Comparison of energy calculation procedures
Kusuda, T.
1981-08-01
ASHRAE has developed a simplified energy-calculation procedure suitable for small calculators that applied to nonresidential buildings and includes all the essential calculation elements - climatic data, buildings construction, operational characteristics, utility system and equipment performance, and internal heat gain due to lighting, occupancy, cooking, etc. A comparison of the results predicted by the proposed method for four typical HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) systems in an office building in Washington, DC, against the predictions of seven detailed computer-simulation programs - AXCESS, BLAST, BLDSIM, DOE-2, E-CUBE, ESAS, and TRACE - revealed that the similarity of the results depended more on which analyst employed the methods than on which methods were used.
New unifying procedure for PC index calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stauning, P.
2012-04-01
The Polar Cap (PC) index is a controversial topic within the IAGA scientific community. Since 1997 discussions of the validity of the index to be endorsed as an official IAGA index have ensued. Currently, there are now the three separate PC index versions constructed from the different procedures used at the three institutes: the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI), the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), and the Danish National Space Institute (DTU Space). It is demonstrated in this presentation, that two consistent unifying procedures can be built from the best elements of the three different versions. One procedure uses a set of coefficients aimed at the calculation of final PC index values to be accepted by IAGA. The other procedure uses coefficients aimed at on-line real-time production of preliminary PC index values for Space Weather monitoring applications. For each of the two cases the same procedure is used for the northern (PCN) and the southern (PCS) polar cap indices, and the derived PCN and PCS coefficients are similar.
49 CFR 533.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measurement and calculation procedures. 533.6 Section 533.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) Any reference to a class of light trucks manufactured by...
49 CFR 531.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... the Act and set forth in 40 CFR part 600. (b) A manufacturer that is eligible to elect a model year in... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measurement and calculation procedures. 531.6... STANDARDS § 531.6 Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) The average fuel economy of all...
49 CFR 533.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measurement and calculation procedures. 533.6 Section 533.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) Any reference to a class of light trucks manufactured by...
49 CFR 533.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Measurement and calculation procedures. 533.6 Section 533.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) Any reference to a class of light trucks manufactured by...
A Procedure Using Calculators to Express Answers in Fractional Form.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlisle, Earnest
A procedure is described that enables students to perform operations on fractions with a calculator, expressing the answer as a fraction. Patterns using paper-and-pencil procedures for each operation with fractions are presented. A microcomputer software program illustrates how the answer can be found using integer values of the numerators and…
Operational Control Procedures for the Activated Sludge Process, Part III-A: Calculation Procedures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
West, Alfred W.
This is the second in a series of documents developed by the National Training and Operational Technology Center describing operational control procedures for the activated sludge process used in wastewater treatment. This document deals exclusively with the calculation procedures, including simplified mixing formulas, aeration tank…
49 CFR 531.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... the Act and set forth in 40 CFR part 600. (b) A manufacturer that is eligible to elect a model year in... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS § 531.6 Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) The average fuel economy of all...
10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510...
10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...
10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard...
10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510...
10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard...
10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510...
10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard...
10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...
10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510...
10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...
10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard...
10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...
10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...
10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard...
10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510...
Monte Carlo shipping cask calculations using an automated biasing procedure
Tang, J.S.; Hoffman, T.J.; Childs, R.L.; Parks, C.V.
1983-01-01
This paper describes an automated biasing procedure for Monte Carlo shipping cask calculations within the SCALE system - a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation. The SCALE system was conceived and funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to satisfy a strong need for performing standardized criticality, shielding, and heat transfer analyses of nuclear systems.
Experimental Verification of Buffet Calculation Procedure Using Unsteady PSP
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, Jayanta
2016-01-01
Typically a limited number of dynamic pressure sensors are employed to determine the unsteady aerodynamic forces on large, slender aerospace structures. The estimated forces are known to be very sensitive to the number of the dynamic pressure sensors and the details of the integration scheme. This report describes a robust calculation procedure, based on frequency-specific correlation lengths, that is found to produce good estimation of fluctuating forces from a few dynamic pressure sensors. The validation test was conducted on a flat panel, placed on the floor of a wind tunnel, and was subjected to vortex shedding from a rectangular bluff-body. The panel was coated with fast response Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP), which allowed time-resolved measurements of unsteady pressure fluctuations on a dense grid of spatial points. The first part of the report describes the detail procedure used to analyze the high-speed, PSP camera images. The procedure includes steps to reduce contamination by electronic shot noise, correction for spatial non-uniformities, and lamp brightness variation, and finally conversion of fluctuating light intensity to fluctuating pressure. The latter involved applying calibration constants from a few dynamic pressure sensors placed at selective points on the plate. Excellent comparison in the spectra, coherence and phase, calculated via PSP and dynamic pressure sensors validated the PSP processing steps. The second part of the report describes the buffet validation process, for which the first step was to use pressure histories from all PSP points to determine the "true" force fluctuations. In the next step only a selected number of pixels were chosen as "virtual sensors" and a correlation-length based buffet calculation procedure was applied to determine "modeled" force fluctuations. By progressively decreasing the number of virtual sensors it was observed that the present calculation procedure was able to make a close estimate of the "true
WINDOW 4.0: Documentation of calculation procedures
Finlayson, E.U.; Arasteh, D.K.; Huizenga, C.; Rubin, M.D.; Reilly, M.S.
1993-07-01
WINDOW 4.0 is a publicly available IBM PC compatible computer program developed by the Building Technologies Group at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for calculating the thermal and optical properties necessary for heat transfer analyses of fenestration products. This report explains the calculation methods used in WINDOW 4.0 and is meant as a tool for those interested in understanding the procedures contained in WINDOW 4.0. All the calculations are discussed in the International System of units (SI). WINDOW 4.0 is the latest in a series of programs released by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The WINDOW program has its roots in a paper detailing a method for calculating heat transfer through windows [Rubin, 1982]. WINDOW 4.0 replaces the widely used 3.1 version. Although WINDOW 4.0 is a major revision, many of the algorithms used in WINDOW 4.0 build upon those previously documented [Arasteh, 1989b], [Furler, 1991]. This report documents the calculations that are unchanged from WINDOW 3.1, as well as those calculations that are new to WINDOW 4.0. This report uses the organization of the WINDOW 4.0 program. Results displayed on a WINDOW 4.0 screen are discussed in a section describing that screen. In the conclusion the aspects of the calculation method currently slated for revision are discussed. A glossary of variables used throughout the report is found in Section 11.
A new procedure for calculating contact stresses in gear teeth
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Somprakit, Paisan; Huston, Ronald L.
1991-01-01
A numerical procedure for evaluating and monitoring contact stresses in meshing gear teeth is discussed. The procedure is intended to extend the range of applicability and to improve the accuracy of gear contact stress analysis. The procedure is based upon fundamental solution from the theory of elasticity. It is an iterative numerical procedure. The method is believed to have distinct advantages over the classical Hertz method, the finite-element method, and over existing approaches with the boundary element method. Unlike many classical contact stress analyses, friction effects and sliding are included. Slipping and sticking in the contact region are studied. Several examples are discussed. The results are in agreement with classical results. Applications are presented for spur gears.
Boundary condition computational procedures for inviscid, supersonic steady flow field calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abbett, M. J.
1971-01-01
Results are given of a comparative study of numerical procedures for computing solid wall boundary points in supersonic inviscid flow calculatons. Twenty five different calculation procedures were tested on two sample problems: a simple expansion wave and a simple compression (two-dimensional steady flow). A simple calculation procedure was developed. The merits and shortcomings of the various procedures are discussed, along with complications for three-dimensional and time-dependent flows.
A flux-split solution procedure for unsteady flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pordal, H. S.; Khosla, P. K.; Rubin, S. G.
1990-01-01
The solution of reduced Navier Stokes (RNS) equations is considered using a flux-split procedure. Unsteady flow in a two dimensional engine inlet is computed. The problems of unstart and restart are investigated. A sparse matrix direct solver combined with domain decomposition strategy is used to compute the unsteady flow field at each instant of time. Strong shock-boundary layer interaction, time varying shocks and time varying recirculation regions are efficiently captured.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akiba, Sumitaka; Sato, Taisuke; Motoyoshi, Fumio
In this paper, we describe an improvement of a calculation procedure of logic programs. The procedure proposed before is the combination of a replacement procedure of logical formulae and a transformation procedure of equations to disjunctive normal form, and it can calculate logical consequences of the completion of any given first-order logic program (FLP), which is equivalent to the FLP in two-valued logic, soundly and completely in three-valued logic. The new procedure is also the combination of them, but the transformation procedure is improved to be able to calculate two-valued logical consequences of the FLP more than the old one. We prove that it can calculate logical consequences of a completed program, which is not equivalent to the completion of the FLP, soundly and completely in three-valued logic.
An improved procedure for calculating effective interactions and operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Chang Liang
1998-12-01
Most modern microscopic nuclear structure calculations for finite nuclei are based on the shell model. As usually implemented, the model involves a number of uncontrolled approximations that destroy the connections with rigorous many-body theory, including those that tell one how to construct the corresponding effective operators. In this thesis, we introduce a new approach for calculating the effective interaction, which is formally exact if evaluated to all orders and preserves both the connections to the effective operators and the important symmetries, such as translational invariance and hermiticity. It is based on the Bloch-Horowitz equation and an expansion in which successive levels of approximation involve an exact summation of ladder diagrams for two-body clusters, three-body clusters and so on, that is, a summation of all diagrams through order (density)0,/ (density)1, etc, in the effective interaction and effective operator. The approach is free of fictitious parameters such as starting energies. The crucial numerical trick is solving the Bloch-Horowitz equation, which requires knowledge of the exact eigenvalue, by a powerful Lanczos Green's function method that allows one to iterate quickly to convergence for each desired eigenvalue and eigenfunction. In other words, the Bloch-Horowitz equation must be solved self- consistently and state-by-state. We use a full N/hbar/Omega multi-configuration basis as the shell- model space. The model spaces are large to avoid the intruder state problems that frustrated early investigators. We derive a possible formulation for the effective interaction and test it by calculating the properties of the simplest nuclei-the deuteron and 3He. The evolution of the effective interaction towards the bare interaction as the included space is enlarged is discussed. The same strategies and numerical tools can be applied to the effective operator, that is, the operator that, when evaluated with model space wave functions, will
A procedure and program to calculate shuttle mask advantage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balasinski, A.; Cetin, J.; Kahng, A.; Xu, X.
2006-10-01
A well-known recipe for reducing mask cost component in product development is to place non-redundant elements of layout databases related to multiple products on one reticle plate [1,2]. Such reticles are known as multi-product, multi-layer, or, in general, multi-IP masks. The composition of the mask set should minimize not only the layout placement cost, but also the cost of the manufacturing process, design flow setup, and product design and introduction to market. An important factor is the quality check which should be expeditious and enable thorough visual verification to avoid costly modifications once the data is transferred to the mask shop. In this work, in order to enable the layer placement and quality check procedure, we proposed an algorithm where mask layers are first lined up according to the price and field tone [3]. Then, depending on the product die size, expected fab throughput, and scribeline requirements, the subsequent product layers are placed on the masks with different grades. The actual reduction of this concept to practice allowed us to understand the tradeoffs between the automation of layer placement and setup related constraints. For example, the limited options of the numbers of layer per plate dictated by the die size and other design feedback, made us consider layer pairing based not only on the final price of the mask set, but also on the cost of mask design and fab-friendliness. We showed that it may be advantageous to introduce manual layer pairing to ensure that, e.g., all interconnect layers would be placed on the same plate, allowing for easy and simultaneous design fixes. Another enhancement was to allow some flexibility in mixing and matching of the layers such that non-critical ones requiring low mask grade would be placed in a less restrictive way, to reduce the count of orphan layers. In summary, we created a program to automatically propose and visualize shuttle mask architecture for design verification, with
40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...
40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...
40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...
40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...
40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...
19 CFR 351.224 - Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors. 351.224 Section 351.224 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Procedures § 351.224 Disclosure...
19 CFR 351.224 - Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors. 351.224 Section 351.224 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Procedures § 351.224 Disclosure...
Likhovetskaia, R B; Dvorova, E V
1983-05-01
An ever growing flow of patients requires a good deal of time for the planning of irradiation procedures of patients and causes errors during manual calculations. A small-size computer EC 1010 is proposed for the calculation of dosimetric parameters of irradiation procedures on gamma-beam therapeutic units. A specially designed program is intended for the calculation of dosimetric parameters for different methods of moving and static irradiation taking into account tissue heterogeneity: multifield static irradiation, multizone rotation irradiation, irradiation using dose field forming devices (V-shaped filters, edge blocks, a grid diaphragm). In addition to the main calculated values, the listing contains in a suitable form all necessary information: the patient's name, date of calculation, a unit type for irradiation, irradiation procedure parameters. The computation of output parameters according to each preset program of irradiation takes no more than 1 min. The use of the computer EC 1010 for the calculation of dosimetric parameters of irradiation procedures gives an opportunity to considerably reduce calculation time, to avoid possible errors and to simplify the drawing up of documents.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hoff, N J; Libby, Paul A; Klein, Bertran
1946-01-01
This report deals with the calculation of the bending moments in and the distortions of fuselage rings upon which known concentrated and distributed loads are acting. In the procedure suggested, the ring is divided into a number of beams each having a constant radius of curvature. The forces and moments caused in the end sections of the beams by individual unit displacements of the end sections are listed in a table designated as the operations table in conformity with Southwell's nomenclature. The operations table and the external loads are equivalent to a set of linear equations. For their solution the following three procedures are presented: 1) Southwell's method of systematic relaxations. This is a step-by-step approximation procedure guided by the physical interpretation of the changes in the values of the unknown. 2) The growing unit procedure in which the individual beams are combined successively into beams of increasing length until finally the entire ring becomes a single beam. In each step of the procedure a set of not more than three simultaneous linear equations is solved. 3) Solution of the entire set of simultaneous equations by the methods of the matrix calculus. In order to demonstrate the manner in which the calculations may be carried out, the following numerical examples are worked out: 1) Curved beam with both its end sections rigidly fixed. The load is a concentrated force. 2) Egg-shape ring with symmetric concentrated loads. 3) Circular ring with antisymmetric concentrated loads and shear flow (torsion of the fuselage). 4) Same with V-braces incorporated in the ring. 5) Egg-shape ring with antisymmetric concentrated loads and shear flow (torsion of the fuselage). 6) Same with V-braces incorporated in the ring. The results of these calculations are checked, whenever possible, by calculations carried out according to known methods of analysis. The agreement is found to be good. The amount of work necessary for the solution of ring problems by
Development of an efficient procedure for calculating the aerodynamic effects of planform variation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mercer, J. E.; Geller, E. W.
1981-01-01
Numerical procedures to compute gradients in aerodynamic loading due to planform shape changes using panel method codes were studied. Two procedures were investigated: one computed the aerodynamic perturbation directly; the other computed the aerodynamic loading on the perturbed planform and on the base planform and then differenced these values to obtain the perturbation in loading. It is indicated that computing the perturbed values directly can not be done satisfactorily without proper aerodynamic representation of the pressure singularity at the leading edge of a thin wing. For the alternative procedure, a technique was developed which saves most of the time-consuming computations from a panel method calculation for the base planform. Using this procedure the perturbed loading can be calculated in about one-tenth the time of that for the base solution.
Ribeiro, F B; Carlos, D U; Hiodo, F Y; Strobino, E F
2005-01-01
In this study, a least squares procedure for calculating the calibration constants of a portable gamma-ray spectrometer using the general inverse matrix method is presented. The procedure weights the model equations fitting to the calibration data, taking into account the variances in the counting rates and in the radioactive standard concentrations. The application of the described procedure is illustrated by calibrating twice the same gamma-ray spectrometer, with two independent data sets collected approximately 18 months apart in the same calibration facility.
A procedure for calculation of boundary layer trip protuberances in overexpanded rocket nozzles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmucker, R. H.
1973-01-01
A procedure is described for sizing, scaling, positioning and performance loss calculation of a boundary layer trip protuberance. The theoretical results are compared with some experimental data. The application of boundary layer trips, such as secondary injection, wall angle discontinuities, circumferential grooves, and circumferential trip protuberances for reducing side loads on rocket nozzle walls is discussed.
40 CFR 63.11980 - What are the test methods and calculation procedures for process wastewater?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... performance tests during worst-case operating conditions for the PVCPU when the process wastewater treatment process is operating as close as possible to maximum operating conditions. If the wastewater treatment... calculation procedures for process wastewater? 63.11980 Section 63.11980 Protection of...
40 CFR 63.11980 - What are the test methods and calculation procedures for process wastewater?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... performance tests during worst-case operating conditions for the PVCPU when the process wastewater treatment process is operating as close as possible to maximum operating conditions. If the wastewater treatment... calculation procedures for process wastewater? 63.11980 Section 63.11980 Protection of...
40 CFR 63.11980 - What are the test methods and calculation procedures for process wastewater?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... performance tests during worst-case operating conditions for the PVCPU when the process wastewater treatment process is operating as close as possible to maximum operating conditions. If the wastewater treatment... calculation procedures for process wastewater? 63.11980 Section 63.11980 Protection of...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation... Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With...-Fueled Vehicle Pollutant Mass Emission Calculation Procedure. (1) For all TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs,...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation... Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With...-Fueled Vehicle Pollutant Mass Emission Calculation Procedure. (1) For all TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs,...
Calculation procedures for potential and viscous flow solutions for engine inlets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albers, J. A.; Stockman, N. O.
1973-01-01
The method and basic elements of computer solutions for both potential flow and viscous flow calculations for engine inlets are described. The procedure is applicable to subsonic conventional (CTOL), short-haul (STOL), and vertical takeoff (VTOL) aircraft engine nacelles operating in a compressible viscous flow. The calculated results compare well with measured surface pressure distributions for a number of model inlets. The paper discusses the uses of the program in both the design and analysis of engine inlets, with several examples given for VTOL lift fans, acoustic splitters, and for STOL engine nacelles. Several test support applications are also given.
Calculation of conversion factors for effective dose for various interventional radiology procedures
Compagnone, Gaetano; Giampalma, Emanuela; Domenichelli, Sara; Renzulli, Matteo; Golfieri, Rita
2012-05-15
Purpose: To provide dose-area-product (DAP) to effective dose (E) conversion factors for complete interventional procedures, based on in-the-field clinical measurements of DAP values and using tabulated E/DAP conversion factors for single projections available from the literature. Methods: Nine types of interventional procedures were performed on 84 patients with two angiographic systems. Different calibration curves (with and without patient table attenuation) were calculated for each DAP meter. Clinical and dosimetric parameters were recorded in-the-field for each projection and for all patients, and a conversion factor linking DAP and effective doses was derived for each complete procedure making use of published, Monte Carlo calculated conversion factors for single static projections. Results: Fluoroscopy time and DAP values for the lowest-dose procedure (biliary drainage) were approximately 3-fold and 13-fold lower, respectively, than those for the highest-dose examination (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, TIPS). Median E/DAP conversion factors from 0.12 (abdominal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty) to 0.25 (Nephrostomy) mSvGy{sup -1} cm{sup -2} were obtained and good correlations between E and DAP were found for all procedures, with R{sup 2} coefficients ranging from 0.80 (abdominal angiography) to 0.99 (biliary stent insertion, Nephrostomy and TIPS). The DAP values obtained in this study showed general consistency with the values provided in the literature and median E values ranged from 4.0 mSv (biliary drainage) to 49.6 mSv (TIPS). Conclusions: Values of E/DAP conversion factors were derived for each procedure from a comprehensive analysis of projection and dosimetric data: they could provide a good evaluation for the stochastic effects. These results can be obtained by means of a close cooperation between different interventional professionals involved in patient care and dose optimization.
Calculation procedures for the analysis of integral experiments for fusion-reactor design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santoro, R. T.; Barnes, J. M.; Alsmiller, R. G., Jr.; Oblow, E. M.
1981-07-01
The calculational models, nuclear data, and radiation transport codes that are used in the analysis of integral measurements of the transport of approxmately 14 MeV neutrons through laminated slabs of materials typical of those found in fusion reactor shields are described. The two dimensional discrete ordinates calculations to optimize the experimental configuration of reducing the neutron and gamma ray background levels and for obtaining and equivalent, reduced geometry of the calculational model to reduce computer core storage and running times are also presented. The equations and data to determine the energy-angle relations to neutrons produced in the reactions of 250 keV deuterons in a titanium tritide target are given. The procedures used to collapse the 17ln 36gamma VATAMIN C cross section library to a 53n 21 gamma broad group library are described.
Miliordos, Evangelos; Xantheas, Sotiris S.
2013-08-15
We propose a general procedure for the numerical calculation of the harmonic vibrational frequencies that is based on internal coordinates and Wilson’s GF methodology via double differentiation of the energy. The internal coordinates are defined as the geometrical parameters of a Z-matrix structure, thus avoiding issues related to their redundancy. Linear arrangements of atoms are described using a dummy atom of infinite mass. The procedure has been automated in FORTRAN90 and its main advantage lies in the nontrivial reduction of the number of single-point energy calculations needed for the construction of the Hessian matrix when compared to the corresponding number using double differentiation in Cartesian coordinates. For molecules of C_{1} symmetry the computational savings in the energy calculations amount to 36N – 30, where N is the number of atoms, with additional savings when symmetry is present. Typical applications for small and medium size molecules in their minimum and transition state geometries as well as hydrogen bonded clusters (water dimer and trimer) are presented. Finally, in all cases the frequencies based on internal coordinates differ on average by <1 cm^{–1} from those obtained from Cartesian coordinates.
Miliordos, Evangelos; Xantheas, Sotiris S
2013-08-15
We propose a general procedure for the numerical calculation of the harmonic vibrational frequencies that is based on internal coordinates and Wilson's GF methodology via double differentiation of the energy. The internal coordinates are defined as the geometrical parameters of a Z-matrix structure, thus avoiding issues related to their redundancy. Linear arrangements of atoms are described using a dummy atom of infinite mass. The procedure has been automated in FORTRAN90 and its main advantage lies in the nontrivial reduction of the number of single-point energy calculations needed for the construction of the Hessian matrix when compared to the corresponding number using double differentiation in Cartesian coordinates. For molecules of C1 symmetry the computational savings in the energy calculations amount to 36N - 30, where N is the number of atoms, with additional savings when symmetry is present. Typical applications for small and medium size molecules in their minimum and transition state geometries as well as hydrogen bonded clusters (water dimer and trimer) are presented. In all cases the frequencies based on internal coordinates differ on average by <1 cm(-1) from those obtained from Cartesian coordinates.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heard, W. L., Jr.; Anderson, M. S.; Slysh, P.
1976-01-01
An engineering procedure is presented for calculating the compressive buckling strength of isogrid cylinders using shell of revolution techniques and accounting for loading beyond the material proportional limit and/or local buckling of the skin prior to general buckling. A general nondimensional chart is presented which can be used in conjunction with formulas based on simple deformation plasticity theory to calculate postbuckling stiffnesses of the skin. The stiffening grid system is treated as an equivalent isotropic grid layer. Stiffnesses are determined for this grid layer, when loaded beyond the proportional limit, by the same plasticity theory used for the skin and a nonlinear stress-strain curve constructed from simple isogrid-handbook formulas and standard-reference-manual stress-strain curves for the material involved. Comparison of prebuckling strains and buckling results obtained by this procedure with data from a large isogrid-cylinder test is excellent with the calculated buckling load no more than 4 percent greater than the test value.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akiba, Sumitaka; Sato, Taisuke
In this paper, we describe the completeness of a calculation procedure of logic programs. The procedure is the combination of two procedures, a replacement procedure of atoms in the goal by the bodies or the negation of the bodies of rules in the program, and a transformation procedure of equations to disjunctive normal forms (DNF) equivalent under Clark's Equational Theory (CET). To combine replacement of atoms in the goal to logical formulae determined from the program and transformation of equations to DNF equivalent under CET is a method by which procedures with the capability of expressing answers in DNF can be build, so it is a leading method for expressing answers in a form including negation. Some procedures based on the method are devised, and their calculation capabilities are shown by applying the theory of completed programs. However, the procedure that uses the bodies or the negation of the bodies of rules for replacement has higher calculation capability, and is intuitively more natural than they. Therefore, to clarify the calculation capability of the procedure is considered an important subject for research into calculation procedures of logic programs with the capability for expressing answers in a form including negation. Moreover, since the completeness is realized by standing on the viewpoint of treating the implication symbol as a different implication symbol from usual, and interpreting logic programs in three-valued logic, examples which support the viewpoint are also described.
Procedure of Calculating the Parameters of the Inter-Pulse Period in Pulsed Arc Welding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krampit, A. G.; Krampit, M. A.
2016-08-01
The procedure of calculating the parameters of the inter-pulse period such as current strength, electrode supply speed and time length is presented in the paper. Their importance for the stable arc burning is demonstrated. The authors address to the inter-pulse period parameters, influencing on the temperature of the electrode in the device, where the inter-pulse current is used for heating the electrode. The data of calculations are confirmed in the process of experiments. The appropriate parameters of pulsed arc welding with preheated electrode extension are identified; the stability of the process is tested experimentally: impulse frequency, inter-pulse period, arc voltage during the inter-pulse period, speed of electrode supply, current of the inter-pulse period.
A Monte Carlo-based procedure for independent monitor unit calculation in IMRT treatment plans.
Pisaturo, O; Moeckli, R; Mirimanoff, R-O; Bochud, F O
2009-07-01
Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment plan verification by comparison with measured data requires having access to the linear accelerator and is time consuming. In this paper, we propose a method for monitor unit (MU) calculation and plan comparison for step and shoot IMRT based on the Monte Carlo code EGSnrc/BEAMnrc. The beamlets of an IMRT treatment plan are individually simulated using Monte Carlo and converted into absorbed dose to water per MU. The dose of the whole treatment can be expressed through a linear matrix equation of the MU and dose per MU of every beamlet. Due to the positivity of the absorbed dose and MU values, this equation is solved for the MU values using a non-negative least-squares fit optimization algorithm (NNLS). The Monte Carlo plan is formed by multiplying the Monte Carlo absorbed dose to water per MU with the Monte Carlo/NNLS MU. Several treatment plan localizations calculated with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) are compared with the proposed method for validation. The Monte Carlo/NNLS MUs are close to the ones calculated by the TPS and lead to a treatment dose distribution which is clinically equivalent to the one calculated by the TPS. This procedure can be used as an IMRT QA and further development could allow this technique to be used for other radiotherapy techniques like tomotherapy or volumetric modulated arc therapy.
Double-step truncation procedure for large-scale shell-model calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coraggio, L.; Gargano, A.; Itaco, N.
2016-06-01
We present a procedure that is helpful to reduce the computational complexity of large-scale shell-model calculations, by preserving as much as possible the role of the rejected degrees of freedom in an effective approach. Our truncation is driven first by the analysis of the effective single-particle energies of the original large-scale shell-model Hamiltonian, in order to locate the relevant degrees of freedom to describe a class of isotopes or isotones, namely the single-particle orbitals that will constitute a new truncated model space. The second step is to perform a unitary transformation of the original Hamiltonian from its model space into the truncated one. This transformation generates a new shell-model Hamiltonian, defined in a smaller model space, that retains effectively the role of the excluded single-particle orbitals. As an application of this procedure, we have chosen a realistic shell-model Hamiltonian defined in a large model space, set up by seven proton and five neutron single-particle orbitals outside 88Sr. We study the dependence of shell-model results upon different truncations of the original model space for the Zr, Mo, Ru, Pd, Cd, and Sn isotopic chains, showing the reliability of this truncation procedure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volkov, S. A.
2016-06-01
A new subtractive procedure for canceling ultraviolet and infrared divergences in the Feynman integrals described here is developed for calculating QED corrections to the electron anomalous magnetic moment. The procedure formulated in the form of a forest expression with linear operators applied to Feynman amplitudes of UV-diverging subgraphs makes it possible to represent the contribution of each Feynman graph containing only electron and photon propagators in the form of a converging integral with respect to Feynman parameters. The application of the developed method for numerical calculation of two- and threeloop contributions is described.
A procedure for calculation of monitor units for passively scattered proton radiotherapy beams
Sahoo, Narayan; Zhu, X. Ronald; Arjomandy, Bijan; Ciangaru, George; Lii, MingFwu; Amos, Richard; Wu, Richard; Gillin, Michael T.
2008-11-15
The purpose of this study is to validate a monitor unit (MU) calculation procedure for passively scattered proton therapy beams. The output dose per MU (d/MU) of a therapeutic radiation beam is traditionally calibrated under specific reference conditions. These conditions include beam energy, field size, suitable depth in water or water equivalent phantom in a low dose gradient region with known relative depth dose, and source to point of calibration distance. Treatment field settings usually differ from these reference conditions leading to a different d/MU that needs to be determined for delivering the prescribed dose. For passively scattered proton beams, the proton specific parameters, which need to be defined, are related to the energy, lateral scatterers, range modulating wheel, spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) width, thickness of any range shifter, the depth dose value relative to the normalization point in the SOBP, and scatter both from the range compensator and inhomogeneity in the patient. Following the custom for photons or electrons, a set of proton dosimetry factors, representing the changes in the d/MU relative to a reference condition, can be defined as the relative output factor (ROF), SOBP factor (SOBPF), range shifter factor (RSF), SOBP off-center factor (SOBPOCF), off-center ratio (OCR), inverse square factor (ISF), field size factor (FSF), and compensator and patient scatter factor (CPSF). The ROF, SOBPF, and RSF are the major contributors to the d/MU and were measured using an ion chamber in water tank during the clinical commissioning of each beam to create a dosimetry beam data table to be used for calculating the monitor units. The following simple formula is found to provide an independent method to determine the d/MU at the point of interest (POI) in the patient, namely, (d/MU)=ROF{center_dot}SOBPF{center_dot}RSF{center_dot}SOBPOCF{center_dot}OCR{center_dot}FSF{center_dot}ISF{center_dot}CPSF. The monitor units for delivering the intended dose
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cepriá, Gemma; Salvatella, Luis
2014-01-01
All pH calculations for simple acid-base systems used in introductory courses on general or analytical chemistry can be carried out by using a general procedure requiring the use of predominance diagrams. In particular, the pH is calculated as the sum of an independent term equaling the average pK[subscript a] values of the acids involved in the…
Lens of the eye dose calculation for neuro-interventional procedures and CBCT scans of the head
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Zhenyu; Vijayan, Sarath; Rana, Vijay; Jain, Amit; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.
2016-03-01
The aim of this work is to develop a method to calculate lens dose for fluoroscopically-guided neuro-interventional procedures and for CBCT scans of the head. EGSnrc Monte Carlo software is used to determine the dose to the lens of the eye for the projection geometry and exposure parameters used in these procedures. This information is provided by a digital CAN bus on the Toshiba Infinix C-Arm system which is saved in a log file by the real-time skin-dose tracking system (DTS) we previously developed. The x-ray beam spectra on this machine were simulated using BEAMnrc. These spectra were compared to those determined by SpekCalc and validated through measured percent-depth-dose (PDD) curves and half-value-layer (HVL) measurements. We simulated CBCT procedures in DOSXYZnrc for a CTDI head phantom and compared the surface dose distribution with that measured with Gafchromic film, and also for an SK150 head phantom and compared the lens dose with that measured with an ionization chamber. Both methods demonstrated good agreement. Organ dose calculated for a simulated neuro-interventional-procedure using DOSXYZnrc with the Zubal CT voxel phantom agreed within 10% with that calculated by PCXMC code for most organs. To calculate the lens dose in a neuro-interventional procedure, we developed a library of normalized lens dose values for different projection angles and kVp's. The total lens dose is then calculated by summing the values over all beam projections and can be included on the DTS report at the end of the procedure.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The integration of methods for calculating soil loss caused by water erosion using a geoprocessing system is important to enable investigations of soil erosion over large areas. GIS-based procedures have been used in soil erosion studies; however in most cases it is difficult to integrate the functi...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mingelgrin, U.
1972-01-01
Many properties of gaseous systems such as electromagnetic absorption and emission, sound dispersion and absorption, may be elucidated if the nature of collisions between the particles in the system is understood. A procedure for the calculation of the classical trajectories of two interacting diatomic molecules is described. The dynamics of the collision will be assumed to be that of two rigid rotors moving in a specified potential. The actual outcome of a representative sample of many trajectories at 298K was computed, and the use of these values at any temperature for calculations of various molecular properties will be described. Calculations performed for the O2 microwave spectrum are given to demonstrate the use of the procedure described.
40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
.... (B) YFTP=Weighted mass emissions per mile (Ywm) based on the measured driving distance of the FTP test schedule. (C) YSC03=Calculated mass emissions per mile based on the measured driving distance of the SC03 test schedule. (D) YUS06=Calculated mass emissions per mile based on the measured...
33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
.... (d) 33 CFR Ch. I (7-1-10 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS ... of liability adjustments for inflation. 138.240 Section 138.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative...
33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
.... (d) 33 CFR Ch. I (7-1-11 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS ... of liability adjustments for inflation. 138.240 Section 138.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative...
33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
.... (d) 33 CFR Ch. I (7-1-12 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS ... of liability adjustments for inflation. 138.240 Section 138.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative...
33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
.... (d) 33 CFR Ch. I (7-1-14 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS ... of liability adjustments for inflation. 138.240 Section 138.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative...
33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
.... (d) 33 CFR Ch. I (7-1-13 Edition) Coast Guard, DHS ... of liability adjustments for inflation. 138.240 Section 138.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kang, Namjun
If content analysis is to satisfy the requirement of objectivity, measures and procedures must be reliable. Reliability is usually measured by the proportion of agreement of all categories identically coded by different coders. For such data to be empirically meaningful, a high degree of inter-coder reliability must be demonstrated. Researchers in…
A Finite Element Procedure for Calculating Fluid-Structure Interaction Using MSC/NASTRAN
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chargin, Mladen; Gartmeier, Otto
1990-01-01
This report is intended to serve two purposes. The first is to present a survey of the theoretical background of the dynamic interaction between a non-viscid, compressible fluid and an elastic structure is presented. Section one presents a short survey of the application of the finite element method (FEM) to the area of fluid-structure-interaction (FSI). Section two describes the mathematical foundation of the structure and fluid with special emphasis on the fluid. The main steps in establishing the finite element (FE) equations for the fluid structure coupling are discussed in section three. The second purpose is to demonstrate the application of MSC/NASTRAN to the solution of FSI problems. Some specific topics, such as fluid structure analogy, acoustic absorption, and acoustic contribution analysis are described in section four. Section five deals with the organization of the acoustic procedure flowchart. Section six includes the most important information that a user needs for applying the acoustic procedure to practical FSI problems. Beginning with some rules concerning the FE modeling of the coupled system, the NASTRAN USER DECKs for the different steps are described. The goal of section seven is to demonstrate the use of the acoustic procedure with some examples. This demonstration includes an analytic verification of selected FE results. The analytical description considers only some aspects of FSI and is not intended to be mathematically complete. Finally, section 8 presents an application of the acoustic procedure to vehicle interior acoustic analysis with selected results.
A factorization procedure for calculations of gamma exposure from radioactive clouds.
Tarasov, V I
1993-11-01
A procedure is proposed to factor the integrand in the expression for dose characteristics of gamma emission of radioactive clouds. This method permits a reduction of the multiplicity of the integration for conventional models with an arbitrary collocation of a source and a receptor. This can result in more economic numerical schemes for analyzing the consequences of radioactive releases into the atmosphere.
40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-08 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water according to paragraph (d) of this section. These... results to the environmental test cell air conditioning ambient condition of 100 grains of water/pound...
An explicit finite-volume time-marching procedure for turbulent flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nicholson, Stephen; Moore, Joan G.; Moore, John
1986-01-01
A method was developed which calculates two-dimensional, transonic, viscous flow in ducts. The finite-volume, time-marching formulation is used to obtain steady flow solutions of the Reynolds-averaged form of the Navier-Stokes equations. The entire calculation is performed in the physical domain. Control volumes are chosen so that smoothing of flow properties, typically required for stability, is not required. Different time steps are used in the different governing equations. A new pressure interpolation scheme is introduced which improves the shock capturing ability of the method. A multi-volume method for pressure changes in the boundary layer allows calculations which use very long and thin control volumes (length/height - 1000). The method is compared with two test cases. Essentially incompressible turbulent boundary layer flow in an adverse pressure gradient is calculated and the computed distributions of mean velocity and shear are in good agreement with the measurements. Transonic viscous flow in a converging diverging nozzle is calculated; the Mach number upstream of the shock is approximately 1.25. The agreement between the calculated and measured shock strength and total pressure losses is good.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Milner, E. J.; Krosel, S. M.
1977-01-01
Techniques are presented for determining the elements of the A, B, C, and D state variable matrices for systems simulated on an EAI Pacer 100 hybrid computer. An automated procedure systematically generates disturbance data necessary to linearize the simulation model and stores these data on a floppy disk. A separate digital program verifies this data, calculates the elements of the system matrices, and prints these matrices appropriately labeled. The partial derivatives forming the elements of the state variable matrices are approximated by finite difference calculations.
40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... and CO. (B) YFTP = Weighted mass emissions per mile (YWM) based on the measured driving distance of the FTP test schedule. (C) YSC03 = Calculated mass emissions per mile based on the measured driving... CO. (B) YFTP = Weighted mass emissions per mile (Ywm) based on the measured driving distance of...
40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... and CO. (B) YFTP = Weighted mass emissions per mile (YWM) based on the measured driving distance of the FTP test schedule. (C) YSC03 = Calculated mass emissions per mile based on the measured driving... CO. (B) YFTP = Weighted mass emissions per mile (Ywm) based on the measured driving distance of...
19 CFR 351.224 - Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... determination may submit comments concerning a significant ministerial error in such calculations. A party to... determination or the final results of a review may submit comments concerning any ministerial error in such... the time limit for filing comments concerning a ministerial error in a final determination or...
19 CFR 351.224 - Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... determination may submit comments concerning a significant ministerial error in such calculations. A party to... determination or the final results of a review may submit comments concerning any ministerial error in such... the time limit for filing comments concerning a ministerial error in a final determination or...
19 CFR 351.224 - Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... determination may submit comments concerning a significant ministerial error in such calculations. A party to... determination or the final results of a review may submit comments concerning any ministerial error in such... the time limit for filing comments concerning a ministerial error in a final determination or...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, K.-H.; Pletcher, R. H.
1991-01-01
A coupled strongly implicit solution strategy for unsteady three-dimensional free surface flows has been developed based on an artificial compressibility formulation for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. A pseudotime term has been used in the continuity equation to permit time accurate calculations to be achieved. The scheme appears capable of tracking the free surface reasonably accurately inside a partially-filled spherical container undergoing a general rotating motion characteristic of that experienced by a spin-stabilized satellite. Five different free surface calculations have been presented. Some of the results exhibit an interesting Reynolds number dependent oscillatory behavior which is believed to be physical although no experimental results appears to be available for verification to date.
A review of the calculation procedure for critical acid loads for terrestrial ecosystems.
van der Salm, C; de Vries, W
2001-04-23
Target loads for acid deposition in the Netherlands, as formulated in the Dutch environmental policy plan, are based on critical load calculations at the end of the 1980s. Since then knowledge on the effect of acid deposition on terrestrial ecosystems has substantially increased. In the early 1990s a simple mass balance model was developed to calculate critical loads. This model was evaluated and the methods were adapted to represent the current knowledge. The main changes in the model are the use of actual empirical relationships between Al and H concentrations in the soil solution, the addition of a constant base saturation as a second criterion for soil quality and the use of tree species-dependant critical Al/base cation (BC) ratios for Dutch circumstances. The changes in the model parameterisation and in the Al/BC criteria led to considerably (50%) higher critical loads for root damage. The addition of a second criterion in the critical load calculations for soil quality caused a decrease in the critical loads for soils with a median to high base saturation such as loess and clay soils. The adaptation hardly effected the median critical load for soil quality in the Netherlands, since only 15% of the Dutch forests occur on these soils. On a regional scale, however, critical loads were (much) lower in areas where those soils are located.
Messina, M.; Schenter, G.K.; Garrett, B.C.
1995-09-01
The low temperature behavior of the centroid density method of Voth, Chandler, and Miller (VCM) [J. Chem. Phys. {bold 91}, 7749 (1989)] is investigated for tunneling through a one-dimensional barrier. We find that the bottleneck for a quantum activated process as defined by VCM does not correspond to the classical bottleneck for the case of an asymmetric barrier. If the centroid density is constrained to be at the classical bottleneck for an asymmetric barrier, the centroid density method can give transmission coefficients that are too large by as much as five orders of magnitude. We follow a variational procedure, as suggested by VCM, whereby the best transmission coefficient is found by varying the position of the centroid until the minimum value for this transmission coefficient is obtained. This is a procedure that is readily generalizable to multidimensional systems. We present calculations on several test systems which show that this variational procedure greatly enhances the accuracy of the centroid density method compared to when the centroid is constrained to be at the barrier top. Furthermore, the relation of this procedure to the low temperature periodic orbit or ``instanton`` approach is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.
Calculation of helicopter rotor blade/vortex interaction by Navier-Stokes procedures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Y.-N.; Shamroth, S. J.; Buggeln, R. C.
1987-01-01
Interactions of a modern rotor blade with concentrated tip vortices from the previous blades can have a significant influence on the airloads and the aeroacoustics of a helicopter. A better understanding of the blade/vortex interaction process and a method of analyzing its flow field would provide valuable help in the design of helicopters. The work discussed herein represents an initial effort in applying a 3-D, time-dependent Navier-Stokes simulation to the blade vortex interaction problem. The numerical approach is the Linearized Block Implicit (LBI) technique. In this initial effort, consideration is given to the interaction of a wing of idealized geometry and a vortex whose axis is aligned at an arbitrary angle to the wing. The calculations are made for laminar, subsonic flow, and show the time dependent pressure distribution and flow fields resulting from the interaction.
Extension of a GIS procedure for calculating the RUSLE equation LS factor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hongming; Yang, Qinke; Li, Rui; Liu, Qingrui; Moore, Demie; He, Peng; Ritsema, Coen J.; Geissen, Violette
2013-03-01
The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and revised USLE (RUSLE) are often used to estimate soil erosion at regional landscape scales, however a major limitation is the difficulty in extracting the LS factor. The geographic information system-based (GIS-based) methods which have been developed for estimating the LS factor for USLE and RUSLE also have limitations. The unit contributing area-based estimation method (UCA) converts slope length to unit contributing area for considering two-dimensional topography, however is not able to predict the different zones of soil erosion and deposition. The flowpath and cumulative cell length-based method (FCL) overcomes this disadvantage but does not consider channel networks and flow convergence in two-dimensional topography. The purpose of this research was to overcome these limitations and extend the FCL method through inclusion of channel networks and convergence flow. We developed LS-TOOL in Microsoft's.NET environment using C♯ with a user-friendly interface. Comparing the LS factor calculated with the three methodologies (UCA, FCL and LS-TOOL), LS-TOOL delivers encouraging results. In particular, LS-TOOL uses breaks in slope identified from the DEM to locate soil erosion and deposition zones, channel networks and convergence flow areas. Comparing slope length and LS factor values generated using LS-TOOL with manual methods, LS-TOOL corresponds more closely with the reality of the Xiannangou catchment than results using UCA or FCL. The LS-TOOL algorithm can automatically calculate slope length, slope steepness, L factor, S factor, and LS factors, providing the results as ASCII files which can be easily used in some GIS software. This study is an important step forward in conducting more accurate large area erosion evaluation.
Carinou, E; Ferrari, P; Koukorava, C; Krim, S; Struelens, L
2011-03-01
There are many factors that can influence the extremity and eye lens doses of the medical staff during interventional radiology and cardiology procedures. Numerical simulations can play an important role in evaluating extremity and eye lens doses in correlation with many different parameters. In the present study, the first results of the ORAMED (Optimisation of Radiation protection of MEDical staff) simulation campaign are presented. The parameters investigated for their influence on eye lens, hand, wrist and leg doses are: tube voltage, filtration, beam projection, field size and irradiated part of the patient's body. The tube voltage ranged from 60 to 110 kV(p), filtration from 3 to 6 mm Al and from 0 to 0.9 mm Cu. For all projections, the results showed that doses received by the operator decreased with increasing tube voltage and filtration. The magnitude of the influence of the tube voltage and the filtration on the doses depends on the beam projection and the irradiated part of the patient's body. Finally, the influence of the field size is significant in decreasing the doses.
Haghighat, F; Lee, C S; Ghaly, W S
2002-06-01
The measurement and prediction of building material emission rates have been the subject of intensive research over the past decade, resulting in the development of advanced sensory and chemical analysis measurement techniques as well as the development of analytical and numerical models. One of the important input parameters for these models is the diffusion coefficient. Several experimental techniques have been applied to estimate the diffusion coefficient. An extensive literature review of the techniques used to measure this coefficient was carried out, for building materials exposed to volatile organic compounds (VOC). This paper reviews these techniques; it also analyses the results and discusses the possible causes of difference in the reported data. It was noted that the discrepancy between the different results was mainly because of the assumptions made in and the techniques used to analyze the data. For a given technique, the results show that there can be a difference of up to 700% in the reported data. Moreover, the paper proposes what is referred to as the mass exchanger method, to calculate diffusion coefficients considering both diffusion and convection. The results obtained by this mass exchanger method were compared with those obtained by the existing method considering only diffusion. It was demonstrated that, for porous materials, the convection resistance could not be ignored when compared with the diffusion resistance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsakstara, V.; Kosmas, T. S.
2011-12-01
Convoluted differential and total cross sections of inelastic ν scattering on 128,130Te isotopes are computed from the original cross sections calculated previously using the quasiparticle random-phase approximation. We adopt various spectral distributions for the neutrino energy spectra such as the common two-parameter Fermi-Dirac and power-law distributions appropriate to explore nuclear detector responses to supernova neutrino spectra. We also concentrate on the use of low-energy β-beam neutrinos, originating from boosted β--radioactive 6He ions, to decompose original supernova (anti)neutrino spectra that are subsequently employed to simulate total cross sections of the reactions 130Te(ν˜,ν˜')130Te*. The concrete nuclear regimes selected, 128,130Te, are contents of the multipurpose CUORE and COBRA rare event detectors. Our present investigation may provide useful information about the efficiency of the Te detector medium of the above experiments in their potential use in supernova neutrino searches.
Fatigue Damage Spectrum calculation in a Mission Synthesis procedure for Sine-on-Random excitations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angeli, Andrea; Cornelis, Bram; Troncossi, Marco
2016-09-01
In many real-life environments, certain mechanical and electronic components may be subjected to Sine-on-Random vibrations, i.e. excitations composed of random vibrations superimposed on deterministic (sinusoidal) contributions, in particular sine tones due to some rotating parts of the system (e.g. helicopters, engine-mounted components,...). These components must be designed to withstand the fatigue damage induced by the “composed” vibration environment, and qualification tests are advisable for the most critical ones. In the case of an accelerated qualification test, a proper test tailoring which starts from the real environment (measured vibration signals) and which preserves not only the accumulated fatigue damage but also the “nature” of the excitation (i.e. sinusoidal components plus random process) is important to obtain reliable results. In this paper, the classic time domain approach is taken as a reference for the comparison of different methods for the Fatigue Damage Spectrum (FDS) calculation in case of Sine-on-Random vibration environments. Then, a methodology to compute a Sine-on-Random specification based on a mission FDS is proposed.
Eça, L.; Hoekstra, M.
2014-04-01
This paper offers a procedure for the estimation of the numerical uncertainty of any integral or local flow quantity as a result of a fluid flow computation; the procedure requires solutions on systematically refined grids. The error is estimated with power series expansions as a function of the typical cell size. These expansions, of which four types are used, are fitted to the data in the least-squares sense. The selection of the best error estimate is based on the standard deviation of the fits. The error estimate is converted into an uncertainty with a safety factor that depends on the observed order of grid convergence and on the standard deviation of the fit. For well-behaved data sets, i.e. monotonic convergence with the expected observed order of grid convergence and no scatter in the data, the method reduces to the well known Grid Convergence Index. Examples of application of the procedure are included. - Highlights: • Estimation of the numerical uncertainty of any integral or local flow quantity. • Least squares fits to power series expansions to handle noisy data. • Excellent results obtained for manufactured solutions. • Consistent results obtained for practical CFD calculations. • Reduces to the well known Grid Convergence Index for well-behaved data sets.
Stamateris, B.; Olivera-Fuentes, C.
1996-12-31
A new procedure is proposed for the calculation and correlation of cohesion parameters in cubic equations of state of the Van der Waals type. In this method, the derivative (rather than the function itself) is computed subject to the Maxwell (equal area) and Clapeyron equations. Strong experimental evidence indicates that properly formulated a functions must generate negative values at high temperatures. A theoretical analysis demonstrates the correct, hard-body limiting behavior of the cohesion function at infinite temperatures. From this, the simplest possible form of the cohesion function follows as a two-constant expression that can be considered an extension of a functional form previously proposed by Martin. The proposed function`s performance is comparable to more complex expressions previously presented in the literature, predicting vapor pressures of polar and nonpolar fluids with relative deviations (i) of {+-} 1%. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chiang, T.; Tessarzik, J. M.; Badgley, R. H.
1972-01-01
The primary aim of this investigation was verification of basic methods which are to be used in cataloging elastomer dynamic properties (stiffness and damping) in terms of viscoelastic model constants. These constants may then be used to predict dynamic properties for general elastomer shapes and operating conditions, thereby permitting optimum application of elastomers as energy absorption and/or energy storage devices in the control of vibrations in a broad variety of applications. The efforts reported involved: (1) literature search; (2) the design, fabrication and use of a test rig for obtaining elastomer dynamic test data over a wide range of frequencies, amplitudes, and preloads; and (3) the reduction of the test data, by means of a selected three-element elastomer model and specialized curve fitting techniques, to material properties. Material constants thus obtained have been used to calculate stiffness and damping for comparison with measured test data. These comparisons are excellent for a number of test conditions and only fair to poor for others. The results confirm the validity of the basic approach of the overall program and the mechanics of the cataloging procedure, and at the same time suggest areas in which refinements should be made.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novoselov, V. B.; Shekhter, M. V.
2012-12-01
A refined procedure for estimating the effect the flashing of condensate in a steam turbine's regenerative and delivery-water heaters on the increase of rotor rotation frequency during rejection of electric load is presented. The results of calculations carried out according to the proposed procedure as applied to the delivery-water and regenerative heaters of a T-110/120-12.8 turbine are given.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... at Microwave Receivers (Appendix E of the Memorandum Opinion and Order) I Appendix I to Subpart E of... PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Broadband PCS Pt. 24, Subpt. E, App. I Appendix I to Subpart E of Part 24—A Procedure for Calculating PCS Signal Levels at Microwave Receivers (Appendix E of the...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bazyuk, S. S.; Ignat'ev, D. N.; Parshin, N. Ya.; Popov, E. B.; Soldatkin, D. M.; Kuzma-Kichta, Yu. A.
2013-05-01
A balance procedure is proposed for estimating the main parameters characterizing the process of model fuel assemblies reflooding of a VVER reactor made on different scales under the conditions of a design basis accident by subjecting them to bottom reflooding1. The proposed procedure satisfactorily describes the experimental data obtained on PARAMETER test facility in the temperature range up to 1200°C. The times of fuel assemblies quenching by bottom reflooding calculated using the proposed procedure are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data obtained on model fuel assemblies of VVER- and PWR-type reactors and can be used in developing measures aimed at enhancing the safety of nuclear power stations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nevinitsa, V. A.; Dudnikov, A. A.; Blandinskiy, V. Yu.; Balanin, A. L.; Alekseev, P. N.; Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V. F.; Pavlov, K. V.; Titarenko, A. Yu.
2015-12-01
A subcritical molten salt reactor with an external neutron source is studied computationally as a facility for incineration and transmutation of minor actinides from spent nuclear fuel of reactors of VVER-1000 type and for producing 233U from 232Th. The reactor configuration is chosen, the requirements to be imposed on the external neutron source are formulated, and the equilibrium isotopic composition of heavy nuclides and the key parameters of the fuel cycle are calculated.
Nevinitsa, V. A. Dudnikov, A. A.; Blandinskiy, V. Yu.; Balanin, A. L.; Alekseev, P. N.; Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V. F.; Pavlov, K. V.; Titarenko, A. Yu.
2015-12-15
A subcritical molten salt reactor with an external neutron source is studied computationally as a facility for incineration and transmutation of minor actinides from spent nuclear fuel of reactors of VVER-1000 type and for producing {sup 233}U from {sup 232}Th. The reactor configuration is chosen, the requirements to be imposed on the external neutron source are formulated, and the equilibrium isotopic composition of heavy nuclides and the key parameters of the fuel cycle are calculated.
Cook, Troy A.
2013-01-01
Estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs) are a key component in determining productivity of wells in continuous-type oil and gas reservoirs. EURs form the foundation of a well-performance-based assessment methodology initially developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS; Schmoker, 1999). This methodology was formally reviewed by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Committee on Resource Evaluation (Curtis and others, 2001). The EUR estimation methodology described in this paper was used in the 2013 USGS assessment of continuous oil resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations and incorporates uncertainties that would not normally be included in a basic decline-curve calculation. These uncertainties relate to (1) the mean time before failure of the entire well-production system (excluding economics), (2) the uncertainty of when (and if) a stable hyperbolic-decline profile is revealed in the production data, (3) the particular formation involved, (4) relations between initial production rates and a stable hyperbolic-decline profile, and (5) the final behavior of the decline extrapolation as production becomes more dependent on matrix storage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kochemasov, G.
2007-08-01
-concave dichotomous shape. After asteroids the warping wave is too long to be detected in a body. So, one has to look for a shorter waves. Saturn's atmosphere rotates too rapidly (or orbits the center of the Saturnian system in π10 h.) and corresponding grains (πR/3448) are too small and difficult (or impossible at present) to see. However, a wave modulation helps us. Multiplying and dividing the higher frequency (1/10 hours) by the lower one (1/30 y.) one gets side frequencies and corresponding them granule sizes. They are [1/3448 : 7.5] πR and [1/3448 x 7.5]πR or 7 and 410 km across. So, detected are calculated granules 410 km across, in the real field they are on average 450 and 580 km in diameter. Somewhat larger grains in the north are attributed to the Saturnian dichotomy: squeezed south and expanded north. The overall expansion of the northern hemisphere makes structural features to manifest themselves (hexagon) and granules to enlarge. References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. Calculating size of the Saturn's "leopard skin" spots // Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXVIII, 2007, Abstr. #1040, CD-ROM. [2] Kochemasov G.G. Concerted wave supergranulation of the solar system bodies // 16th Russian-American microsymposium on planetology, Abstracts, Moscow, Vernadsky Inst. (GEOKHI), 1992, 36-37.[3] Kochemasov G.G. Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr.1999. V.1, ´z3, p.700 ;
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kochemasov, G.
2007-08-01
-concave dichotomous shape. After asteroids the warping wave is too long to be detected in a body. So, one has to look for a shorter waves. Saturn's atmosphere rotates too rapidly (or orbits the center of the Saturnian system in ~ 10 h.) and corresponding grains (πR/3448) are too small and difficult (or impossible at present) to see. However, a wave modulation helps us. Multiplying and dividing the higher frequency (1/10 hours) by the lower one (1/30 y.) one gets side frequencies and corresponding them granule sizes. They are [1/3448 : 7.5] πR and [1/3448 x 7.5]πR or 7 and 410 km across. So, detected are calculated granules 410 km across, in the real field they are on average 450 and 580 km in diameter. Somewhat larger grains in the north are attributed to the Saturnian dichotomy: squeezed south and expanded north. The overall expansion of the northern hemisphere makes structural features to manifest themselves (hexagon) and granules to enlarge. References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. Calculating size of the Saturn's "leopard skin" spots // Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXVIII, 2007, Abstr. #1040, CD-ROM. [2] Kochemasov G.G. Concerted wave supergranulation of the solar system bodies // 16th Russian-American microsymposium on planetology, Abstracts, Moscow, Vernadsky Inst. (GEOKHI), 1992, 36-37.[3] Kochemasov G.G. Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr.1999. V.1, ´z3, p.700 ;
Moura, Gustavo L C; Simas, Alfredo M
2012-04-01
In this article, we advance the foundations of a strategy to develop a molecular mechanics method based not on classical mechanics and force fields but entirely on quantum mechanics and localized electron-pair orbitals, which we call quantum molecular mechanics (QMM). Accordingly, we introduce a new manner of calculating Hartree-Fock ab initio wavefunctions of closed shell systems based on variationally preoptimized nonorthogonal electron pair orbitals constructed by linear combinations of basis functions centered on the atoms. QMM is noniterative and requires only one extremely fast inversion of a single sparse matrix to arrive to the one-particle density matrix, to the electron density, and consequently, to the ab initio electrostatic potential around the molecular system, or cluster of molecules. Although QMM neglects the smaller polarization effects due to intermolecular interactions, it fully takes into consideration polarization effects due to the much stronger intramolecular geometry distortions. For the case of methane, we show that QMM was able to reproduce satisfactorily the energetics and polarization effects of all distortions of the molecule along the nine normal modes of vibration, well beyond the harmonic region. We present the first practical applications of the QMM method by examining, in detail, the cases of clusters of helium atoms, hydrogen molecules, methane molecules, as well as one molecule of HeH(+) surrounded by several methane molecules. We finally advance and discuss the potentialities of an exact formula to compute the QMM total energy, in which only two center integrals are involved, provided that the fully optimized electron-pair orbitals are known.
Heyman, Gene M.; Grisanzio, Katherine A.; Liang, Victor
2016-01-01
We tested whether principles that describe the allocation of overt behavior, as in choice experiments, also describe the allocation of cognition, as in attention experiments. Our procedure is a cognitive version of the “two-armed bandit choice procedure.” The two-armed bandit procedure has been of interest to psychologistsand economists because it tends to support patterns of responding that are suboptimal. Each of two alternatives provides rewards according to fixed probabilities. The optimal solution is to choose the alternative with the higher probability of reward on each trial. However, subjects often allocate responses so that the probability of a response approximates its probability of reward. Although it is this result which has attracted most interest, probability matching is not always observed. As a function of monetary incentives, practice, and individual differences, subjects tend to deviate from probability matching toward exclusive preference, as predicted by maximizing. In our version of the two-armed bandit procedure, the monitor briefly displayed two, small adjacent stimuli that predicted correct responses according to fixed probabilities, as in a two-armed bandit procedure. We show that in this setting, a simple linear equation describes the relationship between attention and correct responses, and that the equation’s solution is the allocation of attention between the two stimuli. The calculations showed that attention allocation varied as a function of the degree to which the stimuli predicted correct responses. Linear regression revealed a strong correlation (r = 0.99) between the predictiveness of a stimulus and the probability of attending to it. Nevertheless there were deviations from probability matching, and although small, they were systematic and statistically significant. As in choice studies, attention allocation deviated toward maximizing as a function of practice, feedback, and incentives. Our approach also predicts the
Rana, V K; Vijayan, S; Rudin, S R; Bednarek, D R
2014-06-01
Purpose: To determine the appropriate calibration factor to use when calculating skin dose with our real-time dose-tracking system (DTS) during neuro-interventional fluoroscopic procedures by evaluating the difference in backscatter from different phantoms and as a function of entrance-skin field area. Methods: We developed a dose-tracking system to calculate and graphically display the cumulative skin-dose distribution in real time. To calibrate the DTS for neuro-interventional procedures, a phantom is needed that closely approximates the scattering properties of the head. We compared the x-ray backscatter from eight phantoms: 20-cm-thick solid water, 16-cm diameter water-filled container, 16-cm CTDI phantom, modified-ANSI head phantom, 20-cm-thick PMMA, Kyoto-Kagaku PBU- 50 head, Phantom-Labs SK-150 head, and RSD RS-240T head. The phantoms were placed on the patient table with the entrance surface at 15 cm tube-side from the isocenter of a Toshiba Infinix C-arm, and the entrance-skin exposure was measured with a calibrated 6-cc PTW ionization chamber. The measurement included primary radiation, backscatter from the phantom and forward scatter from the table and pad. The variation in entrance-skin exposure was also measured as a function of the skin-entrance area for a 30x30 cm by 20-cm-thick PMMA phantom and the SK-150 head phantom using four different added beam filters. Results: The entranceskin exposure values measured for eight different phantoms differed by up to 12%, while the ratio of entrance exposure of all phantoms relative to solid water showed less than 3% variation with kVp. The change in entrance-skin exposure with entrance-skin area was found to differ for the SK-150 head compared to the 20-cm PMMA phantom and the variation with field area was dependent on the added beam filtration. Conclusion: To accurately calculate skin dose for neuro-interventional procedures with the DTS, the phantom for calibration should be carefully chosen since different
Rana, Vijay K.; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.
2013-01-01
We have developed a dose-tracking system (DTS) to manage the risk of deterministic skin effects to the patient during fluoroscopic image-guided interventional cardiac procedures. The DTS calculates the radiation dose to the patient’s skin in real-time by acquiring exposure parameters and imaging-system geometry from the digital bus on a Toshiba C-arm unit and displays the cumulative dose values as a color map on a 3D graphic of the patient for immediate feedback to the interventionalist. Several recent updates have been made to the software to improve its function and performance. Whereas the older system needed manual input of pulse rate for dose-rate calculation and used the CPU clock with its potential latency to monitor exposure duration, each x-ray pulse is now individually processed to determine the skin-dose increment and to automatically measure the pulse rate. We also added a correction for the table pad which was found to reduce the beam intensity to the patient for under-table projections by an additional 5–12% over that of the table alone at 80 kVp for the x-ray filters on the Toshiba system. Furthermore, mismatch between the DTS graphic and the patient skin can result in inaccuracies in dose calculation because of inaccurate inverse-square-distance calculation. Therefore, a means for quantitative adjustment of the patient-graphic-model position and a parameterized patient-graphic library have been developed to allow the graphic to more closely match the patient. These changes provide more accurate estimation of the skin-dose which is critical for managing patient radiation risk. PMID:24817801
Rana, Vijay K; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R
2013-03-01
We have developed a dose-tracking system (DTS) to manage the risk of deterministic skin effects to the patient during fluoroscopic image-guided interventional cardiac procedures. The DTS calculates the radiation dose to the patient's skin in real-time by acquiring exposure parameters and imaging-system geometry from the digital bus on a Toshiba C-arm unit and displays the cumulative dose values as a color map on a 3D graphic of the patient for immediate feedback to the interventionalist. Several recent updates have been made to the software to improve its function and performance. Whereas the older system needed manual input of pulse rate for dose-rate calculation and used the CPU clock with its potential latency to monitor exposure duration, each x-ray pulse is now individually processed to determine the skin-dose increment and to automatically measure the pulse rate. We also added a correction for the table pad which was found to reduce the beam intensity to the patient for under-table projections by an additional 5-12% over that of the table alone at 80 kVp for the x-ray filters on the Toshiba system. Furthermore, mismatch between the DTS graphic and the patient skin can result in inaccuracies in dose calculation because of inaccurate inverse-square-distance calculation. Therefore, a means for quantitative adjustment of the patient-graphic-model position and a parameterized patient-graphic library have been developed to allow the graphic to more closely match the patient. These changes provide more accurate estimation of the skin-dose which is critical for managing patient radiation risk.
PROCEDURES FOR CALCULATING CESSATION LAG
Environmental regulations aimed at reducing cancer risks usually have the effect of reducing exposure to a carcinogen at the time the regulation is implemented. The reduction of cancer risk may occur shortly after the reduced exposure or after a considerable period of time. The t...
Damilakis, J; Stratakis, J; Solomou, G
2014-06-01
Purpose: It is well known that pacemaker implantation is sometimes needed in pregnant patients with symptomatic bradycardia. To our knowledge, there is no reported experience regarding radiation doses to the unborn child resulting from fluoroscopy during pacemaker implantation. The purpose of the current study was to develop a method for estimating embryo/fetus dose from fluoroscopically guided pacemaker implantation procedures performed on pregnant patients during all trimesters of gestation. Methods: The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code was employed in this study. Three mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms representing the average pregnant patient at the first, second and third trimesters of gestation were generated using Bodybuilder software (White Rock science, White Rock, NM). The normalized embryo/fetus dose from the posteroanterior (PA), the 30° left-anterior oblique (LAO) and the 30° right-anterior oblique (RAO) projections were calculated for a wide range of kVp (50–120 kVp) and total filtration values (2.5–9.0 mm Al). Results: The results consist of radiation doses normalized to a) entrance skin dose (ESD) and b) dose area product (DAP) so that the dose to the unborn child from any fluoroscopic technique and x-ray device used can be calculated. ESD normalized doses ranged from 0.008 (PA, first trimester) to 2.519 μGy/mGy (RAO, third trimester). DAP normalized doses ranged from 0.051 (PA, first trimester) to 12.852 μGy/Gycm2 (RAO, third trimester). Conclusion: Embryo/fetus doses from fluoroscopically guided pacemaker implantation procedures performed on pregnant patients during all stages of gestation can be estimated using the method developed in this study. This study was supported by the Greek Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs, General Secretariat for Research and Technology, Operational Program ‘Education and Lifelong Learning’, ARISTIA (Research project: CONCERT)
Gardner, Ron
2012-04-01
This paper proposes a novel use of the reciprocal calculation procedure (RCP) to calculate workplace emergency action levels (WEALs) for accidental releases of hydrocarbon mixtures. WEALs are defined here as the concentration in air that area monitors should alarm at to provide adequate warning and be sufficiently protective of health to allow at least enough time to don respiratory protective equipment (RPE) and escape. The rationale for the approach is analysed, and ways of defining suitable substance group guidance values (GVs) for input into the RCP are considered and compared. WEAL GVs could be based on: 3× RCP GVs (i.e. using the 3× rule), the 5× RCP GVs (i.e. using the 5× rule for calculating ceiling values), emergency exposure limits, or immediately dangerous to life or health values (IDLHs). Of these, the method of choice is to base WEAL GVs on health-based IDLH values, which were developed for emergency situations in the workplace. However, IDLHs have only been set for 11 hydrocarbons, so the choice of GVs is also informed by comparison with possible GVs based on the other approaches. Using the proposed GVs, WEALs were calculated for various hydrocarbon mixtures, and the way they vary with the composition of the mixture was examined. Also, the level of health protection given by the current practice of setting emergency area alarms in the oil and gas industry at 10% of the lower explosive limit (LEL) was tested by comparing this with the WEAL. In the event of an accidental release, this comparison suggests that, provided that aromatics constitute <50% of the mixture, an alarm set at 10% LEL should provide adequate warning and be sufficiently protective of health to at allow at least enough time to don RPE and escape. In the absence of better information or specific acute toxicity concerns (such as the presence of hydrogen sulphide), it is proposed that the WEALs be used as a guide for assessing the adequacy of area alarm levels in respect of warning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1977-01-01
This numerical prediction summary indicates the wide variety of such procedures which are available. Most procedures have detailed user manuals, and in many cases the codes are available. Many of the special effects treated by various methods (such as nonequilibrium or equilibrium chemistry, transition, roughness etc.) are indicated.
Liu, Haikuan; Gao, Yiming; Ding, Aiping; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the organ dose differences caused by the arms-raised and arms-lowered postures for multidetector computed tomography procedures. Organ doses were calculated using computational phantoms and Monte Carlo simulations. The arm position in two previously developed adult male and female human phantoms was adjusted to represent ‘raised’ and ‘lowered’ postures using advanced BREP-based mesh surface geometries. Organ doses from routine computed tomography (CT) scan protocols, including the chest, abdomen–pelvis, and chest–abdomen–pelvis scans, were simulated at various tube voltages and reported in the unit of mGy per 100 mAs. The CT scanner model was based on previously tested work. The differences in organ dose per unit tube current between raised and lowered arm postures were studied. Furthermore, the differences due to the tube current modulation (TCM) for these two different postures and their impact on organ doses were also investigated. For a given scan parameter, a patient having lowered arms received smaller doses to organs located within the chest, abdomen or pelvis when compared with the patient having raised arms. As expected, this is caused by the attenuation of the primary X rays by the arms. However, the skin doses and bone surface doses in the patient having lowered arms were found to be 3.97–32.12 % larger than those in a patient having raised arms due to the fact that more skin and spongiosa were covered in the scan range when the arms are lowered. This study also found that dose differences become smaller with the increase in tube voltage for most of organs or tissues except the skin. For example, the liver dose differences decreased from −15.01 to −11.33 % whereas the skin dose differences increased from 21.53 to 25.24 % with tube voltage increased from 80 to 140 kVp. With TCM applied, the organ doses of all the listed organs in patient having lowered arms are larger due to the additional tube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xing, Tao; Stern, Frederick
2015-11-01
Eça and Hoekstra [1] proposed a procedure for the estimation of the numerical uncertainty of CFD calculations based on the least squares root (LSR) method. We believe that the LSR method has potential value for providing an extended Richardson-extrapolation solution verification procedure for mixed monotonic and oscillatory or only oscillatory convergent solutions (based on the usual systematic grid-triplet convergence condition R). Current Richardson-extrapolation solution verification procedures [2-7] are restricted to monotonic convergent solutions 0 < R < 1. Procedures for oscillatory convergence simply either use uncertainty estimate based on average maximum minus minimum solutions [8,9] or arbitrarily large factors of safety (FS) [2]. However, in our opinion several issues preclude the usefulness of the presented LSR method: five criticisms follow. The solution verification literature needs technical discussion in order to put the LSR method in context. The LSR method has many options making it very difficult to follow. Fig. 1 provides a block diagram, which summarizes the LSR procedure and options, including some of which we are in disagreement. Compared to the grid-triplet and three-step procedure followed by most solution verification methods (convergence condition followed by error and uncertainty estimates), the LSR method follows a four-grid (minimum) and four-step procedure (error estimate, data range parameter Δϕ, FS, and uncertainty estimate).
Pastis, Nicholas J; Simkovich, Suzanne; Silvestri, Gerard A
2012-02-01
Over the last decade, endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) evolved into a validated and powerful diagnostic tool. Although it is integral to medical care in some health-care systems, others struggle to justify its purchase based on diminishing reimbursement. In analyzing its value to a health-care system, looking at procedural reimbursement alone will grossly underestimate its economic impact. Downstream revenue has been defined by administrators as revenue captured after patients use one hospital service and then use others. By analyzing consecutive EBUS cases and taking downstream revenue into account, $2.4 million in collections was attributed to 97 patients who were newly referred for this procedure.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oskar-Groen, Kristi Ann
2009-01-01
The purpose of the study was to demonstrate improvements in celerations, performance changes, and fluency of digits written correctly using repeated drill and practice procedures with Precision Teaching measurement approaches during one-minute timings among middle school students who also exhibit identified emotional and/or behavioral disabilities…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCarthy, Joseph L.; Garrison, William D.
In the "Gradcost III" study, relatively simple procedures have been developed for estimating the costs of graduate degree programs based on use of definitions and data generally available in U.S. graduate schools. Graduate degree program costs are taken to be the sum of three elements: departmental costs, allocated from departmental budgets;…
Hayashi, Atsuko; Emanovsky, Paul D; Pietrusewsky, Michael; Holland, Thomas D
2016-03-01
Estimating stature from skeletonized remains is one of the essential parameters in the development of a biological profile. A new procedure for determining skeletal height (SKH) incorporating the vertical space height (VSH) from the anterior margin of the sacral promontory to the superior margins of the acetabulae for use in the anatomical method of stature estimation is introduced. Regression equations for stature estimation were generated from measurements of 38 American males of European ancestry from the William M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection. The modification to the procedure results in a SKH that is highly correlated with stature (r = 0.925-0.948). Stature estimates have low standard errors of the estimate ranging from 21.79 to 25.95 mm, biases from to 0.50 to 0.94 mm, and accuracy rates from 17.71 mm to 19.45 mm. The procedure for determining the VSH, which replaces "S1 height" in traditional anatomical method models, is a key improvement to the method. PMID:27404615
Sharada, Shaama Mallikarjun; Bell, Alexis T; Head-Gordon, Martin
2014-04-28
The cost of calculating nuclear hessians, either analytically or by finite difference methods, during the course of quantum chemical analyses can be prohibitive for systems containing hundreds of atoms. In many applications, though, only a few eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and not the full hessian, are required. For instance, the lowest one or two eigenvalues of the full hessian are sufficient to characterize a stationary point as a minimum or a transition state (TS), respectively. We describe here a method that can eliminate the need for hessian calculations for both the characterization of stationary points as well as searches for saddle points. A finite differences implementation of the Davidson method that uses only first derivatives of the energy to calculate the lowest eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the hessian is discussed. This method can be implemented in conjunction with geometry optimization methods such as partitioned-rational function optimization (P-RFO) to characterize stationary points on the potential energy surface. With equal ease, it can be combined with interpolation methods that determine TS guess structures, such as the freezing string method, to generate approximate hessian matrices in lieu of full hessians as input to P-RFO for TS optimization. This approach is shown to achieve significant cost savings relative to exact hessian calculation when applied to both stationary point characterization as well as TS optimization. The basic reason is that the present approach scales one power of system size lower since the rate of convergence is approximately independent of the size of the system. Therefore, the finite-difference Davidson method is a viable alternative to full hessian calculation for stationary point characterization and TS search particularly when analytical hessians are not available or require substantial computational effort. PMID:24784261
Sharada, Shaama Mallikarjun; Bell, Alexis T. E-mail: bell@cchem.berkeley.edu; Head-Gordon, Martin E-mail: bell@cchem.berkeley.edu
2014-04-28
The cost of calculating nuclear hessians, either analytically or by finite difference methods, during the course of quantum chemical analyses can be prohibitive for systems containing hundreds of atoms. In many applications, though, only a few eigenvalues and eigenvectors, and not the full hessian, are required. For instance, the lowest one or two eigenvalues of the full hessian are sufficient to characterize a stationary point as a minimum or a transition state (TS), respectively. We describe here a method that can eliminate the need for hessian calculations for both the characterization of stationary points as well as searches for saddle points. A finite differences implementation of the Davidson method that uses only first derivatives of the energy to calculate the lowest eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the hessian is discussed. This method can be implemented in conjunction with geometry optimization methods such as partitioned-rational function optimization (P-RFO) to characterize stationary points on the potential energy surface. With equal ease, it can be combined with interpolation methods that determine TS guess structures, such as the freezing string method, to generate approximate hessian matrices in lieu of full hessians as input to P-RFO for TS optimization. This approach is shown to achieve significant cost savings relative to exact hessian calculation when applied to both stationary point characterization as well as TS optimization. The basic reason is that the present approach scales one power of system size lower since the rate of convergence is approximately independent of the size of the system. Therefore, the finite-difference Davidson method is a viable alternative to full hessian calculation for stationary point characterization and TS search particularly when analytical hessians are not available or require substantial computational effort.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karton, Amir; Martin, Jan M. L.
2012-10-01
Accurate isomerization energies are obtained for a set of 45 C8H8 isomers by means of the high-level, ab initio W1-F12 thermochemical protocol. The 45 isomers involve a range of hydrocarbon functional groups, including (linear and cyclic) polyacetylene, polyyne, and cumulene moieties, as well as aromatic, anti-aromatic, and highly-strained rings. Performance of a variety of DFT functionals for the isomerization energies is evaluated. This proves to be a challenging test: only six of the 56 tested functionals attain root mean square deviations (RMSDs) below 3 kcal mol-1 (the performance of MP2), namely: 2.9 (B972-D), 2.8 (PW6B95), 2.7 (B3PW91-D), 2.2 (PWPB95-D3), 2.1 (ωB97X-D), and 1.2 (DSD-PBEP86) kcal mol-1. Isomers involving highly-strained fused rings or long cumulenic chains provide a 'torture test' for most functionals. Finally, we evaluate the performance of composite procedures (e.g. G4, G4(MP2), CBS-QB3, and CBS-APNO), as well as that of standard ab initio procedures (e.g. MP2, SCS-MP2, MP4, CCSD, and SCS-CCSD). Both connected triples and post-MP4 singles and doubles are important for accurate results. SCS-MP2 actually outperforms MP4(SDQ) for this problem, while SCS-MP3 yields similar performance as CCSD and slightly bests MP4. All the tested empirical composite procedures show excellent performance with RMSDs below 1 kcal mol-1.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weatherill, Warren H.; Ehlers, F. Edward
1989-01-01
A finite difference method for solving the unsteady transonic flow about harmonically oscillating wings is investigated. The procedure is based on separating the velocity potential into steady and unsteady parts and linearizing the resulting unsteady differential equation for small disturbances. The differential equation for the unsteady potential is linear with spatially varying coefficients and with the time variable eliminated by assuming harmonic motion. Difference equations are derived for harmonic transonic flow to include a coordinate transformation for swept and tapered planforms. A pilot program is developed for three-dimensional planar lifting surface configurations (including thickness) for the CRAY-XMP at Boeing Commercial Airplanes and for the CYBER VPS-32 at the NASA Langley Research Center. An investigation is made of the effect of the location of the outer boundaries on accuracy for very small reduced frequencies. Finally, the pilot program is applied to the flutter analysis of a rectangular wing.
Chizhikova, Z.N.; Kalashnikov, A.G.; Kapranova, E.N.; Korobitsyn, V.E.; Manturov, G.N.; Tsiboulia, A.A.
1998-12-01
One of the important problems for ensuring the VVER type reactor safety when the reactor is partially loaded with MOX fuel is the choice of appropriate physical zoning to achieve the maximum flattening of pin-by-pin power distribution. When uranium fuel is replaced by MOX one provided that the reactivity due to fuel assemblies is kept constant, the fuel enrichment slightly decreases. However, the average neutron spectrum fission microscopic cross-section for {sup 239}Pu is approximately twice that for {sup 235}U. Therefore power peaks occur in the peripheral fuel assemblies containing MOX fuel which are aggravated by the interassembly water. Physical zoning has to be applied to flatten the power peaks in fuel assemblies containing MOX fuel. Moreover, physical zoning cannot be confined to one row of fuel elements as is the case with a uniform lattice of uranium fuel assemblies. Both the water gap and the jump in neutron absorption macroscopic cross-sections which occurs at the interface of fuel assemblies with different fuels make the problem of calculating space-energy neutron flux distribution more complicated since it increases nondiffusibility effects. To solve this problem it is necessary to update the current codes, to develop new codes and to verify all the codes including nuclear-physical constants libraries employed. In so doing it is important to develop and validate codes of different levels--from design codes to benchmark ones. This paper presents the results of the burnup calculation for a multiassembly structure, consisting of MOX fuel assemblies surrounded by uranium dioxide fuel assemblies. The structure concerned can be assumed to model a fuel assembly lattice symmetry element of the VVER-1000 type reactor in which 1/4 of all fuel assemblies contains MOX fuel.
Wang, Tianfang; Bowie, John H
2011-01-01
A number of linear cumulenes and heterocumulenes have been made by charge stripping of anions of known bond connectivity in the source of a mass spectrometer. Some of these reactive molecules have been identified in interstellar molecular clouds. The structures of these neutrals may be investigated by reionization to a decomposing positive ion [the neutralization-reionization technique ((-)NR(+))], and/or by ab initio calculations. Energized linear cumulenes and heterocumulenes may undergo cyclization to form stable cyclic isomers. To cite a selection of the examples described in this review: (i) four-atom systems CCCC and some heterocumulenes CCCX (X=B, N, Al, Si, P) involve the formation of stable four-membered ring rhombic (also called kite and fan) structures. One of the cyclic molecules, cyclo-C(3) Si, has been detected in interstellar molecular clouds, (ii) five-atom cumulene and heterocumulene systems are more complex. Linear CCCCC rearranges the carbon skeleton by forming a C substituted rhomboid system, CCCCO forms a three-membered cyclic isomer, while nitrogen containing five-atom cumulenes effect nitrile to isonitrile interconversion via three-centered cyclized intermediates, and (iii) CCCCCC and CCCCBO cyclize to give unique six-membered ring systems.
The CIPW Normative Calculation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bickel, Charles
1979-01-01
The author has rewritten rules for CIPW norm calculation and has written FORTRAN IV programs to assist the student in this procedure. Includes a set of problems utilizing the CIPW norm to illustrate principles of chemical petrology. (MA)
Interactive calculation procedures for mixed compression inlets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reshotko, Eli
1983-01-01
The proper design of engine nacelle installations for supersonic aircraft depends on a sophisticated understanding of the interactions between the boundary layers and the bounding external flows. The successful operation of mixed external-internal compression inlets depends significantly on the ability to closely control the operation of the internal compression portion of the inlet. This portion of the inlet is one where compression is achieved by multiple reflection of oblique shock waves and weak compression waves in a converging internal flow passage. However weak these shocks and waves may seem gas-dynamically, they are of sufficient strength to separate a laminar boundary layer and generally even strong enough for separation or incipient separation of the turbulent boundary layers. An understanding was developed of the viscous-inviscid interactions and of the shock wave boundary layer interactions and reflections.
47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a) All calculations shall...
Waste Package Lifting Calculation
H. Marr
2000-05-11
The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.
47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a)...
47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a)...
47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a)...
Terrestrial photovoltaic measurement procedures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1977-01-01
Procedures for obtaining cell and array current-voltage measurements both outdoors in natural sunlight and indoors in simulated sunlight are presented. A description of the necessary apparatus and equipment is given for the calibration and use of reference solar cells. Some comments relating to concentration cell measurements, and a revised terrestrial solar spectrum for use in theoretical calculations, are included.
National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway
SRD 166 MEMS Calculator (Web, free access) This MEMS Calculator determines the following thin film properties from data taken with an optical interferometer or comparable instrument: a) residual strain from fixed-fixed beams, b) strain gradient from cantilevers, c) step heights or thicknesses from step-height test structures, and d) in-plane lengths or deflections. Then, residual stress and stress gradient calculations can be made after an optical vibrometer or comparable instrument is used to obtain Young's modulus from resonating cantilevers or fixed-fixed beams. In addition, wafer bond strength is determined from micro-chevron test structures using a material test machine.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chenery, Gordon
1991-01-01
Uses chaos theory to investigate the nonlinear phenomenon of population growth fluctuation. Illustrates the use of computers and computer programs to make calculations in a nonlinear difference equation system. (MDH)
Confidence Calculation with AMV+
Fossum, A.F.
1999-02-19
The iterative advanced mean value algorithm (AMV+), introduced nearly ten years ago, is now widely used as a cost-effective probabilistic structural analysis tool when the use of sampling methods is cost prohibitive (Wu et al., 1990). The need to establish confidence bounds on calculated probabilities arises because of the presence of uncertainties in measured means and variances of input random variables. In this paper an algorithm is proposed that makes use of the AMV+ procedure and analytically derived probability sensitivities to determine confidence bounds on calculated probabilities.
Ramponi, Denise R
2016-01-01
Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures. PMID:27482994
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Makarov, A. N.
2014-10-01
The article presents the results stemming from the scientific discovery of laws relating to radiation from the gas layers generated during flame combustion of fuel and when electric arc burns in electric-arc steel-melting furnaces. The procedure for calculating heat transfer in electric-arc and torch furnaces, fire-boxes, and combustion chambers elaborated on the basis of this discovery is described.
40 CFR 1065.940 - Emission calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission calculations. 1065.940... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Field Testing and Portable Emission Measurement Systems § 1065.940 Emission calculations. Perform emission calculations as described in § 1065.650 to calculate...
40 CFR 1065.940 - Emission calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission calculations. 1065.940... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Field Testing and Portable Emission Measurement Systems § 1065.940 Emission calculations. (a) Perform emission calculations as described in § 1065.650 to calculate...
Hunter, Charles H.
2000-05-22
This software calculates a Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) using standard measurements from a meteorological station. WBGT is used by Industrial Hygenists (IH) to determine heat stress potential to outdoor workers. Through the mid 1990''s, SRS technicians were dispatched several times daily to measure WBGT with a custom hand held instrument and results were dessiminated via telephone. Due to workforce reductions, the WSRC IH Department asked for the development of an automated method to simulate the WBGT measurement using existing real time data from the Atmospheric Technologies Group''s meteorological monitoring network.
2000-05-22
This software calculates a Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) using standard measurements from a meteorological station. WBGT is used by Industrial Hygenists (IH) to determine heat stress potential to outdoor workers. Through the mid 1990''s, SRS technicians were dispatched several times daily to measure WBGT with a custom hand held instrument and results were dessiminated via telephone. Due to workforce reductions, the WSRC IH Department asked for the development of an automated method to simulatemore » the WBGT measurement using existing real time data from the Atmospheric Technologies Group''s meteorological monitoring network.« less
10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology....
10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology....
10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology....
10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY URANIUM ENRICHMENT DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING FUND; PROCEDURES FOR SPECIAL ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology....
Georgeff, M.P.; Lansky, A.L.
1986-10-01
Much of commonsense knowledge about the real world is in the form of procedures or sequences of actions for achieving particular goals. In this paper, a formalism is presented for representing such knowledge using the notion of process. A declarative semantics for the representation is given, which allows a user to state facts about the effects of doing things in the problem domain of interest. An operational semantics is also provided, which shows how this knowledge can be used to achieve particular goals or to form intentions regarding their achievement. Given both semantics, our formalism additionally serves as an executable specification language suitable for constructing complex systems. A system based on this formalism is described, and examples involving control of an autonomous robot and fault diagnosis for NASA's space shuttle are provided.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.132 Calculations. (a) Duty-cycle emissions. This section describes the calculation of duty-cycle emissions, in terms of grams per brake... duty-cycle emission test results are calculated as follows: (1)(i)...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.132 Calculations. (a) Duty-cycle emissions. This section describes the calculation of duty-cycle emissions, in terms of grams per brake... duty-cycle emission test results are calculated as follows: (1)(i)...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.132 Calculations. (a) Duty-cycle emissions. This section describes the calculation of duty-cycle emissions, in terms of grams per brake... duty-cycle emission test results are calculated as follows: (1)(i)...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.132 Calculations. (a) Duty-cycle emissions. This section describes the calculation of duty-cycle emissions, in terms of grams per brake... duty-cycle emission test results are calculated as follows: (1)(i)...
49 CFR 533.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... set forth in 40 CFR part 600. For model years 2017 to 2025, a manufacturer is eligible to increase the... 40 CFR part 600, including any adjustments to fuel economy EPA allows, such as for fuel consumption... made to EPA in accordance with 40 CFR Part 86.1869-12 and an approval granted by EPA made...
49 CFR 531.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... under 49 U.S.C. 32904 and set forth in 40 CFR part 600. For model years 2017 to 2025, a manufacturer is... established by EPA set forth in 40 CFR part 600, including any adjustments to fuel economy EPA allows, such as...-cycle technology requires an application request made to EPA in accordance with 40 CFR Part...
A calculation procedure for viscous flow in turbomachines, volume 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khalil, J.; Tabakoff, W.
1980-01-01
Turbulent flow within turbomachines having arbitrary blade geometries is examined. Effects of turbulence are modeled using two equations, one expressing the development of the turbulence kinetic energy and the other its dissipation rate. To account for complicated blade geometries, the flow equations are formulated in terms of a nonorthogonal boundary fitted coordinate system. The analysis is applied to a radial inflow turbine. The solution obtained indicates the severity of the complex interaction mechanism that occurs between the different flow regimes (i.e., boundary layers, recirculating eddies, separation zones, etc.). Comparison with nonviscous flow solutions tend to justify strongly the inadequacy of using the latter with standard boundary layer techniques to obtain viscous flow details within turbomachine rotors. Capabilities and limitations of the present method of analysis are discussed.
49 CFR 535.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... of aerodynamic drag in accordance with 40 CFR 1037.520 and 1037.521. Do not use for vocational... fleet should be divided into test groups or subconfigurations according to EPA in 40 CFR part 86, subpart S, and 40 CFR 1037.104. (3) Test and measure the CO2 emissions test results for the...
49 CFR 531.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... under 49 U.S.C. 32904 and set forth in 40 CFR part 600. For model years 2017 to 2025, a manufacturer is... established by EPA set forth in 40 CFR part 600, including any adjustments to fuel economy EPA allows, such as...-cycle technology requires an application request made to EPA in accordance with 40 CFR Part...
49 CFR 533.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... under the CAFE program for those technologies. For off-cycle technologies which are covered under 40 CFR... set forth in 40 CFR part 600. For model years 2017 to 2025, a manufacturer is eligible to increase the... 40 CFR part 600, including any adjustments to fuel economy EPA allows, such as for fuel...
49 CFR 535.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... manufacturer's fleet includes conventional and advanced technology heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans, the fleet... fleet and all of the advanced technology vehicles in the other fleet. (2) Vehicles in each fleet should... consumption results for all vehicle chassis (conventional, alternative fueled and advanced technology...
49 CFR 535.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... manufacturer's fleet includes conventional and advanced technology heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans, the fleet... fleet and all of the advanced technology vehicles in the other fleet. (2) Vehicles in each fleet should... consumption results for all vehicle chassis (conventional, alternative fueled and advanced technology...
49 CFR 535.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... manufacturer's fleet includes conventional and advanced technology heavy-duty pickup trucks and vans, the fleet... fleet and all of the advanced technology vehicles in the other fleet. (2) Vehicles in each fleet should... consumption results for all vehicle chassis (conventional, alternative fueled and advanced technology...
49 CFR 531.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... the Act and set forth in 40 CFR part 600. (b) A manufacturer that is eligible to elect a model year in... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY... automobiles that are manufactured by a manufacturer in a model year shall be determined in accordance...
49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
.... Prime Rate as published by The Wall Street Journal. The rate levels will be determined as follows: (1... Street Journal in effect on the date the statement is filed accounting for all amounts received under the... by The Wall Street Journal in effect on the day when the unlawful charge is paid. The interest...
10 CFR 474.4 - Test procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ELECTRIC AND HYBRID VEHICLE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.4 Test procedures. (a) The electric vehicle energy... required for testing the energy consumption of electric vehicles....
10 CFR 474.4 - Test procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ELECTRIC AND HYBRID VEHICLE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.4 Test procedures. (a) The electric vehicle energy... required for testing the energy consumption of electric vehicles....
10 CFR 474.4 - Test procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ELECTRIC AND HYBRID VEHICLE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.4 Test procedures. (a) The electric vehicle energy... required for testing the energy consumption of electric vehicles....
On-Site was developed to provide modelers and model reviewers with prepackaged tools ("calculators") for performing site assessment calculations. The philosophy behind OnSite is that the convenience of the prepackaged calculators helps provide consistency for simple calculations,...
Calculation methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, D. M.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Harris, J. E.
1976-01-01
Calculation procedures for non-reacting compressible two- and three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers were reviewed. Integral, transformation and correlation methods, as well as finite difference solutions of the complete boundary layer equations summarized. Alternative numerical solution procedures were examined, and both mean field and mean turbulence field closure models were considered. Physics and related calculation problems peculiar to compressible turbulent boundary layers are described. A catalog of available solution procedures of the finite difference, finite element, and method of weighted residuals genre is included. Influence of compressibility, low Reynolds number, wall blowing, and pressure gradient upon mean field closure constants are reported.
40 CFR 1065.850 - Calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calculations. 1065.850 Section 1065.850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Testing With Oxygenated Fuels § 1065.850 Calculations. Use the...
40 CFR 1065.850 - Calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calculations. 1065.850 Section 1065.850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Testing With Oxygenated Fuels § 1065.850 Calculations. Use the...
40 CFR 1065.850 - Calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations. 1065.850 Section 1065.850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Testing With Oxygenated Fuels § 1065.850 Calculations. Use the...
40 CFR 1065.850 - Calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calculations. 1065.850 Section 1065.850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Testing With Oxygenated Fuels § 1065.850 Calculations. Use the...
47 CFR 65.306 - Calculation accuracy.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation accuracy. 65.306 Section 65.306 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.306 Calculation...
Unravelling the Mysteries of Expert Mental Calculation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hope, Jack A.
1985-01-01
The processes and procedures used by expert mental calculators are identified from a literature review. Experts are characterized by knowledge of a variety of methods, ability to recall numerical equivalents, and ability to remember the numbers involved in various stages of calculations. (MNS)
Closure and Sealing Design Calculation
T. Lahnalampi; J. Case
2005-08-26
The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not
Pressure vessel calculations for VVER-440 reactors.
Hordósy, G; Hegyi, Gy; Keresztúri, A; Maráczy, Cs; Temesvári, E; Vértes, P; Zsolnay, E
2005-01-01
For the determination of the fast neutron load of the reactor pressure vessel a mixed calculational procedure was developed. The procedure was applied to the Unit II of Paks NPP, Hungary. The neutron source on the outer surfaces of the reactor was determined by a core design code, and the neutron transport calculations outside the core were performed by the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The reaction rate in the activation detectors at surveillance positions and at the cavity were calculated and compared with measurements. In most cases, fairly good agreement was found.
40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.244-94 Calculations; exhaust.... Should NOX measurements be calculated, note that the humidity correction factor is not valid at...
40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.244-94 Calculations; exhaust.... Should NOX measurements be calculated, note that the humidity correction factor is not valid at...
Program Implements Variable-Sampling Procedures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, Zhaofeng
1995-01-01
MIL-STD-414 Variable Sampling Procedures (M414) computer program developed to automate calculations and acceptance/rejection procedures of MIL-STD-414, "Sampling Procedures and Tables for Inspection by Variables for Percent Defective." M414 automates entire calculation-and-decision process by use of computational algorithms determining threshold acceptability values for lots. Menu-driven and user-friendly. Reduces burden of manual operations, promoting variable-sampling practice in industry in lieu of "go/no-go" inspection. Written in BASIC.
Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.
1983-01-01
Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…
Designing Flightdeck Procedures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barshi, Immanuel; Mauro, Robert; Degani, Asaf; Loukopoulou, Loukia
2016-01-01
The primary goal of this document is to provide guidance on how to design, implement, and evaluate flight deck procedures. It provides a process for developing procedures that meet clear and specific requirements. This document provides a brief overview of: 1) the requirements for procedures, 2) a process for the design of procedures, and 3) a process for the design of checklists. The brief overview is followed by amplified procedures that follow the above steps and provide details for the proper design, implementation and evaluation of good flight deck procedures and checklists.
Computerized procedures system
Lipner, Melvin H.; Mundy, Roger A.; Franusich, Michael D.
2010-10-12
An online data driven computerized procedures system that guides an operator through a complex process facility's operating procedures. The system monitors plant data, processes the data and then, based upon this processing, presents the status of the current procedure step and/or substep to the operator. The system supports multiple users and a single procedure definition supports several interface formats that can be tailored to the individual user. Layered security controls access privileges and revisions are version controlled. The procedures run on a server that is platform independent of the user workstations that the server interfaces with and the user interface supports diverse procedural views.
Autistic Savant Calendar Calculators.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Patti, Paul J.
This study identified 10 savants with developmental disabilities and an exceptional ability to calculate calendar dates. These "calendar calculators" were asked to demonstrate their abilities, and their strategies were analyzed. The study found that the ability to calculate dates into the past or future varied widely among these calculators. Three…
Calculations of combustion response profiles and oscillations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Priem, Richard J.; Breisacher, Kevin J.
1993-01-01
The theory and procedures for determining the characteristics of pressure oscillations in rocket engines with prescribed burning rate oscillations are presented. Pressure and velocity oscillations calculated using this procedure are presented for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) to show the influence of baffles and absorbers on the burning rate oscillations required to achieve neutral stability. Results of calculations to determine local combustion responses using detailed physical models for injection, atomization, and vaporization with gas phase oscillations in baffled and unbaffled SSME combustors are presented. The contributions of the various physical phenomena occurring in a combustor to oscillations in combustion response were determined.
Public Sector Impasse Procedures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vadakin, James C.
The subject of collective bargaining negotiation impasse procedures in the public sector, which includes public school systems, is a broad one. In this speech, the author introduces the various procedures, explains how they are used, and lists their advantages and disadvantages. Procedures discussed are mediation, fact-finding, arbitration,…
Comparison of Polar Cap (PC) index calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stauning, P.
2012-04-01
The Polar Cap (PC) index introduced by Troshichev and Andrezen (1985) is derived from polar magnetic variations and is mainly a measure of the intensity of the transpolar ionospheric currents. These currents relate to the polar cap antisunward ionospheric plasma convection driven by the dawn-dusk electric field, which in turn is generated by the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere. Coefficients to calculate PCN and PCS index values from polar magnetic variations recorded at Thule and Vostok, respectively, have been derived by several different procedures in the past. The first published set of coefficients for Thule was derived by Vennerstrøm, 1991 and is still in use for calculations of PCN index values by DTU Space. Errors in the program used to calculate index values were corrected in 1999 and again in 2001. In 2005 DMI adopted a unified procedure proposed by Troshichev for calculations of the PCN index. Thus there exists 4 different series of PCN index values. Similarly, at AARI three different sets of coefficients have been used to calculate PCS indices in the past. The presentation discusses the principal differences between the various PC index procedures and provides comparisons between index values derived from the same magnetic data sets using the different procedures. Examples from published papers are examined to illustrate the differences.
Developing policies and procedures.
Randolph, Susan A
2006-11-01
The development of policies and procedures is an integral part of the occupational health nurse's role. Policies and procedures serve as the foundation for the occupational health service and are based on its vision, mission, culture, and values. The design and layout selected for the policies and procedures should be simple, consistent, and easy to use. The same format should be used for all existing and new policies and procedures. Policies and procedures should be reviewed periodically based on a specified time frame (i.e., annually). However, some policies may require a more frequent review if they involve rapidly changing external standards, ethical issues, or emerging exposures. PMID:17124968
Nonequilibrium chemistry boundary layer integral matrix procedure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tong, H.; Buckingham, A. C.; Morse, H. L.
1973-01-01
The development of an analytic procedure for the calculation of nonequilibrium boundary layer flows over surfaces of arbitrary catalycities is described. An existing equilibrium boundary layer integral matrix code was extended to include nonequilibrium chemistry while retaining all of the general boundary condition features built into the original code. For particular application to the pitch-plane of shuttle type vehicles, an approximate procedure was developed to estimate the nonequilibrium and nonisentropic state at the edge of the boundary layer.
Electrical screening procedure for solid ionic conductors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kautz, H. E.; Singer, J.; Fielder, W. L.; Fordyce, J. S.
1973-01-01
An electrical screening method has been developed for preliminary evaluation of polycrystalline specimens of candidates for use as solid ionic conductive electrolytes in batteries. The procedure measures dielectric loss and capacitance, from which are calculated an ac conductivity attributed provisionally to ions and an activation energy for that conductivity. Electronic conductivity is directly measured. The screening procedure applied to sodium beta-alumina yielded acceptable values for conductivity and activation energy.
2016-09-01
Numeracy and calculation are key skills for nurses. As nurses are directly accountable for ensuring medicines are prescribed, dispensed and administered safely, they must be able to understand and calculate drug doses. PMID:27615351
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crow, Tracy, Ed.; Harris, Julia, Ed.
1997-01-01
This journal contains brief descriptions of calculator-active materials that were found using Resource Finder, the searchable online catalog of curriculum resources from the Eisenhower National Clearinghouse (ENC). It features both the calculators themselves and the activity books that are used with them. Among the calculators included are those…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Threlfall, John
2002-01-01
Suggests that strategy choice is a misleading characterization of efficient mental calculation and that teaching mental calculation methods as a whole is not conducive to flexibility. Proposes an alternative in which calculation is thought of as an interaction between noticing and knowledge. Presents an associated teaching approach to promote…
40 CFR 1036.530 - Calculating greenhouse gas emission rates.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calculating greenhouse gas emission... Procedures § 1036.530 Calculating greenhouse gas emission rates. This section describes how to calculate... applicable duty cycle as specified in 40 CFR 1065.650. Do not apply infrequent regeneration...
40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.244-94 Calculations; exhaust.... Should NOX measurements be calculated, note that the humidity correction factor is not valid at colder temperatures. Light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks must calculate and report the weighted mass of...
40 CFR 98.183 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each smelting furnace using the procedure in... emissions by operating and maintaining a CEMS to measure CO2 emissions according to the Tier 4 Calculation... requirements in paragraph (a) of this section, calculate and report the process and combustion CO2...
40 CFR 98.183 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each smelting furnace using the procedure in... emissions by operating and maintaining a CEMS to measure CO2 emissions according to the Tier 4 Calculation... requirements in paragraph (a) of this section, calculate and report the process and combustion CO2...
New method for calculating shell correction
Salamon, P.; Kruppa, A. T.; Vertse, T.
2010-06-15
A new method is presented for the calculation of the shell correction with the inclusion of the continuum part of the spectrum. The smoothing function used has a finite energy range in contrast to the Gaussian shape of the Strutinski method. The new method is especially useful for light nuclei where the generalized Strutinski procedure cannot be applied.
Candidate CDTI procedures study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ace, R. E.
1981-01-01
A concept with potential for increasing airspace capacity by involving the pilot in the separation control loop is discussed. Some candidate options are presented. Both enroute and terminal area procedures are considered and, in many cases, a technologically advanced Air Traffic Control structure is assumed. Minimum display characteristics recommended for each of the described procedures are presented. Recommended sequencing of the operational testing of each of the candidate procedures is presented.
Procedural pediatric dermatology.
Metz, Brandie J
2013-04-01
Due to many factors, including parental anxiety, a child's inability to understand the necessity of a procedure and a child's unwillingness to cooperate, it can be much more challenging to perform dermatologic procedures in children. This article reviews pre-procedural preparation of patients and parents, techniques for minimizing injection-related pain and optimal timing of surgical intervention. The risks and benefits of general anesthesia in the setting of pediatric dermatologic procedures are discussed. Additionally, the surgical approach to a few specific types of birthmarks is addressed.
Taguchi optimisation of ELISA procedures.
Jeney, C; Dobay, O; Lengyel, A; Adám, E; Nász, I
1999-03-01
We propose a new method in the field of ELISA optimization using an experimental design called the Taguchi method. This can be used to compare the net effects of different conditions which can be both qualitative and quantitative in nature. The method reduces the effects of the interactions of the optimized variables making it possible to access the optimum conditions even in cases where there are large interactions between the variables of the assay. Furthermore, the proposed special assignment of factors makes it possible to calculate the biochemical parameters of the ELISA procedure carried out under optimum conditions. Thus, the calibration curve, the sensitivity of the optimum assay, the intra-assay and inter-assay variability can be estimated. The method is fast, accessing the results in one step, compared to the traditional, time-consuming 'one-step-at-a-time' method. We exemplify the procedure with a method to optimize the detection of ScFv (single chain fragment of variable) phages by ELISA. All the necessary calculations can be carried out by a spreadsheet program without any special statistical knowledge. PMID:10089092
Use of quadratic components for buckling calculations
Dohrmann, C.R.; Segalman, D.J.
1996-12-31
A buckling calculation procedure based on the method of quadratic components is presented. Recently developed for simulating the motion of rotating flexible structures, the method of quadratic components is shown to be applicable to buckling problems with either conservative or nonconservative loads. For conservative loads, stability follows from the positive definiteness of the system`s stiffness matrix. For nonconservative loads, stability is determined by solving a nonsymmetric eigenvalue problem, which depends on both the stiffness and mass distribution of the system. Buckling calculations presented for a cantilevered beam are shown to compare favorably with classical results. Although the example problem is fairly simple and well-understood, the procedure can be used in conjunction with a general-purpose finite element code for buckling calculations of more complex systems.
Multiphase flow calculation software
Fincke, James R.
2003-04-15
Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Kevin; Poston, George
This manual provides information on the enucleation procedure (removal of the eyes for organ banks). An introductory section focuses on the anatomy of the eye and defines each of the parts. Diagrams of the eye are provided. A list of enucleation materials follows. Other sections present outlines of (1) a sterile procedure; (2) preparation for eye…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Handy, Rollo; Harwood, E. C.
This book discusses and analyzes the many different procedures of inquiry, both old and new, which have been used in an attempt to solve the problems men encounter. Section A examines some outmoded procedures of inquiry, describes scientific inquiry, and presents the Dewey-Bentley view of scientific method. Sections B and C, which comprise the…
Procedures for Projecting School District Enrollment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Information Center on Education.
The cohort survival model for projecting school district enrollments is presented for use in local district short-term planning. The basic model, modifications, and sample worksheets are presented. To assist in the calculations of local enrollment projections, step-by-step procedures frequently refer to the sample worksheets. Local administrators…
40 CFR 204.54 - Test procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... operated at the design full speed with the compressor on load, delivering its rated flow and output... STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.54 Test procedures. (a) General. This... to measure the sound level and to calculate the average sound level of portable air compressors...
40 CFR 204.54 - Test procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... operated at the design full speed with the compressor on load, delivering its rated flow and output... STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.54 Test procedures. (a) General. This... to measure the sound level and to calculate the average sound level of portable air compressors...
40 CFR 204.54 - Test procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... operated at the design full speed with the compressor on load, delivering its rated flow and output... STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.54 Test procedures. (a) General. This... to measure the sound level and to calculate the average sound level of portable air compressors...
40 CFR 204.54 - Test procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... operated at the design full speed with the compressor on load, delivering its rated flow and output... STANDARDS FOR CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Portable Air Compressors § 204.54 Test procedures. (a) General. This... to measure the sound level and to calculate the average sound level of portable air compressors...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... be used: (1) The pressure test procedures specified in Method 27 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60; and... organic compounds containing halogens measured by Method 18 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60; or (iv) Any... appendix A of 40 CFR part 63. (2) Equation 85-1 of this section shall be used to calculate the...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... be used: (1) The pressure test procedures specified in Method 27 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60; and... organic compounds containing halogens measured by Method 18 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60; or (iv) Any... appendix A of 40 CFR part 63. (2) Equation 85-1 of this section shall be used to calculate the...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... be used: (1) The pressure test procedures specified in Method 27 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60; and... organic compounds containing halogens measured by Method 18 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60; or (iv) Any... appendix A of 40 CFR part 63. (2) Equation 85-1 of this section shall be used to calculate the...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... be used: (1) The pressure test procedures specified in Method 27 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60; and... organic compounds containing halogens measured by Method 18 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60; or (iv) Any... appendix A of 40 CFR part 63. (2) Equation 85-1 of this section shall be used to calculate the...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... be used: (1) The pressure test procedures specified in Method 27 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60; and... organic compounds containing halogens measured by Method 18 of appendix A of 40 CFR part 60; or (iv) Any... appendix A of 40 CFR part 63. (2) Equation 85-1 of this section shall be used to calculate the...
Information Exchange Procedures: Overview and General Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Romney, Leonard C.
The Information Exchange Procedures (IEP) project creates the capability for exchange and reporting of that information, both financial and otherwise, necessary to calculate and evaluate costs (1) by discipline and course level, (2) by student major and student level, and (3) per unit of output. Most uses of comparable information and analysis can…
Calculators and Polynomial Evaluation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weaver, J. F.
The intent of this paper is to suggest and illustrate how electronic hand-held calculators, especially non-programmable ones with limited data-storage capacity, can be used to advantage by students in one particular aspect of work with polynomial functions. The basic mathematical background upon which calculator application is built is summarized.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Phillips-Bey, Carol K.
2004-01-01
This article describes TI-73 calculator activities appropriate for middle school students. It was found that the use of the calculator allowed for higher-level thinking and a richer exploration of mathematical ideas by students. [Included with this article are "Dice Roll Worksheet" and "Transforming Tree Worksheet".] (Contains 9 figures.)
Relativistic shell model calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furnstahl, R. J.
1986-06-01
Shell model calculations are discussed in the context of a relativistic model of nuclear structure based on renormalizable quantum field theories of mesons and baryons (quantum hadrodynamics). The relativistic Hartree approximation to the full field theory, with parameters determined from bulk properties of nuclear matter, predicts a shell structure in finite nuclei. Particle-hole excitations in finite nuclei are described in an RPA calculation based on this QHD ground state. The particle-hole interaction is prescribed by the Hartree ground state, with no additional parameters. Meson retardation is neglected in deriving the RPA equations, but it is found to have negligible effects on low-lying states. The full Dirac matrix structure is maintained throughout the calculation; no nonrelativistic reductions are made. Despite sensitive cancellations in the ground state calculation, reasonable excitation spectra are obtained for light nuclei. The effects of including charged mesons, problems with heavy nuclei, and prospects for improved and extended calculations are discussed.
Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos
2015-01-01
Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small “ports” from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry—meaning only one small incision, like the “uniport” video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional “open” surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery. PMID:25861610
40 CFR 600.208-77 - Sample calculation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values § 600.208-77 Sample...
40 CFR 600.208-77 - Sample calculation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles § 600.208-77...
Calculating the acoustical properties of fabric constructions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byrne, K. P.
1988-06-01
Architects are using fabric structures more frequently, not only because of the aesthetic appeal of such structures, but also because of their low initial and operational costs. A common application of fabric structures is in community buildings such as shopping malls and recreation centres. Fabric structures are also now used in industrial noise control applications. The constructions used in fabric structures incorporate one or more porous or impervious fabric sheets which may carry high in-plane tensions. Sometimes layers of porous materials may also be included. The acoustical performance of a fabric construction is usually adequately described by the diffuse field sound absorption cofficient, α (Δf), and the diffuse field sound reduction index, R(Δf), in frequency bands. A procedure for calculating these quantities is described. For this procedure, a fabric sheet is characterized by its mass per unit area, flexural stiffness, flexural loss factor, specific flow resistance, and the magnitudes and directions of the principal biaxial in-plane tensions. A porous layer is characterized by its thickness, flow resistivity, and position relative to the fabric sheets. The first part of the calculation procedure is concerned with finding the sound reflection and transmission coefficients for a plane wave of given frequency and direction. These calculations are based on the successive application of two types of formulae. The first type of formulae relate the surface or wave impedances across the fabric sheets and the porous layers or air spaces between them, and the second type relate the acoustic pressures across these elements. The second part of the calculation procedure involves integrating the frequency and direction dependent plane wave coefficients to give the diffuse field coefficients. The results of the application of the procedure to some representative situations are given and are compared with experimental results.
1997-06-10
VENTSAR XL is an EXCEL Spreadsheet that can be used to calculate downwind doses as a result of a hypothetical atmospheric release. Both building effects and plume rise may be considered. VENTSAR XL will run using any version of Microsoft EXCEL version 4.0 or later. Macros (the programming language of EXCEL) was used to automate the calculations. The user enters a minimal amount of input and the code calculates the resulting concentrations and doses atmore » various downwind distances as specified by the user.« less
2016-01-01
The Nuss procedure is now the preferred operation for surgical correction of pectus excavatum (PE). It is a minimally invasive technique, whereby one to three curved metal bars are inserted behind the sternum in order to push it into a normal position. The bars are left in situ for three years and then removed. This procedure significantly improves quality of life and, in most cases, also improves cardiac performance. Previously, the modified Ravitch procedure was used with resection of cartilage and the use of posterior support. This article details the new modified Nuss procedure, which requires the use of shorter bars than specified by the original technique. This technique facilitates the operation as the bar may be guided manually through the chest wall and no additional stabilizing sutures are necessary. PMID:27747185
Dynamic alarm response procedures
Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K.
2006-07-01
The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)
... the heart. During the procedure, small wires called electrodes are placed inside your heart to measure your ... is in place, your doctor will place small electrodes in different areas of your heart. These electrodes ...
Common Interventional Radiology Procedures
... of common interventional techniques is below. Common Interventional Radiology Procedures Angiography An X-ray exam of the ... into the vertebra. Copyright © 2016 Society of Interventional Radiology. All rights reserved. 3975 Fair Ridge Drive • Suite ...
Bretland, P M
1988-01-01
The existing National Health Service financial system makes comprehensive costing of any service very difficult. A method of costing using modern commercial methods has been devised, classifying costs into variable, semi-variable and fixed and using the principle of overhead absorption for expenditure not readily allocated to individual procedures. It proved possible to establish a cost spectrum over the financial year 1984-85. The cheapest examinations were plain radiographs outside normal working hours, followed by plain radiographs, ultrasound, special procedures, fluoroscopy, nuclear medicine, angiography and angiographic interventional procedures in normal working hours. This differs from some published figures, particularly those in the Körner report. There was some overlap between fluoroscopic interventional and the cheaper nuclear medicine procedures, and between some of the more expensive nuclear medicine procedures and the cheaper angiographic ones. Only angiographic and the few more expensive nuclear medicine procedures exceed the cost of the inpatient day. The total cost of the imaging service to the district was about 4% of total hospital expenditure. It is shown that where more procedures are undertaken, the semi-variable and fixed (including capital) elements of the cost decrease (and vice versa) so that careful study is required to assess the value of proposed economies. The method is initially time-consuming and requires a computer system with 512 Kb of memory, but once the basic costing system is established in a department, detailed financial monitoring should become practicable. The necessity for a standard comprehensive costing procedure of this nature, based on sound cost accounting principles, appears inescapable, particularly in view of its potential application to management budgeting. PMID:3349241
Safety referral procedures clarified.
2014-12-01
Two types of referrals are available for the purpose of harmonising pharmacovigilance decisions across the EU: the urgent procedure and the "normal" procedure. In both cases, the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) issues a recommendation that the marketing authorisation committees concerned must take into account when formulating their opinions. If Member States disagree in their decisions, a final referral is available, although it lacks transparency. The European Commission's final decision is binding on all Member States. PMID:25629154
Bretland, P M
1988-01-01
The existing National Health Service financial system makes comprehensive costing of any service very difficult. A method of costing using modern commercial methods has been devised, classifying costs into variable, semi-variable and fixed and using the principle of overhead absorption for expenditure not readily allocated to individual procedures. It proved possible to establish a cost spectrum over the financial year 1984-85. The cheapest examinations were plain radiographs outside normal working hours, followed by plain radiographs, ultrasound, special procedures, fluoroscopy, nuclear medicine, angiography and angiographic interventional procedures in normal working hours. This differs from some published figures, particularly those in the Körner report. There was some overlap between fluoroscopic interventional and the cheaper nuclear medicine procedures, and between some of the more expensive nuclear medicine procedures and the cheaper angiographic ones. Only angiographic and the few more expensive nuclear medicine procedures exceed the cost of the inpatient day. The total cost of the imaging service to the district was about 4% of total hospital expenditure. It is shown that where more procedures are undertaken, the semi-variable and fixed (including capital) elements of the cost decrease (and vice versa) so that careful study is required to assess the value of proposed economies. The method is initially time-consuming and requires a computer system with 512 Kb of memory, but once the basic costing system is established in a department, detailed financial monitoring should become practicable. The necessity for a standard comprehensive costing procedure of this nature, based on sound cost accounting principles, appears inescapable, particularly in view of its potential application to management budgeting.
... My Saved Articles » My ACS » + - Text Size Target Heart Rate Calculator Compute your best workout Enter your age ... is your age? years. How to Check Your Heart Rate Right after you stop exercising, take your pulse: ...
... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...
PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTY CALCULATIONS
Computer models have been developed to estimate a wide range of physical-chemical properties from molecular structure. The SPARC modeling system approaches calculations as site specific reactions (pKa, hydrolysis, hydration) and `whole molecule' properties (vapor pressure, boilin...
More Experiments and Calculations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Siddons, J. C.
1984-01-01
Describes two experiments that illustrate basic ideas but would be difficult to carry out. Also presents activities and experiments on rainbow cups, electrical charges, electrophorus calculation, pulse electrometer, a skidding car, and on the Oersted effect. (JN)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)
1997-01-01
The current methods of quantum chemical calculations will be reviewed. The accent will be on the accuracy that can be achieved with these methods. The basis set requirements and computer resources for the various methods will be discussed. The utility of the methods will be illustrated with some examples, which include the calculation of accurate bond energies for SiF$_n$ and SiF$_n^+$ and the modeling of chemical data storage.
Source and replica calculations
Whalen, P.P.
1994-02-01
The starting point of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki Dose Reevaluation Program is the energy and directional distributions of the prompt neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from the exploding bombs. A brief introduction to the neutron source calculations is presented. The development of our current understanding of the source problem is outlined. It is recommended that adjoint calculations be used to modify source spectra to resolve the neutron discrepancy problem.
Systematics and limit calculations
Fisher, Wade; /Fermilab
2006-12-01
This note discusses the estimation of systematic uncertainties and their incorporation into upper limit calculations. Two different approaches to reducing systematics and their degrading impact on upper limits are introduced. An improved {chi}{sup 2} function is defined which is useful in comparing Poisson distributed data with models marginalized by systematic uncertainties. Also, a technique using profile likelihoods is introduced which provides a means of constraining the degrading impact of systematic uncertainties on limit calculations.
General method for calculating derivatives of the lattice electrostatic energy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Macdonald, D. E.; Eftis, J.; Arkilic, G. M.
1972-01-01
A method for calculating the derivatives of lattice electrostatic strain energy is proposed. It offers a computation procedure that is more general, concise, and systematic than any of the procedures previously used by Fuchs (1936), Cousins (1967), and Suzuki et al. (1968). The method can also easily be extended to fourth- and higher-order derivatives without undue difficulty.
ON-LINE CALCULATOR: FORWARD CALCULATION JOHNSON ETTINGER MODEL
On-Site was developed to provide modelers and model reviewers with prepackaged tools ("calculators") for performing site assessment calculations. The philosophy behind OnSite is that the convenience of the prepackaged calculators helps provide consistency for simple calculations,...
40 CFR 98.185 - Procedures for estimating missing data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... facility that estimate annual process CO2 emissions using the carbon mass balance procedure in § 98.183(b... missing data. A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions calculations in §...
40 CFR 98.185 - Procedures for estimating missing data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... facility that estimate annual process CO2 emissions using the carbon mass balance procedure in § 98.183(b... missing data. A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions calculations in §...
Procedure for the Determination of Orbits of Astronomical Bodies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Birnbaum, David
1977-01-01
Presents a procedure for finding the elements of the orbit of an astronomical object from three or more observations. From a set of assumed elements an ephemeris is calculated and compared to the observations. (MLH)
Calculating reliability measures for ordinal data.
Gamsu, C V
1986-11-01
Establishing the reliability of measures taken by judges is important in both clinical and research work. Calculating the statistic of choice, the kappa coefficient, unfortunately is not a particularly quick and simple procedure. Two much-needed practical tools have been developed to overcome these difficulties: a comprehensive and easily understood guide to the manual calculation of the most complex form of the kappa coefficient, weighted kappa for ordinal data, has been written; and a computer program to run under CP/M, PC-DOS and MS-DOS has been developed. With simple modification the program will also run on a Sinclair Spectrum home computer.
Mobile Energy Laboratory Procedures
Armstrong, P.R.; Batishko, C.R.; Dittmer, A.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Stoops, J.L.
1993-09-01
Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked to plan and implement a framework for measuring and analyzing the efficiency of on-site energy conversion, distribution, and end-use application on federal facilities as part of its overall technical support to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) Procedures establish guidelines for specific activities performed by PNL staff. PNL provided sophisticated energy monitoring, auditing, and analysis equipment for on-site evaluation of energy use efficiency. Specially trained engineers and technicians were provided to conduct tests in a safe and efficient manner with the assistance of host facility staff and contractors. Reports were produced to describe test procedures, results, and suggested courses of action. These reports may be used to justify changes in operating procedures, maintenance efforts, system designs, or energy-using equipment. The MEL capabilities can subsequently be used to assess the results of energy conservation projects. These procedures recognize the need for centralized NM administration, test procedure development, operator training, and technical oversight. This need is evidenced by increasing requests fbr MEL use and the economies available by having trained, full-time MEL operators and near continuous MEL operation. DOE will assign new equipment and upgrade existing equipment as new capabilities are developed. The equipment and trained technicians will be made available to federal agencies that provide funding for the direct costs associated with MEL use.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leutenegger, Marcel; Geissbuehler, Matthias; Märki, Iwan; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Lasser, Theo
2008-02-01
We present a method for fast calculation of the electromagnetic field near the focus of an objective with a high numerical aperture (NA). Instead of direct integration, the vectorial Debye diffraction integral is evaluated with the fast Fourier transform for calculating the electromagnetic field in the entire focal region. We generalize this concept with the chirp z transform for obtaining a flexible sampling grid and an additional gain in computation speed. Under the conditions for the validity of the Debye integral representation, our method yields the amplitude, phase and polarization of the focus field for an arbitrary paraxial input field in the aperture of the objective. Our fast calculation method is particularly useful for engineering the point-spread function or for fast image deconvolution. We present several case studies by calculating the focus fields of high NA oil immersion objectives for various amplitude, polarization and phase distributions of the input field. In addition, the calculation of an extended polychromatic focus field generated by a Bessel beam is presented. This extended focus field is of particular interest for Fourier domain optical coherence tomography because it preserves a lateral resolution of a few micrometers over an axial distance in the millimeter range.
A viscous-inviscid interactive compressor calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, W.; Sockol, P. M.
1978-01-01
A viscous-inviscid interactive procedure for subsonic flow is developed and applied to an axial compressor stage. Calculations are carried out on a two-dimensional blade-to-blade region of constant radius assumed to occupy a mid-span location. Hub and tip effects are neglected. The Euler equations are solved by MacCormack's method, a viscous marching procedure is used in the boundary layers and wake, and an iterative interaction scheme is constructed that matches them in a way that incorporates information related to momentum and enthalpy thicknesses as well as the displacement thickness. The calculations are quasi-three-dimensional in the sense that the boundary layer and wake solutions allow for the presence of spanwise (radial) velocities.
Environmental Test Screening Procedure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeidler, Janet
2000-01-01
This procedure describes the methods to be used for environmental stress screening (ESS) of the Lightning Mapper Sensor (LMS) lens assembly. Unless otherwise specified, the procedures shall be completed in the order listed, prior to performance of the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP). The first unit, S/N 001, will be subjected to the Qualification Vibration Levels, while the remainder will be tested at the Operational Level. Prior to ESS, all units will undergo Pre-ESS Functional Testing that includes measuring the on-axis and plus or minus 0.95 full field Modulation Transfer Function and Back Focal Length. Next, all units will undergo ESS testing, and then Acceptance testing per PR 460.
Calculations for waste characterization
Hemmer, R.J.
1994-09-01
Measurements are the first step in the characterization of waste forms. The results are used to determine the types and amounts of radioactive material present. From this data, several characteristics are calculated which are used to satisfy site, Department of Energy (DOE), and Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) requirements. How well these calculations are made becomes important to the waste characterization program. Several sources are available to obtain the required values needed to calculate these characteristics. To ensure consistency among all sites within the DOE complex, a standardized program for all necessary data needs to be established. The effects of several of the inconsistencies are presented along with a recommended list of criteria to be used.
Hydrogen moderator performance calculations
Picton, D. J.; Beynon, T. D.; Broome, T. A.
1997-09-01
A comparison was made between MCNP calculations and experimental measurements of the neutron spectrum from the liquid hydrogen moderator on ISIS. The calculations were performed for varying ortho/para concentrations, and demonstrated a best fit for 100% para-hydrogen. The agreement between the measured and calculated results was good below 2Å (i.e. for energies above 20 meV) but significant deviations were seen for longer wavelengths. A second study used the MCNP code for a detailed comparison of the time distributions and neutron spectra from poisoned liquid hydrogen and liquid methane moderators. The results indicate that the replacement of a liquid methane moderator with liquid hydrogen, in order to eliminate radiation damage effects, is an option which can be seriously considered. (auth)
28 CFR 552.23 - Confrontation avoidance procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Confrontation avoidance procedures. 552.23 Section 552.23 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Use of Force and Application of Restraints on Inmates § 552.23 Confrontation avoidance procedures. Prior to any calculated use of...
40 CFR 98.295 - Procedures for estimating missing data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for estimating missing data... estimating missing data. For the emission calculation methodologies in § 98.293(b)(2) and (b)(3), a complete... procedures used for all such missing value estimates. (a) For each missing value of the weekly composite...
40 CFR 98.75 - Procedures for estimating missing data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for estimating missing data... estimating missing data. A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions calculations... document and keep records of the procedures used for all such estimates. (a) For missing data on...
Semirelativistic Lagrange mesh calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semay, C.; Baye, D.; Hesse, M.; Silvestre-Brac, B.
2001-07-01
The Lagrange mesh method is a very powerful procedure to compute eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of nonrelativistic Hamiltonians. The trial eigenstates are developed in a basis of well-chosen functions and the computation of Hamiltonian matrix elements requires only the evaluation of the potential at grid points. It is shown that this method can be used to solve semirelativistic two-body eigenvalue equations. As in the nonrelativistic case, it is very accurate, fast, and very simple to implement.
Engineering calculations for communications satellite systems planning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reilly, Charles H.; Walton, Eric K.; Kohnhorst, Paul
1987-01-01
A procedure is described that was used to calculate minimum required satellite separations based on total link carrier to interference requirements. Also summarized are recent results with a switching algorithm for satellite synthesis problems. Analytic solution value bounds for two of the satellite synthesis models studied are described. Preliminary results from an empirical study of alternate mixed integer programming models for satellite synthesis are presented. Research plans for the near future are discussed.
Calculation of free-fall trajectories using numerical optimization methods.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hull, D. G.; Fowler, W. T.; Gottlieb, R. G.
1972-01-01
An important problem in space flight is the calculation of trajectories for nonthrusting vehicles between fixed points in a given time. A new procedure based on Hamilton's principle for solving such two-point boundary-value problems is presented. It employs numerical optimization methods to perform the extremization required by Hamilton's principle. This procedure is applied to the calculation of an Earth-Moon trajectory. The results show that the initial guesses required to obtain an iteration procedure which converges are not critical and that convergence can be obtained to any predetermined degree of accuracy.
Graphing Calculator Mini Course
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karnawat, Sunil R.
1996-01-01
The "Graphing Calculator Mini Course" project provided a mathematically-intensive technologically-based summer enrichment workshop for teachers of American Indian students on the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation. Eleven such teachers participated in the six-day workshop in summer of 1996 and three Sunday workshops in the academic year. The project aimed to improve science and mathematics education on the reservation by showing teachers effective ways to use high-end graphing calculators as teaching and learning tools in science and mathematics courses at all levels. In particular, the workshop concentrated on applying TI-82's user-friendly features to understand the various mathematical and scientific concepts.
Three recent TDHF calculations
Weiss, M.S.
1981-05-01
Three applications of TDHF are discussed. First, vibrational spectra of a post grazing collision /sup 40/Ca nucleus is examined and found to contain many high energy components, qualitatively consistent with recent Orsay experiments. Second, the fusion cross section in energy and angular momentum are calculated for /sup 16/O + /sup 24/Mg to exhibit the parameters of the low l window for this system. A sensitivity of the fusion cross section to the effective two body potential is discussed. Last, a preliminary analysis of /sup 86/Kr + /sup 139/La at E/sub lab/ = 505 MeV calculated in the frozen approximation is displayed, compared to experiment and discussed.
Spin resonance strength calculations
Courant,E.D.
2008-10-06
In calculating the strengths of depolarizing resonances it may be convenient to reformulate the equations of spin motion in a coordinate system based on the actual trajectory of the particle, as introduced by Kondratenko, rather than the conventional one based on a reference orbit. It is shown that resonance strengths calculated by the conventional and the revised formalisms are identical. Resonances induced by radiofrequency dipoles or solenoids are also treated; with rf dipoles it is essential to consider not only the direct effect of the dipole but also the contribution from oscillations induced by it.
Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator
Sullivan, John
2014-03-11
This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.
Arianespace streamlines launch procedures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lenorovitch, Jeffrey M.
1992-06-01
Ariane has entered a new operational phase in which launch procedures have been enhanced to reduce the length of launch campaigns, lower mission costs, and increase operational availability/flexibility of the three-stage vehicle. The V50 mission utilized the first vehicle from a 50-launcher production lot ordered by Arianespace, and was the initial flight with a stretched third stage that enhances Ariane's performance. New operational procedures were introduced gradually over more than a year, starting with the V42 launch in January 1991.
2015-01-01
An important goal in cardiovascular and thoracic surgery is reducing surgical trauma to achieve faster recovery for our patients. Mini-Bentall procedure encompasses aortic root and ascending aortic replacement with re-implantation of coronary buttons, performed via a mini-sternotomy. The skin incision extends from the angle of Louis to the third intercostal space, usually measuring 5-7 cm in length. Through this incision, it is possible to perform isolated aortic root surgery and/or hemi-arch replacement. The present illustrated article describes the technical details on how I perform a Mini-Bentall procedure with hemi-arch replacement. PMID:25870816
40 CFR 98.143 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Glass Production § 98.143 Calculating GHG emissions. You must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each continuous glass melting furnace using the procedure in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. (a) For each continuous glass melting furnace...
40 CFR 98.143 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Glass Production § 98.143 Calculating GHG emissions. You must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each continuous glass melting furnace using the procedure in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. (a) For each continuous glass melting furnace...
40 CFR 89.418 - Raw emission sampling calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Raw emission sampling calculations. 89.418 Section 89.418 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Test Procedures § 89.418 Raw emission sampling calculations. (a) The final test results shall...
40 CFR 98.143 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Glass Production § 98.143 Calculating GHG emissions. You must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each continuous glass melting furnace using the procedure in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. (a) For each continuous glass melting furnace...
40 CFR 98.143 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Glass Production § 98.143 Calculating GHG emissions. You must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each continuous glass melting furnace using the procedure in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section. (a) For each continuous glass melting furnace...
40 CFR 98.143 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Glass Production § 98.143 Calculating GHG emissions. You must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each continuous glass melting furnace using the procedure in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. (a) For each continuous glass melting furnace...
40 CFR 600.113-88 - Fuel economy calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-88... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-88 Fuel economy calculations....
40 CFR 600.113-78 - Fuel economy calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-78... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-78 Fuel economy calculations....
Calculation methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers, 1976
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, D. M.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Harris, J. E.
1977-01-01
Equations and closure methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers are discussed. Flow phenomena peculiar to calculation of these boundary layers were considered, along with calculations of three dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers. Procedures for ascertaining nonsimilar two and three dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers were appended, including finite difference, finite element, and mass-weighted residual methods.
40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations; exhaust emissions. 86.244-94 Section 86.244-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.244-94 Calculations;...
40 CFR 98.293 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Soda Ash Manufacturing § 98.293 Calculating GHG emissions. You must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each soda ash manufacturing line using the procedures specified in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section. (a) For each soda ash...
40 CFR 98.293 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Soda Ash Manufacturing § 98.293 Calculating GHG emissions. You must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each soda ash manufacturing line using the procedures specified in paragraph (a) or (b) of this section. (a) For each soda ash...
40 CFR 98.183 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each smelting furnace using the procedure in... § 98.33(b)(4)(ii) or (b)(4)(iii), you must calculate and report combined process and combustion CO2 emissions by operating and maintaining a CEMS to measure CO2 emissions according to the Tier 4...
Toddler test or procedure preparation
Preparing toddler for test/procedure; Test/procedure preparation - toddler; Preparing for a medical test or procedure - toddler ... Before the test, know that your child will probably cry. Even if you prepare, your child may feel some discomfort or ...
Preschooler test or procedure preparation
Preparing preschoolers for test/procedure; Test/procedure preparation - preschooler ... Preparing children for medical tests can reduce their distress. It can also make them less likely to cry and resist the procedure. Research shows that ...
Calculation of enviromental indices
1995-10-01
This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report discusses the development of environmental indices. These indices were developed to be a quantitative measure of characterizing how TVA power system operations and alternative energy strategies might affect the environment. All indices were calculated relative to the reference strategy, and for the environmental review, the reference strategy was `no action`.
Moran, B.; Attia, A.
1995-07-01
When a deeply penetrating munition explodes above the roof of a tunnel, the amount of rubble that falls inside the tunnel is primarily a function of three parameters: first the cube-root scaled distance from the center of the explosive to the roof of the tunnel. Second the material properties of the rock around the tunnel, and in particular the shear strength of that rock, its RQD (Rock Quality Designator), and the extent and orientation of joints. And third the ratio of the tunnel diameter to the standoff distance (distance between the center of explosive and the tunnel roof). The authors have used CALE, a well-established 2-D hydrodynamic computer code, to calculate the amount of rubble that falls inside a tunnel as a function of standoff distance for two different tunnel diameters. In particular they calculated three of the tunnel collapse experiments conducted in an iron ore mine near Kirkeness, Norway in the summer of 1994. The failure model that they used in their calculations combines an equivalent plastic strain criterion with a maximum tensile strength criterion and can be calibrated for different rocks using cratering data as well as laboratory experiments. These calculations are intended to test and improve the understanding of both the Norway Experiments and the ACE (Array of conventional Explosive) phenomenology.
Curvature calculations with GEOCALC
Moussiaux, A.; Tombal, P.
1987-04-01
A new method for calculating the curvature tensor has been recently proposed by D. Hestenes. This method is a particular application of geometric calculus, which has been implemented in an algebraic programming language on the form of a package called GEOCALC. They show how to apply this package to the Schwarzchild case and they discuss the different results.
Calculation of magnetostriction constants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tatebayashi, T.; Ohtsuka, S.; Ukai, T.; Mori, N.
1986-02-01
The magnetostriction constants h1 and h2 for Ni and Fe metals and the anisotropy constants K1 and K2 for Fe metal are calculated on the basis of the approximate d bands obtained by Deegan's prescription, by using Gilat-Raubenheimer's method. The obtained results are compared with the experimental ones.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Francis J.
The Gunning Fog Index of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog Index of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…
A Specific Calculating Ability.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, Mike; O'Connor, Neil; Hermelin, Beate
1998-01-01
Studied the calculating ability used by a low IQ savant to identify prime numbers in two experiments comparing him to control subjects, one involving reaction time and the other involving inspection time. Concludes that this individual uses a complex computational algorithm to identify primes and discusses the apparent contradiction of his low IQ.…
Calendrical Calculation and Intelligence.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Connor, Neil; Cowan, Richard; Samella, Katerina
2000-01-01
Studied the ability to name the days of the week for dates in the past and future (calendrical calculation) of 10 calendrical savants with Wechlser Adult Intelligence Scale scores from 50 to 97. Results suggest that although low intelligence does not prevent the development of this skill, the talent depends on general intelligence. (SLD)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mazria, Edward; Winitsky, David
This guide provides users with a basic understanding of where and how the sun works in relation to a building and site and provides a simplified method of calculating sun angles and the available heat energy from the sun on vertical and horizontal surfaces. (Author/IRT)
Airborne antenna pattern calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bagherian, A. B.; Mielke, R. R.
1983-01-01
Use of calculation program START and modeling program P 3D to produce radiation patterns of antennas mounted on a space station is discussed. Basic components of two space stations in the early design stage are simulated and radiation patterns for antennas mounted on the modules are presented.
Simulating Laboratory Procedures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baker, J. E.; And Others
1986-01-01
Describes the use of computer assisted instruction in a medical microbiology course. Presents examples of how computer assisted instruction can present case histories in which the laboratory procedures are simulated. Discusses an authoring system used to prepare computer simulations and provides one example of a case history dealing with fractured…
Numerical Boundary Condition Procedures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1981-01-01
Topics include numerical procedures for treating inflow and outflow boundaries, steady and unsteady discontinuous surfaces, far field boundaries, and multiblock grids. In addition, the effects of numerical boundary approximations on stability, accuracy, and convergence rate of the numerical solution are discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hester, Yvette
Least squares methods are sophisticated mathematical curve fitting procedures used in all classical parametric methods. The linear least squares approximation is most often associated with finding the "line of best fit" or the regression line. Since all statistical analyses are correlational and all classical parametric methods are least square…
Advanced intrarenal ureteroscopic procedures.
Monga, Manoj; Beeman, William W
2004-02-01
The role of flexible ureteroscopy in the management of intrarenal pathology has undergone a dramatic evolution, powered by improvements in flexible ureteroscope design; deflection and image quality; diversification of small, disposable instrumentation; and the use of holmium laser lithotripsy. This article reviews the application of flexible ureteroscopy for advanced intrarenal procedures.
Visual Screening: A Procedure.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Robert T.
Vision is a complex process involving three phases: physical (acuity), physiological (integrative), and psychological (perceptual). Although these phases cannot be considered discrete, they provide the basis for the visual screening procedure used by the Reading Services of Colorado State University and described in this document. Ten tests are…
Student Loan Collection Procedures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.
This manual on the collection of student loans is intended for the use of business officers and loan collection personnel of colleges and universities of all sizes. The introductory chapter is an overview of sound collection practices and procedures. It discusses the making of a loan, in-school servicing of the accounts, the exit interview, the…
PLATO Courseware Development Procedures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mahler, William A.; And Others
This is an exploratory study of methods for the preparation of computer curriculum materials. It deals with courseware development procedures for the PLATO IV computer-based education system, and draws on interviews with over 100 persons engaged in courseware production. The report presents a five stage model of development: (1) planning, (2)…
Parliamentary Procedure Made Easy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hayden, Ellen T.
Based on the newly revised "Robert's Rules of Order," these self-contained learning activities will help students successfully and actively participate in school, social, civic, political, or professional organizations. There are 13 lessons. Topics studied include the what, why, and history of parliamentary procedure; characteristics of the ideal…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Green, Gary J.
This paper presents two actual problems involving grievance procedures. Both problems involve pending litigation and one of them involves pending arbitration. The first problem occurred in a wealthy Minnesota school district and involved a seniority list. Because of changes in the financial basis for supporting public schools, it became necessary…
Procedures and Policies Manual
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Jane M.
2006-01-01
This document was developed by the Middle Tennessee State University James E. Walker Library Collection Management Department to provide policies and procedural guidelines for the cataloging and processing of bibliographic materials. This document includes policies for cataloging monographs, serials, government documents, machine-readable data…
Educational Accounting Procedures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tidwell, Sam B.
This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" reviews the functions, procedures, and reports with which school business officials must be familiar in order to interpret and make decisions regarding the school district's financial position. Among the accounting functions discussed are financial management, internal auditing, annual…
Plutonium 239 Equivalency Calculations
Wen, J
2011-05-31
This document provides the basis for converting actual weapons grade plutonium mass to a plutonium equivalency (PuE) mass of Plutonium 239. The conversion can be accomplished by performing calculations utilizing either: (1) Isotopic conversions factors (CF{sub isotope}), or (2) 30-year-old weapons grade conversion factor (CF{sub 30 yr}) Both of these methods are provided in this document. Material mass and isotopic data are needed to calculate PuE using the isotopic conversion factors, which will provide the actual PuE value at the time of calculation. PuE is the summation of the isotopic masses times their associated isotopic conversion factors for plutonium 239. Isotopic conversion factors are calculated by a normalized equation, relative to Plutonium 239, of specific activity (SA) and cumulated dose inhalation affects based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The isotopic conversion factors for converting weapons grade plutonium to PuE are provided in Table-1. The unit for specific activity (SA) is curies per gram (Ci/g) and the isotopic SA values come from reference [1]. The cumulated dose inhalation effect values in units of rem/Ci are based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). A person irradiated by gamma radiation outside the body will receive a dose only during the period of irradiation. However, following an intake by inhalation, some radionuclides persist in the body and irradiate the various tissues for many years. There are three groups CEDE data representing lengths of time of 0.5 (D), 50 (W) and 500 (Y) days, which are in reference [2]. The CEDE values in the (W) group demonstrates the highest dose equivalent value; therefore they are used for the calculation.
How to Calculate the Accident Probability of Dangerous Substance Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuchs, Pavel; Saska, Tomas; Sousek, Radovan; Valis, David
2012-09-01
Currently the risk assessment of dangerous substances manipulation and transportation is a frequent topic in scientific groups. It exist many themes from this area, which are discussed at conferences and scientific events. One of these topics is surely the calculation of accident probability of dangerous substance transport. The following paper describes the procedure of the accident probability calculation of dangerous substance road transportation. The next aim of this paper is to show, what uncertainties may be contained in such as calculation procedure. And finally, which parameters should be collected for complex accident risk assessment of dangerous substance road transport.
Developmental predictors of fraction concepts and procedures.
Jordan, Nancy C; Hansen, Nicole; Fuchs, Lynn S; Siegler, Robert S; Gersten, Russell; Micklos, Deborah
2013-09-01
Developmental predictors of children's fraction concepts and procedures at the end of fourth grade were investigated in a 2-year longitudinal study. Participants were 357 children who started the study in third grade. Attentive behavior, language, nonverbal reasoning, number line estimation, calculation fluency, and reading fluency each contributed uniquely to later conceptual understanding of fractions. Number line estimation, attentive behavior, calculation fluency, and working memory made unique contributions to acquisition of fraction arithmetic procedures. Notably, number line estimation made the largest independent contribution in both models. The results suggest that although there is considerable shared variance among the predictors, both general and number-related competencies are uniquely important for explaining why some children struggle with fractions. PMID:23506808
40 CFR 98.265 - Procedures for estimating missing data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Procedures for estimating missing data... estimating missing data. A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions calculations... substitute data value for the missing parameter must be used in the calculations as specified in...
CONVEYOR FOUNDATIONS CALCULATION
S. Romanos
1995-03-10
The purpose of these calculations is to design foundations for all conveyor supports for the surface conveyors that transport the muck resulting from the TBM operation, from the belt storage to the muck stockpile. These conveyors consist of: (1) Conveyor W-TO3, from the belt storage, at the starter tunnel, to the transfer tower. (2) Conveyor W-SO1, from the transfer tower to the material stacker, at the muck stockpile.
Strength calculations on airplanes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baumann, A
1925-01-01
Every strength calculation, including those on airplanes, must be preceded by a determination of the forces to be taken into account. In the following discussion, it will be assumed that the magnitudes of these forces are known and that it is only a question of how, on the basis of these known forces, to meet the prescribed conditions on the one hand and the practical requirements on the other.
Nuclear Material Variance Calculation
1995-01-01
MAVARIC (Materials Accounting VARIance Calculations) is a custom spreadsheet that significantly reduces the effort required to make the variance and covariance calculations needed to determine the detection sensitivity of a materials accounting system and loss of special nuclear material (SNM). The user is required to enter information into one of four data tables depending on the type of term in the materials balance (MB) equation. The four data tables correspond to input transfers, output transfers,more » and two types of inventory terms, one for nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements and one for measurements made by chemical analysis. Each data entry must contain an identification number and a short description, as well as values for the SNM concentration, the bulk mass (or solution volume), the measurement error standard deviations, and the number of measurements during an accounting period. The user must also specify the type of error model (additive or multiplicative) associated with each measurement, and possible correlations between transfer terms. Predefined spreadsheet macros are used to perform the variance and covariance calculations for each term based on the corresponding set of entries. MAVARIC has been used for sensitivity studies of chemical separation facilities, fuel processing and fabrication facilities, and gas centrifuge and laser isotope enrichment facilities.« less
A computerized procedure for estimating nutrient intake.
Williamson, M; Azen, C; Acosta, P
1976-11-01
A procedure was devised for computing intake in terms of calories, total protein, phenylalanine, carbohydrate, and fat. The procedure used a magnetic tape containing 3,122 numbered food items. The nutrient composition of each food was reported for 100 g of the edible portion of the food. In addition, diet diaries were prepared in which the foods eaten during the preceding 24-hr period, the code for each food corresponding to the number for the same item on the magnetic tape, and the number of units of each food eaten were recorded. A computer program then was written that calculated the amounts of intake per day for each nutrient. Application of the procedure for 42 consecutive days on the daily diet records of 43 adult carriers of the phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme formed the data base used to determine if aspartame significantly increased levels of phenylalanine in the blood. Adaptations of the procedure permit calculations of intake for periods from 1 to 30 days and analyses of additional nutrients including calcium, phosphorous, iron, vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and ascorbic acid.
Subsurface Shielding Source Term Specification Calculation
S.Su
2001-04-12
The purpose of this calculation is to establish appropriate and defensible waste-package radiation source terms for use in repository subsurface shielding design. This calculation supports the shielding design for the waste emplacement and retrieval system, and subsurface facility system. The objective is to identify the limiting waste package and specify its associated source terms including source strengths and energy spectra. Consistent with the Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities (CRWMS M&O 2001, p. 15), the scope of work includes the following: (1) Review source terms generated by the Waste Package Department (WPD) for various waste forms and waste package types, and compile them for shielding-specific applications. (2) Determine acceptable waste package specific source terms for use in subsurface shielding design, using a reasonable and defensible methodology that is not unduly conservative. This calculation is associated with the engineering and design activity for the waste emplacement and retrieval system, and subsurface facility system. The technical work plan for this calculation is provided in CRWMS M&O 2001. Development and performance of this calculation conforms to the procedure, AP-3.12Q, Calculations.
Procedural Quantum Programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ömer, Bernhard
2002-09-01
While classical computing science has developed a variety of methods and programming languages around the concept of the universal computer, the typical description of quantum algorithms still uses a purely mathematical, non-constructive formalism which makes no difference between a hydrogen atom and a quantum computer. This paper investigates, how the concept of procedural programming languages, the most widely used classical formalism for describing and implementing algorithms, can be adopted to the field of quantum computing, and how non-classical features like the reversibility of unitary transformations, the non-observability of quantum states or the lack of copy and erase operations can be reflected semantically. It introduces the key concepts of procedural quantum programming (hybrid target architecture, operator hierarchy, quantum data types, memory management, etc.) and presents the experimental language QCL, which implements these principles.
Standards of neurosurgical procedures.
Steiger, H J
2001-01-01
Written specifications with regard to procedures performed, equipment used, and training of the involved personnel are widely used in the industry and aviation to guarantee constant quality. Similar systems are progressively being introduced to medicine. We have made an effort to standardize surgical procedures by introducing step-by-step guidelines and checklists. The current experience shows that a system of written standards is applicable to neurosurgery and that the use of checklists contributes to the prevention of forgetting essential details. Written standards and checklists are also a useful training tool within a university hospital and facilitate communication of essentials to the residents. Comparison with aviation suggests that standardization leads to a remarkable but nonetheless limited reduction of adverse incidents. PMID:11840739
Practical procedures: oxygen therapy.
Olive, Sandra
Knowing when to start patients on oxygen therapy can save lives, but ongoing assessment and evaluation must be carried out to ensure the treatment is safe and effective. This article outlines when oxygen therapy should be used and the procedures to follow. It also describes the delivery methods applicable to different patient groups, along with the appropriate target saturation ranges, and details relevant nurse competencies.
The Superintendent and Grievance Procedures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kleinmann, Jack H.
Grievance adjustment between teachers and administrators is viewed as a misunderstood process. The problem is treated under four main headings: (1) Purposes and characteristics of an effective grievance procedure, (2) status of grievance procedures in education, (3) relationship of grievance procedures to professional negotiation procedures, and…
Accurate quantum chemical calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.
1989-01-01
An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.
Calculation of Electron Trajectories
1982-06-01
EGUN, the SLAC Electron Trajectory Program, computes trajectories of charged particles in electrostatic and magnetostatic focusing systems including the effects of space charge and self-magnetic fields. Starting options include Child''s Law conditions on cathodes of various shapes, user-specified initial conditions for each ray, and a combination of Child''s Law conditions and user specifications. Either rectangular or cylindrically symmetric geometry may be used. Magnetic fields may be specified using arbitrary configuration of coils, or the outputmore » of a magnet program, such as Poisson, or by an externally calculated array of the axial fields.« less
Zero Temperature Hope Calculations
Rozsnyai, B F
2002-07-26
The primary purpose of the HOPE code is to calculate opacities over a wide temperature and density range. It can also produce equation of state (EOS) data. Since the experimental data at the high temperature region are scarce, comparisons of predictions with the ample zero temperature data provide a valuable physics check of the code. In this report we show a selected few examples across the periodic table. Below we give a brief general information about the physics of the HOPE code. The HOPE code is an ''average atom'' (AA) Dirac-Slater self-consistent code. The AA label in the case of finite temperature means that the one-electron levels are populated according to the Fermi statistics, at zero temperature it means that the ''aufbau'' principle works, i.e. no a priory electronic configuration is set, although it can be done. As such, it is a one-particle model (any Hartree-Fock model is a one particle model). The code is an ''ion-sphere'' model, meaning that the atom under investigation is neutral within the ion-sphere radius. Furthermore, the boundary conditions for the bound states are also set at the ion-sphere radius, which distinguishes the code from the INFERNO, OPAL and STA codes. Once the self-consistent AA state is obtained, the code proceeds to generate many-electron configurations and proceeds to calculate photoabsorption in the ''detailed configuration accounting'' (DCA) scheme. However, this last feature is meaningless at zero temperature. There is one important feature in the HOPE code which should be noted; any self-consistent model is self-consistent in the space of the occupied orbitals. The unoccupied orbitals, where electrons are lifted via photoexcitation, are unphysical. The rigorous way to deal with that problem is to carry out complete self-consistent calculations both in the initial and final states connecting photoexcitations, an enormous computational task. The Amaldi correction is an attempt to address this problem by distorting the
Penner, J.E.; Haselman, L.C.; Edwards, L.L.
1985-01-01
Smoke from raging fires produced in the aftermath of a major nuclear exchange has been predicted to cause large decreases in surface temperatures. However, the extent of the decrease and even the sign of the temperature change, depend on how the smoke is distributed with altitude. We present a model capable of evaluating the initial distribution of lofted smoke above a massive fire. Calculations are shown for a two-dimensional slab version of the model and a full three-dimensional version. The model has been evaluated by simulating smoke heights for the Hamburg firestorm of 1943 and a smaller scale oil fire which occurred in Long Beach in 1958. Our plume heights for these fires are compared to those predicted by the classical Morton-Taylor-Turner theory for weakly buoyant plumes. We consider the effect of the added buoyancy caused by condensation of water-laden ground level air being carried to high altitude with the convection column as well as the effects of background wind on the calculated smoke plume heights for several fire intensities. We find that the rise height of the plume depends on the assumed background atmospheric conditions as well as the fire intensity. Little smoke is injected into the stratosphere unless the fire is unusually intense, or atmospheric conditions are more unstable than we have assumed. For intense fires significant amounts of water vapor are condensed raising the possibility of early scavenging of smoke particles by precipitation. 26 references, 11 figures.
Pipe Cleaning Operating Procedures
Clark, D.; Wu, J.; /Fermilab
1991-01-24
This cleaning procedure outlines the steps involved in cleaning the high purity argon lines associated with the DO calorimeters. The procedure is broken down into 7 cycles: system setup, initial flush, wash, first rinse, second rinse, final rinse and drying. The system setup involves preparing the pump cart, line to be cleaned, distilled water, and interconnecting hoses and fittings. The initial flush is an off-line flush of the pump cart and its plumbing in order to preclude contaminating the line. The wash cycle circulates the detergent solution (Micro) at 180 degrees Fahrenheit through the line to be cleaned. The first rinse is then intended to rid the line of the majority of detergent and only needs to run for 30 minutes and at ambient temperature. The second rinse (if necessary) should eliminate the remaining soap residue. The final rinse is then intended to be a check that there is no remaining soap or other foreign particles in the line, particularly metal 'chips.' The final rinse should be run at 180 degrees Fahrenheit for at least 90 minutes. The filters should be changed after each cycle, paying particular attention to the wash cycle and the final rinse cycle return filters. These filters, which should be bagged and labeled, prove that the pipeline is clean. Only distilled water should be used for all cycles, especially rinsing. The level in the tank need not be excessive, merely enough to cover the heater float switch. The final rinse, however, may require a full 50 gallons. Note that most of the details of the procedure are included in the initial flush description. This section should be referred to if problems arise in the wash or rinse cycles.
Interventional radiology neck procedures.
Zabala Landa, R M; Korta Gómez, I; Del Cura Rodríguez, J L
2016-05-01
Ultrasonography has become extremely useful in the evaluation of masses in the head and neck. It enables us to determine the anatomic location of the masses as well as the characteristics of the tissues that compose them, thus making it possible to orient the differential diagnosis toward inflammatory, neoplastic, congenital, traumatic, or vascular lesions, although it is necessary to use computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging to determine the complete extension of certain lesions. The growing range of interventional procedures, mostly guided by ultrasonography, now includes biopsies, drainages, infiltrations, sclerosing treatments, and tumor ablation. PMID:27138033
Klaphake, Eric
2006-05-01
Rodents are commonly owned exotic animal pets that may be seen by veterinary practitioners. Although most owners presenting their animals do care about their pets, they may not be aware of the diagnostic possibilities and challenges that can be offered by rodents to the veterinarian. Understanding clinical anatomy, proper hand-ling technique, realistic management of emergency presentations,correct and feasible diagnostic sampling, anesthesia, and humane euthanasia procedures is important to enhancing the doctor-client-patient relationship, especially when financial constraints may be imposed by the owner. PMID:16759953
Surface cleanliness measurement procedure
Schroder, Mark Stewart; Woodmansee, Donald Ernest; Beadie, Douglas Frank
2002-01-01
A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.
Radiometric correction procedure study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Colby, C.; Sands, R.; Murphrey, S.
1978-01-01
A comparison of MSS radiometric processing techniques identified as a preferred radiometric processing technique a procedure which equalizes the mean and standard deviation of detector-specific histograms of uncalibrated scene data. Evaluation of MSS calibration data demonstrated that the relationship between detector responses is essentially linear over the range of intensities typically observed in MSS data, and that the calibration wedge data possess a high degree of temporal stability. An analysis of the preferred radiometric processing technique showed that it could be incorporated into the MDP-MSS system without a major redesign of the system, and with minimal impact on system throughput.
CELT optics Alignment Procedure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mast, Terry S.; Nelson, Jerry E.; Chanan, Gary A.; Noethe, Lothar
2003-01-01
The California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT) is a project to build a 30-meter diameter telescope for research in astronomy at visible and infrared wavelengths. The current optical design calls for a primary, secondary, and tertiary mirror with Ritchey-Chretién foci at two Nasmyth platforms. The primary mirror is a mosaic of 1080 actively-stabilized hexagonal segments. This paper summarizes a CELT report that describes a step-by-step procedure for aligning the many degrees of freedom of the CELT optics.
Interventional radiology neck procedures.
Zabala Landa, R M; Korta Gómez, I; Del Cura Rodríguez, J L
2016-05-01
Ultrasonography has become extremely useful in the evaluation of masses in the head and neck. It enables us to determine the anatomic location of the masses as well as the characteristics of the tissues that compose them, thus making it possible to orient the differential diagnosis toward inflammatory, neoplastic, congenital, traumatic, or vascular lesions, although it is necessary to use computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging to determine the complete extension of certain lesions. The growing range of interventional procedures, mostly guided by ultrasonography, now includes biopsies, drainages, infiltrations, sclerosing treatments, and tumor ablation.
Cognition and procedure representational requirements for predictive human performance models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Corker, K.
1992-01-01
Models and modeling environments for human performance are becoming significant contributors to early system design and analysis procedures. Issues of levels of automation, physical environment, informational environment, and manning requirements are being addressed by such man/machine analysis systems. The research reported here investigates the close interaction between models of human cognition and models that described procedural performance. We describe a methodology for the decomposition of aircrew procedures that supports interaction with models of cognition on the basis of procedures observed; that serves to identify cockpit/avionics information sources and crew information requirements; and that provides the structure to support methods for function allocation among crew and aiding systems. Our approach is to develop an object-oriented, modular, executable software representation of the aircrew, the aircraft, and the procedures necessary to satisfy flight-phase goals. We then encode in a time-based language, taxonomies of the conceptual, relational, and procedural constraints among the cockpit avionics and control system and the aircrew. We have designed and implemented a goals/procedures hierarchic representation sufficient to describe procedural flow in the cockpit. We then execute the procedural representation in simulation software and calculate the values of the flight instruments, aircraft state variables and crew resources using the constraints available from the relationship taxonomies. The system provides a flexible, extensible, manipulative and executable representation of aircrew and procedures that is generally applicable to crew/procedure task-analysis. The representation supports developed methods of intent inference, and is extensible to include issues of information requirements and functional allocation. We are attempting to link the procedural representation to models of cognitive functions to establish several intent inference methods
Advanced crew procedures development techniques: Procedures and performance program description
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arbet, J. D.; Mangiaracina, A. A.
1975-01-01
The Procedures and Performance Program (PPP) for operation in conjunction with the Shuttle Procedures Simulator (SPS) is described. The PPP user interface, the SPS/PPP interface, and the PPP applications software are discussed.
Smile esthetics: calculated beauty?
Lecocq, Guillaume; Truong Tan Trung, Lisa
2014-06-01
Esthetic demand from patients continues to increase. Consequently, the treatments we offer are moving towards more discreet or invisible techniques using lingual brackets in order to achieve harmonious, balanced results in line with our treatment goals. As orthodontists, we act upon relationships between teeth and bone. And the equilibrium they create impacts the entire face via the smile. A balanced smile is essential to an esthetic outcome and is governed by rules, which guide both the practitioner and patient. A smile can be described in terms of mathematical ratios and proportions but beauty cannot be calculated. For the smile to sit harmoniously within the face, we need to take into account facial proportions and the possibility of their being modified by our orthopedic appliances or by surgery.
2013-11-22
The software options currently supported by the simulation engine can be seen/experienced at www.roofcalc.com. It defaults all values to national averages with options to test a base-case (residential or commercial) building versus a comparison building with inputs for building type, location, building vintage, conditioned area, number of floors, and window-to-wall ratio, cooling system efficiency, type of heating, heating system efficiency, duct location, roof/ceiling insulation level, above-sheathing ventilation, radiant barrier, roof thermal mass, roof solar reflectance,more » roof thermal emittance, utility costs, roof pitch. The Roof Savings Caculator Suite adds utilities and website/web service and the integration of AtticSim with DOE-2.1E, with the end-result being Roof Savings Calculator.« less
Designing Flight Deck Procedures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl
2005-01-01
Three reports address the design of flight-deck procedures and various aspects of human interaction with cockpit systems that have direct impact on flight safety. One report, On the Typography of Flight- Deck Documentation, discusses basic research about typography and the kind of information needed by designers of flight deck documentation. Flight crews reading poorly designed documentation may easily overlook a crucial item on the checklist. The report surveys and summarizes the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed material. It focuses on typographical factors such as proper typefaces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are discussed; and several cockpit conditions such as lighting levels and glare are addressed, as well as usage factors such as angular alignment, paper quality, and colors. Most of the insights and recommendations discussed in this report are transferable to paperless cockpit systems of the future and computer-based procedure displays (e.g., "electronic flight bag") in aerospace systems and similar systems that are used in other industries such as medical, nuclear systems, maritime operations, and military systems.
Astigmatism and diagnostic procedures.
Visnjić, Mirna Belovari; Zrinsćak, Ognjen; Barisić, Freja; Iveković, Renata; Laus, Katia Novak; Mandić, Zdravko
2012-06-01
Astigmatism represents an inability of the cornea and lens to provide a sharp image onto the retina. Correcting astigmatic errors, whether congenital, contact lens induced or surgically induced, is now an integral part of modern cataract and refractive procedures. Development of modern technology has enabled accurate diagnosis and perfect opportunities for correction; however, while cataract and keratorefractive surgery have come a long way in the last decade, the treatment and diagnosis of astigmatism continue to challenge ophthalmologists. There are several diagnostic procedures and tools available today, some standard and some contemporary that include keratometry, corneal topography, apparatus using wavefront or Scheimpflug analysis like Orbscan, Pentacam, Wavescan, etc. With the introduction of several new diagnostic tools, measurements of astigmatism have become less of an issue, but in some cases it is still difficult to obtain consistent results. What remains still unanswered is the question of the best diagnostic tool on the market. Further research is needed to evaluate both tools as well as their clinical application for optimal use. PMID:23115957
Numerical calculations of ultrasonic fields. [STEALTH
Johnson, J.A.
1982-02-01
A code for calculating ultrasonic fields has been developed by revisng the thermal-hydraulics code STEALTH. This code may be used in a wide variety of situations in which a detailed knowledge of a propagating wave field is required. Among the potential used are: interpretation of pulse-echo or pitch-catch ultrasonic signals in complicated geometries; ultrasonic transducer modeling and characterization; optimization and evaluation of transducer design; optimization and reliability of inspection procedures; investigation of the response of different types of reflectors; flaw modeling; and general theoretical acoustics. The code is described, and its limitations and potential are discussed. A discussion of the required input and of the general procedures for running the code is presented. Three sample problems illustrate the input and the use of the code.
FEM calculation of LSM propulsion force in EMS-MAGLEV trains
Andriollo, M.; Martinelli, G.; Morini, A.; Tortella, A.
1996-09-01
The paper describes a procedure to determine the propulsion force produced by the linear synchronous motors used in magnetically levitated vehicles of electromagnetic type. The formulation enables the authors to compute the instantaneous value of the force starting from the winding inductances calculated via FEM numerical analysis. The results are compared to the ones obtainable by means of two other procedures implemented in a commercial FEM code and show that, under the same accuracy, the proposed procedure requires less calculation time.
Surgical Procedures for Vestibular Dysfunction
... Rated Nonprofit! Volunteer. Donate. Review. Surgical Procedures for Vestibular Dysfunction When is surgery necessary? When medical treatment ... organ (cochlea) is also sacrificed with this procedure. Vestibular nerve section A vestibular nerve section is a ...
Supplementary neutron-flux calculations for the ORNL Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Facility
Maudlin, P.J.; Maerker, R.E.
1982-01-01
A three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculation using the MORSE code was performed to validate a procedure previously adopted in the ORNL discrete ordinate analysis of measurements made in the ORNL Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Facility. The results of these flux calculations agree, within statistical undertainties of about 5%, with those obtained from a discrete ordinate analysis employing the same procedure. This study therefore concludes that the procedure for combining several one- and two-dimensional discrete ordinate calculations into a three-dimensional flux is sufficiently accurate that it does not account for the existing discrepancies observed between calculations and measurements in this facility.
Calculating weighted estimates of peak streamflow statistics
Cohn, Timothy A.; Berenbrock, Charles; Kiang, Julie E.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.
2012-01-01
According to the Federal guidelines for flood-frequency estimation, the uncertainty of peak streamflow statistics, such as the 1-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flow at a streamgage, can be reduced by combining the at-site estimate with the regional regression estimate to obtain a weighted estimate of the flow statistic. The procedure assumes the estimates are independent, which is reasonable in most practical situations. The purpose of this publication is to describe and make available a method for calculating a weighted estimate from the uncertainty or variance of the two independent estimates.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahrens, Thomas J.
2001-01-01
We examined the von Mises and Mohr-Coulomb strength models with and without damage effects and developed a model for dilatancy. The models and results are given in O'Keefe et al. We found that by incorporating damage into the models that we could in a single integrated impact calculation, starting with the bolide in the atmosphere produce final crater profiles having the major features found in the field measurements. These features included a central uplift, an inner ring, circular terracing and faulting. This was accomplished with undamaged surface strengths of approximately 0.1 GPa and at depth strengths of approximately 1.0 GPa. We modeled the damage in geologic materials using a phenomenological approach, which coupled the Johnson-Cook damage model with the CTH code geologic strength model. The objective here was not to determine the distribution of fragment sizes, but rather to determine the effect of brecciated and comminuted material on the crater evolution, fault production, ejecta distribution, and final crater morphology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giantomassi, Matteo; Huhs, Georg; Waroquiers, David; Gonze, Xavier
2014-03-01
Many-Body Perturbation Theory (MBPT) defines a rigorous framework for the description of excited-state properties based on the Green's function formalism. Within MBPT, one can calculate charged excitations using e.g. Hedin's GW approximation for the electron self-energy. In the same framework, neutral excitations are also well described through the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE). In this talk, we report on the recent developments concerning the parallelization of the MBPT algorithms available in the ABINIT code (www.abinit.org). In particular, we discuss how to improve the parallel efficiency thanks to a hybrid version that employs MPI for the coarse-grained parallelization and OpenMP (a de facto standard for parallel programming on shared memory architectures) for the fine-grained parallelization of the most CPU-intensive parts. Benchmark results obtained with the new implementation are discussed. Finally, we present results for the GW corrections of amorphous SiO2 in the presence of defects and the BSE absorption spectrum. This work has been supported by the Prace project (PaRtnership for Advanced Computing in Europe, http://www.prace-ri.eu).
Calculations in Quantum Chromodynamics
Photiadis, D.M.
1985-01-01
The author analyzes two problems which extend the predictive ability of Quantum Chromodynamics. He studies composite operators in lattice gauge theory that reduce to operators of the form anti psi gamma DDDD ... psi in the continuum limit; such operators arise in perturbative analyses of quantum chromodynamics. Using these results and the data of a numerical simulation one could normalize exclusive processes and predict moments of deep inelastic scattering structure functions. To initiate the program the author constructs and renormalizes lattice operators to the one-loop level. He is encouraged that the hadronic matrix elements of the simpler operators are within reach of numerical simulations. The author also calculates a corrected photon spectrum in the endpoint region, z ..-->.. 1, for direct photon decay of the upsilon by summing the leading logarithms of (1-z) to all orders in perturbation theory. This effect causes the cross section to level out at approx. = = .8, removing the sharp peak in the tree level prediction, but does not cause the cross section to turn over.
Calculations in Quantum Chromodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Photiadis, Douglas Marc
I analyze two problems which extend the predictive ability of Quantum Chromodynamics. I study composite operators in lattice gauge theory that reduce to operators of the form (')(psi) (GAMMA) DDDD . . . (psi) in the continuum limit; such operators arise in perturbative analyses of quantum chromodynamics. Using our results and the data of a numerical simulation one could normalize exclusive processes and predict moments of deep inelastic scattering structure functions. To initiate the program we construct and renormalize lattice operators to the one-loop level. We are encouraged that the hadronic matrix elements of the simpler operators are within reach of numerical simulations. I also calculate a corrected photon spectrum in the endpoint region, z (--->) 1, for direct photon decay of the upsilon by summing the leading logarithms of (1 -z) to all orders in perturbation theory. This effect causes the cross section to level out at (DBLTURN)z = .8, removing the sharp peak in the tree level prediction, but does not cause the cross section to turn over.
Summary of Vulcan Calculations
Colvin, J.D.
2000-03-23
This is a summary of the results of my calculations compared to Elisabeth Wolfrum's data on the Vulcan imprint experiments. The material strength makes essentially no difference to the growth of perturbations seeded by the laser imprint. For the low-intensity case (30 J laser energy, beam intensity of 0.5 x 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}) the thin (2 microns) Al foil melts quickly from the front (driven) surface and decompresses quickly from the back surface, so there is actually only a fraction of the foil that is solid and compressed, and then for only a short time. And this solid fraction is not accelerating much during this short time. In particular, the shock (which is at about 250 kbar when it is about half way through the foil) travels entirely through the foil in about 0.25 ns. At 0.3 ns the ablation front is 0.6 {micro}m in from the original position of the front surface, the next 0.6 {micro}m is melted, so only the back 0.8 {micro}m is solid and compressed. This solid portion, though, is not moving much; the place where the imprinted perturbations are growing is back at the ablation front, where the perturbations are clearly growing fluid-like. By 0.5 ns the entire foil is melted and decompressing from both ends. Thus, the actual foil distortion looks little different with and without strength.
Relative Hazard Calculation Methodology
DL Strenge; MK White; RD Stenner; WB Andrews
1999-09-07
The methodology presented in this document was developed to provide a means of calculating the RH ratios to use in developing useful graphic illustrations. The RH equation, as presented in this methodology, is primarily a collection of key factors relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected risk management activities. The RH equation has the potential for much broader application than generating risk profiles. For example, it can be used to compare one risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to a fixed baseline as was done for the risk profiles. If the appropriate source term data are available, it could be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated hazards. These estimated values of hazard could then be examined to help understand which risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions at a site. Graphics could be generated from these absolute hazard values to compare high-hazard conditions. If the RH equation is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify the estimated absolute hazard values (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard estimation).
Multipath analysis diffraction calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Statham, Richard B.
1996-01-01
This report describes extensions of the Kirchhoff diffraction equation to higher edge terms and discusses their suitability to model diffraction multipath effects of a small satellite structure. When receiving signals, at a satellite, from the Global Positioning System (GPS), reflected signals from the satellite structure result in multipath errors in the determination of the satellite position. Multipath error can be caused by diffraction of the reflected signals and a method of calculating this diffraction is required when using a facet model of the satellite. Several aspects of the Kirchhoff equation are discussed and numerical examples, in the near and far fields, are shown. The vector form of the extended Kirchhoff equation, by adding the Larmor-Tedone and Kottler edge terms, is given as a mathematical model in an appendix. The Kirchhoff equation was investigated as being easily implemented and of good accuracy in the basic form, especially in phase determination. The basic Kirchhoff can be extended for higher accuracy if desired. A brief discussion of the method of moments and the geometric theory of diffraction is included, but seems to offer no clear advantage in implementation over the Kirchhoff for facet models.
Policy and Procedures Manual. Revised.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges, Jackson.
The Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior College Policy and Procedures Manual has been established by the State Board to govern its actions and activities and those of the staff. It describes polices and procedures regarding board operations, staff employment, staff workplace, employee performance/grievance procedure, staff positions,…
Further Improvements to Nozzle Boundary Layer Calculations in BLIMPJ
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Praharaj, S. C.; Gross, Klaus W.
1989-01-01
Further improvements made to advance the current Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure - Version J (BLIMPJ) containing previously modeled simplified calculation methods by accounting for condensed phase, thick boundary layer and free stream turbulence effects are discussed. The condensed phase effects were included through species composition effect considered via input to the code and through particle damping effect considered via a turbulence model. The thrust loss calculation procedure for thick boundary layer effects was improved and the optimization of net thrust with respect to nozzle length was performed. The effects of free stream turbulence were approximately modeled in the turbulence model.
Measurement effects on the calculation of in-flight thrust for an F404 turbofan engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Conners, Timothy R.
1989-01-01
A study was performed that investigates parameter measurement effects on calculated in-flight thrust for the General Electric F404-GE-400 afterburning turbofan engine which powered the X-29A forward-swept wing research aircraft. Net-thrust uncertainty and influence coefficients were calculated and are presented. Six flight conditions were analyzed at five engine power settings each. Results were obtained using the mass flow-temperature and area-pressure thrust calculation methods, both based on the commonly used gas generator technique. Thrust uncertainty was determined using a common procedure based on the use of measurement uncertainty and influence coefficients. The effects of data nonlinearity on the uncertainty calculation procedure were studied and results are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of using this particular uncertainty procedure are discussed. A brief description of the thrust-calculation technique along with the uncertainty calculation procedure is included.
77 FR 28805 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-05-16
... test procedures for microwave ovens. 76 FR 12825. The March 2011 Interim Final Rule incorporated by... measurements and calculations in the conventional cooking products test procedure. 76 FR 72331 (Nov. 23, 2011... covered product for the DOE microwave oven test procedure. 76 FR 72332, 72336 (Nov. 23, 2011)....
Multilevel domain decomposition for electronic structure calculations
Barrault, M. . E-mail: maxime.barrault@edf.fr; Cances, E. . E-mail: cances@cermics.enpc.fr; Hager, W.W. . E-mail: hager@math.ufl.edu; Le Bris, C. . E-mail: lebris@cermics.enpc.fr
2007-03-01
We introduce a new multilevel domain decomposition method (MDD) for electronic structure calculations within semi-empirical and density functional theory (DFT) frameworks. This method iterates between local fine solvers and global coarse solvers, in the spirit of domain decomposition methods. Using this approach, calculations have been successfully performed on several linear polymer chains containing up to 40,000 atoms and 200,000 atomic orbitals. Both the computational cost and the memory requirement scale linearly with the number of atoms. Additional speed-up can easily be obtained by parallelization. We show that this domain decomposition method outperforms the density matrix minimization (DMM) method for poor initial guesses. Our method provides an efficient preconditioner for DMM and other linear scaling methods, variational in nature, such as the orbital minimization (OM) procedure.
Finite machines, mental procedures, and modern physics.
Lupacchini, Rossella
2007-01-01
A Turing machine provides a mathematical definition of the natural process of calculating. It rests on trust that a procedure of reason can be reproduced mechanically. Turing's analysis of the concept of mechanical procedure in terms of a finite machine convinced Gödel of the validity of the Church thesis. And yet, Gödel's later concern was that, insofar as Turing's work shows that "mental procedure cannot go beyond mechanical procedures", it would imply the same kind of limitation on human mind. He therefore deems Turing's argument to be inconclusive. The question then arises as to which extent a computing machine operating by finite means could provide an adequate model of human intelligence. It is argued that a rigorous answer to this question can be given by developing Turing's considerations on the nature of mental processes. For Turing such processes are the consequence of physical processes and he seems to be led to the conclusion that quantum mechanics could help to find a more comprehensive explanation of them.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahrens, Thomas J.
1997-01-01
Understanding the physical processes of impact cratering on planetary surfaces and atmospheres as well as collisions of finite-size self-gravitating objects is vitally important to planetary science. The observation has often been made that craters are the most ubiquitous landform on the solid planets and the satellites. The density of craters is used to date surfaces on planets and satellites. For large ringed basin craters (e.g. Chicxulub), the issue of identification of exactly what 'diameter' transient crater is associated with this structure is exemplified by the arguments of Sharpton et al. (1993) versus those of Hildebrand et al. (1995). The size of a transient crater, such as the K/T extinction crater at Yucatan, Mexico, which is thought to be the source of SO,-induced sulfuric acid aerosol that globally acidified surface waters as the result of massive vaporization of CASO, in the target rock, is addressed by our present project. The impact process excavates samples of planetary interiors. The degree to which this occurs (e.g. how deeply does excavation occur for a given crater diameter) has been of interest, both with regard to exposing mantle rocks in crater floors, as well as launching samples into space which become part of the terrestrial meteorite collection (e.g. lunar meteorites, SNC's from Mars). Only in the case of the Earth can we test calculations in the laboratory and field. Previous calculations predict, independent of diameter, that the depth of excavation, normalized by crater diameter, is d(sub ex)/D = 0.085 (O'Keefe and Ahrens, 1993). For Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) fragments impacting Jupiter, predicted excavation depths of different gas-rich layers in the atmosphere, were much larger. The trajectory and fate of highly shocked material from a large impact on the Earth, such as the K/T bolide is of interest. Melosh et al. (1990) proposed that the condensed material from the impact upon reentering the Earth's atmosphere induced. radiative
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ahrens, Thomas J.
2002-01-01
Many Martian craters are surrounded by ejecta blankets which appear to have been fluidized forming lobate and layered deposits terminated by one or more continuous distal scarps, or ramparts. One of the first hypotheses for the formation of so-called rampart ejecta features was shock-melting of subsurface ice, entrainment of liquid water into the ejecta blanket, and subsequent fluidized flow. Our work quantifies this concept. Rampart ejecta found on all but the youngest volcanic and polar regions, and the different rampart ejecta morphologies are correlated with crater size and terrain. In addition, the minimum diameter of craters with rampart features decreases with increasing latitude indicating that ice laden crust resides closer to the surface as one goes poleward on Mars. Our second goal in was to determine what strength model(s) reproduce the faults and complex features found in large scale gravity driven craters. Collapse features found in large scale craters require that the rock strength weaken as a result of the shock processing of rock and the later cratering shear flows. In addition to the presence of molten silicate in the intensely shocked region, the presence of water, either ambient, or the result of shock melting of ice weakens rock. There are several other mechanisms for the reduction of strength in geologic materials including dynamic tensile and shear induced fracturing. Fracturing is a mechanism for large reductions in strength. We found that by incorporating damage into the models that we could in a single integrated impact calculation, starting in the atmosphere produce final crater profiles having the major features found in the field measurements (central uplifts, inner ring, terracing and faulting). This was accomplished with undamaged surface strengths (0.1 GPa) and in depth strengths (1.0 GPa).
Advanced crew procedures development techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.; Mangiaracina, A. A.; Mcgavern, J. L.; Spangler, M. C.; Tatum, I. C.
1975-01-01
The development of an operational computer program, the Procedures and Performance Program (PPP), is reported which provides a procedures recording and crew/vehicle performance monitoring capability. The PPP provides real time CRT displays and postrun hardcopy of procedures, difference procedures, performance, performance evaluation, and training script/training status data. During post-run, the program is designed to support evaluation through the reconstruction of displays to any point in time. A permanent record of the simulation exercise can be obtained via hardcopy output of the display data, and via magnetic tape transfer to the Generalized Documentation Processor (GDP). Reference procedures data may be transferred from the GDP to the PPP.
TCO optimization during design phase - assessment of bearing concepts by calculation and simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dudziak, Mark; Krome, Andreas
2015-08-01
Energy efficiency has been a key issue for screw machines for many years. This article describes a new analytical procedure for determining rolling bearing friction and the use of the procedure for designing compressor bearing supports. Further analytical options for a calculative assessment of the overall efficiency of bearing support alternatives are presented in the design phase based on parameter analyses performed by the BearinX® calculation software, which includes the new friction calculation by means of a mechanical, tribological model.
[Costing nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures].
Markou, Pavlos
2005-01-01
To the Editor: Referring to a recent special report about the cost analysis of twenty-nine nuclear medicine procedures, I would like to clarify some basic aspects for determining costs of nuclear medicine procedure with various costing methodologies. Activity Based Costing (ABC) method, is a new approach in imaging services costing that can provide the most accurate cost data, but is difficult to perform in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. That is because ABC requires determining and analyzing all direct and indirect costs of each procedure, according all its activities. Traditional costing methods, like those for estimating incomes and expenses per procedure or fixed and variable costs per procedure, which are widely used in break-even point analysis and the method of ratio-of-costs-to-charges per procedure may be easily performed in nuclear medicine departments, to evaluate the variability and differences between costs and reimbursement - charges. PMID:15886748
Novel procedures accurately measure drilling mud dynamic filtration
Chenevert, M.E.; Al-Abri, S. ); Jin, L. )
1994-04-25
New equipment and test procedures can determine dynamic mud cake properties such as equilibrium cake thickness, porosity, permeability, compressibility, and erosion resistance. The following were developed to study dynamic filtration: a dynamic filtration cell; a recommended filtration medium; a mud cake thickness device; mud cake porosity determination method; calculation methods for shear rate determination beneath a rotating cone; determination of equilibrium cake thickness, erosion resistance, and compressibility; and preferred filtration display techniques. The article describes the equipment, test procedures, and typical filtration results.
Calculation of water activation for the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vollaire, Joachim; Brugger, Markus; Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Roesler, Stefan; Vojtyla, Pavol
2006-06-01
The management of activated water in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is a key concern for radiation protection. For this reason, the induced radioactivity of the different water circuits is calculated using the Monte-Carlo (MC) code FLUKA. The results lead to the definition of procedures to be taken into account during the repair and maintenance of the machine, as well as to measures being necessary for a release of water into the environment. In order to assess the validity of the applied methods, a benchmark experiment was carried out at the CERN-EU High Energy Reference Field (CERF) facility, where a hadron beam (120 GeV) is impinging on a copper target. Four samples of water, as used at the LHC, and different in their chemical compositions, were irradiated near the copper target. In addition to the tritium activity measured with a liquid scintillation counter, the samples were also analyzed using gamma spectroscopy in order to determine the activity of the gamma emitting isotopes such as Be7 and Na24. While for the latter an excellent agreement between simulation and measurement was found, for the calculation of tritium a correction factor is derived to be applied for future LHC calculations in which the activity is calculated by direct scoring of produced nuclei. A simplified geometry representing the LHC Arc sections is then used to evaluate the different calculation methods with FLUKA. By comparing these methods and by taking into account the benchmark results, a strategy for the environmental calculations can be defined.
Self-consistent calculation of the Sommerfeld enhancement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blum, Kfir; Sato, Ryosuke; Slatyer, Tracy R.
2016-06-01
A calculation of the Sommerfeld enhancement is presented and applied to the problem of s-wave non-relativistic dark matter annihilation. The difference from previous computations in the literature is that the effect of the underlying short-range scattering process is consistently included together with the long-range force in the effective QM Schrödinger problem. Our procedure satisfies partial-wave unitarity where previous calculations fail. We provide analytic results for some potentials of phenomenological relevance.
Scoping calculations of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion
Difilippo, F.C.
1994-05-01
This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to making scoping calculations for mission analysis.
Scoping Calculations of Power Sources for Nuclear Electric Propulsion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Difilippo, F. C.
1994-01-01
This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to make scoping calculations for mission analysis.
Inflight IFR procedures simulator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, L. C. (Inventor)
1984-01-01
An inflight IFR procedures simulator for generating signals and commands to conventional instruments provided in an airplane is described. The simulator includes a signal synthesizer which generates predetermined simulated signals corresponding to signals normally received from remote sources upon being activated. A computer is connected to the signal synthesizer and causes the signal synthesizer to produce simulated signals responsive to programs fed into the computer. A switching network is connected to the signal synthesizer, the antenna of the aircraft, and navigational instruments and communication devices for selectively connecting instruments and devices to the synthesizer and disconnecting the antenna from the navigational instruments and communication device. Pressure transducers are connected to the altimeter and speed indicator for supplying electrical signals to the computer indicating the altitude and speed of the aircraft. A compass is connected for supply electrical signals for the computer indicating the heading of the airplane. The computer upon receiving signals from the pressure transducer and compass, computes the signals that are fed to the signal synthesizer which, in turn, generates simulated navigational signals.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Obrien, Maureen E.
1990-01-01
Telerobotic operations, whether under autonomous or teleoperated control, require a much more sophisticated safety system than that needed for most industrial applications. Industrial robots generally perform very repetitive tasks in a controlled, static environment. The safety system in that case can be as simple as shutting down the robot if a human enters the work area, or even simply building a cage around the work space. Telerobotic operations, however, will take place in a dynamic, sometimes unpredictable environment, and will involve complicated and perhaps unrehearsed manipulations. This creates a much greater potential for damage to the robot or objects in its vicinity. The Procedural Safety System (PSS) collects data from external sensors and the robot, then processes it through an expert system shell to determine whether an unsafe condition or potential unsafe condition exists. Unsafe conditions could include exceeding velocity, acceleration, torque, or joint limits, imminent collision, exceeding temperature limits, and robot or sensor component failure. If a threat to safety exists, the operator is warned. If the threat is serious enough, the robot is halted. The PSS, therefore, uses expert system technology to enhance safety thus reducing operator work load, allowing him/her to focus on performing the task at hand without the distraction of worrying about violating safety criteria.
EPA's National Stormwater Calculator (Poster)
This poster will demonstrate how EPA's National Stormwater Calculator works. The National Stormwater Calculator (SWC) estimates the amount of stormwater runoff generated from a site under different development and control scenarios over a long period of historical rainfall. The a...
Calculates Thermal Neutron Scattering Kernel.
1989-11-10
Version 00 THRUSH computes the thermal neutron scattering kernel by the phonon expansion method for both coherent and incoherent scattering processes. The calculation of the coherent part is suitable only for calculating the scattering kernel for heavy water.
MUSE optical alignment procedure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Loupias, Magali; Kosmalski, Johan; Anwand, Heiko; Bacon, Roland; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dubois, Jean-Pierre; Dupuy, Christophe; Kelz, Andreas; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Nicklas, Harald; Parès, Laurent; Remillieux, Alban; Seifert, Walter; Valentin, Hervé; Xu, Wenli
2012-09-01
MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation VLT integral field spectrograph (1x1arcmin² Field of View) developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO), operating in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently assembling and testing MUSE in the Integration Hall of the Observatoire de Lyon for the Preliminary Acceptance in Europe, scheduled for 2013. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic instrument mechanical structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2011, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested independently in each institute. After validations, the systems were shipped to the P.I. institute at Lyon and were assembled in the Integration Hall This paper describes the end-to-end optical alignment procedure of the MUSE instrument. The design strategy, mixing an optical alignment by manufacturing (plug and play approach) and few adjustments on key components, is presented. We depict the alignment method for identifying the optical axis using several references located in pupil and image planes. All tools required to perform the global alignment between each subsystem are described. The success of this alignment approach is demonstrated by the good results for the MUSE image quality. MUSE commissioning at the VLT (Very Large Telescope) is planned for 2013.
Ecotoxicological effects assessment: A comparison of several extrapolation procedures
Okkerman, P.C.; v.d. Plassche, E.J.; Slooff, W.; Van Leeuwen, C.J.; Canton, J.H. , Bilthoven )
1991-04-01
In the future, extrapolation procedures will become more and more important for the effect assessment of compounds in aquatic systems. For achieving a reliable method these extrapolation procedures have to be evaluated thoroughly. As a first step three extrapolation procedures are compared by means of two sets of data, consisting of (semi)chronic and acute toxicity test results for 11 aquatic species and 8 compounds. Because of its statistical basis the extrapolation procedure of Van Straalen and Denneman is preferred over the procedures of the EPA and Stephan et al. The results of the calculations showed that lower numbers of toxicity data increase the chance of underestimating the risk of a compound. Therefore it is proposed to extend the OECD guidelines for algae, Daphnia, and fish with chronic (aquatic) toxicity tests for more species of different taxonomic groups.
40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.210-08 Calculation of fuel...
40 CFR 600.210-08 - Calculation of fuel economy values for labeling.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calculation of fuel economy values for... (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND GREENHOUSE GAS EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related Exhaust Emission Values § 600.210-08 Calculation of fuel...
Documenting Laboratory Procedures with Video
Wyttenbach, Robert A.
2015-01-01
Demonstrating laboratory procedures in person during class time can be time-consuming. When procedures are done under a microscope, live demonstration is also impractical because of the limited number of students who can view the demonstration at once. Creating videos beforehand, which students can watch before class and review during lab sessions, solves both of these problems. This article suggests ways to make and distribute high quality video of microscopic procedures. PMID:26240520
Practical pearls for oral procedures.
Davari, Parastoo; Fazel, Nasim
2016-01-01
We provide an overview of clinically relevant principles of oral surgical procedures required in the workup and management of oral mucosal diseases. An understanding of the fundamental concepts of how to perform safely and effectively minor oral procedures is important to the practicing dermatologist and can minimize the need for patient referrals. This chapter reviews the principles of minor oral procedures, including incisional, excisional, and punch biopsies, as well as minor salivary gland excision. Pre- and postoperative patient care is also discussed.
Airplane stability calculations with a card programmable pocket calculator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sherman, W. L.
1978-01-01
Programs are presented for calculating airplane stability characteristics with a card programmable pocket calculator. These calculations include eigenvalues of the characteristic equations of lateral and longitudinal motion as well as stability parameters such as the time to damp to one-half amplitude or the damping ratio. The effects of wind shear are included. Background information and the equations programmed are given. The programs are written for the International System of Units, the dimensional form of the stability derivatives, and stability axes. In addition to programs for stability calculations, an unusual and short program is included for the Euler transformation of coordinates used in airplane motions. The programs have been written for a Hewlett Packard HP-67 calculator. However, the use of this calculator does not constitute an endorsement of the product by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
40 CFR 1065.675 - CLD quench verification calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
.... 1065.675 Section 1065.675 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.675 CLD quench... water content in combustion air, fuel combustion products, and dilution air (if applicable). If...
40 CFR 1065.675 - CLD quench verification calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
.... 1065.675 Section 1065.675 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.675 CLD quench... water content in combustion air, fuel combustion products, and dilution air (if applicable). If...
40 CFR 1065.675 - CLD quench verification calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
.... 1065.675 Section 1065.675 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.675 CLD quench... water content in combustion air, fuel combustion products, and dilution air (if applicable). If...
40 CFR 1065.675 - CLD quench verification calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
.... 1065.675 Section 1065.675 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.675 CLD quench... water content in combustion air, fuel combustion products, and dilution air (if applicable). If...
40 CFR 1065.675 - CLD quench verification calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
.... 1065.675 Section 1065.675 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.675 CLD quench... water content in combustion air, fuel combustion products, and dilution air (if applicable). If...
Calculator program aids sucker-rod systems design and optimization
Engineer, R.; Davis, C.; Knight, R.
1983-08-01
Given a few basic well parameters, the engineer may follow the step-by-step procedure for programming the design of sucker rod pumping systems for oil wells deeper than 2,000 ft using the HP-41 CV hand calculator.
40 CFR 98.193 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from all lime kilns combined using the procedure in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. (a) If all lime kilns meet the conditions specified in... required to be used to determine CO2 emissions from all lime kilns under paragraph (a) of this...
40 CFR 98.193 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from all lime kilns combined using the procedure in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. (a) If all lime kilns meet the conditions specified in... required to be used to determine CO2 emissions from all lime kilns under paragraph (a) of this...
40 CFR 98.193 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from all lime kilns combined using the procedure in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. (a) If all lime kilns meet the conditions specified in... required to be used to determine CO2 emissions from all lime kilns under paragraph (a) of this...
40 CFR 98.83 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each kiln using the procedure in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. (a) For each cement kiln that meets the conditions specified in § 98.33(b)(4... this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources). (b) For each kiln that is not subject to...
40 CFR 98.193 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from all lime kilns combined using the procedure in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. (a) If all lime kilns meet the conditions specified in... required to be used to determine CO2 emissions from all lime kilns under paragraph (a) of this...
40 CFR 98.83 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each kiln using the procedure in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. (a) For each cement kiln that meets the conditions specified in § 98.33(b)(4... this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources). (b) For each kiln that is not subject to...
40 CFR 98.83 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each kiln using the procedure in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. (a) For each cement kiln that meets the conditions specified in § 98.33(b)(4... this part (General Stationary Fuel Combustion Sources). (b) For each kiln that is not subject to...
40 CFR 98.193 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from all lime kilns combined using the procedure in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. (a) If all lime kilns meet the conditions specified in... combustion CO2 emissions from all lime kilns by operating and maintaining a CEMS to measure CO2...
Advanced Geometric Optics on a Programmable Pocket Calculator.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nussbaum, Allen
1979-01-01
Presents a ray-tracing procedure based on some ideas of Herzberger and the matrix approach to geometrical optics. This method, which can be implemented on a programmable pocket calculator, applies to any conic surface, including paraboloids, spheres, and planes. (Author/GA)
40 CFR 1066.625 - Flow meter calibration calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... flow meter according to 40 CFR 1065.640 instead if you calculate emissions based on molar flow rates... described in 40 CFR 1065.602. (4) Repeat the procedure in paragraphs (a)(1) through (3) of this section for... H2O in the dilution air or calibration air, determined as described in 40 CFR 1065.645. M H2O =...
40 CFR 1042.705 - Generating and calculating emission credits.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... use of special test procedures for an engine family under 40 CFR 1065.10(c)(2), consistent with good... under 40 CFR part 1068. (2) Exported engines. (3) Engines not subject to the requirements of this part... that has an FEL below the standard. Calculate negative emission credits for a family that has an...
40 CFR 1042.705 - Generating and calculating emission credits.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... use of special test procedures for an engine family under 40 CFR 1065.10(c)(2), consistent with good... under 40 CFR part 1068. (2) Exported engines. (3) Engines not subject to the requirements of this part... that has an FEL below the standard. Calculate negative emission credits for a family that has an...
40 CFR 98.113 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each EAF not subject to paragraph (c... and report under this subpart the process CO2 emissions by operating and maintaining CEMS according to... subpart the annual process CO2 emissions using the procedure in either paragraph (b)(1) or (b)(2) of...
40 CFR 98.213 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... emissions. You must determine CO2 process emissions from carbonate use in accordance with the procedures specified in either paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section. (a) Calculate the process emissions of CO2 using calcination fractions with Equation U-1 of this section. ER30OC09.077 Where: ECO2 = Annual CO2 mass...
40 CFR 98.213 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... emissions. You must determine CO2 process emissions from carbonate use in accordance with the procedures specified in either paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section. (a) Calculate the process emissions of CO2 using calcination fractions with Equation U-1 of this section. ER30OC09.077 Where: ECO2 = Annual CO2 mass...
40 CFR 98.213 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... emissions. You must determine CO2 process emissions from carbonate use in accordance with the procedures specified in either paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section. (a) Calculate the process emissions of CO2 using calcination fractions with Equation U-1 of this section. ER30OC09.077 Where: ECO2 = Annual CO2 mass...
Self-Consistent Field Calculations on Atoms Using Excel
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoffman, Gary G.
2005-01-01
An Excel file that performs self-consistent field (SCF) calculations for the two-electron atoms is described. It is readily constructed and is relatively simple to use, providing a visual demonstration of how the self-consistent field (SCF) procedure is applied and what issues are involved.
40 CFR 98.323 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Underground Coal Mines § 98.323 Calculating GHG emissions. (a... moisture content of the gas using the procedures outlined in § 98.324. ER12JY10.004 Where: CH4V = Quarterly..., volumetric basis (cubic feet water per cubic feet emitted gas). C = Daily CH4 concentration of...
40 CFR 98.323 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Underground Coal Mines § 98.323 Calculating GHG emissions. (a... moisture content of the gas using the procedures outlined in § 98.324. ER12JY10.004 Where: CH4V = Quarterly..., volumetric basis (cubic feet water per cubic feet emitted gas). C = CH4 concentration of ventilation gas...
40 CFR 98.323 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Underground Coal Mines § 98.323 Calculating GHG emissions. (a... moisture content of the gas using the procedures outlined in § 98.324. ER12JY10.004 Where: CH4V = Quarterly... basis (cubic feet water per cubic feet emitted gas). C = CH4 concentration of ventilation gas for...
40 CFR 98.323 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Underground Coal Mines § 98.323 Calculating GHG emissions. (a... moisture content of the gas using the procedures outlined in § 98.324. ER12JY10.004 Where: CH4V = Quarterly... basis (cubic feet water per cubic feet emitted gas). C = CH4 concentration of ventilation gas for...
A FORTRAN Computer Program for Q Sort Calculations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dunlap, William R.
1978-01-01
The Q Sort method is a rank order procedure. A FORTRAN program is described which calculates a total value for any group of cases for the items in the Q Sort, and rank orders the items according to this composite value. (Author/JKS)
40 CFR 98.213 - Calculating GHG emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... emissions. You must determine CO2 process emissions from carbonate use in accordance with the procedures specified in either paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section. (a) Calculate the process emissions of CO2 using calcination fractions with Equation U-1 of this section. ER30OC09.077 Where: ECO2 = Annual CO2 mass...
Electronic Procedures for Medical Operations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2015-01-01
Electronic procedures are replacing text-based documents for recording the steps in performing medical operations aboard the International Space Station. S&K Aerospace, LLC, has developed a content-based electronic system-based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML) standard-that separates text from formatting standards and tags items contained in procedures so they can be recognized by other electronic systems. For example, to change a standard format, electronic procedures are changed in a single batch process, and the entire body of procedures will have the new format. Procedures can be quickly searched to determine which are affected by software and hardware changes. Similarly, procedures are easily shared with other electronic systems. The system also enables real-time data capture and automatic bookmarking of current procedure steps. In Phase II of the project, S&K Aerospace developed a Procedure Representation Language (PRL) and tools to support the creation and maintenance of electronic procedures for medical operations. The goal is to develop these tools in such a way that new advances can be inserted easily, leading to an eventual medical decision support system.
A basic insight to FEM_based temperature distribution calculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Purwaningsih, A.; Khairina
2012-06-01
A manual for finite element method (FEM)-based temperature distribution calculation has been performed. The code manual is written in visual basic that is operated in windows. The calculation of temperature distribution based on FEM has three steps namely preprocessor, processor and post processor. Therefore, three manuals are produced namely a preprocessor to prepare the data, a processor to solve the problem, and a post processor to display the result. In these manuals, every step of a general procedure is described in detail. It is expected, by these manuals, the understanding of calculating temperature distribution be better and easier.
40 CFR 86.1823-01 - Durability demonstration procedures for exhaust emissions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
.... Either a deterioration factor (DF) is calculated and applied to the emission data vehicle (EDV) emission... be included in the calculations. (5) A procedure may be employed to identify and remove from the DF... life periods as applicable. Separate DF's are calculated for each durability group except as...
Equilibrium calculations of firework mixtures
Hobbs, M.L.; Tanaka, Katsumi; Iida, Mitsuaki; Matsunaga, Takehiro
1994-12-31
Thermochemical equilibrium calculations have been used to calculate detonation conditions for typical firework components including three report charges, two display charges, and black powder which is used as a fuse or launch charge. Calculations were performed with a modified version of the TIGER code which allows calculations with 900 gaseous and 600 condensed product species at high pressure. The detonation calculations presented in this paper are thought to be the first report on the theoretical study of firework detonation. Measured velocities for two report charges are available and compare favorably to predicted detonation velocities. However, the measured velocities may not be true detonation velocities. Fast deflagration rather than an ideal detonation occurs when reactants contain significant amounts of slow reacting constituents such as aluminum or titanium. Despite such uncertainties in reacting pyrotechnics, the detonation calculations do show the complex nature of condensed phase formation at elevated pressures and give an upper bound for measured velocities.
Global nuclear-structure calculations
Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.
1990-04-20
The revival of interest in nuclear ground-state octupole deformations that occurred in the 1980's was stimulated by observations in 1980 of particularly large deviations between calculated and experimental masses in the Ra region, in a global calculation of nuclear ground-state masses. By minimizing the total potential energy with respect to octupole shape degrees of freedom in addition to {epsilon}{sub 2} and {epsilon}{sub 4} used originally, a vastly improved agreement between calculated and experimental masses was obtained. To study the global behavior and interrelationships between other nuclear properties, we calculate nuclear ground-state masses, spins, pairing gaps and {Beta}-decay and half-lives and compare the results to experimental qualities. The calculations are based on the macroscopic-microscopic approach, with the microscopic contributions calculated in a folded-Yukawa single-particle potential.
Advances in the EDM-DEDM procedure.
Caliandro, Rocco; Carrozzini, Benedetta; Cascarano, Giovanni Luca; Giacovazzo, Carmelo; Mazzone, Anna Maria; Siliqi, Dritan
2009-03-01
The DEDM (difference electron-density modification) algorithm has been described in a recent paper [Caliandro et al. (2008), Acta Cryst. A64, 519-528]: it breaks down the collinearity between model structure phases and difference structure phase estimates. The new difference electron-density produced by DEDM, summed to the calculated Fourier maps, is expected to provide a representation of the full structure that is more accurate than that obtained by the observed Fourier synthesis. In the same paper, the DEDM algorithm was combined with the EDM (electron-density modification) approach to give the EDM-DEDM procedure which, when applied to practical molecular-replacement cases, was able to improve the model structures. In this paper, it is shown that EDM-DEDM suffers from some critical points that did not allow cyclical application of the procedure. These points are identified and modifications are made to allow iteration of the procedure. The applications indicate that EDM-DEDM may become a fundamental tool in protein crystallography.
Laboratory Procedures for Medical Assistants.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Pauline
The purpose of the manual is to provide the medical assisting student a text which presents the common laboratory procedures in use today in physician's offices. The procedures for performing a complete urinalysis are outlined, along with those for carrying out various hematological tests. Information is also presented to help the student learn to…
Characteristics of Multiple Comparison Procedures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yusuf, Mian Muhammad; And Others
Multiple comparison procedures (MCPs), in the context of analysis of variance, are becoming more popular than the overall F tests. An attempt is made to clarify confusion among the different MCPs by systematically comparing and contrasting the procedures in terms of their purposes, restrictions, robustness to assumptions, and other special…
Accounting Procedures for Student Organizations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.
This two-part handbook presents information on accounting procedures for student organizations, with a focus on the laws, policies, and procedures that affect student body organizations. Part 1 contains information about: (1) legal status of a school's student body organization; (2) principles governing student body finance; (3) administration of…
Developing Competency in Payroll Procedures
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jackson, Allen L.
1975-01-01
The author describes a sequence of units that provides for competency in payroll procedures. The units could be the basis for a four to six week minicourse and are adaptable, so that the student, upon completion, will be able to apply his learning to any payroll procedures system. (Author/AJ)
Handheld calculator program simplifies calculation of data for gas mixtures
Karger, W.
1982-01-11
For natural gases having several components, Elliott Co.'s handheld calculator program can characterize the gas mixture with a printout that provides its molecular weight, molar specific heat at constant pressure, pseudocritical pressure and temperature, ratio of specific heats, and adiabatic compression exponent. The program also provides for further calculations that yield specific gravity, specific heat/lb, and compressibility.
Benchmark problems and results for verifying resonance calculation methodologies
Wu, H.; Yang, W.; Qin, Y.; He, L.; Cao, L.; Zheng, Y.; Liu, Q.
2012-07-01
Resonance calculation is one of the most important procedures for the multi-group neutron transport calculation. With the development of nuclear reactor concepts, many new types of fuel assembly are raised. Compared to the traditional designs, most of the new fuel assemblies have different fuel types either with complex isotopes or with complicated geometry. This makes the traditional resonance calculation method invalid. Recently, many advanced resonance calculation methods are proposed. However, there are few benchmark problems for evaluating those methods with a comprehensive comparison. In this paper, we design 5 groups of benchmark problems including 21 typical cases of different geometries and fuel contents. The reference results of the benchmark problems are generated based on the sub-group method, ultra-fine group method, function expanding method and Monte Carlo method. It is shown that those benchmark problems and their results could be helpful to evaluate the validity of the newly developed resonance calculation method in the future work. (authors)
Engineering calculations of three-dimensional inviscid hypersonic flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Riley, Christopher J.; Dejarnette, Fred R.
1991-01-01
An approximate solution technique has been developed for three-dimensional, inviscid, hypersonic flows. The method uses Maslen's explicit pressure equation and the assumption of approximate stream surfaces in the shock layer. This approximation represents a simplification of Maslen's asymmetric method. The solution procedure involves iteratively changing the shock shape in the subsonic-transonic region until the correct body shape is obtained. Beyond this region, the shock surface is determined by using a marching procedure. Results are presented herein for a paraboloid and elliptic cone at angle of attack. Calculated surface pressure distributions, shock shapes, and property profiles are compared with experimental data and finite-difference solutions of the Euler equations. Comparisons of the results of the present method with experimental data and detailed predictions are very good. Since the present method provides a very rapid computational procedure, it can be used for parametric or preliminary design applications. One useful application would be to incorporate a heating procedure for aerothermal studies.
From Informal Strategies to Structured Procedures: Mind the Gap!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anghileri, Julia; Beishuizen, Meindert
This paper explores written calculation methods for solving division problems used by students in England and the Netherlands at two points in the same school year. It analyzes informal strategies and identifies progression toward more structured procedures that result from different teaching approaches. Comparison of the methods used by fifth…
From Informal Strategies to Structured Procedures: Mind the Gap!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anghileri, Julia; Beishuizen, Meindert; Van Putten, Kees
2002-01-01
Explores written calculation methods for division used by pupils in England (n=276) and the Netherlands (n=259). Analyses informal strategies and identifies progression towards more structured procedures that result from different teaching approaches. Comparison of methods used shows greater success in the Dutch approach which is based on…
40 CFR 86.1332-90 - Engine mapping procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... measured rated speed in all calculations. (x) For warm engines, the entire warm-up procedure specified in... generation. (1) Otto-cycle engines. (i) Fit all data points recorded under paragraphs (d)(2) (vi) and (vii... maximum torque values of zero for purposes of cycle generation. (iv) For all engines, all speed...
40 CFR 86.1332-90 - Engine mapping procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... measured rated speed in all calculations. (x) For warm engines, the entire warm-up procedure specified in... generation. (1) Otto-cycle engines. (i) Fit all data points recorded under paragraphs (d)(2) (vi) and (vii... maximum torque values of zero for purposes of cycle generation. (iv) For all engines, all speed...
12 CFR 225.24 - Procedures for other nonbanking proposals.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... of Procedure (12 CFR 262.3). (1) Engaging de novo in listed activities. A bank holding company... market with relevant market indexes; (ii) The identity of any entity involved in the proposal, and, if... proposed transaction; (B) Consolidated pro forma risk-based capital and leverage ratio calculations for...
Element-by-element Solution Procedures for Nonlinear Structural Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hughes, T. J. R.; Winget, J. M.; Levit, I.
1984-01-01
Element-by-element approximate factorization procedures are proposed for solving the large finite element equation systems which arise in nonlinear structural mechanics. Architectural and data base advantages of the present algorithms over traditional direct elimination schemes are noted. Results of calculations suggest considerable potential for the methods described.
40 CFR 98.115 - Procedures for estimating missing data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Procedures for estimating missing data. 98.115 Section 98.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... accounting purposes, such as purchase records. (c) If you are required to calculate CH4 emissions for an...
40 CFR 98.115 - Procedures for estimating missing data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Procedures for estimating missing data. 98.115 Section 98.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... accounting purposes, such as purchase records. (c) If you are required to calculate CH4 emissions for an...
The Testing Effect for Learning Principles and Procedures from Texts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dirkx, Kim J. H.; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.
2014-01-01
The authors explored whether a testing effect occurs not only for retention of facts but also for application of principles and procedures. For that purpose, 38 high school students either repeatedly studied a text on probability calculations or studied the text, took a test on the content, restudied the text, and finally took the test a second…
40 CFR 98.85 - Procedures for estimating missing data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.85 Procedures for estimating... apply. (b) For CO2 process emissions from cement manufacturing facilities calculated according to § 98...) or the annual organic carbon content of raw materials are missing, facilities must undertake a...
40 CFR 98.115 - Procedures for estimating missing data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for estimating missing data... estimating missing data. A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions calculations... used for all such estimates. (a) If you determine CO2 emissions for the EAFs at your facility using...
40 CFR 98.255 - Procedures for estimating missing data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for estimating missing data... estimating missing data. A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions calculations... moisture, the substitute data values shall be the best available estimate(s) of the parameter(s), based...
40 CFR 98.55 - Procedures for estimating missing data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for estimating missing data... estimating missing data. A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions calculations... substitute data shall be the best available estimate based on all available process data or data used...
40 CFR 98.175 - Procedures for estimating missing data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for estimating missing data... estimating missing data. A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions calculations... used for all such estimates. (a) For each missing data for the carbon content of inputs and outputs...
40 CFR 98.265 - Procedures for estimating missing data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for estimating missing data... estimating missing data. A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions calculations... for all such estimates. (a) For each missing value of the inorganic carbon content of phosphate...
40 CFR 98.225 - Procedures for estimating missing data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for estimating missing data... estimating missing data. A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions calculations... data shall be the best available estimate based on all available process data or data used...
40 CFR 98.35 - Procedures for estimating missing data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... Procedures for estimating missing data. Whenever a quality-assured value of a required parameter is unavailable (e.g., if a CEMS malfunctions during unit operation or if a required fuel sample is not taken), a substitute data value for the missing parameter shall be used in the calculations. (a) For all units...
40 CFR 98.35 - Procedures for estimating missing data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... Procedures for estimating missing data. Whenever a quality-assured value of a required parameter is unavailable (e.g., if a CEMS malfunctions during unit operation or if a required fuel sample is not taken), a substitute data value for the missing parameter shall be used in the calculations. (a) For all units...
Lin, Y C
1979-03-01
Reconstruction of the primary indicator-dilution curve is accomplished by exponential curve-fit from a set of points obtained on the downslope of the curve. Curve-fit is simplified by requiring entry of indicator concentrations (Yi) only, where time increments (Xi) are made self-generating in the program. Similarly, calculation of mean transit time requires only the entries of Yi. Stored values supply the needed quantities for calculations of cardiac output and the central blood volume as defined by the injection and the sampling sites. The Texas Instrument TR 52 model hand-held programmable calculator is utilized in this program but it should be adaptable to other programmable calculators. The present program provides a procedure for rapid reconstruction of the primary indicator-dilution curve, and hence calculations of cardiac output, mean transit time and central blood volume. PMID:367703
Calculator. Owning a Small Business.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parma City School District, OH.
Seven activities are presented in this student workbook designed for an exploration of small business ownership and the use of the calculator in this career. Included are simulated situations in which students must use a calculator to compute property taxes; estimate payroll taxes and franchise taxes; compute pricing, approximate salaries,…
Design Calculations for Thermoelectric Generators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeldin, B.
1983-01-01
Nine simplified analytic models based on average properties accurately predict heat rates for silicon/germanium thermoelectric generators. Solutions from simplified models were compared with those obtained using sophisticated numerical analysis. Maximum errors in calculated heat rate range from about 4 percent to about 0.2 percent. Models also used to calculate power delivered to load and thermodynamic efficiency.
Deconstructing Calculation Methods: Part 1
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thompson, Ian
2007-01-01
The aim of this series of four articles is to look critically, and in some detail, at the primary strategy approach to written calculation, as set out on pages 5 to 16 of the "Guidance paper" "Calculation." The underlying principle of that approach is that children should use mental methods whenever they are appropriate, whereas for calculations…
relline: Relativistic line profiles calculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dauser, Thomas
2015-05-01
relline calculates relativistic line profiles; it is compatible with the common X-ray data analysis software XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) and ISIS (ascl:1302.002). The two basic forms are an additive line model (RELLINE) and a convolution model to calculate relativistic smearing (RELCONV).
CELSS scenario analysis: Breakeven calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mason, R. M.
1980-01-01
A model of the relative mass requirements of food production components in a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) based on regenerative concepts is described. Included are a discussion of model scope, structure, and example calculations. Computer programs for cultivar and breakeven calculations are also included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plebankiewicz, Edyta
2016-06-01
One of the most significant parameters of cost calculations of a construction project are the costs. Their calculation on each stage of the investment process is characterized by high uncertainty. This is one of the reasons for using fuzzy logic to such calculations. The paper presents a short description of applications of fuzzy logic to compute costs on various stages of the investment process. They encompass both the initial planning stage and the calculations during the tender procedure.
Scattering calculations and confining interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buck, Warren W.; Maung, Khin M.
1993-01-01
Most of the research work performed under this grant were concerned with strong interaction processes ranging from kaon-nucleon interaction to proton-nucleus scattering calculations. Research performed under this grant can be categorized into three groups: (1) parametrization of fundamental interactions, (2) development of formal theory, and (3) calculations based upon the first two. Parametrizations of certain fundamental interactions, such as kaon-nucleon interaction, for example, were necessary because kaon-nucleon scattering amplitude was needed to perform kaon-nucleus scattering calculations. It was possible to calculate kaon-nucleon amplitudes from the first principle, but it was unnecessary for the purpose of the project. Similar work was also done for example for anti-protons and anti-nuclei. Formal developments to some extent were also pursued so that consistent calculations can be done.
Current procedural terminology coding of nuclear medicine procedures.
McKusick, K A; Quaife, M A
1993-01-01
The future of nuclear medicine is dependent on payment for new procedures. Today, the basis of payment by the federal government is a relative value unit (RVU) system; the RVUS employed in this system are for medical services and procedures listed and described in Physicians' Current Procedural Terminology, fourth edition. Current procedural terminology (CPT) is maintained by the AMA; annual revisions include adding new codes or revised or deleted old codes. This process involves all national medical specialty societies. Starting in 1992 a new process, the Relative Updating Committee, which was initiated by the AMA, organized medicine to formalize a method for recommending relative values for physician procedures and services. In this rapidly changing scenario, all nuclear medicine procedure codes are under review by the coding and nomenclature committees of the medical societies interested in imaging. Significant CPT changes and additions were made in the cardiovascular nuclear medicine codes in 1992, reflecting the current imaging protocols and pharmacological agents for performing cardiac stress testing and new codes that recognize combinations of ventricular function measurements in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium-99m agents.
Effective Interactions for Nuclear Structure Calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Signoracci, Angelo
Experimental interest in nuclei far from stability, especially due to proposed advancements in rare isotope facilities, has stimulated improvements in theoretical predictions of exotic isotopes. However, standard techniques developed for nuclear structure calculations, Configuration Interaction theory and Energy Density Functional methods, lack either the generality or the accuracy necessary for reliable calculations away from stability. Hybrid methods, which combine Configuration Interaction theory and Energy Density Functional methods in order to exploit their beneficial properties, are currently under investigation for improved theoretical capabilities. A new technique to produce nuclear Hamiltonians has been developed, implementing renormalization group methods, many-body perturbative techniques, and Energy Density Functional methods. Connection to the underlying physics is a primary focus, limiting the number of free parameters necessary in the procedure. The main benefit of this approach is the improvement in the quality of effective interactions outside of standard model spaces. In the Hybrid Renormalization Procedure developed in this dissertation, Skyrme energy density functionals provide a realistic single particle basis that accounts for the long tail of loosely bound orbits, especially significant for valence orbits of exotic isotopes. A microscopic nucleon-nucleon potential is softened with renormalization group techniques to eliminate the hard core of the nuclear interaction. Many-body perturbative techniques, in the form of Rayleigh-Schrodinger theory, implement the realistic basis to convert the low-momentum interaction into a model space of interest. The basis is an important ingredient in the renormalization and greatly affects the results obtained with the Hybrid Renormalization Procedure, specifically through the single particle energies derived from Skyrme functionals. A comparison of the standard harmonic oscillator basis and the realistic
Apexum: A Minimum Invasive Procedure
2011-01-01
The new Apexum procedure (Apexum Ltd, Or-Yehuda, Israel) is based on a minimally invasive removal of periapical chronically inflamed tissues through a root canal access. Apexum procedure (a novel method that allows for the removal or debulking of periapical tissues without using scalpels, periosteal elevators, or sutures) results in significant less postoperative discomfort or pain than conventional root canal treatment or than reported for conventional apical surgery. The removal or debulking of the periapical inflamed tissues, using the Apexum procedure, seems to enhance healing kinetics with no adverse events.
Practical pearls for oral procedures.
Davari, Parastoo; Fazel, Nasim
2016-01-01
We provide an overview of clinically relevant principles of oral surgical procedures required in the workup and management of oral mucosal diseases. An understanding of the fundamental concepts of how to perform safely and effectively minor oral procedures is important to the practicing dermatologist and can minimize the need for patient referrals. This chapter reviews the principles of minor oral procedures, including incisional, excisional, and punch biopsies, as well as minor salivary gland excision. Pre- and postoperative patient care is also discussed. PMID:27343958
Station blackout calculations for Peach Bottom
Hodge, S.A.
1985-01-01
A calculational procedure for the Station Blackout Severe Accident Sequence at Browns Ferry Unit One has been repeated with plant-specific application to one of the Peach Bottom Units. The only changes required in code input are with regard to the primary continment concrete, the existence of sprays in the secondary containment, and the size of the refueling bay. Combustible gas mole fractions in the secondary containment of each plant during the accident sequence are determined. It is demonstrated why the current state-of-the-art corium/concrete interaction code is inadequate for application to the study of Severe Accident Sequences in plants with the BWR MK I or MK II containment design.
40 CFR 1065.642 - SSV, CFV, and PDP molar flow rate calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.642 SSV... ranges of dilution air dewpoint versus calibration air dewpoint in Table 3 of § 1065.640, you may set...
Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual
Hanf, RW; Dirkes, RL
1990-02-01
This manual establishes the procedures for the collection of environmental samples and the performance of radiation surveys and other field measurements. Responsibilities are defined for those personnel directly involved in the collection of samples and the performance of field measurements.
Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP)
... that acts like a scalpel (surgical knife). An electric current is passed through the loop, which cuts away ... A procedure in which an instrument works with electric current to destroy tissue. Local Anesthesia: The use of ...
Interventional procedures in the chest.
Vollmer Torrubiano, I; Sánchez González, M
2016-05-01
Many thoracic conditions will require an interventional procedure for diagnosis and/or treatment. For this reason, radiologists need to know the indications and the technique for each procedure. In this article, we review the various interventional procedures that radiologists should know and the indications for each procedure. We place special emphasis on the potential differences in the diagnostic results and complications between fine-needle aspiration and biopsy. We also discuss the indications for radiofrequency ablation of lung tumors and review the concepts related to the drainage of pulmonary abscesses. We devote special attention to the management of pleural effusion, covering the indications for thoracocentesis and when to use imaging guidance, and to the protocol for pleural drainage. We also discuss the indications for percutaneous treatment of pericardial effusion and the possible complications of this treatment. Finally, we discuss the interventional management of mediastinal lesions and provide practical advice about how to approach these lesions to avoid serious complications.
Adolescent test or procedure preparation
... someone else) during the procedure Playing hand-held video games Using guided imagery Trying other distractions, such as ... Ask that anesthesia be used, if appropriate, to reduce any discomfort. Assure your adolescent that his or her reactions are normal.
Quarantine document system indexing procedure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1972-01-01
The Quarantine Document System (QDS) is described including the indexing procedures and thesaurus of indexing terms. The QDS consists of these functional elements: acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, and retrieval. A complete listing of the collection, and the thesaurus are included.
IN-DRIFT MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES MODEL VALIDATION CALCULATIONS
D.M. Jolley
2001-12-18
The objective and scope of this calculation is to create the appropriate parameter input for MING 1.0 (CSCI 30018 V1.0, CRWMS M&O 1998b) that will allow the testing of the results from the MING software code with both scientific measurements of microbial populations at the site and laboratory and with natural analogs to the site. This set of calculations provides results that will be used in model validation for the ''In-Drift Microbial Communities'' model (CRWMS M&O 2000) which is part of the Engineered Barrier System Department (EBS) process modeling effort that eventually will feed future Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models. This calculation is being produced to replace MING model validation output that is effected by the supersession of DTN M09909SPAMINGl.003 using its replacement DTN M00106SPAIDMO 1.034 so that the calculations currently found in the ''In-Drift Microbial Communities'' AMR (CRWMS M&O 2000) will be brought up to date. This set of calculations replaces the calculations contained in sections 6.7.2, 6.7.3 and Attachment I of CRWMS M&O (2000) As all of these calculations are created explicitly for model validation, the data qualification status of all inputs can be considered corroborative in accordance with AP-3.15Q. This work activity has been evaluated in accordance with the AP-2.21 procedure, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities'', and is subject to QA controls (BSC 2001). The calculation is developed in accordance with the AP-3.12 procedure, Calculations, and prepared in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan For EBS Department Modeling FY 01 Work Activities'' (BSC 200 1) which includes controls for the management of electronic data.
In-Drift Microbial Communities Model Validation Calculations
D. M. Jolley
2001-09-24
The objective and scope of this calculation is to create the appropriate parameter input for MING 1.0 (CSCI 30018 V1.0, CRWMS M&O 1998b) that will allow the testing of the results from the MING software code with both scientific measurements of microbial populations at the site and laboratory and with natural analogs to the site. This set of calculations provides results that will be used in model validation for the ''In-Drift Microbial Communities'' model (CRWMS M&O 2000) which is part of the Engineered Barrier System Department (EBS) process modeling effort that eventually will feed future Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models. This calculation is being produced to replace MING model validation output that is effected by the supersession of DTN MO9909SPAMING1.003 using its replacement DTN MO0106SPAIDM01.034 so that the calculations currently found in the ''In-Drift Microbial Communities'' AMR (CRWMS M&O 2000) will be brought up to date. This set of calculations replaces the calculations contained in sections 6.7.2, 6.7.3 and Attachment I of CRWMS M&O (2000) As all of these calculations are created explicitly for model validation, the data qualification status of all inputs can be considered corroborative in accordance with AP-3.15Q. This work activity has been evaluated in accordance with the AP-2.21 procedure, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities'', and is subject to QA controls (BSC 2001). The calculation is developed in accordance with the AP-3.12 procedure, Calculations, and prepared in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan For EBS Department Modeling FY 01 Work Activities'' (BSC 2001) which includes controls for the management of electronic data.
In-Drift Microbial Communities Model Validation Calculation
D. M. Jolley
2001-10-31
The objective and scope of this calculation is to create the appropriate parameter input for MING 1.0 (CSCI 30018 V1.0, CRWMS M&O 1998b) that will allow the testing of the results from the MING software code with both scientific measurements of microbial populations at the site and laboratory and with natural analogs to the site. This set of calculations provides results that will be used in model validation for the ''In-Drift Microbial Communities'' model (CRWMS M&O 2000) which is part of the Engineered Barrier System Department (EBS) process modeling effort that eventually will feed future Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) models. This calculation is being produced to replace MING model validation output that is effected by the supersession of DTN MO9909SPAMING1.003 using its replacement DTN MO0106SPAIDM01.034 so that the calculations currently found in the ''In-Drift Microbial Communities'' AMR (CRWMS M&O 2000) will be brought up to date. This set of calculations replaces the calculations contained in sections 6.7.2, 6.7.3 and Attachment I of CRWMS M&O (2000) As all of these calculations are created explicitly for model validation, the data qualification status of all inputs can be considered corroborative in accordance with AP-3.15Q. This work activity has been evaluated in accordance with the AP-2.21 procedure, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities'', and is subject to QA controls (BSC 2001). The calculation is developed in accordance with the AP-3.12 procedure, Calculations, and prepared in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan For EBS Department Modeling FY 01 Work Activities'' (BSC 2001) which includes controls for the management of electronic data.
Additional calculations of triton moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lally, D. F.; Levinger, J. S.
1982-02-01
The formalism of hyperspherical harmonics is used to calculate several moments of the triton photoeffect for a Volkov potential with Serber exchange. The accuracy of Clare's calculations of moments σ0 and σ1 is improved by including more terms in the hyperspherical harmonic expansion of the potential and of the ground state wave function. The moment σ2=8.9×104 MeV3 mb is calculated using one term in the hyperspherical harmonic expansions of the potential and wave function. We invert four moments and find reasonable agreement with Gorbunov's measurements of the 3He photoeffect. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Triton photoeffect, hyperspherical harmonics, moments of photoeffect, inversion of moments.
Multi-calculation rate simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Powell, J. D.; Akhter, M.
1977-01-01
It is common in real time simulations of large aerospace systems to separate the high and low frequency subsystems within the simulation and perform the integrations of the subsystems at different calculation rates. This is done to strike a balance between accuracy of calculation and capacity of the digital computer. Questions arising as to the accuracy of this structure compared to single calculation rates were studied using a linear aircraft model. Also investigated were interactions arising to cause errors worse than those expected. Problems are specifically identified and guidelines are given for selection of sample rates for multiple rate simulations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rieger, A.; Burgess, G.; Zorzi, E.
1980-01-01
An elastomer damper was designed, tested, and compared with the performance of a hydraulic damper for a power transmission shaft. The six button Viton-70 damper was designed so that the elastomer damper or the hydraulic damper could be activated without upsetting the imbalance condition of the assembly. This permitted a direct comparison of damper effectiveness. The elastomer damper consistently performed better than the hydraulic mount and permitted stable operation of the power transmission shaft to speeds higher than obtained with the squeeze film damper. Tests were performed on shear specimens of Viton-79, Buna-N, EPDM, and Neoprene to determine performance limitations imposed by strain, temperature, and frequency. Frequencies of between 110 Hz and 1100 Hz were surveyed with imposed strains between 0.0005 and 0.08 at temperatures of 32 C, 66 C, and 80 C. A set of design curves was generated in a unified format for each of the elastomer materials.
Numerical Procedures for the Calculations of Inorganic Solubility and Cohesive Parameters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawson, D.
1996-01-01
The entire history of chemistry bears witness to the extraorinary importance of the phenomena of solubility. It is necessary to emphasize that the Hildebrand parameter (solubility parameter) is fundamentally a liquid state property. When gases are considered they are treated as hypothetical.
40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... test schedule (Ywm). (c)(1) When the test vehicle is equipped with air conditioning, the final reported...)(1)(i) of this section for NOX. (2) When the test vehicle is not equipped with air conditioning, the... environmental test cell air conditioning ambient condition of 100 grains of water/pound of dry air is: KH...
40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... that the NOX humidity correction factor of § 86.144-94(c)(7)(iv) must be modified when adjusting SC03... this section for NOX. (d) The NOX humidity correction factor for adjusting NOX test results to the...)=0.8825/ Where: H=measured test humidity in grains of water/pound of dry air....
40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... that the NOX humidity correction factor of § 86.144-94(c)(7)(iv) must be modified when adjusting SC03... (c)(2)(i) of this section for NOX. (d) The NOX humidity correction factor for adjusting NOX test... dry air is: KH (100) = 0.8825/ Where: H = measured test humidity in grains of water/pound of dry air....
Alva, Carlos; Gómez, Felipe David; Ortegón Cardeña, José; Yáñez Gutiérrez, Lucelli; Lazcano, Sonia
2008-01-01
In patients with Bidirectional Glenn who have undergone surgery, the superior caval venous flow provides the only pulmonary blood supply. This is the effective pulmonary flow and at the same time its volume is not enough to overflow the single ventricle. The unsaturated, inferior vena cava flow is not oxygenated, since it goes across the interatrial septal communication and gets mixed in the left ventricle with the pulmonary venous blood. In this work, a bidirectional Glenn case is analyzed. The hemodynamic data before and after the operation are shown. It was evident from this case that the use of the Fick method to measure pulmonary flow in patients with bidirectional Glenn operation is not appropriate. Alternative methods, such as Doppler echocardiography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging, are recommended. A literature review on this subject was carefully done.
A calculation procedure for viscous flow in turbomachines, volume 3. [computer programs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khalil, I.; Sheoran, Y.; Tabakoff, W.
1980-01-01
A method for analyzing the nonadiabatic viscous flow through turbomachine blade passages was developed. The field analysis is based upon the numerical integration of the full incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, together with the energy equation on the blade-to-blade surface. A FORTRAN IV computer program was written based on this method. The numerical code used to solve the governing equations employs a nonorthogonal boundary fitted coordinate system. The flow may be axial, radial or mixed and there may be a change in stream channel thickness in the through-flow direction. The inputs required for two FORTRAN IV programs are presented. The first program considers laminar flows and the second can handle turbulent flows. Numerical examples are included to illustrate the use of the program, and to show the results that are obtained.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rieger, A.; Zorzi, E.
1980-01-01
An elastomer shear damper was designed, tested, and compared with the performance of the T 55 power turbine supported on the production engine roller bearing support. The Viton 70 shear damper was designed so that the elastomer damper could be interchanged with the production T 55 power turbine roller bearing support. The results show that the elastomer sheer dampener permitted stable operation of the power turbine to the maximum operating speed of 16,000 rpm.
40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... that the NOX humidity correction factor of § 86.144-94(c)(7)(iv) must be modified when adjusting SC03... this section for NOX. (d) The NOX humidity correction factor for adjusting NOX test results to the...)=0.8825/ Where: H=measured test humidity in grains of water/pound of dry air....
40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... that the NOX humidity correction factor of § 86.144-94(c)(7)(iv) must be modified when adjusting SC03... (c)(2)(i) of this section for NOX. (d) The NOX humidity correction factor for adjusting NOX test... dry air is: KH (100) = 0.8825/ Where: H = measured test humidity in grains of water/pound of dry air....
40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... that the NOX humidity correction factor of § 86.144-94(c)(7)(iv) must be modified when adjusting SC03... paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section for NOX. (d) The NOX humidity correction factor for adjusting NOX test... dry air is: KH (100)=0.8825/ Where: H=measured test humidity in grains of water/pound of dry air....
Collected radiochemical and geochemical procedures
Kleinberg, J
1990-05-01
This revision of LA-1721, 4th Ed., Collected Radiochemical Procedures, reflects the activities of two groups in the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory: INC-11, Nuclear and radiochemistry; and INC-7, Isotope Geochemistry. The procedures fall into five categories: I. Separation of Radionuclides from Uranium, Fission-Product Solutions, and Nuclear Debris; II. Separation of Products from Irradiated Targets; III. Preparation of Samples for Mass Spectrometric Analysis; IV. Dissolution Procedures; and V. Geochemical Procedures. With one exception, the first category of procedures is ordered by the positions of the elements in the Periodic Table, with separate parts on the Representative Elements (the A groups); the d-Transition Elements (the B groups and the Transition Triads); and the Lanthanides (Rare Earths) and Actinides (the 4f- and 5f-Transition Elements). The members of Group IIIB-- scandium, yttrium, and lanthanum--are included with the lanthanides, elements they resemble closely in chemistry and with which they occur in nature. The procedures dealing with the isolation of products from irradiated targets are arranged by target element.
Analytical polarization calculations beyond SLIM
Barber, D.P. , Notkestrasse, 85, 2000 Hamburg 52, Federal Republic of Germany )
1989-05-05
A comparison is made between the theories of Bell and Leinaas and of Derbenev and Kondratenko for the spin polarization in electron storage rings. A calculation of polarization in HERA using the program SMILE of Mane is presented.
Calculate Your Body Mass Index
... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE INDEX | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...
Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation
B. Dianda
2004-06-23
This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use of these components or their related
Interactive Software For Astrodynamical Calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schlaifer, Ronald S.; Skinner, David L.; Roberts, Phillip H.
1995-01-01
QUICK computer program provides user with facilities of sophisticated desk calculator performing scalar, vector, and matrix arithmetic; propagate conic-section orbits; determines planetary and satellite coordinates; and performs other related astrodynamic calculations within FORTRAN-like software environment. QUICK is interpreter, and no need to use compiler or linker to run QUICK code. Outputs plotted in variety of formats on variety of terminals. Written in RATFOR.
Gas calculations aid submersible pump selections
Beavers, J.; Bearden, J.; Vandevier, J.
1981-07-01
Two basic types of gas separators currently are available from submersible pump suppliers. In one, the reverse flow effect of 180/degree/ change in direction of fluid flow into an impeller with upturned eye gives gas an opportunity to separate and flow upward in the annulus. In the other, a rotary separator takes in the fluid mixture, centrifugally removes free gas from the mixture, and discharges liquid to the pump and gas to the casing annulus. Laboratory and field tests show that the gas-handling capability of the reverse flow gas separator is about 10% free gas by volume, which is only slightly better performance than a pump with no gas separator. Since gas occupies a portion of the volume which the pump sees, the percentage of free gas, V/sub g/, in the total volume V/sub t/ must be determined and the increase in mixture volume due to gas must be taken into account. If not, an improper pump selection will be made. The pump must be selected for the volume at the intake and not stock tank volume. The value of three factors must be determined. Calculational procedures are presented by means of examples. A calculation program is given.
SURFACE FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS
C.E. Sanders
2004-03-02
The purpose of this design calculation is to revise and update the previous criticality evaluation for the fuel handling, transfer and storage operations to be performed in the Surface Facility documented in BSC 2003c. The scope of this design calculation covers the operations in the Dry Transfer Facility (DTF) and Remediation Building (RB) and their processes as established at the date of this calculation. Also, this design calculation focuses on intact commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies, i.e., pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) SNF. A description of the changes is as follows: (1) Update the supporting calculations for the various Category 1 and 2 event sequences as identified in the ''Preliminary Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2003a, Section 7). (2) Include comments from an informal review conducted by Y-12, located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Su 2004). (3) Revise the BWR calculations to reflect a different Boral loading. (4) Assess effects of potential moderator intrusion into the storage rack area with various water levels for defense in depth based on the new design of the DTF and RB.
Ishimatsu, K; Morikawa, K
1990-02-01
Neutron doses often come dominant in mazes of electron accelerator facilities in which X-rays of energies more than 10 MV are produced. A simple analytical method to calculate neutron doses in such a facility is developed. In the calculation procedure, it is assumed that the irradiation room is spherical in shape and the maze is cylindrical. Multiple reflection of neutrons is also considered using the albedo concept in the calculation. The procedure allows to exist a hanging wall over the entrance of the irradiation room and also multiple legs in the maze. All the parameters used in the calculation are given definitely in the procedure, and any experiment is unnecessary to determine value of the parameters. Comparison of the calculated results with experimental ones will be described in the following report. PMID:2326507
21 CFR 1270.31 - Written procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Written procedures. 1270.31 Section 1270.31 Food... FOR TRANSPLANTATION Procedures and Records § 1270.31 Written procedures. (a) There shall be written... the procedures are performed unless impractical. Any deviation from the written procedures shall...
21 CFR 1270.31 - Written procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Written procedures. 1270.31 Section 1270.31 Food... FOR TRANSPLANTATION Procedures and Records § 1270.31 Written procedures. (a) There shall be written... the procedures are performed unless impractical. Any deviation from the written procedures shall...
21 CFR 1270.31 - Written procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Written procedures. 1270.31 Section 1270.31 Food... FOR TRANSPLANTATION Procedures and Records § 1270.31 Written procedures. (a) There shall be written... the procedures are performed unless impractical. Any deviation from the written procedures shall...
21 CFR 1270.31 - Written procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Written procedures. 1270.31 Section 1270.31 Food... FOR TRANSPLANTATION Procedures and Records § 1270.31 Written procedures. (a) There shall be written... the procedures are performed unless impractical. Any deviation from the written procedures shall...
21 CFR 1270.31 - Written procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written procedures. 1270.31 Section 1270.31 Food... FOR TRANSPLANTATION Procedures and Records § 1270.31 Written procedures. (a) There shall be written... the procedures are performed unless impractical. Any deviation from the written procedures shall...
40 CFR 1033.315 - Test procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test procedures. 1033.315 Section 1033... Programs § 1033.315 Test procedures. (a) Test procedures. Use the test procedures described in subpart F of this part, except as specified in this section. (1) You may ask to use other test procedures. We...
40 CFR 1033.315 - Test procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test procedures. 1033.315 Section 1033... Programs § 1033.315 Test procedures. (a) Test procedures. Use the test procedures described in subpart F of this part, except as specified in this section. (1) You may ask to use other test procedures. We...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... BOARD (DRB) PROCEDURES AND STANDARDS § 70.5 Procedures. (a) Discharge review procedures are prescribed... Procedures about decisional documents are prescribed in § 70.10. ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Procedures. 70.5 Section 70.5 National...
18 CFR 301.3 - Filing procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... procedures. (a) Bonneville's ASC review procedures. The procedures established by Bonneville's Administrator... Bonneville's ASC review procedures. (b) Exchange Period. The Exchange Period will be equal to the term of... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Filing procedures....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... BOARD (DRB) PROCEDURES AND STANDARDS § 70.5 Procedures. (a) Discharge review procedures are prescribed... Procedures about decisional documents are prescribed in § 70.10. ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures. 70.5 Section 70.5 National...
Perinatal lung function and invasive antenatal procedures
Yuksel, B.; Greenough, A.; Naik, S.; Cheeseman, P.; Nicolaides, K. H.
1997-01-01
BACKGROUND: Second trimester amniocentesis has been associated with an excess of perinatal lung function abnormalities. Early amniocentesis might have a similar adverse effect, as could other invasive investigations carried out in the first trimester. METHODS: Plethysmographic measurements of thoracic gas volume (TGV) and airway resistance (Raw), from which specific conductance (sGaw) was calculated, were made in the perinatal period in non-sedated infants. In addition, functional residual capacity (FRC) was measured using a helium gas dilution technique. Measurements were made in 47 infants whose mothers had undergone early amniocentesis, 19 whose mothers had undergone chorion villus sampling, and 25 controls whose mothers had undergone no invasive antenatal procedures. RESULTS: The infants of mothers who had undergone early amniocentesis had higher TGV (95% CI - 6.3 to 1.1 ml/kg) and Raw values (95% CI -10.68 to -5.23 cm H2O/l/s) and lower sGaw (0.11 to 0.84 l/cm H2O.s) and FRC (-5.17 to - 0.87 ml/kg) values than the controls. Infants whose mothers had undergone chorion villus sampling also differed significantly from the controls with higher Raw (-7.59 to -1.99 cm H2O/l/s) and lower sGaw values (0.11 to 0.24 l/cm H2O.s), and had lower Raw values than those in the early amniocentesis group (not significant). Logistic regression analysis, taking into account possible risk factors for abnormal lung function, showed that the procedures performed in the first trimester were independently associated with a high airways resistance. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that invasive procedures performed in the first trimester of pregnancy have an adverse effect on perinatal lung function. PMID:9059482
Calculations of the startup experiments at the Poolside Facility
Williams, M.L.; Maerker, R.E.
1982-01-01
Discrete ordinate calculations are made and the results compared with measurements performed in the startup experiment at the Poolside Facility. Because of the physical size of the simulated surveillance capsule used in this experiment, the analytic procedure is more complicated than one adopted in earlier calculations of the PCA-PVF and PSF. The comparisons indicate the pressure vessel fluences in the long-term irradiation experiments still presently going on at the PSF, and which are geometrically identical to the startup experiment, can only be predicted to within about 20%.
Calculating the respiratory flow velocity fluctuations in pericardial diseases.
Siniorakis, Eftychios; Arvanitakis, Spyridon; Zarreas, Elias; Barlagiannis, Dimitris; Skandalakis, Nikos; Karidis, Constantinos
2010-11-01
An excessive respiratory fluctuation (RTFV) in transmitral early diastolic velocity E is a pivotal Doppler echocardiographic sign of haemodynamic compromise, in constrictive pericardial diseases. RTFV is expressed as a percentage and 25% is considered a threshold value. Unfortunately there is no unanimity in calculating RTFV. Sometimes it is expressed as a percentage of expiratory E velocity, while others of inspiratory E velocity. This disparity has led to gross misinterpretations in medical literature. Here we emphasize the importance of a rational procedure calculating RTFV and we propose the appropriate mathematical model.
Calculations of reliability predictions for the Apollo spacecraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Amstadter, B. L.
1966-01-01
A new method of reliability prediction for complex systems is defined. Calculation of both upper and lower bounds are involved, and a procedure for combining the two to yield an approximately true prediction value is presented. Both mission success and crew safety predictions can be calculated, and success probabilities can be obtained for individual mission phases or subsystems. Primary consideration is given to evaluating cases involving zero or one failure per subsystem, and the results of these evaluations are then used for analyzing multiple failure cases. Extensive development is provided for the overall mission success and crew safety equations for both the upper and lower bounds.
Computer programs for calculating potential flow in propulsion system inlets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stockman, N. O.; Button, S. L.
1973-01-01
In the course of designing inlets, particularly for VTOL and STOL propulsion systems, a calculational procedure utilizing three computer programs evolved. The chief program is the Douglas axisymmetric potential flow program called EOD which calculates the incompressible potential flow about arbitrary axisymmetric bodies. The other two programs, original with Lewis, are called SCIRCL AND COMBYN. Program SCIRCL generates input for EOD from various specified analytic shapes for the inlet components. Program COMBYN takes basic solutions output by EOD and combines them into solutions of interest, and applies a compressibility correction.
Photovoltaic module energy rating procedure. Final subcontract report
Whitaker, C.M.; Newmiller, J.D.
1998-01-01
This document describes testing and computation procedures used to generate a photovoltaic Module Energy Rating (MER). The MER consists of 10 estimates of the amount of energy a single module of a particular type (make and model) will produce in one day. Module energy values are calculated for each of five different sets of weather conditions (defined by location and date) and two load types. Because reproduction of these exact testing conditions in the field or laboratory is not feasible, limited testing and modeling procedures and assumptions are specified.
[Clamping procedures in hepatic surgery].
Frangov, T; Dimitrova, V; Kasten, D; Bismiut, A
2005-01-01
The advance of liver surgery and transplantation offers a new procedures--vascular clamping. Results of hepatic resections depends essentially on proper control of intraoperative hemorrhage. We present here the different procedures for vascular clamping and discussing their indications. Four parametres can be used to define the type of clamping: 1) place of application--control of arterial or glisson pedicles and portal veins (pedicles, selective hilar, suprahilar and intrahepatic clamps), suprahepatic veins or vena cava; 2) selectivity--partial or total clamp of hepatic blood supply; 3) duration--continuous or intermittent; 4) association measures to favor tolerence to ischemia (cooling, preservation fluids) or to limit downstream consequences (extracorporal circulaton, derivation). The clamping procedures depends on the localisation of the lesion and its relationships with the great vessels, presence of liver desease and the patients general and cardiovascular status. The aim is to use clamp moderate, favoring selective clamps to avoid ischemia. PMID:18693516
Cognitive procedural learning in amnesia.
Schmidtke, K; Handschu, R; Vollmer, H
1996-12-01
This group study examined the role of residual declarative memory and task-specific cognitive abilities for cognitive procedural learning in amnesia. 20 amnesic patients and 40 control subjects were studied, using four new cognitive tasks, as well as the Tower of Hanoi and a Mirror Reading task. On the cognitive tasks, but not on Mirror Reading, the learning of amnesic patients was significantly impaired relative to controls. Between- and within-group differences in learning were found to be statistically related to cognitive abilities that are involved in the processing of the procedural tasks. In amnesic patients, significant effects of residual declarative memory on learning scores were not observed, but there was indirect evidence for a role of memory in two tasks. The analysis of the correlative relationship between absolute procedural task performances and cognitive abilities indicated a prolonged dependence on nonspecific intellectual abilities in amnesic patients, suggesting a retarded transition to more advanced stages of skill acquisition.
Complications of the Latarjet procedure.
Gupta, Ashish; Delaney, Ruth; Petkin, Kalojan; Lafosse, Laurent
2015-03-01
The Latarjet procedure is an operation performed either arthroscopically or open for recurrent anterior shoulder instability, in the setting of glenoid bone loss; with good to excellent functional results. Despite excellent clinical results, the complication rates are reported between 15 and 30 %. Intraoperative complications such as graft malpositioning, neurovascular injury, and graft fracture can all be mitigated with meticulous surgical technique and understanding of the local anatomy. Nonunion and screw breakage are intermediate-term complications that occur in less than 5 % of patients. The long-term complications such as graft osteolysis are still an unsolved problem, and future research is required to understand the etiology and best treatment option. Recurrent instability after the Latarjet procedure can be managed with iliac crest bone graft reconstruction of the anterior glenoid. Shoulder arthritis is another complication reported after the Latarjet procedure, which poses additional challenges to both the surgeon and patient.
Authentication Procedures - The Procedures and Integration Working Group
Kouzes, Richard T.; Bratcher, Leigh; Gosnell, Tom; Langner, Diana; MacArthur, D.; Mihalczo, John T.; Pura, Carolyn; Riedy, Alex; Rexroth, Paul; Scott, Mary; Springarn, Jay
2001-05-31
Authentication is how we establish trust in monitoring systems and measurements to verify compliance with, for example, the storage of nuclear weapons material. Authentication helps assure the monitoring party that accurate and reliable information is provided by any measurement system and that any irregularities are detected. The U.S. is developing its point of view on the procedures for authentication of monitoring systems now planned or contemplated for arms reduction and control applications. The authentication of a system utilizes a set of approaches, including: functional testing using trusted calibration sources, evaluation of documentation, evaluation of software, evaluation of hardware, random selection of hardware and software, tamper-indicating devices, and operational procedures. Authentication of measurement systems should occur throughout their lifecycles, starting with the elements of design, and moving to off-site authentication, on-siste authentication, and continuing with authentication following repair. The most important of these is the initial design of systems. Hardware and software design criteria and procurement decisions can make future authentication relatively straightforward or conversely very difficult. Facility decisions can likewise ease the procedures for authentication since reliable and effective monitoring systems and tampering indicating devices can help provide the assurance needed in the integrity of such items as measurement systems, spare equipment, and reference sources. This paper will summarize the results of the U.S. Authentication Task Force discussion on the role of procedures in authentication.
40 CFR 75.36 - Missing data procedures for heat input rate determinations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Missing data procedures for heat input....36 Missing data procedures for heat input rate determinations. (a) When hourly heat input rate is... provided to calculate the heat input whenever quality-assured data are unavailable from the flow...
40 CFR 75.36 - Missing data procedures for heat input rate determinations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Missing data procedures for heat input....36 Missing data procedures for heat input rate determinations. (a) When hourly heat input rate is... provided to calculate the heat input whenever quality-assured data are unavailable from the flow...
40 CFR 75.36 - Missing data procedures for heat input rate determinations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Missing data procedures for heat input....36 Missing data procedures for heat input rate determinations. (a) When hourly heat input rate is... provided to calculate the heat input whenever quality-assured data are unavailable from the flow...
40 CFR 75.36 - Missing data procedures for heat input rate determinations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Missing data procedures for heat input....36 Missing data procedures for heat input rate determinations. (a) When hourly heat input rate is... provided to calculate the heat input whenever quality-assured data are unavailable from the flow...
40 CFR 75.36 - Missing data procedures for heat input rate determinations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Missing data procedures for heat input....36 Missing data procedures for heat input rate determinations. (a) When hourly heat input rate is... provided to calculate the heat input whenever quality-assured data are unavailable from the flow...
78 FR 4015 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-01-18
... test procedures for microwave ovens. 76 FR 12825. The March 2011 Interim Final Rule incorporated by... measurements and calculations in the conventional cooking products test procedure. 76 FR 72331 (Nov. 23, 2011... over a cycle), based on displayed clock time, and DOE defined the test duration in this case. 76...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Trosset, Michael W.
1999-01-01
Comprehensive computational experiments to assess the performance of algorithms for numerical optimization require (among other things) a practical procedure for generating pseudorandom nonlinear objective functions. We propose a procedure that is based on the convenient fiction that objective functions are realizations of stochastic processes. This report details the calculations necessary to implement our procedure for the case of certain stationary Gaussian processes and presents a specific implementation in the statistical programming language S-PLUS.
Designing Flight-Deck Procedures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Degani, Asaf; Wiener, L.; Shafto, Mike (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
A complex human-machine system consists of more than merely one or more human operators and a collection of hardware components. In order to operate a complex system successfully, the human-machine system must be supported by an organizational infrastructure of operating concepts, rules, guidelines, and documents. The coherency of such operating concepts, in terms of consistency and logic, is vitally important for the efficiency and safety of any complex system. In high-risk endeavors such as aircraft operations, space flight, nuclear power production, manufacturing process control, and military operations, it is essential that such support be flawless, as the price of operational error can be high. When operating rules are not adhered to, or the rules are inadequate for the task at hand, not only will the system's goals be thwarted, but there may also be tragic human and material consequences. To ensure safe and predictable operations, support to the operators, in this case flight crews, often comes in the form of standard operating procedures. These provide the crew with step-by-step guidance for carrying out their operations. Standard procedures do indeed promote uniformity, but they do so at the risk of reducing the role of human operators to a lower level. Management, however, must recognize the danger of over-procedurization, which fails to exploit one of the most valuable assets in the system, the intelligent operator who is "on the scene." The alert system designer and operations manager recognize that there cannot be a procedure for everything, and the time will come in which the operators of a complex system will face a situation for which there is no written procedure. Procedures, whether executed by humans or machines, have their place, but so does human cognition.
Landsat classification accuracy assessment procedures
Mead, R. R.; Szajgin, John
1982-01-01
A working conference was held in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 12-14 November, 1980 dealing with Landsat classification Accuracy Assessment Procedures. Thirteen formal presentations were made on three general topics: (1) sampling procedures, (2) statistical analysis techniques, and (3) examples of projects which included accuracy assessment and the associated costs, logistical problems, and value of the accuracy data to the remote sensing specialist and the resource manager. Nearly twenty conference attendees participated in two discussion sessions addressing various issues associated with accuracy assessment. This paper presents an account of the accomplishments of the conference.
Palliative Procedures in Lung Cancer
Masuda, Emi; Sista, Akhilesh K.; Pua, Bradley B.; Madoff, David C.
2013-01-01
Palliative care aims to optimize comfort and function when cure is not possible. Image-guided interventions for palliative treatment of lung cancer is aimed at local control of advanced disease in the affected lung, adjacent mediastinal structures, or distant metastatic sites. These procedures include endovascular therapy for superior vena cava syndrome, bronchial artery embolization for hemoptysis associated with lung cancer, and ablation of osseous metastasis. Pathophysiology, clinical presentation, indications of these palliative treatments, procedural techniques, complications, and possible future interventions are discussed in this article. PMID:24436537
Anesthetic consideration for neurointerventional procedures.
Joung, Kyung Woon; Yang, Ku Hyun; Shin, Won Jung; Song, Myung Hee; Ham, Kyungdon; Jung, Seung Chul; Lee, Deok Hee; Suh, Dae Chul
2014-09-01
Interventional neuroradiology (INR) has been a rapidly expanding and advancing clinical area during the past few decades. As the complexity and diversity of INR procedures increases, the demand for anesthesia also increases. Anesthesia for interventional neuroradiology is a challenge for the anesthesiologist due to the unfamiliar working environment which the anesthesiologist must consider, as well as the unique neuro-interventional components. This review provides an overview of the anesthetic options and specific consideration of the anesthesia requirements for each procedure. We also introduce the anesthetic management for interventional neuroradiology performed in our medical institution.
Tsallis’ entropy maximization procedure revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martínez, S.; Nicolás, F.; Pennini, F.; Plastino, A.
2000-11-01
The proper way of averaging is an important question with regards to Tsallis’ Thermostatistics. Three different procedures have been thus far employed in the pertinent literature. The third one, i.e., the Tsallis-Mendes-Plastino (TMP) (Physica A 261 (1998) 534) normalization procedure, exhibits clear advantages with respect to earlier ones. In this work, we advance a distinct (from the TMP-one) way of handling the Lagrange multipliers involved in the extremization process that leads to Tsallis’ statistical operator. It is seen that the new approach considerably simplifies the pertinent analysis without losing the beautiful properties of the Tsallis-Mendes-Plastino formalism.
1995 Procedure for nominating Fellows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
In 1994, there was a new procedure for nominating members of AGU for Fellowship for 1995. The new procedure was intended to increase the number of nominees. It required an initial nomination consisting only of a one-page letter and one-page cv. The Sections could make their selections prior to developing complete nomination packages for those candidates to be forwarded to the Union Committee. The timing of the process was changed so that Section committees would have more time to develop complete packages prior to forwarding their recommendations to the Union Committee.
Present (unified) and past Polar Cap (PC) index calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stauning, Peter; Troshichev, Oleg; Janzhura, Alexander
2010-05-01
The Polar Cap (PC) index was introduced by Troshichev and Andrezen (1985). Index values are derived from polar cap magnetic variations and are mainly related to the intensity of the variable transpolar ionospheric currents. These currents relate to the polar cap antisunward ionospheric plasma convection driven by the dawn-dusk electric field, which in turn is generated by the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere. Thus the PC index is an important Space Weather parameter. Coefficients to calculate PC index values from polar magnetic variations have been derived by several different procedures in the past. Now, a unified procedure (Troshichev et al., 2005) has been adopted for both the PCN (north) and the PCS (south) index values. The presentation outlines and discusses the principles and the details of the unified procedure, which will be submitted to IAGA for formal approval. The PC index can be made available on-line in real-time for Space Weather applications.