Momotombo volcano, Nicaragua, was determined from both field electrochemical measurements (electrolytic cell assembly) and thermodynamic computations on gas samples collected between 1978 and 1985. It was then compared with the intrinsic fO2 of fresh and altered lavas from the last eruption (1905), as measured between 500° and 1100°C in laboratory. The electrochemical results show that the oxygen fugacity of Momotombo fumaroles, at equivalent temperature, is much higher than that of the fresh 1905 lava (˜FMQ buffer) and closer to that of their altered wall rocks (˜FMQ buffer). The equilibrium O2 fugacities calculated from the chemistry of gas samples confirm this pattern. However, they suggest that the gas mixtures preserve the (variable) memory of a higher thermal equilibrium achieved at depth, under temperature and fO2 conditions of up to 1050°C and 10-9.0 atm, respectively, which correspond to the cross over between the fO2-T gas and lava trends. These data thus support the idea that Momotombo volcanic gases, released in a period of increasing activity, escape from a shallow magma body before suffering a variable oxidation during their ascent through both unbuffered cooling and reactions with environmental fluids and rocks. This late oxidation is weaker at central fumaroles than at peripherical ones. While between 1978 and 1985 the temperature of the hottest fumarole increased from 750° to 865°-900°C, the equilibrium fO2 of the gas decreased by nearly one order of magnitude (at comparable equilibrium temperature). Such an evolution presumably reflects an increasing connection between the surface exhalations and the magma degassing at depth along with time. This work underlines the possibility of monitoring the processes of magma ascent and gas-magma separation within a volcano before an eruption by continuously recording the changes of

  12. Platinum Partitioning at Low Oxygen Fugacity: Implications for Core Formation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medard, E.; Martin, A. M.; Righter, K.; Lanziroti, A.; Newville, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highly siderophile elements (HSE = Au, Re, and the Pt-group elements) are tracers of silicate / metal interactions during planetary processes. Since most core-formation models involve some state of equilibrium between liquid silicate and liquid metal, understanding the partioning of highly siderophile elements (HSE) between silicate and metallic melts is a key issue for models of core / mantle equilibria and for core formation scenarios. However, partitioning models for HSE are still inaccurate due to the lack of sufficient experimental constraints to describe the variations of partitioning with key variable like temperature, pressure, and oxygen fugacity. In this abstract, we describe a self-consistent set of experiments aimed at determining the valence of platinum, one of the HSE, in silicate melts. This is a key information required to parameterize the evolution of platinum partitioning with oxygen fugacity.

  13. Oxygen fugacity and piston cylinder capsule assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, S.

    2011-12-01

    A double capsule assembly designed to control oxygen fugacity in piston cylinder experiments has been tested at 1200 °C and 10 kbar. The assembly consists of an outer Pt-capsule containing a solid buffer (Ni-NiO or Co-CoO plus H2O) and an inner AuPd-capsule containing the sample, H2O and a Pt-wire. To prevent direct contact with the buffer phases the AuPd-capsule is embedded in finely ground Al2O3 along with some coarser, fractured Al2O3 facilitating fluid inclusion formation. No water loss is observed in the sample even after 48 hrs but a slight increase in water content is observed in longer duration runs due to oxygen and hydrogen diffusion into the AuPd-capsule. Carbon from the furnace also diffuses through the outer Pt-capsule but reacts with H2O in the outer capsule to form CO2 and never reaches the inner capsule. Oxygen fugacity of runs in equilibrium with the Ni-NiO and Co-CoO buffers was measured by analyzing the Fe content of the Pt-wire in the sample1 and by analyzing Fe dissolved in the AuPd capsule2. The second method gives values that are in good agreement with established buffer whereas results from the first method are one half to one log units higher than the established values. References 1. E. Medard, C. A. McCammon, J. A. Barr, T. L. Grove, Am. Mineral. 93, 1838 (2008). 2. J. Barr, T. Grove, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 160, 631 (2010)

  14. Complications in Determining Oxygen Fugacities From Olivine-Melt Equilibrium Illustrated by the Pu'u'O'o Lavas, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, V. E.; Barton, M.; Thornber, C. R.

    2005-12-01

    We have shown previously that oxygen fugacities calculated from olivine-melt equilibrium using rim compositions agree well with those calculated from analyzed Fe3+/σFe for MORB and for Icelandic OIB (MORB - average ΔFMQ -0.72 versus -0.70, Iceland average ΔFMQ -0.49 versus -0.58). The agreement between oxygen fugacities calculated from Ol-melt equilibrium and those calculated from analyzed Fe3+/σFe is excellent for individual samples of MORB from the FAMOUS region and Blanco Trough ( difference in calculated ΔFMQ < 0.30). Published analyses of Fe3+/σFe yield oxygen fugacilties of ΔFMQ= -0.72±0.43 for lavas from Kilauea and Mauna Loa, and ΔFMQ=0.91±0.72 for Loihi, very close to those for MORB. Oxygen fugacities determined using carefully selected Ol-melt analyses (ΔFMQ= -0.43±0.32) are in reasonable agreement with those determined from Fe3+/σFe for Kilauea and Mauna Loa, and agreement between fO2 calculated from Ol-melt equilibrium (ΔFMQ= -0.26) and that calculated from Fe3+/σFe (ΔFMQ= -0.64) is excellent for one sample from Kilauea. However, olivine-melt pairs from some samples, including those from the Pu'u'O'o lavas, yield anomalously high or low estimates of fO2 (average ΔFMQ =-0.6907, range -4.07 to +0.34). We suggest that these anomalous values reflect the complex history of olivines in these lavas, in particular the effects of magma mixing. Some olivines in the Pu'u'O'o lavas clearly have rims that are anomalously rich in Fa, whereas others have rims that are anomalously rich in Fo and do not appear to have equilibrium compositions. Given the dependence of olivine composition on melt Fe3+/σFe, there is no simple method to determine the equilibrium composition of olivine for a particular melt. However, detailed zoning profiles and analyses of microphenocrysts allow probable equilibrium compositions to be identified. We suggest that the average fO2 of Hawaiian lavas lies close to (ΔFMQ= -1) based on published results using spinel

  15. Anionic Pt in Silicate Melts at Low Oxygen Fugacity: Speciation, Partitioning and Implications for Core Formation Processes on Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medard, E.; Martin, A. M.; Righter, K.; Malouta, A.; Lee, C.-T.

    2017-01-01

    Most siderophile element concentrations in planetary mantles can be explained by metal/ silicate equilibration at high temperature and pressure during core formation. Highly siderophile elements (HSE = Au, Re, and the Pt-group elements), however, usually have higher mantle abundances than predicted by partitioning models, suggesting that their concentrations have been set by late accretion of material that did not equilibrate with the core. The partitioning of HSE at the low oxygen fugacities relevant for core formation is however poorly constrained due to the lack of sufficient experimental constraints to describe the variations of partitioning with key variables like temperature, pressure, and oxygen fugacity. To better understand the relative roles of metal/silicate partitioning and late accretion, we performed a self-consistent set of experiments that parameterizes the influence of oxygen fugacity, temperature and melt composition on the partitioning of Pt, one of the HSE, between metal and silicate melts. The major outcome of this project is the fact that Pt dissolves in an anionic form in silicate melts, causing a dependence of partitioning on oxygen fugacity opposite to that reported in previous studies.

  16. Oxygen Fugacity in Large Metal Capsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faul, U.; Cline, C. J., II; Jackson, I.; Berry, A.

    2016-12-01

    During experiments with iron bearing silicates, equilibration between metal capsules and sample interior depends on diffusion of Fe if the capsule composition is not initially in equilibrium with the sample composition. For example, placing Pt or Ni capsules in contact with Fe-bearing olivine leads to Fe-loss from the olivine. In a fully equilibrated system the Fe contents of coexisting metal capsule and olivine reflect the oxygen fugacity (fO2) of the system. Experiments were conducted with olivine encapsulated or wrapped in four different metals (Fe, Ni70Fe30, Ni and Pt) to determine the fO2 in the cm-sized samples used for deformation and seismic property experiments. Small Pt particles mixed with olivine powder were used as fO2 sensors in the interior of the capsules. The results show an ordering of the fO2 in the interior that is consistent with the enclosing metals, i.e. the fO2 is lowest in a Fe capsule and highest in a Pt capsule. However, fO2 values in the more oxidizing metal capsules are substantially below their respective metal-oxide buffers. For example, solgel olivine encapsulated in Ni has an oxygen fugacity that is more than three orders of magnitude below Ni-NiO at 1200C and 0.3 GPa. The fO2 in a capsule interior is therefore to some extent self-buffering and only moderately influenced by the composition of the capsule. While the Pt particles in the interior are equilibrated, Fe gradients from the interior up to the Pt and Ni sample-capsule interfaces show that Fe loss into the capsules is diffusion limited. The fO2 at the interface also has implications for the water retention in unbuffered capsules. We infer that relatively high fO2 and hence fH2O observed adjacent to Pt capsules enables retention of water in these capsules, but the fO2 adjacent to Ni capsules is too low and water is lost.

  17. Solubility of copper in silicate melts as function of oxygen and sulfur fugacities, temperature, and silicate composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzheid, A.; Lodders, K.

    2001-06-01

    The solubility of Cu in silicate melts coexisting with liquid Cu(Fe) metal and liquid Cu(Fe) sulfide was determined experimentally at oxygen fugacities ranging from 10 -9.1 to 10 -13.6 bar and sulfur fugacities ranging from 10 -2.5 to 10 -6.3 bar at 1300°C. An iron oxide-free silicate of anorthite-diopside eutectic composition and a synthetic MgO-rich basaltic silicate (FeO-bearing) were used in the partitioning experiments. In S-containing systems, some of the metal reacted to metal sulfide. The silicates in the four systems investigated (Fe-free and S-free; Fe-containing and S-free; Fe-free and S-containing; Fe-containing and S-containing) had different colors depending on the dissolved Cu species and the presence of iron and/or sulfur. Irrespective of the presence of sulfur, the solubility of Cu in the silicate increases with increasing oxygen fugacity and metal/silicate partition coefficients for Cu decrease. Increasing the temperature from 1300°C to 1514°C increases the Cu solubility (decreases the metal/silicate partition coefficient) at an oxygen fugacity 0.5 log units below the iron-wüstite (IW) equilibrium in the Fe-free, S-free and Fe-containing, S-free systems. We infer the presence of monovalent Cu + ("CuO 0.5") in the silicate melt on the basis of the solubility of Cu as function of oxygen fugacity. Experiments containing iron yield a formal valence of ˜0.5 for Cu at very low oxygen fugacities, which is not observed in Fe-free systems. The low formal valence is explained by redox reactions between iron and copper in the silicate melts. There is no evidence for sulfidic dissolution of Cu in the silicates but sulfur has indirect effects on Cu partitioning. Iron metal/silicate partition coefficients depend on oxygen fugacity and on sulfur fugacity. Sulfidic dissolution of iron and oxide-sulfide exchange reactions with Cu cause a small increase in Cu metal/silicate partition coefficients. We derive an activity coefficient (γ CuO 0.5) of 10 ± 1 for

  18. Diffusion of Redox-Sensitive Elements in Basalt at Different Oxygen Fugacities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szumila, I.; Trail, D.; Danielson, L. R.

    2017-01-01

    The terrestrial planets and moons of our solar system have differentiated over a range of oxygen fugacity conditions. Basalts formed from magmas on the Earth cover a range of more oxidized states (from approximately IW (iron wustite) plus 2 to approximately FMQ (fayalite-magnetite-quartz) plus 3) than crustal rocks from Mars (IW to approximately IW plus 3), and basalts from the Moon are more reduced than both, ranging from IW to IW minus 2. The small body Vesta differentiated around IW minus 4. Characterization of redox sensitive elements' diffusivities will offer insight into behavior of these elements as a function of f (fugacity of) O2 for these planetary bodies. Here, we report a systematic study of the diffusion of redox-sensitive elements in basaltic melts with varying oxygen fugacities (fO2) for trace elements, V, Nb, W, Mo, La, Ce, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Ta, and W. Since fO2 is an intensive variable that is different for the reservoirs of various planets and moons in our solar system, it is important to characterize how changes in redox states will affect diffusion. We conducted experiments in a piston cylinder device at 1300 degrees Centigrade and 1 gigapascal, at the University of Rochester and NASA Johnson Space Center. We buffered some experiments at Ru-RuO2 (FMQ plus 6.00), and conducted other experiments within either a graphite or Mo capsule, which corresponds to fO2s of either FMQ minus1.2, or FMQ minus 3.00, respectively. Characterizing the diffusivities of redox sensitive elements at different fO2s is important because some elements, like Eu, have varying valence states, such as Eu (sup 2 plus) and Eu (sup 3 plus). Differences in charge and ion radii may lead to differences in diffusivities within silicate melts. This could, lead to formation of a Eu anomaly by diffusion, the magnitude of which may be controlled by the fO2. Characterization of trace element diffusion is also important in understanding trace element fractionation. We found, during the

  19. Experimental Constraints on the Cr Content, Oxygen Fugacity, and Petrogenesis of EETA79001 Lithology A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herd, C. D. K.; Jones, J. H.; Papike, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments involving the composition of the groundmass of EETA79001 Lithology A constrain the Cr content of the melt and the oxygen fugacity, and suggest that overgrowth of olivine and pyroxene from the groundmass onto xenocrysts has occurred.

  20. A system using solid ceramic oxygen electrolyte cells to measure oxygen fugacities in gas-mixing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. J.; Mullins, O.

    1976-01-01

    Details are given for the construction and operation of a 101.3 kN/sq m (1 atmosphere) redox control system. A solid ceramic oxygen electrolyte cell is used to monitor the oxygen fugacity in the furnace. The system consists of a vertical quench, gas mixing furnace with heads designed for mounting the electrolyte cell and with facilities for inserting and removing the samples. The system also contains the high input impedance electronics necessary for measurements, a simplified version of a gas mixing apparatus, and devices for experiments under controlled rates of change relative to temperature and redox state. The calibration and maintenance of the system are discussed.

  1. Temperature and Oxygen Fugacity Constraints on CK and R Chondrites and Implications for Water and Oxidation in the Early Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Neff, K. E.

    2007-01-01

    Recent chondritic meteorite finds in Antarctica have included CB, CH, CK and R chondrites, the latter two of which are among the most oxidized materials found in meteorite collections. In this study we present petrographic and mineralogic data for a suite of CK and R chondrites, and compare to previous studies of CK and R, as well as some CV chondrites. In particular we focus on the opaque minerals magnetite, chromite, sulfides, and metal as well as unusual silicates hornblende, biotite, and plagioclase. Several mineral thermometers and oxy-barometers are utilized to calculate temperatures and oxygen fugacities for these unusual meteorites compared to other more common chondrite groups. R and CK chondrites show lower equilibrium temperatures than ordinary chondrites, even though they are at similar petrologic grades (e.g., thermal type 6). Oxygen fugacity calculated for CV and R chondrites ranges from values near the iron-wustite (IW) oxygen buffer to near the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) buffer. In comparison, the fO2 recorded by ilmenite-magnetite pairs from CK chondrites are much higher, from FMQ+3.1 to FMQ+5.2. The latter values are the highest recorded for materials in meteorites, and place some constraints on the formation conditions of these magnetite-bearing chondrites. Differences between mineralogic and O isotopic compositions of CK and R chondrites suggest two different oxidation mechanisms, which may be due to high and low water: rock ratios during metamorphism, or to different fluid compositions, or both.

  2. Oxygen Fugacity of Abyssal Peridotites Along the Gakkel Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, M.; Birner, S.; Cottrell, E.

    2015-12-01

    The oxygen budget of the Earth's mantle is important in understanding how our planet evolves chemically over time. The Gakkel Ridge is the world's slowest spreading ridge [1], and exposes peridotites along its axis that record the activity of oxygen in the upper mantle. Our samples comprise relatively fertile lherzolites and harzburgites (Cr#=0.13-0.17, 3.1-8.3% modal cpx [2]) as well as refractory harzburgites (Cr#=0.43-0.55, 0.2-1.0% modal cpx [2]). Using spinel peridotite oxygen barometry [3], we calculated the oxygen fugacity (fO2) of a suite of 10 peridotites from the Gakkel Ridge in order to investigate how melt processes affect the oxygen budget of the Earth's interior. We show that the low-Cr# lherzolites and harzburgites range from -0.1 to +0.6 log units relative to the QFM buffer, consistent with the global abyssal peridotite array, whereas high-Cr# refractory harzburgites have low fO2 values, ranging from -0.7 to -2.7 log units below QFM, with the most refractory samples falling significantly lower than the global array. Because D'Errico et al. (submitted) interprets the refractory samples as recording ancient melt extraction, the low fO2 recorded by these samples may originate in the geologic past, perhaps even in a different tectonic setting. While LREE enrichment in the refractory harzburgites [2] provides evidence for refertilization by an infiltrating melt that could have recently imprinted reducing conditions, we see no corresponding increase in TiO2 content in the spinels, which weakens this hypothesis. Further research on additional refractory harzburgites is needed to constrain whether the reduced nature of these samples is telling us something about the effect of extreme melt extraction on fO2 at ridges, or whether these samples record a unique history that obscures processes operating at ridges today. [1] Coakley and Cochran, EPSL (1998), [2] D'Errico et al., submitted, [3] Bryndzia and Wood, American Journal of Science (1990)

  3. SNC Oxygen Fugacity Recorded in Pyroxenes and its Implications for the Oxidation State of the Martian Interior: An Experimental and Analytical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCanta, M. C.; Rutherford, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the oxidation state of a magma is critical as it is one of the parameters which controls the nature and composition of the resulting crystals. In terrestrial magmatic systems, oxygen fugacity (fo2) is known to vary by over nine orders of magnitude. With variations of this magnitude, understanding the compositional differences, phase changes, and crystallization sequence variations, caused by the magma fo2, is essential in deciphering the origin of all igneous rocks. Magmatic oxidation state is of great importance in that it reflects the degree of oxidation of the source region and can provide insight into magmatic processes, such as metasomatism, degassing, and assimilation, which may have changed them. Carmichael [1991] argues that most magmas are unlikely to have their redox states altered from those of their source region. This assumption allows for estimation of the oxidation state of planetary interiors. Conversely, it is known that the fo2 of the magma can be affected by other processes, which occur outside of the source region and therefore, the oxidation state may record those too. Processes which could overprint source region fugacities include melt dehydrogenation or other volatile loss, water or melt infiltration, or assimilation of oxidized or reduced wallrock. Understanding which of these processes is responsible for the redox state of a magma can provide crucial information regarding igneous processes and other forces active in the region. The composition of the SNC basalts and their widely varying proposed oxidation states raise some interesting questions. Do the SNC meteorites have an oxidized or reduced signature? What was the oxygen fugacity of the SNC source region at the time of melt generation? Is the fugacity calculated for the various SNC samples the fugacity of the magma source region or was it overprinted by later events? Are there different oxidation states in the Martian interior or a single one? This proposal seeks to

  4. The effect of oxygen fugacity on the rheological evolution of crystallizing basaltic melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolzenburg, S.; Di Genova, D.; Giordano, D.; Hess, K. U.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2018-04-01

    Storage and transport of silicate melts in the Earth's crust and their emplacement on the planet's surface occur almost exclusively at sub-liquidus temperatures. At these conditions, the melts undergo crystallization under a wide range of cooling-rates, deformation-rates, and oxygen fugacities (fO2). Oxygen fugacity is known to influence the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization in magmas and lavas. Yet, its influence on sub-liquidus rheology remains largely uncharted. We present the first rheological characterization of crystallizing lavas along natural cooling paths and deformation-rates and at varying fO2. Specifically, we report on apparent viscosity measurements for two crystallizing magmatic suspensions 1) at log ⁡ fO2 of -9.15 (quartz-fayalite-magnetite buffer, QFM, -2.1) and 2) in air. These fugacities span a range of reduced to oxidized conditions pertinent to magma migration and lava emplacement. We find that: 1) crystallization at constant cooling-rates results in a quasi-exponential increase in the apparent viscosity of the magmatic suspensions until they achieve their rheological cut off temperature (Tcutoff), where the melt effectively solidifies 2) the rheological departure and Tcutoff increase with increasing fO2 and 3) increasing fO2 results in decreased crystallization-rates. Based on the experimental results and by comparison with previous rheological isothermal studies we propose a generalisation of the effect of fO2 on the dynamic rheological evolution of natural magmatic and volcanic suspensions. We further discuss the implications for magmatic transport in plumbing and storage systems (e.g. conduits, dikes and magma chambers) and during lava flow emplacement.

  5. High pressure effects on the iron iron oxide and nickel nickel oxide oxygen fugacity buffers

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Andrew J; Danielson, Lisa; Righter, Kevin

    The chemical potential of oxygen in natural and experimental samples is commonly reported relative to a specific oxygen fugacity (fO{sub 2}) buffer. These buffers are precisely known at 1 bar, but under high pressures corresponding to the conditions of the deep Earth, oxygen fugacity buffers are poorly calibrated. Reference (1 bar) fO{sub 2} buffers can be integrated to high pressure conditions by integrating the difference in volume between the solid phases, provided that their equations of state are known. In this work, the equations of state and volume difference between the metal-oxide pairs Fe-FeO and Ni-NiO were measured using synchrotronmore » X-ray diffraction in a multi-anvil press and laser heated diamond anvil cells. The results were used to construct high pressure fO{sub 2} buffer curves for these systems. The difference between the Fe-FeO and Ni-NiO buffers is observed to decrease significantly, by several log units, over 80 GPa. The results can be used to improve interpretation of high pressure experiments, specifically Fe-Ni exchange between metallic and oxide phases.« less

  6. Magmatic oxygen fugacity estimated using zircon-melt partitioning of cerium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smythe, Duane J.; Brenan, James M.

    2016-11-01

    Using a newly-calibrated relation for cerium redox equilibria in silicate melts (Smythe and Brenan, 2015), and an internally-consistent model for zircon-melt partitioning of Ce, we provide a method to estimate the prevailing redox conditions during crystallization of zircon-saturated magmas. With this approach, oxygen fugacities were calculated for samples from the Bishop tuff (USA), Toba tuff (Indonesia) and the Nain plutonic suite (Canada), which typically agree with independent estimates within one log unit or better. With the success of reproducing the fO2 of well-constrained igneous systems, we have applied our Ce-in-zircon oxygen barometer to estimating the redox state of Earth's earliest magmas. Using the composition of the Jack Hills Hadean zircons, combined with estimates of their parental magma composition, we determined the fO2 during zircon crystallization to be between FMQ -1.0 to +2.5 (where FMQ is the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer). Of the parental magmas considered, Archean tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) compositions yield zircon-melt partitioning most similar to well-constrained modern suites (e.g., Sano et al., 2002). Although broadly consistent with previous redox estimates from the Jack Hills zircons, our results provide a more precise determination of fO2, narrowing the range for Hadean parental magmas by more than 8 orders of magnitude. Results suggest that relatively oxidized magmatic source regions, similar in oxidation state to that of 3.5 Ga komatiite suites, existed by ∼4.4 Ga.

  7. Determination of Oxygen Fugacity using Olivine-Melt Equilibrium: Implications for the Redox States of Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt, Ocean Island Basalt, and Island Arc Basalt Mantle Source Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterman, K. J.; Bryson, S.; Rilling-Hall, S.; Barton, M.

    2017-12-01

    In order to connect volcanic rocks to their mantle sources, it is essential to consider redox equilibria and their dependence on temperature, pressure, chemical composition, and oxygen fugacity. Oxygen fugacity (fO2) is an intensive variable that strongly affects the behavior of those elements in magmas that are sensitive to changes in redox state, such as Fe, and therefore Mg-Fe silicates, such as olivine. Since fO2 plays an important role in fractional crystallization, in principle it is possible to estimate fO2 from analyses of olivine in equilibrium with the melt. This research describes a new method based on this principle called the Olivine-Melt Equilibrium Method. The Fe3+ and Fe2+ contents of melt in equilibrium with olivine are calculated from the relationship of Gee and Sack (1988) that describes the partitioning of Mg and Fe2+ between olivine and melt. The Fe3+ and Fe2+ contents of the melt are then used to calculate the fO2 at which olivine and melt are in equilibrium using the model of Kress and Carmichael (1991) for the relationship between Fe3+/Fe2+ , fO2, T, P, and melt composition. We have calculated oxygen fugacities from published analyses of coexisting glass and olivine pairs in 1020 samples from three different tectonic settings. The results (expressed as ΔFMQ) for Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (-1.55 ± 0.75), the East Pacific Rise (-0.65 ± 0.51), the Juan de Fuca Ridge (-0.77 ± 0.42), and the Galápagos Spreading Center (+0.08 ± 0.48) agree with results obtained using other methods and average -1.09 ± 0.89. Ocean Island Basalts from Iceland and the Galápagos Islands (ΔFMQ = -0.43 ± 0.71 and -0.33 ± 0.35 respectively) also yield values consistent with those obtained by other methods and fall in the same range as MORB. However, lavas from the Canary Islands are more oxidized than typical MORB and OIB, with values (average = +0.68 ± 0.52) approaching those for island arc magmas. We obtain ΔFMQ = +1.03 ± 0.52 for

  8. The Effect of Pressure on Iron Speciation in Silicate Melts at a Fixed Oxygen Fugacity: The Possibility of a Redox Profile Through a Terrestrial Magma Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, K.; Frost, D. J.; McCammon, C. A.; Rubie, D. C.; Boffa Ballaran, T.

    2017-12-01

    As terrestrial planets accreted, mantle silicates equilibrated with core-forming metallic iron, which would have imposed a mantle oxygen fugacity below the iron-wüstite oxygen buffer. Throughout Earth's history, however, the oxygen fugacity of at least the accessible portions of the upper mantle has been 4-5 orders of magnitude higher. The process that caused the rapid increase in the redox state of the mantle soon after core formation is unclear. Here we test the possibility that pressure stabilises ferric iron in silicate melts, as has been observed in silicate minerals. A deep magma ocean, which would have likely existed towards the end of accretion, could then develop a gradient in oxygen fugacity for a fixed ferric-ferrous ratio as a result of pressure. We have equilibrated an andesitic melt with a Ru-RuO2 buffer in a multianvil press between 5 and 24 GPa. Further experiments were performed on the same melt in equilibrium with iron metal. The recovered melts were then analysed using Mössbauer spectroscopy to determine the ferric/ferrous ratio. The results show that for the Ru-RuO2 buffer at lower pressures, the ferric iron content decreases with pressure, due to a positive volume change of the reaction FeO + 1/4O2 = FeO1.5. Ferric iron content also appears to be sensitive to water content at lower pressures. However, above 15 GPa this trend apparently reverses and the ferric iron content increases with pressure. This reversal in pressure dependence would drive the oxygen fugacity of a deep magma ocean with a fixed ferric/ferrous ratio down with increasing depth. This would create a redox gradient, where the magma ocean could potentially be in equilibrium with metallic iron at its base but more oxidised in its shallower regions. Crystallisation of this magma ocean could render an upper mantle oxygen fugacity similar to that in the Earth's accessible mantle today.

  9. Diffusivities of Redox-Sensitive Elements in Basalt vs. Oxygen Fugacity Determined by LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szumila, Ian; Danielson, Lisa; Trail, Dustin

    2017-01-01

    Several diffusion experiments were conducted in a piston cylinder device across a range of oxygen fugacities (FMQ-3 FMQ-1.2, FMQ+6) at 1 GPa and 1300 C. This was done to explore the effects of oxygen fugacity (fO2) on diffusivity of redox sensitive trace elements. This allows investigation of how these elements diffuse across the fO2 range encountered in different reservoirs on planets and moons in our solar system. The University of Rochester LA-ICP-MS system was used for analysis of samples. Analyses were conducted using an Agilent 7900 quadrupole mass spectrometer connected to a Photon Machines 193 nm G2 laser ablation (LA) system equipped with a HelEx 2-volume sample chamber. Spots used were 35 micrometers circles spaced at 65 micrometers intervals. Laser fluence was 7.81 J/cm^2 with a rep rate of 10 Hz. The iolite software package was used to reduce data collected from laser ablation analysis of experiments with Si-29 used as the internal standard isotope. Iolite's global fit module was used to simultaneously fit elements' diffusivities in each experiment while keeping the Matano interface constant. Elements analysed include V, Nb, W, Mo, La, Ce, Pr, Sm, Eu, Gd, Ta, and W. Figures

  10. Graphite in the Bishop Tuff and its effect on postcaldera oxygen fugacity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Edward; Ryan-Davis, Juliet; Harlow, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Several cubic kilometers of Paleozoic graphite-bearing argillitic country rocks are present as lithic fragments in Bishop Tuff ignimbrite and fallout. The lithics were entrained by the 650 km3 of rhyolite magma that vented during the 5- to 6-day-long, caldera-forming eruption at Long Valley, California. The caldera is floored by a 350 km2 roof plate that collapsed during the eruption and consists in large part of the Paleozoic strata that provided the abundant hornfelsed metapelitic lithic clasts in the tuff. Graphite has been identified by Raman spectroscopy, electron-dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction as an irregularly dispersed component in the small fraction of Bishop Tuff pumice that is dark-colored. Carbon concentration has been determined in pumice, lithics, and wall rocks. Values of δ13C range from –21‰ to –29‰ Vienna Peedee Belemnite (VPDB) for pumice, lithics, and argillitic wall rocks, reflecting the biogenic origin of the reduced carbon in oxygen-limited black Paleozoic marine mudrocks. Carbonate contents, measured separately, are negligible in fresh pumice and lithics. Microprobe analyses of titanomagnetite-ilmenite pairs show that oxygen-fugacity values of numerous batches of postcaldera Early Rhyolite (750–640 ka; ~100 km3) are up to one log unit more reduced than those of the temperature–oxygen fugacity (T-fO2) array of the Bishop Tuff (767 ka), despite similar major-element compositions and Fe-Ti–oxide temperature ranges. All of the many batches of Early Rhyolite, which erupted episodically over an interval of ~125,000 years, yield the reduced fO2 values, indicating that reaction with graphite lowered magmatic fO2 after the caldera-forming eruption but before the first eruption of Early Rhyolite. It is inferred that reaction of postcaldera rhyolite magma with the reduced carbon in a great mass of subsided roof rocks lowered its fO2. It is suggested that comparable effects could have attended caldera collapse of other

  11. Oxygen buffering of Kilauea volcanic gases and the oxygen fugacity of Kilauea basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, T.M.

    1993-02-01

    Volcanic gases collected during episode 1 of the Puu Oo eruption along the east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, have uniform C-O-H-S-Cl-F compositions that are sharply depleted in CO[sub 2]. The CO[sub 2]-poor gases are typical of Type II volcanic gases (GERLACH and GRAEBER, 1985) and were emitted from evolved magma stored for a prolonged period of time in the east rift zone after releasing CO[sub 2]-rich gases during an earlier period of temporary residence in the summit magma chamber. The samples are remarkably free of contamination by atmospheric gases and meteoric water. Thermodynamic evaluation of the analytical datamore » shows that the episode 1 gases have equilibrium compositions appropriate for temperatures between 935 and 1032[degrees]C. Open- and closed-system equilibrium models of species distributions for the episode 1 gases show unequivocally that coexisting lavas buffered the gas oxygen fugacities during cooling. These models indicate that the F[sub o[sub 2

  12. Control and monitoring of oxygen fugacity in piston cylinder experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matjuschkin, Vladimir; Brooker, Richard A.; Tattitch, Brian; Blundy, Jon D.; Stamper, Charlotte C.

    2015-01-01

    We present a newly developed capsule design that resolves some common problems associated with the monitoring and control of oxygen fugacity ( fO2) in high-pressure piston cylinder experiments. The new fO2 control assembly consists of an AuPd outer capsule enclosing two inner capsules: one of AuPd capsule containing the experimental charge (including some water), and the other of Pt containing a solid oxygen buffer plus water. The inner capsules are separated by crushable alumina. The outer capsule is surrounded by a Pyrex sleeve to simultaneously minimise hydrogen loss from the cell and carbon infiltration from the graphite furnace. Controlled fO2 experiments using this cell design were carried out at 1.0 GPa and 1,000 °C. We used NiPd, CoPd and (Ni, Mg)O fO2 sensors, whose pressure sensitivity is well calibrated, to monitor the redox states achieved in experiments buffered by Re-ReO2, Ni-NiO and Co-CoO, respectively. Results for the fO2 sensors are in good agreement with the intended fO2 established by the buffer, demonstrating excellent control for durations of 24-48 h, with uncertainties less than ± 0.3 log bar units of fO2.

  13. Measured oxygen fugacities of the Angra dos Reis achondrite as a function of temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, R.; Stephen, Huebner J.; Sato, M.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the oxygen fugacity (f{hook}O2) as a function of temperature (T) were made on an interior bulk sample of the cumulate achondrite, Angra dos Reis. Data clustered between the f{hook}O2-T relationship of the iron-wu??stite assemblage and 1.2 log atm units above iron-wu??stite. Interpretation of the data indicates that, throughout most of the cooling history of the meteorite, f{hook}O2 values were defined by equilibria involving iron-bearing species at values close to the f{hook}O2 of the assemblage iron-wu??stite. Measured f{hook}O2 data are compatible with crystallization and cooling at pressures greater than 50 bars. ?? 1977.

  14. The effect of water activity and oxygen fugacity on the phase relations and oxidation state of Fe in parental ferrobasaltic magma of Skaergaard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botcharnikov, R.; Koepke, J.; Holtz, F.; McCammon, C.

    2003-04-01

    the water-bearing melt with decreasing oxygen fugacity is more pronounced than that calculated for dry melts after [4]. [1] Toplis MJ &Carroll MR, J. Petrol., 36, 1137-1170, 1995. [2] Lattard D &Partsch GM, Eur. J. Mineral., 13, 467-478, 2001. [3] Berndt J et al., Am. Mineral., 87, 1717-1726, 2002. [4] Kress VC &Carmichael ISE, Contr.Min.Petrol., 108, 82-92, 1991.

  15. Viscosity of carbonate-rich melts under different oxygen fugacity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Genova, Danilo; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-04-01

    Viscosity is a fundamental property of many materials and its changes affects the fluid dynamics of natural system as well as industrial processes. The mobility of carbonatitic melts, which are carbonate-rich and very fluid melts, has attracted renewed interest in both earth science and industry. In fact, these melts are considered the main transport agent of carbon from the mantle to the crust and may be intimately linked to the generation of kimberlites. At the same time lithium, potassium and sodium carbonate are used as electrolytes in molten carbonate fuel cells which operate at high temperatures (~650° C) for the production of electricity without CO2 emissions. Accurate measurement of the transport property (i.e. viscosity) of carbonatitic melts is a priority in order to understand the carbonatite mobility and reaction rates. Additionally, obtaining accurate viscosity measurements of such low viscosity melts is however an experimental challenge due to volatility, very low torques and chemical melt instability in the viscometer. To overcome these limitations we have customized a Modular Compact Rheometer (MCR 502 from Anton Paar) ad hoc equipped with 2 narrow gap concentric-cylinder geometries of steel and Pt-Au. The rheometer is characterized by an air-bearing-supported synchronous motor with torque ranging between 0.01 μNm and 230 mNm (resolution of 0.1 nNm), achieving very low viscosity measurements in the order of mPa s, temperatures up to 1000° C and shear rates ranging between 1 and 100 sec-1. These experimental conditions well match the temperature-viscosity-shear rate window relevant for carbonate melts. Here we present the calibration of the rheometer and the results of a rheological characterization study on a series of very low viscous synthetic and natural carbonatitic melts at different oxygen fugacity (air and CO2 saturated atmosphere). Viscosity measurements on carbonate melts have been performed in the temperature range between ~650 and 1000

  16. Magma Ocean Depth and Oxygen Fugacity in the Early Earth--Implications for Biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Righter, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    A large class of elements, referred to as the siderophile (iron-loving) elements, in the Earth's mantle can be explained by an early deep magma ocean on the early Earth in which the mantle equilibrated with metallic liquid (core liquid). This stage would have affected the distribution of some of the classic volatile elements that are also essential ingredients for life and biochemistry - H, C, S, and N. Estimates are made of the H, C, S, and N contents of Earth's early mantle after core formation, considering the effects of variable temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity, and composition on their partitioning. Assessment is made of whether additional, exogenous, sources are required to explain the observed mantle concentrations, and areas are identified where additional data and experimentation would lead to an improved understanding of this phase of Earth's history.

  17. Fugacity ratio estimations for high-melting rigid aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Van Noort, Paul C M

    2004-07-01

    Prediction of the environmental fate of organic compounds requires knowledge of their tendency to stay in the gas and water phase. Vapor pressure and aqueous solubility are commonly used descriptors for these processes. Depending on the type of distribution process, values for either the pure solid state or the (subcooled) liquid state have to be used. Values for the (subcooled) liquid state can be calculated from those for the solid state, and vice versa, using the fugacity ratio. Fugacity ratios are usually calculated from the entropy of fusion and the melting point. For polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorobenzenes, chlorodibenzofuranes, and chlorodibenzo(p)dioxins, fugacity ratios calculated using experimental entropies of fusion were systematically less than those obtained from a thermodynamically more rigorous approach using heat capacity data. The deviation was more than 1 order of magnitude at the highest melting point. The use of a universal value for the entropy of fusion of 56 J/molK resulted in either over or underestimation by up to more than 1 order of magnitude. A simple correction factor, based on the melting point only, was derived. This correction factor allowed the fugacity ratios to be estimated from experimental entropies of fusion and melting point with an accuracy better than 0.1-0.2 log units. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Using Vanadium in Spinel as a Sensor of Oxygen Fugacity in Meteorites: Applications to Mars, Vesta, and Other Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Danielson, L.; Le, L.; Newville, M.; Pando, K.

    2009-01-01

    Igneous and metamorphic rocks commonly contain a mineral assemblage that allows oxygen fugacity to be calculated or constrained such as FeTi oxides, olivine-opx-spinel, or some other oxybarometer [1]. Some rocks, however, contain a limited mineral assemblage and do not provide constraints on fO2 using mineral equilibria. Good examples of the latter are orthopyroxenites or dunites, such as diogenites, ALH 84001, chassignites, or brachinites. In fact it is no surprise that the fO2 of many of these samples is not well known, other than being "reduced" and below the metal saturation value. In order to bridge this gap in our understanding, we have initiated a study of V in chromites in natural meteorite samples. Because the V pre-edge peak intensity and energy in chromites varies with fO2 (Fig. 1) [2], and this has been calibrated over a large fO 2 range, we can apply this relation to rocks for which we otherwise have no fO2 constraints.

  19. Fe3+ partitioning during basalt differentiation on Mars: insights into the oxygen fugacity of the shergottite mantle source(s).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medard, E.; Martin, A. M.; Collinet, M.; Righter, K.; Grove, T. L.; Newville, M.; Lanzirotti, A.

    2014-12-01

    The partitioning of Fe3+ between silicate melts and minerals is a key parameter to understand magmatic processes, as it is directly linked to oxygen fugacity (fO2). fO2 is, a priori, not a constant during magmatic processes, and its evolution depends on the compatibility of Fe3+. We have experimentally determined the partition coefficients of Fe3+ between augite, pigeonite, and silicate melt, and use them to constrain the fO2of the martian mantle and of differentiated martian basalts. A series of experiments on various martian basaltic compositions were performed under controlled fO2 in one-atmosphere gas-mixing furnaces. Fe3+/Fetotal ratios in silicate melts and pyroxenes were determined using synchrotron Fe K-edge XANES on the 13 IDE beamline at APS (Argonne). Fe3+ mineral/melt partition coefficients (DFe3+) for augite and pigeonite were obtained with a relative uncertainty of 10-15 %. Both are constant over a wide range of oxygen fugacity (FMQ-2.5 to FMQ+2.0). DFe3+ for augite and pigeonite are broadly consistent with previous data by [1], but DFe3+ for augite is significantly higher (by a factor of 2) than the indirect determinations of [2]. Since augites in [2] are extremely poor in iron compared to ours (0.18 wt% vs 13 wt% FeO), this strongly suggests that DFe3+ varies with Mg#, indicating that Fe3+is more compatible than previously thought in terrestrial mantle pyroxenes (3 wt% FeO) as well. Crystallization paths for shergottite parental melts have been calculated using the MELTS software, combined with our partition coefficients. fO2 in the residual melts is calculated from the models of [3] and [4]. It stays relatively constant at high temperatures, but increases very strongly during the latest stages of crystallization. These results explain the large range of fO2 determined in enriched shergottites. In order to estimate the fO2 of the martian mantle, only the highest temperature phases in the most primitive martian samples should be used. The most

  20. Fugacity and concentration gradients in a gravity field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    Equations are reviewed which show that at equilibrium fugacity and concentration gradients can exist in gravitational fields. At equilibrium, the logarithm of the ratio of the fugacities of a species at two different locations in a gravitational field is proportional to the difference in the heights of the two locations and the molecular weight of the species. An analogous relation holds for the concentration ratios in a multicomponent system. The ratio is calculated for a variety of examples. The kinetics for the general process are derived, and the time required to approach equilibrium is calculated for several systems. The following special topics are discussed: ionic solutions, polymers, multiphase systems, hydrostatic pressure, osmotic pressure, and solubility gradients in a gravity field.

  1. Oxygen Fugacity at High Pressure: Equations of State of Metal-Oxide Pairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell A. J.; Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; Wang, Y.; Davidson, G.; Wang, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen fugacity (fO2) varies by orders of magnitude in nature, and can induce profound changes in the chemical state of a substance, and also in the chemical equilibrium of multicomponent systems. One prominent area in high pressure geochemistry, in which fO2 is widely recognized as a principal controlling factor, is that of metal-silicate partitioning of siderophile trace elements (e.g., [1]). Numerous experiments have shown that high pressures and temperatures can significantly affect metal/silicate partitioning of siderophile and moderately siderophile elements. Parameterization of these experimental results over P, T, X, and fO2 can allow the observed siderophile element composition of the mantle to be associated with particular thermodynamic conditions [2]. However, this is best done only if quantitative control exists over each thermodynamic variable relevant to the experiments. The fO2 values for many of these partitioning experiments were determined relative to a particular metal-oxide buffer (e.g., Fe-FeO (IW), Ni-NiO (NNO), Co-CoO, Re-ReO2 (RRO)), but the parameterization of all experimental results is weakened by the fact that the pressure-induced relative changes between these buffer systems are imprecisely known.

  2. Semi-empirical estimation of organic compound fugacity ratios at environmentally relevant system temperatures.

    PubMed

    van Noort, Paul C M

    2009-06-01

    Fugacity ratios of organic compounds are used to calculate (subcooled) liquid properties, such as solubility or vapour pressure, from solid properties and vice versa. They can be calculated from the entropy of fusion, the melting temperature, and heat capacity data for the solid and the liquid. For many organic compounds, values for the fusion entropy are lacking. Heat capacity data are even scarcer. In the present study, semi-empirical compound class specific equations were derived to estimate fugacity ratios from molecular weight and melting temperature for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated benzenes, biphenyls, dibenzo[p]dioxins and dibenzofurans. These equations estimate fugacity ratios with an average standard error of about 0.05 log units. In addition, for compounds with known fusion entropy values, a general semi-empirical correction equation based on molecular weight and melting temperature was derived for estimation of the contribution of heat capacity differences to the fugacity ratio. This equation estimates the heat capacity contribution correction factor with an average standard error of 0.02 log units for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated benzenes, biphenyls, dibenzo[p]dioxins and dibenzofurans.

  3. Assessment of the air-soil partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a paddy field using a modified fugacity sampler.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Luo, Chunling; Wang, Shaorui; Liu, Junwen; Pan, Suhong; Li, Jun; Ming, Lili; Zhang, Gan; Li, Xiangdong

    2015-01-06

    Rice, one of the most widely cultivated crops, has received great attention in contaminant uptake from soil and air, especially for the special approaches used for its cultivation. The dry-wet alternation method can influence the air-soil partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the paddy ecosystem. Here, we modified a fugacity sampler to investigate the air-surface in situ partitioning of ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at different growth stages in a suburban paddy field in South China. The canopy of rice can form a closed space, which acts like a chamber that can force the air under the canopy to equilibrate with the field surface. When we compared the fugacities calculated using a fugacity model of the partition coefficients to the measured fugacities, we observed similar trends in the variation, but significantly different values between different growing stages, especially during the flooding stages. However, the measured and calculated fugacity fractions were comparable when uncertainties in our calculations were considered, with the exception of the high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. The measured fugacity fractions suggested that the HMW PAHs were also closed to equilibrium between the paddy field and atmosphere. The modified fugacity sampler provided a novel way of accurately determining the in situ air-soil partitioning of SVOCs in a wet paddy field.

  4. Oxygen Fugacity Variation From Mantle Transition Zone To Ocean Ridges Recorded By In Situ Diamond-Bearing Peridotite Of Indus Ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S.; Basu, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    Our recently discovered transition zone ( 410 - 660 Km) -derived peridotites in the Indus Ophiolite, Ladakh Himalaya [1] provide a unique opportunity to study changes in oxygen fugacity from shallow mantle beneath ocean ridges to mantle transition zone. We found in situ diamond, graphite pseudomorphs after diamond crystals, hydrocarbon (C - H) and hydrogen (H2) fluid inclusions in ultra-high pressure (UHP) peridotites that occur in the mantle - section of the Indus ophiolite and sourced from the mantle transition zone [2]. Diamond occurs as octahedral inclusion in orthoenstatite of one of these peridotites. The graphite pseudomorphs after diamond crystals and primary hydrocarbon (C-H), and hydrogen (H2) fluids are included in olivine of this rock. Hydrocarbon fluids are also present as inclusions in high pressure clinoenstatite (> 8 GPa). The association of primary hydrocarbon and hydrogen fluid inclusions in the UHP peridotites suggest that their source-environment was highly reduced at the base of the upper mantle. We suggest that during mantle upwelling beneath Neo Tethyan spreading center, the hydrocarbon fluid was oxidized and precipitated diamond. The smaller diamonds converted to graphite at shallower depth due to size, high temperature and elevated oxygen fugacity. This process explains how deep mantle upwelling can oxidize reduced fluid carried from the transition zone to produce H2O - CO2. The H2O - CO2 fluids induce deep melting in the source of the mid oceanic ridge basalts (MORB) that create the oceanic crust. References: [1] Das S, Mukherjee B K, Basu A R, Sen K, Geol Soc London, Sp 412, 271 - 286; 2015. [2] Das S, Basu A R, Mukherjee B K, Geology 45 (8), 755 - 758; 2017.

  5. Ultra-oxidized rocks in subduction mélanges? Decoupling between oxygen fugacity and oxygen availability in a Mn-rich metasomatic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumiati, Simone; Godard, Gaston; Martin, Silvana; Malaspina, Nadia; Poli, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    The manganese ore of Praborna (Italian Western Alps) is embedded within a metasedimentary sequence belonging to a subduction mélange equilibrated at high-pressure (HP) conditions (ca. 2 GPa) during the Alpine orogenesis. The pervasive veining of the ore and the growth of "pegmatoid" HP minerals suggest that these Mn-rich rocks strongly interacted with slab-derived fluids during HP metamorphism. These rocks are in textural and chemical equilibrium with the veins and in contact with sulphide- and magnetite-bearing metabasites at the bottom of the sequence. They contain braunite (Mn2+Mn3+6SiO12), quartz, pyroxmangite (Mn2+SiO3), and minor hematite, omphacite, piemontite and spessartine-rich garnet. Sulphides are absent in the Mn-rich rocks, whereas sulphates (barite, celestine) occur together with As- and Sb-oxides and silicates. This rock association provides an excellent natural laboratory to constrain the redox conditions in subducting oceanic slab mélanges at HP and fluid-present conditions. Similarly to Fe-bearing minerals, Mn oxides and silicates can be regarded as natural redox-sensors. A thermodynamic dataset for these Mn-bearing minerals is built, using literature data as well as new thermal expansion parameters for braunite aud pyrolusite, derived from experiments. Based on this dataset and the observed assemblages at Praborna, thermodynamic calculations show that these mélange rocks are characterised by ultra-oxidized conditions (∆FMQ up to + 12.7) if the chemical potential of oxygen (or the oxygen fugacity fO2) is accounted for. On the other hand, if the molar quantity of oxygen is used as the independent state variable to quantify the bulk oxidation state, the ore appears only moderately oxidized and comparable to typical subduction-slab mafic eclogites. Such an apparent contradiction may happen in rock systems whenever oxygen is improperly considered as a perfectly mobile component. In the Earth's mantle, redox reactions take place mainly between

  6. Redox variations in Mauna Kea lavas, the oxygen fugacity of the Hawaiian plume, and the role of volcanic gases in Earth's oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Brounce, Maryjo; Stolper, Edward; Eiler, John

    2017-08-22

    The behavior of C, H, and S in the solid Earth depends on their oxidation states, which are related to oxygen fugacity ( f O 2 ). Volcanic degassing is a source of these elements to Earth's surface; therefore, variations in mantle f O 2 may influence the f O 2 at Earth's surface. However, degassing can impact magmatic f O 2 before or during eruption, potentially obscuring relationships between the f O 2 of the solid Earth and of emitted gases and their impact on surface f O 2 We show that low-pressure degassing resulted in reduction of the f O 2 of Mauna Kea magmas by more than an order of magnitude. The least degassed magmas from Mauna Kea are more oxidized than midocean ridge basalt (MORB) magmas, suggesting that the upper mantle sources of Hawaiian magmas have higher f O 2 than MORB sources. One explanation for this difference is recycling of material from the oxidized surface to the deep mantle, which is then returned to the surface as a component of buoyant plumes. It has been proposed that a decreasing pressure of volcanic eruptions led to the oxygenation of the atmosphere. Extension of our findings via modeling of degassing trends suggests that a decrease in eruption pressure would not produce this effect. If degassing of basalts were responsible for the rise in oxygen, it requires that Archean magmas had at least two orders of magnitude lower f O 2 than modern magmas. Estimates of f O 2 of Archean magmas are not this low, arguing for alternative explanations for the oxygenation of the atmosphere.

  7. Redox variations in Mauna Kea lavas, the oxygen fugacity of the Hawaiian plume, and the role of volcanic gases in Earth's oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brounce, Maryjo; Stolper, Edward; Eiler, John

    2017-08-01

    The behavior of C, H, and S in the solid Earth depends on their oxidation states, which are related to oxygen fugacity (fO2). Volcanic degassing is a source of these elements to Earth’s surface; therefore, variations in mantle fO2 may influence the fO2 at Earth’s surface. However, degassing can impact magmatic fO2 before or during eruption, potentially obscuring relationships between the fO2 of the solid Earth and of emitted gases and their impact on surface fO2. We show that low-pressure degassing resulted in reduction of the fO2 of Mauna Kea magmas by more than an order of magnitude. The least degassed magmas from Mauna Kea are more oxidized than midocean ridge basalt (MORB) magmas, suggesting that the upper mantle sources of Hawaiian magmas have higher fO2 than MORB sources. One explanation for this difference is recycling of material from the oxidized surface to the deep mantle, which is then returned to the surface as a component of buoyant plumes. It has been proposed that a decreasing pressure of volcanic eruptions led to the oxygenation of the atmosphere. Extension of our findings via modeling of degassing trends suggests that a decrease in eruption pressure would not produce this effect. If degassing of basalts were responsible for the rise in oxygen, it requires that Archean magmas had at least two orders of magnitude lower fO2 than modern magmas. Estimates of fO2 of Archean magmas are not this low, arguing for alternative explanations for the oxygenation of the atmosphere.

  8. Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets, July 20-23,2004, Santa Fe, New Mexico. The contents include: 1) Experimental Constraints on Oxygen and Other Light Element Partitioning During Planetary Core Formation; 2) In Situ Determination of Fe(3+)/SigmaFe of Spinels by Electron Microprobe: An Evaluation of the Flank Method; 3) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Large-Strain Deformation and Recrystallization of Olivine; 4) Plagioclase-Liquid Trace Element Oxygen Barometry and Oxygen Behaviour in Closed and Open System Magmatic Processes; 5) Core Formation in the Earth: Constraints from Ni and Co; 6) Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of the Terrestrial Planets; 7) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Electrical Conduction of Olivine and Implications for Earth s Mantle; 8) Redox Chemical Diffusion in Silicate Melts: The Impact of the Semiconductor Condition; 9) Ultra-High Temperature Effects in Earth s Magma Ocean: Pt and W Partitioning; 10) Terrestrial Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Variations: Primordial Values, Systematics, Subsolidus Effects, Planetary Comparisons, and the Role of Water; 11) Redox State of the Moon s Interior; 12) How did the Terrestrial Planets Acquire Their Water?; 13) Molecular Oxygen Mixing Ratio and Its Seasonal Variability in the Martian Atmosphere; 14) Exchange Between the Atmosphere and the Regolith of Mars: Discussion of Oxygen and Sulfur Isotope Evidence; 15) Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Systematics of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Meteoric Waters: Evidence from North Texas; 16) Implications of Isotopic and Redox Heterogeneities in Silicate Reservoirs on Mars; 17) Oxygen Isotopic Variation of the Terrestrial Planets; 18) Redox Exchanges in Hydrous Magma; 19) Hydrothermal Systems on Terrestrial Planets: Lessons from Earth; 20) Oxygen in Martian Meteorites: A Review of Results from Mineral Equilibria Oxybarometers; 21) Non-Linear Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes Implanted in

  9. Redox variations in Mauna Kea lavas, the oxygen fugacity of the Hawaiian plume, and the role of volcanic gases in Earth’s oxygenation

    SciTech Connect

    Brounce, Maryjo; Stolper, Edward; Eiler, John

    The behavior of C, H, and S in the solid Earth depends on their oxidation states, which are related to oxygen fugacity (fO2). Volcanic degassing is a source of these elements to Earth’s surface; therefore, variations in mantle fO2 may influence the fO2 at Earth’s surface. However, degassing can impact magmatic fO2 before or during eruption, potentially obscuring relationships between the fO2 of the solid Earth and of emitted gases and their impact on surface fO2. We show that low-pressure degassing resulted in reduction of the fO2 of Mauna Kea magmas by more than an order of magnitude. The leastmore » degassed magmas from Mauna Kea are more oxidized than midocean ridge basalt (MORB) magmas, suggesting that the upper mantle sources of Hawaiian magmas have higher fO2 than MORB sources. One explanation for this difference is recycling of material from the oxidized surface to the deep mantle, which is then returned to the surface as a component of buoyant plumes. It has been proposed that a decreasing pressure of volcanic eruptions led to the oxygenation of the atmosphere. Extension of our findings via modeling of degassing trends suggests that a decrease in eruption pressure would not produce this effect. If degassing of basalts were responsible for the rise in oxygen, it requires that Archean magmas had at least two orders of magnitude lower fO2 than modern magmas. Estimates of fO2 of Archean magmas are not this low, arguing for alternative explanations for the oxygenation of the atmosphere.« less

  10. Redox variations in Mauna Kea lavas, the oxygen fugacity of the Hawaiian plume, and the role of volcanic gases in Earth’s oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Stolper, Edward; Eiler, John

    2017-01-01

    The behavior of C, H, and S in the solid Earth depends on their oxidation states, which are related to oxygen fugacity (fO2). Volcanic degassing is a source of these elements to Earth’s surface; therefore, variations in mantle fO2 may influence the fO2 at Earth’s surface. However, degassing can impact magmatic fO2 before or during eruption, potentially obscuring relationships between the fO2 of the solid Earth and of emitted gases and their impact on surface fO2. We show that low-pressure degassing resulted in reduction of the fO2 of Mauna Kea magmas by more than an order of magnitude. The least degassed magmas from Mauna Kea are more oxidized than midocean ridge basalt (MORB) magmas, suggesting that the upper mantle sources of Hawaiian magmas have higher fO2 than MORB sources. One explanation for this difference is recycling of material from the oxidized surface to the deep mantle, which is then returned to the surface as a component of buoyant plumes. It has been proposed that a decreasing pressure of volcanic eruptions led to the oxygenation of the atmosphere. Extension of our findings via modeling of degassing trends suggests that a decrease in eruption pressure would not produce this effect. If degassing of basalts were responsible for the rise in oxygen, it requires that Archean magmas had at least two orders of magnitude lower fO2 than modern magmas. Estimates of fO2 of Archean magmas are not this low, arguing for alternative explanations for the oxygenation of the atmosphere. PMID:28784788

  11. Oxygen fugacity of mare basalts and the lunar mantle application of a new microscale oxybarometer based on the valence state of vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, C.K.; Karner, J.; Papike, J.J.

    2004-05-25

    Using the valence state of vanadium on a microscale in lunar volcanic glasses we have developed another approach to estimating the oxygen fugacity of mare basalts. The ability to estimate oxygen fugacities for mare basalts and to extend these observations to the lunar mantle is limited using bulk analysis techniques based on buffering assemblages or the valence state of iron. These limitations are due to reequilibration of mineral assemblages at subsolidus conditions, deviations of mineral compositions from thermodynamic ideality, size requirements, and the limits of the iron valence at very low fO{sub 2}. Still, these approaches have been helpful andmore » indicate that mare basalts crystallized at fO{sub 2} between the iron-wuestite buffer (IW) and the ilmenite breakdown reaction (ilmenite = rutile + iron). It has also been inferred from these estimates that the lunar mantle is also highly reduced lying at conditions below IW. Generally, these data cannot be used to determine if the mare basalts become increasingly reduced during transport from their mantle source and eruption at the lunar surface and if there are differences in fO{sub 2} among mare basalts or mantle sources. One promising approach to determining the fO2 of mare basalts is using the mean valence of vanadium (2+, 3+, 4+, 5+) determined on spots of a few micrometers in diameter using synchrotron x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. The average valence state of V in basaltic glasses is a function of fO{sub 2}, temperature, V coordination, and melt composition. Here, we report the initial results of this approach applied to lunar pyroclastic glasses.« less

  12. Fugacity of H2O from 0° to 350°C at the liquid-vapor equilibrium and at 1 atmosphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hass, John L.

    1970-01-01

    The fugacity and fugacity coefficient of H2O at the liquid-vapor equilibrium, the fugacity and the Gibbs free energy of formation of H2O at 1 atm (1.01325 bars) total pressure have been calculated from published data on the physical and thermodynamic properties of H2O and are presented at ten-degree intervals from 0° to 350°C.

  13. The effect of oxygen fugacity on the partitioning of nickel and cobalt between olivine, silicate melt, and metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, Karin; Grove, Timothy L.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Recca, Steven I.; Zervas, Deborah A.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of oxygen fugacity, f(O2), on the partitioning behavior of Ni and Co between olivine, silicate melt, and metal was investigated in the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-FeO-Na2O system, an analogue of a chondrule composition from an ordinary chondrite. The conditions were 1350 C and 1 atm, with values of f(O2) varying between 10 exp -5.5 and 10 exp -12.6 atm (i.e., the f(O2) range relevant for crystal/liquid processes in terrestrial planets and meteorite parent bodies). Results of chemical analysis showed that the values of the Ni and Co partitioning coefficients begin to decrease at values of f(O2) that are about 3.9 log units below the nickel-nickel oxide and cobalt-cobalt oxide buffers, respectively, near the metal saturation for the chondrule analogue composition.

  14. Discovery Of Low Oxygen Fugacity (fo2) Mineral And Fluid Phases In Lower Mantle -Derived Early Pulse Of The Deccan Flood Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, A. R.; Das, S.

    2017-12-01

    Estimation of Earth's lower mantle mineralogy and oxygen fugacity are principally based on indirect geophysical and experimental studies. According to these studies, the mantle becomes increasingly reducing from upper to lower mantle due to the distribution of ferric (Fe3+) and ferrous (Fe2+) iron in perovskite, the dominant mineral phase in the lower mantle. However, the natural occurrence of low oxygen fugacity (fO2), lower mantle mineral and fluid phases are rare, except some for discrete inclusions in superdeep diamonds. In this study, we document that some rocks associated with plume volcanism, such as the Deccan flood basalt volcanic province, preserve the lower mantle mineral phases. We document here unusual primary texture - bearing minerals in olivine-clinopyroxene bearing picrite intrusives associated with the Deccan Traps. The olivine and clinopyroxene of these rocks have high 3He/4He ratio (R/RA 14) as well as Nd, Sr and Pb isotopes identical to those of the Réunion plume, clearly indicating their lower mantle - derivation. These rocks are the initial pulse at 68Ma of the Deccan Trap eruption [1]. Presence of unusual exsolved lamella and rectangular, vermicular intergrowths of diopside and magnetite in olivine indicate a precursory phase with higher Fe3+. The diopside part in rectangular intergrowth show presence of hydrocarbon. Trails of small graphitic carbon crystals are also present both in the cores of these olivine and diopside. We suggest that the hydrocarbons are derived from the lower mantle having much lesser fO2 than the upper mantle. This study unequivocally indicates that direct lower mantle mineralogical signature, including their fo2 can be obtained from early pulse of plume volcanism. References: [1] Basu A R, Renne P R, Dasgupta D K, Teichmann F, Poreda R J, Science 261, 902 - 906; 1993.

  15. The Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Redox State of Multivalent Cations During the Crystallization of Primitive Shergottitic Liquids at Various (f)O2. Insights into the (f)O2 Fugacity of the Martian Mantle and Crustal Influences on Redox Conditions of Martian Magmas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Bell, A. S.; Burger, P. V.; Papike, J. J.; Jones, J.; Le, L.; Muttik, N.

    2016-01-01

    The (f)O2 [oxygen fugacity] of crystallization for martian basalts has been estimated in various studies to range from IW-1 to QFM+4 [1-3]. A striking geochemical feature of the shergottites is the large range in initial Sr isotopic ratios and initial epsilon(sup Nd) values. Studies by observed that within the shergottite group the (f)O2 [oxygen fugacity] of crystallization is highly correlated with these chemical and isotopic characteristics with depleted shergottites generally crystallizing at reduced conditions and enriched shergottites crystallizing under more oxidizing conditions. More recent work has shown that (f)O2 [oxygen fugacity] changed during the crystallization of these magmas from one order of magnitude in Y980459 (Y98) to several orders of magnitude in Larkman Nunatak 06319. These real or apparent variations within single shergottitic magmas have been attributed to mixing of a xenocrystic olivine component, volatile loss-water disassociation, auto-oxidation during crystallization of mafic phases, and assimilation of an oxidizing crustal component (e.g. sulfate). In contrast to the shergottites, augite basalts such as NWA 8159 are highly depleted yet appear to be highly oxidized (e.g. QFM+4). As a first step in attempting to unravel petrologic complexities that influence (f)O2 [oxygen fugacity] in martian magmas, this study explores the effect of (f)O2 [oxygen fugacity] on the liquid line of descent (LLD) for a primitive shergottite liquid composition (Y98). The results of this study will provide a fundamental basis for reconstructing the record of (f)O2 [oxygen fugacity] in shergottites and other martian basalts, its effect on both mineral chemistries and valence state partitioning, and a means for examining the role of crystallization (and other more complex processes) on the petrologic linkages between olivine-phyric and pyroxene-plagioclase shergottites.

  16. The Mineralogical Record of Oxygen Fugacity Variation and Alteration in Northwest Africa 8159: Evidence for Interaction Between a Mantle Derived Martian Basalt and a Crustal Component(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, Charles K.; Burger, Paul V.; Bell, Aaron S.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Agee, Carl; Simon, Justin I.; Papike, James J.

    2015-01-01

    A prominent geochemical feature of basaltic magmatism on Mars is the large range in initial Sr isotopic ratios (approx. 0.702 - 0.724) and initial epsilon-Nd values (approx. -10 to greater than +50). Within this range, the shergottites fall into three discreet subgroups. These subgroups have distinct bulk rock REE patterns, mineral chemistries (i.e. phosphate REE patterns, Ni, Co, V in olivine), oxygen fugacity of crystallization, and stable isotopes, such as O. In contrast, nakhlites and chassignites have depleted epsilon-Nd values (greater than or equal to +15), have REE patterns that are light REE enriched, and appear to have crystallized near the FMQ buffer. The characteristics of these various martian basalts have been linked to different reservoirs in the martian crust and mantle, and their interactions during the petrogenesis of these magmas. These observations pose interesting interpretive challenges to our understanding of the conditions of the martian mantle (e.g. oxygen fugacity) and the interaction of mantle derived magmas with the martian crust and surface. Martian meteorite NWA 8159 is a unique fine-grained augite basalt derived from a highly depleted mantle source as reflected in its initial epsilon-Nd value, contains a pronounced light REE depleted pattern, and crystallized presumably under very oxidizing conditions. Although considerably older than both shergottites and nahklites, it has been petrogenetically linked to both styles of martian magmatism. These unique characteristics of NWA 8159 may provide an additional perspective for deciphering the petrogenesis of martian basalts and the nature of the crust of Mars.

  17. OH in Rutile: an Oxygen and Water Barometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, E. A.; Manning, C. E.; Antignano, A.; Tropper, P.

    2005-12-01

    Dehydration of the subducting lithosphere induces oxidation and partial melting in the mantle wedge above subduction zones, and storage of water in the form of hydroxyl in high-pressure mineral phases may be an important mechanism for transfer of water to the mantle. It is therefore important to quantify water content of fluids and oxygen fugacity in subduction zones, but these variables can be difficult to measure or infer in many rocks. This study investigates the possibility of determining oxygen fugacity or water activity based on OH concentration measurements in rutile. The solubility of OH in pure rutile has been determined using rutile grains from aqueous fluid solubility experiments (Tropper and Manning 2005, Am Min, 90, 502). In pure rutile, H+ is stoichiometrically incorporated into the structure via reduction of Ti4+ to Ti3+, resulting in a change in color from pale yellow to deep blue. Synthetic rutile crystals were equilibrated in pure H2O or a H2O-NaCl solution at 1-2 GPa and 600-1100°C. The runs were unbuffered with respect to oxygen fugacity but were close to the NNO buffer (Newton and Manning 2005, J Petr, 46, 701). Rutile OH concentrations were determined using FTIR spectroscopy and the calibration of Maldener (2001, Min Pet, 71, 21). At a constant pressure of 1 GPa, OH concentrations of rutile in equilibrium with pure H2O increase exponentially from 600 to 1100°C. The data are fit with the equation [OH] = 17.7exp(4.00×10-3T) (R=0.998), where [OH] is in ppm H2O wt. and T is in °C. Increasing pressure from 1 to 2 GPa at 1100°C results in an increase in OH solubility from 1540 to 2220 ppm H2O. OH solubility in rutile decreases from 2220 to 1290 ppm H2O by lowering the water activity of the fluid from 1 to 0.49 at P = 2 GPa and T = 1100°C. Using the solubility data and the exchange reaction, Ti3+O(OH) + O2 = Ti4+O2 + <calculate ΔH = -29.2 kJ/mol, ΔS = -6.54 J/mol, and ΔV = 0.80 cm3/mol for this reaction. Preliminary models indicate

  18. MHD performance calculations with oxygen enrichment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, C. C. P.; Staiger, P. J.; Seikel, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    The impact of oxygen enrichment of the combustion air on the generator and overall plant performance was studied for the ECAS-scale MHD/steam plants. A channel optimization technique is described and the results of generator performance calculations using this technique are presented. Performance maps were generated to assess the impact of various generator parameters. Directly and separately preheated plant performance with varying O2 enrichment was calculated. The optimal level of enrichment was a function of plant type and preheat temperature. The sensitivity of overall plant performance to critical channel assumptions and oxygen plant performance characteristics was also examined.

  19. Oxygen fugacity profile of the oceanic upper mantle and the depth of redox melting beneath ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, F. A.; Cottrell, E.

    2014-12-01

    Oxygen fugacity (fO2) of a mantle mineral assemblage, controlled primarily by Fe redox chemistry, sets the depth of the diamond to carbonated melt reaction (DCO3). Near-surface fO2 recorded by primitive MORB glasses and abyssal peridotites anchor the fO2 profile of the mantle at depth. If the fO2-depth relationship of the mantle is known, then the depth of the DCO3 can be predicted. Alternatively, if the DCO3 can be detected geophysically, then its depth can be used to infer physical and chemical characteristics of upwelling mantle. We present an expanded version of a model of the fO2-depth profile of adiabatically upwelling mantle first presented by Stagno et al. (2013), kindly provided by D. Frost. The model uses a chemical mass balance and empirical fits to experimental data to calculate compositions and modes of mantle minerals at specified P, T, and bulk Fe3+/ƩFe. We added P and T dependences to the partitioning of Al and Ca to better simulate the mineralogical changes in peridotite at depth and included majorite component in garnet to increase the depth range of the model. We calculate fO2 from the mineral assemblages using the grt-ol-opx oxybarometer (Stagno et al., 2013). The onset of carbonated melting occurs at the intersection of a Fe3+/ƩFe isopleth with the DCO3. Upwelling mantle is tied to the DCO3 until all native C is oxidized to form carbonated melts by reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+. The depth of intersection of a parcel of mantle with the DCO3 is a function of bulk Fe3+/ƩFe, potential temperature, and bulk composition. We predict that fertile mantle (PUM) along a 1400 °C adiabat, with 50 ppm bulk C, and Fe3+/ƩFe = 0.05 after C oxidation begins redox melting at a depth of 250 km. The model contextualizes observations of MORB redox chemistry. Because fertile peridotite is richer in Al2O3, the Fe2O3-bearing components of garnet are diluted leading to lower fO2 at a given depth compared to refractory mantle under the same conditions. This may indicate

  20. Electrochemical measurements and thermodynamic calculations of redox equilibria in pallasite meteorites - Implications for the eucrite parent body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin; Arculus, Richard J.; Paslick, Cassi; Delano, John W.

    1990-01-01

    The intrinsic oxygen fugacity (IOF) of olivine separates from the Salta, Springwater, and Eagle Station pallasites was measured between 850 and 1150 C using oxygen-specific solid zirconia electrolytes at 100,000 Pa. Thermodynamic calculations of redox equilibria involving equalibrium pallasite assemblages are in good agreement with the experimental results and provide a lower limit to pallasite redox stability; others involving disequilibrium assemblages, suggest that pallasites experienced localized, late-stage oxidation and reduction effects. Consideration of the redox buffer metal-olivine-orthopyroxene utilizing calculated Eucrite Parent Body (EPB) mantle phase compositions indicates that small redox gradients may have existed in the EPB. Such gradients may have produced strong compositional variation within the EPB. In addition, there is apparently significant redox heterogeneity in the source area of Eagle Station Trio pallasites and Bocaiuva iron meteorites.

  1. Third Bose fugacity coefficient in one dimension, as a function of asymptotic quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Amaya-Tapia, A., E-mail: jano@fis.unam.mx; Larsen, S.Y.; Lassaut, M.

    2011-02-15

    In one of the very few exact quantum mechanical calculations of fugacity coefficients, [L.R. Dodd, A.M. Gibbs. J. Math. Phys. 15 (1974) 41] obtained b{sub 2} and b{sub 3} for a one dimensional Bose gas, subject to repulsive delta-function interactions, by direct integration of the wave functions. For b{sub 2}, we have shown [A. Amaya-Tapia, S.Y. Larsen, M. Lassaut. Mol. Phys. 103 (2005) 1301-1306. < (arXiv:physics/0405150)>] that Dodd and Gibbs' result can be obtained from a phase shift formalism, if one also includes the contribution of oscillating terms, usually contributing only in one dimension. Now, we develop an exact expressionmore » for b{sub 3}-b{sub 3}{sup 0} (where b{sub 3}{sup 0} is the free particle fugacity coefficient) in terms of sums and differences of three-body eigenphase shifts. Further, we show that if we obtain these eigenphase shifts in a Distorted-Born approximation, then, to first order, we reproduce the leading low temperature behaviour, obtained from an expansion of the twofold integral of Dodd and Gibbs. The contributions of the oscillating terms cancel. The formalism that we propose is not limited to one dimension, but seeks to provide a general method to obtain virial coefficients, fugacity coefficients, in terms of asymptotic quantities. The exact one dimensional results allow us to confirm the validity of our approach in this domain.« less

  2. Upper mantle oxygen fugacity recorded by peridotite xenoliths from oceanic islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, F. A.; Wall, K. T.; Cottrell, E.

    2017-12-01

    Oxygen fugacity (fO2) in Earth's mantle is a key variable influencing mineral and fluid stability, the onset of melting, and mantle rheology; but fO2 is not uniform across mantle spatial domains. Peridotite xenoliths erupted in oceanic island basalts (OIB) potentially record fO2 of their lithospheric source - the convecting upper mantle. Many of these xenoliths have reacted with OIB as they transited the lithosphere. These xenoliths may record fO2 of the OIB source, potentially recording fO2 heterogeneity within the upper mantle. We investigate fO2heterogeneity by analyzing coexisting olivine, opx, and spinel in 41 peridotite xenoliths from islands associated with four different hotspots: Oahu (Hawaii), Savai'i (Samoa), Tubuai (Austral), and Tahiti (Society). Elevated spinel TiO2 concentrations (TiO2 >0.2 wt.%) in xenoliths from Oahu, Tubuai, and Tahiti may indicate interaction with OIB magmas [1]. Such assemblages record higher fO2 on average (QFM+0.4 to QFM+1.0) than peridotites and lavas from mid-ocean ridges (QFM-2 to QFM) [2,3,4]. This suggests that Hawaiian, Society, and Austral basalts with fO2 ≥ QFM+0.4 are more oxidized than MORB. (None of the Samoan xenoliths have spinel TiO2 >0.05 wt.%). Xenoliths with TiO2 <0.2 wt.% that have not reacted with OIB show a great degree of fO2 heterogeneity (QFM-1.5 to QFM+1.0) reflective of heterogeneity in lithospheric fO2. Although some heterogeneity may indicate spatial variability in bulk mantle chemistry, it is likely that it is partly driven by metamorphic reactions as lithosphere cools or is reheated by a mantle plume. Increased temperature causes the (Mg,Fe)Al2O4 component of spinel to dissolve into pyroxene; this concentrates the magnetite component in spinel and increases fO2 [5]. We observed evidence of this reaction at the grain-scale. Spinels in spinel-cpx symplectites and rims of equant spinels are >1 log unit more oxidized and have lower Al2O3 concentrations than interiors of the equant spinels. These

  3. Intrinsic oxygen fugacity measurements on seven chondrites, a pallasite, and a tektite and the redox state of meteorite parent bodies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, R.; Sato, M.

    1984-01-01

    Intrinsic oxygen-fugacity (fO2) measurements were made on five ordinary chondrites, a carbonaceous chondrite, an enstatite chondrite, a pallasite, and a tektite. Results are of the form of linear log fO2 - 1 T plots. Except for the enstatite chondrite, measured results agree well with calculated estimates by others. The tektite produced fO2 values well below the range measured for terrestrial and lunar rocks. The lowpressure atmospheric regime that is reported to follow large terrestrial explosions, coupled with a very high temperature, could produce glass with fO2 in the range measured. The meteorite Salta (pallasite) has low fO2 and lies close to Hvittis (E6). Unlike the other samples, results for Salta do not parallel the iron-wu??stite buffer, but are close to the fayalite-quartz-iron buffer in slope. Minor reduction by graphite appears to have taken place during metamorphism of ordinary chondrites. fO2 values of unequilibrated chondrites show large scatter during early heating suggesting that the constituent phases were exposed to a range of fO2 conditions. The samples equilibrated with respect to fO2 in relatively short time on heating. Equilibration with respect to fO2 in ordinary chondrites takes place between grades 3 and 4 of metamorphism. Application of P - T - fO2 relations in the system C-CO-CO2 indicates that the ordinary chondrites were metamorphosed at pressures of 3-20 bars, as it appears that they lay on the graphite surface. A steep positive thermal gradient in a meteorite parent body lying at the graphite surface will produce thin reduced exterior, an oxidized near-surface layer, and an interior that is increasingly reduced with depth; a shallow thermal gradient will produce the reverse. A body heated by accretion on the outside will have a reduced exterior and oxidized interior. Meteorites from the same parent body clearly are not required to have similar redox states. ?? 1984.

  4. Computer program for calculation of oxygen uptake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castle, B. L.; Castle, G.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A description and operational precedures are presented for a computer program, written in Super Basic, that calculates oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, and related ventilation parameters. Program features include: (1) the option of entering slope and intercept values of calibration curves for the O2 and CO2 and analyzers; (2) calculation of expired water vapor pressure; and (3) the option of entering inspured O2 and CO2 concentrations. The program is easily adaptable for programmable laboratory calculators.

  5. The oxidation state of Fe in MORB glasses and the oxygen fugacity of the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottrell, Elizabeth; Kelley, Katherine A.

    2011-05-01

    Micro-analytical determination of Fe3+/∑Fe ratios in mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) glasses using micro X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES) spectroscopy reveals a substantially more oxidized upper mantle than determined by previous studies. Here, we show that global MORBs yield average Fe3+/∑Fe ratios of 0.16 ± 0.01 (n = 103), which trace back to primary MORB melts equilibrated at the conditions of the quartz-fayalite-magnetite (QFM) buffer. Our results necessitate an upward revision of the Fe3+/∑Fe ratios of MORBs, mantle oxygen fugacity, and the ferric iron content of the mantle relative to previous wet chemical determinations. We show that only 0.01 (absolute, or < 10%) of the difference between Fe3+/∑Fe ratios determined by micro-colorimety and XANES can be attributed to the Mössbauer-based XANES calibration. The difference must instead derive from a bias between micro-colorimetry performed on experimental vs. natural basalts. Co-variations of Fe3+/∑Fe ratios in global MORB with indices of low-pressure fractional crystallization are consistent with Fe3+ behaving incompatibly in shallow MORB magma chambers. MORB Fe3+/∑Fe ratios do not, however, vary with indices of the extent of mantle melting (e.g., Na2O(8)) or water concentration. We offer two hypotheses to explain these observations: The bulk partition coefficient of Fe3+ may be higher during peridotite melting than previously thought, and may vary with temperature, or redox exchange between sulfide and sulfate species could buffer mantle melting at ~ QFM. Both explanations, in combination with the measured MORB Fe3+/∑Fe ratios, point to a fertile MORB source with greater than 0.3 wt.% Fe2O3.

  6. Partial pressures of oxygen, phosphorus and fluorine in some lunar lavas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, W. P.; Hausel, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    Lunar sample 14310 is a feldspar-rich basalt which shows no evidence of shock deformation or recrystallization. Pyroxenes include Mg-rich orthopyroxene, pigeonite and augite; pyroxferroite occurs in the interstitial residuum. Plagioclase feldspars are zoned from An(96) to An(67), and variations in feldspar compositions do not necessarily indicate loss of Na during eruption of the lava. Opaque phases include ilmenite, ulvospinel, metallic iron, troilite, and schreibersite. Both whitlockite and apatite are present, and the interstitial residua contain baddeleyite, tranquillityite and barium-rich sanidine. Theoretical calculations provide estimates of partial pressures of oxygen, phosphorus, and fluorine in lunar magmas. In general, partial pressures of oxygen are restricted by the limiting assemblages of iron-wuestite and ilmenite-iron-rutile; phosphorus partial pressures are higher in lunar magmas than in terrestrial lavas. The occurrence of whitlockite indicates significantly lower fugacities of fluorine in lunar magmas than in terrestrial magmas.

  7. Redox state of the Archean mantle: Evidence from V partitioning in 3.5-2.4 Ga komatiites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicklas, Robert W.; Puchtel, Igor S.; Ash, Richard D.

    2018-02-01

    Oxygen fugacity of the mantle is a crucial thermodynamic parameter that controls such fundamental processes as planetary differentiation, mantle melting, and possible core-mantle exchange. Constraining the evolution of the redox state of the mantle is of paramount importance for understanding the chemical evolution of major terrestrial reservoirs, including the core, mantle, and atmosphere. In order to evaluate the secular evolution of the redox state of the mantle, oxygen fugacities of six komatiite systems, ranging in age from 3.48 to 2.41 Ga, were determined using high-precision partitioning data of the redox-sensitive element vanadium between liquidus olivine, chromite and komatiitic melt. The calculated oxygen fugacities range from -0.11 ± 0.30 ΔFMQ log units in the 3.48 Ga Komati system to +0.43 ± 0.26 ΔFMQ log units in the 2.41 Ga Vetreny system. Although there is a slight hint in the data for an increase in the oxygen fugacity of the mantle between 3.48 and 2.41 Ga, these values generally overlap within their respective uncertainties; they are also largely within the range of oxygen fugacity estimates for modern MORB lavas of +0.60 ± 0.30 ΔFMQ log units that we obtained using the same technique. Our results are consistent with the previous findings that argued for little change in the mantle oxygen fugacity since the early Archean and indicate that the mantle had reached its nearly-present day redox state by at least 3.48 Ga.

  8. Synchrotron Micro-XANES Measurements of Vanadium Oxidation State in Glasses as a Function of Oxygen Fugacity: Experimental Calibration of Data Relevant to Partition Coefficient Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, J. S.; Sutton, S. R.; Newville, M.; Jones, J. H.; Hanson, B.; Dyar, M. D.; Schreiber, H.

    2000-01-01

    Oxidation state microanalyses for V in glass have been made by calibrating XANES spectral features with optical spectroscopic measurements. The oxidation state change with fugacity of O2 will strongly influence partitioning results.

  9. Ocean Surface Carbon Dioxide Fugacity Observed from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Xie, Xiaosu

    2014-01-01

    We have developed and validated a statistical model to estimate the fugacity (or partial pressure) of carbon dioxide (CO2) at sea surface (pCO2sea) from space-based observations of sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll, and salinity. More than a quarter million in situ measurements coincident with satellite data were compiled to train and validate the model. We have produced and made accessible 9 years (2002-2010) of the pCO2sea at 0.5 degree resolutions daily over the global ocean. The results help to identify uncertainties in current JPL Carbon Monitoring System (CMS) model-based and bottom-up estimates over the ocean. The utility of the data to reveal multi-year and regional variability of the fugacity in relation to prevalent oceanic parameters is demonstrated.

  10. Thermodynamic Calculations of Hydrogen-Oxygen Detonation Parameters for Various Initial Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollinger, Loren E.; Edse, Rudolph

    1961-01-01

    Composition, temperature, pressure and density behind a stable detonation wave and its propagation rate have been calculated for seven hydrogen-oxygen mixture at 1, 5, 25 and 100 atm initial pressure, and at an initial temperature of 40C. For stoichiometric mixtures that calculations also include an initial temperature of 200C. According to these calculations the detonation velocities of hydrogen-oxygen mixtures increase with increasing initial pressure, but decrease slightly when the initial temperature is raised from 40 to 200 C. The calculated detonation velocities agree satisfactorily with values determined experimentally. These values will be published in the near future.

  11. JSC systems using solid ceramic oxygen electrolyte cells to measure oxygen fugacites in gas-mixing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. J.; Mullins, O.

    1981-01-01

    Details are given for the construction and operation of a 101.3 KN/sq meter (1 atmosphere) redox control system. A solid ceramic oxygen electrolyte cell is used to monitor the oxygen fugacity in the furnace. The system consists of a vertical quench gas mixing furnace with heads designed for mounting the electrolyte cell and with facilities for inserting and removing the samples, a simplified version of a gas mixing apparatus, and devices for experiments under controlled rates of change of temperature. A thermogravimetric analysis system employing these techniques of redox control and measurement is also described. The calibration and maintenance of the system are discussed.

  12. The W-W02 Oxygen Fugacity Buffer at High Pressures and Temperatures: Implications for f02 Buffering and Metal-silicate Partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shofner, G. A.; Campbell, A. J.; Danielson, L.; Righter, K.

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen fugacity (fO2) controls multivalent phase equilibria and partitioning of redox-sensitive elements, and it is important to understand this thermodynamic parameter in experimental and natural systems. The coexistence of a metal and its oxide at equilibrium constitutes an oxygen buffer which can be used to control or calculate fO2 in high pressure experiments. Application of 1-bar buffers to high pressure conditions can lead to inaccuracies in fO2 calculations because of unconstrained pressure dependencies. Extending fO2 buffers to pressures and temperatures corresponding to the Earth's deep interior requires precise determinations of the difference in volume (Delta) V) between the buffer phases. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction data were obtained using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and a multi anvil press (MAP) to measure unit cell volumes of W and WO2 at pressures and temperatures up to 70 GPa and 2300 K. These data were fitted to Birch-Murnaghan 3rd-order thermal equations of state using a thermal pressure approach; parameters for W are KT = 306 GPa, KT' = 4.06, and aKT = 0.00417 GPa K-1. Two structural phase transitions were observed for WO2 at 4 and 32 GPa with structures in P21/c, Pnma and C2/c space groups. Equations of state were fitted for these phases over their respective pressure ranges yielding the parameters KT = 190, 213, 300 GPa, KT' = 4.24, 5.17, 4 (fixed), and aKT = 0.00506, 0.00419, 0.00467 GPa K-1 for the P21/c, Pnma and C2/c phases, respectively. The W-WO2 buffer (WWO) was extended to high pressure by inverting the W and WO2 equations of state to obtain phase volumes at discrete pressures (1-bar to 100 GPa, 1 GPa increments) along isotherms (300 to 3000K, 100 K increments). The slope of the absolute fO2 of the WWO buffer is positive with increasing temperature up to approximately 70 GPa and is negative above this pressure. The slope is positive along isotherms from 1000 to 3000K with increasing pressure up to at least 100 GPa. The WWO buffer is at

  13. Workshop on Oxygen in Asteroids and Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Constraints on the detection of solar nebula's oxidation state through asteroid observation. Oxidation/Reduction Processes in Primitive Achondrites. Low-Temperature Chemical Processing on Asteroids. On the Formation Location of Asteroids and Meteorites. The Spectral Properties of Angritic Basalts. Correlation Between Chemical and Oxygen Isotopic Compositions in Chondrites. Effect of In-Situ Aqueous Alteration on Thermal Model Heat Budgets. Oxidation-Reduction in Meteorites: The Case of High-Ni Irons. Ureilite Atmospherics: Coming up for Air on a Parent Body. High Temperature Effects Including Oxygen Fugacity, in Pre-Planetary and Planetary Meteorites and Asteroids. Oxygen Isotopic Variation of Asteroidal Materials. High-Temperature Chemical Processing on Asteroids: An Oxygen Isotope Perspective. Oxygen Isotopes and Origin of Opaque Assemblages from the Ningqiang Carbonaceous Chondrite. Water Distribution in the Asteroid Belt. Comparative Planetary Mineralogy: V Systematics in Planetary Pyroxenes and fo 2 Estimates for Basalts from Vesta.

  14. A fugacity-based indoor residential pesticide fate model

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Deborah H.; Furtaw, Edward J.; McKone, Thomas E.

    Dermal and non-dietary pathways are potentially significant exposure pathways to pesticides used in residences. Exposure pathways include dermal contact with residues on surfaces, ingestion from hand- and object-to-mouth activities, and absorption of pesticides into food. A limited amount of data has been collected on pesticide concentrations in various residential compartments following an application. But models are needed to interpret this data and make predictions about other pesticides based on chemical properties. In this paper, we propose a mass-balance compartment model based on fugacity principles. We include air (both gas phase and aerosols), carpet, smooth flooring, and walls as model compartments.more » Pesticide concentrations on furniture and toys, and in food, are being added to the model as data becomes available. We determine the compartmental fugacity capacity and mass transfer-rate coefficient for wallboard as an example. We also present the framework and equations needed for a dynamic mass-balance model.« less

  15. Utilizing Polymer-Coated Vials to Illustrate the Fugacity and Bioavailability of Chlorinated Pesticide Residues in Contaminated Soils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Natasha A.; McConnell, Laura L.; Torrents, Alba; Hapeman, Cathleen J.

    2013-01-01

    Fugacity and bioavailability can be used to facilitate students' understanding of potential environmental risks associated with toxic chemicals and, therefore, should be incorporated in environmental chemistry and science laboratories. Although the concept of concentration is easy to grasp, fugacity and bioavailability can be challenging…

  16. Oxygen Fugacity of Mare Basalts and the Lunar Mantle Application of a New Microscale Oxybarometer Based on the Valence State of Vanadium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Karner, J.; Papike, J. J.; Sutton, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    The ability to estimate oxygen fugacities for mare basalts and to extend these observations to the lunar mantle is limited using bulk analysis techniques based on buffering assemblages or the valence state of iron. These limitations are due to reequilibration of mineral assemblages at subsolidus conditions, deviations of mineral compositions from thermodynamic ideality, size requirements, and the limits of the iron valence at very low fO2. Still, these approaches have been helpful and indicate that mare basalts crystallized at fO2 between the iron-w stite buffer (IW) and the ilmenite breakdown reaction (ilmenite = rutile + iron). It has also been inferred from these estimates that the lunar mantle is also highly reduced lying at conditions below IW. Generally, these data cannot be used to determine if the mare basalts become increasingly reduced during transport from their mantle source and eruption at the lunar surface and if there are differences in fO2 among mare basalts or mantle sources. One promising approach to determining the fO2 of mare basalts is using the mean valence of vanadium (2+, 3+, 4+, 5+) determined on spots of a few micrometers in diameter using synchrotron x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. The average valence state of V in basaltic glasses is a function of fO2, temperature, V coordination, and melt composition. Here, we report the initial results of this approach applied to lunar pyroclastic glasses.

  17. Polarizability calculations on water, hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nir, S.; Adams, S.; Rein, R.

    1973-01-01

    A semiclassical model of damped oscillators is used as a basis for the calculation of the dispersion of the refractive index, polarizability, and dielectric permeability in water, hydrogen, and oxygen in liquid and gaseous states, and in gaseous carbon dioxide. The absorption coefficient and the imaginary part of the refractive index are also calculated at corresponding wavelengths. A good agreement is obtained between the observed and calculated values of refractive indices, and between those of absorption coefficients in the region of absorption bands. The calculated values of oscillator strengths and damping factors are also discussed. The value of the polarizability of liquid water was about 2.8 times that of previous calculations.

  18. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Special Session: Oxygen in the Solar System, II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Special Session: Oxygen in the Solar System, II, included the following reports:Evolution of Oxygen Isotopes in the Solar Nebula; Disequilibrium Melting of Refractory Inclusions: A Mechanism for High-Temperature Oxygen; Isotope Exchange in the Solar Nebula; Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of the Al-rich Chondrules in the CR Carbonaceous Chondrites: Evidence for a Genetic Link to Ca-Al-rich Inclusions and for Oxygen Isotope Exchange During Chondrule Melting; Nebular Formation of Fayalitic Olivine: Ineffectiveness of Dust Enrichment; Water in Terrestrial Planets: Always an Oxidant?; Oxygen Barometry of Basaltic Glasses Based on Vanadium Valence Determination Using Synchrotron MicroXANES; A New Oxygen Barometer for Solar System Basaltic Glasses Based on Vanadium Valence; The Relationship Between Clinopyroxene Fe3+ Content and Oxygen Fugacity ; and Olivine-Silicate Melt Partitioning of Iridium.

  19. Characterization of oxygen defects in diamond by means of density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiering, Gergő; Gali, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Point defects in diamond are of high interest as candidates for realizing solid state quantum bits, bioimaging agents, or ultrasensitive electric or magnetic field sensors. Various artificial diamond synthesis methods should introduce oxygen contamination in diamond, however, the incorporation of oxygen into diamond crystal and the nature of oxygen-related point defects are largely unknown. Oxygen may be potentially interesting as a source of quantum bits or it may interact with other point defects which are well established solid state qubits. Here we employ plane-wave supercell calculations within density functional theory, in order to characterize the electronic and magneto-optical properties of various oxygen-related defects. Besides the trivial single interstitial and substitutional oxygen defects we also consider their complexes with vacancies and hydrogen atoms. We find that oxygen defects are mostly electrically active and introduce highly correlated orbitals that pose a challenge for density functional theory modeling. Nevertheless, we are able to identify the fingerprints of substitutional oxygen defect, the oxygen-vacancy and oxygen-vacancy-hydrogen complexes in the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum. We demonstrate that first principles calculations can predict the motional averaging of the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of defects that are subject to Jahn-Teller distortion. We show that the high-spin neutral oxygen-vacancy defect exhibits very fast nonradiative decay from its optical excited state that might hinder applying it as a qubit.

  20. Experimental study of trace element partitioning between enstatite and melt in enstatite chondrites at low oxygen fugacities and 5 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartier, Camille; Hammouda, Tahar; Doucelance, Régis; Boyet, Maud; Devidal, Jean-Luc; Moine, Bertrand

    2014-04-01

    In order to investigate the influence of very reducing conditions, we report enstatite-melt trace element partition coefficients (D) obtained on enstatite chondrite material at 5 GPa and under oxygen fugacities (fO2) ranging between 0.8 and 8.2 log units below the iron-wustite (IW) buffer. Experiments were conducted in a multianvil apparatus between 1580 and 1850 °C, using doped (Sc, V, REE, HFSE, U, Th) starting materials. We used a two-site lattice strain model and a Monte-Carlo-type approach to model experimentally determined partition coefficient data. The model can fit our partitioning data, i.e. trace elements repartition in enstatite, which provides evidence for the attainment of equilibrium in our experiments. The precision on the lattice strain model parameters obtained from modelling does not enable determination of the influence of intensive parameters on crystal chemical partitioning, within our range of conditions (fO2, P, T, composition). We document the effect of variable oxygen fugacity on the partitioning of multivalent elements. Cr and V, which are trivalent in the pyroxene at around IW - 1 are reduced to 2+ state with increasingly reducing conditions, thus affecting their partition coefficients. In our range of redox conditions Ti is always present as a mixture between 4+ and 3+ states. However the Ti3+-Ti4+ ratio increases strongly with increasingly reducing conditions. Moreover in highly reducing conditions, Nb and Ta, that usually are pentavalent in magmatic systems, appear to be reduced to lower valence species, which may be Nb2+ and Ta3+. We propose a new proxy for fO2 based on D(Cr)/D(V). Our new data extend the redox range covered by previous studies and allows this proxy to be used in the whole range of redox conditions of the solar system objects. We selected trace-element literature data of six chondrules on the criterion of their equilibrium. Applying the proxy to opx-matrix systems, we estimated that three type I chondrules have

  1. Electrochemically-Induced Redox Reactions in Basalt at High Pressure and Temperature: An Iron and Vanadium K-edge XANES Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavner, A.; Walker, D.; Newville, M.; Sutton, S. R.

    2005-12-01

    relationship between applied electrochemical potential difference (the 1V in this experiment), and corresponding calculated oxygen fugacity.

  2. A New Spinel-Olivine Oxybarometer: Near-Liquidus Partitioning of V between Olivine-Melt, Spinel-Melt, and Spinel-Olivine in Martian Basalt Composition Y980459 as a Function of Oxygen Fugacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papike, J. J.; Le, L.; Burger, P. V.; Shearer, C. K.; Bell, A. S.; Jones, J.

    2013-01-01

    Our research on valence state partitioning began in 2005 with a review of Cr, Fe, Ti, and V partitioning among crystallographic sites in olivine, pyroxene, and spinel [1]. That paper was followed by several on QUE94201 melt composition and specifically on Cr, V, and Eu partitioning between pyroxene and melt [2-5]. This paper represents the continuation of our examination of the partitioning of multivalent V between olivine, spinel, and melt in martian olivine-phyric basalts of Y980459 composition [6, 7]. Here we introduce a new, potentially powerful oxybarometer, V partitioning between spinel and olivine, which can be used when no melt is preserved in the meteorite. The bulk composition of QUE94201 was ideal for our study of martian pyroxene-phyric basalts and specifically the partitioning between pyroxene-melt for Cr, V, and Eu. Likewise, bulk composition Y980459 is ideal for the study of martian olivine-phyric basalts and specifically for olivine-melt, spinel-melt, and spinel-olivine partitioning of V as a function of oxygen fugacity.

  3. Partitioning of Oxygen During Core Formation on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubie, D. C.; Gessmann, C. K.; Frost, D. J.

    2003-12-01

    Core formation on Earth and Mars involved the physical separation of Fe-Ni metal alloy from silicate, most likely in deep magma oceans. Although core-formation models explain many aspects of mantle geochemistry, they do not account for large differences between the compositions of the mantles of Earth ( ˜8 wt% FeO) and Mars ( ˜18 wt% FeO) or the much smaller mass fraction of the Martian core. Here we explain these differences using new experimental results on the solubility of oxygen in liquid Fe-Ni alloy, which we have determined at 5-23 GPa, 2100-2700 K and variable oxygen fugacities using a multianvil apparatus. Oxygen solubility increases with increasing temperature and oxygen fugacity and decreases with increasing pressure. Thus, along a high temperature adiabat (e.g. after formation of a deep magma ocean on Earth), oxygen solubility is high at depths up to about 2000 km but decreases strongly at greater depths where the effect of high pressure dominates. For modeling oxygen partitioning during core formation, we assume that Earth and Mars both accreted from oxidized chondritic material with a silicate fraction initially containing around 18 wt% FeO. In a terrestrial magma ocean, 1200-2000 km deep, high temperatures resulted in the extraction of FeO from the silicate magma ocean, due to the high solubility of oxygen in the segregating metal, leaving the mantle with its present FeO content of ˜8 wt%. Lower temperatures of a Martian magma ocean resulted in little or no extraction of FeO from the mantle, which thus remained unchanged at about 18 wt%. The mass fractions of segregated metal are consistent with the mass fraction of the Martian core being small relative to that of the Earth. FeO extracted from the Earth's magma ocean by segregating core-forming liquid may have contributed to chemical heterogeneities in the lowermost mantle, a FeO-rich D'' layer and the light element budget of the core.

  4. EQ3NR, a computer program for geochemical aqueous speciation-solubility calculations: Theoretical manual, user`s guide, and related documentation (Version 7.0); Part 3

    SciTech Connect

    Wolery, T.J.

    1992-09-14

    EQ3NR is an aqueous solution speciation-solubility modeling code. It is part of the EQ3/6 software package for geochemical modeling. It computes the thermodynamic state of an aqueous solution by determining the distribution of chemical species, including simple ions, ion pairs, and complexes, using standard state thermodynamic data and various equations which describe the thermodynamic activity coefficients of these species. The input to the code describes the aqueous solution in terms of analytical data, including total (analytical) concentrations of dissolved components and such other parameters as the pH, pHCl, Eh, pe, and oxygen fugacity. The input may also include a desiredmore » electrical balancing adjustment and various constraints which impose equilibrium with special pure minerals, solid solution end-member components (of specified mole fractions), and gases (of specified fugacities). The code evaluates the degree of disequilibrium in terms of the saturation index (SI = 1og Q/K) and the thermodynamic affinity (A = {minus}2.303 RT log Q/K) for various reactions, such as mineral dissolution or oxidation-reduction in the aqueous solution itself. Individual values of Eh, pe, oxygen fugacity, and Ah (redox affinity) are computed for aqueous redox couples. Equilibrium fugacities are computed for gas species. The code is highly flexible in dealing with various parameters as either model inputs or outputs. The user can specify modification or substitution of equilibrium constants at run time by using options on the input file.« less

  5. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy of mineral assemblages in mantle spinel lherzolites from Cenozoic alkali basalt, eastern China: Petrological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xi-Luo; Li, Yi-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Mineral assemblages in spinel lherzolite xenoliths from the Cenozoic alkali basalt of eastern China were analyzed by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy for Fe3+/ΣFe and distribution of Fe2+/Fe3+ in non-equivalent crystal cites. Orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and spinel have 0.08-0.13, 0.19-0.31 and 0.13-0.23 Fe3+/ΣFe, respectively. The cation-exchange equilibrium temperatures, Fe3+ partition coefficient and oxygen fugacity of the upper mantle peridotites were calculated. The equilibrium temperatures are between 1103 K and 1405 K consistent with those reported elsewhere. The oxygen fugacities of spinel lherzolites calculated with olivine-orthopyroxene-spinel (ΔlogƒO2 from - 1.1 to 0) and clinopyroxene-olivine-orthopyroxene oxybarometers (ΔlogƒO2 from - 2.0 to 0.7) are consistent with previously reported upper mantle values.

  6. Subsolidus cooling of mid-ocean ridge peridotites and implications for the oxygen fugacity of the oceanic upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birner, S.; Davis, F. A.; Cottrell, E.; Warren, J. M.; Kelley, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    Peridotites dredged from mid-ocean ridges provide a window into the chemistry of Earth's upper mantle. At equilibrium, mineral assemblages within peridotite record intrinsic properties, including oxygen fugacity (fO2). During cooling below the solidus, however, reactions affect the chemical compositions and modal abundances of minerals, directly affecting the fO2 recorded by these mineral assemblages. The slow kinetics of subsolidus diffusion also prevent full re-equilibration of peridotite during cooling, and different reactions have different closure temperatures. As a result, peridotites measured at the surface record neither equilibrium nor asthenospheric conditions. In order to quantify the effect of subsolidus diffusion on fO2, we analyzed minerals from abyssal peridotites dredged from the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR), which we then used as a basis for modeling potential subsolidus reactions. We first examined exchange reactions where no modal changes occur. We considered both Fe-Mg exchange between olivine and spinel [1] and Al-Cr exchange between orthopyroxene and spinel [2], and combined these models with spinel oxybarometry [3] to determine the effect of these reactions on fO2. Our results indicate that as peridotites cool from 1300°C to 900°C, these exchange processes together increase recorded fO2 by 0.3 log units relative to the approach in which compositional changes are not considered. Some reactions additionally change mineral modal abundances during cooling, in particular the Tschermak exchange in orthopyroxene [2], which consumes olivine and Al-rich orthopyroxene and produces spinel and Al-poor orthopyroxene as temperature decreases. Depending on partitioning of Fe3+ between phases, this reaction may dilute the concentration of Fe3+ in spinel and decrease recorded fO2 as temperature decreases. Preliminary results suggest that the magnitude of this effect is strongly sensitive to both initial spinel mode and partitioning of Fe3+ between

  7. A Graphical Representation for the Fugacity of a Pure Substance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Book, Neil L.; Sitton, Oliver C.

    2010-01-01

    The thermodynamic equations used to define and compute the fugacity of a pure substance are depicted as processes on a semi-logarithmic plot of pressure vs. molar Gibbs energy (PG diagram) with isotherms for the substance behaving as an ideal gas superimposed. The PG diagram clearly demonstrates the physical basis for the definitions and the…

  8. Analyzing the dependence of oxygen incorporation current density on overpotential and oxygen partial pressure in mixed conducting oxide electrodes.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zixuan; Chen, Di; Chueh, William C

    2017-08-30

    The oxygen incorporation reaction, which involves the transformation of an oxygen gas molecule to two lattice oxygen ions in a mixed ionic and electronic conducting solid, is a ubiquitous and fundamental reaction in solid-state electrochemistry. To understand the reaction pathway and to identify the rate-determining step, near-equilibrium measurements have been employed to quantify the exchange coefficients as a function of oxygen partial pressure and temperature. However, because the exchange coefficient contains contributions from both forward and reverse reaction rate constants and depends on both oxygen partial pressure and oxygen fugacity in the solid, unique and definitive mechanistic assessment has been challenging. In this work, we derive a current density equation as a function of both oxygen partial pressure and overpotential, and consider both near and far from equilibrium limits. Rather than considering specific reaction pathways, we generalize the multi-step oxygen incorporation reaction into the rate-determining step, preceding and following quasi-equilibrium steps, and consider the number of oxygen ions and electrons involved in each. By evaluating the dependence of current density on oxygen partial pressure and overpotential separately, one obtains the reaction orders for oxygen gas molecules and for solid-state species in the electrode. We simulated the oxygen incorporation current density-overpotential curves for praseodymium-doped ceria for various candidate rate-determining steps. This work highlights a promising method for studying the exchange kinetics far away from equilibrium.

  9. Modeling of oxygen incorporation in Th, ThC, and ThN by density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Daroca, D.; Llois, A. M.; Mosca, H. O.

    2017-12-01

    Oxygen incorporation in nuclear fuel materials is an important issue deserving investigation due to its influence on thermophysical and structural properties. Even if there has been a renewed interest in thorium and thorium compounds in the last years, there is still not much research done on this topic. In this work, we study, by means of density functional theory calculations, the incorporation of oxygen in Th, ThC, and ThN. We analyze the electronic structure finding a characteristic peak to be attributed to oxygen incorporation. We also calculate incorporation and solution energies and obtain migration energies of oxygen through different paths finding that migration through vacancy sites is more energetically favorable than through interstitial ones.

  10. The oxygen status algorithm: a computer program for calculating and displaying pH and blood gas data.

    PubMed

    Siggaard-Andersen, O; Siggaard-Andersen, M

    1990-01-01

    Input parameters for the program are the arterial pH, pCO2, and pO2 (measured by a blood gas analyzer), oxygen saturation, carboxy-, met-, and total hemoglobin (measured by a multi-wavelength spectrometer), supplemented by patient age, sex, temperature, inspired oxygen fraction, fraction of fetal hemoglobin, and ambient pressure. Output parameters are the inspired and alveolar oxygen partial pressures, pH,pCO2 and pO2 referring to the actual patient temperature, estimated shunt fraction, half-saturation tension, estimated 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration, oxygen content and oxygen capacity, extracellular base excess, and plasma bicarbonate concentration. Three parameters related to the blood oxygen availability are calculated: the oxygen extraction tension, concentration of extractable oxygen, and oxygen compensation factor. Calculations of the 'reverse' type may also be performed so that the effect of therapeutic measures on the oxygen status or the acid-base status can be predicted. The user may choose among several different units of measurement and two different conventions for symbols. The results are presented in a data display screen comprising all quantities together with age, sex, and temperature adjusted reference values. The program generates a 'laboratory diagnosis' of the oxygen status and the acid-base status and three graphs illustrating the oxygen status and the acid-base status of the patient: the oxygen graph, the acid-base chart and the blood gas map. A printed summary in one A4 page including a graphical display can be produced with an Epson or HP Laser compatible printer. The program is primarily intended for routine laboratories with a blood gas analyzer combined with a multi-wavelength spectrometer. Calculating the derived quantities may enhance the usefulness of the analyzers and improve patient care. The program may also be used as a teaching aid in acid-base and respiratory physiology. The program requires an IBM PC, XT, AT or similar

  11. Calculation of the mixing chamber of an ejector chemical oxygen - iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Zagidullin, M V; Nikolaev, V D

    2001-06-30

    Gas parameters are calculated at the outlet of the mixing chamber of an ejector chemical oxygen-iodine laser with a nozzle unit consisting of nozzles of three types, which provides a total pressure of the active medium that substantially exceeds a pressure in the generator of singlet oxygen. This technique of forming the laser active medium substantially facilitates the ejection of the exhaust gas to the atmosphere by using a diffuser and single-stage vacuum systems based on water circulating pumps. (lasers, active media)

  12. The Abandoned E-Waste Recycling Site Continued to Act As a Significant Source of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: An in Situ Assessment Using Fugacity Samplers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Luo, Chunling; Wang, Shaorui; Cheng, Zhineng; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-08-16

    The recycling of e-waste has attracted significant attention due to emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other contaminants into the environment. We measured PCB concentrations in surface soils, air equilibrated with the soil, and air at 1.5-m height using a fugacity sampler in an abandoned electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in South China. The total concentrations of PCBs in the soils were 39.8-940 ng/g, whereas the concentrations in air equilibrated with the soil and air at 1.5 m height were 487-8280 pg/m(3) and 287-7380 pg/m(3), respectively. The PCB concentrations displayed seasonal variation; they were higher in winter in the soils and higher in summer in the air, indicating that the emission of PCBs from the soil was enhanced during hot seasons for the relatively high temperature or additional sources, especially for low-chlorinated PCBs. We compared two methods (traditional fugacity model and fugacity sampler) for assessing the soil-air partition coefficients (Ksa) and the fugacity fractions of PCBs. The results suggested that the fugacity sampler provided more instructive and practical estimation on Ksa values and trends in air-soil exchange, especially for low-chlorinated PCBs. The abandoned e-waste burning site still acted as a significant source of PCBs many years after the prohibition on open burning.

  13. Equations for calculating hydrogeochemical reactions of minerals and gases such as CO2 at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelo, C. A. J.; Parkhurst, D. L.; Post, V. E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Calculating the solubility of gases and minerals at the high pressures of carbon capture and storage in geological reservoirs requires an accurate description of the molar volumes of aqueous species and the fugacity coefficients of gases. Existing methods for calculating the molar volumes of aqueous species are limited to a specific concentration matrix (often seawater), have been fit for a limited temperature (below 60 °C) or pressure range, apply only at infinite dilution, or are defined for salts instead of individual ions. A more general and reliable calculation of apparent molar volumes of single ions is presented, based on a modified Redlich-Rosenfeld equation. The modifications consist of (1) using the Born equation to calculate the temperature dependence of the intrinsic volumes, following Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF), but with Bradley and Pitzer’s expression for the dielectric permittivity of water, (2) using the pressure dependence of the extended Debye-Hückel equation to constrain the limiting slope of the molar volume with ionic strength, and (3) adopting the convention that the proton has zero volume at all ionic strengths, temperatures and pressures. The modifications substantially reduce the number of fitting parameters, while maintaining or even extending the range of temperature and pressure over which molar volumes can be accurately estimated. The coefficients in the HKF-modified-Redlich-Rosenfeld equation were fitted by least-squares on measured solution densities. The limiting volume and attraction factor in the Van der Waals equation of state can be estimated with the Peng-Robinson approach from the critical temperature, pressure, and acentric factor of a gas. The Van der Waals equation can then be used to determine the fugacity coefficients for pure gases and gases in a mixture, and the solubility of the gas can be calculated from the fugacity, the molar volume in aqueous solution, and the equilibrium constant. The coefficients for the

  14. Fugacity analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons between microplastics and seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hwang; Chang, Sein; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2017-03-01

    Recently, the accumulation of plastic debris in the marine environment has become a great concern worldwide. Although plastics are biologically and chemically inert, plastic debris has been suspected of causing adverse effects on ecosystems due to the increase in reactivity by size reduction and/or micropollutants associated with plastics. Because of the high sorption capacity of microplastics toward organic micropollutants, it is suspected that microplastics may play roles in the distribution and fate of micropollutants. In order to quantitatively evaluate the "net flow" of environmental contaminants in water-plastic-organism systems, a fugacity analysis was conducted using concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in open oceans and in polyethylene as a representative material of plastic debris. Ratio of fugacity in polyethylene to that in seawater showed a decreasing trend with increasing partition coefficient between polyethylene and seawater (KPE/sw). This indicates that phase equilibrium between polyethylene and seawater is not attained for higher molecular weight PAHs. Disequilibrium of high molecular weight PAHs suggests that transfer from seawater to plastic debris is thermodynamically driven and the role of plastic debris as a vector to transfer them to living organisms would be minimal. However, additives may slowly migrate from plastics into the environment causing potentially serious effects on ecosystems.

  15. Chemical expansion affected oxygen vacancy stability in different oxide structures from first principles calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yanwen; ...

    2015-01-21

    We study the chemical expansion for neutral and charged oxygen vacancies in fluorite, rocksalt, perovskite and pyrochlores materials using first principles calculations. We show that the neutral oxygen vacancy leads to lattice expansion whereas the charged vacancy leads to lattice contraction. In addition, we show that there is a window of strain within which an oxygen vacancy is stable; beyond that range, the vacancy can become unstable. Using CeO 2|ZrO 2 interface structure as an example, we show that the concentration of oxygen vacancies can be manipulated via strain, and the vacancies can be preferentially stabilized. Furthermore, these results couldmore » serve as guiding principles in predicting oxygen vacancy stability in strained systems and in the design of vacancy stabilized materials.« less

  16. Oxygen stoichiometry, phase stability, and thermodynamic behavior of the lead-doped and lead-free Bi-2212 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetenbaum, M.; Hash, M.; Tani, B. S.; Maroni, V. A.

    1996-02-01

    Electromotive-force (EMF) measurements of oxygen fugacities as a function of stoichiometry have been made on lead-doped and lead-free Bi 2- zPb zSr 2Ca 1Cu 2O x superconducting ceramics in the temperature range ≈ 700-815°C by means of an oxygen-titration techique that employs an yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte. Equations for the variation of oxygen partial pressure with composition and temperature have been derived from our EMF measurements. Thermodynamic assessments of the partial molar quantities Δ overlineH(O 2) and Δ overlineS(O 2) for lead-doped Bi-2212 and lead-free Bi-2212 indicate that the solid-state decomposition of these bismuth cuprates at low oxygen partial pressure can be represented by the diphasic CuOCu 2O system.

  17. The distribution of chromium among orthopyroxene, spinel and silicate liquid at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Cr distributions for a synthetic silicate melt equilibrated with bronzitic orthopyroxene and chromite spinel between 1334 and 1151 C over a range of oxygen fugacities between the nickel-nickel oxide and iron-wuestite buffers are studied. The occurrence, chemical composition, and structure of the orthopyroxene-silicate melt and the spinel-silicate melt are described. It is observed that the Cr content between bronzite and the melt increases with falling temperature along a given oxygen buffer and decreases with falling oxygen fugacity at a given temperature; however, the Cr content of the melt in equilibrium with spinel decreases with falling temperature and increases with lower oxygen fugacity.

  18. Ferric iron partitioning between plagioclase and silicate liquid: thermodynamics and petrological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Toru

    2001-06-01

    A series of Fe and Mg partition experiments between plagioclase and silicate liquid were performed in the system SiO2-Al2O3-Fe2O3-FeO-MgO-CaO-Na2O under oxygen fugacities from below the IW buffer up to that of air. A thermodynamic model of plagioclase solid solution for the (CaAl,NaSi,KSi)(Fe3+,Al3+)Si2O8-Ca(Fe2+,Mg)Si3O8 system is proposed and is calibrated by regression analysis based on new and previously reported experimental data of Fe and Mg partitioning between plagioclase and silicate liquid, and reported thermodynamic properties of end members, ternary feldspar and silicate liquid. Using the derived thermodynamic model, FeOt, MgO content and Mg/(Fet+Mg) in plagioclase can be predicted from liquid composition with standard deviations of +/-0.34 wt% (relative error =9%) and +/-0.08 wt% (14%) and +/-0.7 (8%) respectively. Calculated Fe3+-Al exchange chemical potentials of plagioclase, $μ { Fe{ 3 + } ( {Al} ){ - 1} }{ Pl} agree with those calculated using reported thermodynamic models for multicomponent spinel, μ { Fe{ 3 + } ( {Al} ){ - 1} }{ Sp} and clinopyroxene, μ { Fe{ 3 + } ( {Al} ){ - 1} }{ Cpx} $ . The FeOt content of plagioclase coexisting with spinel or clinopyroxene is affected by Fe3+/(Fe3++Al) and Mg/(Fe+Mg) of spinel or clinopyroxene and temperature, while it is independent of the anorthite content of plagioclase. Three oxygen barometers based on the proposed model are investigated. Although the oxygen fugacities predicted by the plagioclase-liquid oxygen barometer are scattered, this study found that plagioclase-spinel-clinopyroxene-oxygen and plagioclase-olivine-oxygen equilibria can be used as practical oxygen barometers. As a petrological application, prediction of plagioclase composition and fO2 are carried out for the Upper Zone of the Skaergaard intrusion. The estimated oxygen fugacities are well below QFM buffer and consistent with the estimation of oxidization states in previous studies.

  19. Determining the Oxygen Fugacity of Lunar Pyroclastic Glasses Using Vanadium Valence - An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karner, J. M.; Sutton, S. R.; Papike, J. J.; Shearer, C. K.; Jones, J. H.; Newville, M.

    2004-01-01

    We have been developing an oxygen barometer based on the valence state of V (V(2+), V(3+), V(4+), and V(5+)) in solar system basaltic glasses. The V valence is determined by synchrotron micro x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), which uses x-ray absorption associated with core-electronic transitions (absorption edges) to reveal a pre-edge peak whose intensity is directly proportional to the valence state of an element. XANES has advantages over other techniques that determine elemental valence because measurements can be made non-destructively in air and in situ on conventional thin sections at a micrometer spatial resolution with elemental sensitivities of approx. 100 ppm. Recent results show that fO2 values derived from the V valence technique are consistent with fO2 estimates determined by other techniques for materials that crystallized above the IW buffer. The fO2's determined by V valence (IW-3.8 to IW-2) for the lunar pyroclastic glasses, however, are on the order of 1 to 2.8 log units below previous estimates. Furthermore, the calculated fO2's decrease with increasing TiO2 contents from the A17 VLT to the A17 Orange glasses. In order to investigate these results further, we have synthesized lunar green and orange glasses and examined them by XANES.

  20. FeO2 and FeOOH under deep lower-mantle conditions and Earth's oxygen-hydrogen cycles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingyang; Kim, Duck Young; Yang, Wenge; Yang, Liuxiang; Meng, Yue; Zhang, Li; Mao, Ho-Kwang

    2016-06-09

    The distribution, accumulation and circulation of oxygen and hydrogen in Earth's interior dictate the geochemical evolution of the hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. The oxygen-rich atmosphere and iron-rich core represent two end-members of the oxygen-iron (O-Fe) system, overlapping with the entire pressure-temperature-composition range of the planet. The extreme pressure and temperature conditions of the deep interior alter the oxidation states, spin states and phase stabilities of iron oxides, creating new stoichiometries, such as Fe4O5 (ref. 5) and Fe5O6 (ref. 6). Such interactions between O and Fe dictate Earth's formation, the separation of the core and mantle, and the evolution of the atmosphere. Iron, in its multiple oxidation states, controls the oxygen fugacity and oxygen budget, with hydrogen having a key role in the reaction of Fe and O (causing iron to rust in humid air). Here we use first-principles calculations and experiments to identify a highly stable, pyrite-structured iron oxide (FeO2) at 76 gigapascals and 1,800 kelvin that holds an excessive amount of oxygen. We show that the mineral goethite, FeOOH, which exists ubiquitously as 'rust' and is concentrated in bog iron ore, decomposes under the deep lower-mantle conditions to form FeO2 and release H2. The reaction could cause accumulation of the heavy FeO2-bearing patches in the deep lower mantle, upward migration of hydrogen, and separation of the oxygen and hydrogen cycles. This process provides an alternative interpretation for the origin of seismic and geochemical anomalies in the deep lower mantle, as well as a sporadic O2 source for the Great Oxidation Event over two billion years ago that created the present oxygen-rich atmosphere.

  1. Redox States of Initial Atmospheres Outgassed on Rocky Planets and Planetesimals

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Laura; Fegley, Bruce Jr., E-mail: lschaefer@asu.edu

    2017-07-10

    The Earth and other rocky planets and planetesimals in the solar system formed through the mixing of materials from various radial locations in the solar nebula. This primordial material likely had a range of oxidation states as well as bulk compositions and volatile abundances. We investigate the oxygen fugacity produced by the outgassing of mixtures of solid meteoritic material, which approximate the primitive nebular materials. We find that the gas composition and oxygen fugacity of binary and ternary mixtures of meteoritic materials vary depending on the proportion of reduced versus oxidized material, and also find that mixtures using differentiated materialsmore » do not show the same oxygen fugacity trends as those using similarly reduced but undifferentiated materials. We also find that simply mixing the gases produced by individual meteoritic materials together does not correctly reproduce the gas composition or oxygen fugacity of the binary and ternary mixtures. We provide tabulated fits for the oxygen fugacities of all of the individual materials and binary mixtures that we investigate. These values may be useful in planetary formation models, models of volatile transport on planetesimals or meteorite parent bodies, or models of trace element partitioning during metal-silicate fractionation.« less

  2. Assumed oxygen consumption based on calculation from dye dilution cardiac output: an improved formula.

    PubMed

    Bergstra, A; van Dijk, R B; Hillege, H L; Lie, K I; Mook, G A

    1995-05-01

    This study was performed because of observed differences between dye dilution cardiac output and the Fick cardiac output, calculated from estimated oxygen consumption according to LaFarge and Miettinen, and to find a better formula for assumed oxygen consumption. In 250 patients who underwent left and right heart catheterization, the oxygen consumption VO2 (ml.min-1) was calculated using Fick's principle. Either pulmonary or systemic flow, as measured by dye dilution, was used in combination with the concordant arteriovenous oxygen concentration difference. In 130 patients, who matched the age of the LaFarge and Miettinen population, the obtained values of oxygen consumption VO2(dd) were compared with the estimated oxygen consumption values VO2(lfm), found using the LaFarge and Miettinen formulae. The VO2(lfm) was significantly lower than VO2(dd); -21.8 +/- 29.3 ml.min-1 (mean +/- SD), P < 0.001, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) -26.9 to -16.7, limits of agreement (LA) -80.4 to 36.9. A new regression formula for the assumed oxygen consumption VO2(ass) was derived in 250 patients by stepwise multiple regression analysis. The VO2(dd) was used as a dependent variable, and body surface area BSA (m2). Sex (0 for female, 1 for male), Age (years), Heart rate (min-1) and the presence of a left to right shunt as independent variables. The best fitting formula is expressed as: VO2(ass) = (157.3 x BSA + 10.0 x Sex - 10.5 x In Age + 4.8) ml.min-1, where ln Age = the natural logarithm of the age. This formula was validated prospectively in 60 patients. A non-significant difference between VO2(ass) and VO2(dd) was found; mean 2.0 +/- 23.4 ml.min-1, P = 0.771, 95% Cl = -4.0 to +8.0, LA -44.7 to +48.7. In conclusion, assumed oxygen consumption values, using our new formula, are in better agreement with the actual values than those found according to LaFarge and Miettinen's formulae.

  3. Evaluating the multimedia fate of organic chemicals: A level III fugacity model

    SciTech Connect

    Mackay, D.; Paterson, S.

    A multimedia model is developed and applied to selected organic chemicals in evaluative and real regional environments. The model employs the fugacity concept and treats four bulk compartments: air, water, soil, and bottom sediment, which consist of subcompartments of varying proportions of air, water, and mineral and organic matter. Chemical equilibrium is assumed to apply within (but not between) each bulk compartment. Expressions are included for emissions, advective flows, degrading reactions, and interphase transport by diffusive and non-diffusive processes. Input to the model consists of a description of the environment, the physical-chemical and reaction properties of the chemical, and emissionmore » rates. For steady-state conditions the solution is a simple algebraic expression. The model is applied to six chemicals in the region of southern Ontario and the calculated fate and concentrations are compared with observations. The results suggest that the model may be used to determine the processes that control the environmental fate of chemicals in a region and provide approximate estimates of relative media concentrations.« less

  4. Understanding the biological activity of high rate algae ponds through the calculation of oxygen balances.

    PubMed

    Arbib, Zouhayr; de Godos Crespo, Ignacio; Corona, Enrique Lara; Rogalla, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Microalgae culture in high rate algae ponds (HRAP) is an environmentally friendly technology for wastewater treatment. However, for the implementation of these systems, a better understanding of the oxygenation potential and the influence of climate conditions is required. In this work, the rates of oxygen production, consumption, and exchange with the atmosphere were calculated under varying conditions of solar irradiance and dilution rate during six months of operation in a real scale unit. This analysis allowed determining the biological response of these dynamic systems. The rates of oxygen consumption measured were considerably higher than the values calculated based on the organic loading rate. The response to light intensity in terms of oxygen production in the bioreactor was described with one of the models proposed for microalgae culture in dense concentrations. This model is based on the availability of light inside the culture and the specific response of microalgae to this parameter. The specific response to solar radiation intensity showed a reasonable stability in spite of the fluctuations due to meteorological conditions. The methodology developed is a useful tool for optimization and prediction of the performance of these systems.

  5. Oxygen self-diffusion mechanisms in monoclinic Zr O2 revealed and quantified by density functional theory, random walk analysis, and kinetic Monte Carlo calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Youssef, Mostafa; Yildiz, Bilge

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we quantify oxygen self-diffusion in monoclinic-phase zirconium oxide as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. A migration barrier of each type of oxygen defect was obtained by first-principles calculations. Random walk theory was used to quantify the diffusivities of oxygen interstitials by using the calculated migration barriers. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate diffusivities of oxygen vacancies by distinguishing the threefold- and fourfold-coordinated lattice oxygen. By combining the equilibrium defect concentrations obtained in our previous work together with the herein calculated diffusivity of each defect species, we present the resulting oxygen self-diffusion coefficients and the corresponding atomistically resolved transport mechanisms. The predicted effective migration barriers and diffusion prefactors are in reasonable agreement with the experimentally reported values. This work provides insights into oxygen diffusion engineering in Zr O2 -related devices and parametrization for continuum transport modeling.

  6. Experimental calibration of a new oxybarometer for silicic magmas based on the partitioning of vanadium between magnetite and silicate melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arató, Róbert; Audétat, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    saturation index (ASI). This seems to reflect less favorable incorporation of V into peraluminous melts compared to depolymerized, peralkaline melts. Changing pressure from 1 to 2 kbar had an effect only at NNO, causing 0.3 log unit increase in D, whereas the Ti-content of magnetite turned out to have negligible effect on the V partitioning. In summary, the dependence of DVmgt-melt on temperature, ASI and oxygen fugacity can be described by the following regression equation: logD(V)mgt/melt=-1.22+0.31*10^5/T(° K) +1.73*ASI -0.49*ΔFMQ First tests of the equation on natural samples were carried out on rapidly cooled tuffs and vitrophyres from variable tectonic settings, for which fO2 could be constrained independently by the magnetite-ilmenite method. All calculated fO2 values fall within ± 0.75 log unit within those suggested by the Fe-Ti oxybarometer, whereas 12 out of 16 samples agree within 0.5 log units .

  7. Equations for calculating hydrogeochemical reactions of minerals and gases such as CO2 at high pressures and temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Appelo, C.A.J.; Parkhurst, David L.; Post, V.E.A.

    2014-01-01

    Calculating the solubility of gases and minerals at the high pressures of carbon capture and storage in geological reservoirs requires an accurate description of the molar volumes of aqueous species and the fugacity coefficients of gases. Existing methods for calculating the molar volumes of aqueous species are limited to a specific concentration matrix (often seawater), have been fit for a limited temperature (below 60 °C) or pressure range, apply only at infinite dilution, or are defined for salts instead of individual ions. A more general and reliable calculation of apparent molar volumes of single ions is presented, based on a modified Redlich–Rosenfeld equation. The modifications consist of (1) using the Born equation to calculate the temperature dependence of the intrinsic volumes, following Helgeson–Kirkham–Flowers (HKF), but with Bradley and Pitzer’s expression for the dielectric permittivity of water, (2) using the pressure dependence of the extended Debye–Hückel equation to constrain the limiting slope of the molar volume with ionic strength, and (3) adopting the convention that the proton has zero volume at all ionic strengths, temperatures and pressures. The modifications substantially reduce the number of fitting parameters, while maintaining or even extending the range of temperature and pressure over which molar volumes can be accurately estimated. The coefficients in the HKF-modified-Redlich–Rosenfeld equation were fitted by least-squares on measured solution densities.The limiting volume and attraction factor in the Van der Waals equation of state can be estimated with the Peng–Robinson approach from the critical temperature, pressure, and acentric factor of a gas. The Van der Waals equation can then be used to determine the fugacity coefficients for pure gases and gases in a mixture, and the solubility of the gas can be calculated from the fugacity, the molar volume in aqueous solution, and the equilibrium constant. The

  8. Hydrothermal stability of adenine under controlled fugacities of N2, CO2 and H2.

    PubMed

    Franiatte, Michael; Richard, Laurent; Elie, Marcel; Nguyen-Trung, Chinh; Perfetti, Erwan; LaRowe, Douglas E

    2008-04-01

    An experimental study has been carried out on the stability of adenine (one of the five nucleic acid bases) under hydrothermal conditions. The experiments were performed in sealed autoclaves at 300 degrees C under fugacities of CO(2), N(2) and H(2) supposedly representative of those in marine hydrothermal systems on the early Earth. The composition of the gas phase was obtained from the degradation of oxalic acid, sodium nitrite and ammonium chloride, and the oxidation of metallic iron. The results of the experiments indicate that after 200 h, adenine is still present in detectable concentration in the aqueous phase. In fact, the concentration of adenine does not seem to be decreasing after approximately 24 h, which suggests that an equilibrium state may have been established with the inorganic constituents of the hydrothermal fluid. Such a conclusion is corroborated by independent thermodynamic calculations.

  9. Applying the Ce-in-zircon oxygen geobarometer to diverse silicic magmatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claiborne, L. L.; Miller, C. F.

    2012-12-01

    Zircon provides information on age, temperature, and composition of the magma from which it grew. In systems such as Mount St. Helens, where zircon is not coeval with the rest of the crystal cargo, it provides the only accessible record of the extended history of the magmatic system, including cycles of intrusion, crystallization and rejuvenation beneath an active volcano (Claiborne et al., 2010). The rare earth elements, which are present in measureable quantities in zircon, provide information about the composition of the magma from which zircon grew. Unique among the generally trivalent rare earth elements, cerium can exist as either trivalent or tetravalent, depending on the oxidation state of the magma. The tetravalent ion is highly compatible in zircon, in the site that usually hosts tetravalent zirconium, and so the amount of Cerium in zircon relative (relative to what would be expected of trivalent Ce) depends the oxidation state of the magma from which it grew. Trail et al. (2011) proposed a calibration based on experimental data that uses the Ce anomaly in zircon as a direct proxy for magma oxidation (fugacity), describing the relationship between Ce in zircon and magma oxygen fugacity as ln(Ce/Ce*)D = (0.1156±0.0050)xln(fO2)+(13860±708)/T-(6.125±0.484). For systems like Mount St. Helens, where the major minerals record only events in the hundreds to thousands of years leading to eruption, (including the Fe-Ti oxides traditionally relied upon for records of oxidation state of the magmas), this presents a novel approach for understanding more extended histories of oxidation of magmas in the tens and hundreds of thousands of years of magmatism at a volcanic center. This calibration also promises to help us better constrain conditions of crystallization in intrusive portions of volcanic systems, as well as plutonic bodes. We apply this new oxygen geobarometer to natural volcanic and plutonic zircons from a variety of tectonic settings, and compare to

  10. Quantum mechanical calculations suggest that lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases use a copper-oxyl, oxygen-rebound mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seonah; Ståhlberg, Jerry; Sandgren, Mats; Paton, Robert S.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2014-01-01

    Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) exhibit a mononuclear copper-containing active site and use dioxygen and a reducing agent to oxidatively cleave glycosidic linkages in polysaccharides. LPMOs represent a unique paradigm in carbohydrate turnover and exhibit synergy with hydrolytic enzymes in biomass depolymerization. To date, several features of copper binding to LPMOs have been elucidated, but the identity of the reactive oxygen species and the key steps in the oxidative mechanism have not been elucidated. Here, density functional theory calculations are used with an enzyme active site model to identify the reactive oxygen species and compare two hypothesized reaction pathways in LPMOs for hydrogen abstraction and polysaccharide hydroxylation; namely, a mechanism that employs a η1-superoxo intermediate, which abstracts a substrate hydrogen and a hydroperoxo species is responsible for substrate hydroxylation, and a mechanism wherein a copper-oxyl radical abstracts a hydrogen and subsequently hydroxylates the substrate via an oxygen-rebound mechanism. The results predict that oxygen binds end-on (η1) to copper, and that a copper-oxyl–mediated, oxygen-rebound mechanism is energetically preferred. The N-terminal histidine methylation is also examined, which is thought to modify the structure and reactivity of the enzyme. Density functional theory calculations suggest that this posttranslational modification has only a minor effect on the LPMO active site structure or reactivity for the examined steps. Overall, this study suggests the steps in the LPMO mechanism for oxidative cleavage of glycosidic bonds. PMID:24344312

  11. The oxidation state of the mantle and the extraction of carbon from Earth's interior.

    PubMed

    Stagno, Vincenzo; Ojwang, Dickson O; McCammon, Catherine A; Frost, Daniel J

    2013-01-03

    Determining the oxygen fugacity of Earth's silicate mantle is of prime importance because it affects the speciation and mobility of volatile elements in the interior and has controlled the character of degassing species from the Earth since the planet's formation. Oxygen fugacities recorded by garnet-bearing peridotite xenoliths from Archaean lithosphere are of particular interest, because they provide constraints on the nature of volatile-bearing metasomatic fluids and melts active in the oldest mantle samples, including those in which diamonds are found. Here we report the results of experiments to test garnet oxythermobarometry equilibria under high-pressure conditions relevant to the deepest mantle xenoliths. We present a formulation for the most successful equilibrium and use it to determine an accurate picture of the oxygen fugacity through cratonic lithosphere. The oxygen fugacity of the deepest rocks is found to be at least one order of magnitude more oxidized than previously estimated. At depths where diamonds can form, the oxygen fugacity is not compatible with the stability of either carbonate- or methane-rich liquid but is instead compatible with a metasomatic liquid poor in carbonate and dominated by either water or silicate melt. The equilibrium also indicates that the relative oxygen fugacity of garnet-bearing rocks will increase with decreasing depth during adiabatic decompression. This implies that carbon in the asthenospheric mantle will be hosted as graphite or diamond but will be oxidized to produce carbonate melt through the reduction of Fe(3+) in silicate minerals during upwelling. The depth of carbonate melt formation will depend on the ratio of Fe(3+) to total iron in the bulk rock. This 'redox melting' relationship has important implications for the onset of geophysically detectable incipient melting and for the extraction of carbon dioxide from the mantle through decompressive melting.

  12. Interplay of crystal fractionation, sulfide saturation and oxygen fugacity on the iron isotope composition of arc lavas: An example from the Marianas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, H. M.; Prytulak, J.; Woodhead, J. D.; Kelley, K. A.; Brounce, M.; Plank, T.

    2018-04-01

    Subduction zone systems are central to a multitude of processes from the evolution of the continental crust to the concentration of metals into economically viable deposits. The interplay between oxygen fugacity, sulfur saturation, fluid exsolution and fractionating mineral assemblages that gives rise to typical arc magma chemical signatures is, however, still poorly understood and novel geochemical approaches are required to make further progress. Here we examine a well-characterized suite of arc lavas from the Marianas (W. Pacific) for their stable Fe isotope composition. In agreement with previous work and mass balance considerations, contributions from sediments and/or fluids are shown to have negligible effect on Fe isotopes. Instead, we focus on disentangling processes occurring during basalt through dacite differentiation using a sample suite from the island of Anatahan. Anatahan whole rock Fe isotope compositions (δ57Fe) range from -0.05 ± 0.05 to 0.17 ± 0.03 (2 S.D.)‰. A fractionation model is constructed, where three distinct stages of differentiation are required to satisfy the combined major and trace element and isotopic observations. In particular, the sequestration of isotopically heavy Fe into magnetite and isotopically light Fe into sulfide melts yields important constraints. The data require that lavas are first undersaturated with respect to crystalline or molten sulfide, followed by the crystallisation of magnetite, which then triggers late sulfide saturation. The model demonstrates that the final stage of removal of liquid or crystalline sulfide can effectively sequester Cu (and presumably other chalcophiles) and that late stage exsolution of magmatic fluids or brines may not be required to do this, although these processes are not mutually exclusive. Finally, the new Fe isotope data are combined with previous Tl-Mo-V stable isotope determinations on the same samples. Importantly, the multi-valent transition metal stable isotope systems of

  13. Use of Physicochemical Parameters to Assess the Environmental Fate of Organic Pollutants: The Fugacity Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenech, Xavier; Ayllon, Jose Antonio; Peral, Jose

    2006-01-01

    The environmental fate and behavior of different organic pollutants based on the qualitative analysis of thermodynamic and kinetic data is presented. The Fugacity model allows the use of different partition constants in an easy way, to determine the distribution of chemical between different phases in equilibrium of an environmental system.

  14. Experimental Determination of Fe-Mg Interdiffusion Coefficients in Orthopyroxene Using Pulsed Laser Ablation and Nanoscale Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Heege, J. H.; Dohmen, R.; Becker, H.; Chakraborty, S.

    2006-12-01

    Fe-Mg interdiffusion in silicate minerals is of interest in petrological studies for determining the closure temperature of geothermometers and for determining cooling rates from compositional profiles. It is also relevant for studies of the physical properties of silicates, such as rheology or electrical conductivity, because knowledge of its dependence on oxygen fugacity can aid in the understanding of point defect chemistry. Compositionally zoned orthopyroxenes are common in meteorites, mantle rocks, lower crustal rocks and a variety of plutonic and volcanic igneous rocks. However, experimental difficulties have precluded direct determination of Fe-Mg diffusion rates in orthopyroxenes so far and the available information comes from (1) Mg tracer diffusion coefficients obtained from isotope tracer studies using enriched ^{25}MgO films [1], (2) calculations of interdiffusion rates based on the (diffusion-controlled) order-disorder kinetics measured in orthopyroxene [2], and (3) indirect estimates from the comparison of diffusion widths in coexisting garnets and olivines, in which Fe-Mg diffusion rates are relatively well known [e.g., 3]. We have directly measured Fe-Mg interdiffusion coefficients parallel to the [001] direction in two natural orthopyroxene single crystals (approximately En95Fs5 and En90Fs10) using diffusion couples consisting of an olivine thin film (Fo30Fa70, typically 20 - 50 nm thick) deposited under vacuum on pre-heated, polished and oriented pyroxene single crystals using a pulsed laser ablation deposition technique. Samples were annealed for 4 - 337 hours at 800 - 1100 °C under atmospheric pressure in a continuous flow of CO + CO2 to control the oxygen fugacity between 10-16 and 10^{-12} bar within the stability field of pyroxene. Film thickness and compositional profiles were measured using Rutherford backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) on reference and annealed samples, and Fe concentration depth profiles were extracted from the RBS spectra

  15. Oxygen stoichiometry, phase stability, and thermodynamic behavior of the lead-doped Bi-2223 and Ag/Bi-2223 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetenbaum, M.; Hash, M.; Tani, B. S.; Luo, J. S.; Maroni, V. A.

    1995-02-01

    Electromotive-force (EMF) measurements of oxygen fugacities as a function of stoichiometry have been made in the lead-doped Bi-2223 superconducting system in the temperature range 700-815°C by means of an oxygen titration technique that employs an yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte. The results of our studies indicate that processing or annealing lead-doped Bi-2223 at temperatures ranging from 750 to 815°C and at oxygen partial pressures ranging from ∼ 0.02 to 0.2 atm should preserve Bi-2223 as essentially single-phase material. Thermodynamic assessments of the partial molar quantities ΔS¯( O2) andΔH¯( O2) indicate that the plateau regions in the plot of oxygen partial pressure versus oxygen stoichiometry ( x) can be represented by the diphasic CuOCu 2O system. In accord with the EMF measurements, it was found that lead-doped Bi-2223 in a silver sheath is stable at 815°C for oxygen partial pressures between 0.02 and 0.13 atm.

  16. Redox Evolution in Magma Oceans Due to Ferric/Ferrous Iron Partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, L.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Pahlevan, K.

    2017-12-01

    A long-standing puzzle in the evolution of the Earth is that while the present day upper mantle has an oxygen fugacity close to the QFM buffer, core formation during accretion would have occurred at much lower oxygen fugacities close to IW. We present a new model based on experimental evidence that normal solidification and differentiation processes in the terrestrial magma ocean may explain both core formation and the current oxygen fugacity of the mantle without resorting to a change in source material or process. A commonly made assumption is that ferric iron (Fe3+) is negligible at such low oxygen fugacities [1]. However, recent work on Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios in molten silicates [2-4] suggests that the Fe3+ content should increase at high pressure for a given oxygen fugacity. While disproportionation was not observed in these experiments, it may nonetheless be occurring in the melt at high pressure [5]. Therefore, there may be non-negligible amounts of Fe3+ formed through metal-silicate equilibration at high pressures within the magma ocean. Homogenization of the mantle and further partitioning of Fe2+/Fe3+ as the magma ocean crystallizes may explain the oxygen fugacity of the Earth's mantle without requiring additional oxidation mechanisms. We present here models using different parameterizations for the Fe2+/Fe3+ thermodynamic relationships in silicate melts to constrain the evolution of the redox state of the magma ocean as it crystallizes. The model begins with metal-silicate partitioning at high pressure to form the core and set the initial Fe3+ abundance. Combined with previous work on oxygen absorption by magma oceans due to escape of H from H2O [6], we show that the upper layers of solidifying magma oceans should be more oxidized than the lower mantle. This model also suggests that large terrestrial planets should have more oxidized mantles than small planets. From a redox perspective, no change in the composition of the Earth's accreting material needs to be

  17. Thermodynamic calculations of oxygen self-diffusion in mixed-oxide nuclear fuels

    DOE PAGES

    Parfitt, David C.; Cooper, Michael William; Rushton, Michael J.D.; ...

    2016-07-29

    Mixed-oxide fuels containing uranium with thorium and/or plutonium may play an important part in future nuclear fuel cycles. There are, however, significantly less data available for these materials than conventional uranium dioxide fuel. In the present study, we employ molecular dynamics calculations to simulate the elastic properties and thermal expansivity of a range of mixed oxide compositions. These are then used to support equations of state and oxygen self-diffusion models to provide a self-consistent prediction of the behaviour of these mixed oxide fuels at arbitrary compositions.

  18. A Polygenetic Origin for some Oceanic Lithosphere: Evidence from Forearc, Continental Margin and Ophiolite Mantle Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, J. A.; Parkinson, I. J.

    2003-12-01

    It is a common assumption that ophiolites and oceanic lithosphere attain their structures and compositions through partial melting of mantle in a single tectonic setting and with a simple petrogenetic relationship between all the units. There is, however, growing evidence that some oceanic lithosphere and ophiolite complexes contain a record of a polygenetic history of formation. This may be apparent in crustal units (complex lava stratigraphies or cross-cutting dykes and gabbros) but the best evidence is recorded in the chrome spinel compositions of residual mantle. Among the most effective plots is that of oxygen fugacity, calculated from accurately-determined ferric iron concentrations, against Cr-number. In the ocean basins, forearc peridotites from the Izu-Bonin Mariana, Tonga and South Sandwich systems may be of two types. In the first, both peridotites and dunites have similar oxygen fugacities and a small range in Cr-number. We interpret these as mongenetic. In the second, the peridotites have low oxygen fugacities and moderate Cr-number and trend towards dunites with high oxygen fugacities and high Cr-number. We interpret these as representing mid-ocean ridge mantle lithosphere, which existed prior to a subduction event and was subsequently invaded by subduction-related melts. The time-gap between the ridge and subduction events may be millions of years or, in the case of subduction initiation, represent a continuum. At passive continental margins, such as the Galicia margin, the origin may again be monogenetic or polygenetic. In the latter case, the mantle peridotites may exhibit a trend from low Cr-number to moderate Cr-number and decreasing oxygen fugacity. We interpret these as representing orogenic peridotite uplifted during an amagmatic extensional event and invaded by MORB magma during subsequent spreading. As with forearc peridotites, the time gap between these two events may be large or there be a continuum. A surprising number of ophiolites

  19. Utilizing polymer-coated vials to illustrate the fugacity and bioavailability of chlorinated pesticide residues in contaminated soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fugacity and bioavailability concepts can be challenging topics to communicate effectively in the timeframe of an academic laboratory course setting. In this experiment, students observe partitioning of the residues over time into an artificial biological matrix. The three compounds utilized are o...

  20. Similarity criteria in calculations of the energy characteristics of a cw oxygen - iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhenin, A. V.; Azyazov, V. N.

    2012-12-01

    The calculated and experimental data on the energy efficiency of a cw oxygen - iodine laser (OIL) are analysed based on two similarity criteria, namely, on the ratio of the residence time of the gas mixture in the resonator to the characteristic time of extraction of the energy stored in singlet oxygen td and on the gain-to-loss ratio Π. It is shown that the simplified two-level laser model satisfactorily predicts the output characteristics of OILs with a stable resonator at τd <= 7. Efficient energy extraction from the OIL active medium is achieved in the case of τd = 5 - 7, Π = 4 - 8.

  1. Electrical conductivity of San Carlos olivine along [100] under oxygen- and pyroxene-buffered conditions and implications for defect equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Wanamaker, B.J.; Duba, A.G.

    1993-01-10

    The electrical conductivity along [100] of single crystal San Carlos olivine was measured as a function of temperature between 1100[degrees] and 1200[degrees]C and oxygen fugacity between 10[sup [minus]6] and 10[sup +0.5] Pa (at 1200[degrees]C), and either with (pyroxene-buffered) or without (self-buffered) an added natural pyroxene buffer from a San Carlos Iherzolite. Under these temperature and fO[sub 2] conditions, electrical conduction in the self-buffered sample is attributed to polarons (Fe[sup [sm bullet

  2. Solubility of oxygen in liquid Fe at high pressure and consequences for the early differentiation of Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubie, D. C.; Gessmann, C. K.; Frost, D. J.

    2003-04-01

    Knowledge of the solubility of oxygen in liquid iron enables the partitioning of oxygen between metal and silicates and the oxidation state of residual silicates to be constrained during core formation in planetary bodies. We have determined oxygen solubility experimentally at 5--23 GPa, 2100--2700 K and oxygen fugacities 1--4 log units below the iron-wüstite buffer in samples of liquid Ni-Fe alloy contained in magnesiowüstite capsules using a multianvil apparatus. Results show that oxygen solubility increases with increasing temperature but decreases slightly with increasing pressure over the range of experimental conditions, at constant oxygen fugacity. Using an extrapolation of the results to higher pressures and temperatures, we have modeled the geochemical consequences of metal-silicate separation in magma oceans in order to explain the contrasting FeO contents of the mantles of Earth and Mars. We assume that both Earth and Mars accreted originally from material with a chondritic composition; because the initial oxidation state is uncertain, we vary this parameter by defining the initial oxygen content. Two metal-silicate fractionation models are considered: (1) Metal and silicate are allowed to equilibrate at fictive conditions that approximate the pressure and temperature at the base of a magma ocean. (2) The effect of settling Fe droplets in a magma ocean is determined using a simple polybaric metal-silicate fractionation model. We assume that the temperature at the base of a magma ocean is close to the peridotite liquidus. In the case of Earth, high temperatures in a magma ocean with a depth >1200 km would have resulted in significant quantities of oxygen dissolving in the liquid metal with the consequent extraction of FeO from the residual silicate. In contrast, on Mars, even if the magma ocean extended to the depth of the current core-mantle boundary, temperatures would not have been sufficiently high for oxygen solubility in liquid metal to be

  3. Oxygen and iron production by electrolytic smelting of lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.

    1989-01-01

    Previous work has shown that Fe(sup 0) and O2 can be derived by electrolysis from silicate smelt of a composition typical of lunar soils (Lindstrom and Haskin 1979). In the present study, the goal is to refine further the conditions necessary to optimize production and to determine efficiencies of production (how much product is derived for a given current) and purity of products. These depend on several factors, including potential imposed between electrodes, configuration and surface area of the electrodes, composition of the electrolyzed silicate melt, and oxygen fugacity. Experiments were designed to measure the dependence on these variables of three parameters that must be known before production by electrolysis can be optimized. These parameters are: Limiting Current; Actual Current; and Efficiencies of Production.

  4. Effect of oxygen vacancies on the electronic and optical properties of tungsten oxide from first principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmood, Faisal; Pachter, Ruth; Murphy, Neil R.; Johnson, Walter E.; Ramana, Chintalapalle V.

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we investigated theoretically the role of oxygen vacancies on the electronic and optical properties of cubic, γ-monoclinic, and tetragonal phases of tungsten oxide (WO3) thin films. Following the examination of structural properties and stability of the bulk tungsten oxide polymorphs, we analyzed band structures and optical properties, applying density functional theory (DFT) and GW (Green's (G) function approximation with screened Coulomb interaction (W)) methods. Careful benchmarking of calculated band gaps demonstrated the importance of using a range-separated functional, where results for the pristine room temperature γ-monoclinic structure indicated agreement with experiment. Further, modulation of the band gap for WO3 structures with oxygen vacancies was quantified. Dielectric functions for cubic WO3, calculated at both the single-particle, essentially time-dependent DFT, as well as many-body GW-Bethe-Salpeter equation levels, indicated agreement with experimental data for pristine WO3. Interestingly, we found that introducing oxygen vacancies caused appearance of lower energy absorptions. A smaller refractive index was indicated in the defective WO3 structures. These predictions could lead to further experiments aimed at tuning the optical properties of WO3 by introducing oxygen vacancies, particularly for the lower energy spectral region.

  5. Crystal-liquid Fugacity Ratio as a Surrogate Parameter for Intestinal Permeability.

    PubMed

    Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Fasihi, Zohreh; Akbari, Jafar; Jannatabadi, Ensieh; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Loebenberg, Raimar; Valizadeh, Hadi

    We assessed the feasibility of using crystal-liquid fugacity ratio (CLFR) as an alternative parameter for intestinal permeability in the biopharmaceutical classification (BCS) of passively absorbed drugs. Dose number, fraction of dose absorbed, intestinal permeability, and intrinsic dissolution rate were used as the input parameters. CLFR was determined using thermodynamic parameters i.e., melting point, molar fusion enthalpy, and entropy of drug molecules obtained using differential scanning calorimetry. The CLFR values were in the range of 0.06-41.76 mole percent. There was a close relationship between CLFR and in vivo intestinal permeability (r > 0.8). CLFR values of greater than 2 mole percent corresponded to complete intestinal absorption. Applying CLFR versus dose number or intrinsic dissolution rate, more than 92% of tested drugs were correctly classified with respect to the reported classification system on the basis of human intestinal permeability and solubility. This investigation revealed that the CLFR might be an appropriate parameter for quantitative biopharmaceutical classification. This could be attributed to the fact that CLFR could be a measure of solubility of compounds in lipid bilayer which was found in this study to be directly proportional to the intestinal permeability of compounds. This classification enables researchers to define characteristics for intestinal absorption of all four BCS drug classes using suitable cutoff points for both intrinsic dissolution rate and crystal-liquid fugacity ratio. Therefore, it may be used as a surrogate for permeability studies. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.

  6. Strain-induced phase and oxygen-vacancy stability in ionic interfaces from first-principles calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Aidhy, Dilpuneet S.; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yanwen; ...

    2014-12-03

    Understanding interfacial chemistry is becoming crucial in materials design for heterointerfaces. Using density functional theory, we elucidate the effect of strained interfaces on phase and oxygen-vacancy stability for CeO2 | ZrO2, ThO2 | ZrO2 and CeO2 | ThO2 interfaces. The calculations show that ZrO2 transforms from cubic fluorite to the orthorhombic columbite under tensile strain providing evidence of a previous experimental speculation of an unrecognized ZrO2 phase. We also show that oxygen vacancies could be preferably stabilized on either side of the interface by manipulating strain. We predict that they are stable in tensile-strain, and unstable in compressivestrained materials.

  7. Solubility of C-O-H volatiles in graphite-saturated martian basalts and application to martian atmospheric evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, B. D.; Hirschmann, M. M.; Withers, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    The modern martian atmosphere is thin, leading to surface conditions too cold to support liquid water. Yet, there is evidence of liquid surface water early in martian history that is commonly thought to require a thick CO2 atmosphere. Our previous work follows the analysis developed by Holloway and co-workers (Holloway et al. 1992; Holloway 1998), which predicts a linear relationship between CO2 and oxygen fugacity (fO2) in graphite-saturated silicate melts. At low oxygen fugacity, the solubility of CO2 in silicate melts is therefore very low. Such low calculated solubilities under reducing conditions lead to small fluxes of CO2 associated with martian magmatism, and therefore production of a thick volcanogenic CO2 atmosphere could require a prohibitively large volume of mantle-derived magma. The key assumption in these previous calculations is that the carbonate ion is the chief soluble C-O-H species. The results of the calculations would not be affected appreciably if molecular CO2, rather than carbonate ion, were an important species, but could be entirely different if there were other appreciable C-species such as CO, carbonyl (C=O) complexes, carbide (Si-C), or CH4. Clearly, graphite-saturated experiments are required to explore how much volcanogenic C may be degassed by reduced martian lavas. A series of piston-cylinder experiments were performed on synthetic martian starting materials over a range of oxygen fugacities (IW+2.3 to IW-0.9), and at pressures of 1-3 GPa and temperatures of 1340-1600 °C in Pt-graphite double capsules. CO2 contents in experimental glasses were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and range from 0.0026-0.50 wt%. CO2 solubilities change by one order of magnitude with an order of magnitude change in oxygen fugacity, as predicted by previous work. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) determinations of C contents in glasses range from 0.0131-0.2626 wt%. C contents determined by SIMS are consistently higher

  8. Thermal state, oxygen fugacity and COH fluid speciation in cratonic lithospheric mantle: New data on peridotite xenoliths from the Udachnaya kimberlite, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, A. G.; Ionov, D. A.; Doucet, L. S.; Pokhilenko, L. N.

    2012-12-01

    Oxygen fugacity (fO2) and temperature variations in a complete lithospheric mantle section (70-220 km) of the central Siberian craton are estimated based on 42 peridotite xenoliths in the Udachnaya kimberlite. Pressure and temperature (P-T) estimates for the 70-140 km depth range closely follow the 40 mW/m2 model conductive geotherm but show a bimodal distribution at greater depths. A subset of coarse garnet peridotites at 145-180 km plots near the "cold" 35 mW/m2 geotherm whereas the majority of coarse and sheared rocks at ≥145 km scatter between the 40 and 45 mW/m2 geotherms. This P-T profile may reflect a perturbation of an initially "cold" lithospheric mantle through a combination of (1) magmatic under-plating close to the crust-mantle boundary and (2) intrusion of melts/fluids in the lower lithosphere accompanied by shearing. fO2 values estimated from Fe3+/∑Fe in spinel and/or garnet obtained by Mössbauer spectroscopy decrease from +1 to -4 Δlog fO2 (FMQ) from the top to the bottom of the lithospheric mantle (˜0.25 log units per 10 km) due to pressure effects on Fe2+-Fe3+ equilibria in garnet. Garnet peridotites from Udachnaya appear to be more oxidized than those from the Kaapvaal craton but show fO2 distribution with depth similar to those in the Slave craton. Published fO2 estimates for Udachnaya xenoliths based on C-O-H fluid speciation in inclusions in minerals from gas chromatography are similar to our results at ≤120 km, but are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher for the deeper mantle, possibly due to uncertainties of fO2 estimates based on experimental calibrations at ≤3.5 GPa. Sheared peridotites containing garnets with u-shaped, sinusoidal and humped REE patterns are usually more oxidized than Yb, Lu-rich, melt-equilibrated garnets, which show a continuous decrease from heavy to light REE. This further indicates that mantle redox state may be related to sources and modes of metasomatism.

  9. Bedside determination of bicarbonate and base excess, blood oxygen saturation and content, VD/VT, and P50 using a programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, P L

    1979-06-01

    Assessing and modifying oxygen transport are major parts of ICU patient management. Determination of base excess, blood oxygen saturation and content, dead space ventilation, and P50 helps in this management. A program is described for determining these variables using a T1 59 programmable calculator and PC 100A printer. Each variable can be independently calculated without running the whole program. The calculator-printer's small size, low cost, and hard copy printout make it a valuable and versatile tool for calculating physiological variables. The program is easily entered by an stored on magnetic card, and prompts the user to enter the appropriate variables, making is easy to run by untrained personnel.

  10. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, Rick, II; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Danielson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition (e.g., Evans et al. 2012; Nittler et al. 201 l; Peplowski et al. 2012; Weider et al. 2012). The high Sand low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER on the planet's surface suggests a low oxygen fugacity of the present planetary materials. Estimates of the oxygen fugacity for Mercurian magmas are approximately 3- 7 log units below the Iron-Wiistite (Fe-FeO) oxygen buffer (McCubbin et al. 2012; Zolotov et al. 2013), several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from such as the Earth, Moon, or Mars (Herd 2008; Sharp, McCubbin, and Shearer 2013; Wadhwa 2008). Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions are available in our collections (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites). The goal of this study is to conduct experiments at high pressure and temperature conditions to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements as a function of decreasing oxygen fugacity.

  11. Estimating the uncertainty in thermochemical calculations for oxygen-hydrogen combustors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Joseph David

    The thermochemistry program CEA2 was combined with the statistical thermodynamics program PAC99 in a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the uncertainty in several CEA2 output variables due to uncertainty in thermodynamic reference values for the reactant and combustion species. In all, six typical performance parameters were examined, along with the required intermediate calculations (five gas properties and eight stoichiometric coefficients), for three hydrogen-oxygen combustors: a main combustor, an oxidizer preburner and a fuel preburner. The three combustors were analyzed in two different modes: design mode, where, for the first time, the uncertainty in thermodynamic reference values---taken from the literature---was considered (inputs to CEA2 were specified and so had no uncertainty); and data reduction mode, where inputs to CEA2 did have uncertainty. The inputs to CEA2 were contrived experimental measurements that were intended to represent the typical combustor testing facility. In design mode, uncertainties in the performance parameters were on the order of 0.1% for the main combustor, on the order of 0.05% for the oxidizer preburner and on the order of 0.01% for the fuel preburner. Thermodynamic reference values for H2O were the dominant sources of uncertainty, as was the assigned enthalpy for liquid oxygen. In data reduction mode, uncertainties in performance parameters increased significantly as a result of the uncertainties in experimental measurements compared to uncertainties in thermodynamic reference values. Main combustor and fuel preburner theoretical performance values had uncertainties of about 0.5%, while the oxidizer preburner had nearly 2%. Associated experimentally-determined performance values for all three combustors were 3% to 4%. The dominant sources of uncertainty in this mode were the propellant flowrates. These results only apply to hydrogen-oxygen combustors and should not be generalized to every propellant combination. Species for

  12. Energetics of defects formation and oxygen migration in pyrochlore compounds from first principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Kowalski, Piotr M.

    2018-07-01

    In order to get better understanding of the selective order-disorder transition in pyrochlore compounds, using ab initio methods we calculated the formation energies of coupled cation anti-site and anion Frenkel pair defects and the energy barriers for the oxygen migration for number of families of A2B2 O7 pyrochlore-type compounds. While these parameters have been previously computed with force field-based methods, the ab initio results provide more reliable values that can be confidently used in subsequent analysis. We found a fairly good correlation between the formation energies of the coupled defects and the stability field of pyrochlores. In line with previous studies, the compounds that crystallize in defect fluorite structure are found to have smaller values of coupled defect formation energies than those crystallizing in the pyrochlore phase, although the correlation is not that sharp as in the case of isolated anion Frenkel pair defect. The investigation of the energy barriers for the oxygen migration shows that it is not a good, sole indicator of the tendency of the order-disorder phase transition in pyrochlores. However, we found that the oxygen migration barrier is reduced in the presence of the cation antisite defect. This points at disordering-induced enhancement of oxygen diffusion in pyrochlore compounds.

  13. The effects of nickel and sulphur on the core-mantle partitioning of oxygen in Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuno, Kyusei; Frost, Daniel J.; Rubie, David C.

    2011-03-01

    Constraints on the partitioning of oxygen between silicates, oxides, and metallic liquids are important for determining the amount of oxygen that may have entered the cores of terrestrial planets and to identify likely reactions at the core-mantle boundary. Several previous studies have examined oxygen partitioning between liquid Fe metal and ferropericlase, however, the cores of terrestrial planets also contain nickel and most likely sulphur. We have performed experiments to examine the effects of both nickel and sulphur on the partitioning of oxygen between ferropericlase and liquid Fe alloy up to pressures of 24.5 GPa in the temperature range 2430-2750 K using a multianvil press. The results show that at a fixed oxygen fugacity the proportion of oxygen that partitions into liquid metal will decrease by approximately 1-2 mol% on the addition of 10-20 mol% nickel to the liquid. The addition of around 30 mol% sulphur will, on the other hand, increase the metal oxygen content by approximately 10 mol%. Experiments to examine the combined effects of both nickel and sulphur, show a decrease in the effect of nickel on oxygen partitioning as the sulphur content of the metal increases. We expand an existing thermodynamic model for the partitioning of oxygen at high pressures and temperatures to include the effects of nickel and sulphur by fitting these experimental data, with further constraints provided by existing phase equilibria studies at similar conditions in the Fe-S and Fe-O-S systems. Plausible terrestrial core sulphur contents have little effect on oxygen partitioning. When our model is extrapolated to conditions of the present day terrestrial core-mantle boundary, the presence of nickel is found to lower the oxygen content of the outer core that is in equilibrium with the expected mantle ferropericlase FeO content, by approximately 1 weight %, in comparison to nickel free calculations. In agreement with nickel-free experiments, this implies that the Earth

  14. Stability and migration of large oxygen clusters in UO(2+x): density functional theory calculations.

    PubMed

    Andersson, D A; Espinosa-Faller, F J; Uberuaga, B P; Conradson, S D

    2012-06-21

    Using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and nudged elastic band calculations we examine the finite temperature stability, transition pathways, and migration mechanisms of large oxygen clusters in UO(2+x). Here we specifically consider the recently proposed split quad-interstitial and cuboctahedral oxygen clusters. It is shown that isolated cuboctahedral clusters may transform into more stable configurations that are closely linked to the split quad-interstitial. The split quad-interstitial is stable with respect to single interstitials occupying the empty octahedral holes of the UO(2) lattice. In order to better understand discrepancies between theory and experiments, the simulated atomic pair distribution functions for the split quad-interstitial structures are analyzed with respect to the distribution function for U(4)O(9) previously obtained from neutron diffraction data. Our nudged elastic band calculations suggest that the split quad-interstitial may migrate by translating one of its constituent di-interstitial clusters via a barrier that is lower than the corresponding barrier for individual interstitials, but higher than the barrier for the most stable di-interstitial cluster.

  15. The solubility of Pd and Au in hydrous intermediate silicate melts: The effect of oxygen fugacity and the addition of Cl and S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Neal A.; Zajacz, Zoltan; Brenan, James M.

    2018-06-01

    The solubilities of Pd and Au in a hydrous trachyandesitic melt were experimentally determined at 1000 °C and 200 MPa at oxygen fugacity (ƒO2) from 0.45 log units below to 6.55 log units above the Ni-NiO buffer (NNO). The effect of adding metal-binding ligands (i.e. Cl and S) to the silicate melt was also studied. The solubility of Au increases from 0.15 ± 0.1 to 3.85 ± 1.48 ppm in Cl- and S-free melts with ƒO2 increasing from NNO-0.45 to NNO+6.55 with a slope that suggests that it is present in 1+ oxidation state over the entire studied ƒO2 range. On the other hand, Pd solubility, shows a more moderate increase with ƒO2, especially in the lower half of the studied range, increasing from 2.66 ± 0.25 ppm at NNO-0.45 to only 3.62 ± 0.38 ppm at NNO+1.72 in Cl- and S-free melts. Overall, the variation in Pd solubility as a function of ƒO2 indicates Pd being dissolved in the silicate melt in both zero and 1+ oxidation state, with the former being dominant below NNO+4.5. At NNO-0.45 to +3.48, the addition of 3170-4060 ppm Cl to the silicate melt increased the solubility of Au by an average factor of 1.5, in comparison to Cl-free melts. However, at NNO+6.55, Au solubility increased by a factor of 2.5. The addition of Cl had a negligible effect on the solubility of Pd except for a large increase (factor of 2.4) at NNO+6.55. At reducing conditions (NNO-0.45), the addition of 170 ppm S to the silicate melt increased the solubility of Au by a factor of ∼4 but did not change the solubility of Pd in comparison to S-free melts. The observation that Pd is dominantly present as Pd0 at NNO < +4.5 may explain the lack of complexation with potential reduced sulfur-bearing and chloride ligands. As one may expect similar behavior in fluids degassing from magmas at depth, the lack of oxidized Pd species could be an important factor behind the scarcity of economically viable Pd-rich magmatic-hydrothermal deposits observed in nature.

  16. The electrum-tarnish method for the determination of the fugacity of sulfur in laboratory sulfide systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, P.B.; Toulmin, P.

    1964-01-01

    A new method for the determination of the fugacity of sulfur in laboratory systems consists of visual observation of the development and decomposition of a sulfide tarnish phase on silver-gold alloy (electrum) of precisely known composition. The alloy system is calibrated against pure sulfur. The method has the following advantages: simple apparatus; ability to cover a large range of fugacity of S2; ability to cover a large temperature range by permitting runs of long duration; ability to tolerate other components in the gas phase; and ease of recovery of the quenched charges for determinations of phases and compositions. Results obtained by the electrum-tarnish method are in satisfactory agreement with those obtained by other workers for the fs2 vs. T curves for the assemblage Ni(1-x)S + NiS2. The electrum-tarnish method shows promise for investigating many other reactions. Univariant reactions studied by this method can be represented as lines forming a genetic grid in terms of the environmental parameters fs2 and T, The slopes of such lines can yield valuable thermodynamic data for the phases involved, but activity coefficients must be known for phases of variable composition. ?? 1964.

  17. Hydrogen and Ferric Iron in Mars Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyar, Melinda D.

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge of oxygen and hydrogen fugacity is of paramount importance in constraining phase equilibria and crystallization processes of melts, as well as understanding the partitioning of elements between the cope and silicate portions of terrestrial planets. H and Fe(3+) must both be analyzed in order to reconstruct hydrogen and oxygen fugacities on Mars. To date, SIMS data have elucidated D/H and H contents of hydrous phases in SNC meteorites, but until now anhydrous martian minerals have not been systematically examined for trace hydrogen. Ferric iron has been quantified using XANES in many martian phases, but integrated studies of both Fe(3+) and H on the same spots are really needed to address the H budget. Finally, the effects of shock on both Fe(3+) and H in hydrous and anhydrous phases must be quantified. Thus, the overall goal of this research was to understand the oxygen and hydrogen fugacities under which martian samples crystallized. In this research one-year project, we approached this problem by 1) characterizing Fe(3+) and H contents of SNC meteorites using both bulk (Mossbauer spectroscopy and uranium extraction, respectively) and microscale (synchrotron micro-XANES and SIMS) methods; 2) relating Fe(3+) and H contents of martian minerals to their oxygen and hydrogen fugacities through analysis of experimentally equilibrated phases (for pyroxene) and through study of volcanic rocks in which the oxygen and hydrogen fugacities can be independently constrained (for feldspar); and 3) studying the effects of shock processes on Fe(3+) and H contents of the phases of interest. Results have been used to assess quantitatively the distribution of H and Fe(3+) among phases in the martian interior, which will better constrain the geodynamic processes of the interior, as well as the overall hydrogen and water budgets on Mars. There were no inventions funded by this research.

  18. Experimental evidence of six-fold oxygen coordination for phosphorus and XANES calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flank, A.-M.; Trcera, N.; Brunet, F.; Itié, J.-P.; Irifune, T.; Lagarde, P.

    2009-11-01

    Phosphorus, a group V element, has always been found so far in minerals, biological systems and synthetic compounds with an oxygen coordination number of four (i.e, PO4 groups). We demonstrate here using phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy that this element can also adopt a six-fold oxygen coordination (i.e, PO6 groups). This new coordination was achieved in AlPO4 doped SiO2 stishovite synthesized at 18 GPa and 1873 K and quenched down to ambient conditions. The well-crystallized P-bearing stishovite grains (up to 100μm diameter) were embedded in the back-transformation products of high pressure form of AlPO4 matrix. They were identified by elemental mapping (μ-XRF). μ-XANES spectra collected at the Si and P K edges in the Si rich region with a very low concentration of P present striking resemblance, Si itself being characteristic of pure stishovite. We can therefore infer that phosphorus in the corresponding stishovite crystal is involved in an octahedral coordination made of six oxygen atoms. First principle XANES calculations using a plane-wave density functional formalism with core-hole effects treated in a supercell approach at the P K edge for a P atom substituting an Si one in the stishovite structure confirm this assertion. This result shows that in the lower-mantle where all silicon is six-fold coordinated, phosphorus has the crystal-chemical ability to remain incorporated into silicate structures.

  19. V Xanes in Spinels as an Oxy-Barometer in Meteorites with Implications for Redox Variations in the Inner Solar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Sutton, S.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K.; Le, L.; Newville, M.

    2015-01-01

    The variation of oxygen fugacity within inner solar system materials spans a range of nearly 15 orders of magnitude. Igneous and metamorphic rocks commonly contain a mineral assemblage that allows oxygen fugacity to be calculated or con-strained such as FeTi oxides, olivine-opx-spinel, or some other oxy-barometer. Some rocks, however, contain a limited mineral assemblage and do not provide constraints on fO2 using mineral equilibria. Good examples of the latter are orthopyroxenites or dunites, such as diogenites, ALH 84001, chassignites, or brachinites. In fact it is no surprise that the fO2 of many of these achondrites is not well known, other than being "reduced" and below the metal saturation value. In order to bridge this gap in our understanding, we have initiated a study of V in chromites in achondrite. Because the V pre-edge peak intensity and energy in chromites varies with fO2, and this has been calibrated over a large fO2 range, we can apply this relation to rocks for which we otherwise have no fO2 constraints.

  20. Micro-XANES Measurements on Experimental Spinels and the Oxidation State of Vanadium in Spinel-Melt Pairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Sutton, S.R.; Newville, M.

    2004-01-01

    Spinel can be a significant host phase for V as well as other transition metals such as Ni and Co. However, vanadium has multiple oxidation states V(2+), V(3+), V(4+) or V(5+) at oxygen fugacities relevant to natural systems. We do know that D(V) spinel/melt is correlated with V and TiO2 content and fO2, but the uncertainty of the oxidation state under the range of natural conditions has made elusive a thorough understanding of D(V) spinel/melt. For example, V(3+) is likely to be stable in spinels, based on exchange with Al in experiments in the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system. On the other hand, it has been argued that V(4+) will be stable across the range of natural oxygen fugacities in nature. In order to gain a better understanding of D(V) spinel/melt we have equilibrated spinel-melt pairs at controlled oxygen fugacities, between HM to NNO, where V is present in the spinel at natural levels (approx. 300 ppm V). These spinel-melt pairs were analyzed using micro-XANES at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. The new results will be used together with spinel compositional data (Ti, V content) and oxygen fugacity, to unravel the effects of these variables on D(V) spinel/melt.

  1. Untangling the History of Oceanic Peridotites Using Spinel Oxybarometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birner, S.; Warren, J. M.; Cottrell, E.; Davis, F. A.

    2014-12-01

    Comprehensive knowledge of the oxygen fugacity of the upper mantle is critical to understanding the processes associated with melt production, interaction, and extraction. Thus, it is important to understand how fO2 changes during a peridotite's thermal and petrologic history in the asthenospheric and lithospheric mantle, as metamorphic subsolidus reequilibration can result in changes to recorded fO2. A case study of Tongan forearc peridotites highlights the heterogeneity seen in mantle peridotites. We analyzed two dredges located 250 km apart along the trench: one dredge ranges in fO2 from 0.5 to 1 log unit above the QFM buffer, similar to analyses of supra-subduction zone xenoliths (e.g. Brandon and Draper, 1996; Wood and Virgo, 1989) while the other dredge ranges from QFM-0.75 to QFM+0.25 and exhibits high spinel Cr# (ranging from 0.45 to 0.75). Systematics between fO2, Ti concentration, olivine forsterite content, and Cr# within each dredge allow us to differentiate between the effects of melt extraction, melt interaction, and cooling. Because the spinel oxybarometry equation is dependent on temperature, it is important to be able to accurately determine the temperature recorded by peridotites. Though many geothermometers are available for mantle rocks, we assert that geothermometers based on Fe-Mg exchange between olivine and spinel are the most applicable to fO2 calculations, because the oxygen fugacity recorded by a mantle assemblage is primarily controlled by this exchange. Additionally, preliminary analyses of diffusion profiles across olivine-spinel grain boundaries provide insight into the cooling of peridotite in the oceanic lithosphere and its effects on oxygen fugacity. Mg-Fe exchange between olivine and spinel is controlled by the distribution coefficient, KD, which is dependent on both temperature and the proportion of Cr to other trivalent cations in spinel. We see an increase in olivine forsterite content towards the olivine-spinel interface

  2. Sulfur speciation in hydrous experimental glasses of varying oxidation state - Results from measured wavelength shifts of sulfur X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Michael R.; Rutherford, Malcolm J.

    1988-01-01

    The focusing geometry of an electron microprobe has been used to measure the wavelength shifts of sulfur X-rays from hydrous experimental melts synthesized at oxygen fugacities that range from near the iron-wustite buffer to the magnetite-hermatite buffer. It is found that the proportion of dissolved sulfur which is present as sulfate increases with increasing oxygen fugacity. It is noted that in natural melts that have equilibrated at or below fayalite-magnetite-quartz values of +1, sulfur is probably present mainly as S(2-).

  3. Deriving a sea surface climatology of CO2 fugacity in support of air-sea gas flux studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddijn-Murphy, L. M.; Woolf, D. K.; Land, P. E.; Shutler, J. D.; Donlon, C.

    2014-07-01

    Climatologies, or long-term averages, of essential climate variables are useful for evaluating models and providing a baseline for studying anomalies. The Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Atlas (SOCAT) has made millions of global underway sea surface measurements of CO2 publicly available, all in a uniform format and presented as fugacity, fCO2. fCO2 is highly sensitive to temperature and the measurements are only valid for the instantaneous sea surface temperature (SST) that is measured concurrent with the in-water CO2 measurement. To create a climatology of fCO2 data suitable for calculating air-sea CO2 fluxes it is therefore desirable to calculate fCO2 valid for climate quality SST. This paper presents a method for creating such a climatology. We recomputed SOCAT's fCO2 values for their respective measurement month and year using climate quality SST data from satellite Earth observation and then extrapolated the resulting fCO2 values to reference year 2010. The data were then spatially interpolated onto a 1° × 1° grid of the global oceans to produce 12 monthly fCO2 distributions for 2010. The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) is also provided for those who prefer to use pCO2. The CO2 concentration difference between ocean and atmosphere is the thermodynamic driving force of the air-sea CO2 flux, and hence the presented fCO2 distributions can be used in air-sea gas flux calculations together with climatologies of other climate variables.

  4. Comparison of Oxygen Gauche Effects in Poly(Oxyethylene) and Poly(ethylene terephtylene) Based on Quantum Chemistry Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard; Han, Jie; Yoon, Do; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The so-called oxygen gauche effect in poly(oxyethylene) (POE) and its model molecules such as 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) and diglyme (CH3OC2H4OC2H4OCH3) is manifested in the preference for gauche C-C bond conformations over trans. This has also been observed for poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). Our previous quantum chemistry calculations demonstrated that the large C-C gauche population in DME is due, in part, to a low-lying tg +/- g+ conformer that exhibits a substantial 1,5 CH ... O attraction. New calculations will be described that demonstrate the accuracy of the original quantum chemistry calculations. In addition, an extension of this work to model molecules for PET will be presented. It is seen that the C-C gauche preference is much stronger in 1,2 diacetoxyethane than in DME. In addition, there exist low-lying tg +/- g+/- and g+/-g+/-g+/- conformers that exhibit 1,5 CH ... O attractions involving the carbonyl oxygens. It is expected that the -O-C-C-O- torsional properties will be quite different in these two polymers. The quantum chemistry results are used to parameterize rotational isomeric states models (RIS) and force fields for molecular dynamics simulations of these polymers.

  5. Partial melting of the Allende (CV3) meteorite - Implications for origins of basaltic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Jones, J. H.

    1991-01-01

    Eucrites and angrites are distinct types of basaltic meteorites whose origins are poorly known. Experiments in which samples of the Allende (CV3) carbonaceous chondrite were partially melted indicate that partial melts can resemble either eucrites or angrites, depending only on the oxygen fugacity. Melts are eucritic if this variable is below that of the iron-wuestite buffer or angritic if above it. With changing pressure, the graphite-oxygen redox reaction can produce oxygen fugacities that are above or below those of the iron-wuestite buffer. Therefore, a single, homogeneous, carbonaceous planetoid greater than 110 kilometers in radius could produce melts of drastically different composition, depending on the depth of melting.

  6. Comparative Planetary Mineralogy: V/(Cr+Al) Systematics in Chromites as an Indicator of Relative Oxygen Fugacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papike, J. J.; Kamer, J. M.; Shearer, C. K.

    2004-01-01

    As our contribution to the new "Oxygen in the Solar System" initiative of the Lunar and Planetary Institute and the NASA Cosmochemistry Program, we have been developing oxygen barometers based largely on behavior of V which can occur in four valence states V2+, V3+, V4+, and V5+, and record at least 8 orders of magnitude of fO2. Our first efforts in measuring these valence proportions were by XANES techniques in basaltic glasses from Earth, Moon, and Mars. We now address the behavior of V valence states in chromite in basalts from Earth, Moon, and Mars. We have been looking for a "V in chromite oxybarometer" that works with data collected by the electron microprobe and thus is readily accessible to a large segment of the planetary materials community. This paper describes very early results that will be refined over the next two years.

  7. Oxygen adsorption and incorporation at irradiated GaN(0001) and GaN(0001¯) surfaces: First-principles density-functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiang; Selloni, Annabella; Myers, T. H.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2006-11-01

    Density functional theory calculations of oxygen adsorption and incorporation at the polar GaN(0001) and GaN(0001¯) surfaces have been carried out to explain the experimentally observed reduced oxygen concentration in GaN samples grown by molecular beam epitaxy in the presence of high energy (˜10keV) electron beam irradiation [Myers , J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2295 (2000)]. Using a model in which the effect of the irradiation is to excite electrons from the valence to the conduction band, we find that both the energy cost of incorporating oxygen impurities in deeper layers and the oxygen adatom diffusion barriers are significantly reduced in the presence of the excitation. The latter effect leads to a higher probability for two O adatoms to recombine and desorb, and thus to a reduced oxygen concentration in the irradiated samples, consistent with experimental observations.

  8. Highly Reducing Partitioning Experiments Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, Rick, II; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Danielson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface Space ENvironment GEochemistry and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high S and low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER on the planet's surface suggests a low oxygen fugacity of the present planetary materials. Estimates of the oxygen fugacity for Mercurian magmas are approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wüstite (Fe-FeO) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from such as the Earth, Moon, or Mars. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions are available in our collections (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites). With this limited amount of material, we must perform experiments to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements as a function of decreasing oxygen fugacity. Experiments are being conducted at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multi-anvil press, at temperatures up to 1850degC. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were selected for the final run products to contain metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity is controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, using the Si-SiO2 oxygen buffer, which is approximately 5 log units more reducing than the Fe-FeO oxygen buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt compositional is diopside (CaMgSi2O6) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. Elements detected on Mercury

  9. Lipid Extraction and the Fugacity of Stable Isotope Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padula, V.; Causey, D.; Wolf, N.; Welker, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Stable isotope analysis of blood, feathers, and other tissues are often used to infer migration patterns, diet composition and trophic status of seabirds. Tissues contain variable amounts of lipids that are depleted in the heavy carbon isotope (13C) and may introduce a bias in these values. There is evidence that lipid extraction may affect other stable isotope ratios, such as δ15N. Consequently, correction factors need to be applied to appropriately interpret δ13C and δ15N values for individual species and tissue type. In this study, we collected seven species of seabirds from the Near Islands, the western most group of islands in the Aleutian Island archipelago. We sampled kidney, liver, heart and muscle samples from each bird and after freeze drying, individual tissue samples were divided into two subsamples. We left one subsample unaltered and extracted lipids from the other subsample using a 2:1 chloroform-methanol solution. We found that the change in δ13C values after lipid extraction (Δδ13C) varied widely among categories (eg., species, tissue type) from 0 - 4 ‰, while Δδ15N values ranged from 0 to 2‰. Notably, within category variation was nonsignificant and the Δδ values were linear against the covariant C:N ratio of the isotopic data, which allows us to use arithmetic corrections for categorical values. Our data strongly indicate that the effects of lipid extraction on stable isotopic values, while linear within category, vary widely by species, tissue, geographic area, year of collection, and isotope. Fugacity is usually employed as a thermodynamic quantity related to the chemical potential or activity that characterizes the escaping tendency from a phase (eg. Mackay & Paterson 1982). Here we use fugacity in the earlier, broader sense of fleeting, transitory, or instable states (eg., S. Johnson 1751), and its measure may be approximated by the higher order variance of Δδ13C and Δδ15N among data categories. Clearly, understanding the

  10. Highly oxidising fluids generated during serpentinite breakdown in subduction zones.

    PubMed

    Debret, B; Sverjensky, D A

    2017-09-04

    Subduction zones facilitate chemical exchanges between Earth's deep interior and volcanism that affects habitability of the surface environment. Lavas erupted at subduction zones are oxidized and release volatile species. These features may reflect a modification of the oxidation state of the sub-arc mantle by hydrous, oxidizing sulfate and/or carbonate-bearing fluids derived from subducting slabs. But the reason that the fluids are oxidizing has been unclear. Here we use theoretical chemical mass transfer calculations to predict the redox state of fluids generated during serpentinite dehydration. Specifically, the breakdown of antigorite to olivine, enstatite, and chlorite generates fluids with high oxygen fugacities, close to the hematite-magnetite buffer, that can contain significant amounts of sulfate. The migration of these fluids from the slab to the mantle wedge could therefore provide the oxidized source for the genesis of primary arc magmas that release gases to the atmosphere during volcanism. Our results also show that the evolution of oxygen fugacity in serpentinite during subduction is sensitive to the amount of sulfides and potentially metal alloys in bulk rock, possibly producing redox heterogeneities in subducting slabs.

  11. Hydrogen-water vapor mixtures: Control of hydrothermal atmospheres by hydrogen osmosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaw, H.R.

    1963-01-01

    Experiments at 700??C and 800 bars total pressure demonstrate positive deviations from ideality for mixtures of hydrogen and H2O gases. The deviations are greater than predicted with Stockmayer's method. The composition of the mixture and the fugacity of hydrogen are controlled by diffusing hydrogen through metallic membranes. The results give the fugacities of both H 2O and oxygen.

  12. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Some topics covered: Implications of internal fragmentation on the structure of comets; Atmospheric excitation of mars polar motion; Dunite viscosity dependence on oxygen fugacity; Cross profile and volume analysis of bahram valles on mars; Calculations of the fluxes of 10-250 kV lunar leakage gamma rays; Alluvian fans on mars; Investigating the sources of the apollo 14 high-Al mare basalts; Relationship of coronae, regional plains and rift zones on venus; and Chemical differentiation and internal structure of europa and callisto.

  13. Is the Neoproterozoic oxygen burst a supercontinent legacy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macouin, Melina; Roques, Damien; Rousse, Sonia; Ganne, Jerome; Denele, Yoann; Trindade, Ricardo

    2015-09-01

    The Neoproterozoic (1000-542 Myr ago) witnessed the dawn of Earth as we know it with modern-style plate tectonics, high levels of O2 in atmosphere and oceans and a thriving fauna. Yet, the processes leading to the fully oxygenation of the external envelopes, its exact timing and its link with the inner workings of the planet remain poorly understood. In some ways, it is a "chicken and egg" question: did the Neoproterozoic Oxygenation Event (NOE) cause life blooming, low-latitudes glaciations and perturbations in geochemical cycles or is it a consequence of these phenomena? Here, we suggest that the NOE may have been triggered by multi-million years oxic volcanic emissions along a protracted period at the end of the Neoproterozoic when continents were assembled in the Rodinia supercontinent. We report a very oxidized magma source at the upper mantle beneath a ring of subducting margins around Rodinia, and detail here the evidence at the margin of the Arabian shield. We investigate the 780 Ma Biotite and Pink granites and associated rocks of the Socotra Island with rock magnetic and petrographic methods. Magnetic susceptibility and isothermal remanent magnetization acquisitions show that, in these granites, both magnetite and hematite are present. Hematite subdivides magnetite grains into small grains. Magnetite and hematite are found to be primary, and formed at the early magmatic evolution of the granite at very high oxygen fugacity. Massive degassing of these oxidized magmas would reduce the sink for oxygen, and consequently contribute to its rise in the atmosphere with a net O2 flux of at least 2.25 x 107 Tmol. Our conceptual model provides a deep Earth link to the NOE and implies the oxygenation burst has occurred earlier than previously envisaged, paving the way for later changes in the outer envelopes of the planet epitomized on the extreme Neoproterozoic glaciations and the appearance of the first animals.

  14. Adsorption Energies of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Oxygen Atoms on the Low-temperature Amorphous Water Ice: A Systematic Estimation from Quantum Chemistry Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Nakatani, Naoki; Furuya, Kenji; Hama, Tetsuya

    2018-03-01

    We propose a new simple computational model to estimate the adsorption energies of atoms and molecules to low-temperature amorphous water ice, and we present the adsorption energies of carbon (3 P), nitrogen (4 S), and oxygen (3 P) atoms based on quantum chemistry calculations. The adsorption energies were estimated to be 14,100 ± 420 K for carbon, 400 ± 30 K for nitrogen, and 1440 ± 160 K for oxygen. The adsorption energy of oxygen is consistent with experimentally reported values. We found that the binding of a nitrogen atom is purely physisorption, while that of a carbon atom is chemisorption, in which a chemical bond to an O atom of a water molecule is formed. That of an oxygen atom has a dual character, with both physisorption and chemisorption. The chemisorption of atomic carbon also implies the possibility of further chemical reactions to produce molecules bearing a C–O bond, though this may hinder the formation of methane on water ice via sequential hydrogenation of carbon atoms. These properties would have a large impact on the chemical evolution of carbon species in interstellar environments. We also investigated the effects of newly calculated adsorption energies on the chemical compositions of cold dense molecular clouds with the aid of gas-ice astrochemical simulations. We found that abundances of major nitrogen-bearing molecules, such as N2 and NH3, are significantly altered by applying the calculated adsorption energy, because nitrogen atoms can thermally diffuse on surfaces, even at 10 K.

  15. Calculation of the relative metastabilities of proteins using the CHNOSZ software package

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Jeffrey M

    2008-01-01

    Background Proteins of various compositions are required by organisms inhabiting different environments. The energetic demands for protein formation are a function of the compositions of proteins as well as geochemical variables including temperature, pressure, oxygen fugacity and pH. The purpose of this study was to explore the dependence of metastable equilibrium states of protein systems on changes in the geochemical variables. Results A software package called CHNOSZ implementing the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state and group additivity for ionized unfolded aqueous proteins was developed. The program can be used to calculate standard molal Gibbs energies and other thermodynamic properties of reactions and to make chemical speciation and predominance diagrams that represent the metastable equilibrium distributions of proteins. The approach takes account of the chemical affinities of reactions in open systems characterized by the chemical potentials of basis species. The thermodynamic database included with the package permits application of the software to mineral and other inorganic systems as well as systems of proteins or other biomolecules. Conclusion Metastable equilibrium activity diagrams were generated for model cell-surface proteins from archaea and bacteria adapted to growth in environments that differ in temperature and chemical conditions. The predicted metastable equilibrium distributions of the proteins can be compared with the optimal growth temperatures of the organisms and with geochemical variables. The results suggest that a thermodynamic assessment of protein metastability may be useful for integrating bio- and geochemical observations. PMID:18834534

  16. Investigation of oxygen self-diffusion in PuO 2 by combining molecular dynamics with thermodynamic calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Saltas, V.; Chroneos, A.; Cooper, Michael William D.; ...

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, the defect properties of oxygen self-diffusion in PuO 2 are investigated over a wide temperature (300–1900 K) and pressure (0–10 GPa) range, by combining molecular dynamics simulations and thermodynamic calculations. Based on the well-established cBΩ thermodynamic model which connects the activation Gibbs free energy of diffusion with the bulk elastic and expansion properties, various point defect parameters such as activation enthalpy, activation entropy, and activation volume were calculated as a function of T and P. Molecular dynamics calculations provided the necessary bulk properties for the proper implementation of the thermodynamic model, in the lack of anymore » relevant experimental data. The estimated compressibility and the thermal expansion coefficient of activation volume are found to be more than one order of magnitude greater than the corresponding values of the bulk plutonia. As a result, the diffusion mechanism is discussed in the context of the temperature and pressure dependence of the activation volume.« less

  17. The oxidation state of Hadean magmas and implications for early Earth's atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Trail, Dustin; Watson, E Bruce; Tailby, Nicholas D

    2011-11-30

    Magmatic outgassing of volatiles from Earth's interior probably played a critical part in determining the composition of the earliest atmosphere, more than 4,000 million years (Myr) ago. Given an elemental inventory of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur, the identity of molecular species in gaseous volcanic emanations depends critically on the pressure (fugacity) of oxygen. Reduced melts having oxygen fugacities close to that defined by the iron-wüstite buffer would yield volatile species such as CH(4), H(2), H(2)S, NH(3) and CO, whereas melts close to the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer would be similar to present-day conditions and would be dominated by H(2)O, CO(2), SO(2) and N(2) (refs 1-4). Direct constraints on the oxidation state of terrestrial magmas before 3,850 Myr before present (that is, the Hadean eon) are tenuous because the rock record is sparse or absent. Samples from this earliest period of Earth's history are limited to igneous detrital zircons that pre-date the known rock record, with ages approaching ∼4,400 Myr (refs 5-8). Here we report a redox-sensitive calibration to determine the oxidation state of Hadean magmatic melts that is based on the incorporation of cerium into zircon crystals. We find that the melts have average oxygen fugacities that are consistent with an oxidation state defined by the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer, similar to present-day conditions. Moreover, selected Hadean zircons (having chemical characteristics consistent with crystallization specifically from mantle-derived melts) suggest oxygen fugacities similar to those of Archaean and present-day mantle-derived lavas as early as ∼4,350 Myr before present. These results suggest that outgassing of Earth's interior later than ∼200 Myr into the history of Solar System formation would not have resulted in a reducing atmosphere.

  18. Understanding Oxygen Vacancy Formation, Interaction, Transport, and Strain in SOFC Components via Combined Thermodynamics and First Principles Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Tridip

    temperature and oxygen partial pressure, for multiple LSF compositions and phases using a combined thermodynamics and DFT approach. A detailed oxygen vacancy migration barrier calculation gave the oxygen ionic diffusivity and conductivity. Oxygen vacancy also causes chemical strain, which was treated as a scalar in the literature. However, in many materials, it should be a tensor, which is anisotropic. We illustrate this effect on CeO2, in which it explained a puzzling experiment, which shows significant amplification of measured strain on applied bias in non-stoichiometric Gd doped ceria. The presence of highly localized 4f valence orbital in Ce causes charge disproportionation on the formation of neutral oxygen vacancy, producing anisotropic chemical strain in ceria with cubic symmetry. Understanding of delta and X and anisotropic chemical strain in the lattice has led to the design of better MIEC via element doping and strain engineering of the lattice.

  19. Developing V-Xanes Oxybarometry for Probing Materials Formed in Reducing Environments in the Early Solar Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butterworth, A. L.; Gainsforth, Z.; Jilly-Rehak, C. E.; Righter, K.; Westphal, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Vanadium exhibits four oxidation states (V(sup 2+), V(sup 3+), V(sup 4+) and V(sup 5+)) that have been shown to preferentially partition between melt phases dependent on redox conditions, spanning oxygen fugacity across more than 10 log units. We are developing synchrotron-based x-ray absorption spectroscopy of low-fugacity standards for the determination of V oxidation state in highly reducing conditions relevant to the early solar nebula.

  20. Redox systematics of a magma ocean with variable pressure-temperature gradients and composition.

    PubMed

    Righter, K; Ghiorso, M S

    2012-07-24

    Oxygen fugacity in metal-bearing systems controls some fundamental aspects of the geochemistry of the early Earth, such as the FeO and siderophile trace element content of the mantle, volatile species that influence atmospheric composition, and conditions for organic compounds synthesis. Redox and metal-silicate equilibria in the early Earth are sensitive to oxygen fugacity (fO(2)), yet are poorly constrained in modeling and experimentation. High pressure and temperature experimentation and modeling in metal-silicate systems usually employs an approximation approach for estimating fO(2) that is based on the ratio of Fe and FeO [called "ΔIW (ratio)" hereafter]. We present a new approach that utilizes free energy and activity modeling of the equilibrium: Fe + SiO(2) + O(2) = Fe(2)SiO(4) to calculate absolute fO(2) and relative to the iron-wüstite (IW) buffer at pressure and temperature [ΔIW (P,T)]. This equilibrium is considered across a wide range of pressures and temperatures, including up to the liquidus temperature of peridotite (4,000 K at 50 GPa). Application of ΔIW (ratio) to metal-silicate experiments can be three or four orders of magnitude different from ΔIW (P,T) values calculated using free energy and activity modeling. We will also use this approach to consider the variation in oxygen fugacity in a magma ocean scenario for various thermal structures for the early Earth: hot liquidus gradient, 100 °C below the liquidus, hot and cool adiabatic gradients, and a cool subsolidus adiabat. The results are used to assess the effect of increasing P and T, changing silicate composition during accretion, and related to current models for accretion and core formation in the Earth. The fO(2) in a deep magma ocean scenario may become lower relative to the IW buffer at hotter and deeper conditions, which could include metal entrainment scenarios. Therefore, fO(2) may evolve from high to low fO(2) during Earth (and other differentiated bodies) accretion. Any

  1. Redox systematics of a magma ocean with variable pressure-temperature gradients and composition

    PubMed Central

    Righter, K.; Ghiorso, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen fugacity in metal-bearing systems controls some fundamental aspects of the geochemistry of the early Earth, such as the FeO and siderophile trace element content of the mantle, volatile species that influence atmospheric composition, and conditions for organic compounds synthesis. Redox and metal-silicate equilibria in the early Earth are sensitive to oxygen fugacity (fO2), yet are poorly constrained in modeling and experimentation. High pressure and temperature experimentation and modeling in metal-silicate systems usually employs an approximation approach for estimating fO2 that is based on the ratio of Fe and FeO [called “ΔIW (ratio)” hereafter]. We present a new approach that utilizes free energy and activity modeling of the equilibrium: Fe + SiO2 + O2 = Fe2SiO4 to calculate absolute fO2 and relative to the iron-wüstite (IW) buffer at pressure and temperature [ΔIW (P,T)]. This equilibrium is considered across a wide range of pressures and temperatures, including up to the liquidus temperature of peridotite (4,000 K at 50 GPa). Application of ΔIW (ratio) to metal-silicate experiments can be three or four orders of magnitude different from ΔIW (P,T) values calculated using free energy and activity modeling. We will also use this approach to consider the variation in oxygen fugacity in a magma ocean scenario for various thermal structures for the early Earth: hot liquidus gradient, 100 °C below the liquidus, hot and cool adiabatic gradients, and a cool subsolidus adiabat. The results are used to assess the effect of increasing P and T, changing silicate composition during accretion, and related to current models for accretion and core formation in the Earth. The fO2 in a deep magma ocean scenario may become lower relative to the IW buffer at hotter and deeper conditions, which could include metal entrainment scenarios. Therefore, fO2 may evolve from high to low fO2 during Earth (and other differentiated bodies) accretion. Any modeling of

  2. Effects of hydrogen fugacity and confining pressure on the interdiffusion rate of NaSi-CaAl in plagioclase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yund, Richard A.; Snow, Eleanour

    1989-08-01

    Average? values for NaSi-CaAl interdiffusion in the compositional interval from An0 to An26 have been determined at 1000°C by the method of lamellar homogenization. At 1500 MPa confining pressure (P), ? increases 1 order of magnitude (5.0×10-21 to 4.0×10-20 m2/s) for 4 orders of magnitude increase in hydrogen fugacity (0.029, Mn3O4-Mn2O3 buffer, to 197 MPa, FeO-Fe3O4 buffer). At constant hydrogen fugacity (fH2), ? increases rapidly at low pressure and becomes nearly independent of P above 1000 MPa. (For fH2 = 0.1 MPa, ? = 2.8 × 10-22 m2/s at P = 0.1 MPa, 5.0 × 10-21 at P = 500, 1.3×10-20 at P = 1000, and 1.4×10-20 at P = 1500). The dependence of ? on increasing pressure, when a hydrogen-related species is present, is believed to be due to an increase in the concentration of the structural defect associated with increase in the hydrogen impurity. In most crustal igneous rocks, which are internally buffered near quartz-fayalite-magnetite, the dependence of ? on fH2 is relatively minor compared to the effect of confining pressure.

  3. The Derivation Of A CO2 Fugacity Climatology From SOCAT's Global In SITU Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddijn-Murphy, L. M.; Woolf, D. K.; Land, P. E.; Shutler, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) has made millions of global underway sea surface measurements of CO2 publicly available, all in a uniform format and presented as fugacity, fCO2. However, these fCO2 values are valid strictly only for the instantaneous temperature at measurement and are not ideal for climatology. We recomputed these fCO2 values for the measurement month to be applicable to climatological sea surface temperatures, extrapolated to reference year 2010. The data were then spatially interpolated on a 1°×1° grid of the global oceans to produce 12 monthly fCO2 distributions. Our climatology data will be shared with the science community.

  4. Nanoscopic analysis of oxygen segregation at tilt boundaries in silicon ingots using atom probe tomography combined with TEM and ab initio calculations.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Y; Inoue, K; Fujiwara, K; Kutsukake, K; Deura, M; Yonenaga, I; Ebisawa, N; Shimizu, Y; Inoue, K; Nagai, Y; Yoshida, H; Takeda, S; Tanaka, S; Kohyama, M

    2017-12-01

    We have developed an analytical method to determine the segregation levels on the same tilt boundaries (TBs) at the same nanoscopic location by a joint use of atom probe tomography and scanning transmission electron microscopy, and discussed the mechanism of oxygen segregation at TBs in silicon ingots in terms of bond distortions around the TBs. The three-dimensional distribution of oxygen atoms was determined at the typical small- and large-angle TBs by atom probe tomography with a low impurity detection limit (0.01 at.% on a TB plane) simultaneously with high spatial resolution (about 0.4 nm). The three-dimensional distribution was correlated with the atomic stress around the TBs; the stress at large-angle TBs was estimated by ab initio calculations based on atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy data and that at small-angle TBs were calculated with the elastic theory based on dark-field transmission electron microscopy data. Oxygen atoms would segregate at bond-centred sites under tensile stress above about 2 GPa, so as to attain a more stable bonding network by reducing the local stress. The number of oxygen atoms segregating in a unit TB area N GB (in atoms nm -2 ) was determined to be proportional to both the number of the atomic sites under tensile stress in a unit TB area n bc and the average concentration of oxygen atoms around the TB [O i ] (in at.%) with N GB ∼ 50 n bc [O i ]. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  5. Silicon in Mars' Core: A Prediction Based on Mars Model Using Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopes in SNC Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohapatra, R. K.; Murty, S. V. S.

    2002-01-01

    Chemical and (oxygen) isotopic compositions of SNC meteorites have been used by a number of workers to infer the nature of precursor materials for the accretion of Mars. The idea that chondritic materials played a key role in the formation of Mars has been the central assumption in these works. Wanke and Dreibus have proposed a mixture of two types of chondritic materials, differing in oxygen fugacity but having CI type bulk chemical composition for the nonvolatile elements, for Mars' precursor. But a number of studies based on high pressure and temperature melting experiments do not favor a CI type bulk planet composition for Mars, as it predicts a bulk planet Fe/Si ratio much higher than that reported from the recent Pathfinder data. Oxygen forms the bulk of Mars (approximately 40% by wt.) and might provide clues to the type of materials that formed Mars. But models based on the oxygen isotopic compositions of SNC meteorites predict three different mixtures of precursor materials for Mars: 90% H + 10% CM, 85% H + 11% CV + 4% CI and 45% EH + 55% H. As each of these models has been shown to be consistent with the bulk geophysical properties (such as mean density, and moment of inertia factor) of Mars, the nature of the material that accreted to form Mars remains ambiguous.

  6. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowland, R. L., II; Vander Kaaden, K. E.; McCubbin, F. M.; Danielson, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high S and low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER suggest a low oxygen fugacity of the present materials on the planet's surface. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples, estimated at approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wüstite (IW) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites) are available in our collections for examination of this change in geochemical affinity. Our goal is to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements at lower oxygen fugacity as a function of temperature and pressure. Experiments were conducted at 1 GPa in a 13 mm QUICKpress piston cylinder and at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multi-anvil press, at temperatures up to 1850°C. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were designed so the final run products contained metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity was controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, in order to utilize the Si-SiO2 buffer, which is 5 log units more reducing than the IW buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt composition was diopside (CaMgSi2O6) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. The results of our experiments will aid in our understanding of the fate of

  7. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, Rick, II; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Danielson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (lvtESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high S and low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER suggest a low oxygen fugacity of the present materials on the planet's surface. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples, estimated at approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wustite (lW) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites) are available in our collections for examination of this change in geochemical affinity. Our goal is to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements at lower oxygen fugacity as a function of temperature and pressure. Experiments were conducted at I GPa in a 13 mm QUICKpress piston cylinder and at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multi-anvil press, at temperatures up to 1850 C. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were designed so the final run products contained metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity was controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, in order to utilize the Si-Si02 buffer, which is approx. 5 log units more reducing than the IW buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt composition was diopside (CaMgSi206) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. The results of our experiments will aid in our understanding of the

  8. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, Rick, II; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Danielson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high Sand low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER suggest a low oxygen fugacity of the present materials on the planet's surface. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples, estimated at approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wtistite (lW) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites) are available in our collections for examination of this change in geochemical affinity. Our goal is to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements at lower oxygen fugacity as a function of temperature and pressure. Experiments were conducted at I GPa in a 13 mm QUICKpress piston cylinder and at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multianvil press, at temperatures up to 1850degC. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were designed so the final run products contained metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity was controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, in order to utilize the Si-Si02 buffer, which is approximately 5 log units more reducing than the IW buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt composition was diopside (CaMgSi206) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. The results of our experiments will aid in our understanding of

  9. The effect of copper on the estimation of sulfur fugacity from the composition of pyrrhotite: an experimental evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengason, M. J.; Piccoli, P. M.; Candela, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Sulfur fugacity is a critical intensive variable, important to the study of volcanic and plutonic rocks, and experimental systems. In a pioneering study, Toulmin and Barton (1964; GCA 28, 641) derived an equation, based on experimental data, for the relationship between fS2, temperature, and the composition of pyrrhotite (po), a common magmatic sulfide. The binary po solid solution (FeS-S2) was the object of their study; however, po frequently contains in excess of 1 wt. % Cu, and therefore further work has been required to account for the effect of additional phase components in po on the estimation of fS2 by this technique. In order to have consistent results from both Cu-free, and Cu-bearing po, one must properly formulate the Cu-bearing phase component of the po. Toward this end, we have designed a novel series of experiments that allow us to evaluate the relationship between the composition of Cu-Fe sulfides and fS2. Results of these experiments have been used to develop a simple method for the determination of the fS2 from Cu-bearing po and the equations of Toulmin and Barton. The experiments were performed in evacuated sealed silica tubes. Starting materials included pairs of separated reference (Cu-free), and Cu-bearing po in the presence of a common S2 gas phase (and therefore the same fS2). Experiments consisted of silica tubes loaded with mixtures of synthetic po and bornite separated by ~ 1mm thick silica discs, creating vertically stacked chambers. The chambers prevent contact of the separate condensed phase charges, but allow for gas transfer. Samples were heated in a vertical quench furnace at 1050°C for 16 to 24 hours followed by 5 days at 1000°C, concluding with a drop quench into a water bath. The experiments spanned 4 log units (bar) fS2 and the Cu-bearing po had Cu concentrations that ranged from 4.5 to 7.3 wt. %. The data were processed using three methods for incorporating Cu into the calculation, with effectiveness evaluated by deviations

  10. Partitioning of rare earth elements between hibonite and melt and implications for nebular condensation of the rare earth elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Michael J.; Boynton, William V.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of oxygen fugacity on the partitioning of REEs between hibonite and silicate melt is investigated in hibonite-growth experiments at 1470 C. The experimental procedures and apparatus are described, and the results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and characterized in detail. The absolute activity coefficients in hibonite are estimated as 330 for La, 1200 for Eu(3+), and 24,000 for Yb. It is inferred that ideal solution behavior cannot be assumed when calculating REE condensation temperatures for (Ca, Al)-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites.

  11. Calculated volatilization rates of fuel oxygenate compounds and other gasoline-related compounds from rivers and streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pankow, J.F.; Rathbun, R.E.; Zogorski, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    Large amounts of the 'fuel-oxygenate' compound methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) are currently being used in gasoline to reduce carbon monoxide and ozone in urban air and to boost fuel octane. Because MTBE can be transported to surface waters in various ways, established theory was used to calculate half-lives for MTBE volatilizing from flowing surface waters. Similar calculations were made for benzene as a representative of the 'BTEX' group of compounds (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and the xylenes), and for tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). The calculations were made as a function of the mean flow velocity u (m/day), the mean flow depth h (m), the ambient temperature, and the wind speed. In deep, slow-moving flows, MTBE volatilizes at rates which are similar to those for the BTEX compounds. In shallow, fast-moving flows, MTBE volatilizes more slowly than benzene, though in such flows both MTBE and benzene volatilize quickly enough that these differences may often not have much practical significance. TBA was found to be essentially nonvolatile from water.

  12. Using digital inpainting to estimate incident light intensity for the calculation of red blood cell oxygen saturation from microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Sové, Richard J; Drakos, Nicole E; Fraser, Graham M; Ellis, Christopher G

    2018-05-25

    Red blood cell oxygen saturation is an important indicator of oxygen supply to tissues in the body. Oxygen saturation can be measured by taking advantage of spectroscopic properties of hemoglobin. When this technique is applied to transmission microscopy, the calculation of saturation requires determination of incident light intensity at each pixel occupied by the red blood cell; this value is often approximated from a sequence of images as the maximum intensity over time. This method often fails when the red blood cells are moving too slowly, or if hematocrit is too large since there is not a large enough gap between the cells to accurately calculate the incident intensity value. A new method of approximating incident light intensity is proposed using digital inpainting. This novel approach estimates incident light intensity with an average percent error of approximately 3%, which exceeds the accuracy of the maximum intensity based method in most cases. The error in incident light intensity corresponds to a maximum error of approximately 2% saturation. Therefore, though this new method is computationally more demanding than the traditional technique, it can be used in cases where the maximum intensity-based method fails (e.g. stationary cells), or when higher accuracy is required. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Stratification calculations in a heated cryogenic oxygen storage tank at zero gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuttles, J. T.; Smith, G. L.

    1971-01-01

    A cylindrical one-dimensional model of the Apollo cyrogenic oxygen storage tank has been developed to study the effect of stratification in the tank. Zero gravity was assumed, and only the thermally induced motions were considered. The governing equations were derived from conservation laws and solved on a digital computer. Realistic thermodynamic and transport properties were used. Calculations were made for a wide range of conditions. The results show the fluid behavior to be dependent on the quantity in the tank or equivalently the bulk fluid temperature. For high quantities (low temperatures) the tank pressure rose rapidly with heat addition, the heater temperature remained low, and significant pressure drop potentials accrued. For low quantities the tank pressure rose more slowly with heat addition and the heater temperature became high. A high degree of stratification resulted for all conditions; however, the stratified region extended appreciably into the tank only for the lowest tank quantity.

  14. A seismologically consistent compositional model of Earth's core.

    PubMed

    Badro, James; Côté, Alexander S; Brodholt, John P

    2014-05-27

    Earth's core is less dense than iron, and therefore it must contain "light elements," such as S, Si, O, or C. We use ab initio molecular dynamics to calculate the density and bulk sound velocity in liquid metal alloys at the pressure and temperature conditions of Earth's outer core. We compare the velocity and density for any composition in the (Fe-Ni, C, O, Si, S) system to radial seismological models and find a range of compositional models that fit the seismological data. We find no oxygen-free composition that fits the seismological data, and therefore our results indicate that oxygen is always required in the outer core. An oxygen-rich core is a strong indication of high-pressure and high-temperature conditions of core differentiation in a deep magma ocean with an FeO concentration (oxygen fugacity) higher than that of the present-day mantle.

  15. A seismologically consistent compositional model of Earth’s core

    PubMed Central

    Badro, James; Côté, Alexander S.; Brodholt, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Earth’s core is less dense than iron, and therefore it must contain “light elements,” such as S, Si, O, or C. We use ab initio molecular dynamics to calculate the density and bulk sound velocity in liquid metal alloys at the pressure and temperature conditions of Earth's outer core. We compare the velocity and density for any composition in the (Fe–Ni, C, O, Si, S) system to radial seismological models and find a range of compositional models that fit the seismological data. We find no oxygen-free composition that fits the seismological data, and therefore our results indicate that oxygen is always required in the outer core. An oxygen-rich core is a strong indication of high-pressure and high-temperature conditions of core differentiation in a deep magma ocean with an FeO concentration (oxygen fugacity) higher than that of the present-day mantle. PMID:24821817

  16. Measuring tissue oxygenation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soyemi, Olusola O. (Inventor); Soller, Babs R. (Inventor); Yang, Ye (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for calculating tissue oxygenation, e.g., oxygen saturation, in a target tissue are disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods include: (a) directing incident radiation to a target tissue and determining reflectance spectra of the target tissue by measuring intensities of reflected radiation from the target tissue at a plurality of radiation wavelengths; (b) correcting the measured intensities of the reflectance spectra to reduce contributions thereto from skin and fat layers through which the incident radiation propagates; (c) determining oxygen saturation in the target tissue based on the corrected reflectance spectra; and (d) outputting the determined value of oxygen saturation.

  17. Experimental crystallization of chrome spinel in FAMOUS basalt 527-1-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisk, Martin R.; Bence, A. E.

    1980-06-01

    FAMOUS basalt 527-1-1 (a high-Mg oceanic pillow basalt) has three generations of spinel which can be distinguished petrographically and chemically. The first generation (Group I) have reaction coronas and are high in Al 2O 3. The second generation (Group II) have no reaction coronas and are high in Cr 2O 3 and the third generation (Group III) are small, late-stage spinels with intermediate Al 2O 3 and Cr 2O 3. Experimental synthesis of spinels from fused rock powder of this basalt was carried out at temperatures of 1175-1270°C and oxygen fugacities of 10 -5.5 to 10 -10 atm at 1 atm pressure. Spinel is the liquidus phase at oxygen fugacities of 10 -8.5 atm and higher but it does not crystallize at any temperature at oxygen fugacities less than 10 -9.5. The composition of our spinels synthesized at 1230-1250°C and 10 -9 atm f O 2 are most similar to the high-Cr spinels (Group II) found in the rock. Spinels synthesized at 1200°C and 10 -8.5 atm O 2 are chemically similar to the Group III spinels in 527-1-1. We did not synthesize spinel at any temperature or oxygen fugacity that are similar to the high-Al (Group I) spinel found in 527-1-1. These results indicate that the high-Cr (Group II) spinel is the liquidus phase in 527-1-1 at low pressure and Group III spinel crystallize below the liquidus (˜1200°C) after eruption of the basalt on the sea floor. The high-Al spinel (Group I) could have crystallized at high pressure or from a magma enriched in Al and perhaps Mg compared to 527-1-1.

  18. Peridotites and basalts reveal broad congruence between two independent records of mantle fO2 despite local redox heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birner, Suzanne K.; Cottrell, Elizabeth; Warren, Jessica M.; Kelley, Katherine A.; Davis, Fred A.

    2018-07-01

    The oxygen fugacity (fO2) of the oceanic upper mantle has fundamental implications for the production of magmas and evolution of the Earth's interior and exterior. Mid-ocean ridge basalts and peridotites sample the oceanic upper mantle, and retain a record of oxygen fugacity. While fO2 has been calculated for mid-ocean ridge basalts worldwide (>200 locations), ridge peridotites have been comparatively less well studied (33 samples from 11 locations), and never in the same geographic location as basalts. In order to determine whether peridotites and basalts from mid-ocean ridges record congruent information about the fO2 of the Earth's interior, we analyzed 31 basalts and 41 peridotites from the Oblique Segment of the Southwest Indian Ridge. By measuring basalts and peridotites from the same ridge segment, we can compare samples with maximally similar petrogenetic histories. We project the composition and oxygen fugacity of each lithology back to source conditions, and evaluate the effects of factors such as subsolidus diffusion in peridotites and fractional crystallization in basalts. We find that, on average, basalts and peridotites from the Oblique Segment both reflect a source mantle very near the quartz-fayalite-magnetite (QFM) buffer. However, peridotites record a significantly wider range of values (nearly 3 orders of magnitude in fO2), with a single dredge recording a range in fO2 greater than that previously reported for mid-ocean ridge peridotites worldwide. This suggests that mantle fO2 may be heterogeneous on relatively short length scales, and that this heterogeneity may be obscured within aggregated basalt melts. We further suggest that the global peridotite fO2 dataset may not provide a representative sample of average basalt-source mantle. Our study motivates further investigation of the fO2 recorded by ridge peridotites, as peridotites record information about the fO2 of the Earth's interior that cannot be gleaned from analysis of basalts alone.

  19. Stable Vanadium Isotopes as a Redox Proxy at High Temperatures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prytulak, J.; Sossi, P.; Halliday, A.; Plank, T. A.; Savage, P.; Woodhead, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    There is currently no consensus on the relative oxygen fugacity (fO2) of the mantle source of mid-ocean ridge basalts compared to the sub-arc mantle, the region that is central to the mediation of crust-mantle mass balances. Vanadium is a multivalent transition metal whose stable isotope fractionation may reflect oxygen fugacity (fO2). However, a direct link between V isotope composition and fO2 is currently far from convincingly demonstrated. Furthermore, differences in co-ordination environment also play a large role in causing stable isotope fractionation. Here we present V isotope measurements of two suites of co-genetic magmas from contrasting tectonic settings: the Mariana arc and Hekla volcano, Iceland. We use this data alongside the tightly constrained V isotope composition of MORB [1] to assess the effects of fO2 and crystal fractionation on stable vanadium isotopes. We show that, for a given MgO content, V isotopes are identical within analytical error between arc basalts from the Marianas, lavas from Hekla, and MORB. The most striking aspect of our igneous, high temperature V isotope data is the large isotope fractionation (on the order of 2 ‰) towards heavier values in magmatic suites from both Hekla and the Marianas with progressive differentiation. We use a self consistent model of fractionating cotectic phases in both igneous suites to match major, trace and V isotope data. Vanadium partition coefficients required for (titano)magnetite are significantly higher in Hekla (DVmag = 42) than Mariana lavas (DVmag = 32), consistent with a more oxidised source in the latter. Calculated Rayleigh fractionation factors are similar in both suites (Δ51Vmin-melt of -0.4 to -0.5‰) and strongly implicate co-ordination differences between oxides and melt are the dominant driving force for V isotope fractionation. Thus, although fO2likely has a second order effect on V isotopes, they are not a direct proxy for oxygen fugacity in magmatic systems. [1] Prytulak, et

  20. Effects of increased inspired oxygen concentration on tissue oxygenation: theoretical considerations.

    PubMed

    Lumb, Andrew B; Nair, Sindhu

    2010-03-01

    Breathing increased fractional oxygen concentration (FiO2) is recommended for the treatment of tissue ischaemia. The theoretical benefits of increasing FiO2 on tissue oxygenation were evaluated using standard physiological equations. Assuming constant oxygen consumption by tissues throughout the length of a capillary, the oxygen content at 20 arbitrary points along a capillary was calculated. Using mathematical representations of the haemoglobin dissociation curve and an iterative approach to include the dissolved oxygen component of oxygen content, the oxygen partial pressure (PO2) profile along a capillary was estimated. High FiO2 concentrations cause large increases in PO2 at the arteriolar end of capillaries but these large PO2 values, caused by the extra dissolved oxygen, rapidly decline along the capillary. At the venular end of the capillary (the area of tissue most likely to be hypoxic), breathing oxygen causes only a modest improvement in PO2. Increasing FiO2 to treat tissue hypoxia has clear benefits, but a multimodal approach to management is required.

  1. Si and O partitioning between core metal and lower mantle minerals during core formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Y.; Frost, D. J.; Rubie, D. C.

    2010-12-01

    In addition to Fe and Ni, the Earth’s core contains light alloying elements (e.g., H, C, O, Si, and/or S) in order to explain the 10% core density deficit (e.g., Birch, 1964, JGR). Experimental data on the partitioning behavior of siderophile elements such as Ni and Co between liquid Fe and mantle minerals indicate that equilibration between core-forming metal and a silicate magma ocean likely occurred at lower-mantle pressures (e.g., Li and Agee, 1996 Nature). If core-mantle differentiation has occurred under such conditions, significant quantities of O or Si could have entered the core. At these conditions the nature of the dominant light element in the core will depend strongly on the oxygen fugacity at which equilibration occurred. High pressure experiments were carried out at 25 GPa and 2400-2950 K using a Kawai-type multi-anvil apparatus in order to investigate the partitioning of Si and O between liquid Fe and (Mg,Fe)SiO3 perovskite (Pv), silicate melt, and (Mg,Fe)O ferropericlace (Fp). Starting materials consisting of metallic Fe (+-Si) and olivine (Fo70-95) were contained in single-crystal MgO capsules. Over the oxygen fugacity range IW-0.5 to -3, the Si molar partition coefficient D* (= [Si]metal /[Si]silicate) between metal and Pv increases linearly with decreasing oxygen fugacity at a fixed given temperature. The partition coefficient between metal and silicate melt is of a similar magnitude but is less dependent on the oxygen fugacity. The obtained oxygen distribution coefficient Kd (= [Fe]metal[O]metal /[FeO]Fp) is in agreement with that determined in the Fe-Fp binary system (Asahara et al., 2007 EPSL) below the silicate liquidus temperature. In contrast, a correlation between the O partitioning and Si concentration in Fe is observed above 2700 K where liquid metal coexists with silicate melt + Fp. With an increasing concentration of Si in the liquid metal, O partitioning into Fp is strongly enhanced. Five atomic% Si in the metal reduces the metal

  2. A program for calculation of intrapulmonary shunts, blood-gas and acid-base values with a programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, B C; Tucker, W K; Kirby, R R

    1975-01-01

    With a desk-top, programmable calculator, it is now possible to do complex, previously time-consuming computations in the blood-gas laboratory. The authors have developed a program with the necessary algorithms for temperature correction of blood gases and calculation of acid-base variables and intrapulmonary shunt. It was necessary to develop formulas for the Po2 temperature-correction coefficient, the oxyhemoglobin-dissociation curve for adults (withe necessary adjustments for fetal blood), and changes in water vapor pressure due to variation in body temperature. Using this program in conjuction with a Monroe 1860-21 statistical programmable calculator, it is possible to temperature-correct pH,Pco2, and Po2. The machine will compute alveolar-arterial oxygen tension gradient, oxygen saturation (So2), oxygen content (Co2), actual HCO minus 3 and a modified base excess. If arterial blood and mixed venous blood are obtained, the calculator will print out intrapulmonary shunt data (Qs/Qt) and arteriovenous oxygen differences (a minus vDo2). There also is a formula to compute P50 if pH,Pco2,Po2, and measured So2 from two samples of tonometered blood (one above 50 per cent and one below 50 per cent saturation) are put into the calculator.

  3. Timescales of Oxygenation Following the Evolution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Lewis M.; Kirschvink, Joseph L.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2016-03-01

    Among the most important bioenergetic innovations in the history of life was the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis—autotrophic growth by splitting water with sunlight—by Cyanobacteria. It is widely accepted that the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis ultimately resulted in the rise of oxygen by ca. 2.35 Gya, but it is debated whether this occurred more or less immediately as a proximal result of the evolution of oxygenic Cyanobacteria or whether they originated several hundred million to more than one billion years earlier in Earth history. The latter hypothesis involves a prolonged period during which oxygen production rates were insufficient to oxidize the atmosphere, potentially due to redox buffering by reduced species such as higher concentrations of ferrous iron in seawater. To examine the characteristic timescales for environmental oxygenation following the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis, we applied a simple mathematical approach that captures many of the salient features of the major biogeochemical fluxes and reservoirs present in Archean and early Paleoproterozoic surface environments. Calculations illustrate that oxygenation would have overwhelmed redox buffers within ~100 kyr following the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis, a geologically short amount of time unless rates of primary production were far lower than commonly expected. Fundamentally, this result arises because of the multiscale nature of the carbon and oxygen cycles: rates of gross primary production are orders of magnitude too fast for oxygen to be masked by Earth's geological buffers, and can only be effectively matched by respiration at non-negligible O2 concentrations. These results suggest that oxygenic photosynthesis arose shortly before the rise of oxygen, not hundreds of millions of years before it.

  4. Timescales of Oxygenation Following the Evolution of Oxygenic Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ward, Lewis M; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Fischer, Woodward W

    2016-03-01

    Among the most important bioenergetic innovations in the history of life was the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis-autotrophic growth by splitting water with sunlight-by Cyanobacteria. It is widely accepted that the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis ultimately resulted in the rise of oxygen by ca. 2.35 Gya, but it is debated whether this occurred more or less immediately as a proximal result of the evolution of oxygenic Cyanobacteria or whether they originated several hundred million to more than one billion years earlier in Earth history. The latter hypothesis involves a prolonged period during which oxygen production rates were insufficient to oxidize the atmosphere, potentially due to redox buffering by reduced species such as higher concentrations of ferrous iron in seawater. To examine the characteristic timescales for environmental oxygenation following the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis, we applied a simple mathematical approach that captures many of the salient features of the major biogeochemical fluxes and reservoirs present in Archean and early Paleoproterozoic surface environments. Calculations illustrate that oxygenation would have overwhelmed redox buffers within ~100 kyr following the emergence of oxygenic photosynthesis, a geologically short amount of time unless rates of primary production were far lower than commonly expected. Fundamentally, this result arises because of the multiscale nature of the carbon and oxygen cycles: rates of gross primary production are orders of magnitude too fast for oxygen to be masked by Earth's geological buffers, and can only be effectively matched by respiration at non-negligible O2 concentrations. These results suggest that oxygenic photosynthesis arose shortly before the rise of oxygen, not hundreds of millions of years before it.

  5. 40 CFR 1065.850 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calculations. 1065.850 Section 1065.850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Testing With Oxygenated Fuels § 1065.850 Calculations. Use the calculations...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.850 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calculations. 1065.850 Section 1065.850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Testing With Oxygenated Fuels § 1065.850 Calculations. Use the calculations...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.850 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calculations. 1065.850 Section 1065.850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Testing With Oxygenated Fuels § 1065.850 Calculations. Use the calculations...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.850 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calculations. 1065.850 Section 1065.850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Testing With Oxygenated Fuels § 1065.850 Calculations. Use the calculations...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.850 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations. 1065.850 Section 1065.850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Testing With Oxygenated Fuels § 1065.850 Calculations. Use the calculations...

  10. Triple oxygen isotope composition of photosynthetic oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Anne; Kaiser, Jan

    2013-04-01

    The measurement of biological production rates is essential for our understanding how marine ecosystems are sustained and how much CO2 is taken up through aquatic photosynthesis. Traditional techniques to measure marine production are laborious and subject to systematic errors. A biogeochemical approach based on triple oxygen isotope measurements in dissolved oxygen (O2) has been developed over the last few years, which allows the derivation of gross productivity integrated over the depth of the mixed layer and the time-scale of O2 gas exchange (Luz and Barkan, 2000). This approach exploits the relative 17O/16O and 18O/16O isotope ratio differences of dissolved O2 compared to atmospheric O2 to work out the rate of biological production. Two parameters are key for this calculation: the isotopic composition of dissolved O2 in equilibrium with air and the isotopic composition of photosynthetic oxygen. Recently, a controversy has emerged in the literature over these parameters (Kaiser, 2011) and one of the goals of this research is to provide additional data to resolve this controversy. In order to obtain more information on the isotopic signature of biological oxygen, laboratory experiments have been conducted to determine the isotopic composition of oxygen produced by different phytoplankton cultures.

  11. Interpreting Assemblages with Titanite (Sphene): It Does not have to be Greek to You.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xirouchakis, Dimitrios M.; Lindsley, Donald H.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Assemblages with titanite, pyroxene(s), olivine, ilmenite, magnetite, and quartz can be used to constrain the intensive and compositional variables that operate during crystallization. Such assemblages are relatively rare in metamorphic rocks, but they are more common in igneous rocks and more frequently reported in plutonic than volcanic rocks. We used the program QUILF, enhanced with thermodynamic data for titanite, to compute stable reactions among titanite (CaTiOSiO4), Fe-Mg-Ti ilmenite and magnetite (hereafter ilmenite and magnetite), Ca-Mg-Fe pyroxenes and olivine, and quartz, and to evaluate some of the factors that control titanite stability. Calculations at 1, 3, and 6 Kbar and 650, 850, 1100 0 C, in the system CaO - MgO - FeO Fe2O3 - TiO2 - SiO2, suggest that the reactions: Augitc + Ilmenite = Titanite + Magnetite + Quartz and Augite + Ilmenite + Quartz = Titanite + Orthopyroxene, impose well defined fugacity of O2, alpha(sub SiO2), , and compositional restrictions to the assemblages: (1) Titanite + Magnetite + Quartz, (2) Titanite + Orthopyroxene, (3) Augite + Ilmenite, and consequently titanite stability. From our calculations in this system we can draw the following general conclusions: (1) The assemblage Titanite + Magnetite + Quartz is always a good indicator of relatively high fugacity of O2, and it is likely more common in relatively iron-rich bulk compositions and for decreasing temperature and pressure conditions. (2) At high temperatures (>= 650 C) titanite is not stable in quartz-saturated rocks that contain the assemblage Orthopyroxene + Augite + Ilmenite + Magnetite. (3) In quartz-saturated rocks the coexistence of titanite and magnetite with either orthopyroxene or olivine requires a confluence of conditions relating bulk composition, fugacity of O2, and slow cooling. Thus, such assemblages must be rare. (4) Regardless of T and fugacity of O2 conditions, and bulk-composition, titanite is not stable in quartz-absent rocks that contain Olivine

  12. Comparative quantification of oxygen release by wetland plants: electrode technique and oxygen consumption model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiming; Liu, Jufeng; Zhang, Jian; Li, Cong; Fan, Jinlin; Xu, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    Understanding oxygen release by plants is important to the design of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Lab-scale systems planted with Phragmites australis were studied to evaluate the amount of oxygen release by plants using electrode techniques and oxygen consumption model. Oxygen release rate (0.14 g O2/m(2)/day) measured using electrode techniques was much lower than that (3.94-25.20 gO2/m(2)/day) calculated using the oxygen consumption model. The results revealed that oxygen release by plants was significantly influenced by the oxygen demand for the degradation of pollutants, and the oxygen release rate increased with the rising of the concentration of degradable materials in the solution. The summary of the methods in qualifying oxygen release by wetland plants demonstrated that variations existed among different measuring methods and even in the same measuring approach. The results would be helpful for understanding the contribution of plants in constructed wetlands toward actual wastewater treatment.

  13. Visible light optical coherence tomography measure retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Ji; Liu, Wenzhong; Chen, Siyu; Backman, Vadim; Sheibani, Nader; Sorenson, Christine M.; Fawzi, Amani A.; Linsenmeier, Robert A.; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-03-01

    The lack of capability to quantify oxygen metabolism noninvasively impedes both fundamental investigation and clinical diagnosis of a wide spectrum of diseases including all the major blinding diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Using visible light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT), we demonstrated accurate and robust measurement of retinal oxygen metabolic rate (rMRO2) noninvasively in rat eyes. The rMRO2 was calculated by concurrent measurement of blood flow and blood oxygen saturation (sO2). Blood flow was calculated by the principle of Doppler optical coherence tomography, where the phase shift between two closely spaced A-lines measures the axial velocity. The distinct optical absorption spectra of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin provided the contrast for sO2 measurement, combined with the spectroscopic analysis of vis-OCT signal within the blood vessels. We continuously monitored the regulatory response of oxygen consumption to a progressive hypoxic challenge. We found that both oxygen delivery, and rMRO2 increased from the highly regulated retinal circulation (RC) under hypoxia, by 0.28+/-0.08 μL/min (p<0.001), and 0.20+/-0.04 μL/min (p<0.001) per 100 mmHg systemic pO2 reduction, respectively. The increased oxygen extraction compensated for the deficient oxygen supply from the poorly regulated choroidal circulation (CC).

  14. Effect of oxygen impurities on properties of the ternary superconductor SnMo/sub 6/S/sub 8/: Extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure determination of bond distances and local-density cluster calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Guenzburger, D.; Ellis, D.E.; Montano, P.A.

    1985-10-01

    Electronic structure calculations were performed for clusters representing the Chevrel-phase SnMo/sub 6/S/sub 8/, with and without oxygen doping. In order to obtain the local structure around the Sn atom, extended x-ray-absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) measurements were made with synchro- tron radiation. The interatomic distances obtained experimentally were used in the calculations. The effect of oxygen doping on the Moessbauer isomer shift and quadrupole splitting values of /sup 119/Sn was investigated theoretically and compared with reported experimental values. The effect of oxygen substitution on the density of states at the Fermi energy of the (Mo/sub 6/S/sub 8/)/sup 2 -/ cluster was alsomore » studied. The results suggest that oxygen doping does not alter significantly the electronic structure of SnMo/sub 6/S/sub 8/.« less

  15. Kinetics of oxygen species in an electrically driven singlet oxygen generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azyazov, V. N.; Torbin, A. P.; Pershin, A. A.; Mikheyev, P. A.; Heaven, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The kinetics of oxygen species in the gaseous medium of a discharge singlet oxygen generator has been revisited. Vibrationally excited ozone O3(υ) formed in O + O2 recombination is thought to be a significant agent in the deactivation of singlet oxygen O2(a1Δ), oxygen atom removal and ozone formation. It is shown that the process O3(υ ⩾ 2) + O2(a1Δ) → 2O2 + O is the main O2(a1Δ) deactivation channel in the post-discharge zone. If no measures are taken to decrease the oxygen atom concentration, the contribution of this process to the overall O2(a1Δ) removal is significant, even in the discharge zone. A simplified model for the kinetics of vibrationally excited ozone is proposed. Calculations based on this model yield results that are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  16. Comparison of oxygen transfer parameters and oxygen demands in bioreactors operated at low and high dissolved oxygen levels.

    PubMed

    Mines, Richard O; Callier, Matthew C; Drabek, Benjamin J; Butler, André J

    2017-03-21

    The proper design of aeration systems for bioreactors is critical since it can represent up to 50% of the operational and capital cost at water reclamation facilities. Transferring the actual amount of oxygen needed to meet the oxygen demand of the wastewater requires α- and β-factors, which are used for calculating the actual oxygen transfer rate (AOTR) under process conditions based on the standard oxygen transfer rate (SOTR). The SOTR is measured in tap water at 20°C, 1 atmospheric pressure, and 0 mg L -1 of dissolved oxygen (DO). In this investigation, two 11.4-L bench-scale completely mixed activated process (CMAS) reactors were operated at various solid retention times (SRTs) to ascertain the relationship between the α-factor and SRT, and between the β-factor and SRT. The second goal was to determine if actual oxygen uptake rates (AOURs) are equal to calculated oxygen uptake rates (COURs) based on mass balances. Each reactor was supplied with 0.84 L m -1 of air resulting in SOTRs of 14.3 and 11.5 g O 2 d -1 for Reactor 1 (R-1) and Reactor 2 (R-2), respectively. The estimated theoretical oxygen demands of the synthetic feed to R-1 and R-2 were 6.3 and 21.9 g O 2 d -1 , respectively. R-2 was primarily operated under a dissolved oxygen (DO) limitation and high nitrogen loading to determine if nitrification would be inhibited from a nitrite buildup and if this would impact the α-factor. Nitrite accumulated in R-2 at DO concentrations ranging from 0.50 to 7.35 mg L -1 and at free ammonia (FA) concentrations ranging from 1.34 to 7.19 mg L -1 . Nonsteady-state reaeration tests performed on the effluent from each reactor and on tap water indicated that the α-factor increased as SRT increased. A simple statistical analysis (paired t-test) between AOURs and COURs indicated that there was a statistically significant difference at 0.05 level of significance for both reactors. The ex situ BOD bottle method for estimating AOUR appears to be invalid in

  17. Chondrules and Opaque Phases in Unequilibrated R Chondrites: A Comprehensive Assessment of Their Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, K. E.; Lauretta, D. S.; Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Berger, E. L.; Domanik, K.

    2016-01-01

    Equilibrated Rumuruti (R) chondrites record an oxygen fugacity between 0 and 3.5 log units below the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer, and a sulfur fugacity (fS2) 2 log units above the iron-troilite buffer. They are more than an order of magnitude more oxidized than the ordinary chondrites [1], and orders of magnitude more sulfidized than solar values. Although the R chondrites have the highest (delta)O-17 value of any meteorites, analyses of unequilibrated R chondrites indicate chondrule formation in an oxygen isotope reservoir similar to that of the ordinary chondrite chondrules. We present the relationship of the R chondrite parent body to pre-accretionary volatiles O and S based on our analyses of unequilibrated R chondrite material in two thin sections from the meteorite Mount Prestrud (PRE) 95404.

  18. Operational Considerations for Oxygen Flammability Risks: Concentrated Oxygen Diffusion and Permeation Behaviors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Susana; Smith, Sarah; Juarez, Alfredo; Hirsch, David

    2010-01-01

    Increased human spaceflight operations utilize oxygen concentrations that are frequently varied with use of concentrations up to 100 percent oxygen. Even after exiting a higher percentage oxygen environment, high oxygen concentrations can still be maintained due to material saturation and oxygen entrapment between barrier materials. This paper examines the material flammability concerns that arise from changing oxygen environments during spaceflight operations. We examine the time required for common spacecraft and spacesuit materials exposed to oxygen to return to reduced ignitability and flammability once removed from the increased concentration. Various common spacecraft materials were considered: spacecraft cabin environment foams, Extra Vehicular Mobility Unit materials and foams, Advanced Crew Escape Suit materials, and other materials of interest such as Cotton, Nomex^ HT90-40, and Tiburon Surgical Drape. This paper presents calculated diffusion coefficients derived from experimentally obtained oxygen transmission rates for the tested materials and the analytically derived times necessary for reduced flammability to be achieved based on NASA flammability criteria. Oxygen material saturation and entrapment scenarios are examined. Experimental verification data on oxygen diffusion in saturation scenarios are also presented and discussed. We examine how to use obtained data to address flammability concerns during operational planning to reduce the likelihood of fires while improving efficiency for procedures.

  19. Ferric Iron Production in Magma Oceans and Evolution of Mantle Oxidation State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, L.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Pahlevan, K.

    2018-05-01

    Self-oxidation of the magma ocean by ferric iron production at high pressure may explain the mantle oxidation state of the Earth. Partitioning during fractional crystallization can further increase the mantle oxygen fugacity during solidification.

  20. Blood oxygen binding in hypoxaemic calves.

    PubMed

    Cambier, Carole; Clerbaux, Thierry; Detry, Bruno; Marville, Vincent; Frans, Albert; Gustin, Pascal

    2002-01-01

    Blood oxygen transport and tissue oxygenation were studied in 28 calves from the Belgian White and Blue breed (20 healthy and 8 hypoxaemic ones). Hypoxaemic calves were selected according to their high respiratory frequency and to their low partial oxygen pressure (PaO2) in the arterial blood. Venous and arterial blood samples were collected, and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, adenosine triphosphate, chloride, inorganic phosphate and hemoglobin concentrations, and pH, PCO, and PO2 were determined. An oxygen equilibrium curve (OEC) was measured in standard conditions, for each animal. The arterial and venous OEC were calculated, taking body temperature, pH and PCO2 values in arterial and venous blood into account. The oxygen exchange fraction (OEF%), corresponding to the degree of blood desaturation between the arterial and the venous compartments, and the amount of oxygen released at the tissue level by 100 mL of blood (OEF Vol%) were calculated from the arterial and venous OEC combined with the PO2 and hemoglobin concentration. In hypoxaemic calves investigated in this study, the hemoglobin oxygen affinity, measured under standard conditions, was not modified. On the contrary, in vivo acidosis and hypercapnia induced a decrease in the hemoglobin oxygen affinity in arterial blood, which combined to the decrease in PaO2 led to a reduced hemoglobin saturation degree in the arterial compartment. However, this did not impair the oxygen exchange fraction (OEF%), since the hemoglobin saturation degree in venous blood was also diminished.

  1. Characterization of the Sr(2+)- and Cd(2+)-Substituted Oxygen-Evolving Complex of Photosystem II by Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Calculations.

    PubMed

    Pitari, Fabio; Bovi, Daniele; Narzi, Daniele; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2015-09-29

    The Mn4CaO5 cluster in the oxygen-evolving complex is the catalytic core of the Photosystem II (PSII) enzyme, responsible for the water splitting reaction in oxygenic photosynthesis. The role of the redox-inactive ion in the cluster has not yet been fully clarified, although several experimental data are available on Ca2+-depleted and Ca2+-substituted PSII complexes, indicating Sr2+-substituted PSII as the only modification that preserves oxygen evolution. In this work, we investigated the structural and electronic properties of the PSII catalytic core with Ca2+ replaced with Sr2+ and Cd2+ in the S2 state of the Kok−Joliot cycle by means of density functional theory and ab initio molecular dynamics based on a quantum mechanics/ molecular mechanics approach. Our calculations do not reveal significant differences between the substituted and wild-type systems in terms of geometries, thermodynamics, and kinetics of two previously identified intermediate states along the S2 to S3 transition, namely, the open cubane S2 A and closed cubane S2 B conformers. Conversely, our calculations show different pKa values for the water molecule bound to the three investigated heterocations. Specifically, for Cd-substituted PSII, the pKa value is 5.3 units smaller than the respective value in wild type Ca-PSII. On the basis of our results, we conclude that, assuming all the cations sharing the same binding site, the induced difference in the acidity of the binding pocket might influence the hydrogen bonding network and the redox levels to prevent the further evolution of the cycle toward the S3 state.

  2. Oxygen Pickup Ions Measured by MAVEN Outside the Martian Bow Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmati, A.; Cravens, T.; Larson, D. E.; Lillis, R. J.; Dunn, P.; Halekas, J. S.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Eparvier, F. G.; Thiemann, E.; Mitchell, D. L.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    The MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN) spacecraft entered orbit around Mars on September 21, 2014 and has since been detecting energetic oxygen pickup ions by its SEP (Solar Energetic Particles) and SWIA (Solar Wind Ion Analyzer) instruments. The oxygen pickup ions detected outside the Martian bowshock and in the upstream solar wind are associated with the extended hot oxygen exosphere of Mars, which is created mainly by the dissociative recombination of molecular oxygen ions with electrons in the ionosphere. We use analytic solutions to the equations of motion of pickup ions moving in the undisturbed upstream solar wind magnetic and motional electric fields and calculate the flux of oxygen pickup ions at the location of MAVEN. Our model calculates the ionization rate of oxygen atoms in the exosphere based on the hot oxygen densities predicted by Rahmati et al. (2014), and the sources of ionization include photo-ionization, charge exchange, and electron impact ionization. The photo-ionization frequency is calculated using the FISM (Flare Irradiance Spectral Model) solar flux model, based on MAVEN EUVM (Extreme Ultra-Violet Monitor) measurements. The frequency of charge exchange between a solar wind proton and an oxygen atom is calculated using MAVEN SWIA solar wind proton flux measurements, and the electron impact ionization frequency is calculated based on MAVEN SWEA (Solar Wind Electron Analyzer) solar wind electron flux measurements. The solar wind magnetic field used in the model is from the measurements taken by MAVEN MAG (magnetometer) in the upstream solar wind. The good agreement between our predicted pickup oxygen fluxes and the MAVEN SEP and SWIA measured ones confirms detection of oxygen pickup ions and these model-data comparisons can be used to constrain models of hot oxygen densities and photochemical escape flux.

  3. Effect of reducing inspired oxygen concentration on oxygenation parameters during general anaesthesia in horses in lateral or dorsal recumbency.

    PubMed

    Uquillas, E; Dart, C M; Perkins, N R; Dart, A J

    2018-01-01

    To compare the effects of two concentrations of oxygen delivered to the anaesthetic breathing circuit on oxygenation in mechanically ventilated horses anaesthetised with isoflurane and positioned in dorsal or lateral recumbency. Selected respiratory parameters and blood lactate were measured and oxygenation indices calculated, before and during general anaesthesia, in 24 laterally or dorsally recumbent horses. Horses were randomly assigned to receive 100% or 60% oxygen during anaesthesia. All horses were anaesthetised using the same protocol and intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) was commenced immediately following anaesthetic induction and endotracheal intubation. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed and oxygenation indices calculated before premedication, immediately after induction, at 10 and 45 min after the commencement of mechanical ventilation, and in recovery. During anaesthesia, the arterial partial pressure of oxygen was adequate in all horses, regardless of position of recumbency or the concentration of oxygen provided. At 10 and 45 min after commencing IPPV, the arterial partial pressure of oxygen was lower in horses in dorsal recumbency compared with those in lateral recumbency, irrespective of the concentration of oxygen supplied. Based on oxygenation indices, pulmonary function during general anaesthesia in horses placed in dorsal recumbency was more compromised than in horses in lateral recumbency, irrespective of the concentration of oxygen provided. During general anaesthesia, using oxygen at a concentration of 60% instead of 100% maintains adequate arterial oxygenation in horses in dorsal or lateral recumbency. However, it will not reduce pulmonary function abnormalities induced by anaesthesia and recumbency. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  4. Exploring the Diffusion of Molecular Oxygen in the Red Fluorescent Protein mCherry Using Explicit Oxygen Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Regmi, Chola K.; Bhandari, Yuba R.; Gerstman, Bernard S.; Chapagain, Prem P.

    2013-01-01

    The development of fluorescent proteins (FPs) has revolutionized cell biology research. The monomeric variants of red fluorescent proteins (RFPs), known as mFruits, have been especially valuable for tagging and tracking cellular processes in vivo. Determining oxygen diffusion pathways in FPs can be important for improving photostability and for understanding maturation of the chromophore. We use molecular dynamics (MD) calculations to investigate the diffusion of molecular oxygen in one of the most useful monomeric RFPs, mCherry. We describe a pathway that allows oxygen molecules to enter from the solvent and travel through the protein barrel to the chromophore. We calculate the free-energy of an oxygen molecule at points along the path. The pathway contains several oxygen hosting pockets, which are identified by the amino acid residues that form the pocket. We also investigate an RFP variant known to be significantly less photostable than mCherry and find much easier oxygen access in this variant. The results provide a better understanding of the mechanism of molecular oxygen access into the fully folded mCherry protein barrel and provide insight into the photobleaching process in these proteins. PMID:23363049

  5. Non-invasive MRI measurements of venous oxygenation, oxygen extraction fraction and oxygen consumption in neonates.

    PubMed

    De Vis, J B; Petersen, E T; Alderliesten, T; Groenendaal, F; de Vries, L S; van Bel, F; Benders, M J N L; Hendrikse, J

    2014-07-15

    Brain oxygen consumption reflects neuronal activity and can therefore be used to investigate brain development or neuronal injury in neonates. In this paper we present the first results of a non-invasive MRI method to evaluate whole brain oxygen consumption in neonates. For this study 51 neonates were included. The T1 and T2 of blood in the sagittal sinus were fitted using the 'T2 prepared tissue relaxation inversion recovery' pulse sequence (T2-TRIR). From the T1 and the T2 of blood, the venous oxygenation and the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were calculated. The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) was the resultant of the venous oxygenation and arterial spin labeling whole brain cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements. Venous oxygenation was 59±14% (mean±sd), OEF was 40±14%, CBF was 14±5ml/100g/min and CMRO2 was 30±12μmol/100g/min. The OEF in preterms at term-equivalent age was higher than in the preterms and in the infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (p<0.01). The OEF, CBF and CMRO2 increased (p<0.01, <0.05 and <0.01, respectively) with postnatal age. We presented an MRI technique to evaluate whole-brain oxygen consumption in neonates non-invasively. The measured values are in line with reference values found by invasive measurement techniques. Preterms and infants with HIE demonstrated significant lower oxygen extraction fraction than the preterms at term-equivalent age. This could be due to decreased neuronal activity as a reflection of brain development or as a result of tissue damage, increased cerebral blood flow due to immature or impaired autoregulation, or could be caused by differences in postnatal age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Probing the oxygen environment in UO(2)(2+) by solid-state 17O nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and relativistic density functional calculations.

    PubMed

    Cho, Herman; de Jong, Wibe A; Soderquist, Chuck Z

    2010-02-28

    A combined theoretical and solid-state (17)O nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study of the electronic structure of the uranyl ion UO(2)(2+) in (NH(4))(4)UO(2)(CO(3))(3) and rutherfordine (UO(2)CO(3)) is presented, the former representing a system with a hydrogen-bonding environment around the uranyl oxygens and the latter exemplifying a uranyl environment without hydrogens. Relativistic density functional calculations reveal unique features of the U-O covalent bond, including the finding of (17)O chemical shift anisotropies that are among the largest for oxygen ever reported (>1200 ppm). Computational results for the oxygen electric field gradient tensor are found to be consistently larger in magnitude than experimental solid-state (17)O NMR measurements in a 7.05 T magnetic field indicate. A modified version of the Solomon theory of the two-spin echo amplitude for a spin-5/2 nucleus is developed and applied to the analysis of the (17)O echo signal of U (17)O(2)(2+).

  7. Interactions of Oxygen and Hydrogen on Pd(111) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Demchenko, D.O.; Sacha, G.M.; Salmeron, M.

    2008-06-25

    The coadsorption and interactions of oxygen and hydrogen on Pd(1 1 1) was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory calculations. In the absence of hydrogen oxygen forms a (2 x 2) ordered structure. Coadsorption of hydrogen leads to a structural transformation from (2 x 2) to a ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30 degree structure. In addition to this transformation, hydrogen enhances the mobility of oxygen. To explain these observations, the interaction of oxygen and hydrogen on Pd(1 1 1) was studied within the density functional theory. In agreement with the experiment the calculations find a total energy minimum formore » the oxygen (2 x 2) structure. The interaction between H and O atoms was found to be repulsive and short ranged, leading to a compression of the O islands from (2 x 2) to ({radical}3 x {radical}3)R30 degree ordered structure at high H coverage. The computed energy barriers for the oxygen diffusion were found to be reduced due to the coadsorption of hydrogen, in agreement with the experimentally observed enhancement of oxygen mobility. The calculations also support the finding that at low temperatures the water formation reaction does not occur on Pd(1 1 1).« less

  8. Retinal oxygen extraction in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werkmeister, René M.; Schmidl, Doreen; Aschinger, Gerold; Doblhoff-Dier, Veronika; Palkovits, Stefan; Wirth, Magdalena; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Linsenmeier, Robert A.; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2015-10-01

    Adequate function of the retina is dependent on proper oxygen supply. In humans, the inner retina is oxygenated via the retinal circulation. We present a method to calculate total retinal oxygen extraction based on measurement of total retinal blood flow using dual-beam bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography and measurement of oxygen saturation by spectrophotometry. These measurements were done on 8 healthy subjects while breathing ambient room air and 100% oxygen. Total retinal blood flow was 44.3 ± 9.0 μl/min during baseline and decreased to 18.7 ± 4.2 μl/min during 100% oxygen breathing (P < 0.001) resulting in a pronounced decrease in retinal oxygen extraction from 2.33 ± 0.51 μl(O2)/min to 0.88 ± 0.14 μl(O2)/min during breathing of 100% oxygen. The method presented in this paper may have significant potential to study oxygen metabolism in hypoxic retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy.

  9. Retinal oxygen extraction in humans

    PubMed Central

    Werkmeister, René M.; Schmidl, Doreen; Aschinger, Gerold; Doblhoff-Dier, Veronika; Palkovits, Stefan; Wirth, Magdalena; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Linsenmeier, Robert A.; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2015-01-01

    Adequate function of the retina is dependent on proper oxygen supply. In humans, the inner retina is oxygenated via the retinal circulation. We present a method to calculate total retinal oxygen extraction based on measurement of total retinal blood flow using dual-beam bidirectional Doppler optical coherence tomography and measurement of oxygen saturation by spectrophotometry. These measurements were done on 8 healthy subjects while breathing ambient room air and 100% oxygen. Total retinal blood flow was 44.3 ± 9.0 μl/min during baseline and decreased to 18.7 ± 4.2 μl/min during 100% oxygen breathing (P < 0.001) resulting in a pronounced decrease in retinal oxygen extraction from 2.33 ± 0.51 μl(O2)/min to 0.88 ± 0.14 μl(O2)/min during breathing of 100% oxygen. The method presented in this paper may have significant potential to study oxygen metabolism in hypoxic retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26503332

  10. The P-T-fO 2 stability of deerite, Fe{12/2+}Fe{6/3+}[Si12O40](OH)10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattard, Dominique; Le Breton, Nicole

    1994-02-01

    New equilibrium experiments have been performed in the 20 27 kbar range to determine the upper thermal stability limit of endmember deerite, Fe{12/2+}Fe{6/3+}[Si12O40](OH)10. In this pressure range, the maximum thermal stability limit is represented by the oxygen-conserving reaction: deerite(De)=9 ferrosilite(Fs)+3 magnetite(Mag)+3 quartz(Qtz)+5 H2O(W) (1). Under the oxygen fugacities of the Ni-NiO buffer the breakdown-reduction reaction: De=12 Fs+2 Mag+5 W+1/2 O2 (10) takes place at lower temperatures (e.g. ΔT=63° at 27 kbar). The experimental brackets can be fitted using thermodynamic data for ferrosilite, magnetite and quartz from Berman (1988) and the following 1 bar, 298 K data for deerite (per gfw): Vo=55.74 J.bar-1, So=1670 J.K-1, ΔH{f/o}=-18334 kJ, α=2.5x10-5K-1, β=-0.18x10-5 bar-1. Using these data in conjunction with literature data on coesite, grunerite, minnesotaite, and greenalite, the P-T stability field of endmember deerite has been calculated for P s= P H 2O. This field is limited by 6 univariant oxygenconserving dehydration curves, from which three have positive d P/d T slopes, the other three negative slopes. The lower pressure end of the stability field of endmember deerite is thus located at an invariant point at 250±70°C and 10+-1.5 kbar. Deerite rich in the endmember can thus appear only in environments with geothermal gradients lower than 10°C/km and at pressures higher than about 10 kbar, which is in agreement with 4 out of 5 independent P-T estimates for known occurrences. The presence of such deerite places good constraints on minimum pressure and maximum temperature conditions. From log f O 2- T diagrams constructed with the same data base at different pressures, it appears that endmember deerite is, at temperatures near those of its upper stability limit, stable only over a narrow range of oxygen fugacities within the magnetite field. With decreasing temperatures, deerite becomes stable towards slightly higher oxygen fugacities

  11. Biological Oxygen Productivity Over The Last Glacial Termination From Triple Oxygen Isotope Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blunier, T.; Bender, M. L.; Hendricks, M. B.

    The atmospheric oxygen isotope signature of O2 is linked to the oxygen signature of seawater through photosynthesis and respiration. Fractionation during these pro- cesses is mass dependent affecting 17O about half as much as 18O. A mass indepen- dent fractionation process takes place during isotope exchange between O2 and CO2 in the stratosphere (Thiemens, 1999; Luz et al., 1999). The magnitude of the mass- independent anomaly in the triple isotope composition of O2 depends on relative rates of biological O2 cycling and photochemical reactions in the stratosphere. Variations of this anomaly thus allows us to estimate changes of mass dependent O2 production by photosynthesis versus mass independent O2-CO2 exchange in the stratosphere. We reconstruct total oxygen productivity for the past from 17O and 18O measure- ments of O2 trapped in ice cores. With a box model we estimate that the total biogenic productivity was only 76-83 % of today for the glacial and was probably still lower than today during the glacial-interglacial transition and the early Holocene. In principle we can calculate the oxygen flux from the ocean biosphere if we know the oxygen flux from the land biosphere. Calculated ocean production is very sensitive to the estimate of land biosphere production. The latter term remains uncertain, however, and we can presently only constrain glacial ocean production to 88 to 140 % of the present value.

  12. Oxygen regime of Siberian alkaline-ultramafic magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchikov, Igor; Kogarko, Liya

    2017-04-01

    Regimes of S2 and O2 are decisive factors controlling behavior of chalcophile and siderophile elements in magmatic processes. These parameters play important role during magmagenesis and in the course of crystallization and fluid mass transfer in magma chamber. Alkaline-ultramafic magmatism in Maymecha-Kotuy Province (Polar Siberia) is represented by giant intrusive complexes as well as by volcanics and dyke rocks, which include a well-known variety - meimechites. The latter are considered primary magmas of alkaline-ultramafic plutons in the region like for instance Guli intrusive complex. Sulfur content in primitive magmas estimated from the analyses of melt inclusions in olivine megacrysts from meimechites is close to 0.1 %. fO2 values calculated using olivine+clinopyroxene+spinel and spinel+melt oxygen barometers (1, 2) are 2-3 log units above QFM buffer. The relatively high oxygen potential at the early magmatic stage of alkaline-ultramafic Guli pluton provide predominance of sulfates among other forms of sulfur in the melt. This leads to the almost complete absence of sulfides in highly magnesian rocks. The oxidizing conditions exert important effect on behavior of many ore metals. At the stage of magma generation absence of sulfides in mantle materialresults in the presence of siderophile elements in metallic form and saturation of primary magmas in respect of metallic phases at an early stage of injection of the melt into the magma chamber. Later, under favorable circumstances during magma crystallization nuggets of precious metals may be formed. During further evolution of magmatic system fO2 and activity of oxidized sulfur decrease due to intensive crystallization of magnetite during the formation of koswites, then oxygen fugacity becomes even lower as a result serpentinization at a postmagmatic stage. These serpentization processes are caused by the displacement of reactions in the aqueous phase due to cooling towards the formation of methane and other

  13. Spectral chemistry of green glass-bearing 15426 regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. G.; Dyar, M. D.

    1983-01-01

    The detection of appreciable concentrations of ferric iron in a synthetic green glass equilibrated at an oxygen fugacity of 10 to the -11th atm prompted a Moessbauer spectral study of pristine emerald-green glass spherules carefully handpicked from regolith sample 15426. No Fe(3+) ions were detected in this lunar sample or in a synthetic green glass simulant equilibrated at fO2 = 10 to the -14th atm, suggesting that the green glass clods in rock 15426 formed under conditions of correspondingly low oxygen fugacities. The Moessbauer spectra indicated the presence of olivine crystallites in the lunar emerald green glass spherules. Measurements of homogeneous and partially devitrified synthetic silicate glasses revealed that significant changes of coordination environment about Fe(2+) ions in the glass structure occur during crystallization of olivine crystals from the melt.

  14. High Pressure/Temperature Metal Silicate Partitioning of Tungsten

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shofner, G. A.; Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; Campbell, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of chemical elements during metal/silicate segregation and their resulting distribution in Earth's mantle and core provide insight into core formation processes. Experimental determination of partition coefficients allows calculations of element distributions that can be compared to accepted values of element abundances in the silicate (mantle) and metallic (core) portions of the Earth. Tungsten (W) is a moderately siderophile element and thus preferentially partitions into metal versus silicate under many planetary conditions. The partitioning behavior has been shown to vary with temperature, silicate composition, oxygen fugacity, and pressure. Most of the previous work on W partitioning has been conducted at 1-bar conditions or at relatively low pressures, i.e. <10 GPa, and in two cases at or near 20 GPa. According to those data, the stronger influences on the distribution coefficient of W are temperature, composition, and oxygen fugacity with a relatively slight influence in pressure. Predictions based on extrapolation of existing data and parameterizations suggest an increased pressured dependence on metal/ silicate partitioning of W at higher pressures 5. However, the dependence on pressure is not as well constrained as T, fO2, and silicate composition. This poses a problem because proposed equilibration pressures for core formation range from 27 to 50 GPa, falling well outside the experimental range, therefore requiring exptrapolation of a parametereized model. Higher pressure data are needed to improve our understanding of W partitioning at these more extreme conditions.

  15. Optimizing the Calculation of DM,CO and VC via the Single Breath Single Oxygen Tension DLCO/NO Method

    PubMed Central

    Coffman, Kirsten E.; Taylor, Bryan J.; Carlson, Alex R.; Wentz, Robert J.; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DM,CO) and pulmonary-capillary blood volume (VC) are calculated via lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO) using the single breath, single oxygen tension (single-FiO2) method. However, two calculation parameters, the reaction rate of carbon monoxide with blood (θCO) and the DM,NO/DM,CO ratio (α-ratio), are controversial. This study systematically determined optimal θCO and α-ratio values to be used in the single-FiO2 method that yielded the most similar DM,CO and VC values compared to the ‘gold-standard’ multiple-FiO2 method. Eleven healthy subjects performed single breath DLCO/DLNO maneuvers at rest and during exercise. DM,CO and VC were calculated via the single-FiO2 and multiple-FiO2 methods by implementing seven θCO equations and a range of previously reported α-ratios. The RP θCO equation (Reeves and Park, Respiration physiology 88:1–21, 1992.) and an α-ratio of 4.0–4.4 yielded DM,CO and VC values that were most similar between methods. The RP θCO equation and an experimental α-ratio should be used in future studies. PMID:26521031

  16. Automatic calibration and control system for a combined oxygen and combustibles analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Woolbert, G.D.; Jewett, S.Y.; Robertson, J.W. Jr.

    1989-08-01

    This patent describes an automatic, periodically calibrating system for continuous output of calibrated signals from a combined oxygen and combustibles analyzer. It comprises: a combined oxygen and combustibles analyzer for sensing a level of oxygen and a level of combustibles in a volatile atmosphere and for producing a first sample signal indicative of the oxygen level and a second sample signal indicative of the combustibles level; means for introducing zero and span calibration test gases into the analyzer; means for periodically calibrating the analyzer. This including: a data control unit; a timer unit; a mechanical unit, means for calculating zeromore » and span values for oxygen and combustibles, means for comparing the calculated zero and span values for oxygen and combustibles to the preset alarm limits for oxygen and combustibles, means for activating an operator alarm, means for calculating oxygen and combustibles drift adjustments, a memory unit; and means for applying the oxygen and combustibles drift adjustments concurrently to the first and second sample signals, according to predetermined mathematical relationship, to obtain calibrated output signals indicative of the oxygen and combustibles level in the volatile atmosphere.« less

  17. Acute and chronic environmental effects of clandestine methamphetamine waste.

    PubMed

    Kates, Lisa N; Knapp, Charles W; Keenan, Helen E

    2014-09-15

    The illicit manufacture of methamphetamine (MAP) produces substantial amounts of hazardous waste that is dumped illegally. This study presents the first environmental evaluation of waste produced from illicit MAP manufacture. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) was measured to assess immediate oxygen depletion effects. A mixture of five waste components (10mg/L/chemical) was found to have a COD (130 mg/L) higher than the European Union wastewater discharge regulations (125 mg/L). Two environmental partition coefficients, K(OW) and K(OC), were measured for several chemicals identified in MAP waste. Experimental values were input into a computer fugacity model (EPI Suite™) to estimate environmental fate. Experimental log K(OW) values ranged from -0.98 to 4.91, which were in accordance with computer estimated values. Experimental K(OC) values ranged from 11 to 72, which were much lower than the default computer values. The experimental fugacity model for discharge to water estimates that waste components will remain in the water compartment for 15 to 37 days. Using a combination of laboratory experimentation and computer modelling, the environmental fate of MAP waste products was estimated. While fugacity models using experimental and computational values were very similar, default computer models should not take the place of laboratory experimentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Feasibility study of oxygen-dispensing emitters for thermionic converters, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desteese, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    A metal/ceramic Marchuk tube was used to measure work functions of oxygen-doped tantalum, to determine applicability of the material to plasma-mode thermionic converters. Oxygen-doped tantalum was shown to increase in work function monotonically with oxygen doping in the range 0.1 to 0.3 atomic percent. Oxygenated test emitters were run at an average temperature of 2165 K and a T/T sub Cs ratio -5.8 to observe the influence of oxygen depletion. Bare work function decreased with outgassing of oxygen. Projections were made based on outgassing kinetics and area/volume ratios to calculate the longevity of oxygen doping in a practical converter. Calculations indicated that the program goal of 10,000 hr could be achieved at 1800 K with an initial oxygen doping of 1 atomic percent and a practical emitter area/volume ratio.

  19. Calculated values of atomic oxygen fluences and solar exposure on selected surfaces of LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. R.; Pippin, H. G.; Bourassa, R. J.; Gruenbaum, P. E.

    1995-01-01

    Atomic oxygen (AO) fluences and solar exposure have been modeled for selected hardware from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The atomic oxygen exposure was modeled using the microenvironment modeling code SHADOWV2. The solar exposure was modeled using the microenvironment modeling code SOLSHAD version 1.0.

  20. The OceanFlux Greenhouse Gases methodology for deriving a sea surface climatology of CO2 fugacity in support of air-sea gas flux studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddijn-Murphy, L. M.; Woolf, D. K.; Land, P. E.; Shutler, J. D.; Donlon, C.

    2015-07-01

    Climatologies, or long-term averages, of essential climate variables are useful for evaluating models and providing a baseline for studying anomalies. The Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) has made millions of global underway sea surface measurements of CO2 publicly available, all in a uniform format and presented as fugacity, fCO2. As fCO2 is highly sensitive to temperature, the measurements are only valid for the instantaneous sea surface temperature (SST) that is measured concurrently with the in-water CO2 measurement. To create a climatology of fCO2 data suitable for calculating air-sea CO2 fluxes, it is therefore desirable to calculate fCO2 valid for a more consistent and averaged SST. This paper presents the OceanFlux Greenhouse Gases methodology for creating such a climatology. We recomputed SOCAT's fCO2 values for their respective measurement month and year using monthly composite SST data on a 1° × 1° grid from satellite Earth observation and then extrapolated the resulting fCO2 values to reference year 2010. The data were then spatially interpolated onto a 1° × 1° grid of the global oceans to produce 12 monthly fCO2 distributions for 2010, including the prediction errors of fCO2 produced by the spatial interpolation technique. The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) is also provided for those who prefer to use pCO2. The CO2 concentration difference between ocean and atmosphere is the thermodynamic driving force of the air-sea CO2 flux, and hence the presented fCO2 distributions can be used in air-sea gas flux calculations together with climatologies of other climate variables.

  1. Redox processes in subducting oceanic crust recorded by sulfide-bearing high-pressure rocks and veins (SW Tianshan, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ji-Lei; Gao, Jun; Klemd, Reiner; John, Timm; Wang, Xin-Shui

    2016-09-01

    The oxidized nature of the sub-arc mantle and hence arc magmas is generally interpreted as a result of the migration of subduction-related oxidizing fluids or melts from the descending slab into the mantle wedge. This is of particular importance seeing that the oxidization state of sub-arc magmas seems to play a key role in the formations of arc-related ore deposits. However, direct constraints on the redox state of subducted oceanic crust are sparse. Here, we provide a detailed petrological investigation on sulfide- and oxide-bearing eclogites, blueschists, micaschists, eclogite-facies and retrograde veins from the Akeyazi high-pressure (HP) terrane (NW China) in order to gain insight into the redox processes recorded in a subducting oceanic slab. Sulfides in these rocks are mainly pyrite and minor pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, bornite, molybdenite, sphalerite and chalcocite, including exsolution textures of bornite-chalcopyrite intergrowth. Magnetite, ilmenite and pyrite occur as inclusions in garnet, whereas sulfides are dominant in the matrix. Large pyrite grains in the matrix contain inclusions of garnet, omphacite and other HP index minerals. However, magnetite replacing pyrite textures are commonly observed in the retrograded samples. The eclogite-facies and retrograde veins display two fluid events, which are characterized by an early sulfide-bearing and a later magnetite-bearing mineral assemblage, respectively. Textural and petrological evidences show that the sulfides were mainly formed during HP metamorphism. Mineral assemblage transitions reveal that the relative oxygen fugacity of subducted oceanic crust decreases slightly with increasing depths. However, according to oxygen mass balance calculations, based on the oxygen molar quantities ( nO2), the redox conditions remain constant during HP metamorphism. At shallow levels (<60 km) in the subduction channel, interaction with oxidized fluid seems to have caused an increase of the oxygen fugacity and the

  2. Opaque Assemblages in CK and CV Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, K. E.; Righter, K.

    2006-01-01

    CK carbonaceous chondrites are the only group of carbonaceous chondrites that exhibit thermal metamorphism. As a result, CKs display features of metamorphism such as silicate darkening, recrystallization and shock veins. Calcium Aluminum Inclusions and Fe-Ni metal are rare. CV carbonaceous chondrites are unequilibrated and have two subgroups; oxidized and reduced. The CV and CK carbonaceous chondrite groups have been compared to each other often because of petrographic similarities, such as overlapping oxygen isotopic ratios. Scientists have suggested the two groups of carbonaceous chondrites formed from the same parent body and CKs are equilibrated CV chondrites [1, 2]. The oxidized CV group has been most closely related to CKs. This study examines the petrology and mineralogy of CKs and CVs focusing on opaque minerals found in the meteorites. Using the oxide, metal and sulfide assemblages, constraints can be placed on the temperature and oxygen fugacity at which the meteorites equilibrated. The temperature and oxygen fugacity of the CK and CV chondrites can be compared in order to help define their formation history.

  3. Development of oxygen meters for the use in lead-bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konys, J.; Muscher, H.; Voß, Z.; Wedemeyer, O.

    2001-07-01

    Liquid lead and the eutectic lead-bismuth alloy (PbBi) are considered both as a spallation target and coolant of an accelerator driven system (ADS) for the transmutation of long-lived actinides from nuclear waste into shorter living isotopes. It is known that both, pure lead and PbBi, exhibit a high corrosivity against austenitic and ferritic steels, because of the high solubility of nickel and iron in PbBi. One way of reducing the strong corrosion is the in situ formation of stable oxide scales on the steel surfaces. Thermodynamic calculations and experimental results have confirmed, that the control of oxygen in lead or PbBi within a defined activity range can lead to acceptable corrosion rates. To control the level of oxygen dissolved in lead or PbBi, a sensor for measuring the oxygen activity is required. Within the sodium fast breeder reactor development, an adequate technique was established for estimating oxygen in liquid sodium. This knowledge can be used for other metal/oxygen systems like oxygen in PbBi. For measuring the oxygen activity and calculating its concentration, the relevant thermodynamic and solubility data have to be considered. Two reference electrode systems: Pt/air and In/In 2O 3 (both based on yttria-stabilized zirconia as solid electrolyte) are investigated to evaluate their electromotive force (EMF)-temperature dependency in saturated and unsaturated oxygen solutions. Results with both types of oxygen meters in PbBi at different oxygen levels were compared with theoretical calculations. The experimental data indicate that the design, construction and integration of an oxygen control unit in a large scale PbBi-loop seems to be very feasible.

  4. Group Additivity Determination for Oxygenates, Oxonium Ions, and Oxygen-Containing Carbenium Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Dellon, Lauren D.; Sung, Chun-Yi; Robichaud, David J.

    Bio-oil produced from biomass fast pyrolysis often requires catalytic upgrading to remove oxygen and acidic species over zeolite catalysts. The elementary reactions in the mechanism for this process involve carbenium and oxonium ions. In order to develop a detailed kinetic model for the catalytic upgrading of biomass, rate constants are required for these elementary reactions. The parameters in the Arrhenius equation can be related to thermodynamic properties through structure-reactivity relationships, such as the Evans-Polanyi relationship. For this relationship, enthalpies of formation of each species are required, which can be reasonably estimated using group additivity. However, the literature previously lacked groupmore » additivity values for oxygenates, oxonium ions, and oxygen-containing carbenium ions. In this work, 71 group additivity values for these types of groups were regressed, 65 of which had not been reported previously and six of which were newly estimated based on regression in the context of the 65 new groups. Heats of formation based on atomization enthalpy calculations for a set of reference molecules and isodesmic reactions for a small set of larger species for which experimental data was available were used to demonstrate the accuracy of the Gaussian-4 quantum mechanical method in estimating enthalpies of formation for species involving the moieties of interest. Isodesmic reactions for a total of 195 species were constructed from the reference molecules to calculate enthalpies of formation that were used to regress the group additivity values. The results showed an average deviation of 1.95 kcal/mol between the values calculated from Gaussian-4 and isodesmic reactions versus those calculated from the group additivity values that were newly regressed. Importantly, the new groups enhance the database for group additivity values, especially those involving oxonium ions.« less

  5. Modeling of the oxygen reduction reaction for dense LSM thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Jian; Yu, Yang

    In this study, the oxygen reduction reaction mechanism is investigated using numerical methods on a dense thin (La 1-xSr x) yMnO 3±δ film deposited on a YSZ substrate. This 1-D continuum model consists of defect chemistry and elementary oxygen reduction reaction steps coupled via reaction rates. The defect chemistry model contains eight species including cation vacancies on the A- and B-sites. The oxygen vacancy is calculated by solving species transportation equations in multiphysics simulations. Due to the simple geometry of a dense thin film, the oxygen reduction reaction was reduced to three elementary steps: surface adsorption and dissociation, incorporation onmore » the surface, and charge transfer across the LSM/YSZ interface. The numerical simulations allow for calculation of the temperature- and oxygen partial pressure-dependent properties of LSM. The parameters of the model are calibrated with experimental impedance data for various oxygen partial pressures at different temperatures. The results indicate that surface adsorption and dissociation is the rate-determining step in the ORR of LSM thin films. With the fine-tuned parameters, further quantitative analysis is performed. The activation energy of the oxygen exchange reaction and the dependence of oxygen non-stoichiometry on oxygen partial pressure are also calculated and verified using the literature results.« less

  6. Modeling of the oxygen reduction reaction for dense LSM thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Jian; Yu, Yang; ...

    2017-10-17

    In this study, the oxygen reduction reaction mechanism is investigated using numerical methods on a dense thin (La 1-xSr x) yMnO 3±δ film deposited on a YSZ substrate. This 1-D continuum model consists of defect chemistry and elementary oxygen reduction reaction steps coupled via reaction rates. The defect chemistry model contains eight species including cation vacancies on the A- and B-sites. The oxygen vacancy is calculated by solving species transportation equations in multiphysics simulations. Due to the simple geometry of a dense thin film, the oxygen reduction reaction was reduced to three elementary steps: surface adsorption and dissociation, incorporation onmore » the surface, and charge transfer across the LSM/YSZ interface. The numerical simulations allow for calculation of the temperature- and oxygen partial pressure-dependent properties of LSM. The parameters of the model are calibrated with experimental impedance data for various oxygen partial pressures at different temperatures. The results indicate that surface adsorption and dissociation is the rate-determining step in the ORR of LSM thin films. With the fine-tuned parameters, further quantitative analysis is performed. The activation energy of the oxygen exchange reaction and the dependence of oxygen non-stoichiometry on oxygen partial pressure are also calculated and verified using the literature results.« less

  7. Optimizing the calculation of DM,CO and VC via the single breath single oxygen tension DLCO/NO method.

    PubMed

    Coffman, Kirsten E; Taylor, Bryan J; Carlson, Alex R; Wentz, Robert J; Johnson, Bruce D

    2016-01-15

    Alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (D(M,CO)) and pulmonary-capillary blood volume (V(C)) are calculated via lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL(CO)) and nitric oxide (DL(NO)) using the single breath, single oxygen tension (single-FiO2) method. However, two calculation parameters, the reaction rate of carbon monoxide with blood (θ(CO)) and the D(M,NO)/D(M,CO) ratio (α-ratio), are controversial. This study systematically determined optimal θ(CO) and α-ratio values to be used in the single-FiO2 method that yielded the most similar D(M,CO) and V(C) values compared to the 'gold-standard' multiple-FiO2 method. Eleven healthy subjects performed single breath DL(CO)/DL(NO) maneuvers at rest and during exercise. D(M,CO) and V(C) were calculated via the single-FiO2 and multiple-FiO2 methods by implementing seven θ(CO) equations and a range of previously reported α-ratios. The RP θ(CO) equation (Reeves, R.B., Park, H.K., 1992. Respiration Physiology 88 1-21) and an α-ratio of 4.0-4.4 yielded DM,CO and VC values that were most similar between methods. The RP θ(CO) equation and an experimental α-ratio should be used in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling the oxygen microheterogeneity of tumors for photodynamic therapy dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.; O'Hara, Julia A.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Swartz, Harold

    2000-03-01

    Photodynamic theory of tumors uses optical excitation of a sensitizing drug within tissue to produce large deposits of singlet oxygen, which are thought to ultimately cause the tumor destruction. Predicting dose deposition of singlet oxygen in vivo is challenging because measurement of this species in vivo is not easily achieved. But it is possible to follow the concentration of oxygen in vivo, and so measuring the oxygen concentration transients during PDT may provide a viable method of estimating the delivered dose of singlet oxygen. However modeling the microscopic heterogeneity of the oxygen distribution within a tumor is non-trivial, and predicting the microscopic dose deposition requires further study, but this study present the framework and initial calibration needed or modeling oxygen transport in complex geometries. Computational modeling with finite elements provides a versatile structure within which oxygen diffusion and consumption can be modeled within realistic tissue geometries. This study develops the basic tools required to simulate a tumor region, and examines the role of (i) oxygen supply and consumption rates, (ii) inter- capillary spacing, (iii) photosensitizer distribution, and (iv) differences between simulated tumors and those derived directly from histology. The result of these calculations indicate that realistic tumor tissue capillary networks can be simulated using the finite element method, without excessive computational burden for 2D regions near 1 mm2, and 3D regions near 0.1mm3. These simulations can provide fundamental information about tissue and ways to implement appropriate oxygen measurements. These calculations suggest that photodynamic therapy produces the majority of singlet oxygen in and near the blood vessels, because these are the sites of highest oxygen tension. These calculations support the concept that tumor vascular regions are the major targets for PDT dose deposition.

  9. Reaction rates of oxygen with hemoglobin measured by non-equilibrium facilitated oxygen diffusion through hemoglobin solutions.

    PubMed

    Bouwer, S T; Hoofd, L; Kreuzer, F

    2001-02-16

    The purpose of this study was to verify the concept of non-equilibrium facilitated oxygen diffusion. This work succeeds our previous study, where facilitated oxygen diffusion by hemoglobin was measured at conditions of chemical equilibrium, and which yielded diffusion coefficients of hemoglobin and of oxygen. In the present work chemical non-equilibrium was induced using very thin diffusion layers. As a result, facilitation was decreased as predicted by theory. Thus, this work presents the first experimental demonstration of non-equilibrium facilitated oxygen diffusion. In addition, association and dissociation rate parameters of the reaction between oxygen and bovine and human hemoglobin were calculated and the effect of the homotropic and heterotropic interactions on each rate parameter was demonstrated. The results indicate that the homotropic interaction--which leads to increasing oxygen affinity with increasing oxygenation--is predominantly due to an increase in the association rate. The heterotropic interaction--which leads to decreasing oxygen affinity by anionic ligands--appears to be effected in two ways. Cl- increases the dissociation rate. In contrast, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate decreases the association rate.

  10. Northwest Africa 5298: A Basaltic Shergottite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, Hejiu; Peslier, Anne; Lapen, Thomas J.; Brandon, Alan; Shafer, John

    2009-01-01

    NWA 5298 is a single 445 g meteorite found near Bir Gandouz, Morocco in March 2008 [1]. This rock has a brown exterior weathered surface instead of a fusion crust and the interior is composed of green mineral grains with interstitial dark patches containing small vesicles and shock melts [1]. This meteorite is classified as a basaltic shergottite [2]. A petrologic study of this Martian meteorite is being carried out with electron microprobe analysis and soon trace element analyses by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Oxygen fugacity is calculated from Fe-Ti oxides pairs in the sample. The data from this study constrains the petrogenesis of basaltic shergottites.

  11. Oxygen Buffering in High Pressure Solid Media Assemblies: New Approach Enabling Study of fO2 from IW-4 to IW+4.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K. M.; Ross, D. K.; Butterworth, A. L.; Gainsforth, Z.; Jilly-Rehak, C. E.; Westphal, A. J.

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen fugacity is an intensive parameter that controls some fundamental chemical and physical properties in planetary materials. In terrestrial magmas high fO2 promotes magnetite stability and low fO2 causes Fe-enrichment due to magnetite suppression. In lunar and asteroidal basalts, low fO2 can allow metal to be stable. Experimental studies will therefore be most useful if they are done at a specific and relevant fO2 for the samples under consideration. Control of fO2 in the solid media apparatus (piston cylinder multi-anvil) has relied on either sliding sensors or graphite capsule buffering, which are of limited application to the wide range of fO2 recorded in planetary or astromaterials. Here we describe a new approach that allows fO2 to be specified across a wide range of values relevant to natural samples.

  12. Comparison of Minimally and More Invasive Methods of Determining Mixed Venous Oxygen Saturation.

    PubMed

    Smit, Marli; Levin, Andrew I; Coetzee, Johan F

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the accuracy of a minimally invasive, 2-step, lookup method for determining mixed venous oxygen saturation compared with conventional techniques. Single-center, prospective, nonrandomized, pilot study. Tertiary care hospital, university setting. Thirteen elective cardiac and vascular surgery patients. All participants received intra-arterial and pulmonary artery catheters. Minimally invasive oxygen consumption and cardiac output were measured using a metabolic module and lithium-calibrated arterial waveform analysis (LiDCO; LiDCO, London), respectively. For the minimally invasive method, Step 1 involved these minimally invasive measurements, and arterial oxygen content was entered into the Fick equation to calculate mixed venous oxygen content. Step 2 used an oxyhemoglobin curve spreadsheet to look up mixed venous oxygen saturation from the calculated mixed venous oxygen content. The conventional "invasive" technique used pulmonary artery intermittent thermodilution cardiac output, direct sampling of mixed venous and arterial blood, and the "reverse-Fick" method of calculating oxygen consumption. LiDCO overestimated thermodilution cardiac output by 26%. Pulmonary artery catheter-derived oxygen consumption underestimated metabolic module measurements by 27%. Mixed venous oxygen saturation differed between techniques; the calculated values underestimated the direct measurements by between 12% to 26.3%, this difference being statistically significant. The magnitude of the differences between the minimally invasive and invasive techniques was too great for the former to act as a surrogate of the latter and could adversely affect clinical decision making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Oxygen vacancy diffusion in bulk SrTiO3 from density functional theory calculations

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Lipeng; Liu, Bin; Zhuang, Houlong; ...

    2016-04-01

    Point defects and point defect diffusion contribute significantly to the properties of perovskite materials. However, even for the prototypical case of oxygen vacancies in SrTiO 3 (STO), predictions vary widely. Here we present a comprehensive and systematic study of the diffusion barriers for this material. We use density functional theory (DFT) and assess the role of different cell sizes, density functionals, and charge states. Our results show that vacancy-induced octahedral rotations, which are limited by the boundary conditions of the supercell, can significantly affect the computed oxygen vacancy diffusion energy barrier. The diffusion energy barrier of a charged oxygen vacancymore » is lower than that of a neutral one. Unexpectedly, we find that with increasing supercell size, the effects of the oxygen vacancy charge state, the type of DFT exchange and correlation functional on the energy barrier diminish, and the different DFT predictions asymptote to a value in the range of 0.39-0.49 eV. This work provides important insight and guidance that should be considered for investigations of point defect diffusion in other perovskite materials and in oxide superlattices.« less

  14. [Diagnostic importance of the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient].

    PubMed

    Weinans, Marije A E; Drost-de Klerck, Amanda M; ter Maaten, Jan C

    2012-01-01

    The alveolar-arterial (A-a) oxygen gradient is the difference between the partial pressure of oxygen in the alveoli and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen and can be elevated in the case of pulmonary disease. We describe a 41-year-old patient with pneumonia who presented with abdominal pain, in whom calculation of the A-a gradient could have led to earlier diagnosis. The A-a oxygen gradient is mainly of diagnostic importance and the presented nomogram allows easy and quick interpretation. This might lead to a more frequent use of the A-a oxygen gradient in the future.

  15. Mechanisms controlling the oxygen consumption in experimentally induced hypochloremic alkalosis in calves.

    PubMed

    Cambier, Carole; Clerbaux, Thierry; Amory, Hélène; Detry, Bruno; Florquin, Sandra; Marville, Vincent; Frans, Albert; Gustin, Pascal

    2002-01-01

    The study was carried out on healthy Friesian calves (n = 10) aged between 10 and 30 days. Hypochloremia and alkalosis were induced by intravenous administration of furosemide and isotonic sodium bicarbonate. The venous and arterial blood samples were collected repeatedly. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), hemoglobin and plasmatic chloride concentrations were determined. The red blood cell chloride concentration was also calculated. pH, PCO2 and PO2 were measured in arterial and mixed venous blood. The oxygen equilibrium curve (OEC) was measured in standard conditions. The correspondence of the OEC to the arterial and mixed venous compartments was calculated, taking blood temperature, pH and PCO2 values into account. The oxygen exchange fraction (OEF%), corresponding to the degree of blood desaturation between the arterial and mixed venous compartments and the amount of oxygen released at the tissue level by 100 mL of blood (OEF Vol%) were calculated from the arterial and mixed venous OEC, combined with PO2 and hemoglobin concentration. Oxygen delivery (DO2) was calculated using the arterial oxygen content, the cardiac output measured by thermodilution, and the body weight of the animal. The oxygen consumption (VO2) was derived from the cardiac output, OEF Vol% and body weight values. Despite the plasma hypochloremia, the erythrocyte chloride concentration was not influenced by furosemide and sodium bicarbonate infusion. Due to the alkalosis-induced increase in the 2,3-DPG, the standard OEC was shifted to the right, allowing oxygen to dissociate from hemoglobin more rapidly. These changes opposed the increased affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen induced by alkalosis. Moreover, respiratory acidosis, hemoconcentration, and the slight decrease in the partial oxygen pressure in mixed venous blood (Pvo2) tended to improve the OEF Vol% and maintain the oxygen consumption in a physiological range while the cardiac output, and the oxygen delivery were significantly decreased

  16. A Comparison of Singlet Oxygen Explicit Dosimetry (SOED) and Singlet Oxygen Luminescence Dosimetry (SOLD) for Photofrin-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Michele M.; Penjweini, Rozhin; Gemmell, Nathan R.; Veilleux, Israel; McCarthy, Aongus; Buller, Gerald S.; Hadfield, Robert H.; Wilson, Brian C.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate photodynamic therapy (PDT) dosimetry is critical for the use of PDT in the treatment of malignant and nonmalignant localized diseases. A singlet oxygen explicit dosimetry (SOED) model has been developed for in vivo purposes. It involves the measurement of the key components in PDT—light fluence (rate), photosensitizer concentration, and ground-state oxygen concentration ([3O2])—to calculate the amount of reacted singlet oxygen ([1O2]rx), the main cytotoxic component in type II PDT. Experiments were performed in phantoms with the photosensitizer Photofrin and in solution using phosphorescence-based singlet oxygen luminescence dosimetry (SOLD) to validate the SOED model. Oxygen concentration and photosensitizer photobleaching versus time were measured during PDT, along with direct SOLD measurements of singlet oxygen and triplet state lifetime (τΔ and τt), for various photosensitizer concentrations to determine necessary photophysical parameters. SOLD-determined cumulative [1O2]rx was compared to SOED-calculated [1O2]rx for various photosensitizer concentrations to show a clear correlation between the two methods. This illustrates that explicit dosimetry can be used when phosphorescence-based dosimetry is not feasible. Using SOED modeling, we have also shown evidence that SOLD-measured [1O2]rx using a 523 nm pulsed laser can be used to correlate to singlet oxygen generated by a 630 nm laser during a clinical malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) PDT protocol by using a conversion formula. PMID:27929427

  17. A Comparison of Singlet Oxygen Explicit Dosimetry (SOED) and Singlet Oxygen Luminescence Dosimetry (SOLD) for Photofrin-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Michele M; Penjweini, Rozhin; Gemmell, Nathan R; Veilleux, Israel; McCarthy, Aongus; Buller, Gerald S; Hadfield, Robert H; Wilson, Brian C; Zhu, Timothy C

    2016-12-06

    Accurate photodynamic therapy (PDT) dosimetry is critical for the use of PDT in the treatment of malignant and nonmalignant localized diseases. A singlet oxygen explicit dosimetry (SOED) model has been developed for in vivo purposes. It involves the measurement of the key components in PDT-light fluence (rate), photosensitizer concentration, and ground-state oxygen concentration ([³ O ₂])-to calculate the amount of reacted singlet oxygen ([¹ O ₂] rx ), the main cytotoxic component in type II PDT. Experiments were performed in phantoms with the photosensitizer Photofrin and in solution using phosphorescence-based singlet oxygen luminescence dosimetry (SOLD) to validate the SOED model. Oxygen concentration and photosensitizer photobleaching versus time were measured during PDT, along with direct SOLD measurements of singlet oxygen and triplet state lifetime ( τ Δ and τ t ), for various photosensitizer concentrations to determine necessary photophysical parameters. SOLD-determined cumulative [¹ O ₂] rx was compared to SOED-calculated [¹ O ₂] rx for various photosensitizer concentrations to show a clear correlation between the two methods. This illustrates that explicit dosimetry can be used when phosphorescence-based dosimetry is not feasible. Using SOED modeling, we have also shown evidence that SOLD-measured [¹ O ₂] rx using a 523 nm pulsed laser can be used to correlate to singlet oxygen generated by a 630 nm laser during a clinical malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) PDT protocol by using a conversion formula.

  18. Oxidation-Reduction Calculations in the Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinman, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    Redox calculations have the potential to reinforce important concepts in bioenergetics. The intermediacy of the NAD[superscript +]/NADH couple in the oxidation of food by oxygen, for example, can be brought out by such calculations. In practice, students have great difficulty and, even when adept at the calculations, frequently do not understand…

  19. Oxygen deficient Ti oxides (natural magnéli phases) from mudstone xenoliths with native iron from Disko, central West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, A. K.; Rønsbo, J. G.

    1987-05-01

    Mudstone xenoliths in a strongly reduced andesitic subaquatic breccia with native iron from the Asuk Member on Disko contain Ti oxides which are oxygen deficient relative to rutile. Ore microscopy reveals that the mudstone xenoliths contain former clastic oxide grains which have equilibrated to blue Ti oxides and grey aluminous Ti oxides. They also contain still immature coal fragments in a glassy matrix with native iron. The blue oxides are compositionally similar to magnéli phases TinO2n-1 within the range n=4 to 7, and several grains contain more than one natural magnéli phase. Two other phases found are 1) pale orange blebs in magnéli phases with a composition approaching Al1Ti{1/3+}Ti{2/4+}O7 (AlTi phase B) and 2) grey oxide rims on magnéli phases or independent grains of the compositional series Al2-x(Ti{0.5/4+}(Mg,Fe)0.5)xTi{n-2/4+}O2n-1 with n mostly between 7 and 10 (AlTi phase A). The natural magnéli phases equilibrated at oxygen fugacities 4 to 5 log units below the Fe-W oxygen buffer at igneous temperatures and represent the most reduced high-temperature environment yet recorded among native iron bearing rocks from Disko. The extremely reducing conditions were met in rocks where coal fragments were still in a state of degassing hydrocarbon components at the time of quenching. Field geology and carbon barometry indicate equilibration at pressures of less than 10 bars.

  20. FirefOx Design Reference fO2 Sensor for Hot, Deep Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izenberg, N.; Papadakis, S.; Deglau, D.; Francomacaro, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the composition of the lowest portion of Venus' atmosphere is critical to knowing the stable mineralogy of the rocks there. Oxygen gas is a critical trace component, with fugacity, or partial pressure, estimated in the range of 10-19 to 10-22 from early probe measurements down to 22km altitude (Pioneer Venus, Venera), chemical equilibrium measurements, and other modeling. "FirefOx" is a simple oxygen fugacity sensor with the express purpose of determining the partial pressure of oxygen in the lowest scale heights of the Venus atmosphere, and especially the lowest hundreds of meters; the surface atmosphere interface, where the atmosphere and surface move to thermodynamic equilibrium. Knowledge of the fO2 at the surface atmosphere interface is crucial to determining the stable mineralogy of surface materials (e.g. magnetite vs. hematite) and gas chemistry in the near-surface atmosphere FirefOx is a Metal/Metal Oxide oxygen fugacity sensor intended to be mounted on the outside of a Venus descent probe, with electronics housed inside a thermally controlled environment. The sole sensor capability is the precise, accurate detection of the partial pressure of oxygen gas (fO2) in the near-surface environment of Venus, at up to 95-bar pressure (predominantly CO2. Surface temperatures at mean planetary elevation are near 735 K, thus a required operational temperature range of 710-740 K covers a range of near-surface elevations. FirefOx system requirements are low ( 100-200 grams, mass, milliwatt power, several kilobytes total science data). A design reference sensor, composed of custom, Yittria-ZrO ceramic electrolyte, with an encapsulated Pd/PdO standard and patterned Pt electrodes has demonstrated scientifically useful signal-to-noise millivolt level potential at temperatures as low as 620 K, relatable to fO2 by a Nernst equation E = RT/4F ln(PO2/PrefO2) where E = open circuit potential across the sensor electrolyte, R = universal gas constant, T

  1. Gold-bearing hedenbergite skarns from the SW contact of the Andorra granite (Central Pyrenees, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, A.; Ayora, C.; Cardellach, E.; Delgado, J.

    1990-12-01

    Several varieties of skarn outcrop have been found to develop along the contact between the Andorra granite and the Devonian limestones. The skarns contain variable amounts of gold ranging up to 5 g/t, always associated with sulphides. The sulphides in the skarn include arsenopyrite and pyrrhotite with lesser amounts of chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite and Bi-minerals. Geothermometric and geobarometric data indicate the skarns formed at about 2 kbar and temperatures ranging from 500 ° to 350 °C from CO2-free polysaline brines at a slightly acidic pH and oxygen fugacity which decreases with time from the pyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite towards the QFM buffer. Available data on gold solubility suggest that sufficient quantities of gold to form an ore deposit could have been transported as AuCl{2/-}at the high temperatures and salinities under which the skarns formed. Both gold deposition and sulphide precipitation could have occurred due to a decrease in temperature and/or oxygen fugacity.

  2. Metal/Silicate Partitioning of P, Ga, and W at High Pressures and Temperatures: Dependence on Silicate Melt Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Edward; Drake, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The distinctive pattern of element concentrations in the upper mantle provides essential evidence in our attempts to understand the accretion and differentiation of the Earth (e.g., Drake and Righter, 2002; Jones and Drake, 1986; Righter et al., 1997; Wanke 1981). Core formation is best investigated through use of metal/silicate partition coefficients for siderophile elements. The variables influencing partition coefficients are temperature, pressure, the major element compositions of the silicate and metal phases, and oxygen fugacity. Examples of studies investigating the effects of these variables on partitioning behavior are: composition of the metal phase by Capobianco et al. (1999) and Righter et al. (1997); silicate melt composition by Watson (1976), Walter and Thibault (1995), Hillgren et al. (1996), Jana and Walker (1997), and Jaeger and Drake (2000); and oxygen fugacity by Capobianco et al. (1999), and Walter and Thibault (1995). Here we address the relative influences of silicate melt composition, pressure and temperature.

  3. Oxygen concentration dependence of silicon oxide dynamical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yajima, Yuji; Shiraishi, Kenji; Endoh, Tetsuo; Kageshima, Hiroyuki

    2018-06-01

    To understand oxidation in three-dimensional silicon, dynamic characteristics of a SiO x system with various stoichiometries were investigated. The calculated results show that the self-diffusion coefficient increases as oxygen density decreases, and the increase is large when the temperature is low. It also shows that the self-diffusion coefficient saturates, when the number of removed oxygen atoms is sufficiently large. Then, approximate analytical equations are derived from the calculated results, and the previously reported expression is confirmed in the extremely low-SiO-density range.

  4. Direct observation of the oxygenated species during oxygen reduction on a platinum fuel cell cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalongue, Hernan Sanchez; Kaya, Sarp; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Miller, Daniel J.; Friebel, Daniel; Hansen, Heine A.; Nørskov, Jens K.; Nilsson, Anders; Ogasawara, Hirohito

    2013-12-01

    The performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells is limited by the reduction at the cathode of various oxygenated intermediates in the four-electron pathway of the oxygen reduction reaction. Here we use ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and directly probe the correlation between the adsorbed species on the surface and the electrochemical potential. We demonstrate that, during the oxygen reduction reaction, hydroxyl intermediates on the cathode surface occur in several configurations with significantly different structures and reactivities. In particular, we find that near the open-circuit potential, non-hydrated hydroxyl is the dominant surface species. On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we show that the removal of hydration enhances the reactivity of oxygen species. Tuning the hydration of hydroxyl near the triple phase boundary will be crucial for designing more active fuel cell cathodes.

  5. Exploring the Use of Multimedia Fate and Bioaccumulation Models to Calculate Trophic Magnification Factors (TMFs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The trophic magnification factor (TMF) is considered to be a key metric for assessing the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals in food webs. Fugacity is an equilibrium criterion and thus reflects the relative thermodynamic status of a chemical in the environment and in ...

  6. Measuring the viscosity of whole bovine lens using a fiber optic oxygen sensing system

    PubMed Central

    Thao, Mai T.; Perez, Daniel; Dillon, James

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To obtain a better understanding of oxygen and nutrient transport within the lens, the viscosity of whole lenses was investigated using a fiber optic oxygen sensor (optode). The diffusion coefficient of oxygen was calculated using the Stokes-Einstein equation at the slip boundary condition. Methods The optode was used to measure the oxygen decay signal in samples consisting of different glycerol/water solutions with known viscosities. The oxygen decay signal was fitted to a double exponential decay rate equation, and the lifetimes (tau) were calculated. It was determined that the tau-viscosity relationship is linear, which served as the standard curve. The same procedure was applied to fresh bovine lenses, and the unknown viscosity of the bovine lens was calculated from the tau-viscosity relationship. Results The average viscosity in a whole bovine lens was determined to be 5.74±0.88 cP by our method. Using the Stokes-Einstein equation at the slip boundary condition, the diffusion coefficient for oxygen was calculated to be 8.2 × 10−6 cm2/s. Conclusions These data indicate a higher resistance to flow for oxygen and nutrients in the lens than what is currently assumed in the literature. Overall, this study allows a better understanding of oxygen transport within the lens. PMID:24505211

  7. Atomic oxygen exposure of LDEF experiment trays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Atomic oxygen exposures were determined analytically for rows, longerons, and end bays of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The calculations are based on an analytical model that accounts for the effects of thermal molecular velocity, atmospheric temperature, number density, spacecraft velocity, incidence angle, and atmospheric rotation on atomic oxygen flux. Results incorporate variations in solar activity, geomagnetic index, and orbital parameters occurring over the 6-year flight of the spacecraft. To facilitate use of the data, both detailed tabulations and summary charts for atomic oxygen fluences are presented.

  8. Comparison of singlet oxygen threshold dose for PDT.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Timothy C; Liu, Baochang; Kim, Michele M; McMillan, Dayton; Liang, Xing; Finlay, Jarod C; Busch, Theresa M

    2014-02-01

    Macroscopic modeling of singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) is of particular interest because it is the major cytotoxic agent causing biological effects for type II photosensitizers during PDT. We have developed a macroscopic model to calculate reacted singlet oxygen concentration ([1O2] rx for PDT. An in-vivo RIF tumor mouse model is used to correlate the necrosis depth to the calculation based on explicit PDT dosimetry of light fluence distribution, tissue optical properties, and photosensitizer concentrations. Inputs to the model include 4 photosensitizer specific photochemical parameters along with the apparent singlet oxygen threshold concentration. Photosensitizer specific model parameters are determined for several type II photosensitizers (Photofrin, BPD, and HPPH). The singlet oxygen threshold concentration is approximately 0.41 - 0.56 mM for all three photosensitizers studied, assuming that the fraction of singlet oxygen generated that interacts with the cell is ( f = 1). In comparison, value derived from other in-vivo mice studies is 0.4 mM for mTHPC. However, the singlet oxygen threshold doses were reported to be 7.9 and 12.1 mM for a multicell in-vitro EMT6/Ro spheroid model for mTHPC and Photofrin PDT, respectively. The sensitivity of threshold singlet oxygen dose for our experiment is examined. The possible influence of vascular vs. apoptotic cell killing mechanism on the singlet oxygen threshold dose is discussed using the BPD with different drug-light intervals 3 hrs vs. 15 min. The observed discrepancies between different experiments warrant further investigation to explain the cause of the difference.

  9. Comparison of singlet oxygen threshold dose for PDT

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Timothy C; Liu, Baochang; Kim, Michele M.; McMillan, Dayton; Liang, Xing; Finlay, Jarod C.; Busch, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    Macroscopic modeling of singlet oxygen (1O2) is of particular interest because it is the major cytotoxic agent causing biological effects for type II photosensitizers during PDT. We have developed a macroscopic model to calculate reacted singlet oxygen concentration ([1O2]rx for PDT. An in-vivo RIF tumor mouse model is used to correlate the necrosis depth to the calculation based on explicit PDT dosimetry of light fluence distribution, tissue optical properties, and photosensitizer concentrations. Inputs to the model include 4 photosensitizer specific photochemical parameters along with the apparent singlet oxygen threshold concentration. Photosensitizer specific model parameters are determined for several type II photosensitizers (Photofrin, BPD, and HPPH). The singlet oxygen threshold concentration is approximately 0.41 – 0.56 mM for all three photosensitizers studied, assuming that the fraction of singlet oxygen generated that interacts with the cell is (f = 1). In comparison, value derived from other in-vivo mice studies is 0.4 mM for mTHPC. However, the singlet oxygen threshold doses were reported to be 7.9 and 12.1 mM for a multicell in-vitro EMT6/Ro spheroid model for mTHPC and Photofrin PDT, respectively. The sensitivity of threshold singlet oxygen dose for our experiment is examined. The possible influence of vascular vs. apoptotic cell killing mechanism on the singlet oxygen threshold dose is discussed using the BPD with different drug-light intervals 3 hrs vs. 15 min. The observed discrepancies between different experiments warrant further investigation to explain the cause of the difference. PMID:25999651

  10. Study of tissue oxygen supply rate in a macroscopic photodynamic therapy singlet oxygen model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Liu, Baochang; Penjweini, Rozhin

    2015-03-01

    An appropriate expression for the oxygen supply rate (Γs) is required for the macroscopic modeling of the complex mechanisms of photodynamic therapy (PDT). It is unrealistic to model the actual heterogeneous tumor microvascular networks coupled with the PDT processes because of the large computational requirement. In this study, a theoretical microscopic model based on uniformly distributed Krogh cylinders is used to calculate Γs=g (1-[O]/[]0) that can replace the complex modeling of blood vasculature while maintaining a reasonable resemblance to reality; g is the maximum oxygen supply rate and [O]/[]0 is the volume-average tissue oxygen concentration normalized to its value prior to PDT. The model incorporates kinetic equations of oxygen diffusion and convection within capillaries and oxygen saturation from oxyhemoglobin. Oxygen supply to the tissue is via diffusion from the uniformly distributed blood vessels. Oxygen can also diffuse along the radius and the longitudinal axis of the cylinder within tissue. The relations of Γs to [3O2]/] are examined for a biologically reasonable range of the physiological parameters for the microvasculature and several light fluence rates (ϕ). The results show a linear relationship between Γs and [3O2]/], independent of ϕ and photochemical parameters; the obtained g ranges from 0.4 to 1390 μM/s.

  11. Enzymatic glucose sensor compensation for variations in ambient oxygen concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Bradley B.; McShane, Michael J.

    2013-02-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence of diabetes, research toward painless glucose sensing continues. Oxygen sensitive phosphors with glucose oxidase (GOx) can be used to determine glucose levels indirectly by monitoring oxygen consumption. This is an attractive combination because of its speed and specificity. Packaging these molecules together in "smart materials" for implantation will enable non-invasive glucose monitoring. As glucose levels increase, oxygen levels decrease; consequently, the luminescence intensity and lifetime of the phosphor increase. Although the response of the sensor is dependent on glucose concentration, the ambient oxygen concentration also plays a key role. This could lead to inaccurate glucose readings and increase the risk of hyper- or hypoglycemia. To mitigate this risk, the dependence of hydrogel glucose sensor response on oxygen levels was investigated and compensation methods explored. Sensors were calibrated at different oxygen concentrations using a single generic logistic equation, such that trends in oxygen-dependence were determined as varying parameters in the equation. Each parameter was found to be a function of oxygen concentration, such that the correct glucose calibration equation can be calculated if the oxygen level is known. Accuracy of compensation will be determined by developing an overall calibration, using both glucose and oxygen sensors in parallel, correcting for oxygen fluctuations in real time by intentionally varying oxygen, and calculating the error in actual and predicted glucose levels. While this method was developed for compensation of enzymatic glucose sensors, in principle it can also be implemented with other kinds of sensors utilizing oxidases.

  12. Oxygen Concentration Inside a Functioning Photosynthetic Cell

    PubMed Central

    Kihara, Shigeharu; Hartzler, Daniel A.; Savikhin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    The excess oxygen concentration in the photosynthetic membranes of functioning oxygenic photosynthetic cells was estimated using classical diffusion theory combined with experimental data on oxygen production rates of cyanobacterial cells. The excess oxygen concentration within the plesiomorphic cyanobacterium Gloeobactor violaceus is only 0.025 μM, or four orders of magnitude lower than the oxygen concentration in air-saturated water. Such a low concentration suggests that the first oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria in solitary form could have evolved ∼2.8 billion years ago without special mechanisms to protect them against reactive oxygen species. These mechanisms instead could have been developed during the following ∼500 million years while the oxygen level in the Earth’s atmosphere was slowly rising. Excess oxygen concentrations within individual cells of the apomorphic cyanobacteria Synechocystis and Synechococcus are 0.064 and 0.25 μM, respectively. These numbers suggest that intramembrane and intracellular proteins in isolated oxygenic photosynthetic cells are not subjected to excessively high oxygen levels. The situation is different for closely packed colonies of photosynthetic cells. Calculations show that the excess concentration within colonies that are ∼40 μm or larger in diameter can be comparable to the oxygen concentration in air-saturated water, suggesting that species forming colonies require protection against reactive oxygen species even in the absence of oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere. PMID:24806920

  13. The redox potential of boron nitride and implications for its use as a crucible material in experimental petrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wendlandt, R. F.; Huebner, J. S.; Harrison, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The suitability of boron nitride for use as a crucible material in silicate and oxygen-bearing metal sulfide systems has been investigated. Boron nitride is unsatisfactory for use with many silicate systems because its presence in combination with a source of oxygen establishes the oxygen fugacity at values below that of the assemblage quartz + fayalite + iron, reducing transition metal ions such as Ni(2+) and Fe(2+) to the metallic state. B2O3, resulting from the oxidation of BN, acts as a flux to promote formation of melt.

  14. Volatile Element Behavior During Melting and Vaporisation on Earth and Protoplanets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, B. J.; Norris, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    During accretion the Earth and many of the smaller bodies which were added to it, underwent periods of partial melting, vaporisation and re-condensation. This resulted in patterns of volatile element depletion relative to CI chondrite which are difficult to interpret. The behavior of moderately volatile elements (Pb, Cd, Zn,Cu, In,Tl etc) during these melting, vaporisation and condensation processes is usually approximated by the temperature of condensation from a gas of solar composition. Thus, Tl and In have low condensation temperatures and are regarded as the most volatile of this group. In order to test this volatility approximation we have studied the vaporisation behavior of 13 elements (Ag,Bi,Cd,Cr,Cu,Ga,Ge,In,Pb,Sb,Sn,Tl,Zn) from molten basalt at 1 atm pressure and oxygen fugacities between Ni-NiO and 2 log units below Fe-FeO. The relative volatilities of the elements turn out to be only weakly correlated with condensation temperature, indicating that the latter is a poor proxy for volatility on molten bodies. Cu, Zn and In for example all have similar volatility in the oxygen fugacity range of concern, despite the condensation temperature of Cu (1037K at 10-4bar) being 500K greater than that of In. The oxygen fugacity dependence of volatility indicates that the volatile species are, for all elements more reduced than the melt species. We addressed the differences between condensation temperature and relative volatility in 2 steps. Firstly we used metal-silicate partitioning experiments to estimate the activity coefficients of the trace element oxides in silicate melts. We then used available thermodynamic data to compute the vapor pressures of the stable species of these 13 elements over the silicate melt at oxygen fugacities ranging from Ni-NiO to about 6 log units below Fe-FeO, which approximates the solar gas. Thus we find that presence of Cl and S in the solar gas and the stable Cl and S species of In,Tl Ga Ge Cd and Sn are important contributing

  15. SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H. L.; Hirschmann, M. M.; Cottrell, E.

    Experiments establishing the effect of pressure on the Fe 3+/ΣFe ratio of andesitic silicate melts buffered by coexisting Ru and RuO 2 were performed from 100 kPa to 7 GPa and 1400–1750 °C. Fe 3+/ΣFe ratios were determined by room temperature Mössbauer spectroscopy, but corrected for the effects of recoilless fraction. Fe 3+/ΣFe ratios in quenched glasses decrease with increasing pressure consistent with previous results between 100 kPa and 3 GPa (O’Neill et al., 2006), but show only small pressure effects above 5 GPa. Ratios also decrease with increasing temperature. Mössbauer hyperfine parameters indicate mean coordination of Fe 3+ ionsmore » of ~5 in glasses, with no dependence on the pressure from which the glasses were quenched, but show an increase with pressure in mean coordination of Fe 2+ ions, from ~5 to ~6. XANES spectra on these glasses show variations in pre-edge intensities and centroid positions that are systematic with Fe 3+/ΣFe, but are displaced from those established from otherwise identical andesitic glasses quenched at 100 kPa (Zhang et al., 2016). These systematics permit construction of a new XANES calibration curve relating pre-edge sub-peak intensities to Fe 3+/ΣFe applicable to high pressure glasses. Consistent with interpretations of the Mössbauer hyperfine parameters, XANES pre-edge peak features in high pressure glasses are owing chiefly to the effects of pressure on the coordination of Fe 2+ ions from ~5.5 to ~6, with negligible effects evident for Fe 3+ ions. We use the new data to construct a thermodynamic model relating the effects of oxygen fugacity and pressure on Fe 3+/ΣFe. We apply this model to calculate variations in oxygen fugacity in isochemical (constant Fe 3+/ΣFe) columns of magma representative of magma oceans, in which fO2 is fixed at the base by equilibration with molten Fe. These calculations indicate that oxygen fugacities at the surface of shallow magma oceans are more reduced than at depth. For

  16. Post‐mortem oxygen isotope exchange within cultured diatom silica

    PubMed Central

    Sloane, Hilary J.; Rickaby, Rosalind E.M.; Cox, Eileen J.; Leng, Melanie J.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Potential post‐mortem alteration to the oxygen isotope composition of biogenic silica is critical to the validity of palaeoclimate reconstructions based on oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O values) from sedimentary silica. We calculate the degree of oxygen isotope alteration within freshly cultured diatom biogenic silica in response to heating and storing in the laboratory. Methods The experiments used freshly cultured diatom silica. Silica samples were either stored in water or dried at temperatures between 20 °C and 80 °C. The mass of affected oxygen and the associated silica‐water isotope fractionation during alteration were calculated by conducting parallel experiments using endmember waters with δ18O values of −6.3 to −5.9 ‰ and −36.3 to −35.0 ‰. Dehydroxylation and subsequent oxygen liberation were achieved by stepwise fluorination with BrF5. The 18O/16O ratios were measured using a ThermoFinnigan MAT 253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Results Significant alterations in silica δ18O values were observed, most notably an increase in the δ18O values following drying at 40–80 °C. Storage in water for 7 days between 20 and 80 °C also led to significant alteration in δ18O values. Mass balance calculations suggest that the amount of affected oxygen is positively correlated with temperature. The estimated oxygen isotope fractionation during alteration is an inverse function of temperature, consistent with the extrapolation of models for high‐temperature silica‐water oxygen isotope fractionation. Conclusions Routinely used preparatory methods may impart significant alterations to the δ18O values of biogenic silica, particularly when dealing with modern cultured or field‐collected material. The significance of such processes within natural aquatic environments is uncertain; however, there is potential that similar processes also affect sedimentary diatoms, with implications for the interpretation of biogenic silica‐hosted δ18O

  17. Oxygen concentration inside a functioning photosynthetic cell.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Shigeharu; Hartzler, Daniel A; Savikhin, Sergei

    2014-05-06

    The excess oxygen concentration in the photosynthetic membranes of functioning oxygenic photosynthetic cells was estimated using classical diffusion theory combined with experimental data on oxygen production rates of cyanobacterial cells. The excess oxygen concentration within the plesiomorphic cyanobacterium Gloeobactor violaceus is only 0.025 μM, or four orders of magnitude lower than the oxygen concentration in air-saturated water. Such a low concentration suggests that the first oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria in solitary form could have evolved ∼2.8 billion years ago without special mechanisms to protect them against reactive oxygen species. These mechanisms instead could have been developed during the following ∼500 million years while the oxygen level in the Earth's atmosphere was slowly rising. Excess oxygen concentrations within individual cells of the apomorphic cyanobacteria Synechocystis and Synechococcus are 0.064 and 0.25 μM, respectively. These numbers suggest that intramembrane and intracellular proteins in isolated oxygenic photosynthetic cells are not subjected to excessively high oxygen levels. The situation is different for closely packed colonies of photosynthetic cells. Calculations show that the excess concentration within colonies that are ∼40 μm or larger in diameter can be comparable to the oxygen concentration in air-saturated water, suggesting that species forming colonies require protection against reactive oxygen species even in the absence of oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Robust optode-based method for measuring in situ oxygen profiles in gravelly streambeds.

    PubMed

    Vieweg, Michael; Trauth, Nico; Fleckenstein, Jan H; Schmidt, Christian

    2013-09-03

    One of the key environmental conditions controlling biogeochemical reactions in aquatic sediments like streambeds is the distribution of dissolved oxygen. We present a novel approach for the in situ measurement of vertical oxygen profiles using a planar luminescence-based optical sensor. The instrument consists of a transparent acrylic tube with the oxygen-sensitive layer mounted on the outside. The luminescence is excited and detected by a moveable piston inside the acrylic tube. Since no moving parts are in contact with the streambed, the disturbance of the subsurface flow field is minimized. The precision of the distributed oxygen sensor (DOS) was assessed by a comparison with spot optodes. Although the precision of the DOS, expressed as standard deviation of calculated oxygen air saturation, is lower (0.2-6.2%) compared to spot optodes (<0.1-0.6%), variations of the oxygen content along the profile can be resolved. The uncertainty of the calculated oxygen is assessed with a Monte Carlo uncertainty assessment. The obtained vertical oxygen profiles of 40 cm in length reveal variations of the oxygen content reaching from 90% to 0% air saturation and are characterized by patches of low oxygen rather than a continuous decrease with depth.

  19. Sources of oxygen flux in groundwater during induced bank filtration at a site in Berlin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohfahl, Claus; Massmann, Gudrun; Pekdeger, Asaf

    2009-05-01

    The microbial degradation of pharmaceuticals found in surface water used for artificial recharge is strongly dependent on redox conditions of the subsurface. Furthermore the durability of production wells may decrease considerably with the presence of oxygen and ferrous iron due to the precipitation of trivalent iron oxides and subsequent clogging. Field measurements are presented for oxygen at a bank filtration site in Berlin, Germany, along with simplified calculations of different oxygen pathways into the groundwater. For a two-dimensional vertical cross-section, oxygen input has been calculated for six scenarios related to different water management strategies. Calculations were carried out in order to assess the amount of oxygen input due to (1) the infiltration of oxic lake water, (2) air entrapment as a result of water table oscillations, (3) diffusive oxygen flux from soil air and (4) infiltrating rainwater. The results show that air entrapment and infiltrating lake water during winter constitute by far the most important mechanism of oxygen input. Oxygen input by percolating rainwater and by diffusive delivery of oxygen in the gas phase is negligible. The results exemplify the importance of well management as a determining factor for water oscillations and redox conditions during artificial recharge.

  20. Crystallization Experiments of the Martian Meteorite QUE94201: Additional Constraints on Its Formation Condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koizumi, E.; McKay, G.; Mikouchi, T.; Le, L.; Schwandt, C.; Monkawa, A.; Miyamoto, M.

    2002-01-01

    We focused on the Al/Ti ratio in synthetic pyroxenes as a marker for the onset of plagioclase crystallization and discuss the effects of oxygen fugacity on the Kd(Fe/Mg)ol/gl in our experiments using the same composition of QUE94201. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. On the calculation of air-sea fluxes of CO2 in the presence of temperature and salinity gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, D. K.; Land, P. E.; Shutler, J. D.; Goddijn-Murphy, L. M.; Donlon, C. J.

    2016-02-01

    The presence of vertical temperature and salinity gradients in the upper ocean and the occurrence of variations in temperature and salinity on time scales from hours to many years complicate the calculation of the flux of carbon dioxide (CO2) across the sea surface. Temperature and salinity affect the interfacial concentration of aqueous CO2 primarily through their effect on solubility with lesser effects related to saturated vapor pressure and the relationship between fugacity and partial pressure. The effects of temperature and salinity profiles in the water column and changes in the aqueous concentration act primarily through the partitioning of the carbonate system. Climatological calculations of flux require attention to variability in the upper ocean and to the limited validity of assuming "constant chemistry" in transforming measurements to climatological values. Contrary to some recent analysis, it is shown that the effect on CO2 fluxes of a cool skin on the sea surface is large and ubiquitous. An opposing effect on calculated fluxes is related to the occurrence of warm layers near the surface; this effect can be locally large but will usually coincide with periods of low exchange. A salty skin and salinity anomalies in the upper ocean also affect CO2 flux calculations, though these haline effects are generally weaker than the thermal effects.

  2. Oxygen adsorption on the Al₉Co₂(001) surface: first-principles and STM study.

    PubMed

    Villaseca, S Alarcón; Loli, L N Serkovic; Ledieu, J; Fournée, V; Gille, P; Dubois, J-M; Gaudry, E

    2013-09-04

    Atomic oxygen adsorption on a pure aluminum terminated Al9Co2(001) surface is studied by first-principle calculations coupled with STM measurements. Relative adsorption energies of oxygen atoms have been calculated on different surface sites along with the associated STM images. The local electronic structure of the most favourable adsorption site is described. The preferential adsorption site is identified as a 'bridge' type site between the cluster entities exposed at the (001) surface termination. The Al-O bonding between the adsorbate and the substrate presents a covalent character, with s-p hybridization occurring between the states of the adsorbed oxygen atom and the aluminum atoms of the surface. The simulated STM image of the preferential adsorption site is in agreement with experimental observations. This work shows that oxygen adsorption generates important atomic relaxations of the topmost surface layer and that sub-surface cobalt atoms strongly influence the values of the adsorption energies. The calculated Al-O distances are in agreement with those reported in Al2O and Al2O3 oxides and for oxygen adsorption on Al(111).

  3. The ancient oxygen exosphere of Mars - Implications for atmosphere evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, M. H. G.; Luhmann, J. G.; Bougher, S. W.; Nagy, A. F.

    1993-01-01

    The paper considers absorption of oxygen (atoms and ions) by the surface as a mechanism for the early Martian atmosphere escape, due to the effect of high EUV flux of the ancient sun. Hot oxygen exosphere densities in ancient atmosphere and ionosphere are calculated for different EUV fluxes and the escape fluxes associated with these exposures. Using these densities, the ion production rate above the ionopause is calculated for different epochs including photoionization, charge exchange, and solar wind electron impact. It is found that, when the inferred high solar EUV fluxes of the past are taken into account, oxygen equivalent to that in several tens of meters of water, planet-wide, should have escaped Martian atmosphere to space over the last 3 Gyr.

  4. The ancient oxygen exosphere of Mars - Implications for atmosphere evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M. H. G.; Luhmann, J. G.; Bougher, S. W.; Nagy, A. F.

    1993-06-01

    The paper considers absorption of oxygen (atoms and ions) by the surface as a mechanism for the early Martian atmosphere escape, due to the effect of high EUV flux of the ancient sun. Hot oxygen exosphere densities in ancient atmosphere and ionosphere are calculated for different EUV fluxes and the escape fluxes associated with these exposures. Using these densities, the ion production rate above the ionopause is calculated for different epochs including photoionization, charge exchange, and solar wind electron impact. It is found that, when the inferred high solar EUV fluxes of the past are taken into account, oxygen equivalent to that in several tens of meters of water, planet-wide, should have escaped Martian atmosphere to space over the last 3 Gyr.

  5. The jumbo squid, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), living in oxygen minimum zones I: Oxygen consumption rates and critical oxygen partial pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trueblood, Lloyd A.; Seibel, Brad A.

    2013-10-01

    Dosidicus gigas is a large, metabolically active, epipelagic squid known to undertake diel vertical migrations across a large temperature and oxygen gradient in the Eastern Pacific. Hypoxia is known to cause metabolic suppression in D. gigas. However, the precise oxygen level at which metabolic suppression sets in is unknown. Here we describe a novel ship-board swim tunnel respirometer that was used to measure metabolic rates and critical oxygen partial pressures (Pcrit) for adult squids (2-7kg). Metabolic rate measurements were validated by comparison to the activity of the Krebs cycle enzyme, citrate synthase, in mantle muscle tissue (2-17kg). We recorded a mean routine metabolic rate of 5.91μmolg-1h-1 at 10°C and 12.62μmolg-1h-1 at 20°C. A temperature coefficient, Q10, of 2.1 was calculated. D. gigas had Pcrits of 1.6 and 3.8kPa at 10 and 20°C, respectively. Oxygen consumption rate (MO2) varied with body mass (M) according to MO2=11.57M-0.12±0.03 at 10°C. Citrate synthase activity varied with body mass according to Y=9.32M-0.19±0.02.

  6. Activation volumes of oxygen self-diffusion in fluorite structured oxides

    DOE PAGES

    Christopoulos, S-R G.; Kordatos, A.; Cooper, Michael William D.; ...

    2016-10-27

    In this study, fluorite structured oxides are used in numerous applications and as such it is necessary to determine their materials properties over a range of conditions. In the present study we employ molecular dynamics calculations to calculate the elastic and expansivity data, which are then used in a thermodynamic model (the cBΩ model) to calculate the activation volumes of oxygen self-diffusion coefficient in ThO 2, UO 2 and PuO 2 fluorite structured oxides over a wide temperature range. We present relations to calculate the activation volumes of oxygen self-diffusion coefficient in ThO 2, UO 2 and PuO 2 formore » a wide range of temperature (300–1700 K) and pressure (–7.5 to 7.5 GPa).« less

  7. Probabilistic application of a fugacity model to predict triclosan fate during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Bock, Michael; Lyndall, Jennifer; Barber, Timothy; Fuchsman, Phyllis; Perruchon, Elyse; Capdevielle, Marie

    2010-07-01

    The fate and partitioning of the antimicrobial compound, triclosan, in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is evaluated using a probabilistic fugacity model to predict the range of triclosan concentrations in effluent and secondary biosolids. The WWTP model predicts 84% to 92% triclosan removal, which is within the range of measured removal efficiencies (typically 70% to 98%). Triclosan is predominantly removed by sorption and subsequent settling of organic particulates during primary treatment and by aerobic biodegradation during secondary treatment. Median modeled removal efficiency due to sorption is 40% for all treatment phases and 31% in the primary treatment phase. Median modeled removal efficiency due to biodegradation is 48% for all treatment phases and 44% in the secondary treatment phase. Important factors contributing to variation in predicted triclosan concentrations in effluent and biosolids include influent concentrations, solids concentrations in settling tanks, and factors related to solids retention time. Measured triclosan concentrations in biosolids and non-United States (US) effluent are consistent with model predictions. However, median concentrations in US effluent are over-predicted with this model, suggesting that differences in some aspect of treatment practices not incorporated in the model (e.g., disinfection methods) may affect triclosan removal from effluent. Model applications include predicting changes in environmental loadings associated with new triclosan applications and supporting risk analyses for biosolids-amended land and effluent receiving waters. (c) 2010 SETAC.

  8. Oxygen-Promoted Methane Activation on Copper

    DOE PAGES

    Niu, Tianchao; Jiang, Zhao; Zhu, Yaguang; ...

    2017-11-01

    The role of oxygen in the activation of C–H bonds in methane on clean and oxygen-precovered Cu(111) and Cu 2O(111) surfaces was studied with combined in situ near-ambient-pressure scanning tunneling microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Activation of methane at 300 K and “moderate pressures” was only observed on oxygen-precovered Cu(111) surfaces. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the lowest activation energy barrier of C–H on Cu(111) in the presence of chemisorbed oxygen is related to a two-active-site, four-centered mechanism, which stabilizes the required transition-state intermediate by dipole–dipole attraction of O–H and Cu–CH 3 species. Furthermore, the C–H bond activation barriersmore » on Cu 2O(111) surfaces are large due to the weak stabilization of H and CH 3 fragments.« less

  9. Oxygen-Promoted Methane Activation on Copper

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Tianchao; Jiang, Zhao; Zhu, Yaguang

    The role of oxygen in the activation of C–H bonds in methane on clean and oxygen-precovered Cu(111) and Cu 2O(111) surfaces was studied with combined in situ near-ambient-pressure scanning tunneling microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Activation of methane at 300 K and “moderate pressures” was only observed on oxygen-precovered Cu(111) surfaces. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the lowest activation energy barrier of C–H on Cu(111) in the presence of chemisorbed oxygen is related to a two-active-site, four-centered mechanism, which stabilizes the required transition-state intermediate by dipole–dipole attraction of O–H and Cu–CH 3 species. Furthermore, the C–H bond activation barriersmore » on Cu 2O(111) surfaces are large due to the weak stabilization of H and CH 3 fragments.« less

  10. Oxygen discharge and post-discharge kinetics experiments and modeling for the electric oxygen-iodine laser system.

    PubMed

    Palla, A D; Zimmerman, J W; Woodard, B S; Carroll, D L; Verdeyen, J T; Lim, T C; Solomon, W C

    2007-07-26

    Laser oscillation at 1315 nm on the I(2P1/2)-->I(2P3/2) transition of atomic iodine has been obtained by a near resonant energy transfer from O2(a1Delta) produced using a low-pressure oxygen/helium/nitric oxide discharge. In the electric discharge oxygen-iodine laser (ElectricOIL) the discharge production of atomic oxygen, ozone, and other excited species adds levels of complexity to the singlet oxygen generator (SOG) kinetics which are not encountered in a classic purely chemical O2(a1Delta) generation system. The advanced model BLAZE-IV has been introduced to study the energy-transfer laser system dynamics and kinetics. Levels of singlet oxygen, oxygen atoms, and ozone are measured experimentally and compared with calculations. The new BLAZE-IV model is in reasonable agreement with O3, O atom, and gas temperature measurements but is under-predicting the increase in O2(a1Delta) concentration resulting from the presence of NO in the discharge and under-predicting the O2(b1Sigma) concentrations. A key conclusion is that the removal of oxygen atoms by NOX species leads to a significant increase in O2(a1Delta) concentrations downstream of the discharge in part via a recycling process; however, there are still some important processes related to the NOX discharge kinetics that are missing from the present modeling. Further, the removal of oxygen atoms dramatically inhibits the production of ozone in the downstream kinetics.

  11. Formation of ore minerals in metamorphic rocks of the German continental deep drilling site (KTB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontny, A.; Friedrich, G.; Behr, H. J.; de Wall, H.; Horn, E. E.; Möller, P.; Zulauf, G.

    1997-08-01

    The German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB) drilled a 9.1 km deep profile through amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks and reached in situ temperatures of 265°C. Each lithologic unit is characterized by typical ore mineral assemblages related to the regional metamorphic conditions. Paragneisses contain pyrrhotite + rutile + ilmenite ± graphite, metabasic units bear ilmenite + rutile + pyrrhotite ± pyrite, and additionally, the so-called variegated units yield pyrrhotite + titanite assemblages. In the latter unit, magnetite + ilmenite + rutile + titanite assemblages related to the lower amphibolite facies breakdown of ilmenite-hematite solid solution also occur locally. Retrograde hydrothermal mineralization which commenced during Upper Carboniferous times is characterized by the following geochemical conditions: (1) low saline Na-K-Mg-Cl fluids with sulfur and oxygen fugacities at the pyrite-pyrrhotite buffer and temperatures of 400-500°C, (2) fluids with CO2, CH4±N2, andpH, Eh, sulfur, and oxygen fugacity in the stability field of graphite + pyrite at temperatures of 280-350° and (3) moderate to high saline Ca-Na-Cl fluids with CH4+ N2; sulfur and oxygen fugacity are in the stability field of pyrrhotite at temperatures <300°C. The latter environment is confirmed by in situ conditions found at the bottom of the deep drilling. Monoclinic, ferrimagnetic pyrrhotite is the main carrier of magnetization which disappears below about 8.6 km, corresponding to in situ temperatures of about 250°C. Below this depth, hexagonal antiferromagnetic pyrrhotite with a Curie temperature of 260°C is the stable phase. Temperature-dependent transformation of pyrrhotite and the reaching of its Curie isotherm within the Earth crust are one of the striking results of the KTB deep drilling project.

  12. Redox dependent behaviour of molybdenum during magmatic processes in the terrestrial and lunar mantle: Implications for the Mo/W of the bulk silicate Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitzke, F. P.; Fonseca, R. O. C.; Sprung, P.; Mallmann, G.; Lagos, M.; Michely, L. T.; Münker, C.

    2017-09-01

    We present results of high-temperature olivine-melt, pyroxene-melt and plagioclase-melt partitioning experiments aimed at investigating the redox transition of Mo in silicate systems. Data for a series of other minor and trace elements (Sc, Ba, Sr, Cr, REE, Y, HFSE, U, Th and W) were also acquired to constrain the incorporation of Mo in silicate minerals. All experiments were carried out in vertical tube furnaces at 1 bar and temperatures ranging from ca. 1220 to 1300 °C. Oxygen fugacity was controlled via CO-CO2 gas mixtures and varied systematically from 5.5 log units below to 1.9 log units above the fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ) redox buffer thereby covering the range in oxygen fugacities of terrestrial and lunar basalt genesis. Molybdenum is shown to be volatile at oxygen fugacities above FMQ and that its compatibility in pyroxene and olivine increases three orders of magnitude towards the more reducing conditions covered in this study. The partitioning results show that Mo is dominantly tetravalent at redox conditions below FMQ-4 and dominantly hexavalent at redox conditions above FMQ. Given the differences in oxidation states of the terrestrial (oxidized) and lunar (reduced) mantles, molybdenum will behave significantly differently during basalt genesis in the Earth (i.e. highly incompatible; average DMoperidotite/melt ∼ 0.008) and Moon (i.e. moderately incompatible/compatible; average DMoperidotite/melt ∼ 0.6). Thus, it is expected that Mo will strongly fractionate from W during partial melting in the lunar mantle, given that W is broadly incompatible at FMQ-5. Moreover, the depletion of Mo and the Mo/W range in lunar samples can be reproduced by simply assuming a primitive Earth-like Mo/W for the bulk silicate Moon. Such a lunar composition is in striking agreement with the Moon being derived from the primitive terrestrial mantle after core formation on Earth.

  13. Thermodynamic properties of oxygen and nitrogen III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. B.; Jacobsen, R. T.; Myers, A. F.

    1972-01-01

    The final equation for nitrogen was determined. In the work on the equation of state for nitrogen, coefficients were determined by constraining the critical point to selected critical point parameters. Comparisons of this equation with all the P-density-T data were made, as well as comparisons to all other thermodynamic data reported in the literature. The extrapolation of the equation of state was studied for vapor to higher temperatures and lower temperatures, and for the liquid surface to the saturated liquid and the fusion lines. A new vapor pressure equation was also determined which was constrained to the same critical temperature, pressure, and slope (dP/dT) as the equation of state. Work on the equation of state for oxygen included studies for improving the equation at the critical point. Comparisons of velocity of sound data for oxygen were also made between values calculated with a preliminary equation of state and experimental data. Functions for the calculation of the derived thermodynamic properties using the equation of state are given, together with the derivative and integral functions for the calculation of the thermodynamic properties using the equations of state. Summary tables of the thermodynamic properties of nitrogen and oxygen are also included to serve as a check for those preparing computer programs using the equations of state.

  14. Iron K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy of aerodynamically levitated silicate melts and glasses

    DOE PAGES

    Alderman, O. L. G.; Wilding, M. C.; Tamalonis, A.; ...

    2017-01-26

    Here, the local structure about Fe(II) and Fe(III) in silicate melts was investigated in-situ using iron K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. An aerodynamic levitation and laser heating system was used to allow access to high temperatures without contamination, and was combined with a chamber and gas mixing system to allow the iron oxidation state, Fe 3+/ΣFe, to be varied by systematic control of the atmospheric oxygen fugacity. Eleven alkali-free, mostly iron-rich and depolymerized base compositions were chosen for the experiments, including pure oxide FeO, olivines (Fe,Mg) 2SiO 4, pyroxenes (Fe,Mg)SiO 3, calcic FeO-CaSiO 3, and a calcium aluminosilicatemore » composition, where total iron content is denoted by FeO for convenience. Melt temperatures varied between 1410 and 2160 K and oxygen fugacities between FMQ – 2.3(3) to FMQ + 9.1(3) log units (uncertainties in parentheses) relative to the fayalite-magnetite-β-quartz (FMQ) buffer.« less

  15. SciTech Connect

    Alderman, O. L. G.; Wilding, M. C.; Tamalonis, A.

    Here, the local structure about Fe(II) and Fe(III) in silicate melts was investigated in-situ using iron K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. An aerodynamic levitation and laser heating system was used to allow access to high temperatures without contamination, and was combined with a chamber and gas mixing system to allow the iron oxidation state, Fe 3+/ΣFe, to be varied by systematic control of the atmospheric oxygen fugacity. Eleven alkali-free, mostly iron-rich and depolymerized base compositions were chosen for the experiments, including pure oxide FeO, olivines (Fe,Mg) 2SiO 4, pyroxenes (Fe,Mg)SiO 3, calcic FeO-CaSiO 3, and a calcium aluminosilicatemore » composition, where total iron content is denoted by FeO for convenience. Melt temperatures varied between 1410 and 2160 K and oxygen fugacities between FMQ – 2.3(3) to FMQ + 9.1(3) log units (uncertainties in parentheses) relative to the fayalite-magnetite-β-quartz (FMQ) buffer.« less

  16. Water and the oxidation state of subduction zone magmas.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Katherine A; Cottrell, Elizabeth

    2009-07-31

    Mantle oxygen fugacity exerts a primary control on mass exchange between Earth's surface and interior at subduction zones, but the major factors controlling mantle oxygen fugacity (such as volatiles and phase assemblages) and how tectonic cycles drive its secular evolution are still debated. We present integrated measurements of redox-sensitive ratios of oxidized iron to total iron (Fe3+/SigmaFe), determined with Fe K-edge micro-x-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy, and pre-eruptive magmatic H2O contents of a global sampling of primitive undegassed basaltic glasses and melt inclusions covering a range of plate tectonic settings. Magmatic Fe3+/SigmaFe ratios increase toward subduction zones (at ridges, 0.13 to 0.17; at back arcs, 0.15 to 0.19; and at arcs, 0.18 to 0.32) and correlate linearly with H2O content and element tracers of slab-derived fluids. These observations indicate a direct link between mass transfer from the subducted plate and oxidation of the mantle wedge.

  17. BurnMan: Towards a multidisciplinary toolkit for reproducible deep Earth science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhill, R.; Cottaar, S.; Heister, T.; Rose, I.; Unterborn, C. T.; Dannberg, J.; Martin-Short, R.

    2016-12-01

    BurnMan (www.burnman.org) is an open-source toolbox to compute thermodynamic and thermoelastic properties as a function of pressure and temperature using published mineral physical parameters and equations-of-state. The framework is user-friendly, written in Python, and modular, allowing the user to implement their own equations of state, endmember and solution model libraries, geotherms, and averaging schemes. Here we introduce various new modules, which can be used to: Fit thermodynamic variables to data from high pressure static and shock wave experiments, Calculate equilibrium assemblages given a bulk composition, pressure and temperature, Calculate chemical potentials and oxygen fugacities for given assemblages Compute 3D synthetic seismic models using output from geodynamic models and compare these results with global seismic tomographic models, Create input files for synthetic seismogram codes. Users can contribute scripts that reproduce the results from peer-reviewed articles and practical demonstrations (e.g. Cottaar et al., 2014).

  18. Workshop on Parent-Body and Nebular Modification of Chondritic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, M. E. (Editor); Krot, A. N. (Editor); Scott, E. R. D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics considered include: thermal Metamorphosed Antarctic CM and CI Carbonaceous Chondrites in Japanese Collections, and Transformation Processes of Phyllosilicates; use of Oxygen Isotopes to Constrain the Nebular and Asteroidal Modification of Chondritic Materials; effect of Revised Nebular Water Distribution on Enstatite Chondrite Formation; interstellar Hydroxyls in Meteoritic Chondrules: Implications for the Origin of Water in the Inner Solar System; theoretical Models and Experimental Studies of Gas-Grain Chemistry in the Solar Nebula; chemical Alteration of Chondrules on Parent Bodies; thermal Quenching of Silicate Grains in Protostellar Sources; an Experimental Study of Magnetite Formation in the Solar Nebula; the Kaidun Meteorite: Evidence for Pre- and Postaccretionary Aqueous Alteration; a Transmission Electron Microscope Study of the Matrix Mineralogy of the Leoville CV3 (Reduced-Group) Carbonaceous Chondrite: Nebular and Parent-Body Features; rubidium-Strontium Isotopic Systematic of Chondrules from the Antarctic CV Chondrites Yamato 86751 and Yamato 86009: Additional Evidence for Late Parent-Body Modification; oxygen-Fugacity Indicators in Carbonaceous Chondrites: Parent-Body Alteration or High-Temperature Nebular Oxidation; thermodynamic Modeling of Aqueous Alteration in CV Chondrites; asteroidal Modification of C and O Chondrites: Myths and Models; oxygen Fugacity in the Solar Nebular; and the History of Metal and Sulfides in Chondrites.

  19. Feasibility Analysis of Liquefying Oxygen Generated from Water Electrolysis Units on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, Frank F.

    2009-01-01

    Concepts for liquefying oxygen (O2) generated from water electrolysis subsystems on the Lunar surface were explored. Concepts for O2 liquefaction units capable of generating 1.38 lb/hr (0.63 kg/hr) liquid oxygen (LOX) were developed. Heat and mass balance calculations for the liquefaction concepts were conducted. Stream properties, duties of radiators, heat exchangers and compressors for the selected concepts were calculated and compared.

  20. Oxygen dynamics and transport in the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Friederike; Røy, Hans; Bayer, Kristina; Hentschel, Ute; Pfannkuchen, Martin; Brümmer, Franz; de Beer, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    The Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba kept in aquaria or cultivation tanks can stop pumping for several hours or even days. To investigate changes in the chemical microenvironments, we measured oxygen profiles over the surface and into the tissue of pumping and non-pumping A. aerophoba specimens with Clark-type oxygen microelectrodes (tip diameters 18-30 μm). Total oxygen consumption rates of whole sponges were measured in closed chambers. These rates were used to back-calculate the oxygen distribution in a finite-element model. Combining direct measurements with calculations of diffusive flux and modeling revealed that the tissue of non-pumping sponges turns anoxic within 15 min, with the exception of a 1 mm surface layer where oxygen intrudes due to molecular diffusion over the sponge surface. Molecular diffusion is the only transport mechanism for oxygen into non-pumping sponges, which allows total oxygen consumption rates of 6-12 μmol cm -3  sponge day -1 . Sponges of different sizes had similar diffusional uptake rates, which is explained by their similar surface/volume ratios. In pumping sponges, oxygen consumption rates were between 22 and 37 μmol cm -3  sponge day -1 , and the entire tissue was oxygenated. Combining different approaches of direct oxygen measurement in living sponges with a dynamic model, we can show that tissue anoxia is a direct function of the pumping behavior. The sponge-microbe system of A. aerophoba thus has the possibility to switch actively between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism by stopping the water flow for more than 15 min. These periods of anoxia will greatly influence physiological variety and activity of the sponge microbes. Detailed knowledge about the varying chemical microenvironments in sponges will help to develop protocols to cultivate sponge-associated microbial lineages and improve our understanding of the sponge-microbe-system.

  1. A solid ceramic electrolyte system for measuring redox conditions in high temperature gas mixing studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    The details of the construction and operation of a gas mixing furnace are presented. A solid ceramic oxygen electrolyte cell is used to monitor the oxygen fugacity in the furnace. The system consists of a standard vertical-quench, gas mixing furnace with heads designed for mounting the electrolyte cell and with facilities for inserting and removing the samples. The system also contains the highinput impedance electronics necessary for measurements and a simplified version of standard gas mixing apparatus. The calibration and maintenance of the system are discussed.

  2. The effect of implementing an automated oxygen control on oxygen saturation in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Van Zanten, H A; Kuypers, K L A M; Stenson, B J; Bachman, T E; Pauws, S C; Te Pas, A B

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of implementing automated oxygen control as routine care in maintaining oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) within target range in preterm infants. Infants <30 weeks gestation in Leiden University Medical Centre before and after the implementation of automated oxygen control were compared. The percentage of time spent with SpO 2 within and outside the target range (90-95%) was calculated. SpO 2 values were collected every minute and included for analysis when infants received extra oxygen. In a period of 9 months, 42 preterm infants (21 manual, 21 automated) were studied. In the automated period, the median (IQR) time spent with SpO 2 within target range increased (manual vs automated: 48.4 (41.5-56.4)% vs 61.9 (48.5-72.3)%; p<0.01) and time SpO 2 >95% decreased (41.9 (30.6-49.4)% vs 19.3 (11.5-24.5)%; p<0.001). The time SpO 2 <90% increased (8.6 (7.2-11.7)% vs 15.1 (14.0-21.1)%; p<0.0001), while SpO 2 <80% was similar (1.1 (0.4-1.7)% vs 0.9 (0.5-2.1)%; ns). During oxygen therapy, preterm infants spent more time within the SpO 2 target range after implementation of automated oxygen control, with a significant reduction in hyperoxaemia, but not hypoxaemia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Phosphorescence Kinetics of Singlet Oxygen Produced by Photosensitization in Spherical Nanoparticles. Part I. Theory.

    PubMed

    Hovan, Andrej; Datta, Shubhashis; Kruglik, Sergei G; Jancura, Daniel; Miskovsky, Pavol; Bánó, Gregor

    2018-05-24

    The singlet oxygen produced by energy transfer between an excited photosensitizer (pts) and ground-state oxygen molecules plays a key role in photodynamic therapy. Different nanocarrier systems are extensively studied to promote targeted pts delivery in a host body. The phosphorescence kinetics of the singlet oxygen produced by the short laser pulse photosensitization of pts inside nanoparticles is influenced by singlet oxygen diffusion from the particles to the surrounding medium. Two theoretical models are presented in this work: a more complex numerical one and a simple analytical one. Both the models predict the time course of singlet oxygen concentration inside and outside of the spherical particles following short-pulse excitation of pts. On the basis of the comparison of the numerical and analytical results, a semiempirical analytical formula is derived to calculate the characteristic diffusion time of singlet oxygen from the nanoparticles to the surrounding solvent. The phosphorescence intensity of singlet oxygen produced in pts-loaded nanocarrier systems can be calculated as a linear combination of the two concentrations (inside and outside the particles), taking the different phosphorescence emission rate constants into account.

  4. In-vitro singlet oxygen threshold dose at PDT with Radachlorin photosensitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, V. V.; Shmakov, S. V.; Kaydanov, N. E.; Knyazev, N. A.; Kazakov, N. V.; Rusanov, A. A.; Bogdanov, A. A.; Dubina, M. V.

    2017-07-01

    In this present study we investigate the Radachlorin photosensitizer accumulation in K562 cells and Hela cells and determined the cell viability after PDT. Using the macroscopic singlet oxygen modeling and cellular photosensitizer concentration the singlet oxygen threshold doses for K562 cells and Hela cells were calculated.

  5. A prototype of an electric-discharge gas flow oxygen-iodine laser: I. Modeling of the processes of singlet oxygen generation in a transverse cryogenic slab RF discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagin, N. P.; Ionin, A. A.; Kochetov, I. V.; Napartovich, A. P.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Yuryshev, N. N.

    2017-03-01

    The existing kinetic model describing self-sustained and electroionization discharges in mixtures enriched with singlet oxygen has been modified to calculate the characteristics of a flow RF discharge in molecular oxygen and its mixtures with helium. The simulations were performed in the gas plug-flow approximation, i.e., the evolution of the plasma components during their motion along the channel was represented as their evolution in time. The calculations were carried out for the O2: He = 1: 0, 1: 1, 1: 2, and 1: 3 mixtures at an oxygen partial pressure of 7.5 Torr. It is shown that, under these conditions, volumetric gas heating in a discharge in pure molecular oxygen prevails over gas cooling via heat conduction even at an electrode temperature as low as 100 K. When molecular oxygen is diluted with helium, the behavior of the gas temperature changes substantially: heat removal begins to prevail over volumetric gas heating, and the gas temperature at the outlet of the discharge zone drops to 220-230 K at room gas temperature at the inlet, which is very important in the context of achieving the generation threshold in an electric-discharge oxygen-iodine laser based on a slab cryogenic RF discharge.

  6. Erratum: Probabilistic application of a fugacity model to predict triclosan fate during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Bock, Michael; Lyndall, Jennifer; Barber, Timothy; Fuchsman, Phyllis; Perruchon, Elyse; Capdevielle, Marie

    2010-10-01

    The fate and partitioning of the antimicrobial compound, triclosan, in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is evaluated using a probabilistic fugacity model to predict the range of triclosan concentrations in effluent and secondary biosolids. The WWTP model predicts 84% to 92% triclosan removal, which is within the range of measured removal efficiencies (typically 70% to 98%). Triclosan is predominantly removed by sorption and subsequent settling of organic particulates during primary treatment and by aerobic biodegradation during secondary treatment. Median modeled removal efficiency due to sorption is 40% for all treatment phases and 31% in the primary treatment phase. Median modeled removal efficiency due to biodegradation is 48% for all treatment phases and 44% in the secondary treatment phase. Important factors contributing to variation in predicted triclosan concentrations in effluent and biosolids include influent concentrations, solids concentrations in settling tanks, and factors related to solids retention time. Measured triclosan concentrations in biosolids and non-United States (US) effluent are consistent with model predictions. However, median concentrations in US effluent are over-predicted with this model, suggesting that differences in some aspect of treatment practices not incorporated in the model (e.g., disinfection methods) may affect triclosan removal from effluent. Model applications include predicting changes in environmental loadings associated with new triclosan applications and supporting risk analyses for biosolids-amended land and effluent receiving waters. © 2010 SETAC.

  7. Calculation of singlet oxygen formation from one photon absorbing photosensitizers used in PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potasek, M.; Parilov, Evgueni; Beeson, K.

    2013-03-01

    Advances in biophotonic medicine require new information on photodynamic mechanisms. In photodynamic therapy (PDT), a photosensitizer (PS) is injected into the body and accumulates at higher concentrations in diseased tissue compared to normal tissue. The PS absorbs light from a light source and generates excited-state triplet states of the PS. The excited triplet states of the PS can then react with ground state molecular oxygen to form excited singlet - state oxygen or form other highly reactive species. The reactive species react with living cells, resulting in cel l death. This treatment is used in many forms of cancer including those in the prostrate, head and neck, lungs, bladder, esophagus and certain skin cancers. We developed a novel numerical method to model the photophysical and photochemical processes in the PS and the subsequent energy transfer to O2, improving the understanding of these processes at a molecular level. Our numerical method simulates light propagation and photo-physics in PS using methods that build on techniques previously developed for optical communications and nonlinear optics applications.

  8. Melting phase relations in the Fe-S and Fe-S-O systems at core conditions in small terrestrial bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommier, Anne; Laurenz, Vera; Davies, Christopher J.; Frost, Daniel J.

    2018-05-01

    We report an experimental investigation of phase equilibria in the Fe-S and Fe-S-O systems. Experiments were performed at high temperatures (1400-1850 °C) and high pressures (14 and 20 GPa) using a multi-anvil apparatus. The results of this study are used to understand the effect of sulfur and oxygen on core dynamics in small terrestrial bodies. We observe that the formation of solid FeO grains occurs at the Fe-S liquid - Fe solid interface at high temperature ( > 1400 °C at 20 GPa). Oxygen fugacities calculated for each O-bearing sample show that redox conditions vary from ΔIW = -0.65 to 0. Considering the relative density of each phase and existing evolutionary models of terrestrial cores, we apply our experimental results to the cores of Mars and Ganymede. We suggest that the presence of FeO in small terrestrial bodies tends to contribute to outer-core compositional stratification. Depending on the redox and thermal history of the planet, FeO may also help form a transitional redox zone at the core-mantle boundary.

  9. Exsolution of Iron-Titanium Oxides in Magnetite in Miller Range (MIL) 03346 Nakhlite: Evidence for Post Crystallization Reduction in the Nakhlite Cumulate Pile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, Kevin; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Christoffersen, R.

    2012-01-01

    MIL 03346 is one of the most mesostasis-rich nakhlites [1] and thought to have equilibrated at oxygen fugacities near the fayalite-magnetite-quartz oxygen (FMQ) buffer ([2,3]). Studies of FeTi oxides in nakhlites have led to additional constraints on their equilibration temperatures and fO2s [4,5,6,7]. Comparison of these results to fO2s calculated for shergottites indicates that nakhlites are among the most oxidized samples from the martian meteorite suite [2]. The mesostasis of MIL 03346 contains skeletal titanomagnetite. Several scientists noticed several years ago (e.g. [8]) that this titanomagnetite contains very fine oxidation-driven exsolution lamellae (Figure 1). However, the lamellae are so small that they cannot be characterized by electron microprobe analysis (EMPA). Here we select several areas for focused ion beam (FIB) extraction, prepare transmission electron microscopy (TEM) foils, and identify and analyze the lamellae using TEM at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). The resulting analyses are combined with previous work on nakhlites to interpret the thermal and oxidation history of this meteorite group.

  10. Airline policy for passengers requiring supplemental in-flight oxygen.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jacqueline; Kelly, Paul T; Beckert, Lutz

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the current Australian/New Zealand airline policy on supplemental in-flight oxygen for passengers with lung disease. Fifty-four commercial airlines servicing international routes were surveyed. Information was gathered from airline call centres and web sites. The survey documented individual airline policy on in-flight oxygen delivery, approval schemes, equipment and cost. Of the 54 airlines contacted, 43 (81%) were able to support passengers requiring in-flight oxygen. The majority (88%) of airlines provided a cylinder for passengers to use. Airline policy for calculating the cost of in-flight oxygen differed considerably between carriers. Six (14%) airlines supplied oxygen to passengers free of charge; however, three of these airlines charged for an extra seat. Fifteen airlines (35%) charged on the basis of oxygen supplied, that is, per cylinder. Fourteen airlines (33%) had a flat rate charge per sector. This study confirmed that most airlines can accommodate passengers requiring supplemental oxygen. However, the findings highlight inconsistencies in airline policies and substantial cost differences for supplemental in-flight oxygen. We advocate an industry standardization of policy and cost of in-flight oxygen.

  11. Copper and Gold Partitioning Between Brine and Vapor as a Function of Reduced Sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlich, J. J.; Frank, M. R.; Bodnar, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    This study examined Cu and Au partitioning between sulfur-rich vapors (v) and brines (b) at conditions representative of porphyry ore deposits. Experiments were conducted at 700 °C and 100 MPa, with oxygen fugacity, f(O2), buffered by either Ni-NiO or MnO-Mn3O4. Sulfur fugacity, f(S2), was buffered by pyrrhotite + chalcopyrite or bornite + pyrrhotite + chalcopyrite mineral assemblages between log -5.6 and log 0.6. The fugacities of H2S and SO2 were calculated using the known values of fO2 and fS2. In each experiment, a gold capsule was loaded with a sulfide assemblage, a quartz core to trap fluid inclusions, and a 5 wt.% NaCl-equivalent aqueous solution containing NaCl, KCl and HCl with molar NaCl:KCl and NaCl:HCl ratios of 1 and 100, respectively. Coexisting low salinity (v) and high salinity (b) inclusions were trapped in the quartz and their salinities were estimated using microthermometry, and verified against expected salinities from the NaCl-H2O system. Na, K, Fe, Cu, and Au concentrations from 73 b and 39 v fluid inclusions were determined using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Nernst-style partition coefficients between b and v for a given element (Dxb/v) were determined as a function of O2, S2, H2S, and SO2 fugacities. DCub/v ranged from 2.8 to 6.6 and increased with increasing f(O2), decreased with increasing f(S2), and decreased with increasing f(H2S). Gold partition coefficients ranged from 4.6 to 8.5, with DAub/v increasing with increasing f(O2), decreasing with increasing f(S2), and decreasing with increasing f(H2S). The absolute concentrations of Cu and Au increased in both the b and v phases with increasing f(H2S), but the increase was proportionally greater in v than b. Cu and Au partitioned into b relative to v at all conditions, but Dxb/v decreased slightly with decreasing O2 or increasing S2 fugacity. Dxb/v for Cu and Au appear most strongly linked to H2S, consistently decreasing with increasing f(H2S

  12. Atomic scale observation of oxygen delivery during silver–oxygen nanoparticle catalysed oxidation of carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yonghai; Yuchi, Datong; Guan, Pengfei; Xu, Jia; Guo, Lin; Liu, Jingyue

    2016-01-01

    To probe the nature of metal-catalysed processes and to design better metal-based catalysts, atomic scale understanding of catalytic processes is highly desirable. Here we use aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy to investigate the atomic scale processes of silver-based nanoparticles, which catalyse the oxidation of multi-wall carbon nanotubes. A direct semi-quantitative estimate of the oxidized carbon atoms by silver-based nanoparticles is achieved. A mechanism similar to the Mars–van Krevelen process is invoked to explain the catalytic oxidation process. Theoretical calculations, together with the experimental data, suggest that the oxygen molecules dissociate on the surface of silver nanoparticles and diffuse through the silver nanoparticles to reach the silver/carbon interfaces and subsequently oxidize the carbon. The lattice distortion caused by oxygen concentration gradient within the silver nanoparticles provides the direct evidence for oxygen diffusion. Such direct observation of atomic scale dynamics provides an important general methodology for investigations of catalytic processes. PMID:27406595

  13. Measurement of the oxygen mass transfer through the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Mölder, Erik; Mashirin, Alelxei; Tenno, Toomas

    2005-01-01

    Gas mass transfer through the liquid-gas interface has enormous importance in various natural and industrial processes. Surfactants or insoluble compounds adsorbed onto an interface will inhibit the gas mass transfer through the liquid-gas surface. This study presents a technique for measuring the oxygen mass transfer through the air-water interface. Experimental data obtained with the measuring device were incorporated into a novel mathematical model, which allowed one to calculate diffusion conduction of liquid surface layer and oxygen mass transfer coefficient in the liquid surface layer. A special measurement cell was constructed. The most important part of the measurement cell is a chamber containing the electrochemical oxygen sensor inside it. Gas exchange between the volume of the chamber and the external environment takes place only through the investigated surface layer. Investigated liquid was deoxygenated, which triggers the oxygen mass transfer from the chamber through the liquid-air interface into the liquid phase. The decrease of oxygen concentration in the cell during time was measured. By using this data it is possible to calculate diffusional parameters of the water surface layer. Diffusion conduction of oxygen through the air-water surface layer of selected wastewaters was measured. The diffusion conduction of different wastewaters was about 3 to 6 times less than in the unpolluted water surface. It was observed that the dilution of wastewater does not have a significant impact on the oxygen diffusion conduction through the wastewater surface layer. This fact can be explained with the presence of the compounds with high surface activity in the wastewater. Surfactants achieved a maximum adsorption and, accordingly, the maximum decrease of oxygen permeability already at a very low concentration of surfactants in the solution. Oxygen mass transfer coefficient of the surface layer of the water is found to be Ds/ls = 0.13 x 10(-3) x cm/s. A simple

  14. The role of lead and excess oxygen in uranite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berman, Robert Morris

    1957-01-01

    Analysed samples of uraninite were x-rayed, annealed by heating to 550° and 900° for various times in a nitrogen atmosphere, and x-rayed again. A decrease in unit cell size was generally observed. Calculations on the basis of Vegard's Law showed that the ordering of the interstitial oxygen ions could account for the decrease in cell size on annealing. The interstitial oxygens are not necessarily completely disordered before annealing. The degree of original disorder is dependent on the Rare Earth/ThO2 ratio; for high ThO2 and low rare earths, the interstitial oxygens are completely random. The degree of disorder apparently depends solely on the composition, and not on the past history of the sample; this implies that the oxygens are being continuously disordered, perhaps by alpha particles, to the equilibrium point determined by the R.E./ThO2 ratio. The degree of ordering of the interstitial oxygens also accounts for the difference in cell size between vein pitchblendes and those from the sediments of the Colorado Plateau. A study was also made of the degree of oxidation of uraninites. Although the uranium in many pegmatitic uraninites is more oxidized than can be obtained with the cubic UO2 phase in the laboratory, if the atoms proxying for uranium are calculated into the structural formula, and the lead is assumed to be radiogenic and calculated as original uranium, almost all pegmatitic uraninites fall into the range of interstitial oxygen content obtainable in the laboratory. This fact supports the auto-oxidation hypothesis. Many of the vein and sedimentary pitchblendes have compositions close to U3O8, although they are cubic. They may gave crystallized as U3O8, the decomposed to the cubic phase and a amorphous phase. This suggests that the stability range of U3O8 includes only very exceptional natural conditions. Vegard's Law calculations, studies of zoning in crystals, differential leaching, polished section textures, and other lines of evidence indicate

  15. Sterilization by pure oxygen plasma and by oxygen-hydrogen peroxide plasma: an efficacy study.

    PubMed

    Boscariol, M R; Moreira, A J; Mansano, R D; Kikuchi, I S; Pinto, T J A

    2008-04-02

    Plasma is an innovative sterilization method characterized by a low toxicity to operators and patients, and also by its operation at temperatures close to room temperatures. The use of different parameters for this method of sterilization and the corresponding results were analyzed in this study. A low-pressure inductive discharge was used to study the plasma sterilization processes. Oxygen and a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide were used as plasma source gases. The efficacy of the processes using different combinations of parameters such as plasma-generation method, type of gas, pressure, gas flow rate, temperature, power, and exposure time was evaluated. Two phases were developed for the processes, one using pure oxygen and the other a mixture of gases. Bacillus subtilis var. niger ATCC 9372 (Bacillus atrophaeus) spores inoculated on glass coverslips were used as biological indicators to evaluate the efficacy of the processes. All cycles were carried out in triplicate for different sublethal exposure times to calculate the D value by the enumeration method. The pour-plate technique was used to quantify the spores. D values of between 8 and 3 min were obtained. Best results were achieved at high power levels (350 and 400 W) using pure oxygen, showing that plasma sterilization is a promising alternative to other sterilization methods.

  16. Reactive oxygen species explicit dosimetry (ROSED) of a type 1 photosensitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ong, Yi Hong; Kim, Michele M.; Huang, Zheng; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2018-02-01

    Type I photodynamic therapy (PDT) is based on the use of photochemical reactions mediated through an interaction between a tumor-selective photosensitizer, photoexcitation with a specific wavelength of light, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The goal of this study is to develop a model to calculate reactive oxygen species concentration ([ROS]rx) after Tookad®-mediated vascular PDT. Mice with radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors were treated with different light fluence and fluence rate conditions. Explicit measurements of photosensitizer drug concentration were made via diffuse reflective absorption spectrum using a contact probe before and after PDT. Blood flow and tissue oxygen concentration over time were measured during PDT as a mean to validate the photochemical parameters for the ROSED calculation. Cure index was computed from the rate of tumor regrowth after treatment and was compared against three calculated dose metrics: total light fluence, PDT dose, reacted [ROS]rx. The tumor growth study demonstrates that [ROS]rx serves as a better dosimetric quantity for predicting treatment outcome, as a clinically relevant tumor growth endpoint.

  17. Interpreting benthic oxygen levels in mudrocks: A new approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wignall, Paul B.; Myers, Keith J.

    1988-05-01

    Quantified paleoecology and gamma-ray spectrometry have been applied in the analysis of the Kimmeridge Clay, a highly organic-rich British Jurassic mudrock. Decreasing benthic oxygen trends are reflected in decreasing species richness and dominance-diversity values. Similarly, the degree of fragmentation of the benthos reflects the benthic energy levels and covaries with benthic oxygen. The calculation of authigenic uranium values from data gathered by gamma-ray spectrometry shows enrichment in more oxygen-deficient environments. The good correlation between the independently derived paleoecological and authigenic U data indicates the importance of these techniques in environmental analysis of marine petroleum source rocks.

  18. Continuous Real-time Viability Assessment of Kidneys Based on Oxygen Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Weegman, B.P.; Kirchner, V.A.; Scott, W.E.; Avgoustiniatos, E.S.; Suszynski, T.M.; Ferrer-Fabrega, J.; Rizzari, M.D.; Kidder, L.S.; Kandaswamy, R.; Sutherland, D.E.R.; Papas, K.K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Current ex vivo quality assessment of donor kidneys is limited to vascular resistance measurements and histological analysis. New techniques for the assessment of organ quality before transplantation may further improve clinical outcomes while expanding the depleted deceased-donor pool. We propose the measurement of whole organ oxygen consumption rate (WOOCR) as a method to assess the quality of kidneys in real time before transplantation. Methods Five porcine kidneys were procured using a donation after cardiac death (DCD) model. The renal artery and renal vein were cannulated and the kidney connected to a custom-made hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) system equipped with an inline oxygenator and fiber-optic oxygen sensors. Kidneys were perfused at 8°C, and the perfusion parameters and partial oxygen pressures (pO2) were measured to calculate WOOCR. Results Without an inline oxygenator, the pO2 of the perfusion solution at the arterial inlet and venous outlet diminished to near 0 within minutes. However, once adequate oxygenation was provided, a significant pO2 difference was observed and used to calculate the WOOCR. The WOOCR was consistently measured from presumably healthy kidneys, and results suggest that it can be used to differentiate between healthy and purposely damaged organs. Conclusions Custom-made HMP systems equipped with an oxygenator and inline oxygen sensors can be applied for WOOCR measurements. We suggest that WOOCR is a promising approach for the real-time quality assessment of kidneys and other organs during preservation before transplantation. PMID:20692397

  19. The nursing perspective on monitoring hemodynamics and oxygen transport.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Dawn; Hazinski, Mary Fran

    2011-07-01

    Maintenance of adequate systemic oxygen delivery requires careful clinical assessment integrated with hemodynamic measurements and calculations to detect and treat conditions that may compromise oxygen delivery and lead to life-threatening shock, respiratory failure, or cardiac arrest. The bedside nurse constantly performs such assessments and measurements to detect subtle changes and trends in patient condition. The purpose of this editorial is to highlight nursing perspectives about the hemodynamic and oxygen transport monitoring systems summarized in the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society Evidence- Based Review and Consensus Statement on Monitoring of Hemodynamics and Oxygen Transport Balance. There is no substitute for the observations of a knowledgeable and experienced clinician who understands the patient's condition and potential causes of deterioration and is able to evaluate response to therapy.

  20. Estimation of changes in alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient induced by hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Hoffstein, V; Duguid, N; Zamel, N; Rebuck, A S

    1984-11-01

    The alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference provides a useful clinical indication of ventilation-blood flow mismatching in the lungs. In some clinical situations involving alveolar hypoxia (e.g., patients with chronic obstructive lung disease flying in commercial aircraft or normal humans at high altitudes) it would be useful to know this tension difference to predict the likely arterial PO2 under such potentially stressful conditions. Such estimates would require multiple arterial punctures performed under a variety of trying circumstances, conditions usually far distant from a suitable analytic facility. Consequently, we induced controlled hypoxia in 23 healthy humans and calculated changes in the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference during the hypoxic challenge test. We plotted this difference as a function of the alveolar oxygen tension over a range from 35 to 110 mm Hg. In addition to a series of control studies in which multiple arterial blood samples were obtained, we calculated arterial PO2 by converting the arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (measured with an ear oximeter) into partial pressure of oxygen. During hypoxic procedures in which levels of oxygenation fell on the steep section of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve, fixing PCO2 at constant predetermined levels allowed accurate predictions of arterial PO2. We were able to demonstrate that the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference narrowed with decreasing alveolar oxygen tension, and that measurement with an ear oximeter provided data that allowed a reasonable estimate of the tension difference during hypoxic conditions.

  1. Experimental Constraints on the Stability of Clinopyroxene (+) Magnesite in Iron Bearing Planetary Mantles: Implications for Nakhlite Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Audrey M.; Righter, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Carbon is present in various forms in the Earth s upper mantle (carbonate- or diamond-bearing mantle xenoliths, carbonatite magmas, CO2 emissions from volcanoes...). Moreover, there is enough carbon in chondritic material to stabilize carbonates into the mantles of Mars or Venus as well as in the Earth. However, the interactions with iron have to be constrained, because Fe is commonly thought to buffer oxygen fugacity into planetary mantles. [1] and [2] show evidences of the stability of clinopyroxene Ca(Mg,Fe)Si2O6 + magnesite (Mg,Fe)CO3 in the Earth s mantle around 6GPa (about 180km). The stability of oxidized forms of carbon (like magnesite) depends on the oxygen fugacity of the system. In the Earth s mantle, the maximum carbon content is 10000 ppm [3]. The fO2 parameter varies vertically as a function of pressure, but also laterally because of geodynamic processes like subduction. Thus, carbonates, graphite, diamond, C-rich gases and melts are all stable forms of carbon in the Earth s mantle. [4] show that the fO2 variations observed in SNC meteorites can be explained by polybaric graphite-CO-CO2 equilibria in the Martian mantle. [5] inferred from thermodynamic calculations that the stable form of carbon in the source regions of the Martian basalts should be graphite (and/or diamond). After [6], a metasomatizing agent like a CO2-rich melt may infiltrate the mantle source of nakhlites. However, according to [7] and [8], the FeO wt% value in the Martian bulk mantle is more than twice that of the Earth s mantle (KLB-1 composition by [9]). As iron and carbon are two elements with various oxidation states, Fe/C interaction mechanisms must be considered.

  2. Oxygen, pH, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David F; Harrison, David K; Vinogradov, Sergei A

    2012-12-15

    The oxygen dependence of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was measured in suspensions of isolated rat liver mitochondria using recently developed methods for measuring oxygen and cytochrome c reduction. Cytochrome-c oxidase (energy conservation site 3) activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain was measured using an artificial electron donor (N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine) and ascorbate to directly reduce the cytochrome c, bypassing sites 1 and 2. For mitochondrial suspensions with added ATP, metabolic conditions approximating those in intact cells and decreasing oxygen pressure both increased reduction of cytochrome c and decreased respiratory rate. The kinetic parameters [K(M) and maximal rate (V(M))] for oxygen were determined from the respiratory rates calculated for 100% reduction of cytochrome c. At 22°C, the K(M) for oxygen is near 3 Torr (5 μM), 12 Torr (22 μM), and 18 Torr (32 μM) at pH 6.9, 7.4, and 7.9, respectively, and V(M) corresponds to a turnover number for cytochrome c at 100% reduction of near 80/s and is independent of pH. Uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation increased the respiratory rate at saturating oxygen pressures by twofold and decreased the K(M) for oxygen to <2 Torr at all tested pH values. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is an important oxygen sensor for regulation of metabolism, nutrient delivery to tissues, and cardiopulmonary function. The decrease in K(M) for oxygen with acidification of the cellular environment impacts many tissue functions and may give transformed cells a significant survival advantage over normal cells at low-pH, oxygen-limited environment in growing tumors.

  3. Dynamics of oxygen species on reduced TiO2 (110) rutile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun; Pillay, Devina; Hwang, Gyeong S.

    2004-11-01

    Using density functional theory calculations, we have investigated the adsorption and diffusion of oxygen species on the reduced TiO2(110) surface. We have found that molecular O2 strongly binds not only to O vacancies, but also to Ti(5c) neighbors, due to delocalization of unpaired electrons arising from removal of neutral bridging oxygen. Our results show that molecular O2 can jump across an oxygen vacancy and diffuse along a Ti(5c) row with moderate barriers. On the other hand, atomic O diffusion along a Ti(5c) row is rather unlikely at low temperatures (<300K) , because of the relatively higher probability of O-O formation from interaction with an adjacent bridging O(2c) atom. Based on our calculation results, we discuss the diffusion and healing of O vacancies associated with O2 adsorption.

  4. A method of improving sensitivity of carbon/oxygen well logging for low porosity formation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Juntao; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Quanying

    Carbon/Oxygen (C/O) spectral logging technique has been widely used to determine residual oil saturation and the evaluation of water flooded layer. In order to improve the sensitivity of the technique for low – porosity formation, Gaussian and linear models are applied to fit the peaks of measured spectra to obtain the characteristic coefficients. Standard spectra of carbon and oxygen are combined to establish a new carbon /oxygen value calculation method, and the robustness of the new method is cross – validated with known mixed gamma ray spectrum. Formation models for different porosities and saturations are built using Monte Carlo method.more » The responses of carbon/oxygen which are calculated by conventional energy window method, and the new method is applied to oil saturation under low porosity conditions. The results show the new method can reduce the effects of gamma rays contaminated by the interaction between neutrons and other elements on carbon/oxygen ratio, and therefore can significantly improve the response sensitivity of carbon/oxygen well logging to oil saturation. The new method improves greatly carbon/oxygen well logging in low porosity conditions.« less

  5. A method of improving sensitivity of carbon/oxygen well logging for low porosity formation

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Juntao; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Quanying; ...

    2016-12-01

    Carbon/Oxygen (C/O) spectral logging technique has been widely used to determine residual oil saturation and the evaluation of water flooded layer. In order to improve the sensitivity of the technique for low – porosity formation, Gaussian and linear models are applied to fit the peaks of measured spectra to obtain the characteristic coefficients. Standard spectra of carbon and oxygen are combined to establish a new carbon /oxygen value calculation method, and the robustness of the new method is cross – validated with known mixed gamma ray spectrum. Formation models for different porosities and saturations are built using Monte Carlo method.more » The responses of carbon/oxygen which are calculated by conventional energy window method, and the new method is applied to oil saturation under low porosity conditions. The results show the new method can reduce the effects of gamma rays contaminated by the interaction between neutrons and other elements on carbon/oxygen ratio, and therefore can significantly improve the response sensitivity of carbon/oxygen well logging to oil saturation. The new method improves greatly carbon/oxygen well logging in low porosity conditions.« less

  6. Exploring the effect of oxygen-containing functional groups on the water-holding capacity of lignite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Jiang, Xiangang; Cao, Yu; Zhang, Chen; Zhao, Guangyao; Zhao, Maoshuang; Feng, Li

    2018-05-07

    Graphene oxide with different degrees of oxidation was prepared and selected as a model compound of lignite to study quantitatively, using both experiment and theoretical calculation methods, the effect on water-holding capacity of oxygen-containing functional groups. The experimental results showed that graphite can be oxidized, and forms epoxy groups most easily, followed by hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. The prepared graphene oxide forms a membrane-state as a single layer structure, with an irregular surface. The water-holding capacity of lignite increased with the content of oxygen-containing functional groups. The influence on the configuration of water molecule clusters and binding energy of water molecules of different oxygen-containing functional groups was calculated by density functional theory. The calculation results indicated that the configuration of water molecule clusters was totally changed by oxygen-containing functional groups. The order of binding energy produced by oxygen-containing functional groups and water molecules was as follows: carboxyl > edge phenol hydroxyl >epoxy group. Finally, it can be concluded that the potential to form more hydrogen bonds is the key factor influencing the interaction energy between model compounds and water molecules.

  7. Oxygen consumption, oxygen cost, heart rate, and perceived effort during split-belt treadmill walking in young healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Roper, Jaimie A; Stegemöller, Elizabeth L; Tillman, Mark D; Hass, Chris J

    2013-03-01

    During split-belt treadmill walking the speed of the treadmill under one limb is faster than the belt under the contralateral limb. This unique intervention has shown evidence of acutely improving gait impairments in individuals with neurologic impairment such as stroke and Parkinson's disease. However, oxygen use, heart rate and perceived effort associated with split-belt treadmill walking are unknown and may limit the utility of this locomotor intervention. To better understand the intensity of this new intervention, this study was undertaken to examine the oxygen consumption, oxygen cost, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion associated with split-belt treadmill walking in young healthy adults. Fifteen participants completed three sessions of treadmill walking: slow speed with belts tied, fast speed with belts tied, and split-belt walking with one leg walking at the fast speed and one leg walking at the slow speed. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion were collected during each walking condition and oxygen cost was calculated. Results revealed that oxygen consumption, heart rate, and perceived effort associated with split-belt walking were higher than slow treadmill walking, but only oxygen consumption was significantly lower during both split-belt walking than fast treadmill walking. Oxygen cost associated with slow treadmill walking was significantly higher than fast treadmill walking. These findings have implications for using split-belt treadmill walking as a rehabilitation tool as the cost associated with split-belt treadmill walking may not be higher or potentially more detrimental than that associated with previously used treadmill training rehabilitation strategies.

  8. Isolated oxygen defects in 3C- and 4H-SiC: A theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gali, A.; Heringer, D.; Deák, P.; Hajnal, Z.; Frauenheim, Th.; Devaty, R. P.; Choyke, W. J.

    2002-09-01

    Ab initio calculations in the local-density approximation have been carried out in SiC to determine the possible configurations of the isolated oxygen impurity. Equilibrium geometry and occupation levels were calculated. Substitutional oxygen in 3C-SiC is a relatively shallow effective mass like double donor on the carbon site (OC) and a hyperdeep double donor on the Si site (OSi). In 4H-SiC OC is still a double donor but with a more localized electron state. In 3C-SiC OC is substantially more stable under any condition than OSi or interstitial oxygen (Oi). In 4H-SiC OC is also the most stable one except for heavy n-type doping. We propose that OC is at the core of the electrically active oxygen-related defect family found by deep level transient spectroscopy in 4H-SiC. The consequences of the site preference of oxygen on the SiC/SiO2 interface are discussed.

  9. Optical absorption and radiative heat transport in olivine at high temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankland, T. J.; Nitsan, U.; Duba, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented of measurements of the optical absorption spectra (300-8000 nm) of olivine as a function of temperature (300-1700 K) under conditions of controlled and known oxygen fugacity within the stability field of the samples. The absorption spectra are used to calculate the temperature-dependent radiative transfer coefficient of olivine and to numerically study the accuracy of the method. The present absorption measurements in olivine under oxidizing conditions known to be within the olivine stability field indicate that the effective radiative conductivity K(R) is lower than that obtained in previous studies under different experimental conditions. The lower value of K(R) makes it more likely that some of the earth's internal heat is removed by convection and less likely that thermal models involving conduction and radiation alone will satisfactorily explain thermal conditions in the earth's mantle.

  10. Spatiotemporal Oxygen Sensing Using Dual Emissive Boron Dye–Polylactide Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Oxygenation in tissue scaffolds continues to be a limiting factor in regenerative medicine despite efforts to induce neovascularization or to use oxygen-generating materials. Unfortunately, many established methods to measure oxygen concentration, such as using electrodes, require mechanical disturbance of the tissue structure. To address the need for scaffold-based oxygen concentration monitoring, a single-component, self-referenced oxygen sensor was made into nanofibers. Electrospinning process parameters were tuned to produce a biomaterial scaffold with specific morphological features. The ratio of an oxygen sensitive phosphorescence signal to an oxygen insensitive fluorescence signal was calculated at each image pixel to determine an oxygenation value. A single component boron dye–polymer conjugate was chosen for additional investigation due to improved resistance to degradation in aqueous media compared to a boron dye polymer blend. Standardization curves show that in fully supplemented media, the fibers are responsive to dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 15 ppm. Spatial (millimeters) and temporal (minutes) ratiometric gradients were observed in vitro radiating outward from the center of a dense adherent cell grouping on scaffolds. Sensor activation in ischemia and cell transplant models in vivo show oxygenation decreases on the scale of minutes. The nanofiber construct offers a robust approach to biomaterial scaffold oxygen sensing. PMID:25426706

  11. GASP: A computer code for calculating the thermodynamic and transport properties for ten fluids: Parahydrogen, helium, neon, methane, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, fluorine, argon, and carbon dioxide. [enthalpy, entropy, thermal conductivity, and specific heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Baron, A. K.; Peller, I. C.

    1975-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV subprogram called GASP is discussed which calculates the thermodynamic and transport properties for 10 pure fluids: parahydrogen, helium, neon, methane, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, fluorine, argon, and carbon dioxide. The pressure range is generally from 0.1 to 400 atmospheres (to 100 atm for helium and to 1000 atm for hydrogen). The temperature ranges are from the triple point to 300 K for neon; to 500 K for carbon monoxide, oxygen, and fluorine; to 600 K for methane and nitrogen; to 1000 K for argon and carbon dioxide; to 2000 K for hydrogen; and from 6 to 500 K for helium. GASP accepts any two of pressure, temperature and density as input conditions along with pressure, and either entropy or enthalpy. The properties available in any combination as output include temperature, density, pressure, entropy, enthalpy, specific heats, sonic velocity, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and surface tension. The subprogram design is modular so that the user can choose only those subroutines necessary to the calculations.

  12. Modeling Corneal Oxygen with Scleral Gas Permeable Lens Wear.

    PubMed

    Compañ, Vicente; Aguilella-Arzo, Marcel; Edrington, Timothy B; Weissman, Barry A

    2016-11-01

    The main goal of this current work is to use an updated calculation paradigm, and updated boundary conditions, to provide theoretical guidelines to assist the clinician whose goal is to improve his or her scleral gas permeable (GP) contact lens wearing patients' anterior corneal oxygen supply. Our model uses a variable value of corneal oxygen consumption developed through Monod equations that disallows negative oxygen tensions within the stroma to predict oxygen tension at the anterior corneal surface of scleral GP contact lens wearing eyes, and to describe oxygen tension and flux profiles, for various boundary conditions, through the lens, tears, and cornea. We use several updated tissue and boundary parameters in our model. Tear exchange with GP scleral lenses is considered nonexistent in this model. The majority of current scleral GP contact lenses should produce some levels of corneal hypoxia under open eye conditions. Only lenses producing the thinnest of tear vaults should result in anterior corneal surface oxygen tensions greater than a presumed critical oxygen tension of 100 mmHg. We also find that corneal oxygen tension and flux are each more sensitive to modification in tear vault than to changes in lens oxygen permeability, within the ranges of current clinical manipulation. Our study suggests that clinicians would be prudent to prescribe scleral GP lenses manufactured from higher oxygen permeability materials and especially to fit without excessive corneal clearance.

  13. Oxygen evolution reaction in nanoconfined carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Lu, Xuefeng; Li, Yunfang; Zhang, Xueqing

    2018-05-01

    Improving oxygen electrochemistry through nanoscopic confinement has recently been highlighted as a promising strategy. In-depth understanding the role of confinement is therefore required. In this study, we simulate the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on iron oxide nanoclusters under confinement of (7,7) and (8,8) armchair carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The free energies of the four proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) steps and the OER overpotentials are calculated. The Fe4O6 nanocluster confined in (7,7) CNT is found to be the most active for OER among the systems considered in this work. This leads to an increase in catalytic efficiency of OER compared to the hematite (110) surface, which was reported recently as an active surface towards OER. The calculated results show that the OER overpotential depends strongly on the magnetic properties of the iron oxide nanocluster. These findings are helpful for experimental design of efficient catalyst for water splitting applications.

  14. Mechanism of oxygen electroreduction on gold surfaces in basic media.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwon; Gewirth, Andrew A

    2006-02-16

    The mechanism of the electroreduction of oxygen on Au surfaces in basic media is examined using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The spectroscopy reveals superoxide species as a reduction intermediate throughout the oxygen electroreduction, while no peroxide is detected. The spectroscopy also shows the presence of superoxide after the addition of hydrogen peroxide. The calculations show no effect of OH addition to the Au(100) surface with regard to O-O length. These results suggest that the four-electron reduction of O(2) on Au(100) in base arises from a disproportionation mechanism which is enhanced on Au(100) relative to the other two low Miller index faces of Au.

  15. First-principles calculations for XAS of infinite-layer iron oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodera, Mitsuru; Shishidou, Tatsuya; Oguchi, Tamio

    2011-03-01

    The oxygen defect perovskite SrFe O3 - x shows various properties such as the giant magnetoresistance effect and the thermoelectric effect. It had been believed that the oxygen content in SrFe O3 - x changes up to x = 0.5 . Recently, Tsujimoto et al . have succeeded in synthesizing the infinite-layer iron oxide SrFe O2 . SrFe O2 has a square-planar oxygen coordination, while the iron oxides usually have the tetrahedral and octahedral coordination. CaFe O2 has also infinite layer structure and the same magnetic ordering as SrFe O2 . However, it is suggested that the oxygen coordination of CaFe O2 is different from that of SrFe O2 . In order to investigate the electronic structure of iron in (Ca, Sr) Fe O2 , the x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectrum has been measured. In this work, we perform the calculation for XAS spectrum near the Fe-K edge of (Ca, Sr) Fe O2 using the first-principles calculations. We compare the results with the experiment and discuss the electronic structure of iron in (Ca, Sr) Fe O2 .

  16. Study of argon-oxygen flowing afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazánková, V.; Trunec, D.; Navrátil, Z.; Raud, J.; Krčma, F.

    2016-06-01

    The reaction kinetics in argon-oxygen flowing afterglow (post-discharge) was studied using NO titration and optical emission spectroscopy. The flowing DC post-discharge in argon-oxygen mixture was created in a quartz tube at the total gas pressure of 1000 Pa and discharge power of 90 W. The O(3P) atom concentration was determined by NO titration at different places along the flow tube. The optical emission spectra were also measured along the flow tube. Argon spectral lines, oxygen lines at 777 nm and 844.6 nm and atmospheric A-band of {{\\text{O}}2} were identified in the spectra. Rotational temperature of {{\\text{O}}2} was determined from the oxygen atmospheric A-band and also the outer wall temperature of the flow tube was measured by a thermocouple and by an IR thermometer. A zero-dimensional kinetic model for the reactions in the afterglow was developed. This model allows the time dependencies of particle concentrations and of gas temperature to be calculated. The wall recombination probability for O(3P) atoms {γ\\text{O≤ft(\\text{P}\\right)}}=≤ft(1.63+/- 0.06\\right)× {{10}-3} and wall deactivation probability for {{\\text{O}}2} (b {{}1}Σ\\text{g}+ ) molecules {γ{{\\text{O}2}≤ft(\\text{b}\\right)}}=≤ft(1.7+/- 0.1\\right)× {{10}-3} were determined from the fit of model results to experimental data. Sensitivity analysis was applied for the analysis of kinetic model in order to reveal the most important reactions in the model. The calculated gas temperature increases in the afterglow and then decreases at later afterglow times after reaching the maximum. This behavior is in good agreement with the spatial rotational temperature dependence. A similar trend was also observed at outer wall temperature measurement.

  17. Structure Evolution of Graphene Oxide during Thermally Driven Phase Transformation: Is the Oxygen Content Really Preserved?

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Pengzhan; Wang, Yanlei; Liu, He; Wang, Kunlin; Wu, Dehai; Xu, Zhiping; Zhu, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    A mild annealing procedure was recently proposed for the scalable enhancement of graphene oxide (GO) properties with the oxygen content preserved, which was demonstrated to be attributed to the thermally driven phase separation. In this work, the structure evolution of GO with mild annealing is closely investigated. It reveals that in addition to phase separation, the transformation of oxygen functionalities also occurs, which leads to the slight reduction of GO membranes and furthers the enhancement of GO properties. These results are further supported by the density functional theory based calculations. The results also show that the amount of chemically bonded oxygen atoms on graphene decreases gradually and we propose that the strongly physisorbed oxygen species constrained in the holes and vacancies on GO lattice might be responsible for the preserved oxygen content during the mild annealing procedure. The present experimental results and calculations indicate that both the diffusion and transformation of oxygen functional groups might play important roles in the scalable enhancement of GO properties. PMID:25372142

  18. Influence of oxygen impurity on electronic properties of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ram Sevak, E-mail: singh915@gmail.com

    2015-11-15

    Influence of oxygen impurity on electronic properties of carbon and boron nitride nanotubes (CNTs and BNNTs) is systematically studied using first principle calculations based on density functional theory. Energy band structures and density of states of optimized zigzag (5, 0), armchair (3, 3), and chiral (4, 2) structures of CNT and BNNT are calculated. Oxygen doping in zigzag CNT exhibits a reduction in metallicity with opening of band gap in near-infrared region while metallicity is enhanced in armchair and chiral CNTs. Unlike oxygen-doped CNTs, energy bands are drastically modulated in oxygen-doped zigzag and armchair BNNTs, showing the nanotubes to havemore » metallic behaviour. Furthermore, oxygen impurity in chiral BNNT induces narrowing of band gap, indicating a gradual modification of electronic band structure. This study underscores the understanding of different electronic properties induced in CNTs and BNNTs under oxygen doping, and has potential in fabrication of various nanoelectronic devices.« less

  19. Effects of oxygen vacancies on the structural and optical properties of β-Ga2O3

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Linpeng; Jia, Renxu; Xin, Bin; Peng, Bo; Zhang, Yuming

    2017-01-01

    The structural, electronic, and optical properties of β-Ga2O3 with oxygen vacancies are studied by employing first-principles calculations based on density function theory. Based on the defects formation energies, we conclude the oxygen vacancies are most stable in their fully charge states. The electronic structures and optical properties of β-Ga2O3 are calculated by Generalized Gradient Approximation + U formalisms with the Hubbard U parameters set 7.0 eV and 8.5 eV for Ga and O ions, respectively. The calculated bandgap is 4.92 eV, which is consistent with the experimental value. The static real dielectric constants of the defective structures are increased compared with the intrinsic one, which is attributed to the level caused by the Ga-4s states in the bandgap. Extra peaks are introduced in the absorption spectra, which are related to Ga-4s and O-2p states. Experimentally, β-Ga2O3 films are deposited under different O2 volume percentage with ratio-frequency magnetron sputtering method. The measured results indicate that oxygen vacancies can induce extra emission peaks in the photoluminescence spectrum, the location of these peaks are close to the calculated results. Extra O2 can increase the formation energies of oxygen vacancies and thus reduce oxygen vacancies in β-Ga2O3. PMID:28065936

  20. Effects of oxygen vacancies on the structural and optical properties of β-Ga2O3.

    PubMed

    Dong, Linpeng; Jia, Renxu; Xin, Bin; Peng, Bo; Zhang, Yuming

    2017-01-09

    The structural, electronic, and optical properties of β-Ga 2 O 3 with oxygen vacancies are studied by employing first-principles calculations based on density function theory. Based on the defects formation energies, we conclude the oxygen vacancies are most stable in their fully charge states. The electronic structures and optical properties of β-Ga 2 O 3 are calculated by Generalized Gradient Approximation + U formalisms with the Hubbard U parameters set 7.0 eV and 8.5 eV for Ga and O ions, respectively. The calculated bandgap is 4.92 eV, which is consistent with the experimental value. The static real dielectric constants of the defective structures are increased compared with the intrinsic one, which is attributed to the level caused by the Ga-4s states in the bandgap. Extra peaks are introduced in the absorption spectra, which are related to Ga-4s and O-2p states. Experimentally, β-Ga 2 O 3 films are deposited under different O 2 volume percentage with ratio-frequency magnetron sputtering method. The measured results indicate that oxygen vacancies can induce extra emission peaks in the photoluminescence spectrum, the location of these peaks are close to the calculated results. Extra O 2 can increase the formation energies of oxygen vacancies and thus reduce oxygen vacancies in β-Ga 2 O 3 .

  1. The effect of oxygen molecule adsorption on lead iodide perovskite surface by first-principles calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xia-Xia; Li, Ze-Sheng

    2018-01-01

    Oxygen molecule has a negative effect on perovskite solar cells, which has been investigated experimentally. However, detailed theoretical research is still rare. This study presents a microscopic view to reveal the interaction mechanism between O2 and perovskite based on the first-principles calculation. The results show that O2 is adsorbed on the (100) surface of MAPbI3 perovskite mainly by Van der Waals force. O2 adsorption makes the MAPbI3 surface generate a small number of positive charges, which leads to the increase of the work function of the MAPbI3 surface. This is in agreement with the experimental measurement. And increased work function of MAPbI3 surface is not beneficial to electron transfer from perovskite to electronic extraction layer (such as TiO2). Comparison of the density of states (DOS) of the clean (100) surface and the adsorbed system shows that an in-gap state belonging to O2 appears, which can explain the phenomenon observed from experiments that electron transfers from the surface of perovskite to O2 to form superoxide. The theoretical power conversion efficiency of the system with and without O2 adsorption is evaluated, and it turns out that the power conversion efficiency of the system with O2 adsorption is slightly lower than that of the system without O2 adsorption. This result indicates that avoiding the introduction of O2 molecules between perovskite and electronic extraction layer is beneficial to the perovskite solar cell.

  2. Conversion rate of para-hydrogen to ortho-hydrogen by oxygen: implications for PHIP gas storage and utilization.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Shawn

    2014-06-01

    To determine the storability of para-hydrogen before reestablishment of the room temperature thermal equilibrium mixture. Para-hydrogen was produced at near 100% purity and mixed with different oxygen quantities to determine the rate of conversion to the thermal equilibrium mixture of 75: 25% (ortho: para) by detecting the ortho-hydrogen (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance using a 9.4 T imager. The para-hydrogen to ortho-hydrogen velocity constant, k, near room temperature (292 K) was determined to be 8.27 ± 1.30 L/mol · min(-1). This value was calculated utilizing four different oxygen fractions. Para-hydrogen conversion to ortho-hydrogen by oxygen can be minimized for long term storage with judicious removal of oxygen contamination. Prior calculated velocity rates were confirmed demonstrating a dependence on only the oxygen concentration.

  3. Strontium-free rare earth perovskite ferrites with fast oxygen exchange kinetics: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Christian; Bucher, Edith; Windischbacher, Andreas; Boese, A. Daniel; Sitte, Werner

    2018-03-01

    The Sr-free mixed ionic electronic conducting perovskites La0.8Ca0.2FeO3-δ (LCF82) and Pr0.8Ca0.2FeO3-δ (PCF82) were synthesized via a glycine-nitrate process. Crystal structure, phase purity, and lattice constants were determined by XRD and Rietveld analysis. The oxygen exchange kinetics and the electronic conductivity were obtained from in-situ dc-conductivity relaxation experiments at 600-800 °C and 1×10-3≤pO2/bar≤0.1. Both LCF82 and PCF82 show exceptionally fast chemical surface exchange coefficients and chemical diffusion coefficients of oxygen. The oxygen nonstochiometry of LCF82 and PCF82 was determined by precision thermogravimetry. A point defect model was used to calculate the thermodynamic factors of oxygen and to estimate self-diffusion coefficients and ionic conductivities. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations on the crystal structure, oxygen vacancy formation as well as oxygen migration energies are in excellent agreement with the experimental values. Due to their favourable properties both LCF82 and PCF82 are of interest for applications in solid oxide fuel cell cathodes, solid oxide electrolyser cell anodes, oxygen separation membranes, catalysts, or electrochemical sensors.

  4. Thermodynamics of Oxygen Ordering in Yttrium BARIUM(2) COPPER(3) OXYGEN(6+X)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieger, Paul Richard

    An apparatus has been built to study and manipulate the oxygen in high temperature superconductors. It uses the principle of cryogenically assisted volumetric titration to precisely set changes in the oxygen content of high -T_{c} samples. The apparatus has been used to study the thermodynamics of oxygen in YBa_2Cu_3O _{6 + x} in order to help determine the correct model for oxygen thermodynamics as well as to provide standard curves for materials preparation by other methods. In particular, extensive measurements have been made on the oxygen pressure isotherms as a function of x for temperatures between 450^circ C and 650^circC. The measurement technique also allows one to extract the thermodynamic response function, (partial x/ partialmu)_{T}, ( mu is the chemical potential), which is sensitive to the oxygen configuration and which can be calculated by any candidate theory of the oxygen thermodynamics. Several existing theoretical models for the oxygen ordering thermodynamics are presented and compared to the experimental results. The models considered are classed into two basic approaches: lattice gas models and defect chemical models. It is found that the lattice gas models which assume static effective pair interactions between oxygen atoms, do not fit the experimental data very well, especially in the orthorhombic phase. The defect chemical models, which incorporate additional degrees of freedom (spin and charge) due to the creation of electronic defects, fit significantly better, but make crude assumptions for the configurational entropy of oxygen atoms. Using a commonly accepted picture for the creation of mobile electron holes and unpaired spins on the copper sites, it is possible to relate these quantities in terms of short range cluster probabilities defined in mean field approximations to the 2D lattice gas models. Based upon this connection, a thermodynamical model is developed, which takes into account interactions between oxygen atoms and the

  5. Vacancy–Vacancy Interaction Induced Oxygen Diffusivity Enhancement in Undoped Nonstoichiometric Ceria

    DOE PAGES

    Yuan, Fenglin; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2015-05-19

    In this paper, molecular dynamics simulations and molecular static calculations have been used to systematically study oxygen vacancy transport in undoped nonstoichiometric ceria. A strong oxygen diffusivity enhancement appears in the vacancy concentration range of 2–4% over the temperature range from 1000 to 2000 K. An Arrhenius ion diffusion mechanism by vacancy hopping along the (100) direction is unambiguously identified, and an increasing trend of both the oxygen migration barrier and the prefactor with increasing vacancy concentration is observed. Within the framework of classical diffusion theory, a weak concentration dependence of the prefactor in oxygen vacancy migration is shown tomore » be crucial for explaining the unusual fast oxygen ion migration in the low concentration range and consequently the appearance of a maximum in oxygen diffusivity. Finally, a representative (100) direction interaction model is constructed to identify long-range vacancy–vacancy interaction as the structural origin of the positive correlation between oxygen migration barrier and vacancy concentration.« less

  6. 42 CFR 414.226 - Oxygen and oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oxygen and oxygen equipment. 414.226 Section 414... Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetic and Orthotic Devices, and Surgical Dressings § 414.226 Oxygen and oxygen equipment. (a) Payment rules—(1) Oxygen equipment. Payment for rental of oxygen equipment is made...

  7. The Effects of Redox Reactions on Sulfur Isotopes in Sulfide Melts at 1200 °C: Implications for 34S Enrichment in Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, A. M.; Frank, M. R.; Dodd, J. P.; Walker, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    δ34S values of mantle derived melts in subduction zones can differ from mantle values. This is often attributed to assimilation of country rock or interaction with another S-bearing reservoir. We hypothesized that variations in oxygen fugacity, f(O2), and in sulfur's valence state, may impact a change in the measured δ34S value of sulfide melts. Two synthetic sulfide melts (SM5 & SM7) with a composition of the mono-sulfide solution (MSS; Fe51S37Ni5Cu7) were homogenized for 30, 60 and 90 minutes at an oxygen fugacity between the quartz-fayalite-magnetite (QFM) and iron-wüstite (IW) buffers. Samples were separated into aliquots and subjected to varying fO2 (atmospheric O2, nickel-nickel oxide (NNO), QFM, and IW) at 1200 °C. Equilibrium was established through reversals and as a function of time. The δ34S value of the starting material was measured to be +7.3 to 7.9 ‰ (VCDT). δ34S values from experiments are displayed here relative to the starting material used for that experiment (δ34Ssample - δ34Sstarting). Experiments conducted at log f(O2) of -11.74 (IW), -10.02, -8.3 (QFM), and -7.6 (NNO) were found to be +0.1, +0.6, +1.7, and +1.8 ‰, respectively. The measured average δ34S values were found to vary directly with the imposed oxygen fugacity. The enrichment in 34S relative to 32S is most likely related to changes in the sulfur redox state (from S2-) or sulfur volatilization. Our results suggest that volatilization or variations in a magma's oxidation state can produce measurable changes in δ34S and that those changes must be considered when using δ34S to evaluate possible external sulfur contributions. These results will likely inform discussions on the source of metals and sulfur in layered mafic intrusions (e.g. Bushveld Complex).

  8. Theoretical calculations of oxygen relaxation in YBa2Cu3O6+x ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Y.; Schaller, R.; Sathish, S.; Benoit, W.

    1991-12-01

    A two-dimensional theoretical model of stress-induced point-defect relaxation in a layered structure is presented, with a detailed discussion of the special case of YBa2Cu3O6+x. The experimental results of oxygen relaxation in YBa2Cu3O6+x can be explained qualitatively by this model.

  9. 42 CFR 414.226 - Oxygen and oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oxygen and oxygen equipment. 414.226 Section 414... Equipment and Prosthetic and Orthotic Devices § 414.226 Oxygen and oxygen equipment. (a) Payment rules—(1) Oxygen equipment. Payment for rental of oxygen equipment is made based on a monthly fee schedule amount...

  10. 42 CFR 414.226 - Oxygen and oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen and oxygen equipment. 414.226 Section 414... Equipment and Prosthetic and Orthotic Devices § 414.226 Oxygen and oxygen equipment. (a) Payment rules—(1) Oxygen equipment. Payment for rental of oxygen equipment is made based on a monthly fee schedule amount...

  11. 42 CFR 414.226 - Oxygen and oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oxygen and oxygen equipment. 414.226 Section 414... Durable Medical Equipment and Prosthetic and Orthotic Devices § 414.226 Oxygen and oxygen equipment. (a) Payment rules—(1) Oxygen equipment. Payment for rental of oxygen equipment is made based on a monthly fee...

  12. 42 CFR 414.226 - Oxygen and oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oxygen and oxygen equipment. 414.226 Section 414... Durable Medical Equipment and Prosthetic and Orthotic Devices § 414.226 Oxygen and oxygen equipment. (a) Payment rules—(1) Oxygen equipment. Payment for rental of oxygen equipment is made based on a monthly fee...

  13. Simultaneous measurement of macro- and microvascular blood flow and oxygen saturation for quantification of muscle oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Englund, Erin K; Rodgers, Zachary B; Langham, Michael C; Mohler, Emile R; Floyd, Thomas F; Wehrli, Felix W

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between blood flow and oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle, a technique called "Velocity and Perfusion, Intravascular Venous Oxygen saturation and T2*" (vPIVOT) is presented. vPIVOT allows the quantification of feeding artery blood flow velocity, perfusion, draining vein oxygen saturation, and muscle T2*, all at 4-s temporal resolution. Together, the measurement of blood flow and oxygen extraction can yield muscle oxygen consumption ( V˙O2) via the Fick principle. In five subjects, vPIVOT-derived results were compared with those obtained from stand-alone sequences during separate ischemia-reperfusion paradigms to investigate the presence of measurement bias. Subsequently, in 10 subjects, vPIVOT was applied to assess muscle hemodynamics and V˙O2 following a bout of dynamic plantar flexion contractions. From the ischemia-reperfusion paradigm, no significant differences were observed between data from vPIVOT and comparison sequences. After exercise, the macrovascular flow response reached a maximum 8 ± 3 s after relaxation; however, perfusion in the gastrocnemius muscle continued to rise for 101 ± 53 s. Peak V˙O2 calculated based on mass-normalized arterial blood flow or perfusion was 15.2 ± 6.7 mL O 2 /min/100 g or 6.0 ± 1.9 mL O 2 /min/100 g, respectively. vPIVOT is a new method to measure blood flow and oxygen saturation, and therefore to quantify muscle oxygen consumption. Magn Reson Med 79:846-855, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. Angular distribution of photoelectrons from atomic oxygen, nitrogen and carbon. [in upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manson, S. J.; Kennedy, D. J.; Starace, A. F.; Dill, D.

    1974-01-01

    The angular distributions of photoelectrons from atomic oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon are calculated. Both Hartree-Fock and Hartree-Slater (Herman-Skillman) wave functions are used for oxygen, and the agreement is excellent; thus only Hartree-Slater functions are used for carbon and nitrogen. The pitch-angle distribution of photoelectrons is discussed, and it is shown that previous approximations of energy-independent isotropic or sin squared theta distributions are at odds with the authors' results, which vary with energy. This variation with energy is discussed, as is the reliability of these calculations.

  15. Diffusion and Monod kinetics model to determine in vivo human corneal oxygen-consumption rate during soft contact lens wear.

    PubMed

    Del Castillo, Luis F; da Silva, Ana R Ferreira; Hernández, Saul I; Aguilella, M; Andrio, Andreu; Mollá, Sergio; Compañ, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the corneal oxygen consumption Qc from non-linear models, using data of oxygen partial pressure or tension (P(O2) ) obtained from in vivo estimation previously reported by other authors. (1) METHODS: Assuming that the cornea is a single homogeneous layer, the oxygen permeability through the cornea will be the same regardless of the type of lens that is available on it. The obtention of the real value of the maximum oxygen consumption rate Qc,max is very important because this parameter is directly related with the gradient pressure profile into the cornea and moreover, the real corneal oxygen consumption is influenced by both anterior and posterior oxygen fluxes. Our calculations give different values for the maximum oxygen consumption rate Qc,max, when different oxygen pressure values (high and low P(O2)) are considered at the interface cornea-tears film. Present results are relevant for the calculation on the partial pressure of oxygen, available at different depths into the corneal tissue behind contact lenses of different oxygen transmissibility. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  16. Diffusion and Monod kinetics model to determine in vivo human corneal oxygen-consumption rate during soft contact lens wear

    PubMed Central

    Del Castillo, Luis F.; da Silva, Ana R. Ferreira; Hernández, Saul I.; Aguilella, M.; Andrio, Andreu; Mollá, Sergio; Compañ, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We present an analysis of the corneal oxygen consumption Qc from non-linear models, using data of oxygen partial pressure or tension (pO2) obtained from in vivo estimation previously reported by other authors.1 Methods Assuming that the cornea is a single homogeneous layer, the oxygen permeability through the cornea will be the same regardless of the type of lens that is available on it. The obtention of the real value of the maximum oxygen consumption rate Qc,max is very important because this parameter is directly related with the gradient pressure profile into the cornea and moreover, the real corneal oxygen consumption is influenced by both anterior and posterior oxygen fluxes. Results Our calculations give different values for the maximum oxygen consumption rate Qc,max, when different oxygen pressure values (high and low pO2) are considered at the interface cornea-tears film. Conclusion Present results are relevant for the calculation on the partial pressure of oxygen, available at different depths into the corneal tissue behind contact lenses of different oxygen transmissibility. PMID:25649636

  17. SU-E-T-191: First Principle Calculation of Quantum Yield in Photodynamic Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Abolfath, R; Guo, F; Chen, Z

    Purpose: We present a first-principle method to calculate the spin transfer efficiency in oxygen induced by any photon fields especially in MeV energy range. The optical pumping is mediated through photosensitizers, e.g., porphyrin and/or ensemble of quantum dots. Methods: Under normal conditions, oxygen molecules are in the relatively non-reactive triplet state. In the presence of certain photosensitizer compounds such as porphyrins, electromagnetic radiation of specific wavelengths can excite oxygen to highly reactive singlet state. With selective uptake of photosensitizers by certain malignant cells, photon irradiation of phosensitized tumors can lead to selective killing of cancer cells. This is the basismore » of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Despite several attempts, PDT has not been clinically successful except in limited superficial cancers. Many parameters such as photon energy, conjugation with quantum dots etc. can be potentially combined with PDT in order to extend the role of PDT in cancer management. The key quantity for this optimization is the spin transfer efficiency in oxygen by any photon field. The first principle calculation model presented here, is an attempt to fill this need. We employ stochastic density matrix description of the quantum jumps and the rate equation methods in quantum optics based on Markov/Poisson processes and calculate time evolution of the population of the optically pumped singlet oxygen. Results: The results demonstrate the feasibility of our model in showing the dependence of the optical yield in generating spin-singlet oxygen on the experimental conditions. The adjustable variables can be tuned to maximize the population of the singlet oxygen hence the efficacy of the photodynamic therapy. Conclusion: The present model can be employed to fit and analyze the experimental data and possibly to assist researchers in optimizing the experimental conditions in photodynamic therapy.« less

  18. Crown oxygen-doping graphene with embedded main-group metal atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liyuan; Wang, Qian; Yang, Chuanghua; Quhe, Ruge; Guan, Pengfei; Lu, Pengfei

    2018-02-01

    Different main-group metal atoms embedded in crown oxygen-doping graphene (metal@OG) systems are studied by the density functional theory. The binding energies and electronic structures are calculated by using first-principles calculations. The binding energy of metal@OG system mainly depends on the electronegativity of the metal atom. The lower the value of the electronegativity, the larger the binding energy, indicating the more stable the system. The electronic structure of metal@OG arouses the emergence of bandgap and shift of Dirac point. It is shown that interaction between metal atom and crown oxygen-doping graphene leads to the graphene's stable n-doping, and the metal@OG systems are stable semiconducting materials, which can be used in technological applications.

  19. Characterization and Reactivity of a Terminal Nickel(III)-Oxygen Adduct

    PubMed Central

    Pirovano, Paolo; Farquhar, Erik R.; Swart, Marcel; Fitzpatrick, Anthony J.; Morgan, Grace G.; McDonald, Aidan R.

    2015-01-01

    High-valent terminal metal-oxygen adducts are hypothesized to be the potent oxidising reactants in late transition metal oxidation catalysis. In particular, examples of high-valent terminal nickel-oxygen adducts are sparse, meaning there is a dearth in the understanding of such oxidants. In this study, a monoanionic NiII-bicarbonate complex was found to react in a 1:1 ratio with the one-electron oxidant tris(4-bromophenyl)ammoniumyl hexachloroantimonate, yielding a thermally unstable intermediate in high yield (~95%). Electronic absorption, electronic paramagnetic resonance and X-ray absorption spectroscopies and density functional theory calculations confirm its description as a low-spin (S = ½), square planar NiIII-oxygen adduct. This rare example of a high-valent terminal nickel-oxygen complex performs oxidations of organic substrates, including 2,6-ditertbutylphenol and triphenylphosphine, which are indicative of hydrogen atom abstraction and oxygen atom transfer reactivity, respectively. PMID:25612563

  20. Investigating the impact of oxygen concentration and blood flow variation on photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penjweini, Rozhin; Kim, Michele M.; Finlay, Jarod C.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2016-03-01

    Type II photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for cancer treatment based on the combined action of a photosensitizer, a special wavelength of light, oxygen (3O2) and generation of singlet oxygen (1O2). Intra-patient and inter-patient variability of oxygen concentration ([3O2]) before and after the treatment as well as photosensitizer concentration and hemodynamic parameters such as blood flow during PDT has been reported. Simulation of these variations is valuable, as it would be a means for the rapid assessment of treatment effect. A mathematical model has been previously developed to incorporate the diffusion equation for light transport in tissue and the macroscopic kinetic equations for simulation of [3O2], photosensitizers in ground and triplet states and concentration of the reacted singlet oxygen ([1O₂]rx) during PDT. In this study, the finite-element based calculation of the macroscopic kinetic equations is done for 2-(1- Hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide (HPPH)-mediated PDT by incorporating the information of the photosensitizer photochemical parameters as well as the tissue optical properties, photosensitizer concentration, initial oxygen concentration ([3O2]0), blood flow changes and Φ that have been measured in mice bearing radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF) tumors. Then, [1O2]rx calculated by using the measured [3O2] during the PDT is compared with [1O2]rx calculated based on the simulated [3O₂]; both calculations showed a reasonably good agreement. Moreover, the impacts of the blood flow changes and [3O2]0 on [1O2]rx have been investigated, which showed no pronounced effect of the blood flow changes on the long-term 1O2 generation. When [3O2]0 becomes limiting, small changes in [3O₂] have large effects on [1O2]rx.

  1. Interaction of Black Phosphorus with Oxygen and Water

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Yuan; Qiao, Jingsi; He, Kai; ...

    2016-10-24

    Black phosphorus (BP) has attracted significant interest as a monolayer or few-layer material with extraordinary electrical and optoelectronic properties. Chemical reactions with different ambient species, notably oxygen and water, are important as they govern key properties such as stability in air, electronic structure and charge transport, wetting by aqueous solutions, etc. Here, we report experiments combined with ab-initio calculations that address the effects of oxygen and water in contact with BP. Our results show that the reaction with oxygen is primarily responsible for changing properties of BP. Oxidation involving the dissociative chemisorption of O 2 causes the decomposition of BPmore » and continuously lowers the conductance of BP field-effect transistors (FETs). In contrast, BP is stable in contact with deaerated (i.e., O 2 depleted) water and the carrier mobility in BP FETs gated by H 2O increases significantly due to efficient dielectric screening of scattering centers by the high-k dielectric. Isotope labeling experiments, contact angle measurements and calculations show that the pristine BP surface is hydrophobic, but is turned progressively hydrophilic by oxidation. Lastly, our results open new avenues for exploring applications that require contact of BP with aqueous solutions including solution gating, electrochemistry, and solution-phase approaches for exfoliation, dispersion, and delivery of BP.« less

  2. Estimate of oxygen consumption and intracellular zinc concentration of human spermatozoa in relation to motility.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Ralf R; Defosse, Kerstin; Koyro, Hans-Wilhelm; Weissmann, Norbert; Schill, Wolf-Bernhard

    2003-03-01

    To investigate the human sperm oxygen/energy consumption and zinc content in relation to motility. In washed spermatozoa from 67 ejaculates, the oxygen consumption was determined. Following calculation of the total oxygen consumed by the Ideal Gas Law, the energy consumption of spermatozoa was calculated. In addition, the zinc content of the sperm was determined using an atomic absorption spectrometer. The resulting data were correlated to the vitality and motility. The oxygen consumption averaged 0.24 micromol/10(6) sperm x 24h, 0.28 micromol/10(6) live sperm x 24h and 0.85 micromol/10(6) live motile sperm x 24h. Further calculations revealed that sperm motility was the most energy consuming process (164.31 mJ/10(6) motile spermatozoa x 24h), while the oxygen consumption of the total spermatozoa was 46.06 mJ/10(6) spermatozoa x 24h. The correlation of the oxygen/energy consumption and zinc content with motility showed significant negative correlations (r= -0.759; P<0.0001 and r=-0.441; P<0.0001, respectively). However, when correlating sperm energy consumption with the zinc content, a significant positive relation (r=0.323; P=0.01) was observed. Poorly motile sperm are actually wasting the available energy. Moreover, our data clearly support the "Geometric Clutch Model" of the axoneme function and demonstrate the importance of the outer dense fibers for the generation of sperm motility, especially progressive motility.

  3. The chemical composition of the cores of the terrestrial planets and the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuskov, O. L.; Khitarov, N. I.

    1977-01-01

    Using models of the quasi-chemical theory of solutions, the activity coefficients of silicon are calculated in the melts Fe-Si, Ni-Si, and Fe-Ni-Si. The calculated free energies of solution of liquid nickel and silicon in liquid iron in the interval 0 to 1400 kbar and 1500 to 4000 K, shows that Fe-Ni-Si alloy is stable under the conditions of the outer core of the earth and the cores of the terrestrial planets. The oxidation-reduction conditions are studied, and the fugacity of oxygen in the mantles of the planets and at the core-mantle boundary are calculated. The mechanism of reduction of silicon is analyzed over a broad interval of p and T. The interaction between the matter of the core and mantle is studied, resulting in the extraction of silicon from the mantle and its solution in the material of the core. It is concluded that silicon can enter into the composition of the outer core of the earth and Venus, but probably does not enter into the composition of the cores of Mercury, Mars, and the moon, if in fact the latter possesses one.

  4. ptchg: A FORTRAN program for point-charge calculations of electric field gradients (EFGs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spearing, Dane R.

    1994-05-01

    ptchg, a FORTRAN program, has been developed to calculate electric field gradients (EFG) around an atomic site in crystalline solids using the point-charge direct-lattice summation method. It uses output from the crystal structure generation program Atoms as its input. As an application of ptchg, a point-charge calculation of the EFG quadrupolar parameters around the oxygen site in SiO 2 cristobalite is demonstrated. Although point-charge calculations of electric field gradients generally are limited to ionic compounds, the computed quadrupolar parameters around the oxygen site in SiO 2 cristobalite, a highly covalent material, are in good agreement with the experimentally determined values from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.

  5. Oxygen adsorption on the Al0.25Ga0.75N (0001) surface: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jiaqi; Song, Tielei; Liang, Xixia; Zhao, Guojun

    2018-04-01

    To understand the interaction mechanism for the oxygen adsorption on AlGaN surface, herein, we built the possible models of oxygen adsorption on Al0.25Ga0.75N (0001) surface. For different oxygen coverage, three kinds of adsorption site are considered. Then the favorable adsorption sites are characterized by first principles calculation for (2 × 2) supercell of Al0.25Ga0.75N (0001) surface. On basis of the optimal adsorption structures, our calculated results show that all the adsorption processes are exothermic, indicating that the (0001) surface orientation is active towards the adsorption of oxygen. The doping of Al is advantage to the adsorption of O atom. Additionally, the adsorption energy decreases with reducing the oxygen coverage, and the relationship between them is approximately linear. Owing to the oxygen adsorption, the surface states in the fundamental band gap are significant reduced with respect to the free Al0.25Ga0.75N (0001) surface. Moreover, the optical properties on different oxygen coverage are also discussed.

  6. Non-contact measurement of oxygen saturation with an RGB camera

    PubMed Central

    Guazzi, Alessandro R.; Villarroel, Mauricio; Jorge, João; Daly, Jonathan; Frise, Matthew C.; Robbins, Peter A.; Tarassenko, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    A novel method (Sophia) is presented to track oxygen saturation changes in a controlled environment using an RGB camera placed approximately 1.5 m away from the subject. The method is evaluated on five healthy volunteers (Fitzpatrick skin phenotypes II, III, and IV) whose oxygen saturations were varied between 80% and 100% in a purpose-built chamber over 40 minutes each. The method carefully selects regions of interest (ROI) in the camera image by calculating signal-to-noise ratios for each ROI. This allows it to track changes in oxygen saturation accurately with respect to a conventional pulse oximeter (median coefficient of determination, 0.85). PMID:26417504

  7. Experimental thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat values for mixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, R. A.; Cieszkiewicz, M. T.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity obtained with a transient hot-wire apparatus are reported for three mixtures of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon. Values of the specific heat, Cp, are calculated from these measured values and the density calculated with an equation of state. The measurements were made at temperatures between 65 and 303 K with pressures between 0.1 and 70 MPa. The data cover the vapor, liquid, and supercritical gas phases for the three mixtures. The total reported points are 1066 for the air mixture (78.11 percent nitrogen, 20.97 percent oxygen, and 0.92 percent argon), 1058 for the 50 percent nitrogen, 50 percent oxygen mixture, and 864 for the 25 percent nitrogen, 75 oxygen mixture. Empirical thermal conductivity correlations are provided for the three mixtures.

  8. Image-Based Modeling of Blood Flow and Oxygen Transfer in Feto-Placental Capillaries

    PubMed Central

    Brownbill, Paul; Janáček, Jiří; Jirkovská, Marie; Kubínová, Lucie; Chernyavsky, Igor L.; Jensen, Oliver E.

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy, oxygen diffuses from maternal to fetal blood through villous trees in the placenta. In this paper, we simulate blood flow and oxygen transfer in feto-placental capillaries by converting three-dimensional representations of villous and capillary surfaces, reconstructed from confocal laser scanning microscopy, to finite-element meshes, and calculating values of vascular flow resistance and total oxygen transfer. The relationship between the total oxygen transfer rate and the pressure drop through the capillary is shown to be captured across a wide range of pressure drops by physical scaling laws and an upper bound on the oxygen transfer rate. A regression equation is introduced that can be used to estimate the oxygen transfer in a capillary using the vascular resistance. Two techniques for quantifying the effects of statistical variability, experimental uncertainty and pathological placental structure on the calculated properties are then introduced. First, scaling arguments are used to quantify the sensitivity of the model to uncertainties in the geometry and the parameters. Second, the effects of localized dilations in fetal capillaries are investigated using an idealized axisymmetric model, to quantify the possible effect of pathological placental structure on oxygen transfer. The model predicts how, for a fixed pressure drop through a capillary, oxygen transfer is maximized by an optimal width of the dilation. The results could explain the prevalence of fetal hypoxia in cases of delayed villous maturation, a pathology characterized by a lack of the vasculo-syncytial membranes often seen in conjunction with localized capillary dilations. PMID:27788214

  9. Imaging oxygen distribution in marine sediments. The importance of bioturbation and sediment heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Pischedda, L; Poggiale, J C; Cuny, P; Gilbert, F

    2008-06-01

    The influence of sediment oxygen heterogeneity, due to bioturbation, on diffusive oxygen flux was investigated. Laboratory experiments were carried out with 3 macrobenthic species presenting different bioturbation behaviour patterns: the polychaetes Nereis diversicolor and Nereis virens, both constructing ventilated galleries in the sediment column, and the gastropod Cyclope neritea, a burrowing species which does not build any structure. Oxygen two-dimensional distribution in sediments was quantified by means of the optical planar optode technique. Diffusive oxygen fluxes (mean and integrated) and a variability index were calculated on the captured oxygen images. All species increased sediment oxygen heterogeneity compared to the controls without animals. This was particularly noticeable with the polychaetes because of the construction of more or less complex burrows. Integrated diffusive oxygen flux increased with oxygen heterogeneity due to the production of interface available for solute exchanges between overlying water and sediments. This work shows that sediment heterogeneity is an important feature of the control of oxygen exchanges at the sediment-water interface.

  10. Productivity Estimation of Hypersaline Microbial Mat Communities - Diurnal Cycles of Dissolved Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Less, G.; Cohen, Y.; Luz, B.; Lazar, B.

    2002-05-01

    Hypersaline microbial mat communities (MMC) are the modern equivalents of the Archean stromatolities, the first photosynthetic organisms on Earth. An estimate of their oxygen production rate is important to the understanding of oxygen evolution on Earth ca. 2 b.y.b.p. Here we use the diurnal cycle of dissolved oxygen, O2/Ar ratio and the isotopic composition of dissolved oxygen to calculate net and gross primary productivity of MMC growing in a large scale (80 m2) experimental pan. The pan is inoculated with MMC taken from the Solar Lake, Sinai, Egypt and filled with 90\\permil evaporated Red Sea water brine up to a depth of ca. 0.25 m. It is equipped with computerized flow through system that is programmed to pump pan water at selected time intervals into a sampling cell fitted with dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity and temperature sensors connected to a datalogger. Manual brine samples were taken for calibrating the sensors, mass spectrometric analyses and for measurements of additional relevant parameters. Dissolved oxygen concentrations fluctuate during the diurnal cycle being highly supersaturated except for the end of the night. The O2 curve varies seasonally and has a typical "shark fin" shape due to the MMC metabolic response to the shape of the diurnal light curve. The dissolved oxygen data were fitted to a smooth curve that its time derivative (dO2 /dt) is defined as: Z dO2 /dt=GP-R-k(O2(meas)- O2(sat)) where z is the depth (m); GP and R are the MMC gross production and respiration (mol m-2 d-1), respectively; k is the gas exchange coefficient (m d-1); O2(meas) and O2(sat) (mol L-1) are the measured and equilibrium dissolved oxygen concentrations, respectively. The high resolution sampling of the automated system produces O2 curves that enable the calculation of smooth and reliable time derivatives. The calculations yield net production values that vary between 1,000 10-6 to -100 10-6 mol O2 m-2 h-1 and day respiration rates between 60 10-6 to 30 10

  11. Effect of iron content on the creep behavior of Olivine: 2. Hydrous conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yong-Hong; Zimmerman, Mark E.; Kohlstedt, David L.

    2018-05-01

    We have undertaken an experimental investigation of the effect of iron content on the viscosity of Fe-Mg olivine aggregates deformed under hydrous conditions in order to provide a basis for comparing convection models for the mantle of Earth with those for the more iron-rich mantle of Mars. Fine-grained samples of Fe-bearing olivine with fayalite contents, Fax, of x = 100, 75, 50, 30 and 10 were deformed in triaxial compressive creep primarily in the dislocation creep regime under water-saturated conditions at temperatures of 1273 to 1473 K and a confining pressure of 300 MPa. Nickel sleeves around the samples of Fa10, Fa30 and Fa50 set the oxygen fugacity at the Ni:NiO buffer and thus the water fugacity at ≲300 MPa, while Fe sleeves around samples of Fa75 and Fa100 set the oxygen fugacity at the Fe:FeO buffer and thus the water fugacity at ≲200 MPa. Samples were deformed in triaxial compression to a maximum strain of 0.2 at differential stresses from 10 to 300 MPa and strain rates from 10-7 to 10-3 s-1. In the dislocation creep field at a given temperature, the viscosity of samples of Fa50 is a factor of ∼10 smaller than the viscosity of samples of Fa30, while the viscosity of samples of Fa30 is a factor of ∼10 smaller than that of samples of Fa10. Our experimental results can be described by the flow law ε˙disl =Cdisl(σ/μ) ndisl XFa pdisl exp(-(Qdisl0 +αdislXFa)/RT) fH2Omdisl with Cdisl = 99.7 MPa-5/4 s-1, ndisl = 3.7, pdisl = 0.5, Qdisl0 = 510 kJ/mol, αdisl = -120 kJ/mol, and mdisl = 5/4. This flow law indicates that the viscosity of olivine of a specific Fe:Mg ratio is a factor of ∼10 smaller than its counterpart deformed under anhydrous conditions. In a hydrous environment at the same thermodynamic conditions, the viscosity of the more Fe-rich mantle (∼Fa19) of Mars is a factor of ∼5 lower than that of the mantle (∼Fa8) of Earth.

  12. Chemical composition and the potential for proteomic transformation in cancer, hypoxia, and hyperosmotic stress

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    function of fugacity of O2 and activity of H2O, which serve as scales of oxidation and hydration potential. Diagrams summarizing the relative potential for formation of up- and down-expressed proteins have predicted equipotential lines that cluster around particular values of oxygen fugacity and water activity for similar datasets. The changes in chemical composition of proteomes are likely linked with reactions among other cellular molecules. A redox balance calculation indicates that an increase in the lipid to protein ratio in cancer cells by 20% over hypoxic cells would generate a large enough electron sink for oxidation of the cancer proteomes. The datasets and computer code used here are made available in a new R package, canprot. PMID:28603672

  13. Study of the reaction of atomic oxygen with aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akers, F. I.; Wightman, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The rate of disappearance of atomic oxygen was measured at several pressures in a fast flow pyrex reactor system with its walls treated with (NH4)2SO4 (s), H2SO4 (l), and NH4CL (s). Atomic oxygen, P-3 was generated by dissociation of pure, low pressure oxygen in a microwave discharge. Concentrations of atomic oxygen were measured at several stations in the reactor system using chemiluminescent titration with NO2. Recombination efficiencies calculated from experimentally determined wall recombination rate constants are in good agreement with reported values for clean Pyrex and an H2SO4 coated wall. The recombination efficiency for (NH4)2SO4, results in a slightly lower value than for H2S04. A rapid exothermic reaction between atomic oxygen and the NH4Cl wall coating prevented recombination efficiency determination for this coating. The results show that the technique is highly useful for wall recombination measurements and as a means of extrapolating to the case of free stream aerosol-gas interactions.

  14. Characterization and reactivity of a terminal nickel(III)-oxygen adduct.

    PubMed

    Pirovano, Paolo; Farquhar, Erik R; Swart, Marcel; Fitzpatrick, Anthony J; Morgan, Grace G; McDonald, Aidan R

    2015-02-23

    High-valent terminal metal-oxygen adducts are hypothesized to be the potent oxidizing reactants in late transition metal oxidation catalysis. In particular, examples of high-valent terminal nickel-oxygen adducts are scarce, meaning there is a dearth in the understanding of such oxidants. A monoanionic Ni(II)-bicarbonate complex has been found to react in a 1:1 ratio with the one-electron oxidant tris(4-bromophenyl)ammoniumyl hexachloroantimonate, yielding a thermally unstable intermediate in high yield (ca. 95%). Electronic absorption, electronic paramagnetic resonance, and X-ray absorption spectroscopies and density functional theory calculations confirm its description as a low-spin (S = 1/2), square planar Ni(III)-oxygen adduct. This rare example of a high-valent terminal nickel-oxygen complex performs oxidations of organic substrates, including 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol and triphenylphosphine, which are indicative of hydrogen atom abstraction and oxygen atom transfer reactivity, respectively. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Characterization and Reactivity of a Terminal Nickel(III)-Oxygen Adduct

    DOE PAGES

    Pirovano, Paolo; Farquhar, Erik R.; Swart, Marcel; ...

    2015-01-22

    Here, high-valent terminal metal–oxygen adducts are hypothesized to be the potent oxidizing reactants in late transition metal oxidation catalysis. In particular, examples of high-valent terminal nickel–oxygen adducts are scarce, meaning there is a dearth in the understanding of such oxidants. A monoanionic Ni II-bicarbonate complex has been found to react in a 1:1 ratio with the one-electron oxidant tris(4-bromophenyl)ammoniumyl hexachloroantimonate, yielding a thermally unstable intermediate in high yield (ca. 95%). Electronic absorption, electronic paramagnetic resonance, and X-ray absorption spectroscopies and density functional theory calculations confirm its description as a low-spin (S=1/2), square planar Ni III–oxygen adduct. Moreover, this rare examplemore » of a high-valent terminal nickel–oxygen complex performs oxidations of organic substrates, including 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol and triphenylphosphine, which are indicative of hydrogen atom abstraction and oxygen atom transfer reactivity, respectively.« less

  16. Insensitivity of cerebral oxygen transport to oxygen affinity of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Raymond C.; Fronticelli, Clara; Bucci, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    The cerebrovascular effects of exchange transfusion of various cell-free hemoglobins that possess different oxygen affinities are reviewed. Reducing hematocrit by transfusion of a non-oxygen-carrying solution dilates pial arterioles on the brain surface and increases cerebral blood flow to maintain a constant bulk oxygen transport to the brain. In contrast, transfusion of hemoglobins with P50 of 4–34 Torr causes constriction of pial arterioles that offsets the decrease in blood viscosity to maintain cerebral blood flow and oxygen transport. The autoregulatory constriction is dependent on synthesis of 20-HETE from arachidonic acid. This oxygen-dependent reaction is apparently enhanced by facilitated oxygen diffusion from the red cell to the endothelium arising from increased plasma oxygen solubility in the presence of low or high-affinity hemoglobin. Exchange transfusion of recombinant hemoglobin polymers with P50 of 3 and 18 Torr reduces infarct volume from experimental stroke. Cell-free hemoglobins do not require a P50 as high as red blood cell hemoglobin to facilitate oxygen delivery. PMID:18230370

  17. Insensitivity of cerebral oxygen transport to oxygen affinity of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Raymond C; Fronticelli, Clara; Bucci, Enrico

    2008-10-01

    The cerebrovascular effects of exchange transfusion of various cell-free hemoglobins that possess different oxygen affinities are reviewed. Reducing hematocrit by transfusion of a non-oxygen-carrying solution dilates pial arterioles on the brain surface and increases cerebral blood flow to maintain a constant bulk oxygen transport to the brain. In contrast, transfusion of hemoglobins with P50 of 4-34 Torr causes constriction of pial arterioles that offsets the decrease in blood viscosity to maintain cerebral blood flow and oxygen transport. The autoregulatory constriction is dependent on synthesis of 20-HETE from arachidonic acid. This oxygen-dependent reaction is apparently enhanced by facilitated oxygen diffusion from the red cell to the endothelium arising from increased plasma oxygen solubility in the presence of low or high-affinity hemoglobin. Exchange transfusion of recombinant hemoglobin polymers with P50 of 3 and 18 Torr reduces infarct volume from experimental stroke. Cell-free hemoglobins do not require a P50 as high as red blood cell hemoglobin to facilitate oxygen delivery.

  18. Europium anomaly in plagioclase feldspar - Experimental results and semiquantitative model.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weill, D. F.; Drake, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    The partition of europium between plagioclase feldspar and magmatic liquid is considered in terms of the distribution coefficients for divalent and trivalent europium. A model equation is derived giving the europium anomaly in plagioclase as a function of temperature and oxygen fugacity. The model explains europium anomalies in plagioclase synthesized under controlled laboratory conditions as well as the variations of the anomaly observed in natural terrestrial and extraterrestrial igneous rocks.

  19. Europium anomaly in plagioclase feldspar: experimental results and semiquantitative model.

    PubMed

    Weill, D F; Drake, M J

    1973-06-08

    The partition of europium between plagioclase feldspar and magmatic liquid is considered in terms of the distribution coefficients for divalent and trivalent europium. A model equation is derived giving the europium anomaly in plagioclase as a function of temperature and oxygen fugacity. The model explains europium anomalies in plagioclase synthesized under controlled laboratory conditions as well as the variations of the anomaly observed in natural terrestrial and extraterrestrial igneous rocks.

  20. Oxygen isotope corrections for online δ34S analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fry, B.; Silva, S.R.; Kendall, C.; Anderson, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Elemental analyzers have been successfully coupled to stable-isotope-ratio mass spectrometers for online measurements of the δ34S isotopic composition of plants, animals and soils. We found that the online technology for automated δ34S isotopic determinations did not yield reproducible oxygen isotopic compositions in the SO2 produced, and as a result calculated δ34S values were often 1–3‰ too high versus their correct values, particularly for plant and animal samples with high C/S ratio. Here we provide empirical and analytical methods for correcting the S isotope values for oxygen isotope variations, and further detail a new SO2-SiO2 buffering method that minimizes detrimental oxygen isotope variations in SO2.

  1. Diffusion of oxygen in cork.

    PubMed

    Lequin, Sonia; Chassagne, David; Karbowiak, Thomas; Simon, Jean-Marc; Paulin, Christian; Bellat, Jean-Pierre

    2012-04-04

    This work reports measurements of effective oxygen diffusion coefficient in raw cork. Kinetics of oxygen transfer through cork is studied at 298 K thanks to a homemade manometric device composed of two gas compartments separated by a cork wafer sample. The first compartment contains oxygen, whereas the second one is kept under dynamic vacuum. The pressure decrease in the first compartment is recorded as a function of time. The effective diffusion coefficient D(eff) is obtained by applying Fick's law to transient state using a numerical method based on finite differences. An analytical model derived from Fick's law applied to steady state is also proposed. Results given by these two methods are in close agreement with each other. The harmonic average of the effective diffusion coefficients obtained from the distribution of 15 cork wafers of 3 mm thickness is 1.1 × 10(-9) m(2) s(-1) with a large distribution over four decades. The statistical analysis of the Gaussian distribution obtained on a 3 mm cork wafer is extrapolated to a 48 mm cork wafer, which length corresponds to a full cork stopper. In this case, the probability density distribution gives a mean value of D(eff) equal to 1.6 × 10(-9) m(2) s(-1). This result shows that it is possible to obtain the effective diffusion coefficient of oxygen through cork from short time (few days) measurements performed on a thin cork wafer, whereas months are required to obtain the diffusion coefficient for a full cork stopper. Permeability and oxygen transfer rate are also calculated for comparison with data from other studies.

  2. The role of facilitated diffusion in oxygen transport by cell-free hemoglobins: implications for the design of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, M R; Vandegriff, K D; Winslow, R M

    2001-08-30

    We compared rates of oxygen transport in an in vitro capillary system using red blood cells (RBCs) and cell-free hemoglobins. The axial PO(2) drop down the capillary was calculated using finite-element analysis. RBCs, unmodified hemoglobin (HbA(0)), cross-linked hemoglobin (alpha alpha-Hb) and hemoglobin conjugated to polyethylene-glycol (PEG-Hb) were evaluated. According to their fractional saturation curves, PEG-Hb showed the least desaturation down the capillary, which most closely matched the RBCs; HbA(0) and alpha alpha-Hb showed much greater desaturation. A lumped diffusion parameter, K*, was calculated based on the Fick diffusion equation with a term for facilitated diffusion. The overall rates of oxygen transfer are consistent with hemoglobin diffusion rates according to the Stokes-Einstein Law and with previously measured blood pressure responses in rats. This study provides a conceptual framework for the design of a 'blood substitute' based on mimicking O(2) transport by RBCs to prevent autoregulatory changes in blood flow and pressure.

  3. Indoor Residence Times of Semivolatile Organic Compounds: Model Estimation and Field Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor residence times of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) are a major and mostly unavailable input for residential exposure assessment. We calculated residence times for a suite of SVOCs using a fugacity model applied to residential environments. Residence times depend on...

  4. One year of Seaglider dissolved oxygen concentration profiles at the PAP site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binetti, Umberto; Kaiser, Jan; Heywood, Karen; Damerell, Gillian; Rumyantseva, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Oxygen is one of the most important variables measured in oceanography, influenced both by physical and biological factors. During the OSMOSIS project, 7 Seagliders were used in 3 subsequent missions to measure a multidisciplinary suite of parameters at high frequency in the top 1000 m of the water column for one year, from September 2012 to September 2013. The gliders were deployed at the PAP time series station (nominally at 49° N 16.5° W) and surveyed the area following a butterfly-shaped path. Oxygen concentration was measured by Aanderaa optodes and calibrated using ship CTD O2 profiles during 5 deployment and recovery cruises, which were in turn calibrated by Winkler titration of discrete samples. The oxygen-rich mixed layer deepens in fall and winter and gets richer in oxygen when the temperature decreases. The spring bloom did not happen as expected, but instead the presence of a series of small blooms was measured throughout spring and early summer. During the summer the mixed layer become very shallow and oxygen concentrations decreased. A Deep Oxygen Maximum (DOM) developed along with a deep chlorophyll maximum during the summer and was located just below the mixed layer . At this depth, phytoplankton had favourable light and nutrient conditions to grow and produce oxygen, which was not subject to immediate outgassing. The oxygen concentration in the DOM was not constant, but decreased, then increased again until the end of the mission. Intrusions of oxygen rich water are also visible throughout the mission. These are probably due to mesoscale events through the horizontal transport of oxygen and/or nutrients that can enhance productivity, particularly at the edge of the fronts. We calculate net community production (NCP) by analysing the variation in oxygen with time. Two methods have been proposed. The classical oxygen budget method assumes that changes in oxygen are due to the sum of air-sea flux, isopycnal advection, diapycnal mixing and NCP. ERA

  5. Automated Routines for Calculating Whole-Stream Metabolism: Theoretical Background and User's Guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, Jerad D.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    In order to standardize methods and facilitate rapid calculation and archival of stream-metabolism variables, the Stream Metabolism Program was developed to calculate gross primary production, net ecosystem production, respiration, and selected other variables from continuous measurements of dissolved-oxygen concentration, water temperature, and other user-supplied information. Methods for calculating metabolism from continuous measurements of dissolved-oxygen concentration and water temperature are fairly well known, but a standard set of procedures and computation software for all aspects of the calculations were not available previously. The Stream Metabolism Program addresses this deficiency with a stand-alone executable computer program written in Visual Basic.NET?, which runs in the Microsoft Windows? environment. All equations and assumptions used in the development of the software are documented in this report. Detailed guidance on application of the software is presented, along with a summary of the data required to use the software. Data from either a single station or paired (upstream, downstream) stations can be used with the software to calculate metabolism variables.

  6. Thermodynamic assessment of the rhodium-ruthenium-oxygen (Rh-Ru-O) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gossé, S.; Bordier, S.; Guéneau, C.; Brackx, E.; Domenger, R.; Rogez, J.

    2018-03-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) and rhodium (Rh) are abundant platinum-group metals formed during burn-up of nuclear fuels. Under normal operating conditions, Rh and Ru accumulate and predominantly form metallic precipitates with other fission products like Mo, Pd and Tc. In the framework of vitrification of high-level nuclear waste, these fission products are poorly soluble in molten glasses. They precipitate as metallic particles and oxide phases. Moreover, these Ru and Rh rich phases strongly depend on temperature and the oxygen fugacity of the glass melt. In case of severe accidental conditions with air ingress, oxidation of the Ru and Rh is possible. At low temperatures (T < 1422 K for rhodium sesquioxide and T < 1815 K for ruthenium dioxide), the formed oxides are relatively stable. On the other hand, at high temperatures (T > 1422 K for rhodium sesquioxide and T > 1815 K for ruthenium dioxide), they may decompose into (Rh)-FCC or (Ru)-HCP metallic phases and radiotoxic volatile gaseous species. A thermodynamic assessment of the Rh-Ru-O system will enable the prediction of: (1) the metallic and oxide phases that form during the vitrification of high-level nuclear wastes and (2) the release of volatile gaseous species during a severe accident. The Calphad method developed herein employs a thermodynamic approach in the investigation of the thermochemistry of rhodium and ruthenium at high temperatures. Current literature on the thermodynamic properties and phase diagram data enables preliminary thermodynamic assessments of the Rh-O and Ru-O systems. Additionally, select compositions in the ternary Rh-Ru-O system underwent experimental tests to complement data found in literature and to establish the phase equilibria in the ternary system.

  7. Lunar oxygen production by pyrolysis of regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senior, Constance L.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen represents one of the most desirable products of lunar mining and manufacturing. Among the many processes which have been proposed for oxygen production, pyrolysis stands out as one which is uncomplicated and easy to bootstrap. Pyrolysis or vapor-phase reduction involves heating regolith to temperatures sufficient to allow partial decomposition and vaporization. Some metal oxides give up oxygen upon heating, either in the gas phase to form reduced gaseous species or in the condensed phase to form a metallic phase. Based on preliminary experiments and equilibrium calculations, the temperatures needed for pyrolysis are expected to be in the range of 2000 to 2200 K, giving total gas pressures of 0.001 to 0.1 torr. Bulk regolith can be used as a feedstock without beneficiation with concentrated solar radiation supplying most of energy needed. Further, selective condensation of metal-containing species from the gas phase may yield metallic iron and silicon as byproducts.

  8. Anomalous optical emission in hot dense oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Mario; Gregoryanz, Eugene; Mao, Ho-kwang; Hemley, Russell J.

    2007-11-01

    We report the observation of unusually strong, broad-band optical emission peaked between 590 and 650 nm when solid and fluid oxygen are heated by a near infrared laser at pressures from 3 to 46 GPa. In situ Raman spectra of oxygen were collected and corresponding temperatures were measured from the Stokes/anti-Stokes intensity ratios of vibrational transitions. The intense optical emission overwhelmed the Raman spectrum at temperatures exceeding 750 K. The spectrum was found to be much narrower than Planck-type thermal emission, and the intensity increase with input power was much steeper than expected for the thermal emission. The result places an important general caveat on calculating temperatures based on optical emission spectra in high-pressure laser-heating experiments. The intense emission in oxygen is photo-induced rather than being purely thermal, through multiphoton or multi-step single photon absorption processes related to the interaction with infrared radiation. The results suggest that short lived ionic species are induced by this laser-matter interaction.

  9. High Pressure and High Temperature State of Oxygen Enriched Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, M.; Zhang, S.; Jeanloz, R.; Militzer, B.

    2016-12-01

    Interior models for Uranus and Neptune include a hydrogen/helium/water outer envelope and a core of rock and metal at the center, with superionic water-rich ice proposed as comprising an intermediate layer. Here we consider an oxygen-enriched ice, such as H2O2 hydrogen peroxide (± water), that could form through chemical reaction between water-rich and underlying rocky (i.e., oxygen-rich) layers. As oxygen and its compounds (e.g., H2O, SiO2) form metallic fluids at pressures above 100-150 GPa, the problem amounts to considering oxygen alloying of semiconducting or metallic water. The density of H2O2 is 1.45 g/cc at ambient pressure and 0° C, increasing to 1.71 g/cc in the solid state at about -20° C. There are no Hugoniot data beyond 30 GPa, so we estimated Hugoniots for H2O2 with different initial densities, using both a mixing model based on Hugoniot data for H2O2 and 1/2 O2 (molar volume summation under pressure) and ab initio calculations for unreacted H2O2. The results agree with each other to pressures of about 200 GPa, and the ab initio calculations show evidence of a superionic state at temperatures as low as 500 K, much lower than for water ice. Hydrogen peroxide is expected to be liquid along planetary isentropes for Uranus and Neptune, suggesting that H2O2 may not be present as a pure compound in these planets. Instead, oxygen-enriched H2O ice may be the relevant form of water and oxygen, and might be produced in the laboratory by way of dynamic compression of H2O2 or laser-heating of statically compressed H2O + O2 and/or H2O2.

  10. Increase in whole-body peripheral vascular resistance during three hours of air or oxygen prebreathing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, J. M.; Horrigan, D. J., Jr.; Conkin, J.; Dierlam, J. J.; Stanford, J., Jr.; Riddle, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Male and female subjects prebreathed air or 100% oxygen through a mask for 3.0 hours while comfortably reclined. Blood pressures, heart rate, and cardiac output were collected before and after the prebreathe. Peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) was calculated from these parameters and increased by 29% during oxygen prebreathing and 15% during air prebreathing. The oxygen contributed substantially to the increase in PVR. Diastolic blood pressure increased by 18% during the oxygen prebreathe while stystolic blood pressure showed no change under either procedure. The increase in PVR during air prebreathing was attributed to procedural stress common to air and oxygen prebreathing.

  11. Oxygen Exposure Resulting in Arterial Oxygen Tensions Above the Protocol Goal Was Associated With Worse Clinical Outcomes in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neil R; Brower, Roy G; Hager, David N; Thompson, B Taylor; Netzer, Giora; Shanholtz, Carl; Lagakos, Adrian; Checkley, William

    2018-04-01

    High fractions of inspired oxygen may augment lung damage to exacerbate lung injury in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Participants enrolled in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network trials had a goal partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood range of 55-80 mm Hg, yet the effect of oxygen exposure above this arterial oxygen tension range on clinical outcomes is unknown. We sought to determine if oxygen exposure that resulted in a partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood above goal (> 80 mm Hg) was associated with worse outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Longitudinal analysis of data collected in these trials. Ten clinical trials conducted at Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network hospitals between 1996 and 2013. Critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. None. We defined above goal oxygen exposure as the difference between the fraction of inspired oxygen and 0.5 whenever the fraction of inspired oxygen was above 0.5 and when the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood was above 80 mm Hg. We then summed above goal oxygen exposures in the first five days to calculate a cumulative above goal oxygen exposure. We determined the effect of a cumulative 5-day above goal oxygen exposure on mortality prior to discharge home at 90 days. Among 2,994 participants (mean age, 51.3 yr; 54% male) with a study-entry partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood/fraction of inspired oxygen that met acute respiratory distress syndrome criteria, average cumulative above goal oxygen exposure was 0.24 fraction of inspired oxygen-days (interquartile range, 0-0.38). Participants with above goal oxygen exposure were more likely to die (adjusted interquartile range odds ratio, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.11-1.31) and have lower ventilator-free days (adjusted interquartile range mean difference of -0.83; 95% CI, -1.18 to -0.48) and lower hospital-free days (adjusted interquartile range mean difference of -1.38; 95

  12. Calculation of weighted averages approach for the estimation of ping tolerance values

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silalom, S.; Carter, J.L.; Chantaramongkol, P.

    2010-01-01

    A biotic index was created and proposed as a tool to assess water quality in the Upper Mae Ping sub-watersheds. The Ping biotic index was calculated by utilizing Ping tolerance values. This paper presents the calculation of Ping tolerance values of the collected macroinvertebrates. Ping tolerance values were estimated by a weighted averages approach based on the abundance of macroinvertebrates and six chemical constituents that include conductivity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and orthophosphate. Ping tolerance values range from 0 to 10. Macroinvertebrates assigned a 0 are very sensitive to organic pollution while macroinvertebrates assigned 10 are highly tolerant to pollution.

  13. A computational study of the influence of oxygen incorporation on crystal growth and contamination in BaLiF 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. A.; Valerio, M. E. G.

    2002-05-01

    The incorporation of oxygen into the fluoroperovskite material BaLiF 3 is considered. Two scenarios are studied. Firstly, oxygen incorporation is considered from the viewpoint of growing the crystal from its component fluorides BaF 2 and LiF in the presence of different gases (oxygen, water and carbon dioxide). Secondly, contamination of grown crystals is considered using the same gases. The energy of an oxygen substitutional defect is calculated, and a range of possible solution energies using different charge compensation mechanisms calculated. It is shown in the first case that incorporation of oxygen via water vapour with charge compensation by fluorine vacancies provides the lowest energy route. In the second case similar conclusions are reached, but the energies are lower, indicating that grown samples are more susceptible to contamination by water.

  14. Local structural variation with oxygen fugacity in Fe 2SiO 4+x fayalitic iron silicate melts

    DOE PAGES

    Alderman, O.L.G.; Lazareva, L.; Wilding, M. C.; ...

    2017-01-07

    Here, the structure of molten Fe 2SiO 4+x has been studied using both high-energy X-ray diffraction and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, combined with aerodynamic levitation and laser beam heating. A wide range of Fe 3+ contents were accessed by varying the levitation and atmospheric gas composition. Diffraction measurements were made in the temperature ( T) and oxygen partial pressure ranges 1624(21) < T < 2183(94) K (uncertainties in parentheses) and –5.6(3) < ΔFMQ < +2.8(5) log units (relative to the Fayalite-Magnetite-Quartz buffer). Iron K-edge XANES measurements covered the ranges 1557(33) < T < 1994(36) K andmore » –2.1(3) < ΔFMQ < +4.4(3) log units. Fe 3+ contents, x = Fe 3+/ΣFe, estimated directly from the pre-edge peaks of the XANES spectra varied between 0.15(1) and 0.40(2). While these agree in some cases with semi-empirical models, notable discrepancies are discussed in the context of the redox kinetics and the limitations in both the models and in the calibrations used to derive oxidation state from XANES spectra. XANES pre-edge peak areas imply average Fe–O coordination numbers, n FeO, close to 5 for all Fe 3+/ΣFe. Diffraction measurements yielded values of 4.4(2) < n FeO < 4.7(1). There is limited evidence for a linear trend n FeO(x) = 4.46(3) + 0.4(1)x. Asymmetric Fe–O bond length distributions peak at around 1.96 Å and have a shoulder arising from longer interatomic distances. Mean r FeO lie close to 2.06 Å, consistent with n FeO close to 5. These observations suggest that Fe 2+ is less efficient at stabilizing tetrahedral Fe 3+ compared to large monovalent alkali cations. Comparison of in-situ XANES estimates of Fe 3+/ΣFe in the melts to those of the quenched solids obtained from XANES as well as Mössbauer spectroscopy indicate rapid oxidation during cooling, enabled by stirring of the melt by the levitation gas flow. As such, the oxidation state of hot komatiitic and other highly fluid melts

  15. Local structural variation with oxygen fugacity in Fe2SiO4+x fayalitic iron silicate melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderman, O. L. G.; Lazareva, L.; Wilding, M. C.; Benmore, C. J.; Heald, S. M.; Johnson, C. E.; Johnson, J. A.; Hah, H.-Y.; Sendelbach, S.; Tamalonis, A.; Skinner, L. B.; Parise, J. B.; Weber, J. K. R.

    2017-04-01

    The structure of molten Fe2SiO4+x has been studied using both high-energy X-ray diffraction and Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, combined with aerodynamic levitation and laser beam heating. A wide range of Fe3+ contents were accessed by varying the levitation and atmospheric gas composition. Diffraction measurements were made in the temperature (T) and oxygen partial pressure ranges 1624(21) < T < 2183(94) K (uncertainties in parentheses) and -5.6(3) < ΔFMQ < +2.8(5) log units (relative to the Fayalite-Magnetite-Quartz buffer). Iron K-edge XANES measurements covered the ranges 1557(33) < T < 1994(36) K and -2.1(3) < ΔFMQ < +4.4(3) log units. Fe3+ contents, x = Fe3+/ΣFe, estimated directly from the pre-edge peaks of the XANES spectra varied between 0.15(1) and 0.40(2). While these agree in some cases with semi-empirical models, notable discrepancies are discussed in the context of the redox kinetics and the limitations in both the models and in the calibrations used to derive oxidation state from XANES spectra. XANES pre-edge peak areas imply average Fe-O coordination numbers, nFeO, close to 5 for all Fe3+/ΣFe. Diffraction measurements yielded values of 4.4(2) < nFeO < 4.7(1). There is limited evidence for a linear trend nFeO(x) = 4.46(3) + 0.4(1)x. Asymmetric Fe-O bond length distributions peak at around 1.96 Å and have a shoulder arising from longer interatomic distances. Mean rFeO lie close to 2.06 Å, consistent with nFeO close to 5. These observations suggest that Fe2+ is less efficient at stabilizing tetrahedral Fe3+ compared to large monovalent alkali cations. Comparison of in-situ XANES estimates of Fe3+/ΣFe in the melts to those of the quenched solids obtained from XANES as well as Mössbauer spectroscopy indicate rapid oxidation during cooling, enabled by stirring of the melt by the levitation gas flow. As such, the oxidation state of hot komatiitic and other highly fluid melts may not be retained, even during

  16. Strong excitonic interactions in the oxygen K-edge of perovskite oxides.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Kota; Miyata, Tomohiro; Olovsson, Weine; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu

    2017-07-01

    Excitonic interactions of the oxygen K-edge electron energy-loss near-edge structure (ELNES) of perovskite oxides, CaTiO 3 , SrTiO 3 , and BaTiO 3 , together with reference oxides, MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, and TiO 2 , were investigated using a first-principles Bethe-Salpeter equation calculation. Although the transition energy of oxygen K-edge is high, strong excitonic interactions were present in the oxygen K-edge ELNES of the perovskite oxides, whereas the excitonic interactions were negligible in the oxygen K-edge ELNES of the reference compounds. Detailed investigation of the electronic structure suggests that the strong excitonic interaction in the oxygen K-edge ELNES of the perovskite oxides is caused by the directionally confined, low-dimensional electronic structure at the Ti-O-Ti bonds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Solar heating of common lunar minerals for the production of oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senior, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of vapor-phase reduction (pyrolysis) of lunar materials to produce oxygen. Solar furnace experiments were conducted on two common lunar minerals, ilmenite and anorthite. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations predicted that ilmenite should show a larger pressure increase than anorthite under conditions of the experiments and this was confirmed by the experiments. The measured mass loss of the ilmenite sample was consistent with loss of oxygen by reduction of iron in the liquid phase; this result was also predicted from equilibrium calculations. Based on preliminary experiments and equilibrium calculations, the temperatures needed for pyrolysis are expected to be in the range of 2000 to 2500 K, giving total gas pressures of 0.01 to 1 torr. Bulk regolith can be used as a feedstock without extensive beneficiation. Further, selective condensation of metal-containing species from the gas phase may yield metallic iron and silicon as byproducts from the process.

  18. Metabolically Derived Human Ventilation Rates: A Revised Approach Based Upon Oxygen Consumption Rates (Final Report, 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Metabolically Derived Human Ventilation Rates: A Revised Approach Based Upon Oxygen Consumption Rates. This report provides a revised approach for calculating an individual's ventilation rate directly from their oxygen c...

  19. Noncollinear magnetic order induced by Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in oxygen-assisted Pt nanojunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, J. R.; Yan, X. H.; Xiao, Y.; Guo, Y. D.; Dai, C. J.

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by recent measurement of the magnetism and conductance of the oxygen-assisted Pt nanojunctions, we performed first principle calculations of the magnetic order and electronic transport by explicitly including fully relativistic effects. Our results show that the spin alignment is a cycloidal spiral feature attributed to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which indicates that the observed magnetism in experiments is of noncollinear nature. The oxygen concentration is the responsible for the switching of the rotational sense of the spiral magnetic order found in oxygen-assisted Pt nanojunctions. Furthermore, the magnetic moments and magnetoresistances vary with oxygen concentration in the chain, which can be used to tune the magnetism and magnetotransport. The oxygen-assisted Pt nanojunctions offer a possibility for spintronic applications in magnetic memory and quantum devices.

  20. The Role of Subsurface Oxygen on Cu Surfaces for CO 2 Electrochemical Reduction

    DOE PAGES

    Fields, Meredith; Hong, Xin; Norskov, Jens K.; ...

    2018-06-12

    Under ambient conditions, copper with oxygen near the surface displays strengthened CO 2 and CO adsorption energies. This finding is often used to rationalize differences seen in product distributions between Cu-oxide and pure Cu electrodes during electrochemical CO 2 reduction. However, little evidence exists to confirm the presence of oxygen within first few layers of the Cu matrix under relevant experimental reducing conditions. As a result, using density functional theory calculations, we discuss the stability of subsurface oxygen from thermodynamic and kinetic perspectives, and show that under reducing potentials, subsurface oxygen alone should have negligible effects on the activity ofmore » crystalline Cu.« less

  1. The Role of Subsurface Oxygen on Cu Surfaces for CO 2 Electrochemical Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Meredith; Hong, Xin; Norskov, Jens K.

    Under ambient conditions, copper with oxygen near the surface displays strengthened CO 2 and CO adsorption energies. This finding is often used to rationalize differences seen in product distributions between Cu-oxide and pure Cu electrodes during electrochemical CO 2 reduction. However, little evidence exists to confirm the presence of oxygen within first few layers of the Cu matrix under relevant experimental reducing conditions. As a result, using density functional theory calculations, we discuss the stability of subsurface oxygen from thermodynamic and kinetic perspectives, and show that under reducing potentials, subsurface oxygen alone should have negligible effects on the activity ofmore » crystalline Cu.« less

  2. High temperature deformation of hot-pressed polycrystalline orthoenstatite. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehghan-Banadaki, A.

    1983-01-01

    Artificial hot pressed polycrystalline samples were prepared from purified powder of Bamble, Norway, orthoenstatite, (Mg0.86Fe0.14)SiO3. The uniaxial creep behavior of the polycrystalline orthoenstatite was studied over stress ranges of 10-180 MPa and temperatures of 1500-1700 K (0.82-0.93 T sub m) under two different oxygen fugacities, namely equilibrium (Mo-MoO2 buffer) and a reducing (graphite heating element) atmosphere, respectively. An intergranular glassy phase of different compositions with a cavitational creep deformation were observed. In the Mo-MoO2 buffer atmosphere with PO2 approx. 10 to the minus 11 power - 10 to the minus 13 power atmospheres, the results of an analytical electron microscopy analysis indicate that the glassy phases are richer in Ca and Al due to the residual impurities after hot pressing. In the reducing atmosphere with an oxygen fugacity of PO2 approx. 10 to the minus 3 power - 10 to the minus 25 power atmospheres, the results of analytical electron microscopy analysis indicate that the glassy phase is almost pure silica with the presence of free iron precipitate on grain facets and at triple junctions due to the reduction of bulk materials.

  3. Macroscopic singlet oxygen model incorporating photobleaching as an input parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Michele M.; Finlay, Jarod C.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2015-03-01

    A macroscopic singlet oxygen model for photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used extensively to calculate the reacted singlet oxygen concentration for various photosensitizers. The four photophysical parameters (ξ, σ, β, δ) and threshold singlet oxygen dose ([1O2]r,sh) can be found for various drugs and drug-light intervals using a fitting algorithm. The input parameters for this model include the fluence, photosensitizer concentration, optical properties, and necrosis radius. An additional input variable of photobleaching was implemented in this study to optimize the results. Photobleaching was measured by using the pre-PDT and post-PDT sensitizer concentrations. Using the RIF model of murine fibrosarcoma, mice were treated with a linear source with fluence rates from 12 - 150 mW/cm and total fluences from 24 - 135 J/cm. The two main drugs investigated were benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD) and 2-[1-hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH). Previously published photophysical parameters were fine-tuned and verified using photobleaching as the additional fitting parameter. Furthermore, photobleaching can be used as an indicator of the robustness of the model for the particular mouse experiment by comparing the experimental and model-calculated photobleaching ratio.

  4. Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions ...

  5. Hot hydrogen and oxygen atoms in the upper atmospheres of Venus and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, A. F.; Kim, J.; Cravens, T. E.

    1990-04-01

    Optical observations of hot atoms in the atmospheres of Venus and Mars are briefly reviewed. A summary of hot hydrogen and oxygen production and loss processes is given. Results of some recent model calculations as well as a number of new results of the hot hydrogen and oxygen populations are presented and their implication in terms of solar wind interaction processes is discussed.

  6. Accuracy of Oxygen Flow Delivered by Compressed-Gas Cylinders in Hospital and Prehospital Emergency Care.

    PubMed

    Duprez, Frédéric; Michotte, Jean Bernard; Cuvelier, Gregory; Legrand, Alexandre; Mashayekhi, Sharam; Reychler, Gregory

    2018-03-01

    Oxygen cylinders are widely used both in hospital and prehospital care. Excessive or inappropriate F IO 2 may be critical for patients with hypercapnia or hypoxia. Moreover, over-oxygenation could be deleterious in ischemic disorders. Supplemental oxygen from oxygen cylinder should therefore be delivered accurately. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of oxygen flows for oxygen cylinder in hospital and prehospital care. A prospective trial was conducted to evaluate accuracy of delivered oxygen flows (2, 4, 6, 9 and 12 L/min) for different oxygen cylinder ready for use in different hospital departments. Delivered flows were analyzed randomly using a calibrated thermal mass flow meter. Two types of oxygen cylinder were evaluated: 78 oxygen cylinder with a single-stage regulator and 70 oxygen cylinder with a dual-stage regulator. Delivered flows were compared to the required oxygen flow. The residual pressure value for each oxygen cylinder was considered. A coefficient of variation was calculated to compare the variability of the delivered flow between the two types of oxygen cylinder. The median values of delivered flows were all ≥ 100% of the required flow for single stage (range 100-109%) and < 100% of required flow for dual stage (range 95-97%). The median values of the delivered flow differed between single and dual stage. It was found that single stage is significantly higher than dual stage ( P = .01). At low flow, the dispersion of the measures for single stage was higher than with a high oxygen flow. Delivered flow differences were also found between low and high residual pressures, but only with single stage ( P = .02). The residual pressure for both oxygen cylinders (no. = 148) ranged from 73 to 2,900 pounds per square inch, and no significant difference was observed between the 2 types ( P = .86). The calculated coefficient of variation ranged from 7% (±1%) for dual stage to 8% (±2%) for single stage. This study shows good accuracy of

  7. A brief clinical case of monitoring of oxygenator performance and patient-machine interdependency during prolonged veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Belliato, Mirko; Degani, Antonella; Buffa, Antonino; Sciutti, Fabio; Pagani, Michele; Pellegrini, Carlo; Iotti, Giorgio Antonio

    2017-10-01

    Monitoring veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vvECMO) during 76 days of continuous support in a 42-years old patient with end-stage pulmonary disease, listed for double-lung transplantation. Applying a new monitor (Landing ® , Eurosets, Medolla, Italy) and describing how measured and calculated parameters can be used to understand the variable interdependency between artificial membrane lung (ML) and patient native lung (NL). During vvECMO, in order to understand how the respiratory function is shared between ML and NL, ideally we should obtain data about oxygen transfer and CO 2 removal, both by ML and NL. Measurements for NL can be made on the mechanical ventilator. Measurements for ML are typically made from gas analysis on blood samples drawn from the ECMO system before and after the oxygenator, and therefore are non-continuous. Differently, the Landing monitor provides a continuous measurement of the oxygen transfer from the ML, combined with hemoglobin level, saturation of drained blood and saturation of reinfused blood. Moreover, the Landing monitor provides hemodynamics data about circulation through the ECMO system, with blood flow, pre-oxygenator pressure and post-oxygenator pressure. Of note, measurements include the drain negative pressure, whose monitoring may be particularly useful to prevent hemolysis. Real-time monitoring of vvECMO provides data helpful to understand the complex picture of a patient with severely damaged lungs on one side and an artificial lung on the other side. Data from vvECMO monitoring may help to adapt the settings of both mechanical ventilator and vvECMO. Data about oxygen transfer by the oxygenator are important to evaluate the performance of the device and may help to avoid unnecessary replacements, thus reducing risks and costs.

  8. Investigation of Oxygen Diffusion in Irradiated UO2 with MD Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günay, Seçkin D.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, irradiated UO2 is analyzed by atomistic simulation method to obtain diffusion coefficient of oxygen ions. For this purpose, a couple of molecular dynamics (MD) supercells containing Frenkel, Schottky, vacancy and interstitial types for both anion and cation defects is constructed individually. Each of their contribution is used to calculate the total oxygen diffusion for both intrinsic and extrinsic ranges. The results display that irradiation-induced defects contribute the most to the overall oxygen diffusion at temperatures below 800-1,200 K. This result is quite sensible because experimental data shows that, from room temperature to about 1,500 K, irradiation-induced swelling decreases and irradiated UO2 lattice parameter is gradually recovered because defects annihilate each other. Another point is that, concentration of defects enhances the irradiation-induced oxygen diffusion. Irradiation type also has the similar effect, namely oxygen diffusion in crystals irradiated with α-particles is more than the crystals irradiated with neutrons. Dynamic Frenkel defects dominate the oxygen diffusion data above 1,500—1,800 K. In all these temperature ranges, thermally induced Frenkel defects make no significant contribution to overall oxygen diffusion.

  9. Thermodynamic Stability of Molybdenum Oxycarbides Formed from Orthorhombic Mo 2 C in Oxygen-Rich Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Likith, S. R. J.; Farberow, C. A.; Manna, S.

    Molybdenum carbide (Mo 2C) nanoparticles and thin films are particularly suitable catalysts for catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) as they are effective for deoxygenation and can catalyze certain reactions that typically occur on noble metals. Oxygen deposited during deoxygenation reactions may alter the carbide structure, leading to the formation of oxycarbides, which can determine changes in catalytic activity or selectivity. Despite emerging spectroscopic evidence of bulk oxycarbides, so far there have been no reports of their precise atomic structure or their relative stability with respect to orthorhombic Mo 2C. This knowledge is essential for assessing the catalytic properties of molybdenum (oxy)carbidesmore » for CFP. In this article, we use density functional theory (DFT) calculations to (a) describe the thermodynamic stability of surface and subsurface configurations of oxygen and carbon atoms for a commonly studied Mo-terminated surface of orthorhombic Mo 2C and (b) determine atomic structures for oxycarbides with a Mo:C ratio of 2:1. The surface calculations suggest that oxygen atoms are not stable under the top Mo layer of the Mo 2C(100) surface. Coupling DFT calculations with a polymorph sampling method, we determine (Mo 2C) xO y oxycarbide structures for a wide range of oxygen compositions. Oxycarbides with lower oxygen content (y/x = 2) adopt layered structures reminiscent of the parent carbide phase, with flat Mo layers separated by layers of oxygen and carbon; for higher oxygen content, our results suggest the formation of amorphous phases, as the atomic layers lose their planarity with increasing oxygen content. We characterize the oxidation states of Mo in the oxycarbide structures determined computationally, and simulate their X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns in order to facilitate comparisons with experiments. Our study may provide a platform for large-scale investigations of the catalytic properties of oxycarbides and their surfaces and for

  10. Thermodynamic Stability of Molybdenum Oxycarbides Formed from Orthorhombic Mo 2 C in Oxygen-Rich Environments

    DOE PAGES

    Likith, S. R. J.; Farberow, C. A.; Manna, S.; ...

    2017-12-20

    Molybdenum carbide (Mo 2C) nanoparticles and thin films are particularly suitable catalysts for catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP) as they are effective for deoxygenation and can catalyze certain reactions that typically occur on noble metals. Oxygen deposited during deoxygenation reactions may alter the carbide structure, leading to the formation of oxycarbides, which can determine changes in catalytic activity or selectivity. Despite emerging spectroscopic evidence of bulk oxycarbides, so far there have been no reports of their precise atomic structure or their relative stability with respect to orthorhombic Mo 2C. This knowledge is essential for assessing the catalytic properties of molybdenum (oxy)carbidesmore » for CFP. In this article, we use density functional theory (DFT) calculations to (a) describe the thermodynamic stability of surface and subsurface configurations of oxygen and carbon atoms for a commonly studied Mo-terminated surface of orthorhombic Mo 2C and (b) determine atomic structures for oxycarbides with a Mo:C ratio of 2:1. The surface calculations suggest that oxygen atoms are not stable under the top Mo layer of the Mo 2C(100) surface. Coupling DFT calculations with a polymorph sampling method, we determine (Mo 2C) xO y oxycarbide structures for a wide range of oxygen compositions. Oxycarbides with lower oxygen content (y/x = 2) adopt layered structures reminiscent of the parent carbide phase, with flat Mo layers separated by layers of oxygen and carbon; for higher oxygen content, our results suggest the formation of amorphous phases, as the atomic layers lose their planarity with increasing oxygen content. We characterize the oxidation states of Mo in the oxycarbide structures determined computationally, and simulate their X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns in order to facilitate comparisons with experiments. Our study may provide a platform for large-scale investigations of the catalytic properties of oxycarbides and their surfaces and for

  11. Orientation-Dependent Oxygen Evolution on RuO 2 without Lattice Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Stoerzinger, Kelsey A.; Diaz-Morales, Oscar; Kolb, Manuel

    RuO2 catalysts exhibit record activities towards the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), which is crucial to enable efficient and sustainable energy storage. Here we examine the RuO2 OER kinetics on rutile (110), (100), (101), and (111) orientations, finding (100) the most active. We assess the potential involvement of lattice oxygen in the OER mechanism with online 3 electrochemical mass spectrometry, which showed no evidence of oxygen exchange on these oriented facets in acidic or basic electrolytes. Similar results were obtained for polyoriented RuO2 films and particles, in contrast to previous work, suggesting lattice oxygen is not exchanged in catalyzing OER onmore » crystalline RuO2 surfaces. This hypothesis is supported by the correlation of activity with the number of active Ru-sites calculated by DFT, where more active facets bind oxygen more weakly. This new understanding of the active sites provides a design strategy to enhance the OER activity of RuO2 nanoparticles by facet engineering.« less

  12. Diffusion quantum Monte Carlo calculations of SrFeO 3 and LaFeO 3

    DOE PAGES

    Santana, Juan A.; Krogel, Jaron T.; Kent, Paul R. C.; ...

    2017-07-18

    The equations of state, formation energy, and migration energy barrier of the oxygen vacancy in SrFeO 3 and LaFeO 3 were calculated in this paper with the diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (DMC) method. Calculations were also performed with various Density Functional Theory (DFT) approximations for comparison. DMC reproduces the measured cohesive energies of these materials with errors below 0.23(5) eV and the structural properties within 1% of the experimental values. The DMC formation energies of the oxygen vacancy in SrFeO 3 and LaFeO 3 under oxygen-rich conditions are 1.3(1) and 6.24(7) eV, respectively. Similar calculations with semi-local DFT approximations formore » LaFeO 3 yielded vacancy formation energies 1.5 eV lower. Comparison of charge density evaluated with DMC and DFT approximations shows that DFT tends to overdelocalize the electrons in defected SrFeO 3 and LaFeO 3. Finally, calculations with DMC and local density approximation yield similar vacancy migration energy barriers, indicating that steric/electrostatic effects mainly determine migration barriers in these materials.« less

  13. Redox state of earth's upper mantle from kimberlitic ilmenites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E.; Tompkins, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    Temperatures and oxygen fugacities are reported on discrete ilmenite nodules in kimberlites from West Africa which demonstrate that the source region in the upper mantle is moderately oxidized, consistent with other nodule suites in kimberlites from southern Africa and the United States. A model is presented for a variety of tectonic settings, proposing that the upper mantle is profiled in redox potential, oxidized in the fertile asthenosphere but reduced in the depleted lithosphere.

  14. Phase diagram of the Pr-Mn-O system in composition-temperature-oxygen pressure coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedmid', L. B.; Yankin, A. M.; Fedorova, O. M.; Kozin, V. M.

    2016-05-01

    The phase relations in the Pr-Mn-O system were studied by the static method at lowered oxygen pressure in combination with thermal analysis and high-temperature X-ray diffraction. The equilibrium oxygen pressure in dissociation of PrMn2O5 and PrMnO3 was measured, and the thermodynamic characteristics of formation of these compounds from elements were calculated. The P- T- x phase diagram of the Pr-Mn-O system was constructed in the "composition-oxygen pressure-temperature" coordinates.

  15. Spatial Distribution of Oxygen Chemical Potential under Potential Gradients and Theoretical Maximum Power Density with 8YSZ Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Dae-Kwang; Im, Ha-Ni; Song, Sun-Ju

    2016-01-01

    The maximum power density of SOFC with 8YSZ electrolyte as the function of thickness was calculated by integrating partial conductivities of charge carriers under various DC bias conditions at a fixed oxygen chemical potential gradient at both sides of the electrolyte. The partial conductivities were successfully taken using the Hebb-Wagner polarization method as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure, and the spatial distribution of oxygen partial pressure across the electrolyte was calculated based on Choudhury and Patterson’s model by considering zero electrode polarization. At positive voltage conditions corresponding to SOFC and SOEC, the high conductivity region was expanded, but at negative cell voltage condition, the low conductivity region near n-type to p-type transition was expanded. In addition, the maximum power density calculated from the current-voltage characteristic showed approximately 5.76 W/cm2 at 700 oC with 10 μm thick-8YSZ, while the oxygen partial pressure of the cathode and anode sides maintained ≈0.21 and 10-22 atm.

  16. Oxygen spectral line synthesis: 3D non-LTE with CO5BOLD hydrodynamical model atmospheres.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakapavičius, D.; Steffen, M.; Kučinskas, A.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Freytag, B.; Caffau, E.; Cayrel, R.

    In this work we present first results of our current project aimed at combining the 3D hydrodynamical stellar atmosphere approach with non-LTE (NLTE) spectral line synthesis for a number of key chemical species. We carried out a full 3D-NLTE spectrum synthesis of the oxygen IR 777 nm triplet, using a modified and improved version of our NLTE3D package to calculate departure coefficients for the atomic levels of oxygen in a CO5BOLD 3D hydrodynamical solar model atmosphere. Spectral line synthesis was subsequently performed with the Linfor3D code. In agreement with previous studies, we find that the lines of the oxygen triplet produce deeper cores under NLTE conditions, due to the diminished line source function in the line forming region. This means that the solar oxygen IR 777 nm lines should be stronger in NLTE, leading to negative 3D NLTE-LTE abundance corrections. Qualitatively this result would support previous claims for a relatively low solar oxygen abundance. Finally, we outline several further steps that need to be taken in order to improve the physical realism and numerical accuracy of our current 3D-NLTE calculations.

  17. Effects of Oxygen Concentration on Pulsed Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Helium-Oxygen Mixture at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Tan, Zhenyu; Pan, Jie; Chen, Xinxian

    2016-08-01

    In this work the effects of O2 concentration on the pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in helium-oxygen mixture at atmospheric pressure have been numerically researched by using a one-dimensional fluid model in conjunction with the chosen key species and chemical reactions. The reliability of the used model has been examined by comparing the calculated discharge current with the reported experiments. The present work presents the following significant results. The dominative positive and negative particles are He2+ and O2-, respectively, the densities of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) get their maxima nearly at the central position of the gap, and the density of the ground state O is highest in the ROS. The increase of O2 concentration results in increasingly weak discharge and the time lag of the ignition. For O2 concentrations below 1.1%, the density of O is much higher than other species, the averaged dissipated power density presents an evident increase for small O2 concentration and then the increase becomes weak. In particular, the total density of the reactive oxygen species reaches its maximums at the O2 concentration of about 0.5%. This characteristic further convinces the experimental observation that the O2 concentration of 0.5% is an optimal O2/He ratio in the inactivation of bacteria and biomolecules when radiated by using the plasmas produced in a helium oxygen mixture. supported by the Fundamental Research Funds of Shandong University, China (No. 2016JC016)

  18. Oxygen-modulated quantum conductance for ultrathin HfO 2 -based memristive switching devices

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Xiaoliang; Rungger, Ivan; Zapol, Peter

    Memristive switching devices, candidates for resistive random access memory technology, have been shown to switch off through a progression of states with quantized conductance and subsequent noninteger conductance (in terms of conductance quantum G 0). We have performed calculations based on density functional theory to model the switching process for a Pt-HfO 2-Pt structure, involving the movement of one or two oxygen atoms. Oxygen atoms moving within a conductive oxygen vacancy filament act as tunneling barriers, and partition the filament into weakly coupled quantum wells. We show that the low-bias conductance decreases exponentially when one oxygen atom moves away frommore » interface. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the high sensitivity of the device conductance to the position of oxygen atoms.« less

  19. Oxygen-modulated quantum conductance for ultrathin HfO 2 -based memristive switching devices

    DOE PAGES

    Zhong, Xiaoliang; Rungger, Ivan; Zapol, Peter; ...

    2016-10-24

    Memristive switching devices, candidates for resistive random access memory technology, have been shown to switch off through a progression of states with quantized conductance and subsequent noninteger conductance (in terms of conductance quantum G 0). We have performed calculations based on density functional theory to model the switching process for a Pt-HfO 2-Pt structure, involving the movement of one or two oxygen atoms. Oxygen atoms moving within a conductive oxygen vacancy filament act as tunneling barriers, and partition the filament into weakly coupled quantum wells. We show that the low-bias conductance decreases exponentially when one oxygen atom moves away frommore » interface. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the high sensitivity of the device conductance to the position of oxygen atoms.« less

  20. Long-term geochemical surveillance of fumaroles at Showa-Shinzan dome, Usu volcano, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Symonds, R.B.; Mizutani, Y.; Briggs, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates 31 years of fumarole gas and condensate (trace elements) data from Showa-Shinzan, a dacitic dome-cryptodome complex that formed during the 1943-1945 eruption of Usu volcano. Forty-two gas samples were collected from the highest-temperature fumarole, named A-1, from 1954 (800??C) to 1985 (336??C), and from lower-temperature vents. Condensates were collected contemporaneously with the gas samples, and we reanalyzed ten of these samples, mostly from the A-1 vent, for 32 cations and three anions. Modeling using the thermochemical equilibrium program, SOLVGAS, shows that the gas samples are mild disequilibrium mixtures because they: (a) contain unequilibrated sedimentary CH4 and NH3; (b) have unequilibrated meteoric water; or (c) lost CO, either by air oxidation or by absorption by the sodium hydroxide sampling solution. SOLVGAS also enabled us to restore the samples by removing these disequilibrium effects, and to estimate their equilibrium oxygen fugacities and amounts of S2 and CH4. The restored compositions contain > 98% H2O with minor to trace amounts of CO2, H2, HCl, SO2, HF, H2S, CO, S2 and CH4. We used the restored gas and condensate data to test the hypotheses that these time-series compositional data from the dome's fumaroles provide: (1) sufficient major-gas data to analyze long-term degassing trends of the dome's magma-hydrothermal system without the influence of sampling or contamination effects; (2) independent oxygen fugacity-versus-temperature estimates of the Showa-Shinzan dacite; (3) the order of release of trace elements, especially metals, from magma; and (4) useful information for assessing volcanic hazards. The 1954-1985 restored A-1 gas compositions confirm the first hypothesis because they are sufficient to reveal three long-term degassing trends: (1) they became increasingly H2O-rich with time due to the progressive influx of meteoric water into the dome; (2) their C/S and S/Cl ratios decreased dramatically while their Cl

  1. Photoplethysmography: beyond the calculation of arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Shelley, Kirk H

    2007-12-01

    In this article, I examine the source of the photoplethysmograph (PPG), as well as methods of investigation, with an emphasize on amplitude, rhythm, and pulse analysis. The PPG waveform was first described in the 1930s. Although considered an interesting ancillary monitor, the "pulse waveform" never underwent intensive investigation. Its importance in clinical medicine was greatly increased with the introduction of the pulse oximeter into routine clinical care in the 1980s. Its waveform is now commonly displayed in the clinical setting. Active research efforts are beginning to demonstrate a utility beyond oxygen saturation and heart rate determination. Future trends are being heavily influenced by modern digital signal processing, which is allowing a re-examination of this ubiquitous waveform. Key to unlocking the potential of this waveform is an unfettered access to the raw signal, combined with standardization of its presentation, and methods of analysis. In the long run, we need to learn how to consistently quantify the characteristics of the PPG in such a way as to allow the results from research efforts be translated into clinically useful devices.

  2. Oxygen and Oxygen Toxicity: The Birth of Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hong; Traore, Kassim; Santo, Arben; Trush, Michael A.; Li, Y. Robert

    2018-01-01

    Molecular dioxygen (O2) is an essential element of aerobic life, yet incomplete reduction or excitation of O2 during aerobic metabolisms generates diverse oxygen-containing reactive species, commonly known as reactive oxygen species (ROS). On the one hand, ROS pose a serious threat to aerobic organisms via inducing oxidative damage to cellular constituents. On the other hand, these reactive species, when their generation is under homeostatic control, also play important physiological roles (e.g., constituting an important component of immunity and participating in redox signaling). This article defines oxygen and the key facts about oxygen, and discusses the relationship between oxygen and the emergence of early animals on Earth. The article then describes the discovery of oxygen by three historical figures and examines the birth of the concepts of oxygen toxicity and the underlying free radical mechanisms. The article ends with a brief introduction to the emerging field of ROS-mediated redox signaling and physiological responses. PMID:29707642

  3. Oxygen tension limits nitric oxide synthesis by activated macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, C C; Li, W P; Calero, M

    2000-01-01

    Previous studies have established that constitutive calcium-dependent ('low-output') nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is regulated by oxygen tension. We have investigated the role of oxygen tension in the synthesis of NO by the 'high-output' calcium-independent NOS in activated macrophages. Hypoxia increased macrophage NOS gene expression in the presence of one additional activator, such as lipopolysaccharide or interferon-gamma, but not in the presence of both. Hypoxia markedly reduced the synthesis of NO by activated macrophages (as measured by accumulation of nitrite and citrulline), such that, at 1% oxygen tension, NO accumulation was reduced by 80-90%. The apparent K(m) for oxygen calculated from cells exposed to a range of oxygen tensions was found to be 10.8%, or 137 microM, O(2) This value is considerably higher than the oxygen tension in tissues, and is virtually identical to that reported recently for purified recombinant macrophage NOS. The decrease in NO synthesis did not appear to be due to diminished arginine or cofactor availability, since arginine transport and NO synthesis during recovery in normoxia were normal. Analysis of NO synthesis during hypoxia as a function of extracellular arginine indicated that an altered V(max), but not K(m)(Arg), accounted for the observed decrease in NO synthesis. We conclude that oxygen tension regulates the synthesis of NO in macrophages by a mechanism similar to that described previously for the calcium-dependent low-output NOS. Our data suggest that oxygen tension may be an important physiological regulator of macrophage NO synthesis in vivo. PMID:10970783

  4. Cerebral oxygen delivery is reduced in newborns with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jessie Mei; Kingdom, Theodore; Saini, Brahmdeep; Chau, Vann; Post, Martin; Blaser, Susan; Macgowan, Christopher; Miller, Steven P; Seed, Mike

    2016-10-01

    To investigate preoperative cerebral hemodynamics in newborns with congenital heart disease. We hypothesized that cerebral blood flow and oxygen delivery would be decreased in newborns with congenital heart disease compared with controls. Using a "feed-and-sleep" approach to performing neonatal magnetic resonance imaging, we measured cerebral blood flow by using a slice prescription perpendicular to the right and left internal carotid arteries and basilar artery at the level of the clivus. We calculated brain volume by segmenting a 3-dimensional steady-state free procession acquisition of the whole brain, allowing quantification of cerebral blood flow indexed to brain volume. Cerebral oxygen delivery was calculated as the product of cerebral blood flow and preductal systemic arterial oxygen content obtained via a combination of conventional pulse oximetry and laboratory analysis of venous blood samples for hemoglobin concentration. A complete set of measurements were obtained in 32 newborns with heart disease and 31 controls. There was no difference in gestational age between the heart disease and control groups. There was no difference in cerebral blood flow compared with controls (103.5 ± 34.0 vs 119.7 ± 40.4 mL/min), whereas cerebral oxygen delivery was significantly lower in the congenital heart disease subjects (1881 ± 625.7 vs 2712 ± 915.7 mLO2/min). Ten newborns with congenital heart disease had diffuse excessive high signal intensity in their white matter and 2 had white matter injury whereas another 5 had both. Newborns with unrepaired cyanotic congenital heart disease have decreased cerebral oxygen delivery due to arterial desaturation. If brain growth and development are adversely affected through oxygen conformance, our findings could have clinical implications in terms of timing of surgical repair. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reproducibility of retinal vessel oxygen saturation measurements in healthy young subjects.

    PubMed

    Lasta, Michael; Palkovits, Stefan; Boltz, Agnes; Schmidl, Doreen; Kaya, Semira; Cherecheanu, Alina Popa; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2012-12-01

    An adequate oxygenation and perfusion is essential for the function of the inner retina. Recently, several techniques for the measurement of retinal oxygen saturation became available. We set out to evaluate reproducibility of the measurements using a modified Retinal Vessel Analyzer. A total of 20 healthy female and male subjects aged between 18 and 35 years (22.9 ± 3.9; mean ± SD) were included. The measurement of retinal oxygen saturation with the retinal oximeter employed in this study is based on optical reflectometry using the different absorption characteristics of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin. The intraclass correlation coefficients and the coefficients of variation (CV) for test-retest, short-term as well as day-to-day measurements were calculated.   The intraclass correlation coefficients were between 0.91 and 0.94 for retinal branch arteries and between 0.84 and 0.88 for retinal branch veins. In retinal arteries, we calculated a test-retest CV of 3.24 ± 3.18% for oxygen saturation measurements. In retinal veins, data were slightly less reproducible with a CV of 4.92 ± 3.57%. Short-term reproducibility of both measurement cycles on each study day was in the same range (CV in retinal arteries: 2.91 ± 2.42% and CV in retinal veins: 4.76 ± 3.14%). The day-to-day coefficient of variation was slightly higher (CV in retinal arteries: 3.97 ± 2.87% and CV in retinal veins: 6.18 ± 3.36%). The reproducibility of haemoglobin oxygen saturation measurements using the retinal oximeter is acceptable. Further studies on the validity of the obtained results are, however, required. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  6. Oxygen analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Benner, William H.

    1986-01-01

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  7. Is the cholesterol bilayer domain a barrier to oxygen transport into the eye lens?

    PubMed

    Plesnar, Elzbieta; Szczelina, Robert; Subczynski, Witold K; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta

    2018-02-01

    In the eye lens, the oxygen partial pressure is very low and the cholesterol (Chol) content in cell membranes is very high. Disturbance of these quantities results in cataract development. In human lens membranes, both bulk phospholipid-Chol domains and the pure Chol bilayer domains (CBDs) were experimentally detected. It is hypothesized that the CBD constitutes a significant barrier to oxygen transport into the lens. Transmembrane profiles of the oxygen diffusion-concentration product, obtained with electron paramagnetic resonance spin-labeling methods, allow evaluation of the oxygen permeability (P M ) of phospholipid membranes but not the CBD. Molecular dynamics simulation can independently provide components of the product across any bilayer domain, thus allowing evaluation of the P M across the CBD. Therefore, to test the hypothesis, MD simulation was used. Three bilayers containing palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphorylcholine (POPC) and Chol were built. The pure Chol bilayer modeled the CBD, the 1:1 POPC-Chol bilayer modeled the bulk membrane in which the CBD is embedded, and the POPC bilayer was a reference. To each model, 200 oxygen molecules were added. After equilibration, the oxygen concentration and diffusion profiles were calculated for each model and multiplied by each other. From the respective product profiles, the P M of each bilayer was calculated. Favorable comparison with experimental data available only for the POPC and POPC-Chol bilayers validated these bilayer models and allowed the conclusion that oxygen permeation across the CBD is ~10 smaller than across the bulk membrane, supporting the hypothesis that the CBD is a barrier to oxygen transport into the eye lens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Anisotropic chemical strain in cubic ceria due to oxygen-vacancy-induced elastic dipoles.

    PubMed

    Das, Tridip; Nicholas, Jason D; Sheldon, Brian W; Qi, Yue

    2018-06-06

    Accurate characterization of chemical strain is required to study a broad range of chemical-mechanical coupling phenomena. One of the most studied mechano-chemically active oxides, nonstoichiometric ceria (CeO2-δ), has only been described by a scalar chemical strain assuming isotropic deformation. However, combined density functional theory (DFT) calculations and elastic dipole tensor theory reveal that both the short-range bond distortions surrounding an oxygen-vacancy and the long-range chemical strain are anisotropic in cubic CeO2-δ. The origin of this anisotropy is the charge disproportionation between the four cerium atoms around each oxygen-vacancy (two become Ce3+ and two become Ce4+) when a neutral oxygen-vacancy is formed. Around the oxygen-vacancy, six of the Ce3+-O bonds elongate, one of the Ce3+-O bond shorten, and all seven of the Ce4+-O bonds shorten. Further, the average and maximum chemical strain values obtained through tensor analysis successfully bound the various experimental data. Lastly, the anisotropic, oxygen-vacancy-elastic-dipole induced chemical strain is polarizable, which provides a physical model for the giant electrostriction recently discovered in doped and non-doped CeO2-δ. Together, this work highlights the need to consider anisotropic tensors when calculating the chemical strain induced by dilute point defects in all materials, regardless of their symmetry.

  9. Alternative Method for the Thermospheric Atomic Oxygen Density Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, A. C.; Omidvar, K.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Atomic oxygen density in the upper thermosphere (approximately 300 km) can be calculated using ground based incoherent scatter radar and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements. Burnside et al. was the first to try this method, but Buonsanto et al. provided an extensive treatment of the method in 1997. This paper further examines the method using 46 nights of data collected over six years and the latest information on the oxygen collision frequency. The method is compared with the MSIS (Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter)-86 atomic oxygen prediction values, which are based upon in situ rocket born and satellite measurements from the 70s to the mid-80s. In general, the method supports the MSIS-86 model, but indicates several areas of discrepancy. Furthermore, no direct correlation is found between the geomagnetic conditions and the difference between the method and MSIS-86 predictions.

  10. Formation of orange hibonite, as inferred from some Allende inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, S. B.; Davis, A. M.; Grossman, L.

    2001-03-01

    We studied three fluffy Type A refractory inclusions from Allende that contain orange hibonite. The melilite in the present samples is very Al-rich, averaging Åk6, Åk14, and Åk12 in the three samples studied. Hibonite in two inclusions, unlike that in Murchison, has low rare earth element abundances of <10???CI in the other inclusion, the hibonite, melilite and perovskite have Group II-like patterns. The hibonite and melilite in all three inclusions studied have excess 26Mg consistent with (26Al/27Al)I =5???10-5. Much of the hibonite and some of the spinel in these inclusions is corroded. These phases are found enclosed in melilite, but based on bulk compositions and phase equilibria, hibonite should not be an early-crystallizing phase in these inclusions. We conclude that the hibonite and probably some of the spinel is relict. Reversely zoned melilite, rounded spinel and isotopically heavy Mg in the inclusions probably reflect reheating events that involved melting and evaporation. Alteration of the gehlenitic melilite gave rise to some rare phases, including corundum and nearly pure CaTs pyroxene. Studies have shown that blue hibonite contains Ti3+ while orange hibonite does not (Ihinger and Stolper, 1986; Beckett et al., 1988). Orange hibonite formed either under oxidizing conditions (such as at oxygen fugacities at least seven orders of magnitude greater than that of a solar gas at 1700K), or under conditions reducing enough (e. g., solar) that it contained Ti3+, which was later oxidized in situ. Although V and Ce oxides are volatile at the temperature and range of oxygen fugacities at which orange hibonite is known to be stable, we find that: a) the hibonite is V-rich (~1 wt % V2O3); and b) there are no negative Ce anomalies in Allende hibonite. This indicates that the hibonite did not form by condensation under oxidizing conditions. In addition, there are slight excesses of Ti + Si cations relative to Mg + Fe cations (up to 0.1 of 0.8 cations per 19 oxygen

  11. Oxygen saturation index and severity of hypoxic respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Munmun; Chandrasekharan, Praveen K; Williams, Ashley; Gugino, Sylvia; Koenigsknecht, Carmon; Swartz, Daniel; Ma, Chang Xing; Mathew, Bobby; Nair, Jayasree; Lakshminrusimha, Satyan

    2015-01-01

    The oxygenation index (OI = mean airway pressure, MAP × FiO2 × 100 : PaO2) is used to assess the severity of hypoxic respiratory failure (HRF) and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). An indwelling arterial line or arterial punctures are necessary to obtain PaO2 for the calculation of OI. Oxygenation can be continuously and noninvasively assessed using pulse oximetry. The use of the oxygen saturation index (OSI = MAP × FiO2 × 100 : SpO2) can be an alternate method of assessing the severity of HRF. To evaluate the correlation between OSI and OI in the following: (1) neonates with HRF and (2) a lamb model of meconium aspiration syndrome. Human neonates: a retrospective chart review of 74 ventilated late preterm/term neonates with indwelling arterial access and SpO2 values in the first 24 h of life was conducted. OSI and OI were calculated and correlated. Lamb model: arterial blood gases were drawn and preductal SpO2 was documented in 40 term newborn lambs with asphyxia and meconium aspiration. OI and OSI were calculated and correlated with pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). Mean values of OSI and OI showed a correlation coefficient of 0.952 in neonates (mean value of 308 observations in 74 neonates) and 0.948 in lambs (mean value of 743 observations in 40 lambs). In lambs, with increasing PVR, there was a decrease in OI and OSI. OSI correlates significantly with OI in infants with HRF. This noninvasive measure may be used to assess the severity of HRF and PPHN in neonates without arterial access. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. First-principles study on leakage current caused by oxygen vacancies at HfO2/SiO2/Si interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Kensuke; Ono, Tomoya

    2018-06-01

    The relationship between the position of oxygen vacancies in HfO2/SiO2/Si gate stacks and the leakage current is studied by first-principles electronic-structure and electron-conduction calculations. We find that the increase in the leakage current due to the creation of oxygen vacancies in the HfO2 layer is much larger than that in the SiO2 interlayer. According to previous first-principles total energy calculations, the formation energy of oxygen vacancies is smaller in the SiO2 interlayer than that in the HfO2 layer under the same conditions. Therefore, oxygen vacancies will be attracted from the SiO2 interlayer to minimize the energy, thermodynamically justifying the scavenging technique. Thus, the scavenging process efficiently improves the dielectric constant of HfO2-based gate stacks without increasing the number of oxygen vacancies, which cause the dielectric breakdown.

  13. Oxygen self-diffusion in ThO 2 under pressure: Connecting point defect parameters with bulk properties

    DOE PAGES

    Cooper, Michael William D.; Fitzpatrick, M. E.; Tsoukalas, L. H.; ...

    2016-06-06

    ThO 2 is a candidate material for use in nuclear fuel applications and as such it is important to investigate its materials properties over a range of temperatures and pressures. In the present study molecular dynamics calculations are used to calculate elastic and expansivity data. These are used in the framework of a thermodynamic model, the cBΩ model, to calculate the oxygen self-diffusion coefficient in ThO 2 over a range of pressures (–10–10 GPa) and temperatures (300–1900 K). As a result, increasing the hydrostatic pressure leads to a significant reduction in oxygen self-diffusion. Conversely, negative hydrostatic pressure significantly enhances oxygenmore » self-diffusion.« less

  14. Ammonium excretion and oxygen respiration of tropical copepods and euphausiids exposed to oxygen minimum zone conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiko, Rainer; Hauss, Helena; Buchholz, Friedrich; Melzner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    E. gibboides (Q10, respiration = 2.0; Q10, NH4-excretion = 2.4; E. mucronata not tested). Exposure to differing carbon dioxide levels had no overall significant impact on the respiration or excretion rates. Species from the ETNA were less tolerant to low oxygen levels than E. mucronata from the ETSP, which survived exposure to anoxia at 13 °C. Respiration and excretion rates were reduced upon exposure to low oxygen levels, albeit at different species-specific levels. Reduction of the excretion and respiration rates in ETNA species occurred at a pO2 of 0.6 (P. abdominalis) and 2.4 kPa (U. vulgaris and E. gibboides) at OMZ temperatures. Such low oxygen levels are normally not encountered by these species in the ETNA. E. mucronata however regularly migrates into the strongly hypoxic to anoxic core of the ETSP OMZ. Exposure to low oxygen levels led to a strong reduction of respiration and ammonium excretion in E. mucronata (pcrit respiration = 0.6, pcrit NH4-excretion = 0.73). A drastic reduction of respiratory activity was also observed by other authors for euphausiids, squat lobsters and calanoid copepods, but was not yet accounted for when calculating DVM-mediated active fluxes into the ETSP OMZ. Current estimates of DVM-mediated active export of carbon and nitrogen into the ETSP OMZ are therefore likely too high and future efforts to calculate these export rates should take the physiological responses of migratory species to OMZ conditions into account.

  15. Macroscopic singlet oxygen modeling for dosimetry of Photofrin-mediated photodynamic therapy: an in-vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Haixia; Kim, Michele M.; Penjweini, Rozhin; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2016-08-01

    Although photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an established modality for cancer treatment, current dosimetric quantities, such as light fluence and PDT dose, do not account for the differences in PDT oxygen consumption for different fluence rates (φ). A macroscopic model was adopted to evaluate using calculated reacted singlet oxygen concentration ([) to predict Photofrin-PDT outcome in mice bearing radiation-induced fibrosarcoma tumors, as singlet oxygen is the primary cytotoxic species responsible for cell death in type II PDT. Using a combination of fluences (50, 135, 200, and 250 J/cm2) and φ (50, 75, and 150 mW/cm2), tumor regrowth rate, k, was determined for each condition. A tumor cure index, CI=1-k/k, was calculated based on the k between PDT-treated groups and that of the control, k. The measured Photofrin concentration and light dose for each mouse were used to calculate PDT dose and [, while mean optical properties (μa=0.9 cm-1, μs‧=8.4 cm-1) were used to calculate φ for all mice. CI was correlated to the fluence, PDT dose, and [ with R2=0.35, 0.79, and 0.93, respectively. These results suggest that [ serves as a better dosimetric quantity for predicting PDT outcome.

  16. Uncertainty quantification in (α,n) neutron source calculations for an oxide matrix

    DOE PAGES

    Pigni, M. T.; Croft, S.; Gauld, I. C.

    2016-04-25

    Here we present a methodology to propagate nuclear data covariance information in neutron source calculations from (α,n) reactions. The approach is applied to estimate the uncertainty in the neutron generation rates for uranium oxide fuel types due to uncertainties on 1) 17,18O( α,n) reaction cross sections and 2) uranium and oxygen stopping power cross sections. The procedure to generate reaction cross section covariance information is based on the Bayesian fitting method implemented in the R-matrix SAMMY code. The evaluation methodology uses the Reich-Moore approximation to fit the 17,18O(α,n) reaction cross-sections in order to derive a set of resonance parameters andmore » a related covariance matrix that is then used to calculate the energydependent cross section covariance matrix. The stopping power cross sections and related covariance information for uranium and oxygen were obtained by the fit of stopping power data in the -energy range of 1 keV up to 12 MeV. Cross section perturbation factors based on the covariance information relative to the evaluated 17,18O( α,n) reaction cross sections, as well as uranium and oxygen stopping power cross sections, were used to generate a varied set of nuclear data libraries used in SOURCES4C and ORIGEN for inventory and source term calculations. The set of randomly perturbed output (α,n) source responses, provide the mean values and standard deviations of the calculated responses reflecting the uncertainties in nuclear data used in the calculations. Lastly, the results and related uncertainties are compared with experiment thick target (α,n) yields for uranium oxide.« less

  17. Oxygenation, local muscle oxygen consumption and joint specific power in cycling: the effect of cadence at a constant external work rate.

    PubMed

    Skovereng, Knut; Ettema, Gertjan; van Beekvelt, Mireille C P

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigates the effect of cadence on joint specific power and oxygenation and local muscle oxygen consumption in the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis in addition to the relationship between joint specific power and local muscle oxygen consumption (mVO2). Seventeen recreationally active cyclists performed 6 stages of constant load cycling using cadences of 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 and 110 rpm. Joint specific power was calculated using inverse dynamics and mVO2 and oxygenation were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Increasing cadence led to increased knee joint power and decreased hip joint power while the ankle joint was unaffected. Increasing cadence also led to an increased deoxygenation in both the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis. Vastus lateralis mVO2 increased when cadence was increased. No effect of cadence was found for vastus medialis mVO2. This study demonstrates a different effect of cadence on the mVO2 of the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis. The combined mVO2 of the vastus lateralis and medialis showed a linear increase with increasing knee joint specific power, demonstrating that the muscles combined related to power generated over the joint.

  18. Strain effects on oxygen vacancy energetics in KTaO 3

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Jianqi; Xu, Haixuan; Zhang, Yanwen

    Due to lattice mismatch between epitaxial films and substrates, in-plane strain fields are produced in the thin films, with accompanying structural distortions, and ion implantation can be used to controllably engineer the strain throughout the film. Because of the strain profile, local defect energetics are changed. In this study, the effects of in-plane strain fields on the formation and migration of oxygen vacancies in KTaO 3 are investigated using first-principles calculations. In particular, the doubly positive charged oxygen vacancy (V 2+O) is studied, which is considered to be the main charge state of the oxygen vacancy in KTaO 3. Wemore » find that the formation energies for oxygen vacancies are sensitive to in-plane strain and oxygen position. The local atomic configuration is identified, and strong relaxation of local defect structure is mainly responsible for the formation characteristics of these oxygen vacancies. Based on the computational results, formation-dependent site preferences for oxygen vacancies are expected to occur under epitaxial strain, which can result in orders of magnitude differences in equilibrium vacancy concentrations on different oxygen sites. In addition, all possible migration pathways, including intra- and inter-plane diffusions, are considered. In contrast to the strain-enhanced intra-plane diffusion, the diffusion in the direction normal to the strained plane is impeded under the epitaxial strain field. Lastly, these anisotropic diffusion processes can further enhance site preferences.« less

  19. Strain effects on oxygen vacancy energetics in KTaO 3

    DOE PAGES

    Xi, Jianqi; Xu, Haixuan; Zhang, Yanwen; ...

    2017-02-07

    Due to lattice mismatch between epitaxial films and substrates, in-plane strain fields are produced in the thin films, with accompanying structural distortions, and ion implantation can be used to controllably engineer the strain throughout the film. Because of the strain profile, local defect energetics are changed. In this study, the effects of in-plane strain fields on the formation and migration of oxygen vacancies in KTaO 3 are investigated using first-principles calculations. In particular, the doubly positive charged oxygen vacancy (V 2+O) is studied, which is considered to be the main charge state of the oxygen vacancy in KTaO 3. Wemore » find that the formation energies for oxygen vacancies are sensitive to in-plane strain and oxygen position. The local atomic configuration is identified, and strong relaxation of local defect structure is mainly responsible for the formation characteristics of these oxygen vacancies. Based on the computational results, formation-dependent site preferences for oxygen vacancies are expected to occur under epitaxial strain, which can result in orders of magnitude differences in equilibrium vacancy concentrations on different oxygen sites. In addition, all possible migration pathways, including intra- and inter-plane diffusions, are considered. In contrast to the strain-enhanced intra-plane diffusion, the diffusion in the direction normal to the strained plane is impeded under the epitaxial strain field. Lastly, these anisotropic diffusion processes can further enhance site preferences.« less

  20. Reference ranges for regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation and fractional oxygen extraction in neonates during immediate transition after birth.

    PubMed

    Pichler, Gerhard; Binder, Corinna; Avian, Alexander; Beckenbach, Elisabeth; Schmölzer, Georg M; Urlesberger, Berndt

    2013-12-01

    To define reference ranges for regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (crSO2) and regional cerebral fractional tissue oxygen extraction (cFTOE) during the first 15 minutes after birth in neonates requiring no medical support. The crSO2 was measured using near infrared spectroscopy (Invos 5100 cerebral/somatic oximeter monitor; Somanetics Corp, Troy, Michigan) during the first 15 minutes after birth for term and preterm neonates. The near infrared spectroscopy sensor was placed on the left forehead. Peripheral oxygen saturation and heart rate were continuously measured by pulse oximetry, and cFTOE was calculated. Neonates were excluded if they required any medical support. A total of 381 neonates were included: 82 term neonates after vaginal delivery, 272 term neonates after cesarean delivery, and 27 preterm neonates after cesarean delivery. In all neonates, median (10th-90th percentiles) crSO2 was 41% (23-64) at 2 minutes, 68% (45-85) at 5 minutes, 79% (65-90) at 10 minutes, and 77% (63-89) at 15 minutes of age. In all neonates, median (10th-90th percentiles) cFTOE was 33% (11-70) at 2 minutes, 21% (6-45) at 5 minutes, 15% (5-31) at 10 minutes, and 18% (7-34) at 15 minutes of age. We report reference ranges of crSO2 and cFTOE in neonates requiring no medical support during transition immediately after birth. The use of cerebral oxygenation monitoring and use of these reference ranges in neonates during transition may help to guide oxygen delivery and avoid cerebral hypo-oxygenation and hyperoxygenation. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical potential of oxygen in (U, Pu) mixed oxide with Pu/(U+Pu) = 0.46

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawar, Rimpi; Chandramouli, V.; Anthonysamy, S.

    2016-05-01

    Chemical potential of oxygen in (U,Pu) mixed oxide with Pu/(U + Pu) = 0.46 was measured for the first time using H2/H2O gas equilibration combined with solid electrolyte EMF technique at 1073, 1273 and 1473 K covering an oxygen potential range of -525 to -325 kJ mol-1. The effect of oxygen potential on the oxygen to metal ratio was determined. Increase in oxygen potential increases the O/M. In this study the minimum O/M obtained was 1.985 below which reduction was not possible. Partial molar enthalpy ΔHbar O2 and entropy ΔSbar O2 of oxygen were calculated from the oxygen potential data. The values of -752.36 kJ mol-1 and 0.25 kJ mol-1 were obtained for ΔHbar O2 and ΔSbar O2 respectively.

  2. Molecular oxygen detection in low pressure flames using cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, A.; Rahinov, I.; Cheskis, S.

    2006-03-01

    Cavity ring down spectroscopy is used for measurement of the concentration profiles of oxygen in the low pressure (30 Torr) methane/nitrogen/oxygen flames. Three different equivalence ratios are used: 0.8, 1.0 and 1.17. Molecular oxygen concentration is monitored via rotational spectrum of b1 Σ g +←X3 Σ g - (v‧=0-v‧‧=0) transition, also known as atmospheric A band, located near 750 nm. The P(15)P(15) line is used for concentration measurements. The sensitivity reached is 2.2×10-8 cm-1. The concentration profiles are in a good agreement with the ones calculated using GRI-3.0 mechanism.

  3. Oxygen evolution on a SrFeO3 anode - Mechanistic considerations from molecular orbital theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehandru, S. P.; Anderson, Alfred B.

    1989-01-01

    Various pathways proposed in the literature for the evolution of O2 in electrochemical oxidations are explored using the atom superposition and electron delocalization molecular orbital (ASED-MO) theory and the cluster models of the SrFeO3 surface as a prototype material. Calculations indicate that oxygen atoms can be easily formed on the (100) surface as well as on the edge cation sites of a SrFeO3 anode by the discharge of OH(-), followed by its deprotonation and electron transfer to the electrode. The O atoms can form O2 on the edge and corner sites, where the Fe(4+) is coordinated to four and three bulk oxygen anions, respectively. The calculations strongly disfavor mechanisms involving coupling of oxygen atoms adsorbed on different cations as well as a mechanism featuring an ozone intermediate.

  4. High-Energy-Density Metal-Oxygen Batteries: Lithium-Oxygen Batteries vs Sodium-Oxygen Batteries.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyeongse; Agyeman, Daniel Adjei; Park, Mihui; Yang, Junghoon; Kang, Yong-Mook

    2017-12-01

    The development of next-generation energy-storage devices with high power, high energy density, and safety is critical for the success of large-scale energy-storage systems (ESSs), such as electric vehicles. Rechargeable sodium-oxygen (Na-O 2 ) batteries offer a new and promising opportunity for low-cost, high-energy-density, and relatively efficient electrochemical systems. Although the specific energy density of the Na-O 2 battery is lower than that of the lithium-oxygen (Li-O 2 ) battery, the abundance and low cost of sodium resources offer major advantages for its practical application in the near future. However, little has so far been reported regarding the cell chemistry, to explain the rate-limiting parameters and the corresponding low round-trip efficiency and cycle degradation. Consequently, an elucidation of the reaction mechanism is needed for both lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen cells. An in-depth understanding of the differences and similarities between Li-O 2 and Na-O 2 battery systems, in terms of thermodynamics and a structural viewpoint, will be meaningful to promote the development of advanced metal-oxygen batteries. State-of-the-art battery design principles for high-energy-density lithium-oxygen and sodium-oxygen batteries are thus reviewed in depth here. Major drawbacks, reaction mechanisms, and recent strategies to improve performance are also summarized. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Long-term development of hypolimnetic oxygen depletion rates in the large Lake Constance.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Justin; Hetzenauer, Harald; Frassl, Marieke A; Rothhaupt, Karl-Otto; Rinke, Karsten

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates over 30 years of dissolved oxygen dynamics in the deep interior of Lake Constance (max. depth: 250 m). This lake supplies approximately four million people with drinking water and has undergone strong re-oligotrophication over the past decades. We calculated depth-specific annual oxygen depletion rates (ODRs) during the period of stratification and found that 50% of the observed variability in ODR was already explained by a simple separation into a sediment- and volume-related oxygen consumption. Adding a linear factor for water depth further improved the model indicating that oxygen depletion increased substantially along the depth. Two other factors turned out to significantly influence ODR: total phosphorus as a proxy for the lake's trophic state and mean oxygen concentration in the respective depth layer. Our analysis points to the importance of nutrient reductions as effective management measures to improve and protect the oxygen status of such large and deep lakes.

  6. Molecular dynamics analysis of diffusion of uranium and oxygen ions in uranium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arima, T.; Yoshida, K.; Idemitsu, K.; Inagaki, Y.; Sato, I.

    2010-03-01

    Diffusion behaviours of oxygen and uranium were evaluated for bulk and grain-boundaries of uranium dioxide using the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. It elucidated that oxygen behaved like liquid in superionic state at high temperatures and migrated on sub-lattice sites accompanying formation of lattice defects such as Frenkel defects at middle temperatures. Formation energies of Frenkel and Shottky defects were compared to literature data, and migration energies of oxygen and uranium were estimated by introducing vacancies into the supercell. For grain-boundaries (GB) modelled by the coincidence-site lattice theory, MD calculations showed that GB energy and diffusivities of oxygen and uranium increased with the misorientation angle. By analysing GB structures such as pair-correlation functions, it also showed that the disordered phase was observed for uranium as well as oxygen in GBs especially for a large misorientation angle such as S5 GB. Hence, GB diffusion was much larger than bulk diffusion for oxygen and uranium.

  7. The redox state of the mantle during and just after core formation.

    PubMed

    Frost, D J; Mann, U; Asahara, Y; Rubie, D C

    2008-11-28

    Siderophile elements are depleted in the Earth's mantle, relative to chondritic meteorites, as a result of equilibration with core-forming Fe-rich metal. Measurements of metal-silicate partition coefficients show that mantle depletions of slightly siderophile elements (e.g. Cr, V) must have occurred at more reducing conditions than those inferred from the current mantle FeO content. This implies that the oxidation state (i.e. FeO content) of the mantle increased with time as accretion proceeded. The oxygen fugacity of the present-day upper mantle is several orders of magnitude higher than the level imposed by equilibrium with core-forming Fe metal. This results from an increase in the Fe2O3 content of the mantle that probably occurred in the first 1Ga of the Earth's history. Here we explore fractionation mechanisms that could have caused mantle FeO and Fe2O3 contents to increase while the oxidation state of accreting material remained constant (homogeneous accretion). Using measured metal-silicate partition coefficients for O and Si, we have modelled core-mantle equilibration in a magma ocean that became progressively deeper as accretion proceeded. The model indicates that the mantle would have become gradually oxidized as a result of Si entering the core. However, the increase in mantle FeO content and oxygen fugacity is limited by the fact that O also partitions into the core at high temperatures, which lowers the FeO content of the mantle. (Mg,Fe)(Al,Si)O3 perovskite, the dominant lower mantle mineral, has a strong affinity for Fe2O3 even in the presence of metallic Fe. As the upper mantle would have been poor in Fe2O3 during core formation, FeO would have disproportionated to produce Fe2O3 (in perovskite) and Fe metal. Loss of some disproportionated Fe metal to the core would have enriched the remaining mantle in Fe2O3 and, if the entire mantle was then homogenized, the oxygen fugacity of the upper mantle would have been raised to its present-day level.

  8. Two-dimensional boron: Lightest catalyst for hydrogen and oxygen evolution reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Mir, Showkat H.; Chakraborty, Sudip, E-mail: sudiphys@gmail.com, E-mail: prakash.jha@cug.ac.in; Wärnå, John

    The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) have been envisaged on a two-dimensional (2D) boron sheet through electronic structure calculations based on a density functional theory framework. To date, boron sheets are the lightest 2D material and, therefore, exploring the catalytic activity of such a monolayer system would be quite intuitive both from fundamental and application perspectives. We have functionalized the boron sheet (BS) with different elemental dopants like carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, sulphur, and lithium and determined the adsorption energy for each case while hydrogen and oxygen are on top of the doping site of themore » boron sheet. The free energy calculated from the individual adsorption energy for each functionalized BS subsequently guides us to predict which case of functionalization serves better for the HER or the OER.« less

  9. Oxygen-Concentrating Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, K.

    1986-01-01

    High-purity oxygen produced from breathing air or from propellantgrade oxygen in oxygen-concentrating cell. Operating economics of concentrator attractive: Energy consumption about 4 Wh per liter of oxygen, slightly lower than conventional electrochemical oxygen extractors.

  10. Electrical conductivity structure of the mantle derived from inversion of geomagnetic observatory data: implications for lateral variations in temperature, composition and water content.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munch, Federico; Grayver, Alexander; Khan, Amir; Kuvshinov, Alexey

    2017-04-01

    As most of Earth's interior remains geochemically unsampled, geophysical techniques based on seismology, geodesy, gravimetry, and electromagnetic studies play prominent roles because of their ability to sense structure at depth. Although seismic tomography maps show a variety of structures, separating thermal and compositional contributions from seismic velocities alone still remains a challenging task. Alternatively, as electrical conductivity is sensitive to temperature, chemical composition, oxygen fugacity, water content, and the presence of melt, it can serve for determining chemistry, mineralogy, and physical structure of the deep mantle. In this work we estimate and invert local C-responses (period range 3-100 days) for a number of worldwide geomagnetic observatories to map lateral variations of electrical conductivity in Earth's mantle (400-1600 km depth). The obtained conductivity profiles are interpreted in terms of basalt fraction in a basalt-harzburgite mixture, temperature structure, and water content variations. Interpretation is based on a self-consistent thermodynamic calculation of mineral phase equilibria, electrical conductivity databases, and probabilistic inverse methods.

  11. Striped lanthanum cobaltite films: how strain orders oxygen defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birenbaum, Axiel Yael; Biegalski, Michael D.; Qiao, Liang; Cooper, Valentino R.; Borisevich, Albina

    Oxygen-deficient metal cobalt oxides have been widely studied for solid oxide fuel cell cathode applications. In order to predict atomic-scale transport pathways, a thorough understanding of its defect properties is crucial. Previous studies, including Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), demonstrate lanthanum cobaltite, grown as thin films on [100]pc oriented perovskites, spontaneously order its oxygen vacancies. In this work, we investigate the behavior of LaCoO3 - δ thin films grown on SrTiO3 [111] surface to determine if orientation can be used to shape the anisotropy of oxygen transport. For these films, STEM studies reveal ordered vacancy arrangements. We do so by establishing the structural and electronic properties of LaCoO3 - δ on SrTiO3, using ab initio electronic structure calculations. We then treat how epitaxial strain leads to oxygen vacancies forming these distinctive stripe patterns. The impact of different substrates is addressed. In addition, this leads to an opportunity to discuss the effect of reduced symmetry in oxygen deficient compounds on cobalt oxide behavior compared to the ideal perovskite environment. Research was sponsored by the US DoE, Office of Science, BES, MSED, and used resources at NERSC and OLCF.

  12. Oxygen and iron isotope studies of magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mandernack, K.W.; Bazylinski, D.A.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Bullen, T.D.

    1999-01-01

    A series of carefully controlled laboratory studies was carried out to investigate oxygen and iron isotope fractionation during the intracellular production of magnetite (Fe3O4) by two different species of magnetotactic bacteria at temperatures between 4??and 35??C under microaerobic and anaerobic conditions. No detectable fractionation of iron isotopes in the bacterial magnetites was observed. However, oxygen isotope measurements indicated a temperature-dependent fractionation for Fe3O4 and water that is consistent with that observed for Fe3O4 produced extracellularly by thermophilic Fe3+-reducing bacteria. These results contrast with established fractionation curves estimated from either high-temperature experiments or theoretical calculations. With the fractionation curve established in this report, oxygen-18 isotope values of bacterial Fe3O4 may be useful in paleoenvironmental studies for determining the oxygen-18 isotope values of formation waters and for inferring paleotemperatures.

  13. Microcomputer-based system for registration of oxygen tension in peripheral muscle.

    PubMed

    Odman, S; Bratt, H; Erlandsson, I; Sjögren, L

    1986-01-01

    For registration of oxygen tension fields in peripheral muscle a microcomputer based system was designed on the M6800 microprocessor. The system was designed to record the signals from a multiwire oxygen electrode, MDO, which is a multiwire electrode for measuring oxygen on the surface of an organ. The system contained patient safety isolation unit built on optocopplers and the upper frequency limit was 0.64 Hz. Collected data were corrected for drift and temperature changes during the measurement by using pre- and after calibrations and a linear compensation technique. Measure drift of the electrodes were proved to be linear and thus the drift could be compensated for. The system was tested in an experiment on pig. To study the distribution of oxygen statistically mean, standard deviation, skewness and curtosis were calculated. To see changes or differences between histograms a Kolmogorv-Smirnov test was used.

  14. Atomic and molecular oxygen adsorbed on (111) transition metal surfaces: Cu and Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Moreno, S.; Romero, A. H.

    2015-04-01

    Density functional theory is used to investigate the reaction of oxygen with clean copper and nickel [111]-surfaces. We study several alternative adsorption sites for atomic and molecular oxygen on both surfaces. The minimal energy geometries and adsorption energies are in good agreement with previous theoretical studies and experimental data. From all considered adsorption sites, we found a new O2 molecular precursor with two possible dissociation paths on the Cu(111) surface. Cross barrier energies for the molecular oxygen dissociation have been calculated by using the climbing image nudge elastic band method, and direct comparison with experimental results is performed. Finally, the structural changes and adsorption energies of oxygen adsorbed on surface when there is a vacancy nearby the adsorption site are also considered.

  15. Atomic and molecular oxygen adsorbed on (111) transition metal surfaces: Cu and Ni.

    PubMed

    López-Moreno, S; Romero, A H

    2015-04-21

    Density functional theory is used to investigate the reaction of oxygen with clean copper and nickel [111]-surfaces. We study several alternative adsorption sites for atomic and molecular oxygen on both surfaces. The minimal energy geometries and adsorption energies are in good agreement with previous theoretical studies and experimental data. From all considered adsorption sites, we found a new O2 molecular precursor with two possible dissociation paths on the Cu(111) surface. Cross barrier energies for the molecular oxygen dissociation have been calculated by using the climbing image nudge elastic band method, and direct comparison with experimental results is performed. Finally, the structural changes and adsorption energies of oxygen adsorbed on surface when there is a vacancy nearby the adsorption site are also considered.

  16. Oxygen analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W.H.

    1984-05-08

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  17. Oxygen Measurements in Liposome Encapsulated Hemoglobin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phiri, Joshua Benjamin

    Liposome encapsulated hemoglobins (LEH's) are of current interest as blood substitutes. An analytical methodology for rapid non-invasive measurements of oxygen in artificial oxygen carriers is examined. High resolution optical absorption spectra are calculated by means of a one dimensional diffusion approximation. The encapsulated hemoglobin is prepared from fresh defibrinated bovine blood. Liposomes are prepared from hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC), cholesterol and dicetylphosphate using a bath sonication method. An integrating sphere spectrophotometer is employed for diffuse optics measurements. Data is collected using an automated data acquisition system employing lock-in -amplifiers. The concentrations of hemoglobin derivatives are evaluated from the corresponding extinction coefficients using a numerical technique of singular value decomposition, and verification of the results is done using Monte Carlo simulations. In situ measurements are required for the determination of hemoglobin derivatives because most encapsulation methods invariably lead to the formation of methemoglobin, a nonfunctional form of hemoglobin. The methods employed in this work lead to high resolution absorption spectra of oxyhemoglobin and other derivatives in red blood cells and liposome encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH). The analysis using singular value decomposition method offers a quantitative means of calculating the fractions of oxyhemoglobin and other hemoglobin derivatives in LEH samples. The analytical methods developed in this work will become even more useful when production of LEH as a blood substitute is scaled up to large volumes.

  18. A More Reduced Mantle Source for Enriched Shergottites; Insights from the Olivine-Phyric Shergottite Lar 06319

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, A. H.; Hnatyshin, D.; Herd, C. D. K.; Walton, E. L.; Brandon, A. D.; Lapen, T. J.; Shafer, J.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed petrographic study of melt inclusions and Cr-Fe-Ti oxides of LAR 06319 leads to two main conclusions: 1) this enriched oxidized olivine- phyric shergottite represents nearly continuous crystallization of a basaltic shergottite melt, 2) the melt became more oxidized during differentiation. The first crystallized mineral assemblages record the oxygen fugacity which is closest to that of the melt s mantle source, and which is lower than generally attributed to the enriched shergottite group.

  19. Enhancing Dissociative Adsorption of Water on Cu(111) via Chemisorbed Oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qianqian; Li, Jonathan; Tong, Xiao

    We have used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to study the dehydrogenation of H 2O molecules on the clean and oxygenated Cu(111) surfaces. The clean surface does not show reactivity toward H 2O dehydrogenation. By contrast, H 2O molecules on the oxygenated Cu(111) dissociate into OH species by reacting with chemisorbed oxygen until the complete consumption of the chemisorbed oxygen at which the surface loses its reactivity toward H 2O dehydrogenation. Increasing the temperature to 200 °C and above decreases molecularly adsorbed H 2O for dehydrogenation, thereby resulting in less loss of chemisorbed O. In conjunction with density-functional theory calculations, a three-stepmore » reaction pathway is proposed to account for the chemisorbed O assisted dehydrogenation of H 2O molecules and the net loss of surface oxygen. Finally, these results provide insight into understanding the elemental steps of the dehydrogenation of H 2O molecules and the controllable conditions for tuning H 2O dissociation on metal surfaces.« less

  20. Enhancing Dissociative Adsorption of Water on Cu(111) via Chemisorbed Oxygen

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Qianqian; Li, Jonathan; Tong, Xiao; ...

    2017-05-16

    We have used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to study the dehydrogenation of H 2O molecules on the clean and oxygenated Cu(111) surfaces. The clean surface does not show reactivity toward H 2O dehydrogenation. By contrast, H 2O molecules on the oxygenated Cu(111) dissociate into OH species by reacting with chemisorbed oxygen until the complete consumption of the chemisorbed oxygen at which the surface loses its reactivity toward H 2O dehydrogenation. Increasing the temperature to 200 °C and above decreases molecularly adsorbed H 2O for dehydrogenation, thereby resulting in less loss of chemisorbed O. In conjunction with density-functional theory calculations, a three-stepmore » reaction pathway is proposed to account for the chemisorbed O assisted dehydrogenation of H 2O molecules and the net loss of surface oxygen. Finally, these results provide insight into understanding the elemental steps of the dehydrogenation of H 2O molecules and the controllable conditions for tuning H 2O dissociation on metal surfaces.« less

  1. Using carbon emissions, oxygen consumption, and retained energy to calculate dietary ME intake by beef steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eight cross-bred beef steers (initial BW = 241 ± 4.10 kg) were used in a 77-d feeding experiment to determine if ME intake can be determined from carbon emissions, oxygen consumption, and energy retention estimates. Steers were housed in a pen equipped with individual feed bunks and animal access w...

  2. The heat-capacity of ilmenite and phase equilibria in the system Fe-T-O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Treiman, A.H.; Essene, E.J.; Hemingway, B.S.; Westrum, E.F.; Wall, V.J.; Burriel, R.; Bohlen, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    Low temperature adiabatic calorimetry and high temperature differential scanning calorimetry have been used to measure the heat-capacity of ilmenite (FeTiO3) from 5 to 1000 K. These measurements yield S2980 = 108.9 J/(mol ?? K). Calculations from published experimental data on the reduction of ilmenite yield ??2980(I1) = -1153.9 kJ/(mol ?? K). These new data, combined with available experimental and thermodynamic data for other phases, have been used to calculate phase equilibria in the system Fe-Ti-O. Calculations for the subsystem Ti-O show that extremely low values of f{hook}O2 are necessary to stabilize TiO, the mineral hongquiite reported from the Tao district in China. This mineral may not be TiO, and it should be re-examined for substitution of other elements such as N or C. Consideration of solid-solution models for phases in the system Fe-Ti-O allows derivation of a new thermometer/oxybarometer for assemblages of ferropseudobrookite-pseudobrookitess and hematite-ilmenitess. Preliminary application of this new thermometer/oxybarometer to lunar and terrestrial lavas gives reasonable estimates of oxygen fugacities, but generally yields subsolidus temperatures, suggesting re-equilibration of one or more phases during cooling. ?? 1985.

  3. New singlet oxygen donors based on naphthalenes: synthesis, physical chemical data, and improved stability.

    PubMed

    Klaper, Matthias; Linker, Torsten

    2015-06-01

    Singlet oxygen donors are of current interest for medical applications, but suffer from a short half-life leading to low singlet oxygen yields and problems with storage. We have synthesized more than 25 new singlet oxygen donors based on differently substituted naphthalenes in only a few steps. The influence of functional groups on the reaction rate of the photooxygenations, thermolysis, half-life, and singlet oxygen yield has been thoroughly studied. We determined various thermodynamic data and compared them with density functional calculations. Interestingly, remarkable stabilities of functional groups during the photooxygenations and stabilizing effects for some endoperoxides during the thermolysis have been found. Furthermore, we give evidence for a partly concerted and partly stepwise thermolysis mechanism leading to singlet and triplet oxygen, respectively. Our results might be interesting for "dark oxygenations" and future applications in medicine. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Biological Oxygen Demand in Soils and Litters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smagin, A. V.; Smagina, M. V.; Sadovnikova, N. B.

    2018-03-01

    Biological oxygen demand (BOD) in mineral and organic horizons of soddy-podzolic soils in the forest-park belt of Moscow as an indicator of their microbial respiration and potential biodestruction function has been studied. The BOD of soil samples has been estimated with a portable electrochemical analyzer after incubation in closed flasks under optimum hydrothermal conditions. A universal gradation scale of this parameter from very low (<2 g O2/(m3 h)) to extremely high (>140 g O2/(m3 h)) has been proposed for mineral and organic horizons of soil. A physically substantiated model has been developed for the vertical distribution of BOD in the soil, which combines the diffusion transport of oxygen from the atmosphere and its biogenic uptake in the soil by the first-order reaction. An analytical solution of the model in the stationary state has been obtained; from it, the soil oxygen diffusivity and the kinetic constants of O2 uptake have been estimated, and the profile-integrated total BOD value has been calculated (0.4-1.8 g O2/(m2 h)), which is theoretically identical to the potential oxygen flux from the soil surface due to soil respiration. All model parameters reflect the recreation load on the soil cover by the decrease in their values against the control.

  5. Atomic oxygen recombination on quartz at high temperature: experiments and molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Bedra, L; Rutigliano, M; Balat-Pichelin, M; Cacciatore, M

    2006-08-15

    A joint experimental and theoretical approach has been developed to study oxygen atom recombination on a beta-quartz surface. The experimental MESOX setup has been applied for the direct measurement of the atomic oxygen recombination coefficient gamma at T(S) = 1000 K. The time evolution of the relative atomic oxygen concentration in the cell is described by the diffusion equation because the mean free path of the atoms is less than the characteristic dimension of the reactor. The recombination coefficient gamma is then calculated from the concentration profile obtained by visible spectroscopy. We get an experimental value of gamma = 0.008, which is a factor of about 3 less than the gamma value reported for O recombination over beta-cristobalite. The experimental results are discussed and compared with the semiclassical collision dynamics calculations performed on the same catalytic system aimed at determining the basic features of the surface catalytic activity. Agreement, both qualitative and quantitative, between the experimental and the theoretical recombination coefficients has been found that supports the Eley-Rideal recombination mechanism and gives more evidence of the impact that surface crystallographic variation has on catalytic activity. Also, several interesting aspects concerning the energetics and the mechanism of the surface processes involving the oxygen atoms are pointed out and discussed.

  6. Screening nitrogen-rich bases and oxygen-rich acids by theoretical calculations for forming highly stable salts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xueli; Gong, Xuedong

    2014-08-04

    Nitrogen-rich heterocyclic bases and oxygen-rich acids react to produce energetic salts with potential application in the field of composite explosives and propellants. In this study, 12 salts formed by the reaction of the bases 4-amino-1,2,4-trizole (A), 1-amino-1,2,4-trizole (B), and 5-aminotetrazole (C), upon reaction with the acids HNO3 (I), HN(NO2 )2 (II), HClO4 (III), and HC(NO2 )3 (IV), are studied using DFT calculations at the B97-D/6-311++G** level of theory. For the reactions with the same base, those of HClO4 are the most exothermic and spontaneous, and the most negative Δr Gm in the formation reaction also corresponds to the highest decomposition temperature of the resulting salt. The ability of anions and cations to form hydrogen bonds decreases in the order NO3 (-) >N(NO2 )2 (-) >ClO4 (-) >C(NO2 )3 (-) , and C(+) >B(+) >A(+) . In particular, those different cation abilities are mainly due to their different conformations and charge distributions. For the salts with the same anion, the larger total hydrogen-bond energy (EH,tot ) leads to a higher melting point. The order of cations and anions on charge transfer (q), second-order perturbation energy (E2 ), and binding energy (Eb ) are the same to that of EH,tot , so larger q leads to larger E2 , Eb , and EH,tot . All salts have similar frontier orbitals distributions, and their HOMO and LUMO are derived from the anion and the cation, respectively. The molecular orbital shapes are kept as the ions form a salt. To produce energetic salts, 5-aminotetrazole and HClO4 are the preferred base and acid, respectively. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Guide for Oxygen Compatibility Assessments on Oxygen Components and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosales, Keisa R.; Shoffstall, Michael S.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding and preventing fire hazards is necessary when designing, maintaining, and operating oxygen systems. Ignition risks can be minimized by controlling heat sources and using materials that will not ignite or will not support burning in the end-use environment. Because certain materials are more susceptible to ignition in oxygen-enriched environments, a compatibility assessment should be performed before the component is introduced into an oxygen system. This document provides an overview of oxygen fire hazards and procedures that are consistent with the latest versions of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standards G63 (1999) and G94 (2005) to address fire hazards associated with oxygen systems. This document supersedes the previous edition, NASA Technical Memorandum 104823, Guide for Oxygen Hazards Analyses on Components and Systems (1996). The step-by-step oxygen compatibility assessment method described herein (see Section 4) enables oxygen-system designers, system engineers, and facility managers to determine areas of concern with respect to oxygen compatibility and, ultimately, prevent damage to a system or injury to personnel.

  8. The Determination of the Percent of Oxygen in Air Using a Gas Pressure Sensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, James; Chancey, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    The experiment of determination of the percent of oxygen in air is performed in a general chemistry laboratory in which students compare the results calculated from the pressure measurements obtained with the calculator-based systems to those obtained in a water-measurement method. This experiment allows students to explore a fundamental reaction…

  9. Modelling the effects of cerebral microvasculature morphology on oxygen transport.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang Sub; Payne, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    The cerebral microvasculature plays a vital role in adequately supplying blood to the brain. Determining the health of the cerebral microvasculature is important during pathological conditions, such as stroke and dementia. Recent studies have shown the complex relationship between cerebral metabolic rate and transit time distribution, the transit times of all the possible pathways available dependent on network topology. In this paper, we extend a recently developed technique to solve for residue function, the amount of tracer left in the vasculature at any time, and transit time distribution in an existing model of the cerebral microvasculature to calculate cerebral metabolism. We present the mathematical theory needed to solve for oxygen concentration followed by results of the simulations. It is found that oxygen extraction fraction, the fraction of oxygen removed from the blood in the capillary network by the tissue, and cerebral metabolic rate are dependent on both mean and heterogeneity of the transit time distribution. For changes in cerebral blood flow, a positive correlation can be observed between mean transit time and oxygen extraction fraction, and a negative correlation between mean transit time and metabolic rate of oxygen. A negative correlation can also be observed between transit time heterogeneity and the metabolic rate of oxygen for a constant cerebral blood flow. A sensitivity analysis on the mean and heterogeneity of the transit time distribution was able to quantify their respective contributions to oxygen extraction fraction and metabolic rate of oxygen. Mean transit time has a greater contribution than the heterogeneity for oxygen extraction fraction. This is found to be opposite for metabolic rate of oxygen. These results provide information on the role of the cerebral microvasculature and its effects on flow and metabolism. They thus open up the possibility of obtaining additional valuable clinical information for diagnosing and treating

  10. Noble metal-free bifunctional oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction acidic media electro-catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Prasad Prakash; Datta, Moni Kanchan; Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I.; Kuruba, Ramalinga; Damodaran, Krishnan; Jampani, Prashanth; Gattu, Bharat; Shanthi, Pavithra Murugavel; Damle, Sameer S.; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of low cost, highly active, durable completely noble metal-free electro-catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in PEM based water electrolysis and metal air batteries remains one of the major unfulfilled scientific and technological challenges of PEM based acid mediated electro-catalysts. In contrast, several non-noble metals based electro-catalysts have been identified for alkaline and neutral medium water electrolysis and fuel cells. Herein we report for the very first time, F doped Cu1.5Mn1.5O4, identified by exploiting theoretical first principles calculations for ORR and OER in PEM based systems. The identified novel noble metal-free electro-catalyst showed similar onset potential (1.43 V for OER and 1 V for ORR vs RHE) to that of IrO2 and Pt/C, respectively. The system also displayed excellent electrochemical activity comparable to IrO2 for OER and Pt/C for ORR, respectively, along with remarkable long term stability for 6000 cycles in acidic media validating theory, while also displaying superior methanol tolerance and yielding recommended power densities in full cell configurations. PMID:27380719

  11. Noble metal-free bifunctional oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction acidic media electro-catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Prasad Prakash; Datta, Moni Kanchan; Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I.; Kuruba, Ramalinga; Damodaran, Krishnan; Jampani, Prashanth; Gattu, Bharat; Shanthi, Pavithra Murugavel; Damle, Sameer S.; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2016-07-01

    Identification of low cost, highly active, durable completely noble metal-free electro-catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in PEM based water electrolysis and metal air batteries remains one of the major unfulfilled scientific and technological challenges of PEM based acid mediated electro-catalysts. In contrast, several non-noble metals based electro-catalysts have been identified for alkaline and neutral medium water electrolysis and fuel cells. Herein we report for the very first time, F doped Cu1.5Mn1.5O4, identified by exploiting theoretical first principles calculations for ORR and OER in PEM based systems. The identified novel noble metal-free electro-catalyst showed similar onset potential (1.43 V for OER and 1 V for ORR vs RHE) to that of IrO2 and Pt/C, respectively. The system also displayed excellent electrochemical activity comparable to IrO2 for OER and Pt/C for ORR, respectively, along with remarkable long term stability for 6000 cycles in acidic media validating theory, while also displaying superior methanol tolerance and yielding recommended power densities in full cell configurations.

  12. Noble metal-free bifunctional oxygen evolution and oxygen reduction acidic media electro-catalysts.

    PubMed

    Patel, Prasad Prakash; Datta, Moni Kanchan; Velikokhatnyi, Oleg I; Kuruba, Ramalinga; Damodaran, Krishnan; Jampani, Prashanth; Gattu, Bharat; Shanthi, Pavithra Murugavel; Damle, Sameer S; Kumta, Prashant N

    2016-07-06

    Identification of low cost, highly active, durable completely noble metal-free electro-catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in PEM based water electrolysis and metal air batteries remains one of the major unfulfilled scientific and technological challenges of PEM based acid mediated electro-catalysts. In contrast, several non-noble metals based electro-catalysts have been identified for alkaline and neutral medium water electrolysis and fuel cells. Herein we report for the very first time, F doped Cu1.5Mn1.5O4, identified by exploiting theoretical first principles calculations for ORR and OER in PEM based systems. The identified novel noble metal-free electro-catalyst showed similar onset potential (1.43 V for OER and 1 V for ORR vs RHE) to that of IrO2 and Pt/C, respectively. The system also displayed excellent electrochemical activity comparable to IrO2 for OER and Pt/C for ORR, respectively, along with remarkable long term stability for 6000 cycles in acidic media validating theory, while also displaying superior methanol tolerance and yielding recommended power densities in full cell configurations.

  13. Stability and electronic properties of oxygen-doped ZnS polytypes: DFTB study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Ilya S.; Vorokh, Andrey S.; Enyashin, Andrey N.

    2018-06-01

    Synthesis from aqueous solutions is an affordable method for fabrication of II-VI semiconductors. However, application of this method often imposes a disorder of crystal lattice, manifesting as a rich variety of polytypes arising from wurtzite and zinc blende phases. The origin of this disordering still remains debatable. Here, the influence of the most likely impurity at water environment - substitutional oxygen - on the polytypic equilibrium of zinc sulphide is studied by means of density-functional tight-binding method. According to calculations, the inclusion of such oxygen does not affect the polytypic equilibrium. Apart of thermodynamic stability, the electronic and elastic properties of ZnS polytypes are studied as the function of oxygen distribution.

  14. Biogeochemical Modeling of the Second Rise of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. L.; Catling, D.; Claire, M.; Zahnle, K.

    2014-03-01

    The rise of atmospheric oxygen set the tempo for the evolution of complex life on Earth. Oxygen levels are thought to have increased in two broad steps: one step occurred in the Archean ~ 2.45 Ga (the Great Oxidation Event or GOE), and another step occured in the Neoproterozoic ~750-580 Ma (the Neoprotoerozoic Oxygenation Event or NOE). During the NOE, oxygen levels increased from ~1-10% of the present atmospheric level (PAL) (Holland, 2006), to ~15% PAL in the late Neoproterozoic, to ~100% PAL later in the Phanerozoic. Complex life requires O2, so this transition allowed complex life to evolve. We seek to understand what caused the NOE. To explore causes for the NOE, we build upon the biogeochemical model of Claire et al. (2006), which calculates the redox evolution of the atmosphere, ocean, biosphere, and crust in the Archean through to the early Proterozoic. In this model, the balance between oxygenconsuming and oyxgen-producing fluxes evolves over time such that at ~2.4 Ga, the rapidly acting sources of oxygen outweigh the rapidly-acting sinks. Or, in other words, at ~2.4 Ga, the flux of oxygen from organic carbon burial exceeds the sinks of oxygen from reaction with reduced volcanic and metamoprphic gases. The model is able to drive oxygen levels to 1-10% PAL in the Proterozoic; however, the evolving redox fluxes in the model cannot explain how oxygen levels pushed above 1-10% in the late Proterozoic. The authors suggest that perhaps another buffer, such as sulfur, is needed to describe Proterozoic and Phanerozoic redox evolution. Geologic proxies show that in the Proterozoic, up to 10% of the deep ocean may have been sulfidic. With this ocean chemistry, the global sulfur cycle would have worked differently than it does today. Because the sulfur and oxygen cycles interact, the oxygen concentration could have permanently changed due to an evolving sulfur cycle (in combination with evolving redox fluxes associated with other parts of the oxygen cycle and carbon

  15. [Regional cerebral oxygen saturation as a marker of hemodynamic state following cardiac surgery].

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, J A; Aldemira-Liz, A; Martínez-López, A I; Cayuela, A; Charlo-Molina, M T; Cano-Franco, J; Loscertales-Abril, M

    2013-10-01

    Regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO₂) is a measure of the general state of perfusion and oxygenation. We aim to analyze the relationship between this and various hemodynamic and respiratory parameters. Forty-three patients, operated on between October 2011 and July 2012, were included in this prospective observational descriptive study. The following parameters were measured: mean arterial pressure, both arterial and central venous oxygen saturation and partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and lactate levels. From these parameters, the oxygenation index and the oxygen extraction ratio were calculated. These measurements were studied to evaluate whether rSO₂ correlated significantly with the other parameters. The average age and weight of the patients were 27.3 months and 9.2 kg, respectively. The rSO₂ correlated positively with both central venous oxygen saturation (r=0.73, P<.01) and mean arterial pressure (r=0.59, P<.01), and negatively with the oxygen extraction ratio (r=-0.7, P<.01). No correlation was found with the respiratory parameters. Concordance analysis established an acceptable Kappa index (> 0.4) between the rSO₂ and central venous oxygen saturation, and between the rSO₂ and oxygen extraction ratio. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation correlates well with hemodynamic parameters - mean arterial pressure, venous saturation, and the tissue oxygen extraction. However, it does not correlate with respiratory parameters. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Shock tube measurements of growth constants in the branched-chain ethane-carbon monoxide-oxygen system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brokaw, R. S.; Brabbs, T. A.; Snyder, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Exponential free radical growth constants have been measured for ethane carbon monoxide oxygen mixtures by monitoring the growth of oxygen atom concentration as manifested by CO flame band emission. Data were obtained over the temperature range of 1200 to 1700 K. The data were analyzed using an ethane oxidation mechanism involving seven elementary reaction steps. Calculated growth constants were close to experimental values at lower temperatures, up to about 1400 K, but at higher temperatures computed growth constants were considerably smaller than experiment. In attempts to explain these results additional branching reactions were added to the mechanism. However, these additional reactions did not appreciably change calculated growth constants.

  17. Role of oxygen functionality on the band structure evolution and conductance of reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Rajarshi; Thapa, Ranjit; Chakrabarty, Soubhik; Jha, Arunava; Midya, Priyanka R.; Kumar, E. Mathan; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan K.

    2017-06-01

    Here we report, structural and electrical transport properties of reduced graphene oxide as a function of oxygen bonding configuration. We find that mainly epoxy (Csbnd Osbnd C) and carbonyl (Cdbnd O) functional groups remain as major residual components after reduction using three different reducing agents. We calculate the band structure in the presence of epoxy and carbonyl groups and defects. Finally, we calculate the theoretical band mobility and find that it is less for the carbonyl with epoxy system. We correlate the distortion of linear dispersion and opening of bandgap at K-point with conductance for different graphene system in presence of oxygen moieties.

  18. Supplementary oxygen and risk of childhood lymphatic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Naumburg, E; Bellocco, R; Cnattingius, S; Jonzon, A; Ekbom, A

    2002-01-01

    Childhood leukaemia has been linked to several factors, such as asphyxia and birthweight, which in turn are related to newborn resuscitation. Based on the findings from a previous study a population-based case-control study was performed to investigate the association between childhood leukaemia and exposure to supplementary oxygen and other birth-related factors. Children born in Sweden and diagnosed with lymphatic leukaemia between 1973 and 1989 (578 cases) were individually matched by gender and date of birth to a randomly selected control. Children with Down's syndrome were excluded. Exposure data were blindly gathered from antenatal, obstetric and other standardized medical records. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by conditional logistic regression. Resuscitation with 100% oxygen with a facemask and bag immediately postpartum was significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood lymphatic leukaemia (OR = 2.57, 95% Cl 1.21-6.82). The oxygen-related risk further increased if the manual ventilation lasted for 3 min or more (OR = 3.54, 95% CI 1.16-10.80). Low Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min were associated with a non-significantly increased risk of lymphatic leukaemia. There were no associations between lymphatic leukaemia and supplementary oxygen later in the neonatal period or other birth-related factors. Resuscitation with 100% oxygen immediately postpartum is associated with childhood lymphatic leukaemia, but further studies are warranted to confirm the findings.

  19. Asymmetric 3d Electronic Structure for Enhanced Oxygen Evolution Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Yin, Shibin; Shen, Pei Kang

    2018-06-27

    The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is an essential process for renewable energy, and designing a bifunctional oxygen electrocatalyst with high catalytic performance plays a significant role. In this work, FeS, Ni 3 S 2 , Fe 5 Ni 4 S 8 , and N, O, S-doped meshy carbon base were successfully synthesized. The sample containing Fe 5 Ni 4 S 8 exhibited excellent OER performance. The density functional theory calculations indicate that the partial density of states for 3d electrons (3d-PDOS) of Fe and Ni atoms are changed from monometallic sulfide to bimetallic sulfide at the sulfur vacancy. The asymmetric 3d electronic structure optimizes the 3d-PDOS of Fe and Ni atoms, and leads to an enhanced OER activity. This work provides a new strategy to prepare a low-cost electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution with high-efficiency.

  20. Energetic Metastable Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms in the Terrestrial Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharchenko, Vasili

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the impact of hot metastable oxygen atoms on the product yields and rate coefficients of atmospheric reactions involving O( (sup 1)D). The contribution of the metastable oxygen atoms to the thermal balance of the terrestrial atmosphere between 50 and 200 km has been determined. We found that the presence of hot O((sup l)D) atoms in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere significantly increases the production rate of the rotationally-vibrationally excited NO molecules. The computed yield of the NO molecules in N2O+ O((sup 1)D) atmospheric collisions, involving non-Maxwellian distributions of the metastable oxygen atoms, is more than two times larger than the NO-yield at a thermal equilibrium. The calculated non-equilibrium rate and yield functions are important for ozone and nitrous oxide modeling in the stratosphere, mesosphere and lower thermosphere.

  1. Use of fugacity model to analyze temperature-dependent removal of micro-contaminants in sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kelly; Zhang, Jianying; Zhang, Chunlong

    2011-08-01

    Effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) are known to contain residual micro-contaminants including endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) despite the utilization of various removal processes. Temperature alters the efficacy of removal processes; however, experimental measurements of EDC removal at various temperatures are limited. Extrapolation of EDC behavior over a wide temperature range is possible using available physicochemical property data followed by the correction of temperature dependency. A level II fugacity-based STP model was employed by inputting parameters obtained from the literature and estimated by the US EPA's Estimations Programs Interface (EPI) including EPI's BIOWIN for temperature-dependent biodegradation half-lives. EDC removals in a three-stage activated sludge system were modeled under various temperatures and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) for representative compounds of various properties. Sensitivity analysis indicates that temperature plays a significant role in the model outcomes. Increasing temperature considerably enhances the removal of β-estradiol, ethinyestradiol, bisphenol, phenol, and tetrachloroethylene, but not testosterone with the highest biodegradation rate. The shortcomings of BIOWIN were mitigated by the correction of highly temperature-dependent biodegradation rates using the Arrhenius equation. The model predicts well the effects of operating temperature and HRTs on the removal via volatilization, adsorption, and biodegradation. The model also reveals that an impractically long HRT is needed to achieve a high EDC removal. The STP model along with temperature corrections is able to provide some useful insight into the different patterns of STP performance, and useful operational considerations relevant to EDC removal at winter low temperatures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of Molecular Oxygen on Ortho-Para Conversion of Water Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiev, R. R.; Minaev, B. F.

    2017-07-01

    The mechanism of influence of molecular oxygen on the probability of ortho-para conversion of water molecules and its relation to water magnetization are considered within the framework of the concept of paramagnetic spin catalysis. Matrix elements of the hyperfine ortho-para interaction via the Fermi contact mechanism are calculated, as well as the Maliken spin densities on water protons in H2O and O2 collisional complexes. The mechanism of penetration of the electron spin density into the water molecule due to partial spin transfer from paramagnetic oxygen is considered. The probability of ortho-para conversion of the water molecules is estimated by the quantum chemistry methods. The results obtained show that effective ortho-para conversion of the water molecules is possible during the existence of water-oxygen dimers. An external magnetic field affects the ortho-para conversion rate given that the wave functions of nuclear spin sublevels of the water protons are mixed in the complex with oxygen.

  3. Strain-Engineered Oxygen Vacancies in CaMnO3 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Chandrasena, Ravini U; Yang, Weibing; Lei, Qingyu; Delgado-Jaime, Mario U; Wijesekara, Kanishka D; Golalikhani, Maryam; Davidson, Bruce A; Arenholz, Elke; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Kobata, Masaaki; de Groot, Frank M F; Aschauer, Ulrich; Spaldin, Nicola A; Xi, Xiaoxing; Gray, Alexander X

    2017-02-08

    We demonstrate a novel pathway to control and stabilize oxygen vacancies in complex transition-metal oxide thin films. Using atomic layer-by-layer pulsed laser deposition (PLD) from two separate targets, we synthesize high-quality single-crystalline CaMnO 3 films with systematically varying oxygen vacancy defect formation energies as controlled by coherent tensile strain. The systematic increase of the oxygen vacancy content in CaMnO 3 as a function of applied in-plane strain is observed and confirmed experimentally using high-resolution soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in conjunction with bulk-sensitive hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES). The relevant defect states in the densities of states are identified and the vacancy content in the films quantified using the combination of first-principles theory and core-hole multiplet calculations with holistic fitting. Our findings open up a promising avenue for designing and controlling new ionically active properties and functionalities of complex transition-metal oxides via strain-induced oxygen-vacancy formation and ordering.

  4. Superconductivity Induced by Oxygen Doping in Y2 O2 Bi.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiyue; Gordon, Elijah E; Whangbo, Myung-Hwan; Deng, Shuiquan

    2017-08-14

    When doped with oxygen, the layered Y 2 O 2 Bi phase becomes a superconductor. This finding raises questions about the sites for doped oxygen, the mechanism of superconductivity, and practical guidelines for discovering new superconductors. We probed these questions in terms of first-principles calculations for undoped and O-doped Y 2 O 2 Bi. The preferred sites for doped O atoms are the centers of Bi 4 squares in the Bi square net. Several Bi 6p x/y bands of Y 2 O 2 Bi are raised in energy by oxygen doping because the 2p x/y orbitals of the doped oxygen make antibonding possible with the 6p x/y orbitals of surrounding Bi atoms. Consequently, the condition necessary for the "flat/steep" band model for superconductivity is satisfied in O-doped Y 2 O 2 Bi. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Oxygen vacancy effects in HfO2-based resistive switching memory: First principle study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yuehua; Pan, Zhiyong; Wang, Feifei; Li, Xiaofeng

    2016-08-01

    The work investigated the shape and orientation of oxygen vacancy clusters in HfO2-base resistive random access memory (ReRAM) by using the first-principle method based on the density functional theory. Firstly, the formation energy of different local Vo clusters was calculated in four established orientation systems. Then, the optimized orientation and charger conductor shape were identified by comparing the isosurface plots of partial charge density, formation energy, and the highest isosurface value of oxygen vacancy. The calculated results revealed that the [010] orientation was the optimal migration path of Vo, and the shape of system D4 was the best charge conductor in HfO2, which effectively influenced the SET voltage, formation voltage and the ON/OFF ratio of the device. Afterwards, the PDOS of Hf near Vo and total density of states of the system D4_010 were obtained, revealing the composition of charge conductor was oxygen vacancy instead of metal Hf. Furthermore, the migration barriers of the Vo hopping between neighboring unit cells were calculated along four different orientations. The motion was proved along [010] orientation. The optimal circulation path for Vo migration in the HfO2 super-cell was obtained.

  6. Oxygen effects on glucose measurements with a reference analyzer and three handheld meters.

    PubMed

    Tang, Z; Louie, R F; Payes, M; Chang, K C; Kost, G J

    2000-01-01

    Oxygen may affect glucose meter and reference analyzer measurements. We evaluated the effects of changes in blood oxygen tension (Po2) on Accu-Chek Comfort Curve (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN), Precision G, (Abbott Laboratories, Bedford, MA) and One Touch II (Lifescan, Milpitas, CA) glucose meter measurements, and on Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) (Yellow Springs, OH) reference analyzer measurements. Venous blood drawn from healthy volunteers was adjusted to three glucose levels of 80, 200, and 400 mg/dL, each tonometered with six different Po2 levels (40, 80, 160, 240, 320, and 400 torr). To quantitate oxygen effects on reference analyzer measurements, glucose differences between test sample (Po2 changed) and control (Po2 80 torr) were calculated (YSItest-YSIcontrol). The threshold for determination of oxygen effects was +/-2 SD, where 2 SD was fro

  7. Oxygen consumption in T-47D cells immobilized in alginate.

    PubMed

    Larsen, B E; Sandvik, J A; Karlsen, J; Pettersen, E O; Melvik, J E

    2013-08-01

    Encapsulation or entrapment of cells is increasingly being used in a wide variety of scientific studies for tissue engineering and development of novel medical devices. The effect on cell metabolism of such systems is, in general, not well characterized. In this work, a simple system for monitoring respiration of cells embedded in 3-D alginate cultures was characterized. T-47D cells were cultured in alginate gels. Oxygen concentration curves were recorded within cell-gel constructs using two different sensor systems, and cell viability and metabolic state were characterized using confocal microscopy and commercially available stains. At sufficient depth within constructs, recorded oxygen concentration curves were not significantly influenced by influx of oxygen through cell-gel layers and oxygen consumption rate could be calculated simply by dividing oxygen loss in the system per time, by the number of cells. This conclusion was supported by a 3-D numeric simulation. For the T-47D cells, the oxygen consumption rate was found to be 61 ± 6 fmol/cell/h, 3-4 times less than has previously been found for these cells, when grown exponentially in monolayer culture. The experimental set-up presented here may be varied in multiple ways by changing the cell-gel construct 3-D microenvironment, easily allowing investigation of a variety of factors on cell respiration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Critical oxygen levels and metabolic suppression in oceanic oxygen minimum zones.

    PubMed

    Seibel, Brad A

    2011-01-15

    The survival of oceanic organisms in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) depends on their total oxygen demand and the capacities for oxygen extraction and transport, anaerobic ATP production and metabolic suppression. Anaerobic metabolism and metabolic suppression are required for daytime forays into the most extreme OMZs. Critical oxygen partial pressures are, within a range, evolved to match the minimum oxygen level to which a species is exposed. This fact demands that low oxygen habitats be defined by the biological response to low oxygen rather than by some arbitrary oxygen concentration. A broad comparative analysis of oxygen tolerance facilitates the identification of two oxygen thresholds that may prove useful for policy makers as OMZs expand due to climate change. Between these thresholds, specific physiological adaptations to low oxygen are required of virtually all species. The lower threshold represents a limit to evolved oxygen extraction capacity. Climate change that pushes oxygen concentrations below the lower threshold (~0.8 kPa) will certainly result in a transition from an ecosystem dominated by a diverse midwater fauna to one dominated by diel migrant biota that must return to surface waters at night. Animal physiology and, in particular, the response of animals to expanding hypoxia, is a critical, but understudied, component of biogeochemical cycles and oceanic ecology. Here, I discuss the definition of hypoxia and critical oxygen levels, review adaptations of animals to OMZs and discuss the capacity for, and prevalence of, metabolic suppression as a response to temporary residence in OMZs and the possible consequences of climate change on OMZ ecology.

  9. Corneal Equilibrium Flux as a Function of Corneal Surface Oxygen Tension.

    PubMed

    Compañ, Vicente; Aguilella-Arzo, Marcel; Weissman, Barry A

    2017-06-01

    Oxygen is essential for aerobic mammalian cell physiology. Oxygen tension (PO2) should reach a minimum at some position within the corneal stroma, and oxygen flux should be zero, by definition, at this point as well. We found the locations and magnitudes of this "corneal equilibrium flux" (xmin) and explored its physiological implications. We used an application of the Monod kinetic model to calculate xmin for normal human cornea as anterior surface PO2 changes from 155 to 20 mmHg. We find that xmin deepens, broadens, and advances from 1.25 μm above the endothelial-aqueous humor surface toward the epithelium (reaching a position 320 μm above the endothelial-aqueous humor surface) as anterior corneal surface PO2 decreases from 155 to 20 mmHg. Our model supports an anterior corneal oxygen flux of 9 μL O2 · cm · h and an epithelial oxygen consumption of approximately 4 μL O2 · cm · h. Only at the highest anterior corneal PO2 does our model predict that oxygen diffuses all the way through the cornea to perhaps reach the anterior chamber. Of most interest, corneal oxygen consumption should be supported down to a corneal surface PO2 of 60 to 80 mmHg but declines below this range. We conclude that the critical oxygen tension for hypoxia induced corneal swelling is more likely this range rather than a fixed value.

  10. V, Cr, and Mn in the Earth, Moon, EPB, and SPB and the origin of the Moon: Experimental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, M.J.; Capobianco, C.J.; Newsom, H.E.

    1989-08-01

    The abundances of V, Cr, and Mn inferred for the mantles of the Earth and Moon decrease in that order and are similar, but are distinct from those inferred for the mantles of the Eucrite Parent Body (EPB) and Shergottite Parent Body (SPB). This similarity between Earth and Moon has been used to suggest that the Moon is derived substantially or entirely from Earth mantle material following terrestrial core formation. To test this hypothesis, the authors have determined the partitioning of V, Cr, and Mn between solid iron metal, S-rich metallic liquid, and synthetic basaltic silicate liquid at 1,260{degree}C andmore » one bar pressure. The sequence of compatibility in the metallic phases is Cr > V > Mn at high oxygen fugacity and V > Cr > Mn at low oxygen fugacities. Solubilities in liquid metal always exceed solubilities in solid metal. These partition coefficients suggest that the abundances of V, Cr, and Mn do not reflect core formation in the Earth. Rather, they are consistent with the relative volatilities of these elements. The similarity in the depletion patterns of V, Cr, and Mn inferred for the mantles of the Earth and Moon is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for the Moon to have been derived wholly or in part from the Earth's mantle.« less

  11. Correlation of cycles in Lava Lake motion and degassing at Erebus Volcano, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Nial; Oppenheimer, Clive; Killingsworth, Drea Rae; Frechette, Jed; Kyle, Philip

    2014-08-01

    Several studies at Erebus volcano have recorded pulsatory behavior in many of the observable properties of its active lava lake. A strong correlation between the variations in surface speed of the lake and the composition of gas emitted has previously been noted. While previous studies have shown that the SO2 flux and the surface elevation exhibit pulsatory behavior with a similar period to that of the surface speed and gas composition, suggesting they are linked, a lack of overlap between the different measurements has prevented direct comparisons from being made. Using high time-resolution measurements of surface elevation, surface speed, gas composition, and SO2 flux, we demonstrate for the first time an unambiguous link between the cyclic behavior in each of these properties. We also show that the variation in gas composition may be explained by a subtle change in oxygen fugacity. The cycles are found to be in-phase with each other, with a small but consistent lag of 1-3 min between the peaks in surface elevation and surface speed. Explosive events are found to have no observable effect on the pulsatory behavior beyond the ˜5 min period required for lake refill. The close correspondences between the varying lake surface motion, gas flux and composition, and modeled oxygen fugacity suggest strong links between magma degassing, redox change, and the fluid dynamics of the shallow magmatic system.

  12. Closed Loop Control of Oxygen Delivery and Oxygen Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-08-01

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2017-0024 Closed Loop Control of Oxygen Delivery and Oxygen Generation Dr. Jay Johannigman1, Richard Branson1...for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Closed Loop Control of Oxygen Delivery and Oxygen Generation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-10-2-6140 5b. GRANT NUMBER