Science.gov

Sample records for calculation procedures

  1. Procedures for Calculating Residential Dehumidification Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, Jon; Booten, Chuck

    2016-06-01

    Residential building codes and voluntary labeling programs are continually increasing the energy efficiency requirements of residential buildings. Improving a building's thermal enclosure and installing energy-efficient appliances and lighting can result in significant reductions in sensible cooling loads leading to smaller air conditioners and shorter cooling seasons. However due to fresh air ventilation requirements and internal gains, latent cooling loads are not reduced by the same proportion. Thus, it's becoming more challenging for conventional cooling equipment to control indoor humidity at part-load cooling conditions and using conventional cooling equipment in a non-conventional building poses the potential risk of high indoor humidity. The objective of this project was to investigate the impact the chosen design condition has on the calculated part-load cooling moisture load, and compare calculated moisture loads and the required dehumidification capacity to whole-building simulations. Procedures for sizing whole-house supplemental dehumidification equipment have yet to be formalized; however minor modifications to current Air-Conditioner Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J load calculation procedures are appropriate for calculating residential part-load cooling moisture loads. Though ASHRAE 1% DP design conditions are commonly used to determine the dehumidification requirements for commercial buildings, an appropriate DP design condition for residential buildings has not been investigated. Two methods for sizing supplemental dehumidification equipment were developed and tested. The first method closely followed Manual J cooling load calculations; whereas the second method made more conservative assumptions impacting both sensible and latent loads.

  2. Parallel calculations between the TC 4. 7 simplified energy calculation procedure and seven comprehensive hourly simulation energy calculation procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Kusuda, T

    1980-10-31

    The TC 4.7 simplified energy calculation method is a bin method used by the REAP procedure of the Carrier Corporation, except for the load estimating calculations. The simplified procedure was compared with hourly simulation procedures for an office building in Washington, DC. The comparison studied the extent as well as the reasons for agreement and discrepancies due to these two different types of annual energy analysis (bin method and hourly simulation methods). Results of the parallel calculations are discussed and the major reasons of discrepancies between the hourly simulation technique and the simplified TC 4.7 method are identified. Data resulting from the calculation methods are tabulated. (MCW)

  3. 49 CFR 533.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measurement and calculation procedures. 533.6 Section 533.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) Any reference to a class of light trucks manufactured by...

  4. 49 CFR 531.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measurement and calculation procedures. 531.6 Section 531.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... STANDARDS § 531.6 Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) The average fuel economy of all...

  5. 49 CFR 533.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Measurement and calculation procedures. 533.6 Section 533.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) Any reference to a class of light trucks manufactured by...

  6. 49 CFR 533.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Measurement and calculation procedures. 533.6 Section 533.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) Any reference to a class of light trucks manufactured by...

  7. 49 CFR 531.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Measurement and calculation procedures. 531.6 Section 531.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... STANDARDS § 531.6 Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) The fleet average fuel economy performance...

  8. 49 CFR 531.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Measurement and calculation procedures. 531.6 Section 531.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... STANDARDS § 531.6 Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) The average fuel economy of all...

  9. 49 CFR 533.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measurement and calculation procedures. 533.6 Section 533.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) Any reference to a class of light trucks manufactured by...

  10. 49 CFR 531.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measurement and calculation procedures. 531.6 Section 531.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY... STANDARDS § 531.6 Measurement and calculation procedures. (a) The average fuel economy of all...

  11. A Procedure Using Calculators to Express Answers in Fractional Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Earnest

    A procedure is described that enables students to perform operations on fractions with a calculator, expressing the answer as a fraction. Patterns using paper-and-pencil procedures for each operation with fractions are presented. A microcomputer software program illustrates how the answer can be found using integer values of the numerators and…

  12. A new programmable calculator procedure for individualizing phenytoin dosage.

    PubMed

    Messori, A; Valenza, T; Zaccara, G; Arnetoli, G; Bartoli, C; Donati-Cori, G; Tendi, E; Zappoli, R

    1983-12-01

    A programmable calculator procedure allowing nonlinear least-squares fit to pharmacokinetic data conforming to the Michaelis-Menten model is described. Model parameter estimation is performed according to the iterative Gauss-Newton technique as modified by Hartley. This procedure thus employs the same theoretical approach used by most pharmacokinetic computer programs. No programming skill is needed to run the program described. The proposed procedure is discussed in detail and applied to some sets of pharmacokinetic data.

  13. 10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  14. 10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510...

  15. 10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510...

  16. 10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard...

  17. 10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard...

  18. 10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard...

  19. 10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510...

  20. 10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510...

  1. 10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard...

  2. 10 CFR 434.605 - Standard Calculation Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standard Calculation Procedure. 434.605 Section 434.605 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.605 Standard...

  3. 10 CFR 434.510 - Standard calculation procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standard calculation procedure. 434.510 Section 434.510 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.510...

  4. 10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  5. 10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  6. 10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  7. 10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  8. Procedures for calculating the nonconvexity measures of a plane set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, P. D.; Uspenskii, A. A.

    2009-03-01

    The geometry of nonconvex sets is analyzed. The measure of nonconvexity of a closed set that has the sense of an angle is considered. Characteristic manifolds of nonconvex sets are constructed. Procedures for calculating the measure of nonconvexity are proposed for a class of plane sets.

  9. Operational Control Procedures for the Activated Sludge Process, Part III-A: Calculation Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Alfred W.

    This is the second in a series of documents developed by the National Training and Operational Technology Center describing operational control procedures for the activated sludge process used in wastewater treatment. This document deals exclusively with the calculation procedures, including simplified mixing formulas, aeration tank…

  10. A loudness calculation procedure applied to shaped sonic booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    1991-01-01

    Described here is a procedure that can be used to calculate the loudness of sonic booms. The procedure is applied to a wide range of sonic booms, both classical N-waves and a variety of other shapes of booms. The loudness of N-waves is controlled by overpressure and the associated rise time. The loudness of shaped booms is highly dependent on the characteristics of the initial shock. A comparison of the calculated loudness values indicates that shaped booms may have significantly reduced loudness relative to N-waves having the same peak overpressure. This result implies that a supersonic transport designed to yield minimized sonic booms may be substantially more acceptable than an unconstrained design.

  11. Experimental Verification of Buffet Calculation Procedure Using Unsteady PSP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta

    2016-01-01

    Typically a limited number of dynamic pressure sensors are employed to determine the unsteady aerodynamic forces on large, slender aerospace structures. The estimated forces are known to be very sensitive to the number of the dynamic pressure sensors and the details of the integration scheme. This report describes a robust calculation procedure, based on frequency-specific correlation lengths, that is found to produce good estimation of fluctuating forces from a few dynamic pressure sensors. The validation test was conducted on a flat panel, placed on the floor of a wind tunnel, and was subjected to vortex shedding from a rectangular bluff-body. The panel was coated with fast response Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP), which allowed time-resolved measurements of unsteady pressure fluctuations on a dense grid of spatial points. The first part of the report describes the detail procedure used to analyze the high-speed, PSP camera images. The procedure includes steps to reduce contamination by electronic shot noise, correction for spatial non-uniformities, and lamp brightness variation, and finally conversion of fluctuating light intensity to fluctuating pressure. The latter involved applying calibration constants from a few dynamic pressure sensors placed at selective points on the plate. Excellent comparison in the spectra, coherence and phase, calculated via PSP and dynamic pressure sensors validated the PSP processing steps. The second part of the report describes the buffet validation process, for which the first step was to use pressure histories from all PSP points to determine the "true" force fluctuations. In the next step only a selected number of pixels were chosen as "virtual sensors" and a correlation-length based buffet calculation procedure was applied to determine "modeled" force fluctuations. By progressively decreasing the number of virtual sensors it was observed that the present calculation procedure was able to make a close estimate of the "true

  12. WINDOW 4.0: Documentation of calculation procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Finlayson, E.U.; Arasteh, D.K.; Huizenga, C.; Rubin, M.D.; Reilly, M.S.

    1993-07-01

    WINDOW 4.0 is a publicly available IBM PC compatible computer program developed by the Building Technologies Group at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for calculating the thermal and optical properties necessary for heat transfer analyses of fenestration products. This report explains the calculation methods used in WINDOW 4.0 and is meant as a tool for those interested in understanding the procedures contained in WINDOW 4.0. All the calculations are discussed in the International System of units (SI). WINDOW 4.0 is the latest in a series of programs released by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The WINDOW program has its roots in a paper detailing a method for calculating heat transfer through windows [Rubin, 1982]. WINDOW 4.0 replaces the widely used 3.1 version. Although WINDOW 4.0 is a major revision, many of the algorithms used in WINDOW 4.0 build upon those previously documented [Arasteh, 1989b], [Furler, 1991]. This report documents the calculations that are unchanged from WINDOW 3.1, as well as those calculations that are new to WINDOW 4.0. This report uses the organization of the WINDOW 4.0 program. Results displayed on a WINDOW 4.0 screen are discussed in a section describing that screen. In the conclusion the aspects of the calculation method currently slated for revision are discussed. A glossary of variables used throughout the report is found in Section 11.

  13. COMPARING MEASURED AND CALCULATED DOSES IN INTERVENTIONAL CARDIOLOGY PROCEDURES.

    PubMed

    Oliveira da Silva, M W; Canevaro, L V; Hunt, J; Rodrigues, B B D

    2017-03-16

    Interventional cardiology requires complex procedures and can result in high doses and dose rates to the patient and medical staff. The many variables that influence the dose to the patient and staff include the beam position and angle, beam size, kVp, filtration, kerma-area product and focus-skin distance. A number of studies using the Monte Carlo method have been undertaken to obtain prospective dose assessments. In this paper, detailed irradiation scenarios were simulated mathematically and the resulting dose estimates were compared with real measurements made previously under very similar irradiation conditions and geometries. The real measurements and the calculated doses were carried out using or simulating an interventional cardiology system with a flat monoplane detector installed in a dedicated room with an Alderson phantom placed on the procedure table. The X-ray spectra, beam angles, focus-skin distance, measured kerma-area product and filtration were simulated, and the real dose measurements and calculated doses were compared. It was shown that the Monte Carlo method was capable of reproducing the real dose measurements within acceptable levels of uncertainty.

  14. A new procedure for calculating contact stresses in gear teeth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somprakit, Paisan; Huston, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    A numerical procedure for evaluating and monitoring contact stresses in meshing gear teeth is discussed. The procedure is intended to extend the range of applicability and to improve the accuracy of gear contact stress analysis. The procedure is based upon fundamental solution from the theory of elasticity. It is an iterative numerical procedure. The method is believed to have distinct advantages over the classical Hertz method, the finite-element method, and over existing approaches with the boundary element method. Unlike many classical contact stress analyses, friction effects and sliding are included. Slipping and sticking in the contact region are studied. Several examples are discussed. The results are in agreement with classical results. Applications are presented for spur gears.

  15. Boundary condition computational procedures for inviscid, supersonic steady flow field calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbett, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    Results are given of a comparative study of numerical procedures for computing solid wall boundary points in supersonic inviscid flow calculatons. Twenty five different calculation procedures were tested on two sample problems: a simple expansion wave and a simple compression (two-dimensional steady flow). A simple calculation procedure was developed. The merits and shortcomings of the various procedures are discussed, along with complications for three-dimensional and time-dependent flows.

  16. Spill Assessment Model (SAM) Procedure for Manual Field Calculations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    SPECIFICALLY, THE PART OF SAM UTILIZED AS THE BASIS FOR THE FIELD CALCULATIONS ADDRESSES ONLY INSTANTANEOUS POINT SOURCE DISCHARGES INTO A FLOWING RIVER. FOR...instantaneous point source discharges into a flowing river. For field use, the primary requirement is to assess the maximum concentrations which may result...different classes of chemicals, reference sources such as the Chemical Hazard Response Information ,’stem (CHRIS) of the U.S. Coast Guard should be

  17. 40 CFR 63.11980 - What are the test methods and calculation procedures for process wastewater?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... calculation procedures for process wastewater? 63.11980 Section 63.11980 Protection of Environment... § 63.11980 What are the test methods and calculation procedures for process wastewater? (a) Performance... performance tests during worst-case operating conditions for the PVCPU when the process wastewater...

  18. 40 CFR 63.11980 - What are the test methods and calculation procedures for process wastewater?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... calculation procedures for process wastewater? 63.11980 Section 63.11980 Protection of Environment... § 63.11980 What are the test methods and calculation procedures for process wastewater? (a) Performance... performance tests during worst-case operating conditions for the PVCPU when the process wastewater...

  19. 40 CFR 63.11980 - What are the test methods and calculation procedures for process wastewater?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... calculation procedures for process wastewater? 63.11980 Section 63.11980 Protection of Environment... § 63.11980 What are the test methods and calculation procedures for process wastewater? (a) Performance... performance tests during worst-case operating conditions for the PVCPU when the process wastewater...

  20. A calculation procedure for viscous flow in turbomachines, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khalil, I.; Tabakoff, W.

    1979-01-01

    A method for analyzing the nonadiabatic viscous flow through turbomachine rotors is presented. The field analysis is based upon the numerical integration of the full incompressible stream function vorticity form of the Navier-Stokes equations, together with the energy equation, over the rotor blade-to-blade stream channels. The numerical code used to solve the governing equations employs a nonorthogonal boundary fitted coordinate system that suits the most complicated blade geometries. A numerical scheme is used to carry out the necessary integration of the elliptic governing equations. The flow characteristics within the rotor of a radial inflow turbine are investigated over a wide range of operating conditions. The calculated results are compared to existing experimental data. The flow in a radial compressor is analyzed in order to study the behavior of viscous flow in diffusing cascades. The results are compared qualitatively to known experimental trends. The solution obtained provides insight into the flow phenomena in this type of turbomachine. It is concluded that the method of analysis is quite general and gives a good representation of the actual flow behavior within turbomachine passages.

  1. A procedure and program to calculate shuttle mask advantage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasinski, A.; Cetin, J.; Kahng, A.; Xu, X.

    2006-10-01

    A well-known recipe for reducing mask cost component in product development is to place non-redundant elements of layout databases related to multiple products on one reticle plate [1,2]. Such reticles are known as multi-product, multi-layer, or, in general, multi-IP masks. The composition of the mask set should minimize not only the layout placement cost, but also the cost of the manufacturing process, design flow setup, and product design and introduction to market. An important factor is the quality check which should be expeditious and enable thorough visual verification to avoid costly modifications once the data is transferred to the mask shop. In this work, in order to enable the layer placement and quality check procedure, we proposed an algorithm where mask layers are first lined up according to the price and field tone [3]. Then, depending on the product die size, expected fab throughput, and scribeline requirements, the subsequent product layers are placed on the masks with different grades. The actual reduction of this concept to practice allowed us to understand the tradeoffs between the automation of layer placement and setup related constraints. For example, the limited options of the numbers of layer per plate dictated by the die size and other design feedback, made us consider layer pairing based not only on the final price of the mask set, but also on the cost of mask design and fab-friendliness. We showed that it may be advantageous to introduce manual layer pairing to ensure that, e.g., all interconnect layers would be placed on the same plate, allowing for easy and simultaneous design fixes. Another enhancement was to allow some flexibility in mixing and matching of the layers such that non-critical ones requiring low mask grade would be placed in a less restrictive way, to reduce the count of orphan layers. In summary, we created a program to automatically propose and visualize shuttle mask architecture for design verification, with

  2. 40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...

  3. 40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...

  4. 40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...

  5. 40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...

  6. 40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...

  7. Numerical procedures for the calculation of the stresses in monocoques III : calculation of the bending moments in fuselage frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, N J; Libby, Paul A; Klein, Bertran

    1946-01-01

    This report deals with the calculation of the bending moments in and the distortions of fuselage rings upon which known concentrated and distributed loads are acting. In the procedure suggested, the ring is divided into a number of beams each having a constant radius of curvature. The forces and moments caused in the end sections of the beams by individual unit displacements of the end sections are listed in a table designated as the operations table in conformity with Southwell's nomenclature. The operations table and the external loads are equivalent to a set of linear equations. For their solution the following three procedures are presented: 1) Southwell's method of systematic relaxations. This is a step-by-step approximation procedure guided by the physical interpretation of the changes in the values of the unknown. 2) The growing unit procedure in which the individual beams are combined successively into beams of increasing length until finally the entire ring becomes a single beam. In each step of the procedure a set of not more than three simultaneous linear equations is solved. 3) Solution of the entire set of simultaneous equations by the methods of the matrix calculus. In order to demonstrate the manner in which the calculations may be carried out, the following numerical examples are worked out: 1) Curved beam with both its end sections rigidly fixed. The load is a concentrated force. 2) Egg-shape ring with symmetric concentrated loads. 3) Circular ring with antisymmetric concentrated loads and shear flow (torsion of the fuselage). 4) Same with V-braces incorporated in the ring. 5) Egg-shape ring with antisymmetric concentrated loads and shear flow (torsion of the fuselage). 6) Same with V-braces incorporated in the ring. The results of these calculations are checked, whenever possible, by calculations carried out according to known methods of analysis. The agreement is found to be good. The amount of work necessary for the solution of ring problems by

  8. Development of an efficient procedure for calculating the aerodynamic effects of planform variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, J. E.; Geller, E. W.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical procedures to compute gradients in aerodynamic loading due to planform shape changes using panel method codes were studied. Two procedures were investigated: one computed the aerodynamic perturbation directly; the other computed the aerodynamic loading on the perturbed planform and on the base planform and then differenced these values to obtain the perturbation in loading. It is indicated that computing the perturbed values directly can not be done satisfactorily without proper aerodynamic representation of the pressure singularity at the leading edge of a thin wing. For the alternative procedure, a technique was developed which saves most of the time-consuming computations from a panel method calculation for the base planform. Using this procedure the perturbed loading can be calculated in about one-tenth the time of that for the base solution.

  9. Calculation procedures for oil free scroll compressors based on mathematical modelling of working process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranin, Y.; Burmistrov, A.; Salikeev, S.; Fomina, M.

    2015-08-01

    Basic propositions of calculation procedures for oil free scroll compressors characteristics are presented. It is shown that mathematical modelling of working process in a scroll compressor makes it possible to take into account such factors influencing the working process as heat and mass exchange, mechanical interaction in working chambers, leakage through slots, etc. The basic mathematical model may be supplemented by taking into account external heat exchange, elastic deformation of scrolls, inlet and outlet losses, etc. To evaluate the influence of procedure on scroll compressor characteristics calculations accuracy different calculations were carried out. Internal adiabatic efficiency was chosen as a comparative parameter which evaluates the perfection of internal thermodynamic and gas-dynamic compressor processes. Calculated characteristics are compared with experimental values obtained for the compressor pilot sample.

  10. 40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-00 Supplemental Federal Test... test schedules of FTP, US06, and SC03. (b) The provisions of § 86.144-94(a) are applicable to this... FTP test schedule. (C) YUS06 = Calculated mass emissions per mile based on the measured...

  11. 19 CFR 351.224 - Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... least five absolute percentage points in, but not less than 25 percent of, the weighted-average dumping... correction of ministerial errors. 351.224 Section 351.224 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... § 351.224 Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors....

  12. 19 CFR 351.224 - Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... least five absolute percentage points in, but not less than 25 percent of, the weighted-average dumping... correction of ministerial errors. 351.224 Section 351.224 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... § 351.224 Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors....

  13. 19 CFR 351.224 - Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... least five absolute percentage points in, but not less than 25 percent of, the weighted-average dumping... correction of ministerial errors. 351.224 Section 351.224 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... § 351.224 Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors....

  14. 19 CFR 351.224 - Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... least five absolute percentage points in, but not less than 25 percent of, the weighted-average dumping... correction of ministerial errors. 351.224 Section 351.224 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... § 351.224 Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors....

  15. 19 CFR 351.224 - Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... least five absolute percentage points in, but not less than 25 percent of, the weighted-average dumping... correction of ministerial errors. 351.224 Section 351.224 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION... § 351.224 Disclosure of calculations and procedures for the correction of ministerial errors....

  16. 40 CFR Appendix Xvi to Part 86 - Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Low Emission Vehicle Program (October, 1996) shall apply. These procedures are incorporated by... Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With...-Fueled Vehicle Pollutant Mass Emission Calculation Procedure. (1) For all TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs,...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix Xvi to Part 86 - Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Low Emission Vehicle Program (October, 1996) shall apply. These procedures are incorporated by... Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With...-Fueled Vehicle Pollutant Mass Emission Calculation Procedure. (1) For all TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs,...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix Xvi to Part 86 - Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Low Emission Vehicle Program (October, 1996) shall apply. These procedures are incorporated by... Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With...-Fueled Vehicle Pollutant Mass Emission Calculation Procedure. (1) For all TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs,...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix Xvi to Part 86 - Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Low Emission Vehicle Program (October, 1996) shall apply. These procedures are incorporated by... Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With...-Fueled Vehicle Pollutant Mass Emission Calculation Procedure. (1) For all TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs,...

  20. Calculation procedures for potential and viscous flow solutions for engine inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, J. A.; Stockman, N. O.

    1973-01-01

    The method and basic elements of computer solutions for both potential flow and viscous flow calculations for engine inlets are described. The procedure is applicable to subsonic conventional (CTOL), short-haul (STOL), and vertical takeoff (VTOL) aircraft engine nacelles operating in a compressible viscous flow. The calculated results compare well with measured surface pressure distributions for a number of model inlets. The paper discusses the uses of the program in both the design and analysis of engine inlets, with several examples given for VTOL lift fans, acoustic splitters, and for STOL engine nacelles. Several test support applications are also given.

  1. Efficient Procedure for the Numerical Calculation of Harmonic Vibrational Frequencies Based on Internal Coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Miliordos, Evangelos; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2013-08-15

    We propose a general procedure for the numerical calculation of the harmonic vibrational frequencies that is based on internal coordinates and Wilson’s GF methodology via double differentiation of the energy. The internal coordinates are defined as the geometrical parameters of a Z-matrix structure, thus avoiding issues related to their redundancy. Linear arrangements of atoms are described using a dummy atom of infinite mass. The procedure has been automated in FORTRAN90 and its main advantage lies in the nontrivial reduction of the number of single-point energy calculations needed for the construction of the Hessian matrix when compared to the corresponding number using double differentiation in Cartesian coordinates. For molecules of C1 symmetry the computational savings in the energy calculations amount to 36N – 30, where N is the number of atoms, with additional savings when symmetry is present. Typical applications for small and medium size molecules in their minimum and transition state geometries as well as hydrogen bonded clusters (water dimer and trimer) are presented. Finally, in all cases the frequencies based on internal coordinates differ on average by <1 cm–1 from those obtained from Cartesian coordinates.

  2. Efficient procedure for the numerical calculation of harmonic vibrational frequencies based on internal coordinates.

    PubMed

    Miliordos, Evangelos; Xantheas, Sotiris S

    2013-08-15

    We propose a general procedure for the numerical calculation of the harmonic vibrational frequencies that is based on internal coordinates and Wilson's GF methodology via double differentiation of the energy. The internal coordinates are defined as the geometrical parameters of a Z-matrix structure, thus avoiding issues related to their redundancy. Linear arrangements of atoms are described using a dummy atom of infinite mass. The procedure has been automated in FORTRAN90 and its main advantage lies in the nontrivial reduction of the number of single-point energy calculations needed for the construction of the Hessian matrix when compared to the corresponding number using double differentiation in Cartesian coordinates. For molecules of C1 symmetry the computational savings in the energy calculations amount to 36N - 30, where N is the number of atoms, with additional savings when symmetry is present. Typical applications for small and medium size molecules in their minimum and transition state geometries as well as hydrogen bonded clusters (water dimer and trimer) are presented. In all cases the frequencies based on internal coordinates differ on average by <1 cm(-1) from those obtained from Cartesian coordinates.

  3. An engineering procedure for calculating compressive strength of isogrid cylindrical shells with buckled skin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heard, W. L., Jr.; Anderson, M. S.; Slysh, P.

    1976-01-01

    An engineering procedure is presented for calculating the compressive buckling strength of isogrid cylinders using shell of revolution techniques and accounting for loading beyond the material proportional limit and/or local buckling of the skin prior to general buckling. A general nondimensional chart is presented which can be used in conjunction with formulas based on simple deformation plasticity theory to calculate postbuckling stiffnesses of the skin. The stiffening grid system is treated as an equivalent isotropic grid layer. Stiffnesses are determined for this grid layer, when loaded beyond the proportional limit, by the same plasticity theory used for the skin and a nonlinear stress-strain curve constructed from simple isogrid-handbook formulas and standard-reference-manual stress-strain curves for the material involved. Comparison of prebuckling strains and buckling results obtained by this procedure with data from a large isogrid-cylinder test is excellent with the calculated buckling load no more than 4 percent greater than the test value.

  4. An analytical derivative procedure for the calculation of vibrational Raman optical activity spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liégeois, Vincent; Ruud, Kenneth; Champagne, Benoît

    2007-11-01

    We present an analytical time-dependent Hartree-Fock algorithm for the calculation of the derivatives of the electric dipole-magnetic dipole polarizability with respect to atomic Cartesian coordinates. Combined with analogous procedures to determine the derivatives of the electric dipole-electric dipole and electric dipole-electric quadrupole polarizabilities, it enables a fully analytical evaluation of the three frequency-dependent vibrational Raman optical activity (VROA) invariants within the harmonic approximation. The procedure employs traditional non-London atomic orbitals, and the gauge-origin dependence of the VROA intensities has, therefore, been assessed for the commonly used aug-cc-pVDZ and rDPS:3-21G basis sets.

  5. A simplified calculation procedure for mass isotopomer distribution analysis (MIDA) based on multiple linear regression.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fernández, Mario; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a novel, rapid and easy calculation procedure for Mass Isotopomer Distribution Analysis based on multiple linear regression which allows the simultaneous calculation of the precursor pool enrichment and the fraction of newly synthesized labelled proteins (fractional synthesis) using linear algebra. To test this approach, we used the peptide RGGGLK as a model tryptic peptide containing three subunits of glycine. We selected glycine labelled in two (13) C atoms ((13) C2 -glycine) as labelled amino acid to demonstrate that spectral overlap is not a problem in the proposed methodology. The developed methodology was tested first in vitro by changing the precursor pool enrichment from 10 to 40% of (13) C2 -glycine. Secondly, a simulated in vivo synthesis of proteins was designed by combining the natural abundance RGGGLK peptide and 10 or 20% (13) C2 -glycine at 1 : 1, 1 : 3 and 3 : 1 ratios. Precursor pool enrichments and fractional synthesis values were calculated with satisfactory precision and accuracy using a simple spreadsheet. This novel approach can provide a relatively rapid and easy means to measure protein turnover based on stable isotope tracers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Calculation procedures for the analysis of integral experiments for fusion-reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T.; Barnes, J.M.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Oblow, E.M.

    1981-07-01

    The calculational models, nuclear data, and radiation transport codes that are used in the analysis of integral measurements of the transport of approx. 14 MeV neutrons through laminated slabs of materials typical of those found in fusion reactor shields are described. The two-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations to optimize the experimental configuration for reducing the neutron and gamma ray background levels and for obtaining an equivalent, reduced geometry of the calculational model to reduce computer core storage and running times are also presented. The equations and data to determine the energy-angle relations to neutrons produced in the reactions of 250 keV deuterons in a titanium-tritide target are given. The procedures used to collapse the 17ln-36..gamma.. VITAMIN C cross section data library to a 53n-21..gamma.. broad group library are described. Finally, a description of the computer code network used to obtain neutron and gamma ray energy spectra for comparison with measured data is included.

  7. Geometric error of cervical point A calculated through traditional reconstruction procedures for brachytherapy treatment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Liyun; Ho, Sheng-Yow; Yeh, Shyh-An; Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Chen, Pang-Yu

    2015-09-08

    Brachytherapy used in local cervical cancer is still widely based on 2D standard dose planning with the prescription to point A, which is invisible on imaging and located at a high-dose gradient. In this study, the geometric location error of point A was investigated. It is traditionally reconstructed in the treatment planning system after carefully digitizing the point marks that were previously drawn on the orthogonal radiographs into the system. Two Cartesian coordinates of point A were established and compared. One was built up based on the geometric definition of point A and would be taken as the true coordinate, while the other was built up through traditional clinical treatment procedures and named as the practical coordinate. The orthogonal-film reconstruction technique was used and the location error between the practical and the true coordinate introduced from the variations of, first, the angle between the tandem and the simulator gantry-rotation-axis, and second, the interval between the tandem flange and the simulator isocenter, was analyzed. The location error of point A was higher if the tandem was rotated away from the gantry-rotation-axis or if the location of the tandem flange was set away from the isocenter. If a tandem with a 30-degree curvature was rotated away from the gantry-rotation-axis 10 degrees in the anterior-posterior (AP) view, and there was an 8.7 cm interval between the flange and the isocenter, the location error of point A would be greater than 3 mm without including other errors from simulator calibration, data input, patient setup and movements. To reduce the location error of point A calculated for traditional reconstruction procedures, it is suggested to move the couch or patient to make the mid-point of two points A near the isocenter and the tandem in the AP view parallel to the gantry-rotation-axis as much as possible.

  8. Geometric error of cervical point A calculated through traditional reconstruction procedures for brachytherapy treatment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Liyun; Ho, Sheng-Yow; Yeh, Shyh-An; Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Chen, Pang-Yu

    2015-09-01

    Brachytherapy used in local cervical cancer is still widely based on 2D standard dose planning with the prescription to point A, which is invisible on imaging and located at a high-dose gradient. In this study, the geometric location error of point A was investigated. It is traditionally reconstructed in the treatment planning system after carefully digitizing the point marks that were previously drawn on the orthogonal radiographs into the system. Two Cartesian coordinates of point A were established and compared. One was built up based on the geometric definition of point A and would be taken as the true coordinate, while the other was built up through traditional clinical treatment procedures and named as the practical coordinate. The orthogonal film reconstruction technique was used and the location error between the practical and the true coordinate introduced from the variations of, first, the angle between the tandem and the simulator gantry rotation axis, and second, the interval between the tandem flange and the simulator isocenter, was analyzed. The location error of point A was higher if the tandem was rotated away from the gantry rotation axis or if the location of the tandem flange was set away from the isocenter. If a tandem with a 30° curvature was rotated away from the gantry rotation axis 10° in the anterior-posterior (AP) view, and there was an 8.7 cm interval between the flange and the isocenter, the location error of point A would be 3 mm without including other errors from simulator calibration, data input, patient setup, and movements. To reduce the location error of point A calculated for traditional reconstruction procedures, it is suggested to move the couch or patient to make the mid-point of two points A near the isocenter and the tandem in the AP view parallel to the gantry rotation axis as much as possible. PACS number: 87.55.km.

  9. MO-F-CAMPUS-I-01: A System for Automatically Calculating Organ and Effective Dose for Fluoroscopically-Guided Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Z; Vijayan, S; Rana, V; Rudin, S; Bednarek, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A system was developed that automatically calculates the organ and effective dose for individual fluoroscopically-guided procedures using a log of the clinical exposure parameters. Methods: We have previously developed a dose tracking system (DTS) to provide a real-time color-coded 3D- mapping of skin dose. This software produces a log file of all geometry and exposure parameters for every x-ray pulse during a procedure. The data in the log files is input into PCXMC, a Monte Carlo program that calculates organ and effective dose for projections and exposure parameters set by the user. We developed a MATLAB program to read data from the log files produced by the DTS and to automatically generate the definition files in the format used by PCXMC. The processing is done at the end of a procedure after all exposures are completed. Since there are thousands of exposure pulses with various parameters for fluoroscopy, DA and DSA and at various projections, the data for exposures with similar parameters is grouped prior to entry into PCXMC to reduce the number of Monte Carlo calculations that need to be performed. Results: The software developed automatically transfers data from the DTS log file to PCXMC and runs the program for each grouping of exposure pulses. When the dose from all exposure events are calculated, the doses for each organ and all effective doses are summed to obtain procedure totals. For a complicated interventional procedure, the calculations can be completed on a PC without manual intervention in less than 30 minutes depending on the level of data grouping. Conclusion: This system allows organ dose to be calculated for individual procedures for every patient without tedious calculations or data entry so that estimates of stochastic risk can be obtained in addition to the deterministic risk estimate provided by the DTS. Partial support from NIH grant R01EB002873 and Toshiba Medical Systems Corp.

  10. General Procedure for the Easy Calculation of pH in an Introductory Course of General or Analytical Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepriá, Gemma; Salvatella, Luis

    2014-01-01

    All pH calculations for simple acid-base systems used in introductory courses on general or analytical chemistry can be carried out by using a general procedure requiring the use of predominance diagrams. In particular, the pH is calculated as the sum of an independent term equaling the average pK[subscript a] values of the acids involved in the…

  11. Lens of the eye dose calculation for neuro-interventional procedures and CBCT scans of the head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Zhenyu; Vijayan, Sarath; Rana, Vijay; Jain, Amit; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a method to calculate lens dose for fluoroscopically-guided neuro-interventional procedures and for CBCT scans of the head. EGSnrc Monte Carlo software is used to determine the dose to the lens of the eye for the projection geometry and exposure parameters used in these procedures. This information is provided by a digital CAN bus on the Toshiba Infinix C-Arm system which is saved in a log file by the real-time skin-dose tracking system (DTS) we previously developed. The x-ray beam spectra on this machine were simulated using BEAMnrc. These spectra were compared to those determined by SpekCalc and validated through measured percent-depth-dose (PDD) curves and half-value-layer (HVL) measurements. We simulated CBCT procedures in DOSXYZnrc for a CTDI head phantom and compared the surface dose distribution with that measured with Gafchromic film, and also for an SK150 head phantom and compared the lens dose with that measured with an ionization chamber. Both methods demonstrated good agreement. Organ dose calculated for a simulated neuro-interventional-procedure using DOSXYZnrc with the Zubal CT voxel phantom agreed within 10% with that calculated by PCXMC code for most organs. To calculate the lens dose in a neuro-interventional procedure, we developed a library of normalized lens dose values for different projection angles and kVp's. The total lens dose is then calculated by summing the values over all beam projections and can be included on the DTS report at the end of the procedure.

  12. A GIS-based procedure for automatically calculating soil loss from the Universal Soil Loss Equation: GISus-M

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The integration of methods for calculating soil loss caused by water erosion using a geoprocessing system is important to enable investigations of soil erosion over large areas. GIS-based procedures have been used in soil erosion studies; however in most cases it is difficult to integrate the functi...

  13. Classical scattering calculations for diatomic molecules: A general procedure and application to the microwave spectrum O2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mingelgrin, U.

    1972-01-01

    Many properties of gaseous systems such as electromagnetic absorption and emission, sound dispersion and absorption, may be elucidated if the nature of collisions between the particles in the system is understood. A procedure for the calculation of the classical trajectories of two interacting diatomic molecules is described. The dynamics of the collision will be assumed to be that of two rigid rotors moving in a specified potential. The actual outcome of a representative sample of many trajectories at 298K was computed, and the use of these values at any temperature for calculations of various molecular properties will be described. Calculations performed for the O2 microwave spectrum are given to demonstrate the use of the procedure described.

  14. 33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of liability adjustments for inflation. 138.240 Section 138.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative percent... every three years from the year the limits of liability were last adjusted for inflation, the...

  15. 33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of liability adjustments for inflation. 138.240 Section 138.240 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation. (a) Formula for calculating a cumulative percent... every three years from the year the limits of liability were last adjusted for inflation, the...

  16. Alternative analytically calculation procedure of two-center kinetic energy integral in molecular coordinate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamedov, Bahtiyar Akber; Copuroglu, Ebru

    2017-02-01

    By using the Löwdin-α function method, we have analytically calculated the two-center kinetic energy integrals over Slater type orbitals (STOs). The two-center kinetic energy integrals are presented in terms of the two-center overlap integrals. A new approach is applicable to accurate calculations of two-center kinetic energy integral over STOs for arbitrary values of scaling parameters and interatomic distances. Obtained results show that the proposed method is easy to apply to the real systems, and has better calculation CPU time with compared to the existing approximations.

  17. 40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-00 Supplemental Federal Test... test schedules of FTP, US06, and SC03. (b) The provisions of § 86.144-94(a) are applicable to this... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental Federal Test...

  18. 40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-08 Supplemental Federal Test... for the test schedules of FTP, US06, and SC03. (b) The provisions of § 86.144-94(a) are applicable to... the FTP test schedule (Ywm). (c)(1) When the test vehicle is equipped with air conditioning, the...

  19. 40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-08 Supplemental Federal Test... for the test schedules of FTP, US06, and SC03. (b) The provisions of § 86.144-94(a) are applicable to... the FTP test schedule (Ywm). (c)(1) When the test vehicle is equipped with air conditioning, the...

  20. 40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-08 Supplemental Federal Test... for the test schedules of FTP, US06, and SC03. (b) The provisions of § 86.144-94(a) are applicable to... the FTP test schedule (Ywm). (c)(1) When the test vehicle is equipped with air conditioning, the...

  1. 40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-08 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water according to paragraph (d) of this section. These... results to the environmental test cell air conditioning ambient condition of 100 grains of water/pound...

  2. 40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-00 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water (see paragraph (d) of this section). These provisions... environmental test cell air conditioning ambient condition of 100 grains of water/pound of dry air is: KH...

  3. 40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-00 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water (see paragraph (d) of this section). These provisions... environmental test cell air conditioning ambient condition of 100 grains of water/pound of dry air is: KH...

  4. 40 CFR 86.164-00 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-00 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water (see paragraph (d) of this section). These provisions... environmental test cell air conditioning ambient condition of 100 grains of water/pound of dry air is: KH...

  5. 40 CFR 86.164-08 - Supplemental Federal Test Procedure calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Otto-Cycle Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.164-08 Supplemental Federal Test... environmental test cell NOX results to 100 grains of water according to paragraph (d) of this section. These... results to the environmental test cell air conditioning ambient condition of 100 grains of water/pound...

  6. A Finite Element Procedure for Calculating Fluid-Structure Interaction Using MSC/NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chargin, Mladen; Gartmeier, Otto

    1990-01-01

    This report is intended to serve two purposes. The first is to present a survey of the theoretical background of the dynamic interaction between a non-viscid, compressible fluid and an elastic structure is presented. Section one presents a short survey of the application of the finite element method (FEM) to the area of fluid-structure-interaction (FSI). Section two describes the mathematical foundation of the structure and fluid with special emphasis on the fluid. The main steps in establishing the finite element (FE) equations for the fluid structure coupling are discussed in section three. The second purpose is to demonstrate the application of MSC/NASTRAN to the solution of FSI problems. Some specific topics, such as fluid structure analogy, acoustic absorption, and acoustic contribution analysis are described in section four. Section five deals with the organization of the acoustic procedure flowchart. Section six includes the most important information that a user needs for applying the acoustic procedure to practical FSI problems. Beginning with some rules concerning the FE modeling of the coupled system, the NASTRAN USER DECKs for the different steps are described. The goal of section seven is to demonstrate the use of the acoustic procedure with some examples. This demonstration includes an analytic verification of selected FE results. The analytical description considers only some aspects of FSI and is not intended to be mathematically complete. Finally, section 8 presents an application of the acoustic procedure to vehicle interior acoustic analysis with selected results.

  7. Alternative Methods for Calculating Intercoder Reliability in Content Analysis: Kappa, Weighted Kappa and Agreement Charts Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Namjun

    If content analysis is to satisfy the requirement of objectivity, measures and procedures must be reliable. Reliability is usually measured by the proportion of agreement of all categories identically coded by different coders. For such data to be empirically meaningful, a high degree of inter-coder reliability must be demonstrated. Researchers in…

  8. An automated procedure for calculating system matrices from perturbation data generated by an EAI Pacer and 100 hybrid computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milner, E. J.; Krosel, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques are presented for determining the elements of the A, B, C, and D state variable matrices for systems simulated on an EAI Pacer 100 hybrid computer. An automated procedure systematically generates disturbance data necessary to linearize the simulation model and stores these data on a floppy disk. A separate digital program verifies this data, calculates the elements of the system matrices, and prints these matrices appropriately labeled. The partial derivatives forming the elements of the state variable matrices are approximated by finite difference calculations.

  9. Development of an analytic procedure to calculate damage accumulation in composites during low velocity impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, E. A.; Goering, J.

    1983-01-01

    A computerized procedure was developed to model the response of a laminated composite plate subjected to low velocity impact. The methodology incorporated transient dynamics finite element analysis coupled with composite layer and interlaminar stress predictions. Damage was predicted using a stress based failure criteria and incorporated into the solution as stiffness modifications. The force-displacement relation between the impactor and plate was modelled with a nonlinear contact spring similar to Hertzian contact. Analyses performed predicted ply damage early in the impact event when the displacement fields were characteristic of high frequency flexurable response.

  10. Ortho- and clinopyroxene compositions in ordinary chondrites and related blander model calculation procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Olsen, E.

    1973-01-01

    Chemical analyses of the orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene compositions in chondrites are reported. Standard microprobe techniques to 15 kilovolts, 0.03 microamperes, and 40 second counting time were employed. Duplicate analyses were conducted on three grains of each opx and cpx together with two different raw data correction methods as checks on analytical precision and correction procedures. Only those analytical summations of between 99.20 and 100.80 weight percent, and cation summations between 3.980 and 4.020 (based on 6 oxygens) were used.

  11. Assessment of theoretical procedures for calculating barrier heights for a diverse set of water-catalyzed proton-transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Karton, Amir; O'Reilly, Robert J; Radom, Leo

    2012-04-26

    Accurate electronic barrier heights are obtained for a set of nine proton-transfer tautomerization reactions, which are either (i) uncatalyzed, (ii) catalyzed by one water molecule, or (iii) catalyzed by two water molecules. The barrier heights for reactions (i) and (ii) are obtained by means of the high-level ab initio W2.2 thermochemical protocol, while those for reaction (iii) are obtained using the W1 protocol. These three sets of benchmark barrier heights allow an assessment of the performance of more approximate theoretical procedures for the calculation of barrier heights of uncatalyzed and water-catalyzed reactions. We evaluate initially the performance of the composite G4 procedure and variants thereof (e.g., G4(MP2) and G4(MP2)-6X), as well as that of standard ab initio procedures (e.g., MP2, SCS-MP2, and MP4). We find that the performance of the G4(MP2)-type thermochemical procedures deteriorates with the number of water molecules involved in the catalysis. This behavior is linked to deficiencies in the MP2-based basis-set-correction term in the G4(MP2)-type procedures. This is remedied in the MP4-based G4 procedure, which shows good performance for both the uncatalyzed and the water-catalyzed reactions, with mean absolute deviations (MADs) from the benchmark values lying below the threshold of "chemical accuracy" (arbitrarily defined as 1 kcal mol(-1) ≈ 4.2 kJ mol(-1)). We also examine the performance of a large number of density functional theory (DFT) and double-hybrid DFT (DHDFT) procedures. We find that, with few exceptions (most notably PW6-B95 and B97-2), the performance of the DFT procedures that give good results for the uncatalyzed reactions deteriorates with the number of water molecules involved in the catalysis. The DHDFT procedures, on the other hand, show excellent performance for both the uncatalyzed and catalyzed reactions. Specifically, almost all of them afford MADs below the "chemical accuracy" threshold, with ROB2-PLYP and B2K

  12. Extension of a GIS procedure for calculating the RUSLE equation LS factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongming; Yang, Qinke; Li, Rui; Liu, Qingrui; Moore, Demie; He, Peng; Ritsema, Coen J.; Geissen, Violette

    2013-03-01

    The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and revised USLE (RUSLE) are often used to estimate soil erosion at regional landscape scales, however a major limitation is the difficulty in extracting the LS factor. The geographic information system-based (GIS-based) methods which have been developed for estimating the LS factor for USLE and RUSLE also have limitations. The unit contributing area-based estimation method (UCA) converts slope length to unit contributing area for considering two-dimensional topography, however is not able to predict the different zones of soil erosion and deposition. The flowpath and cumulative cell length-based method (FCL) overcomes this disadvantage but does not consider channel networks and flow convergence in two-dimensional topography. The purpose of this research was to overcome these limitations and extend the FCL method through inclusion of channel networks and convergence flow. We developed LS-TOOL in Microsoft's.NET environment using C♯ with a user-friendly interface. Comparing the LS factor calculated with the three methodologies (UCA, FCL and LS-TOOL), LS-TOOL delivers encouraging results. In particular, LS-TOOL uses breaks in slope identified from the DEM to locate soil erosion and deposition zones, channel networks and convergence flow areas. Comparing slope length and LS factor values generated using LS-TOOL with manual methods, LS-TOOL corresponds more closely with the reality of the Xiannangou catchment than results using UCA or FCL. The LS-TOOL algorithm can automatically calculate slope length, slope steepness, L factor, S factor, and LS factors, providing the results as ASCII files which can be easily used in some GIS software. This study is an important step forward in conducting more accurate large area erosion evaluation.

  13. Monte Carlo calculations on extremity and eye lens dosimetry for medical staff at interventional radiology procedures.

    PubMed

    Carinou, E; Ferrari, P; Koukorava, C; Krim, S; Struelens, L

    2011-03-01

    There are many factors that can influence the extremity and eye lens doses of the medical staff during interventional radiology and cardiology procedures. Numerical simulations can play an important role in evaluating extremity and eye lens doses in correlation with many different parameters. In the present study, the first results of the ORAMED (Optimisation of Radiation protection of MEDical staff) simulation campaign are presented. The parameters investigated for their influence on eye lens, hand, wrist and leg doses are: tube voltage, filtration, beam projection, field size and irradiated part of the patient's body. The tube voltage ranged from 60 to 110 kV(p), filtration from 3 to 6 mm Al and from 0 to 0.9 mm Cu. For all projections, the results showed that doses received by the operator decreased with increasing tube voltage and filtration. The magnitude of the influence of the tube voltage and the filtration on the doses depends on the beam projection and the irradiated part of the patient's body. Finally, the influence of the field size is significant in decreasing the doses.

  14. Fatigue Damage Spectrum calculation in a Mission Synthesis procedure for Sine-on-Random excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeli, Andrea; Cornelis, Bram; Troncossi, Marco

    2016-09-01

    In many real-life environments, certain mechanical and electronic components may be subjected to Sine-on-Random vibrations, i.e. excitations composed of random vibrations superimposed on deterministic (sinusoidal) contributions, in particular sine tones due to some rotating parts of the system (e.g. helicopters, engine-mounted components,...). These components must be designed to withstand the fatigue damage induced by the “composed” vibration environment, and qualification tests are advisable for the most critical ones. In the case of an accelerated qualification test, a proper test tailoring which starts from the real environment (measured vibration signals) and which preserves not only the accumulated fatigue damage but also the “nature” of the excitation (i.e. sinusoidal components plus random process) is important to obtain reliable results. In this paper, the classic time domain approach is taken as a reference for the comparison of different methods for the Fatigue Damage Spectrum (FDS) calculation in case of Sine-on-Random vibration environments. Then, a methodology to compute a Sine-on-Random specification based on a mission FDS is proposed.

  15. Reacidification modeling and dose calculation procedures for calcium-carbonate-treated lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Scheffe, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Two dose calculation models and a reacidification model were developed and applied to two Adirondack acid lakes (Woods Lake and Cranberry Pond) that were treated with calcite during May 30-31, 1985 as part of the EPRI-funded Lake Acidification Mitigation Project. The first dose model extended Sverdrup's (1983) Lake Liming model by incorporating chemical equilibrium routines to eliminate empirical components. The model simulates laboratory column water chemistry profiles (spatially and temporally) and dissolution efficiencies fairly well; however, the model predicted conservative dissolution efficiencies for the study lakes. Time-series water chemistry profiles of the lakes suggest that atmospheric carbon dioxide intrusion rate was far greater than expected and enhanced dissolution efficiency. Accordingly, a second dose model was developed that incorporated ongoing CO/sub 2/ intrusion and added flexibility in the handling of solid and dissolved species transport. This revised model simulated whole-lake water chemistry throughout the three week dissolution period. The Acid Lake Reacidification Model (ALaRM) is a general mass-balance model developed for the temporal prediction of the principal chemical species in both the water column and sediment pore water of small lakes and ponds.

  16. A procedure for the estimation of the numerical uncertainty of CFD calculations based on grid refinement studies

    SciTech Connect

    Eça, L.; Hoekstra, M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper offers a procedure for the estimation of the numerical uncertainty of any integral or local flow quantity as a result of a fluid flow computation; the procedure requires solutions on systematically refined grids. The error is estimated with power series expansions as a function of the typical cell size. These expansions, of which four types are used, are fitted to the data in the least-squares sense. The selection of the best error estimate is based on the standard deviation of the fits. The error estimate is converted into an uncertainty with a safety factor that depends on the observed order of grid convergence and on the standard deviation of the fit. For well-behaved data sets, i.e. monotonic convergence with the expected observed order of grid convergence and no scatter in the data, the method reduces to the well known Grid Convergence Index. Examples of application of the procedure are included. - Highlights: • Estimation of the numerical uncertainty of any integral or local flow quantity. • Least squares fits to power series expansions to handle noisy data. • Excellent results obtained for manufactured solutions. • Consistent results obtained for practical CFD calculations. • Reduces to the well known Grid Convergence Index for well-behaved data sets.

  17. A procedure for the calculation of alpha function coefficients for the attraction parameter of Van der Waals equations of state

    SciTech Connect

    Stamateris, B.; Olivera-Fuentes, C.

    1996-12-31

    A new procedure is proposed for the calculation and correlation of cohesion parameters in cubic equations of state of the Van der Waals type. In this method, the derivative (rather than the function itself) is computed subject to the Maxwell (equal area) and Clapeyron equations. Strong experimental evidence indicates that properly formulated a functions must generate negative values at high temperatures. A theoretical analysis demonstrates the correct, hard-body limiting behavior of the cohesion function at infinite temperatures. From this, the simplest possible form of the cohesion function follows as a two-constant expression that can be considered an extension of a functional form previously proposed by Martin. The proposed function`s performance is comparable to more complex expressions previously presented in the literature, predicting vapor pressures of polar and nonpolar fluids with relative deviations (i) of {+-} 1%. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Interactive calculation procedure for supersonic flows. Ph.D. Thesis - Case Western Reserve Univ., 1976. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tassa, Y.; Anderson, B. H.; Reshotko, E.

    1977-01-01

    An interactive procedure was developed for supersonic viscous flows that can be used for either two-dimensional or axisymmetric configurations. The procedure is directed to supersonic internal flows as well as those supersonic external flows that require consideration of mutual interaction between the outer flow and the boundary layer flow. The flow field is divided into two regions: an inner region which is highly viscous and mostly subsonic and an outer region where the flow is supersonic and in which viscous effects are small but not negligible. For the outer region a numerical solution is obtained by applying the method of characteristics to a system of equations which includes viscous and conduction transport terms only normal to the streamlines. The inner region is treated by a system of equations of the boundary layer type that includes higher order effects such as longitudinal and transverse curvature and normal pressure gradients. These equations are coupled and solved simultaneously in the physical coordinates by using an implicit finite difference scheme. This system can also be used to calculate laminar and turbulent boundary layers using a scalar eddy viscosity concept.

  19. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) of selected lipases: a procedure for the proper calculation of their recovered activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, synthesis of carrier-free immobilized biocatalysts by cross-linking of enzyme aggregates has appeared as a promising technique. Cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) present several interesting advantages over carrier-bound immobilized enzymes, such as highly concentrated enzymatic activity, high stability of the produced superstructure, important production costs savings by the absence of a support, and the fact that no previous purification of the enzyme is needed. However, the published literature evidences that a) much specific non-systematic exploratory work is being done and, b) recovered activity calculations in CLEAs still need to be optimized. In this context, this contribution presents results of an optimized procedure for the calculation of the activity retained by CLEAs, based on the comparison of their specific activity relative to their free enzyme counterparts. The protocol implies determination of precipitable protein content in commercial enzyme preparations through precipitation with ammonium sulphate and a protein co-feeder. The identification of linear ranges of activity versus concentration/amount of protein in the test reaction is also required for proper specific activity determinations. By use of mass balances that involve the protein initially added to the synthesis medium, and the protein remaining in the supernatant and washing solutions (these last derived from activity measurements), the precipitable protein present in CLEAs is obtained, and their specific activity can be calculated. In the current contribution the described protocol was applied to CLEAs of Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase, which showed a recovered specific activity of 11.1% relative to native lipase. The approach described is simple and can easily be extended to other CLEAs and also to carrier-bound immobilized enzymes for accurate determination of their retained activity. PMID:23663379

  20. Inter-model, analytical, and experimental validation of a heat balance based residential cooling load calculation procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Dongyi

    Scope and method of study. A systematic validation of the ASHRAE heat balance based residential cooling load calculation procedure (RHB) has been performed with inter-model comparison, analytical verification and experimental validation. The inter-model validation was performed using ESP-r as the reference model. The testing process was automated through parametric generation and simulation of large sets of test cases for both RHB and ESP-r. The house prototypes covered include a simple Shoebox prototype and a real 4-bedroom house prototype. An analytical verification test suite for building fabric models of whole building energy simulation programs has been developed. The test suite consists of a series of sixteen tests covering convection, conduction, solar irradiation, long-wave radiation, infiltration and ground-coupled floors. Using the test suite, a total of twelve analytical tests have been done with the RHB procedure. The experimental validation has been conducted using experimental data collected from a Cardinal Project house located in Fort Wayne, Indiana. During the diagnostic process of the experimental validation, comparisons have also been made between ESP-r simulation results and experimental data. Findings and conclusions. It is concluded RHB is acceptable as a design tool on a typical North American house. Analytical tests confirmed the underlying mechanisms for modeling basic heat transfer phenomena in building fabric. The inter-model comparison showed that the differences found between RHB and ESP-r can be traced to the differences in sub-models used by RHB and ESP-r. It also showed that the RHB-designed systems can meet the design criteria and that the RHB temperature swing option is helpful in reducing system over-sizing. The experimental validation demonstrated that the systems designed with the method will have adequate size to meet the room temperatures specified in the design, whether or not swing is utilized. However, actual system

  1. Development of procedures for calculating stiffness and damping properties of elastomers in engineering applications. Part 1: Verification of basic methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, T.; Tessarzik, J. M.; Badgley, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    The primary aim of this investigation was verification of basic methods which are to be used in cataloging elastomer dynamic properties (stiffness and damping) in terms of viscoelastic model constants. These constants may then be used to predict dynamic properties for general elastomer shapes and operating conditions, thereby permitting optimum application of elastomers as energy absorption and/or energy storage devices in the control of vibrations in a broad variety of applications. The efforts reported involved: (1) literature search; (2) the design, fabrication and use of a test rig for obtaining elastomer dynamic test data over a wide range of frequencies, amplitudes, and preloads; and (3) the reduction of the test data, by means of a selected three-element elastomer model and specialized curve fitting techniques, to material properties. Material constants thus obtained have been used to calculate stiffness and damping for comparison with measured test data. These comparisons are excellent for a number of test conditions and only fair to poor for others. The results confirm the validity of the basic approach of the overall program and the mechanics of the cataloging procedure, and at the same time suggest areas in which refinements should be made.

  2. Refining the calculation procedure for estimating the influence of flashing steam in steam turbine heaters on the increase of rotor rotation frequency during rejection of electric load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, V. B.; Shekhter, M. V.

    2012-12-01

    A refined procedure for estimating the effect the flashing of condensate in a steam turbine's regenerative and delivery-water heaters on the increase of rotor rotation frequency during rejection of electric load is presented. The results of calculations carried out according to the proposed procedure as applied to the delivery-water and regenerative heaters of a T-110/120-12.8 turbine are given.

  3. Standard Operating Procedure for Using the NAFTA Guidance to Calculate Representative Half-life Values and Characterizing Pesticide Degradation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Results of the degradation kinetics project and describes a general approach for calculating and selecting representative half-life values from soil and aquatic transformation studies for risk assessment and exposure modeling purposes.

  4. Description of the computations and pilot procedures for planning fuel-conservative descents with a small programmable calculator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, D. D.; Knox, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm and the vertical performance modeling required for the DC-10 airplane is described.

  5. Description of the computations and pilot procedures for planning fuel-conservative descents with a small programmable calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Vicroy, D.D.; Knox, C.E.

    1983-05-01

    A simplified flight management descent algorithm was developed and programmed on a small programmable calculator. It was designed to aid the pilot in planning and executing a fuel conservative descent to arrive at a metering fix at a time designated by the air traffic control system. The algorithm may also be used for planning fuel conservative descents when time is not a consideration. The descent path was calculated for a constant Mach/airspeed schedule from linear approximations of airplane performance with considerations given for gross weight, wind, and nonstandard temperature effects. The flight management descent algorithm and the vertical performance modeling required for the DC-10 airplane is described.

  6. The procedure and results of calculations of the equilibrium isotopic composition of a demonstration subcritical molten salt reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevinitsa, V. A.; Dudnikov, A. A.; Blandinskiy, V. Yu.; Balanin, A. L.; Alekseev, P. N.; Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V. F.; Pavlov, K. V.; Titarenko, A. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    A subcritical molten salt reactor with an external neutron source is studied computationally as a facility for incineration and transmutation of minor actinides from spent nuclear fuel of reactors of VVER-1000 type and for producing 233U from 232Th. The reactor configuration is chosen, the requirements to be imposed on the external neutron source are formulated, and the equilibrium isotopic composition of heavy nuclides and the key parameters of the fuel cycle are calculated.

  7. The procedure and results of calculations of the equilibrium isotopic composition of a demonstration subcritical molten salt reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Nevinitsa, V. A. Dudnikov, A. A.; Blandinskiy, V. Yu.; Balanin, A. L.; Alekseev, P. N.; Titarenko, Yu. E.; Batyaev, V. F.; Pavlov, K. V.; Titarenko, A. Yu.

    2015-12-15

    A subcritical molten salt reactor with an external neutron source is studied computationally as a facility for incineration and transmutation of minor actinides from spent nuclear fuel of reactors of VVER-1000 type and for producing {sup 233}U from {sup 232}Th. The reactor configuration is chosen, the requirements to be imposed on the external neutron source are formulated, and the equilibrium isotopic composition of heavy nuclides and the key parameters of the fuel cycle are calculated.

  8. Robust solution procedure for the discrete energy-averaged model on the calculation of 3D hysteretic magnetization and magnetostriction of iron-gallium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tari, H.; Scheidler, J. J.; Dapino, M. J.

    2015-06-01

    A reformulation of the Discrete Energy-Averaged model for the calculation of 3D hysteretic magnetization and magnetostriction of iron-gallium (Galfenol) alloys is presented in this paper. An analytical solution procedure based on an eigenvalue decomposition is developed. This procedure avoids the singularities present in the existing approximate solution by offering multiple local minimum energy directions for each easy crystallographic direction. This improved robustness is crucial for use in finite element codes. Analytical simplifications of the 3D model to 2D and 1D applications are also presented. In particular, the 1D model requires calculation for only one easy direction, while all six easy directions must be considered for general applications. Compared to the approximate solution procedure, it is shown that the resulting robustness comes at no expense for 1D applications, but requires almost twice the computational effort for 3D applications. To find model parameters, we employ the average of the hysteretic data, rather than anhysteretic curves, which would require additional measurements. An efficient optimization routine is developed that retains the dimensionality of the prior art. The routine decouples the parameters into exclusive sets, some of which are found directly through a fast preprocessing step to improve accuracy and computational efficiency. The effectiveness of the model is verified by comparison with existing measurement data.

  9. Procedure for calculating estimated ultimate recoveries of Bakken and Three Forks Formations horizontal wells in the Williston Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cook, Troy A.

    2013-01-01

    Estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs) are a key component in determining productivity of wells in continuous-type oil and gas reservoirs. EURs form the foundation of a well-performance-based assessment methodology initially developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS; Schmoker, 1999). This methodology was formally reviewed by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Committee on Resource Evaluation (Curtis and others, 2001). The EUR estimation methodology described in this paper was used in the 2013 USGS assessment of continuous oil resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations and incorporates uncertainties that would not normally be included in a basic decline-curve calculation. These uncertainties relate to (1) the mean time before failure of the entire well-production system (excluding economics), (2) the uncertainty of when (and if) a stable hyperbolic-decline profile is revealed in the production data, (3) the particular formation involved, (4) relations between initial production rates and a stable hyperbolic-decline profile, and (5) the final behavior of the decline extrapolation as production becomes more dependent on matrix storage.

  10. Saturn's infrared spots at the southern and northern polar regions and calculation of their sizes by a wave modulation procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G.

    2007-08-01

    -concave dichotomous shape. After asteroids the warping wave is too long to be detected in a body. So, one has to look for a shorter waves. Saturn's atmosphere rotates too rapidly (or orbits the center of the Saturnian system in ~ 10 h.) and corresponding grains (πR/3448) are too small and difficult (or impossible at present) to see. However, a wave modulation helps us. Multiplying and dividing the higher frequency (1/10 hours) by the lower one (1/30 y.) one gets side frequencies and corresponding them granule sizes. They are [1/3448 : 7.5] πR and [1/3448 x 7.5]πR or 7 and 410 km across. So, detected are calculated granules 410 km across, in the real field they are on average 450 and 580 km in diameter. Somewhat larger grains in the north are attributed to the Saturnian dichotomy: squeezed south and expanded north. The overall expansion of the northern hemisphere makes structural features to manifest themselves (hexagon) and granules to enlarge. References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. Calculating size of the Saturn's "leopard skin" spots // Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXVIII, 2007, Abstr. #1040, CD-ROM. [2] Kochemasov G.G. Concerted wave supergranulation of the solar system bodies // 16th Russian-American microsymposium on planetology, Abstracts, Moscow, Vernadsky Inst. (GEOKHI), 1992, 36-37.[3] Kochemasov G.G. Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr.1999. V.1, ´z3, p.700 ;

  11. Saturn's infrared spots at the southern and northern polar regions and calculation of their sizes by a wave modulation procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G.

    2007-08-01

    -concave dichotomous shape. After asteroids the warping wave is too long to be detected in a body. So, one has to look for a shorter waves. Saturn's atmosphere rotates too rapidly (or orbits the center of the Saturnian system in π10 h.) and corresponding grains (πR/3448) are too small and difficult (or impossible at present) to see. However, a wave modulation helps us. Multiplying and dividing the higher frequency (1/10 hours) by the lower one (1/30 y.) one gets side frequencies and corresponding them granule sizes. They are [1/3448 : 7.5] πR and [1/3448 x 7.5]πR or 7 and 410 km across. So, detected are calculated granules 410 km across, in the real field they are on average 450 and 580 km in diameter. Somewhat larger grains in the north are attributed to the Saturnian dichotomy: squeezed south and expanded north. The overall expansion of the northern hemisphere makes structural features to manifest themselves (hexagon) and granules to enlarge. References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. Calculating size of the Saturn's "leopard skin" spots // Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXVIII, 2007, Abstr. #1040, CD-ROM. [2] Kochemasov G.G. Concerted wave supergranulation of the solar system bodies // 16th Russian-American microsymposium on planetology, Abstracts, Moscow, Vernadsky Inst. (GEOKHI), 1992, 36-37.[3] Kochemasov G.G. Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr.1999. V.1, ´z3, p.700 ;

  12. Quantum molecular mechanics-a noniterative procedure for the fast ab Initio calculation of closed shell systems.

    PubMed

    Moura, Gustavo L C; Simas, Alfredo M

    2012-04-05

    In this article, we advance the foundations of a strategy to develop a molecular mechanics method based not on classical mechanics and force fields but entirely on quantum mechanics and localized electron-pair orbitals, which we call quantum molecular mechanics (QMM). Accordingly, we introduce a new manner of calculating Hartree-Fock ab initio wavefunctions of closed shell systems based on variationally preoptimized nonorthogonal electron pair orbitals constructed by linear combinations of basis functions centered on the atoms. QMM is noniterative and requires only one extremely fast inversion of a single sparse matrix to arrive to the one-particle density matrix, to the electron density, and consequently, to the ab initio electrostatic potential around the molecular system, or cluster of molecules. Although QMM neglects the smaller polarization effects due to intermolecular interactions, it fully takes into consideration polarization effects due to the much stronger intramolecular geometry distortions. For the case of methane, we show that QMM was able to reproduce satisfactorily the energetics and polarization effects of all distortions of the molecule along the nine normal modes of vibration, well beyond the harmonic region. We present the first practical applications of the QMM method by examining, in detail, the cases of clusters of helium atoms, hydrogen molecules, methane molecules, as well as one molecule of HeH(+) surrounded by several methane molecules. We finally advance and discuss the potentialities of an exact formula to compute the QMM total energy, in which only two center integrals are involved, provided that the fully optimized electron-pair orbitals are known.

  13. Introducing a Method for Calculating the Allocation of Attention in a Cognitive “Two-Armed Bandit” Procedure: Probability Matching Gives Way to Maximizing

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Gene M.; Grisanzio, Katherine A.; Liang, Victor

    2016-01-01

    We tested whether principles that describe the allocation of overt behavior, as in choice experiments, also describe the allocation of cognition, as in attention experiments. Our procedure is a cognitive version of the “two-armed bandit choice procedure.” The two-armed bandit procedure has been of interest to psychologistsand economists because it tends to support patterns of responding that are suboptimal. Each of two alternatives provides rewards according to fixed probabilities. The optimal solution is to choose the alternative with the higher probability of reward on each trial. However, subjects often allocate responses so that the probability of a response approximates its probability of reward. Although it is this result which has attracted most interest, probability matching is not always observed. As a function of monetary incentives, practice, and individual differences, subjects tend to deviate from probability matching toward exclusive preference, as predicted by maximizing. In our version of the two-armed bandit procedure, the monitor briefly displayed two, small adjacent stimuli that predicted correct responses according to fixed probabilities, as in a two-armed bandit procedure. We show that in this setting, a simple linear equation describes the relationship between attention and correct responses, and that the equation’s solution is the allocation of attention between the two stimuli. The calculations showed that attention allocation varied as a function of the degree to which the stimuli predicted correct responses. Linear regression revealed a strong correlation (r = 0.99) between the predictiveness of a stimulus and the probability of attending to it. Nevertheless there were deviations from probability matching, and although small, they were systematic and statistically significant. As in choice studies, attention allocation deviated toward maximizing as a function of practice, feedback, and incentives. Our approach also predicts the

  14. Variable-target-function and build-up procedures for the calculation of protein conformation. Application to bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor using limited simulated nuclear magnetic resonance data.

    PubMed

    Vásquez, M; Scheraga, H A

    1988-02-01

    An implementation of the variable-target-function procedure, first introduced by Braun and Go [W. Braun and N. Go, J. Mol. Biol. 186, 611-626 (1985)], has been used to generate conformations of the small protein bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), given a limited set of simulated data that could be obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. A hybrid strategy was also used to calculate conformations of BPTI, given the same information. In the hybrid strategy, low-energy structures of medium-size fragments (decapeptides) of BPTI were generated using the variable-target-function method, followed by restrained energy optimization. The low-energy conformations were used as a basis to build up the complete fifty-eight-residue BPTI molecule. By using the variable-target-function approach, in which energy considerations were not introduced until full conformations of the entire BPTI molecule had been generated, it was not possible to obtain calculated structures with rms deviations from the X-ray conformation of less than 1.6 A for the alpha-carbons. On the other hand, with the hybrid strategy, which involved the consideration of realistic energy terms in the early stages of the calculations, it was possible to calculate low-energy conformations of BPTI with rms deviations from the X-ray structure of 1.06 to 1.50 A for the alpha-carbons. When the rms deviations were computed along the amino acid sequence, it was found that there was a good correlation between deviations among the calculated structures and deviations from the X-ray structure.

  15. SU-E-I-22: Dependence On Calibration Phantom and Field Area of the Conversion Factor Used to Calculate Skin Dose During Neuro-Interventional Fluoroscopic Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, V K; Vijayan, S; Rudin, S R; Bednarek, D R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the appropriate calibration factor to use when calculating skin dose with our real-time dose-tracking system (DTS) during neuro-interventional fluoroscopic procedures by evaluating the difference in backscatter from different phantoms and as a function of entrance-skin field area. Methods: We developed a dose-tracking system to calculate and graphically display the cumulative skin-dose distribution in real time. To calibrate the DTS for neuro-interventional procedures, a phantom is needed that closely approximates the scattering properties of the head. We compared the x-ray backscatter from eight phantoms: 20-cm-thick solid water, 16-cm diameter water-filled container, 16-cm CTDI phantom, modified-ANSI head phantom, 20-cm-thick PMMA, Kyoto-Kagaku PBU- 50 head, Phantom-Labs SK-150 head, and RSD RS-240T head. The phantoms were placed on the patient table with the entrance surface at 15 cm tube-side from the isocenter of a Toshiba Infinix C-arm, and the entrance-skin exposure was measured with a calibrated 6-cc PTW ionization chamber. The measurement included primary radiation, backscatter from the phantom and forward scatter from the table and pad. The variation in entrance-skin exposure was also measured as a function of the skin-entrance area for a 30x30 cm by 20-cm-thick PMMA phantom and the SK-150 head phantom using four different added beam filters. Results: The entranceskin exposure values measured for eight different phantoms differed by up to 12%, while the ratio of entrance exposure of all phantoms relative to solid water showed less than 3% variation with kVp. The change in entrance-skin exposure with entrance-skin area was found to differ for the SK-150 head compared to the 20-cm PMMA phantom and the variation with field area was dependent on the added beam filtration. Conclusion: To accurately calculate skin dose for neuro-interventional procedures with the DTS, the phantom for calibration should be carefully chosen since different

  16. Calculating Toxic Corridors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    nomograms, and a programmable calculator . Appendices present worksheets, example problems, procedures for determining meteorological inputs, a procedure for determining evaporative source strength, and other items.

  17. Updates in the real-time Dose Tracking System (DTS) to improve the accuracy in calculating the radiation dose to the patients skin during fluoroscopic procedures.

    PubMed

    Rana, Vijay K; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R

    2013-03-06

    We have developed a dose-tracking system (DTS) to manage the risk of deterministic skin effects to the patient during fluoroscopic image-guided interventional cardiac procedures. The DTS calculates the radiation dose to the patient's skin in real-time by acquiring exposure parameters and imaging-system geometry from the digital bus on a Toshiba C-arm unit and displays the cumulative dose values as a color map on a 3D graphic of the patient for immediate feedback to the interventionalist. Several recent updates have been made to the software to improve its function and performance. Whereas the older system needed manual input of pulse rate for dose-rate calculation and used the CPU clock with its potential latency to monitor exposure duration, each x-ray pulse is now individually processed to determine the skin-dose increment and to automatically measure the pulse rate. We also added a correction for the table pad which was found to reduce the beam intensity to the patient for under-table projections by an additional 5-12% over that of the table alone at 80 kVp for the x-ray filters on the Toshiba system. Furthermore, mismatch between the DTS graphic and the patient skin can result in inaccuracies in dose calculation because of inaccurate inverse-square-distance calculation. Therefore, a means for quantitative adjustment of the patient-graphic-model position and a parameterized patient-graphic library have been developed to allow the graphic to more closely match the patient. These changes provide more accurate estimation of the skin-dose which is critical for managing patient radiation risk.

  18. Procedures for Calculating Cessation Lag

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental regulations aimed at reducing cancer risks usually have the effect of reducing exposure to a carcinogen at the time the regulation is inplemented. The reduction of cancer risk may occur shortly after the reduced exposure or after a consideravle period of time. The ...

  19. PROCEDURES FOR CALCULATING CESSATION LAG

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental regulations aimed at reducing cancer risks usually have the effect of reducing exposure to a carcinogen at the time the regulation is implemented. The reduction of cancer risk may occur shortly after the reduced exposure or after a considerable period of time. The t...

  20. SU-E-I-42: Normalized Embryo/fetus Doses for Fluoroscopically Guided Pacemaker Implantation Procedures Calculated Using a Monte Carlo Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Damilakis, J; Stratakis, J; Solomou, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: It is well known that pacemaker implantation is sometimes needed in pregnant patients with symptomatic bradycardia. To our knowledge, there is no reported experience regarding radiation doses to the unborn child resulting from fluoroscopy during pacemaker implantation. The purpose of the current study was to develop a method for estimating embryo/fetus dose from fluoroscopically guided pacemaker implantation procedures performed on pregnant patients during all trimesters of gestation. Methods: The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) radiation transport code was employed in this study. Three mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms representing the average pregnant patient at the first, second and third trimesters of gestation were generated using Bodybuilder software (White Rock science, White Rock, NM). The normalized embryo/fetus dose from the posteroanterior (PA), the 30° left-anterior oblique (LAO) and the 30° right-anterior oblique (RAO) projections were calculated for a wide range of kVp (50–120 kVp) and total filtration values (2.5–9.0 mm Al). Results: The results consist of radiation doses normalized to a) entrance skin dose (ESD) and b) dose area product (DAP) so that the dose to the unborn child from any fluoroscopic technique and x-ray device used can be calculated. ESD normalized doses ranged from 0.008 (PA, first trimester) to 2.519 μGy/mGy (RAO, third trimester). DAP normalized doses ranged from 0.051 (PA, first trimester) to 12.852 μGy/Gycm2 (RAO, third trimester). Conclusion: Embryo/fetus doses from fluoroscopically guided pacemaker implantation procedures performed on pregnant patients during all stages of gestation can be estimated using the method developed in this study. This study was supported by the Greek Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs, General Secretariat for Research and Technology, Operational Program ‘Education and Lifelong Learning’, ARISTIA (Research project: CONCERT)

  1. [A specific feature of the procedure for determination of optical properties of turbid biological tissues and media in calculation tasks of medical noninvasive spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Rogatkin, D A

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work is to discuss the problems of accuracy and reliability of the procedure for determination of optical per-unit-length properties of light-scattering biological tissues and media in medical noninvasive spectrophotometry. The determination procedure is based on the two-flux Kubelka-Munk approach. A simple one-dimensional model problem is formulated. The accurate solution of this problem is compared to its solution based on the Kubelka-Munk approach in various approximations. It is shown that in the general case of light-scattering and absorbing medium use of two independent transport coefficients (for scattering and absorption processes), as suggested in the conventional Kubelka-Munk approach, leads to errors of direct calculation of properties of backscattered and transmitted radiation in biological tissues. More valid and accurate expressions for transport coefficients can be obtained on the basis of a particular solution of the problem for a surface element of the model medium with known photometrical properties. This method makes it possible to determine accurately the radiation flux at the external boundary of the medium using the Kubelka-Munk approach. It is expected that solution of the inverse problem would make it possible to reconstruct accurately the optical properties of biological tissues from the experimental data.

  2. A procedure to calculate the self-shielding and detection efficiency for a gamma-emitting disk and sodium iodide crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcipiani, Biagio; Pedretti, Edmondo

    1980-07-01

    This paper reports on a procedure to correct for the detector efficiency and radiation self-absorption the number of counts tallied when the activity of a gamma-emitting thick foil is measured by means of a sodium iodide crystal. A model is set up whereby, after ideally dividing the disk into a large number of slices, it is shown how to separate for each slice the role of radiation detection from that of the absorption in the material between the slice and the crystal. While the former is accounted for by using an available Monte Carlo code, the latter is reduced to the calculation of suitable geometrical factors. Formulas for these factors are derived and were coded for an electronic computer. The Fortran IV program is available. Numerical results of the geometrical factors are shown for a 14 mm radius and 2.07 mm thick indium foil irradiated in a plasma focus machine, and these are compared with those obtained by a crude approximation reported elsewhere.

  3. The profound effects of patient arm positioning on organ doses from CT procedures calculated using Monte Carlo simulations and deformable phantoms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haikuan; Gao, Yiming; Ding, Aiping; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the organ dose differences caused by the arms-raised and arms-lowered postures for multidetector computed tomography procedures. Organ doses were calculated using computational phantoms and Monte Carlo simulations. The arm position in two previously developed adult male and female human phantoms was adjusted to represent 'raised' and 'lowered' postures using advanced BREP-based mesh surface geometries. Organ doses from routine computed tomography (CT) scan protocols, including the chest, abdomen-pelvis, and chest-abdomen-pelvis scans, were simulated at various tube voltages and reported in the unit of mGy per 100 mAs. The CT scanner model was based on previously tested work. The differences in organ dose per unit tube current between raised and lowered arm postures were studied. Furthermore, the differences due to the tube current modulation (TCM) for these two different postures and their impact on organ doses were also investigated. For a given scan parameter, a patient having lowered arms received smaller doses to organs located within the chest, abdomen or pelvis when compared with the patient having raised arms. As expected, this is caused by the attenuation of the primary X rays by the arms. However, the skin doses and bone surface doses in the patient having lowered arms were found to be 3.97-32.12% larger than those in a patient having raised arms due to the fact that more skin and spongiosa were covered in the scan range when the arms are lowered. This study also found that dose differences become smaller with the increase in tube voltage for most of organs or tissues except the skin. For example, the liver dose differences decreased from -15.01 to -11.33% whereas the skin dose differences increased from 21.53 to 25.24% with tube voltage increased from 80 to 140 kVp. With TCM applied, the organ doses of all the listed organs in patient having lowered arms are larger due to the additional tube current necessary to

  4. The profound effects of patient arm positioning on organ doses from CT procedures calculated using Monte Carlo simulations and deformable phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haikuan; Gao, Yiming; Ding, Aiping; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the organ dose differences caused by the arms-raised and arms-lowered postures for multidetector computed tomography procedures. Organ doses were calculated using computational phantoms and Monte Carlo simulations. The arm position in two previously developed adult male and female human phantoms was adjusted to represent ‘raised’ and ‘lowered’ postures using advanced BREP-based mesh surface geometries. Organ doses from routine computed tomography (CT) scan protocols, including the chest, abdomen–pelvis, and chest–abdomen–pelvis scans, were simulated at various tube voltages and reported in the unit of mGy per 100 mAs. The CT scanner model was based on previously tested work. The differences in organ dose per unit tube current between raised and lowered arm postures were studied. Furthermore, the differences due to the tube current modulation (TCM) for these two different postures and their impact on organ doses were also investigated. For a given scan parameter, a patient having lowered arms received smaller doses to organs located within the chest, abdomen or pelvis when compared with the patient having raised arms. As expected, this is caused by the attenuation of the primary X rays by the arms. However, the skin doses and bone surface doses in the patient having lowered arms were found to be 3.97–32.12 % larger than those in a patient having raised arms due to the fact that more skin and spongiosa were covered in the scan range when the arms are lowered. This study also found that dose differences become smaller with the increase in tube voltage for most of organs or tissues except the skin. For example, the liver dose differences decreased from −15.01 to −11.33 % whereas the skin dose differences increased from 21.53 to 25.24 % with tube voltage increased from 80 to 140 kVp. With TCM applied, the organ doses of all the listed organs in patient having lowered arms are larger due to the additional tube

  5. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators are well suited for closed-form calculation of pressure-vessel stresses. They offer adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs that demonstrate calculator capabilities are presented. Problems treated are stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and the computation of stresses near head/pressure-vessel junctures.

  6. Explicitly correlated benchmark calculations on C8H8 isomer energy separations: how accurate are DFT, double-hybrid, and composite ab initio procedures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karton, Amir; Martin, Jan M. L.

    2012-10-01

    Accurate isomerization energies are obtained for a set of 45 C8H8 isomers by means of the high-level, ab initio W1-F12 thermochemical protocol. The 45 isomers involve a range of hydrocarbon functional groups, including (linear and cyclic) polyacetylene, polyyne, and cumulene moieties, as well as aromatic, anti-aromatic, and highly-strained rings. Performance of a variety of DFT functionals for the isomerization energies is evaluated. This proves to be a challenging test: only six of the 56 tested functionals attain root mean square deviations (RMSDs) below 3 kcal mol-1 (the performance of MP2), namely: 2.9 (B972-D), 2.8 (PW6B95), 2.7 (B3PW91-D), 2.2 (PWPB95-D3), 2.1 (ωB97X-D), and 1.2 (DSD-PBEP86) kcal mol-1. Isomers involving highly-strained fused rings or long cumulenic chains provide a 'torture test' for most functionals. Finally, we evaluate the performance of composite procedures (e.g. G4, G4(MP2), CBS-QB3, and CBS-APNO), as well as that of standard ab initio procedures (e.g. MP2, SCS-MP2, MP4, CCSD, and SCS-CCSD). Both connected triples and post-MP4 singles and doubles are important for accurate results. SCS-MP2 actually outperforms MP4(SDQ) for this problem, while SCS-MP3 yields similar performance as CCSD and slightly bests MP4. All the tested empirical composite procedures show excellent performance with RMSDs below 1 kcal mol-1.

  7. Development and application of a program to calculate transonic flow around an oscillating three-dimensional wing using finite difference procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weatherill, Warren H.; Ehlers, F. Edward

    1989-01-01

    A finite difference method for solving the unsteady transonic flow about harmonically oscillating wings is investigated. The procedure is based on separating the velocity potential into steady and unsteady parts and linearizing the resulting unsteady differential equation for small disturbances. The differential equation for the unsteady potential is linear with spatially varying coefficients and with the time variable eliminated by assuming harmonic motion. Difference equations are derived for harmonic transonic flow to include a coordinate transformation for swept and tapered planforms. A pilot program is developed for three-dimensional planar lifting surface configurations (including thickness) for the CRAY-XMP at Boeing Commercial Airplanes and for the CYBER VPS-32 at the NASA Langley Research Center. An investigation is made of the effect of the location of the outer boundaries on accuracy for very small reduced frequencies. Finally, the pilot program is applied to the flutter analysis of a rectangular wing.

  8. SYMAT, COVAR: Test Procedures for Matrix Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, W. L.; Wiginton, C. L.; Lowell, D. K.

    1972-01-01

    The FORTRAN subroutine SYMAT and related subroutines are described. In essence SYMAT is an iterative algorithm in which the problem of finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a real symmetric matrix is transformed into an equivalent problem of finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors of an infinite sequence of matrices of order two. A DEMO PROGRAM contains a subroutine COVAR which is used to compute the covariance matrix (denoted by A) of a data matrix (denoted by X). Since a covariance matrix is symmetric it can be analyzed by using subroutine SYMAT.

  9. 47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a) All calculations shall be computed to no less than...

  10. Bolus calculators.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Signe; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2014-09-01

    Matching meal insulin to carbohydrate intake, blood glucose, and activity level is recommended in type 1 diabetes management. Calculating an appropriate insulin bolus size several times per day is, however, challenging and resource demanding. Accordingly, there is a need for bolus calculators to support patients in insulin treatment decisions. Currently, bolus calculators are available integrated in insulin pumps, as stand-alone devices and in the form of software applications that can be downloaded to, for example, smartphones. Functionality and complexity of bolus calculators vary greatly, and the few handfuls of published bolus calculator studies are heterogeneous with regard to study design, intervention, duration, and outcome measures. Furthermore, many factors unrelated to the specific device affect outcomes from bolus calculator use and therefore bolus calculator study comparisons should be conducted cautiously. Despite these reservations, there seems to be increasing evidence that bolus calculators may improve glycemic control and treatment satisfaction in patients who use the devices actively and as intended.

  11. 47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a)...

  12. Geometric field-line calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Mead, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    Procedure for calculating three components of vector field from spherical harmonic using either geocentric or geodetic coordinates as input and output is described. Three subroutines of computer program are explained. Program is written in FORTRAN for IBM 360 computer.

  13. CAI on a Programmable Calculator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlaphoff, Carl W.

    1975-01-01

    This article describes a procedure for presenting routine practice problems on a programable calculator with attached teletype. The program uses a random number generator to write problems, gives feedback and assigns grades according to the procedures outlined (and flow-charted) by the author. (SD)

  14. Programmable calculator stress analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Van Gulick, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper assesses the suitability of advanced programmable alphanumeric calculators for closed form calculation of pressure vessel stresses and offers, as their advantages, adequate computing power, portability, special programming features, and simple interactive execution procedures. Representative programs which demonstrate their capacities are presented. Problems dealing with stress and strength calculations in thick-walled pressure vessels and with the computation of stresses near head/pressure vessel junctures are treated. Assessed favorably in this paper as useful contributors to computeraided design of pressure vessels, programmable alphanumeric calculators have areas of implementation in checking finite element results, aiding in the development of an intuitive understanding of stresses and their parameter dependencies, and evaluating rapidly a variety of preliminary designs.

  15. Calculating a Stepwise Ridge Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, John D.

    1986-01-01

    Although methods for using ordinary least squares regression computer programs to calculate a ridge regression are available, the calculation of a stepwise ridge regression requires a special purpose algorithm and computer program. The correct stepwise ridge regression procedure is given, and a parallel FORTRAN computer program is described.…

  16. Firewood calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, A.; Curtis, A.B.; Darwin, W.N.

    1981-01-01

    Rotating cardboard discs are used to read off total tree or topwood firewood volume (tons or cords) that can be expected from trees of d.b.h. 6 to 24 inches and tree height 10 to 90 feet. One side of the calculator is used for broadleaved species with deliquescent crowns and the other side for braodleaves with excurrent crowns.

  17. Regularities of heat transfer in the gas layers of a steam boiler furnace flame. Part II. Gas layer radiation laws and the procedure for calculating heat transfer in furnaces, fire boxes, and combustion chambers developed on the basis of these laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, A. N.

    2014-10-01

    The article presents the results stemming from the scientific discovery of laws relating to radiation from the gas layers generated during flame combustion of fuel and when electric arc burns in electric-arc steel-melting furnaces. The procedure for calculating heat transfer in electric-arc and torch furnaces, fire-boxes, and combustion chambers elaborated on the basis of this discovery is described.

  18. Dental Procedures.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Denise R

    2016-01-01

    Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures.

  19. 40 CFR 1065.940 - Emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission calculations. 1065.940... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Field Testing and Portable Emission Measurement Systems § 1065.940 Emission calculations. (a) Perform emission calculations as described in § 1065.650 to calculate...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.940 - Emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission calculations. 1065.940... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Field Testing and Portable Emission Measurement Systems § 1065.940 Emission calculations. (a) Perform emission calculations as described in § 1065.650 to calculate...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.940 - Emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission calculations. 1065.940... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Field Testing and Portable Emission Measurement Systems § 1065.940 Emission calculations. (a) Perform emission calculations as described in § 1065.650 to calculate...

  2. 40 CFR 1065.940 - Emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission calculations. 1065.940... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Field Testing and Portable Emission Measurement Systems § 1065.940 Emission calculations. (a) Perform emission calculations as described in § 1065.650 to calculate...

  3. Configuration space Faddeev calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, G.L.; Klink, W.H.; Polyzou, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    The detailed study of few-body systems provides one of the most effective means for studying nuclear physics at subnucleon distance scales. For few-body systems the model equations can be solved numerically with errors less than the experimental uncertainties. We have used such systems to investigate the size of relativistic effects, the role of meson-exchange currents, and the importance of quark degrees of freedom in the nucleus. Complete calculations for momentum-dependent potentials have been performed, and the properties of the three-body bound state for these potentials have been studied. Few-body calculations of the electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron and pion have been carried out using a front-form formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics. The decomposition of the operators transforming convariantly under the Poincare group into kinematical and dynamical parts has been studies. New ways for constructing interactions between particles, as well as interactions which lead to the production of particles, have been constructed in the context of a relativistic quantum mechanics. To compute scattering amplitudes in a nonperturbative way, classes of operators have been generated out of which the phase operator may be constructed. Finally, we have worked out procedures for computing Clebsch-Gordan and Racah coefficients on a computer, as well as giving procedures for dealing with the multiplicity problem.

  4. Procedural knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgeff, Michael P.; Lansky, Amy L.

    1986-01-01

    Much of commonsense knowledge about the real world is in the form of procedures or sequences of actions for achieving particular goals. In this paper, a formalism is presented for representing such knowledge using the notion of process. A declarative semantics for the representation is given, which allows a user to state facts about the effects of doing things in the problem domain of interest. An operational semantics is also provided, which shows how this knowledge can be used to achieve particular goals or to form intentions regarding their achievement. Given both semantics, the formalism additionally serves as an executable specification language suitable for constructing complex systems. A system based on this formalism is described, and examples involving control of an autonomous robot and fault diagnosis for NASA's Space Shuttle are provided.

  5. 10 CFR 766.102 - Calculation methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculation methodology. 766.102 Section 766.102 Energy... ASSESSMENT OF DOMESTIC UTILITIES Procedures for Special Assessment § 766.102 Calculation methodology. (a) Calculation of Domestic Utilities' Annual Assessment Ratio to the Fund. Domestic utilities shall be...

  6. 40 CFR 92.132 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.132 Calculations. (a) Duty-cycle emissions. This section describes the calculation of duty-cycle emissions, in terms of grams per brake... duty-cycle emission test results are calculated as follows: (1)(i)...

  7. 40 CFR 92.132 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.132 Calculations. (a) Duty-cycle emissions. This section describes the calculation of duty-cycle emissions, in terms of grams per brake... duty-cycle emission test results are calculated as follows: (1)(i)...

  8. 40 CFR 92.132 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.132 Calculations. (a) Duty-cycle emissions. This section describes the calculation of duty-cycle emissions, in terms of grams per brake... duty-cycle emission test results are calculated as follows: (1)(i)...

  9. 40 CFR 92.132 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.132 Calculations. (a) Duty-cycle emissions. This section describes the calculation of duty-cycle emissions, in terms of grams per brake... duty-cycle emission test results are calculated as follows: (1)(i)...

  10. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  11. Exploring Hill Ciphers with Graphing Calculators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    Explains how to code and decode messages using Hill ciphers which combine matrix multiplication and modular arithmetic. Discusses how a graphing calculator can facilitate the matrix and modular arithmetic used in the coding and decoding procedures. (ASK)

  12. 49 CFR 535.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fleet and all of the advanced technology vehicles in the other fleet. (2) Vehicles in each fleet should... electric vehicles. Assign the fuel consumption test group result to a value of zero gallons per 100 miles... consumption results for all vehicle chassis (conventional, alternative fueled and advanced technology...

  13. 49 CFR 535.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vehicles in one fleet and all of the advanced technology vehicles in the other fleet. (2) Vehicles in each...) All electric vehicles are deemed to have zero emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O. No emission testing is required for such electric vehicles. Assign the fuel consumption test group result to a value of...

  14. 49 CFR 535.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fleet and all of the advanced technology vehicles in the other fleet. (2) Vehicles in each fleet should... electric vehicles. Assign the fuel consumption test group result to a value of zero gallons per 100 miles... consumption results for all vehicle chassis (conventional, alternative fueled and advanced technology...

  15. 49 CFR 535.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... your emission results as specified in 40 CFR 600.510-12(k) for light-duty trucks. (iii) All electric....525 and vehicles with post-transmission hybrid systems in accordance with 40 CFR 1037.550. (B) All... determine the fuel consumption of the engine. (iii) All electric vehicles are deemed to have zero...

  16. 49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (investment rate) of marketable securities of the United States Government having a duration of 91 days (3... all amounts received under the new rates (See 49 U.S.C. 10707(d)(1)). (2) For complaint proceedings... this section, coupon equivalent yields shall be considered “in effect” on the date the securities...

  17. 49 CFR 531.6 - Measurement and calculation procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY... all passenger automobiles that are manufactured by a manufacturer in a model year shall be...

  18. 49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Prime Rate as published by The Wall Street Journal. The rate levels will be determined as follows: (1... by The Wall Street Journal in effect on the day when the unlawful charge is paid. The interest rate in complaint proceedings shall be updated whenever The Wall Street Journal publishes a change to...

  19. 49 CFR 1141.1 - Procedures to calculate interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Prime Rate as published by The Wall Street Journal. The rate levels will be determined as follows: (1... by The Wall Street Journal in effect on the day when the unlawful charge is paid. The interest rate in complaint proceedings shall be updated whenever The Wall Street Journal publishes a change to...

  20. Multiloop calculations for superstrings in Neveu-Schwarz-Ramond formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A. Iu.; Perelomov, A. M.

    1989-04-01

    The paper presents a relatively simple procedure for multiloop calculations in which metrics, Beltrami superdifferentials, and summation over the spinor structures are determined with a single odd theta characteristic e(asterisk). At the end of the calculations, modular invariance is restored by summing over e(asterisk). It is noted that the proposed procedure should include the limiting procedure required in the intermediate stage of the calculations.

  1. HENRY'S LAW CALCULATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    On-Site was developed to provide modelers and model reviewers with prepackaged tools ("calculators") for performing site assessment calculations. The philosophy behind OnSite is that the convenience of the prepackaged calculators helps provide consistency for simple calculations,...

  2. Calculation methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Harris, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Calculation procedures for non-reacting compressible two- and three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers were reviewed. Integral, transformation and correlation methods, as well as finite difference solutions of the complete boundary layer equations summarized. Alternative numerical solution procedures were examined, and both mean field and mean turbulence field closure models were considered. Physics and related calculation problems peculiar to compressible turbulent boundary layers are described. A catalog of available solution procedures of the finite difference, finite element, and method of weighted residuals genre is included. Influence of compressibility, low Reynolds number, wall blowing, and pressure gradient upon mean field closure constants are reported.

  3. 40 CFR 1065.850 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calculations. 1065.850 Section 1065.850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Testing With Oxygenated Fuels § 1065.850 Calculations. Use the...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.850 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calculations. 1065.850 Section 1065.850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Testing With Oxygenated Fuels § 1065.850 Calculations. Use the...

  5. 40 CFR 1065.850 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations. 1065.850 Section 1065.850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Testing With Oxygenated Fuels § 1065.850 Calculations. Use the...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.850 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calculations. 1065.850 Section 1065.850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Testing With Oxygenated Fuels § 1065.850 Calculations. Use the...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.850 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calculations. 1065.850 Section 1065.850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Testing With Oxygenated Fuels § 1065.850 Calculations. Use the...

  8. 40 CFR 86.884-14 - Calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations. 86.884-14 Section 86.884-14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... New Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Smoke Exhaust Test Procedure § 86.884-14 Calculations. (a) If...

  9. 47 CFR 65.306 - Calculation accuracy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation accuracy. 65.306 Section 65.306 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.306 Calculation...

  10. 10 CFR 474.4 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ELECTRIC AND HYBRID VEHICLE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.4 Test procedures. (a) The electric vehicle energy... required for testing the energy consumption of electric vehicles....

  11. 10 CFR 474.4 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ELECTRIC AND HYBRID VEHICLE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.4 Test procedures. (a) The electric vehicle energy... required for testing the energy consumption of electric vehicles....

  12. 10 CFR 474.4 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ELECTRIC AND HYBRID VEHICLE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.4 Test procedures. (a) The electric vehicle energy... required for testing the energy consumption of electric vehicles....

  13. 10 CFR 474.4 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ELECTRIC AND HYBRID VEHICLE RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.4 Test procedures. (a) The electric vehicle energy... required for testing the energy consumption of electric vehicles....

  14. Closure and Sealing Design Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    T. Lahnalampi; J. Case

    2005-08-26

    The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not

  15. 10 CFR 474.4 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test procedures. 474.4 Section 474.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF...; PETROLEUM-EQUIVALENT FUEL ECONOMY CALCULATION § 474.4 Test procedures. (a) The electric vehicle energy... Schedule and Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule test cycles at 40 CFR parts 86 and 600. (b) The...

  16. 40 CFR 53.43 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... material collected with the test sampler using a calibrated fluorometer. Calculate and record the mass... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test procedures. 53.43 Section 53.43... PM10 § 53.43 Test procedures. (a) Sampling effectiveness—(1) Technical definition. The ratio...

  17. 40 CFR 53.43 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... material collected with the test sampler using a calibrated fluorometer. Calculate and record the mass... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test procedures. 53.43 Section 53.43... PM 10 § 53.43 Test procedures. (a) Sampling effectiveness—(1) Technical definition. The...

  18. Predictive values derived from lower wisdom teeth developmental stages on orthopantomograms to calculate the chronological age in adolescence and young adults as a prerequisite to obtain age-adjusted informed patient consent prior to elective surgical procedures in young patients with incomplete or mismatched personal data

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Reinhard E.; Schmidt, Kirsten; Treszl, András; Kersten, Jan F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical procedures require informed patient consent, which is mandatory prior to any procedure. These requirements apply in particular to elective surgical procedures. The communication with the patient about the procedure has to be comprehensive and based on mutual understanding. Furthermore, the informed consent has to take into account whether a patient is of legal age. As a result of large-scale migration, there are eventually patients planned for medical procedures, whose chronological age can’t be assessed reliably by physical inspection alone. Age determination based on assessing wisdom tooth development stages can be used to help determining whether individuals involved in medical procedures are of legal age, i.e., responsible and accountable. At present, the assessment of wisdom tooth developmental stages barely allows a crude estimate of an individual’s age. This study explores possibilities for more precise predictions of the age of individuals with emphasis on the legal age threshold of 18 years. Material and Methods: 1,900 dental orthopantomograms (female 938, male 962, age: 15–24 years), taken between the years 2000 and 2013 for diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the jaws, were evaluated. 1,895 orthopantomograms (female 935, male 960) of 1,804 patients (female 872, male 932) met the inclusion criteria. The archives of the Department of Diagnostic Radiology in Dentistry, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, and of an oral and maxillofacial office in Rostock, Germany, were used to collect a sufficient number of radiographs. An effort was made to achieve almost equal distribution of age categories in this study group; ‘age’ was given on a particular day. The radiological criteria of lower third molar investigation were: presence and extension of periodontal space, alveolar bone loss, emergence of tooth, and stage of tooth mineralization (according to Demirjian). Univariate and multivariate general linear models were

  19. Predictive values derived from lower wisdom teeth developmental stages on orthopantomograms to calculate the chronological age in adolescence and young adults as a prerequisite to obtain age-adjusted informed patient consent prior to elective surgical procedures in young patients with incomplete or mismatched personal data.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Reinhard E; Schmidt, Kirsten; Treszl, András; Kersten, Jan F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical procedures require informed patient consent, which is mandatory prior to any procedure. These requirements apply in particular to elective surgical procedures. The communication with the patient about the procedure has to be comprehensive and based on mutual understanding. Furthermore, the informed consent has to take into account whether a patient is of legal age. As a result of large-scale migration, there are eventually patients planned for medical procedures, whose chronological age can't be assessed reliably by physical inspection alone. Age determination based on assessing wisdom tooth development stages can be used to help determining whether individuals involved in medical procedures are of legal age, i.e., responsible and accountable. At present, the assessment of wisdom tooth developmental stages barely allows a crude estimate of an individual's age. This study explores possibilities for more precise predictions of the age of individuals with emphasis on the legal age threshold of 18 years. Material and Methods: 1,900 dental orthopantomograms (female 938, male 962, age: 15-24 years), taken between the years 2000 and 2013 for diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the jaws, were evaluated. 1,895 orthopantomograms (female 935, male 960) of 1,804 patients (female 872, male 932) met the inclusion criteria. The archives of the Department of Diagnostic Radiology in Dentistry, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, and of an oral and maxillofacial office in Rostock, Germany, were used to collect a sufficient number of radiographs. An effort was made to achieve almost equal distribution of age categories in this study group; 'age' was given on a particular day. The radiological criteria of lower third molar investigation were: presence and extension of periodontal space, alveolar bone loss, emergence of tooth, and stage of tooth mineralization (according to Demirjian). Univariate and multivariate general linear models were calculated

  20. Bariatric Surgery Procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center Access to Care Toolkit EHB Access Toolkit Bariatric Surgery Procedures Bariatric surgical procedures cause weight loss by ... minimally invasive techniques (laparoscopic surgery). The most common bariatric surgery procedures are gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, adjustable gastric ...

  1. Distillation Calculations with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Charles A.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a three-step approach for teaching multicomponent distillation to undergraduates, emphasizing patterns of distribution as an aid to understanding the separation processes. Indicates that the second step can be carried out by programmable calculators. (A more complete set of programs for additional calculations is available from the…

  2. Time Dependent Nuclear Scattering Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeks, David

    2005-04-01

    A new time dependent method for calculating scattering matrix elements of two and three body nuclear collisions below 50 Mev is being developed. The procedure closely follows the channel packet method (CPM) used to compute scattering matrix elements for non-adiabatic molecular reactions.ootnotetextT.A.Niday and D.E.Weeks, Chem. Phys. Letters 308 (1999) 106 Currently, one degree of freedom calculations using a simple square well have been completed and a two body scattering calculation using the Yukawa potential is anticipated. To perform nuclear scattering calculations with the CPM that will incorporate the nucleon-nucleon tensor force, we plan to position initial reactant and product channel packets in the asymptotic limit on single coupled potential energy surfaces labeled by the spin, isospin, and total angular momentum of the reactant nucleons. The wave packets will propagated numerically using the split operator method augmented by a coordinate dependant unitary transformation used to diagonalize the potential. Scattering matrix elements will be determined by the Fourier transform of the correlation function between the evolving reactant and product wave packets. A brief outline of the Argonne v18 nucleon-nucleon potentialootnotetextR.B.Wiringa, V.G.J.Stoks, and R.Schiavilla, Physical Review C 51(1995) 38 and the proposed wave packet calculations will be presented.

  3. Computerized procedures system

    DOEpatents

    Lipner, Melvin H.; Mundy, Roger A.; Franusich, Michael D.

    2010-10-12

    An online data driven computerized procedures system that guides an operator through a complex process facility's operating procedures. The system monitors plant data, processes the data and then, based upon this processing, presents the status of the current procedure step and/or substep to the operator. The system supports multiple users and a single procedure definition supports several interface formats that can be tailored to the individual user. Layered security controls access privileges and revisions are version controlled. The procedures run on a server that is platform independent of the user workstations that the server interfaces with and the user interface supports diverse procedural views.

  4. Designing Flightdeck Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Mauro, Robert; Degani, Asaf; Loukopoulou, Loukia

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of this document is to provide guidance on how to design, implement, and evaluate flight deck procedures. It provides a process for developing procedures that meet clear and specific requirements. This document provides a brief overview of: 1) the requirements for procedures, 2) a process for the design of procedures, and 3) a process for the design of checklists. The brief overview is followed by amplified procedures that follow the above steps and provide details for the proper design, implementation and evaluation of good flight deck procedures and checklists.

  5. Calculating Cumulative Binomial-Distribution Probabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuer, Ernest M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, CUMBIN, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. CUMBIN, NEWTONP (NPO-17556), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), used independently of one another. Reliabilities and availabilities of k-out-of-n systems analyzed. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Used for calculations of reliability and availability. Program written in C.

  6. Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures

    MedlinePlus

    ... LASIK Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures Laser Surgery Recovery Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures Dec. 12, 2015 Today's refractive ... that releases controlled amounts of radio frequency (RF) energy, instead of a laser, to apply heat to ...

  7. Cosmetic Procedure Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkles Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory ... Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose Veins Vitiligo Wrinkles Treatments and Procedures Ambulatory ...

  8. Personal Finance Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argo, Mark

    1982-01-01

    Contains explanations and examples of mathematical calculations for a secondary level course on personal finance. How to calculate total monetary cost of an item, monthly payments, different types of interest, annual percentage rates, and unit pricing is explained. (RM)

  9. Calculators, Computers, and Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Jon L.; Kirschner, Vicky

    Suggestions for using four-function calculators, programmable calculators, and microcomputers are considered in this collection of 36 articles. The first section contains articles considering general implications for mathematics curricula implied by the freedom calculators offer students from routine computation, enabling them to focus on results…

  10. How Do Calculators Calculate Trigonometric Functions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Jeremy M.; Edwards, Bruce H.

    How does your calculator quickly produce values of trigonometric functions? You might be surprised to learn that it does not use series or polynomial approximations, but rather the so-called CORDIC method. This paper will focus on the geometry of the CORDIC method, as originally developed by Volder in 1959. This algorithm is a wonderful…

  11. Crew procedures development techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.; Hawk, M. L.; Mangiaracina, A. A.; Mcgavern, J. L.; Spangler, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    The study developed requirements, designed, developed, checked out and demonstrated the Procedures Generation Program (PGP). The PGP is a digital computer program which provides a computerized means of developing flight crew procedures based on crew action in the shuttle procedures simulator. In addition, it provides a real time display of procedures, difference procedures, performance data and performance evaluation data. Reconstruction of displays is possible post-run. Data may be copied, stored on magnetic tape and transferred to the document processor for editing and documentation distribution.

  12. 40 CFR 600.113-88 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-88... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy and Carbon-Related... economy calculations. The Administrator will use the calculation procedure set forth in this paragraph...

  13. Electrical screening procedure for solid ionic conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kautz, H. E.; Singer, J.; Fielder, W. L.; Fordyce, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    An electrical screening method has been developed for preliminary evaluation of polycrystalline specimens of candidates for use as solid ionic conductive electrolytes in batteries. The procedure measures dielectric loss and capacitance, from which are calculated an ac conductivity attributed provisionally to ions and an activation energy for that conductivity. Electronic conductivity is directly measured. The screening procedure applied to sodium beta-alumina yielded acceptable values for conductivity and activation energy.

  14. Nonequilibrium chemistry boundary layer integral matrix procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, H.; Buckingham, A. C.; Morse, H. L.

    1973-01-01

    The development of an analytic procedure for the calculation of nonequilibrium boundary layer flows over surfaces of arbitrary catalycities is described. An existing equilibrium boundary layer integral matrix code was extended to include nonequilibrium chemistry while retaining all of the general boundary condition features built into the original code. For particular application to the pitch-plane of shuttle type vehicles, an approximate procedure was developed to estimate the nonequilibrium and nonisentropic state at the edge of the boundary layer.

  15. New method for calculating shell correction

    SciTech Connect

    Salamon, P.; Kruppa, A. T.; Vertse, T.

    2010-06-15

    A new method is presented for the calculation of the shell correction with the inclusion of the continuum part of the spectrum. The smoothing function used has a finite energy range in contrast to the Gaussian shape of the Strutinski method. The new method is especially useful for light nuclei where the generalized Strutinski procedure cannot be applied.

  16. Use of quadratic components for buckling calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, C.R.; Segalman, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    A buckling calculation procedure based on the method of quadratic components is presented. Recently developed for simulating the motion of rotating flexible structures, the method of quadratic components is shown to be applicable to buckling problems with either conservative or nonconservative loads. For conservative loads, stability follows from the positive definiteness of the system`s stiffness matrix. For nonconservative loads, stability is determined by solving a nonsymmetric eigenvalue problem, which depends on both the stiffness and mass distribution of the system. Buckling calculations presented for a cantilevered beam are shown to compare favorably with classical results. Although the example problem is fairly simple and well-understood, the procedure can be used in conjunction with a general-purpose finite element code for buckling calculations of more complex systems.

  17. Multiphase flow calculation software

    DOEpatents

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-04-15

    Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.

  18. Evapotranspiration Calculator Desktop Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Evapotranspiration Calculator estimates evapotranspiration time series data for hydrological and water quality models for the Hydrologic Simulation Program - Fortran (HSPF) and the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM).

  19. Pyroshock prediction procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piersol, Allan G.

    2002-05-01

    Given sufficient effort, pyroshock loads can be predicted by direct analytical procedures using Hydrocodes that analytically model the details of the pyrotechnic explosion and its interaction with adjacent structures, including nonlinear effects. However, it is more common to predict pyroshock environments using empirical procedures based upon extensive studies of past pyroshock data. Various empirical pyroshock prediction procedures are discussed, including those developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Lockheed-Martin, and Boeing.

  20. Candidate CDTI procedures study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ace, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    A concept with potential for increasing airspace capacity by involving the pilot in the separation control loop is discussed. Some candidate options are presented. Both enroute and terminal area procedures are considered and, in many cases, a technologically advanced Air Traffic Control structure is assumed. Minimum display characteristics recommended for each of the described procedures are presented. Recommended sequencing of the operational testing of each of the candidate procedures is presented.

  1. Procedural pediatric dermatology.

    PubMed

    Metz, Brandie J

    2013-04-01

    Due to many factors, including parental anxiety, a child's inability to understand the necessity of a procedure and a child's unwillingness to cooperate, it can be much more challenging to perform dermatologic procedures in children. This article reviews pre-procedural preparation of patients and parents, techniques for minimizing injection-related pain and optimal timing of surgical intervention. The risks and benefits of general anesthesia in the setting of pediatric dermatologic procedures are discussed. Additionally, the surgical approach to a few specific types of birthmarks is addressed.

  2. Modified arthroscopic Brostrom procedure.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-09-01

    The open modified Brostrom anatomic repair technique is widely accepted as the reference standard for lateral ankle stabilization. However, there is high incidence of intra-articular pathologies associated with chronic lateral ankle instability which may not be addressed by an isolated open Brostrom procedure. Arthroscopic Brostrom procedure with suture anchor has been described for anatomic repair of chronic lateral ankle instability and management of intra-articular lesions. However, the complication rates seemed to be higher than open Brostrom procedure. Modification of the arthroscopic Brostrom procedure with the use of bone tunnel may reduce the risk of certain complications.

  3. [Understanding dosage calculations].

    PubMed

    Benlahouès, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The calculation of dosages in paediatrics is the concern of the whole medical and paramedical team. This activity must generate a minimum of risks in order to prevent care-related adverse events. In this context, the calculation of dosages is a practice which must be understood by everyone.

  4. Electron beam dose calculations.

    PubMed

    Hogstrom, K R; Mills, M D; Almond, P R

    1981-05-01

    Electron beam dose distributions in the presence of inhomogeneous tissue are calculated by an algorithm that sums the dose distribution of individual pencil beams. The off-axis dependence of the pencil beam dose distribution is described by the Fermi-Eyges theory of thick-target multiple Coulomb scattering. Measured square-field depth-dose data serve as input for the calculations. Air gap corrections are incorporated and use data from'in-air' measurements in the penumbra of the beam. The effective depth, used to evaluate depth-dose, and the sigma of the off-axis Gaussian spread against depth are calculated by recursion relations from a CT data matrix for the material underlying individual pencil beams. The correlation of CT number with relative linear stopping power and relative linear scattering power for various tissues is shown. The results of calculations are verified by comparison with measurements in a 17 MeV electron beam from the Therac 20 linear accelerator. Calculated isodose lines agree nominally to within 2 mm of measurements in a water phantom. Similar agreement is observed in cork slabs simulating lung. Calculations beneath a bone substitute illustrate a weakness in the calculation. Finally a case of carcinoma in the maxillary antrum is studied. The theory suggests an alternative method for the calculation of depth-dose of rectangular fields.

  5. Calculation of quasi-static helium triplet diffuse line profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Calculated spectral line profiles (intensity distributions) of the helium triplet diffuse series were obtained using the quasi-static approximation for ions and electrons. In these calculations, Doppler broadening, although negligible in most of the cases, was included as a device to avoid singularities. Plots and tabulations of the calculated profiles are presented, in addition to a discussion of the computational procedure and the validity of the calculations.

  6. Sample size calculations.

    PubMed

    Noordzij, Marlies; Dekker, Friedo W; Zoccali, Carmine; Jager, Kitty J

    2011-01-01

    The sample size is the number of patients or other experimental units that need to be included in a study to answer the research question. Pre-study calculation of the sample size is important; if a sample size is too small, one will not be able to detect an effect, while a sample that is too large may be a waste of time and money. Methods to calculate the sample size are explained in statistical textbooks, but because there are many different formulas available, it can be difficult for investigators to decide which method to use. Moreover, these calculations are prone to errors, because small changes in the selected parameters can lead to large differences in the sample size. This paper explains the basic principles of sample size calculations and demonstrates how to perform such a calculation for a simple study design.

  7. Procedural Learning and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolson, R. I.; Fawcett, A. J.; Brookes, R. L.; Needle, J.

    2010-01-01

    Three major "neural systems", specialized for different types of information processing, are the sensory, declarative, and procedural systems. It has been proposed ("Trends Neurosci.",30(4), 135-141) that dyslexia may be attributable to impaired function in the procedural system together with intact declarative function. We provide a brief…

  8. Enucleation Procedure Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kevin; Poston, George

    This manual provides information on the enucleation procedure (removal of the eyes for organ banks). An introductory section focuses on the anatomy of the eye and defines each of the parts. Diagrams of the eye are provided. A list of enucleation materials follows. Other sections present outlines of (1) a sterile procedure; (2) preparation for eye…

  9. Connectionist Learning Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Geoffrey E.

    A major goal of research on networks of neuron-like processing units is to discover efficient learning procedures that allow these networks to construct complex internal representations of their environment. The learning procedures must be capable of modifying the connection strengths in such a way that internal units which are not part of the…

  10. Developmental Predictors of Fraction Concepts and Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Nancy C.; Hansen, Nicole; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Siegler, Robert S.; Gersten, Russell; Micklos, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Developmental predictors of children's fraction concepts and procedures at the end of fourth grade were investigated in a 2-year longitudinal study. Participants were 357 children who started the study in third grade. Attentive behavior, language, nonverbal reasoning, number line estimation, calculation fluency, and reading fluency each…

  11. 40 CFR 600.208-77 - Sample calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Procedures for Calculating Fuel Economy Values § 600.208-77 Sample...

  12. Dose Calculation Spreadsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, Ali

    1997-06-10

    VENTSAR XL is an EXCEL Spreadsheet that can be used to calculate downwind doses as a result of a hypothetical atmospheric release. Both building effects and plume rise may be considered. VENTSAR XL will run using any version of Microsoft EXCEL version 4.0 or later. Macros (the programming language of EXCEL) was used to automate the calculations. The user enters a minimal amount of input and the code calculates the resulting concentrations and doses at various downwind distances as specified by the user.

  13. Interval arithmetic in calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairbekova, Gaziza; Mazakov, Talgat; Djomartova, Sholpan; Nugmanova, Salima

    2016-10-01

    Interval arithmetic is the mathematical structure, which for real intervals defines operations analogous to ordinary arithmetic ones. This field of mathematics is also called interval analysis or interval calculations. The given math model is convenient for investigating various applied objects: the quantities, the approximate values of which are known; the quantities obtained during calculations, the values of which are not exact because of rounding errors; random quantities. As a whole, the idea of interval calculations is the use of intervals as basic data objects. In this paper, we considered the definition of interval mathematics, investigated its properties, proved a theorem, and showed the efficiency of the new interval arithmetic. Besides, we briefly reviewed the works devoted to interval analysis and observed basic tendencies of development of integral analysis and interval calculations.

  14. National Stormwater Calculator

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA’s National Stormwater Calculator (SWC) is a desktop application that estimates the annual amount of rainwater and frequency of runoff from a specific site anywhere in the United States (including Puerto Rico).

  15. More Experiments and Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddons, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Describes two experiments that illustrate basic ideas but would be difficult to carry out. Also presents activities and experiments on rainbow cups, electrical charges, electrophorus calculation, pulse electrometer, a skidding car, and on the Oersted effect. (JN)

  16. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTY CALCULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer models have been developed to estimate a wide range of physical-chemical properties from molecular structure. The SPARC modeling system approaches calculations as site specific reactions (pKa, hydrolysis, hydration) and `whole molecule' properties (vapor pressure, boilin...

  17. Minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small “ports” from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry—meaning only one small incision, like the “uniport” video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional “open” surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery. PMID:25861610

  18. Quantum Chemical Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The current methods of quantum chemical calculations will be reviewed. The accent will be on the accuracy that can be achieved with these methods. The basis set requirements and computer resources for the various methods will be discussed. The utility of the methods will be illustrated with some examples, which include the calculation of accurate bond energies for SiF$_n$ and SiF$_n^+$ and the modeling of chemical data storage.

  19. Source and replica calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, P.P.

    1994-02-01

    The starting point of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki Dose Reevaluation Program is the energy and directional distributions of the prompt neutron and gamma-ray radiation emitted from the exploding bombs. A brief introduction to the neutron source calculations is presented. The development of our current understanding of the source problem is outlined. It is recommended that adjoint calculations be used to modify source spectra to resolve the neutron discrepancy problem.

  20. Precipitates/Salts Model Sensitivity Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    P. Mariner

    2001-12-20

    The objective and scope of this calculation is to assist Performance Assessment Operations and the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Department in modeling the geochemical effects of evaporation on potential seepage waters within a potential repository drift. This work is developed and documented using procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', in support of ''Technical Work Plan For Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY 02 Work Activities'' (BSC 2001a). The specific objective of this calculation is to examine the sensitivity and uncertainties of the Precipitates/Salts model. The Precipitates/Salts model is documented in an Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Analysis'' (BSC 2001b). The calculation in the current document examines the effects of starting water composition, mineral suppressions, and the fugacity of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) on the chemical evolution of water in the drift.

  1. ON-LINE CALCULATOR: FORWARD CALCULATION JOHNSON ETTINGER MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    On-Site was developed to provide modelers and model reviewers with prepackaged tools ("calculators") for performing site assessment calculations. The philosophy behind OnSite is that the convenience of the prepackaged calculators helps provide consistency for simple calculations,...

  2. Canalith Repositioning Procedure

    MedlinePlus

    ... repositioning procedure can help relieve benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), a condition in which you have brief, but intense, episodes of dizziness that occur when you move your head. Vertigo ...

  3. Lithotripsy procedure (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a procedure used to shatter simple stones in the kidney or upper urinary tract. Ultrasonic waves are passed through the body until they strike the dense stones. Pulses of ...

  4. Dynamic alarm response procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Gordon, P.; Fitch, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Dynamic Alarm Response Procedure (DARP) system provides a robust, Web-based alternative to existing hard-copy alarm response procedures. This paperless system improves performance by eliminating time wasted looking up paper procedures by number, looking up plant process values and equipment and component status at graphical display or panels, and maintenance of the procedures. Because it is a Web-based system, it is platform independent. DARP's can be served from any Web server that supports CGI scripting, such as Apache{sup R}, IIS{sup R}, TclHTTPD, and others. DARP pages can be viewed in any Web browser that supports Javascript and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), such as Netscape{sup R}, Microsoft Internet Explorer{sup R}, Mozilla Firefox{sup R}, Opera{sup R}, and others. (authors)

  5. Short Nuss bar procedure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Nuss procedure is now the preferred operation for surgical correction of pectus excavatum (PE). It is a minimally invasive technique, whereby one to three curved metal bars are inserted behind the sternum in order to push it into a normal position. The bars are left in situ for three years and then removed. This procedure significantly improves quality of life and, in most cases, also improves cardiac performance. Previously, the modified Ravitch procedure was used with resection of cartilage and the use of posterior support. This article details the new modified Nuss procedure, which requires the use of shorter bars than specified by the original technique. This technique facilitates the operation as the bar may be guided manually through the chest wall and no additional stabilizing sutures are necessary. PMID:27747185

  6. [The EXIT procedure].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, S; Blödow, A; Flügel, W; Renner-Lützkendorf, H; Isbruch, A; Siegling, F; Untch, M; Strauß, J; Bloching, M B

    2013-08-01

    The ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure is used for unborn fetuses in cases of predictable complications of postpartum airway obstruction. Indications for the EXIT procedure are fetal neck tumors, obstruction of the trachea, hiatus hernia of the diaphragm and congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS). Large cervical tumors prevent normal delivery of a fetus due to reclination of the head with airway obstruction. Therefore, a primary caesarean section or the EXIT procedure has to be considered. The EXIT procedure has time limitations as the blood supply by the placenta only lasts for 30-60 min. Airway protection has to be ensured during parturition.This article reports the case of an unborn fetus with a large cervical teratoma where an obstruction of the cervical airway was detected and monitored by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during pregnancy. The EXIT procedure was therefore used and successfully accomplished. The features of the interdisciplinary aspects of the EXIT procedure are described with the special aspects of each medical discipline.

  7. Calculating toxic corridors. Revision. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, J.P.; Curry, R.G.; Kandler, R.A.

    1989-04-01

    Method for defining evacuation areas for accidental spills of toxic chemicals are presented. These spills can present serious health hazards to people exposed to excessive vapor concentrations downwind of the accident. An empirical diffusion equation is used to calculate the downwind hazard distance. The width of the toxic corridor, specified in angular degrees centered along the mean wind direction, is based upon the variability of the wind direction. Flexibility in estimating toxic corridor evacuation areas is allowed through a choice of four different methods involving the use of tables, nomograms, and a programmable calculator. Appendices present worksheets, example problems, procedures for determining meteorological units, a procedure for determining evaporative source strength, and other items.

  8. Calculate waveguide aperture susceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, J.-K.; Ishii, T. K.

    1982-12-01

    A method is developed for calculating aperture susceptance which makes use of the distribution of an aperture's local fields. This method can be applied to the computation of the aperture susceptance of irises, as well as the calculation of the susceptances of waveguide filters, aperture antennas, waveguide cavity coupling, waveguide junctions, and heterogeneous boundaries such as inputs to ferrite or dielectric loaded waveguides. This method assumes a local field determined by transverse components of the incident wave in the local surface of the cross section in the discontinuity plane which lies at the aperture. The aperture susceptance is calculated by the use of the local fields, the law of energy conservation, and the principles of continuity of the fields. This method requires that the thickness of the aperture structure be zero, but this does not limit the practical usefulness of this local-field method.

  9. Procedure for the Determination of Orbits of Astronomical Bodies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, David

    1977-01-01

    Presents a procedure for finding the elements of the orbit of an astronomical object from three or more observations. From a set of assumed elements an ephemeris is calculated and compared to the observations. (MLH)

  10. 40 CFR 98.85 - Procedures for estimating missing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.85 Procedures for estimating... apply. (b) For CO2 process emissions from cement manufacturing facilities calculated according to §...

  11. 40 CFR 98.85 - Procedures for estimating missing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.85 Procedures for estimating... apply. (b) For CO2 process emissions from cement manufacturing facilities calculated according to §...

  12. 40 CFR 98.85 - Procedures for estimating missing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.85 Procedures for estimating... apply. (b) For CO2 process emissions from cement manufacturing facilities calculated according to §...

  13. 40 CFR 98.85 - Procedures for estimating missing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Cement Production § 98.85 Procedures for estimating... apply. (b) For CO2 process emissions from cement manufacturing facilities calculated according to §...

  14. Calculation of Measurement Uncertainty Using Prior Information

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, S. D.; Estler, W. T.; Levenson, M. S.; Eberhardt, K. R.

    1998-01-01

    We describe the use of Bayesian inference to include prior information about the value of the measurand in the calculation of measurement uncertainty. Typical examples show this can, in effect, reduce the expanded uncertainty by up to 85 %. The application of the Bayesian approach to proving workpiece conformance to specification (as given by international standard ISO 14253-1) is presented and a procedure for increasing the conformance zone by modifying the expanded uncertainty guard bands is discussed. PMID:28009370

  15. Design Criteria for Low Profile Flange Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leimbach, K. R.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical method and a design procedure to develop flanged separable pipe connectors are discussed. A previously established algorithm is the basis for calculating low profile flanges. The characteristics and advantages of the low profile flange are analyzed. The use of aluminum, titanium, and plastics for flange materials is described. Mathematical models are developed to show the mechanical properties of various flange configurations. A computer program for determining the structural stability of the flanges is described.

  16. Engineering calculations for communications satellite systems planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reilly, Charles H.; Walton, Eric K.; Kohnhorst, Paul

    1987-01-01

    A procedure is described that was used to calculate minimum required satellite separations based on total link carrier to interference requirements. Also summarized are recent results with a switching algorithm for satellite synthesis problems. Analytic solution value bounds for two of the satellite synthesis models studied are described. Preliminary results from an empirical study of alternate mixed integer programming models for satellite synthesis are presented. Research plans for the near future are discussed.

  17. Calculation of free-fall trajectories using numerical optimization methods.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, D. G.; Fowler, W. T.; Gottlieb, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    An important problem in space flight is the calculation of trajectories for nonthrusting vehicles between fixed points in a given time. A new procedure based on Hamilton's principle for solving such two-point boundary-value problems is presented. It employs numerical optimization methods to perform the extremization required by Hamilton's principle. This procedure is applied to the calculation of an Earth-Moon trajectory. The results show that the initial guesses required to obtain an iteration procedure which converges are not critical and that convergence can be obtained to any predetermined degree of accuracy.

  18. Spin Resonance Strength Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courant, E. D.

    2009-08-01

    In calculating the strengths of depolarizing resonances it may be convenient to reformulate the equations of spin motion in a coordinate system based on the actual trajectory of the particle, as introduced by Kondratenko, rather than the conventional one based on a reference orbit. It is shown that resonance strengths calculated by the conventional and the revised formalisms are identical. Resonances induced by radiofrequency dipoles or solenoids are also treated; with rf dipoles it is essential to consider not only the direct effect of the dipole but also the contribution from oscillations induced by it.

  19. Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-11

    This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

  20. Graphing Calculator Mini Course

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karnawat, Sunil R.

    1996-01-01

    The "Graphing Calculator Mini Course" project provided a mathematically-intensive technologically-based summer enrichment workshop for teachers of American Indian students on the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation. Eleven such teachers participated in the six-day workshop in summer of 1996 and three Sunday workshops in the academic year. The project aimed to improve science and mathematics education on the reservation by showing teachers effective ways to use high-end graphing calculators as teaching and learning tools in science and mathematics courses at all levels. In particular, the workshop concentrated on applying TI-82's user-friendly features to understand the various mathematical and scientific concepts.

  1. 40 CFR 98.143 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Glass Production § 98.143 Calculating GHG emissions. You must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each continuous glass melting furnace using the procedure in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. (a) For each continuous glass melting furnace...

  2. 40 CFR 98.143 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Glass Production § 98.143 Calculating GHG emissions. You must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each continuous glass melting furnace using the procedure in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. (a) For each continuous glass melting furnace...

  3. 40 CFR 98.143 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Glass Production § 98.143 Calculating GHG emissions. You must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each continuous glass melting furnace using the procedure in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. (a) For each continuous glass melting furnace...

  4. 40 CFR 98.143 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Glass Production § 98.143 Calculating GHG emissions. You must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each continuous glass melting furnace using the procedure in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section. (a) For each continuous glass melting furnace...

  5. 40 CFR 98.183 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from each smelting furnace using the procedure in... carbon analysis (percent by weight, expressed as a decimal fraction). Other = Annual mass of any other... § 98.33(b)(4)(ii) or (b)(4)(iii), you must calculate and report combined process and combustion...

  6. 40 CFR 1036.530 - Calculating greenhouse gas emission rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calculating greenhouse gas emission rates. 1036.530 Section 1036.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Procedures § 1036.530 Calculating greenhouse gas emission rates. This section describes how to...

  7. Calculation methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers, 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, D. M.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Harris, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Equations and closure methods for compressible turbulent boundary layers are discussed. Flow phenomena peculiar to calculation of these boundary layers were considered, along with calculations of three dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers. Procedures for ascertaining nonsimilar two and three dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers were appended, including finite difference, finite element, and mass-weighted residual methods.

  8. 40 CFR 86.244-94 - Calculations; exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations; exhaust emissions. 86.244-94 Section 86.244-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.244-94 Calculations;...

  9. 40 CFR 86.156-98 - Calculations; refueling test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations; refueling test. 86.156-98 Section 86.156-98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.156-98 Calculations; refueling test. (a) The...

  10. 40 CFR 86.143-96 - Calculations; evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculations; evaporative emissions. 86.143-96 Section 86.143-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.143-96 Calculations; evaporative emissions. (a)...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1544 - Calculation; idle exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation; idle exhaust emissions. 86.1544 Section 86.1544 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Test Procedures § 86.1544 Calculation; idle exhaust emissions. (a) The final idle emission test...

  12. 40 CFR 600.113-93 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-93... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-93 Fuel economy calculations....

  13. 40 CFR 600.113-88 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-88... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-88 Fuel economy calculations....

  14. 40 CFR 600.113-78 - Fuel economy calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel economy calculations. 600.113-78... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1978 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Test Procedures § 600.113-78 Fuel economy calculations....

  15. 45 CFR 16.19 - How to calculate deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How to calculate deadlines. 16.19 Section 16.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURES OF THE DEPARTMENTAL GRANT APPEALS BOARD § 16.19 How to calculate deadlines. In counting days, include...

  16. 45 CFR 16.19 - How to calculate deadlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How to calculate deadlines. 16.19 Section 16.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURES OF THE DEPARTMENTAL GRANT APPEALS BOARD § 16.19 How to calculate deadlines. In counting days, include...

  17. Airborne antenna pattern calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagherian, A. B.; Mielke, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Use of calculation program START and modeling program P 3D to produce radiation patterns of antennas mounted on a space station is discussed. Basic components of two space stations in the early design stage are simulated and radiation patterns for antennas mounted on the modules are presented.

  18. Solar Guide and Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazria, Edward; Winitsky, David

    This guide provides users with a basic understanding of where and how the sun works in relation to a building and site and provides a simplified method of calculating sun angles and the available heat energy from the sun on vertical and horizontal surfaces. (Author/IRT)

  19. A Computer Calculated Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Francis J.

    The Gunning Fog Index of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog Index of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…

  20. Airborne antenna pattern calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knerr, T. J.; Owens, T. M.; Mielke, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Calculated principal-and off-principal plane patterns are presented for the following aircraft: de Havilland DHC-7, Rockwell Sabreliner 75A, Piper PA-31T Cheyenne, Lockheed Jet Star II, Piper PA-31-350 Navajo Chieftain, Beechcraft Duke B60, Rockwell Commander 700, Cessna Citation 3, Piper PA-31P Pressurized Navajo, Lear Jet, and Twin Otter DHC-6.

  1. Calculation of enviromental indices

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report discusses the development of environmental indices. These indices were developed to be a quantitative measure of characterizing how TVA power system operations and alternative energy strategies might affect the environment. All indices were calculated relative to the reference strategy, and for the environmental review, the reference strategy was `no action`.

  2. Tunnel closure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, B.; Attia, A.

    1995-07-01

    When a deeply penetrating munition explodes above the roof of a tunnel, the amount of rubble that falls inside the tunnel is primarily a function of three parameters: first the cube-root scaled distance from the center of the explosive to the roof of the tunnel. Second the material properties of the rock around the tunnel, and in particular the shear strength of that rock, its RQD (Rock Quality Designator), and the extent and orientation of joints. And third the ratio of the tunnel diameter to the standoff distance (distance between the center of explosive and the tunnel roof). The authors have used CALE, a well-established 2-D hydrodynamic computer code, to calculate the amount of rubble that falls inside a tunnel as a function of standoff distance for two different tunnel diameters. In particular they calculated three of the tunnel collapse experiments conducted in an iron ore mine near Kirkeness, Norway in the summer of 1994. The failure model that they used in their calculations combines an equivalent plastic strain criterion with a maximum tensile strength criterion and can be calibrated for different rocks using cratering data as well as laboratory experiments. These calculations are intended to test and improve the understanding of both the Norway Experiments and the ACE (Array of conventional Explosive) phenomenology.

  3. Procedural learning and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Nicolson, R I; Fawcett, A J; Brookes, R L; Needle, J

    2010-08-01

    Three major 'neural systems', specialized for different types of information processing, are the sensory, declarative, and procedural systems. It has been proposed (Trends Neurosci., 30(4), 135-141) that dyslexia may be attributable to impaired function in the procedural system together with intact declarative function. We provide a brief overview of the increasing evidence relating to the hypothesis, noting that the framework involves two main claims: first that 'neural systems' provides a productive level of description avoiding the underspecificity of cognitive descriptions and the overspecificity of brain structural accounts; and second that a distinctive feature of procedural learning is its extended time course, covering from minutes to months. In this article, we focus on the second claim. Three studies-speeded single word reading, long-term response learning, and overnight skill consolidation-are reviewed which together provide clear evidence of difficulties in procedural learning for individuals with dyslexia, even when the tasks are outside the literacy domain. The educational implications of the results are then discussed, and in particular the potential difficulties that impaired overnight procedural consolidation would entail. It is proposed that response to intervention could be better predicted if diagnostic tests on the different forms of learning were first undertaken.

  4. Procedural sedation analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Sheta, Saad A

    2010-01-01

    The number of noninvasive and minimally invasive procedures performed outside of the operating room has grown exponentially over the last several decades.Sedation, analgesia, or both may be needed for many of these interventional or diagnostic procedures. Individualized care is important when determining if a patient requires procedural sedation analgesia (PSA). The patient might need an anti-anxiety drug, pain medicine, immobilization, simple reassurance, or a combination of these interventions. The goals of PSA in four different multidisciplinary practices namely; emergency, dentistry, radiology and gastrointestinal endoscopy are discussed in this review article. Some procedures are painful, others painless. Therefore, goals of PSA vary widely. Sedation management can range from minimal sedation, to the extent of minimal anesthesia. Procedural sedation in emergency department (ED) usually requires combinations of multiple agents to reach desired effects of analgesia plus anxiolysis. However, in dental practice, moderate sedation analgesia (known to the dentists as conscious sedation) is usually what is required. It is usually most effective with the combined use of local anesthesia. The mainstay of success for painless imaging is absolute immobility. Immobility can be achieved by deep sedation or minimal anesthesia. On the other hand, moderate sedation, deep sedation, minimal anesthesia and conventional general anesthesia can be all utilized for management of gastrointestinal endoscopy. PMID:20668560

  5. Mobile Energy Laboratory Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, P.R.; Batishko, C.R.; Dittmer, A.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Stoops, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked to plan and implement a framework for measuring and analyzing the efficiency of on-site energy conversion, distribution, and end-use application on federal facilities as part of its overall technical support to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) Procedures establish guidelines for specific activities performed by PNL staff. PNL provided sophisticated energy monitoring, auditing, and analysis equipment for on-site evaluation of energy use efficiency. Specially trained engineers and technicians were provided to conduct tests in a safe and efficient manner with the assistance of host facility staff and contractors. Reports were produced to describe test procedures, results, and suggested courses of action. These reports may be used to justify changes in operating procedures, maintenance efforts, system designs, or energy-using equipment. The MEL capabilities can subsequently be used to assess the results of energy conservation projects. These procedures recognize the need for centralized NM administration, test procedure development, operator training, and technical oversight. This need is evidenced by increasing requests fbr MEL use and the economies available by having trained, full-time MEL operators and near continuous MEL operation. DOE will assign new equipment and upgrade existing equipment as new capabilities are developed. The equipment and trained technicians will be made available to federal agencies that provide funding for the direct costs associated with MEL use.

  6. 33 CFR 277.8 - Procedures for apportionment of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... BRIDGE ALTERATIONS § 277.8 Procedures for apportionment of costs. This paragraph provides the procedures for apportionment of costs of bridge alterations, as established by the U.S. Coast Guard (reference... the cost of a hypothetical bridge alteration is provided in appendix B. (a) Calculate the...

  7. 33 CFR 277.8 - Procedures for apportionment of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... BRIDGE ALTERATIONS § 277.8 Procedures for apportionment of costs. This paragraph provides the procedures for apportionment of costs of bridge alterations, as established by the U.S. Coast Guard (reference... the cost of a hypothetical bridge alteration is provided in Appendix B. (a) Calculate the...

  8. 33 CFR 277.8 - Procedures for apportionment of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... BRIDGE ALTERATIONS § 277.8 Procedures for apportionment of costs. This paragraph provides the procedures for apportionment of costs of bridge alterations, as established by the U.S. Coast Guard (reference... the cost of a hypothetical bridge alteration is provided in Appendix B. (a) Calculate the...

  9. 33 CFR 277.8 - Procedures for apportionment of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... BRIDGE ALTERATIONS § 277.8 Procedures for apportionment of costs. This paragraph provides the procedures for apportionment of costs of bridge alterations, as established by the U.S. Coast Guard (reference... the cost of a hypothetical bridge alteration is provided in Appendix B. (a) Calculate the...

  10. 40 CFR 63.309 - Performance tests and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 3 coke oven batteries, use these hours to calculate the appropriate estimate of person hours. S... Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.309 Performance tests and procedures. (a) Except as otherwise... coke oven battery, the results of which shall be used in accordance with procedures specified in...

  11. 40 CFR 63.309 - Performance tests and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 3 coke oven batteries, use these hours to calculate the appropriate estimate of person hours. S... Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.309 Performance tests and procedures. (a) Except as otherwise... coke oven battery, the results of which shall be used in accordance with procedures specified in...

  12. 40 CFR 63.309 - Performance tests and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 3 coke oven batteries, use these hours to calculate the appropriate estimate of person hours. S... Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.309 Performance tests and procedures. (a) Except as otherwise... coke oven battery, the results of which shall be used in accordance with procedures specified in...

  13. 40 CFR 63.309 - Performance tests and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 3 coke oven batteries, use these hours to calculate the appropriate estimate of person hours. S... Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.309 Performance tests and procedures. (a) Except as otherwise... coke oven battery, the results of which shall be used in accordance with procedures specified in...

  14. Plutonium 239 Equivalency Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, J

    2011-05-31

    This document provides the basis for converting actual weapons grade plutonium mass to a plutonium equivalency (PuE) mass of Plutonium 239. The conversion can be accomplished by performing calculations utilizing either: (1) Isotopic conversions factors (CF{sub isotope}), or (2) 30-year-old weapons grade conversion factor (CF{sub 30 yr}) Both of these methods are provided in this document. Material mass and isotopic data are needed to calculate PuE using the isotopic conversion factors, which will provide the actual PuE value at the time of calculation. PuE is the summation of the isotopic masses times their associated isotopic conversion factors for plutonium 239. Isotopic conversion factors are calculated by a normalized equation, relative to Plutonium 239, of specific activity (SA) and cumulated dose inhalation affects based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The isotopic conversion factors for converting weapons grade plutonium to PuE are provided in Table-1. The unit for specific activity (SA) is curies per gram (Ci/g) and the isotopic SA values come from reference [1]. The cumulated dose inhalation effect values in units of rem/Ci are based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). A person irradiated by gamma radiation outside the body will receive a dose only during the period of irradiation. However, following an intake by inhalation, some radionuclides persist in the body and irradiate the various tissues for many years. There are three groups CEDE data representing lengths of time of 0.5 (D), 50 (W) and 500 (Y) days, which are in reference [2]. The CEDE values in the (W) group demonstrates the highest dose equivalent value; therefore they are used for the calculation.

  15. Computerized operating procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, E.; Teigen, J.

    1994-12-31

    A number of observed and potential problems in the nuclear industry are related to the quality of operating procedures. Many of the problems identified in operating procedure preparation, implementation, and maintenance have a technical nature, which can be directly addressed by developing computerized procedure handling tools. The Halden Reactor Project (HRP) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development has since 1985 performed research work within this field. A product of this effort is the development of a second version of the computerized operation manuals (COPMA) system. This paper summarizes the most important characteristics of the COPMA-II system and discusses some of the experiences in using a system like COPMA-II.

  16. Reasoning about procedural knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgeff, M. P.

    1985-01-01

    A crucial aspect of automated reasoning about space operations is that knowledge of the problem domain is often procedural in nature - that is, the knowledge is often in the form of sequences of actions or procedures for achieving given goals or reacting to certain situations. In this paper a system is described that explicitly represents and reasons about procedural knowledge. The knowledge representation used is sufficiently rich to describe the effects of arbitrary sequences of tests and actions, and the inference mechanism provides a means for directly using this knowledge to reach desired operational goals. Furthermore, the representation has a declarative semantics that provides for incremental changes to the system, rich explanatory capabilities, and verifiability. The approach also provides a mechanism for reasoning about the use of this knowledge, thus enabling the system to choose effectively between alternative courses of action.

  17. Environmental Test Screening Procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeidler, Janet

    2000-01-01

    This procedure describes the methods to be used for environmental stress screening (ESS) of the Lightning Mapper Sensor (LMS) lens assembly. Unless otherwise specified, the procedures shall be completed in the order listed, prior to performance of the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP). The first unit, S/N 001, will be subjected to the Qualification Vibration Levels, while the remainder will be tested at the Operational Level. Prior to ESS, all units will undergo Pre-ESS Functional Testing that includes measuring the on-axis and plus or minus 0.95 full field Modulation Transfer Function and Back Focal Length. Next, all units will undergo ESS testing, and then Acceptance testing per PR 460.

  18. Design calculations for the ANS (Advanced Neutron Source) cold source

    SciTech Connect

    Lillie, R.A.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The calculation procedure, based on discrete ordinates transport methods, that is being used to carry out design calculations for the Advanced Neutron Source cold source is described. Calculated results on the gain in cold neutron flux produced by a liquid deuterium cold source are compared with experimental data and with calculated data previously obtained by P. Ageron et al., at the Institute Max von Laue-Paul Langevin in Grenoble, France. Calculated results are also presented that indicated how the flux of cold neutrons vary with cold source parameters. 23 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Calculation of effective dose.

    PubMed

    McCollough, C H; Schueler, B A

    2000-05-01

    The concept of "effective dose" was introduced in 1975 to provide a mechanism for assessing the radiation detriment from partial body irradiations in terms of data derived from whole body irradiations. The effective dose is the mean absorbed dose from a uniform whole-body irradiation that results in the same total radiation detriment as from the nonuniform, partial-body irradiation in question. The effective dose is calculated as the weighted average of the mean absorbed dose to the various body organs and tissues, where the weighting factor is the radiation detriment for a given organ (from a whole-body irradiation) as a fraction of the total radiation detriment. In this review, effective dose equivalent and effective dose, as established by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in 1977 and 1990, respectively, are defined and various methods of calculating these quantities are presented for radionuclides, radiography, fluoroscopy, computed tomography and mammography. In order to calculate either quantity, it is first necessary to estimate the radiation dose to individual organs. One common method of determining organ doses is through Monte Carlo simulations of photon interactions within a simplified mathematical model of the human body. Several groups have performed these calculations and published their results in the form of data tables of organ dose per unit activity or exposure. These data tables are specified according to particular examination parameters, such as radiopharmaceutical, x-ray projection, x-ray beam energy spectra or patient size. Sources of these organ dose conversion coefficients are presented and differences between them are examined. The estimates of effective dose equivalent or effective dose calculated using these data, although not intended to describe the dose to an individual, can be used as a relative measure of stochastic radiation detriment. The calculated values, in units of sievert (or rem), indicate the amount of

  20. Procedure and Program Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britz, Dieter

    Here some modules, procedures and whole programs are described, that may be useful to the reader, as they have been, to the author. They are all in Fortran 90/95 and start with a generally useful module, that will be used in most procedures and programs in the examples, and another module useful for programs using a Rosenbrock variant. The source texts (except for the two modules) are not reproduced here, but can be downloaded from the web site www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=issue &issn=1616-6361&volume=666 (the two lines form one contiguous URL!).

  1. Toddler test or procedure preparation

    MedlinePlus

    Preparing toddler for test/procedure; Test/procedure preparation - toddler; Preparing for a medical test or procedure - toddler ... Before the test, know that your child will probably cry. Even if you prepare, your child may feel some discomfort or ...

  2. Preschooler test or procedure preparation

    MedlinePlus

    Preparing preschoolers for test/procedure; Test/procedure preparation - preschooler ... Preparing children for medical tests can reduce their anxiety. It can also make them less likely to cry and resist the procedure. Research shows that ...

  3. Radioprotection calculations for MEGAPIE.

    PubMed

    Zanini, L

    2005-01-01

    The MEGAwatt PIlot Experiment (MEGAPIE) liquid lead-bismuth spallation neutron source will commence operation in 2006 at the SINQ facility of the Paul Scherrer Institut. Such an innovative system presents radioprotection concerns peculiar to a liquid spallation target. Several radioprotection issues have been addressed and studied by means of the Monte Carlo transport code, FLUKA. The dose rates in the room above the target, where personnel access may be needed at times, from the activated lead-bismuth and from the volatile species produced were calculated. Results indicate that the dose rate level is of the order of 40 mSv h(-1) 2 h after shutdown, but it can be reduced below the mSv h(-1) level with slight modifications to the shielding. Neutron spectra and dose rates from neutron transport, of interest for possible damage to radiation sensitive components, have also been calculated.

  4. CONVEYOR FOUNDATIONS CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    S. Romanos

    1995-03-10

    The purpose of these calculations is to design foundations for all conveyor supports for the surface conveyors that transport the muck resulting from the TBM operation, from the belt storage to the muck stockpile. These conveyors consist of: (1) Conveyor W-TO3, from the belt storage, at the starter tunnel, to the transfer tower. (2) Conveyor W-SO1, from the transfer tower to the material stacker, at the muck stockpile.

  5. PIC: Protein Interactions Calculator

    PubMed Central

    Tina, K. G.; Bhadra, R.; Srinivasan, N.

    2007-01-01

    Interactions within a protein structure and interactions between proteins in an assembly are essential considerations in understanding molecular basis of stability and functions of proteins and their complexes. There are several weak and strong interactions that render stability to a protein structure or an assembly. Protein Interactions Calculator (PIC) is a server which, given the coordinate set of 3D structure of a protein or an assembly, computes various interactions such as disulphide bonds, interactions between hydrophobic residues, ionic interactions, hydrogen bonds, aromatic–aromatic interactions, aromatic–sulphur interactions and cation–π interactions within a protein or between proteins in a complex. Interactions are calculated on the basis of standard, published criteria. The identified interactions between residues can be visualized using a RasMol and Jmol interface. The advantage with PIC server is the easy availability of inter-residue interaction calculations in a single site. It also determines the accessible surface area and residue-depth, which is the distance of a residue from the surface of the protein. User can also recognize specific kind of interactions, such as apolar–apolar residue interactions or ionic interactions, that are formed between buried or exposed residues or near the surface or deep inside. PMID:17584791

  6. PIC: Protein Interactions Calculator.

    PubMed

    Tina, K G; Bhadra, R; Srinivasan, N

    2007-07-01

    Interactions within a protein structure and interactions between proteins in an assembly are essential considerations in understanding molecular basis of stability and functions of proteins and their complexes. There are several weak and strong interactions that render stability to a protein structure or an assembly. Protein Interactions Calculator (PIC) is a server which, given the coordinate set of 3D structure of a protein or an assembly, computes various interactions such as disulphide bonds, interactions between hydrophobic residues, ionic interactions, hydrogen bonds, aromatic-aromatic interactions, aromatic-sulphur interactions and cation-pi interactions within a protein or between proteins in a complex. Interactions are calculated on the basis of standard, published criteria. The identified interactions between residues can be visualized using a RasMol and Jmol interface. The advantage with PIC server is the easy availability of inter-residue interaction calculations in a single site. It also determines the accessible surface area and residue-depth, which is the distance of a residue from the surface of the protein. User can also recognize specific kind of interactions, such as apolar-apolar residue interactions or ionic interactions, that are formed between buried or exposed residues or near the surface or deep inside.

  7. Evaluation Perspectives and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scriven, Michael

    This article on evaluation perspectives and procedures is divided into six sections. The first section briefly discusses qualitative and quantitative research and evaluation. In the second section there is an exploration of the utility and validity of a checklist that can be used to evaluate products, as an instrument for evaluating producers, for…

  8. Numerical Boundary Condition Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Topics include numerical procedures for treating inflow and outflow boundaries, steady and unsteady discontinuous surfaces, far field boundaries, and multiblock grids. In addition, the effects of numerical boundary approximations on stability, accuracy, and convergence rate of the numerical solution are discussed.

  9. Educational Accounting Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Sam B.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" reviews the functions, procedures, and reports with which school business officials must be familiar in order to interpret and make decisions regarding the school district's financial position. Among the accounting functions discussed are financial management, internal auditing,…

  10. Student Loan Collection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    This manual on the collection of student loans is intended for the use of business officers and loan collection personnel of colleges and universities of all sizes. The introductory chapter is an overview of sound collection practices and procedures. It discusses the making of a loan, in-school servicing of the accounts, the exit interview, the…

  11. Write Procedures That Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubberley, Carol W.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses written procedures that explain library tasks and describes methods for writing them clearly and coherently. The use of appropriate terminology and vocabulary is discussed; the value of illustrations, typography, and format to enhance the visual effect is explained; the intended audience is considered; and examples are given. (seven…

  12. Simulating Laboratory Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, J. E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes the use of computer assisted instruction in a medical microbiology course. Presents examples of how computer assisted instruction can present case histories in which the laboratory procedures are simulated. Discusses an authoring system used to prepare computer simulations and provides one example of a case history dealing with fractured…

  13. Pediatric Procedural Pain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blount, Ronald L.; Piira, Tiina; Cohen, Lindsey L.; Cheng, Patricia S.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the various settings in which infants, children, and adolescents experience pain during acute medical procedures and issues related to referral of children to pain management teams. In addition, self-report, reports by others, physiological monitoring, and direct observation methods of assessment of pain and related constructs…

  14. Visual Screening: A Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert T.

    Vision is a complex process involving three phases: physical (acuity), physiological (integrative), and psychological (perceptual). Although these phases cannot be considered discrete, they provide the basis for the visual screening procedure used by the Reading Services of Colorado State University and described in this document. Ten tests are…

  15. Special Education: Procedural Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

    The guide is intended to provide information to administrators and regional and local case study committees on special education procedures within Department of Defense Dependents Schools (DoDDS). The manual addresses a step-by step approach from referral to the implementation of individualized education programs (IEP). The following topics are…

  16. Developmental predictors of fraction concepts and procedures.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Nancy C; Hansen, Nicole; Fuchs, Lynn S; Siegler, Robert S; Gersten, Russell; Micklos, Deborah

    2013-09-01

    Developmental predictors of children's fraction concepts and procedures at the end of fourth grade were investigated in a 2-year longitudinal study. Participants were 357 children who started the study in third grade. Attentive behavior, language, nonverbal reasoning, number line estimation, calculation fluency, and reading fluency each contributed uniquely to later conceptual understanding of fractions. Number line estimation, attentive behavior, calculation fluency, and working memory made unique contributions to acquisition of fraction arithmetic procedures. Notably, number line estimation made the largest independent contribution in both models. The results suggest that although there is considerable shared variance among the predictors, both general and number-related competencies are uniquely important for explaining why some children struggle with fractions.

  17. 40 CFR 98.185 - Procedures for estimating missing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for estimating missing data... missing data. A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions calculations in § 98... substitute data value for the missing parameter shall be used in the calculations as specified in...

  18. 40 CFR 98.225 - Procedures for estimating missing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for estimating missing data... estimating missing data. A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions calculations... substitute data value for the missing parameter shall be used in the calculations as specified in...

  19. Integral flange design program. [procedure for computing stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    An automated interactive flange design program utilizing an electronic desk top calculator is presented. The program calculates the operating and seating stresses for circular flanges of the integral or optional type subjected to internal pressure. The required input information is documented. The program provides an automated procedure for computing stresses in selected flange geometries for comparison to the allowable code values.

  20. Velocity Based Modulus Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, W. C.

    2007-12-01

    A new set of equations are derived for the modulus of elasticity E and the bulk modulus K which are dependent only upon the seismic wave propagation velocities Vp, Vs and the density ρ. The three elastic moduli, E (Young's modulus), the shear modulus μ (Lamé's second parameter) and the bulk modulus K are found to be simple functions of the density and wave propagation velocities within the material. The shear and elastic moduli are found to equal the density of the material multiplied by the square of their respective wave propagation-velocities. The bulk modulus may be calculated from the elastic modulus using Poisson's ratio. These equations and resultant values are consistent with published literature and values in both magnitude and dimension (N/m2) and are applicable to the solid, liquid and gaseous phases. A 3D modulus of elasticity model for the Parkfield segment of the San Andreas Fault is presented using data from the wavespeed model of Thurber et al. [2006]. A sharp modulus gradient is observed across the fault at seismic depths, confirming that "variation in material properties play a key role in fault segmentation and deformation style" [Eberhart-Phillips et al., 1993] [EPM93]. The three elastic moduli E, μ and K may now be calculated directly from seismic pressure and shear wave propagation velocities. These velocities may be determined using conventional seismic reflection, refraction or transmission data and techniques. These velocities may be used in turn to estimate the density. This allows velocity based modulus calculations to be used as a tool for geophysical analysis, modeling, engineering and prospecting.

  1. Accurate quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1989-01-01

    An important goal of quantum chemical calculations is to provide an understanding of chemical bonding and molecular electronic structure. A second goal, the prediction of energy differences to chemical accuracy, has been much harder to attain. First, the computational resources required to achieve such accuracy are very large, and second, it is not straightforward to demonstrate that an apparently accurate result, in terms of agreement with experiment, does not result from a cancellation of errors. Recent advances in electronic structure methodology, coupled with the power of vector supercomputers, have made it possible to solve a number of electronic structure problems exactly using the full configuration interaction (FCI) method within a subspace of the complete Hilbert space. These exact results can be used to benchmark approximate techniques that are applicable to a wider range of chemical and physical problems. The methodology of many-electron quantum chemistry is reviewed. Methods are considered in detail for performing FCI calculations. The application of FCI methods to several three-electron problems in molecular physics are discussed. A number of benchmark applications of FCI wave functions are described. Atomic basis sets and the development of improved methods for handling very large basis sets are discussed: these are then applied to a number of chemical and spectroscopic problems; to transition metals; and to problems involving potential energy surfaces. Although the experiences described give considerable grounds for optimism about the general ability to perform accurate calculations, there are several problems that have proved less tractable, at least with current computer resources, and these and possible solutions are discussed.

  2. Zero Temperature Hope Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Rozsnyai, B F

    2002-07-26

    The primary purpose of the HOPE code is to calculate opacities over a wide temperature and density range. It can also produce equation of state (EOS) data. Since the experimental data at the high temperature region are scarce, comparisons of predictions with the ample zero temperature data provide a valuable physics check of the code. In this report we show a selected few examples across the periodic table. Below we give a brief general information about the physics of the HOPE code. The HOPE code is an ''average atom'' (AA) Dirac-Slater self-consistent code. The AA label in the case of finite temperature means that the one-electron levels are populated according to the Fermi statistics, at zero temperature it means that the ''aufbau'' principle works, i.e. no a priory electronic configuration is set, although it can be done. As such, it is a one-particle model (any Hartree-Fock model is a one particle model). The code is an ''ion-sphere'' model, meaning that the atom under investigation is neutral within the ion-sphere radius. Furthermore, the boundary conditions for the bound states are also set at the ion-sphere radius, which distinguishes the code from the INFERNO, OPAL and STA codes. Once the self-consistent AA state is obtained, the code proceeds to generate many-electron configurations and proceeds to calculate photoabsorption in the ''detailed configuration accounting'' (DCA) scheme. However, this last feature is meaningless at zero temperature. There is one important feature in the HOPE code which should be noted; any self-consistent model is self-consistent in the space of the occupied orbitals. The unoccupied orbitals, where electrons are lifted via photoexcitation, are unphysical. The rigorous way to deal with that problem is to carry out complete self-consistent calculations both in the initial and final states connecting photoexcitations, an enormous computational task. The Amaldi correction is an attempt to address this problem by distorting the

  3. OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.

  4. Calculating Speed of Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatnagar, Shalabh

    2017-01-01

    Sound is an emerging source of renewable energy but it has some limitations. The main limitation is, the amount of energy that can be extracted from sound is very less and that is because of the velocity of the sound. The velocity of sound changes as per medium. If we could increase the velocity of the sound in a medium we would be probably able to extract more amount of energy from sound and will be able to transfer it at a higher rate. To increase the velocity of sound we should know the speed of sound. If we go by the theory of classic mechanics speed is the distance travelled by a particle divided by time whereas velocity is the displacement of particle divided by time. The speed of sound in dry air at 20 °C (68 °F) is considered to be 343.2 meters per second and it won't be wrong in saying that 342.2 meters is the velocity of sound not the speed as it's the displacement of the sound not the total distance sound wave covered. Sound travels in the form of mechanical wave, so while calculating the speed of sound the whole path of wave should be considered not just the distance traveled by sound. In this paper I would like to focus on calculating the actual speed of sound wave which can help us to extract more energy and make sound travel with faster velocity.

  5. Buoyant plume calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.; Haselman, L.C.; Edwards, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Smoke from raging fires produced in the aftermath of a major nuclear exchange has been predicted to cause large decreases in surface temperatures. However, the extent of the decrease and even the sign of the temperature change, depend on how the smoke is distributed with altitude. We present a model capable of evaluating the initial distribution of lofted smoke above a massive fire. Calculations are shown for a two-dimensional slab version of the model and a full three-dimensional version. The model has been evaluated by simulating smoke heights for the Hamburg firestorm of 1943 and a smaller scale oil fire which occurred in Long Beach in 1958. Our plume heights for these fires are compared to those predicted by the classical Morton-Taylor-Turner theory for weakly buoyant plumes. We consider the effect of the added buoyancy caused by condensation of water-laden ground level air being carried to high altitude with the convection column as well as the effects of background wind on the calculated smoke plume heights for several fire intensities. We find that the rise height of the plume depends on the assumed background atmospheric conditions as well as the fire intensity. Little smoke is injected into the stratosphere unless the fire is unusually intense, or atmospheric conditions are more unstable than we have assumed. For intense fires significant amounts of water vapor are condensed raising the possibility of early scavenging of smoke particles by precipitation. 26 references, 11 figures.

  6. Subsea HIPPS design procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Aaroe, R.; Lund, B.F.; Onshus, T.

    1995-12-31

    The paper is based on a feasibility study investigating the possibilities of using a HIPPS (High Integrity Pressure Protection System) to protect a subsea pipeline that is not rated for full wellhead shut-in pressure. The study was called the Subsea OPPS Feasibility Study, and was performed by SINTEF, Norway. Here, OPPS is an acronym for Overpressure Pipeline Protection System. A design procedure for a subsea HIPPS is described, based on the experience and knowledge gained through the ``Subsea OPPS Feasibility Study``. Before a subsea HIPPS can be applied, its technical feasibility, reliability and profitability must be demonstrated. The subsea HIPPS design procedure will help to organize and plan the design activities both with respect to development and verification of a subsea HIPPS. The paper also gives examples of how some of the discussed design steps were performed in the Subsea OPPS Feasibility Study. Finally, further work required to apply a subsea HIPPS is discussed.

  7. The calcaneo-stop procedure.

    PubMed

    Usuelli, F G; Montrasio, U Alfieri

    2012-06-01

    Flexible flatfoot is one of the most common deformities. Arthroereisis procedures are designed to correct this deformity. Among them, the calcaneo-stop is a procedure with both biomechanical and proprioceptive properties. It is designed for pediatric treatment. Results similar to endorthesis procedure are reported. Theoretically the procedure can be applied to adults if combined with other procedures to obtain a stable plantigrade foot, but medium-term follow up studies are missing.

  8. Pollutant Assessments Group Procedures Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Chavarria, D.E.; Davidson, J.R.; Espegren, M.L.; Kearl, P.M.; Knott, R.R.; Pierce, G.A.; Retolaza, C.D.; Smuin, D.R.; Wilson, M.J.; Witt, D.A. ); Conklin, N.G.; Egidi, P.V.; Ertel, D.B.; Foster, D.S.; Krall, B.J.; Meredith, R.L.; Rice, J.A.; Roemer, E.K. )

    1991-02-01

    This procedures manual combines the existing procedures for radiological and chemical assessment of hazardous wastes used by the Pollutant Assessments Group at the time of manuscript completion (October 1, 1990). These procedures will be revised in an ongoing process to incorporate new developments in hazardous waste assessment technology and changes in administrative policy and support procedures. Format inconsistencies will be corrected in subsequent revisions of individual procedures.

  9. Packed tower program eases calculations for diameter, hydraulics of towers

    SciTech Connect

    Petrarca, C.A.

    1986-04-14

    A packed tower program will calculate the diameter and hydraulics of a packed tower, or check the hydraulics of an existing tower for other process conditions. It is written in simple BASIC for an IBM PC and could easily be converted to other PC's. There are approximately 100 statement lines, with memory requirement of approximately 4,100 bytes. The program is presented as an aid, or tool, to reduce tedious calculations in design or revision work. Much has already been written on the specifics of design methods and calculation procedures for packed towers. This article will cover only the program's procedure and calculation method, input requirements, output data, and features. The program first transforms the raw data into consistent units. Gas flow rate in pounds per hour is calculated from the input of standard cubic feet per minute and specific gravity, or moles per hour and molecular weight. Liquid flow rate in pounds per hour is calculated from the gallons per minute and specific gravity input. Using the temperature, pressure, compressibility, and molecular weight inputs, the gas density in pounds per cubic foot is calculated from the ideal gas law equation. Liquid density is calculated directly from the specific gravity. With this data, the program then calculates the ''x'' ordinate of the generalized flooding correlation for packed towers. Using regressed design curves of X vs. Y, which somewhat parallel the flooding curve, the program calculates the Y abscissa function which relates liquid and gas densities, gas mass velocity, packing factor, gravitational constant, and liquid viscosity.

  10. Automated Product Test Wafer Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Andrew; Minvielle, Anna; Salugsugan, Anita

    1987-04-01

    An automated test wafer procedure has been developed using the KLA 2020 wafer inspector to measure registration and critical dimensions on production wafers. The procedure reduces operator interactions to loading the wafer and entering information for wafer identification. The analysis of the registration data is performed on a PC using the methods established by Perloff to determine both intrafield and grid errors. These results are then used to correct the stepper. CD data is also analyzed by the program and corrections to the exposure time are calculated. It was found that the KLA 2020 is as much as 10 times faster and 4 times more precise in obtaining registration data then an operator reading optical verniers on a microscope. Due to the high precision of the reading, the analysis does not need a large number of readings to obtain precise and accurate stepper corrections. Further, significant improvements can be obtained by adding registration targets to measure the intrafield errors. Using the KLA 2020 and computer analysis we have demonstrated an ability to reduce the errors for a manually aligned run to a one sigma distribution of 0.09 um for x and y translation, 0.4 PPM for scaling and orthogonality, and 2.3 PPM for rotation from the first test wafer for a GCA 6100. Nearly all of this variation is due to operator misalignment or the inability of the stepper to correct the errors. The corrections with this technique measuring the same wafer are precise to + 0.01 um in translation and + 0.5 PPM for rotation, scaling, and orthogonality. It has also been shown that a simple linear equation can be used to correct exposure time, even when a process is not tightly controlled.

  11. Canister Transfer System Event Sequence Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Morissette

    2001-08-16

    The ''Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister, Transportation, and Monitored Geologic Repository Systems, Structures, and Components Performance Allocation Study'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) allocated performance to both the canisters received at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) and the MGR Canister Transfer System (CTS). The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate an assumed range of canister and CTS performance allocation failure probabilities and determine the effect of these failure probabilities on the frequency of a radionuclide release. Five canister types are addressed in this calculation; high-level radioactive waste (HLW) canisters containing vitrified borosilicate glass, HLW canisters containing immobilized plutonium surrounded by borosilicate glass (Pu/HLW canisters), Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) standard canisters (4 sizes), DSNF multi-canister overpacks (MCOs) for N-reactor fuel and other selected DSNF, and naval spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canisters (2 sizes). The quality assurance program applies to this calculation, and the work is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations''. The work done for this calculation was evaluated according to AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities'' that determined this activity to be subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000a). This work was performed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Department of Energy Nuclear Fuel Work Packages'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c) for this activity.

  12. Calculating Trajectories And Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alderson, Daniel J.; Brady, Franklyn H.; Breckheimer, Peter J.; Campbell, James K.; Christensen, Carl S.; Collier, James B.; Ekelund, John E.; Ellis, Jordan; Goltz, Gene L.; Hintz, Gerarld R.; Legerton, Victor N.; Mccreary, Faith A.; Mitchell, Robert T.; Mottinger, Neil A.; Moultrie, Benjamin A.; Moyer, Theodore D.; Rinker, Sheryl L.; Ryne, Mark S.; Stavert, L. Robert; Sunseri, Richard F.

    1989-01-01

    Double-Precision Trajectory Analysis Program, DPTRAJ, and Orbit Determination Program, ODP, developed and improved over years to provide highly reliable and accurate navigation capability for deep-space missions like Voyager. Each collection of programs working together to provide desired computational results. DPTRAJ, ODP, and supporting utility programs capable of handling massive amounts of data and performing various numerical calculations required for solving navigation problems associated with planetary fly-by and lander missions. Used extensively in support of NASA's Voyager project. DPTRAJ-ODP available in two machine versions. UNIVAC version, NPO-15586, written in FORTRAN V, SFTRAN, and ASSEMBLER. VAX/VMS version, NPO-17201, written in FORTRAN V, SFTRAN, PL/1 and ASSEMBLER.

  13. Roof Savings Calculator Suite

    SciTech Connect

    New, Joshua R; Garrett, Aaron; Erdem, Ender; Huang, Yu

    2013-11-22

    The software options currently supported by the simulation engine can be seen/experienced at www.roofcalc.com. It defaults all values to national averages with options to test a base-case (residential or commercial) building versus a comparison building with inputs for building type, location, building vintage, conditioned area, number of floors, and window-to-wall ratio, cooling system efficiency, type of heating, heating system efficiency, duct location, roof/ceiling insulation level, above-sheathing ventilation, radiant barrier, roof thermal mass, roof solar reflectance, roof thermal emittance, utility costs, roof pitch. The Roof Savings Caculator Suite adds utilities and website/web service and the integration of AtticSim with DOE-2.1E, with the end-result being Roof Savings Calculator.

  14. Molecular Dynamics Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The development of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics is very important in the history of physics, and it underlines the difficulty in dealing with systems involving many bodies, even if those bodies are identical. Macroscopic systems of atoms typically contain so many particles that it would be virtually impossible to follow the behavior of all of the particles involved. Therefore, the behavior of a complete system can only be described or predicted in statistical ways. Under a grant to the NASA Lewis Research Center, scientists at the Case Western Reserve University have been examining the use of modern computing techniques that may be able to investigate and find the behavior of complete systems that have a large number of particles by tracking each particle individually. This is the study of molecular dynamics. In contrast to Monte Carlo techniques, which incorporate uncertainty from the outset, molecular dynamics calculations are fully deterministic. Although it is still impossible to track, even on high-speed computers, each particle in a system of a trillion trillion particles, it has been found that such systems can be well simulated by calculating the trajectories of a few thousand particles. Modern computers and efficient computing strategies have been used to calculate the behavior of a few physical systems and are now being employed to study important problems such as supersonic flows in the laboratory and in space. In particular, an animated video (available in mpeg format--4.4 MB) was produced by Dr. M.J. Woo, now a National Research Council fellow at Lewis, and the G-VIS laboratory at Lewis. This video shows the behavior of supersonic shocks produced by pistons in enclosed cylinders by following exactly the behavior of thousands of particles. The major assumptions made were that the particles involved were hard spheres and that all collisions with the walls and with other particles were fully elastic. The animated video was voted one of two

  15. Impact cratering calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.; Okeefe, J. D.; Smither, C.; Takata, T.

    1991-01-01

    In the course of carrying out finite difference calculations, it was discovered that for large craters, a previously unrecognized type of crater (diameter) growth occurred which was called lip wave propagation. This type of growth is illustrated for an impact of a 1000 km (2a) silicate bolide at 12 km/sec (U) onto a silicate half-space at earth gravity (1 g). The von Misses crustal strength is 2.4 kbar. The motion at the crater lip associated with this wave type phenomena is up, outward, and then down, similar to the particle motion of a surface wave. It is shown that the crater diameter has grown d/a of approximately 25 to d/a of approximately 4 via lip propagation from Ut/a = 5.56 to 17.0 during the time when rebound occurs. A new code is being used to study partitioning of energy and momentum and cratering efficiency with self gravity for finite-sized objects rather than the previously discussed planetary half-space problems. These are important and fundamental subjects which can be addressed with smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) codes. The SPH method was used to model various problems in astrophysics and planetary physics. The initial work demonstrates that the energy budget for normal and oblique impacts are distinctly different than earlier calculations for silicate projectile impact on a silicate half space. Motivated by the first striking radar images of Venus obtained by Magellan, the effect of the atmosphere on impact cratering was studied. In order the further quantify the processes of meteor break-up and trajectory scattering upon break-up, the reentry physics of meteors striking Venus' atmosphere versus that of the Earth were studied.

  16. Determining aminoglycoside dosage and blood levels using a programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Ng, P K

    1980-02-01

    A programmable calculator procedure for the determination of dosage regimens and steady-state peak and trough levels of aminoglycoside antibiotics is described. The calculator is programmed based on a one-compartment open model and first-order elimination of aminoglycosides. A detailed description of the programs and user instructions are presented. The programs allow calculation of intermittent i.v. infusion dosage regimens and steady-state levels, and adjustment of dosage and dosing interval when measured plasma levels differ significantly from predicted levels. The calculator programs provide a rapid means of predicting and modifying dosage regimens and steady-state plasma levels for aminoglycoside antibiotics.

  17. Curriculum Issues for Graphics Calculators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissane, Barry

    2000-01-01

    Identifies and describes some of the mathematics curriculum issues associated with graphing calculators such as equity, role of calculators, content and sequencing, textbook design, learning to use a calculator, worksheets, student decision-making, calculator dependence, assessment, electronic algorithms, multiplying choices, calculator…

  18. Cosmological calculations on the GPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bard, D.; Bellis, M.; Allen, M. T.; Yepremyan, H.; Kratochvil, J. M.

    2013-02-01

    Cosmological measurements require the calculation of nontrivial quantities over large datasets. The next generation of survey telescopes will yield measurements of billions of galaxies. The scale of these datasets, and the nature of the calculations involved, make cosmological calculations ideal models for implementation on graphics processing units (GPUs). We consider two cosmological calculations, the two-point angular correlation function and the aperture mass statistic, and aim to improve the calculation time by constructing code for calculating them on the GPU. Using CUDA, we implement the two algorithms on the GPU and compare the calculation speeds to comparable code run on the CPU. We obtain a code speed-up of between 10 and 180× faster, compared to performing the same calculation on the CPU. The code has been made publicly available. GPUs are a useful tool for cosmological calculations, even for datasets the size of current surveys, allowing calculations to be made one or two orders of magnitude faster.

  19. Cognition and procedure representational requirements for predictive human performance models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, K.

    1992-01-01

    Models and modeling environments for human performance are becoming significant contributors to early system design and analysis procedures. Issues of levels of automation, physical environment, informational environment, and manning requirements are being addressed by such man/machine analysis systems. The research reported here investigates the close interaction between models of human cognition and models that described procedural performance. We describe a methodology for the decomposition of aircrew procedures that supports interaction with models of cognition on the basis of procedures observed; that serves to identify cockpit/avionics information sources and crew information requirements; and that provides the structure to support methods for function allocation among crew and aiding systems. Our approach is to develop an object-oriented, modular, executable software representation of the aircrew, the aircraft, and the procedures necessary to satisfy flight-phase goals. We then encode in a time-based language, taxonomies of the conceptual, relational, and procedural constraints among the cockpit avionics and control system and the aircrew. We have designed and implemented a goals/procedures hierarchic representation sufficient to describe procedural flow in the cockpit. We then execute the procedural representation in simulation software and calculate the values of the flight instruments, aircraft state variables and crew resources using the constraints available from the relationship taxonomies. The system provides a flexible, extensible, manipulative and executable representation of aircrew and procedures that is generally applicable to crew/procedure task-analysis. The representation supports developed methods of intent inference, and is extensible to include issues of information requirements and functional allocation. We are attempting to link the procedural representation to models of cognitive functions to establish several intent inference methods

  20. Pipe Cleaning Operating Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.; Wu, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-01-24

    This cleaning procedure outlines the steps involved in cleaning the high purity argon lines associated with the DO calorimeters. The procedure is broken down into 7 cycles: system setup, initial flush, wash, first rinse, second rinse, final rinse and drying. The system setup involves preparing the pump cart, line to be cleaned, distilled water, and interconnecting hoses and fittings. The initial flush is an off-line flush of the pump cart and its plumbing in order to preclude contaminating the line. The wash cycle circulates the detergent solution (Micro) at 180 degrees Fahrenheit through the line to be cleaned. The first rinse is then intended to rid the line of the majority of detergent and only needs to run for 30 minutes and at ambient temperature. The second rinse (if necessary) should eliminate the remaining soap residue. The final rinse is then intended to be a check that there is no remaining soap or other foreign particles in the line, particularly metal 'chips.' The final rinse should be run at 180 degrees Fahrenheit for at least 90 minutes. The filters should be changed after each cycle, paying particular attention to the wash cycle and the final rinse cycle return filters. These filters, which should be bagged and labeled, prove that the pipeline is clean. Only distilled water should be used for all cycles, especially rinsing. The level in the tank need not be excessive, merely enough to cover the heater float switch. The final rinse, however, may require a full 50 gallons. Note that most of the details of the procedure are included in the initial flush description. This section should be referred to if problems arise in the wash or rinse cycles.

  1. Surface cleanliness measurement procedure

    DOEpatents

    Schroder, Mark Stewart; Woodmansee, Donald Ernest; Beadie, Douglas Frank

    2002-01-01

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  2. Radiometric correction procedure study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colby, C.; Sands, R.; Murphrey, S.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison of MSS radiometric processing techniques identified as a preferred radiometric processing technique a procedure which equalizes the mean and standard deviation of detector-specific histograms of uncalibrated scene data. Evaluation of MSS calibration data demonstrated that the relationship between detector responses is essentially linear over the range of intensities typically observed in MSS data, and that the calibration wedge data possess a high degree of temporal stability. An analysis of the preferred radiometric processing technique showed that it could be incorporated into the MDP-MSS system without a major redesign of the system, and with minimal impact on system throughput.

  3. Interventional radiology neck procedures.

    PubMed

    Zabala Landa, R M; Korta Gómez, I; Del Cura Rodríguez, J L

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonography has become extremely useful in the evaluation of masses in the head and neck. It enables us to determine the anatomic location of the masses as well as the characteristics of the tissues that compose them, thus making it possible to orient the differential diagnosis toward inflammatory, neoplastic, congenital, traumatic, or vascular lesions, although it is necessary to use computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging to determine the complete extension of certain lesions. The growing range of interventional procedures, mostly guided by ultrasonography, now includes biopsies, drainages, infiltrations, sclerosing treatments, and tumor ablation.

  4. Supplementary neutron-flux calculations for the ORNL Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Maudlin, P.J.; Maerker, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    A three-dimensional Monte Carlo calculation using the MORSE code was performed to validate a procedure previously adopted in the ORNL discrete ordinate analysis of measurements made in the ORNL Pool Critical Assembly Pressure Vessel Facility. The results of these flux calculations agree, within statistical undertainties of about 5%, with those obtained from a discrete ordinate analysis employing the same procedure. This study therefore concludes that the procedure for combining several one- and two-dimensional discrete ordinate calculations into a three-dimensional flux is sufficiently accurate that it does not account for the existing discrepancies observed between calculations and measurements in this facility.

  5. Advanced crew procedures development techniques: Procedures and performance program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Mangiaracina, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Procedures and Performance Program (PPP) for operation in conjunction with the Shuttle Procedures Simulator (SPS) is described. The PPP user interface, the SPS/PPP interface, and the PPP applications software are discussed.

  6. Calculating weighted estimates of peak streamflow statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohn, Timothy A.; Berenbrock, Charles; Kiang, Julie E.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    According to the Federal guidelines for flood-frequency estimation, the uncertainty of peak streamflow statistics, such as the 1-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) flow at a streamgage, can be reduced by combining the at-site estimate with the regional regression estimate to obtain a weighted estimate of the flow statistic. The procedure assumes the estimates are independent, which is reasonable in most practical situations. The purpose of this publication is to describe and make available a method for calculating a weighted estimate from the uncertainty or variance of the two independent estimates.

  7. Impact Cratering Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    We examined the von Mises and Mohr-Coulomb strength models with and without damage effects and developed a model for dilatancy. The models and results are given in O'Keefe et al. We found that by incorporating damage into the models that we could in a single integrated impact calculation, starting with the bolide in the atmosphere produce final crater profiles having the major features found in the field measurements. These features included a central uplift, an inner ring, circular terracing and faulting. This was accomplished with undamaged surface strengths of approximately 0.1 GPa and at depth strengths of approximately 1.0 GPa. We modeled the damage in geologic materials using a phenomenological approach, which coupled the Johnson-Cook damage model with the CTH code geologic strength model. The objective here was not to determine the distribution of fragment sizes, but rather to determine the effect of brecciated and comminuted material on the crater evolution, fault production, ejecta distribution, and final crater morphology.

  8. Relative Hazard Calculation Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    DL Strenge; MK White; RD Stenner; WB Andrews

    1999-09-07

    The methodology presented in this document was developed to provide a means of calculating the RH ratios to use in developing useful graphic illustrations. The RH equation, as presented in this methodology, is primarily a collection of key factors relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected risk management activities. The RH equation has the potential for much broader application than generating risk profiles. For example, it can be used to compare one risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to a fixed baseline as was done for the risk profiles. If the appropriate source term data are available, it could be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated hazards. These estimated values of hazard could then be examined to help understand which risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions at a site. Graphics could be generated from these absolute hazard values to compare high-hazard conditions. If the RH equation is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify the estimated absolute hazard values (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard estimation).

  9. Multipath analysis diffraction calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statham, Richard B.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes extensions of the Kirchhoff diffraction equation to higher edge terms and discusses their suitability to model diffraction multipath effects of a small satellite structure. When receiving signals, at a satellite, from the Global Positioning System (GPS), reflected signals from the satellite structure result in multipath errors in the determination of the satellite position. Multipath error can be caused by diffraction of the reflected signals and a method of calculating this diffraction is required when using a facet model of the satellite. Several aspects of the Kirchhoff equation are discussed and numerical examples, in the near and far fields, are shown. The vector form of the extended Kirchhoff equation, by adding the Larmor-Tedone and Kottler edge terms, is given as a mathematical model in an appendix. The Kirchhoff equation was investigated as being easily implemented and of good accuracy in the basic form, especially in phase determination. The basic Kirchhoff can be extended for higher accuracy if desired. A brief discussion of the method of moments and the geometric theory of diffraction is included, but seems to offer no clear advantage in implementation over the Kirchhoff for facet models.

  10. Summary of Vulcan Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, J.D.

    2000-03-23

    This is a summary of the results of my calculations compared to Elisabeth Wolfrum's data on the Vulcan imprint experiments. The material strength makes essentially no difference to the growth of perturbations seeded by the laser imprint. For the low-intensity case (30 J laser energy, beam intensity of 0.5 x 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}) the thin (2 microns) Al foil melts quickly from the front (driven) surface and decompresses quickly from the back surface, so there is actually only a fraction of the foil that is solid and compressed, and then for only a short time. And this solid fraction is not accelerating much during this short time. In particular, the shock (which is at about 250 kbar when it is about half way through the foil) travels entirely through the foil in about 0.25 ns. At 0.3 ns the ablation front is 0.6 {micro}m in from the original position of the front surface, the next 0.6 {micro}m is melted, so only the back 0.8 {micro}m is solid and compressed. This solid portion, though, is not moving much; the place where the imprinted perturbations are growing is back at the ablation front, where the perturbations are clearly growing fluid-like. By 0.5 ns the entire foil is melted and decompressing from both ends. Thus, the actual foil distortion looks little different with and without strength.

  11. Regulations and Procedures Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Lydia J.

    2011-07-25

    The purpose of the Regulations and Procedures Manual (RPM) is to provide LBNL personnel with a reference to University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL or Laboratory) policies and regulations by outlining normal practices and answering most policy questions that arise in the day-to-day operations of Laboratory organizations. Much of the information in this manual has been condensed from detail provided in LBNL procedure manuals, Department of Energy (DOE) directives, and Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. This manual is not intended, however, to replace any of those documents. RPM sections on personnel apply only to employees who are not represented by unions. Personnel policies pertaining to employees represented by unions may be found in their labor agreements. Questions concerning policy interpretation should be directed to the LBNL organization responsible for the particular policy. A link to the Managers Responsible for RPM Sections is available on the RPM home page. If it is not clear which organization is responsible for a policy, please contact Requirements Manager Lydia Young or the RPM Editor.

  12. Designing Flight Deck Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degani, Asaf; Wiener, Earl

    2005-01-01

    Three reports address the design of flight-deck procedures and various aspects of human interaction with cockpit systems that have direct impact on flight safety. One report, On the Typography of Flight- Deck Documentation, discusses basic research about typography and the kind of information needed by designers of flight deck documentation. Flight crews reading poorly designed documentation may easily overlook a crucial item on the checklist. The report surveys and summarizes the available literature regarding the design and typographical aspects of printed material. It focuses on typographical factors such as proper typefaces, character height, use of lower- and upper-case characters, line length, and spacing. Graphical aspects such as layout, color coding, fonts, and character contrast are discussed; and several cockpit conditions such as lighting levels and glare are addressed, as well as usage factors such as angular alignment, paper quality, and colors. Most of the insights and recommendations discussed in this report are transferable to paperless cockpit systems of the future and computer-based procedure displays (e.g., "electronic flight bag") in aerospace systems and similar systems that are used in other industries such as medical, nuclear systems, maritime operations, and military systems.

  13. Regulations and Procedures Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Lydia

    2010-09-30

    The purpose of the Regulations and Procedures Manual (RPM) is to provide Laboratory personnel with a reference to University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory policies and regulations by outlining the normal practices and answering most policy questions that arise in the day-to-day operations of Laboratory departments. Much of the information in this manual has been condensed from detail provided in Laboratory procedure manuals, Department of Energy (DOE) directives, and Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231. This manual is not intended, however, to replace any of those documents. The sections on personnel apply only to employees who are not represented by unions. Personnel policies pertaining to employees represented by unions may be found in their labor agreements. Questions concerning policy interpretation should be directed to the department responsible for the particular policy. A link to the Managers Responsible for RPM Sections is available on the RPM home page. If it is not clear which department should be called, please contact the Associate Laboratory Director of Operations.

  14. Calculating the gravitational self-force in Schwarzschild spacetime.

    PubMed

    Barack, Leor; Mino, Yasushi; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Ori, Amos; Sasaki, Misao

    2002-03-04

    We present a practical method for calculating the local gravitational self-force (often called "radiation-reaction force") for a pointlike particle orbiting a Schwarzschild black hole. This is an implementation of the method of mode-sum regularization, in which one first calculates the (finite) contribution to the force due to each individual multipole mode of the perturbation, and then applies a certain regularization procedure to the mode sum. Here we give the values of all the "regularization parameters" required for implementing this regularization procedure, for any geodesic orbit in Schwarzschild spacetime.

  15. Further Improvements to Nozzle Boundary Layer Calculations in BLIMPJ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praharaj, S. C.; Gross, Klaus W.

    1989-01-01

    Further improvements made to advance the current Boundary Layer Integral Matrix Procedure - Version J (BLIMPJ) containing previously modeled simplified calculation methods by accounting for condensed phase, thick boundary layer and free stream turbulence effects are discussed. The condensed phase effects were included through species composition effect considered via input to the code and through particle damping effect considered via a turbulence model. The thrust loss calculation procedure for thick boundary layer effects was improved and the optimization of net thrust with respect to nozzle length was performed. The effects of free stream turbulence were approximately modeled in the turbulence model.

  16. [Procedure optimization in hospital management].

    PubMed

    Bauer, M; Hanss, R; Schleppers, A; Steinfath, M; Tonner, P H; Martin, J

    2004-05-01

    Starting January 1st 2004 the German diagnosis-related group (DRG) system was established for in-patient cases. Consequently, the detection and realization of cost-saving potentials are becoming more and more important. For a successful future, efficient allocation of resources is essential. Economically, anaesthesia-related time delays during perioperative work-flow should be minimized. Since numerous entities contribute to perioperative care, it is extremely complex to analyze and optimize this process flow. In this publication single steps leading to an optimized perioperative process flow will be presented: documentation of predefined time points, calculation of relevant time intervals and analysis of key numbers for complex settings. Single steps of the given process analysis will be demonstrated using data from surgical patients at the University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel. The attached data collection sheets can be used by interested hospital departments and are meant to serve as a template for further process analyses. Based on the shown analysis, an example will be given to develop an optimized work-flow as a standard operating procedure (SOP). The implementation of the SOP module in an interdisciplinary clinical pathway (CP), which defines efficient medical care from admission to discharge, is mainly responsible for decreased process costs but increased quality of care.

  17. Multilevel domain decomposition for electronic structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Barrault, M. . E-mail: maxime.barrault@edf.fr; Cances, E. . E-mail: cances@cermics.enpc.fr; Hager, W.W. . E-mail: hager@math.ufl.edu; Le Bris, C. . E-mail: lebris@cermics.enpc.fr

    2007-03-01

    We introduce a new multilevel domain decomposition method (MDD) for electronic structure calculations within semi-empirical and density functional theory (DFT) frameworks. This method iterates between local fine solvers and global coarse solvers, in the spirit of domain decomposition methods. Using this approach, calculations have been successfully performed on several linear polymer chains containing up to 40,000 atoms and 200,000 atomic orbitals. Both the computational cost and the memory requirement scale linearly with the number of atoms. Additional speed-up can easily be obtained by parallelization. We show that this domain decomposition method outperforms the density matrix minimization (DMM) method for poor initial guesses. Our method provides an efficient preconditioner for DMM and other linear scaling methods, variational in nature, such as the orbital minimization (OM) procedure.

  18. Measurement effects on the calculation of in-flight thrust for an F404 turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conners, Timothy R.

    1989-01-01

    A study was performed that investigates parameter measurement effects on calculated in-flight thrust for the General Electric F404-GE-400 afterburning turbofan engine which powered the X-29A forward-swept wing research aircraft. Net-thrust uncertainty and influence coefficients were calculated and are presented. Six flight conditions were analyzed at five engine power settings each. Results were obtained using the mass flow-temperature and area-pressure thrust calculation methods, both based on the commonly used gas generator technique. Thrust uncertainty was determined using a common procedure based on the use of measurement uncertainty and influence coefficients. The effects of data nonlinearity on the uncertainty calculation procedure were studied and results are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of using this particular uncertainty procedure are discussed. A brief description of the thrust-calculation technique along with the uncertainty calculation procedure is included.

  19. 77 FR 24341 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Washers; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    .... SUMMARY: This final rule corrects the provisions for calculating the annual operating cost of residential... test procedure, in one section of the provisions for calculating annual operating cost. DATES: This... residential clothes washers on March 7, 2012. 77 FR 13888. The current test procedure is codified at...

  20. The rating reliability calculator

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, David J

    2004-01-01

    Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program. PMID:15117416

  1. Impact Cratering Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Many Martian craters are surrounded by ejecta blankets which appear to have been fluidized forming lobate and layered deposits terminated by one or more continuous distal scarps, or ramparts. One of the first hypotheses for the formation of so-called rampart ejecta features was shock-melting of subsurface ice, entrainment of liquid water into the ejecta blanket, and subsequent fluidized flow. Our work quantifies this concept. Rampart ejecta found on all but the youngest volcanic and polar regions, and the different rampart ejecta morphologies are correlated with crater size and terrain. In addition, the minimum diameter of craters with rampart features decreases with increasing latitude indicating that ice laden crust resides closer to the surface as one goes poleward on Mars. Our second goal in was to determine what strength model(s) reproduce the faults and complex features found in large scale gravity driven craters. Collapse features found in large scale craters require that the rock strength weaken as a result of the shock processing of rock and the later cratering shear flows. In addition to the presence of molten silicate in the intensely shocked region, the presence of water, either ambient, or the result of shock melting of ice weakens rock. There are several other mechanisms for the reduction of strength in geologic materials including dynamic tensile and shear induced fracturing. Fracturing is a mechanism for large reductions in strength. We found that by incorporating damage into the models that we could in a single integrated impact calculation, starting in the atmosphere produce final crater profiles having the major features found in the field measurements (central uplifts, inner ring, terracing and faulting). This was accomplished with undamaged surface strengths (0.1 GPa) and in depth strengths (1.0 GPa).

  2. Simple calculation of Löwdin's alpha function. II. Easier procedure for evaluating bK k(L M||l ), and vanishing of hn,2n - i(L M||l ) for special values of i and n

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Noboru

    1985-12-01

    This paper subsequent to the one [J. Math. Phys. 25, 1133 (1984)] (referred to as Part I) presents the following new results: It is found out that for M=L and L-1 the coefficients bK k(L M||l) in Löwdin's α-function have properties other than manifested in Part I. The expression for bK k(L M||l) is shown to be equivalent to the one into which Sharma's expression, obtained in a different manner from that in Part I, is simplified by Rashid. The use of Rashid's expression leads to the recurrence formula for bK k(L M||l) with respect to M only. This formula and the expression for the bK k(L M||l) with M=L provide an easier procedure for successively evaluating bK k(L M||l) than in Part I. Furthermore, it is proved that the coefficients hn,2n-i(L M||l) in the asymptotic form of the α-function vanish for i

  3. Group Syntality and Parliamentary Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, Larry James; Kell, Carl L.

    The group syntality concept of Raymond B. Cattell furnishes a useful framework for teaching parliamentary procedure. Although there are contrasts between the histories, subject matters, and perspectives of the areas of parliamentary procedure and group dynamics, teachers and students of parliamentary procedure might profitably draw from some of…

  4. Policy and Procedures Manual. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior Colleges, Jackson.

    The Mississippi State Board for Community and Junior College Policy and Procedures Manual has been established by the State Board to govern its actions and activities and those of the staff. It describes polices and procedures regarding board operations, staff employment, staff workplace, employee performance/grievance procedure, staff positions,…

  5. Self-consistent calculation of the Sommerfeld enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, Kfir; Sato, Ryosuke; Slatyer, Tracy R.

    2016-06-08

    A calculation of the Sommerfeld enhancement is presented and applied to the problem of s-wave non-relativistic dark matter annihilation. The difference from previous computations in the literature is that the effect of the underlying short-range scattering process is consistently included together with the long-range force in the effective QM Schrödinger problem. Our procedure satisfies partial-wave unitarity where previous calculations fail. We provide analytic results for some potentials of phenomenological relevance.

  6. Scoping Calculations of Power Sources for Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Difilippo, F. C.

    1994-01-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to make scoping calculations for mission analysis.

  7. Scoping calculations of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1994-05-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to making scoping calculations for mission analysis.

  8. The spacing calculator software—A Visual Basic program to calculate spatial properties of lineaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekneligoda, Thushan C.; Henkel, Herbert

    2006-05-01

    A software tool is presented which calculates the spatial properties azimuth, length, spacing, and frequency of lineaments that are defined by their starting and ending co-ordinates in a two-dimensional (2-D) planar co-ordinate system. A simple graphical interface with five display windows creates a user-friendly interactive environment. All lineaments are considered in the calculations, and no secondary sampling grid is needed for the elaboration of the spatial properties. Several rule-based decisions are made to determine the nearest lineament in the spacing calculation. As a default procedure, the programme defines a window that depends on the mode value of the length distribution of the lineaments in a study area. This makes the results more consistent, compared to the manual method of spacing calculation. Histograms are provided to illustrate and elaborate the distribution of the azimuth, length and spacing. The core of the tool is the spacing calculation between neighbouring parallel lineaments, which gives direct information about the variation of block sizes in a given category of structures. The 2-D lineament frequency is calculated for the actual area that is occupied by the lineaments.

  9. New Arsenic Cross Section Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Toshihiko

    2015-03-04

    This report presents calculations for the new arsenic cross section. Cross sections for 73,74,75 As above the resonance range were calculated with a newly developed Hauser-Feshbach code, CoH3.

  10. EPA's National Stormwater Calculator (Poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This poster will demonstrate how EPA's National Stormwater Calculator works. The National Stormwater Calculator (SWC) estimates the amount of stormwater runoff generated from a site under different development and control scenarios over a long period of historical rainfall. The a...

  11. A Program for Gear Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisbee, Kolak K.; Hawkins, Harry M.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a microcomputer program (designed for Apple II but it can be modified) used to calculate various dimensions relative to a spur gear. Basic terms are identified and a program listing for gear calculations is included. (CT)

  12. Finite machines, mental procedures, and modern physics.

    PubMed

    Lupacchini, Rossella

    2007-01-01

    A Turing machine provides a mathematical definition of the natural process of calculating. It rests on trust that a procedure of reason can be reproduced mechanically. Turing's analysis of the concept of mechanical procedure in terms of a finite machine convinced Gödel of the validity of the Church thesis. And yet, Gödel's later concern was that, insofar as Turing's work shows that "mental procedure cannot go beyond mechanical procedures", it would imply the same kind of limitation on human mind. He therefore deems Turing's argument to be inconclusive. The question then arises as to which extent a computing machine operating by finite means could provide an adequate model of human intelligence. It is argued that a rigorous answer to this question can be given by developing Turing's considerations on the nature of mental processes. For Turing such processes are the consequence of physical processes and he seems to be led to the conclusion that quantum mechanics could help to find a more comprehensive explanation of them.

  13. The calculation of comet ephemerides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatum, J.

    1982-06-01

    A brief description of how a basic comet ephemeris can be calculated from the orbital elements is given. A simple Keplerian orbit is assumed for the calculations, omitting such details as light-travel time, perturbation by the planets, and non-gravitational effects. The calculated ephemeris will usually be adequate to find the comet in a telescope, and only a good programmable calculator is required. To avoid cumbersome mathematics, the necessary formulas are given without derivation.

  14. Advanced crew procedures development techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbet, J. D.; Benbow, R. L.; Mangiaracina, A. A.; Mcgavern, J. L.; Spangler, M. C.; Tatum, I. C.

    1975-01-01

    The development of an operational computer program, the Procedures and Performance Program (PPP), is reported which provides a procedures recording and crew/vehicle performance monitoring capability. The PPP provides real time CRT displays and postrun hardcopy of procedures, difference procedures, performance, performance evaluation, and training script/training status data. During post-run, the program is designed to support evaluation through the reconstruction of displays to any point in time. A permanent record of the simulation exercise can be obtained via hardcopy output of the display data, and via magnetic tape transfer to the Generalized Documentation Processor (GDP). Reference procedures data may be transferred from the GDP to the PPP.

  15. Method for Automated Bone Shape Correction within Bone Distraction Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blynskiy, F. Yu

    2016-01-01

    The method for automated bone shape correction within bone distraction procedure is presented. High precision deformation angle measurement is provided by the software for X- Ray images processing. Special BDC v.1.0.1. application is designed. The purpose of the BDC is modeling of the bone geometry structure to calculate the appropriate distraction forces. The correction procedure control is realized by the hardware of the distraction system.

  16. Development of preventive maintenance procedures.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zvi, S

    1984-01-01

    A large number of in-house preventive maintenance (PM) programs, which call for varying degrees of thoroughness in the checkout of patient care instrumentation, are currently in existence throughout the country. This paper discusses the types of preventive maintenance, or PM procedures, which can be used by a clinical engineering department; the rationale for drafting different types of PM procedures in-house; and some long-term considerations affecting hospital-based inspection programs. Three types of PM procedures are described and compared: general checks; generic procedures; and, specific procedures. An outline is provided for writing a PM procedure; and, a call is made for a national guideline for writing preventive maintenance procedures.

  17. Combined procedures in laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Atul; Chowbey, Pradeep K; Sharma, Anil; Khullar, Rajesh; Soni, Vandana; Baijal, Manish

    2003-12-01

    With advancements in minimal access surgery, combined laparoscopic procedures are now being performed for treating coexisting abdominal pathologies at the same surgery. In our center, we performed 145 combined surgical procedures from January 1999 to December 2002. Of the 145 procedures, 130 were combined laparoscopic/endoscopic procedures and 15 were open procedures combined with endoscopic procedures. The combination included laparoscopic cholecystectomy, various hernia repairs, and gynecological procedures like hysterectomy, salpingectomy, ovarian cystectomy, tubal ligation, urological procedures, fundoplication, splenectomy, hemicolectomy, and cystogastrostomy. In the same period, 40 patients who had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy and 40 patients who had undergone ventral hernia repair were randomly selected for comparison of intraoperative outcomes with a combined procedure group. All the combined surgical procedures were performed successfully. The most common procedure was laparoscopic cholecystectomy with another endoscopic procedure in 129 patients. The mean operative time was 100 minutes (range 30-280 minutes). The longest time was taken for the patient who had undergone laparoscopic splenectomy with renal transplant (280 minutes). The mean hospital stay was 3.2 days (range 1-21 days). The pain experienced in the postoperative period measured on the visual analogue scale ranged from 2 to 5 with a mean of 3.1. Of 145 patients who underwent combined surgical procedures, 5 patients developed fever in the immediate postoperative period, 7 patients had port site hematoma, 5 patients developed wound sepsis, and 10 patients had urinary retention. As long as the basic surgical principles and indications for combined procedures are adhered to, more patients with concomitant pathologies can enjoy the benefit of minimal access surgery. Minimal access surgery is feasible and appears to have several advantages in simultaneous management of two different

  18. 40 CFR 1066.610 - Mass-based and molar-based exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mass-based and molar-based exhaust... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations § 1066.610 Mass-based and molar-based exhaust emission calculations. (a) Calculate your total mass of emissions over a test cycle...

  19. 40 CFR 1066.610 - Mass-based and molar-based exhaust emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mass-based and molar-based exhaust... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations § 1066.610 Mass-based and molar-based exhaust emission calculations. (a) Calculate your total mass of emissions over a test cycle...

  20. NASA trend analysis procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This publication is primarily intended for use by NASA personnel engaged in managing or implementing trend analysis programs. 'Trend analysis' refers to the observation of current activity in the context of the past in order to infer the expected level of future activity. NASA trend analysis was divided into 5 categories: problem, performance, supportability, programmatic, and reliability. Problem trend analysis uncovers multiple occurrences of historical hardware or software problems or failures in order to focus future corrective action. Performance trend analysis observes changing levels of real-time or historical flight vehicle performance parameters such as temperatures, pressures, and flow rates as compared to specification or 'safe' limits. Supportability trend analysis assesses the adequacy of the spaceflight logistics system; example indicators are repair-turn-around time and parts stockage levels. Programmatic trend analysis uses quantitative indicators to evaluate the 'health' of NASA programs of all types. Finally, reliability trend analysis attempts to evaluate the growth of system reliability based on a decreasing rate of occurrence of hardware problems over time. Procedures for conducting all five types of trend analysis are provided in this publication, prepared through the joint efforts of the NASA Trend Analysis Working Group.

  1. Airplane stability calculations with a card programmable pocket calculator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, W. L.

    1978-01-01

    Programs are presented for calculating airplane stability characteristics with a card programmable pocket calculator. These calculations include eigenvalues of the characteristic equations of lateral and longitudinal motion as well as stability parameters such as the time to damp to one-half amplitude or the damping ratio. The effects of wind shear are included. Background information and the equations programmed are given. The programs are written for the International System of Units, the dimensional form of the stability derivatives, and stability axes. In addition to programs for stability calculations, an unusual and short program is included for the Euler transformation of coordinates used in airplane motions. The programs have been written for a Hewlett Packard HP-67 calculator. However, the use of this calculator does not constitute an endorsement of the product by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  2. 40 CFR 86.1243-96 - Calculations; evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Evaporative Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1243-96 Calculations;...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1243-96 - Calculations; evaporative emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Evaporative Emission Test Procedures for New Gasoline-Fueled, Natural Gas-Fueled, Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled and Methanol-Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1243-96 Calculations;...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.675 - CLD quench verification calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 1065.675 Section 1065.675 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.675 CLD quench... water content in combustion air, fuel combustion products, and dilution air (if applicable). If...

  5. 40 CFR 1065.675 - CLD quench verification calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 1065.675 Section 1065.675 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.675 CLD quench... water content in combustion air, fuel combustion products, and dilution air (if applicable). If...

  6. 40 CFR 1065.675 - CLD quench verification calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 1065.675 Section 1065.675 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.675 CLD quench... water content in combustion air, fuel combustion products, and dilution air (if applicable). If...

  7. 40 CFR 1033.530 - Duty cycles and calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duty cycles and calculations. 1033.530 Section 1033.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.530 Duty cycles and...

  8. 40 CFR 1033.530 - Duty cycles and calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duty cycles and calculations. 1033.530 Section 1033.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.530 Duty cycles and...

  9. 40 CFR 1033.530 - Duty cycles and calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty cycles and calculations. 1033.530 Section 1033.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.530 Duty cycles and...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.675 - CLD quench verification calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 1065.675 Section 1065.675 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.675 CLD quench... water content in combustion air, fuel combustion products, and dilution air (if applicable). If...

  11. 40 CFR 1033.530 - Duty cycles and calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duty cycles and calculations. 1033.530 Section 1033.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.530 Duty cycles and...

  12. 40 CFR 1033.530 - Duty cycles and calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duty cycles and calculations. 1033.530 Section 1033.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.530 Duty cycles and...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.675 - CLD quench verification calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 1065.675 Section 1065.675 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.675 CLD quench... water content in combustion air, fuel combustion products, and dilution air (if applicable). If...

  14. 40 CFR 98.193 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from all lime kilns combined using the procedure in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. (a) If all lime kilns meet the conditions specified in... combustion CO2 emissions from all lime kilns by operating and maintaining a CEMS to measure CO2...

  15. 40 CFR 98.193 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from all lime kilns combined using the procedure in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. (a) If all lime kilns meet the conditions specified in... required to be used to determine CO2 emissions from all lime kilns under paragraph (a) of this...

  16. 40 CFR 98.193 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from all lime kilns combined using the procedure in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. (a) If all lime kilns meet the conditions specified in... required to be used to determine CO2 emissions from all lime kilns under paragraph (a) of this...

  17. 40 CFR 98.193 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... must calculate and report the annual process CO2 emissions from all lime kilns combined using the procedure in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section. (a) If all lime kilns meet the conditions specified in... required to be used to determine CO2 emissions from all lime kilns under paragraph (a) of this...

  18. 40 CFR 86.345-79 - Emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.345-79...) For Diesel engines, for each mode use the measured engine (f/a) entering the combustion chamber when...) For gasoline-fueled engines, optional for Diesel engines, calculate φ for each mode by...

  19. 40 CFR 98.213 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emissions. You must determine CO2 process emissions from carbonate use in accordance with the procedures specified in either paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section. (a) Calculate the process emissions of CO2 using calcination fractions with Equation U-1 of this section. ER30OC09.077 Where: ECO2 = Annual CO2 mass...

  20. 40 CFR 98.213 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emissions. You must determine CO2 process emissions from carbonate use in accordance with the procedures specified in either paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section. (a) Calculate the process emissions of CO2 using calcination fractions with Equation U-1 of this section. ER30OC09.077 Where: ECO2 = Annual CO2 mass...

  1. 40 CFR 98.213 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emissions. You must determine CO2 process emissions from carbonate use in accordance with the procedures specified in either paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section. (a) Calculate the process emissions of CO2 using calcination fractions with Equation U-1 of this section. ER30OC09.077 Where: ECO2 = Annual CO2 mass...

  2. 40 CFR 98.213 - Calculating GHG emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emissions. You must determine CO2 process emissions from carbonate use in accordance with the procedures specified in either paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section. (a) Calculate the process emissions of CO2 using calcination fractions with Equation U-1 of this section. ER30OC09.077 Where: ECO2 = Annual CO2 mass...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1544 - Calculation; idle exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Natural Gas-Fueled, and Liquefied Petroleum Gas-Fueled Diesel-Cycle Light-Duty Trucks; Idle Test Procedures § 86.1544 Calculation; idle exhaust emissions. (a) The final idle emission test results shall be reported as percent for carbon monoxide on a dry basis. (b) If a CVS sampling system is used, the...

  4. 40 CFR 91.419 - Raw emission sampling calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.419 Raw emission sampling calculations. (a) Derive the final test results through the steps described in... following equations are used to determine the weighted emission values for the test engine:...

  5. 40 CFR 91.419 - Raw emission sampling calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.419 Raw emission sampling calculations. (a) Derive the final test results through the steps described in... following equations are used to determine the weighted emission values for the test engine:...

  6. Advanced Geometric Optics on a Programmable Pocket Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussbaum, Allen

    1979-01-01

    Presents a ray-tracing procedure based on some ideas of Herzberger and the matrix approach to geometrical optics. This method, which can be implemented on a programmable pocket calculator, applies to any conic surface, including paraboloids, spheres, and planes. (Author/GA)

  7. The Johnson-Neyman procedure as an alternative to ANCOVA.

    PubMed

    D'Alonzo, Karen T

    2004-11-01

    ANCOVA is a widely used statistical procedure that is particularly useful in analyzing data from experimental designs. There are, however, a number of assumptions that must be tested before proceeding with the ANCOVA. Of particular concern is the assumption of homogeneity of regression slopes (HOS). When the HOS assumption has been violated, the researcher needs to look for an alternative approach to the ANCOVA. The Johnson-Neyman procedure (J-N) is presented as such an alternative. Although the calculations for the procedure are somewhat tedious and are not currently a standard feature of statistical software packages, an alternative approach using SAS syntax codes is presented.

  8. Effective boson number calculations in Mo and Cd isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cata, G.; Bucurescu, D.; Cutoiu, D.; Ivaşcu, M.; Zamfir, N. V.

    1990-09-01

    The effects of the neutron-proton interaction on the low-lying levels of Mo and Cd isotopes have been considered in the frame of the IBA-1 model by taking into account an effective boson number ( N eff). Both an empirical procedure based on previous IBA-2 mixing calculations and the N p N n scheme provide comparable N eff values. Level spectra and electromagnetic transitions are investigated. The results support the idea that IBA-1 calculations with a suitable N eff can largely simulate IBA-2 mixing calculations, taking advantage of simplicity and a smaller number of parameters.

  9. A basic insight to FEM_based temperature distribution calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwaningsih, A.; Khairina

    2012-06-01

    A manual for finite element method (FEM)-based temperature distribution calculation has been performed. The code manual is written in visual basic that is operated in windows. The calculation of temperature distribution based on FEM has three steps namely preprocessor, processor and post processor. Therefore, three manuals are produced namely a preprocessor to prepare the data, a processor to solve the problem, and a post processor to display the result. In these manuals, every step of a general procedure is described in detail. It is expected, by these manuals, the understanding of calculating temperature distribution be better and easier.

  10. Safeguards management inspection procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, M.J.; Dunn, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this inspection module is to independently assess the contributions of licensee management to overall safeguards systems performance. The inspector accomplishes this objective by comparing the licensee's safeguards management to both the 10 CFR, parts 70 and 73, requirements and to generally accepted management practices. The vehicle by which this comparison is to be made consists of assessment questions and key issues which point the inspector to areas of primary concern to the NRC and which raise additional issues for the purpose of exposing management ineffectiveness. Further insight into management effectiveness is obtained through those assessment questions specifically directed toward the licensee's safeguards system performance. If the quality of the safeguards is poor, then the inspector should strongly suspect that management's role is ineffective and should attempt to determine management's influence (or lack thereof) on the underlying safeguards deficiencies. (The converse is not necessarily true, however.) The assessment questions in essence provide an opportunity for the inspector to identify, to single out, and to probe further, questionable management practices. Specific issues, circumstances, and concerns which point to questionable or inappropriate practices should be explicitly identified and referenced against the CFR and the assessment questions. The inspection report should also explain why the inspector feels certain management practices are poor, counter to the CFR, and/or point to ineffecive management. Concurrent with documenting the inspection results, the inspector should provide recommendations for alleviating observed management practices that are detrimental to effective safeguards. The recommendations could include: specific changes in the practices of the licensee, followup procedures on the part of NRC, and proposed license changes.

  11. MUSE optical alignment procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Renault, Edgard; Loupias, Magali; Kosmalski, Johan; Anwand, Heiko; Bacon, Roland; Boudon, Didier; Caillier, Patrick; Daguisé, Eric; Dubois, Jean-Pierre; Dupuy, Christophe; Kelz, Andreas; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Nicklas, Harald; Parès, Laurent; Remillieux, Alban; Seifert, Walter; Valentin, Hervé; Xu, Wenli

    2012-09-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation VLT integral field spectrograph (1x1arcmin² Field of View) developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO), operating in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently assembling and testing MUSE in the Integration Hall of the Observatoire de Lyon for the Preliminary Acceptance in Europe, scheduled for 2013. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic instrument mechanical structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2011, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested independently in each institute. After validations, the systems were shipped to the P.I. institute at Lyon and were assembled in the Integration Hall This paper describes the end-to-end optical alignment procedure of the MUSE instrument. The design strategy, mixing an optical alignment by manufacturing (plug and play approach) and few adjustments on key components, is presented. We depict the alignment method for identifying the optical axis using several references located in pupil and image planes. All tools required to perform the global alignment between each subsystem are described. The success of this alignment approach is demonstrated by the good results for the MUSE image quality. MUSE commissioning at the VLT (Very Large Telescope) is planned for 2013.

  12. Global nuclear-structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, P.; Nix, J.R.

    1990-04-20

    The revival of interest in nuclear ground-state octupole deformations that occurred in the 1980's was stimulated by observations in 1980 of particularly large deviations between calculated and experimental masses in the Ra region, in a global calculation of nuclear ground-state masses. By minimizing the total potential energy with respect to octupole shape degrees of freedom in addition to {epsilon}{sub 2} and {epsilon}{sub 4} used originally, a vastly improved agreement between calculated and experimental masses was obtained. To study the global behavior and interrelationships between other nuclear properties, we calculate nuclear ground-state masses, spins, pairing gaps and {Beta}-decay and half-lives and compare the results to experimental qualities. The calculations are based on the macroscopic-microscopic approach, with the microscopic contributions calculated in a folded-Yukawa single-particle potential.

  13. Documenting Laboratory Procedures with Video

    PubMed Central

    Wyttenbach, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Demonstrating laboratory procedures in person during class time can be time-consuming. When procedures are done under a microscope, live demonstration is also impractical because of the limited number of students who can view the demonstration at once. Creating videos beforehand, which students can watch before class and review during lab sessions, solves both of these problems. This article suggests ways to make and distribute high quality video of microscopic procedures. PMID:26240520

  14. Intensity calculations of HCN molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasmin, Kausar

    2006-10-01

    Accurate spectroscopic data of HCN are required for many astronomical calculations and modeling. HCN molecules are present in the atmosphere of carbon stars and in galactic centers. Ro-vibrational energy levels and intensity calculations were carried out using the full coupled cluster model and radau coordinates. Accurate ab initio calculated potential energy surface^1 and dipole moment surface^2 were used for computation. The computed values were compared with Hitran^99.^

  15. Coding for urologic office procedures.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Robert A; Painter, Mark

    2013-11-01

    This article summarizes current best practices for documenting, coding, and billing common office-based urologic procedures. Topics covered include general principles, basic and advanced urologic coding, creation of medical records that support compliant coding practices, bundled codes and unbundling, global periods, modifiers for procedure codes, when to bill for evaluation and management services during the same visit, coding for supplies, and laboratory and radiology procedures pertinent to urology practice. Detailed information is included for the most common urology office procedures, and suggested resources and references are provided. This information is of value to physicians, office managers, and their coding staff.

  16. Training for advanced endoscopic procedures.

    PubMed

    Feurer, Matthew E; Draganov, Peter V

    2016-06-01

    Advanced endoscopy has evolved from diagnostic ERCP to an ever-increasing array of therapeutic procedures including EUS with FNA, ablative therapies, deep enteroscopy, luminal stenting, endoscopic suturing and endoscopic mucosal resection among others. As these procedures have become increasingly more complex, the risk of potential complications has also risen. Training in advanced endoscopy involves more than obtaining a minimum number of therapeutic procedures. The means of assessing a trainee's competence level and ability to practice independently continues to be a matter of debate. The use of quality indicators to measure performance levels may be beneficial as more advanced techniques and procedures become available.

  17. Electronic Procedures for Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Electronic procedures are replacing text-based documents for recording the steps in performing medical operations aboard the International Space Station. S&K Aerospace, LLC, has developed a content-based electronic system-based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML) standard-that separates text from formatting standards and tags items contained in procedures so they can be recognized by other electronic systems. For example, to change a standard format, electronic procedures are changed in a single batch process, and the entire body of procedures will have the new format. Procedures can be quickly searched to determine which are affected by software and hardware changes. Similarly, procedures are easily shared with other electronic systems. The system also enables real-time data capture and automatic bookmarking of current procedure steps. In Phase II of the project, S&K Aerospace developed a Procedure Representation Language (PRL) and tools to support the creation and maintenance of electronic procedures for medical operations. The goal is to develop these tools in such a way that new advances can be inserted easily, leading to an eventual medical decision support system.

  18. Programmable Calculators for Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayrik, John J.

    1978-01-01

    Instructions are given for using and programing programable calculators. Several problems and examples are given that include topics such as temperature conversion, estimation, and number operations. (MP)

  19. Precipitates/Salts Model Calculations for Various Drift Temperature Environments

    SciTech Connect

    P. Marnier

    2001-12-20

    The objective and scope of this calculation is to assist Performance Assessment Operations and the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Department in modeling the geochemical effects of evaporation within a repository drift. This work is developed and documented using procedure AP-3.12Q, Calculations, in support of ''Technical Work Plan For Engineered Barrier System Department Modeling and Testing FY 02 Work Activities'' (BSC 2001a). The primary objective of this calculation is to predict the effects of evaporation on the abstracted water compositions established in ''EBS Incoming Water and Gas Composition Abstraction Calculations for Different Drift Temperature Environments'' (BSC 2001c). A secondary objective is to predict evaporation effects on observed Yucca Mountain waters for subsequent cement interaction calculations (BSC 2001d). The Precipitates/Salts model is documented in an Analysis/Model Report (AMR), ''In-Drift Precipitates/Salts Analysis'' (BSC 2001b).

  20. Test equality between two binary screening tests with a confirmatory procedure restricted on screen positives.

    PubMed

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2015-01-01

    In studies of screening accuracy, we may commonly encounter the data in which a confirmatory procedure is administered to only those subjects with screen positives for ethical concerns. We focus our discussion on simultaneously testing equality of sensitivity and specificity between two binary screening tests when only subjects with screen positives receive the confirmatory procedure. We develop four asymptotic test procedures and one exact test procedure. We derive sample size calculation formula for a desired power of detecting a difference at a given nominal [Formula: see text]-level. We employ Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the performance of these test procedures and the accuracy of the sample size calculation formula developed here in a variety of situations. Finally, we use the data obtained from a study of the prostate-specific-antigen test and digital rectal examination test on 949 Black men to illustrate the practical use of these test procedures and the sample size calculation formula.

  1. Dose calculation accuracies in whole breast radiotherapy treatment planning: a multi-institutional study.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Shogo; Miyabe, Yuki; Tohyama, Naoki; Kumazaki, Yu; Kurooka, Masahiko; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Tachibana, Hidenobu; Kito, Satoshi; Wakita, Akihisa; Ohotomo, Yuko; Ikagawa, Hiroyuki; Ishikura, Satoshi; Nozaki, Miwako; Kagami, Yoshikazu; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Nishio, Teiji

    2015-07-01

    Our objective in this study was to evaluate the variation in the doses delivered among institutions due to dose calculation inaccuracies in whole breast radiotherapy. We have developed practical procedures for quality assurance (QA) of radiation treatment planning systems. These QA procedures are designed to be performed easily at any institution and to permit comparisons of results across institutions. The dose calculation accuracy was evaluated across seven institutions using various irradiation conditions. In some conditions, there was a >3 % difference between the calculated dose and the measured dose. The dose calculation accuracy differs among institutions because it is dependent on both the dose calculation algorithm and beam modeling. The QA procedures in this study are useful for verifying the accuracy of the dose calculation algorithm and of the beam model before clinical use for whole breast radiotherapy.

  2. A programmable calculator program for rapid logarithmic extrapolation, and calculation of mean transit time from an indicator-dilution curve.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y C

    1979-03-01

    Reconstruction of the primary indicator-dilution curve is accomplished by exponential curve-fit from a set of points obtained on the downslope of the curve. Curve-fit is simplified by requiring entry of indicator concentrations (Yi) only, where time increments (Xi) are made self-generating in the program. Similarly, calculation of mean transit time requires only the entries of Yi. Stored values supply the needed quantities for calculations of cardiac output and the central blood volume as defined by the injection and the sampling sites. The Texas Instrument TR 52 model hand-held programmable calculator is utilized in this program but it should be adaptable to other programmable calculators. The present program provides a procedure for rapid reconstruction of the primary indicator-dilution curve, and hence calculations of cardiac output, mean transit time and central blood volume.

  3. Teaching Decimal Math with Calculators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenner, Martin

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the use of hand-held calculators on the teaching of decimal arithmetic in seventh and eighth grade pre-science units. In particular, the effects of calculators on pencil and paper computational skills and on conceptual understanding were studied. The study consisted of a pre-unit…

  4. CELSS scenario analysis: Breakeven calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    A model of the relative mass requirements of food production components in a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) based on regenerative concepts is described. Included are a discussion of model scope, structure, and example calculations. Computer programs for cultivar and breakeven calculations are also included.

  5. relline: Relativistic line profiles calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauser, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    relline calculates relativistic line profiles; it is compatible with the common X-ray data analysis software XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) and ISIS (ascl:1302.002). The two basic forms are an additive line model (RELLINE) and a convolution model to calculate relativistic smearing (RELCONV).

  6. Calculator. Owning a Small Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Seven activities are presented in this student workbook designed for an exploration of small business ownership and the use of the calculator in this career. Included are simulated situations in which students must use a calculator to compute property taxes; estimate payroll taxes and franchise taxes; compute pricing, approximate salaries,…

  7. Automatic calculation in quarkonium physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Bin; Wan, Lu-Ping; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Zhang, Hong-Fei

    2014-06-01

    In this report, an automatic calculating package based on REDUCE and RLISP, FDC, is introduced, especially its one-loop calculation part and its special treatment for quarkonium physics. With FDC, many works have been completed, most of them are very important in solve/clarify current puzzles in quarkonium physics.

  8. Shortcut program eases gas calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Dutcher, W.G.

    1982-12-01

    This paper shows how the HP-41C programmable calculator is used to obtain viscosity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity and net heating values for gas mixtures. It presents diagram of program logic for physical properties, program listings, a table with program summaries, a table with storage locations, and an example calculation.

  9. Laboratory Procedures for Medical Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Pauline

    The purpose of the manual is to provide the medical assisting student a text which presents the common laboratory procedures in use today in physician's offices. The procedures for performing a complete urinalysis are outlined, along with those for carrying out various hematological tests. Information is also presented to help the student learn to…

  10. Research Commentary: Reconceptualizing Procedural Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Star, Jon R.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I argue for a renewed focus in mathematics education research on procedural knowledge. I make three main points: (1) The development of students' procedural knowledge has not received a great deal of attention in recent research; (2) one possible explanation for this deficiency is that current characterizations of conceptual and…

  11. 76 FR 62092 - Filing Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE... issuing a Handbook on Filing Procedures to replace its Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures. The revision is necessary to implement a new Commission requirement for electronic filing of most...

  12. Intranasal ethmoidectomy and concurrent procedures.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J S; Crocker, P V; Keebler, J S

    1982-07-01

    In this review of 526 intranasal ethmoidectomy procedures, there was a complication rate of 2.5% with no blindness, meningitis, or deaths. The rationale for associated concurrent procedures is presented. The use of an absorbable hemostatic sinus sponge and an easily removable Telfa nasal packing made possible just a two-night hospital stay in over 90% of these patients.

  13. Application of the fuzzy sets theory to cost calculations on individual stages of a construction investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plebankiewicz, Edyta

    2016-06-01

    One of the most significant parameters of cost calculations of a construction project are the costs. Their calculation on each stage of the investment process is characterized by high uncertainty. This is one of the reasons for using fuzzy logic to such calculations. The paper presents a short description of applications of fuzzy logic to compute costs on various stages of the investment process. They encompass both the initial planning stage and the calculations during the tender procedure.

  14. Scattering calculations and confining interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, Warren W.; Maung, Khin M.

    1993-01-01

    Most of the research work performed under this grant were concerned with strong interaction processes ranging from kaon-nucleon interaction to proton-nucleus scattering calculations. Research performed under this grant can be categorized into three groups: (1) parametrization of fundamental interactions, (2) development of formal theory, and (3) calculations based upon the first two. Parametrizations of certain fundamental interactions, such as kaon-nucleon interaction, for example, were necessary because kaon-nucleon scattering amplitude was needed to perform kaon-nucleus scattering calculations. It was possible to calculate kaon-nucleon amplitudes from the first principle, but it was unnecessary for the purpose of the project. Similar work was also done for example for anti-protons and anti-nuclei. Formal developments to some extent were also pursued so that consistent calculations can be done.

  15. Stress Calculations for Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halicioglu, Timur; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Atomic stresses were calculated for carbon nanotubes under strain conditions. Graphitic tubules with radii ranging from approximately 2 to 11 Angstroms and two different tubule structures with varying atomic orientations were included in the calculations. Elongations and contractions were applied in the axial direction and atomic stress values were calculated for infinitely long tubules. The calculations were carried out using Brenner's function which was developed for carbon species. Results indicate that the stress is tensile in the radial direction while it is compressive in the tangential direction. Variations in stress values in the direction of the cylindrical aids were investigated as a function of applied strain. Furthermore, using the stress-strain curve (calculated based on atomic considerations), the values of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio for nanotubules were also estimated.

  16. Calculation of Neutral Beam Injection into SSPX

    SciTech Connect

    Pearlstein, L D; Casper, T A; Hill, D N; LoDestro, L L; McLean, H S

    2006-06-13

    The SSPX spheromak experiment has achieved electron temperatures of 350eV and confinement consistent with closed magnetic surfaces. In addition, there is evidence that the experiment may be up against an operational beta limit for Ohmic heating. To test this barrier, there are firm plans to add two 0.9MW Neutral Beam (NB) sources to the experiment. A question is whether the limit is due to instability. Since the deposited Ohmic power in the core is relatively small the additional power from the beams is sufficient to significantly increase the electron temperature. Here we present results of computations that will support this contention. We have developed a new NB module to calculate the orbits of the injected fast fast-ions. The previous computation made heavy use of tokamak ordering which fails for a tight-aspect-ratio device, where B{sub tor} {approx} B{sub pol}. The model calculates the deposition from the NFREYA package [1]. The neutral from the CX deposition is assumed to be ionized in place, a high-density approximation. The fast ions are then assumed to fill a constant angular momentum orbit. And finally, the fast ions immediately assume the form of a dragged down distribution. Transfer rates are then calculated from this distribution function [2]. The differential times are computed from the orbit times and the particle weights in each flux zone (the sampling bin) are proportional to the time spent in the zone. From this information the flux-surface-averaged profiles are obtained and fed into the appropriate transport equation. This procedure is clearly approximate, but accurate enough to help guide experiments. A major advantage is speed: 5000 particles can be processed in under 4s on our fastest LINUX box. This speed adds flexibility by enabling a ''large'' number of predictive studies. Similar approximations, without the accurate orbit calculation presented here, had some success comparing with experiment and TRANSP [3]. Since our procedure does not

  17. 40 CFR 60.396 - Reference methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Light Duty Truck Surface Coating Operations § 60.396 Reference methods and procedures. (a) The reference... for the determination of the data used in the calculation of the VOC content of the coatings used for... moisture. (b) For Method 24, the coating sample must be a 1-liter sample taken in a 1-liter container....

  18. St. Lawrence River Freeze-Up Forecast Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assel, R. A.

    A standard operating procedure (SOP) is presented for calculating the date of freeze-up on the St. Lawrence River at Massena, N.Y. The SOP is based on two empirical temperature decline equations developed for Kingston, Ontario, and Massena, N.Y., respectively. Input data needed to forecast freeze-up consist of the forecast December flow rate and…

  19. 40 CFR 86.1332-90 - Engine mapping procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Perform an engine power map. (1) During engine preparation or warm-up, the engine may be operated such... engine, start the engine and operate at zero load in accordance with the manufacturer's start-up and warm... measured rated speed in all calculations. (x) For warm engines, the entire warm-up procedure specified...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1332-90 - Engine mapping procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Perform an engine power map. (1) During engine preparation or warm-up, the engine may be operated such... engine, start the engine and operate at zero load in accordance with the manufacturer's start-up and warm... measured rated speed in all calculations. (x) For warm engines, the entire warm-up procedure specified...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1332-90 - Engine mapping procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... which the wide-open throttle torque drops off to zero, or the maximum speed as calculated for ungoverned... mapping speed shall be no less than either that speed at which wide-open throttle torque drops off to zero...-up procedures for 1 minute ±30 seconds. (ii) Operate the engine at a torque equivalent to...

  2. 40 CFR 61.174 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Arsenic Emissions From Primary Copper Smelters § 61.174 Test methods and procedures. (a) To determine... converter arsenic charging rate as follows: (1) Collect daily grab samples of copper matte and any lead... determine the weight percent of inorganic arsenic contained in each sample. (3) Calculate the...

  3. 40 CFR 61.174 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Arsenic Emissions From Primary Copper Smelters § 61.174 Test methods and procedures. (a) To determine... converter arsenic charging rate as follows: (1) Collect daily grab samples of copper matte and any lead... determine the weight percent of inorganic arsenic contained in each sample. (3) Calculate the...

  4. 40 CFR 61.174 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Arsenic Emissions From Primary Copper Smelters § 61.174 Test methods and procedures. (a) To determine... converter arsenic charging rate as follows: (1) Collect daily grab samples of copper matte and any lead... determine the weight percent of inorganic arsenic contained in each sample. (3) Calculate the...

  5. 40 CFR 61.174 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Arsenic Emissions From Primary Copper Smelters § 61.174 Test methods and procedures. (a) To determine... converter arsenic charging rate as follows: (1) Collect daily grab samples of copper matte and any lead... determine the weight percent of inorganic arsenic contained in each sample. (3) Calculate the...

  6. 40 CFR 61.174 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Arsenic Emissions From Primary Copper Smelters § 61.174 Test methods and procedures. (a) To determine... converter arsenic charging rate as follows: (1) Collect daily grab samples of copper matte and any lead... determine the weight percent of inorganic arsenic contained in each sample. (3) Calculate the...

  7. 40 CFR 98.195 - Procedures for estimating missing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Lime Manufacturing § 98.195 Procedures for... used in the GHG emissions calculations is required (e.g., oxide content, quantity of lime products, etc... each missing value of the quantity of lime produced (by lime type), and quantity of...

  8. 40 CFR 1066.301 - Overview of coastdown procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coastdown procedures described in this subpart are used to determine the load coefficients (A, B, and C) for... coastdown tests and calculating load coefficients is described in SAE J1263 and SAE J2263 (incorporated by... effects of grade by performing coastdown testing on reasonably level surfaces and determining...

  9. 40 CFR 1066.301 - Overview of coastdown procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coastdown procedures described in this subpart are used to determine the load coefficients (A, B, and C) for... coastdown tests and calculating load coefficients is described in SAE J1263 and SAE J2263 (incorporated by... effects of grade by performing coastdown testing on reasonably level surfaces and determining...

  10. 40 CFR 1066.301 - Overview of coastdown procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coastdown procedures described in this subpart are used to determine the load coefficients (A, B, and C) for... coastdown tests and calculating load coefficients is described in SAE J1263 and SAE J2263 (incorporated by... effects of grade by performing coastdown testing on reasonably level surfaces and determining...

  11. 10 CFR 451.9 - Procedures for processing applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... closed-loop biomass technologies based on prior year energy generation; (2) Calculate potential incentive... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedures for processing applications. 451.9 Section 451.9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES §...

  12. 40 CFR 98.345 - Procedures for estimating missing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for estimating missing data... for estimating missing data. A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions... substitute data value for the missing parameter shall be used in the calculations, according to...

  13. 40 CFR 98.365 - Procedures for estimating missing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for estimating missing data... estimating missing data. (a) A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG emissions... substitute data value for the missing parameter shall be used in the calculations, according to...

  14. 40 CFR 98.215 - Procedures for estimating missing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for estimating missing data... for estimating missing data. (a) A complete record of all measured parameters used in the GHG... unavailable, a substitute data value for the missing parameter shall be used in the calculations as...

  15. 40 CFR 75.31 - Initial missing data procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., or O2 concentration data, and moisture data. For each hour of missing SO2 or CO2 emissions concentration data (including CO2 data converted from O2 data using the procedures in appendix F of this part), or missing O2 or CO2 diluent concentration data used to calculate heat input, or missing...

  16. 40 CFR 75.31 - Initial missing data procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., or O2 concentration data, and moisture data. For each hour of missing SO2 or CO2 emissions concentration data (including CO2 data converted from O2 data using the procedures in appendix F of this part), or missing O2 or CO2 diluent concentration data used to calculate heat input, or missing...

  17. 40 CFR 75.31 - Initial missing data procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., or O2 concentration data, and moisture data. For each hour of missing SO2 or CO2 emissions concentration data (including CO2 data converted from O2 data using the procedures in appendix F of this part), or missing O2 or CO2 diluent concentration data used to calculate heat input, or missing...

  18. 40 CFR 60.496 - Test methods and procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Surface Coating Industry § 60.496 Test methods and procedures. (a) The reference methods in appendix A to... the VOC content of the coatings used for each affected facility can be calculated. In the event of a dispute, Method 24 data shall govern. When VOC content of water-borne coatings, determined from...

  19. From Informal Strategies to Structured Procedures: Mind the Gap!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anghileri, Julia; Beishuizen, Meindert; Van Putten, Kees

    2002-01-01

    Explores written calculation methods for division used by pupils in England (n=276) and the Netherlands (n=259). Analyses informal strategies and identifies progression towards more structured procedures that result from different teaching approaches. Comparison of methods used shows greater success in the Dutch approach which is based on…

  20. 40 CFR 98.295 - Procedures for estimating missing data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures used for all such missing value estimates. (a) For each missing value of the weekly composite of... or data used for accounting purposes. (c) For each missing value collected during the performance... following the calculation and monitoring and QA/QC requirements under §§ 98.293(b)(3) and 98.294(c). (d)...

  1. 46 CFR 164.007-4 - Testing procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Structural Insulations § 164.007-4 Testing procedure. (a) Tests. All tests... designated by the Coast Guard. (b) Test of physical properties. (1) Density measurement: The smallest sample.... Calculate the content of moisture and other volatiles as percent of the final dry weight of the sample....

  2. The Testing Effect for Learning Principles and Procedures from Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirkx, Kim J. H.; Kester, Liesbeth; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    The authors explored whether a testing effect occurs not only for retention of facts but also for application of principles and procedures. For that purpose, 38 high school students either repeatedly studied a text on probability calculations or studied the text, took a test on the content, restudied the text, and finally took the test a second…

  3. Station blackout calculations for Peach Bottom

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    A calculational procedure for the Station Blackout Severe Accident Sequence at Browns Ferry Unit One has been repeated with plant-specific application to one of the Peach Bottom Units. The only changes required in code input are with regard to the primary continment concrete, the existence of sprays in the secondary containment, and the size of the refueling bay. Combustible gas mole fractions in the secondary containment of each plant during the accident sequence are determined. It is demonstrated why the current state-of-the-art corium/concrete interaction code is inadequate for application to the study of Severe Accident Sequences in plants with the BWR MK I or MK II containment design.

  4. Numerical calculations of complex Mach reflection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, O.; Anderson, D. A.; Salas, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the interaction of a planar blast wave with a compression ramp are presented. The split coefficient matrix (SCM) method in conjunction with boundary shock and floating discontinuity-fitting procedures was employed to obtain the time-asymptotic solutions of the two-dimensional, unsteady Euler equations. The solutions were computed for the complex Mach reflection (CMR) regime of the shock diffraction problem in an attempt to explore the basic physical process governing the evolution of an incipient second Mach stem and the associated topological changes. Numerical results were obtained for shock diffraction over a 40 degree ramp with varying incident shock Mach numbers. The validity of the present approach has been substantiated by experimental observations and earlier numerical calculations.

  5. 22 CFR 217.61 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures § 217.61 Procedures. The procedural provisons applicable to title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 apply to this part. These procedures are found...

  6. 45 CFR 84.61 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures § 84.61 Procedures. The procedural provisions applicable to title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 apply to this part. These procedures...

  7. Combined hot-spot stress procedures for tubular joints

    SciTech Connect

    Buitrayo, J.; Kahlich, J.L.; Zettlemoyer, N.

    1984-05-01

    An alternative procedure for predicting the combined hot-spot stress (CHSS) at tubular K and Y joints under combined branch loading is presented. The procedure makes use of influence factor (IF) equations developed, as a function of the joint geometry and branch loading, for various potential hot-spot locations on the branch and chord sides of the weld. The CHSS is obtained by lineraly superimposing, at a point, the effects of the axial force and bending moments acting on each branch. The resulting CHSS, therefore, reflects location, orientation and sign of each branch load contribution. Comparisons of predicted CHSS obtained via the new and other procedures to stresses from finite element analyses were made on a large sample of joints. Result show that (1) the new procedure is substantially more reliable than the other procedures studied, (2) none of the procedures consistently predicts conservative CHSS values, and (3) the overriding factor influencing the accuracy of the CHSS calculations appears to be the accuracy of the parametric equations. Although a better stress predictor can be expected to yield more reliable fatigue damage estimates, damage calculations will exhibit broad scatter due to the power function relating damage to stress. Unfortunately, further improvements in the accuracy of CHSS based on parametric equations are not likely to be easily achieved, given the large number of variables and locations that need to be considered.

  8. Calculations of isothermal elastic constants in the phase-field crystal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisutha-Arnond, N.; Chan, V. W. L.; Elder, K. R.; Thornton, K.

    2013-01-01

    The phase-field crystal (PFC) method is an emerging coarse-grained atomistic model that can be used to predict material properties. In this work, we describe procedures for calculating isothermal elastic constants using the PFC method. We find that the conventional procedures used in the PFC method for calculating the elastic constants are inconsistent with those defined from a theory of thermoelasticity of stressed materials. Therefore we present an alternative procedure for calculating the elastic constants that are consistent with the definitions from the thermoelasticity theory, and show that the two procedures result in different predictions. Furthermore, we employ a thermodynamic formulation of stressed solids to quantify the differences between the elastic constants obtained from the two procedures in terms of thermodynamic quantities such as the pressure evaluated at the undeformed state.

  9. Some acceleration techniques for calculating the eigenvalues of normal Toeplitz matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdikalykov, A. K.; Ikramov, Kh. D.; Chugunov, V. N.

    2014-12-01

    Certain techniques that can be used for accelerating the calculation of the eigenvalues of normal Toeplitz matrices are described. The run times of the standard Matlab procedure eig with and without the use of these techniques are compared.

  10. 40 CFR 1065.642 - SSV, CFV, and PDP molar flow rate calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.642 SSV... ranges of dilution air dewpoint versus calibration air dewpoint in Table 3 of § 1065.640, you may set...

  11. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  12. Multi-calculation rate simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Akhter, M.

    1977-01-01

    It is common in real time simulations of large aerospace systems to separate the high and low frequency subsystems within the simulation and perform the integrations of the subsystems at different calculation rates. This is done to strike a balance between accuracy of calculation and capacity of the digital computer. Questions arising as to the accuracy of this structure compared to single calculation rates were studied using a linear aircraft model. Also investigated were interactions arising to cause errors worse than those expected. Problems are specifically identified and guidelines are given for selection of sample rates for multiple rate simulations.

  13. Verification Of Energy Balance In The Ansys V5.4 Thermal Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    H. Marr; M.J. Anderson

    2001-02-08

    The objective of this calculation is to verify the energy balance of the thermal calculations analyzed by ANSYS Version (V) 5.4 solver (see Section 4). The scope of this calculation is limited to calculating the energy balance of a two-dimensional repository thermal representation using the temperatures obtained from ANSYS V5.4. The procedure, AP-3.124, Calculations (Ref. 3), and the Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA (Ref. 2) are used to develop this calculation. The associated activity is the development of engineering evaluations to support the Licensing Application design activities.

  14. Specified assurance level sampling procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Willner, O.

    1980-11-01

    In the nuclear industry design specifications for certain quality characteristics require that the final product be inspected by a sampling plan which can demonstrate product conformance to stated assurance levels. The Specified Assurance Level (SAL) Sampling Procedure has been developed to permit the direct selection of attribute sampling plans which can meet commonly used assurance levels. The SAL procedure contains sampling plans which yield the minimum sample size at stated assurance levels. The SAL procedure also provides sampling plans with acceptance numbers ranging from 0 to 10, thus, making available to the user a wide choice of plans all designed to comply with a stated assurance level.

  15. Nursing students' mathematic calculation skills.

    PubMed

    Rainboth, Lynde; DeMasi, Chris

    2006-12-01

    This mixed method study used a pre-test/post-test design to evaluate the efficacy of a teaching strategy in improving beginning nursing student learning outcomes. During a 4-week student teaching period, a convenience sample of 54 sophomore level nursing students were required to complete calculation assignments, taught one calculation method, and mandated to attend medication calculation classes. These students completed pre- and post-math tests and a major medication mathematic exam. Scores from the intervention student group were compared to those achieved by the previous sophomore class. Results demonstrated a statistically significant improvement from pre- to post-test and the students who received the intervention had statistically significantly higher scores on the major medication calculation exam than did the students in the control group. The evaluation completed by the intervention group showed that the students were satisfied with the method and outcome.

  16. Landfill Gas Energy Benefits Calculator

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the LFG Energy Benefits Calculator to estimate direct, avoided, and total greenhouse gas reductions, as well as environmental and energy benefits, for a landfill gas energy project.

  17. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  18. Transfer Area Mechanical Handling Calculation

    SciTech Connect

    B. Dianda

    2004-06-23

    This calculation is intended to support the License Application (LA) submittal of December 2004, in accordance with the directive given by DOE correspondence received on the 27th of January 2004 entitled: ''Authorization for Bechtel SAX Company L.L. C. to Include a Bare Fuel Handling Facility and Increased Aging Capacity in the License Application, Contract Number DE-AC28-01R W12101'' (Arthur, W.J., I11 2004). This correspondence was appended by further Correspondence received on the 19th of February 2004 entitled: ''Technical Direction to Bechtel SAIC Company L.L. C. for Surface Facility Improvements, Contract Number DE-AC28-OIRW12101; TDL No. 04-024'' (BSC 2004a). These documents give the authorization for a Fuel Handling Facility to be included in the baseline. The purpose of this calculation is to establish preliminary bounding equipment envelopes and weights for the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) transfer areas equipment. This calculation provides preliminary information only to support development of facility layouts and preliminary load calculations. The limitations of this preliminary calculation lie within the assumptions of section 5 , as this calculation is part of an evolutionary design process. It is intended that this calculation is superseded as the design advances to reflect information necessary to support License Application. The design choices outlined within this calculation represent a demonstration of feasibility and may or may not be included in the completed design. This calculation provides preliminary weight, dimensional envelope, and equipment position in building for the purposes of defining interface variables. This calculation identifies and sizes major equipment and assemblies that dictate overall equipment dimensions and facility interfaces. Sizing of components is based on the selection of commercially available products, where applicable. This is not a specific recommendation for the future use of these components or their related

  19. Interactive Software For Astrodynamical Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlaifer, Ronald S.; Skinner, David L.; Roberts, Phillip H.

    1995-01-01

    QUICK computer program provides user with facilities of sophisticated desk calculator performing scalar, vector, and matrix arithmetic; propagate conic-section orbits; determines planetary and satellite coordinates; and performs other related astrodynamic calculations within FORTRAN-like software environment. QUICK is interpreter, and no need to use compiler or linker to run QUICK code. Outputs plotted in variety of formats on variety of terminals. Written in RATFOR.

  20. Calculation of the CIPW norm: New formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruseth, Kamal L.

    2009-02-01

    A completely new set of formulas, based on matrix algebra, has been suggested for the calculation of the CIPW norm for igneous rocks to achieve highly consistent and accurate norms. The suggested sequence of derivation of the normative minerals greatly deviates from the sequence followed in the classical scheme. The formulas are presented in a form convenient for error-free implementation in computer programs. Accurate formulas along with the use of variable molecular weights for CaO and FeO; corrected formula weights for apatite, pyrite and fluorite; and suggested measures to avoid significant rounding off errors to achieve absolute match between the sum of the input weights of the oxides and the sum of the weights of the estimated normative minerals. Using an analogous procedure for determining the oxidation ratios of igneous rocks as used in the SINCLAS system of Verma et al (2002, 2003), the suggested calculation scheme exactly reproduces their results except for apatite for reasons explained in the text, but with a superior match between the totals for about 11,200 analyses representing rocks of a wide range of composition

  1. 33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reached a significance threshold of 3 percent or greater. For any three-year period in which the cumulative percent change in the Annual CPI-U is less than 3 percent, the Director, NPFC, will publish a... percent change equals or exceeds the threshold amount of 3 percent. Once the 3-percent threshold...

  2. 33 CFR 138.240 - Procedure for calculating limit of liability adjustments for inflation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reached a significance threshold of 3 percent or greater. For any three-year period in which the cumulative percent change in the Annual CPI-U is less than 3 percent, the Director, NPFC, will publish a... percent change equals or exceeds the threshold amount of 3 percent. Once the 3-percent threshold...

  3. A calculation procedure for viscous flow in turbomachines, volume 3. [computer programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khalil, I.; Sheoran, Y.; Tabakoff, W.

    1980-01-01

    A method for analyzing the nonadiabatic viscous flow through turbomachine blade passages was developed. The field analysis is based upon the numerical integration of the full incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, together with the energy equation on the blade-to-blade surface. A FORTRAN IV computer program was written based on this method. The numerical code used to solve the governing equations employs a nonorthogonal boundary fitted coordinate system. The flow may be axial, radial or mixed and there may be a change in stream channel thickness in the through-flow direction. The inputs required for two FORTRAN IV programs are presented. The first program considers laminar flows and the second can handle turbulent flows. Numerical examples are included to illustrate the use of the program, and to show the results that are obtained.

  4. Development of procedures for calculating stiffness and damping of elastomers in engineering applications, part 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieger, A.; Zorzi, E.

    1980-01-01

    An elastomer shear damper was designed, tested, and compared with the performance of the T 55 power turbine supported on the production engine roller bearing support. The Viton 70 shear damper was designed so that the elastomer damper could be interchanged with the production T 55 power turbine roller bearing support. The results show that the elastomer sheer dampener permitted stable operation of the power turbine to the maximum operating speed of 16,000 rpm.

  5. Design Calculation Procedure for Passive Solar Houses at Navy Installations in the Pacific Northwest. Volume IV.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST -- VOLUME IV October 1981 DTICS ELECTE. DEC 1 0 1981 ) An Investigation Conducted by B New Mexico State University Las Cruces...New Mexico C. CN62583-79-MR-585 U Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 81, 12 10 019 11.. - -- -A* Unclassified St RU Vy C.ASSIFICATIOD... Mexico State University 64710 N Z0350 Las Cruces, NM 88003 64710N, Z0350Z0350-01, Z0350-01-55i1 11 CDNTROL.ING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12 REPORT DATE Naval

  6. Design Calculation Procedure for Passive Solar Houses at Navy Installations in Warm California Climates. Volume V.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    systems for" tieat I (and :ool in g) can be divided into two basic cateL ;or ies: active (mechanical) ys tems and passive (natural) systems. Activ systems...drawn out of the house. Special monitors can be built on the roof to accomplish the same purpose. 16 pTy Attic f an,, or turbo I aturs, c n be ",d t o...worst view: 15. Shading from neighboring houses, trees, etc.: 16 . Approximate floor area: Heated basement? 17. Number of occupants: 18. Number of

  7. Calculation procedures and HPLC method for analysis of the lipophilicity of acyclovir esters.

    PubMed

    Lesniewska, Monika A; Gdaniec, Zofia; Muszalska, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    Acyclovir (ACV) belongs to a class of drugs with low bioavailability. Selected ACV esters including acetyl (Ac-), isobutyryl (iBut-), pivaloyl (Piv-), ethoxycarbonyl (Etc-) and nicotinoyl (Nic-) were synthesized, and their lipophilicity was determined by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) RP method. Statistical analyses of the comparative values of log P and clog P were carried out using computational methods. It was proved that the AC log P algorithm can be useful for the analysis of these compounds and has a statistically justified application in the assessment of the quantitative structure-activity relationship. Moreover, the lipophilicity determined by the HPLC method appears as follows: ACV < Ac- < Nic- < Etc- < iBut- < Piv-.

  8. Simplified Procedure for Calculating Chemical Doses for Water Stabilization for Prevention of Internal Corrosion and Scaling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    20314 84 08 16 041 Destroy this report when no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. The findings in this report are not to be construed as...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station...Water Supply and Conser- Environmental Laboratory vation Research Prob.am, PO Box 631, Vicksburg, Mississippi 39180 Work Unit 31733 0 II. CONTROLLING

  9. Numerical Procedures for the Calculations of Inorganic Solubility and Cohesive Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, D.

    1996-01-01

    The entire history of chemistry bears witness to the extraorinary importance of the phenomena of solubility. It is necessary to emphasize that the Hildebrand parameter (solubility parameter) is fundamentally a liquid state property. When gases are considered they are treated as hypothetical.

  10. Development of procedures for calculating stiffness and damping of elastomers in engineering applications, part 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieger, A.; Burgess, G.; Zorzi, E.

    1980-01-01

    An elastomer damper was designed, tested, and compared with the performance of a hydraulic damper for a power transmission shaft. The six button Viton-70 damper was designed so that the elastomer damper or the hydraulic damper could be activated without upsetting the imbalance condition of the assembly. This permitted a direct comparison of damper effectiveness. The elastomer damper consistently performed better than the hydraulic mount and permitted stable operation of the power transmission shaft to speeds higher than obtained with the squeeze film damper. Tests were performed on shear specimens of Viton-79, Buna-N, EPDM, and Neoprene to determine performance limitations imposed by strain, temperature, and frequency. Frequencies of between 110 Hz and 1100 Hz were surveyed with imposed strains between 0.0005 and 0.08 at temperatures of 32 C, 66 C, and 80 C. A set of design curves was generated in a unified format for each of the elastomer materials.

  11. Calculation of gas release from DC and AC arc furnaces in a foundry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krutyanskii, M. M.; Nekhamin, S. M.; Rebikov, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    A procedure for the calculation of gas release from arc furnaces is presented. The procedure is based on the stoichiometric ratios of the oxidation of carbon in liquid iron during the oxidation heat period and the oxidation of iron from a steel charge by oxygen in the period of solid charge melting during the gas exchange of the furnace cavity with the external atmosphere.

  12. Individualizing phenytoin dosage regimens using a programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Ng, P K

    1980-04-01

    A programmable calculator procedure for the determination of individualized phenytoin dosage regimens is described. The calculator is programmed based on a one-compartment, open model using the Michaelis-Menten equation. A detailed description of the programs and user instructions are presented. The programs allow calculation of oral dosage regimens and steady-state phenytoin levels. The first two programs require a given dose and one corresponding steady-state minimum concentration point to estimate a dosage regimen and steady-state serum level. The second two programs, which provide a more accurate prediction of dosage regimen and steady-state serum levels, require two dose and steady-state minimum concentration poits. The calculator programs provide a rapid and reliable means of estimating a patient's phenytoin dosage regimens and steady-state serum levels.

  13. Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure (LEEP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... that acts like a scalpel (surgical knife). An electric current is passed through the loop, which cuts away ... A procedure in which an instrument works with electric current to destroy tissue. Local Anesthesia: The use of ...

  14. Quarantine document system indexing procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Quarantine Document System (QDS) is described including the indexing procedures and thesaurus of indexing terms. The QDS consists of these functional elements: acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, and retrieval. A complete listing of the collection, and the thesaurus are included.

  15. Surface Environmental Surveillance Procedures Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Hanf, RW; Dirkes, RL

    1990-02-01

    This manual establishes the procedures for the collection of environmental samples and the performance of radiation surveys and other field measurements. Responsibilities are defined for those personnel directly involved in the collection of samples and the performance of field measurements.

  16. Interventional procedures in the chest.

    PubMed

    Vollmer Torrubiano, I; Sánchez González, M

    2016-05-01

    Many thoracic conditions will require an interventional procedure for diagnosis and/or treatment. For this reason, radiologists need to know the indications and the technique for each procedure. In this article, we review the various interventional procedures that radiologists should know and the indications for each procedure. We place special emphasis on the potential differences in the diagnostic results and complications between fine-needle aspiration and biopsy. We also discuss the indications for radiofrequency ablation of lung tumors and review the concepts related to the drainage of pulmonary abscesses. We devote special attention to the management of pleural effusion, covering the indications for thoracocentesis and when to use imaging guidance, and to the protocol for pleural drainage. We also discuss the indications for percutaneous treatment of pericardial effusion and the possible complications of this treatment. Finally, we discuss the interventional management of mediastinal lesions and provide practical advice about how to approach these lesions to avoid serious complications.

  17. [Euthanasia: medications and medical procedures].

    PubMed

    Lossignol, D

    2008-09-01

    The Belgian law relative to euthanasia has been published in 2002. A physician is allowed to help a patient with intractable suffering (physical or psychological). Legal conditions are clear. However, nothing is said about medical procedures or medications to be used. The present paper will present specific clinical situations at the end of life, practical procedures and medications. A special focus is made on psychological impact of euthanasia.

  18. Establishment of new asylum procedures.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    As of May 1988, the Austrian Government instituted new accelerated asylum procedures which enable applicants to know within a short time whether they are granted refugee status. Those who are not granted such status are refused further government assistance and asked to leave the country. This change in procedures was undertaken in part because of the increased number of applicants resulting from the abolishment of the visa requirement for citizens of Hungary and Poland travelling to Austria.

  19. Certification procedure of building thermographers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppinen, Timo T.; Paloniitty, Sauli; Krankka, Juha

    2005-03-01

    Thermography has been used in Finland in building survey from the late 70s. The service has been provided by consultants, whose background is varied. When technology and devices have improved and the prices have increased, more and more doers have come into the market. At the same time, building developers and contractors have begun to use thermography for quality control in new building. Thermography has also been used in renovation planning. The problem is, that there are no procedures for building thermography, no guidelines to order the thermography services, no instructions how to scan, how to report and most important -- how to interpret the results. That fact has caused a lot of problems and also damaged the reputation and reliability of the method. In this year 2004 the various organizations in building trade launched a pilot project to certificate building thermographers. The procedure is divided into two parts: Part 1 is Level I (the basis of thermography) and Part II (divided into two periods) thermography applications of buildings, including also information on building physics, heat and mass transfer and structures. Both parts will take a week, two weeks in total with the examinations. The procedure follows moisture measurement procedure -- certification of building moisture measurements started a couple of years ago. In the paper the procedure, problems and the future plans are introduced. The following big issue is to develop and improve the interpretation procedure for reporting the results of thermography.

  20. Collected radiochemical and geochemical procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinberg, J

    1990-05-01

    This revision of LA-1721, 4th Ed., Collected Radiochemical Procedures, reflects the activities of two groups in the Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory: INC-11, Nuclear and radiochemistry; and INC-7, Isotope Geochemistry. The procedures fall into five categories: I. Separation of Radionuclides from Uranium, Fission-Product Solutions, and Nuclear Debris; II. Separation of Products from Irradiated Targets; III. Preparation of Samples for Mass Spectrometric Analysis; IV. Dissolution Procedures; and V. Geochemical Procedures. With one exception, the first category of procedures is ordered by the positions of the elements in the Periodic Table, with separate parts on the Representative Elements (the A groups); the d-Transition Elements (the B groups and the Transition Triads); and the Lanthanides (Rare Earths) and Actinides (the 4f- and 5f-Transition Elements). The members of Group IIIB-- scandium, yttrium, and lanthanum--are included with the lanthanides, elements they resemble closely in chemistry and with which they occur in nature. The procedures dealing with the isolation of products from irradiated targets are arranged by target element.

  1. Consent procedures in pediatric biobanks

    PubMed Central

    Giesbertz, Noor AA; Bredenoord, Annelien L; van Delden, Johannes JM

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of children's samples in biobanks brings forward specific ethical issues. Guidelines indicate that children should be involved in the consent procedure. It is, however, unclear how to allocate an appropriate role for children. Knowledge of current practice will be helpful in addressing this issue. Therefore, we conducted an international multiple-case study on the child's role in consent procedures in pediatric biobanks. Four biobanks were included: (1) LifeLines, (2) Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA), (3) Young-HUNT3 and (4) the Oxford Radcliffe Biobank contribution to the Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group tissue bank (ORB/CCLG). Four themes linked to the child's role in the consent procedure emerged from the multiple-case study: (1) motives to involve the child, (2) informing the child, (3) the role of dissent, assent and consent and (4) voluntariness of children to participate. We conclude that biobank characteristics influence the biobank's motives to include children in the consent procedure. Moreover, the motives to include children influence how the children are involved in the consent procedure, and the extent to which children are able to make voluntary decisions as part of the consent procedure. This insight is valuable when designing pediatric biobank governance. PMID:25537361

  2. Computer programs for calculating potential flow in propulsion system inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockman, N. O.; Button, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    In the course of designing inlets, particularly for VTOL and STOL propulsion systems, a calculational procedure utilizing three computer programs evolved. The chief program is the Douglas axisymmetric potential flow program called EOD which calculates the incompressible potential flow about arbitrary axisymmetric bodies. The other two programs, original with Lewis, are called SCIRCL AND COMBYN. Program SCIRCL generates input for EOD from various specified analytic shapes for the inlet components. Program COMBYN takes basic solutions output by EOD and combines them into solutions of interest, and applies a compressibility correction.

  3. Calculations of reliability predictions for the Apollo spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amstadter, B. L.

    1966-01-01

    A new method of reliability prediction for complex systems is defined. Calculation of both upper and lower bounds are involved, and a procedure for combining the two to yield an approximately true prediction value is presented. Both mission success and crew safety predictions can be calculated, and success probabilities can be obtained for individual mission phases or subsystems. Primary consideration is given to evaluating cases involving zero or one failure per subsystem, and the results of these evaluations are then used for analyzing multiple failure cases. Extensive development is provided for the overall mission success and crew safety equations for both the upper and lower bounds.

  4. Calculation and Interpretation of XANES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravel, B.; Rehr, J. J.

    1997-03-01

    A real space multiple-scattering (MS) approach for ab initio calculations and for the interpretation of x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) is presented. The method is based on full-MS calculations of the electron density matrix ρ(E). Our approach uses the exact Rehr-Albers [Phys. Rev. B, 41, 8139, (1990)] separable representation of the free propagator G together with atomic scattering t-matrices from uc(FEFF7) [Phys. Rev. B52, 2995 (1995)]. This method yields a parallel treatment both of XANES and local electronic structure, including local densities of states (LDOS) and charge transfer. With this method XANES for large clusters can be calculated efficiently. A scattering theoretic interpretation is presented using the separation of both XANES and LDOS into central site and scattering parts, i.e., μ(E)=μ_c(E)[1+\\chi(E)] and ρ(E)=ρ_c(E)[1+\\chi(E)], where \\chi(E) is the XAFS function and both μc and ρc are smooth backgrounds. Charge transfer is interpreted in terms of the scattering part \\chi, and hence is related to features in XANES. Calculations for several materials are presented and compared with LMTO band-structure calculations and with experiment.

  5. Insertion device calculations with mathematica

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.; Lidia, S.

    1995-02-01

    The design of accelerator insertion devices such as wigglers and undulators has usually been aided by numerical modeling on digital computers, using code in high level languages like Fortran. In the present era, there are higher level programming environments like IDL{reg_sign}, MatLab{reg_sign}, and Mathematica{reg_sign} in which these calculations may be performed by writing much less code, and in which standard mathematical techniques are very easily used. The authors present a suite of standard insertion device modeling routines in Mathematica to illustrate the new techniques. These routines include a simple way to generate magnetic fields using blocks of CSEM materials, trajectory solutions from the Lorentz force equations for given magnetic fields, Bessel function calculations of radiation for wigglers and undulators and general radiation calculations for undulators.

  6. Canister Transfer Facility Criticality Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    J.E. Monroe-Rammsy

    2000-10-13

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the criticality risk in the surface facility for design basis events (DBE) involving Department of Energy (DOE) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) standardized canisters (Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System [CRWMS] Management and Operating Contractor [M&O] 2000a). Since some of the canisters will be stored in the surface facility before they are loaded in the waste package (WP), this calculation supports the demonstration of concept viability related to the Surface Facility environment. The scope of this calculation is limited to the consideration of three DOE SNF fuels, specifically Enrico Fermi SNF, Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA) SNF, and Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) SNF.

  7. SIMULATE-4 pin power calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Bahadir, T.; Lindahl, S. Oe

    2006-07-01

    A new pin power reconstruction module has been implemented in Studsvik Scandpower's next generation nodal code, SIMULATE-4. Heterogeneous pin powers are calculated by modulating multi-group pin powers from the sub-mesh solver of SIMULATE-4 with pin form factors from single-assembly CASMO-5 lattice calculations. The multi-group pin power model captures instantaneous spectral effects, and actinide tracking on the assembly sub-mesh describes exposure-induced pin power variations. Model details and verification tests against high order multi-assembly transport methods are presented. The accuracy of the new methods is also demonstrated by comparing SIMULATE-4 calculations with measured critical experiment pin powers. (authors)

  8. 40 CFR 1065.640 - Flow meter calibration calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 1065.640 Section 1065.640 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.640 Flow meter...: Table 2 of § 1065.640—C fCFV versus β and γ for CFV Flow Meters C fCFV β γ exh =1.385 γ dexh = γ air =...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.640 - Flow meter calibration calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 1065.640 Section 1065.640 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.640 Flow meter... Flow Meters C fCFV β γ exh =1.385 γ dexh = γ air = 1.399 0.000 0.6822 0.6846 0.400 0.6857 0.6881...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.640 - Flow meter calibration calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 1065.640 Section 1065.640 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.640 Flow meter... Flow Meters C fCFV β γ exh =1.385 γ dexh = γ air = 1.399 0.000 0.6822 0.6846 0.400 0.6857 0.6881...

  11. 40 CFR 1065.640 - Flow meter calibration calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 1065.640 Section 1065.640 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.640 Flow meter... Flow Meters C fCFV b g exh =1.385 g dexh = g air = 1.399 0.000 0.6822 0.6846 0.400 0.6857 0.6881...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.640 - Flow meter calibration calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 1065.640 Section 1065.640 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.640 Flow meter...: Table 2 of § 1065.640—C fCFV versus β and γ for CFV Flow Meters C fCFV β γ exh =1.385 γ dexh = γ air =...

  13. Semiclassical calculations of observable cross sections in breakup reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Marta, H. D.; Canto, L. F.; Donangelo, R.

    2008-09-15

    We develop a semiclassical procedure to calculate breakup reaction products' angular and energy distributions in the laboratory frame of reference. The effects of the Coulomb and nuclear interaction potentials on the classical trajectories, as well as bound-bound, bound-continuum, and continuum-continuum couplings, are included. As an example we consider the {sup 8}B+{sup 58}Ni system at E{sub lab}=26 MeV and find very good agreement with the available experimental data.

  14. Spin contamination in unrestricted Hartree-Fock calculations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schug, J. C.; Phillips, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    Several pi-electron doublets are treated by both the unrestricted Hartree-Fock method and the restricted approximation of Longuet-Higgins and Pople. For two of the molecules, which contain oxygen heteroatoms, serious spin contamination occurs in the UHF wavefunctions, and this negates the usefulness of the single annihilation procedure that is often used for spin-density calculations. The restricted approximation provides a convenient alternative, especially because configuration interaction is easily taken into account.

  15. 21 CFR 1270.31 - Written procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Written procedures. 1270.31 Section 1270.31 Food... FOR TRANSPLANTATION Procedures and Records § 1270.31 Written procedures. (a) There shall be written... the procedures are performed unless impractical. Any deviation from the written procedures shall...

  16. 21 CFR 1270.31 - Written procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Written procedures. 1270.31 Section 1270.31 Food... FOR TRANSPLANTATION Procedures and Records § 1270.31 Written procedures. (a) There shall be written... the procedures are performed unless impractical. Any deviation from the written procedures shall...

  17. 21 CFR 1270.31 - Written procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Written procedures. 1270.31 Section 1270.31 Food... FOR TRANSPLANTATION Procedures and Records § 1270.31 Written procedures. (a) There shall be written... the procedures are performed unless impractical. Any deviation from the written procedures shall...

  18. 21 CFR 1270.31 - Written procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Written procedures. 1270.31 Section 1270.31 Food... FOR TRANSPLANTATION Procedures and Records § 1270.31 Written procedures. (a) There shall be written... the procedures are performed unless impractical. Any deviation from the written procedures shall...

  19. 21 CFR 1270.31 - Written procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Written procedures. 1270.31 Section 1270.31 Food... FOR TRANSPLANTATION Procedures and Records § 1270.31 Written procedures. (a) There shall be written... the procedures are performed unless impractical. Any deviation from the written procedures shall...

  20. 40 CFR 1033.315 - Test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test procedures. 1033.315 Section 1033... Programs § 1033.315 Test procedures. (a) Test procedures. Use the test procedures described in subpart F of this part, except as specified in this section. (1) You may ask to use other test procedures. We...